Sample records for post-fire burn severity

  1. Detecting post-fire burn severity and vegetation recovery using multitemporal remote sensing spectral indices and field-collected composite burn index data in a ponderosa pine forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, X.; Vogelmann, J.E.; Rollins, M.; Ohlen, D.; Key, C.H.; Yang, L.; Huang, C.; Shi, H.

    2011-01-01

    It is challenging to detect burn severity and vegetation recovery because of the relatively long time period required to capture the ecosystem characteristics. Multitemporal remote sensing data can providemultitemporal observations before, during and after a wildfire, and can improve the change detection accuracy. The goal of this study is to examine the correlations between multitemporal spectral indices and field-observed burn severity, and to provide a practical method to estimate burn severity and vegetation recovery. The study site is the Jasper Fire area in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota, that burned during August and September 2000. Six multitemporal Landsat images acquired from 2000 (pre-fire), 2001 (post-fire), 2002, 2003, 2005 and 2007 were used to assess burn severity. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), enhanced vegetation index (EVI), normalized burn ratio (NBR), integrated forest index (IFI) and the differences of these indices between the pre-fire and post-fire years were computed and analysed with 66 field-based composite burn index (CBI) plots collected in 2002. Results showed that differences of NDVI and differences of EVI between the pre-fire year and the first two years post-fire were highly correlated with the CBI scores. The correlations were low beyond the second year post-fire. Differences of NBR had good correlation with CBI scores in all study years. Differences of IFI had low correlation with CBI in the first year post-fire and had good correlation in later years. A CBI map of the burnt area was produced using regression tree models and the multitemporal images. The dynamics of four spectral indices from 2000 to 2007 indicated that both NBR and IFI are valuable for monitoring long-term vegetation recovery. The high burn severity areas had a much slower recovery than the moderate and low burn areas. ?? 2011 Taylor & Francis.

  2. Detecting post-fire burn severity and vegetation recovery using multitemporal remote sensing spectral indices and field-collected composite burn index data in a ponderosa pine forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuexia Chen; James E. Vogelmann; Matthew Rollins; Donald Ohlen; Carl H. Key; Limin Yang; Chengquan Huang; Hua Shi

    2011-01-01

    It is challenging to detect burn severity and vegetation recovery because of the relatively long time period required to capture the ecosystem characteristics. Multitemporal remote sensing data can provide multitemporal observations before, during and after a wildfire, and can improve the change detection accuracy. The goal of this study is to examine the correlations between multitemporal spectral indices and field-observed

  3. Post-fire Vegetation Regeneration Dynamics to Topography and Burn Severity in two contrasting ecosystems: the Case of the Montane Cordillera Ecozones of Western Canada & that of a Typical Mediterranean site in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, Gareth; Petropoulos, George P.; Kalivas, Dionissios; Griffirths, Hywel M.; Louka, Panagiota

    2015-04-01

    Altering land cover dynamics is currently regarded as the single most important variable of global change affecting ecological systems. Wildfires are an integral part of many terrestrial ecosystems and are considered to dramatically affect land cover dynamics at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. In this context, knowledge of the spatio-temporal distribution of post-fire vegetation recovery dynamics is of key importance. In this study, we explore the relationships between vegetation recovery dynamics to topography and burn severity for two different ecosystems using a chronosequence of Landsat TM data images analysis. One of our experimental sites is the Okanagan Mountain Park, located in the Montane Cordillera Ecozones of western Canada at which a fire occurred in 2003. The other is Mt. Parnitha, located in Greece, representing a typical Mediterranean setting. The spatio-temporal patterns of regrowth for 8 years following the fire events were quantified based on the analysis of 2 widely used indices, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Regeneration Index (RI). Burn severity was derived from the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) index computed from the Landsat TM images. Topographical information for the studied area was obtained from the ASTER global operational product. Relationships of vegetation regrowth to both topography and burn severity was quantified using a series of additional statistical metrics. In overall, results indicated noticeable differences in the recovery rates of both ecosystems to the pre-fire patterns. Re-growth rates appeared to be somewhat higher in north-facing slopes in comparison to south facing ones for both experimental sites, in common with other similar studies in different ecosystems. Lastly, areas of lower burn severity exhibited a higher recovery rate compared to areas of high severity burns. Results are presented in detail and an explanation of the main observation trends is also attempted to be provided. To our knowledge, this study is one of the few attempting to explore the relationships between post-fire vegetation regrowth and topography or burn severity, particularly so in such a comparative and systematic manner between two contrasting ecosystem types. It corroborates the significance of EO technology as a successful and cost-effective solution in providing information related to post-fire regeneration assessment. Keywords: post-fire vegetation regeneration, topography, burn severity, Landsat, remote sensing, Cordillera Ecozones, Canada, Mt. Parnitha, Greece

  4. A Burning Question: Does Post-Fire Rehabilitation Alter the Likelihood of Future Fires?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman-Prideaux, C.; Newingham, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    Historically, aridlands have had infrequent fire due to patchy plant distributions, which limit fire spread. However, aridland fire regimes have changed because invasive annual grasses have created continuous fuel beds, which have led to increasingly frequent fires and a greater area burned each decade since the 1970s. Climate change is predicted to further increase the number and size of fires. Post-fire rehabilitation is enacted in order to reestablish plant communities and has the potential to further alter fire regimes. Rehabilitation treatments include tilling seeds using a tractor and drill (drill seeding), dropping seed aerially with helicopters (aerial seeding), or both. Few studies examine the impact of post-fire rehabilitation on the likelihood of future fires in these aridland ecosystems. We examined the effects of post-fire rehabilitation treatments on the number of years before the next fire. Using GIS layers detailing fire history and post-fire rehabilitation treatments in the southern Idaho Great Basin, we extracted information from randomly selected sites and analyzed them with generalized linear models. Preliminary analysis on 43 sites suggests the number of years before the next fire tended to be less in seeded than unseeded sites (P=0.055). Further investigation revealed that the number of years until the next fire differed among seed application methods. Sites that were drill seeded burned approximately 12 years later while sites with combined aerial and drill seeding burned again after 6.5 years (P=0.05). The total number of burns at a site was inversely related to the time before the next fire (P=0.001). After the first fire, sites averaged 17.4 years before the next fire occurred; this decreased with each subsequent fire to 7.1 years after the fifth fire. The number of times a site burned and the rehabilitation treatment interacted to affect the number of years between fires. In sites that burned once, there was on average 27.75 years before the second burn at unseeded sites, 18 years when only drill seeded, and 8.8 years when both aerially and drill seeded (P=0.038). Likewise, at sites that burned at least six times, the number of years before the next fire was significantly lower in the combination of aerial and drill seeding compared to unseeded sites (3.3 versus 6.9 years, respectively, P=0.047). The number of fires a site experienced altered the duration between fires, but the combination of drill and aerial seeding consistently experienced fire sooner than either technique used in isolation. These preliminary results suggest that post-fire rehabilitation may decrease the time between fires after the first two fires, but can decrease the time between after a threshold number of fires depending on the technique used. Drill seeding alone maintained a fire return interval of 9-10 years after 4, 5, or 6 fires which was the longest interval past that threshold, The results are shocking in a system that historically has fire return intervals of hundreds of years.

  5. Ecohydrologic Implications and Management of Post-fire Soil Water Repellency in Burned Pinon-Juniper Woodlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Matthew; Zvirzdin, Daniel; Fernelius, Kaitlynn; McMillan, Mica; Kostka, Stanley

    2014-05-01

    Erosion and weed dominance often limit the recovery of piñon-juniper woodlands of western North America after high intensity wildfires. Soil water repellency (SWR) is one factor that may promote overland flow and impede seedling establishment. In spite of these effects, the influence of post-fire SWR on site recovery is poorly understood. Our presentation summarizes data collected within studies on burned piñon-juniper woodlands that provide new insight on: 1) the spatial distribution and severity of SWR, 2) influence of SWR on soil hydrology, nitrogen cycling, and site revegetation, and 3) the suitability of soil surfactants as a post-fire restoration tool. We demonstrate how patterns of SWR are highly correlated to pre-fire woodland canopy structure. At sites where SWR is present, infiltration, soil water content, and plant establishment is significantly less than at non-hydrophobic sites. We show how newly developed soil surfactants can significantly improve ecohydrologic properties required for plant growth by overcoming SWR; thus, increasing the amount and duration of available water for seed germination and plant growth. However, the application of soil surfactants in wildfire-affected ecosystems has been limited due to logistical and economic constraints associated with the standard practice of using large quantities of irrigation water as the surfactant carrier. We have developed a potential solution to this problem by using seed coating technology to use the seed as the carrier for the delivery of soil surfactant. Through this approach, precipitation leaches the surfactant from the seed into the soil where it absorbs onto the soil particles and ameliorates water repellency within the seeds microsite. We present findings from laboratory and field evaluations of surfactant seed coatings, which provide evidence that it may be plausible for the technology to improve post-fire seeding efforts by restoring soil hydrologic function and increasing seedling emergence and early seedling development.

  6. The effects of fire severity on black carbon additions to forest soils - 10 years post fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poore, R.; Wessman, C. A.; Buma, B.

    2013-12-01

    Wildfires play an active role in the global carbon cycle. While large amounts of carbon dioxide are released, a small fraction of the biomass consumed by the fire is only partially combusted, yielding soot and charcoal. These products, also called black carbon (BC) make up only 1-5% of the biomass burnt, yet they can have a disproportionate effect on both the atmosphere and fluxes in long-term carbon pools. This project specifically considers the fraction that is sequestered in forest soils. Black carbon is not a specific compound, and exists along a continuum ranging from partially burned biomass to pure carbon or graphite. Increasing aromaticity as the result of partial combustion means charcoal is highly resistant to oxidation. Although debated, most studies indicate a turnover time on the order of 500-1,000 years in warm, wet, aerobic soils. Charcoal may function as a long-term carbon sink, however its overall significance depends on its rate of formation and loss. At the landscape level, fire characteristics are one of the major factors controlling charcoal production. A few studies suggest that charcoal production increases with cooler, less-severe fires. However, there are many factors to tease apart, partly because of a lack of specificity in how fire severity is defined. Within this greater context, our lab has been working on a landscape-level study within Routt National Forest, north of Steamboat Springs, Colorado. In 2002, a large fire swept through a subalpine spruce, fir and lodgepole pine forest. In 2011-2013 we sampled BC pools in 44 plots across a range of fire severities from unburned to severe crown We hypothesized that charcoal stocks will be higher in areas of low severity fire as compared to high severity because of decreased re-combustion of charcoal in the organic soil and increased overall charcoal production due to lower temperatures. In each of our plots we measured charcoal on snags and coarse woody debris, sampled the entire organic horizon and the top 10cm mineral horizon. The soils were sieved to 2mm and their BC content measured using the Kurth-MacKenzie-DeLuca method of digesting labile carbon using nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide at 95C for 20hrs. We integrated both remotely sensed data and field observations. We used the Relative Difference Normalized Burn Ratio (RdNBR) calculated by Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS). This index used Landsat images from July in the years before and after the fire and is based on differences in bands 4 and 7, with the aim of assessing coarse scale changes in soil and vegetation post fire. For each plot we also collected data on tree mortality and organic soil depth. These metrics were chosen from the Composite Burn Index as those that were most reliable even 10 years after the fire. We observed no significant differences in BC totals between high severity fire and unburned plots, although BC increased slightly on burned plots. Early results for low severity sites (analysis still in progress) suggest that BC increased in plots experiencing lower severity fires compared to unburned and high severity plots. Comparing carbon and BC totals on unburned and severely burned plots, and assuming no loss of BC from mineral soil during the fire, we observed a 1.2% conversion of burned biomass to BC, which corresponds with literature estimates of 1-4%.

  7. Hydrogeological controls on post-fire moss recovery in peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukenbach, Max; Devito, Kevin; Kettridge, Nicholas; Petrone, Richard; Waddington, James

    2015-04-01

    Wildfire is the largest disturbance affecting peatlands, however, little is known about the spatiotemporal variability of post-fire recovery in these ecosystems. High water table (WT) positions after wildfire are critical to limit atmospheric carbon losses and enable the re-establishment of keystone peatland mosses (i.e. Sphagnum). While small-scale variation in burn severity can reduce capillary flow from the WT and lead to a dry surface after fire, steep WT declines can also limit post-fire moss water availability. As such, post-fire moss water availability is also a function of large-scale controls on peatland WT dynamics, specifically, connectivity to groundwater flow systems (i.e. hydrogeological setting). For this reason, we assessed the interacting controls of hydrogeological setting and burn severity on post-fire moss water availability by measuring peatland WTs, soil tension (?) and surface volumetric moisture content (?) in three burned, Sphagnum-dominated peatlands located in different hydrogeological settings for three years following wildfire. The effect of burn severity on post-fire moss water availability did not vary with hydrogeological setting, however, the spatial coverage of high and low burn severity did vary between peatlands located in different hydrogeological settings due to its influence on pre-fire fuel loads and species cover. Locations covered by S. fuscum prior to fire exhibited decreasing post-fire water availability with increasing burn severity. In contrast, the lowest water availability (? > 400 cm, ? < 0.02) was observed in feather mosses that underwent low burn severity (residual branches identifiable). Where depth of burn was > 0.05 m (high burn severity) and pre-fire species were not identifiable, water availability was highest (? < 90 cm). Where burn severity did not limit water availability through a reduction of capillary flow, depth to WT (and therefore hydrogeological setting) played a large role in affecting post-fire moss water availability. A peatland located in a groundwater flow-through system exhibited high post-fire moss water availability (surface ? > 0.15, ? < 60 cm) and shallow WTs that were less variable and exhibited lagged responses to climatic variability. In contrast, peatlands in hydrogeological settings that were not connected or ephemerally connected to groundwater flow systems exhibited deeper and more dynamic WTs that led to lower post-fire moss water availability (surface ? < 0.15, ? > 60 cm), especially during dry periods. As such, we argue that the post-fire recovery of keystone peatland mosses is strongly linked to a peatland's hydrogeological setting. These results suggest that post-fire moss re-establishment in peatlands located in dry hydrogeological settings may be particularly vulnerable to post-fire droughts and future climate change.

  8. Post-fire Monitoring of Coast Live Oaks (Quercus agrifolia) Burned in the 1993 Old

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    representing a subset of the terrain covered by oaks in the burned area. Thirty trees in Red Rock Canyon at all sites, in some places inches thick. Summary of Site Characteristics and Fire History Red Rock (valley riparian), Tuna Canyon (ridgeline) and Cold Creek Valley Preserve (open riparian), respectively

  9. Emergency Post-fire Rehabilitation Treatment Effects on Burned Area Ecology and Long-term Restoration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter R. Robichaud; Sarah A. Lewis; Robert E. Brown; Louise E. Ashmun

    2009-01-01

    The predicted continuation of strong drying and warming trends in the southwestern Unit- ed States underlies the associated prediction of increased frequency, area, and severity of wildfires in the coming years. As a result, the management of wildfires and fire effects on public lands will continue to be a major land management priority for the foreseeable fu- ture. Following fire

  10. Post-fire Vegetation Recovery--Remote Sensing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Module uses real-world data from the October 2003 Paradise Fire in San Diego County, California to (1) determine vegetation loss and burn severity due to wildfire through generating pre- and post-fire Normalized Burn Ratios (NBRs) and an approximated dNBR for study area; (2) monitor post-fire vegetation regeneration through landscape-scale remotely sensed imagery performing a multi-temporal Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) analysis; and (3) import the derived datasets into a GIS and, using a DEM for the study area, derive slope and aspect. Analysis of pre- and post-fire recovery of vegetation will be completed using products from derived datasets and Map Algebra in GIS. The materials are available for download in PDF and RAR format.

  11. Short-term assessment of burn severity using the inversion of PROSPECT and GeoSail models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela De Santis; Emilio Chuvieco; Patrick J. Vaughan

    2009-01-01

    Accurate estimations of burn severity and its distribution in post fire scenarios are critical for short-term mitigation and rehabilitation treatments. The use of remote sensing techniques, coupled with radiative transfer models (RTMs) can improve the accuracy, precision (in terms of number of classes) and cost-effectiveness of burn severity assessment. In this paper, an improved simulation model that combines PROSPECT and

  12. Post-fire debris-flow hazard assessment of the area burned by the 2013 Beaver Creek Fire near Hailey, central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skinner, Kenneth D.

    2013-01-01

    A preliminary hazard assessment was developed for debris-flow hazards in the 465 square-kilometer (115,000 acres) area burned by the 2013 Beaver Creek fire near Hailey in central Idaho. The burn area covers all or part of six watersheds and selected basins draining to the Big Wood River and is at risk of substantial post-fire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently burned basins throughout the Intermountain Region in Western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence, potential volume of debris flows, and the combined debris-flow hazard ranking along the drainage network within the burn area and to estimate the same for analyzed drainage basins within the burn area. Input data for the empirical models included topographic parameters, soil characteristics, burn severity, and rainfall totals and intensities for a (1) 2-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 2-year storm (13 mm); (2) 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 10-year storm (19 mm); and (3) 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 25-year storm (22 mm). Estimated debris-flow probabilities for drainage basins upstream of 130 selected basin outlets ranged from less than 1 to 78 percent with the probabilities increasing with each increase in storm magnitude. Probabilities were high in three of the six watersheds. For the 25-year storm, probabilities were greater than 60 percent for 11 basin outlets and ranged from 50 to 60 percent for an additional 12 basin outlets. Probability estimates for stream segments within the drainage network can vary within a basin. For the 25-year storm, probabilities for stream segments within 33 basins were higher than the basin outlet, emphasizing the importance of evaluating the drainage network as well as basin outlets. Estimated debris-flow volumes for the three modeled storms range from a minimal debris flow volume of 10 cubic meters [m3]) to greater than 100,000 m3. Estimated debris-flow volumes increased with basin size and distance downstream. For the 25-year storm, estimated debris-flow volumes were greater than 100,000 m3 for 4 basins and between 50,000 and 100,000 m3 for 10 basins. The debris-flow hazard rankings did not result in the highest hazard ranking of 5, indicating that none of the basins had a high probability of debris-flow occurrence and a high debris-flow volume estimate. The hazard ranking was 4 for one basin using the 10-year-recurrence storm model and for three basins using the 25-year-recurrence storm model. The maps presented herein may be used to prioritize areas where post-wildfire remediation efforts should take place within the 2- to 3-year period of increased erosional vulnerability.

  13. Post-fire reconstructions of fire intensity from fire severity data: quantifying the role of spatial variability of fire intensity on forest dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Patrick; Oborne, Lisa

    2015-04-01

    Large, high-intensity fires have direct and long-lasting effects on forest ecosystems and present a serious threat to human life and property. However, even within the most catastrophic fires there is important variability in local-scale intensity that has important ramifications for forest mortality and regeneration. Quantifying this variability is difficult due to the rarity of catastrophic fire events, the extreme conditions at the time of the fires, and their large spatial extent. Instead fire severity is typically measured or estimated from observed patterns of vegetation mortality; however, differences in species- and size-specific responses to fires often makes fire severity a poor proxy for fire intensity. We developed a statistical method using simple, plot-based measurements of individual tree mortality to simultaneously estimate plot-level fire intensity and species-specific mortality patterns as a function of tree size. We applied our approach to an area of forest burned in the catastrophic Black Saturday fires that occurred near Melbourne, Australia, in February 2009. Despite being the most devastating fire in the past 70 years and our plots being located in the area that experienced some of the most intense fires in the 350,000 ha fire complex, we found that the estimated fire intensity was highly variable at multiple spatial scales. All eight tree species in our study differed in their susceptibility to fire-induced mortality, particularly among the largest size classes. We also found that seedling height and species richness of the post-fire seedling communities were both positively correlated with fire intensity. Spatial variability in disturbance intensity has important, but poorly understood, consequences for the short- and long-term dynamics of forests in the wake of catastrophic wildfires. Our study provides a tool to estimate fire intensity after a fire has passed, allowing new opportunities for linking spatial variability in fire intensity to forest ecosystem dynamics.

  14. Remote sensing techniques to assess active fire characteristics and post-fire effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leigh B. Lentile; Zachary A. Holden; Alistair M. S. Smith; Michael J. Falkowski; Andrew T. Hudak; Penelope Morgan; Sarah A. Lewis; Paul E. Gessler; Nate C. Benson

    2006-01-01

    Abstract. Space and airborne sensors have been used to map area burned, assess characteristics of active fires, and characterize post-fire ecological effects. Confusion about fire intensity, fire severity, burn severity, and related terms can result in the potential misuse of the inferred information by land managers,and remote sensing practitioners who require unambiguous,remote sensing products for fire management. The objective of

  15. Large Scale Predictions of Potential Post-fire Erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M. E.; MacDonald, L. H.

