Science.gov

Sample records for post-field season work

  1. Response of a tundra ecosystem to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and CO{sub 2}-induced climate change. Post-field season work plan, September 1, 1994--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The preliminary data from the temperature and water table manipulations indicated that net CO{sub 2} flux of both tussock and wet sedge tundra ecosystems is sensitive to changes in water table depth and soil temperature. The preliminary results from the patch, landscape, and regional flux measurements indicate that there are large deficiencies in our current ability to extrapolate from patch and landscape levels to the region. During fall 1994, our primary goals are to: (1) Analyze a full season of net CO{sub 2} flux from the in situ manipulations, and determine the effects of water table depth and elevated temperature on the C balance of arctic ecosystems. Once this task is complete, the data will be published in a form that discusses the importance of these environmental controls, and their relevance to future CO{sub 2}-induced climate change. (2) Analyze tower- and aircraft-based eddy correlation flux data, and develop methods to reduce the time required to analyze these data. (3) Determine the importance of environmental controls of the exchange of CO{sub 2} at each spatial scale, and to develop the necessary routines that will permit the scaling of fine-scale flux data to landscape and regional scales. (4) Prepare manuscripts for publication on net CO{sub 2} flux data for each spatial scale, latitudinal flux pattern, and on methods and considerations for scaling from point measurements to the landscape and regional scale.

  2. Seasonal logging, process response, and geomorphic work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, C.; Zimmermann, A.; Korup, O.; Iroume, A.; Francke, T.; Bronstert, A.

    2013-12-01

    Deforestation is a prominent anthropogenic cause of erosive overland flow and slope instability, boosting rates of soil erosion and concomitant sediment flux. Conventional methods of gauging or estimating post-logging sediment flux focus on annual timescales, but overlook potentially important process response on shorter intervals immediately following timber harvest. We resolve such dynamics from non-parametric Quantile Regression Forests (QRF) of high-frequency (3-min) measurements of stream discharge and sediment concentrations in similar-sized (~0.1 km2) forested Chilean catchments that were logged during either the rainy or the dry season. The method of QRF builds on the Random Forest algorithm, and combines quantile regression with repeated random sub-sampling of both cases and predictors which in turn provides model uncertainties. We find that, where no logging occurred, ~80% of the total sediment load was transported during extremely variable runoff events during only 5% of the monitoring period. Particularly dry-season logging dampened the role of these rare, extreme sediment-transport events by increasing load efficiency during more efficient moderate events. We conclude that QRF may reliably support forest management recommendations by providing robust simulations of post-logging response of water and sediment fluxes at high temporal resolution.

  3. Seasonal logging, process response, and geomorphic work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, C. H.; Zimmermann, A.; Korup, O.; Iroumé, A.; Francke, T.; Bronstert, A.

    2013-09-01

    Deforestation is a prominent anthropogenic cause of erosive overland flow and slope instability, boosting rates of soil erosion and concomitant sediment flux. Conventional methods of gauging or estimating post-logging sediment flux focus on annual timescales, but potentially overlook important geomorphic responses on shorter time scales immediately following timber harvest. Sediments fluxes are commonly estimated from linear regression of intermittent measurements of water and sediment discharge using sediment rating curves (SRCs). However, these often unsatisfactorily reproduce non-linear effects such as discharge-load hystereses. We resolve such important dynamics from non-parametric Quantile Regression Forests (QRF) of high-frequency (3 min) measurements of stream discharge and sediment concentrations in similar-sized (~ 0.1 km2) forested Chilean catchments that were logged during either the rainy or the dry season. The method of QRF builds on the Random Forest (RF) algorithm, and combines quantile regression with repeated random sub-sampling of both cases and predictors. The algorithm belongs to the family of decision-tree classifiers, which allow quantifying relevant predictors in high-dimensional parameter space. We find that, where no logging occurred, ~ 80% of the total sediment load was transported during rare but high magnitude runoff events during only 5% of the monitoring period. The variability of sediment flux of these rare events spans four orders of magnitude. In particular dry-season logging dampened the role of these rare, extreme sediment-transport events by increasing load efficiency during more moderate events. We show that QRFs outperforms traditional SRCs in terms of accurately simulating short-term dynamics of sediment flux, and conclude that QRF may reliably support forest management recommendations by providing robust simulations of post-logging response of water and sediment discharge at high temporal resolution.

  4. Seasonal logging, process response, and geomorphic work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, C. H.; Zimmermann, A.; Korup, O.; Iroumé, A.; Francke, T.; Bronstert, A.

    2014-03-01

    Deforestation is a prominent anthropogenic cause of erosive overland flow and slope instability, boosting rates of soil erosion and concomitant sediment flux. Conventional methods of gauging or estimating post-logging sediment flux often focus on annual timescales but overlook potentially important process response on shorter intervals immediately following timber harvest. We resolve such dynamics with non-parametric quantile regression forests (QRF) based on high-frequency (3 min) discharge measurements and sediment concentration data sampled every 30-60 min in similar-sized (˜0.1 km2) forested Chilean catchments that were logged during either the rainy or the dry season. The method of QRF builds on the random forest algorithm, and combines quantile regression with repeated random sub-sampling of both cases and predictors. The algorithm belongs to the family of decision-tree classifiers, which allow quantifying relevant predictors in high-dimensional parameter space. We find that, where no logging occurred, ˜80% of the total sediment load was transported during extremely variable runoff events during only 5% of the monitoring period. In particular, dry-season logging dampened the relative role of these rare, extreme sediment-transport events by increasing load efficiency during more efficient moderate events. We show that QRFs outperform traditional sediment rating curves (SRCs) in terms of accurately simulating short-term dynamics of sediment flux, and conclude that QRF may reliably support forest management recommendations by providing robust simulations of post-logging response of water and sediment fluxes at high temporal resolution.

  5. Workers With Irregular Hours During Seasonal Work Surges: Promoting Healthy Sleep.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Patricia

    2016-03-01

    A significant proportion of the labor force works irregular hours during harvest, summer, or holiday work surges. Unfortunately such workers are often uninformed about the importance of sleep and fatigue management. Seasonally timed worker training can improve health and safety outcomes during work surges. PMID:26941083

  6. Can a Seasoned Teacher Do Her Best Work on a Shifting College Landscape? An Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Beverley A.

    2013-01-01

    Grounded in self study and personal and professional reflection, this is an inquiry into how seasoned, long time and close to retirement teachers can do their best work on a shifting college landscape in a changing world. Recognizing teaching and learning as the college's core business, the author explores mentorship, community among…

  7. 29 CFR 784.113 - Work related to named operations performed in off- or dead-season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-season. 784.113 Section 784.113 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... § 784.113 Work related to named operations performed in off- or dead-season. Generally, during the dead or inactive season when operations named in section 13(a)(5) or 13(b)(4) are not being performed...

  8. 29 CFR 784.113 - Work related to named operations performed in off- or dead-season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-season. 784.113 Section 784.113 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... § 784.113 Work related to named operations performed in off- or dead-season. Generally, during the dead or inactive season when operations named in section 13(a)(5) or 13(b)(4) are not being performed...

  9. 29 CFR 784.113 - Work related to named operations performed in off- or dead-season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-season. 784.113 Section 784.113 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... § 784.113 Work related to named operations performed in off- or dead-season. Generally, during the dead or inactive season when operations named in section 13(a)(5) or 13(b)(4) are not being performed...

  10. 29 CFR 784.113 - Work related to named operations performed in off- or dead-season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-season. 784.113 Section 784.113 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... § 784.113 Work related to named operations performed in off- or dead-season. Generally, during the dead or inactive season when operations named in section 13(a)(5) or 13(b)(4) are not being performed...

  11. 29 CFR 784.113 - Work related to named operations performed in off- or dead-season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-season. 784.113 Section 784.113 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... § 784.113 Work related to named operations performed in off- or dead-season. Generally, during the dead or inactive season when operations named in section 13(a)(5) or 13(b)(4) are not being performed...

  12. Diurnal and seasonal mood vary with work, sleep, and daylength across diverse cultures.

    PubMed

    Golder, Scott A; Macy, Michael W

    2011-09-30

    We identified individual-level diurnal and seasonal mood rhythms in cultures across the globe, using data from millions of public Twitter messages. We found that individuals awaken in a good mood that deteriorates as the day progresses--which is consistent with the effects of sleep and circadian rhythm--and that seasonal change in baseline positive affect varies with change in daylength. People are happier on weekends, but the morning peak in positive affect is delayed by 2 hours, which suggests that people awaken later on weekends. PMID:21960633

  13. Prevalence of hepatitis B markers among pregnant Hispanic women in migrant/seasonal work in Oregon.

    PubMed Central

    Fehrs, L J; Eisele, L; Conrad, R; Foster, L R; Fleming, D

    1988-01-01

    We screened 303 Hispanic pregnant women who were migrant or seasonal agricultural workers in Oregon for the presence of Hepatitis B serological markers. One carrier was identified (0.3 per cent, 95% confidence interval [CI] .02%, 2.1%). Evidence of previous HB infection was present in 5.3 per cent (16/303) of the women (95% CI 3.2%, 8.6%), rates similar to those for the general US population. PMID:3389437

  14. A synthesis of the ongoing seasonal work in a west Greenland tidewater outlet glacier fjord, Godthåbsfjord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortensen, J.; Bendtsen, J.; Rysgaard, S.

    2015-12-01

    The coastal waters off west Greenland is subjected to significant temperature fluctuations which might affect the mass loss from local tidewater outlet glaciers from the Greenland Ice Sheet in different ways. We present a comprehensive hydrographic data set from a west Greenland fjord, Godthåbsfjord, a fjord in contact with the Greenland Ice Sheet through tidewater outlet glaciers. We analyze with respect to water masses, dynamics, seasonal and interannual hydrographic variability. Through seasonal observations of hydrographic and moored observations we recognize a seasonal pattern in the fjords circulation system, where an intermediate baroclinic circulation mode driven by tidal currents at the fjord entrance is associated as an important local heat source for the fjord. Four distinct circulation modes are observed in the fjord of which all can contribute to glacial ice melt. In water observation of a subglacial plume core will be presented and discussed with respect to vertical distribution of water masses and local heat budget in the fjord. The example of the extreme case of subglacial plume will be discussed (ice-dammed lake drainage).

  15. Shorebirds' seasonal adjustments in thermogenic capacity are reflected by changes in body mass: how preprogrammed and instantaneous acclimation work together.

    PubMed

    Vézina, François; Dekinga, Anne; Piersma, Theunis

    2011-09-01

    Phenotypic flexibility in shorebirds has been studied mainly in the context of adjustments to migration and to quality of food; little is known on how birds adjust their phenotype to harsh winter conditions. We showed earlier that red knot (Calidris canutus islandica) can acclimate to cold by elevating body mass. This goes together with larger pectoral muscles, i.e., greater shivering machinery, and thus, better thermogenic capacity. Here, we present results of a yearlong experiment with indoor captive knots to determine whether this strategy is part of their natural seasonal phenotypic cycle. We maintained birds under three thermal regimes: constant cold (5 °C), constant thermoneutrality (25 °C) and natural seasonal variation between these extremes (9-22 °C). Each month we measured variables related to the birds' endurance to cold and physiological maintenance [body mass, thickness of pectoral muscles, summit metabolic rate (M(sum)), food intake, gizzard size, basal metabolic rate (BMR)]. Birds from all treatments expressed synchronized and comparable variation in body mass in spite of thermal treatments, with a 17-18% increase between the warmest and coldest months of the year; which appeared regulated by an endogenous driver. In addition, birds living in the cold exhibited a 10% higher average body mass than did those maintained at thermoneutrality. Thickness of the pectoral muscle tracked changes in body mass in all treatments and likely contributed to greater capacity for shivering in heavier birds. Consequently, M(sum) was 13% higher in cold-acclimated birds compared to those experiencing no thermoregulation costs. However, our data also suggest that part of maximal heat production comes from nonshivering processes. Birds facing cold conditions ate up to 25% more food than did birds under thermoneutral conditions, yet did not develop larger gizzards. Seasonal variation in BMR followed changes in body mass, probably reflecting changes in mass of

  16. Seasonality in deep-sea food webs—A tribute to the early works of Paul Tyler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Gilbert T.

    2013-08-01

    A numerical simulation has been constructed that illustrates the vertical biological pathways of carbon fluxes from the surface down through the entire water column to the Sigsbee Abyssal Plain at a depth of 3.7 km in the central Gulf of Mexico (GoM). Seasonal production of particulate organic carbon (POC) in a six month long pulse is delivered with lag times that reflect sinking rates of the POC and time-dependent incorporation of the POC into biomass by the pelagic and the benthic biota. The model illustrates that the seasonal variations in carbon and energy are transmitted down the water column and, in the model, are reflected in subdued but distinct variations in pelagic and benthic respiration and biomass; the amount reaching the bottom is adequate to support the variable growth patterns of numerous shell-bearing invertebrates on the deep-sea floor described by Paul Tyler and John Gage. A notable realization is the profound lack of information on the biomass and bioenergetics of the deep abyssopelagic biota in the GoM.

  17. An environmental risk assessment for oseltamivir (Tamiflu) for sewage works and surface waters under seasonal-influenza- and pandemic-use conditions.

    PubMed

    Straub, Jürg Oliver

    2009-09-01

    In the event of an influenza pandemic, anti-viral medications such as oseltamivir (Tamiflu) are expected to be used in high amounts over a duration of several weeks. Oseltamivir has been predicted to reach high concentrations in surface waters and sewage works. New oseltamivir environmental fate and toxicity studies permit an environmental risk assessment (ERA) under seasonal- and pandemic-use scenarios. The environmental fate data for sewage works (no removal), surface waters (no significant degradation), and water/sediment systems (>50% primary degradation in 100 days) were used for the derivation of new predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) for western Europe and the River Lee catchment in the UK. Existing worst-case PECs for western Europe, the River Lee catchment in the UK and the Lower Colorado basin in the USA under pandemic conditions (< or =98.1 microg/L for surface waters, < or =348 microg/L for sewage works) were also considered for the ERA. PECs were compared with predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) based on new chronic ecotoxicity data (no observed effect concentration for algae, daphnia, and fish > or =1 mg/L). Based on all PEC/PNEC risk ratios, no significant risk is evident to surface waters or sewage works during both regular seasonal-use and high pandemic-use of oseltamivir. PMID:19560203

  18. Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Annette M.

    2003-01-01

    Draws upon Maria Montessori's writings to examine work as a universal human tendency throughout life. Discusses the work of adaptation of the infant, work of "psycho-muscular organism" for the preschooler, work of the imagination for the elementary child, community work of the adolescent, and work of the adult. Asserts that Montessorians' role is…

  19. Uncertainties in Eddy Covariance fluxes due to post-field data processing: a multi-site, full factorial analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbatini, S.; Fratini, G.; Arriga, N.; Papale, D.

    2012-04-01

    Eddy Covariance (EC) is the only technologically available direct method to measure carbon and energy fluxes between ecosystems and atmosphere. However, uncertainties related to this method have not been exhaustively assessed yet, including those deriving from post-field data processing. The latter arise because there is no exact processing sequence established for any given situation, and the sequence itself is long and complex, with many processing steps and options available. However, the consistency and inter-comparability of flux estimates may be largely affected by the adoption of different processing sequences. The goal of our work is to quantify the uncertainty introduced in each processing step by the fact that different options are available, and to study how the overall uncertainty propagates throughout the processing sequence. We propose an easy-to-use methodology to assign a confidence level to the calculated fluxes of energy and mass, based on the adopted processing sequence, and on available information such as the EC system type (e.g. open vs. closed path), the climate and the ecosystem type. The proposed methodology synthesizes the results of a massive full-factorial experiment. We use one year of raw data from 15 European flux stations and process them so as to cover all possible combinations of the available options across a selection of the most relevant processing steps. The 15 sites have been selected to be representative of different ecosystems (forests, croplands and grasslands), climates (mediterranean, nordic, arid and humid) and instrumental setup (e.g. open vs. closed path). The software used for this analysis is EddyPro™ 3.0 (www.licor.com/eddypro). The critical processing steps, selected on the basis of the different options commonly used in the FLUXNET community, are: angle of attack correction; coordinate rotation; trend removal; time lag compensation; low- and high- frequency spectral correction; correction for air density

  20. Dry season streamflow persistence in seasonal climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dralle, David N.; Karst, Nathaniel J.; Thompson, Sally E.

    2016-01-01

    Seasonally dry ecosystems exhibit periods of high water availability followed by extended intervals during which rainfall is negligible and streamflows decline. Eventually, such declining flows will fall below the minimum values required to support ecosystem functions or services. The time at which dry season flows drop below these minimum values (Q*), relative to the start of the dry season, is termed the "persistence time" (). The persistence time determines how long seasonal streams can support various human or ecological functions during the dry season. In this study, we extended recent work in the stochastic hydrology of seasonally dry climates to develop an analytical model for the probability distribution function (PDF) of the persistence time. The proposed model accurately captures the mean of the persistence time distribution, but underestimates its variance. We demonstrate that this underestimation arises in part due to correlation between the parameters used to describe the dry season recession, but that this correlation can be removed by rescaling the flow variables. The mean persistence time predictions form one example of the broader class of streamflow statistics known as crossing properties, which could feasibly be combined with simple ecological models to form a basis for rapid risk assessment under different climate or management scenarios.

  1. Great Explorations in Math and Science[R] (GEMS[R]) The Real Reasons for Seasons. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Great Explorations in Math and Science"[R] ("GEMS"[R]) "The Real Reasons for Seasons" is a curriculum unit for grades 6-8 that focuses on the connections between the Sun and the Earth to teach students the scientific concepts behind the seasons. The unit utilizes models, hands-on investigations, peer-to-peer discussions, reflection, and…

  2. 5 CFR 340.402 - Seasonal employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-time workforce. (b) Length of the season. Agencies determine the length of the season, subject to the condition that it be clearly tied to nature of the work. The season must be defined as closely as... employee is released to nonpay status at the end of a season and recalled to duty the next season....

  3. DOMESTIC AGRICULTURAL MIGRANTS IN THE UNITED STATES, COUNTIES IN WHICH AN ESTIMATED 100 OR MORE SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKERS MIGRATED INTO THE AREA OF WORK DURING THE PEAK SEASON IN 1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Employment Security (DOL), Washington, DC.

    THE NUMBER OF SEASONAL DOMESTIC AGRICULTURAL MIGRANTS IN EACH COUNTY OF THE UNITED STATES IS PRESENTED GRAPHICALLY ON THIS 26 BY 40 INCH MAP. PUBLIC HEALTH AND OTHER SERVICE AGENCIES MAY USE IT AND ACCOMPANYING TABLES TO PLAN PROGRAM ADJUSTMENTS NECESSITATED BY THE WORKER INFLUX. THE DATA ARE CONFINED TO DOMESTIC WORKERS AND THEIR ACCOMPANYING…

  4. Role of post-field raw data processing: a multi-site and full factorial uncertainty analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbatini, Simone; Fratini, Gerardo; Arriga, Nicola; Papale, Dario

    2013-04-01

    Uncertainties in the Eddy Covariance flux measurements are a fundamental issue not yet completely solved. The complexity of the method, involving many, not standardized processing steps is one among the source of such uncertainty. The goal of our work is to quantify uncertainties deriving from post-field raw data processing, needed to calculate fluxes from collected turbulence measurements. The methodology we propose is a full-factorial design, performed using as factors a number of selected processing steps. We applied this approach to 15 European flux stations representative of different ecosystems (forests, croplands and grasslands), climates (Mediterranean, Nordic, arid and humid) and instrumental setups (e.g. open vs. closed path systems). Then we processed one year of raw data from each of the selected stations so as to cover all possible combinations of the available options (levels) relative to all the critical processing steps, i.e: angle of attack correction; coordinate rotation; trend removal; time lag compensation; low- and high- frequency spectral correction; correction for air density fluctuations; and length of the flux averaging interval. The software we used is EddyPro™. At last we calculated the cumulative NEE (response) for each process, and performed an analysis of variance of the factorial design. In addition to the global uncertainty, from this statistical approach we obtain information about the factors that most contribute to the uncertainties, and also the most relevant two-level interactions between factors. Here we present partial results from the first sites analysed. For the beech forest of Sorø, Denmark (Gill R2 anemometer and closed path GA, tube length = 50 m) the factor that most contributes to the variance in 2007 (40.4 %) is the trend removal, with an uncertainty of 7.5%. It is followed by the angle of attack (16.1 % of the total variability, uncertainty 3.5 %) and the interaction between trend removal and time lag compensation

  5. Changing Seasons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric

    2011-01-01

    In some ways, there is a season of change at the national level in early childhood. Some things are wrapping up while some developments aim to prepare the "field" for improvements in the next year and beyond, just as a garden plot is readied for the next planting season. Change is in the air, and there's hope of renewal, but what changes and how…

  6. METAGENOMICS OF TONGUE RIVER SEDIMENTS: WORKING WITH TRIBAL STUDENTS TO ASSESS THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE, SEASON AND RESOURCE EXTRACTION ON FRESHWATER MICROBIAL COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND GENE CONTENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is expected to find a strong relationship between season and microbial community structure. Also, it is expected to find an increased prevalence of genes associated with hydrocarbon metabolism and osmotic stress near the Decker Coal Mine and around coal-bed methane extra...

  7. Seasonal Influenza: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Christina; Freedman, Marian

    2009-01-01

    Seasonal influenza is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. It also has major social and economic consequences in the form of high rates of absenteeism from school and work as well as significant treatment and hospitalization costs. In fact, annual influenza epidemics and the resulting deaths and lost days of productivity…

  8. Managing the Sneezing Season

    MedlinePlus

    ... Javascript on. Feature: Managing Allergies Managing the Sneezing Season Past Issues / Summer 2011 Table of Contents Seasonal ... Read More "Managing Allergies" Articles Managing the Sneezing Season / A Pollen Primer / Seasonal Allergies: Symptoms, Diagnosis, and ...

  9. Migrant and Seasonal Hired Adolescent Farmworkers: A Plan To Improve Working Conditions. Recommendations from the National Adolescent Farmworker Occupational Health and Safety Advisory Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vela Acosta, Martha, Ed.; Lee, Barbara, Ed.

    Agriculture is the second most common employer of youth and is associated with numerous occupational hazards, but few preventive efforts to protect adolescent farmworkers have been implemented or evaluated. The largest group of adolescent farmworkers is youth who live away from their natural families and migrate, mostly from Mexico, to work in…

  10. Skilling a Seasonal Workforce: A Way Forward for Rural Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Sue; Bound, Helen

    2005-01-01

    Seasonal work is crucial for the many rural regions reliant on seasonal industries such as agriculture, forestry, aquaculture and tourism. This report examines the diverse nature of the seasonal workforce in two locations and the approaches used in their training. The report finds that the seasonal workforce is diverse and has varied training…

  11. Seasonal influenza: an overview.

    PubMed

    Li, Christina; Freedman, Marian

    2009-02-01

    Seasonal influenza is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. It also has major social and economic consequences in the form of high rates of absenteeism from school and work as well as significant treatment and hospitalization costs. In fact, annual influenza epidemics and the resulting deaths and lost days of productivity are estimated to cost US$10.4 billion in direct medical expenses and US$16.4 billion in lost potential earnings. Given the enormous burden of seasonal influenza and the important role that school-age children play in the cycle of disease, school nurses need to be knowledgeable about all aspects of this condition, including its clinical course and how it is transmitted; the range of options for preventing and treating the disease; and steps that can be taken to improve the rates of immunization against influenza. School nurses also can help by making sure that they themselves are vaccinated in a timely manner. PMID:19197008

  12. The energy balance experiment EBEX-2000. Part II: Intercomparison of eddy-covariance sensors and post-field data processing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauder, Matthias; Oncley, Steven P.; Vogt, Roland; Weidinger, Tamas; Ribeiro, Luis; Bernhofer, Christian; Foken, Thomas; Kohsiek, Wim; de Bruin, Henk A. R.; Liu, Heping

    2007-04-01

    The eddy-covariance method is the primary way of measuring turbulent fluxes directly. Many investigators have found that these flux measurements often do not satisfy a fundamental criterion—closure of the surface energy balance. This study investigates to what extent the eddy-covariance measurement technology can be made responsible for this deficiency, in particular the effects of instrumentation or of the post-field data processing. Therefore, current eddy-covariance sensors and several post-field data processing methods were compared. The differences in methodology resulted in deviations of 10% for the sensible heat flux and of 15% for the latent heat flux for an averaging time of 30 min. These disparities were mostly due to different sensor separation corrections and a linear detrending of the data. The impact of different instrumentation on the resulting heat flux estimates was significantly higher. Large deviations from the reference system of up to 50% were found for some sensor combinations. However, very good measurement quality was found for a CSAT3 sonic together with a KH20 krypton hygrometer and also for a UW sonic together with a KH20. If these systems are well calibrated and maintained, an accuracy of better than 5% can be achieved for 30-min values of sensible and latent heat flux measurements. The results from the sonic anemometers Gill Solent-HS, ATI-K, Metek USA-1, and R.M. Young 81000 showed more or less larger deviations from the reference system. The LI-COR LI-7500 open-path H2O/CO2 gas analyser in the test was one of the first serial numbers of this sensor type and had technical problems regarding direct solar radiation sensitivity and signal delay. These problems are known by the manufacturer and improvements of the sensor have since been made.

  13. Seasonal thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.D.; Kannberg, L.D.; Raymond, J.R.

    1984-05-01

    This report describes the following: (1) the US Department of Energy Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program, (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology, (3) alternative STES technology, (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage, and (5) economic assessment.

  14. Seasonal Variation in Epidemiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrero, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Seasonality analyses are important in medical research. If the incidence of a disease shows a seasonal pattern, then an environmental factor must be considered in its etiology. We discuss a method for the simultaneous analysis of seasonal variation in multiple groups. The nuts and bolts are explained using simple trigonometry, an elementary…

  15. Personal, Seasonal Suns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutley, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an art project designed for upper-elementary students to (1) imagine visual differences in the sun's appearance during the four seasons; (2) develop ideas for visually translating their personal experiences regarding the seasons to their sun drawings; (3) create four distinctive seasonal suns using colors and imagery to…

  16. Seasonal affective disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... depression References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Osborn J, Raetz J, Kost A. Seasonal ...

  17. Teaching with the Seasons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Larry

    1998-01-01

    Describes a natural science course designed to teach students that nature is nearby rather than somewhere else. Students learn about local flora and fauna, track the weather, and closely monitor the progression of the seasons. The course uses no textbook, regularly uses the outdoors as a classroom, and follows the seasons' phenology as the…

  18. Controlling Seasonal Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of asthma and allergic diseases. Immune Tolerance Network (ITN): The ITN is an international ... mold spores can cause seasonal allergic reactions. The immune system is ... Diseases (NIAID) and National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences ( ...

  19. PMC from 2009 Season

    NASA Video Gallery

    Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMC) from the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (AIM-CIPS) instrument for the 2009 season in the northern polar region. The North Pole (90N...

  20. Seasonality of suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jong-Min; Okusaga, Olaoluwa; Postolache, Teodor T

    2012-02-01

    A seasonal suicide peak in spring is highly replicated, but its specific cause is unknown. We reviewed the literature on suicide risk factors which can be associated with seasonal variation of suicide rates, assessing published articles from 1979 to 2011. Such risk factors include environmental determinants, including physical, chemical, and biological factors. We also summarized the influence of potential demographic and clinical characteristics such as age, gender, month of birth, socioeconomic status, methods of prior suicide attempt, and comorbid psychiatric and medical diseases. Comprehensive evaluation of risk factors which could be linked to the seasonal variation in suicide is important, not only to identify the major driving force for the seasonality of suicide, but also could lead to better suicide prevention in general. PMID:22470308

  1. Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Back to Health Library Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies Sneezing, runny nose, nasal congestion. Symptoms of the common ... simple preventive measures, you can help reduce your sneezing, coughing and general stuffiness, according to Pamela A. ...

  2. Seasonal thermal energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, R. D.; Kannberg, L. D.; Raymond, J. R.

    1984-05-01

    Seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) using heat or cold available from surplus, waste, climatic, or cogeneration sources show great promise to reduce peak demand, reduce electric utility load problems, and contribute to establishing favorable economics for district heating and cooling systems. Heated and chilled water can be injected, stored, and recovered from aquifers. Geologic materials are good thermal insulators, and potentially suitable aquifers are distributed throughout the United States. Potential energy sources for use in an aquifer thermal energy storage system include solar heat, power plant cogeneration, winter chill, and industrial waste heat source. Topics covered include: (1) the U.S. Department of Energy seasonal thermal energy storage program; (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology; (3) alternative STES technology; (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage; and (5) economic assessment.

  3. Seasonality of volcanic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, B. G.; Pyle, D. M.; Dade, W. B.; Jupp, T.

    2004-04-01

    An analysis of volcanic activity during the last three hundred years reveals that volcanic eruptions exhibit seasonality to a statistically significant degree. This remarkable pattern is observed primarily along the Pacific "Ring of Fire" and locally at some individual volcanoes. Globally, seasonal fluctuations amount to 18% of the historical average monthly eruption rate. In some regions, seasonal fluctuations amount to as much as 50% of the average eruption rate. Seasonality principally reflects the temporal distribution of the smaller, dated eruptions (volcanic explosivity index of 0-2) that dominate the eruption catalog. We suggest that the pattern of seasonality correlates with the annual Earth surface deformation that accompanies the movement of surface water mass during the annual hydrological cycle and illustrate this with respect to global models of surface deformation and regional measurements of annual sea level change. For example, seasonal peaks in the eruption rate of volcanoes in Central America, the Alaskan Peninsula, and Kamchatka coincide with periods of falling regional sea level. In Melanesia, in contrast, peak numbers of volcanic eruptions occur during months of maximal regional sea level and falling regional atmospheric pressure. We suggest that the well-documented slow deformation of Earth's surface that accompanies the annual movements of water mass from oceans to continents acts to impose a fluctuating boundary condition on volcanoes, such that volcanic eruptions tend to be concentrated during periods of local or regional surface change rather than simply being distributed randomly throughout the year. Our findings have important ramifications for volcanic risk assessment and volcanoclimate feedback mechanisms.

  4. Seasonality in human cognitive brain responses.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Christelle; Muto, Vincenzo; Jaspar, Mathieu; Kussé, Caroline; Lambot, Erik; Chellappa, Sarah L; Degueldre, Christian; Balteau, Evelyne; Luxen, André; Middleton, Benita; Archer, Simon N; Collette, Fabienne; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Phillips, Christophe; Maquet, Pierre; Vandewalle, Gilles

    2016-03-15

    Daily variations in the environment have shaped life on Earth, with circadian cycles identified in most living organisms. Likewise, seasons correspond to annual environmental fluctuations to which organisms have adapted. However, little is known about seasonal variations in human brain physiology. We investigated annual rhythms of brain activity in a cross-sectional study of healthy young participants. They were maintained in an environment free of seasonal cues for 4.5 d, after which brain responses were assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while they performed two different cognitive tasks. Brain responses to both tasks varied significantly across seasons, but the phase of these annual rhythms was strikingly different, speaking for a complex impact of season on human brain function. For the sustained attention task, the maximum and minimum responses were located around summer and winter solstices, respectively, whereas for the working memory task, maximum and minimum responses were observed around autumn and spring equinoxes. These findings reveal previously unappreciated process-specific seasonality in human cognitive brain function that could contribute to intraindividual cognitive changes at specific times of year and changes in affective control in vulnerable populations. PMID:26858432

  5. For everything there is a season, including Amazonian tropical forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleska, S. R.; Wu, J.; Nelson, B. W.; Tavares, J. V.; Albert, L.; Prohaska, N.; Guan, K.; da Silva, R.; De Araujo, A. C.; Nobre, A. D.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Huete, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    Seasonality of productivity in tropical forests gives insight into the ecological question of resource limitation in these important high-biomass, climatically sensitive habitats. Diverse evidence from ecological studies, eddy-flux towers, and satellites had accumulated by the mid-2000s suggesting that many tropical forests are more light- than water-limited, and hence "green-up" during higher-sunlight annual dry seasons. Recent work, however, argues that the satellite-based evidence (from MODIS) of dry-season green-up in Amazon forests is an artifact of seasonal variations in sun-sensor geometry. Here we review three lines of evidence to address this new controversy about Amazon forest seasonality: first, we show that even after correcting for sun-sensor geometry artifacts, remotely sensed MODIS data significantly rejects the null hypothesis of no seasonal change in canopy greenness; second we use a re-analysis of eddy flux measurements at four towers across the equatorial Amazon to show that dry season increases in canopy-scale photosynthetic capacity are robust, independent of seasonal variations of climatic drivers. Finally, tower-mounted cameras at two of the eddy flux sites provide new independent evidence for "green-up" by showing that crown-scale leaf-flushing events are concentrated in dry seasons. This work shows that remote sensing observations remain consistent with those from ground-based towers in support of the conclusion that many Amazon forests green-up with sunlight in the dry season.

  6. Seasonality of Forcing by Carbonaceous Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, G.; Bond, T.; Rasch, P. J.; Coleman, D.

    2006-12-01

    Aerosols can influence the energy balance of Earth-Atmosphere system with profound effect on regional climate. Atmospheric processes, such as convection, scavenging, wet and dry deposition, govern the lifetime and location of aerosol; emissions affect its quantity and location. Both affect climate forcing. Here we investigate the effect of seasonality in emissions and atmospheric processes on radiative forcing by carbonaceous aerosols, focusing on aerosol from fossil fuel and biofuel. Because aerosol lifetime is seasonal, ignoring the seasonality of sources such as residential biofuel may introduce a bias in aerosol burden and therefore in predicted climate forcing. We present a global emission inventory of carbonaceous aerosols with seasonality, and simulate atmospheric concentrations using the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). We discuss where and when the seasonality of emissions and atmospheric processes has strong effects on atmospheric burden, lifetime, climate forcing and aerosol optical depth (AOD). Previous work has shown that aerosol forcing is higher in summer than in winter, and has identified the importance of aerosol above cloud in determining black carbon forcing. We show that predicted cloud height is a very important factor in determining normalized radiative forcing (forcing per mass), especially in summer. This can affect the average summer radiative forcing by nearly 50%. Removal by cloud droplets is the dominant atmospheric cleansing mechanism for carbonaceous aerosols. We demonstrate the modeled seasonality of removal processes and compare the importance of scavenging by warm and cold clouds. Both types of clouds contribute significantly to aerosol removal. We estimate uncertainty in direct radiative forcing due to scavenging by tagging the aerosol which has experienced cloud interactions. Finally, seasonal variations offer an opportunity to assess modeled processes when a single process dominates variability. We identify regions where aerosol

  7. Assessing hurricane season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-12-01

    With the official conclusion of the Atlantic hurricane season on 29 November, Irene was the only hurricane to strike the United States this year and the first one since Hurricane Ike made landfall in Texas in 2008, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Irene “broke the ‘hurricane amnesia’ that can develop when so much time lapses between landfalling storms,” indicated Jack Hayes, director of NOAA's National Weather Service. “This season is a reminder that storms can hit any part of our coast and that all regions need to be prepared each and every season.” During the season, there were 19 tropical storms, including 7 that became hurricanes; 3 of those were major hurricanes, of category 3 or above. The activity level was in line with NOAA predictions. The agency stated that Hurricane Irene was an example of improved accuracy in forecasting storm tracks: NOAA National Hurricane Center had accurately predicted the hurricane's landfall in North Carolina and its path northward more than 4 days in advance.

  8. Teaching Science: Eclipse Seasons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael B.

    1995-01-01

    Demonstrates the need for a three-dimensional model as an aid for teaching students why eclipses do not occur every two weeks, as falsely indicated by two-dimensional models such as books, chalkboards, and computer screens. Describes procedure to construct the model. Indicates question related to seasons likely to arise from such a model and…

  9. Weatherwords: The Hurricane Season.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Jim

    1991-01-01

    Information and anecdotes are provided for the following topics: the typical length of the hurricane season for the North Atlantic, Caribbean, and Gulf of Mexico; specifics related to the practice of naming hurricanes; and categorical details related to the Saffir/Simpson scale for rating hurricane magnitude. (JJK)

  10. Seasonal Change Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    The author describes how the yearlong Investigating Seasonal Change at North Ponds project enabled third-grade students to take on the role of environmental scientists, recording and analyzing environmental data from ponds near their school. The students used an array of technological tools to explore and report on the causes and effects of…

  11. Algorithms for in-season nutrient management in cereals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The demand for improved decision making products for cereal production systems has placed added emphasis on using plant sensors in-season, and that incorporate real-time, site specific, growing environments. The objective of this work was to describe validated in-season sensor based algorithms prese...

  12. Seasonal variability of surface ozone in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wie, J.; Moon, B. K.; Choi, H.

    2015-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone around East Asia include Korea impacts on air quality and climate, and has been increased with rapid economic growth. To better understanding, we analyzed seasonal variability of tropospheric ozone simulated by using GEOS-Chem. Surface ozone concentration in Korea has double peaks in April and September. Tropospheric ozone increases primarily associated with westerly wind anomaly in spring, with warming in summer and autumn, and with cloud depletion in winter. Surface ozone in spring elevated after mature-phase El Niño winters. Key words: surface ozone, seasonal variability, Korea, East Asia Acknowledgements This work was supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as "Climate Change Correspondence Program."

  13. Season and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Stallybrass, C. O.

    1928-01-01

    The seasonal variations in disease, as is the case in the spread of infective diseases generally, depend upon three primary factors: (1) the presence of the micro-organisms of adequate virulence and infectivity; (2) the means of transmission to (3) the susceptible tissues of the susceptible individual. All other factors, in this relation largely climatic, can act directly only through these three primary factors and are therefore termed secondary. The paper is largely an attempt to express the effect of the variations in the secondary factors in terms of the alterations they produce in the primary factors. The total effect of the three primary factors in the spread of infection is termed “dispersability” and a ratio or measure of dispersability is described. This ratio emphasizes occurrences in the pre-epidemic period. The relationship of temperature and humidity to the alimentary, respiratory and percutaneous diseases and to the ectodermoses, is investigated. In the autumnal group of infections, attention is drawn to the action of carriers in causing a rise in dispersability in the spring and the frequent occurrence of a double wave of dispersability. The effect of climatic changes is often cumulative, and this is most evident in the autumnal group of infections, the seasonal occurrence of which cannot be directly explained by temperature changes, or even by the action of light on phagocytes. The possibility of vitamin deficiency or excess producing cumulative effects is considered. Secular changes in seasonal periodicities are investigated and these are associated with other changes, such as the intrinsic periodicities, mode of spread, etc., the combined changes being described by the terms aggradation and degradation of disease. Slides covering the majority of the infective diseases of temperate climates and exhibiting the secular changes in Liverpool, and various geographical differences, in some 175 curves displayed. PMID:19986502

  14. Seasonal trends of biogenic terpene emissions.

    PubMed

    Helmig, Detlev; Daly, Ryan Woodfin; Milford, Jana; Guenther, Alex

    2013-09-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from six coniferous tree species, i.e. Pinus ponderosa (Ponderosa Pine), Picea pungens (Blue Spruce), Pseudotsuga menziesii (Rocky Mountain Douglas Fir) and Pinus longaeva (Bristlecone Pine), as well as from two deciduous species, Quercus gambelii (Gamble Oak) and Betula occidentalis (Western River Birch) were studied over a full annual growing cycle. Monoterpene (MT) and sesquiterpene (SQT) emissions rates were quantified in a total of 1236 individual branch enclosure samples. MT dominated coniferous emissions, producing greater than 95% of BVOC emissions. MT and SQT demonstrated short-term emission dependence with temperature. Two oxygenated MT, 1,8-cineol and piperitone, were both light and temperature dependent. Basal emission rates (BER, normalized to 1000μmolm(-2)s(-1) and 30°C) were generally higher in spring and summer than in winter; MT seasonal BER from the coniferous trees maximized between 1.5 and 6.0μgg(-1)h(-1), while seasonal lows were near 0.1μgg(-1)h(-1). The fractional contribution of individual MT to total emissions was found to fluctuate with season. SQT BER measured from the coniferous trees ranged from <0.01 to 0.15μgg(-1)h(-1). BER of up to 1.2μgg(-1)h(-1) of the SQT germacrene B were found from Q. gambelii, peaking in late summer. The β-factor, used to define temperature dependence in emissions modeling, was not found to exhibit discernible growth season trends. A seasonal correction factor proposed by others in previous work to account for a sinusoidal shaped emission pattern was applied to the data. Varying levels of agreement were found between the data and model results for the different plant species seasonal data sets using this correction. Consequently, the analyses on this extensive data set suggest that it is not feasible to apply a universal seasonal correction factor across different vegetation species. A modeling exercise comparing two case scenarios, (1) without and (2

  15. Central solar heating plants with seasonal storage

    SciTech Connect

    Breger, D.S.; Sunderland, J.E.

    1989-03-01

    The University of Massachusetts has recently started a two year effort to identify and design a significant Central Solar Heating Plant with Seasonal Storage (CSHPSS) in Massachusetts. The work is closely associated with the U.S. participation in the International Energy Agency (IEA) Task on CSHPSS. The University is working closely with the Commonwealth of Massachusetts to assist in identifying State facilities as potential sites and to explore and secure State support which will be essential for product development after the design phase. Currently, the primary site is the University of Massachusetts, Amherst campus with particular interest in several large buildings which are funded for construction over the next 4-5 years. Seasonal thermal energy storage will utilize one of several geological formations.

  16. Seasonal Effects on Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Goldinger, Anita; Shakhbazov, Konstantin; Henders, Anjali K.; McRae, Allan F.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Powell, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Many health conditions, ranging from psychiatric disorders to cardiovascular disease, display notable seasonal variation in severity and onset. In order to understand the molecular processes underlying this phenomenon, we have examined seasonal variation in the transcriptome of 606 healthy individuals. We show that 74 transcripts associated with a 12-month seasonal cycle were enriched for processes involved in DNA repair and binding. An additional 94 transcripts demonstrated significant seasonal variability that was largely influenced by blood cell count levels. These transcripts were enriched for immune function, protein production, and specific cellular markers for lymphocytes. Accordingly, cell counts for erythrocytes, platelets, neutrophils, monocytes, and CD19 cells demonstrated significant association with a 12-month seasonal cycle. These results demonstrate that seasonal variation is an important environmental regulator of gene expression and blood cell composition. Notable changes in leukocyte counts and genes involved in immune function indicate that immune cell physiology varies throughout the year in healthy individuals. PMID:26023781

  17. Seasonal soybean crop reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemaster, E. W. (Principal Investigator); Chance, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Data are presented from field measurements of 1980 including 5 acquisitions of handheld radiometer reflectance measurements, 7 complete sets of parameters for implementing the Suits mode, and other biophysical parameters to characterize the soybean canopy. LANDSAT calculations on the simulated Brazilian soybean reflectance are included along with data collected during the summer and fall on 1981 on soybean single leaf optical parameters for three irrigation treatments. Tests of the Suits vegetative canopy reflectance model for the full hemisphere of observer directions as well as the nadir direction show moderate agreement for the visible channels of the MSS and poor agreement in the near infrared channel. Temporal changes in the spectral characteristics of the single leaves were seen to occur as a function of maturity which demonstrates that the absorptance of a soybean single leaf is more a function of thetransmittancee characteristics than the seasonally consistent single leaf reflectance.

  18. Towards custom made seasonal/decadal forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahlstein, Irina; Spirig, Christoph; Liniger, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Climate indices offer the possibility to deliver information to the end user that can be easily applied to their field of work. For instance, a 3-monthly mean average temperature does not say much about the Heating Degree Days of a season, or how many frost days there are to be expected. Hence, delivering aggregated climate information can be more useful to the consumer than just raw data. In order to ensure that the end-users actually get what they need, the providers need to know what exactly they need to deliver. Hence, the specific user-needs have to be identified. In the framework of EUPORIAS, interviews with the end-user were conducted in order to learn more about the types of information that are needed. But also to investigate what knowledge exists among the users about seasonal/decadal forecasting and in what way uncertainties are taken into account. It is important that we gain better knowledge of how forecasts/predictions are applied by the end-user to their specific situation and business. EUPORIAS, which is embedded in the framework of EU FP7, aims exactly to improve that knowledge and deliver very specific forecasts that are custom made. Here we present examples of seasonal forecasts and their skill of several climate impact indices with direct relevance for specific economic sectors, such as energy. The results are compared to the visualization of conventional depiction of seasonal forecasts, such as 3 monthly average temperature tercile probabilities and the differences are highlighted.

  19. Global Seasonality of Rotavirus Disease

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Manish M.; Pitzer, Virginia; Alonso, Wladimir J.; Vera, David; Lopman, Ben; Tate, Jacqueline; Viboud, Cecile; Parashar, Umesh D.

    2012-01-01

    Background A substantial number of surveillance studies have documented rotavirus prevalence among children admitted for dehydrating diarrhea. We sought to establish global seasonal patterns of rotavirus disease before widespread vaccine introduction. Methods We reviewed studies of rotavirus detection in children with diarrhea published since 1995. We assessed potential relationships between seasonal prevalence and locality by plotting the average monthly proportion of diarrhea cases positive for rotavirus according to geography, country development, and latitude. We used linear regression to identify variables that were potentially associated with the seasonal intensity of rotavirus. Results Among a total of 99 studies representing all six geographical regions of the world, patterns of year-round disease were more evident in low- and low-middle income countries compared with upper-middle and high income countries where disease was more likely to be seasonal. The level of country development was a stronger predictor of strength of seasonality (P=0.001) than geographical location or climate. However, the observation of distinctly different seasonal patterns of rotavirus disease in some countries with similar geographical location, climate and level of development indicate that a single unifying explanation for variation in seasonality of rotavirus disease is unlikely. Conclusion While no unifying explanation emerged for varying rotavirus seasonality globally, the country income level was somewhat more predictive of the likelihood of having seasonal disease than other factors. Future evaluation of the effect of rotavirus vaccination on seasonal patterns of disease in different settings may help understand factors that drive the global seasonality of rotavirus disease. PMID:23190782

  20. Vaccine Effectiveness - How Well Does the Seasonal Flu Vaccine Work?

    MedlinePlus

    ... there so many different outcomes for vaccine effectiveness studies? Results of studies that assess how well a ... Canada and Europe. What do recent vaccine effectiveness studies show? CDC conducts studies each year to determine ...

  1. PERENNIAL WARM-SEASON GRASSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Warm-season grasses and can be used to augment the forage supply for grazing livestock operations in the northeastern U.S. Much of what is known about warm season grass production and management in the northeastern US was obtained from a soil conservation or wildlife habitat perspective. Warm-seas...

  2. Regional-seasonal weather forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Abarbanel, H.; Foley, H.; MacDonald, G.; Rothaus, O.; Rudermann, M.; Vesecky, J.

    1980-08-01

    In the interest of allocating heating fuels optimally, the state-of-the-art for seasonal weather forecasting is reviewed. A model using an enormous data base of past weather data is contemplated to improve seasonal forecasts, but present skills do not make that practicable. 90 references. (PSB)

  3. BELTWIDE GIN SAMPLING - FIRST SEASON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A two year, belt-wide commercial cotton gin sampling project was initiated in 2005 for the 2005-06 and 2006-07 ginning seasons to assess the changes in upland cotton quality throughout the ginning process and the ginning season. This report discusses preliminary analysis of the first year data. In...

  4. Seasonal affective disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... of interest in work or other activities Sluggish movements Social withdrawal Unhappiness and irritability SAD can sometimes become long-term depression . Bipolar disorder or thoughts of suicide are also possible.

  5. Seasonality in submesoscale turbulence

    PubMed Central

    Callies, Jörn; Ferrari, Raffaele; Klymak, Jody M.; Gula, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Although the strongest ocean surface currents occur at horizontal scales of order 100 km, recent numerical simulations suggest that flows smaller than these mesoscale eddies can achieve important vertical transports in the upper ocean. These submesoscale flows, 1–100 km in horizontal extent, take heat and atmospheric gases down into the interior ocean, accelerating air–sea fluxes, and bring deep nutrients up into the sunlit surface layer, fueling primary production. Here we present observational evidence that submesoscale flows undergo a seasonal cycle in the surface mixed layer: they are much stronger in winter than in summer. Submesoscale flows are energized by baroclinic instabilities that develop around geostrophic eddies in the deep winter mixed layer at a horizontal scale of order 1–10 km. Flows larger than this instability scale are energized by turbulent scale interactions. Enhanced submesoscale activity in the winter mixed layer is expected to achieve efficient exchanges with the permanent thermocline below. PMID:25897832

  6. Work Out at Work

    MedlinePlus

    ... exercise into your busy work day. Find 10-minute workout breaks throughout the day. There are a variety of strength, balance, and flexibility exercises you can do right at your desk. The Go4Life website has easy-to-follow directions for all of ...

  7. 5 CFR 340.402 - Seasonal employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-TIME CAREER EMPLOYMENT (PART-TIME, SEASONAL, ON-CALL, AND INTERMITTENT) Seasonal and intermittent... executed between the agency and the seasonal employee prior to the employee's entering on duty. At a... employee is released to nonpay status at the end of a season and recalled to duty the next season....

  8. Ozone measurements in Amazonia: Dry season versus wet season

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchhoff, V.W.J.H. ); Da Silva, I.M.O. ); Browell, E.V. )

    1990-09-20

    Observations were made almost continuously at the surface, and in addition, 20 ozone profiles were obtained in the troposphere and stratosphere. These ozone measurements were part of a field expedition to the Brazilian Amazon region, the ABLE 2B mission, a joint American-Brazilian effort to measure local concentrations of several species relevant to atmospheric chemistry. The time period of this expedition was April-May 1987, during the local wet season. For the surface ozone data the measurement technique sued was UV absorption. Ozone profiles were obtained with electrochemical concentration cell sondes, launched on balloons. The major site of operation was set up near Manaus (3{degree}S, 60{degree}W). The results are presented and compared with a previous dry season experiment. Surface ozone mixing ratios show diurnal variations that have maxima in the daytime and minima at night. The diurnal maximum at noontime, considered very low (12 ppbv) in the dry season was even lower in this wet season period (6 ppbv). A significant difference can be seen between clearing and forest data, and between different height levels above the surface, showing the existence of a large positive gradient of ozone with height. The ozone profiles in the troposphere show that there is less ozone not only at the surface but in the whole troposphere, with the wet season average showing between 6 and 12 ppbv less ozone. This difference is much smaller in the stratosphere, where there is slightly more ozone in the region of the peak, during the wet season. An isolated shower or thunderstorm in the dry season could produce transient ozone variations (mixing ratio increases or decreases) that were not observed in the wet season.

  9. Seasonal variations in Soudan 2.

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, M. C.; Soudan 2 Collaboration

    1999-06-23

    Seasonal Variations in an underground detector may be a signature for Dark Matter. The Soudan 2 detector searches for nucleon decay and atmospheric neutrinos. The trigger rate is about 0.5 Hertz. It is dominated by approximately equal numbers of atmospheric muons and low level radioactivityy. The muon rate has a seasonal variation of {+-}2%, which is consistent with a similar effect at MACRO. The MACRO effect has been correlated with temperature in the upper atmosphere. Our trigger rate has a seasonal variation of {+-}15% which we believe is due to radon in the mine, and variations in air flow with outside temperature.

  10. Seasonal predictability of the North Atlantic Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vellinga, Michael; Scaife, Adam

    2015-04-01

    Until recently, long-range forecast systems showed only modest levels of skill in predicting surface winter climate around the Atlantic Basin and associated fluctuations in the North Atlantic Oscillation at seasonal lead times. Here we use a new forecast system to assess seasonal predictability of winter North Atlantic climate. We demonstrate that key aspects of European and North American winter climate and the surface North Atlantic Oscillation are highly predictable months ahead. We demonstrate high levels of prediction skill in retrospective forecasts of the surface North Atlantic Oscillation, winter storminess, near-surface temperature, and wind speed, all of which have high value for planning and adaptation to extreme winter conditions. Analysis of forecast ensembles suggests that while useful levels of seasonal forecast skill have now been achieved, key sources of predictability are still only partially represented and there is further untapped predictability. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License together with an author copyright. This license does not conflict with the regulations of the Crown Copyright.

  11. Forecasting Seasonal Water Needs Under Current and Future Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spisni, A.; Pratizzoli, W.; Tomei, F.; Mariani, M. C.; Villani, G.; Pavan, V.; Tomozeiu, R.; Marletto, V.

    2010-12-01

    This work outlines the complex strategy being developed at ARPA-SIMC for the integrated exploitation of remote sensing, soil water modelling, seasonal forecasting and climate projections, in view of better monitoring and management of water in agriculture at the scale of the Emilia-Romagna region, northern Italy. Remote sensing and field surveys are being used to map crops early in the season, a geographical soil water model uses the crop map together with a soil map and weather data to simulate soil water status up to the beginning of the irrigation season. Downscaled seasonal forecasts are then used to assess the summer irrigation needs. This operational framework is also used to evaluate the impacts of climate change for years 2021-2050 relative to current climate conditions. First tests on kiwifruit in the Romagna subregion show a modest increase in irrigation water demand.

  12. Extended season for northern butterflies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsson, Bengt

    2014-07-01

    Butterflies are like all insects in that they are temperature sensitive and a changing climate with higher temperatures might effect their phenology. Several studies have found support for earlier flight dates among the investigated species. A comparative study with data from a citizen science project, including 66 species of butterflies in Sweden, was undertaken, and the result confirms that most butterfly species now fly earlier during the season. This is especially evident for butterflies overwintering as adults or as pupae. However, the advancement in phenology is correlated with flight date, and some late season species show no advancement or have even postponed their flight dates and are now flying later in the season. The results also showed that latitude had a strong effect on the adult flight date, and most of the investigated species showed significantly later flights towards the north. Only some late flying species showed an opposite trend, flying earlier in the north. A majority of the investigated species in this study showed a general response to temperature and advanced their flight dates with warmer temperatures (on average they advanced their flight dates by 3.8 days/°C), although not all species showed this response. In essence, a climate with earlier springs and longer growing seasons seems not to change the appearance patterns in a one-way direction. We now see butterflies on the wings both earlier and later in the season and some consequences of these patterns are discussed. So far, studies have concentrated mostly on early season butterfly-plant interactions but also late season studies are needed for a better understanding of long-term population consequences.

  13. Extended season for northern butterflies.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Bengt

    2014-07-01

    Butterflies are like all insects in that they are temperature sensitive and a changing climate with higher temperatures might effect their phenology. Several studies have found support for earlier flight dates among the investigated species. A comparative study with data from a citizen science project, including 66 species of butterflies in Sweden, was undertaken, and the result confirms that most butterfly species now fly earlier during the season. This is especially evident for butterflies overwintering as adults or as pupae. However, the advancement in phenology is correlated with flight date, and some late season species show no advancement or have even postponed their flight dates and are now flying later in the season. The results also showed that latitude had a strong effect on the adult flight date, and most of the investigated species showed significantly later flights towards the north. Only some late flying species showed an opposite trend, flying earlier in the north. A majority of the investigated species in this study showed a general response to temperature and advanced their flight dates with warmer temperatures (on average they advanced their flight dates by 3.8 days/°C), although not all species showed this response. In essence, a climate with earlier springs and longer growing seasons seems not to change the appearance patterns in a one-way direction. We now see butterflies on the wings both earlier and later in the season and some consequences of these patterns are discussed. So far, studies have concentrated mostly on early season butterfly-plant interactions but also late season studies are needed for a better understanding of long-term population consequences. PMID:23456374

  14. Extended season for northern butterflies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsson, Bengt

    2013-03-01

    Butterflies are like all insects in that they are temperature sensitive and a changing climate with higher temperatures might effect their phenology. Several studies have found support for earlier flight dates among the investigated species. A comparative study with data from a citizen science project, including 66 species of butterflies in Sweden, was undertaken, and the result confirms that most butterfly species now fly earlier during the season. This is especially evident for butterflies overwintering as adults or as pupae. However, the advancement in phenology is correlated with flight date, and some late season species show no advancement or have even postponed their flight dates and are now flying later in the season. The results also showed that latitude had a strong effect on the adult flight date, and most of the investigated species showed significantly later flights towards the north. Only some late flying species showed an opposite trend, flying earlier in the north. A majority of the investigated species in this study showed a general response to temperature and advanced their flight dates with warmer temperatures (on average they advanced their flight dates by 3.8 days/°C), although not all species showed this response. In essence, a climate with earlier springs and longer growing seasons seems not to change the appearance patterns in a one-way direction. We now see butterflies on the wings both earlier and later in the season and some consequences of these patterns are discussed. So far, studies have concentrated mostly on early season butterfly-plant interactions but also late season studies are needed for a better understanding of long-term population consequences.

  15. Ozone measurements in Amazonia - Dry season versus wet season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Da Silva, I. M. O.; Browell, Edward V.

    1990-01-01

    Recent ozone measurements taken in the Amazonian rain forest environment during the wet season (April-May 1987) are described, revealling new aspects of the regional atmospheric chemistry. The measurements were part of the Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE 2B) mission and utilized UV absorption as a measurement technique to obtain surface ozone data; 20 ozonesondes were launched in order to obtain vertical ozone profiles used to describe the upper troposphere and stratosphere. The major differences in comparison to a previous dry season experiment, which found ozone concentrations to be lower in the whole troposphere by nearly a factor of 2, are stressed.

  16. Seasonality of Arctic Mediterranean Exchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieper, Christoph; Quadfasel, Detlef

    2015-04-01

    The Arctic Mediterranean communicates through a number of passages with the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans. Most of the volume exchange happens at the Greenland-Scotland-Ridge: warm and saline Atlantic Water flows in at the surface, cold, dense Overflow Water flows back at the bottom and fresh and cold Polar Water flows out along the East Greenland coast. All surface inflows show a seasonal signal whereas only the outflow through the Faroe Bank Channel exhibits significant seasonality. Here we present a quantification of the seasonal cycle of the exchanges across the Greenland-Scotland ridge based on volume estimates of the in- and outflows within the last 20 years (ADCP and altimetry). Our approach is comparatistic: we compare different properties of the seasonal cycle like the strength or the phase between the different in- and outflows. On the seasonal time scale the in- and outflows across the Greenland-Scotland-Ridge are not balanced. The net flux thus has to be balanced by the other passages on the Canadian Archipelago, Bering Strait as well as runoff from land.

  17. 50 CFR 660.510 - Fishing seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fishing seasons. 660.510 Section 660.510... Fishing seasons. All seasons will begin at 0001 hours and terminate at 2400 hours local time. Fishing seasons for the following CPS species are: (a) Pacific sardine. January 1 to December 31, or until...

  18. 50 CFR 660.510 - Fishing seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fishing seasons. 660.510 Section 660.510... Fishing seasons. All seasons will begin at 0001 hours and terminate at 2400 hours local time. Fishing seasons for the following CPS species are: (a) Pacific sardine. January 1 to December 31, or until...

  19. 50 CFR 660.510 - Fishing seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fishing seasons. 660.510 Section 660.510... Fishing seasons. All seasons will begin at 0001 hours and terminate at 2400 hours local time. Fishing seasons for the following CPS species are: (a) Pacific sardine. January 1 to December 31, or until...

  20. 50 CFR 660.510 - Fishing seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fishing seasons. 660.510 Section 660.510... Fishing seasons. All seasons will begin at 0001 hours and terminate at 2400 hours local time. Fishing seasons for the following CPS species are: (a) Pacific sardine. July 1 to June 30, or until closed...

  1. 50 CFR 660.510 - Fishing seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fishing seasons. 660.510 Section 660.510... Fishing seasons. All seasons will begin at 0001 hours and terminate at 2400 hours local time. Fishing seasons for the following CPS species are: (a) Pacific sardine. January 1 to December 31, or until...

  2. Color Reveals Translucent Seasonal Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    In a region near the south pole of Mars translucent carbon dioxide ice covers the ground seasonally. For the first time we can 'see' the translucent ice by the affect it has on the appearance of the surface below.

    Dark fans of dust (figure 1) from the surface drape over the top of the seasonal ice. The surface would be the same color as the dust except that the seasonal ice affecting its appearance. Bright bluish streaks are frost that has re-crystallized from the atmosphere.

    Sunlight can penetrate through the seasonal layer of translucent ice to warm the ground below. That causes the seasonal ice layer to sublime (evaporate) from the bottom rather than the top.

    Observation Geometry Image PSP_002942_0935 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 13-Mar-2007. The complete image is centered at -86.4 degrees latitude, 99.2 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 245.4 km (153.4 miles). At this distance the image scale is 49.1 cm/pixel (with 2 x 2 binning) so objects 147 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 50 cm/pixel . The image was taken at a local Mars time of 06:41 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 82 degrees, thus the sun was about 8 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 199.6 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  3. Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minor, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    The Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) Program designed to demonstrate the storage and retrieval of energy on a seasonal basis using heat or cold available from waste or other sources during a surplus period is described. Factors considered include reduction of peak period demand and electric utility load problems and establishment of favorable economics for district heating and cooling systems for commercialization of the technology. The initial thrust of the STES Program toward utilization of ground water systems (aquifers) for thermal energy storage is emphasized.

  4. Shallow Aquifer Connectivity and Early Season Water Supply of Seasonal Wetlands and Drainages Leading to Regional Drainage Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarten, N. F.; Harter, T.

    2009-12-01

    The Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers in the Central Valley, California are recognized being seasonally supplied by early season direct surface water runoff and later season snow melt runoff from their tributaries. In addition, early season water supply to these rivers is derived from precipitation (PPT) that has infiltrated into soils underlain by a near surface aquitard, typically at less than 2 m depth. These shallow perched groundwater systems contribute a potentially substantial amount of water from more than 500,000 hectares of landforms associated with geomorphic terraces underlain by these aquitards. Early season water input to seasonal and perennial drainages is regulated by the hydraulic conductivity of the (clay-) loamy soils and by surface and aquitard slope of the local catchments associated with these old alluvial landforms. Research on these landforms and shallow aquifers has identified a complex PPT and evapotranspiration (ET) sensitive system that includes shallow depressions that seasonally produce water table derived wetlands (“vernal pools”). These wetlands have been recognized for a very high level of plant and invertebrate species diversity including endangered species. In addition, these seasonal wetlands provide migratory feeding areas of birds. Our work on these seasonal perched systems shows that as much as 80 percent of the soil column above the aquitard is saturated, during average to high rainfall years, for up to 90 to 120 days. Where the water table of this perched system intercepts the land surface, vernal pools develop. The perched groundwater drains into seasonal surface drainages that ultimately supply the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. At the end of the rainy season, both the vernal pools and the perched aquifer rapidly and synchronously disappear. Once the soil is unsaturated, water flow is vertically upward due to ET. Variably saturated modeling of this system was conducted using HYDRUS 2D/3D. Climate inputs were from

  5. Seasonal Nitrogen Cycles on Pluto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, C. J.; Paige, D. A.

    1994-01-01

    A thermal model, developed to predict seasonal nitrogen cycles on Triton, has been modified and applied to Pluto. The model is used to calculate the partitioning of nitrogen between surface frost deposits and the atmosphere, as a function of time for various sets of input parameters.

  6. MECHANIZATION AND THE SEASONAL FARMWORKER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HARPER, ROBERT G.

    MECHANIZATION DOES NOT NECESSARILY DECREASE THE NUMBER OF SEASONAL FARM WORKERS NEEDED. SOME INNOVATIONS MERELY CHANGE THE JOB TO ONE THAT IS LESS UNPLEASANT, AND WORKERS FORMERLY DISINCLINED TO DO THE JOB BECOME AVAILABLE. MECHANIZATION MAY MAKE AN OPERATION SO EFFICIENT THAT ACREAGE AND PRODUCTION ARE INCREASED, AND MORE WORKERS ARE NEEDED. MUCH…

  7. Seasonal Time Measurement During Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    IKEGAMI, Keisuke; YOSHIMURA, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Most species living outside the tropical zone undergo physiological adaptations to seasonal environmental changes and changing day length (photoperiod); this phenomenon is called photoperiodism. It is well known that the circadian clock is involved in the regulation of photoperiodism such as seasonal reproduction, but the mechanism underlying circadian clock regulation of photoperiodism remains unclear. Recent molecular analysis have revealed that, in mammals and birds, the pars tuberalis (PT) of the pituitary gland acts as the relay point from light receptors, which receive information about the photoperiod, to the endocrine responses. Long-day (LD)-induced thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the PT acts as a master regulator of seasonal reproduction in the ependymal cells (ECs) within the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) and activates thyroid hormone (TH) by inducing the expression of type 2 deiodinase in both LD and short-day (SD) breeding animals. Furthermore, the circadian clock has been found to be localized in the PT and ECs as well as in the circadian pacemaker(s). This review purposes to summarize the current knowledge concerning the involvement of the neuroendocrine system and circadian clock in seasonal reproduction. PMID:23965600

  8. Seasonal Agricultural Labor in Oregon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Univ., Corvallis.

    Requested by the governor of Oregon, this 1968 report focuses on seasonal agricultural labor in Oregon. The task force, appointed by the president of Oregon State University, reported on the following areas: (1) the problem in terms of potential unionization, population trends, existing state programs and agencies for the migrants; (2) regulations…

  9. EFFECT OF CHLORAMINATION AND SEASONAL WATER CHANGES ON NANOFILTRATION FOULING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanofiltraton membrane studies conducted with Little Miami Aquifer water from the Indian Hill Water Works (OH) showed tht flux loss was highly seasonal in nature with the greatest fouling occurring during the highest water temperatures during drought conditions. The reason for th...

  10. Seasonal evolution of Saturn's stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvestre, Melody; Fouchet, Thierry; Spiga, Aymeric; Guerlet, Sandrine

    2015-11-01

    The exceptional duration of the Cassini-Huygens mission enables unprecedented study of Saturn's atmospheric dynamics and chemistry. In Saturn's stratosphere (from 20 hPa to 10-4 hPa), photochemical and radiative timescales are in the same order as Saturn's revolution period (29.5 years). Consequently, the large seasonal insolation variations experienced by this planet are expected to influence significantly temperatures and abundances of photochemical by-products in this region. We investigate the seasonal evolution of Saturn's stratosphere by measuring meridional and seasonal variations (from 2005 to 2012) of temperature and C2H6, C2H2, and C3H8 abundances using Cassini/CIRS limb observations. We complete this study with the development of a GCM (Global Climate Model), in order to understand the physical processes behind this seasonal evolution.The analysis of the CIRS limb observations show that the lower and upper stratospheres do not exhibit the same trends in their seasonal variations, especially for temperature. In the lower stratosphere, the seasonal temperature contrast is maximal (at 1 hPa) and can be explained by the radiative contributions included in our GCM. In contrast, upper stratospheric temperatures (at 0.01 hPa) are constant from northern winter to spring, at odds with our GCM predictions. This behavior indicates that other physical processes such as gravity waves breaking may be at play. At 1 hPa, C2H6, C2H2, and C3H8 abundances exhibit a striking seasonal stability, consistently with the predictions of the photochemical models of Moses and Greathouse, 2005 and Hue et al., 2015. However, the meridional distributions of these species do not follow the predicted trends, which gives insight on atmospheric dynamics. We perform numerical simulations with the GCM to better understand dynamical phenomena in Saturn's atmosphere. We investigate how the large insolation variations induced by the shadow of the rings influence temperatures and atmospheric

  11. Contribution of daily and seasonal biorhythms to obesity in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanikowska, Dominika; Sato, Maki; Witowski, Janusz

    2015-04-01

    While the significance of obesity as a serious health problem is well recognized, little is known about whether and how biometerological factors and biorhythms causally contribute to obesity. Obesity is often associated with altered seasonal and daily rhythmicity in food intake, metabolism and adipose tissue function. Environmental stimuli affect both seasonal and daily rhythms, and the latter are under additional control of internal molecular oscillators, or body clocks. Modifications of clock genes in animals and changes to normal daily rhythms in humans (as in shift work and sleep deprivation) result in metabolic dysregulation that favours weight gain. Here, we briefly review the potential links between biorhythms and obesity in humans.

  12. [Fluctuations and seasonality in suicidal attempts].

    PubMed

    Polewka, Andrzej; Szkolnicka, Beata; Targosz, Dorota; Groszek, Barbara; Kroch, Stanisław; Chrostek Maj, Jan; Zieba, Andrzej

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze seasonality and temporal fluctuations in suicide attempts by persons living in Krakow and hospitalized in the Department of Clinical Toxicology CMUJ in the years 2000-2002. The research focussed on the frequency of suicide attempts in relation to the time of the day, day of the week, and month of the year. Temporal fluctuations in the frequency of suicide attempts have been assessed on the basis of the data from medical documentation concerning 2757 suicide attempts by individuals ranging in age from 14 to 90 years. The group consisted of 1607 females and 1150 males. According to the results of the research, seasonality and temporal fluctuations in the frequency of suicide attempts is different for males and females. In the case of the males examined, no dependence between the frequency of suicide attempts and a particular month or season has been observed. In the case of females, on the contrary, the data indicate the existence of a seasonal pattern with the peak in the spring (or early part of the summer), and in the autumn--in October and November. In males, the peak day for attempted suicide was Monday, whereas in females--Sunday and Monday. As regards the time of the day, both the results of the present research and data collected by WHO/EURO indicate that suicide attempts occurred most frequently in the evening, late in the evening or in the early part the night. In conclusion, it has been emphasized that the majority of suicide attempts, especially by females, occurs late in the evening or early in the night. This finding seems to be of particular importance for suicide prevention--it can contribute to the increase in the effectiveness of the organization of work in the Crisis Intervention Centres and make therapists and patients' families aware of the existence of periods of an increased suicide risk. The research has been conducted owing to the cooperation between the department of Clinical Toxicology, CMUJ and the

  13. Seasonal Changes in Titan's Meteorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turtle, E. P.; DelGenio, A. D.; Barbara, J. M.; Perry, J. E.; Schaller, E. L.; McEwen, A. S.; West, R. A.; Ray, T. L.

    2011-01-01

    The Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem has observed Titan for 1/4 Titan year, and we report here the first evidence of seasonal shifts in preferred locations of tropospheric methane clouds. South \\polar convective cloud activity, common in late southern summer, has become rare. North \\polar and northern mid \\latitude clouds appeared during the approach to the northern spring equinox in August 2009. Recent observations have shown extensive cloud systems at low latitudes. In contrast, southern mid \\latitude and subtropical clouds have appeared sporadically throughout the mission, exhibiting little seasonality to date. These differences in behavior suggest that Titan s clouds, and thus its general circulation, are influenced by both the rapid temperature response of a low \\thermal \\inertia surface and the much longer radiative timescale of Titan s cold thick troposphere. North \\polar clouds are often seen near lakes and seas, suggesting that local increases in methane concentration and/or lifting generated by surface roughness gradients may promote cloud formation. Citation

  14. Seasonal Nitrogen Cycles on Pluto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Candice J.; Paige, David A.

    1996-01-01

    A thermal model, developed to predict seasonal nitrogen cycles on Triton, has been modified and applied to Pluto. The model was used to calculate the partitioning of nitrogen between surface frost deposits and the atmosphere, as a function of time for various sets of input parameters. Volatile transport was confirmed to have a significant effect on Pluto's climate as nitrogen moved around on a seasonal time scale between hemispheres, and sublimed into and condensed out of the atmosphere. Pluto's high obliquity was found to have a significant effect on the distribution of frost on its surface. Conditions that would lead to permanent polar caps on Triton were found to lead to permanent zonal frost bands on Pluto. In some instances, frost sublimed from the middle of a seasonal cap outward, resulting in a "polar bald spot". Frost which was darker than the substrate did not satisfy observables on Pluto, in contrast to our findings for Triton. Bright frost (brighter than the substrate) came closer to matching observables. Atmospheric pressure varied seasonally. The amplitudes, and to a lesser extent the phase, of the variation depended significantly on frost and substrate properties. Atmospheric pressure was found to be determined both by Pluto's distance from the sun and by the subsolar latitude. In most cases two peaks in atmospheric pressure were observed annually: a greater one associated with the sublimation of the north polar cap just as Pluto receded from perihelion, and a lesser one associated with the sublimation of the south polar cap as Pluto approached perihelion. Our model predicted frost-free dark substrate surface temperatures in the 50 to 60 K range, while frost temperatures typically ranged between 30 to 40 K. Temporal changes in frost coverage illustrated by our results, and changes in the viewing geometry of Pluto from the Earth, may be important for interpretation of ground-based measurements of Pluto's thermal emission.

  15. Seasonality as a Parrondian game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock-López, Enrique

    2011-08-01

    Switching strategies can be related to the so-called Parrondian games, where the alternation of two losing games yields a winning game. We consider two dynamics that by themselves yield undesirable behaviors, but when alternated, yield a desirable oscillatory behavior. In the analysis of the alternate-logistic map, we prove that alternating parameter values yielding extinction with parameter values associated with chaotic dynamics results in periodic trajectories. Ultimately, we consider a four season logistic model with either migration or immigration.

  16. Seasonal Variability of Saturn's Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma A.; Simon, Amy; Delcroix, Marc; Orton, Glenn S.; Trinh, Shirley

    2012-01-01

    The seasonal variability of Saturn's clouds and weather layer, currently displaying a variety of phenomena (convective storms, planetary waves, giant storms and lightning-induced events, etc.) is not yet fully understood. Variations of Saturn's radiance at 5.2 microns, a spectral region dominated by thermal emission in an atmospheric window containing weak gaseous absorption, contain a strong axisymmetric component as well as large discrete features at low and mid-latitudes that are several degrees colder than the planetary average and uncorrelated with features at shorter wavelengths that are dominated by reflected sunlight (Yanamandra-Fisher et al., 2001. Icarus, Vol. 150). The characterization of several fundamental atmospheric properties and processes, however, remains incomplete, namely: How do seasons affect (a) the global distribution of gaseous constituents and aerosols; and (b) temperatures and the stability against convection and large scale-atmospheric transport? Do 5-micron clouds have counterparts at other altitude levels? What changes occur during the emergence of Great White Storms? Data acquired at the NASA/IRTF and NAOJ/Subaru from 1995 - 2011; since 2004, high-resolution multi-spectral and high-spatial imaging data acquired by the NASA/ESA Cassini mission, represents half a Saturnian year or two seasons. With the addition of detailed multi-spectral data sets acquired by amateur observers, we study these dramatic phenomena to better understand the timeline of the evolution of these events. Seasonal (or temporal) trends in the observables such as albedo of the clouds, thermal fields of the atmosphere as function of altitude, development of clouds, hazes and global abundances of various hydrocarbons in the atmosphere can now be modeled. We will present results of our ongoing investigation for the search and characterization of periodicities over half a Saturnian year, based on a non-biased a priori approach and time series techniques (such as

  17. Flu Season Hasn't Peaked Yet

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157852.html Flu Season Hasn't Peaked Yet This year's vaccine ... 2016 FRIDAY, March 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- This flu season continues to be the mildest in the ...

  18. Good Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorkquist, David C.

    1991-01-01

    The deterioration of the quality of work and the resulting impact on workers are of increasing concern. Those being prepared for entry into the workplace can also be prepared for the context and condition of work. (SK)

  19. Evaluating Downscaling Methods for Seasonal Climate Forecasts over East Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, J. Brent; Robertson, Franklin R.; Bosilovich, Michael; Lyon, Bradfield; Funk, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. National Multi-Model Ensemble seasonal forecasting system is providing hindcast and real-time data streams to be used in assessing and improving seasonal predictive capacity. The NASA / USAID SERVIR project, which leverages satellite and modeling-based resources for environmental decision making in developing nations, is focusing on the evaluation of NMME forecasts specifically for use in impact modeling within hub regions including East Africa, the Hindu Kush-Himalayan (HKH) region and Mesoamerica. One of the participating models in NMME is the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS5). This work will present an intercomparison of downscaling methods using the GEOS5 seasonal forecasts of temperature and precipitation over East Africa. The current seasonal forecasting system provides monthly averaged forecast anomalies. These anomalies must be spatially downscaled and temporally disaggregated for use in application modeling (e.g. hydrology, agriculture). There are several available downscaling methodologies that can be implemented to accomplish this goal. Selected methods include both a non-homogenous hidden Markov model and an analogue based approach. A particular emphasis will be placed on quantifying the ability of different methods to capture the intermittency of precipitation within both the short and long rain seasons. Further, the ability to capture spatial covariances will be assessed. Both probabilistic and deterministic skill measures will be evaluated over the hindcast period

  20. Evaluating Downscaling Methods for Seasonal Climate Forecasts over East Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Franklin R.; Roberts, J. Brent; Bosilovich, Michael; Lyon, Bradfield

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. National Multi-Model Ensemble seasonal forecasting system is providing hindcast and real-time data streams to be used in assessing and improving seasonal predictive capacity. The NASA / USAID SERVIR project, which leverages satellite and modeling-based resources for environmental decision making in developing nations, is focusing on the evaluation of NMME forecasts specifically for use in impact modeling within hub regions including East Africa, the Hindu Kush-Himalayan (HKH) region and Mesoamerica. One of the participating models in NMME is the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS5). This work will present an intercomparison of downscaling methods using the GEOS5 seasonal forecasts of temperature and precipitation over East Africa. The current seasonal forecasting system provides monthly averaged forecast anomalies. These anomalies must be spatially downscaled and temporally disaggregated for use in application modeling (e.g. hydrology, agriculture). There are several available downscaling methodologies that can be implemented to accomplish this goal. Selected methods include both a non-homogenous hidden Markov model and an analogue based approach. A particular emphasis will be placed on quantifying the ability of different methods to capture the intermittency of precipitation within both the short and long rain seasons. Further, the ability to capture spatial covariances will be assessed. Both probabilistic and deterministic skill measures will be evaluated over the hindcast period.

  1. 1971 Post Season Rural Manpower Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Labor, Detroit. Michigan Employment Security Commission.

    The Rural Manpower Service reports on the migrant seasonal labor in Michigan during 1971. Seasonal labor has been declining since it reached its peak of 97,700 in 1962. This report discusses migrant seasonal labor with regard to (1) the wages and earnings of the workers, (2) the recruitment of workers, (3) the agricultural-labor housing, (4) the…

  2. 25 CFR 242.6 - Spawning season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Spawning season. 242.6 Section 242.6 Indians BUREAU OF... RESERVATION § 242.6 Spawning season. Walleye and northern pike (or pickerel) shall not be taken during their spawning season except for propagation purposes....

  3. 25 CFR 242.6 - Spawning season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Spawning season. 242.6 Section 242.6 Indians BUREAU OF... RESERVATION § 242.6 Spawning season. Walleye and northern pike (or pickerel) shall not be taken during their spawning season except for propagation purposes....

  4. 50 CFR 20.22 - Closed seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Closed seasons. 20.22 Section 20.22... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.22 Closed seasons. No person shall take migratory game birds during the closed season except as provided in part 21 of this chapter....

  5. 25 CFR 242.6 - Spawning season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Spawning season. 242.6 Section 242.6 Indians BUREAU OF... RESERVATION § 242.6 Spawning season. Walleye and northern pike (or pickerel) shall not be taken during their spawning season except for propagation purposes....

  6. 50 CFR 20.22 - Closed seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Closed seasons. 20.22 Section 20.22... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.22 Closed seasons. No person shall take migratory game birds during the closed season except as provided in part 21 of this chapter....

  7. 50 CFR 20.22 - Closed seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Closed seasons. 20.22 Section 20.22... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.22 Closed seasons. No person shall take migratory game birds during the closed season except as provided in part 21 of this chapter....

  8. 25 CFR 242.6 - Spawning season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spawning season. 242.6 Section 242.6 Indians BUREAU OF... RESERVATION § 242.6 Spawning season. Walleye and northern pike (or pickerel) shall not be taken during their spawning season except for propagation purposes....

  9. 50 CFR 20.22 - Closed seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Closed seasons. 20.22 Section 20.22... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.22 Closed seasons. No person shall take migratory game birds during the closed season except as provided in part 21 of this chapter....

  10. 50 CFR 20.22 - Closed seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Closed seasons. 20.22 Section 20.22... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.22 Closed seasons. No person shall take migratory game birds during the closed season except as provided in part 21 of this chapter....

  11. 25 CFR 242.6 - Spawning season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Spawning season. 242.6 Section 242.6 Indians BUREAU OF... RESERVATION § 242.6 Spawning season. Walleye and northern pike (or pickerel) shall not be taken during their spawning season except for propagation purposes....

  12. Early season cold tolerance in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil temperatures at 15°C or below limit germination and seedling establishment for warm season cereal crops such as sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. [Moench]) during early season planting. To better understand the genetics of early season cold tolerance in sorghum, mapping of quantitative trait loci (...

  13. 7 CFR 916.15 - Marketing season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marketing season. 916.15 Section 916.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 916.15 Marketing season. Marketing season means the period beginning...

  14. 7 CFR 916.15 - Marketing season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing season. 916.15 Section 916.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 916.15 Marketing season. Marketing season means the period beginning...

  15. Working Mothers

    MedlinePlus

    ... for their child when child care arrangements have broken down, or to take their child to necessary appointments. When to Return to Work A woman’s decision to return to work must take into account her own needs as well as those of her family. If you are considering returning to work, try ...

  16. [Palivizumab: four seasons in Russia].

    PubMed

    Baranov, A A; Ivanov, D O; Aliamovskaia, G A; Amirova, V R; Antoniuk, I V; Asmolova, G A; Beliaeva, I A; Bokeria, E L; Briukhanova, O A; Vinogradova, I V; Vlasova, E V; Galustian, A N; Gafarova, G V; Gorev, V V; Davydova, I V; Degtiarev, D N; Degtiareva, E A; Dolgikh, V V; Donits, I M; Zakharova, N I; Zernova, L Iu; Zimina, E P; Zuev, V V; Keshishian, E S; Kovalev, I A; Koltunov, I E; Korsunskiĭ, A A; Krivoshchekov, E V; Krsheminskaia, I V; Kuznetsova, S N; Liubimenko, V A; Namazova-Baranova, L S; Nesterenko, É V; Nikolaev, S V; Ovsiannikov, D Iu; Pavlova, T I; Potapova, M V; Rychkova, L V; Safarov, A A; Safina, A I; Skachkova, M A; Soldatova, I G; Turti, T V; Filatova, N A; Shakirova, R M; Ianulevich, O S

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, the Russian Federation (RF) registered palivizumab--innovative drug, based on monoclonal antibodies for passive immunization of seasonal respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in children of disease severe progress risk group, which include primarily premature infants, children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia and hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease. Currently, palivizumab is included in the list of recommended medicines and medical care standards of different countries, including Russia. In the review the results of Russian research on the progress of RSV infection, its epidemiology and immunization experience gained over the 2010-2014 period are summarized in relation to the foreign data. During the four epidemic seasons palivizumab immunization covered more than 3,200 children of severe RSV infection risk group with a progressive annual increase in the number of patients who received the drug. Geography of palivizumab immunization is also greatly expanded in our country during this time. If during the first two seasons measures of immunization were taken mainly in Moscow and St. Petersburg, at the present time, thirty one territorial entities of the Russian Federation have the experience in the drug application. Analysis of the results of RSV infection immunization (made in several regions) confirms the high clinical efficacy and palivizumab safety already demonstrated in international studies. In addition, the analysis presents the potential to improve the efficiency of the integrated RSV infection immunization programs, realizing in the establishment of high-risk child group register, adequate counseling for parents, as well as the development of the routing of patients and coordination of interaction between different health institutions during the immunization. PMID:25563005

  17. Rainfall variability and seasonality in northern Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bari, Sheikh Hefzul; Hussain, Md. Manjurul; Husna, Noor-E.-Ashmaul

    2016-05-01

    This paper aimed at the analysis of rainfall seasonality and variability for the northern part of South-Asian country, Bangladesh. The coefficient of variability was used to determine the variability of rainfall. While rainfall seasonality index (SI ) and mean individual seasonality index ( overline{SI_i} ) were used to identify seasonal contrast. We also applied Mann-Kendall trend test and sequential Mann-Kendall test to determine the trend in seasonality. The lowest variability was found for monsoon among the four seasons whereas winter has the highest variability. Observed variability has a decreasing tendency from the northwest region towards the northeast region. The mean individual seasonality index (0.815378 to 0.977228) indicates that rainfall in Bangladesh is "markedly seasonal with a long dry season." It was found that the length of the dry period is lower at the northeastern part of northern Bangladesh. Trend analysis results show no significant change in the seasonality of rainfall in this region. Regression analysis of overline{SI_i} and SI, and longitude and mean individual seasonality index show a significant linear correlation for this area.

  18. SEASONALITY AND THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MASS VACCINATION

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Dennis L.; Dimitrov, Dobromir T.

    2016-01-01

    Many infectious diseases have seasonal outbreaks, which may be driven by cyclical environmental conditions (e.g., an annual rainy season) or human behavior (e.g., school calendars or seasonal migration). If a pathogen is only transmissible for a limited period of time each year, then seasonal outbreaks could infect fewer individuals than expected given the pathogen’s in-season transmissibility. Influenza, with its short serial interval and long season, probably spreads throughout a population until a substantial fraction of susceptible individuals are infected. Dengue, with a long serial interval and shorter season, may be constrained by its short transmission season rather than the depletion of susceptibles. Using mathematical modeling, we show that mass vaccination is most efficient, in terms of infections prevented per vaccine administered, at high levels of coverage for pathogens that have relatively long epidemic seasons, like influenza, and at low levels of coverage for pathogens with short epidemic seasons, like dengue. Therefore, the length of a pathogen’s epidemic season may need to be considered when evaluating the costs and benefits of vaccination programs. PMID:27105983

  19. Mars: Seasonally variable radar reflectivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, L. E.; Downs, G. S.; Saunders, R. S.; Schubert, G.

    1985-01-01

    The 1971/1973 Mars data set acquired by the Goldstone Solar System Radar was analyzed. It was established that the seasonal variations in radar reflectivity thought to occur in only one locality on the planet (the Solis Lacus radar anomaly) occur, in fact, over the entire subequatorial belt observed by the Goldstone radar. Since liquid water appears to be the most likely cause of the reflectivity excursions, a permanent, year-round presence of subsurface water (frozen or thawed) in the Martian tropics can be inferred.

  20. Seasonal Variability of South Atlantic Central Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobrega Passos, E.; de Freitas Assad, L.; Landau, L.

    2013-05-01

    The South Atlantic Ocean (SAO) is constituted by different density water masses. Among these, the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) is formed on the Brazil-Falkland Confluence region (BFC) and once formed, it becomes part of the Subtropical Gyre. When approaching again the Brazilian coast, this water mass bifurcates next to São Tomé Cape and part of it flows to the North and part to the South. There is another bifurcation that formed the sub-gyre of the SAO and occurs near 30°S. This work aims to analyze the seasonal variability associated to the SACW trajectory on the SAO basin. To achieve this goal, ECCO2 project's time series of prognostic fields were analysed. The parameters evaluated were temperature, salinity and the zonal and meridional velocity components in averaged monthly fields between January 1992 and November 2010. First a climatological year was calculated and was composed by means from all time series for each month. And second, it was estimate seasonally means for the south hemisphere to summer, autumn, winter and springer. For the analysis, the SACW was separated from the rest of the water masses by isolating it for its temperature, salinity and density index. Then the volume transport (VT) was calculated for seven different sections: A (10°S and 36°W-30°W), B (35°S and 55°W-45°W), C (40°W and 37°S-43°S), D (34°S and 7°E-20°E), E (20°E and 34°S-45°S), F (20°W and 27°S-33°S) and G (10°W and 20°S-25°S). The VT integrated on the water column occupied by SACW was calculated from the zonal and meridional velocities. The analysis showed that the VT balance between the sections is consistent with the climatologic analysis, according to scientific references. The analysis of the climatological VT showed that the VT field integrated in SAWC levels is also consistent with scientific reference. On the seasonal analysis, the sections A and F show a stronger VT during autumn. Since section A is formed from part of the flux of section

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITING: Use of Landsat Thematic Mapper Data to Assess Seasonal Rangeland Changes in the Southeast Kalahari, Botswana.

    PubMed

    RINGROSE; MUSISI-NKAMBWE; COLEMAN; NELLIS; BUSSING

    1999-01-01

    / Management problems arise in semiarid rangeland that are characterized by marked wet and dry seasons because of forage deficiencies in the dry season. These natural vegetation rangelands can sustain livestock all year long when forage and senesced grass are available into the dry season. Seasonal range condition data are required to provide a basis for pasture management to help locate dry season cover and thereby minimize overstocking and degradation. The generation of seasonal data using Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery was undertaken to assess changes in natural vegetation cover in the southern Botswana Kalahari. Visual analysis of spectral reflectance curves, the development of spectral separability indexes, and conventional classification analysis techniques were used to identify and differentiate rangeland features. Results from reflectance curves indicated that most rangeland cover types could be preferentially distinguished using mainly wet season data, especially on the longer TM wavebands, and that range feature differentiation was more problematic on darker soils than on lighter soils. Spectral separability indexes (SSIs) confirmed that range feature separation varied considerably as a function of waveband and was more effective in the wet than the dry season. The SSIs also showed that range feature differentiation in both seasons was most effective using a combination of the chlorophyll absorpance band (TM3) and two mid-infrared bands (TM5 and TM7). Wet season data were more effectively classified in terms of range features than dry season data although some class similarity was inferred across the two classified data sets. The work shows that overall trends may be generated by comparing seasonal data sets, thereby providing an overall basis for dry season decision making. However, particular problems arise within the dry season data sets probably because of spectral similarities between shadow and darkened vegetation cover, thereby implying that further

  2. The Meaning of Work: Studs Terkel's Working as a Teaching Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Pamela L.

    2004-01-01

    Studs Terkel explores the motivation to work in his classic book "Working," compiling more than 100 interviews of workers across America. The author has found "Working" to be a useful vehicle for exploring organizational issues and for confronting students with the realities of the workplace. Terkel's interviews are honest, earthy, seasoned with…

  3. Seasonal hemispherical SWIR airglow imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Jeffrey; Dayton, David C.; Gonglewski, John D.; Myers, Michael M.; Nolasco, Rudolph

    2011-09-01

    Airglow luminescence in the SWIR region due to upper atmospheric recombination of solar excited molecules is a well accepted phenomenon. While the intensity appears broadly uniform over the whole sky hemisphere, we are interested in variations in four areas: 1) fine periodic features known as gravity waves, 2) broad patterns across the whole sky, 3) temporal variations in the hemispheric mean irradiance over the course of the night, and 4) long term seasonal variations in the mean irradiance. An experiment is described and results presented covering a full year of high resolution hemispheric SWIR irradiance images. An automated gimbal views 45 hemispheric positions, using 30 second durations, and repeats approximately every half hour through out the night. The gimbal holds co-mounted and bore-sighted visible and SWIR cameras. Measuring airglow with respect to spatial, temporal, and seasonal variations will facilitate understanding its behavior and possible benefits, such as night vision and predicting upper atmosphere turbulence. The measurements were performed in a tropical marine location on the island of Kauai Hi.

  4. Working Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckett, David

    The resurgence of "lifelong learning" has renewed consideration of the nature of "working knowledge." Lifelong learning has many aspects, including construction and distribution of individuals' very self-hood, educational institutions' role in capturing informal experiences, and the juggling required between family and work-based responsibilities.…

  5. Projects Work!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Textor, Martin R.

    2005-01-01

    The great educational value of projects is emphasized by contrasting negative aspects of the life of today's children with the goals of project work. This is illustrated by a project "Shopping." It is shown what children are learning in such projects and what the advantages of project work are. Relevant topic areas, criteria for selecting a…

  6. Stars and Seasons in Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snedegar, K. V.

    Although the indigenous people of Southern Africa traditionally viewed the sky as a place quite apart from the Earth, they believed celestial phenomena to be natural signs united with those of the Earth in a harmonious synchronicity. There is no substantial evidence that the precolonial Africans imagined a casual relationship between celestial bodies and the seasonal patterns of life on Earth. They did, however, recognize a coincidental relationship. The traditional African cosmos, then, worked as a noetic principle unifying the observed motions of celestial bodies, the sequence of seasons, and the behavior of plants and animals. Such a cosmos, with local peculiarities, was widely understood in Southern Africa before the end of the last century. By the early 20th century European colonial paradigms had largely obliterated this African worldview. This paper will offer a partial reconstruction. Pre-colonial South African people viewed time as a sequence of discrete natural events; through annual repetition these events served as a guide for proper human action. The South Africans analyzed the passage of time in terms of the motions of celestial bodies, the maturation of beneficial plants, and the mating patterns of animals. The rightful course of human life was seen to fit within the seasonal context of these natural phenomena. The visibility of conspicuous stars and asterisms marked significant times of year. For instance, the Lovedu people greeted the dawn rising of Canopus with joy: "The boy has come out." The star was a signal for rainmaking and boys' initiation ceremonies to proceed. The Venda constellation Thutlwa, the giraffes, comprises α and β Crucis and α and β Centauri. In October Thutlwa skims the trees of the evening horizon. The Venda Thutlwa literally means 'rising above the trees,' an allusion to the majestic vegetarian creatures and the stars advising the people to be done with their spring planting. This paper will describe stellar associations

  7. Calibration and seasonal adjustment for matched case-control studies of vitamin D and cancer.

    PubMed

    Gail, Mitchell H; Wu, Jincao; Wang, Molin; Yaun, Shiaw-Shyuan; Cook, Nancy R; Eliassen, A Heather; McCullough, Marjorie L; Yu, Kai; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A; Ziegler, Regina G; Carroll, Raymond J

    2016-06-15

    Vitamin D measurements are influenced by seasonal variation and specific assay used. Motivated by multicenter studies of associations of vitamin D with cancer, we formulated an analytic framework for matched case-control data that accounts for seasonal variation and calibrates to a reference assay. Calibration data were obtained from controls sampled within decile strata of the uncalibrated vitamin D values. Seasonal sine-cosine series were fit to control data. Practical findings included the following: (1) failure to adjust for season and calibrate increased variance, bias, and mean square error and (2) analysis of continuous vitamin D requires a variance adjustment for variation in the calibration estimate. An advantage of the continuous linear risk model is that results are independent of the reference date for seasonal adjustment. (3) For categorical risk models, procedures based on categorizing the seasonally adjusted and calibrated vitamin D have near nominal operating characteristics; estimates of log odds ratios are not robust to choice of seasonal reference date, however. Thus, public health recommendations based on categories of vitamin D should also define the time of year to which they refer. This work supports the use of simple methods for calibration and seasonal adjustment and is informing analytic approaches for the multicenter Vitamin D Pooling Project for Breast and Colorectal Cancer. Published 2016. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:27133461

  8. Modified seasonal factors in exponential smoothing

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, J.S. . Wharton School of Finance and Commerce); Hwang, Ho-Ling ); Bandy, J. )

    1990-09-01

    Current practice uses statistical tests to determine whether seasonal factors should be applied in a given forecasting situation. Research suggests that an optimal policy might lie somewhere between using full seasonal factors and using no seasonal factors on series. This research proposes and tests use of a modified seasonality factor. Modified seasonal factors reduce the emphasis on the seasonal adjustments when forecasts are made. The adjustments account for errors in the estimation of the factors and for possible changes in the factors over the forecast horizon. An analysis of data from US Navy personnel inventories was conducted to test the use of a modified seasonality factor. Modified seasonal factors led to improved accuracy for predictions of inventories by paygrade using quarterly data from the Navy Personnel Research and Development Center (NPRDC). Under certain selections of factors, the mean absolute percent error (MAPE) was reduced by 4.4%. No gain was obtained, however, for the inventories by length of service. It is expected, but not shown here, that the modified seasonal factors will only be of value for series where the estimated seasonal factors show a substantial variation across the year. 3 refs., 6 tabs.

  9. Seasonal DXA-measured body composition changes in professional male soccer players.

    PubMed

    Milanese, Chiara; Cavedon, Valentina; Corradini, Giuliano; De Vita, Francesco; Zancanaro, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    This work investigated changes in body composition of professional soccer players attending an Italian Serie A club across the competitive season; it is original insofar as body composition was assessed at multiple time points across the season using the accurate three-compartment model provided by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Thirty-one players (4 goalkeepers, 13 defenders, 8 midfielders, 6 forwards) underwent DXA and anthropometry at pre-, mid- and end-season. One operator measured whole body and regional body composition (fat mass, FM; fat-free soft tissue mass, FFSTM; mineral mass). Two players were excluded from analysis due to serious injury. Data were analysed with repeated measures ANOVA; factors were season time point and playing position. Results showed that whole-body FM and %FM significantly (P < 0.001) decrease at mid-season (-11.9%; -1.3%, respectively) and end-season (-8.3%; -0.8%, respectively) whereas FFSTM significantly (P < 0.001) increase at mid-season (+1.3%) and end-season (+1.5%). Limited, but significant changes took place in bone mineral content. Some regional (upper and lower limbs, trunk) differences in the pattern of body composition changes across the season were also found. Changes were similar for all playing positions. It was concluded that professional soccer players undergo changes in their FM, FFSTM, and mineral mass across the season with some regional variations, irrespective of the playing position. Changes are mostly positive at mid-season, possibly due to difference in training between the first and second phase of the season. PMID:25773172

  10. Assessment of (sub-) seasonal prediction skill using a canonical event analysi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanders, N.; Wood, E. F.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrological extremes regularly occur in all regions of the world and as such are globally relevant phenomena with large impacts on society. Seasonal and sub-seasonal predictions could increase the preparedness to these extreme events. We investigated the skill of five seasonal forecast models from the NMME-II ensemble for the period 1982-2012 at a range of temporal and spatial scales. A canonical event analysis is used to enable a model validation beyond the ¨single¨ temporal and spatial scale. The model predictions are compared to two reference datasets on the seasonal and sub-seasonal scale. We evaluate their capability to reproduce observed daily precipitation and temperature. It is shown that the skill of the models is largely dependent on the temporal aggregation and the lead time. Longer temporal aggregation increases the forecast skill of both precipitation and temperature. Seasonal precipitation forecasts show no skill beyond lead time of 6 months, while seasonal temperature forecasts skill does extent beyond the 6 months. Overall the highest skill can be found over South-America and Australia, whereas the skill over Europe and North-America is relatively low for both variables. On the sub-seasonal scale (two week aggregation) we find a strong decrease in prediction skill after the first 2 weeks of initialization. However, the models retain skill up to 1-2 months for precipitation and 3-4 months for temperature. Their skill is highest in South-America, Asia and Oceania at the sub-seasonal level. The skill amongst models differs greatly for both the sub-seasonal and seasonal forecasts, indicating that a (weighted) multi-model ensemble is preferred over single model forecasts. This work shows that an analysis at multiple temporal and spatial scales can enhance our understanding of the added value of (sub-) seasonal forecast models and their applicability, which is important when these models are applied to forecasting of (hydrological) extremes.

  11. [Wet work].

    PubMed

    Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta; Chomiczewska, Dorota; Krecisz, Beata

    2010-01-01

    Wet work is one of the most important risk factors of occupational skin diseases. Exposure of hands to the wet environment for more than 2 hours daily, wearing moisture-proof protective gloves for a corresponding period of time or necessity to wash hands frequently lead to the disruption of epidermal stratum corneum, damage to skin barrier function and induction of irritant contact dermatitis. It may also promote penetration of allergens into the skin and increase the risk of sensitization to occupational allergens. Exposure to wet work plays a significant role in occupations, such as hairdressers and barbers, nurses and other health care workers, cleaning staff, food handlers and metalworkers. It is more common among women because many occupations involving wet work are female-dominated. The incidence of wet-work-induced occupational skin diseases can be reduced by taking appropriate preventive measures. These include identification of high-risk groups, education of workers, organization of work enabling to minimize the exposure to wet work, use of personal protective equipment and skin care after work. PMID:20437890

  12. Working longer.

    PubMed

    2014-11-27

    New NHS pension scheme rules come into force in April, and one of the changes is a higher retirement age. To help staff plan for this, NHS Employers' Working Longer Group will publish a suite a resources to help employees understand and prepare for the implications of working into their late sixties. In the meantime, a factsheet with information for staff can be found at tinyurl.com/mjb4u5f and for employers at http://www.nhsemployers.org/your-workforce/need-to-know/working-longer-group. PMID:25428321

  13. Visualization and Modeling Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, S.J.; Dodrill, K.A.

    2007-03-01

    During the 2005 Hurricane season, many consequence predictions were available from 36 to 96 hours before landfalls, via the Department of Energy’s Visualization and Modeling Working Group (VMWG). Real-time data can be tapped by local officials and utilities, and can also be accessed for post-event regulatory audits. An overview of VMWG’s models, results and uses will be presented.

  14. Hydrological niche separation explains seasonal and inter-annual variations of vegetation dynamics in seasonally dry tropical forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X.; Medvigy, D.; Powers, J. S.; Becknell, J. M.; Guan, K.

    2015-12-01

    seasonality? (iii) Whether the new hydrological niche separation scheme also works in different precipitation regimes? And (iv) how important is functional diversity in plants' responses to water stress in predicting vegetation dynamics in SDTFs.

  15. Does Work Experience Actually Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, John

    2012-01-01

    As unemployment levels rise, so education and training move into the policy spotlight. For the government, this is a very uncomfortable place to be right now. A number of large companies have withdrawn from the flagship Work Programme--under which jobseekers are invited to take up unpaid work placements of between two and eight weeks--amid…

  16. Is New Work Good Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westwood, Andy

    Some new work is good work. Quality is ultimately defined by the individual. However, these perceptions are inevitably colored by the circumstances in which people find themselves, by the time, place, and wide range of motivations for having to do a particular job in the first place. One person's quality may be another's purgatory and vice versa.…

  17. Which Welfare Work Strategies Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Nancy S.

    1986-01-01

    AFDC Welfare work strategies have been implemented to help AFDC (Aid to Families with Dependent Children) recipients secure unsubsidized employment. Reviews research on employment programs for AFDC clients and highlights the respective advantages of these programs. Suggests program changes to improve welfare work strategies. (Author/ABB)

  18. Does "Social Work Abstracts" Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Gary; Barker, Kathleen; Covert-Vail, Lucinda; Rosenberg, Gary; Cohen, Stephanie A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The current study seeks to provide estimates of the adequacy of journal coverage in the Social Work Abstracts (SWA) database. Method: A total of 23 journals listed in the Journal Citation Reports social work category during the 1997 to 2005 period were selected for study. Issue-level coverage estimates were obtained for SWA and…

  19. Working Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... as the family's values, fathers may assume more responsibility for child care and housework than has traditionally ... and fatigue as they try to juggle their responsibilities at home and at work. If you are ...

  20. In Brief: NOAA predicts busy hurricane season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2007-06-01

    Scientists at NOAA's Climate Prediction Center estimate that there is a 75% chance that the 2007 Atlantic hurricane season will be more active than average, with 13-17 named storms, 7-10 hurricanes, and 3-5 hurricanes reaching Category 3 or higher. An average hurricane season has 11 named storms, 6 hurricanes, and 2 major hurricanes. According to Gerry Bell, NOAA's lead seasonal hurricane forecaster, the 2007 season could be in the higher range of predicted activity if a La Niña forms, or even higher if the La Niña is particularly strong. Last year, NOAA also predicted an above-normal Atlantic season; the actual season, however, was quiet, to which NOAA scientists credit an unexpected El Ni~o that developed rapidly and created an environment hostile to storm formation and strengthening.

  1. [Work addiction].