    2005-12-01

    High-severity wildfires are of increasing concern because of their potential for initiating flash floods and surface erosion, degrading water quality, and reducing reservoir capacity. In many areas fire suppression has increased fuel accumulations and hence the potential for high-severity wildfires. Land management agencies are undertaking programs to reduce fuel loadings and the associated risk of high-severity wildfires, but the areas needing treatment greatly exceed the available funding. It is therefore necessary to determine which areas should have a higher priority for such treatments. Similarly, when wildfires do occur there is an immediate need to determine which areas should have the highest priority for post-fire rehabilitation treatments. One criterion for allocating treatments is the potential risk of post-fire erosion, but to be effective this assessment needs to be carried out at a broad scale. This paper presents a procedure and initial results for predicting spatially-explicit, post-fire erosion risks at the hillslope scale for forest and shrub lands across the western U.S. Our approach utilizes existing physical models and datasets in a GIS framework. The model for predicting erosion is GeoWEPP, the Geographical interface for the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP). The primary inputs for GeoWEPP include climate, topography, soils, and land cover/land use. Daily climate inputs were generated with Cligen, which is a stochastic weather generator distributed with WEPP. A 30-m digital elevation model, STATSGO-derived soils data, and vegetation cover were obtained from the U.S. Forest Service's LANDFIRE project. Since recent research has shown that percent ground cover is a dominant control on post-fire erosion rates, we generated a spatially-explicit map of post-fire ground cover by first using historic weather data to determine the 1000-hr fuel moisture values when fuel conditions were at 98-100% ERC (Energy Released Component). These fuel moisture values were fed into FOFEM (First Order Fire Effects Model) to obtain spatially-explicit predictions of percent ground cover, and this provided the additional land cover/land use information needed by GeoWEPP. The predicted erosion rates are comparable to measured values in the Colorado Front Range, but are much too high for the higher rainfall areas along the Pacific Coast. This pattern indicates that precipitation is having a pre-dominant effect on predicted post-fire erosion rates, especially in areas that are projected to burn at low severity. Hence the predicted erosion rates will be most useful in relative terms at the local and possibly regional scale, while comparisons between regions may be of more limited validity.

  16. Is proportion burned severely related to daily area burned?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, Donovan S.; Morgan, Penelope; Kolden, Crystal A.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Smith, Alistair M. S.

    2014-05-01

    The ecological effects of forest fires burning with high severity are long-lived and have the greatest impact on vegetation successional trajectories, as compared to low-to-moderate severity fires. The primary drivers of high severity fire are unclear, but it has been hypothesized that wind-driven, large fire-growth days play a significant role, particularly on large fires in forested ecosystems. Here, we examined the relative proportion of classified burn severity for individual daily areas burned that occurred during 42 large forest fires in central Idaho and western Montana from 2005 to 2007 and 2011. Using infrared perimeter data for wildfires with five or more consecutive days of mapped perimeters, we delineated 2697 individual daily areas burned from which we calculated the proportions of each of three burn severity classes (high, moderate, and low) using the differenced normalized burn ratio as mapped for large fires by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity project. We found that the proportion of high burn severity was weakly correlated (Kendall ? = 0.299) with size of daily area burned (DAB). Burn severity was highly variable, even for the largest (95th percentile) in DAB, suggesting that other variables than fire extent influence the ecological effects of fires. We suggest that these results do not support the prioritization of large runs during fire rehabilitation efforts, since the underlying assumption in this prioritization is a positive relationship between severity and area burned in a day.

  17. Modeling post-fire water erosion mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rulli, M. C.; Offeddu, L.; Santini, M.

    2013-06-01

    Severe wildfires are often followed by significant increase in runoff and erosion, due to vegetation damage and changes in physical and chemical soil properties. Peak flows and sediment yields can increase up to two orders of magnitude, becoming dangerous for human lives and the ecosystem, especially in the wildland-urban interface. Watershed post-fire rehabilitation measures are usually used to mitigate the effects of fire on runoff and erosion, by protecting soil from splash and shear stress detachment and enhancing its infiltration capacity. Modeling post-fire erosion and erosion mitigation strategies can be useful in selecting the effectiveness of a rehabilitation method. In this paper a distributed model based on the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), properly parameterized for a Mediterranean basin located in Sardinia, is used to determine soil losses for six different scenarios describing both natural and post-fire basin condition, the last also accounting for the single and combined effect of different erosion mitigation measures. Fire effect on vegetation and soil properties have been mimed by changing soil drainage capacity and organic matter content, and RUSLE factors related to soil cover and protection measures. Model results, validated using measured data on erosion rates from the literature and in situ field campaigns, show the effect of the analyzed rehabilitation treatments in reducing the amount of soil losses with the peculiar characteristics of the spatial distribution of such changes. In particular, the mulching treatment substantially decreases erosion both in its mean value (-75%) and in the spatially distribution of the erosion levels over the burned area . On the contrary, the breaking up of the hydrophobic layer decreases post-fire mean soil losses of about the 14%, although it strongly influences the spatial distribution of the erosion levels.

  18. Avifaunal responses to fire in southwestern montane forests along a burn severity gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kotliar, N.B.; Kennedy, P.L.; Ferree, K.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of burn severity on avian communities are poorly understood, yet this information is crucial to fire management programs. To quantify avian response patterns along a burn severity gradient, we sampled 49 random plots (2001-2002) at the 17 351-ha Cerro Grande Fire (2000) in New Mexico, USA. Additionally, pre-fire avian surveys (1986-1988, 1990) created a unique opportunity to quantify avifaunal changes in 13 pre-fire transects (resampled in 2002) and to compare two designs for analyzing the effects of unplanned disturbances: after-only analysis and before-after comparisons. Distance analysis was used to calculate densities. We analyzed after-only densities for 21 species using gradient analysis, which detected a broad range of responses to increasing burn severity: (I) large significant declines, (II) weak, but significant declines, (III) no significant density changes, (IV) peak densities in low- or moderate-severity patches, (V) weak, but significant increases, and (VI) large significant increases. Overall, 71% of the species included in the after-only gradient analysis exhibited either positive or neutral density responses to fire effects across all or portions of the severity gradient (responses III-VI). We used pre/post pairs analysis to quantify density changes for 15 species using before-after comparisons; spatiotemporal variation in densities was large and confounded fire effects for most species. Only four species demonstrated significant effects of burn severity, and their densities were all higher in burned compared to unburned forests. Pre- and post-fire community similarity was high except in high-severity areas. Species richness was similar pre- and post-fire across all burn severities. Thus, ecosystem restoration programs based on the assumption that recent severe fires in Southwestern ponderosa pine forests have overriding negative ecological effects are not supported by our study of post-fire avian communities. This study illustrates the importance of quantifying burn severity and controlling confounding sources of spatiotemporal variation in studies of fire effects. After-only gradient analysis can be an efficient tool for quantifying fire effects. This analysis can also augment historical data sets that have small samples sizes coupled with high non-process variation, which limits the power of before-after comparisons. ?? 2007 by the Ecological Society of America.

  19. Exploring wildfire impact on post-fire runoff water quality: field and laboratory investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.; Acharya, K.; Miller, J.; Berli, M.

    2014-12-01

    Wildfire can have complex effects on physical and chemical properties of soil and post-fire runoff. Water quality issues in the post-fire runoff may have caused catastrophic events in aquatic ecosystem in the Virgin River in Southwestern U.S. To examined the mechanisms of the impact of wildfire on post-fire runoff water quality, field sampling and experiments were conducted on surfaces of various fuel types at a burned site in the Virgin River Watershed. Rainfall simulation tests were performed to generate runoff for water quality test including in-situ DO and pH measurement and laboratory tests on a number of water quality constituents. Soil/ash samples collected from burned surfaces were applied in a laboratory test to produce solutions of different concentrations and DO changes over a 24-hour period were measured. Results confirmed that, for runoff carrying large amounts of sediment or debris, DO values can be substantially reduced to a level close to or lower than 5 mg/L. Fire effects may enhance this trend, but is not necessarily a critical reason for the reduction of DO levels. Laboratory runoff and soil sample analysis show that the post-fire runoff in this watershed may contain a large amount of ammonia (NH3 and NH4+). The concentration of ammonia can be higher than the lethal level to many (if not all) fish species. Fire effects appear to have a significant impact on the ammonia level, which lead to an increase of several times to one order of magnitude in the ammonia concentration in the runoff or soil solution under burned conditions. These results provide information to better understand post-fire water quality in this and similar watersheds.

  20. Rapid Response Tools and Datasets for Post-fire Erosion Modeling: An Online Database to Support Post-fire Erosion Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M. E.; Russel, A. M.; Billmire, M.; Endsley, K.; Elliot, W. E.; Robichaud, P. R.; MacDonald, L. H.; Renschler, C. S.

    2013-12-01

    Once the danger posed by an active wildfire has passed, land managers must rapidly assess risks posed by post-fire runoff and erosion due to fire-induced changes in soil properties and the loss of surface cover. Post-fire assessments and proposals to mitigate risks to downstream areas due to flooding, erosion, and sedimentation are typically undertaken by interdisciplinary Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams. One of the first and most important priorities of a BAER team is the development of a burn severity map that reflects the fire-induced changes in both vegetative cover and soils. Currently these maps are known as BARC (Burned Area Reflectance Classification) maps and they are generated from multi-spectral remote sensing data. BAER teams also have access to many erosion modeling tools and datasets, but process-based, spatially explicit models are currently under-utilized relative to simpler, lumped models because they are more difficult to set up and they require the preparation of spatially-explicit data layers such as digital elevation models (DEM), soils, and land cover. We are working to make spatially-explicit modeling easier by preparing large-scale spatial data sets that can be rapidly combined with burn severity maps and then used to quickly run more accurate, process-based models for spatially explicit predictions of post-fire erosion and runoff. A prototype database consisting of 30-m DEM, soil, land cover, and Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) maps for Colorado has been created for use in GeoWEPP (Geo-spatial interface for the Water Erosion Prediction Project) with Disturbed WEPP parameters developed for post-fire conditions. Additional soil data layers have been gathered to support a spatial empirical debris flow model that also utilizes BARC maps. Future plans include developing the dataset to support other models commonly used by BAER teams. The importance of preparing spatial data ahead of time can be illustrated with two contrasting modeling exercises from recent fires. The 2012 High Park Fire that burned near Fort Collins, Colorado and a small portion of the 2011 Rock House Fire (Hospital Canyon) that burned in western Texas. A lack of preparatory work meant useful products could not be produced in a timely manner for the Rock House Fire. In contrast, an earlier project meant that baseline soil and land cover data were readily available for the 2012 High Park Fire, which burned 330 km2 and threatened the drinking water for Fort Collins, Greeley, and other downstream communities. These datasets were combined with the burn severity map and used to model post-fire erosion and run-off in GeoWEPP using a two hour storm event with a total rainfall of 2.2 inches. Predictions of post-fire erosion rates ranged from 0 to 10.4 Mg/ha and the maps were used by the BAER team to assess relative erosion risks, and develop the associated proposals for post-fire mitigation efforts.

  1. Burn Severity Mapping in Australia 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinley, R.; Clark, J.; Lecker, J.

    2012-07-01

    In 2009, the Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment estimated approximately 430,000 hectares of Victoria Australia were burned by numerous bushfires. Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams from the United States were deployed to Victoria to assist local fire managers. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (USGS/EROS) and U.S. Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (USFS/RSAC) aided the support effort by providing satellite-derived "soil burn severity " maps for over 280,000 burned hectares. In the United States, BAER teams are assembled to make rapid assessments of burned lands to identify potential hazards to public health and property. An early step in the assessment process is the creation of a soil burn severity map used to identify hazard areas and prioritize treatment locations. These maps are developed primarily using Landsat satellite imagery and the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) algorithm.

  2. Post-fire runoff and erosion from rainfall simulation: contrasting forests with shrublands and grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, Mathew P.; Hakonson, Thomas E.; Breshears, David D.

    2001-10-01

    Rainfall simulations allow for controlled comparisons of runoff and erosion among ecosystems and land cover conditions. Runoff and erosion can increase greatly following fire, yet there are few rainfall simulation studies for post-fire plots, particularly after severe fire in semiarid forest. We conducted rainfall simulations shortly after a severe fire (Cerro Grande) in ponderosa pine forest near Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA, which completely burned organic ground cover and exposed unprotected soil. Measurements on burned plots showed 74% of mineral soil was exposed compared with an estimated 3% exposed prior to the fire. Most of the remaining 26% surface area was covered by easily moveable ash. Rainfall was applied at 60 mm h-1 in three repeated tests over 2 days. Runoff from burned plots was about 45% of the total 120 mm of applied precipitation, but only 23% on the unburned plots. The most striking difference between the response of burned and unburned plots was the amount of sediment production; burned plots generated 25 times more sediment than unburned plots (76 kg ha-1 and 3 kg ha-1 respectively per millimetre of rain). Sediment yields were well correlated with percentage bare soil (r = 0·84). These sediment yields were more than an order of magnitude greater than nearly all comparable rainfall simulation studies conducted on burned plots in the USA, most of which have been in grasslands or shrublands. A synthesis of comparable studies suggests that an erosion threshold is reached as the amount of soil exposed by fire increases to 60-70%. Our results provide sediment yield and runoff data from severely burned surfaces, a condition for which little rainfall simulation data exist. Further, our results contrast post-fire hydrologic responses in forests with those in grasslands and shrublands. These results can be applied to problems concerning post-fire erosion, flooding, contaminant transport, and development of associated remediation strategies.

  3. Predicting gully rejuvenation after wildfire using remotely sensed burn severity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, Kevin; Woods, Scott W.; Donahue, Jack

    2007-05-01

    The loss of surface vegetation and reduced infiltration caused by wildfires can trigger gully rejuvenation, resulting in damage to downstream aquatic resources and risk to human life and property. We developed a spatially explicit metric of burn severity — the Burn Severity Distribution Index (BSDI) — and tested its ability to predict post-fire gully rejuvenation in 1st and 2nd order basins burned in the 2000 Valley Complex fires in the Sapphire Mountains of western Montana. The BSDI was derived from burn severity data interpreted from Landsat 7 satellite imagery using the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) method, and ranged from 0.0 for completely unburned basins to 4.0 for basins burned entirely at high severity. In July 2001 rainstorms with peak 30-minute intensities of up to 17 mm h - 1 triggered gully rejuvenation in 66 of the 171 basins examined. The frequency of gully rejuvenation was higher in basins with higher BSDI values, increasing from zero for basins with a BSDI less than 1.3 to 67% for basins with a BSDI greater than 3.0. Binary logistic regression indicated that BSDI was a more significant predictor of gully rejuvenation than basin morphometric variables. The absence of gully rejuvenation in several basins with a high BSDI was attributed to low gradient, dense riparian vegetation, or concentration of high burn severity at lower elevations in the basin. The presence of gully rejuvenation in several basins with a low BSDI was associated with false negative NBR classification errors in northwest aspects, and concentration of severe burn impacts in the drainage headslopes. BSDI is a useful metric for predicting gully rejuvenation after wildfire. The use of the BSDI in Burned Area Emergency Response team assessments could improve the planning, implementation, and monitoring of burned area recovery treatments.

  4. Selection of Parameters Values to Model Post -fire Runoff and Sediment Transport at the Watershed Scale in Southwestern Forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Evan Canfield; David C. Goodrich; I. Shea Burns

    2004-01-01

    Erosion and runoff have been observed to increase following fire. Land managers and Burned Area Emergency Rehabilitation (BAER) teams must be able to estimate these post -fire changes. Studies of post -fire erosion on burned watersheds show that the concentrations of sediment eroded from burned rangeland and forested hillslopes in the southwestern United States can be extremely high. Since wildfire

  5. Severe peripheral airway obstruction after inhalation burn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Jaspar; M. Bracamonte; R. Sergysels

    1982-01-01

    In a patient recovering from an acute airway burn, after blast, late functional results showed severe peripheral airway obstruction despite a normal X-ray and minimal complaints. This suggests the possible development ofbronchiolitis obliterans after burn injury of the peripheral airways.

  6. EFFECTIVENESS OF REHABILITATION TREATMENTS IN REDUCING POST-FIRE EROSION AFTER THE HAYMAN AND SCHOONOVER FIRES,

    E-print Network

    MacDonald, Lee

    THESIS EFFECTIVENESS OF REHABILITATION TREATMENTS IN REDUCING POST-FIRE EROSION AFTER THE HAYMAN OF REHABILITATION TREATMENTS IN REDUCING POST- FIRE EROSION AFTER THE HAYMAN AND SCHOONOVER FIRES, COLORADO FRONT and damage human resources such as reservoirs, roads, and structures. Burned area emergency rehabilitation

  7. R E S E A R C H A R T I C L E Effects of Phenology at Burn Time on Post-Fire

    E-print Network

    Schwinning, Susan - Department of Biology, Texas State University

    attempted to manipulate phenolog- ical state through temporary rainout shelters to expedite maturation. The two experiments differed in the timing of the rainout shelter application (experiment 1: May to July × shelter). Across experiments, when at least 50% of all tillers were pre-reproductive at burn time, either

  8. Simulation of short-term post-fire vegetation recovery by integration of LANDFIRE data products, DNBR data and LANDIS modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Q. Wang; Y. Zhou; J. Yang; H. S. He; Z. Zhu; D. Ohlen

    2009-01-01

    This study developed an approach to simulate short-term post-fire vegetation recovery by integration of LANDFIRE data products, the differenced normalized burn ratio (DNBR) data, and LANDISv4.0a modeling. Combination of DNBR and LANDFIRE data products provided information on burn severity, pre-fire existing vegetation types, vegetation composition and structure, and the biophysical gradients that affect the distribution of ecosystem components. Such critical

  9. Optimizing burn severity assessments in Alaskan tussock tundra from optical imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loboda, T. V.; Jenkins, L. K.; French, N. H.; Bourgeau-Chavez, L. L.

    2013-12-01

    Over the past decade Alaskan tundra has experienced an increase in fire occurrence prompting rising concerns in the scientific community. Fire occurrence in tundra ecosystems has the potential to release a large amount of organic carbon stored in the deep organic layer, modify soil moisture and respiration, and make more organic matter available for decomposition and future burning through impacts on the active depth layer. Monitoring and characterization of fire occurrence and impacts in extensive, remote, and largely inaccessible tundra regions rely on satellite observations of land surface and require robust approaches to burn severity measurements. The relatively low fire activity in tundra regions between 1950 and 2000 has resulted in overall lack of understanding of fire impacts on tundra landscapes outside the Seward Peninsula where tundra fire record is better known. Thus satellite-based mapping of burn severity is limited by the lack of quantified knowledge of fire-induced physical changes on the landscape on the one hand and the capabilities of optical remote sensing systems to capture those characteristics on the other. Here we present an analysis of satellite mapping of burn severity using multi-date Landsat imagery and two field-based measurements of burn severity - the operationally applied Composite Burn Index (CBI) and the more simplistic Burn Severity Index (BSI), also known as the Burn Severity Code Matrix. The BSI used here is a four-point scale (unburned, low, moderate, severe) assessed for the surface substrate and vegetation layers. The BSI and CBI used to compare to the remote sensing data were determined from the field data by converting the qualitative fractional assessment of burn severity within 10 x 10 m plots to a single value. Since both indices represent mostly ocular assessment of the fire-impacted surface, they can relate well to Landsat's optical sensors measurements. The analysis shows that overall satellite indices have closer relationships with CBI compared to BSI (exceeding R2 of 0.8 in 10 and 4 instances for CBI and BSI, respectively) for single-date assessments. Similarly, for multi-date differenced assessments, the R2 between CBI and various Landsat-based indices exceeded 0.8 in 76 instances compared to only 20 instances for BSI. However, there are considerable differences between the timing of image acquisition post fire when the relationships between satellite observations and CBI or BSI are the closest as well and indices which field assessments of burn severity appear to be best correlated with. CBI produces closest relationships with near infrared, short-wave infrared at 1.5?m, relative differenced Normalized Burn Ratio, and Tasseled Cap Greenness indices when the post-fire image is acquired immediately after the fire event irrespective of the pre-burn date selection. In contrast, the relationship between BSI and spectral indices peaks when pre- and post-burn indices are computed from images preceding the full green-up conditions (i.e. late May imagery), with Tasseled Cap Brightness showing the closest relationship. Although on average CBI outperforms BSI, BSI produces closer relationships to spectral indices than CBI indicating that the two field assessments provide complimentary information which can be related to biophysical properties of impacted surface.