    PubMed

    Mentzel, G

    1979-01-01

    The symptomatology of workaholism (work addiction) was presented in the form of a questionnaire and compared with other forms of addiction, especially alcoholism. Then a case was used as example to illustrate the development of the illness and its psychodynamics. The therapy procedure was also briefly explained. Moreover the psychodynamics of workaholism (work addiction) are described, once again in comparison to other addictions. Finally the author gives general guidelines for therapy. PMID:452731

  2. Predictability of seasonal atmospheric variations

    SciTech Connect

    Brankovic, C. ); Palmer, T.N.; Ferranti, L. )

    1994-02-01

    Results from a set of 120-day ensemble integrations of a T63L19 version of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model are described. The integrations used observed global sea surface temperature (SST) as a lower boundary condition. The ensembles were analyzed over the last 90 days of the integration period, corresponding to conventional calendar seasons. Interannual variations in the atmosphere for the period 1986 to 1990 were studied. the sign and magnitude of tropical Pacific SST anomalies were chosen to define an El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index. In general, the skill of the ensemble difference fields was higher for the strong ENSO-index years than for the weak ones, both in the tropics and the extratropics. In the northern extratropics, the skill of the ensemble mean tended to be highest in the spring season and the internal spread of the ensemble tended to be smallest in spring. Differences in zonally averaged zonal mean wind revealed that in the tropical and subtropical troposphere, the model simulations were quite accurate. For both strong and weak ENSO-index years, the model correctly simulated differences in the tropical stratosphere associated with the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO). From wind differences and analysis of changes to regime residence frequencies, it was concluded that while the SST anomalies associated with strong ENSO-index years had a significant influence on the extratropical circulation (including both North America and Europe), there was considerable intra-ensemble variability affecting tropical Pacific area. Intraensemble variability was also shown to be substantial in parts of the tropics associated with the summer monsoons over India and Southeast Asia. By contrast, rainfall over sub-Saharan Africa was more stable. 23 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Outbreaks of Hantavirus induced by seasonality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buceta, J.; Escudero, C.; de La Rubia, F. J.; Lindenberg, Katja

    2004-02-01

    Using a model for rodent population dynamics, we study outbreaks of Hantavirus infection induced by the alternation of seasons. Neither season by itself satisfies the environmental requirements for propagation of the disease. This result can be explained in terms of the seasonal interruption of the relaxation process of the mouse population toward equilibrium, and may shed light on the reported connection between climate variations and outbreaks of the disease.

  4. Seasonal and Annual Change in the Martian Polar Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvin, W. M.; James, P. B.

    2011-12-01

    The polar caps have a long established dichotomy in visual appearance, relative elevations, and surface composition. Observations using the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) instruments MARCI, CTX and CRISM have shown unique styles of seasonal frost retreat as well as fine scale variations in the composition of various units. With MRO we have observations for three Martian Years (MY) 28, 29 and 30 from November of 2006 to the present. We have observed the seasonal cap recessions in both the north and south using MARCI daily global images and have examined the composition of selected units of the polar layered deposits exposed in summer. Observation over multiple Mars years allows us to compare changes between years as well as longer term evolution of the high albedo deposits at the poles. North Cap Recession and Change: The northern seasonal cap recession was observed in both MY 29 and 30. Past work had noted large scale loss of bright deposits up to Ls 95 and the rugged terrain of the Gemini Scopuli darkens up to ~Ls 100 and then subsequently brightens. The patterns observed in MY 29 and 30 are similar. Significant variability in the early season is noted in both years and the retreating seasonal cap edge is extremely dynamic. Additional retreat of high albedo deposits are noted in MY 30. A new high albedo deposit appears off a reentrant in Olympia Planum in MY 29 and later disappears. In MY30, portions of Olympia Planitia have larger areas of high albedo. In both years sustained bright patches appear along the cap margins and while some are persistent between years, they are also variable over the northern summer. It is still uncertain if these albedo changes represent volatile "refrosting" or the removal of low albedo material to expose higher albedo material underneath and whether or not longer term loss of volatiles is implied. South Cap Recession and Change: The southern seasonal cap recession is fundamentally different than the north, and persistence of

  5. COLT: seasonal prediction of crop irrigation needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villani, Giulia; Spisni, Andrea; Mariani, Maria Cristina; Pratizzoli, William; Pavan, Valentina; Tomei, Fausto; Botarelli, Lucio; Marletto, Vittorio

    2013-04-01

    COLT is an operational chain to predict summer (June, July, August) crop irrigation needs in Emilia-Romagna (Northern Italy) at the regional and lower scales. Set up by ARPA-SIMC in 2010, it has been applied since with good results. COLT predicts summer irrigation needs in May, i.e. at the beginning of the irrigation season in Emilia-Romagna. COLT is based on the production of yearly updated land use maps, observed daily weather data, a regional soil map and ensemble probabilistic seasonal weather forecasts obtained from the EUROSIP multi-model operational system and a geographical soil water balance model (CRITERIA). The first step of the operational scheme is the supervised classification of crops through field surveys and a set of multitemporal satellite images acquired during the first months of the growing period. As the identification of all crop species during the satellite working windows is not feasible, they are grouped in six classes: summer field crops (including corn, sorghum, tomato, sugar beet, potato and others), winter crops (wheat, barley, oat, etc.), perennial grasses (alfa-alfa and meadows), rice, vineyards and orchards, on the whole regional plain, covering about 775000 ha. The second step involves the statistical downscaling of the EUROSIP ensemble predictions over Emilia-Romagna and the use of a weather generator to synthetically produce a number (usually 50) replicated meteorological summer daily data series, consistent with the predicted and downscaled summer anomalies of temperature, rainfall and other related indices. During the final step the CRITERIA model computes crop development and soil water balance on the crop classification map using observed meteorological daily data up to the end of May. Afterword forecasts are used up to the end of the summer irrigation season, i.e. August 31st. The statistical distribution projections of summer irrigation needs at the regional and reclamation consortia scale are then issued and disseminated

  6. Hypopigmentation, anomalous cerebral dominance and seasonality.

    PubMed

    London, W P

    1993-12-01

    This paper proposes a prenatal seasonal hypopigmentation influence associated with anomalous cerebral dominance that occurs during the winter or early spring. A possible mechanism would be seasonal changes in sex hormone levels that affect the activation and inactivation of DNA by reversible methylation. The proposed prenatal seasonal hypopigmentation effect might be relevant to dyslexia, Prader-Willi syndrome, breast cancer, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Putative chromosomal loci associated with the proposed seasonal mechanism would be 15q11-13 (dyslexia and Prader-Willi syndrome), 21q region (breast cancer and Alzheimer's disease) and 19p region (pigmentation gene). PMID:8183125

  7. A global approach to defining flood seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D.; Ward, P.; Block, P.

    2015-04-01

    Globally, flood catastrophes lead all natural hazards in terms of impacts on society, causing billions of dollars of damages annually. While short-term flood warning systems are improving in number and sophistication, forecasting systems on the order of months to seasons are a rarity, yet may lead to further disaster preparedness. To lay the groundwork for prediction, dominant flood seasons must be adequately defined. A global approach is adopted here, using the PCR-GLOBWB model to define spatial and temporal characteristics of major flood seasons globally. The main flood season is identified using a volume-based threshold technique. In comparison with observations, 40% (50%) of locations at a station (sub-basin) scale have identical peak months and 81% (89%) are within 1 month, indicating strong agreement between model and observed flood seasons. Model defined flood seasons are additionally found to well represent actual flood records from the Dartmouth Flood Observatory, further substantiating the models ability to reproduce the appropriate flood season. Minor flood seasons are also defined for regions with bi-modal streamflow climatology. Properly defining flood seasons can lead to prediction through association of streamflow with local and large-scale hydroclimatic indicators, and eventual integration into early warning systems for informed advanced planning and management. This is especially attractive for regions with limited observations and/or little capacity to develop early warning flood systems.

  8. Within-season flowering interruptions are common in the water-limited Sky Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crimmins, Theresa M.; Bertelsen, C. David; Crimmins, Michael A.

    2014-05-01

    Within-season breaks in flowering have been reported in a wide range of highly variable ecosystems including deserts, tropical forests and high-elevation meadows. A tendency for interruptions in flowering has also been documented in southwestern US "Sky Island" plant communities, which encompass xeric to mesic conditions. Seasonal breaks in flowering have implications for plant reproductive success, population structure, and gene flow as well as resource availability for pollinators and dependent animals. Most reports of multiple within-season flowering events describe only two distinct flowering episodes. In this study, we set out to better quantify distinct within-season flowering events in highly variable Sky Islands plant communities. Across a >1,200 m elevation gradient, we documented a strong tendency for multiple within-season flowering events. In both distinct spring and summer seasons, we observed greater than two distinct within-season flowering in more than 10 % of instances. Patterns were clearly mediated by the different climate factors at work in the two seasons. The spring season, which is influenced by both temperature and precipitation, showed a mixed response, with the greatest tendency for multiple flowering events occurring at mid-elevations and functional types varying in their responses across the gradient. In the summer season, during which flowering across the gradient is limited by localized precipitation, annual plants exhibited the fewest within-season flowering events and herbaceous perennial plants showed the greatest. Additionally, more distinct events occurred at lower elevations. The patterns documented here provide a baseline for comparison of system responses to changing climate conditions.

  9. Seasonal Frost in Terra Sirenum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This image of the Terra Sirenum region of Mars was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 0918 UTC (4:18 a.m. EST) on Nov. 25, 2006, near 38.9 degrees south latitude, 195.9 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 18 meters (60 feet) across.

    At this time, Mars' southern hemisphere was experiencing mid-winter. During Martian southern winter, the southern polar cap is covered and surrounded by carbon dioxide frost and water frost. This is unlike Earth, whose frozen winter precipitation is made up of only one volatile -- water. The carbon dioxide frost evaporates, or sublimates, at a lower temperature than water frost. So, during spring, the carbon dioxide ice evaporates first and leaves a residue of water frost, which later sublimates as well.

    The image shown here covers part of a crater rim, which is illuminated from the upper left. North is at the top. The topography creates a cold microenvironment on the south side of the rim that is partially protected from solar illumination. That cold surface contains an outlier of the southern seasonal frost about 15 degrees of latitude closer to the equator than the average edge of the frost at this season.

    The top image was constructed from three infrared wavelengths that highlight the bluer color of frost than the background rock and soil. Note that the frost occurs both on sunlit and shaded surfaces on the south side of the rim. The shaded areas are still visible because they are illuminated indirectly by the Martian sky.

    The bottom image was constructed by measuring the depths of spectral absorption bands due to water frost and carbon dioxide frost, and displaying the results in image form. Blue shows strength of an absorption due to water frost near 1.50 micrometers, and green shows strength of an absorption due to carbon dioxide frost near 1.45 micrometers. Red shows

  10. Seasonal reproduction of vampire bats and its relation to seasonality of bovine rabies.

    PubMed

    Lord, R D

    1992-04-01

    Studies of pregnancy and lactation in vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) in northern Argentina over a 4 yr period showed an inverse relationship between prevalence of pregnancy and lactation, the consequence of birth and onset of lactation, which was correlated with the wet season. The seasonal influx of young susceptibles into the vampire population in the wet season coincided with the well known increase in vampire transmitted rabies in that season. PMID:1602584

  11. Wetlands Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messina, Linda; Blanchard, Pamela Borne

    2004-01-01

    This article describes how a biology teacher's search for a cross-curricular project in science, math, history, and environmental science, that would help her students connect what they were learning in the classroom to their everyday life, resulted in an ongoing stewardship project. Working together with the Louisiana Sea Grant College Program…

  12. Work Simplification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Lynne

    1970-01-01

    Excerpts from a talk by Mrs. Ross at the 23rd annual convention of the American School Food Service Association in Detroit, August 5, 1969. A book on work simplification by Mrs. Ross will be available in June from the Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa. (Editor)

  13. Working Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Annemaree; Somerville, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to explore the contribution that an information literacy approach to the empirical study of workplace learning can make to how people understand and conceptualise workplace learning. Design/methodology/approach: Three cohorts of fire-fighters working in two regional locations in NSW, Australia were…

  14. Working Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Students need space to gather, share ideas, talk, develop common understanding and work to create greater knowledge. This focus on collaboration has put a strain on group study spaces. Students need to collaborate spontaneously, and scheduling time in a study room is not conducive to spur-of-the-moment collaboration. At many education…

  15. Working Corners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochtritt, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    When people think of a person "working the corners," a G-rated image does not generally come to mind. Yet that is precisely what the author, posing as "June Cleavage," did in New York City one dreary morning: she facilitated a meeting of strangers through the creation of a character and an approachable situation. June, with her wacky outfit and…

  16. Biotechnology Works!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Libby G.; Spenciner, Loraine

    There have been few initiatives addressing the improvement of science education for students with disabilities. Funded by the National Science Foundation, Biotechnology Works is a summer institute in immunology and genetics for students with disabilities, high school science teachers, and high school counselors. During the 1998 summer session,…

  17. Seasonality of groundwater recharge in the Basin and Range Province, western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, Kirstin Lynn

    Alluvial groundwater systems are an important source of water for communities and biodiverse riparian corridors throughout the arid and semi-arid Basin and Range Geological Province of western North America. These aquifers and their attendant desert streams have been depleted to support a growing population, while projected climate change could lead to more extreme episodes of drought and precipitation in the future. The only source of replenishment to these aquifers is recharge. This dissertation builds upon previous work to characterize and quantify recharge in arid and semi-arid basins by characterizing the intra-annual seasonality of recharge across the Basin and Range Province, and considering how climate change might impact recharge seasonality and volume, as well as fragile riparian corridors that depend on these hydrologic processes. First, the seasonality of recharge in a basin in the sparsely-studied southern extent of the Basin and Range Province is determined using stable water isotopes of seasonal precipitation and groundwater, and geochemical signatures of groundwater and surface water. In northwestern Mexico in the southern reaches of the Basin and Range, recharge is dominated by winter precipitation (69% +/- 42%) and occurs primarily in the uplands. Second, isotopically-based estimates of seasonal recharge fractions in basins across the region are compared to identify patterns in recharge seasonality, and used to evaluate a simple water budget-based model for estimating recharge seasonality, the normalized seasonal wetness index (NSWI). Winter precipitation makes up the majority of annual recharge throughout the region, and North American Monsoon (NAM) precipitation has a disproportionately weak impact on recharge. The NSWI does well in estimating recharge seasonality for basins in the northern Basin and Range, but less so in basins that experience NAM precipitation. Third, the seasonal variation in riparian and non-riparian vegetation greenness

  18. How does the seasonality influence utilitarian walking behaviour in different urbanization settings in Scotland?

    PubMed

    Hong, Jinhyun

    2016-08-01

    The relationship between the built environment and walking has been analyzed for decades. However, the seasonality effects on the relationship between the built environment and walking have not been well examined even though weather is one of the key determinants of walking. Therefore, this study used 2007-8 Scottish Household Survey data collected over two years and estimated the interaction effects between the urbanization setting (i.e., residential locations: urban, town and rural areas) and seasons (i.e., spring, summer, autumn and winter) on walking. Scottish Urban-rural classification scheme is measured based on the population and access to large cities, and used as a key independent variable. The number of walking days for specific purposes such as work or shopping (utilitarian walking) during the past 7 days is used as a dependent variable. The results show that there are significant geographical variations of seasonality effect on utilitarian walking. That is, people living in rural areas are more sensitive to seasonality impacts than those living in urban areas. In addition, we found that the association between urbanization setting and utilitarian walking varies across seasons, indicating that their relationship can be miss-estimated if we ignore the seasonality effects. Therefore, policy makers and practitioners should consider the seasonality effects to evaluate the effectiveness of land use policy correctly. Finally, we still find the significant association between the urbanization setting and utilitarian walking behaviour with the consideration of seasonality effects, supporting the claim of New Urbanism. PMID:27352289

  19. Regional Similarities in Seasonal Mortality across the United States: An Examination of 28 Metropolitan Statistical Areas

    PubMed Central

    Kalkstein, Adam J.

    2013-01-01

    Human mortality exhibits a strong seasonal pattern with deaths in winter far exceeding those in the summer. While the pattern itself is clear, there have been very few studies examining whether the magnitude or timing of seasonal mortality varies considerably across space. Thus, the goal of this study is to conduct a comprehensive geographic analysis of seasonal mortality across the United States and to uncover systematic regional differences in such mortality. Unique seasonal mortality curves were created for 28 metropolitan statistical areas across the United States, and the amplitude and timing of mortality peaks were determined. The findings here indicate that the seasonality of mortality exhibits strong spatial variation with the largest seasonal mortality amplitudes found in the southwestern United States and the smallest in the North, along with South Florida. In addition, there were strong intra-regional similarities that exist among the examined cities, implying that environmental factors are more important than social factors in determining seasonal mortality response. This work begins to fill a large gap within the scientific literature concerning the geographic variation and underlying causes of seasonal mortality across the United States. PMID:23734179

  20. Sod-seeding cool-season grasses on unimproved warm-season pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited availability of forage during the cool season creates a problem for livestock producers throughout the southern plains. Many farmers make hay, plant cool-season small-grain cereals, or stockpile warm-season forage to maximize their capacity for winter feeding, but on small farms these option...

  1. The Changing Seasons: Teaching for Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Keith B.; Cohen, Michael R.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews approaches used in teaching seasons to elementary and middle school students over the past 200 years. Finds that the same diagrams have been used from the 1800s to teach about the seasons despite changes in the background knowledge of students and teachers, and changes in theories of teaching and learning. (Contains 24 references.)…

  2. 50 CFR 665.668 - Seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seasons. 665.668 Section 665.668 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... § 665.668 Seasons. The fishing year for precious coral begins on July 1 and ends on June 30...

  3. 50 CFR 665.668 - Seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Seasons. 665.668 Section 665.668 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... § 665.668 Seasons. The fishing year for precious coral begins on July 1 and ends on June 30...

  4. 50 CFR 665.468 - Seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seasons. 665.468 Section 665.468 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Seasons. The fishing year for precious coral begins on July 1 and ends on June 30 the following year....

  5. 50 CFR 665.267 - Seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Seasons. 665.267 Section 665.267 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.267 Seasons....

  6. 50 CFR 665.668 - Seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Seasons. 665.668 Section 665.668 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... § 665.668 Seasons. The fishing year for precious coral begins on July 1 and ends on June 30...

  7. 50 CFR 679.23 - Seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...). ER02JA03.006 Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 679.23, see the List of CFR... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Seasons. 679.23 Section 679.23 Wildlife... § 679.23 Seasons. (a) Groundfish, general. Fishing for groundfish in the GOA and BSAI is authorized...

  8. 50 CFR 665.168 - Seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Seasons. 665.168 Section 665.168 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Seasons. The fishing year for precious coral begins on July 1 and ends on June 30 the following year....

  9. 50 CFR 665.267 - Seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Seasons. 665.267 Section 665.267 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.267 Seasons....

  10. 50 CFR 665.668 - Seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Seasons. 665.668 Section 665.668 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... § 665.668 Seasons. The fishing year for precious coral begins on July 1 and ends on June 30...

  11. 50 CFR 665.468 - Seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Seasons. 665.468 Section 665.468 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Seasons. The fishing year for precious coral begins on July 1 and ends on June 30 the following year....

  12. 50 CFR 679.23 - Seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...). ER02JA03.006 Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 679.23, see the List of CFR... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seasons. 679.23 Section 679.23 Wildlife... § 679.23 Seasons. (a) Groundfish, general. Fishing for groundfish in the GOA and BSAI is authorized...

  13. 50 CFR 665.168 - Seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Seasons. 665.168 Section 665.168 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Seasons. The fishing year for precious coral begins on July 1 and ends on June 30 the following year....

  14. 50 CFR 665.668 - Seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Seasons. 665.668 Section 665.668 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... § 665.668 Seasons. The fishing year for precious coral begins on July 1 and ends on June 30...

  15. 50 CFR 679.23 - Seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... affecting § 679.23, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Seasons. 679.23 Section 679.23 Wildlife... § 679.23 Seasons. (a) Groundfish, general. Fishing for groundfish in the GOA and BSAI is authorized...

  16. 50 CFR 665.267 - Seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seasons. 665.267 Section 665.267 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.267 Seasons....

  17. 50 CFR 679.23 - Seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... affecting § 679.23, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Seasons. 679.23 Section 679.23 Wildlife... § 679.23 Seasons. (a) Groundfish, general. Fishing for groundfish in the GOA and BSAI is authorized...

  18. 50 CFR 679.23 - Seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...). ER02JA03.006 Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 679.23, see the List of CFR... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Seasons. 679.23 Section 679.23 Wildlife... § 679.23 Seasons. (a) Groundfish, general. Fishing for groundfish in the GOA and BSAI is authorized...

  19. 50 CFR 665.168 - Seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Seasons. 665.168 Section 665.168 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Seasons. The fishing year for precious coral begins on July 1 and ends on June 30 the following year....

  20. 50 CFR 665.468 - Seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Seasons. 665.468 Section 665.468 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Seasons. The fishing year for precious coral begins on July 1 and ends on June 30 the following year....

  1. 50 CFR 665.267 - Seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Seasons. 665.267 Section 665.267 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.267 Seasons....

  2. 50 CFR 665.168 - Seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seasons. 665.168 Section 665.168 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Seasons. The fishing year for precious coral begins on July 1 and ends on June 30 the following year....

  3. 50 CFR 665.168 - Seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Seasons. 665.168 Section 665.168 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Seasons. The fishing year for precious coral begins on July 1 and ends on June 30 the following year....

  4. 50 CFR 665.267 - Seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Seasons. 665.267 Section 665.267 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.267 Seasons....

  5. 50 CFR 665.468 - Seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Seasons. 665.468 Section 665.468 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Seasons. The fishing year for precious coral begins on July 1 and ends on June 30 the following year....

  6. 50 CFR 665.468 - Seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Seasons. 665.468 Section 665.468 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Seasons. The fishing year for precious coral begins on July 1 and ends on June 30 the following year....

  7. Five Tips for a Smooth Ginning Season

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton ginners need to be nearly finished with the preparation of their ginning plant for the coming season but there are a few things they can do now in other aspects of the business. They should have a program to record down time during the coming season so they can make plans to address problems...

  8. Key Facts about Seasonal Flu Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... season, visit About the Current Flu Season . Vaccine Benefits What are the benefits of flu vaccination? While how well the flu ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Language: English Español File Formats Help: How do ...

  9. 50 CFR 640.20 - Seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management Measures... lobster or on the possession of traps. (b) EEZ off Florida and off the Gulf states, other than Florida—(1) Commercial and recreational fishing season. The commercial and recreational fishing season for spiny...

  10. 50 CFR 622.403 - Seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Spiny Lobster Fishery... seasonal restrictions on the harvest of spiny lobster or on the possession of traps. (b) EEZ off Florida... commercial and recreational fishing season for spiny lobster in the EEZ off Florida and the EEZ off the...

  11. 50 CFR 622.403 - Seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Spiny Lobster Fishery... seasonal restrictions on the harvest of spiny lobster or on the possession of traps. (b) EEZ off Florida... commercial and recreational fishing season for spiny lobster in the EEZ off Florida and the EEZ off the...

  12. Markov Chain Estimation of Avian Seasonal Fecundity

    EPA Science Inventory

    To explore the consequences of modeling decisions on inference about avian seasonal fecundity we generalize previous Markov chain (MC) models of avian nest success to formulate two different MC models of avian seasonal fecundity that represent two different ways to model renestin...

  13. 50 CFR 654.20 - Seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Management Measures § 654.20 Seasons. (a... the water during a soak period or during a removal period (see paragraph (b) of this section), or...) Placement of traps—(1) Prior to the fishing season. The period of October 5 through October 14...

  14. 50 CFR 654.20 - Seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Management Measures § 654.20 Seasons. (a... the water during a soak period or during a removal period (see paragraph (b) of this section), or...) Placement of traps—(1) Prior to the fishing season. The period of October 5 through October 14...

  15. Storage efficiency of off-season irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water levels in the Ogallala aquifer are declining, and with the resultant decrease in water capacity of wells, irrigators face difficulty in meeting crop water needs. Off-season irrigation is common in the region, although research has shown it is often inefficient. Storage efficiency of off-season...

  16. Seasonal variation in muscle sympathetic nerve activity.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jian; Muller, Matthew D; Blaha, Cheryl; Kunselman, Allen R; Sinoway, Lawrence I

    2015-08-01

    Epidemiologic data suggest there are seasonal variations in the incidence of severe cardiac events with peak levels being evident in the winter. Whether autonomic indices including muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) vary with season remains unclear. In this report, we tested the hypothesis that resting MSNA varies with the seasons of the year with peak levels evident in the winter. We analyzed the supine resting MSNA in 60 healthy subjects. Each subject was studied during two, three, or four seasons (total 237 visits). MSNA burst rate in the winter (21.0 ± 6.8 burst/min, mean ± SD) was significantly greater than in the summer (13.5 ± 5.8 burst/min, P < 0.001), the spring (17.1 ± 9.0 burst/min, P = 0.03), and the fall (17.9 ± 7.7 burst/min, P = 0.002). There was no significant difference in MSNA for other seasonal comparisons. The results suggest that resting sympathetic nerve activity varies along the seasons, with peak levels evident in the winter. We speculate that the seasonal changes in sympathetic activity may be a contribution to the previously observed seasonal variations in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:26265752

  17. Seasonal variation in muscle sympathetic nerve activity

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jian; Muller, Matthew D; Blaha, Cheryl; Kunselman, Allen R; Sinoway, Lawrence I

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic data suggest there are seasonal variations in the incidence of severe cardiac events with peak levels being evident in the winter. Whether autonomic indices including muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) vary with season remains unclear. In this report, we tested the hypothesis that resting MSNA varies with the seasons of the year with peak levels evident in the winter. We analyzed the supine resting MSNA in 60 healthy subjects. Each subject was studied during two, three, or four seasons (total 237 visits). MSNA burst rate in the winter (21.0 ± 6.8 burst/min, mean ± SD) was significantly greater than in the summer (13.5 ± 5.8 burst/min, P < 0.001), the spring (17.1 ± 9.0 burst/min, P = 0.03), and the fall (17.9 ± 7.7 burst/min, P = 0.002). There was no significant difference in MSNA for other seasonal comparisons. The results suggest that resting sympathetic nerve activity varies along the seasons, with peak levels evident in the winter. We speculate that the seasonal changes in sympathetic activity may be a contribution to the previously observed seasonal variations in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:26265752

  18. 27 CFR 11.46 - Seasonal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seasonal products. 11.46 Section 11.46 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Beverages Exchanges and Returns for Reasons Not Considered Ordinary and Usual § 11.46 Seasonal products....

  19. Comparative protein profiles of Butea superba tubers under seasonal changes.

    PubMed

    Leelahawong, Chonchanok; Srisomsap, Chantragan; Cherdshewasart, Wichai; Chokchaichamnankit, Daranee; Vinayavekhin, Nawaporn; Sangvanich, Polkit

    2016-07-01

    Seasonal changes are major factors affecting environmental conditions which induce multiple stresses in plants, leading to changes in protein relative abundance in the complex cellular plant metabolic pathways. Proteomics was applied to study variations in proteome composition of Butea. superba tubers during winter, summer and rainy season throughout the year using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis coupled with a nanoflow liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 191 protein spots were identified and also classified into 12 functional groups. The majority of these were mainly involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism (30.37 %) and defense and stress (18.32 %). The results exhibited the highest numbers of identified proteins in winter-harvested samples. Forty-five differential proteins were found in different seasons, involving important metabolic pathways. Further analysis indicated that changes in the protein levels were due mainly to temperature stress during summer and to water stress during winter, which affected cellular structure, photosynthesis, signal transduction and homeostasis, amino-acid biosynthesis, protein destination and storage, protein biosynthesis and stimulated defense and stress mechanisms involving glycolytic enzymes and relative oxygen species catabolizing enzymes. The proteins with differential relative abundances might induce an altered physiological status within plant tubers for survival. The work provided new insights into the better understanding of the molecular basis of plant proteomes and stress tolerance mechanisms, especially during seasonal changes. The finding suggested proteins that might potentially be used as protein markers in differing seasons in other plants and aid in selecting B. superba tubers with the most suitable medicinal properties in the future. PMID:27198528

  20. Seasonal Variability in Airborne Biotic Contaminants in Swine Confinement Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Priyanka; Choi, Hong L.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the seasonal dynamics of biotic contaminants in swine confinement buildings (SCBs). The biotic contaminants of seven SCBs were monitored during one visit in the winter and one during the summer. Paired-end Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, V3 region, was used to examine seasonal shifts in bacterial community composition and diversity. The abundances of 16S rRNA genes and six tetracycline resistance genes (tetB, tetH, tetZ, tetO, tetQ, and tetW) were also quantified using real-time PCR. Bacterial abundances, community composition and diversity all showed strong seasonal patterns defined by winter peaks in abundance and diversity. Microclimatic variables of SCBs, particularly air speed, PM2.5 and total suspended particles (TSP) were found significantly correlated to abundances, community composition, and diversity of bacterial bioaerosols. Seasonal fluctuations were also observed for four tetracycline resistance genes, tetH, tetO, tetQ, and tetW. The frequency of occurrences of these resistance genes were significantly higher in samples collected during winter and was also significantly correlated with air speed, PM2.5 and TSP. Overall, our results indicate that biotic contaminants in SCBs exhibit seasonal trends, and these could be associated with the microclimatic variables of SCBs. The correlations established in the current study could be helpful in establishing better management strategies to minimize the potential health impacts on both livestock and humans working in this environment. PMID:25393011

  1. A season of football injuries.

    PubMed

    Stokes, M A; McKeever, J A; McQuillan, R F; O'Higgins, N J

    1994-06-01

    All rugby and soccer players presenting to the Accident & Emergency department during the football season 1992-1993 (a total of 871) were prospectively studied to compare the injuries sustained in the two sports. The nature and site of injury, treatment required, age, fitness, experience and position of the player, situation giving rise to injury, and medical attention at the grounds were all analysed. The results show that rugby and soccer players had the same number of injuries, and while there were some differences in the nature of the injuries, there was no difference in overall severity. Rugby flankers and soccer goalkeepers are particularly at risk. Competitive matches produce more injuries than training sessions. Experience or fitness did not appear to be a factor and 45% of rugby injuries and 15% of soccer injuries were from school matches. Law changes (e.g. the rugby scrum and the use of gum-shields) have reduced some injuries, but other areas (e.g. jumping for the ball in soccer, rucks and mauls in rugby) also warrant consideration. There was one death, but no spinal cord injuries. Medical attention at the grounds was limited. Rugby injuries, therefore, do not appear to be more numerous or severe than soccer injuries. Law changes have been of benefit but they need to be enforced and perhaps more should be considered. Medical attention at sports grounds could be improved and Registers of injuries kept by the sporting bodies would be of benefit. PMID:8050871

  2. Health needs of migrant and seasonal farmworkers.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Maureen; Williams, Judith M; Avery, Ann M

    2008-01-01

    Migrant and seasonal farmworkers (MSFW) are a vital component of the U.S. agricultural industry. Despite their important contributions, MSFW are known to be a marginalized population who live in poverty and have poor health indicators. The purpose of this study was to gain a fuller understanding of family composition, employment, migration patterns, health issues and service needs of MSFW in 3 counties in northwest Michigan. The participants were mainly migrant (63%), and men (55%) with an average age of 34.4 years. Educational levels of the sample were low, with 56% reporting 6th grade or below, and an additional 7% reporting no formal education. The majority was originally from Mexico (75%), and Spanish was the first language of 79% of the farmworkers represented in the survey. Work-related health problems and chronic illness were the most commonly perceived health problems and the most commonly requested service was dental. This study adds to the body of knowledge related to farm worker health needs and provides direction for the provision of appropriate health care to this population. PMID:18709576

  3. Impact of Seasonal Forecasts on Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldor-Noiman, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    More extreme and volatile weather conditions are a threat to U.S. agricultural productivity today, as multiple environmental conditions during the growing season impact crop yields. That's why farmers' agronomic management decisions are dominated by consideration for near, medium and seasonal forecasts of climate. The Climate Corporation aims to help farmers around the world protect and improve their farming operations by providing agronomic decision support tools that leverage forecasts on multiple timescales to provide valuable insights directly to farmers. In this talk, we will discuss the impact of accurate seasonal forecasts on major decisions growers face each season. We will also discuss assessment and evaluation of seasonal forecasts in the context of agricultural applications.

  4. Seasonal storage of energy in solar heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, J. E.; Klein, S. A.; Mitchell, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    This paper focuses on several aspects of seasonal storage for space heating using water as the storage medium. The interrelationships between collector area, storage volume, and system performance are investigated using the transient simulation program TRNSYS. The situations for which seasonal storage is most promising are presented. Particular emphasis is placed upon design of seasonal storage systems. A design method is presented which is applicable for storage capacities ranging from a few days to seasonal storage. This design method, coupled with cost information, should be useful in assessing the economic viability of seasonal storage systems. Also investigated are the importance of the load heat exchanger size, tank insulation, collector slope, and year-to-year weather variations in system design.

  5. Gearing up for the Ginning Season: Things Ginners Need to do Before the Modules Arrive on the Yard

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starting up a gin after the dormant season is always a difficult day or sometimes week before all the components start to work together in an efficient and productive fashion. There are several important things a ginner should remember when gearing up for the ginning season. First and foremost, all...

  6. 20 CFR 633.305 - General benefits and working conditions for program participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR MIGRANT AND SEASONAL FARMWORKER PROGRAMS Program Design and Administrative Procedures § 633.305 General benefits and working conditions for program participants. (a) Payments for...

  7. Photosynthetic Control of Atmospheric Carbonyl Sulfide during the Growing Season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, J. Elliott; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Chai, T.; Mena-Carrasco, M.; Tang, Y.; Blake, D. R.; Blake, N. J.; Vay, Stephanie A.; Collatz, G. James; Baker, I.; Berry, J. A.; Montzka, S. A.; Sweeney, C.; Schnoor, J. L.; Stanier, Charles O.

    2008-01-01

    Climate models incorporate photosynthesis-climate feedbacks, yet we lack robust tools for large-scale assessments of these processes. Recent work suggests that carbonyl sulfide (COS), a trace gas consumed by plants, could provide a valuable constraint on photosynthesis. Here we analyze airborne observations of COS and carbon dioxide concentrations during the growing season over North America with a three-dimensional atmospheric transport model. We successfully modeled the persistent vertical drawdown of atmospheric COS using the quantitative relation between COS and photosynthesis that has been measured in plant chamber experiments. Furthermore, this drawdown is driven by plant uptake rather than other continental and oceanic fluxes in the model. These results provide quantitative evidence that COS gradients in the continental growing season may have broad use as a measurement-based photosynthesis tracer.

  8. Seasonal Variations in Pluto's Atmospheric Tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, R. G.; Toigo, A. D.; Sicardy, B.; Guzewich, S.; Gierasch, P. J.; Richardson, M. I.

    2013-12-01

    models with those seen in the data, with the goal of testing the ability of the tidal model to account for the observed strength and seasonal variations of the strength and distribution of waves in Pluto's atmosphere. This work was supported in part by NASA's Planetary Atmospheres Program.

  9. Monitoring and seasonal forecasting of meteorological droughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutra, Emanuel; Pozzi, Will; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Di Giuseppe, Francesca; Magnusson, Linus; Naumann, Gustavo; Barbosa, Paulo; Vogt, Jurgen; Pappenberger, Florian

    2015-04-01

    Near-real time drought monitoring can provide decision makers valuable information for use in several areas, such as water resources management, or international aid. Unfortunately, a major constraint in current drought outlooks is the lack of reliable monitoring capability for observed precipitation globally in near-real time. Furthermore, drought monitoring systems requires a long record of past observations to provide mean climatological conditions. We address these constraints by developing a novel drought monitoring approach in which monthly mean precipitation is derived from short-range using ECMWF probabilistic forecasts and then merged with the long term precipitation climatology of the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) dataset. Merging the two makes available a real-time global precipitation product out of which the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) can be estimated and used for global or regional drought monitoring work. This approach provides stability in that by-passes problems of latency (lags) in having local rain-gauge measurements available in real time or lags in satellite precipitation products. Seasonal drought forecasts can also be prepared using the common methodology and based upon two data sources used to provide initial conditions (GPCC and the ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis (ERAI) combined with either the current ECMWF seasonal forecast or a climatology based upon ensemble forecasts. Verification of the forecasts as a function of lead time revealed a reduced impact on skill for: (i) long lead times using different initial conditions, and (ii) short lead times using different precipitation forecasts. The memory effect of initial conditions was found to be 1 month lead time for the SPI-3, 3 to 4 months for the SPI-6 and 5 months for the SPI-12. Results show that dynamical forecasts of precipitation provide added value, a skill similar to or better than climatological forecasts. In some cases, particularly for long SPI time

  10. An objective method for partitioning the entire flood season into multiple sub-seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lu; Singh, Vijay P.; Guo, Shenglian; Zhou, Jianzhong; Zhang, Junhong; Liu, Pan

    2015-09-01

    Information on flood seasonality is required in many practical applications, such as seasonal frequency analysis and reservoir operation. Several statistical methods for identifying flood seasonality have been widely used, such as directional method (DS) and relative frequency (RF) method. However, using these methods, flood seasons are identified subjectively by visually assessing the temporal distribution of flood occurrences. In this study, a new method is proposed to identify flood seasonality and partition the entire flood season into multiple sub-seasons objectively. A statistical experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. Results demonstrated that the proposed method performed satisfactorily. Then the proposed approach was applied to the Geheyan and Baishan Reservoirs, China, having different flood regimes. It is shown that the proposed method performs extremely well for the observed data, and is more objective than the traditional methods.

  11. Seasonal Temperature Variations in Saturn's Stratosphere: Radiative Seasonal Model vs. Observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greathouse, Thomas; Moses, Julianne; Fletcher, Leigh; Orton, Glenn; Guerlet, Sandrine

    2010-05-01

    , meridional and temporal variations of Saturn's stratospheric temperatures. Then, using the inferred temperatures, we model the observations of the different hydrocarbons to retrieve their vertical, meridional, and temporal abundance variations (Greathouse et al., 2005; Greathouse et al., 2006). Similar to the ground based observations, Cassini/CIRS observations (2004-2009) have been used to infer the vertical, meridional, and temporal variations of Saturn's stratospheric temperature and hydrocarbon abundances (Flasar et al., 2005; Fletcher et al., 2008; Fletcher et al., 2007; Fouchet et al., 2008; Guerlet et al., 2009; Howett et al., 2007). Ground based observers are unable to observe through Saturn's rings or behind the planet as viewed from the Earth. On the other hand, Cassini has no such restriction and thus can measure the global thermal and chemical state of Saturn for the duration of the mission. An important goal is to bring the ground-based and Cassini observations into agreement so that when the Cassini mission ends, continued ground-based observations can be used to constrain seasonal and dynamic changes on Saturn thereafter. This work was funded by NASA PATM grant NNX08AL95G and NASA PAST grant NNX08AW33G.

  12. Lay Outreach Workers and the Ohio Migrant and Seasonal Farm Workers Health Education Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Olga L.

    The Migrant and Seasonal Farm Workers Project sought to determine the health education needs of this indigent population in Ohio using the help of lay outreach workers. A bilingual needs assessment survey was developed containing questions on demographics, place of permanent residence, points of travel after working in Ohio, and type of work and…

  13. Seasonal Predictability of the Regional Climate of the Mississippi River Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tribbia, Joseph; Giorgi, Filippo

    2002-01-01

    This is a report on our accomplishments during the previous year and our wrap-up plans for the coming months for our work in studying the seasonal predictability of precipitation over the Mississippi River Basin. The work accomplished during the grant falls into two broad catagories: (1) diagnosis of regional skill of CCM3; and (2) regional and global model development.

  14. Contrasting patterns of litterfall seasonality and seasonal changes in litter decomposability in a tropical rainforest region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, S. A.; Valdez-Ramirez, V.; Congdon, R. A.; Williams, S. E.

    2014-09-01

    The seasonality of litter inputs in forests has important implications for understanding ecosystem processes and biogeochemical cycles. We quantified the drivers of seasonality in litterfall and leaf decomposability using plots throughout the Australian wet tropical region. Litter fell mostly in the summer (wet, warm) months in the region, but other peaks occurred throughout the year. Litterfall seasonality was modelled well with the level of deciduousness of the site (plots with more deciduous species had lower seasonality than evergreen plots), temperature (higher seasonality in the uplands), disturbance (lower seasonality with more early secondary species) and soil fertility (higher seasonality with higher N : P/P limitation) (SL total litterfall model 1 = deciduousness + soil N : P + early secondary sp.: r2 = 0.63, n = 30; model 2 = temperature + early secondary sp. + soil N : P: r2 = 0.54, n = 30; SL leaf = temperature + early secondary sp. + rainfall seasonality: r2 = 0.39, n = 30). Leaf litter decomposability was lower in the dry season than in the wet season, driven by higher phenolic concentrations in the dry, with the difference exacerbated particularly by lower dry season moisture. Our results are contrary to the global trend for tropical rainforests; in that seasonality of litterfall input was generally higher in wetter, cooler, evergreen forests, compared to generally drier, warmer, semi-deciduous sites that had more uniform monthly inputs. We consider this due to more diverse litter shedding patterns in semi-deciduous and raingreen rainforest sites, and an important consideration for ecosystem modellers. Seasonal changes in litter quality are likely to have impacts on decomposition and biogeochemical cycles in these forests due to the litter that falls in the dry season being more recalcitrant to decay.

  15. Recent Changes in the Arctic Melt Season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroeve, Julienne; Markus, Thorsten; Meier, Walter N.; Miller, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Melt-season duration, melt-onset and freeze-up dates are derived from satellite passive microwave data and analyzed from 1979 to 2005 over Arctic sea ice. Results indicate a shift towards a longer melt season, particularly north of Alaska and Siberia, corresponding to large retreats of sea ice observed in these regions. Although there is large interannual and regional variability in the length of the melt season, the Arctic is experiencing an overall lengthening of the melt season at a rate of about 2 weeks decade(sup -1). In fact, all regions in the Arctic (except for the central Arctic) have statistically significant (at the 99% level or higher) longer melt seasons by greater than 1 week decade(sup -1). The central Arctic shows a statistically significant trend (at the 98% level) of 5.4 days decade(sup -1). In 2005 the Arctic experienced its longest melt season, corresponding with the least amount of sea ice since 1979 and the warmest temperatures since the 1880s. Overall, the length of the melt season is inversely correlated with the lack of sea ice seen in September north of Alaska and Siberia, with a mean correlation of -0.8.

  16. Global Seasonal Influenza Epidemics and Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamerius, James

    2013-04-01

    Recent evidence suggests that low specific humidity conditions facilitate the transmission of the influenza virus in temperate regions and result in annual winter epidemics. However, this relationship does not account for the epidemiology of influenza in tropical and subtropical regions where epidemics often occur during the rainy season or transmit year-round without a well-defined season. We assessed the role of specific humidity and other local climatic variables on influenza virus seasonality by modeling epidemiological and climatic information from 78 study sites sampled globally. We substantiated that there are two types of environmental conditions associated with seasonal influenza epidemics: "cold-dry" and "humid-rainy". For sites where monthly average specific humidity or temperature decreases below thresholds of approximately 11-12 g/kg and 18-21 °C during the year, influenza activity peaks during the cold-dry season (i.e., winter) when specific humidity and temperature are at minimal levels. For sites where specific humidity and temperature do not decrease below these thresholds, seasonal influenza activity is more likely to peak in months when average precipitation totals are maximal and greater than 150 mm per month. Based on these findings, we develop Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Recovered-Susceptible (SEIRS) models forced by daily weather observations of specific humidity and precipitation that simulate the diversity of seasonal influenza signals worldwide.

  17. Seasonal variations of cancer incidence and prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Moan, Johan; Bruland, Øyvind; Juzeniene, Asta

    2010-01-01

    The overall death rates are highest in the winter season in many countries at high latitudes. In some but not all countries, this is also true for more specific diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases and influenza. For internal cancers we find no consistent, significant seasonal variation, neither of incidence nor of death rates. On the other hand, we find a significant seasonal variation of cancer prognosis with season of diagnosis in Norway. Best prognosis is found for summer and autumn diagnosis; i.e., for the seasons of the best status of vitamin D in the population. There were no corresponding seasonal variations, neither of the rates of diagnosis, nor of the rates of death which could explain the variations of prognosis. The most likely reason for this variation is that the vitamin D status in Norway is significantly better in summer and autumn than in winter and spring. Earlier, seasonal variations have been explained by circannual variations of certain hormones, but the data are not consistent. PMID:21547098

  18. Occupational health problems among migrant and seasonal farm workers.

    PubMed Central

    Mobed, K; Gold, E B; Schenker, M B

    1992-01-01

    Migrant and seasonal farm workers are one of the most underserved and understudied populations in the United States. The total US population of such farm workers has been estimated at 5 million, of whom about 20% live or work in California. Farm workers perform strenuous tasks and are exposed to a wide variety of occupational risks and hazards. Low socioeconomic status and poor access to health care also contribute to existing health problems in this population. Potential farm work-related health problems include accidents, pesticide-related illnesses, musculoskeletal and soft-tissue disorders, dermatitis, noninfectious respiratory conditions, reproductive health problems, health problems of children of farm workers, climate-caused illnesses, communicable diseases, bladder and kidney disorders, and eye and ear problems. Few epidemiologic studies exist of these occupational health problems. No comprehensive epidemiologic studies have assessed the magnitude of occupational health problems among migrant and seasonal farm workers and their dependents. Although the migratory nature of this population makes long-term studies difficult, the development of standardized data collection instruments for health consequences and scientific assessment of farm work exposures and working conditions are vital to characterize and reduce the occupational health risks in farm workers. PMID:1413786

  19. Beneficial Effects of Traditional Seasonings on Quality Characteristics of Fermented Sausages

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Pil-Nam; Seo, Hyun-Woo; Kang, Sun-Moon; Kim, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hyoung; Hoa, Van-Ba

    2016-01-01

    Though traditional seasonings are widely used in many dishes, however, no attention has been paid to the investigation of their effects on quality characteristics of food products. The present investigation was undertaken to study the effects of incorporating several traditional seasonings including doenjang (fermented soybean paste), gochu-jang (red pepper paste), fresh medium-hot, and hot peppers, and fresh garlic on the lipid oxidation, cholesterol content and sensory characteristics of fermented sausages. Six fermented sausage treatments (5 with 1% (w/w) each test seasoning and 1 without added test seasoning (control) were prepared. The addition of seasonings generally had beneficial effects on the improvement of fermented sausage’s quality however the effects differed depending on the each type of seasonings added. Significant lower pH values were found in all fermented sausages made with the seasonings while, lower levels of lipid oxidation were found in the treatments with hot peppers and garlic as compared with the control (p<0.05). The treatment with seasonings did not cause color or texture defects in the products whereas the sausages made with gochu-jang had significantly higher Commission International de l’Eclairagea* (redness) value in comparison with the control. Noticeably, incorporating doenjang, medium-hot peppers, hot peppers and garlic resulted in reduction of 26.50, 32.54, 47.04, and 48.54 mg cholesterol/100 g samples, respectively (p<0.05). Higher scores for the sensory traits such as aroma, taste, color and acceptability were also given for the sausages made with seasonings. The current work demonstrates that the test seasonings represent potentially natural ingredients to be used for producing healthier fermented sausages. PMID:26954136

  20. Beneficial Effects of Traditional Seasonings on Quality Characteristics of Fermented Sausages.

    PubMed

    Seong, Pil-Nam; Seo, Hyun-Woo; Kang, Sun-Moon; Kim, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hyoung; Hoa, Van-Ba

    2016-08-01

    Though traditional seasonings are widely used in many dishes, however, no attention has been paid to the investigation of their effects on quality characteristics of food products. The present investigation was undertaken to study the effects of incorporating several traditional seasonings including doenjang (fermented soybean paste), gochu-jang (red pepper paste), fresh medium-hot, and hot peppers, and fresh garlic on the lipid oxidation, cholesterol content and sensory characteristics of fermented sausages. Six fermented sausage treatments (5 with 1% (w/w) each test seasoning and 1 without added test seasoning (control) were prepared. The addition of seasonings generally had beneficial effects on the improvement of fermented sausage's quality however the effects differed depending on the each type of seasonings added. Significant lower pH values were found in all fermented sausages made with the seasonings while, lower levels of lipid oxidation were found in the treatments with hot peppers and garlic as compared with the control (p<0.05). The treatment with seasonings did not cause color or texture defects in the products whereas the sausages made with gochu-jang had significantly higher Commission International de l'Eclairagea* (redness) value in comparison with the control. Noticeably, incorporating doenjang, medium-hot peppers, hot peppers and garlic resulted in reduction of 26.50, 32.54, 47.04, and 48.54 mg cholesterol/100 g samples, respectively (p<0.05). Higher scores for the sensory traits such as aroma, taste, color and acceptability were also given for the sausages made with seasonings. The current work demonstrates that the test seasonings represent potentially natural ingredients to be used for producing healthier fermented sausages. PMID:26954136

  1. Controls on the CO2 seasonal cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, J. B.; Forget, F.; Haberle, Robert M.; Schaeffer, J.; Lee, H.

    1993-01-01

    Surface pressure measurement performed by the Viking landers show substantial variations in pressure on seasonal timescales that are characterized by two local minima and two local maxima. These variations have widely been attributed to the seasonal condensation and sublimation of CO2 in the two polar regions. It has been somewhat of a surprise that the amplitude of the minimum and maximum that is dominated by the CO2 cycle in the north was much weaker than the corresponding amplitude of the south-dominated extrema. Another surprise was that the seasonal pressure cycle during years 2 and 3 of the Viking mission was so similar to that for year 1, despite the occurrence of two global dust storms during year 1 and none during years 2 and 3. An energy balance model that incorporates dynamical factors from general circulation model (GCM) runs in which the atmospheric dust opacity and seasonal date were systematically varied was used to model the observed seasonal pressure variations. The energy balance takes account of the following processes in determining the rates of CO2 condensation and sublimation at each longitudinal and latitudinal grid point: solar radiation, infrared radiation from the atmosphere and surface, subsurface heat conduction, and atmospheric heat advection. Condensation rates are calculated both at the surface and in the atmosphere. In addition, the energy balance model also incorporates information from the GCM runs on seasonal redistribution of surface pressure across the globe. Estimates of surface temperature of the seasonal CO2 caps were used to define the infrared radiative losses from the seasonal polar caps. The seasonal pressure variations measured at the Viking lander sites were closely reproduced.

  2. Seasonal Mood Disturbances in Collegiate Hockey Players

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Lionel W.; Shafer, Christine L.; Smokler, Carol; Carrier, David; McKeag, Douglas B.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this paper is to: 1) describe the seasonal affective disorder syndrome using a case illustration, 2) provide a simple and reliable method for identifying seasonal affective disorder, and 3) provide data as to the prevalence of the syndrome in a subset of collegiate hockey players. Design and Setting: Collegiate hockey players were selected, because their practices begin in the fall and play is completed in the spring. The teams selected for participation were from the far Northwest and the upper Midwest regions. Subjects: Sixty-eight Division I hockey players volunteered for the study. The three teams from which the subjects were chosen were located above latitude 42°/45' north. Subjects were from the northern latitudes. Measurements: The Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire was used to screen for seasonality. A sample of the athletes was also examined using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression together with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed) criteria for Seasonal Pattern Specifier. Results: Thirty-three (51%) were asymptomatic, 7 (11%) met the criteria for seasonal affective disorder, and 25 (39%) hockey players scored in the range that could classify them as candidates for subsyndromal seasonal affective disorder. Conclusions: The prevalence of seasonal affective disorder among our sample approximated the national norm for the northern latitudes. However, the prevalence of subsyndromal seasonal affective disorder in our population was 25% compared to 13% reported nationally. Light therapy has been shown to reverse the effects of the disorders; however, further research needs to be conducted to determine its acceptance and effectiveness by the athletic population. PMID:16558403

  3. Lengthening Spring Season in Southwestern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutzler, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    Climate is changing rapidly in southwestern North America during the Spring season, a critically important transition season in terms of hydrology, ecosystem dynamics, and water resource management. Major rivers are snow-fed in mountainous headwaters but then flow through a monsoonal region with a Summer precipitation maximum; Spring is the dry season in between snowmelt and monsoon onset and is the principal wildfire season in the Southwest. Evaporation during the warm, dry Spring represents a major hydrologic loss in the surface water budget and is a principal cause of projections of significant decreases in post-snowmelt streamflow, during the first half of the growing season when demand for surface water for irrigated agriculture is highest. As temperatures increase, snowpack is expected to decrease and melt earlier, leading to a smaller and earlier peak in snowmelt runoff. Recent climate model projections suggest that monsoon onset should occur later in the year, delaying the summer rainy season. Each of these effects contributes to projections of a lengthening Spring season, at both the beginning and end of Spring. A longer, warmer Spring season is associated with significant surface drying and increased wildfire risk in the 21st Century across the Southwest. So far changes are observed at the beginning of spring in terms of temperature (increasing) and snowpack (decreasing). Detection of other changes, including metrics of the end of spring, has not been easy, in part due to the huge natural variability of precipitation that affects hydrologic variables in conjunction with temperature. This presentation describes efforts to diagnose and document observed changes in the transitions into and out of the Spring dry season in the Southwest, in variables such as temperature, snowmelt date, timing and magnitude of streamflow, and monsoon onset date.

  4. Modeling the Martian seasonal CO2 cycle. I - Fitting the Viking Lander pressure curves. II - Interannual variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Stephen E.; Paige, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The present diurnal and seasonal thermal model for Mars, in which surface CO2 frost condensation and sublimation are determined by the net effects of radiation, latent heat, and heat conduction in subsurface soil layers, in order to simulate seasonal exchanges of CO2 between the polar caps and atmosphere, successfully reproduces the measured pressured variations at the Viking Lander 1 site. In the second part of this work, the year-to-year differences between measured surface pressures at Viking sites as a function of season are used as upper limits on the potential magnitudes of interannual variations in the Martian atmosphere's mass. Simulations indicate that the dust layers deposited onto the condensing north seasonal polar cap during dust storms can darken seasonal frost deposits upon their springtime uncovering, while having little effect on seasonal pressure variations.

  5. Geographical variations in seasonal mortality across the United States: A bioclimatological approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkstein, Adam

    2008-10-01

    examined cities, implying that environmental factors are more important than social factors in determining seasonal mortality response. This work begins to fill a large gap within the scientific literature concerning the causes, geographic variation, and meteorological influences on seasonal mortality. Additionally, these results will increase the forecasting capabilities of determining when and where winter mortality will reach unusually high levels.

  6. Cultural Health Practices of Migrant Seasonal Farmworkers

    PubMed Central

    McCullagh, Marjorie C.; Sanon, Marie-Ann; Foley, Josephine G.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored culturally related health practices among Hispanic migrant seasonal farmworkers. In this cross-sectional qualitative study, six Hispanic migrant seasonal farmworkers from southeastern Michigan farms were interviewed. Four major themes emerged from the study. Financial and employment limitations, rather than folk health care practices, were more likely to influence use of professional care systems. There was limited use of folk healers and culturally-related practices, primarily due to lack of access. Results may be used to identify needs and develop culturally appropriate programs and services to improve the health of Hispanic migrant seasonal farmworkers. PMID:26245012

  7. Contrasting patterns of litterfall seasonality and seasonal changes in litter decomposability in a tropical rainforest region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, S. A.; Valdez-Ramirez, V.; Congdon, R. A.; Williams, S. E.

    2014-06-01

    The seasonality of litter inputs in forests has important implications for understanding ecosystem processes and biogeochemical cycles. We quantified the drivers of seasonality in litterfall and leaf decomposability, using plots throughout the Australian wet tropical region. Litter fell mostly in the summer (wet, warm) months in the region, but other peaks occurred throughout the year. Litterfall seasonality was modelled well with the level of deciduousness of the site (plots with more deciduous species had lower seasonality than evergreen plots), temperature (higher seasonality in the uplands), disturbance (lower seasonality with more early secondary species) and soil fertility (higher seasonality with higher N : P/P limitation) (SL total litterfall model 1 = deciduousness + soil N : P + early secondary sp: r2 = 0.63, n = 30 plots; model 2 = temperature + early secondary sp. + soil N : P: r2 = 0.54, n = 30; SL leaf = temperature + early secondary sp. + rainfall seasonality: r2 = 0.39, n = 30). Leaf litter decomposability was lower in the dry season than in the wet season, driven by higher phenolic concentrations in the dry, with the difference exacerbated particularly by lower dry season moisture. Our results are contrary to the global trend for tropical rainforests; in that seasonality of litterfall inputs were generally higher in wetter, cooler, evergreen forests, compared to generally drier, warmer, semi-deciduous sites that had more uniform monthly inputs. We consider this due to more diverse litter shedding patterns in semi-deciduous and raingreen rainforest sites, and an important consideration for ecosystem modellers. Seasonal changes in litter quality are likely to have impacts on decomposition and biogeochemical cycles in these forests due to the litter that falls in the dry being more recalcitrant to decay.

  8. How Does Seasonal Flu Differ From Pandemic Flu?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues How Does Seasonal Flu Differ From Pandemic Flu? Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Seasonal Flu Pandemic Flu Outbreaks follow predictable seasonal patterns; occurs ...

  9. How Does Seasonal Flu Differ From Pandemic Flu?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Past Issues How Does Seasonal Flu Differ From Pandemic Flu? Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents ... this page please turn Javascript on. Seasonal Flu Pandemic Flu Outbreaks follow predictable seasonal patterns; occurs annually, ...

  10. The evolution of seasonal delayed implantation.

    PubMed

    Sandell, M

    1990-03-01

    Seasonal delayed implantation has been described in 47 mammalian species in ten families, and has evolved independently at least 17 times. After reviewing earlier explanations for the phenomenon I present a hypothesis to explain the evolution of seasonal delay. I have assumed that females can increase their fitness by choosing their mates. Consequently, mating should take place during that time of year when the possibilities for female choice or male competition are greatest. Time of birth is determined by ecological factors promoting survival of the young, thereby setting certain constraints on the scheduling of the mating season. In certain situations, however, the possibilities for female choice or male competition can be increased by mating earlier; delay will increase female fitness, and will thereby evolve. The hypothesis has been applied to all cases of seasonal delayed implantation. PMID:2186428

  11. Highlights of the 2009 Hurricane Season

    NASA Video Gallery

    Picture yourself sitting in space watching the highlights of the 2009's Atlantic Ocean hurricane season in fast-forward. This latest animation from NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adm...

  12. Selecting Viruses for the Seasonal Influenza Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... which viruses are selected for use in vaccine production? The influenza viruses in the seasonal flu vaccine ... to get a good vaccine virus for vaccine production? There are a number of factors that can ...

  13. Natural Resources: There Is a Season

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    You'll gain plenty of weather resources from this month's issue (temperature concepts, weather instruments, the water cycle/evaporation). You can use that information with these outdoor seasonal connections.

  14. Photoperiodic time measurement and seasonal immunological plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Tyler J.; Prendergast, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal variations in immunity are common in nature, and changes in day length are sufficient to trigger enhancement and suppression of immune function in many vertebrates. Drawing primarily on data from Siberian hamsters, this review describes formal and physiological aspects of the neuroendocrine regulation of seasonal changes in mammalian immunity. Photoperiod regulates immunity in a trait-specific manner, and seasonal changes in gonadal hormone secretion and thyroid hormone signaling all participate in seasonal immunomodulation. Photoperiod-driven changes in the hamster reproductive and immune systems are associated with changes in iodothyronine deiodinase-mediated thyroid hormone signaling, but photoperiod exerts opposite effects on the epigenetic regulation of reproductive neuroendocrine and lymphoid tissues. Photoperiodic changes in immunocompetence may explain a proportion of the annual variance in disease incidence and severity in nature, and provide a useful framework to help understand brain-immune interactions. PMID:25456046

  15. An Expert's Guide to Sneezin' Season

    MedlinePlus

    ... Allergy sufferers should prepare for a particularly 'nasty' spring, New York sinus specialist says To use the ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- This could be a bad spring allergy season and people with allergies need to ...

  16. PATTERNS AND CONTROLS OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER EXPORT BY MAJOR RIVERS: A NEW SEASONAL, SPATIALLY EXPLICIT, GLOBAL MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    River-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) influences metabolism, light attenuation, and bioavailability of metals and nutrients in coastal ecosystems. Recent work suggests that DOM concentrations in surface waters vary seasonally because different organic matter pools are mobi...

  17. Seasonal variation of heavy metals in oysters from Darwin Harbor, Northern Territory, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Peerzada, N.; Kozlik, E. )

    1992-01-01

    In this study the authors report the seasonal variation in the concentrations of zinc, lead, cadmium, copper, and iron in oysters over a period of eight months from five different sites in Darwin Harbor. The site selection was based on previous work, with the exception of Darwin Wharf. Seasonal variation of heavy metals in marine organisms, especially bivalves, has been reported by many workers. The highest concentrations of zinc and copper were found in the summer month of January and the lowest at the end of winter month of October. Darwin Harbor lies well within the tropics and is subjected to two weather systems. The dry season extends from April to October approximately, when southeast trade winds prevail, and the wet season extends from November to April, when the northwest monsoon prevails. Sea-surface temperatures of Darwin Harbor show no great variation between wet and dry seasons. It is virtually constant during the wet season (about 28-29C) and only a few degrees lower during the dry season (25-28C). Salinity ranges from 27.8 to 35.5 ppt between the months of February and September.

  18. The Arctic Ocean's seasonal cycle must change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carton, James; Ding, Yanni

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses anticipated changes to the seasonal cycle of the Arctic Ocean along with Arctic surface climate due to the reduction of seasonal sea ice cover expected in the 21st century. Net surface shortwave radiation is a function of surface reflectivity and atmospheric transparency as well as solar declination. Recent observational studies and modeling results presented here strongly suggest that this excess heat in the summer is currently being stored locally in the form of ocean warming and sea ice melt. This heat is lost in winter/spring through surface loss through longwave and turbulent processes causing ocean cooling and the refreezing of sea ice. A striking feature of Arctic climate during the 20th century has been the enhanced warming experienced during winter in response to increases in anthropogenic greenhouse gasses. The amplitude of the seasonal cycle of surface air temperature is declining by gradually warming winter temperatures relative to summer temperatures. Bintanja and van der Linden (2013) show this process will eventually cause the 30C seasonal change in air temperature to reduce by half as seasonal sea ice disappears. The much weaker seasonal cycle of ocean temperature, which is controlled by the need to store excess surface heat seasonally, is also going to be affected by the loss of sea ice but in quite different ways. In particular the ocean will need to compensate for the loss of seasonal heat storage by the ice pack. This study examines consequences for the Arctic Ocean stratification and circulation in a suite of CMIP5 models under future emissions scenarios relative to their performance during the 20th century and to explore a range of model ocean responses to declining sea ice cover on the Arctic Ocean.

  19. Seasonality of Legionella isolates from environmental sources.

    PubMed

    Tobiansky, L; Drath, A; Dubery, B; Koornhof, H J

    1986-09-01

    Legionnaires' Disease in South Africa has tended to show a seasonal pattern of occurrence with peaks in late summer and autumn (November to May). We investigated the possibility of a correlation between the seasonal finding of the organism in environmental habitats and the occurrence of clinical cases. Results of tests performed on environmental specimens indicate that the isolation rate is higher in summer-autumn than during winter-spring. PMID:3793446

  20. Tracking seasonal signs of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    On 2 March, the USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN), a consortium of government, academic, and citizen scientists, launched a national program for volunteers to help observe the seasonal cycles of plants, including flowering, fruiting, and other seasonal events. The program will begin monitoring animals in 2010. Scientists and resource managers will use these observations to track effects of climate change on Earth's life-support systems.

  1. Seasonal changes in Saturn's stratosphere from Cassini/CIRS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvestre, Melody; Fouchet, T.; Guerlet, S.; Spiga, A.; Flasar, F. M.; Hesman, B. E.; Bjoraker, G. L.

    2013-10-01

    atmospheric dynamics. Following this work, we will study its seasonal variations between 2005 and 2012 in order to provide constraints on Saturn's stratospheric seasonal circulation.

  2. Diversity and seasonal dynamics of bacterial community in indoor environment

    PubMed Central

    Rintala, Helena; Pitkäranta, Miia; Toivola, Mika; Paulin, Lars; Nevalainen, Aino

    2008-01-01

    . Conclusion This work demonstrated that the bacterial flora of indoor dust is complex and dominated by Gram-positive species. The dominant phylotypes most probably originated from users of the building. Seasonal variation was observed as proportional changes of the phyla and at the species level. The microflora of the two buildings investigated differed statistically and differences between the buildings were more pronounced than differences between seasons. PMID:18397514

  3. Late Cretaceous seasonal ocean variability from the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Davies, Andrew; Kemp, Alan E S; Pike, Jennifer

    2009-07-01

    The modern Arctic Ocean is regarded as a barometer of global change and amplifier of global warming and therefore records of past Arctic change are critical for palaeoclimate reconstruction. Little is known of the state of the Arctic Ocean in the greenhouse period of the Late Cretaceous epoch (65-99 million years ago), yet records from such times may yield important clues to Arctic Ocean behaviour in near-future warmer climates. Here we present a seasonally resolved Cretaceous sedimentary record from the Alpha ridge of the Arctic Ocean. This palaeo-sediment trap provides new insight into the workings of the Cretaceous marine biological carbon pump. Seasonal primary production was dominated by diatom algae but was not related to upwelling as was previously hypothesized. Rather, production occurred within a stratified water column, involving specially adapted species in blooms resembling those of the modern North Pacific subtropical gyre, or those indicated for the Mediterranean sapropels. With increased CO(2) levels and warming currently driving increased stratification in the global ocean, this style of production that is adapted to stratification may become more widespread. Our evidence for seasonal diatom production and flux testify to an ice-free summer, but thin accumulations of terrigenous sediment within the diatom ooze are consistent with the presence of intermittent sea ice in the winter, supporting a wide body of evidence for low temperatures in the Late Cretaceous Arctic Ocean, rather than recent suggestions of a 15 degrees C mean annual temperature at this time. PMID:19587768

  4. The oceanic contribution to the Earth's seasonal angular momentum budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, J. O.; Marcus, S. L.; Johns, C. M.; Hide, R.; Thompson, S. R.

    1993-01-01

    Seasonal variations in the speed of the Earth's rotation manifest themselves as fluctuations in the length of the day (LOD) with an amplitude of about 1000 microseconds. We know from previous work that at least 95% of these variations can be accounted for in terms of angular momentum exchanged between the atmosphere and the solid Earth. Here we examine the respective contributions of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and the global oceans to the Earth's seasonal angular momentum budget, using in situ data from the Drake Passage and results from both the oceanic regional model (Fine Resolution Antarctic Model -- FRAM) of Webb et al. (1991) and the global ocanic model of Maier-Reimer et al. (1993) as analyzed by Brosche et al. (1990). The estimated annual contribution of the ACC (2-4 microsec) is much smaller than the total variation in the oceanic models or the existing LOD-AAM residual (both approximately 15-20 microsec). The estimated semi-annual ACC contribution (3-8 microsec) is offset by counter-current further north in both oceanic models, which exhibit larger semi-annual variations in planetary angular momentum. Further refinements in the Earth's seasonal angular momentum budget, therefore, will require the full (planetary plus relative) contribution of the global oceans in addition to that of the ACC.

  5. The oceanic contribution to the Earth's seasonal angular momentum budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickey, J. O.; Marcus, S. L.; Johns, C. M.; Hide, R.; Thompson, S. R.

    1993-12-01

    Seasonal variations in the speed of the Earth's rotation manifest themselves as fluctuations in the length of the day (LOD) with an amplitude of about 1000 microseconds. We know from previous work that at least 95% of these variations can be accounted for in terms of angular momentum exchanged between the atmosphere and the solid Earth. Here we examine the respective contributions of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and the global oceans to the Earth's seasonal angular momentum budget, using in situ data from the Drake Passage and results from both the oceanic regional model (Fine Resolution Antarctic Model -- FRAM) of Webb et al. (1991) and the global ocanic model of Maier-Reimer et al. (1993) as analyzed by Brosche et al. (1990). The estimated annual contribution of the ACC (2-4 microsec) is much smaller than the total variation in the oceanic models or the existing LOD-AAM residual (both approximately 15-20 microsec). The estimated semi-annual ACC contribution (3-8 microsec) is offset by counter-current further north in both oceanic models, which exhibit larger semi-annual variations in planetary angular momentum. Further refinements in the Earth's seasonal angular momentum budget, therefore, will require the full (planetary plus relative) contribution of the global oceans in addition to that of the ACC.

  6. Influenza seasonality in Madagascar: the mysterious African free-runner

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Wladimir Jimenez; Guillebaud, Julia; Viboud, Cecile; Razanajatovo, Norosoa Harline; Orelle, Arnaud; Zhou, Steven Zhixiang; Randrianasolo, Laurence; Heraud, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Background The seasonal drivers of influenza activity remain debated in tropical settings where epidemics are not clearly phased. Antananarivo is a particularly interesting case study because it is in Madagascar, an island situated in the tropics and with quantifiable connectivity levels to other countries. Objectives We aimed at disentangling the role of environmental forcing and population fluxes on influenza seasonality in Madagascar. Methods We compiled weekly counts of laboratory-confirmed influenza-positive specimens for the period 2002 to 2012 collected in Antananarivo, with data available from sub-Saharan countries and countries contributing most foreign travelers to Madagascar. Daily climate indicators were compiled for the study period. Results Overall, influenza activity detected in Antananarivo predated that identified in temperate Northern Hemisphere locations. This activity presented poor temporal matching with viral activity in other countries from the African continent or countries highly connected to Madagascar excepted for A(H1N1)pdm09. Influenza detection in Antananarivo was not associated with travel activity and, although it was positively correlated with all climatic variables studied, such association was weak. Conclusions The timing of influenza activity in Antananarivo is irregular, is not driven by climate, and does not align with that of countries in geographic proximity or highly connected to Madagascar. This work opens fresh questions regarding the drivers of influenza seasonality globally particularly in mid-latitude and less-connected regions to tailor vaccine strategies locally. PMID:25711873

  7. Seasonal evapotranspiration patterns in mangrove forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Jordan G.; DeLonge, Marcia S.; Fuentes, Jose D.

    2014-04-01

    Diurnal and seasonal controls on water vapor fluxes were investigated in a subtropical mangrove forest in Everglades National Park, Florida. Energy partitioning between sensible and latent heat fluxes was highly variable during the 2004-2005 study period. During the dry season, the mangrove forest behaved akin to a semiarid ecosystem as most of the available energy was partitioned into sensible heat, which gave Bowen ratio values exceeding 1.0 and minimum latent heat fluxes of 5 MJ d-1. In contrast, during the wet season the mangrove forest acted as a well-watered, broadleaved deciduous forest, with Bowen ratio values of 0.25 and latent heat fluxes reaching 18 MJ d-1. During the dry season, high salinity levels (> 30 parts per thousand, ppt) caused evapotranspiration to decline and correspondingly resulted in reduced canopy conductance. From multiple linear regression, daily average canopy conductance to water vapor declined with increasing salinity, vapor pressure deficit, and daily sums of solar irradiance but increased with air temperature and friction velocity. Using these relationships, appropriately modified Penman-Monteith and Priestley-Taylor models reliably reproduced seasonal trends in daily evapotranspiration. Such numerical models, using site-specific parameters, are crucial for constructing seasonal water budgets, constraining hydrological models, and driving regional climate models over mangrove forests.

  8. Seasonal prediction of ocean surface waves.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrynin, Mikhail; Brune, Sebastian; Fröhlich, Kristina; Bunzel, Felix; Pohlmann, Holger; Müller, Wolfgang A.; Baehr, Johanna

    2016-04-01

    Due to the short-term nature of wind, storms and surface ocean waves dynamics, the seasonal prediction of ocean wave requires a robust prediction system which can realistically represent the variably of sea level pressure and wind on a seasonal scale. The seasonal prediction system based on the mixed resolution CMIP5 version of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology Earth System Model (MPI-ESM MR) provides a skilful seasonal prediction of sea level pressure and wind. The system is initialised every six months by reanalysis and observations in the atmospheric, ocean and sea ice components of the model. The seasonal prediction system was extended by the wave model WAM, which is running offline, using the wind re-forecast provided by the MPI-ESM MR. Our 10-member wave re-forecast over the period from 1982 to 2012 demonstrates a skilful prediction of the wave height up to 2-4 months in the Pacific, Equatorial Atlantic and Indian Ocean depending on the season. We evaluate our re-forecast by statistical metrics such as the anomaly correlation, spread-error ratio, and root-mean-square-error using the ERA-Interim forced wave reanalysis and buoys measurements as a reference.

  9. Distinct patterns of seasonal Greenland glacier velocity

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Twila; Joughin, Ian; Smith, Ben; van den Broeke, Michiel R; van de Berg, Willem Jan; Noël, Brice; Usher, Mika

    2014-01-01

    Predicting Greenland Ice Sheet mass loss due to ice dynamics requires a complete understanding of spatiotemporal velocity fluctuations and related control mechanisms. We present a 5 year record of seasonal velocity measurements for 55 marine-terminating glaciers distributed around the ice sheet margin, along with ice-front position and runoff data sets for each glacier. Among glaciers with substantial speed variations, we find three distinct seasonal velocity patterns. One pattern indicates relatively high glacier sensitivity to ice-front position. The other two patterns are more prevalent and appear to be meltwater controlled. These patterns reveal differences in which some subglacial systems likely transition seasonally from inefficient, distributed hydrologic networks to efficient, channelized drainage, while others do not. The difference may be determined by meltwater availability, which in some regions may be influenced by perennial firn aquifers. Our results highlight the need to understand subglacial meltwater availability on an ice sheet-wide scale to predict future dynamic changes. Key Points First multi-region seasonal velocity measurements show regional differences Seasonal velocity fluctuations on most glaciers appear meltwater controlled Seasonal development of efficient subglacial drainage geographically divided PMID:25821275

  10. The seasonal cycle of water on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakosky, B. M.

    1985-01-01

    A review of the behavior of water in the Mars atmosphere and subsurface is appropriate now that data from the Mariner and Viking spacecraft have been analyzed and discussed for several years following completion of those missions. Observations and analyses pertinent to the seasonal cycle of water vapor in the atmosphere of Mars are reviewed, with attention toward transport of water and the seasonal exchange of water between the atmosphere and various non-atmospheric reservoirs. Possible seasonally-accessible sources and sinks for water include water ice on or within the seasonal and residual polar caps; surface or subsurface ice in the high-latitude regions of the planet; adsorbed or chemically-bound water within the near-surface regolith; or surface or subsurface liquid water. The stability of water within each of these reservoirs is discussed, as are the mechanisms for driving exchange of the water with the atmosphere and the timescales for exchange. Specific conclusions are reached about the distribution of water and the viability of each mechanism as a seasonal reservoir. Discussion is also included of the behavior of water on longer timescales, driven by the variations in solar forcing due to the quasi-periodic variations of the orbital obliquity. Finally, specific suggestions are made for future observations from spacecraft which would further define or constrain the seasonal cycle of water.

  11. Neuronal plasticity and seasonal reproduction in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Michael N.; Ladha, Zamin; Coolen, Lique M.; Hileman, Stanley M.; Connors, John M.; Goodman, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Seasonal reproduction represents a naturally occurring example of functional plasticity in the adult brain since it reflects changes in neuroendocrine pathways controlling GnRH secretion and, in particular, the responsiveness of GnRH neurons to estradiol negative feedback. Structural plasticity within this neural circuitry may, in part, be responsible for seasonal switches in the negative feedback control of GnRH secretion that underlies annual reproductive transitions. In this paper, we review evidence for structural changes in the circuitry responsible for seasonal inhibition of GnRH secretion in sheep. These include changes in synaptic inputs onto GnRH neurons, as well as onto dopamine neurons in the A15 cell group, a nucleus that play a key role in estradiol negative feedback. We also present preliminary data suggesting a role for neurotrophins and neurotrophin receptors as an early mechanistic step in the plasticity that accompanies seasonal reproductive transitions in the sheep. Finally, we review recent evidence suggesting that kisspeptin cells of the arcuate nucleus constitute a critical intermediary in the control of seasonal reproduction. While a majority of the data for a role of neuronal plasticity in seasonal reproduction has come from the sheep model, the players and principles are likely to have relevance for reproduction in a wide variety of vertebrates, including humans, and in both health and disease. PMID:21143669

  12. NOVA Making Stuff Season 2

    SciTech Connect

    Leombruni, Lisa; Paulsen, Christine Andrews

    2014-12-12

    Over the course of four weeks in fall 2013, 11.7 million Americans tuned in to PBS to follow host David Pogue as he led them in search of engineering and scientific breakthroughs poised to change our world. Levitating trains, quantum computers, robotic bees, and bomb-detecting plants—these were just a few of the cutting-edge innovations brought into the living rooms of families across the country in NOVA’s four-part series, Making Stuff: Faster, Wilder, Colder, and Safer. Each of the four one-hour programs gave viewers a behind-the-scenes look at novel technologies poised to change our world—showing them how basic research and scientific discovery can hold the keys to transforming how we live. Making Stuff Season 2 (MS2) combined true entertainment with educational value, creating a popular and engaging series that brought accessible science into the homes of millions. NOVA’s goal to engage the public with such technological innovation and basic research extended beyond the broadcast series, including a variety of online, educational, and promotional activities: original online science reporting, web-only short-form videos, a new online quiz-game, social media engagement and promotion, an educational outreach “toolkit” for science educators to create their own “makerspaces,” an online community of practice, a series of nationwide Innovation Cafés, educator professional development, a suite of teacher resources, an “Idealab,” participation in national conferences, and specialized station relation and marketing. A summative evaluation of the MS2 project indicates that overall, these activities helped make a significant impact on the viewers, users, and participants that NOVA reached. The final evaluation conducted by Concord Evaluation Group (CEG) confidently concluded that the broadcast, website, and outreach activities were successful at achieving the project’s intended impacts. CEG reported that the MS2 series and website content were

  13. 1984-1985 ANSMET Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandford, Scott

    The Antarctic Search for Meteorites program (ANSMET), under the overall direction of W. A. Cassidy (University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa.), continued its work of past years by conducting an expedition to southern Victoria Land during the 1984-1985 austral summer. Party members included Cassidy, Catherine King-Frazier (James Madison University, Harrisonburg, Va.), Scott Sandford (Washington University, St. Louis, Mo.), John Schutt (University of Pittsburgh), Roberta Score (National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Johnson Space Center, Houston, Tex.), Carl Thompson (a freelance mountaineer from Canterbury, New Zealand), and Robert Walker (Washington University).

  14. A study of weekly and seasonal variation of stroke onset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongbing; Sekine, Michikazu; Chen, Xiaoli; Kagamimori, Sadanobu

    2002-10-01

    A registry based study was conducted to assess the variation in first-onset stroke with weekdays and seasons, in relation to the effects of age. Between 1 December 1991 and 30 November 1998, 10,729 first-onset stroke patients aged 25 or more were registered in Toyama Prefecture, Japan. We compared the weekly and seasonal variation in first-onset stroke by a one-way goodness-of-fit χ2-test. The relationship between seasonal variation in stroke onset and age was also evaluated by the method of Kendall's τ-b R × C tables with ordered categories. The frequency of onset of all strokes and cerebral infarctions (CI) was significantly higher on weekdays than at weekends (P < 0.01). More men had strokes and CI on a Monday (P < 0.01), and more women had cerebral hemorrhage (CH) on a Monday and CI at the end of the week. Stroke incidence was higher in patients aged less than 60 years (20.6%) than in those aged 60 years or over (18.7%) on a Monday compared to the weekend. By χ2-test, comparing observed with expected numbers of stroke onsets, weighted by the number of days in each 3-month period, the incidence of all strokes, CI and CH was significantly higher in winter and spring than in summer. The seasonal variation in the onset of stroke declined with age: all strokes (P < 0.001) and CH (P < 0.001) in both genders; subarachnoid hemorrhage (P < 0.001) only in men. Our study shows that the onset of stroke is more frequent on weekdays than on weekends, and may be associated with changes in psychophysiological stresses between working days and the weekend. We also observed a clear negative dose response relationship between seasonal variations in occurrence and age. It may be speculated that younger people have more change to work outdoors, exposing themselves to the winter environment. Their lifestyle and physiological condition may be different from those of older people.

  15. Seasonality of isotopes in precipitation: A global perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiahong; Faiia, Anthony M.; Posmentier, Eric S.

    2009-04-01

    We use data from Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) database to explore how the atmosphere's meridional circulation cells control the latitudinal and seasonal distribution of δ18O and d-excess in precipitation. We demonstrate that the atmospheric general circulation (AGC) cells determine variations of zonally averaged isotopic composition of meteoric water; the local isotopic minimum near the equator coincides with the intertropical convergence (ITC), and two maxima on either side of the ITC coincide with the subtropical highs (STHs). Both the ITC and STHs migrate cum sole, as part of the systematic annual migration of the meridional cells. This migratory circulation pattern controls the phase of the annual oscillation of the precipitation δ18O. At latitudes equatorward of the STHs, δ18O reaches its maximum in the winter of the respective hemisphere and at higher latitudes in the summer. From the monthly latitudinal distribution of the vertical velocity at the 500-hPa level, we obtain the seasonal variations of the latitudinal positions of the subtropical moisture source regions and their climates. The sea surface temperature and relative humidity at the moisture source regions are used to predict seasonal changes of the d-excess of water vapor evaporated from the source regions. The GNIP data is consistent with the predicted phase of the d-excess. However, the observed magnitude of the seasonal oscillation is greater than the predicted values. This work provides a baseline for understanding the influence of subtropical moisture source regions and other climatological factors on the d-excess.

  16. Fastball velocity trends in short-season minor league baseball.

    PubMed

    Crotin, Ryan L; Bhan, Shivam; Karakolis, Tom; Ramsey, Dan K

    2013-08-01

    Diminishing baseball velocities are objective measures to delineate pitching fatigue. Yet, velocity changes over the course of a competitive season vs. a single game remain unknown. This study examined fastball velocity (FBV) trends of minor league pitchers over an 8-game span. We assumed that accumulation of pitches would cause similar velocity decreases within games to produce velocity decreases between games pitched. Retrospective analysis of major league-affiliated pitching charts indicated mean FBVs, game pitches thrown, game innings pitched, rest days, and pitching work to rest ratios (PWRRs) for 12 pitchers over 8 games. Regression analyses (p < 0.05) were performed using the ordinary least squares method. The FBV was the dependent variable, where the explanatory variable was the game number (representing cumulative workload). Further analyses were performed on ball velocity differences predicted by days rest and PWRRs. The FBV increased linearly for the first 8 games of the season (R = 0.91, F(1,7) = 64.67, p < 0.001). Over the 8 - game period, mean FBVs increased 0.25 m/s (0.56 mph) with the greatest velocity increase occurring between the first and eighth game at 1.97 m/s (4.4 mph). Days rest and PWRRs did not impact FBV differences. When compared with previous research, minor league pitchers at the Class A Short Season level did not show similar exertion responses to cumulative workloads (pitches and innings pitched). Recovery factors (rest days, PWRRs, and training) also did not impact FBVs. Velocity increases may be attributable to biomechanical compensations, skill development, strength and conditioning regimens, multistarter rotations, and other performance-related factors. Strength and conditioning professionals should be aware of ball velocity trends, as apparent changes may infer neuromuscular fatigue and increased injury susceptibility, which require in-season training modifications. PMID:23222081

  17. Seasonal variation of methylmercury in sediment cores from the Tagus Estuary (Portugal).

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Carlos Eduardo; Cesário, Rute; O'Driscoll, Nelson J; Nogueira, Marta; Válega, Mónica; Caetano, Miguel; Canário, João

    2016-03-15

    Seasonal and spatial variations of dissolved and particulate methylmercury were evaluated for the first time in sediment cores from the Tagus Estuary. Results showed the highest MeHg concentrations in summer months indicating that the "seasonally" methylation process occurs not only at the topmost layers of the sediments but also in the deeper layers of the sediment column. The proportion of MeHg (up to 92%) in some of our pore water samples was higher than values reported in the literature for other estuaries suggesting that the sedimentary environment in the Tagus tends to favour Hg methylation. This work points to the importance of seasonal variation of the MeHg production in sediment cores. In physically dominated estuaries this enhances seasonal MeHg production in deeper sediments that can have serious ecological impacts due to resuspension or advection processes under extreme events by the increase of MeHg transported to the water column. PMID:26851871

  18. The impact of climate variability and seasonal characteristics on flood occurrence in north-eastern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoccatelli, Davide; Borga, Marco

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this work is to analyse the impact of climate variability and seasonal characteristics in the long-term regimes of extreme precipitation and floods in catchments located in north-eastern Italy. We use seasonality indices, climate variability indexes (NOA and WMO) and atmospheric circulation patterns to isolate the sources of variability on flood-inducing processes. This is supported by cluster analyses to identify areas of similar flood processes, both in terms of precipitation forcing and catchment processes. The results allow to isolate regions of similar flood generation processes, effects of soil moisture seasonality due to evaporation and effects of soil moisture seasonality due to snow melt. It is argued that the synoptic approach proposed here is valuable in both flood analysis and flood estimation.

  19. Seasonal fractional integrated time series models for rainfall data in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaya, Olaoluwa S.; Fashae, Olutoyin A.

    2015-04-01

    Rainfall variability, seasonality and extremity have a lot of consequences in planning and decision making of every sphere of human endeavour especially in Nigeria where majority of agricultural practices and planning is dependent on rainfed agriculture. For this reason, an extensive understanding of rainfall regime is an important prerequisite in such planning. We approach this work using time series approach. Seasonality and possibility of long-term dependence in rainfall data are considered, and these have significant effects in explaining the distribution of rainfall in each state of the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria. The estimated seasonal autoregressive fractionally integrated moving average (SARFIMA) model for each of the six rainfall zones was found to perform better in predicting rainfall distribution than the corresponding seasonal autoregressive moving average (SARMA) model in terms of minimum Akaike information criterion (AIC) and other model diagnostic measures.

  20. Influenza vaccination coverage rates in five European countries during season 2006/07 and trends over six consecutive seasons

    PubMed Central

    Blank, Patricia R; Schwenkglenks, Matthias; Szucs, Thomas D

    2008-01-01

    Background The objectives of the survey were to identify the level of influenza vaccination coverage in five European countries between 2001 and 2007, to understand the drivers and barriers to vaccination, to assess vaccination intentions for the winter 2007/08 as well as major encouraging factors for vaccination. Methods Between 2001 and 2007, representative household surveys were performed with telephone or mailed (France) interviews of individuals aged 14 and above. The questionnaire used in the UK, Germany, Italy, France and Spain was essentially the same in all seasons. The data were subsequently pooled. Four target groups were defined for the analysis: 1) persons aged 65 years and over; 2) persons working in the medical field; 3) chronically ill persons and 4) combined target group composed of individuals belonging to one or more of the previous groups 1, 2 or 3. Results In 2006/07, vaccination coverage was, 25.0% in UK, 27.4% in Germany, 21.8% in Spain, 24.2% in France and 24.4% in Italy. During six influenza seasons (2001–2007), vaccination coverage showed a slight positive trend in the five countries (p ≤ 0.0001). In the elderly (≥ 65 years), across all countries, no significant trend was seen; the vaccination rate decreased non-significantly from a peak of 64.2% in season 2005/06 to 61.1% in season 2006/07. The most frequent reason for getting vaccinated was a recommendation by the family doctor or nurse (51%), and this was also perceived as the major encouraging factor for vaccination (61%). The main reason for not getting vaccinated was feeling unlikely to catch the flu (36%). Conclusion In the UK, Germany and Spain, influenza vaccination coverage rates in season 2006/07 dropped slightly compared to the previous season. However, a trend of increasing vaccination coverage was observed from 2001/02 to 2006/07 across Europe. The family doctor is the major source of encouragement for individuals getting vaccinated. Efforts to overcome the barriers to

  1. Intra-seasonal rainfall variability during the maize growing season in the northern lowlands of Lesotho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tongwane, Mphethe Isaac; Moeletsi, Mokhele Edmond

    2015-05-01

    Intra-seasonal rainfall distribution was identified as a priority gap that needs to be addressed for southern Africa to cope with agro-meteorological risks. The region in the northwest of Lesotho is appropriate for crop cultivation due to its relatively favourable climatic conditions and soils. High rainfall variability is often blamed for poor agricultural production in this region. This study aims to determine the onset of rains, cessation of rains and rainy season duration using historical climate data. Temporal variability of these rainy season characteristics was also investigated. The earliest and latest onset dates of the rainy season are during the last week of October at Butha-Buthe and the third week of November at Mapoteng, respectively. Cessation of the season is predominantly in the first week of April making the season approximately 137-163 days long depending on the location. Average seasonal rainfall ranged from 474 mm at Mapoteng to 668 mm at Butha-Buthe. Onset and cessation of the rainfall season vary by 4-7 weeks and 1 week, respectively. Mean coefficient of variation of seasonal rainfall is 39 %, but monthly variations are higher. These variations make annual crop management and planning difficult each year. Trends show a decrease in the rainfall amounts but improvements in both the temporal distribution of annual rainfall, onset and cessation dates.

  2. Seasonal variation in human reproduction: environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Bronson, F H

    1995-06-01

    Almost all human populations exhibit seasonal variation in births, owing mostly to seasonal variation in the frequency of conception. This review focuses on the degree to which environmental factors like nutrition, temperature and photoperiod contribute to these seasonal patterns by acting directly on the reproductive axis. The reproductive strategy of humans is basically that of the apes: Humans have the capacity to reproduce continuously, albeit slowly, unless inhibited by environmental influences. Two, and perhaps three, environmental factors probably act routinely as seasonal inhibitors in some human populations. First, it seems likely that ovulation is regulated seasonally in populations experiencing seasonal variation in food availability. More specifically, it seems likely that inadequate food intake or the increased energy expenditure required to obtain food, or both, can delay menarche, suppress the frequency of ovulation in the nonlactating adult, and prolong lactational amenorrhea in these populations on a seasonal basis. This action is most easily seen in tropical subsistence societies where food availability often varies greatly owing to seasonal variation in rainfall; hence births in these populations often correlate with rainfall. Second, it seems likely that seasonally high temperatures suppress spermatogenesis enough to influence the incidence of fertilization in hotter latitudes, but possibly only in males wearing clothing that diminishes scrotal cooling. Since most of our knowledge about this phenomenon comes from temperate latitudes, the sensitivity of spermatogenesis in both human and nonhuman primates to heat in the tropics needs further study. It is quite possible that high temperatures suppress ovulation and early embryo survival seasonally in some of these same populations. Since we know less than desired about the effect of heat stress on ovulation and early pregnancy in nonhuman mammals, and nothing at all about it in humans or any of the

  3. Seasonal heat acclimatization in wildland firefighters.

    PubMed

    Lui, Brianna; Cuddy, John S; Hailes, Walter S; Ruby, Brent C

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine changes in physiological markers of heat acclimatization across a 4-month wildland fire season. Wildland firefighters (WLFF) (n=12) and non-WLFF (n=14) were assessed pre- and post-season for body mass, percent body fat, and peak VO₂. Both groups completed a 60-min heat stress trial (walking at 50% of peak VO₂) in a climate controlled chamber (43.3 °C, 33% RH) pre and post-fire season (May through September). During the trials, core (Tc) and skin (Tsk) temperatures, heart rate (HR), physiological strain index (PSI), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. There were no differences pre or post-season between the WLFF and non-WLFF groups in body mass, percent body fat, or peak V.O2. During the 73 days where the WLFF were involved in direct wildland fire suppression, daily high temperature for the WLFF was higher compared to the non-WLFF, 30.6 ± 5.4 °C and 26.9 ± 6.1 °C, respectively, p<0.05. Tc was lower at post-season compared to pre-season (p<0.05) for the WLFF at 30, 45, and 60 min (pre 30, 45, and 60: 37.9 ± 0.3, 38.3 ± 0.3 and 38.5 ± 0.3 °C, respectively; post 30, 45, and 60: 37.8 ± 0.3, 38.1 ± 0.3 and 38.2 ± 0.4 °C, respectively). For WLFF, PSI was lower (p<0.05) at 15, 30, 45, and 60 min at post-season compared to pre-season (4.2 ± 0.7, 5.6 ± 0.9, 6.5 ± 0.9, and 7.1 ± 1.1 for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min pre-season, respectively; 3.6 ± 0.8, 4.9 ± 1.0, 5.7 ± 1.2, 6.3 ± 1.3 for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min post-season, respectively). For WLFF, RPE was lower during the post-season trial at 30, 45, and 60 min (pre 30, 45, and 60: 11.7 ± 1.4, 12.3 ± 1.2, and 13.5 ± 1.4, respectively; post 30, 45, and 60: 10.7 ± 1.2, 11.3 ± 1.3, and 11.9 ± 1.5, respectively), p<0.05. There were no differences between pre and post-season for the non-WLFF for Tc and PSI, but RPE was lower at 15 min during the pre-season trial. WLFFs demonstrated significant decreases in Tc, PSI, and RPE during controlled heat

  4. Projected changes in Malawi's growing season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizy, Edward K.; Cook, Kerry H.; Chimphamba, James; McCusker, Brent

    2015-09-01

    Regional climate model projections at 30-km resolution are used to predict future mid-century and late-century growing season changes over Malawi due to global warming under the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 business-as-usual emissions forcing scenario. Three different methods for estimating growing season characteristics are applied and evaluated. All three methods yield reasonable growing season length, onset, and demise date estimates over Malawi given the wide range of uncertainty of the observations. The projections indicate the likelihood for a shorter growing season in the future over Malawi south of 13.5°S. At mid-century the growing season length is predicted to be 20-40 % (20-55 days) shorter over the southernmost districts and 5-20 % (5-30 days) shorter over the central districts. By late-century the length is predicted to be 25-55 % (20-70 days) shorter with significant differences extending into northern Malawi. The shorter growing season is primarily associated with an earlier demise date, as no significant change in the onset date is predicted. Analysis of the regional circulation and horizontal moisture flux transport indicates that the earlier demise is associated with an intensification of the thermal low over the Kalahari Desert to the south and west of Malawi and an expansion of the mid-tropospheric Kalahari anticyclone over southern Africa. The stronger thermal low/anticyclone enhances the moisture flux divergence over Malawi suppressing the convective activity at the end of the wet season.

  5. Seasonal hydrological ensemble forecasts over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, Louise; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Stephens, Elisabeth; Cloke, Hannah; Pappenberger, Florian

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the limits of predictability in dynamical seasonal discharge forecasting, in both space and time, over Europe. Seasonal forecasts have an important socioeconomic value. Applications are numerous and cover hydropower management, spring flood prediction, low flow prediction for navigation and agricultural water demands. Additionally, the constant increase in NWP skill for longer lead times and the predicted increase in the intensity and frequency of hydro-meteorological extremes, have amplified the incentive to promote and further improve hydrological forecasts on sub-seasonal to seasonal timescales. In this study, seasonal hydrological forecasts (SEA), driven by the ECMWF's System 4 in hindcast mode, were analysed against an Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP) benchmark. The ESP was forced with an ensemble of resampled historical meteorological observations and started with perfect initial conditions. Both forecasts were produced by the LISFLOOD model, run on the pan-European scale with a spatial resolution of 5 by 5 km. The forecasts were issued monthly on a daily time step, from 1990 until the current time, up to a lead time of 7 months. The seasonal discharge forecasts were analysed against the ESP on a catchment scale in terms of their accuracy, skill and sharpness, using a diverse set of verification metrics (e.g. KGE, CRPSS and ROC). Additionally, a reverse-ESP was constructed by forcing the LISFLOOD model with a single perfect meteorological set of observations and initiated from an ensemble of resampled historical initial conditions. The comparison of the ESP with the reverse-ESP approach enabled the identification of the respective contribution of meteorological forcings and hydrologic initial conditions errors to seasonal discharge forecasting uncertainties in Europe. These results could help pinpoint target elements of the forecasting chain which, after being improved, could lead to substantial increase in discharge predictability

  6. Seasonal hydrological ensemble forecasts over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, Louise; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Pappenberger, Florian

    2015-04-01

    Seasonal forecasts have an important socio-economic value in hydro-meteorological forecasting. The applications are for example hydropower management, spring flood prediction and water resources management. The latter includes prediction of low flows, primordial for navigation, water quality assessment, droughts and agricultural water needs. Traditionally, seasonal hydrological forecasts are done using the observed discharge from previous years, so called Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP). With the recent increasing development of seasonal meteorological forecasts, the incentive for developing and improving seasonal hydrological forecasts is great. In this study, a seasonal hydrological forecast, driven by the ECMWF's System 4 (SEA), was compared with an ESP of modelled discharge using observations. The hydrological model used for both forecasts was the LISFLOOD model, run over a European domain with a spatial resolution of 5 km. The forecasts were produced from 1990 until the present time, with a daily time step. They were issued once a month with a lead time of seven months. The SEA forecasts are constituted of 15 ensemble members, extended to 51 members every three months. The ESP forecasts comprise 20 ensembles and served as a benchmark for this comparative study. The forecast systems were compared using a diverse set of verification metrics, such as continuous ranked probability scores, ROC curves, anomaly correlation coefficients and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficients. These metrics were computed over several time-scales, ranging from a weekly to a six-months basis, for each season. The evaluation enabled the investigation of several aspects of seasonal forecasting, such as limits of predictability, timing of high and low flows, as well as exceedance of percentiles. The analysis aimed at exploring the spatial distribution and timely evolution of the limits of predictability.

  7. Birth seasonality and calf mortality in a large population of Asian elephants

    PubMed Central

    Mumby, Hannah S; Courtiol, Alexandre; Mar, Khyne U; Lummaa, Virpi

    2013-01-01

    In seasonal environments, many species concentrate their reproduction in the time of year most likely to maximize offspring survival. Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) inhabit regions with seasonal climate, but females can still experience 16-week reproductive cycles throughout the year. Whether female elephants nevertheless concentrate births on periods with maximum offspring survival prospects remains unknown. We investigated the seasonal timing of births, and effects of birth month on short- and long-term mortality of Asian elephants, using a unique demographic data set of 2350 semicaptive, longitudinally monitored logging elephants from Myanmar experiencing seasonal variation in both workload and environmental conditions. Our results show variation in birth rate across the year, with 41% of births occurring between December and March. This corresponds to the cool, dry period and the beginning of the hot season, and to conceptions occurring during the resting, nonlogging period between February and June. Giving birth during the peak December to March period improves offspring survival, as the odds for survival between age 1 and 5 years are 44% higher for individuals born during the high birth rate period than those conceived during working months. Our results suggest that seasonal conditions, most likely maternal workload and/or climate, limit conception rate and calf survival in this population through effects on maternal stress, estrus cycles, or access to mates. This has implications for improving the birth rate and infant survival in captive populations by limiting workload of females of reproductive age. As working populations are currently unsustainable and supplemented through the capture of wild elephants, it is imperative to the conservation of Asian elephants to understand and alleviate the effects of seasonal conditions on vital rates in the working population in order to reduce the pressure for further capture from the wild. PMID:24198940

  8. Estimating seasonal evapotranspiration from temporal satellite images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singh, Ramesh K.; Liu, Shu-Guang; Tieszen, Larry L.; Suyker, Andrew E.; Verma, Shashi B.

    2012-01-01

    Estimating seasonal evapotranspiration (ET) has many applications in water resources planning and management, including hydrological and ecological modeling. Availability of satellite remote sensing images is limited due to repeat cycle of satellite or cloud cover. This study was conducted to determine the suitability of different methods namely cubic spline, fixed, and linear for estimating seasonal ET from temporal remotely sensed images. Mapping Evapotranspiration at high Resolution with Internalized Calibration (METRIC) model in conjunction with the wet METRIC (wMETRIC), a modified version of the METRIC model, was used to estimate ET on the days of satellite overpass using eight Landsat images during the 2001 crop growing season in Midwest USA. The model-estimated daily ET was in good agreement (R2 = 0.91) with the eddy covariance tower-measured daily ET. The standard error of daily ET was 0.6 mm (20%) at three validation sites in Nebraska, USA. There was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) among the cubic spline, fixed, and linear methods for computing seasonal (July–December) ET from temporal ET estimates. Overall, the cubic spline resulted in the lowest standard error of 6 mm (1.67%) for seasonal ET. However, further testing of this method for multiple years is necessary to determine its suitability.

  9. Adaptation to seasonality and the winter freeze.

    PubMed

    Preston, Jill C; Sandve, Simen R

    2013-01-01

    Flowering plants initially diversified during the Mesozoic era at least 140 million years ago in regions of the world where temperate seasonal environments were not encountered. Since then several cooling events resulted in the contraction of warm and wet environments and the establishment of novel temperate zones in both hemispheres. In response, less than half of modern angiosperm families have members that evolved specific adaptations to cold seasonal climates, including cold acclimation, freezing tolerance, endodormancy, and vernalization responsiveness. Despite compelling evidence for multiple independent origins, the level of genetic constraint on the evolution of adaptations to seasonal cold is not well understood. However, the recent increase in molecular genetic studies examining the response of model and crop species to seasonal cold offers new insight into the evolutionary lability of these traits. This insight has major implications for our understanding of complex trait evolution, and the potential role of local adaptation in response to past and future climate change. In this review, we discuss the biochemical, morphological, and developmental basis of adaptations to seasonal cold, and synthesize recent literature on the genetic basis of these traits in a phylogenomic context. We find evidence for multiple genetic links between distinct physiological responses to cold, possibly reinforcing the coordinated expression of these traits. Furthermore, repeated recruitment of the same or similar ancestral pathways suggests that land plants might be somewhat pre-adapted to dealing with temperature stress, perhaps making inducible cold traits relatively easy to evolve. PMID:23761798

  10. Circannual Testis Changes in Seasonally Breeding Mammals.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Rafael; Burgos, Miguel; Barrionuevo, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    In the non-equatorial zones of the Earth, species concentrate their reproductive effort in the more favorable season. A consequence of seasonal breeding is seasonal testis regression, which implies the depletion of the germinative epithelium, permeation of the blood-testis barrier, and reduced androgenic function. This process has been studied in a number of vertebrates, but the mechanisms controlling it are not yet well understood. Apoptosis was assumed for years to be an important effector of seasonal germ cell depletion in all vertebrates, including mammals, but an alternative mechanism has recently been reported in the Iberian mole as well as in the large hairy armadillo. It is based on the desquamation of meiotic and post-meiotic germ cells as a consequence of altered Sertoli-germ cell adhesion molecule expression and distribution. Desquamated cells are either discarded alive through the epididymis, as in the mole, or subsequently die by apoptosis, as in the armadillo. Also, recent findings on the reproductive cycle of the greater white-toothed shrew at the meridional limits of its distribution area have revealed that the mechanisms controlling seasonal breeding are in fact far more plastic and versatile than initially suspected. Perhaps these higher adaptive capacities place mammals in a better position to face the ongoing climate change. PMID:26375035

  11. Adaptation to seasonality and the winter freeze

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Jill C.; Sandve, Simen R.

    2013-01-01

    Flowering plants initially diversified during the Mesozoic era at least 140 million years ago in regions of the world where temperate seasonal environments were not encountered. Since then several cooling events resulted in the contraction of warm and wet environments and the establishment of novel temperate zones in both hemispheres. In response, less than half of modern angiosperm families have members that evolved specific adaptations to cold seasonal climates, including cold acclimation, freezing tolerance, endodormancy, and vernalization responsiveness. Despite compelling evidence for multiple independent origins, the level of genetic constraint on the evolution of adaptations to seasonal cold is not well understood. However, the recent increase in molecular genetic studies examining the response of model and crop species to seasonal cold offers new insight into the evolutionary lability of these traits. This insight has major implications for our understanding of complex trait evolution, and the potential role of local adaptation in response to past and future climate change. In this review, we discuss the biochemical, morphological, and developmental basis of adaptations to seasonal cold, and synthesize recent literature on the genetic basis of these traits in a phylogenomic context. We find evidence for multiple genetic links between distinct physiological responses to cold, possibly reinforcing the coordinated expression of these traits. Furthermore, repeated recruitment of the same or similar ancestral pathways suggests that land plants might be somewhat pre-adapted to dealing with temperature stress, perhaps making inducible cold traits relatively easy to evolve. PMID:23761798

  12. Climate change and seasonal reproduction in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Bronson, F. H.

    2009-01-01

    Seasonal reproduction is common among mammals at all latitudes, even in the deep tropics. This paper (i) discusses the neuroendocrine pathways via which foraging conditions and predictive cues such as photoperiod enforce seasonality, (ii) considers the kinds of seasonal challenges mammals actually face in natural habitats, and (iii) uses the information thus generated to suggest how seasonal reproduction might be influenced by global climate change. Food availability and ambient temperature determine energy balance, and variation in energy balance is the ultimate cause of seasonal breeding in all mammals and the proximate cause in many. Photoperiodic cueing is common among long-lived mammals from the highest latitudes down to the mid-tropics. It is much less common in shorter lived mammals at all latitudes. An unknown predictive cue triggers reproduction in some desert and dry grassland species when it rains. The available information suggests that as our climate changes the small rodents of the world may adapt rather easily but the longer lived mammals whose reproduction is regulated by photoperiod may not do so well. A major gap in our knowledge concerns the tropics; that is where most species live and where we have the least understanding of how reproduction is regulated by environmental factors. PMID:19833645

  13. On the reliability of seasonal climate forecasts

    PubMed Central

    Weisheimer, A.; Palmer, T. N.