  10. Predicting burn severity and patterns of biomass consumption in support of national-scale carbon assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, H.; Hawbaker, T. J.; Rollins, M. G.; Volegmann, J. E.; Yang, L.

    2009-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is prototyping a methodology to conduct an assessment of current carbon stocks and fluxes, and potential increases for ecological carbon sequestration under a range of climate change, policy and economic scenarios, as required by Section 712 of the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007. Disturbances, especially fire, are recognized as having a critical role in carbon dynamics and EISA explicitly requires accounting for their potential impacts. The quantity of carbon released from fires and post-fire carbon sequestration rates are both related to burn severity. However, models explaining and predicting patterns of burn severity are lacking, but needed for long-term assessments quantifying how carbon dynamics will change in response to climate change and future disturbance regimes. To address this knowledge gap, we first quantified changes in field-measured biomass pools according to vegetation types and burn severity categories. We then, constructed statistical models predicting burn severity based on a suite of topographic, climate, and biophysical variables. We selected fires from the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) database that burned between 1989 and 2007 across representative ecosystems of the U.S. The MTBS data were combined with plot data from the LANDFIRE field reference database where pre- and post-disturbance measurements were made to summarize changes in biomass pools by burn severity and vegetation type. Second, we built statistical models relating the burn severity patterns to LANDFIRE vegetation types, satellite-derived land surface phenology, topographic, and climate variables. We found that the burn severity data captured disturbance-driven changes in above-ground biomass pools well. In the predictive models, vegetation type and fuel loading (measured through land surface phenology) explained the largest amount of variability in burn severity patters; however, climate and topography also had substantial contributions. Our results demonstrate that remotely sensed data capturing spatial-temporal heterogeneity in fuel conditions (vegetation types and patterns of fuel production), in combination with climate and topographic data, can provide information for monitoring and predicting burn severity under different fuel management and climate change scenarios. This information is critical for anticipating and predicting the long-term impacts of changing disturbance regimes on carbon dynamics and counteracting the undesired consequences of those changes through different mitigation and adaptation strategies.

  11. [Disturbances of electrolytes in severe thermal burns].

    PubMed

    Hauhouot-Attoungbre, M L; Mlan, W C H; Edjeme, N A; Ahibo, H; Vilasco, B; Monnet, D

    2005-01-01

    Thermal burns result in severe electrolytes disturbances which are life-threatening when the percentage of burnt body surface area (BSA) is above 20% in adults and 10% in children. If electrolytes disturbances are often mentioned in the physiopathology of burns, they are less documented in the daily practice of the follow up. The objective of this work was to describe variation of blood and urine electrolytes concentrations in severe burns. The survey concerned 30 patients hospitalized in the Burn Centre of Abidjan. The patients have been followed during the first three days after the burn, including the initial phase of shock resuscitation. The results showed, in accordance with data of the literature, the incidence of hypophosphoremia, hypoprotidemia and hypocalcemia. The hypoprotidemia and the hypocalcemia were correlated with the importance of the BSA. An elevation of potassium and a decrease of sodium have been also observed, but, in contrast to data of the literature, they were not significant. Moderate variations of chloride and magnesium have been noted. All urinary parameters were decreased. The present results suggest the necessity of proteins, phosphore and calcium administration in the therapeutic protocols. PMID:16061440

  12. A new parameterization of the post-fire snow albedo effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleason, K. E.; Nolin, A. W.

    2013-12-01

    Mountain snowpack serves as an important natural reservoir of water: recharging aquifers, sustaining streams, and providing important ecosystem services. Reduced snowpacks and earlier snowmelt have been shown to affect fire size, frequency, and severity in the western United States. In turn, wildfire disturbance affects patterns of snow accumulation and ablation by reducing canopy interception, increasing turbulent fluxes, and modifying the surface radiation balance. Recent work shows that after a high severity forest fire, approximately 60% more solar radiation reaches the snow surface due to the reduction in canopy density. Also, significant amounts of pyrogenic carbon particles and larger burned woody debris (BWD) are shed from standing charred trees, which concentrate on the snowpack, darken its surface, and reduce snow albedo by 50% during ablation. Although the post-fire forest environment drives a substantial increase in net shortwave radiation at the snowpack surface, driving earlier and more rapid melt, hydrologic models do not explicitly incorporate forest fire disturbance effects to snowpack dynamics. The objective of this study was to parameterize the post-fire snow albedo effect due to BWD deposition on snow to better represent forest fire disturbance in modeling of snow-dominated hydrologic regimes. Based on empirical results from winter experiments, in-situ snow monitoring, and remote sensing data from a recent forest fire in the Oregon High Cascades, we characterized the post-fire snow albedo effect, and developed a simple parameterization of snowpack albedo decay in the post-fire forest environment. We modified the recession coefficient in the algorithm: ? = ?0 + K exp (-nr) where ? = snowpack albedo, ?0 = minimum snowpack albedo (?0.4), K = constant (? 0.44), -n = number of days since last major snowfall, r = recession coefficient [Rohrer and Braun, 1994]. Our parameterization quantified BWD deposition and snow albedo decay rates and related these forest disturbance effects to radiative heating and snow melt rates. We validated our parameterization of the post-fire snow albedo effect at the plot scale using a physically-based, spatially-distributed snow accumulation and melt model, and in-situ eddy covariance and snow monitoring data. This research quantified wildfire impacts to snow dynamics in the Oregon High Cascades, and provided a new parameterization of post-fire drivers to changes in high elevation winter water storage.

  13. THE PATHOPHYSIOLOGIC RESPONSE TO SEVERE BURN INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Jeschke, Marc G; Chinkes, David L; Finnerty, Celeste C; Kulp, Gabriela; Suman, Oscar E; Norbury, William B; Branski, Ludwik K; Gauglitz, Gerd G; Mlcak, Ronald P; Herndon, David N

    2014-01-01

    Objective To improve clinical outcome and to determine new treatment options, we studied the pathophysiologic response postburn in a large prospective, single center, clinical trial. Summary Background Data A severe burn injury leads to marked hypermetabolism and catabolism, which are associated with morbidity and mortality. The underlying pathophysiology and the correlations between humoral changes and organ function have not been well delineated. Methods Two hundred forty-two severely burned pediatric patients [>30% total body surface area (TBSA)], who received no anabolic drugs, were enrolled in this study. Demographics, clinical data, serum hormones, serum cytokine expression profile, organ function, hypermetabolism, muscle protein synthesis, incidence of wound infection sepsis, and body composition were obtained throughout acute hospital course. Results Average age was 8 ± 0.2 years, and average burn size was 56 ± 1% TBSA with 43 ± 1% third-degree TBSA. All patients were markedly hypermetabolic throughout acute hospital stay and had significant muscle protein loss as demonstrated by a negative muscle protein net balance (?0.05% ± 0.007 nmol/100 mL leg/min) and loss of lean body mass (LBM) (?4.1% ± 1.9%); P < 0.05. Patients lost 3% ± 1% of their bone mineral content (BMC) and 2 ± 1% of their bone mineral density (BMD). Serum proteome analysis demonstrated profound alterations immediately postburn, which remained abnormal throughout acute hospital stay; P < 0.05. Cardiac function was compromised immediately after burn and remained abnormal up to discharge; P < 0.05. Insulin resistance appeared during the first week postburn and persisted until discharge. Patients were hyperinflammatory with marked changes in IL-8, MCP-1, and IL-6, which were associated with 2.5 ± 0.2 infections and 17% sepsis. Conclusions In this large prospective clinical trial, we delineated the complexity of the postburn pathophysiologic response and conclude that the postburn response is profound, occurring in a timely manner, with derangements that are greater and more protracted than previously thought. PMID:18791359

  14. Evaluation of a post-fire tree mortality model for western USA conifers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon M. HoodA; Charles W. McHughA; Kevin C. RyanA; Sheri L. SmithB

    Accurately predicting fire-caused mortality is essential to developing prescribed fire burn plans and post-fire salvage marking guidelines. The mortality model included in the commonly used USA fire behaviour and effects models, the First Order Fire Effects Model (FOFEM), BehavePlus, and the Fire and Fuels Extension to the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FFE-FVS), has not been tested with independently collected post-fire tree

  15. Establishment of non-native plant species after wildfires: effects of fuel treatments, abiotic and biotic factors, and post-fire grass seeding treatments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Molly E. Hunter; Philip N. Omi; Erik J. Martinson; Geneva W. Chong

    2006-01-01

    Abstract. Establishment and spread of non-native species following wildfires can pose threats to long-term native plant recovery. Factors such as disturbance severity, resource availability, and propagule pressure may influence where non-native species establish in burned areas. In addition, pre- and post-fire management activities may influence the likelihood of non-native species establishment. In the present study we examine the establishment of

  16. Establishment of non-native plant species after wildfires: effects of fuel treatments, abiotic and biotic factors, and post-fire grass seeding treatments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Molly E. HunterA; Philip N. OmiA; Erik J. MartinsonA; Geneva W. ChongA

    Establishment and spread of non-native species following wildfires can pose threats to long-term native plant recovery. Factors such as disturbance severity, resource availability, and propagule pressure may influence where non-native species establish in burned areas. In addition, pre- and post-fire management activities may influence the likelihood of non-native species establishment. In the present study we examine the establishment of non-native

  17. Post-fire vegetation recovery in Portugal based on spot/vegetation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, C.; Dacamara, C. C.; Trigo, R. M.

    2010-04-01

    A procedure is presented that allows identifying large burned scars and the monitoring of vegetation recovery in the years following major fire episodes. The procedure relies on 10-day fields of Maximum Value Composites of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (MVC-NDVI), with a 1 km×1 km spatial resolution obtained from the VEGETATION instrument. The identification of fire scars during the extremely severe 2003 fire season is performed based on cluster analysis of NDVI anomalies that persist during the vegetative cycle of the year following the fire event. Two regions containing very large burned scars were selected, located in Central and Southwestern Portugal, respectively, and time series of MVC-NDVI analysed before the fire events took place and throughout the post-fire period. It is shown that post-fire vegetation dynamics in the two selected regions may be characterised based on maps of recovery rates as estimated by fitting a monoparametric model of vegetation recovery to MVC-NDVI data over each burned scar. Results indicated that the recovery process in the region located in Central Portugal is mostly related to fire damage rather than to vegetation density before 2003, whereas the latter seems to have a more prominent role than vegetation conditions after the fire episode, e.g. in the case of the region in Southwestern Portugal. These differences are consistent with the respective predominant types of vegetation. The burned area located in Central Portugal is dominated by Pinus Pinaster whose natural regeneration crucially depends on the destruction of seeds present on the soil surface during the fire, whereas the burned scar in Southwestern Portugal was populated by Eucalyptus that may quickly re-sprout from buds after fire. Besides its simplicity, the monoparametric model of vegetation recovery has the advantage of being easily adapted to other low-resolution satellite data, as well as to other types of vegetation indices.

  18. Application of MODSCAG and MODIS snow products in post-fire watersheds in the western U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheletty, P. D.; Kinoshita, A. M.; Hogue, T. S.

    2013-12-01

    Forest fires across the western U.S. have the potential to alter watershed processes for years after the event and have significant impact on snow accumulation and melt behavior, directly altering water yield. The paucity of literature on spatial and temporal variability in post-fire snow cover patterns is primarily due to the lack of available pre- and post-fire data. The current work evaluates the distribution of snow after large forest fires through the use of remotely sensed snow covered area (SCA). Accurately monitoring snow cover in mountainous terrain is complex, but recent remote sensing techniques have been shown to identify snow cover relatively well. Specifically, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow covered area and grain size (MODSCAG) algorithm provides an accurate representation of snow cover at 500 m resolution through an improved multi-spectral mixing analysis. MODSCAG shows little sensitivity to vegetation cover types at the regional scale, and is therefore ideal for monitoring changes in spatial snow coverage after wildfire. MODSCAG is currently only available over the Sierra Nevada from 2000-2010. NASA MODIS SCA products, such as MOD10A1, however, are readily available from 2000-present over the entire U.S. Initial analysis includes investigation of relative changes in pre- and post-fire snow covered area over the 2007 Moonlight Fire in the northern Sierra Nevada (California), utilizing both MODSCAG and MOD10A1fractional SCA products. Preliminary results show statistically significant increases (at 95%) in post-fire basin averaged MODSCAG SCA, compared to a nearby unburned control basin and taking into account annual climate variability. Basin averaged snow cover during winter months show increases of 25% during the post-fire period with annual SCA averages increasing up to 10%. We also undertake a pixel by pixel analysis to study the effects of burn severity and slope aspect. Results show that regardless of these attributes, there is statistically increased SCA post-fire due to acute changes in forest structure. MODIS fSCA compliments MODSCAG with an extra 2 years of available data. The MODIS fSCA product is also being used to investigate changes after the Moonlight Fire and to adjust for bias between the two products (MODIS and MODSCAG). Ultimately, this study will provide critical insight in the area of natural hazards and the impacts of wildfire on downstream water sustainability from fire-induced shifts in snow cover and snowmelt patterns through the use of remote sensing platforms (i.e. MODIS).

  19. Treatment of severe foot burns in children.

    PubMed

    Shakirov, Babur M; Tursunov, Bakhrom S

    2005-11-01

    Only a few papers on the problem of foot burns can be found in the easily accessible scientific literature. In Central Asia foot burns are widespread, because many people, especially children, walk barefoot in summer, and because the heated sandal is still used for keeping warm in winter. In the Samarkand Inter-Regional Burn Center in Uzbekistan, the following method of treatment was developed: initial surgical debridement of the wound, necrectomy with application of chemotherapeutic medications and early necrectomy, the removal of necrotic tissues and preparation the wound for early autodermoplasty. This effective treatment method contributed to the restoration of foot function in patients, lessened their joint deformities and post-burn contractures/deformities, and also shortened their hospital stay. PMID:15994015

  20. Severe burn on 81% of body surface after sun tanning.

    PubMed

    Sforza, Marcos; Andjelkov, Katarina; Zaccheddu, Renato

    2013-07-01

    We report herein the case of a 42-year-old woman who presented to the Burns Unit with 81% of her body surface severely burned following sun bathing, after applying fig leaf tea as a tanning agent. The patient was hospitalized for 13 days in a Burns Intensive Care Unit, and was discharged for an ambulatory follow-up. The treatment of such burns does not differ from any conventional treatment for heat- induced second-degree burns. The physiopathology of the phytophotodermatitis induced by such homemade tanning solutions rich in psoralen is discussed in detail. PMID:23884685

  1. EFFECTS OF SUMMER FIRE AND POST-FIRE GRAZING ON GRASSHOPPER ABUNDANCE AND SPECIES COMPOSITION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Habitat management practices such as burning or livestock grazing have the potential to be important tools in grasshopper management. Few studies have simultaneously examined the effects of fire and post-fire grazing on grasshopper populations. The responses of grasshoppers to late summer fire and...

  2. Spatial frequency domain imaging of burn wounds in a preclinical model of graded burn severity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, John Quan; Crouzet, Christian; Mai, Tuan; Riola, Kathleen; Uchitel, Daniel; Liaw, Lih-Huei; Bernal, Nicole; Ponticorvo, Adrien; Choi, Bernard; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2013-06-01

    Frequent monitoring of early-stage burns is necessary for deciding optimal treatment and management. Both superficial and full thickness burns are relatively easy to diagnose based on clinical observation. In between these two extremes are superficial-partial thickness and deep-partial thickness burns. These burns, while visually similar, differ dramatically in terms of clinical treatment and are known to progress in severity over time. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) for noninvasively mapping quantitative changes in chromophore and optical properties that may be an indicative of burn wound severity. A controlled protocol of graded burn severity was developed and applied to 17 rats. SFDI data was acquired at multiple near-infrared wavelengths over a course of 3 h. Burn severity was verified using hematoxylin and eosin histology. From this study, we found that changes in water concentration (edema), deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration, and optical scattering (tissue denaturation) to be statistically significant at differentiating superficial partial-thickness burns from deep-partial thickness burns.

  3. Stem demography and post-fire recruitment of a resprouting serotinous conifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, J.E.; Keeley, M.B.; Bond, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    The contribution of resprouts and seedling recruitment to post-fire regeneration of the South African fynbos conifer Widdringtonia nodiflora was compared eight months after wildfires in 1990. Stems on all trees were killed by fire but resprouting success was > 90 % at all but one site. A demographic study of burned skeletons revealed that prior to these fires, nearly all plants were multi-stemmed (4 - 9 stems/plant) and multi-aged, indicating continuous sprout production between fires. All stems were killed by these 1990 fires and at most sites > 90 % of the stems were burned to ground level. All diameter stems were susceptible to such incineration as, at most sites, there was no difference in average diameter of stems burned to ground level and those left standing. Individual genets usually had all ramets incinerated to ground level or all ramets charred, but intact, suggesting certain micro-sites burned hotter, whereas other sites were somewhat protected. Although not true of the 1990 fires, there was evidence that occasionally Widdringtonia stems may survive fire. At one site, four of the 16 plants sampled had a burned stem twice as old as the oldest burned stem on the other 12 plants at the site, suggesting some stems had survived the previous fire (ca. 1970) and this conclusion was supported by fire-scars on these four stems that dated to ca. 1970. Based on the highly significant correlation between stem diameter and cone density left standing after the 1990 fries, we calculated that for most sites > 80 % of the initial cone crop was incinerated by fire. This is important because we observed a strong relationship between size of the canopy cone crop surviving fire and post-fire seedling recruitment. Under these conditions we hypothesize that sprouting confers a selective advantage to genets when fires cause heavy losses of seed. The infrequent occurrence of sprouting in the Cupressaceae suggests the hypothesis that resprouting is an apomorphic or derived trait in Widdringtonia. Data from this study suggests resprouting provides a selective advantage under severe fynbos fires, which are not only 'stand-replacing fires,' but also are intense enough to incinerate cone-bearing stems.

  4. Post-Fire Debris-Flow Hazard Assessments at the U.S. Geological Survey - Recent Advances and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staley, D. M.; Kean, J. W.; Smoczyk, G. M.; Negri, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Wildfire can have profound effects on the hydrologic response of a watershed, and debris-flow activity is among the most destructive consequences of these effects. The continued high likelihood of catastrophic wildfires in the western U. S. and the encroachment of development into fire-prone areas have created the need to develop tools to identify and quantify the potential hazards posed by debris flows generated from burned watersheds. These tools are critically needed by Federal, State, and local agencies to mitigate the impacts of debris flows on people, their property, infrastructure and natural resources. Applied research at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Landslide Hazards Program is focused on providing timely, science-based assessments of post-fire debris-flow hazard. Formerly, post-fire debris-flow hazard assessments were disseminated by means of the USGS Open-File Report publication series, which included poster-sized maps that predicted the probability, volume, and combined hazard for given watersheds. Feedback from collaborators suggested that 1) the reports were not sufficiently timely for immediate post-fire use, 2) the static maps were difficult to use for site-specific assessments, and 3) individual assessments were often cost-prohibitive. Beginning in January 2014, the USGS has transitioned to a web-based method for disseminating post-fire debris-flow hazard assessments. This new platform addresses the primary concerns of our stakeholders in three ways. First, the turnaround time has been reduced from 1-2 months for a map and written report, to 3-4 days for a web-based map assessment. This allows response teams to incorporate the assessment results into their reports, which are urgently needed immediately after fires. Second, the new website is interactive and accompanied by downloadable geospatial data of predictions for several storm scenarios. These features permit casual (local residents) and power-users (GIS experts) to evaluate site-specific debris-flow hazards. Finally, the new web-based assessments are completely free and publicly available online. This new method for assessment dissemination permits the Landslide Hazards Program to focus energies on improving existing predictive models of post-fire debris-flow probability, magnitude and timing.

  5. Predictive modelling of burn probability and burn severity in a desert spring ecosystem

    E-print Network

    Weisberg, Peter J.