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal climate forecasts are being used increasingly across a range of application sectors. A recent UK governmental report asked: how good are seasonal forecasts on a scale of 1–5 (where 5 is very good), and how good can we expect them to be in 30 years time? Seasonal forecasts are made from ensembles of integrations of numerical models of climate. We argue that ‘goodness’ should be assessed first and foremost in terms of the probabilistic reliability of these ensemble-based forecasts; reliable inputs are essential for any forecast-based decision-making. We propose that a ‘5’ should be reserved for systems that are not only reliable overall, but where, in particular, small ensemble spread is a reliable indicator of low ensemble forecast error. We study the reliability of regional temperature and precipitation forecasts of the current operational seasonal forecast system of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, universally regarded as one of the world-leading operational institutes producing seasonal climate forecasts. A wide range of ‘goodness’ rankings, depending on region and variable (with summer forecasts of rainfall over Northern Europe performing exceptionally poorly) is found. Finally, we discuss the prospects of reaching ‘5’ across all regions and variables in 30 years time. PMID:24789559

  14. Seasonal variations of haematological parameters in athletes.

    PubMed

    Banfi, Giuseppe; Lundby, Carsten; Robach, Paul; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    The influence of training and competition workloads is crucial for evaluation of longitudinal haematological data in athletes. There are only a few papers on the variation of haematological parameters during long-lasting periods and, especially, during an entire competitive season. We summarized that some haematological parameters can be influenced by long-term training and competition periods. Haemoglobin (Hb) and haematocrit (Ht) are decreased during the more intense periods of training, throughout the season. In different sport disciplines, the decline of Hb ranges from 3 to 8% during the competition season, while the range of reticulocytes (Ret%) varies from 5 to 21%. Reticulocytes are also decreased after long periods of training and competitions, but their variation is not necessarily associated with that of Hb. The qualitative variations (trend of modifications) of haematological parameters are roughly independent of the sport discipline, but quantitatively (amount of modifications) dependent on sport discipline. The modifications are more evident in cycling, running, swimming than they are in football and rugby. The variations of haematological parameters within the same sport discipline are qualitatively concordant and quantitatively different among separate but consecutive competitive seasons. These findings are described in aerobic and team sports sportsmen. The definition of reliable reference ranges in sportsmen would only be possible by following the best laboratory practices. For antidoping purposes more studies investigating haematological modifications during the season are advisable. PMID:20842374

  15. Identifying and Mapping Seasonal Surface Water Frost with MGS TES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bapst, J.; Bandfield, J. L.; Wood, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    in the southern hemisphere are ~5-10 K lower for the corresponding season and latitude in the north [Smith, 2004]. This inhibits the stability of water frost on the surface in the southern hemisphere and also lowers the maximum thickness of a water frost layer, potentially limiting its effect on surface albedo. Our work here shows that the seasonal progression in the northern hemisphere of Mars involves extensive deposition of water frost, similar in progression to the carbon dioxide seasonal ice cap. This behavior results in variation of surface albedo and therefore affects surface and subsurface temperatures, which could impact the distribution of ground ice. Surface frost and subsequent mixing of vapor back into the atmosphere likely plays an important role in the global water cycle. Mapping of water frost's geographical extent, timing, and impact on surface albedo can provide insight into the processes controlling the present Martian climate. References: Cull, S. et al. (2010) JGR, 115, E00E19. Smith, M. D. (2004) Icarus, 167, 148-165. Svitek, T. and Murray, B. (1990) JGR, 95(B2), 1495-1510.

  16. Genome-Wide Analysis of Positively Selected Genes in Seasonal and Non-Seasonal Breeding Species

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mingyu; Chen, Junhui; Tian, Shuai; Zhuo, Min; Zhang, Yu; Zhong, Yang; Du, Hongli; Wang, Xiaoning

    2015-01-01

    Some mammals breed throughout the year, while others breed only at certain times of year. These differences in reproductive behavior can be explained by evolution. We identified positively-selected genes in two sets of species with different degrees of relatedness including seasonal and non-seasonal breeding species, using branch-site models. After stringent filtering by sum of pairs scoring, we revealed that more genes underwent positive selection in seasonal compared with non-seasonal breeding species. Positively-selected genes were verified by cDNA mapping of the positive sites with the corresponding cDNA sequences. The design of the evolutionary analysis can effectively lower the false-positive rate and thus identify valid positive genes. Validated, positively-selected genes, including CGA, DNAH1, INVS, and CD151, were related to reproductive behaviors such as spermatogenesis and cell proliferation in non-seasonal breeding species. Genes in seasonal breeding species, including THRAP3, TH1L, and CMTM6, may be related to the evolution of sperm and the circadian rhythm system. Identification of these positively-selected genes might help to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying seasonal and non-seasonal reproductive behaviors. PMID:26000771

  17. Vocalizations convey sex, seasonal phenotype, and aggression in a seasonal mammal.

    PubMed

    Rendon, Nikki M; Keesom, Sarah M; Amadi, Chima; Hurley, Laura M; Demas, Gregory E

    2015-12-01

    Seasonal variation in social behavior is often accompanied by seasonal variation in communication. In mammals, how seasonal environmental cues influence aggressive vocalizations remains underexplored. Photoperiod is the primary cue coordinating seasonal responses in most temperate zone animals, including Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus), a species that undergoes reproductive inhibition and increased aggression in winter. During same-sex aggressive encounters, hamsters emit both broadband calls (BBCs) and ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) that indicate aggression and the vocalizer's sex, respectively; however, it is not known whether these rodents adjust specific elements of their vocal repertoire to reflect their photoperiod-induced seasonal phenotypes. To address this, we recorded vocalizations emitted during dyadic interactions between male or female pairs of hamsters housed in long or short photoperiods and measured serum testosterone levels. USV emission rate remained stable across photoperiods, but proportional use of USV subtypes varied in novel ways: 'jump' USVs were sensitive to seasonal phenotype, but not the vocalizer's sex, whereas 'plain' USVs were sensitive only to the sex of the vocalizer. BBC emission rate varied with seasonal phenotype; short-day non-reproductive hamsters produced more BBCs and demonstrated increased aggression compared with reproductive hamsters. Testosterone, however, was not related to vocalization rates. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that changes in the vocal repertoire of Siberian hamsters reflect sex, aggression, and seasonal phenotype, suggesting that both BBCs and USVs are important signals used during same-sex social encounters. PMID:26386405

  18. 18 CFR 157.34 - Notice of open season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notice of open season... ACT Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects § 157.34 Notice of open season. (a) Notice. A prospective applicant must provide reasonable public notice of an open season through...

  19. 18 CFR 157.34 - Notice of open season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notice of open season... ACT Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects § 157.34 Notice of open season. (a) Notice. A prospective applicant must provide reasonable public notice of an open season through...

  20. 18 CFR 157.34 - Notice of open season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of open season... ACT Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects § 157.34 Notice of open season. Link... provide reasonable public notice of an open season through methods including postings on Internet...

  1. 18 CFR 157.34 - Notice of open season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Notice of open season... ACT Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects § 157.34 Notice of open season. (a) Notice. A prospective applicant must provide reasonable public notice of an open season through...

  2. 18 CFR 157.34 - Notice of open season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice of open season... ACT Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects § 157.34 Notice of open season. (a) Notice. A prospective applicant must provide reasonable public notice of an open season through...

  3. 46 CFR 42.30-20 - Seasonal Tropical Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seasonal Tropical Areas. 42.30-20 Section 42.30-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Zones, Areas, and Seasonal Periods § 42.30-20 Seasonal Tropical Areas. The following are Seasonal Tropical Areas: (a) In the North...

  4. 46 CFR 42.30-20 - Seasonal Tropical Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Seasonal Tropical Areas. 42.30-20 Section 42.30-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Zones, Areas, and Seasonal Periods § 42.30-20 Seasonal Tropical Areas. The following are Seasonal Tropical Areas: (a) In the North...

  5. Evaluation of seasonal forecast skill over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roads, John O.; Chen, Shyh-Chin

    2003-06-01

    Since Sept. 26, 1997, the Scripps Experimental Climate Prediction Center (ECPC) has been making experimental, near real-time seasonal global forecasts. Images of these forecasts, at daily to seasonal time scales, are provided on the World Wide Web, and experimental digital forecast products are made available to international collaborators. Over Asia, these experimental forecasts are now being used to drive regional prediction and various application models at National Taiwan University (NTU) and the Hong Kong Observatory. Roads et al. [Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 82 (2001) 639] and Terra Chen et al. [Atmos. Oceanogr. Sci. 12 (2003a) 377] previously discussed the basic forecast and analysis system. The purpose of this paper is to discuss specific synoptic characteristics of recent seasonal forecasts as a guide to further application and development.

  6. Distinct patterns of seasonal Greenland glacier velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Twila; Joughin, Ian; Smith, Ben; Broeke, Michiel R.; Berg, Willem Jan; Noël, Brice; Usher, Mika

    2014-10-01

    Predicting Greenland Ice Sheet mass loss due to ice dynamics requires a complete understanding of spatiotemporal velocity fluctuations and related control mechanisms. We present a 5 year record of seasonal velocity measurements for 55 marine-terminating glaciers distributed around the ice sheet margin, along with ice-front position and runoff data sets for each glacier. Among glaciers with substantial speed variations, we find three distinct seasonal velocity patterns. One pattern indicates relatively high glacier sensitivity to ice-front position. The other two patterns are more prevalent and appear to be meltwater controlled. These patterns reveal differences in which some subglacial systems likely transition seasonally from inefficient, distributed hydrologic networks to efficient, channelized drainage, while others do not. The difference may be determined by meltwater availability, which in some regions may be influenced by perennial firn aquifers. Our results highlight the need to understand subglacial meltwater availability on an ice sheet-wide scale to predict future dynamic changes.

  7. Seasonal variation of febrile convulsion in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsuboi, T; Okada, S

    1984-05-01

    The 6-year incidence rates of febrile convulsions in all 3-year-old children in Fuchu (covering 95% of children, number examined 17,044) was 8.2%. The incidence was higher in boys than in girls (9.0%: 7.5%, P less than 0.001). The incidence rates varied with the month and year of birth, but the variations observed were slight. Two peak appearances of seasonal variation of the first febrile convulsion were found in November-January and in June-August. The former could be interpreted as a tendency to winter virus infection of the upper respiratory tract in children. The other peak in summer could be explained as a tendency to gastrointestinal infection. Liability to febrile convulsion was influenced by the age of children and by the seasonal variations of febrile illness, but not by the season of birth. PMID:6464667

  8. Seasonal variation in leisure time physical activity.

    PubMed

    Uitenbroek, D G

    1993-06-01

    In this paper seasonal variation in leisure time physical activity for exercise is studied and quantified with regard to several popular exercise activities and taking the respondents gender, occupational status, and age into consideration. The analysis concerns data collected by telephone in Scotland between January 1989 and March 1992. Data from 7,202 male and 9,284 female respondents is used in the analysis; cosinor analysis using GLIM is applied. Considerable seasonal variation was found affecting both outdoor and indoor activities. During the peak phase in July, 32% of the respondents reported exercising for at least 20 min three or more times during the previous week, in the winter period this decreased to 23%. Older respondents were found to exercise more later in the year and also showed seasonal variation to a larger extent than younger respondents. This is particularly so for those respondents who exercise at a relatively high frequency. PMID:8321115

  9. Modeling Results on the Seasonal Influence at the Martian Exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Dolon; Clarke, John; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Chaufray, Jean-Yves; Mayyasi, Majd

    2015-11-01

    Analysis of HST ACS/SBC images of Mars in the far-ultraviolet taken in Oct-Nov 2007 and May-November 2014 indicate seasonal influence as a driving factor of the hydrogen corona, as has been reported earlier. To derive the changes in number density and temperature, the data must be compared to a radiative transfer model to simulate the resonantly scattered optically thick Lyman α emission from the exosphere of Mars. This work presents details on the modeling process used to analyze the data and the corresponding uncertainties. The escape flux is highly dependent on the characteristics of the martian exosphere like the exobase temperature and number density of H atoms as well as the presence or absence of a superthermal population of hydrogen atoms. Detailed studies on the workings of the radiative transfer model indicate degeneracy between temperature and number density values that can fit the data. Therefore it is difficult to accurately determine the characteristics of the martian hydrogen exosphere without independent measurement of at least one of the variables. However, HST observations have the advantage of observing a large portion of the dayside exosphere with intensity profiles extending from altitudes of 700 - 30,000 km giving a better estimate of the best-fit temperature and density values which characterize the martian exosphere under different seasonal conditions. Comparisons of the latitudinal symmetry from the HST images indicate the exosphere to be symmetric beyond 2.5 martian radii due to the broad trajectories of atoms at high altitudes.

  10. Seasonality and dietary requirements: will eating seasonal food contribute to health and environmental sustainability?

    PubMed

    Macdiarmid, Jennie I

    2014-08-01

    Eating more seasonal food is one proposal for moving towards more sustainable consumption patterns, based on the assumption that it could reduce the environmental impact of the diet. The aim of the present paper is to consider the implications of eating seasonal food on the different elements of sustainability (i.e. health, economics, society), not just the environment. Seasonality can be defined as either globally seasonal (i.e. produced in the natural production season but consumed anywhere in the world) or locally seasonal (i.e. produced in the natural production season and consumed within the same climatic zone). The environmental, health, economic and societal impact varies by the definition used. Global seasonality has the nutritional benefit of providing a more varied and consistent supply of fresh produce year round, but this increases demand for foods that in turn can have a high environmental cost in the country of production (e.g. water stress, land use change with loss of biodiversity). Greenhouse gas emissions of globally seasonal food are not necessarily higher than food produced locally as it depends more on the production system used than transportation. Eating more seasonal food, however, is only one element of a sustainable diet and should not overshadow some of the potentially more difficult dietary behaviours to change that could have greater environmental and health benefits (e.g. reducing overconsumption or meat consumption). For future guidelines for sustainable diets to be realistic they will need to take into account modern lifestyles, cultural and social expectations in the current food environment. PMID:25027288

  11. Seasonal difference in brain serotonin transporter binding predicts symptom severity in patients with seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Mc Mahon, Brenda; Andersen, Sofie B; Madsen, Martin K; Hjordt, Liv V; Hageman, Ida; Dam, Henrik; Svarer, Claus; da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Baaré, William; Madsen, Jacob; Hasholt, Lis; Holst, Klaus; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2016-05-01

    Cross-sectional neuroimaging studies in non-depressed individuals have demonstrated an inverse relationship between daylight minutes and cerebral serotonin transporter; this relationship is modified by serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region short allele carrier status. We here present data from the first longitudinal investigation of seasonal serotonin transporter fluctuations in both patients with seasonal affective disorder and in healthy individuals. Eighty (11)C-DASB positron emission tomography scans were conducted to quantify cerebral serotonin transporter binding; 23 healthy controls with low seasonality scores and 17 patients diagnosed with seasonal affective disorder were scanned in both summer and winter to investigate differences in cerebral serotonin transporter binding across groups and across seasons. The two groups had similar cerebral serotonin transporter binding in the summer but in their symptomatic phase during winter, patients with seasonal affective disorder had higher serotonin transporter than the healthy control subjects (P = 0.01). Compared to the healthy controls, patients with seasonal affective disorder changed their serotonin transporter significantly less between summer and winter (P < 0.001). Further, the change in serotonin transporter was sex- (P = 0.02) and genotype- (P = 0.04) dependent. In the patients with seasonal affective disorder, the seasonal change in serotonin transporter binding was positively associated with change in depressive symptom severity, as indexed by Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression - Seasonal Affective Disorder version scores (P = 0.01). Our findings suggest that the development of depressive symptoms in winter is associated with a failure to downregulate serotonin transporter levels appropriately during exposure to the environmental stress of winter, especially in individuals with high predisposition to affective disorders.media-1vid110.1093/brain/aww043_video_abstractaww043_video

  12. Seasonal cycle of the Canary Current.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vélez-Belchí, P.; Hernandez-Guerra, A.; Pérez-Hernández, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is recognized as an important component of the climate system, contributing to the relatively mild climate of northwest Europe. Due to its importance, the strength of the AMOC is continually monitored along 26ºN with several moorings east of the Bahamas, in the Middle Atlantic Ridge and south of the Canary islands, known as the RAPID array. The measurements of the RAPID array show a 6 Sv seasonal cycle for the AMOC, and recent studies have pointed out the dynamics of the eastern Atlantic as the main driver for this seasonal cycle, specifically, rossby waves excited south of the Canary Islands. Due to the important role of the eastern Atlantic, in this study we describe the seasonal cycle of the Canary Current (CC) and the Canary Upwelling Current (CUC) using hydrographic data from two cruises carried out in a box around the Canary Islands, the region where the eastern component of the RAPID array is placed. CTD, VMADCP and LADCP data were combined with inverse modeling in order to determine absolute geostrophic transports in the Canary Islands region in fall and spring. During spring, the overall transport of Canary Current and the CUC was southward. In the Lanzarote Passage (LP), between the Canary Islands and Africa, the CUC transported 0.6±0.20 Sv southward, while the Canary Current transported 1.0±0.40 Sv in the oceanic waters of the Canary Islands Archipelago. During fall, the CUC transported 2.8±0.4Sv northward, while the CC transported 2.9±0.60 Sv southward in the oceanic waters of the Canary Islands Archipelago. The seasonal cycle observed has an amplitude of 3.4Sv for the CUC and 1.9Sv for the CC. Data from a mooring in the LP and the hydrographic data was used to calibrate geostrophic transport estimated using altimetry data. The amplitude of the seasonal cycle of the geostrophic transport obtained using the calibrated altimetry data (Figure 1) was quite similar to the seasonal cycle of the

  13. Early season spring small grains proportion estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phinney, D. E.; Trichel, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    An accurate, automated method for estimating early season spring small grains from Landsat MSS data is discussed. The method is summarized and the results of its application to 100 sample segment-years of data from the US Northern Great Plains in 1976, 1977, 1978, and 1979 are summarized. The results show that this estimator provides accurate estimates earlier in the growing season than previous methods. Ground truth is required only in the estimator development, and data storage, transmission, preprocessing, and processing requirements are minimal.

  14. Seasonal Variation of Cistus ladanifer L. Diterpenes

    PubMed Central

    Alías, Juan Carlos; Sosa, Teresa; Valares, Cristina; Escudero, José Carlos; Chaves, Natividad

    2012-01-01

    The exudate of Cistus ladanifer L. consists mainly of two families of secondary metabolites: flavonoids and diterpenes. The amount of flavonoids present in the leaves has a marked seasonal variation, being maximum in summer and minimum in winter. In the present study, we demonstrate that the amount of diterpenes varies seasonally, but with a different pattern: maximum concentration in winter and minimum in spring-summer. The experiments under controlled conditions have shown that temperature influences diterpene production, and in particular, low temperatures. Given this pattern, the functions that these compounds perform in C. ladanifer are probably different. PMID:27137636

  15. Migrant and seasonal farm worker women.

    PubMed

    Lambert, M I

    1995-01-01

    Migrant and seasonal farm worker women are part of a population whose health care needs are underserved. This article provides some definition of this population and reviews some of the health needs specific to them. The significant need for outreach to and assessment of this population is addressed. The significance of the nurse's role is addressed. The need for health care services being delivered in a culturally sensitive manner is discussed. Resources to assist health care providers in providing more effective interventions and referrals for care of migrant and seasonal farm worker women are identified. PMID:7782960

  16. Projected future changes in regional seasonal cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arizmendi, Fernando; Barreiro, Marcelo; Dijkstra, Henk

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the consequences of climate change is relevant for social, biological and ecomical interests. Particularly, knowing the potential changes in the seasonal cycle is useful for taking the appropiate actions to prevent adverse circumstances. In this study, we aim to detect future changes in the surface air temperature (SAT) seasonal cycles. We do so by analyzing differences in the response of the SAT field to the solar annual forcing in different scenarios of models of the phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). With this approach, we are able to find well-localized areas where the temperature cycle change considerably.

  17. Seasonal acclimatization determined by non-invasive measurements of coat insulation.

    PubMed

    Langman, Vaughan A; Langman, Sarah L; Ellifrit, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal acclimatization in terrestrial mammals in the Northern Hemisphere involves changes in coat insulation. It is more economical to provide increased insulation than increased heat production for protection against the cold. This study was done to test a technique for the non-invasive measurement of mammal coat insulation and to measure coat insulation over several seasons on captive exotics. The working hypothesis was that species that have no coat or have a coat that does not change seasonally do not acclimatize seasonally. Three surface temperature readings were measured from the torso area. The insulation was calculated using measured metabolic rates and body temperature when possible. The African elephants, giraffe and okapi did not acclimatize with average maximum insulation values of 0.256°Cm(2)  W(-1) . The Amur tigers and mountain goats acclimatized to seasonal ambient conditions by increasing the insulation values of the hair coats in the cold with an average maximum insulation values of 0.811°Cm(2)  W(-1) . The cold adapted species are more than three times more insulated in the cold than the equatorial species. The husbandry implications of exotics that have no ability to acclimatize to Northern Hemisphere seasonal ambient changes are profound. Giraffe, African elephants, and okapi when exposed to cold conditions with ambient air temperatures below 21°C will use body energy reserves to maintain a heat balance and will require housing that provides ambient conditions of 21°C. PMID:26087320

  18. Seasonal Shifts in Diet and Gut Microbiota of the American Bison (Bison bison).

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Gaddy T; Craine, Joseph M; Robeson, Michael S; Fierer, Noah

    2015-01-01

    North American bison (Bison bison) are becoming increasingly important to both grassland management and commercial ranching. However, a lack of quantitative data on their diet constrains conservation efforts and the ability to predict bison effects on grasslands. In particular, we know little about the seasonality of the bison diet, the degree to which bison supplement their diet with eudicots, and how changes in diet influence gut microbial communities, all of which play important roles in ungulate performance. To address these knowledge gaps, we quantified seasonal patterns in bison diet and gut microbial community composition for a bison herd in Kansas using DNA sequencing-based analyses of both chloroplast and microbial DNA contained in fecal matter. Across the 11 sampling dates that spanned 166 days, we found that diet shifted continuously over the growing season, allowing bison to take advantage of the seasonal availability of high-protein plant species. Bison consumed more woody shrubs in spring and fall than in summer, when forb and grass intake predominated. In examining gut microbiota, the bacterial phylum Tenericutes shifted significantly in relative abundance over the growing season. This work suggests that North American bison can continuously adjust their diet with a high reliance on non-grasses throughout the year. In addition, we find evidence for seasonal patterns in gut community composition that are likely driven by the observed dietary changes. PMID:26562019

  19. Uncertainties of seasonal surface climate predictions induced by soil moisture biases in the La Plata Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensson, Anna; Berbery, E. Hugo

    2015-04-01

    This work examines the evolution of soil moisture initialization biases and their effects on seasonal forecasts depending on the season and vegetation type for a regional model over the La Plata Basin in South America. WRF/Noah model simulations covering multiple cases during a two-year period are designed to emphasize the conceptual nature of the simulations at the expense of statistical significance of the results. Analysis of the surface climate shows that the seasonal predictive skill is higher when the model is initialized during the wet season and the initial soil moisture differences are small. Large soil moisture biases introduce large surface temperature biases, particularly for Savanna, Grassland and Cropland vegetation covers at any time of the year, thus introducing uncertainty in the surface climate. Regions with Evergreen Broadleaf Forest have roots that extend to the deep layer whose moisture content affects the surface temperature through changes in the partitioning of the surface fluxes. The uncertainties of monthly maximum temperature can reach several degrees during the dry season in cases when: (a) the soil is much wetter in the reanalysis than in the WRF/Noah equilibrium soil moisture, and (b) the memory of the initial value is long due to scarce rainfall and low temperatures. This study suggests that responses of the atmosphere to soil moisture initialization depend on how the initial wet and dry conditions are defined, stressing the need to take into account the characteristics of a particular region and season when defining soil moisture initialization experiments.

  20. Seasonal Shifts in Diet and Gut Microbiota of the American Bison (Bison bison)

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Gaddy T.; Craine, Joseph M.; Robeson, Michael S.; Fierer, Noah

    2015-01-01

    North American bison (Bison bison) are becoming increasingly important to both grassland management and commercial ranching. However, a lack of quantitative data on their diet constrains conservation efforts and the ability to predict bison effects on grasslands. In particular, we know little about the seasonality of the bison diet, the degree to which bison supplement their diet with eudicots, and how changes in diet influence gut microbial communities, all of which play important roles in ungulate performance. To address these knowledge gaps, we quantified seasonal patterns in bison diet and gut microbial community composition for a bison herd in Kansas using DNA sequencing-based analyses of both chloroplast and microbial DNA contained in fecal matter. Across the 11 sampling dates that spanned 166 days, we found that diet shifted continuously over the growing season, allowing bison to take advantage of the seasonal availability of high-protein plant species. Bison consumed more woody shrubs in spring and fall than in summer, when forb and grass intake predominated. In examining gut microbiota, the bacterial phylum Tenericutes shifted significantly in relative abundance over the growing season. This work suggests that North American bison can continuously adjust their diet with a high reliance on non-grasses throughout the year. In addition, we find evidence for seasonal patterns in gut community composition that are likely driven by the observed dietary changes. PMID:26562019

  1. Extreme Seasonality During Early Eocene Hyperthermals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plink-Bjorklund, P.; Birgenheier, L.

    2012-12-01

    An outcrop multi-proxy dataset from the Uinta Basin, Utah, US indicates that extreme seasonality occurred repeatedly during the Early Eocene transient global warming events (hyperthermals), during the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) as well as during the six consequent younger hyperthermals. In this multi-proxy analysis we have investigated the precipitation distribution and peakedness changes during Early Eocene hyperthermals. This dataset is different from previously published terrestrial climate proxy analyses, in that we fully utilize the sedimentary record itself, and especially the hydrodynamic indicators within the river strata. We combine these high-resolution sedimentologic-stratigraphic analyses, with analyses of terrestrial burrowing traces, and the conventional palaeosol and stable carbon isotope analyses. With this approach, we are able to better document hydroclimatologic changes, and identify climate seasonality changes, rather than just long-term mean humidity/aridity and temperature trends. For this study we analyzed over 1000 m of Palaeocene and Early Eocene river and lake strata in the Uinta Basin, Utah, US (Figs. 1 and 2). The sedimentologic-stratigraphic analyses of outcrops included measuring detailed stratigraphic sections, analyzing photopanels, a spatial GPS survey, and lateral walk-out of stratigraphic packages across an area of 300 km2, with additional data across an area of ca 6000 km2 (Fig. 2). Continental burrowing traces and palaeosols were analyzed along the measured sections. For geochemical analysis 196 samples of mudrock facies were collected along the measured sections and analyzed for total organic carbon (Corg), total nitrogen (Ntot), and δ13C values of bulk organic matter. Biostratigraphy (25), radiometric dates, and carbon isotope stratigraphy, using bulk δ13C of organic matter in floodplain siltstones confirm the position of the PETM and the 6-8 post-PETM hyperthermals in the studied strata The seasonality

  2. Tracking Retreat of the North Seasonal Ice Cap on Mars: Results from the THEMIS Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, A. B.; Wagstaff, K. L.; Ttus, T. N.

    2005-01-01

    The CO2 ice caps on Mars advance and retreat with the seasons. This phenomenon was first observed by Cassini and then confirmed by numerous ground based observations in 19th and 20th centuries. With the advent of the space age observations of the seasonal ice cap were done by all orbiting spacecraft starting with Mariner 7. Viking Orbiters and more recently the Mars Global Surveyor (particularly Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) and Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instruments) have accumulated significant data on the retreat of the CO2 seasonal cap. During Mars year 2 of THEMIS operations at Mars, we planned an observational campaign in which the THEMIS instrument (onboard the Mars Odyssey spacecraft) repeatedly observed the north seasonal polar cap from midwinter to late spring. THEMIS allows simultaneous observations in both Thermal IR (12.57 m) and Visible wavelengths (0.65 m). One of the goals for this work is to initiate an interannual program for observations of the seasonal ice caps using the THEMIS instrument. The most efficient way to detect the edge between frost and bare ground is directly onboard of the spacecraft. Prior to onboard software design effort, we have developed two groundbased algorithms for automatically finding the edge of the seasonal polar cap in THEMIS IR data. The first algorithm relies on fully calibrated data and can be used for highly reliable groundbased analyses. The second method was specifically developed for processing raw, uncalibrated data in a highly efficient way. It has the potential to enable automatic, onboard detections of the seasonal cap retreat. We have experimentally confirmed that both methods produce similar results, and we have validated both methods against a model constructed from the MGS TES data from the same season.

  3. Small mammal use of native warm-season and non-native cool-season grass forage fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryan L Klimstra; Christopher E Moorman; Converse, Sarah; Royle, J. Andrew; Craig A Harper

    2015-01-01

    Recent emphasis has been put on establishing native warm-season grasses for forage production because it is thought native warm-season grasses provide higher quality wildlife habitat than do non-native cool-season grasses. However, it is not clear whether native warm-season grass fields provide better resources for small mammals than currently are available in non-native cool-season grass forage production fields. We developed a hierarchical spatially explicit capture-recapture model to compare abundance of hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), and house mice (Mus musculus) among 4 hayed non-native cool-season grass fields, 4 hayed native warm-season grass fields, and 4 native warm-season grass-forb ("wildlife") fields managed for wildlife during 2 summer trapping periods in 2009 and 2010 of the western piedmont of North Carolina, USA. Cotton rat abundance estimates were greater in wildlife fields than in native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields and greater in native warm-season grass fields than in non-native cool-season grass fields. Abundances of white-footed mouse and house mouse populations were lower in wildlife fields than in native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields, but the abundances were not different between the native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields. Lack of cover following haying in non-native cool-season grass and native warm-season grass fields likely was the key factor limiting small mammal abundance, especially cotton rats, in forage fields. Retention of vegetation structure in managed forage production systems, either by alternately resting cool-season and warm-season grass forage fields or by leaving unharvested field borders, should provide refugia for small mammals during haying events.

  4. AGRICULTURAL SEASONAL LABORERS OF COLORADO AND CALIFORNIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KARRAKER, CYRUS H.

    ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN THE WELFARE OF AGRICULTURAL SEASONAL WORKERS ARE REPORTED. PARTICULAR ATTENTION IS PAID TO SUCH SERVICES FOR MIGRANT CHILDREN AS DAY CARE CENTERS. SUCH CENTERS ARE PROVIDED FROM PRIVATE FUNDS, ARE USUALLY CHURCH SPONSORED, AND ARE LARGELY STAFFED BY VOLUNTEERS. STATE-OPERATED CENTERS ARE RECOMMENDED. COLORADO WAS CONE OF THE…

  5. TEMPORAL DISAGGREGATION OF PROBABILISTIC SEASONAL CLIMATE FORECASTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seasonal climate forecasts are issued by NOAA/CPC for average temperature and total precipitation over 3-month overlapping periods covering the coming year. Many crop and hydrologic models employ weather generators based on monthly statistics to produce stochastic realizations of daily weather (e.g...

  6. Operational seasonal forecasting of crop performance.

    PubMed

    Stone, Roger C; Meinke, Holger

    2005-11-29

    Integrated, interdisciplinary crop performance forecasting systems, linked with appropriate decision and discussion support tools, could substantially improve operational decision making in agricultural management. Recent developments in connecting numerical weather prediction models and general circulation models with quantitative crop growth models offer the potential for development of integrated systems that incorporate components of long-term climate change. However, operational seasonal forecasting systems have little or no value unless they are able to change key management decisions. Changed decision making through incorporation of seasonal forecasting ultimately has to demonstrate improved long-term performance of the cropping enterprise. Simulation analyses conducted on specific production scenarios are especially useful in improving decisions, particularly if this is done in conjunction with development of decision-support systems and associated facilitated discussion groups. Improved management of the overall crop production system requires an interdisciplinary approach, where climate scientists, agricultural scientists and extension specialists are intimately linked with crop production managers in the development of targeted seasonal forecast systems. The same principle applies in developing improved operational management systems for commodity trading organizations, milling companies and agricultural marketing organizations. Application of seasonal forecast systems across the whole value chain in agricultural production offers considerable benefits in improving overall operational management of agricultural production. PMID:16433097

  7. NEWTON'S APPLE 14th Season Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichmann, Sue, Ed.

    This guide was developed to help teachers use the 14th season of NEWTON'S APPLE in their classrooms and contains lessons formatted to follow the National Science Education Standards. The "Overview,""Main Activity," and "Try-This" sections were created with inquiry-based learning in mind. Each lesson page begins with "Getting Started," which…

  8. Seasonal indoor radon concentration in Eskisehir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sogukpinar, H; Algin, E; Asici, C; Altinsoz, M; Cetinkaya, H

    2014-12-01

    Indoor radon concentrations are subject to seasonal variation, which directly depends on weather conditions. The seasonal indoor radon concentrations were measured and the annual effective dose was estimated for the city centre of Eskisehir, Turkey. In order to reflect annual averages measurements were performed over all seasons (winter, spring, summer and autumn) including also the entire year. Measurements were carried out using Kodak-Pathe LR 115 Type II passive alpha track detectors in 220 different houses. A total of 534 measurements including measurements of different seasons were taken between 2010 and 2011. The radon concentrations for winter ranged from 34 to 531 Bq m(-3), for spring ranged from 22 to 424 Bq m(-3), for summer ranged from 25 to 320 Bq m(-3), and for autumn ranged from 19 to 412 Bq m(-3). Yearly measurements ranged from 19 to 338 Bq m(-3). In this study the average annual effective total dose from radon and its decay products was calculated to be 3.398 mSv y(-1). PMID:24379436

  9. The Seasons Explained by Refutational Modeling Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frede, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the principles and investigation of a small-group laboratory activity based on refutational modeling to teach the concept of seasons to preservice elementary teachers. The results show that these teachers improved significantly when they had to refute their initial misconceptions practically. (Contains 8 figures and 1 table.)

  10. Implementing a Discovery Layer: A Rookie's Season

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brubaker, Noah; Leach-Murray, Susan; Parker, Sherri

    2012-01-01

    The year 2011 was the PALNI (Private Academic Library Network of Indiana) consortium's "rookie season" for the implementation of Primo, the 2010 Discovery Layer 500 race winner. In this article, the authors report on their transition to the cloud within Ex Libris Ltd.'s Primo TotalCare environment: their preparation, the steps involved to move to…

  11. Potato cultivar response to seasonal drought patterns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to minimize potato yield and quality losses due to drought can be greatly improved by understanding the relative responses of different cultivars to seasonal variations in water supply. To address this need, we initiated a two year field experiment to determine the responses of the six p...

  12. Shifting seasons, climate change and ecosystem consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thackeray, Stephen; Henrys, Peter; Hemming, Deborah; Huntingford, Chris; Bell, James; Leech, David; Wanless, Sarah

    2014-05-01

    In recent decades, the seasonal timing of many biological events (e.g. flowering, breeding, migration) has shifted. These phenological changes are believed to be one of the most conspicuous biological indicators of climate change. Rates and directions of phenological change have differed markedly among species, potentially threatening the seasonal synchrony of key species interactions and ultimately ecosystem functioning. Differences in phenological change among-species at different trophic levels, and with respect to other broad species traits, are likely to be driven by variations in the climatic sensitivity of phenological events. However, as yet, inconsistencies in analytical methods have hampered broad-scale assessments of variation in climate sensitivity among taxonomic and functional groups of organisms. In this presentation, results will be presented from a current collaborative project (http://www.ceh.ac.uk/sci_programmes/shifting-seasons-uk.html) in which many UK long-term data sets are being integrated in order to assess relationships between temperature/precipitation, and the timing of seasonal events for a wide range of plants and animals. Our aim is to assess which organism groups (in which locations/habitats) are most sensitive to climate. Furthermore, the role of anthropogenic climate change as a driver of phenological change is being assessed.

  13. A Season of Giving. Learning with Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Judy

    1992-01-01

    Reviews elementary school books that help steer children away from the commercial aspects of gift giving and receiving during the holiday season and focus on the gifts of caring, generosity, selflessness, friendship, and tolerance. Teaching tips, class discussions, and literary tie-ins are included. (SM)

  14. Pasture quality variation throughout the grazing season

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is important for dairy producers and their nutritionists to have an idea of the nutritional quality of the pasture they are providing to their cows. This article uses data gathered from several on-going pasture research projects to demonstrate how pasture quality varies during the grazing season,...

  15. Asian citrus psyllid - biology and seasonal ecology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The seasonal ecology of Diaphorina citri was investigated in a non-irrigated citrus grove of mature orange trees beginning January 2005 in east central Florida. No insecticides were applied during the study. Predators including lady beetles, lacewings and syrphid flies were observed during the stud...

  16. Seasonal acclimation of prairie deer mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, R. V.; Belknap, R. W.

    1993-12-01

    Prairie deer mice responded to long nights by reducing their metabolic rates, core temperatures, thermal conductances and incremental metabolic responses to cold stimulus, while increasing their capacities for nonshivering thermogenesis. Some winter animals spontaneously entered daily torpor in the mornings and thereby further reduced their metabolic rates and core temperatures. Provision of exogenous melatonin (by subdermal implants) mimiced short photoperiod effects on metabolic rates and core temperatures of wild-caught, laboratory maintained animals. Provision of supplemental dietary tryptophan to laboratory animals conditioned to natural light cycles mimiced metabolic effects of long nights in summer animals, and further reduced metabolic rates of winter mice, but did not affect their core temperature levels. Newly caught, laboratory maintained deer mice responded to natural seasonal clues of shortphotoperiod and increased dietary tryptophan by reducing their resting energy requirements through both lower metabolic and lower core temperature levels. Short photoperiod and seasonal change also promoted gonadal involution, and resulted in more socially tolerant huddling by mice with reduced core temperature. Reduced 24-hour LH excretion rates were also observed in winter animals which were exposed to seasonal light cycles at warm (25°C) room temperatures. We propose that seasonal acclimatization involves pineal effects on sex hormone-influenced social behaviors and on resting metabolism. These effects serve to conserve resting energy expenditure and promote hypothermic insulation by wild prairie deer mice.

  17. Seasonal variation of slipped capital femoral epiphysis.

    PubMed

    Maffulli, Nicola; Douglas, A Stuart

    2002-01-01

    During the 18-year period 1980-1997, 1103 patients were treated as in-patients for slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) in Scottish hospitals. This paper reports a significant seasonal variation, especially in male patients, with an excess admitted in the autumn. Examining the physiological seasonality of the monthly increment of growth in height and weight in childhood, we hypothesised that these physiological rhythms, while not pathogenetic, may be responsible for the timing of the seasonal features of SCFE. Previously published studies suggest that the average time between first symptoms and diagnosis is 3 to 5 months. The condition may start with the spring peak in growth and become more symptomatic with the autumn peak in weight. In conclusion, we report a new epidemiological finding, but, in accordance with other studies, we cannot provide a certain aetiological explanation. The timing, but not the pathogenesis, of admission to hospital for a SCFE might be related to the timing in the year of seasonal increments of height in spring and weight in autumn. It is tempting to draw attention to associations with environmental features. For example, in autumn there is the most rapid annual fall in temperature, and the hours of darkness are increasing from the autumn equinox to the winter solstice. However, there is no reason to conclude that these associations have anything to do with aetiology. PMID:11866078

  18. Seasonal Effects on GPS PPP Accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saracoglu, Aziz; Ugur Sanli, D.

    2016-04-01

    GPS Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is now routinely used in many geophysical applications. Static positioning and 24 h data are requested for high precision results however real life situations do not always let us collect 24 h data. Thus repeated GPS surveys of 8-10 h observation sessions are still used by some research groups. Positioning solutions from shorter data spans are subject to various systematic influences, and the positioning quality as well as the estimated velocity is degraded. Researchers pay attention to the accuracy of GPS positions and of the estimated velocities derived from short observation sessions. Recently some research groups turned their attention to the study of seasonal effects (i.e. meteorological seasons) on GPS solutions. Up to now usually regional studies have been reported. In this study, we adopt a global approach and study the various seasonal effects (including the effect of the annual signal) on GPS solutions produced from short observation sessions. We use the PPP module of the NASA/JPL's GIPSY/OASIS II software and globally distributed GPS stations' data of the International GNSS Service. Accuracy studies previously performed with 10-30 consecutive days of continuous data. Here, data from each month of a year, incorporating two years in succession, is used in the analysis. Our major conclusion is that a reformulation for the GPS positioning accuracy is necessary when taking into account the seasonal effects, and typical one term accuracy formulation is expanded to a two-term one.

  19. Geometry and the Physics of Seasons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khavrus, Vyacheslav; Shelevytsky, Ihor

    2012-01-01

    By means of a simple mathematical model recently developed by the authors (2010 "Phys. Educ." 45 641), the passage of the seasons on the Earth is simulated for arbitrary latitudes, taking into account sunlight attenuation in the atmosphere. The method developed can be used to predict a realistic value of the solar energy input (insolation) that…

  20. Off-season greenhouse strawberry production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strawberry production in the mid-South is mostly done in the field with harvest from April to June. There is year-round demand for fruit with the highest prices from November through February. Our research is ongoing to evaluate off-season strawberry production in polyethylene-covered greenhouses....

  1. The Seasons of Competency Development for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeffler, T. A.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses stages of competency development, using the seasons of the year as a metaphor. Identifies educational strategies that outdoor educators can use at each stage to help women overcome gender role socialization pressures that discourage them from achieving or recognizing their true competency levels. (TD)

  2. Ionospheric composition: The seasonal anomaly explained

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torr, D. G.; Richards, P. G.; Torr, M. R.

    1981-01-01

    The main photochemical processes of the ionosphere are reanalyzed in the light of laboratory measurements of rate coefficients, using the Atmosphere Explorer data. Major changes to the chemistry include the transfer of nearly all metastable 0(+) ions to N2(+) via charge exchange with N2. The N2(+) ions become vibrationally excited by resonant fluorescence of solar near UV and near infrared radiation, leading to a return transfer of N2(+) ionization to 0(+) by charge exchange or vibrationally excited N2(+) with atomic oxygen. With this chemistry the seasonal variations in the peak electron densities are then shown to be caused primarily by anomalous seasonal variations in neutral composition. The required neutral composition variations are empirically produced by the MSIS model atmosphere. The circulation derived from recent 3D models of the global thermosphere qualitatively accounts for the seasonal variations in neutral composition predicted by the MSIS model. In addition to the composition effect, vibrationally excited N2 is found to contribute a 20% effect to the anomalous seasonal behavior at solar maximum.

  3. Seasonal Change on Titan. Chapter 14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.; Brown, Michael E.; Flasar, F. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Titan displays seasonal changes in the distribution of gas and hazes in its atmosphere, in the character of its methane clouds, and in its temperatures and winds. While Cassini has observed some of these cha rges in detail, some are observable from Earth, and the period of mos t rapid change may be just about to begin in the years after equinox,

  4. Season of birth effects in autism.

    PubMed

    Stevens, M C; Fein, D H; Waterhouse, L H

    2000-06-01

    This study examined a sample of preschool-age children with autism in an attempt to identify patterns of birth dates that deviated from expected frequencies by month or season. Birth dates of children with autism and those of a non-autistic sibling control group were compared to the number of total live births gathered from U.S. Census data. Analyses included two types of chi-square analyses and a seasonal harmonic trend analysis. Previously unmentioned in the literature is a seasonal effect finding for females within the entire sample, and both a seasonal and monthly effect for children classified as socially Passive by the Wing system. A significant elevation was also found in March within the Boston sub-sample (n = 37). This sample largely comprised low-functioning boys with autism, a finding consistent with previous findings in the literature. Peri-natal complications and early life development of the subjects from the Boston site are detailed. PMID:10855047

  5. Use of the Four Seasonal Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Teresa Chi-ching

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the cultural features of "Spring" and "Autumn" in Chinese. Their meanings range from references to happiness and love to seasons, crops and farming, to the representation of a year's time and one's age. They are used in poetry and as noun compounds for titles of history books. (SC)

  6. Seasonal Life: Farmworkers, Children, and Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimahara, Nobuo K.; Condon, Eliane

    This monograph is the result of an ethnographic study, conducted between 1981 and 1982, to explore the social conditions under which migrant and seasonal farm workers and their families lived and their children were socialized. The study was conducted in a large agricultural county in New Jersey. At the time of the study, the county had slightly…

  7. Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers: A Forgotten Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velazquez, Loida C.

    Migrant and seasonal farmworkers are the most educationally disadvantaged group in society, with over 70% high school dropouts and 15% functionally illiterate. Mobility, language barriers, and cultural differences combined with health and nutrition problems have a negative effect on school achievement. The constant interruption of the educational…

  8. Operational seasonal forecasting of crop performance

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Roger C; Meinke, Holger

    2005-01-01

    Integrated, interdisciplinary crop performance forecasting systems, linked with appropriate decision and discussion support tools, could substantially improve operational decision making in agricultural management. Recent developments in connecting numerical weather prediction models and general circulation models with quantitative crop growth models offer the potential for development of integrated systems that incorporate components of long-term climate change. However, operational seasonal forecasting systems have little or no value unless they are able to change key management decisions. Changed decision making through incorporation of seasonal forecasting ultimately has to demonstrate improved long-term performance of the cropping enterprise. Simulation analyses conducted on specific production scenarios are especially useful in improving decisions, particularly if this is done in conjunction with development of decision-support systems and associated facilitated discussion groups. Improved management of the overall crop production system requires an interdisciplinary approach, where climate scientists, agricultural scientists and extension specialists are intimately linked with crop production managers in the development of targeted seasonal forecast systems. The same principle applies in developing improved operational management systems for commodity trading organizations, milling companies and agricultural marketing organizations. Application of seasonal forecast systems across the whole value chain in agricultural production offers considerable benefits in improving overall operational management of agricultural production. PMID:16433097

  9. Seasonal community succession of the phyllosphere microbiome.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Julia K; Yuan, Lijie; Layeghifard, Mehdi; Wang, Pauline W; Guttman, David S

    2015-03-01

    The leaf microbiome is influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors. Currently, we know little about the relative importance of these factors in determining microbiota composition and dynamics. To explore this issue, we collected weekly leaf samples over a 98-day growing season from multiple cultivars of common bean, soybean, and canola planted at three locations in Ontario, Canada, and performed Illumina-based microbiome analysis. We find that the leaf microbiota at the beginning of the season is very strongly influenced by the soil microbiota but, as the season progresses, it differentiates, becomes significantly less diverse, and transitions to having a greater proportion of leaf-specific taxa that are shared among all samples. A phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states imputation of microbiome function inferred from the taxonomic data found significant differences between the soil and leaf microbiome, with a significant enrichment of motility gene categories in the former and metabolic gene categories in the latter. A network co-occurrence analysis identified two highly connected clusters as well as subclusters of putative pathogens and growth-promoting bacteria. These data reveal some of the complex ecological dynamics that occur in microbial communities over the course of a growing season and highlight the importance of community succession. PMID:25679538

  10. A maximum likelihood approach to jointly estimating seasonal and annual flood frequency distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baratti, E.; Montanari, A.; Castellarin, A.; Salinas, J. L.; Viglione, A.; Blöschl, G.

    2012-04-01

    Flood frequency analysis is often used by practitioners to support the design of river engineering works, flood miti- gation procedures and civil protection strategies. It is often carried out at annual time scale, by fitting observations of annual maximum peak flows. However, in many cases one is also interested in inferring the flood frequency distribution for given intra-annual periods, for instance when one needs to estimate the risk of flood in different seasons. Such information is needed, for instance, when planning the schedule of river engineering works whose building area is in close proximity to the river bed for several months. A key issue in seasonal flood frequency analysis is to ensure the compatibility between intra-annual and annual flood probability distributions. We propose an approach to jointly estimate the parameters of seasonal and annual probability distribution of floods. The approach is based on the preliminary identification of an optimal number of seasons within the year,which is carried out by analysing the timing of flood flows. Then, parameters of intra-annual and annual flood distributions are jointly estimated by using (a) an approximate optimisation technique and (b) a formal maximum likelihood approach. The proposed methodology is applied to some case studies for which extended hydrological information is available at annual and seasonal scale.

  11. Reference Strip Evaluation for In-Season Plant Nitrogen Assessment in Irrigated Corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reference Strip Evaluation for In-Season Plant Nitrogen Assessment in Irrigated Corn The sufficiency index approach for assessing plant nitrogen (N) status is based on the presence of a reference strip in the field to normalize measurements made in the target area of the field. Early work conducte...

  12. The Incorporation of Mexican Women in Seasonal Migration: A Study of Gender Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Using data obtained from surveys and group interviews, sex differences in migratory behaviors, work patterns and conjugal relations were compared between male and female immigrants moving seasonally between Mexico and the United States. Men's traditional role as providers and female equality in marriage were strengthened through employment in the…

  13. Seasonal Association of Immune Thrombocytopenia in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tombak, Anıl; Boztepe, Burcu; Tiftik, Naci; Cömert, Melda; Salim, Ozan; Aydın, Kaniye; Gürkan, Emel; Yücel, Orhan Kemal; Saydam, Güray; Sungur, Mehmet Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune disorder. It is characterized by thrombocytopenia due to thrombocyte destruction mediated by autoantibodies; however, cytotoxic and defective regulatory T-lymphocytes play an important role in its pathogenesis. While childhood ITP is usually acute, self-limiting and generally seasonal in nature, ITP in adults is usually chronic; its relation with seasons has not been studied. Aims: We investigated whether months and/or seasons have triggering roles in adults with ITP. Study Design: Descriptive study. Methods: A retrospective case review of adult patients with primary ITP diagnosed at various University Hospitals in cities where Mediterranean climate is seen was performed. Demographic data, date of referral and treatments were recorded. Corticosteroid-resistant, chronic and refractory cases were determined. Relation between sex, corticosteroid-resistant, chronic and refractory ITP with the seasons was also investigated. Results: The study included 165 patients (124 female, mean age=42.8±16.6). Most cases of primary ITP were diagnosed in the spring (p=0.015). Rates of patients diagnosed according to the seasons were as follows: 35.8% in spring, 23% in summer, 20.6% in fall, and 20.6% in winter. With respect to months, the majority of cases occurred in May (18.2%). Time of diagnosis according to the seasons did not differ between genders (p=0.699). First-line treatment was corticosteroids in 97.3%, but 35% of the cases were corticosteroid-resistant. Steroid-resistant patients were mostly diagnosed in the spring (52.1%) (p=0.001). ITP was chronic in 52.7% of the patients and they were also diagnosed mostly in the spring (62.7%) (p=0.149). Conclusion: This is the first study showing seasonal association of ITP in adults and we have observed that ITP in adults is mostly diagnosed in the spring. The reason why more patients are diagnosed in the spring may be due to the existence of atmospheric pollens reaching

  14. Progress toward seasonal prediction in the tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaff, John Albert

    Seasonal prediction in the tropics has been a slowly developing, yet very important topic in Atmospheric Science. Its slow evolution is a product of its history, a history determined by the rise and fall of empires, technological advances, and scientific opinions, but motivated ultimately by profit. In recent years, long-lead forecasting techniques in the tropics have again become popular. The occurrence of strong El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, droughts, floods, and intense landfalling tropical cyclones, has again prompted the meteorological community to use their knowledge to create useful seasonal forecasts for several regions of the tropics. Such forecasts will facilitate better management of natural resources, disaster preparation, and economic growth in these regions. Much has been learned about seasonal forecasting in the tropics in the last 125 years and much will be learned in the future, but progress is gained slowly by the piecing together of a great number of observation studies. This paper details but a few such studies. Within, the history of seasonal prediction in the tropics is discussed. Following this discussion the paper examines the physical implications of summertime sea level pressure anomalies (SLPAs) in the tropical Atlantic, the development of a simple regression model to predict June through September SLPAs in the Caribbean Sea region, and the development of a statistical ENSO prediction method which is based entirely on the optimal combination of persistence, trends of initial conditions and climatology. The future of seasonal forecasting in the tropics is bright. New technology along with improved datasets is allowing diagnostic and predictive studies that were once thought too exhaustive to be undertaken. This optimistic opinion must be tempered by this fields long history. Public and scientific opinion can rapidly change if seasonal prediction is not approached responsibly. This responsibility entails a rigorous definition

  15. Seasonal greenness variations in Amazon transitional forests in response to light, moisture, and land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratana, P.; Huete, A. R.; Davies, K.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.

    2014-12-01

    mixed seasonal response to light and moisture controls was observed, partly due to mixed tree functional types. This work offers an improved understanding of forest vegetation dynamics and phenology along the forest-ecotone-savanna, important information for predicting climate change and anthropogenic impacts at the Amazon basin.

  16. Seasonal Changes in Titan's Surface Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Nixon, Conor A.; Cottini, Valeria

    2011-01-01

    Cassini's extended mission has provided the opportunity to search for seasonal variations on Titan. In particular, surface temperatures are expected to have shifted significantly in latitude during the completed portion of the mission. Spectra recorded by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) during the nominal mission (2004-08) and the Equinox mission. (2008-10) have already shown changes in temperature. CIRS has detected a seasonal shift in the latitudinal distribution of surface brightness temperatures by comparing zonal averages from two time segments, one period in late northern winter centered on L(sub s) approximately 335 deg and a second period centered on the equinox (L(sub s) approximately 0 deg.). The earlier period had a meridional distribution similar to that previously reported: 93.5 K at the equator, 91.7 K at 85 S and 899 K at 85 N. The newly measured distribution near equinox shows a cooling in the south and a warming in the north, both by about 0.5 K. We estimate that. the centroid of the distribution moved from approximately 16 S to 7 S between the two periods. This gives a seasonal lag behind insolation of delta L(sub s) approximately 13 deg. The CIRS equinox results are consistent with those of Voyager IRIS, which encountered Titan in November 1980, just following the previous northern equinox (L(sub s) = 10 deg.). When compared with predictions from general circulation models, seasonal variations of surface temperature can help constrain the identification of surface materials. Our measurements most closely match the case of a porous ice regolith treated by Tokano, but with some apparent differences between the northern and southern hemispheres. CIRS will extend its study of seasonal variations in surface temperature on Titan as Cassini continues through northern spring.

  17. Paraguay river basin response to seasonal rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krepper, Carlos M.; García, Norberto O.; Jones, Phil D.

    2006-07-01

    The use of river flow as a surrogate to study climatic variability implies the assumption that changes in rainfall are mirrored and likely amplified in streamflow. This is probably not completely true in large basins, particularly those that encompass different climatic regions, like the Paraguay river basin. Not all the signals present in precipitation are reflected in river flow and vice versa. The complex relationship between precipitation and streamflow could filter some signals and introduce new oscillatory modes in the discharge series. In this study the whole basin (1 095 000 km2) was divided into two sub-basins. The upper basin is upstream of the confluence with the River Apa and the lower basin is between the Apa river confluence and the Puerto Bermejo measuring station. The rainfall contribution shows a clear wet season from October to March and a dry season from April to September. A singular spectrum analysis (SSA) shows that there are trends in rainfall contributions over the upper and lower basins. Meanwhile, the lower basin only presents a near-decadal cycle (T 10 years). To determine the flow response to seasonal rainfall contributions, an SSA was applied to seasonal flow discharges at Puerto Bermejo. The seasonal flows, Q(t)O-M and Q(t)A-S, present high significant modes in the low-frequency band, like positive trends. In addition, Q(t)O-M presents a near-decadal mode, but only significant at the 77% level for short window lengths (M ≤ 15 years). Really, the Paraguay river flow is not a good surrogate to study precipitation variation. The low-frequency signals play an important role in the flow behaviour, especially during extreme events from the second half of the last century onwards.

  18. Seasonal Variation in Female Mate Choice and Operational Sex Ratio in Wild Populations of an Annual Fish, Austrolebias reicherti

    PubMed Central

    Passos, Carlos; Tassino, Bettina; Reyes, Federico; Rosenthal, Gil G.

    2014-01-01

    The intensity of mating competition and the potential benefits for female of mating with certain males can be influenced by several extrinsic factors, such that behavioral decisions can be highly context-dependent. Short-lived species with a single reproductive season are a unique model to study context-sensitive mating decisions. Through exhaustive sampling in the field and simultaneous choice tests in the laboratory, we evaluated operational sex ratio (OSR) and female mate choice at the beginning and end of the reproductive season in the annual killifish Austrolebias reicherti. We found seasonal change in both OSR and female mate choice. At the start of the reproductive season the OSR did not deviate from parity, and females preferred larger males. Later in the reproductive season, while the proportion of males in the ponds decreased, females became unselective with respect to male size. The particular biological cycle of annual killifish, where both life expectancy and mating opportunities decline sharply over a short timescale, could account for the seasonal change in female choice. Reduction in choosiness could arise from diminished reproductive prospects due to a decline in male availability. Moreover, as the end of the season approaches, any benefits of choosiness are presumably reduced: a female’s fitness will be higher if she mates with any male than if she forgoes reproduction and dies. Future work will disentangle the mechanisms underlying seasonal changes in mating preferences, notably direct responses to demographic factors, environmental cues, or intrinsic changes during development. PMID:25029019

  19. Seasonal prediction of Indian summer monsoon: Sensitivity to persistent SST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sukanta Kumar; Deb, Sanjib Kumar; Kishtawal, C. M.; Pal, Pradip Kumar

    2013-10-01

    In the present study, the assessment of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) developed at National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) for seasonal forecasting of Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) with different persistent SST is reported. Towards achieving the objective, 30-year model climatology has been generated using observed SST. Upon successful simulation of climatological features of ISM, the model is tested for the simulation of ISM 2011 in forecast mode. Experiments have been conducted in three different time-phases, viz., April, May and June; using different sets of initial conditions (ICs) and the persistent SSTs of the previous months of the time-phases. The spatial as well as temporal distribution of model simulated rainfall suggest a below normal monsoon condition throughout the season in all the experiments. However, the rainfall anomaly shows some positive signature over north-east part of India in the month of June and August whereas the central Indian landmass had positive anomaly during August and September. The monthly accumulated All-India rainfall (AIR) over land for June to September 2011 are predicted to be 101% (17.6 cm), 86% (24.3 cm), 83% (21.0 cm) and 95% (15.5 cm) of normal AIR, respectively. This makes the seasonal accumulated AIR 78.4 cm which is 11% below the normal rainfall of 87.6 cm. The model prediction for the months of June and July is comparable with the observation; however, the simulation would not be able to capture the high rainfall during August and September. The intention behind this work is to assess the shortcomings in the CAM model prediction, which can later be improved for future monsoon forecast experiments.

  20. NMME Monthly / Seasonal Forecasts for NASA SERVIR Applications Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Franklin R.; Roberts, Jason B.

    2014-01-01

    This work details use of the North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) experimental forecasts as drivers for Decision Support Systems (DSSs) in the NASA / USAID initiative, SERVIR (a Spanish acronym meaning "to serve"). SERVIR integrates satellite observations, ground-based data and forecast models to monitor and forecast environmental changes and to improve response to natural disasters. Through the use of DSSs whose "front ends" are physically based models, the SERVIR activity provides a natural testbed to determine the extent to which NMME monthly to seasonal projections enable scientists, educators, project managers and policy implementers in developing countries to better use probabilistic outlooks of seasonal hydrologic anomalies in assessing agricultural / food security impacts, water availability, and risk to societal infrastructure. The multi-model NMME framework provides a "best practices" approach to probabilistic forecasting. The NMME forecasts are generated at resolution more coarse than that required to support DSS models; downscaling in both space and time is necessary. The methodology adopted here applied model output statistics where we use NMME ensemble monthly projections of sea-surface temperature (SST) and precipitation from 30 years of hindcasts with observations of precipitation and temperature for target regions. Since raw model forecasts are well-known to have structural biases, a cross-validated multivariate regression methodology (CCA) is used to link the model projected states as predictors to the predictands of the target region. The target regions include a number of basins in East and South Africa as well as the Ganges / Baramaputra / Meghna basin complex. The MOS approach used address spatial downscaling. Temporal disaggregation of monthly seasonal forecasts is achieved through use of a tercile bootstrapping approach. We interpret the results of these studies, the levels of skill by several metrics, and key uncertainties.

  1. NMME Monthly / Seasonal Forecasts for NASA SERVIR Applications Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, F. R.; Roberts, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    This work details use of the North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) experimental forecasts as drivers for Decision Support Systems (DSSs) in the NASA / USAID initiative, SERVIR (a Spanish acronym meaning "to serve"). SERVIR integrates satellite observations, ground-based data and forecast models to monitor and forecast environmental changes and to improve response to natural disasters. Through the use of DSSs whose "front ends" are physically based models, the SERVIR activity provides a natural testbed to determine the extent to which NMME monthly to seasonal projections enable scientists, educators, project managers and policy implementers in developing countries to better use probabilistic outlooks of seasonal hydrologic anomalies in assessing agricultural / food security impacts, water availability, and risk to societal infrastructure. The multi-model NMME framework provides a "best practices" approach to probabilistic forecasting. The NMME forecasts are generated at resolution more coarse than that required to support DSS models; downscaling in both space and time is necessary. The methodology adopted here applied model output statistics where we use NMME ensemble monthly projections of sea-surface temperature (SST) and precipitation from 30 years of hindcasts with observations of precipitation and temperature for target regions. Since raw model forecasts are well-known to have structural biases, a cross-validated multivariate regression methodology (CCA) is used to link the model projected states as predictors to the predictands of the target region. The target regions include a number of basins in East and South Africa as well as the Ganges / Baramaputra / Meghna basin complex. The MOS approach used address spatial downscaling. Temporal disaggregation of monthly seasonal forecasts is achieved through use of a tercile bootstrapping approach. We interpret the results of these studies, the levels of skill by several metrics, and key uncertainties.

  2. FMRI of visual working memory in high school football players.

    PubMed

    Shenk, Trey E; Robinson, Meghan E; Svaldi, Diana O; Abbas, Kausar; Breedlove, Katherine M; Leverenz, Larry J; Nauman, Eric A; Talavage, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    Visual working memory deficits have been observed in at-risk athletes. This study uses a visual N-back working memory functional magnetic resonance imaging task to longitudinally assess asymptomatic football athletes for abnormal activity. Athletes were increasingly "flagged" as the season progressed. Flagging may provide early detection of injury. PMID:25961587

  3. Inter-annual Variation in Growing Season Length of a Tropical Seasonal Forest in Northern Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshifuji, N.; Tanaka, N.; Suzuki, M.; Tantasirin, C.

    2007-12-01

    Growing season length is an important factor affecting energy balance and water and carbon cycling at deciduous forests. The impact of its inter-annual variation on annual energy and carbon exchange is likely to be critical especially in tropical region because of high radiant energy throughout the year; however, few studies investigated inter-annual variation in growing season length of tropical deciduous forests. This study revealed year-to-year variations in the canopy duration and transpiration period as measures of growing season length using time series data of radiative transmittance and heat pulse velocities of canopy trees in a teak plantation in northern Thailand from 2001 to 2006. This study also examined whether year-to-year variation in growing season revealed by field measurements could be detected by satellite NDVI data, as a first step to investigate the inter- annual variation in growing season length of deciduous forests over tropical monsoon region. Leaf-out and transpiration commenced earlier in 2001 than other years following exceptionally heavy rainfall in the late dry season, suggesting that enhanced soil moisture advanced leaf unfolding and start of transpiration. Leaf-fall and decline in transpiration at the beginning of 2003 were late in coming in correlation with a prolonged rainy season. Declines in transpiration were directly controlled by soil moisture at the beginning of the dry season. These results revealed that soil moisture is a major cause of large inter-annual variation in the growing season at this site. Seasonal variation in NDVI corresponded to that of LAI, while transpiration declined earlier than LAI and NDVI in the dry season. Year-to-year variation in canopy duration could be also detected by NDVI. The variation in canopy duration and transpiration period of this site from 2001-2006 spanned about 60 days. This was much larger than the inter-annual variations previously reported in temperate deciduous forests, implying a

  4. Seasonal Stream Flow Forecasting and Decision Support in Central Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, D. W.; Nykanen, D. K.; Mahmoud, M.; Wei, W.

    2003-12-01

    A decision support model based on stream flow ensemble forecasts has been developed for the Lower Colorado River Authority in Central Texas, and predictive skill is added to climatology-based forecasts by conditioning the ensembles on observable climate indicators. These indicators include stream flow (persistence), soil moisture, and large-scale recurrent patterns such as the El Nino-Southern Oscillation, Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and the North Atlantic Oscillation. In the absence of historical soil moisture measurements, the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) Retrospective Land Surface Data Set is applied. Strong correlation between observed runoff volumes and runoff volumes simulated by the (uncalibrated) VIC model indicates the viability of this approach. Following correlation analysis to screen potential predictors, a Bayesian procedure for updating ensemble probabilities is outlined, and various skill scores are reviewed for evaluating forecast performance. Verification of the ensemble forecasts using a resampling procedure indicates a small but potentially significant improvement in forecast skill over climatology that could be exploited in seasonal water management decisions. Future work involves evaluation of seasonal soil moisture forecasts, further evaluation of annual flow forecasts, incorporation of climate forecasts in reservoir operating rules, and estimation of the value of the forecasts.

  5. Seasonal microbiological quality of air in veterinary practices in Poland.

    PubMed

    Sitkowska, Jolanta; Sitkowski, Wiesław; Sitkowski, Łukasz; Lutnicki, Krzysztof; Adamek, Łukasz; Wilkołek, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies focused on the bioaerosols in the areas of industry, agriculture and animal husbandry, concerning both residential and public buildings, have been conducted continuously for many years. The aim of the present work was to determine the concentration and composition of mesophilic bacterial flora in the air of selected medical and veterinary clinics located in the cities and in the countryside. Air sampling was carried out in 2011-2013 in 44 veterinary practices in autumn-winter and spring-summer seasons. The concentration of bacteria ranged from 39 - 5,034 cfu/m(3) , with higher values recorded in offices operating in the cities. In the examined medical and veterinary offices, Gram-positive bacteria comprised the largest group of microorganisms, among which Gram-positive cocci of the genus Staphylococcus prevailed, with the highest average of 1,074.40 cfu/m(3) in urban offices during the autumn season. The smallest group was represented by Gram-negative bacteria, with a concentration of 0.0 - 215 cfu/m(3). In total, 93 kinds/species of bacteria were identified. A 12-month series of studies showed the highest mean concentrations of microorganisms in autumn for offices located in the city, while the lowest in winter for rural centres. The environment of veterinary offices is a habitat of pathogenic and potentially pathogenic bacteria, which may pose health problems not only for residents, but also for the animals. PMID:26706965

  6. Oceanic influence on seasonal malaria outbreaks over Senegal and Sahel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diouf, Ibrahima; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Belen; Deme, Abdoulaye; Cisse Cisse, Moustapha; Ndione Ndione, Jaques-Andre; Gaye, Amadou T.; Suarez, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Beyond assessment and analysis of observed and simulated malaria parameters, this study is furthermore undertaken in the framework of predictability of malaria outbreaks in Senegal and remote regions in Sahel, which are found to take place two months after the rainy season. The predictors are the sea surface temperature anomalous patterns at different ocean basins mainly over the Pacific and Atlantic as they are related to changes in air temperature, humidity, rainfall and wind. A relationship between El Niño and anomalous malaria parameters is found. The malaria parameters are calculated with the Liverpool Malaria Model (LMM) using meteorological datasets from different reanalysis products. A hindcast of these parameters is performed using the Sea Surface temperature based Statistical Seasonal ForeCAST (S4CAST) model developed at UCM in order to predict malaria parameters some months in advance. The results of this work will be useful for decision makers to better access to climate forecasts and application on malaria transmission risk.

  7. Developing seasonal rainfall scenarios for food security early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husak, Gregory J.; Funk, Christopher C.; Michaelsen, Joel; Magadzire, Tamuka; Goldsberry, Kirk P.

    2013-10-01

    Rainfed agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa accounts for 95 % of the local cereal production, impacting hundreds of millions of people. Early identification of poor rainfall conditions is a critical indicator of food security. As such, monitoring accumulated seasonal rainfall gives an important mid-season estimate of final accumulated totals. However, characterizing the remaining uncertainty in a season has largely been ignored by the food security community. This paper presents a new technique describing rainfall conditions over the duration of a crop-growing cycle by combining estimated rainfall-to-date with potential scenarios for the remaining season based on available satellite rainfall estimates, the common tool for rainfall analysis in Africa. The limited historical record provided by satellite rainfall estimates using previous seasons provides only a coarse view of likely seasonal totals. To combat this, scenarios developed by bootstrapping dekadal data to create synthetic seasons allow for a finer understanding of potential seasonal accumulations. Updating this throughout the season shows a narrowing envelope of seasonal totals, converging on the final seasonal result. The resulting scenarios inform the expectations for the final seasonal rainfall accumulation, allowing analysts to quantify and visualize the uncertainty in seasonal totals. Giving decision makers a tool for understanding the likelihood of specific rainfall amounts provides additional time to enact and mobilize efforts to reduce the impact of agricultural drought.

  8. Cost effective seasonal storage of wind energy

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallo, A.J.; Keck, M.B.

    1995-09-01

    Seasonal variation of the wind electric potential on the Great Plains could be a significant obstacle to the large scale utilization of wind generated electricity. Wind power densities usually are greatest during the spring, and decrease by at least 30 percent relative to the annual average in many areas during the summer months, when demand is highest. This problem can be overcome by using an oversized wind farm and a compressed air energy storage system (a baseload wind energy system). A minimum volume storage reservoir is needed to transform intermittent wind energy to baseload power, while a larger reservoir can be used to store excess power produced during the spring for either peak power or baseload output during the summer. The yearly average cost of energy increases by about 3 percent for the largest storage reservoir, indicating the seasonal storage of wind energy is economically as well as technically feasible.

  9. Development of West African Rainy Seasons (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, K. H.

    2013-12-01

    The development of West African rainy seasons in the observed climatology can be understood in terms of two factors: continentality, i.e., the shape and placement of the African continent, and solar forcing. First, the observed features of the West African spring and summer precipitation climatology that distinguish it from the precipitation climatology of the tropical Atlantic to the east and Central/Eastern Africa to the west are presented. These include a lingering of the precipitation maximum along the Guinean coast in June and the apparent sudden movement of the precipitation maximum into the Sahel in early July. Then, these distinguishing features of the West Africa precipitation climatology are explained in terms of the regional dynamics and, finally, related to continentality and solar forcing through the roles of the African easterly jet, land surface temperature, and seasonally-varying SSTs.

  10. Seasonal variations of snow depth on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.; Neumann, G. A.

    2001-01-01

    Using topography collected over one martian year from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft, we have measured temporal changes in the elevation of the martian surface that correlate with the seasonal cycle of carbon dioxide exchange between the surface and atmosphere. The greatest elevation change (1.5 to 2 meters) occurs at high latitudes ( above 80 degrees ), whereas the bulk of the mass exchange occurs at lower latitudes (below 75 degrees N and below 73 degrees S). An unexpected period of sublimation was observed during northern hemisphere autumn, coincident with dust storms in the southern hemisphere. Analysis of MGS Doppler tracking residuals revealed temporal variations in the flattening of Mars that correlate with elevation changes. The combined changes in gravity and elevation constrain the average density of seasonally deposited carbon dioxide to be 910 +/- 230 kilograms per cubic meter, which is considerably denser than terrestrial snow.

  11. Seasonal flows on warm Martian slopes.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Alfred S; Ojha, Lujendra; Dundas, Colin M; Mattson, Sarah S; Byrne, Shane; Wray, James J; Cull, Selby C; Murchie, Scott L; Thomas, Nicolas; Gulick, Virginia C

    2011-08-01

    Water probably flowed across ancient Mars, but whether it ever exists as a liquid on the surface today remains debatable. Recurring slope lineae (RSL) are narrow (0.5 to 5 meters), relatively dark markings on steep (25° to 40°) slopes; repeat images from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment show them to appear and incrementally grow during warm seasons and fade in cold seasons. They extend downslope from bedrock outcrops, often associated with small channels, and hundreds of them form in some rare locations. RSL appear and lengthen in the late southern spring and summer from 48°S to 32°S latitudes favoring equator-facing slopes, which are times and places with peak surface temperatures from ~250 to 300 kelvin. Liquid brines near the surface might explain this activity, but the exact mechanism and source of water are not understood. PMID:21817049

  12. The seasonal-cycle climate model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marx, L.; Randall, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The seasonal cycle run which will become the control run for the comparison with runs utilizing codes and parameterizations developed by outside investigators is discussed. The climate model currently exists in two parallel versions: one running on the Amdahl and the other running on the CYBER 203. These two versions are as nearly identical as machine capability and the requirement for high speed performance will allow. Developmental changes are made on the Amdahl/CMS version for ease of testing and rapidity of turnaround. The changes are subsequently incorporated into the CYBER 203 version using vectorization techniques where speed improvement can be realized. The 400 day seasonal cycle run serves as a control run for both medium and long range climate forecasts alsensitivity studies.

  13. Seasonal flows on warm Martian slopes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEwen, Alfred S.; Ojha, Lujendra; Dundas, Colin M.; Mattson, Sarah S.; Byrne, Shane; Wray, James J.; Cull, Selby C.; Murchie, Scott L.; Thomas, Nicolas; Gulick, Virginia C.

    2011-01-01

    Water probably flowed across ancient Mars, but whether it ever exists as a liquid on the surface today remains debatable. Recurring slope lineae (RSL) are narrow (0.5 to 5 meters), relatively dark markings on steep (25° to 40°) slopes; repeat images from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment show them to appear and incrementally grow during warm seasons and fade in cold seasons. They extend downslope from bedrock outcrops, often associated with small channels, and hundreds of them form in some rare locations. RSL appear and lengthen in the late southern spring and summer from 48°S to 32°S latitudes favoring equator-facing slopes, which are times and places with peak surface temperatures from ~250 to 300 kelvin. Liquid brines near the surface might explain this activity, but the exact mechanism and source of water are not understood.

  14. Seasonal flows on warm Martian slopes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEwen, A.S.; Ojha, L.; Dundas, C.M.; Mattson, S.S.; Byrne, S.; Wray, J.J.; Cull, S.C.; Murchie, S.L.; Thomas, N.; Gulick, V.C.

    2011-01-01

    Water probably flowed across ancient Mars, but whether it ever exists as a liquid on the surface today remains debatable. Recurring slope lineae (RSL) are narrow (0.5 to 5 meters), relatively dark markings on steep (25?? to 40??) slopes; repeat images from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment show them to appear and incrementally grow during warm seasons and fade in cold seasons. They extend downslope from bedrock outcrops, often associated with small channels, and hundreds of them form in some rare locations. RSL appear and lengthen in the late southern spring and summer from 48??S to 32??S latitudes favoring equator-facing slopes, which are times and places with peak surface temperatures from ???250 to 300 kelvin. Liquid brines near the surface might explain this activity, but the exact mechanism and source of water are not understood.

  15. Seasonal distribution of psychiatric births in England.

    PubMed

    Disanto, Giulio; Morahan, Julia M; Lacey, Melanie V; DeLuca, Gabriele C; Giovannoni, Gavin; Ebers, George C; Ramagopalan, Sreeram V

    2012-01-01

    There is general consensus that season of birth influences the risk of developing psychiatric conditions later in life. We aimed to investigate whether the risk of schizophrenia (SC), bipolar affective disorder (BAD) and recurrent depressive disorder (RDD) is influenced by month of birth in England to a similar extent as other countries using the largest cohort of English patients collected to date (n = 57,971). When cases were compared to the general English population (n = 29,183,034) all diseases showed a seasonal distribution of births (SC p = 2.48E-05; BAD p = 0.019; RDD p = 0.015). This data has implications for future strategies of disease prevention. PMID:22496872

  16. Seasonal programming of adult longevity in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaiserman, A. M.; Collinson, A. C.; Koshel, N. M.; Belaja, I. I.; Voitenko, V. P.

    2002-09-01

    Longevity was significantly associated with season of birth in 101,634 individuals who died in Kiev during the period 1990-2000. The relationship between age at death and month of birth showed a very similar pattern for both men and women. Mean values for the age at death were lowest for subjects born in April-July, and highest for individuals born at the beginning and end of the year. Minimum and maximum ages at death, analysed according to month of birth, differed by 2.6 years in men and 2.3 years in women. For all major causes of death causes, the mean age at death for persons born in the fourth quarter was the highest. These results suggest that, in this population, longevity is affected by prenatal or early postnatal seasonal factors. This is consistent with the hypothesis that the rate of ageing may be programmed in response to environmental influences at critical periods of early development.

  17. Seasonal variations of snow depth on Mars.

    PubMed

    Smith, D E; Zuber, M T; Neumann, G A

    2001-12-01

    Using topography collected over one martian year from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft, we have measured temporal changes in the elevation of the martian surface that correlate with the seasonal cycle of carbon dioxide exchange between the surface and atmosphere. The greatest elevation change (1.5 to 2 meters) occurs at high latitudes ( above 80 degrees ), whereas the bulk of the mass exchange occurs at lower latitudes (below 75 degrees N and below 73 degrees S). An unexpected period of sublimation was observed during northern hemisphere autumn, coincident with dust storms in the southern hemisphere. Analysis of MGS Doppler tracking residuals revealed temporal variations in the flattening of Mars that correlate with elevation changes. The combined changes in gravity and elevation constrain the average density of seasonally deposited carbon dioxide to be 910 +/- 230 kilograms per cubic meter, which is considerably denser than terrestrial snow. PMID:11739951

  18. Seasonal vegetation differences from ERTS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashley, M. D.; Rea, J.

    1975-01-01

    Knowledge of the times when crop and forest vegetation experience seasonally related changes in development is important in understanding growth and yield relationships. This article describes how densitometry of earth resources technology satellite (ERTS-1) multispectral scanner (MSS) imagery can be used to identify such phenological events. Adjustments for instrument calibration, aperture size, gray-scale differences between overpasses, and normalization of changing solar elevation are considered in detail. Seasonal vegetation differences can be identified by densitometry of band 5 (0.6-0.7 microns) and band 7 (0.8-1.1 microns) MSS imagery. Band-to-band ratios of the densities depicted the changes more graphically than the individual band readings.

  19. Seasonal issues can chill powerplant profits

    SciTech Connect

    Swanekamp, R.

    1996-07-01

    Profitable operation requires minimizing the seasonal constraints imposed by weather. This article describes how forward-thinking operators review their plans for winterization and hot-weather operation--before the thermometer darts toward either extreme. new cooling towers (CTs) are no longer oversized, leaving little room for fouling that can shoot up in hot weather. Also, powerplants are no longer being designed with surplus heat exchangers and redundant pumps--features that can help a plant get through extreme temperatures. And at a growing list of plants, the CTs are eliminated altogether, in favor of air-cooled (AC) condensers--which can have their own trouble holding condenser vacuum when the outdoor thermometer skyrockets; and, like their CT cousins, can suffer serious failures if improperly operated in winter`s freeze. Although design margins are being stretched thin, seasoned operations and maintenance (O and M) teams can minimize the constraints imposed by mother nature.

  20. Health issues of migrant and seasonal farmworkers.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Eric; Donohoe, Martin

    2003-05-01

    This paper describes the socioeconomic conditions under which the 3 to 5 million migrant and seasonal farmworkers in the United States live. Health consequences resulting from occupational hazards and from poverty, substandard living conditions, migrancy, language and cultural barriers, and impaired access to health care are described. Specific problems include infectious diseases, chemical- and pesticide-related illnesses, dermatitis, heat stress, respiratory conditions, musculoskeletal disorders and traumatic injuries, reproductive health problems, dental diseases, cancer, poor child health, inadequate preventive care, and social and mental health problems. By increasing awareness among health care professionals of the plight of migrant and seasonal farmworkers, the authors hope to encourage development of a stronger public health infrastructure and to improve the health status of these individuals. PMID:12739296

  1. Identifying seasonal stars in Kaurna astronomical traditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2015-03-01

    Early ethnographers and missionaries recorded Aboriginal languages and oral traditions across Australia. Their general lack of astronomical training resulted in misidentifications, transcription errors and omissions in these records. In western Victoria and southeast South Australia many astronomical traditions were recorded but, cur- iously, some of the brightest stars in the sky were omitted. Scholars claimed these stars did not feature in Aboriginal traditions. This continues to be repeated in the literature, but current research shows that these stars may in fact feature in Aboriginal traditions and could be seasonal calendar markers. This paper uses established techniques to identify seasonal stars in the traditions of the Kaurna Aboriginal people of the Adelaide Plains, South Australia.

  2. Distress Seasonal Migration and Its Impact on Children's Education. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 28

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smita

    2008-01-01

    Seasonal migration for work by poor rural families is a phenomenon that is escalating as the agrarian crisis mounts. Millions of families that migrate are compelled to take their children along, leaving school and a normal childhood behind. They spend several months every year at work sites such as brick kilns, salt pans, plantations and stone…

  3. Seasonal variation in anencephalus in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Elwood, J M

    1975-01-01

    A study of the monthly numbers of stillbirths and of deaths due to anencephalus in Canada from 1954 to 1962 showed a weak tendency to a winter excess of affected births. The seasonal trend was more marked in the Prarie provinces and in Quebec than elsewhere; the maximum rate of anencephalus occurrence was in October to December in the Prairies and in British Columbia, and in January to March in other regions. PMID:1137766

  4. Estimating Viscoelastic Deformation Due to Seasonal Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauber, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    Scientists have been making summer-­-time geodetic measurements in south central Alaska for decades to estimate the rate at which a continental-­-ocean terrane is accreting to the North American continent. Southern Alaska has big earthquakes every century and large, rapidly changing glaciers. In the last decade, primarily as part of the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory project, continuous GPS measurements have recorded the response of sites such as the near-­-coastal geodetic site, AB35 to competing processes: uplift and movement to the northwest due to tectonic forces and the response of the solid Earth to seasonal and longer-­-term changes in the cryosphere (snow and ice) surrounding the site. Which process causes the largest displacements of the site? Figure 1 (Blewitt, Nevada Geodetic Lab, 2015) shows the Northward, Eastward, and Upward motion of AB35 between 2007 and 2015. The site is moving rapidly to the north and west reflecting the tectonic convergence of site toward interior Alaska but there is small wiggle on the North component reflecting seasonal displacements of the site associated with snow loading and unloading. However, the Up component, shows a large seasonal signal due to snow loading in the winter (down) and ice and snow melting in the warmer months (site goes up). Between 2007 and the present, the site position is slowly moving upward, due to tectonic forcing but probably associated with longer-­- term ice melting as well. We are using the CIG finite element modeling (FEM) program Pylith to estimate the surface displacements and stresses associated with seasonal loading changes (top figure and Figure 2 far right) for water year 2012, 2011.8 - 2012.8) and the longer-­-term retreat of the surrounding glaciers.

  5. Varying alpha: New constraints from seasonal variations

    SciTech Connect

    Barrow, John D.; Shaw, Douglas J.

    2008-09-15

    We analyze the constraints obtained from new atomic clock data on the possible time variation of the fine structure 'constant' and the electron-proton mass ratio, and show how they are strengthened when the seasonal variation of the Sun's gravitational field at the Earth's surface is taken into account. We compare these bounds with those obtainable from tests of the weak equivalence principle and high redshift observations of quasar absorption spectra.

  6. Seasonal Solar Thermal Absorption Energy Storage Development.

    PubMed

    Daguenet-Frick, Xavier; Gantenbein, Paul; Rommel, Mathias; Fumey, Benjamin; Weber, Robert; Gooneseker, Kanishka; Williamson, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a thermochemical seasonal storage with emphasis on the development of a reaction zone for an absorption/desorption unit. The heat and mass exchanges are modelled and the design of a suitable reaction zone is explained. A tube bundle concept is retained for the heat and mass exchangers and the units are manufactured and commissioned. Furthermore, experimental results of both absorption and desorption processes are presented and the exchanged power is compared to the results of the simulations. PMID:26842331

  7. Changing seasonality of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahru, Mati; Elmgren, Ragnar; Savchuk, Oleg P.

    2016-02-01

    Changes in the phenology of physical and ecological variables associated with climate change are likely to have significant effect on many aspects of the Baltic ecosystem. We apply a set of phenological indicators to multiple environmental variables measured by satellite sensors for 17-36 years to detect possible changes in the seasonality in the Baltic Sea environment. We detect significant temporal changes, such as earlier start of the summer season and prolongation of the productive season, in several variables ranging from basic physical drivers to ecological status indicators. While increasing trends in the absolute values of variables like sea-surface temperature (SST), diffuse attenuation of light (Ked490) and satellite-detected chlorophyll concentration (CHL) are detectable, the corresponding changes in their seasonal cycles are more dramatic. For example, the cumulative sum of 30 000 W m-2 of surface incoming shortwave irradiance (SIS) was reached 23 days earlier in 2014 compared to the beginning of the time series in 1983. The period of the year with SST of at least 17 °C has almost doubled (from 29 days in 1982 to 56 days in 2014), and the period with Ked490 over 0.4 m-1 has increased from about 60 days in 1998 to 240 days in 2013 - i.e., quadrupled. The period with satellite-estimated CHL of at least 3 mg m-3 has doubled from approximately 110 days in 1998 to 220 days in 2013. While the timing of both the phytoplankton spring and summer blooms have advanced, the annual CHL maximum that in the 1980s corresponded to the spring diatom bloom in May has now shifted to the summer cyanobacteria bloom in July.

  8. A multisite seasonal ensemble streamflow forecasting technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, Cameron; Rajagopalan, Balaji; Prairie, James

    2010-03-01

    We present a technique for providing seasonal ensemble streamflow forecasts at several locations simultaneously on a river network. The framework is an integration of two recent approaches: the nonparametric multimodel ensemble forecast technique and the nonparametric space-time disaggregation technique. The four main components of the proposed framework are as follows: (1) an index gauge streamflow is constructed as the sum of flows at all the desired spatial locations; (2) potential predictors of the spring season (April-July) streamflow at this index gauge are identified from the large-scale ocean-atmosphere-land system, including snow water equivalent; (3) the multimodel ensemble forecast approach is used to generate the ensemble flow forecast at the index gauge; and (4) the ensembles are disaggregated using a nonparametric space-time disaggregation technique resulting in forecast ensembles at the desired locations and for all the months within the season. We demonstrate the utility of this technique in skillful forecast of spring seasonal streamflows at four locations in the Upper Colorado River Basin at different lead times. Where applicable, we compare the forecasts to the Colorado Basin River Forecast Center's Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP) and the National Resource Conservation Service "coordinated" forecast, which is a combination of the ESP, Statistical Water Supply, a principal component regression technique, and modeler knowledge. We find that overall, the proposed method is equally skillful to existing operational models while tending to better predict wet years. The forecasts from this approach can be a valuable input for efficient planning and management of water resources in the basin.

  9. Changing seasonality of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahru, M.; Elmgren, R.; Savchuk, O. P.

    2015-11-01

    Changes in the phenology of physical and ecological variables associated with climate change are likely to have significant effect on many aspects of the Baltic ecosystems. We apply a set of phenological indicators to multiple environmental variables measured by satellite sensors for 17-35 years to detect possible changes in the seasonality in the Baltic Sea environment. We detect significant temporal changes such as earlier start of the summer season and prolongation of the productive season in multiple variables ranging from basic physical drivers to ecological status indicators. While increasing trends in the absolute values of variables like sea-surface temperature (SST), diffuse attenuation of light (Ked490) and satellite-detected chlorophyll concentration (CHL) are detectable, the corresponding changes in their seasonal cycles are more dramatic. For example, the cumulative sum of 30 000 W m-2 of surface incoming shortwave irradiance (SIS) was reached 23 days earlier in 2014 compared to the beginning of the time series in 1983. The period of the year with SST of at least 17 °C has almost doubled (from 29 days in 1982 to 56 days in 2014), the period with Ked490 over 0.4 m-1 has increased from about 60 days in 1998 to 240 days in 2013, i.e. quadrupled. The period with satellite-detected CHL of at least 3 mg m-3 has doubled from approximately 110 days in 1998 to 220 days in 2013. While the timing of both the phytoplankton spring and summer blooms have advanced, the annual CHL maximum that in the 1980s corresponded to the spring diatom bloom in May has now switched to the summer cyanobacteria bloom in July.

  10. The Making of National Seasonal Wildfire Outlooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garfin, G. M.; Brown, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    Bridging the gap between research-based experiments and fully operational products has been likened to crossing the valley of death. In this talk, we document the development of pre-season fire potential outlooks, informed by seasonal climate predictions, through a long-term collaboration between NOAA RISA teams, the Program for Climate, Ecosystem and Fire Applications (Desert Research Institute), the National Interagency Fire Center's Predictive Services program and multiple collaborators. To transition experimental outlooks into a sustained, monthly operational product, we co-developed a temporary institution, the National Seasonal Assessment Workshops, as a platform for cross-disciplinary knowledge exchange, training, and experimentation in consensus forecast processes and product development. In our retrospective evaluation of the process, we identified several factors that supported the transition from research to operations. These include: the development of new institutions; focus on a geographic scale commensurate with the needs of federal and state land management agencies; participatory and deliberative engagements; cooperation by many partners with perspectives on the connections between climate and wildland fire management; and iterative engagement sustained by funding and human resource commitments from the key partners. Through co-production of the outlooks and the institution, we created a cross-disciplinary community of practice, thus, increasing the capacity of fire management practitioners to use climate information in decision making. This experiment in developing a collaborative climate service was not an unqualified success. For example, while practitioners almost always *consult* official probabilistic climate forecasts, based on the output from dynamical and statistical models, they sometimes *act* on information from self-constructed forecasts, based on analysis of analogue years. We recommend research to further examine the distribution and

  11. The source of the Leeuwin Current seasonality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgway, K. R.; Godfrey, J. S.

    2015-10-01

    The seasonal circulation around the southwestern boundary of Australia is documented using sea level anomalies from satellite altimetry. Results extrapolated to the coast agree closely with tide gauge observations indicating that seasonal altimeter fields are realistic. Monthly sea level maps identify an annual propagating wave along a waveguide extending along the shelf edge, from the Gulf of Carpentaria to southern Tasmania. The annual sea level pulse does not originate from the Pacific Ocean, as annual Pacific sea level variations are completely out of phase with signals south of the Indonesian archipelago. The presence of a phase discontinuity is demonstrated in annual sea level, temperature, and salinity observations. The origin of the Leeuwin Current seasonality is in the Gulf of Carpentaria where monsoonal winds drive a massive buildup of sea level from November to December. During December-February, a sea level "pulse" emerges from the region, and rapidly propagates poleward along the western and southern Australian boundary. In the broad shelf region centered at 19°S, an independent process forms a high sea level feature when a positive heat flux anomaly induces an annual increase in sea surface temperature which is rapidly mixed through the water column by the strong regional tides. In March, the winds relax and switch to a downwelling favorable alongshore component. In this period, the sea level pulse is essentially in a quasi-static equilibrium with the annual propagating wind systems. The change in cross-shelf sea level gradient along the 8000 km path length at the western and southern boundaries, drives the seasonal changes in the Leeuwin Current flow.

  12. The Impact of Fluctuations in Precipitation and Temperature on the Seasonal Snowpack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    The development and melting of the seasonal snowpack depends on complex interactions among climate elements. Previous work (Woods 2009, Adv. Wat. Res.) showed how the typical seasonal variation of temperature and precipitation rate influence snowpack development. Results were expressed in terms of three dimensionless variables for: seasonal temperature regime; seasonality of precipitation; and depth of the snowpack relative to the energy available for melting. However, that theory does not take account of sub-seasonal fluctuations in temperature and precipitation, and as a consequence, makes poor predictions of snow storage in some climates. Here we write a stochastic differential equation for snow storage, and then derive an equation for time variation of the probability distribution (pdf) of snow water equivalent (SWE). This provides a detailed but compact understanding of how temperature and precipitation interact to influence the seasonal accumulation and melt of snow. From this equation, we can estimate statistics such as the mean and standard deviation of SWE on any day of the year, and the mean residence time of snow, and see how they are related to climate characteristics. To develop the equation, we first describe temperature and precipitation with 4 parameters each, defining the mean, seasonal amplitude, seasonal timing, and sub-seasonal fluctuations. To simulate the response of the snowpack to climate, we use a temperature index model with two parameters: a degree-day melt factor and a threshold temperature. By writing the equation for snow storage in dimensionless form, we reduce the problem to five dimensionless parameters, three of them the same as found by Woods (2009), plus one each for the sub-seasonal fluctuations in precipitation and temperature. In the special case of no fluctuations in temperature and precipitation, the new equation reduces to the deterministic case of Woods (2009). We verify by Monte Carlo simulation that that the probability

  13. The Impact of Fluctuations in Precipitation and Temperature on the Seasonal Snowpack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Ross

    2016-04-01

    The development and melting of the seasonal snowpack depends on complex interactions among climate elements. Previous work (Woods 2009, Adv. Wat. Res.) showed how the typical seasonal variation of temperature and precipitation rate influence snowpack development. Results were expressed in terms of three dimensionless variables for: seasonal temperature regime; seasonality of precipitation; and depth of the snowpack relative to the energy available for melting. However, that theory does not take account of sub-seasonal fluctuations in temperature and precipitation, and as a consequence, makes poor predictions of snow storage in some climates. Here we write a stochastic differential equation for point-scale snow water equivalent (SWE), and then derive an equation for time variation of the probability distribution (pdf) of SWE. This provides a detailed but compact understanding of how temperature and precipitation interact to influence the seasonal accumulation and melt of snow. From this equation, we can estimate statistics such as the mean and standard deviation of SWE on any day of the year, and the mean residence time of snow, and see how they are related to climate characteristics. To develop the equation, we first describe temperature and precipitation with 4 parameters each, defining the mean, seasonal amplitude, seasonal timing, and sub-seasonal fluctuations. To simulate the response of the snowpack to climate, we use a temperature index model with two parameters: a degree-day melt factor and a threshold temperature. By writing the equation for snow storage in dimensionless form, we reduce the problem to five dimensionless parameters, three of them the same as found by Woods (2009), plus one each for the sub-seasonal fluctuations in precipitation and temperature. In the special case of no fluctuations in temperature and precipitation, the new equation reduces to the deterministic case of Woods (2009). We verify by Monte Carlo simulation that that the

  14. Seasonal Pattern in Suicide in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moqaddasi Amiri, Mohammad; Ahmadi Livani, Abdolkarim; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Mirzajani, Mohammadreza; Dehghan, Azizallah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Various studies have shown a seasonal pattern in suicide in the developed societies; however, this pattern is not taken into consideration in most countries including Iran. Objectives: The current paper studied the seasonal pattern of committing suicide in Northern Iran. Materials and Methods: The present study was a longitudinal study with time series features. Subject included suicide attempts recorded by emergency wards of all hospitals in Mazandaran province, Iran. The variable time, in this study, was defined as each month of study years (2005 - 2011), which included 84 monthly time points. To analyze data, the Student’s independent t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) test were used. Results: Of the 14,437 suicide attempts reported during the seven-year period, 5359 (37.1%) were related to males. Suicide attempts reached a peak in June (1418 cases) and November (1352 cases), but were at their lowest level in March (991 cases) (P = 0.877). Conclusions: The suicide seasonality range is broad in this part of Iran. Moreover, there were two noticeable suicide peaks in June and November. PMID:26576177

  15. Seasonal Variation in Human Gut Microbiome Composition

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, Emily R.; Mizrahi-Man, Orna; Michelini, Katelyn; Barreiro, Luis B.; Ober, Carole; Gilad, Yoav

    2014-01-01

    The composition of the human gut microbiome is influenced by many environmental factors. Diet is thought to be one of the most important determinants, though we have limited understanding of the extent to which dietary fluctuations alter variation in the gut microbiome between individuals. In this study, we examined variation in gut microbiome composition between winter and summer over the course of one year in 60 members of a founder population, the Hutterites. Because of their communal lifestyle, Hutterite diets are similar across individuals and remarkably stable throughout the year, with the exception that fresh produce is primarily served during the summer and autumn months. Our data indicate that despite overall gut microbiome stability within individuals over time, there are consistent and significant population-wide shifts in microbiome composition across seasons. We found seasonal differences in both (i) the abundance of particular taxa (false discovery rate <0.05), including highly abundant phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, and (ii) overall gut microbiome diversity (by Shannon diversity; P = 0.001). It is likely that the dietary fluctuations between seasons with respect to produce availability explain, at least in part, these differences in microbiome composition. For example, high levels of produce containing complex carbohydrates consumed during the summer months might explain increased abundance of Bacteroidetes, which contain complex carbohydrate digesters, and decreased levels of Actinobacteria, which have been negatively correlated to fiber content in food questionnaires. Our observations demonstrate the plastic nature of the human gut microbiome in response to variation in diet. PMID:24618913

  16. Estimating the seasonal maximum light use efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Kanako; Furumi, Shinobu; Soyama, Noriko; Daigo, Motomasa

    2014-11-01

    Light use efficiency (LUE) is a key parameter in estimating gross primary production (GPP) based on global Earth-observation satellite data and model calculations. In current LUE-based GPP estimation models, the maximum LUE is treated as a constant for each biome type. However, the maximum LUE varies seasonally. In this study, seasonal maximum LUE values were estimated from the maximum incident LUE versus the incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and the fraction of absorbed PAR. First, an algorithm to estimate maximum incident LUE was developed to estimate GPP capacity using a light response curve. One of the parameters required for the light response curve was estimated from the linear relationship of the chlorophyll index and the GPP capacity at a high PAR level of 2000 (µmolm-2s-1), and was referred to as" the maximum GPP capacity at 2000". The relationship was determined for six plant functional types: needleleaf deciduous trees, broadleaf deciduous trees, needleleaf evergreen trees, broadleaf evergreen trees, C3 grass, and crops. The maximum LUE values estimated in this study displayed seasonal variation, especially those for deciduous broadleaf forest, but also those for evergreen needleleaf forest.

  17. Seasonal slope surface deformation measured with TLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, L.; Smethurst, J.; Powrie, W.; Sellaiya, A.

    2014-03-01

    In temperate European climates, soil water removal due to vegetation transpiration peaks in summer and soil rewetting from higher levels of precipitation occurs in winter. In clays of high plasticity, the seasonal cycles of drying and wetting cause the soil to experience a volumetric change, resulting in seasonal shrinking and swelling. For a clay slope exhibiting volume change, such behaviour can lead to excessive deformation and could contribute to strain-softening and progressive slope failure. This can in turn cause traffic disruption and loss of life if roads and railways are founded on or surrounded by such slopes. This paper discusses the driving forces of seasonal surface movement, in particular the role of vegetation, and presents the use of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) to measure the surface movement of a lightly vegetated London Clay slope near Newbury, UK. Two TLS scans were carried out in early and late summer respectively, representing relative wet and dry conditions of the slope. Continuous field measurements of soil water content in upper layers of the slope were obtained from TDR ThetaProbes already installed at the site. The water content data are used to support the results obtained from TLS by indicating the likely volumetric change in the soil due to loss of water.

  18. Seasonal anomalies in the Canary Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-07-01

    Along the northwestern coast of Africa lies an important fishery, stimulated by an upwelling of cold, nutrient-rich, deep-ocean water. Driven by a complex convergence of ocean currents, the waters between the coast, the Portuguese island of Madeira, and the Canary Islands are known to vary dramatically throughout the year, seeing coastal current reversals near the shore and the location of the large-scale Canary Current drifting seasonally, moving offshore in the winter before returning toward the coast in the summer. To sort out the trigger for this seasonal drift, Mason et al. produced a high-resolution model of the Canary Current that captures details of its interaction with the coastal region where the deep water upwelling occurs. The authors found a pair of circular seasonal anomalies that they suggest control the strength and location of the Canary Current. The first, formed in late autumn, is a persistent, clockwise-spinning region of elevated sea surface height and increased flow rates. Its counterpart, a counterclockwise-rotating sea surface depression, is formed in the spring. Both anomalies spawn near the African coast and meander westward at around 2.6 kilometers per day, pushing their way out of the region over the course of a year. (Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, doi:10.1029/2010JC006665, 2011)

  19. Seasonal forecasting of fire over Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spessa, A. C.; Field, R. D.; Pappenberger, F.; Langner, A.; Englhart, S.; Weber, U.; Stockdale, T.; Siegert, F.; Kaiser, J. W.; Moore, J.

    2014-08-01

    Large-scale fires occur frequently across Indonesia, particularly in the southern region of Kalimantan and eastern Sumatra. They have considerable impacts on carbon emissions, haze production, biodiversity, health, and economic activities. In this study, we demonstrate that severe fire and haze events in Indonesia can generally be predicted months in advance using predictions of seasonal rainfall from the ECMWF System 4 coupled ocean-atmosphere model. Based on analyses of up-to-date and long series observations on burnt area and rainfall, and tree cover, we demonstrate that fire activity is negatively correlated with rainfall, and is positively associated with deforestation in Indonesia. There is a contrast between the southern region of Kalimantan (high fire activity, high tree cover loss and strong non-linear correlation between observed rainfall and fire) and the central region of Kalimantan (low fire activity, low tree cover loss and weak non-linear correlation between observed rainfall and fire). The ECMWF seasonal forecast provides skilled forecasts of burnt area with several months lead time explaining at least 70% of the variance between rainfall and with burnt area. Results are strongly influenced by El Niño years which show a consistent positive bias. Overall, our findings point to a high potential for using a more physical-based method for predicting fires with several months lead time in the tropics, rather than one based on indexes only. We argue that seasonal precipitation forecasts should be central to Indonesia's evolving fire management policy.

  20. Seasonal forecasting of fire over Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spessa, A. C.; Field, R. D.; Pappenberger, F.; Langner, A.; Englhart, S.; Weber, U.; Stockdale, T.; Siegert, F.; Kaiser, J. W.; Moore, J.

    2015-03-01

    Large-scale fires occur frequently across Indonesia, particularly in the southern region of Kalimantan and eastern Sumatra. They have considerable impacts on carbon emissions, haze production, biodiversity, health, and economic activities. In this study, we demonstrate that severe fire and haze events in Indonesia can generally be predicted months in advance using predictions of seasonal rainfall from the ECMWF System 4 coupled ocean-atmosphere model. Based on analyses of long, up-to-date series observations on burnt area, rainfall, and tree cover, we demonstrate that fire activity is negatively correlated with rainfall and is positively associated with deforestation in Indonesia. There is a contrast between the southern region of Kalimantan (high fire activity, high tree cover loss, and strong non-linear correlation between observed rainfall and fire) and the central region of Kalimantan (low fire activity, low tree cover loss, and weak, non-linear correlation between observed rainfall and fire). The ECMWF seasonal forecast provides skilled forecasts of burnt and fire-affected area with several months lead time explaining at least 70% of the variance between rainfall and burnt and fire-affected area. Results are strongly influenced by El Niño years which show a consistent positive bias. Overall, our findings point to a high potential for using a more physical-based method for predicting fires with several months lead time in the tropics rather than one based on indexes only. We argue that seasonal precipitation forecasts should be central to Indonesia's evolving fire management policy.

  1. The seasonal cycle of low stratiform clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Stephen A.; Hartmann, Dennis L.

    1993-01-01

    The seasonal cycle of low stratiform clouds is studied using data from surface-based cloud climatologies. The impact of low clouds on the radiation budget is illustrated by comparison of data from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment with the cloud climatologies. Ten regions of active stratocumulus convection are identified. These regions fall into four categories: subtropical marine, midlatitude marine, Arctic stratus, and Chinese stratus. With the exception of the Chinese region, all the regions with high amounts of stratus clouds are over the oceans. In all regions except the Arctic, the season of maximum stratus corresponds to the season of greatest lower-troposphere static stability. Interannual variations in stratus cloud amount also are related to changes in static stability. A linear analysis indicates that a 6 percent increase in stratus fractional area coverage is associated with each 1 C increase in static stability. Over midlatitude oceans, sky-obscuring fog is a large component of the summertime stratus amount. The amount of fog appears to be related to warm advection across sharp gradients of SST.

  2. SEASONAL VARIATION IN PLASMA SEX STEROID CONCENTRATION IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seasonal variation in plasma sex steroid concentrations is common in mature vertebrates, and is occasionally seen in juvenile animals. In this study, we examine the seasonal pattern of sex hormone concentration in juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) and make...