    Predictive modelling of burn probability and burn severity in a desert spring ecosystem Stephanie O: pweisberg@cabnr.unr.edu Abstract. Little is known about the fire ecology of desert springs, despite their importance for biodiversity and for provision of ecosystem services. Desert spring ecosystems

  6. The effect of age on severity of murine burns.

    PubMed

    Spillert, C R; Vernese, N A; Suval, W D; Lazaro, E J

    1984-12-01

    There is a higher mortality in elderly subjects with burns. Whether the same amount of heat will cause a greater degree of thermal injury in elderly subjects and thus account, in part at least, for this increased mortality has not been determined and was, therefore, the purpose of this study. Swiss white mice, 1-year-old (elderly) and 3-months-old (young) were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium and burned uniformly on a depilated area of the back with a steel disc at 100 F for 10 seconds (10% body burn). Burn severity was evaluated in a blinded manner by gross and microscopic criteria at 1, 2, and 4 days postburn. The mean burn severity 1 day postburn was significantly less in the elderly mice compared with the young mice (1.72 versus 3.22, (P less than 0.001). On the 2nd and 4th days postburn, no differences were noted in the degree of burn severity between the two groups. The early apparent diminished burn severity in the elderly mice was unexpected. Possible mechanisms to account for this difference in the old animals may relate to decreased cutaneous microcirculation, alteration in chemical composition of the skin, and the effects of thromboxane A2 and prostaglandin I2. The clinical relevance of these findings concerns the need for more careful clinical management with intentional overassessment of the initial degree of the thermal damage. PMID:6508023

  7. Index for characterizing post-fire soil environments in temperate coniferous forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jain, Theresa B.; Pilliod, David S.; Graham, Russell T.; Lentile, Leigh B.; Sandquist, Jonathan E.

    2012-01-01

    Many scientists and managers have an interest in describing the environment following a fire to understand the effects on soil productivity, vegetation growth, and wildlife habitat, but little research has focused on the scientific rationale for classifying the post-fire environment. We developed an empirically-grounded soil post-fire index (PFI) based on available science and ecological thresholds. Using over 50 literature sources, we identified a minimum of five broad categories of post-fire outcomes: (a) unburned, (b) abundant surface organic matter ( > 85% surface organic matter), (c) moderate amount of surface organic matter ( ? 40 through 85%), (d) small amounts of surface organic matter ( < 40%), and (e) absence of surface organic matter (no organic matter left). We then subdivided each broad category on the basis of post-fire mineral soil colors providing a more fine-tuned post-fire soil index. We related each PFI category to characteristics such as soil temperature and duration of heating during fire, and physical, chemical, and biological responses. Classifying or describing post-fire soil conditions consistently will improve interpretations of fire effects research and facilitate communication of potential responses or outcomes (e.g., erosion potential) from fires of varying severities.

  8. Burns.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Deborah L

    2013-06-01

    Burns are a leading cause of accidental injury and death. The American Burn Association statistics from 2001 to 2010 show that 68% of burns happen at home, 44% are from fires/flames, and 60% to 70% happen to white men. Smoke inhalation is the leading cause of adult death caused by fires. A patient with a 78% total body surface area burn has a 50% chance of survival. Burn injuries are described in terms of causative agents, depth, and severity. Crucial treatments for people with burns include assessment, stabilization, transfer to a burn unit, and fluid resuscitation. PMID:23692944

  9. Postfire soil burn severity mapping with hyperspectral image unmixing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robichaud, P.R.; Lewis, S.A.; Laes, D.Y.M.; Hudak, A.T.; Kokaly, R.F.; Zamudio, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Burn severity is mapped after wildfires to evaluate immediate and long-term fire effects on the landscape. Remotely sensed hyperspectral imagery has the potential to provide important information about fine-scale ground cover components that are indicative of burn severity after large wildland fires. Airborne hyperspectral imagery and ground data were collected after the 2002 Hayman Fire in Colorado to assess the application of high resolution imagery for burn severity mapping and to compare it to standard burn severity mapping methods. Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF), a partial spectral unmixing algorithm, was used to identify the spectral abundance of ash, soil, and scorched and green vegetation in the burned area. The overall performance of the MTMF for predicting the ground cover components was satisfactory (r2 = 0.21 to 0.48) based on a comparison to fractional ash, soil, and vegetation cover measured on ground validation plots. The relationship between Landsat-derived differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) values and the ground data was also evaluated (r2 = 0.20 to 0.58) and found to be comparable to the MTMF. However, the quantitative information provided by the fine-scale hyperspectral imagery makes it possible to more accurately assess the effects of the fire on the soil surface by identifying discrete ground cover characteristics. These surface effects, especially soil and ash cover and the lack of any remaining vegetative cover, directly relate to potential postfire watershed response processes. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Do standard burn mortality formulae work on a population of severely burned children and adults?

    PubMed

    Tsurumi, Amy; Que, Yok-Ai; Yan, Shuangchun; Tompkins, Ronald G; Rahme, Laurence G; Ryan, Colleen M

    2015-08-01

    Accurate prediction of mortality following burns is useful as an audit tool, and for providing treatment plan and resource allocation criteria. Common burn formulae (Ryan Score, Abbreviated Burn Severity Index (ABSI), classic and revised Baux) have not been compared with the standard Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHEII) or re-validated in a severely (?20% total burn surface area) burned population. Furthermore, the revised Baux (R-Baux) has been externally validated thoroughly only once and the pediatric Baux (P-Baux) has yet to be. Using 522 severely burned patients, we show that burn formulae (ABSI, Baux, revised Baux) outperform APACHEII among adults (AUROC increase p<0.001 adults; p>0.5 children). The Ryan Score performs well especially among the most at-risk populations (estimated mortality [90% CI] original versus current study: 33% [26-41%] versus 30.18% [24.25-36.86%] for Ryan Score 2; 87% [78-93%] versus 66.48% [51.31-78.87%] for Ryan Score 3). The R-Baux shows accurate discrimination (AUROC 0.908 [0.869-0.947]) and is well-calibrated. However, the ABSI and P-Baux, although showing high measures of discrimination (AUROC 0.826 [0.737-0.916] and 0.848 [0.758-0.938]) in children), exceedingly overestimates mortality, indicating poor calibration. We highlight challenges in designing and employing scores that are applicable to a wide range of populations. PMID:25922299

  11. [Functional reconstruction of multiple severe deformities after extensive deep burn].

    PubMed

    Chen, Bi; Jia, Chi-yu; Hu, Da-hai; Zhu, Xiong-xiang; Han, Jun-tao; Yao, Qing-jun; Xu, Ming-da

    2008-10-01

    To explore new measures for functional reconstruction of multiple severe deformities as a result of extensive deep burn (total burn surface area > or = 90% TBSA, including deep burn > or = 70%TBSA) in late stage. Twelve severe burn patients with above-mentioned deformities were hospitalized in our ward during 1960--2005, the scars resulted from burns were distributed from head to foot with 173 deformities, including 27 scar ulcers. All patients lacked of self-care ability, among them some could not stand. Due to inadequate skin source, deformities were corrected by skin from matured scars expanded with subcutaneous balloon at late postburn stage. Following our former clinical experience, anatomic investigation and experimental research, we chose the following methods to correct deformities and restore functions: application of split-thickness scar skin after expansion (88 wounds); use of scar skin flap/scar-Achilles tendon flaps (59 wounds); combination of thin split-thickness skin grafts from scar and allogeneic acellular dermal matrix (composite skin, 40 wounds). All grafts survived, the appearance and function were improved obviously without complications. Follow-up 1-40 years, all patients could take care themselves with satisfactory function and appearance, and among them 8 patients returned to work (one had worked for 40 years), 2 patients married and had children. The above-mentioned measures are safe, reliable and effective for functional reconstruction of deformities. PMID:19103016

  12. Previous Fires Moderate Burn Severity of Subsequent Wildland

    E-print Network

    Previous Fires Moderate Burn Severity of Subsequent Wildland Fires in Two Large Western US Wilderness Areas Sean A. Parks,1,2 * Carol Miller,1 Cara R. Nelson,2 and Zachary A. Holden3 1 U.S.D.A. Forest, Mis- soula, Montana 59801, USA; 2 Department of Ecosystem and Conservation Sciences, College

  13. Pre- and post-fire pollutant loads in an urban fringe watershed in Southern California.

    PubMed

    Burke, M P; Hogue, T S; Kinoshita, A M; Barco, J; Wessel, C; Stein, E D

    2013-12-01

    Post-fire runoff has the potential to be a large source of contaminants to downstream areas. However, the magnitude of this effect in urban fringe watersheds adjacent to large sources of airborne contaminants is not well documented. The current study investigates the impacts of wildfire on stormwater contaminant loading from the upper Arroyo Seco watershed, burned in 2009. This watershed is adjacent to the Greater Los Angeles, CA, USA area and has not burned in over 60 years. Consequently, it acts as a sink for regional urban pollutants and presents an opportunity to study the impacts of wildfire. Pre- and post-fire storm samples were collected and analyzed for basic cations, trace metals, and total suspended solids. The loss of vegetation and changes in soil properties from the fire greatly increased the magnitude of storm runoff, resulting in sediment-laden floods carrying high concentrations of particulate-bound constituents. Post-fire concentrations and loads were up to three orders of magnitude greater than pre-fire values for many trace metals, including lead and cadmium. A shift was also observed in the timing of chemical delivery, where maximum suspended sediment, trace metal, and cation concentrations coincided with, rather than preceded, peak discharge in the post-fire runoff, amplifying the fire's impacts on mass loading. The results emphasize the importance of sediment delivery as a primary mechanism for post-fire contaminant transport and suggest that traditional management practices that focus on treating only the early portion of storm runoff may be less effective following wildfire. We also advocate that watersheds impacted by regional urban pollutants have the potential to pose significant risk for downstream communities and ecosystems after fire. PMID:23912423

  14. Reflective Terahertz Imaging for early diagnosis of skin burn severity

    E-print Network

    TEWARI, PRIYAMVADA

    2013-01-01

    images immediate post burn and (right) three days post burn The visible pictures andpictures of a partial thickness burn on day 1, 2 & 3 and THz imagespictures of a full thickness burn on day 1, 2 & 3 and THz images

  15. [Research progress in post-fire debris flow].

    PubMed

    Di, Xue-ying; Tao, Yu-zhu

    2013-08-01

    The occurrence of the secondary disasters of forest fire has significant impacts on the environment quality and human health and safety. Post-fire debris flow is one of the most hazardous secondary disasters of forest fire. To understand the occurrence conditions of post-fire debris flow and to master its occurrence situation are the critical elements in post-fire hazard assessment. From the viewpoints of vegetation, precipitation threshold and debris flow material sources, this paper elaborated the impacts of forest fire on the debris flow, analyzed the geologic and geomorphic conditions, precipitation and slope condition that caused the post-fire debris flow as well as the primary mechanisms of debris-flow initiation caused by shallow landslide or surface runoff, and reviewed the research progress in the prediction and forecast of post-fire debris flow and the related control measures. In the future research, four aspects to be focused on were proposed, i. e., the quantification of the relationships between the fire behaviors and environmental factors and the post-fire debris flow, the quantitative research on the post-fire debris flow initiation and movement processes, the mechanistic model of post-fire debris flow, and the rapid and efficient control countermeasures of post-fire debris flow. PMID:24380363

  16. RAPID POST-FIRE HYDROLOGIC WATERSHED ASSESSMENT USING THE AGWA GIS-BASED HYDROLOGIC MODELING TOOL 1807

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid post-fire watershed assessment to identify potential trouble spots for erosion and flooding can potentially aid land managers and Burned Area Emergency Rehabilitation (BAER) teams in deploying mitigation and rehabilitation resources. These decisions are inherently complex and spatial in natur...

  17. A data-driven approach for modeling post-fire debris-flow volumes and their uncertainty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedel, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrates the novel application of genetic programming to evolve nonlinear post-fire debris-flow volume equations from variables associated with a data-driven conceptual model of the western United States. The search space is constrained using a multi-component objective function that simultaneously minimizes root-mean squared and unit errors for the evolution of fittest equations. An optimization technique is then used to estimate the limits of nonlinear prediction uncertainty associated with the debris-flow equations. In contrast to a published multiple linear regression three-variable equation, linking basin area with slopes greater or equal to 30 percent, burn severity characterized as area burned moderate plus high, and total storm rainfall, the data-driven approach discovers many nonlinear and several dimensionally consistent equations that are unbiased and have less prediction uncertainty. Of the nonlinear equations, the best performance (lowest prediction uncertainty) is achieved when using three variables: average basin slope, total burned area, and total storm rainfall. Further reduction in uncertainty is possible for the nonlinear equations when dimensional consistency is not a priority and by subsequently applying a gradient solver to the fittest solutions. The data-driven modeling approach can be applied to nonlinear multivariate problems in all fields of study. ?? 2011.

  18. Experimental testing of relationships between post-fire surface reflectance and fire characteristics and emissions in Southern African savannas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A.; Wooster, M.; Drake, N.

    2003-04-01

    Fuel, fire and visible-infrared spectral reflectance measurements were carried out in nine experimental fire plots in semi-arid woodland savanna within the Chobe National Park (Botswana) during October 2001. Pre- and post-fire fuel component loads and nitrogen/carbon contents were measured, along with measures of fire line intensity (FLI), integrated fire temperature with time (Tdt) and maximum fire temperature (MaxT) that are related to fire severity. One of the primary aims was to determine emissions of nitrogen and carbon resulting from the vegetation combustion. Our analysis indicates that, as expected, the emission factor of carbon is constant, but that of nitrogen varied logarithmically in a relationship dependent on the carbon to nitrogen ratio of the pre-fire fuel. A strong relationship was observed between the total nitrogen emitted and the measures of FLI (r2=0.72, n=30) and Tdt (r2=0.53, n=22), whilst the total nitrogen emitted from combusted grassy vegetation was well related to each fire behaviour measure (r2>0.80, n=28). Measures of fire severity were compared to post-fire ash spectral reflectance in order to test whether a retrospective spectrally-based measure of fire severity could be determined. Strong relationships were found between the near-infrared spectral reflectance of the postfire ash and the temperature-based fire behaviour measures, indicating that it may be possible to use remotely sensed imagery to not only map the extent of savanna burns but also to estimate the severity of the fire and so provide an improved assessment of the emissions produced.

  19. Post-fire land treatments and wind erosion -- lessons from the Milford Flat Fire, UT, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Mark E.; Bowker, Matthew A.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Goldstein, Harland L.

    2012-01-01

    We monitored sediment flux at 25 plots located at the northern end of the 2007 Milford Flat Fire (Lake Bonneville Basin, west-central Utah) to examine the effectiveness of post-fire rehabilitation treatments in mitigating risks of wind erosion during the first 3 years post fire. Maximum values were recorded during Mar–Jul 2009 when horizontal sediment fluxes measured with BSNE samplers ranged from 16.3 to 1251.0 g m?2 d?1 in unburned plots (n = 8; data represent averages of three sampler heights per plot), 35.2–555.3 g m?2 d?1 in burned plots that were not treated (n = 5), and 21.0–44,010.7 g m?2 d?1 in burned plots that received one or more rehabilitation treatments that disturbed the soil surface (n = 12). Fluxes during this period exhibited extreme spatial variability and were contingent on upwind landscape characteristics and surficial soil properties, with maximum fluxes recorded in settings downwind of treated areas with long treatment length and unstable fine sand. Nonlinear patterns of wind erosion attributable to soil and fetch effects highlight the profound importance of landscape setting and soil properties as spatial factors to be considered in evaluating risks of alternative post-fire rehabilitation strategies. By Mar–Jul 2010, average flux for all plots declined by 73.6% relative to the comparable 2009 period primarily due to the establishment and growth of exotic annual plants rather than seeded perennial plants. Results suggest that treatments in sensitive erosion-prone settings generally exacerbated rather than mitigated wind erosion during the first 3 years post fire, although long-term effects remain uncertain.

  20. Testing the effectiveness of pine needlecast in reducing post-fire soil erosion using complementary experimental approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bento, C. P. M.; Shakesby, R. A.; Walsh, R. P. D.; Ferreira, C. S. S.; Ferreira, A. J. D.; Urbanek, E.

    2012-04-01

    Mediterranean wildfire activity has increased markedly in recent decades, leading to enhanced runoff and erosion. Limiting post-fire on-site soil degradation and off-site flooding and sedimentation, however, often has a low priority because of the high costs of materials and labour needed to implement many recognised techniques (e.g. seeding, hydromulching, installing logs along the contour). However, in pine plantations, the crowns may only be scorched so that after fire the needlecast can form a comparatively dense ground cover. Its post-fire erosion-limiting effectiveness is virtually unknown in the Mediterranean context, despite potentially protecting soil with minimal effort (requiring only a delay to existing salvage logging procedures at most). As part of the DESIRE research programme, this paper presents results from two complementary approaches testing the erosion-limiting effectiveness of needlecast. (1) Near Moinhos, central Portugal, two 8m2 erosion plots were established immediately post-fire in September 2009 on a steep (30°) slope representative of an adjacent burnt Pinus pinaster plantation. Soil erosion was monitored during a 3-month pre-treatment phase. Needles were then applied to one plot at a density (37.7% cover) measured on a post-fire pine plantation. Soil losses from treated and untreated plots were then monitored until April 2011. By taking the percentage increase or decrease in erosion between the two monitoring phases for the untreated control plot as the 'expected' pattern, the erosion-limiting effectiveness of needles applied to the treated plot could then be determined. (2) Six adjacent rectangular 1.23m2 lysimeters were filled with gravel and sand, and capped by 10 cm of topsoil taken from a long unburnt Pinus pinaster plantation. They were set at 15° and left open to natural rainfall. This angle was considered the steepest possible from logistical and soil stability points of view. All lysimeters underwent a phase under bare soil conditions. In a second phase, a representative amount (8.34 kg) of fermented litter and shrubs from a pine plantation was applied evenly to each of five lysimeters. In a third stage, four of the five treated lysimeters were burned to simulate a low-severity wildfire. After several more rainfall events, pine needles (37.7% cover) were applied to two of the burnt lysimeters. In the final stage, there was 1 lysimeter with bare soil, 1 unburnt with a vegetation cover, 2 burnt and untreated, and 2 burnt with needles. In all the lysimeters, runoff and percolated water were monitored during the entire study, as were the amounts of eroded sediment and organic matter contents for runoff. Calculating the erosion-limiting effect of needles was conducted in a similar fashion to (1) and based on results from stages 3 and 4. The results from both experiments show that the needles reduced erosion by as much as c.60% compared with the corresponding control situation, indicating that a needlecast 'carpet' is likely to be able to provide a highly effective, simple, cheap means of significantly reducing post-fire soil loss in pine forests where the tree canopies have been scorched but not consumed by fire.

  1. Rapid Response Tools and Datasets for Post-fire Erosion Modeling: Lessons Learned from the Rock House and High Park Fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Mary Ellen; Elliot, William E.; MacDonald, Lee H.