  3. 5 Ways to Prepare for Your Sports Season

    MedlinePlus

    ... Who Cuts? 5 Ways to Prepare for Your Sports Season KidsHealth > For Teens > 5 Ways to Prepare ... temporada deportiva 5 Ways to Prepare for Your Sports Season If you've ever played competitive sports, ...

  4. 50 CFR 622.435 - Seasonal and area closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... (a) Seasonal closures—(1) Seasonal closures applicable to specific species only—(i) Red, black, tiger... for or possess red, black, tiger, yellowfin, or yellowedge grouper in or from the Caribbean EEZ....

  5. 50 CFR 622.435 - Seasonal and area closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... (a) Seasonal closures—(1) Seasonal closures applicable to specific species only—(i) Red, black, tiger... for or possess red, black, tiger, yellowfin, or yellowedge grouper in or from the Caribbean EEZ....

  6. Markov Chain Estimation of Avian Seasonal Fecundity, Presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Avian seasonal fecundity is of interest from evolutionary, ecological, and conservation perspectives. However, direct estimation of seasonal fecundity is difficult, especially with multibrooded birds, and models representing the renesting and quitting processes are usually requi...

  7. Seasonal and regional characterization of horizontal stirring in the global ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HernáNdez-Carrasco, Ismael; López, Cristóbal; HernáNdez-GarcíA, Emilio; Turiel, Antonio

    2012-10-01

    Recent work on Lagrangian descriptors has shown that Lyapunov Exponents can be applied to observed or simulated data to characterize the horizontal stirring and transport properties of the oceanic flow. However, a more detailed analysis of regional dependence and seasonal variability was still lacking. In this paper, we analyze the near-surface velocity field obtained from the Ocean general circulation model For the Earth Simulator (OFES) using Finite-Size Lyapunov Exponents (FSLE). We have characterized regional and seasonal variability. Our results show that horizontal stirring, as measured by FSLEs, is seasonally-varying, with maximum values in Summer time. FSLEs also strongly vary depending on the region: we have first characterized the stirring properties of Northern and Southern Hemispheres, then the main oceanic basins and currents. We have finally studied the relation between averages of FSLE and some Eulerian descriptors such as Eddy Kinetic Energy (EKE) and vorticity (ω) over the different regions.

  8. Seasonal changes in the tests of fish Puntius ticto, and their relation to heavy metal toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Pundir, R. ); Saxena, A.B. )

    1990-08-01

    An integrated hypothesis explaining the implications of environmental influence on the reproductive process has not emerged owing to paucity of data. Nevertheless, evidence is at hand to show that favorable physiological disposition for reproduction is brought about with external and internal factors through the mediation of the neuroendocrine mechanisms. It is now clear that the environmental factors impinge on the exteroreceptors and through them affect the central nervous system, the hypothalamus, the pituitary and finally the gonad. Another endogenous factor is the internal rhythm, which is known to regulate at least in part the seasonal reproductive activity. A review of literature reveals that comparatively much work has been done on the structure and seasonal changes of the testes of fishes. The aim of the present study is to observe seasonal changes in the testes of fish Puntius ticto and their relation to heavy metal toxicity.

  9. Seasonal variations of the humoral immune parameters of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.).

    PubMed

    Valero, Yulema; García-Alcázar, Alicia; Esteban, M Ángeles; Cuesta, Alberto; Chaves-Pozo, Elena

    2014-08-01

    Seasonal cycles, mainly due to great variations in the light duration and temperature, are important and modulate several aspects of the animal behavior. In the case of poikilotherms animals such as fish this is very relevant. Thus, temperature changes fish immunity and affects disease resistance. We evaluate in this work the season variations of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) humoral innate parameters focusing on winter months, at which the culture of this specie is more difficult. Our results showed that not all the innate immune parameters are depressed by low temperatures. Moreover, some of them are more dependent than others to the season and both temperature and photoperiod are operating together. PMID:24852342

  10. Quantifying the influence of CO2 seasonality on future aragonite undersaturation onset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasse, T. P.; McNeil, B. I.; Matear, R. J.; Lenton, A.

    2015-10-01

    Ocean acidification is a predictable consequence of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), and is highly likely to impact the entire marine ecosystem - from plankton at the base of the food chain to fish at the top. Factors which are expected to be impacted include reproductive health, organism growth and species composition and distribution. Predicting when critical threshold values will be reached is crucial for projecting the future health of marine ecosystems and for marine resources planning and management. The impacts of ocean acidification will be first felt at the seasonal scale, however our understanding how seasonal variability will influence rates of future ocean acidification remains poorly constrained due to current model and data limitations. To address this issue, we first quantified the seasonal cycle of aragonite saturation state utilizing new data-based estimates of global ocean-surface dissolved inorganic carbon and alkalinity. This seasonality was then combined with earth system model projections under different emissions scenarios (representative concentration pathways; RCPs 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5) to provide new insights into future aragonite undersaturation onset. Under a high emissions scenario (RCP 8.5), our results suggest accounting for seasonality will bring forward the initial onset of month-long undersaturation by 17 ± 10 years compared to annual-mean estimates, with differences extending up to 35 ± 16 years in the North Pacific due to strong regional seasonality. This earlier onset will result in large-scale undersaturation once atmospheric CO2 reaches 496 ppm in the North Pacific and 511 ppm in the Southern Ocean, independent of emission scenario. This work suggests accounting for seasonality is critical to projecting the future impacts of ocean acidification on the marine environment.

  11. Predictive Understanding of Seasonal Hydrological Dynamics under Climate and Land Use-Land Cover Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batra, N.; Yang, Y. E.; Choi, H. I.; Kumar, P.; Cai, X.; Fraiture, C. D.

    2008-12-01

    Water has always been and will continue to be an important factor in agricultural production and any alteration in the seasonal distribution of water availability due to climate and land use-land cover change (LULCC) will significantly impact the future production. To achieve the ecologic, economic and social objectives of sustainability, physical understanding of the linkages between climatic changes, LULCC and hydrological response is required. Aided by satellite data, modeling and understanding of the interactions between physical processes of the climate system and society, more reliable regional LULCC and climate change projections are now available. However, resulting quantitative projection of changes on the regional scale hydrological components at the seasonal time scale are sparse. This study attempts to quantify the seasonal hydrological response due to projected LULCC and climate change scenario of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in different hydro-climatic regions of the world. The Common Land Model (CLM) is used for global assessment of future hydrologic response with the development of a consistent global GIS based database for the surface boundary conditions and meteorological forcing of the model. Future climate change projections are derived from the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Working Group I - The Physical Science Basis. The study is performed over nine river basins selected from Asia, Africa and North America to present the broad climatic and landscape controls on the seasonal hydrological dynamics. Future changes in water availability are quite evident from our results based upon changes in the volume and seasonality of precipitation, runoff and evapotranspiration. Severe water scarcity is projected to occur in certain seasons which may not be known through annual estimates. Knowledge of the projected seasonal hydrological response can be effectively used for developing adaptive management strategies for the sustainability

  12. Hemispheric asymmetry in martian seasonal surface water ice from MGS TES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bapst, Jonathan; Bandfield, Joshua L.; Wood, Stephen E.

    2015-11-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) visible/near-infrared and thermal infrared bolometers measured planetary broadband albedo and temperature for more than three Mars years. As seasons progress on Mars, surface temperatures may fall below the frost point of volatiles in the atmosphere (namely, carbon dioxide and water). Systematic mapping of the spatial and temporal occurrence of these volatiles in the martian atmosphere, on the surface, and in the subsurface has shown their importance in understanding the climate of Mars. We examine TES daytime albedo, temperature, and atmospheric opacity data to map the latitudinal and temporal occurrence of seasonal surface water frost on Mars. We expand on previous work by looking at the behavior of water frost over the entire martian year, made possible with comprehensive, multi-year data. Interpretations of frost are based on albedo changes and the corresponding daytime temperature range. Data is considered consistent with water frost when there are significant albedo increases (>0.05 relative to frost-free seasons) and the observed temperatures are ∼170-200 K. We argue the presence of extensive water frost in the northern hemisphere, extending from the pole to ∼40°N, following seasonal temperature trends. In the north, water frost first appears near the pole at Ls = ∼160° and is last observed at Ls = ∼90°. Extensive water frost is less evident in southern hemisphere data, though both hemispheres show data that are consistent with the presence of a water ice annulus during seasonal cap retreat. Hemispherical asymmetry in the occurrence of seasonal water frost is due in part to the lower (∼40%) atmospheric water vapor abundances observed in the southern hemisphere. Our results are consistent with net transport of water vapor to the northern hemisphere. The deposition and sublimation of seasonal water frost may significantly increase the near-surface water vapor density that could

  13. Trends in flood peaks' magnitude and seasonality in European transects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamantini, Elena; Mallucci, Stefano; Allamano, Paola; Claps, Pierluigi; Laio, Francesco; Viglione, Alberto; Hall, Julia; Blöschl, Günter

    2015-04-01

    In the last decade floods seems to have lashed more and more European population, so that more accurate studies concerning flood events tendencies are needed. We present a work in which trends in flood peaks' magnitude and seasonality (in time and space) are analyzed at the European scale: in total 2055 and 4340 stations respectively for magnitude and seasonality are considered along transect lines including entire nations, ranging typically from north to south of Europe. The work is part of the ERC Project "Deciphering River Flood Change". Trend analysis of flood magnitudes is applied to time series longer than 40 years. We find that there is a cluster of stations with negative trends in flood magnitude around the alpine and perialpine area. Positive trends are more frequent in the valleys of the mid Europe. We also use quantile regressions to investigate the behaviour of the highest quantiles, corresponding to floods with the highest return period. The original database is further divided into four classes based on station elevation; the group of catchments between 500 and 1000 m a.s.l. has the most positive trends for the large quantiles. The analysis is further developed by considering the coefficient of variation in 10-years time windows covering the data; the possible presence of trends in the CV is investigated. The obtained results show that there is a global prevalence of positive trend in the CVs, in particular for stations between 500 and 1000 m a.s.l., demonstrating a tendency toward the increase of very large (and possibly very small) annual maxima. To better discriminate the above results we used quantile regressions, able to highlight the trend behaviour of the highest quantiles computed on flood time series, Moreover, the database is divided into four classes based on station elevation. Results show that the group of catchments between 500 and 1000 m a.s.l. has definite and positive trends for the large quantiles. A different branch of this study

  14. Seasonal Forecasting of Fires across Southern Borneo, 1997-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spessa, Allan; Field, Robert; Kaiser, Johannes; Langner, Andreas; Moore, Jonathan; Pappenberger, Florian; Siegert, Florian; Weber, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    several studies using historical data have established negative relationships between fires and antecedent rainfall, and/or positive relationships between fires and deforestation in regions affected by El Nino, comparatively little work has attempted to predict fires and emissions in such regions. Ensemble seasonal climate forecasts issued with several months lead-time have been applied to support risk assessment systems in many fields, notably agricultural production and natural disaster management of flooding, heat waves, drought and fire. The USA, for example, has a long-standing seasonal fire danger prediction system. Fire danger monitoring systems have been operating in Indonesia for over a decade, but, as of yet, no fire danger prediction systems exist. Given the effort required to mobilise suppression and prevention measures in Indonesia, one could argue that high fire danger periods must be anticipated months in advance for mitigation and response measures to be effective. To address this need, the goal of our work was to examine the utility of seasonal rainfall forecasts in predicting severe fires in Indonesia more than one month in advance, using southern Borneo (comprising the bulk of Kalimantan) as a case study. Here we present the results of comparing seasonal forecasts of monthly rainfall from ECMWF's System 4 against i) observed rainfall (GPCP), and ii) burnt area and deforestation (MODIS, AVHRR and Landsat) across southern Borneo for the period 1997-2010. Our results demonstrate the utility of using ECMWF's seasonal climate forecasts for predicting fire activity in the region. Potential applications include improved fire mitigation and responsiveness, and improved risk assessments of biodiversity and carbon losses through fire. These are important considerations for forest protection programmes (e.g. REDD+), forest carbon markets and forest (re)insurance enterprises.

  15. Operational seasonal and interannual predictions of ocean conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leetmaa, Ants

    1992-01-01

    Dr. Leetmaa described current work at the U.S. National Meteorological Center (NMC) on coupled systems leading to a seasonal prediction system. He described the way in which ocean thermal data is quality controlled and used in a four dimensional data assimilation system. This consists of a statistical interpolation scheme, a primitive equation ocean general circulation model, and the atmospheric fluxes that are required to force this. This whole process generated dynamically consist thermohaline and velocity fields for the ocean. Currently routine weekly analyses are performed for the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. These analyses are used for ocean climate diagnostics and as initial conditions for coupled forecast models. Specific examples of output products were shown both in the Pacific and the Atlantic Ocean.

  16. Cascading effects of early-season herbivory on late-season herbivores and their parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Cumplido, Johnattran; Glauser, Gaetan; Benrey, Betty

    2016-05-01

    There is an increasing awareness that herbivory by one insect species induces changes in a plant that affect the performance of other herbivore species that feed on the same plant. However, previous studies of interspecies interactions mediated by plant defense responses have rarely taken into account different insect guilds or the third trophic level. Using a combination of field and laboratory experiments, we examined how early-season herbivory in lima bean plants (Phaseolus lunatus) by the leaf-chewing herbivore Cerotoma ruficornis and the bean pod weevil Apion godmani affects the abundance and performance of the seed beetle Zabrotes subfasciatus and that of its parasitoid Stenocorse bruchivora, which occurs on the plants at the end of the growing season. In addition, we determined the consequences of early-season herbivore-induced defenses on plant performance. We hypothesized that early-season induction would affect plant reproduction and, hence, would alter the suitability of seeds for late-season seed-eating beetles, and that this would in turn alter the vulnerability of these seed beetles to parasitoids. We found strong support for these hypotheses. In the field, early-season herbivory negatively affected plant reproduction and seeds of these plants suffered lower levels of infestation by seed-eating beetles, which in turn suffered less parasitism. Laboratory assays with field-collected seeds confirmed that the performance of beetles and parasitoids was lower on seeds from plants that had been subjected to early-season herbivory. Further analyses revealed that seeds produced by control plants were larger, heavier, and had a higher concentration of cyanogenic glycosides and total protein content than seeds from plants subjected to herbivory. Our results provide insight into how direct and indirect interactions between and within different trophic levels affect the dynamics and structure of complex communities. PMID:27349104

  17. Improving Groundwater Predictions using Seasonal Precipitation Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almanaseer, N.; Arumugam, S.; Bales, J. D.

    2011-12-01

    This research aims to evaluate the utility of precipitation forecasts in improving groundwater and streamflow predictions at seasonal and monthly time scales using statistical modeling techniques. For this purpose, we select ten groundwater wells from the Groundwater Climate Response Network (GCRN) and nine streamgauges from the Hydro-Climatic Data Network (HCDN) to represent groundwater and surface water variability with minimal anthropogenic influences over Flint River Basin (FRB) in Georgia, U.S. Preliminary analysis shows significant correlation between precipitation forecasts over FRB with observed precipitation (P), streamflow discharges (Q) and depth to groundwater (G). Three statistical models are developed using principle component regression (PCR) and canonical correlation analysis (CCA) with leave-5-out cross-validation to predict winter (JFM) and spring (AMJ) as well as monthly (Jan through Jun) groundwater and streamflow for the selected sites. The three models starts at the end of Dec and uses Oct, Nov and Dec (OND) observed records to predict 2-seasons and 6-months ahead. Model-1 is the "null model" that does not include precipitation forecasts as predictors. It is developed using PCR to predict seasonal and monthly Q and G independently based on previous (Oct. Nov. and Dec; OND) observations of Q or G at a given site without using climate information. Model predictands are JFM, AMJ for seasonal and Jan. through Jun for monthly. Model-2 is also developed using PCR, but it uses the issued at January precipitation forecasts from nine ECHAM 4.5 grid points as additional predictors. Model-3 is developed using CCA and it aims to integrate additional information on the predictands (i.e., groundwater) from adjacent basins to improve the prediction. Model-3 is designed to evaluate the role of climate versus the role groundwater and surface water flows in the selected basins. Finally, comparisons between the three models for each site and across the sites

  18. The Seasonality Of The Loop Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Cody Alan

    A total of 20 Loop Current eddy separation event dates were derived from Seasat and ERS-1 satellite altimetry, Coastal Zone Color Scanner chlorophyll-a images, Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer sea surface temperature images, Horizon Marine, Inc. EddyWatch(TM) reports, and Climatology and Simulation of Eddies Eddy Joint Industry Project Gulf Eddy Model analyses spanning mid-1978 - 1992. There were many inconsistencies between the new "pre-altimetry" reanalysis dates derived from mostly non-altimeter data and dates published in past literature based on earlier versions of the pre-altimetry record. The reanalysis dates were derived from a larger compilation of data types and, consequently, were not as affected by intermittent and seasonal data outages common with past records. Therefore, the reanalysis dates are likely more accurate. About 30 Loop Current eddy separation dates were derived from altimetry data spanning 1993 -- 2012. The pre-altimetry and altimetry reanalysis dates along with similar altimetry dates published in other literature exhibit statistically significant seasonality. Eddy separation events are more likely in the months March, August, and September, and less likely in December. Reanalysis event dates were objectively divided into "spring" and "fall" seasons using a k-means clustering algorithm. The estimated spring and fall season centers are March 2nd and August 23 rd, respectively, with seasonal boundaries on May 22nd and December 3rd. The altimetry data suggest that Loop Current intrusion/retreat is dominantly an annual process. Loop Current metrics such as maximum northern boundary latitude and area are relatively high from January through about July and low in September and October. February metrics are statistically different than metrics in either October or November or both. This annual process is primarily driven by and dynamically linked to geostrophic currents seaward of the Campeche Bank shelf break forced by Kelvin waves

  19. Seasonal species interactions minimize the impact of species turnover on the likelihood of community persistence.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Serguei; Rohr, Rudolf P; Fortuna, Miguel A; Selva, Nuria; Bascompte, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Many of the observed species interactions embedded in ecological communities are not permanent, but are characterized by temporal changes that are observed along with abiotic and biotic variations. While work has been done describing and quantifying these changes, little is known about their consequences for species coexistence. Here, we investigate the extent to which changes of species composition impact the likelihood of persistence of the predator-prey community in the highly seasonal Białowieza Primeval Forest (northeast Poland), and the extent to which seasonal changes of species interactions (predator diet) modulate the expected impact. This likelihood is estimated extending recent developments on the study of structural stability in ecological communities. We find that the observed species turnover strongly varies the likelihood of community persistence between summer and winter. Importantly, we demonstrate that the observed seasonal interaction changes minimize the variation in the likelihood of persistence associated with species turnover across the year. We find that these community dynamics can be explained as the coupling of individual species to their environment by minimizing both the variation in persistence conditions and the interaction changes between seasons. Our results provide a homeostatic explanation for seasonal species interactions and suggest that monitoring the association of interactions changes with the level of variation in community dynamics can provide a good indicator of the response of species to environmental pressures. PMID:27220203

  20. Early detection of the start of the wet season in semiarid tropical climates of western Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, Doris E. S.; Jolliffe, Ian T.

    2001-08-01

    An earlier paper (Jolliffe IT, Sarria-Dodd DE. 1994. International Journal of Climatology 14: 71-76) investigated the problem of deciding when the wet season has started in tropical and sub-tropical climates. In particular, methodology based on linear discriminant analysis was developed for using data from the current season to make the decision, rather than relying only on information from previous seasons. It was shown, for three stations in eastern Africa, that the methodology was potentially valuable. The present study is much larger, using data from 24 stations, covering a range of annual rainfall totals, in western Africa. It is confirmed that linear discriminant analysis can indeed be useful in detecting when the wet season has started, and hence in deciding when to plant crops. As well as being a larger analysis than that reported previously, the present study also extends the previous work by investigating an alternative definition of the start of the wet season and by including date as a potential explanatory variable.

  1. Development of a wind energy climate service based on seasonal climate prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torralba, Veronica; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco J.; Cortesi, Nicola; Christel, Isadora; González-Reviriego, Nube; Turco, Marco; Soret, Albert

    2016-04-01

    Climate predictions tailored to the wind energy sector represent an innovation to better understand the future variability of wind energy resources. At seasonal time scales current energy practices employ a simple approach based on a retrospective climatology. Instead, probabilistic climate forecasting can better address specific decisions that affect energy demand and supply, as well as decisions relative to the planning of maintenance work. Here we illustrate the advantages that seasonal climate predictions might offer to a wide range of users and discuss the best way to provide them with this information. We use the predictions of 10-meter wind speed from the ECMWF seasonal forecast System 4 (S4). S4, as every operational seasonal forecast system, is affected by a range of biases. Hence, to produce usable climate information from the predictions, different bias-adjustment techniques and downscaling methods should be applied, their choice depending on the user requirements. An ensemble of post-processing methods is described, and their relative merit evaluated as a function of their impact of the characteristics of the forecast error and the usability of the resulting forecasts. Both reanalyses (ERA-Interim, JRA-55, MERRA) and in-situ observations are used as observational references. As an illustration of the downstream impact of the forecasts as a source of climate information, the post-processed seasonal predictions of wind speed will be used as input in a transfer model that translates climate information into generated power at different spatial scales.

  2. Seasonality and its distinct clinical correlates in bipolar II disorder.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Sun; Ha, Tae Hyon; Chang, Jae Seung; Park, Yoon Seong; Huh, Iksoo; Kim, Jayoun; Hong, Kyung Sue; Park, Taesung; Ha, Kyooseob

    2015-02-28

    Seasonality is one of the key features in subjects with mood disorders and is involved in the multi-faceted nature of the clinical course. However, few studies have explored the clinical implications of seasonality in bipolar disorders. We examined the differential effects of seasonality on clinical variables between bipolar I and II disorder (BD I and II). Seasonality was assessed using the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ) in 204 subjects with BD I and 308 with BD II. Following the comparisons between BD I and II groups, clinical characteristics related to seasonality were explored. Next, to predict the presence of seasonality, a logistic regression model was applied. The global seasonality score on the SPAQ was significantly higher in the BD II group than in the BD I group. In the BD I group, seasonality was associated with suicide attempt history. In the BD II group, on the other hand, seasonality was associated with female gender, depressive predominance, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). In the regression models, the presence of PMDD and female gender was significantly associated with seasonality in the BD II group. Our findings suggest that high seasonality tendency, a vulnerability maker for cyclic worsening, may contribute to a differential pattern of clinical characteristics in BD II. PMID:25537487

  3. 50 CFR 20.131 - Extension of seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Extension of seasons. 20.131 Section 20... Extension of seasons. Whenever the Secretary shall find that emergency State action to prevent forest fires in any extensive area has resulted in the shortening of the season during which the hunting of...

  4. 50 CFR 20.34 - Opening day of a season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Opening day of a season. 20.34 Section 20... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.34 Opening day of a season. No person on the opening day of the season shall possess any freshly killed migratory game birds in...

  5. 50 CFR 660.509 - Accountability measures (season closures).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accountability measures (season closures... Coastal Pelagics Fisheries § 660.509 Accountability measures (season closures). (a) General rule. When the... until the beginning of the next fishing period or season. Regional Administrator shall announce in...

  6. 50 CFR 20.32 - During closed season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false During closed season. 20.32 Section 20.32... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.32 During closed season. No person shall possess any freshly killed migratory game birds during the closed season....

  7. 50 CFR 660.509 - Accountability measures (season closures).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accountability measures (season closures... Coastal Pelagics Fisheries § 660.509 Accountability measures (season closures). (a) General rule. When the... until the beginning of the next fishing period or season. Regional Administrator shall announce in...

  8. 50 CFR 648.127 - Scup recreational fishing season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scup recreational fishing season. 648.127... Measures for the Scup Fishery § 648.127 Scup recreational fishing season. Fishermen and vessels that are... possession limit specified in § 648.128(a). The recreational fishing season may be adjusted pursuant to...

  9. 50 CFR 20.131 - Extension of seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Extension of seasons. 20.131 Section 20... Extension of seasons. Whenever the Secretary shall find that emergency State action to prevent forest fires in any extensive area has resulted in the shortening of the season during which the hunting of...

  10. 18 CFR 157.33 - Requirement for open season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... season. 157.33 Section 157.33 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... GAS ACT Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects § 157.33 Requirement for open season. (a) Any application for a certificate of public convenience and necessity or other...

  11. 50 CFR 648.122 - Season and area restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Season and area restrictions. 648.122... Measures for the Scup Fishery § 648.122 Season and area restrictions. (a) Southern Gear Restricted Area—(1... scup. A fishery may be restricted or exempted by area, gear, season, or other means determined to...

  12. 50 CFR 20.32 - During closed season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false During closed season. 20.32 Section 20.32... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.32 During closed season. No person shall possess any freshly killed migratory game birds during the closed season....

  13. 18 CFR 157.33 - Requirement for open season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... season. 157.33 Section 157.33 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... GAS ACT Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects § 157.33 Requirement for open season. (a) Any application for a certificate of public convenience and necessity or other...

  14. 18 CFR 157.33 - Requirement for open season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... season. 157.33 Section 157.33 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... GAS ACT Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects § 157.33 Requirement for open season. (a) Any application for a certificate of public convenience and necessity or other...

  15. 50 CFR 648.127 - Scup recreational fishing season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Scup recreational fishing season. 648.127... Measures for the Scup Fishery § 648.127 Scup recreational fishing season. Fishermen and vessels that are... possession limit specified in § 648.128(a). The recreational fishing season may be adjusted pursuant to...

  16. 18 CFR 157.33 - Requirement for open season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... season. 157.33 Section 157.33 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... GAS ACT Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects § 157.33 Requirement for open season. (a) Any application for a certificate of public convenience and necessity or other...

  17. 50 CFR 20.34 - Opening day of a season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Opening day of a season. 20.34 Section 20... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.34 Opening day of a season. No person on the opening day of the season shall possess any freshly killed migratory game birds in...

  18. 50 CFR 20.131 - Extension of seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Extension of seasons. 20.131 Section 20... Extension of seasons. Whenever the Secretary shall find that emergency State action to prevent forest fires in any extensive area has resulted in the shortening of the season during which the hunting of...

  19. 50 CFR 20.34 - Opening day of a season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Opening day of a season. 20.34 Section 20... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.34 Opening day of a season. No person on the opening day of the season shall possess any freshly killed migratory game birds in...

  20. 50 CFR 20.34 - Opening day of a season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Opening day of a season. 20.34 Section 20... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.34 Opening day of a season. No person on the opening day of the season shall possess any freshly killed migratory game birds in...

  1. 50 CFR 660.509 - Accountability measures (season closures).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accountability measures (season closures... Coastal Pelagics Fisheries § 660.509 Accountability measures (season closures). (a) General rule. When the... until the beginning of the next fishing period or season. Regional Administrator shall announce in...

  2. 50 CFR 20.32 - During closed season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false During closed season. 20.32 Section 20.32... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.32 During closed season. No person shall possess any freshly killed migratory game birds during the closed season....

  3. 50 CFR 20.131 - Extension of seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Extension of seasons. 20.131 Section 20... Extension of seasons. Whenever the Secretary shall find that emergency State action to prevent forest fires in any extensive area has resulted in the shortening of the season during which the hunting of...

  4. 50 CFR 20.34 - Opening day of a season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opening day of a season. 20.34 Section 20... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.34 Opening day of a season. No person on the opening day of the season shall possess any freshly killed migratory game birds in...

  5. 50 CFR 20.131 - Extension of seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Extension of seasons. 20.131 Section 20... Extension of seasons. Whenever the Secretary shall find that emergency State action to prevent forest fires in any extensive area has resulted in the shortening of the season during which the hunting of...

  6. 50 CFR 20.32 - During closed season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false During closed season. 20.32 Section 20.32... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.32 During closed season. No person shall possess any freshly killed migratory game birds during the closed season....

  7. 18 CFR 157.33 - Requirement for open season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... season. 157.33 Section 157.33 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... GAS ACT Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects § 157.33 Requirement for open season. (a) Any application for a certificate of public convenience and necessity or other...

  8. 50 CFR 20.32 - During closed season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false During closed season. 20.32 Section 20.32... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.32 During closed season. No person shall possess any freshly killed migratory game birds during the closed season....

  9. 50 CFR 648.127 - Scup recreational fishing season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scup recreational fishing season. 648.127... Measures for the Scup Fishery § 648.127 Scup recreational fishing season. Fishermen and vessels that are... possession limit specified in § 648.128(a). The recreational fishing season may be adjusted pursuant to...

  10. Cognitive vulnerability in moderate, mild, and low seasonality.

    PubMed

    Rohan, Kelly J; Nillni, Yael I; Mahon, Jennifer N; Roecklein, Kathryn A; Sitnikov, Lilya; Haaga, David A F

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the association between cognitive vulnerability factors and seasonality. Students (N = 88), classified based on the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire as experiencing moderate (n = 26) or mild (n = 32) seasonality, and nondepressed, low-seasonality controls (n = 30) completed explicit (i.e., dysfunctional attitudes, automatic negative thoughts, seasonal attitudes, and rumination) and implicit (i.e., implicit associations test) measures of cognitive vulnerability at one winter and one nonwinter assessment. Relative to low- and mild-seasonality participants, moderate-seasonality participants endorsed more automatic thoughts and rumination in winter and more dysfunctional attitudes across both seasons. Moderate- and mild-seasonality participants endorsed more maladaptive seasonal attitudes than did low-seasonality participants. All groups demonstrated increased dysfunctional attitudes, automatic thoughts, and rumination and stronger implicit associations about light and dark during the winter. The findings support a possible cognitive mechanism of winter depression onset and/or maintenance unique to individuals with moderate, as opposed to mild, seasonality. PMID:22134455

  11. Seasonal and cryopreservation impacts on semen quality in boars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seasonal boar infertility occurs worldwide and contributes to economic loss to the pork industry. The current study evaluated cooled vs cryopreserved semen quality of 11 Duroc boars collected in June (cool season) and August 2014 (warm season). Semen was cooled to 16°C (cooled) or frozen over liquid...

  12. Seasonality in Children's Pedometer-Measured Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighle, Aaron; Alderman, Brandon; Morgan, Charles F.; Le Masurier, Guy

    2008-01-01

    Seasonality appears to have an impact on children's physical activity levels, but equivocal findings demand more study in this area. With the increased use of pedometers in both research and practice, collecting descriptive data in various seasons to examine the impact of seasonality on pedometer-measured physical activity among children is…

  13. Scope on the Skies: Changing of the Seasons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2011-01-01

    Learn the astronomy behind the changing of the seasons. Students know that we mark the change of seasons with the position of the Sun over certain parts of the Earth. The specific time and date for the change of seasons is determined by the position of the Sun, not above the horizon necessarily, nor geographically, but rather where the Sun is…

  14. Seasonality of Violent Suicides in the Athens Greater Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christodoulou, C.; Papadopoulos, I. N.; Douzenis, A.; Kanakaris, N.; Leukidis, C.; Gournellis, R.; Vlachos, K.; Papadopoulos, F. C.; Lykouras, L.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to ascertain suicide seasonality in the Greek population and to associate this seasonal variation with age, sex, and suicide method. Studying seasonality can be of help in establishing a public health policy, related with suicide prevention. This is an epidemiologic study based on forensic evidence. We studied the deaths…

  15. 25 CFR 170.123 - What are seasonal transportation routes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What are seasonal transportation routes? 170.123 Section 170.123 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION... § 170.123 What are seasonal transportation routes? Seasonal transportation routes are...

  16. 25 CFR 170.123 - What are seasonal transportation routes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are seasonal transportation routes? 170.123 Section 170.123 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION... § 170.123 What are seasonal transportation routes? Seasonal transportation routes are...

  17. 1969 Post Season Farm Labor and Rural Manpower Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Labor, Detroit. Michigan Employment Security Commission.

    Employment of seasonal labor in Michigan during 1969 reached a peak in July, with an estimated 60,400 seasonal workers employed. Approximately 113,500 workers were employed at some time in cultivation and harvest of Michigan's crops during the 1969 season. Many workers were employed in only 1 activity or quit before its completion, but most…

  18. Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B.

    1998-12-31

    The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat.

  19. 40 CFR 97.388 - CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations to CAIR NOX Ozone Season opt-in units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations to CAIR NOX Ozone Season opt-in units. 97.388 Section 97.388 Protection of Environment... NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 97.388 CAIR NOX Ozone...

  20. 40 CFR 96.388 - CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations to CAIR NOX Ozone Season opt-in units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations to CAIR NOX Ozone Season opt-in units. 96.388 Section 96.388 Protection of Environment... SO 2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 96.388...

  1. Optimal Seasonal Timing of Oral Azithromycin for Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Daozhou; Amza, Abdou; Nassirou, Baidou; Kadri, Boubacar; Sippl-Swezey, Nicholas; Liu, Fengchen; Ackley, Sarah F.; Lietman, Thomas M.; Porco, Travis C.

    2014-01-01

    Mass administration of azithromycin for trachoma has been shown to reduce malarial parasitemia. However, the optimal seasonal timing of such distributions for antimalarial benefit has not been established. We performed numerical analyses on a seasonally forced epidemic model (of Ross-Macdonald type) with periodic impulsive annual mass treatment to address this question. We conclude that when azithromycin-based trachoma elimination programs occur in regions of seasonal malaria transmission, such as Niger, the optimal seasonal timing of mass drug administration (MDA) may not occur during the season of maximum transmission. PMID:25223942

  2. Season of Birth and Later Outcomes: Old Questions, New Answers

    PubMed Central

    Buckles, Kasey S.; Hungerman, Daniel M.

    2012-01-01

    Season of birth is associated with later outcomes; what drives this association remains unclear. We consider a new explanation: variation in maternal characteristics. We document large changes in maternal characteristics for births throughout the year; winter births are disproportionally realized by teenagers and the unmarried. Family background controls explain nearly half of season-of-birth’s relation to adult outcomes. Seasonality in maternal characteristics is driven by women trying to conceive; we find no seasonality among unwanted births. Prior seasonality-in-fertility research focuses on conditions at conception; here expected conditions at birth drive variation in maternal characteristics while conditions at conception are unimportant. PMID:24058211

  3. Survival during the Breeding Season: Nest Stage, Parental Sex, and Season Advancement Affect Reed Warbler Survival

    PubMed Central

    Wierucka, Kaja; Halupka, Lucyna; Klimczuk, Ewelina; Sztwiertnia, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Avian annual survival has received much attention, yet little is known about seasonal patterns in survival, especially of migratory passerines. In order to evaluate survival rates and timing of mortality within the breeding season of adult reed warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus), mark-recapture data were collected in southwest Poland, between 2006 and 2012. A total of 612 individuals (304 females and 308 males) were monitored throughout the entire breeding season, and their capture-recapture histories were used to model survival rates. Males showed higher survival during the breeding season (0.985, 95% CI: 0.941–0.996) than females (0.869, 95% CI: 0.727–0.937). Survival rates of females declined with the progression of the breeding season (from May to August), while males showed constant survival during this period. We also found a clear pattern within the female (but not male) nesting cycle: survival was significantly lower during the laying, incubation, and nestling periods (0.934, 95% CI: 0.898–0.958), when birds spent much time on the nest, compared to the nest building and fledgling periods (1.000, 95% CI: 1.00–1.000), when we did not record any female mortality. These data (coupled with some direct evidence, like bird corpses or blood remains found next to/on the nest) may suggest that the main cause of adult mortality was on-nest predation. The calculated survival rates for both sexes during the breeding season were high compared to annual rates reported for this species, suggesting that a majority of mortality occurs at other times of the year, during migration or wintering. These results have implications for understanding survival variation within the reproductive period as well as general trends of avian mortality. PMID:26934086

  4. Seasonal and decadal predictions toward climate services.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buontempo, C.; Hewitt, C.; Maidens, A.

    2012-04-01

    While societies have flourished or collapsed depending on their ability to adapt to changes in climate, it is only recently that science and technology have been able to provide useful insights into future climate. Seasonal to decadal (S2D) forecasts hold the potential to be of great value to a wide range of decision-making, where outcomes are heavily influenced by climate variability. Recent advances in our understanding and ability to forecast climate variability and climate change have brought us to the point where skilful predictions are beginning to be routinely made. Access to credible forecast data, supported by informed guidance from the science community, could lead to significant advances in society's ability to effectively prepare for and manage climate-related risks. This new ability will effectively represent the core of climate service offers in the coming years. A number of initiatives such as Global Framework for Climate Service or the International Conference on Climate Service have recently been launched to coordinate climate services activities internationally. The European Union acknowledged this new development in the research agenda and last summer opened a call on seasonal and decadal predictions toward climate services. While it is not yet know which projects will be funded they will all have to improve the underpinning capability of the models and at the same time develop an effective mechanisms to make the prediction relevant and usable by decision makers. We will discuss the GloSea4 seasonal forecasting system, giving a brief description of the system and some of the products we supply to end-users as part of our climate services and our seamless approach to forecasting across varying timescales. The basic approach of a recently submitted proposal to the EC to exploit these emerging prediction capabilities and, more importantly, to engage with potential users of such predictions will also be presented.

  5. Seasonal folate serum concentrations at different nutrition.

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, Marica; Valachovicová, Martina; Blazícek, Pavel

    2013-03-01

    Folic acid (vitamin B9) rich sources are leafy green vegetables, legumes, whole grains, egg yolk, liver, and citrus fruit. In winter and early spring, there could be insufficient supply of vegetables and fruit and thus lower intake of folic acid and possible deficient folic acid blood concentrations. The aim of the study was to assess serum vitamin B9 concentrations depending on the season (the last third of winter - March, the last third of spring - May/June and the beginning of autumn - September) and different nutritional habits (apparently healthy adults non-smoking, non-obese 366 subjects; 204 persons of general population on traditional mixed diet; and 162 long-term lacto-ovo vegetarians). In general population group, the mean concentration of folate in March was low (narrowly above lower reference limit) with high incidence of deficient values - 31.5%. In May/ June vs. March was folate concentration significantly higher with deficient values in 13.2% of individuals. The highest serum values were observed in September with 11.1% of deficient values. In vegetarian vs. non-vegetarian group, significantly higher folate concentrations were found in each season with no deficient values. Folate and vitamin B12 are the regulators of homocysteinemia; plant food lacks of vitamin B12. The deficient folate serum values in March caused the mild hyperhomocysteinemia in 12.3% of individuals vs. only 5.9% and 4.8% of subjects in groups investigated in May/June and September. In spite of high folate concentrations in all investigations and no deficient value, 19.6-22.8% of vegetarians suffer from mild hyperhomocysteinemia as a consequence of deficient vitamin B12 concentrations in one quarter of subjects. As far as the general population is concerned, our findings suggest that winter and early spring are critical seasons in regards to optimal serum folate concentrations. PMID:23741898

  6. Forecasting fluctuating outbreaks in seasonally driven epidemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Lewi

    2009-03-01

    Seasonality is a driving force that has major impact on the spatio-temporal dynamics of natural systems and their populations. This is especially true for the transmission of common infectious diseases such as influenza, measles, chickenpox, and pertussis. Here we gain new insights into the nonlinear dynamics of recurrent diseases through the analysis of the classical seasonally forced SIR epidemic model. Despite many efforts over the last decades, it has been difficult to gain general analytical insights because of the complex synchronization effects that can evolve between the external forcing and the model's natural oscillations. The analysis advanced here attempts to make progress in this direction by focusing on the dynamics of ``skips'' where we identify and predict years in which the epidemic is absent rather than outbreak years. Skipping events are intrinsic to the forced SIR model when parameterised in the chaotic regime. In fact, it is difficult if not impossible to locate realistic chaotic parameter regimes in which outbreaks occur regularly each year. This contrasts with the well known Rossler oscillator whose outbreaks recur regularly but whose amplitude vary chaotically in time (Uniform Phase Chaotic Amplitude oscillations). The goal of the present study is to develop a ``language of skips'' that makes it possible to predict under what conditions the next outbreak is likely to occur, and how many ``skips'' might be expected after any given outbreak. We identify a new threshold effect and give clear analytical conditions that allow accurate predictions. Moreover, the time of occurrence (i.e., phase) of an outbreak proves to be a useful new parameter that carries important epidemiological information. In forced systems, seasonal changes can prevent late-initiating outbreaks (i.e., having high phase) from running to completion. These principles yield forecasting tools that should have relevance for the study of newly emerging and reemerging diseases.

  7. Monitoring Seasons Through Global Learning Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparrow, E. B.; Robin, J. H.; Jeffries, M. O.; Gordon, L. S.; Verbyla, D. L.; Levine, E. R.

    2006-12-01

    Monitoring Seasons through Global Learning Communities (MSTGLC) is an inquiry- and project-based project that monitors seasons, specifically their interannual variability, in order to increase K-12 students' understanding of the Earth system by providing teacher professional development in Earth system science and inquiry, and engaging K-12 students in Earth system science research relevant to their local communities that connect globally. MSTGLC connects GLOBE students, teachers, and communities, with educators and scientists from three integrated Earth systems science programs: the International Arctic Research Center, and NASA Landsat Data Continuity and Terra Satellite Missions. The project organizes GLOBE schools by biomes into eight Global Learning Communities (GLCs) and students monitor their seasons through regional based field campaigns. The project expands the current GLOBE phenology network by adapting current protocols and making them biome-specific. In addition, ice and mosquito phenology protocols will be developed for Arctic and Tropical regions, respectively. Initially the project will focus on Tundra and Taiga biomes as phenological changes are so pronounced in these regions. However, our long-term goal is to determine similar changes in other biomes (Deciduous Forest, Desert, Grasslands, Rain Forest, Savannah and Shrubland) based upon what we learn from these two biomes. This project will also contribute to critically needed Earth system science data such as in situ ice, mosquito, and vegetation phenology measurements for ground validations of remotely sensed data, which are essential for regional climate change impact assessments. Additionally it will contribute environmental data critical to prevention and management of diseases such as malaria in Asian, African, and other countries. Furthermore, this project will enable students to participate in the International Polar Year (IPY) (2007-2009) through field campaigns conducted by students in

  8. Work Cultures and Work/Family Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sue Campbell

    2001-01-01

    For 179 workers with family responsibilities, flexibility of work was associated with job satisfaction and family well-being, flexible work schedules were not. Supportive supervision was associated only with increased employee citizenship and did not increase work-family balance of those at risk. Family-friendly culture did not appear to benefit…

  9. Modeling seasonal measles transmission in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Zhenguo; Liu, Dan

    2015-08-01

    A discrete-time deterministic measles model with periodic transmission rate is formulated and studied. The basic reproduction number R0 is defined and used as the threshold parameter in determining the dynamics of the model. It is shown that the disease will die out if R0 < 1 , and the disease will persist in the population if R0 > 1 . Parameters in the model are estimated on the basis of demographic and epidemiological data. Numerical simulations are presented to describe the seasonal fluctuation of measles infection in China.

  10. Pathophysiology of seasonal affective disorder: a review

    PubMed Central

    Lam, RW; Levitan, RD

    2000-01-01

    The study of the pathophysiology of seasonal affective disorder (SAD, also known as winter depression) has historically been intimately linked to investigations into the mechanisms of action of light therapy. This paper reviews the studies on the pathophysiology of SAD with emphasis on circadian, neurotransmitter, and genetic hypotheses. There is substantial evidence for circadian phase shift and serotonergic hypotheses, but conflicting results may indicate that SAD is a biologically heterogeneous condition. Recent progress in defining the molecular mechanisms of the human circadian clock and retinal phototransduction of light will provide important new directions for future studies of the etiology and pathophysiology of SAD. PMID:11109298

  11. Detecting changes in rainfall pattern and seasonality index vis-à-vis increasing water scarcity in Maharashtra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guhathakurta, Pulak; Saji, Elizabeth

    2013-06-01

    Knowledge of mean rainfall and its variability of smaller spatial scale are important for the planners in various sectors including water and agriculture. In the present work, long rainfall data series (1901-2006) of districts of Maharashtra in monthly and seasonal scales are constructed and then mean rainfall and coefficient of variability are analyzed to get the spatial pattern and variability. Significant long term changes in monthly rainfall in the district scale are identified by trend analysis of rainfall time series. The seasonality index which is the measure of distribution of precipitation throughout the seasonal cycle is used to classify the different rainfall regime. Also long term changes of the seasonality index are identified by the trend analysis. The state Maharashtra which is to the northwest of peninsular India is highly influenced by the southwest monsoon and the state is facing water scarcity almost every year. This study will help to find out possible reason for the increasing water scarcity in Maharashtra.

  12. Dry-season ultraviolet radiation primes litter for wet season decomposition in a Mediterranean grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, N. R.; Allison, S. D.

    2013-12-01

    Traditional decomposition models developed in mesic ecosystems often consistently underestimate rates of decomposition in more arid ecosystems such as deserts and Mediterranean grasslands. Photodegradation of plant litter by ultraviolet radiation (UV) is hypothesized to be one of the mechanisms accounting for the greater-than-expected rates of decomposition observed in these ecosystems. Putatively, photodegradation preferentially degrades complex aromatic compounds in litter such as lignin, whose decomposition is considered a rate-limiting step in the microbial decomposition of plant litter. This study tested the effects of attenuated ultraviolet radiation on the decomposition of two litter types over the course of a year in a Southern California Mediterranean grassland. The two types of litter differed primarily in lignin content to test for a differential effect of UV on high-lignin versus low-lignin litter. Rates of litter mass loss, changes in litter chemistry, and changes in microbial activity and microbial biomass were observed, and assays of extracellular enzymes were conducted at 5 points through the year, beginning during the dry season and continuing until the end of the following dry season. Litter exposed to attenuated ultraviolet radiation during the dry season had lower rates of mass loss than litter exposed to ambient radiation (6.1% vs. 8.6%, respectively, p < 0.04). Extracellular enzyme activities were significantly affected by UV attenuation, as low lignin samples exposed to attenuated UV displayed elevated cellulase enzyme activity potential during the wet season, while high lignin samples displayed decreased oxidative enzyme activity potential during the wet season. For example, potential activity of the cellulase cellobiohydrolase in low-lignin, ambient UV samples was 5286 μmol/hr*g during the wet season, compared to 7969 μmol/hr*g in attenuated UV samples (p < 0.003). Conversely, potential activity of the oxidative enzyme peroxidase in high

  13. Surface Facial Electromyography, Skin Conductance, and Self-Reported Emotional Responses to Light- and Season-Relevant Stimuli in Seasonal Affective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Kathryn Tierney; Rohan, Kelly J.; Roecklein, Kathryn A.; Mahon, Jennifer N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Learned associations between depressive behavior and environmental stimuli signaling low light availability and winter season may play a role in seasonal affective disorder (SAD). The purpose of this study was to determine whether light and season environmental cues elicit emotional responses that are distinct in individuals with SAD. Methods Twenty-four currently depressed SAD participants were compared to 24 demographically-matched controls with no depression history on emotional responses to outdoor scenes captured under two light intensity (i.e., clear, sunny vs. overcast sky) and three season (i.e., summer with green leaves, fall with autumn foliage, and winter with bare trees) conditions. Emotion measures included surface facial electromyography (EMG) activity in the corrugator supercilii and zygomaticus major muscle regions, skin conductance, and self-reported mood state on the Profile of Mood States Depression–Dejection Subscale. Results Light intensity was a more salient cue than season in determining emotional reactions among SAD participants. Relative to controls, SAD participants displayed more corrugator activity, more frequent significant skin conductance responses (SCR), greater SCR magnitude, and more self-reported depressed mood in response to overcast stimuli and less corrugator activity, lower SCR magnitude, and less self-reported depressed mood in response to sunny stimuli. Limitations Study limitations include the single, as opposed to repeated, assessment and the lack of a nonseasonal depression group. Conclusions These findings suggest that extreme emotional reactivity to light-relevant stimuli may be a correlate of winter depression; and future work should examine its potential onset or maintenance significance. PMID:21600661

  14. Seasonal variability in aerosol, CCN and their relationship observed at a high altitude site in Western Ghats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leena, P. P.; Pandithurai, G.; Anilkumar, V.; Murugavel, P.; Sonbawne, S. M.; Dani, K. K.

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols which serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are key elements of the hydrological cycle and climate. In the present work, aerosol-CCN variability and their relationship have been studied for the first time at Mahabaleshwar, a high altitude (1348 m AMSL) site in Western Ghats, using one year (June 2012-May 2013) of observations. Present study has been done in two sections in which first temporal variability (diurnal and seasonal) of aerosol and CCN has been analyzed. Later CCN to aerosol ratio and other microphysical properties have been investigated along with detail discussion on possible sources of aerosol. First part, i.e., diurnal variation in aerosol and CCN concentration has shown relatively higher values during early morning hours in monsoon season whereas in winter and pre-monsoon it was higher in the evening hours. Seasonal mean variation in aerosol and CCN (SS above 0.6 %) has shown higher (less) in monsoon (winter) season. Temporal variation reveals dominance of fine-mode aerosol during monsoon season over the study region. In the second part temporal variation of activation ratio, k value (exponent of CCN super-saturation spectra) and geometric mean aerosol diameter have been analyzed. Variation of activation ratio showed the ratio is higher in monsoon especially for SS 0.6-1 %. The analysis also showed high k value during monsoon season as compared to other seasons (pre-monsoon and winter) which may be due to dominance of hygroscopic aerosols in the maritime air masses from Arabian Sea and biogenic aerosol emissions from the wet forest. Analyzed mean aerosol diameter is much smaller during monsoon season with less variability compared to other seasons. Overall analysis showed that aerosol and CCN concentration was higher over this high altitude site despite of dominant sink processes such as cloud scavenging and washout mechanisms indicating local emissions and biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) emissions from wet forest

  15. Two cold-season derechoes in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatzen, Christoph; Púčik, Tomas; Ryva, David

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we apply for the first time the definition of a derecho (Johns and Hirt, 1987) to European cold-season convective storm systems. These occurred on 18 January 2007 and 1 March 2008, respectively, and they are shown to fulfill the criteria of a derecho. Damaging winds were reported over a distance of 1500 km and locally reached F3 intensity. Synoptic analysis for the events reveal strongly forced situations that have been described for cold-season derechoes in the United States. A comparison of swaths of damaging winds, radar structures, detected lightning, cold pool development, and cloud-top temperatures indicates that both derechoes formed along cold fronts that were affected by strong quasi-geostrophic forcing. It seems that the overlap of the cold front position with the strong differential cyclonic vorticity advection at the cyclonic flank of mid-level jet streaks favoured intense convection and high winds. The movement and path width of the two derechoes seemed to be related to this overlap. The wind gust intensity that was also different for both events is discussed and could be related to the component of the mid-level winds perpendicular to the gust fronts.

  16. The seasons, global temperature, and precession

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, D.J.

    1995-04-07

    Analysis of instrumental temperature records beginning in 1659 shows that in much of the world the dominant frequency of the seasons is one cycle per anomalistic year (the time from perihelion to perihelion, 365.25964 days), not one cycle per tropical year (the time from equinox to equinox, 365.24220 days), and that the timing of the annual temperature cycle is controlled by perihelion. The assumption that the seasons were timed by the equinoxes has caused many statistical analyses of climate data to be badly biased. Coherence between changes in the amplitude of the annual cycle and those in the average temperature show that between 1854 and 1922 there were small temperature variations, probably of solar origin. Since 1922, the phase of the Northern Hemisphere coherence between these quantities switched from 0{degrees} to 180{degrees} and implies that solar variability cannot be the sole cause of the increasing temperature over the last century. About 1940, the phase patterns of the previous 300 years began to change and now appear to be changing at an unprecedented rate. The average change in phase is now coherent with the logarithm of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration. 80 refs., 13 figs.

  17. The seasons, global temperature, and precession

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.J.

    1995-12-31

    Analysis of instrumental temperature records beginning in 1659 shows that in much of the world the dominant frequency of the seasons is one cycle per anomalistic year (the time from perihelion to perihelion, 265.25964 days), not one cycle per tropical year (the time from equinox to equinox, 265.24220 days), and that the timing of the annual temperature cycle is controlled by perihelion. The assumption that the seasons were timed by the equinoxes has caused many statistical analyses of climate data to be badly biased. Coherence between changes in the amplitude of the annual cycle and those in the average temperature show that between 1854 and 1922 there were small temperature variations, probable of solar origin. Since 1922, the phase of the Northern Hemisphere coherence between these quantities switched from 0{degrees} to 180{degrees} and implies that solar variability cannot be the sole cause of the increasing temperature over the last century. About 1940, the phase patterns of the previous 300 years began to change and now appear to be changing at an unprecendented rate. The average change in phase is not coherent with the logarithm of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration.