    2013-04-01

    Once the danger posed by an active wildfire has passed, land managers must rapidly assess the threat from post-fire runoff and erosion due to the loss of surface cover and fire-induced changes in soil properties. Increased runoff and sediment delivery are of great concern to both the pubic and resource managers. Post-fire assessments and proposals to mitigate these threats are typically undertaken by interdisciplinary Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams. These teams are under very tight deadlines, so they often begin their analysis while the fire is still burning and typically must complete their plans within a couple of weeks. Many modeling tools and datasets have been developed over the years to assist BAER teams, but process-based, spatially explicit models are currently under-utilized relative to simpler, lumped models because they are more difficult to set up and require the preparation of spatially-explicit data layers such as digital elevation models, soils, and land cover. The difficulty of acquiring and utilizing these data layers in spatially-explicit models increases with increasing fire size. Spatially-explicit post-fire erosion modeling was attempted for a small watershed in the 1270 km2 Rock House fire in Texas, but the erosion modeling work could not be completed in time. The biggest limitation was the time required to extract the spatially explicit soils data needed to run the preferred post-fire erosion model (GeoWEPP with Disturbed WEPP parameters). The solution is to have the spatial soil, land cover, and DEM data layers prepared ahead of time, and to have a clear methodology for the BAER teams to incorporate these layers in spatially-explicit modeling interfaces like GeoWEPP. After a fire occurs the data layers can quickly be clipped to the fire perimeter. The soil and land cover parameters can then be adjusted according to the burn severity map, which is one of the first products generated for the BAER teams. Under a previous project for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency this preparatory work was done for much of Colorado, and in June 2012 the High Park wildfire in north central Colorado burned over 340 km2. The data layers for the entire burn area were quickly assembled and the spatially explicit runoff and erosion modeling was completed in less than three days. The resulting predictions were then used by the BAER team to quantify downstream risks and delineate priority areas for different post-fire treatments. These two contrasting case studies demonstrate the feasibility and the value of preparing datasets and modeling tools ahead of time. In recognition of this, the U.S. National Aeronautic and Space Administration has agreed to fund a pilot project to demonstrate the utility of acquiring and preparing the necessary data layers for fire-prone wildlands across the western U.S. A similar modeling and data acquisition approach could be followed

  2. Applying Spatial Statistics to Isolate the Effects of Fuels, Topography, and Weather on Burn Severity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Wimberly; M. A. Cochrane; A. D. Baer; Z. Zhu

    2007-01-01

    Fire severity datasets derived from satellite remote sensing data are now being used extensively in wildfire research and land management. Maps of burn severity based on the differenced normalized burn ratio (dNBR) are being produced and disseminated by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) project for all major wildfires in the United States from 1984 to present. This abundance

  3. Comparison of post-fire seedling establishment between scrub communities in mediterranean and non-mediterranean climate ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carrington, M.E.; Keeley, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    I Both fire regimes and the conditions under which fires occur vary widely. Abiotic conditions (such as climate) in combination with fire season, frequency and intensity could influence vegetation responses to fire. A variety of adaptations facilitate post-fire recruitment in mediterranean climate ecosystems, but responses of other communities are less well known. We evaluated the importance of climate by comparing sites with mediterranean and subtropical climates. 2 We used paired burned and mature sites in chamise chaparral, mixed chaparral and coastal sage scrub (California), and rosemary scrub, sand pine scrub and sand-hill (Florida), to test whether (i) patterns of pre-fire and post-fire seedling recruitment are more similar between communities within a region than between regions, and (ii) post-fire stimulation of seedling establishment is greater in regions with marked fire-induced contrasts in abiotic site characteristics. 3 Post-fire seedling densities were more similar among sites within climatic regions than between regions. Both seedling densities and proportions of species represented by seedlings after fires were generally higher in California. 4 The only site characteristic showing a pre-fire-post-fire contrast was percentage open canopy, and the effect was greater in California than in Florida. Soil properties were unaffected by fire. 5 Mediterranean climate ecosystems in other regions have nutrient-poor soils similar to our subtropical Florida sites, but show post-fire seedling recruitment patterns more similar to the nutrient-rich sites in California. Climate therefore appears to play a more major role than soil characteristics.

  4. [Experimental study on early multiple organ failure after severe burns].

    PubMed

    Chen, F M

    1992-03-01

    Forty-three male mongrel dogs (12.5 +/- 2.5 kg) were divided into normal control (n = 7), immediate infusion (n = 8), non-infusion (n = 13) and delayed infusion (n = 15) groups. A 50% TBSA third degree surface burn was produced by igniting 3% napalm for 30 seconds on the shaved back. Cardiac, pulmonary, hepatic, renal and gastrointestinal functions were monitored following the thermal injury. The findings of these studies showed that mean arterial pressure, cardiac index, left ventricular work, right ventricular work, ADP/O ratio and ATP were all significantly decreased (P less than 0.05). However pulmonary artery wedge pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance, systemic vascular resistance, P(A-a)O2, Beef, Cr, UN, ALT, LDH, TB, DB, and MDA were markedly increased (P less than 0.05). Severe shock occurred soon after burns. Thirteen dogs died within 12 hours in the non-infusion group. All the dogs were resuscitated when immediate infusion of lactic acid Ringers solution was given according to Parkland formula, and all of them tide over shock stage smoothly without obvious changes in visceral functions. However, dogs were not resuscitated when infusion was delayed 6 hours postburn. The changes in visceral were even more severe in this group than those in non-infusion group. These results demonstrated that delayed resuscitation was an important factor of MOF in the early postburn stage. The marked increase in MDA in the myocardiac, lung, liver, renal and gastrointestinal tissues indicated that lipoperoxidation by free oxygen radicals was closely related with visceral damages.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1596785

  5. The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool (AGWA): Developing Post-Fire Model Parameters Using Precipitation and Runoff Records from Gauged Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, B. S.; Goodrich, D. C.; Guertin, D. P.; Burns, I. S.; Canfield, E.; Sidman, G.

    2014-12-01

    New tools and functionality have been incorporated into the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool (AGWA) to assess the impacts of wildfire on runoff and erosion. AGWA (see: www.tucson.ars.ag.gov/agwa or http://www.epa.gov/esd/land-sci/agwa/) is a GIS interface jointly developed by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the University of Arizona, and the University of Wyoming to automate the parameterization and execution of a suite of hydrologic and erosion models (RHEM, WEPP, KINEROS2 and SWAT). Through an intuitive interface the user selects an outlet from which AGWA delineates and discretizes the watershed using a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). The watershed model elements are then intersected with terrain, soils, and land cover data layers to derive the requisite model input parameters. With the addition of a burn severity map AGWA can be used to model post wildfire changes to a catchment. By applying the same design storm to burned and unburned conditions a rapid assessment of the watershed can be made and areas that are the most prone to flooding can be identified. Post-fire precipitation and runoff records from gauged forested watersheds are now being used to make improvements to post fire model input parameters. Rainfall and runoff pairs have been selected from these records in order to calibrate parameter values for surface roughness and saturated hydraulic conductivity used in the KINEROS2 model. Several objective functions will be tried in the calibration process. Results will be validated. Currently Department of Interior Burn Area Emergency Response (DOI BAER) teams are using the AGWA-KINEROS2 modeling interface to assess hydrologically imposed risk immediately following wild fire. These parameter refinements are being made to further improve the quality of these assessments.

  6. Pre- and Post-Fire Infiltration Rates in a Montane Mixed Conifer Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, E. S.; Pohlmann, M. A.; Jones, C. A.; Chorover, J.; Schaap, M. G.

    2013-12-01

    The NSF-funded Catalina-Jemez Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) studies couplings among hydrologic, lithologic, ecological, and geochemical dynamics in the Southwest U.S. The motivation to study this region is to understand and to develop predictive models of how slow changes and abrupt disturbances affect landscape evolution and water resources for growing urban populations. One of the prevalent disturbances in Southwestern forested ecosystems is fire, which can dramatically alter near surface hydraulic properties and cause large changes in hydrological response in catchments. This poster will present a unique data set of pre- and post-fire infiltration and subsurface data collected before and shortly after the June 2013 Thompson Ridge Fire near Redondo Peak in the Valles Caldera 10 miles north of Jemez Springs, NM. Single ring pre-fire infiltration measurements were taken in July 2011 at 22 different locations with high-precision GPS tags. Similar post-fire infiltration measurements were taken within 1 meter of spatial accuracy of the pre-fire measurements in July 2013. The near-surface soil was analyzed for texture and organic matter content at 53 GPS-referenced locations in 2011, and a more detailed soil analysis is currently being analyzed in the laboratory for the 22 infiltration sites (5 depth increments down to about 50 cm). Because of the recent nature of the burn and subsequent sampling, complete results from data analysis are not yet available, however, the poster will provide a statistical analysis among pre- and post fire infiltration rates, established burn intensity classes, and subsurface changes such as soil texture and organic matter content.

  7. Significant or negligible sediment and nutrient losses after fire? Pre- and post-fire comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakesby, R. A.; Ferreira, A. J. D.; Ferreira, C. S. S.; Stoof, C. R.; Urbanek, E.; Walsh, R. P. D.

    2009-04-01

    Prescribed fire (or a controlled burn) is a management tool used in wildfire-prone areas to reduce the fuel load of living and dead biomass, while attempting to keep disturbance of the ground surface and soil to a minimum. We know that wildfire, particularly of moderate or extreme severity, can cause important changes to the chemical and physical properties of soil, typically leading to a reduction in aggregate stability, surface roughness and water storage capacity, and an increase in overland flow. It has also been shown that wildfire disturbance can cause major loss of soil, particularly at plot and hillslope scales. There is less information on soil losses at catchment scales, but it is known that losses particularly of organic-rich fine sediment and nutrients can undergo hillslope to channel transfer, where they can affect water quality. Far less research has been carried out into the effects of prescribed fire on soil and nutrient losses at all scales, but particularly at catchment scales. This paper considers the impact of an experimental fire (equivalent to a severe prescribed fire) on soil and nutrient losses. These losses have been monitored at a range of scales (small rainfall simulation plots, long-term erosion plot, erosion plot, hillslope sediment traps (sediment fences) and catchment) before and after the fire in a 10-ha catchment near Góis, central Portugal, which forms part of the 5-year DESIRE research programme concerning desertification and its mitigation at a range of study sites worldwide. The catchment has steep slopes covered mainly with scrub vegetation ranging from c. 0.15 to 2m in height. The soil is thin, stony and highly water repellent. Long-term pre-burn erosion rates are known from a c. 10-year record of soil losses from a small erosion plot (8 x 2m in size) and sediment accumulation in the weir pool of a subcatchment gauging station. Rainfall simulations carried out under dry and wet antecedent conditions before and after the fire, eroded soil collected in sediment fences installed in strategic locations on the catchment slopes and suspended sediment and bedload determinations at the catchment gauging station provide the evidence for pre- and post-fire erosional losses. Comparison with wildfire effects is provided by instrumented scrub-covered hillslopes burnt in early summer 2008 in the same area. In addition to monitoring soil losses in the small catchment, losses of selected nutrients in eroded soil and runoff together with determinations of pre- and post-fire vegetation cover, fuel loads and soil water repellency have been determined. The soil degradational implications are discussed and placed in the context of the literature on prescribed fire and wildfire impacts from elsewhere in the Mediterranean and from further afield.

  8. Persistent Effects of Fire Severity on Early Successional Forests in Interior Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shenoy, Aditi; Johnstone, Jill F.; Kasischke, Eric S.; Kielland, Knut

    2011-01-01

    There has been a recent increase in the frequency and extent of wildfires in interior Alaska, and this trend is predicted to continue under a warming climate. Although less well documented, corresponding increases in fire severity are expected. Previous research from boreal forests in Alaska and western Canada indicate that severe fire promotes the recruitment of deciduous tree species and decreases the relative abundance of black spruce (Picea mariana) immediately after fire. Here we extend these observations by (1) examining changes in patterns of aspen and spruce density and biomass that occurred during the first two decades of post-fire succession, and (2) comparing patterns of tree composition in relation to variations in post-fire organic layer depth in four burned black spruce forests in interior Alaska after 10-20 years of succession.Wefound that initial effects of fire severity on recruitment and establishment of aspen and black spruce were maintained by subsequent effects of organic layer depth and initial plant biomass on plant growth during post-fire succession. The proportional contribution of aspen (Populus tremuloides) to total stand biomass remained above 90% during the first and second decades of succession in severely burned sites, while in lightly burned sites the proportional contribution of aspen was reduced due to a 40- fold increase in spruce biomass in these sites. Relationships between organic layer depth and stem density and biomass were consistently negative for aspen, and positive or neutral for black spruce in all four burns. Our results suggest that initial effects of post-fire organic layer depths on deciduous recruitment are likely to translate into a prolonged phase of deciduous dominance during post-fire succession in severely burned stands. This shift in vegetation distribution has important implications for climate-albedo feedbacks, future fire regime, wildlife habitat quality and natural resources for indigenous subsistence activities in interior Alaska.

  9. Post-fire water quality in forest catchments: a review with implications for potable water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Hugh; Sheridan, Gary; Lane, Patrick; Nyman, Petter; Haydon, Shane

    2010-05-01

    In many locations fire-prone forest catchments are utilised for the supply of potable water to small communities up to large cities. For example, in south-eastern Australia, wildfires have burned part or all of forest catchments supplying drinking water to Sydney (2001 wildfire), Canberra (2003), Adelaide (2007), Melbourne (2009), as well as various regional towns. Generally, undisturbed forest catchments are a source of high quality water. However, increases in erosion and sediment flux, runoff generation, and changes to the supply of key constituents after wildfire may result in contamination of water supplies. In this review, we present key physical and chemical constituents from a drinking water perspective that may be generated in burned forest catchments and examine post-fire changes to concentrations of these constituents in streams and reservoirs. The World Health Organisation (WHO) drinking water guideline values were used to assess reported post-fire constituent concentrations. Constituents examined include suspended sediment, ash, nutrients, trace metals, anions (Cl-, SO42-), cyanides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Constituent concentrations in streams and reservoirs vary substantially following wildfire. In streams, maximum reported total suspended solid concentrations (SSC) in the first year after fire ranged from 11 to 143,000 mg L-1. SSC is often measured in studies of post-fire stream water quality, whereas turbidity is used in drinking water guidelines and more commonly monitored in water supply reservoirs. For burned catchment reservoirs in south-eastern Australia, peak turbidities increased over pre-fire conditions, as did the frequency of exceedance of the turbidity guideline. NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ may increase after wildfire but maximum recorded concentrations have not exceeded WHO guideline values. Large post-fire increases in total N and total P concentrations in streams and reservoirs have been observed, although there are no guideline values for total N or P. Studies of post-fire concentrations of dissolved organic carbon are mostly from North America and report generally minor increases after fire, with elevated concentrations reflecting background conditions. The few observations of trace metal concentrations in streams after wildfire found high concentrations that exceeded guideline values for Fe, Mn, As, Cr, Al, Ba, and Pb, which were associated with highly elevated sediment concentrations. In contrast, Cu, Zn, and Hg were below or only slightly above (?1.2 times) guideline values. Reports of Cl- and SO42- concentrations after wildfire are mostly confined to coniferous forest areas, where maximum sampled values were well below WHO guidelines. Total cyanide concentrations have been observed to exceed guidelines values, although increases are likely to be short-lived. Post-fire stream concentrations of PAHs have been found to increase but were below levels of concern. In assessing the risk to water supply from wildfires, constituents of concern may be identified according to both the reason for concern (health or aesthetic) and treatability. Determining the risk to human health from short duration exposure to elevated concentrations of many contaminants (such as toxic metals, PAHs) is problematic, given that the guideline values are based on a life-time of exposure. Other constituents may have more rapid health effects from consumption of contaminated water (e.g. cyanides, Cu, NO2-) or aesthetic concerns (e.g. Fe, Mn, SO42-, Zn). The increased flux of suspended sediment and sediment-associated constituents (particularly metals, nutrients and organic carbon) that can occur after wildfire may necessitate water treatment by coagulation and filtration. At very high sediment concentrations treatment problems may be encountered that reduce or delay the rate of water processing, potentially causing disruptions in supply. For other constituents, such as NO3-, NO2-, Cl-, SO42-, amenable cyanides, and PAHs, it appears the likelihood that concentrations of concern will occur in water suppl

  10. Quantifying post-fire recovery of forest canopy structure and its environmental drivers using satellite image time-series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanal, Shiva; Duursma, Remko; Boer, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    Fire is a recurring disturbance in most of Australia's forests. Depending on fire severity, impacts on forest canopies vary from light scorching to complete defoliation, with related variation in the magnitude and duration of post-fire gas exchange by that canopy. Estimates of fire impacts on forest canopy structure and carbon uptake for south-eastern Australia's forests do not exist. Here, we use 8-day composite measurements of the fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active radiation (FPAR) as recorded by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to characterise forest canopies before and after fire and to compare burnt and unburnt sites. FPAR is a key biophysical canopy variable and primary input for estimating Gross Primary Productivity (GPP). Post-fire FPAR loss was quantified for all forest areas burnt between 2001 and 2010, showing good agreement with independent assessments of fire severity patterns of 2009 Black Saturday fires. A new method was developed to determine the duration of post-fire recovery from MODIS-FPAR time-series. The method involves a spatial-mode principal component analysis on full FPAR time series followed by a K-means clustering to group pixels based on similarity in temporal patterns. Using fire history data, time series of FPAR for burnt and unburnt pixels in each cluster were then compared to quantify the duration of the post-fire recovery period, which ranged from less than 1 to 8 years. The results show that time series of MODIS FPAR are well suited to detect and quantify disturbances of forest canopy structure and function in large areas of highly variable climate and phenology. Finally, the role of post-fire climate conditions and previous fire history on the duration of the post-fire recovery of the forest canopy was examined using generalized additive models.

  11. The effects of wildfire, salvage logging, and post-fire N-fixation on the nutrient budgets of a Sierran forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Johnson; J. F. Murphy; R. B. Susfalk; T. G. Caldwell; W. W. Miller; R. F. Walker; R. F. Powers

    2005-01-01

    The effects of fire, post-fire salvage logging, and revegetation on nutrient budgets were estimated for a site in the eastern Sierra Nevada Mountains that burned in a wildfire in 1981. Approximately two decades after the fire, the shrub (former fire) ecosystem contained less C and more N than the adjacent forest ecosystem. Reconstruction of pre-fire nutrient budgets suggested that most

  12. -Effect of fire interval on post-fire understorey communities in Yellowstone National Park -797 Journal of Vegetation Science 15: 797-806, 2004

    E-print Network

    Turner, Monica G.

    - Effect of fire interval on post-fire understorey communities in Yellowstone National Park - 797 of Yellowstone National Park (USA) that burned in 1988. Methods: In 2000, we sampled understorey cover and Pinus the 1988 fires in Yellowstone National Park. Keywords: Community ecology; Disturbance ecology; Fire ecology

  13. POST-FIRE REVEGETATION AT HANFORD

    SciTech Connect

    ROOS RC; JOHNSON AR; CAUDILL JG; RODRIGUEZ JM; WILDE JW

    2010-01-05

    Range fires on the Hanford Site can have a long lasting effect on native plant communities. Wind erosion following removal of protective vegetation from fragile soils compound the damaging effect of fires. Dust storms caused by erosion create health and safety hazards to personnel, and damage facilities and equipment. The Integrated Biological Control Program (IBC) revegetates burned areas to control erosion and consequent dust. Use of native, perennial vegetation in revegetation moves the resulting plant community away from fire-prone annual weeds, and toward the native shrub-steppe that is much less likely to burn in the future. Over the past 10 years, IBC has revegetated major fire areas with good success. IBC staff is monitoring the success of these efforts, and using lessons learned to improve future efforts.

  14. Prediction of Maximal Aerobic Capacity in Severely Burned Children

    PubMed Central

    Porro, Laura; Rivero, Haidy G.; Gonzalez, Dante; Tan, Alai; Herndon, David N.; Suman, Oscar E.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) is an indicator of cardiorespiratory fitness, but requires expensive equipment and a relatively high technical skill level. Purpose The aim of this study is to provide a formula for estimating VO2 peak in burned children, using information obtained without expensive equipment. Methods Children, with ?40% total surface area burned (TBSA), underwent a modified Bruce treadmill test to asses VO2 peak at 6 months after injury. We recorded gender, age, %TBSA, %3rd degree burn, height, weight, treadmill time, maximal speed, maximal grade, and peak heart rate, and applied McHenry’s select algorithm to extract important independent variables and Robust multiple regression to establish prediction equations. Results 42 children; 7 to 17 years old were tested. Robust multiple regression model provided the equation: VO2=10.33 – 0.62 *Age (years) + 1.88 * Treadmill Time (min) + 2.3 (gender; Females = 0, Males = 1). The correlation between measured and estimated VO2 peak was R=0.80. We then validated the equation with a group of 33 burned children, which yielded a correlation between measured and estimated VO2 peak of R=0.79. Conclusions Using only a treadmill and easily gathered information, VO2 peak can be estimated in children with burns. PMID:21316155

  15. TerraSAR-X Data for Burn Severity Evaluation in Mediterranean Forests on Sloped Terrain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mihai Andrei Tanase; Fernando Perez-Cabello; Juan de la Riva; Maurizio Santoro

    2010-01-01

    TerraSAR-X (TSX) dual-polarized synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data from a test site in Spain have been investigated to determine the relationship between forest burn severity and SAR backscatter. The role of the local incidence angle on the backscatter coefficient has been also studied. Burn severity was estimated by means of composition burn index plots and the remotely sensed differenced normalized

  16. Predicting post-fire erosion and sedimentation risk on a landscape scale: A case study from Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacDonald, L.H.; Sampson, R.; Brady, D.; Juarros, L.; Martin, D.

    2000-01-01

    Historic fire suppression efforts have increased the likelihood of large wildfires in much of the western U.S. Post-fire soil erosion and sedimentation risks are important concerns to resource managers. In this paper we develop and apply procedures to predict post-fire erosion and sedimentation risks on a pixel-, catchment-, and landscape-scale in central and western Colorado. Our model for predicting post-fire surface erosion risk is conceptually similar to the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). One key addition is the incorporation of a hydrophobicity risk index (HY-RISK) based on vegetation type, predicted fire severity, and soil texture. Post-fire surface erosion risk was assessed for each 90-m pixel by combining HYRISK, slope, soil erodibility, and a factor representing the likely increase in soil wetness due to removal of the vegetation. Sedimentation risk was a simple function of stream gradient. Composite surface erosion and sedimentation risk indices were calculated and compared across the 72 catchments in the study area. When evaluated on a catchment scale, two-thirds of the catchments had relatively little post-fire erosion risk. Steeper catchments with higher fuel loadings typically had the highest post-fire surface erosion risk. These were generally located along the major north-south mountain chains and, to a lesser extent, in west-central Colorado. Sedimentation risks were usually highest in the eastern part of the study area where a higher proportion of streams had lower gradients. While data to validate the predicted erosion and sedimentation risks are lacking, the results appear reasonable and are consistent with our limited field observations. The models and analytic procedures can be readily adapted to other locations and should provide useful tools for planning and management at both the catchment and landscape scale.

  17. Severe adult burn survivors. What information about skin allografts?

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of organ and tissue donation. Conflicts of interest: None. Key-words: ethics; burn, skin allograft; skin donor; organ and tissue donation; information. inserm-00766733,version1-18Dec2012 #12;3 Introduction of information on skin donation to patients who have been skin allografted and who have survived their injury

  18. Applying Spatial Statistics to Isolate the Effects of Fuels, Topography, and Weather on Burn Severity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimberly, M. C.; Cochrane, M. A.; Baer, A. D.; Zhu, Z.

    2007-12-01

    Fire severity datasets derived from satellite remote sensing data are now being used extensively in wildfire research and land management. Maps of burn severity based on the differenced normalized burn ratio (dNBR) are being produced and disseminated by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) project for all major wildfires in the United States from 1984 to present. This abundance of data presents unprecedented new opportunities for understanding how weather, terrain, and fuels interact to determine fire severity patterns, and for testing the effectiveness of fuel-reduction strategies for mitigating wildfire impacts. However, these datasets present challenges for statistical analysis because of their large sizes and the non-independence of spatially autocorrelated pixels. To explore the importance of spatial autocorrelation, we analyzed the spatial patterns of burn severity in two recent wildfires - the 2004 School Fire in the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington and the 2005 Warm Fire on the Kaibab Plateau in northern Arizona. Conditional autoregressive (CAR) models were fitted with dNBR as the dependent variable and topography, fuels, and locations of recent fuel treatments as the independent variables. In both fires, elevation, slope, and aspect had strong effects on burn severity. Fuels had stronger effects on burn severity for the School fire than for the Warm Fire. In both fires, fuel treatments that combined thinning and prescribed burning resulted in statistically significant reductions in fire severity. The CAR models were then decomposed to isolate the spatial signal, which reflected spatially structured variability in dNBR that was not related to the independent variables. The spatial signals were correlated with the burn progression maps, reflecting spatial and temporal variability in weather and fire behavior (e.g. wind versus plume driven) over the course of the fire. These results suggest that spatial autocorrelation in the analysis of remotely- sensed burn severity datasets is not simply a nuisance, but in fact captures substantive and interpretable effects of weather and fire behavior on burn severity.

  19. [The Ogilvie syndrome in a severely burned patient].

    PubMed

    Siah, S; Seddik, H; Ababou, K; Ihrai, H; Drissi Kamili, N

    2011-09-30

    The Ogilvie syndrome is an acute colonic dilatation of the previously healthy colon, without any organic obstruction. Pathological circumstances such as burns and antipsychotic medication have been identified as predisposing elements. The incidence of this complication, in the reanimation of burn patients, varies between 0.5 to 1%. The purpose of our study is to draw attention to the Ogilvie symptom by describing a case with its clinical and paraclinical data, its physiopathological causes, and the therapeutic aspects. The clinical picture in our patient was characteristic: extensive abdominal meteorism. The abdominal scan showed massive colonic dilatation without any mechanical obstacles. The outcome was successful after colonoscopic exsufflation. The Ogilvie syndrome is a rare occurrence which without effective treatment may result in caecal perforation and a poor prognosis. It is therefore necessary to establish the diagnosis early and, in particular, to initiate close radiological follow-up after the establishment of medical treatment, in which colonoscopy plays an important part. PMID:22396676

  20. On-site treatment of severely burned patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Mazzarella; E. Scanni; P. Carideo; A. Maresca; G. Vivona; A. Sorrentino

    Accidents that cause serious burns often strike fear into the rescue workers. It is necessary to act very rapidly at the site\\u000a of the accident. ‘Savoir pour sauver’ (knowledge saves lives) is the subject of many scientific discussions, especially for\\u000a the anaesthesiologist. Better knowledge enables the physicians involved in first aid to decide on the best management of patients\\u000a to

  1. Post-fire Changes in Air Permeability and Hydraulic Conductivity of Soils Following 2003 Aspen Fire in Sabino Canyon, AZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chief, K.; Ferre, T. P.; Nijssen, B.

    2006-12-01

    As part of a project to study the hydrologic effects of fire on the Sabino Canyon Watershed, the Soil Corer Air Permeameter (SCAP) was developed to rapidly measure in-situ air permeability (k_a) of unburned and burned desert soils while providing a standard soil sample for additional laboratory analysis. Twenty-two unburned and burned plots were selected in woodland-chaparral and coniferous zones with low and high slopes, and low, medium, and high fuel loads or burn severities. Air permeability was measured on a 25-point square grid on each 100 m2 plot (n=445). Hydraulic conductivity (Ksat), water permeability (k_w), soil physical properties, and hydrophobicity measurements were made on extracted soil samples in the laboratory. There was a slight decrease in the median k_a from 95 to 80 ?m2 for the woodland- chaparral zone as a result of the wildfire. There was a greater decrease for the coniferous zone where the median decreased from 152 to 110 ?m2 following the fire. The k_w of woodland-chaparral soils increased from 192 to 425 ?m2; but the median k_w decreased for the coniferous zone from 862 to 444 ?m2 after the fire. In addition, hydrophobic measurements show that there was a significant increase in hydrophobicity for post-fire woodland-chaparral soils but not for coniferous soils. The log k_a and log Ksat measurements were highly correlated for the unburned woodland-chaparral soils, but this correlation decreased for burned woodland-chaparral soils. The unburned coniferous data set had the least k_a and Ksat correlation, but was reasonable for burned coniferous soils. The decrease in correlation may be due to increases of hydrophobicity, uneven wetting and preferential flow in Ksat measurements, or extremely rocky terrain. However, the overall, log k_a-log Ksat correlation for all unburned and burned soils including previous measurements on agricultural and alluvial soils follow the trend of the Iversen et al. (2001) log k_a-log Ksat correlation.

  2. A Geographic Perspective on Factors Controlling Post-Fire Succession in Boreal Black Spruce Forests in Western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasischke, E. S.; Kane, E. S.; Genet, H.; Turetsky, M. R.; ODonnell, J. A.; Hoy, E.; Barrett, K.; Baltzer, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    Recent changes to climate and the fire regime have resulted in a number of distinct changes to patterns of post-fire succession in the boreal forest region of western North America. In interior Alaska and Yukon, these responses include a shift from spruce to deciduous dominated forests in black spruce forests that experienced exposure of mineral soils from deep burning of surface organic soils, as well as low seedling recruitment in white spruce forests as a result of moisture stress. In this presentation, we will use a physical geography framework to analyze factors controlling low seedling recruitment in recently burned black spruce forests in Alaska. This approach allows for understanding how changes in the biologic components of black spruce forest ecosystems (e.g., biogeography) are controlled by factors related to geomorphology and climate over multiple spatial and temporal scales. In particular, this framework will be used to examine how the interactions between fire, climate, topography and soil texture influence pre-fire and post-fire permafrost conditions, which interact to have a strong influence on variations in soil moisture. In turn, recent changes to climate combined with variations in soil moisture controlled by differences in permafrost conditions (ground ice content, active layer thickness) can be used to explain variations in post-fire seedling recruitment in black spruce forests, where low recruitment is occurring on the sites with the driest soils. In addition, we will examine the need for further research in other boreal forest regions of western North America where the presence of pine species (jack and lodgepole) that are absent in Alaska, as well as differences in soils and permafrost conditions, are likely resulting in additional patterns of post-fire succession as a result of recent changes to climate and the fire regime.

  3. A computer based system for monitoring heat and fluid balance in severely burned patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon C. Ferguson; Colin J. Martin; Colin Rayner; John R. Mallard

    1989-01-01

    A microcomputer-controlled monitoring system has been constructed for determining heat and fluid balance in severely burned patients, treated by exposure within a clean-air environment. The system monitors core, skin, burn and air temperatures, relative humidity of the treatment environment, and patient weight loss. Local evaporation measurements are logged automatically when made by the investigator. Air flow, fluid inputs and outputs,

  4. Remote sensing approaches for reconstructing fire perimeters and burn severity mosaics in desert spring ecosystems

    E-print Network

    Weisberg, Peter J.

    Remote sensing approaches for reconstructing fire perimeters and burn severity mosaics in desert burn ratio Spectral mixture analysis Desert spring ecosystems provide water resources essential for sustaining wildlife, plants, and humans inhabiting arid regions of the world. Disturbance processes in desert

  5. Outcome of acute kidney injury in severe burns: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nele Brusselaers; Stan Monstrey; Kirsten Colpaert; Johan Decruyenaere; Stijn I. Blot; Eric A. J. Hoste

    2010-01-01

    Purpose  The main objective of this review was to analyse the prevalence and outcome of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with\\u000a severe burn injury. AKI is a common complication in patients with severe burn injury and one of the major causes of death\\u000a (often combined with other organ dysfunctions). Several definitions of AKI have been used, but the RIFLE ‘consensus’

  6. Severe burn injury in europe: a systematic review of the incidence, etiology, morbidity, and mortality

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Burn injury is a serious pathology, potentially leading to severe morbidity and significant mortality, but it also has a considerable health-economic impact. The aim of this study was to describe the European hospitalized population with severe burn injury, including the incidence, etiology, risk factors, mortality, and causes of death. Methods The systematic literature search (1985 to 2009) involved PubMed, the Web of Science, and the search engine Google. The reference lists and the Science Citation Index were used for hand searching (snowballing). Only studies dealing with epidemiologic issues (for example, incidence and outcome) as their major topic, on hospitalized populations with severe burn injury (in secondary and tertiary care) in Europe were included. Language restrictions were set on English, French, and Dutch. Results The search led to 76 eligible studies, including more than 186,500 patients in total. The annual incidence of severe burns was 0.2 to 2.9/10,000 inhabitants with a decreasing trend in time. Almost 50% of patients were younger than 16 years, and ~60% were male patients. Flames, scalds, and contact burns were the most prevalent causes in the total population, but in children, scalds clearly dominated. Mortality was usually between 1.4% and 18% and is decreasing in time. Major risk factors for death were older age and a higher total percentage of burned surface area, as well as chronic diseases. (Multi) organ failure and sepsis were the most frequently reported causes of death. The main causes of early death (<48 hours) were burn shock and inhalation injury. Conclusions Despite the lack of a large-scale European registration of burn injury, more epidemiologic information is available about the hospitalized population with severe burn injury than is generally presumed. National and international registration systems nevertheless remain necessary to allow better targeting of prevention campaigns and further improvement of cost-effectiveness in total burn care. PMID:20958968

  7. Post-fire seeding on Wyoming big sagebrush ecological sites: regression analyses of seeded nonnative and native species densities.

    PubMed

    Eiswerth, Mark E; Krauter, Karl; Swanson, Sherman R; Zielinski, Mike

    2009-02-01

    Since the mid-1980s, sagebrush rangelands in the Great Basin of the United States have experienced more frequent and larger wildfires. These fires affect livestock forage, the sagebrush/grasses/forbs mosaic that is important for many wildlife species (e.g., the greater sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus)), post-fire flammability and fire frequency. When a sagebrush, especially a Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young)), dominated area largely devoid of herbaceous perennials burns, it often transitions to an annual dominated and highly flammable plant community that thereafter excludes sagebrush and native perennials. Considerable effort is devoted to revegetating rangeland following fire, but to date there has been very little analysis of the factors that lead to the success of this revegetation. This paper utilizes a revegetation monitoring dataset to examine the densities of three key types of vegetation, specifically nonnative seeded grasses, nonnative seeded forbs, and native Wyoming big sagebrush, at several points in time following seeding. We find that unlike forbs, increasing the seeding rates for grasses does not appear to increase their density (at least for the sites and seeding rates we examined). Also, seeding Wyoming big sagebrush increases its density with time since fire. Seeding of grasses and forbs is less successful at locations that were dominated primarily by annual grasses (cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.)), and devoid of shrubs, prior to wildfire. This supports the hypothesis of a "closing window of opportunity" for seeding at locations that burned sagebrush for the first time in recent history. PMID:18790557

  8. Remote sensing approaches for reconstructing fire perimeters and burn severity mosaics in desert spring ecosystems

    E-print Network

    Weisberg, Peter J.

    Remote sensing approaches for reconstructing fire perimeters and burn severity mosaics in desert ratio Spectral mixture analysis Desert spring ecosystems provide water resources essential for sustaining wildlife, plants, and humans inhabiting arid regions of the world. Disturbance processes in desert

  9. Sodium Butyrate Protects against Severe Burn-Induced Remote Acute Lung Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sheng; Guo, Feng; Sun, Li; Wang, Yong-Jie; Sun, Ye-Xiang; Chen, Xu-Lin

    2013-01-01

    High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), a ubiquitous nuclear protein, drives proinflammatory responses when released extracellularly. It plays a key role as a distal mediator in the development of acute lung injury (ALI). Sodium butyrate, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, has been demonstrated to inhibit HMGB1 expression. This study investigates the effect of sodium butyrate on burn-induced lung injury. Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into three groups: 1) sham group, sham burn treatment; 2) burn group, third-degree burns over 30% total body surface area (TBSA) with lactated Ringer’s solution for resuscitation; 3) burn plus sodium butyrate group, third-degree burns over 30% TBSA with lactated Ringer’s solution containing sodium butyrate for resuscitation. The burned animals were sacrificed at 12, 24, and 48 h after burn injury. Lung injury was assessed in terms of histologic changes and wet weight to dry weight (W/D) ratio. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-8 protein concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and HMGB1 expression in the lung was determined by Western blot analysis. Pulmonary myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration were measured to reflect neutrophil infiltration and oxidative stress in the lung, respectively. As a result, sodium butyrate significantly inhibited the HMGB1 expressions in the lungs, reduced the lung W/D ratio, and improved the pulmonary histologic changes induced by burn trauma. Furthermore, sodium butyrate administration decreased the TNF-? and IL-8 concentrations in BALF and serum, suppressed MPO activity, and reduced the MDA content in the lungs after severe burn. These results suggest that sodium butyrate attenuates inflammatory responses, neutrophil infiltration, and oxidative stress in the lungs, and protects against remote ALI induced by severe burn, which is associated with inhibiting HMGB1 expression. PMID:23874764

  10. Invasive plant species and soil microbial response to wildfire burn severity in the Cascade Range of Oregon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cassie L. Hebel; Jane E. Smith; Kermit Cromack Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure of soil to severe heating during a wildfire volatilizes soil nutrients and causes mortality of microbial communities, potentially facilitating invasion by non-native plant species. In this study, we investigated the chemical and biotic factors associated with severely burned “red” soil and less severely burned “black” soil from a recently burned forest on the eastern slope of the Cascade Range

  11. Fire frequency, area burned, and severity: A quantitative approach to defining a normal fire year

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lutz, J.A.; Key, C.H.; Kolden, C.A.; Kane, J.T.; van Wagtendonk, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Fire frequency, area burned, and fire severity are important attributes of a fire regime, but few studies have quantified the interrelationships among them in evaluating a fire year. Although area burned is often used to summarize a fire season, burned area may not be well correlated with either the number or ecological effect of fires. Using the Landsat data archive, we examined all 148 wildland fires (prescribed fires and wildfires) >40 ha from 1984 through 2009 for the portion of the Sierra Nevada centered on Yosemite National Park, California, USA. We calculated mean fire frequency and mean annual area burned from a combination of field- and satellite-derived data. We used the continuous probability distribution of the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) values to describe fire severity. For fires >40 ha, fire frequency, annual area burned, and cumulative severity were consistent in only 13 of 26 years (50 %), but all pair-wise comparisons among these fire regime attributes were significant. Borrowing from long-established practice in climate science, we defined "fire normals" to be the 26 year means of fire frequency, annual area burned, and the area under the cumulative probability distribution of dNBR. Fire severity normals were significantly lower when they were aggregated by year compared to aggregation by area. Cumulative severity distributions for each year were best modeled with Weibull functions (all 26 years, r2 ??? 0.99; P < 0.001). Explicit modeling of the cumulative severity distributions may allow more comprehensive modeling of climate-severity and area-severity relationships. Together, the three metrics of number of fires, size of fires, and severity of fires provide land managers with a more comprehensive summary of a given fire year than any single metric.

  12. Management of severe burn injuries with topical heparin: the first evidence-based study in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Agbenorku, Pius; Fugar, Setri; Akpaloo, Joseph; Hoyte-Williams, Paa E; Alhassan, Zainab; Agyei, Fareeda

    2013-01-01

    Conventional therapy for burns has always produced a nightmarish illness for patients. The lack of the ability to prevent contractures often produces dysfunctional limbs and the ugly scars resulting from severe burns are an ongoing reminder of this lengthy painful illness. This study is to determine the effectiveness of topical heparin in burns management among some patients at the Burns Intensive Care Unit (BICU) of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Kumasi, Ghana. Patients for this prospective study were burns victims who were transported to the Accident and Emergency Center of KATH. Complete clerking of the patients and related information were taken. Six patients with ages ranging from 5-35 years, TBSA 5-42% and a combination of 2° and 3° burns were enrolled in the case study. Anatomical locations of the burns included: face, neck, trunk and limbs. Using topical heparin produced smooth skin in two patients: Patients 3 and 5 who reported on Post-burn Day 85 and 116 at the BICU. Five out of the six patients assessed the degree of pain; before treatment with heparin, all five patients stated they were experiencing severe pains, however, three (60.0%) of the patients stated they experienced no pain at all while two (40.0%) were experiencing mild pain after topical heparin application. Heparin was observed to be very effective in the management of burn injuries in the patients studied. It was effective in reduction of pain and prevention of scars and contractures. However, due to the small number of patients and lack of control for the wound healing, a firm recommendation for the use of heparin therapy in burns cannot be made and further studies would be required to establish its use especially in the African population. PMID:23386983

  13. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN BURN SEVERITY AND THE SIMULATED THERMAL PULSES OF VARIOUS NUCLEAR WEAPONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Lerman; J. R. Hinshaw

    2010-01-01

    When burns are produced by a total radiant exposure of 5 cal\\/cm², ;\\u000a burn severity decreases with thermal pulses of longer duration. Maximum damage ;\\u000a results from a pulse simulating that of a 20 KT weapon, the shortest pulse ;\\u000a investigated; 40 KT and l00 KT weapon pulses show similar effects; and the 1000 ;\\u000a KT pulse produces less damage.

  14. Landscape-level interactions of prefire vegetation, burn severity, and postfire vegetation over a 16-year period in interior Alaska

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin Epting; David Verbyla

    2005-01-01

    Landsat imagery was used to study the relationship between a remotely sensed burn severity index and prefire vegetation and the postfire vegetation response related to burn severity within a 1986 burn in interior Alaska. Vegetation was classified prior to the fire and 16 years after the fire, and a chronosequence of remotely sensed vegeta- tion index values was analyzed as

  15. Effects of tree size, crown damage, and tree location on post-fire survival and cone production of Pinus nigra trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose Luis Ordóñez; Javier Retana; Josep Maria Espelta

    2005-01-01

    Regeneration of non-fire-prone seeder species after large fires has been claimed to depend closely on the arrival of propagules from seed sources, such as isolated surviving trees present within the burned area (“green islands”) or those on the unburned edges. However, scarce information is available on how individual and environmental factors may condition post-fire survival and, particularly, seed production of

  16. Post firing visualisation of fingerprint on spent cartridge cases.

    PubMed

    Bentsen, R K; Brown, J K; Dinsmore, A; Harvey, K K; Kee, T G

    1996-01-01

    A considerable range of techniques is available to visualise latent fingerprints on smooth surfaces. Published methods and those developed or modified in the authors' laboratory have been evaluated for spent cartridge cases. The most suitable were found to be vacuum cyanoacrylate (with fluorescent staining) and selenious acid treatments. Both were used to investigate the post firing recovery of finger-marks on spent cartridge cases from the ammunition and weapon systems encountered in terrorist casework in Northern Ireland. Only certain revolvers and the SLR rifle yielded identifiable ridge detail. These results are borne out by casework experience. PMID:8612053

  17. Burns

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the following symptoms related to a burn: Fever Puss-like or foul-smelling drainage Excessive swelling Redness ... avoid hot substances and chemicals. If you have young children, use safety latches in your home When ...