  18. Seasonality Modifies Methylation Profiles in Healthy People

    PubMed Central

    Ricceri, Fulvio; Trevisan, Morena; Fiano, Valentina; Grasso, Chiara; Fasanelli, Francesca; Scoccianti, Chiara; De Marco, Laura; Tos, Anna Gillio; Vineis, Paolo; Sacerdote, Carlotta

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is a well-characterized epigenetic modification that plays an important role in the regulation of gene expression. There is growing evidence on the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in disease onset, including cancer. Environmental factors seem to induce changes in DNA methylation affecting human health. However, little is known about basal methylation levels in healthy people and about the correlation between environmental factors and different methylation profiles. We investigated the effect of seasonality on basal methylation by testing methylation levels in the long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) and in two cancer-related genes (RASSF1A and MGMT) of 88 healthy male heavy smokers involved in an Italian randomized study; at enrolment the subjects donated a blood sample collected in different months. Methylation analyses were performed by pyrosequencing. Mean methylation percentage was higher in spring and summer for the LINE1, RASSF1A and MGMT genes (68.26%, 2.35%, and 9.52% respectively) compared with autumn and winter (67.43%, 2.17%, and 8.60% respectively). In particular, LINE-1 was significantly hypomethylated (p = 0.04 or 0.05 depending on the CpG island involved) in autumn and winter compared with spring and summer. Seasonality seems to be a modifier of methylation levels and this observation should be taken into account in future analyses. PMID:25210735

  19. Modeling the seasonal circulation in Massachusetts Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Signell, Richard P.; Jenter, Harry L.; Blumberg, Alan F.

    1994-01-01

    An 18 month simulation of circulation was conducted in Massachusetts Bay, a roughly 35 m deep, 100??50 km embayment on the northeastern shelf of the United States. Using a variant of the Blumberg-Mellor (1987) model, it was found that a continuous 18 month run was only possible if the velocity field was Shapiro filtered to remove two grid length energy that developed along the open boundary due to mismatch in locally generated and climatologically forced water properties. The seasonal development of temperature and salinity stratification was well-represented by the model once ??-coordinate errors were reduced by subtracting domain averaged vertical profiles of temperature, salinity and density before horizontal differencing was performed. Comparison of modeled and observed subtidal currents at fixed locations revealed that the model performance varies strongly with season and distance from the open boundaries. The model performs best during unstratified conditions, and in the interior of the bay. The model performs poorest during stratified conditions and in the regions where the bay is driven predominantly by remote fluctuations from the Gulf of Maine.

  20. SEASONAL CHANGES IN TITAN'S SURFACE TEMPERATURES

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Flasar, F. M.; Kunde, V. G.; Samuelson, R. E.; Romani, P. N.; Hesman, B. E.; Carlson, R. C.; Gorius, N. J. P.; Coustenis, A.; Tokano, T.

    2011-08-10

    Seasonal changes in Titan's surface brightness temperatures have been observed by Cassini in the thermal infrared. The Composite Infrared Spectrometer measured surface radiances at 19 {mu}m in two time periods: one in late northern winter (LNW; L{sub s} = 335 deg.) and another centered on northern spring equinox (NSE; L{sub s} = 0 deg.). In both periods we constructed pole-to-pole maps of zonally averaged brightness temperatures corrected for effects of the atmosphere. Between LNW and NSE a shift occurred in the temperature distribution, characterized by a warming of {approx}0.5 K in the north and a cooling by about the same amount in the south. At equinox the polar surface temperatures were both near 91 K and the equator was at 93.4 K. We measured a seasonal lag of {Delta}L{sub S} {approx} 9{sup 0} in the meridional surface temperature distribution, consistent with the post-equinox results of Voyager 1 as well as with predictions from general circulation modeling. A slightly elevated temperature is observed at 65{sup 0} S in the relatively cloud-free zone between the mid-latitude and southern cloud regions.

  1. Seasonal dynamics in an SIR epidemic system.

    PubMed

    Augeraud-Véron, E; Sari, N

    2014-02-01

    We consider a seasonally forced SIR epidemic model where periodicity occurs in the contact rate. This periodical forcing represents successions of school terms and holidays. The epidemic dynamics are described by a switched system. Numerical studies in such a model have shown the existence of periodic solutions. First, we analytically prove the existence of an invariant domain D containing all periodic (harmonic and subharmonic) orbits. Then, using different scales in time and variables, we rewrite the SIR model as a slow-fast dynamical system and we establish the existence of a macroscopic attractor domain K, included in D, for the switched dynamics. The existence of a unique harmonic solution is also proved for any value of the magnitude of the seasonal forcing term which can be interpreted as an annual infection. Subharmonic solutions can be seen as epidemic outbreaks. Our theoretical results allow us to exhibit quantitative characteristics about epidemics, such as the maximal period between major outbreaks and maximal prevalence. PMID:23404038

  2. Seasonal Changes in Titan's Southern Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, C. A.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Achterberg, R. K.; Teanby, N. A.; Coustenis, A.; Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Irwin, P. G.; Flasar, F. M.

    2012-01-01

    In August 2009 Titan passed through northern spring equinox, and the southern hemisphere passed into fall. Since then, the moon's atmosphere has been closely watched for evidence of the expected seasonal reversal of stratospheric circulation, with increased northern insolation leading to upwelling, and consequent downwelling at southern high latitudes. If the southern winter mirrors the northern winter, this circulation will be traced by increases in short-lived gas species advected downwards from the upper atmosphere to the stratosphere. The Cassini spacecraft in orbit around Saturn carries on board the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS), which has been actively monitoring the trace gas populations through measurement of the intensity of their infrared emission bands (7-1000 micron). In this presentation we will show fresh evidence from recent CIRS measurements in June 2012, that the shortest-lived and least abundant minor species (C3H4, C4H2, C6H6, HC3N) are indeed increasing dramatically southwards of 50S in the lower stratosphere. Intriguingly, the more stable gases (C2H2, HCN, CO2) have yet to show this trend, and continue to exhibit their 'summer' abundances, decreasing towards the south pole. Possible chemical and dynamical explanations of these results will be discussed , along with the potential of future CIRS measurements to monitor and elucidate these seasonal changes.

  3. Seasonal Changes in Titan's Surface Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennins, Donald E.; Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Flasar, F. M.; Kunde, V. G.; Samuelson, R. E.; Romani, P. N.; Hesman, B. E.; Carlson, R. C.; Gorius, N. J. P.; Coustenis, A.; Tokano, T.

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal changes in Titan's surface brightness temperatures have been observed by Cassini in the thermal infrared. The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) measured surface radiances at 19 micron in two time periods: one in late northern winter (Ls = 335d eg) and another centered on northern spring equinox (Ls = 0 deg). In both periods we constructed pole-to-pole maps of zonally averaged brightness temperatures corrected for effects of the atmosphere. Between late northern winter and northern spring equinox a shift occurred in the temperature distribution, characterized by a warming of approximately 0.5 K in the north and a cooling by about the same amount in the south. At equinox the polar surface temperatures were both near 91 K and the equator was 93.4 K. We measured a seasonal lag of delta Ls approximately 9 in the meridional surface temperature distribution, consistent with the post-equinox results of Voyager 1 as well as with predictions from general circulation modeling. A slightly elevated temperature is observed at 65 deg S in the relatively cloud-free zone between the mid-latitude and southern cloud regions.

  4. Florida Current: seasonal and interannual variability

    SciTech Connect

    Schott, F.; Zantopp, R.

    1985-01-18

    Annual and interannual variations in the Florida Current, Caribbean and subtropical Atlantic are investigated with the use of historical sea level differences and wind field data. Observational and model evidence suggests that the seasonal transport cycle of the Florida Current is locally forced, either upstream in the Caribbean or downstream over topography. Although at seasonal and shorter periods sea level or bottom pressure fluctuations on the left side of the Florida Current contribute almost all of the variance of sea level difference across the Florida Straits and hence transport, this relation does not seem to apply at interannual time scales. Using results from the Subtropical Atlantic Climate Studies, it is estimated from historical sea level data that interannual transport fluctuations of the Florida Current are only of order 1 x 10/sup 6/ cubic meters per second. Interannual fluctuations in the 2- to 3-year period range in the Florida Straits seem to be correlated with sea level differences across the Caribbean and the subtropical Atlantic but not with Sverdrup transport fluctuations in the subtropical Atlantic. 26 references, 2 figures.

  5. Seasonal Climate Forecasts and Adoption by Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbrecht, Jurgen; Meinke, Holger; Sivakumar, Mannava V. K.; Motha, Raymond P.; Salinger, Michael J.

    2005-06-01

    Recent advances in atmospheric and ocean sciences and a better understanding of the global climate have led to skillful climate forecasts at seasonal to interannual timescales, even in midlatitudes. These scientific advances and forecasting capabilities have opened the door to practical applications that benefit society. The benefits include the reduction of weather/climate related risks and vulnerability, increased economic opportunities, enhanced food security, mitigation of adverse climate impacts, protection of environmental quality, and so forth. Agriculture in particular can benefit substantially from accurate long-lead seasonal climate forecasts. Indeed, agricultural production very much depends on weather, climate, and water availability, and unexpected departures from anticipated climate conditions can thwart the best laid management plans. Timely climate forecasts offer means to reduce losses in drought years, increase profitability in good years, deal more effectively with climate variability, and choose from targeted risk-management strategies. In addition to benefiting farmers, forecasts can also help marketing systems and downstream users prepare for anticipated production outcomes and associated consequences.

  6. Numerical simulation of seasonal groundwater pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filimonova, Elena; Baldenkov, Mikhail

    2015-04-01

    Increasing scarcity and contamination of water recourses require innovative water management strategies such as combined water system. The combined water system is a complex technology comprising two separate wells, major catchment-zone well and compensation pumping well, located inside a single stream basin. The major well is supplied by the well's catchment zone or surface flow, thus depleting the stream flow. The pumping rate of a major well is determined by the difference between the current stream flow and the minimum permissible stream flow. The deficiency of the stream flow in dry seasons can be compensated for by the short-term pumping of groundwater. The compensation pumping rate is determined by the difference between water demand and the permissible water withdrawal of the major well. The source for the compensation well is the aquifer storage. The estimation of streamflow depletion caused by compensation pumping is major question to evaluate the efficiency of the combined water system. Short-term groundwater pumping can use aquifer storage instead of catchment-zone water until the drawdown reaches the edge of the stream. Traditionally pumping simulation calculates in two-step procedure. Natural conditions, an aquifer system is in an approximate dynamic equilibrium, describe by steady-state model. A steady-state solution provides an initial heads, a set of flows through boundaries, and used as initial state for transient solutions, when pumping is imposed on an aquifer system. The transient solutions provide the total change in flows through the boundaries. A difference between the transient and steady-state solutions estimates the capture and the streamflow depletion. Numerical modeling of cyclical compensation pumping has special features: the periodic solution, the seasonal changes through the boundaries and the importance even small drawdown of stream level. When seasonality is a modeling feature, traditional approach leads to mistaken values of

  7. Seasonal signals in the reprocessed GPS coordinate time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenyeres, A.; van Dam, T.; Figurski, M.; Szafranek, K.

    2008-12-01

    The global (IGS) and regional (EPN) CGPS time series have already been studied in detail by several authors to analyze the periodic signals and noise present in the long term displacement series. The comparisons indicated that the amplitude and phase of the CGPS derived seasonal signals mostly disagree with the surface mass redistribution models. The CGPS results are highly overestimating the seasonal term, only about 40% of the observed annual amplitude can be explained with the joint contribution of the geophysical models (Dong et al. 2002). Additionally the estimated amplitudes or phases are poorly coherent with the models, especially at sites close to coastal areas (van Dam et al, 2007). The conclusion of the studies was that the GPS results are distorted by analysis artifacts (e.g. ocean tide loading, aliasing of unmodeled short periodic tidal signals, antenna PCV models), monument thermal effects and multipath. Additionally, the GPS series available so far are inhomogeneous in terms of processing strategy, applied models and reference frames. The introduction of the absolute phase center variation (PCV) models for the satellite and ground antennae in 2006 and the related reprocessing of the GPS precise orbits made a perfect ground and strong argument for the complete re-analysis of the GPS observations from global to local level of networks. This enormous work is in progress within the IGS and a pilot analysis was already done for the complete EPN observations from 1996 to 2007 by the MUT group (Military University of Warsaw). The quick analysis of the results proved the expectations and the superiority of the reprocessed data. The noise level (weekly coordinate repeatability) was highly reduced making ground for the later analysis on the daily solution level. We also observed the significant decrease of the seasonal term in the residual coordinate time series, which called our attention to perform a repeated comparison of the GPS derived annual periodicity

  8. Impact of land-surface initialization on sub-seasonal to seasonal forecasts over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prodhomme, Chloé; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco; Bellprat, Omar; Dutra, Emanuel

    2016-08-01

    Land surfaces and soil conditions are key sources of climate predictability at the seasonal time scale. In order to estimate how the initialization of the land surface affects the predictability at seasonal time scale, we run two sets of seasonal hindcasts with the general circulation model EC-Earth2.3. The initialization of those hindcasts is done either with climatological or realistic land initialization in May using the ERA-Land re-analysis. Results show significant improvements in the initialized run occurring up to the last forecast month. The prediction of near-surface summer temperatures and precipitation at the global scale and over Europe are improved, as well as the warm extremes prediction. As an illustration, we show that the 2010 Russian heat wave is only predicted when soil moisture is initialized. No significant improvement is found for the retrospective prediction of the 2003 European heat wave, suggesting this event to be mainly large-scale driven. Thus, we confirm that late-spring soil moisture conditions can be decisive in triggering high-impact events in the following summer in Europe. Accordingly, accurate land-surface initial conditions are essential for seasonal predictions.

  9. Seasonal trends in nonstructural carbohydrates in cool- and warm- season grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grass breeders have historically selected for and developed cultivar with an increased ability to accumulate high concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC). While increases in NSC content of forages are generally considered advantageous, there are times during the growing season when incr...

  10. Seasonal plasticity of auditory saccular sensitivity in the vocal plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus.

    PubMed

    Sisneros, Joseph A

    2009-08-01

    The plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, is a seasonally breeding species of marine teleost fish that generates acoustic signals for intraspecific social and reproductive-related communication. Female midshipman use the inner ear saccule as the main acoustic endorgan for hearing to detect and locate vocalizing males that produce multiharmonic advertisement calls during the breeding season. Previous work showed that the frequency sensitivity of midshipman auditory saccular afferents changed seasonally with female reproductive state such that summer reproductive females became better suited than winter nonreproductive females to encode the dominant higher harmonics of the male advertisement calls. The focus of this study was to test the hypothesis that seasonal reproductive-dependent changes in saccular afferent tuning is paralleled by similar changes in saccular sensitivity at the level of the hair-cell receptor. Here, I examined the evoked response properties of midshipman saccular hair cells from winter nonreproductive and summer reproductive females to determine if reproductive state affects the frequency response and threshold of the saccule to behaviorally relevant single tone stimuli. Saccular potentials were recorded from populations of hair cells in vivo while sound was presented by an underwater speaker. Results indicate that saccular hair cells from reproductive females had thresholds that were approximately 8 to 13 dB lower than nonreproductive females across a broad range of frequencies that included the dominant higher harmonic components and the fundamental frequency of the male's advertisement call. These seasonal-reproductive-dependent changes in thresholds varied differentially across the three (rostral, middle, and caudal) regions of the saccule. Such reproductive-dependent changes in saccule sensitivity may represent an adaptive plasticity of the midshipman auditory sense to enhance mate detection, recognition, and localization during the

  11. Seasonal Variation of Carbon Metabolism in the Cambial Zone of Eucalyptus grandis

    PubMed Central

    Budzinski, Ilara G. F.; Moon, David H.; Lindén, Pernilla; Moritz, Thomas; Labate, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus species are the most widely hardwood planted in the world. It is one of the successful examples of commercial forestry plantation in Brazil and other tropical and subtropical countries. The tree is valued for its rapid growth, adaptability and wood quality. Wood formation is the result of cumulative annual activity of the vascular cambium. This cambial activity is generally related to the alternation of cold and warm, and/or dry and rainy seasons. Efforts have focused on analysis of cambial zone in response to seasonal variations in trees from temperate zones. However, little is known about the molecular changes triggered by seasonal variations in trees from tropical countries. In this work we attempted to establish a global view of seasonal alterations in the cambial zone of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden, emphasizing changes occurring in the carbon metabolism. Using transcripts, proteomics and metabolomics we analyzed the tissues harvested in summer-wet and winter-dry seasons. Based on proteomics analysis, 70 proteins that changed in abundance were successfully identified. Transcripts for some of these proteins were analyzed and similar expression patterns were observed. We identified 19 metabolites differentially abundant. Our results suggest a differential reconfiguration of carbon partioning in E. grandis cambial zone. During summer, pyruvate is primarily metabolized via ethanolic fermentation, possibly to regenerate NAD+ for glycolytic ATP production and cellular maintenance. However, in winter there seems to be a metabolic change and we found that some sugars were highly abundant. Our results revealed a dynamic change in E. grandis cambial zone due to seasonality and highlight the importance of glycolysis and ethanolic fermentation for energy generation and maintenance in Eucalyptus, a fast growing tree. PMID:27446160

  12. Assessment of input uncertainty by seasonally categorized latent variables using SWAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Haw; Su, Yu-Wen; Wolfe, June E.; Chen, Shien-Tsung; Hsu, Yu-Chao; Tseng, Wen-Hsiao; Brady, Dawn M.; Jeong, Jaehak; Arnold, Jeffrey G.

    2015-12-01

    Watershed processes have been explored with sophisticated simulation models for the past few decades. It has been stated that uncertainty attributed to alternative sources such as model parameters, forcing inputs, and measured data should be incorporated during the simulation process. Among varying uncertainty sources, input uncertainty attributed to precipitation data exhibits a dominant role, as it is the source driving most hydrologically-related processes. In previous studies, latent variables (normally distributed random noise) have been implemented to explicitly incorporate input uncertainty from precipitation data. However, it may not be appropriate to apply the same set of latent variables throughout temporal series without considering seasonal effects. In this study, seasonally categorized latent variables were defined to investigate potential effects on model predictions and associated predictive uncertainty. Results show that the incorporation of seasonal latent variables resulted in better statistical solutions (NSE, Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency coefficient) for both calibration (0.58[streamflow]/0.73[sediment]/0.59[ammonia]) and validation (0.57[streamflow]/0.45[sediment]/0.53[ammonia]) periods. Alternative definitions of Dry/Wet seasonality (two definitions are defined in this study) also affected model predictions. In addition, it was determined that predictive uncertainty can be enhanced by incorporating more latent variables during model calibration. The implementations of proposed seasonal latent variables have further substantiated the importance of incorporating seasonal effects when conducting comparable approaches. Applications of latent variables on future work should evaluate potential effects on model predictions before performing associated scientific studies or relevant decision making processes.

  13. Seasonal Variation of Carbon Metabolism in the Cambial Zone of Eucalyptus grandis.

    PubMed

    Budzinski, Ilara G F; Moon, David H; Lindén, Pernilla; Moritz, Thomas; Labate, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus species are the most widely hardwood planted in the world. It is one of the successful examples of commercial forestry plantation in Brazil and other tropical and subtropical countries. The tree is valued for its rapid growth, adaptability and wood quality. Wood formation is the result of cumulative annual activity of the vascular cambium. This cambial activity is generally related to the alternation of cold and warm, and/or dry and rainy seasons. Efforts have focused on analysis of cambial zone in response to seasonal variations in trees from temperate zones. However, little is known about the molecular changes triggered by seasonal variations in trees from tropical countries. In this work we attempted to establish a global view of seasonal alterations in the cambial zone of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden, emphasizing changes occurring in the carbon metabolism. Using transcripts, proteomics and metabolomics we analyzed the tissues harvested in summer-wet and winter-dry seasons. Based on proteomics analysis, 70 proteins that changed in abundance were successfully identified. Transcripts for some of these proteins were analyzed and similar expression patterns were observed. We identified 19 metabolites differentially abundant. Our results suggest a differential reconfiguration of carbon partioning in E. grandis cambial zone. During summer, pyruvate is primarily metabolized via ethanolic fermentation, possibly to regenerate NAD(+) for glycolytic ATP production and cellular maintenance. However, in winter there seems to be a metabolic change and we found that some sugars were highly abundant. Our results revealed a dynamic change in E. grandis cambial zone due to seasonality and highlight the importance of glycolysis and ethanolic fermentation for energy generation and maintenance in Eucalyptus, a fast growing tree. PMID:27446160

  14. The Influence of the Zonal Wave Three on Antarctic Sea Ice during Ice Advance Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, H. M.; Raphael, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Previous works have looked at the influence of key atmospheric circulation patterns on sea ice in the Antarctic in terms of the atmosphere's seasonal cycle. This study examines the influence of one of these atmospheric patterns, the zonal wave three (ZW3), in terms of the sea ice's seasons from 1979-2009 in order to better understand the response of the sea ice. An index to represent the amplitude of the ZW3 was calculated using zonal anomalies of 850 hPa geopotential heights taken from the ERA-Interim data set. Sea ice concentrations (SIC), taken from the Hadley Center sea ice and sea surface temperature data set, were found to be significantly positively correlated with the ZW3 index during the ice advance season (March to August) in the Ross and Weddell Seas and off the Amery ice shelf. These regions align with where cold, southerly flow associated with the ZW3 are found. In the Amundsen-Bellingshausen Seas region, SIC was found to be negatively correlated with the ZW3 index, which coincides with where the warm, northerly flow of the wave is found in this region. Regression analysis showed SIC to be significantly dependent upon the ZW3 in parts of the Ross Sea, the ice edge in the Amundsen-Bellingshausen Seas and off the Amery ice shelf during ice advance season. The results suggest that the ZW3 plays a role in the occurrence of the observed sea ice trends in the Ross Sea, Amundsen-Bellingshausen Seas, Weddell Sea and off the Amery ice shelf regions during the ice advance season, the critical period for sea ice growth. The results also demonstrate that re-examining the influence of relevant atmospheric patterns on sea ice in terms of the ice's seasonal cycles could allow firmer connections to be established between sea ice trends and atmospheric patterns.

  15. The Seasonal Hydrological Loading Impacts on Post-Earth Measurements for the 2015 Nepal Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Rong; Wang, Qi; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.; Poutanen, Markku

    2016-04-01

    In southern Tibet and Himalaya, ongoing vertical and horizontal motions due to the collision between India and Eurasia are monitored by large numbers of global positioning system (GPS) continuous and campaign sites installed in the past decade. Displacements measured by GPS usually include tectonic deformation as well as non-tectonic, time-dependent signals. To estimate the regional long-term tectonic deformation using GPS more precisely, seasonal elastic deformation signals associated with surface loading must be removed from the observations. Seasonal oscillations in GPS site time series also can bias estimates of postseismic deformation, especially in the critical first months after an earthquake. We investigate tectonic and hydrologic deformation at GPS sites in southern Tibet and Himalaya, focusing on removing seasonal signals in GPS time series for a robust determination of tectonic deformation. The 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha earthquake occurred in late April. In the first half -year since this thrusting earthquake, postseimic displacements for sites in southern Tibet and Himalaya have mainly to the south, in the same direction as the coseismic displacement. Because this is in the same direction as the largest horizontal seasonal oscillation, and because the impact of an annual period oscillation on the estimated rate is greatest when the data span is half a cycle, the seasonal displacements can have a significant impact on the early postseismic displacements. This study represents a considerable complement to the previous works that were based exclusively on analyzing the Nepal continuous GPS network because new sites in southern Tibet, China are considered, and numerous time series of campaign sites are analyzed. In particular, we analyze how removing seasonal hydrologic signals from GPS site time series impacts estimates of the postseismic transient following the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha earthquake.

  16. Seasonal sensitivity of a VIS-NIR-IR rain-no rain classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porcù, F.; Capacci, D.

    2008-10-01

    Mid-latitude precipitation characteristics are influenced by the seasonal cycle: general circulation patterns, moisture distribution and cloud type occurrence vary throughout the year over a wide range of different structures. Since radiation in the visible-infrared part of the spectrum is sensitive to the cloud upper layers, the seasonal variability of the cloud structure is expected to affect the capabilities of satellite measurements to infer the precipitation at the ground. This work aims to assess and quantify the seasonal sensitivity of a statistical rain-no-rain classifier applied to data from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) collected for summer and winter seasons over the UK region. In the first part, the satellite radiance measurement distributions for the two seasons were compared and discussed. Then, the comparison between satellite and “true” rain-no rain classification was carried out in term of statistical parameters (such as the Equitable Threat Score: ETS), showing their dependence on the dry to wet ratio of the statistical ensemble considered. Finally, by considering summer and winter datasets, the seasonal variability of MODIS rain-no rain classifier performance has been established and discussed. The sensitivity of the algorithm to the number and wavelengths of the channels used has been addressed, showing the high impact of the 1.6 µm channel if combined with one visible channel. The best performance was reached with six channels (0.85, 1.6, 3.9, 7.3, 8.5, and 12 µm), plus the solar zenith angle as additional input, for which the computed ETS is about 45% for summer and 37% for winter, keeping a fixed dry to wet ratio of 6. The use of an “annual” algorithm, trained with ensemble of summer and winter pixels, and applied on independent summer and winter ensembles, led to similar values for both summer and winter.

  17. Spatiotemporal investigation of long-term seasonal temperature variability in Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsharkawy, S. G.; Elmallah, E. S.

    2016-09-01

    Throughout this work, spatial and temporal variations of seasonal surface air temperature have been investigated. Moreover, the effects of relative internal (teleconnection) and external (solar) forcing on surface air temperature variability have been examined. Seasonal temperature time series covering 30 different meteorological locations and lasting over the last century are considered. These locations are classified into two groups based on their spatial distribution. One represents Coast Libya Surface Air Temperature (CLSAT), contains 19 locations, and the other represents Desert Libya Surface Air Temperature (DLSAT), contains 11 locations. Average temperature departure test is applied to investigate the nature of temperature variations. Temperature trends are analyzed using the nonparametric Mann-Kendall test and their coefficients are calculated using Sen's slope estimate. Cross-correlation and spectral analysis techniques are also applied. Our results showed temperature deviation from average within a band of ± 2°C at coast region, while ± 4°C at desert region. Extreme behavior intensions between summer and winter temperatures at coast region are noticed. Segmentation process declared reversal cooling/warming behavior within temperature records for all seasons. Desert region shows warming trend for all seasons with higher coefficients than obtained at coast region. Results obtained for spectral analysis show different short and medium signals and concluded that not only the spectral properties are different for different geographical regions but also different for different climatic seasons on regional scale as well. Cross-correlation results showed that highest influence for Rz upon coastal temperature is always in conjunction with highest influence of NAO upon coastal temperature during the period 1981-2010. Desert region does not obey this phenomenon, where highest temperature-NAO correlations at desert during autumn and winter seasons are not

  18. The effect of anthropogenic emissions corrections on the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, B. J.; Hoffman, F. M.; Mills, R. T.; Erickson, D. J.; Blasing, T. J.

    2009-12-01

    A previous study (Erickson et al. 2008) approximated the monthly global emission estimates of anthropogenic CO2 by applying a 2-harmonic Fourier expansion with coefficients as a function of latitude to annual CO2 flux estimates derived from United States data (Blasing et al. 2005) that were extrapolated globally. These monthly anthropogenic CO2 flux estimates were used to model atmospheric concentrations using the NASA GEOS-4 data assimilation system. Local variability in the amplitude of the simulated CO2 seasonal cycle were found to be on the order of 2-6 ppmv. Here we used the same Fourier expansion to seasonally adjust the global annual fossil fuel CO2 emissions from the SRES A2 scenario. For a total of four simulations, both the annual and seasonalized fluxes were advected in two configurations of the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) used in the Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP). One configuration used the NCAR Community Land Model (CLM) coupled with the CASA‧ (carbon only) biogeochemistry model and the other used CLM coupled with the CN (coupled carbon and nitrogen cycles) biogeochemistry model. All four simulations were forced with observed sea surface temperatures and sea ice concentrations from the Hadley Centre and a prescribed transient atmospheric CO2 concentration for the radiation and land forcing over the 20th century. The model results exhibit differences in the seasonal cycle of CO2 between the seasonally corrected and uncorrected simulations. Moreover, because of differing energy and water feedbacks between the atmosphere model and the two land biogeochemistry models, features of the CO2 seasonal cycle were different between these two model configurations. This study reinforces previous findings that suggest that regional near-surface atmospheric CO2 concentrations depend strongly on the natural sources and sinks of CO2, but also on the strength of local anthropogenic CO2 emissions and geographic position. This work further

  19. Reproductive Seasonality in Nesticus (Araneae: Nesticidae) Cave Spiders

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Linnea M.; Perlaky, Patricia; Cressler, Alan; Zigler, Kirk S.

    2016-01-01

    Spiders of the family Nesticidae are members of cave communities around the world with cave-obligate (troglobiotic) species known from North America, Europe, Asia and the Indo-Pacific. A radiation of Nesticus (Araneae: Nesticidae) in the southern Appalachians includes ten troglobiotic species. Many of these species are of conservation interest due to their small ranges, with four species being single-cave endemics. Despite conservation concerns and their important role as predators in cave communities, we know little about reproduction and feeding in this group. We addressed this knowledge gap by examining populations of two species on a monthly basis for one year. We made further observations on several other species and populations, totaling 671 individual spider observations. This more than doubled the reported observations of reproduction and feeding in troglobiotic Nesticus. Female Nesticus carry egg sacs, facilitating the determination of the timing and frequency of reproduction. We found that Nesticus exhibit reproductive seasonality. Females carried egg sacs from May through October, with a peak in frequency in June. These spiders were rarely observed with prey; only 3.3% (22/671) of individuals were observed with prey items. The frequency at which prey items were observed did not vary by season. Common prey items were flies, beetles and millipedes. Troglobiotic species constituted approximately half of all prey items observed. This result represents a greater proportion of troglobiotic prey than has been reported for various troglophilic spiders. Although our findings shed light on the life history of troglobiotic Nesticus and on their role in cave ecosystems, further work is necessary to support effective conservation planning for many of these rare species. PMID:27280416

  20. Modeling the biogeochemical seasonal cycle in the Strait of Gibraltar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Romero, E.; Vichi, M.; Castro, M.; Macías, J.; Macías, D.; García, C. M.; Bruno, M.

    2014-11-01

    A physical-biological coupled model was used to estimate the effect of the physical processes at the Strait of Gibraltar over the biogeochemical features of the Atlantic Inflow (AI) towards the Mediterranean Sea. This work was focused on the seasonal variation of the biogeochemical patterns in the AI and the role of the Strait; including primary production and phytoplankton features. As the physical model is 1D (horizontal) and two-layer, different integration methods for the primary production in the Biogeochemical Fluxes Model (BFM) have been evaluated. An approach based on the integration of a production-irradiance function was the chosen method. Using this Plankton Functional Type model (BFM), a simplified phytoplankton seasonal cycle in the AI was simulated. Main results included a principal bloom in spring dominated by nanoflagellates, whereas minimum biomass (mostly picophytoplankton) was simulated during summer. Physical processes occurring in the Strait could trigger primary production and raise phytoplankton biomass (during spring and autumn), mainly due to two combined effects. First, in the Strait a strong interfacial mixing (causing nutrient supply to the upper layer) is produced, and, second, a shoaling of the surface Atlantic layer occurs eastward. Our results show that these phenomena caused an integrated production of 105 g C m- 2 year- 1 in the eastern side of the Strait, and would also modify the proportion of the different phytoplankton groups. Nanoflagellates were favored during spring/autumn while picophytoplankton is more abundant in summer. Finally, AI could represent a relevant source of nutrients and biomass to Alboran Sea, fertilizing the upper layer of this area with 4.95 megatons nitrate year- 1 (79.83 gigamol year- 1) and 0.44 megatons C year- 1. A main advantage of this coupled model is the capability of solving relevant high-resolution processes as the tidal forcing without expensive computing requirements, allowing to assess the

  1. Reproductive Seasonality in Nesticus (Araneae: Nesticidae) Cave Spiders.

    PubMed

    Carver, Linnea M; Perlaky, Patricia; Cressler, Alan; Zigler, Kirk S

    2016-01-01

    Spiders of the family Nesticidae are members of cave communities around the world with cave-obligate (troglobiotic) species known from North America, Europe, Asia and the Indo-Pacific. A radiation of Nesticus (Araneae: Nesticidae) in the southern Appalachians includes ten troglobiotic species. Many of these species are of conservation interest due to their small ranges, with four species being single-cave endemics. Despite conservation concerns and their important role as predators in cave communities, we know little about reproduction and feeding in this group. We addressed this knowledge gap by examining populations of two species on a monthly basis for one year. We made further observations on several other species and populations, totaling 671 individual spider observations. This more than doubled the reported observations of reproduction and feeding in troglobiotic Nesticus. Female Nesticus carry egg sacs, facilitating the determination of the timing and frequency of reproduction. We found that Nesticus exhibit reproductive seasonality. Females carried egg sacs from May through October, with a peak in frequency in June. These spiders were rarely observed with prey; only 3.3% (22/671) of individuals were observed with prey items. The frequency at which prey items were observed did not vary by season. Common prey items were flies, beetles and millipedes. Troglobiotic species constituted approximately half of all prey items observed. This result represents a greater proportion of troglobiotic prey than has been reported for various troglophilic spiders. Although our findings shed light on the life history of troglobiotic Nesticus and on their role in cave ecosystems, further work is necessary to support effective conservation planning for many of these rare species. PMID:27280416

  2. Generation of synthetic seasonal hydrographs for a large river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmaker, Tapas; Dutta, Subashisa

    2010-02-01

    SummaryThis paper describes a methodology for the generation of synthetic seasonal stage hydrographs with a number of flood waves for a large braided river basin based on statistical analysis of the historical stage records. The synthetic seasonal hydrographs in a river is required for different purposes such as assessing the hydraulic performances of various river training structures, morphological predictions, environmental impact analysis. The typical stage hydrograph of such a river has two components: flood waves and seasonal (monsoonal) response. Using historical stage records, flood waves in a seasonal stage record were identified and their characteristics were approximated using Maxwell distribution. The extracted characteristics of flood waves such as time of occurrence and successive flood lifts were analysed with various probability distribution function to find out their best distribution. The frequency analysis of the annual maximum flood lift was carried out. Beside this, seasonal responses were also approximated using Maxwell distribution. A relationship between the seasonal lift and total monsoonal rainfall was established. For a given total seasonal rainfall and return period of annual maximum flood wave lift, synthetic seasonal hydrograph is generated by superimposing both seasonal response and flood waves. The generated hydrographs are evaluated by comparing the cumulative frequency function of river stage and relative frequency of daily stage changes (rise/fall) for three seasons with different flood wave return periods, at two river gauging stations for the river Brahmaputra, India.

  3. Seasonal distribution of suspended sediment in the Bohai Sea, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Houjie; Wang, Aimei; Bi, Naishuang; Zeng, Xiangming; Xiao, Hehui

    2014-11-01

    Distribution of suspended sediment in the Bohai Sea and its seasonal variability were investigated based on the datasets obtained from four cruises carried out in different seasons in 2010 and 2012. The results indicate that the spatial distribution of suspended sediment in the Bohai Sea was dominated by the river input and coastal resuspension that depends on the type of local surface sediment and hydrodynamics. The suspended sediment was mostly concentrated in the southern Bohai Sea particularly around the Yellow River Delta in the summer season as impacted by the river plume but confined within a very limited area near the river mouth, whereas in winter-spring seasons sediment concentration became much higher as a result of active coastal resuspension induced by energetic wave actions in the shallow water. High sediment concentration was found in Liaodong Bay in winter-spring seasons when dynamics become strong but decrease significantly in summer seasons. The sediment concentration in the southern Bohai Strait was much higher than that in the northern part, suggesting evident sediment export to the Yellow Sea particularly in the winter-spring seasons. Strong seasonal variability of suspended sediment distribution in the Bohai Sea was consistent with the monsoon activity and associated wave actions and coastal currents that are varying seasonally. The dominance of seasonal monsoon signal and associated wave dynamics make the subaqueous Yellow River delta to be a major sink for the terrestrial sediment in the summer seasons, but transiting to a primary source in winter-spring seasons for sediment redistribution in the Bohai Sea and sediment export to the Yellow Sea. The seasonal patterns of suspended sediment distribution in the Bohai Sea and the dominance of monsoon activities may provide a good reference to understanding the sediment transport in the China Shelf Seas where sediment resuspension and coastal circulation are evidently driven by monsoon.

  4. Seasonality of Tuberculosis in the United States, 1993–2008

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Matthew D.; Winston, Carla A.; Heilig, Charles M.; Cain, Kevin P.; Walter, Nicholas D.; Mac Kenzie, William R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although seasonal variation in tuberculosis incidence has been described in several recent studies, the mechanism underlying this seasonality remains unknown. Seasonality of tuberculosis disease may indicate the presence of season-specific risk factors that could potentially be controlled if they were better understood. We conducted this study to determine whether tuberculosis is seasonal in the United States and to describe patterns of seasonality in specific populations. Methods We performed a time series decomposition analysis of tuberculosis cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1993 through 2008. Seasonal amplitude of tuberculosis disease (the difference between the months with the highest and lowest mean case counts), was calculated for the population as a whole and for populations with select demographic, clinical, and epidemiologic characteristics. Results A total of 243 432 laboratory-confirmed tuberculosis cases were reported over a period of 16 years. A mean of 21.4% more cases were diagnosed in March, the peak month, compared with November, the trough month. The magnitude of seasonality did not vary with latitude. The greatest seasonal amplitude was found among children aged <5 years and in cases associated with disease clusters. Conclusions Tuberculosis is a seasonal disease in the United States, with a peak in spring and trough in late fall. The latitude independence of seasonality suggests that reduced winter sunlight exposure may not be a strong contributor to tuberculosis risk. Increased seasonality among young children and clustered cases suggests that disease that is the result of recent transmission is more influenced by season than disease resulting from activation of latent infection. PMID:22474225

  5. Stress, Depression and Coping among Latino Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers

    PubMed Central

    Burke Winkelman, Sloane; Chaney, Elizabeth H.; Bethel, Jeffrey W.

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that one in four migrant farmworkers experienced an episode of one or more mental health disorders such as stress, depression, or anxiety in their lifetime. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to explore experiences and perceptions related to stress and depression among Latino migrant and seasonal farmworkers (MSFWs), and to identify their coping behaviors for dealing with these mental health conditions. Using a mixed methods research approach, three focus group interviews of a sample of Latino MSFWs (N = 29) were conducted and a quantitative survey was implemented (N = 57) at community sites in eastern North Carolina. Four major themes emerged from the focus group data: (1) physical stress related to working conditions; (2) mental stress related to family situations, work environment, documentation status, and lack of resources; (3) depression related to separation from family and the lack of resources; and (4) use of positive and negative mechanisms for coping with stress and depression. A discussion of these themes, results from the survey findings, implications for intervention and outreach programs, along with recommendations for further research, are provided. PMID:23644829

  6. Monitoring and modeling growing season dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Michael Aaron

    Phenology, the study of recurring biological cycles and their connection to climate, is a growing field of global change research. Vegetation phenology exerts a strong control over carbon cycles, weather, and global radiation partitioning between sensible and latent heat fluxes. Phenological monitors of the timing and length of the growing season can also be used as barometers of vegetation responses to climatic variability. In the following chapters, I present research investigating the monitoring and interpretation of growing season dynamics. Ecological modeling is limited more by data availability than by model theory. In particular, the description of vegetation functional types (biomes) for distributed modeling has been lacking. In chapter 1, I present a documented description and sensitivity analysis of the 34 parameters used in the ecosystem model, BIOME-BGC, for major temperate biomes. I applied BIOME-BGC in the eastern U.S. deciduous broad leaf forest and found that minor phenological variation created large impacts on simulated net ecosystem exchange of carbon (chapter 2). In addition to simulating the effects of growing season variability, it is also important to develop accurate field monitoring techniques, both as a means of testing modeling activities and as a validation of satellite remote sensing estimates. I conducted an intercomparison of field techniques that could be used to monitor phenological dynamics in and ecosystems (chapter 3). I found that methodological barriers to rapid, low cost monitoring were severe, but that a digital camera with both visible and near-infrared channels was a viable option. Satellite remote sensing provides the only means of obtaining consistent estimates of phenological variation at a global scale, yet our understanding of these data has been limited by a lack of ground observations. To address this problem, I proposed, developed, and wrote a phenology measurement protocol for the Global Learning and Observations

  7. Seasonal brain acetylcholinesterase activity in three species of shorebirds overwintering in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitchell, C.A.; White, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    There was no seasonal variation in average brain AChE activity for the 3 species of wild birds collected between October and February. Further work needs to be done, however, covering an even broader time frame which includes the reproductive cycle. It appears that some birds feeding at the mouth of an agricultural drain, at some distance from the nearest pesticide applications, were affected by AChE inhibitors.

  8. "Creative" Work Schedules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris

    Many creative or flexible work scheduling options are becoming available to the many working parents, students, handicapped persons, elderly individuals, and others who are either unable or unwilling to work a customary 40-hour work week. These options may be broadly categorized as either restructured or reduced work time options. The three main…

  9. Seasonal dating of Sappho's 'Midnight Poem' revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuntz, Manfred; Gurdemir, Levent; George, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Sappho was a Greek lyric poet who composed a significant array of pristine poetry. Although much of it has been lost, her reputation has endured thanks to numerous surviving fragments. One of her contributions includes the so-called 'Midnight Poem', which contains a line about the Pleiades, setting sometime before midnight, and supposedly observed from the island of Lesbos. This poem also refers to the setting of the Moon. Sappho's Midnight Poem thus represents a prime example of where ancient poetry and astronomy merge, and it also offers the possibility of seasonal dating. Previously, Herschberg and Mebius (1990) estimated that the poem was composed in late winter/early spring, a time frame that is not unusual for lyrics of an amorous nature. The aim of our paper is to revisit this earlier finding by using modern-day software. Our study confirms Herschberg and Mebius' result, but also conveys further information.

  10. Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza: Therapeutic Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Memoli, Matthew J.; Morens, David M.; Taubenberger, Jeffery K.

    2008-01-01

    Influenza A viruses cause significant morbidity and mortality annually, and the threat of a pandemic underscores the need for new therapeutic strategies. Here we briefly discuss novel antiviral agents under investigation, the limitations of current antiviral therapy and stress the importance of secondary bacterial infections in seasonal and pandemic influenza. Additionally, the lack of new antibiotics available to treat increasingly drug resistant organisms such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, pneumococci, Acinetobacter, extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing gram negative bacteria and Clostridium difficile is highlighted as an important component of influenza treatment and pandemic preparedness. Addressing these problems will require a multidisciplinary approach, which includes the development of novel antivirals and new antibiotics, as well as a better understanding of the role secondary infections play on the morbidity and mortality due to influenza infection. PMID:18598914

  11. Seasonal and interannual changes in cirrus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wylie, Donald P.

    1990-01-01

    Statistics on cirrus clouds using the multispectral data from the GOES/VAS satellite have been collected since 1985. The method used to diagnose cirrus clouds and a summary of the first two years of data was given in Wylie and Menzel (1989) and at the 1988 FIRE meeting in Vail, CO. This study was expanded to three years of data which allows a more detailed discussion of the geographical and seasonal changes in cloud cover. Interannual changes in cloud cover also were studied. GOES/VAS cloud retrievals also were compared to atmospheric dynamic parameters and to radiative attenuation data taken by a lidar. Some of the highlights of these studies are discussed.

  12. Seasonal Variations in Mercury's Dayside Calcium Exosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, Matthew H.; Killen, Rosemary M.; McClintock, William E.; Merkel, Aimee W.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Cassidy, Timothy A.; Sarantos, Menelaos

    2014-01-01

    The Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer on the MESSENGER spacecraft has observed calcium emission in Mercury's exosphere on a near-daily basis since March 2011. During MESSENGER's primary and first extended missions (March 2011 - March 2013) the dayside calcium exosphere was measured over eight Mercury years. We have simulated these data with a Monte Carlo model of exospheric source processes to show that (a) there is a persistent source of energetic calcium located in the dawn equatorial region, (b) there is a seasonal dependence in the calcium source rate, and (c) there are no obvious year-to-year variations in the near-surface dayside calcium exosphere. Although the precise mechanism responsible for ejecting the calcium has not yet been determined, the most likely process is the dissociation of Ca-bearing molecules produced in micrometeoroid impact plumes to form energetic, escaping calcium atoms.

  13. Climate induces seasonality in pneumococcal transmission.

    PubMed

    Numminen, Elina; Chewapreecha, Claire; Turner, Claudia; Goldblatt, David; Nosten, Francois; Bentley, Stephen D; Turner, Paul; Corander, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a significant human pathogen and a leading cause of infant mortality in developing countries. Considerable global variation in the pneumococcal carriage prevalence has been observed and the ecological factors contributing to it are not yet fully understood. We use data from a cohort of infants in Asia to study the effects of climatic conditions on both acquisition and clearance rates of the bacterium, finding significantly higher transmissibility during the cooler and drier months. Conversely, the length of a colonization period is unaffected by the season. Independent carriage data from studies conducted on the African and North American continents suggest similar effects of the climate on the prevalence of this bacterium, which further validates the obtained results. Further studies could be important to replicate the findings and explain the mechanistic role of cooler and dry air in the physiological response to nasopharyngeal acquisition of the pneumococcus. PMID:26067932

  14. The changing seasonal climate in the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Bintanja, R; van der Linden, E C

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing and projected greenhouse warming clearly manifests itself in the Arctic regions, which warm faster than any other part of the world. One of the key features of amplified Arctic warming concerns Arctic winter warming (AWW), which exceeds summer warming by at least a factor of 4. Here we use observation-driven reanalyses and state-of-the-art climate models in a variety of standardised climate change simulations to show that AWW is strongly linked to winter sea ice retreat through the associated release of surplus ocean heat gained in summer through the ice-albedo feedback (~25%), and to infrared radiation feedbacks (~75%). Arctic summer warming is surprisingly modest, even after summer sea ice has completely disappeared. Quantifying the seasonally varying changes in Arctic temperature and sea ice and the associated feedbacks helps to more accurately quantify the likelihood of Arctic's climate changes, and to assess their impact on local ecosystems and socio-economic activities. PMID:23532038

  15. Seasonal variations of volcanic eruption frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, Richard B.

    1989-01-01

    Do volcanic eruptions have a tendency to occur more frequently in the months of May and June? Some past evidence suggests that they do. The present study, based on the new eruption catalog of Simkin et al.(1981), investigates the monthly statistics of the largest eruptions, grouped according to explosive magnitude, geographical latitude, and year. At the 2-delta level, no month-to-month variations in eruption frequency are found to be statistically significant. Examination of previously published month-to-month variations suggests that they, too, are not statistically significant. It is concluded that volcanism, at least averaged over large portions of the globe, is probably not periodic on a seasonal or annual time scale.

  16. Solar radiation interactions with seasonal sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehn, Jens Kristian

    Presently, the Arctic Ocean is undergoing an escalating reduction in sea ice and a transition towards a seasonal sea ice environment. This warrants detailed investigations into improving our understanding of the seasonal evolution of sea ice and snow covers, and their representation in climate models. The interaction of solar radiation with sea ice is an important process influencing the energy balance and biological activity in polar seas, and consequently plays a key role in the earth's climate system. This thesis focuses on characterization of the optical properties---and the underlying physical properties that determine them---of seasonal sea ice during the fall freeze-up and the spring melt periods. Both periods display high spatial heterogeneity and rapid temporal changes in sea ice properties, and are therefore poorly understood. Field data were collected in Amundsen Gulf/Franklin Bay (FB), southern-eastern Beaufort Sea, in Oct.-Nov. 2003 and Apr. 2004 and in Button Bay (BB), western Hudson Bay, in Mar.-May 2005 to address (1) the temporal and spatial evolution of surface albedo and transmittance, (2) how radiative transfer in sea ice is controlled by its physical nature, and (3) the characteristics of the bottom ice algae community and its effect on the optical properties. The fall study showed the importance of surface features such as dry or slushy bare ice, frost flowers and snow cover in determining the surface albedo. Ice thickness was also important, however, mostly because surface features were associated with thickness. For example, nilas (<10 cm thick) was typically not covered by a snow layer as snow grains were dissolved or merged with the salty and warm brine skim layer on the surface, while surface conditions on thicker ice types were cold and dry enough to support a snow cover. In general, the surface albedo increased exponentially with an ice thickness increase, however, variability within ice thickness types were very large. It is apparent

  17. Seasonal variability of mesospheric water vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, P. R.; Bevilacqua, R. M.; Wilson, W. J.; Ricketts, W. B.; Howard, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Ground-based spectral line measurements of the 22.2 GHz atmospheric water vapor line in emission were made at the JPL in order to obtain data in a dry climate, and to confirm similar measurements made at the Haystack Observatory. The results obtained from March 1984 to July 1984 and from December 1984 to May 1985, were based on data recorded by a HP9816 microcomputer. The instrument spectrometer was a 64 channel, 62.5 kHz resolution filter bank. Data indicates the existence of a seasonal variation in the abundance of water vapor in the upper mesosphere, with mixing ratios higher in summer than in spring. This is consistent with recent theoretical and observational results. In the area of semiannual oscillation, Haystack data are more consistent than those of JPL, indicating an annual cycle with abundances at maximum in summer and minimum in winter.

  18. Seasonal variation of postmortem microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Carter, David O; Metcalf, Jessica L; Bibat, Alexander; Knight, Rob

    2015-06-01

    Body-associated microbes were recently shown to change significantly during decomposition, undergoing an ecological succession in experimental conditions using rodent and swine models. We investigated microbial succession in soils associated with swine carcasses under experimental field conditions in summer and winter. We demonstrate that these postmortem microbial communities change in a specific, reproducible fashion, and that soil microbes represent a significant component of the postmortem microbial community, contrary to widespread belief in forensic science. However, the effects of decomposition on soil microbial communities were different in summer and winter. We suggest that the microbial ecological succession will be useful in medicolegal death investigation; however, observations in winter might not be applicable to summer, which indicates a need for a greater understanding of the seasonality of decomposition. PMID:25737335

  19. Climate induces seasonality in pneumococcal transmission

    PubMed Central

    Numminen, Elina; Chewapreecha, Claire; Turner, Claudia; Goldblatt, David; Nosten, Francois; Bentley, Stephen D.; Turner, Paul; Corander, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a significant human pathogen and a leading cause of infant mortality in developing countries. Considerable global variation in the pneumococcal carriage prevalence has been observed and the ecological factors contributing to it are not yet fully understood. We use data from a cohort of infants in Asia to study the effects of climatic conditions on both acquisition and clearance rates of the bacterium, finding significantly higher transmissibility during the cooler and drier months. Conversely, the length of a colonization period is unaffected by the season. Independent carriage data from studies conducted on the African and North American continents suggest similar effects of the climate on the prevalence of this bacterium, which further validates the obtained results. Further studies could be important to replicate the findings and explain the mechanistic role of cooler and dry air in the physiological response to nasopharyngeal acquisition of the pneumococcus. PMID:26067932

  20. The changing seasonal climate in the Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Bintanja, R.; van der Linden, E. C.

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing and projected greenhouse warming clearly manifests itself in the Arctic regions, which warm faster than any other part of the world. One of the key features of amplified Arctic warming concerns Arctic winter warming (AWW), which exceeds summer warming by at least a factor of 4. Here we use observation-driven reanalyses and state-of-the-art climate models in a variety of standardised climate change simulations to show that AWW is strongly linked to winter sea ice retreat through the associated release of surplus ocean heat gained in summer through the ice-albedo feedback (~25%), and to infrared radiation feedbacks (~75%). Arctic summer warming is surprisingly modest, even after summer sea ice has completely disappeared. Quantifying the seasonally varying changes in Arctic temperature and sea ice and the associated feedbacks helps to more accurately quantify the likelihood of Arctic's climate changes, and to assess their impact on local ecosystems and socio-economic activities. PMID:23532038