  18. Burns

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that could improve your hand function. Therapy and Rehabilitation Superficial burns generally will not need any formal ... with other injuries may require extensive therapy and rehabilitation. Your hand surgeon will coordinate with a therapist ...

  19. Spatial and Temporal Evolution of Mercury in Post-fire Soils in Southern California Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, M. P.; Ferreira, M.; Mendez, C. B.; Navarro, B. I.; Jay, J. A.; Hogue, T. S.

    2008-12-01

    Wildfires are well known sources of mercury (Hg) to the atmosphere, but there is a paucity of data characterizing how fire impacts the transport of Hg to surface waters where methylation can occur. Because post-fire storm events have the potential to carry large sediment loads to a stream system, it is important to understand the effects of wildfire on Hg binding and relative variability in terrestrial soils in order to assess its transport potential in burned watersheds. It has been widely reported that Hg stored in surface soils is lost to the atmosphere due to volatilization during wildfire and that higher metal concentrations are associated with fine-grained particle fractions due to higher surface area/volume ratios, and consequently, available binding sites. Following southern California's September 2006 Day Fire, seasonal terrestrial sampling was undertaken at burned and unburned soils over a 1.5 year period to assess both immediate and long term impacts of the fire on Hg binding in the soils of Piru Creek watershed. Freshly burned soils exhibited the loss of Hg at the surface that would be expected due to volatilization during the fire, but this was followed by a sharp increase in [Hg] in surface soils over the subsequent recovery period that was not seen in the unburned soils. Soils were also size-fractionated and Hg was measured on each grain size. Mercury in the fine grained soil fraction (<250 um) was not significantly higher than that measured in the coarser grain size fractions. This is contrary to the behavior observed in the unburned soils and has implications for modeling Hg transport to surface waters as a function of hill slope erosional processes and sediment re- distribution in burned watersheds.

  20. Glutamine granule-supplemented enteral nutrition maintains immunological function in severely burned patients.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xi; Yan, Hong; You, Zhongyi; Wang, Pei; Wang, Shiliang

    2006-08-01

    Glutamine is an important energy source for immune cells. It is a necessary nutrient for cell proliferation, and serves as specific fuel for lymphocytes, macrophages, and enterocytes when it is present in appropriate concentrations. The purpose of this clinical study was to observe the effects of enteral nutrition supplemented with glutamine granules on immunologic function in severely burned patients. Forty-eight severely burned patients (total burn surface area 30-75%, full thickness burn area 20-58%) who met the requirements of the protocol joined this double-blind randomized controlled clinical trail. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: burn control group (B group, 23 patients) and glutamine treated group (Gln group, 25 patients). There was isonitrogenous and isocaloric intake in both groups, Gln and B group patents were given glutamine granules or placebo (glycine) at 0.5 g/kgd for 14 days with oral feeding or tube feeding, respectively. The plasma level of glutamine and several indices of immunologic function including lymphocyte transformation ratio, neutrophil phagocytosis index (NPI), CD4/CD8 ratio, the content of immunoglobulin, complement C3, C4 and IL-2 levels were determined. Moreover, wound healing rate of burn area was observed and then hospital stay was recorded. The results showed significantly reduced plasma glutamine and damaged immunological function after severe burn Indices of cellular immunity function were remarkably decreased from normal controls. After taking glutamine granules for 14 days, plasma glutamine concentration was significantly higher in Gln group than that in B group (607.86+/-147.25 micromol/L versus 447.63+/-132.38 micromol/L, P<0.01). On the other hand, cellular immunity functions were improved in Gln group, such as lymphocyte transformation ratio, NPI, CD4/CD8 ratio and IL-2 compared those in the B group (P<0.05-0.01). However, for humoral immunity function such as the concentration of IgG, IgM, C3, C4, no marked changes were seen compared with the B group (P>0.05). In addition, wound healing was better and hospital stay days were reduced in Gln group (46.59+/-12.98 days versus 55.68+/-17.36 days, P<0.05). These indicated that immunological function damage is present after severe burn; supplemented glutamine granules with oral feeding or tube feeding abate the degree of immunosuppression, improve immunological function especially cellular immunity function, ameliorate wound healing and reduce hospital stay. PMID:16725264

  1. Assessing burn severity and comparing soil water repellency, Hayman Fire, Colorado

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah A. Lewis; Joan Q. Wu; Peter R. Robichaud

    2006-01-01

    An important element of evaluating a large wildfire is to assess its effects on the soil in order to predict the potential watershed response. After the 55 000 ha Hayman Fire on the Colorado Front Range, 24 soil and vegetation variables were measured to determine the key variables that could be used for a rapid field assessment of burn severity.

  2. Effect of post-fire resprouting on leaf fluctuating asymmetry, extrafloral nectar quality, and ant-plant-herbivore interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves-Silva, Estevão; Del-Claro, Kleber

    2013-06-01

    Fires in the Cerrado savanna are a severe form of disturbance, but some species are capable of resprouting afterwards. It is unknown, however, how and whether post-fire resprouting represents a stressful condition to plants and how their rapid re-growth influences both the production of biochemical compounds, and interactions with mutualistic ants. In this study, we examined the influence of post-fire resprouting on biotic interactions (ant-plant-herbivore relationships) and on plant stress. The study was performed on two groups of the extrafloral nectaried shrub Banisteriopsis campestris (Malpighiaceae); one group was recovering from fire while the other acted as control. With respect to biotic interactions, we examined whether resprouting influenced extrafloral nectar concentration (milligrams per microliter), the abundance of the ant Camponotus crassus and leaf herbivory rates. Plant stress was assessed via fluctuating asymmetry (FA) analysis, which refers to deviations from perfect symmetry in bilaterally symmetrical traits (e.g., leaves) and indicates whether species are under stress. Results revealed that FA, sugar concentration, and ant abundance were 51.7 %, 35.7 % and 21.7 % higher in resprouting plants. Furthermore, C. crassus was significantly associated with low herbivory rates, but only in resprouting plants. This study showed that post-fire resprouting induced high levels of plant stress and influenced extrafloral nectar quality and ant-herbivore relationships in B. campestris. Therefore, despite being a stressful condition to the plant, post-fire resprouting individuals had concentrated extrafloral nectar and sustained more ants, thus strengthening the outcomes of ant-plant mutualism.

  3. Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Transplantation Promotes Cutaneous Wound Healing of Severe Burned Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jiake; Duan, Hongjie; Chu, Wanli; Zhang, Haijun; Hu, Quan; Du, Jundong

    2014-01-01

    Background Severe burns are a common and highly lethal trauma. The key step for severe burn therapy is to promote the wound healing as early as possible, and reports indicate that mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy contributes to facilitate wound healing. In this study, we investigated effect of human umbilical cord MSCs (hUC-MSCs) could on wound healing in a rat model of severe burn and its potential mechanism. Methods Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham, burn, and burn transplanted hUC-MSCs. GFP labeled hUC-MSCs or PBS was intravenous injected into respective groups. The rate of wound closure was evaluated by Image Pro Plus. GFP-labeled hUC-MSCs were tracked by in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI), and human-specific DNA expression in wounds was detected by PCR. Inflammatory cells, neutrophils, macrophages, capillaries and collagen types I/III in wounds were evaluated by histochemical staining. Wound blood flow was evaluated by laser Doppler blood flow meter. The levels of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors, VEGF, collagen types I/III in wounds were analyzed using an ELISA. Results We found that wound healing was significantly accelerated in the hUC-MSC therapy group. The hUC-MSCs migrated into wound and remarkably decreased the quantity of infiltrated inflammatory cells and levels of IL-1, IL-6, TNF-? and increased levels of IL-10 and TSG-6 in wounds. Additionally, the neovascularization and levels of VEGF in wounds in the hUC-MSC therapy group were markedly higher than those in other control groups. The ratio of collagen types I and III in the hUC-MSC therapy group were markedly higher than that in the burn group at indicated time after transplantation. Conclusion The study suggests that hUC-MSCs transplantation can effectively improve wound healing in severe burned rat model. Moreover, these data might provide the theoretical foundation for the further clinical application of hUC-MSC in burn areas. PMID:24586314

  4. Effects of glutamine treatment on myocardial damage and cardiac function in rats after severe burn injury

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Hong; Zhang, Yong; Lv, Shang-jun; Wang, Lin; Liang, Guang-ping; Wan, Qian-xue; Peng, Xi

    2012-01-01

    Treatment with glutamine has been shown to reduce myocardial damage associated with ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, the cardioprotective effect of glutamine specifically after burn injury remains unclear. The present study explores the ability of glutamine to protect against myocardial damage in rats that have been severely burned. Seventy-two Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal controls (C), burned controls (B) and a glutamine-treated group (G). Groups B and G were subjected to full thickness burns comprising 30% of total body surface area. Group G was administered 1.5 g/ (kg•d) glutamine and group B was given the same dose of alanine via intragastric administration for 3 days. Levels of serum creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate transaminase (AST) and blood lactic acid were measured, as well as myocardial ATP and glutathione (GSH) contents. Cardiac function indices and histopathological changes were analyzed at 12, 24, 48 and 72 post-burn hours. In both burned groups, levels of serum CK, LDH, AST and blood lactic acid increased significantly, while myocardial ATP and GSH contents decreased. Compared with group B, CK, LDH, and AST levels were lower and blood lactic acid, myocardial ATP and GSH levels were higher in group G. Moreover, cardiac contractile function inhibition and myocardial histopathological damage were significantly reduced in group G compared to B. Taken together, these results show that glutamine supplementation protects myocardial structure and function after burn injury by improving energy metabolism and by promotedthe synthesis of ATP and GSH in cardiac myocytes. PMID:22977661

  5. Case Report: Treatment of Open Femoral Shaft Fracture in a Severely Burned Patient

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Tai-Li; Spence, Robert J.; Mears, Simon C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To present a case report of a patient with an open fracture and severe burns and review the literature. Methods: The patient was treated with intubation, intravenous antibiotics, and debridement and intramedullary nailing for the femur fracture. He later underwent multiple burn excision procedures with allograft and autograft skin coverage. The wound over the fracture was treated with dressing changes. The fracture was treated with nail exchange and bone grafting for atrophic nonunion. Results: The patient was returned to full weightbearing and good function with a fully healed femur. Conclusions: Treatment of open fractures in burn patients should be tailored to the specific needs of the individual; they should be reduced and stabilized via internal fixation at the earliest opportunity and should be managed by minimizing wound colonization through successive debridement, wound care, and consideration of flap coverage. PMID:18438445

  6. Application of thermal analysis to measure the spatial heterogeneity of organic matter degradation after wildfire: implications for post-fire rehabilitation treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, Agustin; Fonturbel, M. Teresa; Vega, Jose A.

    2015-04-01

    Severe wildfires can cause drastic changes in SOM content and quality with important implications for soil conservation and global C balance. Soil heating usually leads to loss of the most labile SOM compounds (e.g. carbohydrates, lipids and peptides) and to generation of aromatic substances. However, these fire-related damages are not uniform over large areas, because of the spatial heterogeneity of different factors such as fire type and environmental conditions. Rapid diagnosis of soil burn severity is required to enable the design of emergency post-fire rehabilitation treatments. The study was conducted in soils from NW Spain, an Atlantic-climate zone that is particularly prone to wildfires. Intact soil cores (forest floor and uppermost mineral soil layer) were taken from a soil developed under granitic rock and subjected to experimental burning (in a bench positioned at the outlet of a wind tunnel). Soil temperature during fire was monitorised and five visual levels of soil burn severity (SBS) were recorded immediately after fire. Solid-state 13C CP-MAS NMR spectroscopy analyses were performed in an Agilent (Varian) VNMRS-500-WB spectrometer. The samples were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry (TGA/DSC, Mettler-Toledo Intl. Inc.). The analyses were performed with 4 mg of samples placed in open aluminium pans under dry air (flow rate, 50 mL?1) and at a scanning rate of 10 °C min?1. The temperature ranged between 50 and 600 °C. In the organic layer, the temperature reached during fire influenced the formation and characteristics of charred material. These materials showed an increasing degree of carbonization/aromatization in relation to the increase of temperature during burning. Burning also led to compounds of higher thermal recalcitrance (increases in T50 values -the temperature at which 50% of the energy stored in SOM is released-). However, values recorded in some samples were lower than those measured in highly polycondensed aromatic compounds. In the mineral soil, large reductions in SOM content were found in both moderate and high SBS (up to 70 %), whereas important effects on SOM quality were only associated with high SBS. NMR analysis revealed these changes as losses of O-alkyl, alkyl and carboxylic structures and increases of the aromatic structures (up to 50 %). In both organic and mineral soils the DSC analysis revealed decreased combustion heat released up to 375 °C, and increased T50. Relationships between thermal properties and chemical-shift regions in the NMR helped provide a better understanding of SOM quality after wildfire. The results also show that thermal analysis can be used as a rapid tool to assess the different degrees of SOM degradation, in areas where the complex heterogeneity of the fire damage requires different emergency post-fire rehabilitation treatments.

  7. Sediment-driven mercury transport in post-fire storm runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, M. P.; Ferreira, M.; Hogue, T. S.; Jay, J.; Rademacher, L. K.

    2009-12-01

    Wildfire alters terrestrial stores of mercury (Hg) within a watershed, releasing Hg to the atmosphere and creating conditions that can be conducive to Hg export in streamwater. Hg transport to terrestrial waters is often associated with suspended sediments and organic matter, and particulate-bound Hg delivery to downstream water bodies may be enhanced following wildfire. Burned watersheds experience increased overland flow, soil erosion, sediment transport, and, consequently, transport of sediment bound contaminants during early post-fire storm events. Southern California’s September 2006 Day Fire consumed 660km2 and almost 50% of the 512km2 Piru Creek watershed. Piru Creek drains into Pyramid Lake, a storage reservoir for the California State Water Project, which provides drinking water for Los Angeles. Streamwater was collected from Piru Creek watershed over a 1.5 year period following the Day Fire, on a monthly basis during low flow periods, and every two hours during storm events using an automated sampler. Samples were analyzed for both dissolved and total Hg, total suspended solids, and basic anions and cations. Low Hg concentrations (> 1ng Hg/ L dissolved and > 5ng Hg/L total) were measured in inter-storm samples. The first winter (2006-07) following the Day Fire was one of the driest on record, with precipitation totals (130mm) less than one third of normal. The only significant storm measured total Hg concentrations just slightly higher than the inter-storm samples, while no change was observed in the dissolved Hg concentrations. However, these total Hg concentrations were well correlated to TSS measurements (r2 = 0.91) and followed the storm hydrograph. The following winter (2007-08) brought higher precipitation totals (370mm) and more intense storms. Elevated, turbid stream flow was observed in Piru Creek during many of the 2007-08 storms. Little change was observed in the dissolved Hg concentrations of the storm samples; however, a two-order magnitude increase was measured in both the total Hg and TSS concentrations. Though the total Hg and TSS concentrations were not as well correlated in the 2007-08 storms, it is clear that the sediment flux controls the Hg delivery to terrestrial waters in this burned, semi-arid watershed. The ultimate goal of this study is to elucidate the total Hg /TSS relationship in the post-fire runoff of Piru Creek and to model Hg delivery as a function of soil erosion and sediment transport.

  8. FIRST-YEAR EFFECTS OF SUMMER FIRE AND POST-FIRE GRAZING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Summer wildfires occur naturally throughout the Northern Great Plains. However, research supporting post-fire grazing management decisions is limited. We evaluated summer fire and post-fire grazing effects on plant diversity, density, and frequency. Fire may affect fringed sage, cactus, and some ...

  9. Post-fire successional effects on breeding grassland birds in mesquite savanna habitats of the Texas rolling plains 

    E-print Network

    Lee, Stephanie L.

    2007-04-25

    obstruction generally increased with post-fire succession, and bare ground decreased with post-fire succession. Species richness, grasshopper sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum), Cassin�s sparrows (Aimophila cassinii), and dickcissels (Spiza americana...

  10. Sensitivity of X-, C-, and L-Band SAR Backscatter to Burn Severity in Mediterranean Pine Forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mihai A. Tanase; Maurizio Santoro; Juan de la Riva; Fernando Pérez-Cabello; Thuy Le Toan

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data at X-, C-, and L-bands have been investigated to determine the relationship between backscatter and forest burn severity over three sites in Spain. The dependence of SAR backscatter on local incidence angle and environmental conditions has been analyzed. At HH and VV polarizations, the backscatter increased with burn severity for X- and C-bands, whereas it

  11. Haemophilus Influenzae contributes to morbidity but not mortality in severely burned patients.

    PubMed

    Vern, Tamara Z; Kowal-Vern, Areta; Latenser, Barbara A; Chakrin, Alan

    2006-06-01

    Due to a successful Haemophilus Influenzae (HIF) vaccination program, this pathogen is no longer a major contributor to childhood morbidity and mortality. The effect on adult acquisition of HIF is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine HIF infection frequency in severely burned patients. In a 62-month period, there were 1486 admissions. Twenty-four of 1,486 (1.6%) burn patients had HIF pneumonia: 16 (1%) within 72 h after injury; 8 (0.5%) patients developed it after the seventh day of hospitalization; 74 of 1,486 (5.0%) burn patients had pneumonia due to other organisms. There was no statistically significant difference between patients with HIF pneumonia and those with other pathogens with respect to age, race, sex, percent total body surface area (TBSA), inhalation injury, ventilator days, intensive care days, sepsis, or mortality. Nineteen percent of patients with HIF were<14 years of age compared to 12% in the other pneumonia group, p<0.01. HIF contributed to both an early and late pneumonia in burn patients. The organism responded to treatment and did not affect mortality. PMID:16621310

  12. Effects of Propranolol and Exercise Training in Children with Severe Burns

    PubMed Central

    Porro, Laura J.; Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M.; Williams, Felicia; Herndon, David N.; Mlcak, Ronald P.; Suman, Oscar E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether propranolol administration blocks the benefits induced by exercise training in severely burned children. Study design Children aged 7–18 years (n=58) with burns covering ?30% of the total body surface area (TBSA) were enrolled in this randomized trial during their acute hospital admission. Twenty-seven patients were randomized to receive propranolol, whilst 31 served as untreated controls. Both groups participated in 12 weeks of in-hospital resistance and aerobic exercise training. Muscle strength, lean body mass, and peak aerobic capacity (VO2 peak) were measured before and after exercise training. Paired and unpaired Student T-tests were used for within and between group comparisons, and Chi-squared tests for nominal data. Results Age, length of hospitalization, and TBSA burned were similar between groups. In both groups, muscle strength, lean body mass, and VO2 peak were significantly greater after exercise training than at baseline. The percent change in VO2 peak was significantly greater in the propranolol group than in the control group (P< 0.05). Conclusions Exercise-induced enhancements in muscle mass, strength, and VO2 peak are not impaired by propranolol. Moreover, propranolol improves the aerobic response to exercise in massively burned children. PMID:23084706

  13. Pain relief with low-dose intravenous clonidine in a child with severe burns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Lyons; W. Casey; P. Doherty; M. McHugh; K. P. Moore

    1996-01-01

    The case of an 11-year-old boy who suffered second and third degree burns to 78% of his body is reported. The large doses of morphine used as analgesia resulted in severe side effects: ventilatory dependence, impairment of gastrointestinal function and psychological disturbance. Intravenous lignocaine was added without benefit. The addition of low-dose intravenous clonidine, however, precipitated a dramatic reduction in

  14. Monitoring Post-Fire Vegetation Rehabilitation Projects: A Common Approach for Non-Forested Ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wirth, Troy A.; Pyke, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Emergency Stabilization and Rehabilitation (ES&R) and Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) treatments are short-term, high-intensity treatments designed to mitigate the adverse effects of wildfire on public lands. The federal government expends significant resources implementing ES&R and BAER treatments after wildfires; however, recent reviews have found that existing data from monitoring and research are insufficient to evaluate the effects of these activities. The purpose of this report is to: (1) document what monitoring methods are generally used by personnel in the field; (2) describe approaches and methods for post-fire vegetation and soil monitoring documented in agency manuals; (3) determine the common elements of monitoring programs recommended in these manuals; and (4) describe a common monitoring approach to determine the effectiveness of future ES&R and BAER treatments in non-forested regions. Both qualitative and quantitative methods to measure effectiveness of ES&R treatments are used by federal land management agencies. Quantitative methods are used in the field depending on factors such as funding, personnel, and time constraints. There are seven vegetation monitoring manuals produced by the federal government that address monitoring methods for (primarily) vegetation and soil attributes. These methods vary in their objectivity and repeatability. The most repeatable methods are point-intercept, quadrat-based density measurements, gap intercepts, and direct measurement of soil erosion. Additionally, these manuals recommend approaches for designing monitoring programs for the state of ecosystems or the effect of management actions. The elements of a defensible monitoring program applicable to ES&R and BAER projects that most of these manuals have in common are objectives, stratification, control areas, random sampling, data quality, and statistical analysis. The effectiveness of treatments can be determined more accurately if data are gathered using an approach that incorporates these six monitoring program design elements and objectives, as well as repeatable procedures to measure cover, density, gap intercept, and soil erosion within each ecoregion and plant community. Additionally, using a common monitoring program design with comparable methods, consistently documenting results, and creating and maintaining a central database for query and reporting, will ultimately allow a determination of the effectiveness of post-fire rehabilitation activities region-wide.

  15. Application of a Four-dimensional Mathematical Model in the Establishment of an Early Post-burn Cerebral Oedema Model in Severely Burned Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Haitao, L.; Dajun, Y.; Kaifa, W.; Xiuwu, B.; Jiansen, S.; Zongchen, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Summary The aim of this study was to explore the spatiotemporal development of cerebral oedema in the early stage of severe burn (50% TBSA, third degree), using a four-dimensional (4D) mathematical model. Twenty-six male mongrel dogs were randomly divided into control and 6, 12, 18, and 24 post-burn hour (PBH) groups. The manifestation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histopathology, changes of brain water content, and intracranial pressure were observed in each group respectively. A 4D mathematical model was established on the basis of the results of MRI scanning. Two turning points (6 and 18 PBH) and three phases of pathological change were displayed by the 4D mathematical model of cerebral oedema in the early stage of severe burn. The first phase was in the subclinical period, and effective treatment should therefore be performed as quickly as possible in order to prevent deterioration of post-burn cerebral oedema. The second phase (6-18 PBH), with pathological characteristics of cytotoxic cerebral oedema, was in the apoptosis period. The third stage (18-24 PBH) was the danger period of cerebral oedema. Intracranial pressure increased rapidly owing to the limitation of the cranial cavity. As a result, cerebral hernia could easily occur. An S-shape curve in the pathological process of cerebral oedema occurred in the early post-burn stage following severe burn. PMID:21990986

  16. RECOVER: An Automated Cloud-Based Decision Support System for Post-fire Rehabilitation Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnase, John L.; Carroll, Mark; Weber, K. T.; Brown, Molly E.; Gill, Roger L.; Wooten, Margaret; May J.; Serr, K.; Smith, E.; Goldsby, R.; Newtoff, Kiersten; Bradford, Kathryn; Doyle Colin S.; Volker, Emily; Weber, Samuel J.

    2014-01-01

    RECOVER is a site-specific decision support system that automatically brings together in a single analysis environment the information necessary for post-fire rehabilitation decision-making. After a major wildfire, law requires that the federal land management agencies certify a comprehensive plan for public safety, burned area stabilization, resource protection, and site recovery. These burned area emergency response (BAER) plans are a crucial part of our national response to wildfire disasters and depend heavily on data acquired from a variety of sources. Final plans are due within 21 days of control of a major wildfire and become the guiding document for managing the activities and budgets for all subsequent remediation efforts. There are few instances in the federal government where plans of such wide-ranging scope and importance are assembled on such short notice and translated into action more quickly. RECOVER has been designed in close collaboration with our agency partners and directly addresses their high-priority decision-making requirements. In response to a fire detection event, RECOVER uses the rapid resource allocation capabilities of cloud computing to automatically collect Earth observational data, derived decision products, and historic biophysical data so that when the fire is contained, BAER teams will have a complete and ready-to-use RECOVER dataset and GIS analysis environment customized for the target wildfire. Initial studies suggest that RECOVER can transform this information-intensive process by reducing from days to a matter of minutes the time required to assemble and deliver crucial wildfire-related data.

  17. The wettability of ash from burned vegetation and its relationship to Mediterranean plant species type, burn severity and total organic carbon content

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Merche B. Bodí; Jorge Mataix-Solera; Stefan H. Doerr; Artemi Cerdà

    2011-01-01

    Immediately following a wildfire, a layer of ash and charred material typically covers the ground. This layer will gradually be reduced, being redistributed by rainfall, wind or animals, by partial dissolution and by incorporation into the soil. Ash can increase or decrease the post-fire runoff and erosion response, depending upon the soil and ash properties and the ash thickness. One

  18. Soil geochemistry controls fire severity: A soil approach to improved understanding of forest fire consequences in southwest Montana.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, R.; Hartshorn, T.

    2014-12-01

    Fire severity can be defined using satellite imagery to ratio mid (~2.2 um) to near (~0.8 um) infrared reflectance values. We examined how lithology and topography affected burn severity, and how post-fire soils data could be used to ground-truth burn severity at two sites in southwestern Montana. A burned area reflectance classification (BARC), lithology, and terrain attributes were used to predict burn severity for the Millie Fire, which was triggered two years ago by lightning and burned ~4,000 ha. Burn severity showed a strong dependence on lithology: the ratio of areas with high burn severity vs. low or moderate burn severities was 2.9 for gneiss (vs. 0.3 for volcanics). The high-severity burn area for the gneiss was larger than the volcanics, despite the latter lithology covering ~270% greater area (~2,600 ha). Aspect and elevation also influenced burn severity with lower severity at higher elevations (2,600-3,000 m) and higher severity at lower elevations (1,800-2,400 m). Southern and western aspects burned more severely than northern and eastern aspects. To clarify whether post-fire soil geochemical changes might predict ground-based estimates of fire severity, a lab experiment was carried out . We expected residual enrichment of trace metal concentrations, as soil organic matter (SOM) was combusted, which we quantified as loss on ignition (LOI). To test this approach, burned and unburned soils were sampled from the ~6000 ha Beartrap 2 fire, which also burned two years. We simulated differing fire severities on unburned soil using a muffle furnace factorially (duration [5, 15, 30, 45, or 60 minutes] x temperature [50, 100, 200, 300, 400, or 500ºC]). Consistent with expectations, unburned samples had a lower mean (±1SD) concentrations for 23 of 30 elements than field-burned samples. For example, barium concentrations ([Ba]) in unburned samples were (708±37?g/g), 16% lower than field-burned [Ba] (841±7 ?g/g). Simulated burning yielded smaller [Ba] (732±9 ?g/g). Of the 30 trace metals examined, barium explained the greatest fraction of variance in post-burn LOI (R2 =0.79); gallium explained slightly less variance (R2=0.67). Our results document the promise of post-burn soil geochemistry to indicate soil burn severity, which could complement vegetation-based and remotely sensed indices.

  19. Modeling Fluid Resuscitation by Formulating Infusion Rate and Urine Output in Severe Thermal Burn Adult Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qizhi; Li, Wei; Zou, Xin; Dang, Yongming; Wu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Acute burn injuries are among the most devastating forms of trauma and lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Appropriate fluid resuscitation after severe burn, specifically during the first 48 hours following injury, is considered as the single most important therapeutic intervention in burn treatment. Although many formulas have been developed to estimate the required fluid amount in severe burn patients, many lines of evidence showed that patients still receive far more fluid than formulas recommend. Overresuscitation, which is known as “fluid creep,” has emerged as one of the most important problems during the initial period of burn care. If fluid titration can be personalized and automated during the resuscitation phase, more efficient burn care and outcome will be anticipated. In the present study, a dynamic urine output based infusion rate prediction model was developed and validated during the initial 48 hours in severe thermal burn adult patients. The experimental results demonstrated that the developed dynamic fluid resuscitation model might significantly reduce the total fluid volume by accurately predicting hourly urine output and has the potential to aid fluid administration in severe burn patients.

  20. Estimating fire severity using satellite ASTER data and local Spatial autocorrelation statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coluzzi, Rosa; Lanorte, Antonio; Lasaponara, Rosa; de Santis, Fortunato

    2010-05-01

    What are the ecological effects of fires? The evaluation of fire-affected areas and fire severity is of primary importance to answer this question, because fire strongly affects the ecological processes, such as, productivity level, creation of altered patches, modification in vegetation structure and shifts in vegetation cover composition, as well as land surface processes (such as surface energy, water balance, carbon cycle). Traditional methods of recording fire burned areas and fire severity involve expensive and time -consuming field survey. The available remote sensing technologies may allow us to develop standardized burn-severity maps for evaluating fire effects and addressing post fire management activities. This paper is focused on preliminary results we obtained from ongoing research focused on the evaluation of spatial variability of fire effects on vegetation. For the purposes of this study satellite ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) data have been used. Both single (post-fire) and multi-date (pre and post fire) ASTER images were processed for some test areas in Southern Italy. Spatial autocorrelation statistics, such as Moran's I, Geary's C, and Getis-Ord Local Gi index (see Anselin 1995; Getis and Ord 1992), were used to measure and analyze the degree of dependency among spectral features of burned areas. The preliminary results pointed out that spatial autocorrelation statistics applied to ASTER data allow us to discriminate fire severity and to improve the monitoring of fire effects over time. Such information are effective data source for evaluating erosion/runoff, biomass and carbon issues, and other issues using mapped burn severity. Keywords: satellite; fire, burned area, Spatial autocorrelation statistics,

  1. Treatment of severe electrical burns of the genitalia and perineum by early excision and grafting.

    PubMed

    Edelman, G C; Sweet, M E; Messing, E M; Helgerson, R B

    1991-12-01

    A patient with severe electrical burns to his perineum and genitalia is presented. Evaluation of such patients necessarily includes local wound exploration, cystourethroscopy and proctoscopy. The principles of early serial debridement and wound closure were applied to all tissues including testis and penis. Removal of non-viable tissue and wound closure was accomplished by postburn day 10 without sacrifice of viable tissue and without wound sepsis. The benefits of early debridement and wound closure are reduction of infection, earlier onset of physiotherapy, quicker recovery of function, and shortened hospital stay. PMID:1793504

  2. Comparing the Influence of Wildfire and Prescribed Burns on Watershed Nitrogen Biogeochemistry Using 15N Natural Abundance in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystem Components

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, Kirsten; Kavanagh, Kathleen L.; Koyama, Akihiro

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated differences in the effects of three low-severity spring prescribed burns and four wildfires on nitrogen (N) biogeochemistry in Rocky Mountain headwater watersheds. We compared paired (burned/unburned) watersheds of four wildfires and three spring prescribed burns for three growing seasons post-fire. To better understand fire effects on the entire watershed ecosystem, we measured N concentrations and ?15N in both the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems components, i.e., soil, understory plants in upland and riparian areas, streamwater, and in-stream moss. In addition, we measured nitrate reductase activity in foliage of Spiraea betulifolia, a dominant understory species. We found increases of ?15N and N concentrations in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem N pools after wildfire, but responses were limited to terrestrial N pools after prescribed burns indicating that N transfer from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystem components did not occur in low-severity prescribed burns. Foliar ?15N differed between wildfire and prescribed burn sites; the ?15N of foliage of upland plants was enriched by 2.9 ‰ (difference between burned and unburned watersheds) in the first two years after wildfire, but only 1.3 ‰ after prescribed burns. In-stream moss ?15N in wildfire-burned watersheds was enriched by 1.3 ‰, but there was no response by moss in prescription-burned watersheds, mirroring patterns of streamwater nitrate concentrations. S. betulifolia showed significantly higher nitrate reductase activity two years after wildfires relative to corresponding unburned watersheds, but no such difference was found after prescribed burns. These responses are consistent with less altered N biogeochemistry after prescribed burns relative to wildfire. We concluded that ?15N values in terrestrial and aquatic plants and streamwater nitrate concentrations after fire can be useful indicators of the magnitude and duration of fire effects and the fate of post-fire available N. PMID:25885257

  3. Comparing the influence of wildfire and prescribed burns on watershed nitrogen biogeochemistry using 15N natural abundance in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem components.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Kirsten; Kavanagh, Kathleen L; Koyama, Akihiro

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated differences in the effects of three low-severity spring prescribed burns and four wildfires on nitrogen (N) biogeochemistry in Rocky Mountain headwater watersheds. We compared paired (burned/unburned) watersheds of four wildfires and three spring prescribed burns for three growing seasons post-fire. To better understand fire effects on the entire watershed ecosystem, we measured N concentrations and ?15N in both the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems components, i.e., soil, understory plants in upland and riparian areas, streamwater, and in-stream moss. In addition, we measured nitrate reductase activity in foliage of Spiraea betulifolia, a dominant understory species. We found increases of ?15N and N concentrations in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem N pools after wildfire, but responses were limited to terrestrial N pools after prescribed burns indicating that N transfer from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystem components did not occur in low-severity prescribed burns. Foliar ?15N differed between wildfire and prescribed burn sites; the ?15N of foliage of upland plants was enriched by 2.9 ‰ (difference between burned and unburned watersheds) in the first two years after wildfire, but only 1.3 ‰ after prescribed burns. In-stream moss ?15N in wildfire-burned watersheds was enriched by 1.3 ‰, but there was no response by moss in prescription-burned watersheds, mirroring patterns of streamwater nitrate concentrations. S. betulifolia showed significantly higher nitrate reductase activity two years after wildfires relative to corresponding unburned watersheds, but no such difference was found after prescribed burns. These responses are consistent with less altered N biogeochemistry after prescribed burns relative to wildfire. We concluded that ?15N values in terrestrial and aquatic plants and streamwater nitrate concentrations after fire can be useful indicators of the magnitude and duration of fire effects and the fate of post-fire available N. PMID:25885257

  4. Use of spectral channels and vegetation indices from satellite VEGETATION time series for the Post-Fire vegetation recovery estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coluzzi, Rosa; Lasaponara, Rosa; Montesano, Tiziana; Lanorte, Antonio; de Santis, Fortunato

    2010-05-01

    Satellite data can help monitoring the dynamics of vegetation in burned and unburned areas. Several methods can be used to perform such kind of analysis. This paper is focused on the use of different satellite-based parameters for fire recovery monitoring. In particular, time series of single spectral channels and vegetation indices from SPOT-VEGETATION have investigated. The test areas is the Mediterranean ecosystems of Southern Italy. For this study we considered: 1) the most widely used index to follow the process of recovery after fire: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) obtained from the visible (Red) and near infrared (NIR) by using the following formula NDVI = (NIR_Red)/(NIR + Red), 2) moisture index MSI obtained from the near infrared and Mir for characterization of leaf and canopy water content. 3) NDWI obtained from the near infrared and Mir as in the case of MSI, but with the normalization (as the NDVI) to reduce the atmospheric effects. All analysis for this work was performed on ten-daily normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) image composites (S10) from the SPOT- VEGETATION (VGT) sensor. The final data set consisted of 279 ten-daily, 1 km resolution NDVI S1O composites for the period 1 April 1998 to 31 December 2005 with additional surface reflectance values in the blue (B; 0.43-0.47,um), red (R; 0.61-0.68,um), near-infrared (NIR; 0.78-0.89,um) and shortwave-infrared (SWIR; 1.58-1.75,um) spectral bands, and information on the viewing geometry and pixel status. Preprocessing of the data was performed by the Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek (VITO) in the framework of the Global Vegetation Monitoring (GLOVEG) preprocessing chain. It consisted of the Simplified Method for Atmospheric Correction (SMAC) and compositing at ten-day intervals based on the Maximum Value Compositing (MVC) criterion. All the satellite time series were analysed using the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) to estimate post fire vegetation recovery. The DFA is a well-known methodology, which allows the detectin of long-range power-law correlations in signals possibly characterized by non-stationarity, which features most of the observational and experimental signals. We analyzed time variation of both single channels and spectral indices from 1998 to 2005 of fire- affected and fire unaffected areas. In order to eliminate the seasonal and/or phenological fluctuations, for each decadal composition, we focused on the normalized departure: 1) NDVI; 2) NDWId, 3) MSId. Results from our analysis point out that the persistence of vegetation dynamics is significantly increased by the occurrence of fires. In particular, a scaling behavior of two classes of vegetation (burned and unburned) has been best revealed by NDVI. The estimated scaling exponents of both classes suggest a persistent character of the vegetation dynamics. But, the burned sites show much larger exponents than those calculated for the unburned sites. Small variations have been observed between the estimated scaling exponents of both fire-affected and fire-unaffected areas.

  5. Evaluating Post-fire Ecosystem Effects in Tussock Tundra of the Seward Peninsula: Characterizing Above-ground Biomass Accumulation, Soil Nutrient Pools, and Foliar Nitrogen.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollingsworth, T. N.; Mack, M. C.; Breen, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last century in the circumpolar north, changes in vegetation include shrub cover expansion and shifts in tree line. Invasion of tundra by trees and shrubs may be further facilitated by wildfire disturbance, which creates opportunities for establishment where recruitment is otherwise rare. Even moderate increases in warm-season temperatures are predicted to increase the likelihood of tundra fires. Understanding the consequences of a change in fire regime are complicated by the fact that there are relatively few large recent fires to study. However, the Seward Peninsula is a region that currently experiences more frequent and large fires than other tundra regions in Arctic Alaska. In this tundra region, there are areas of overlapping burns dating back to the 1970s. Using a chronosequence approach, we looked at post-fire biomass accumulation as well as foliar and soil C and N. Our experimental design incorporated sites that showed no evidence of recent burning, sites that burned in 1971, 1997, 2002, and 2011 as well as sites that burned multiple times over the last 30 years. We found that fire had a significant effect on total biomass and shrub basal area in tussock tundra. Our site that burned in 2011 had the lowest total biomass, about half of the biomass of our unburned site. However, our results indicated the site that burned in 1971 had over double the aboveground biomass and more soil N than the unburned site. We found that sites that repeatedly burned since 1971 were very similar in biomass to unburned tundra. This suggests that repeat fires keep a post-fire site at unburned levels of biomass. However, in these repeat fire sites, foliar C/N was ~25% greater and soil C and N was ~50% less than in unburned tundra. These results indicate that repeat fires are potentially causing nitrogen loss that not likely to be replenished into the system. As tundra fires become more frequent prediction of post-fire ecosystem effects is critical due to impacts on wildlife habitat, permafrost degradation, carbon release, and range expansion of species from the neighboring boreal forest.

  6. Central American biomass burning smoke can increase tornado severity in the U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saide, P. E.; Spak, S. N.; Pierce, R. B.; Otkin, J. A.; Schaack, T. K.; Heidinger, A. K.; Silva, A. M.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; Redemann, J.; Carmichael, G. R.

    2015-02-01

    Tornadoes in the Southeast and central U.S. are episodically accompanied by smoke from biomass burning in central America. Analysis of the 27 April 2011 historical tornado outbreak shows that adding smoke to an environment already conducive to severe thunderstorm development can increase the likelihood of significant tornado occurrence. Numerical experiments indicate that the presence of smoke during this event leads to optical thickening of shallow clouds while soot within the smoke enhances the capping inversion through radiation absorption. The smoke effects are consistent with measurements of clouds and radiation before and during the outbreak. These effects result in lower cloud bases and stronger low-level wind shear in the warm sector of the extratropical cyclone generating the outbreak, two indicators of higher probability of tornadogenesis and tornado intensity and longevity. These mechanisms may contribute to tornado modulation by aerosols, highlighting the need to consider aerosol feedbacks in numerical severe weather forecasting.

  7. Post-fire soil water repellency in highly repellent forest soils in Victoria, Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane Cawson; Petter Nyman; Gary Sheridan; Hugh Smith

    2010-01-01

    In this study soil water repellency was monitored seasonally following prescribed burns to better understand the effects of fire severity on soil hydrological properties. The study sites consisted of dry eucalypt forest with clay loam soil. This forest type is common in south-eastern Australia and is frequently burnt by both wildfires and prescribed burns. A feature of the soil at

  8. Blocking TRAIL-DR5 signaling with soluble DR5 alleviates acute kidney injury in a severely burned mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Xiangfeng; Zhang, Qiu; Chen, Zhenyu; Wang, Dechang

    2014-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) predicts high mortality in severely burned patients. Apoptosis plays a significant role during AKI; however, the apoptotic mechanisms underlying AKI induced by burn injury are not clear. Here, we report a critical role for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-Death receptor 5 (DR5) signaling in the pathogenesis of AKI. C57BL/6 male mice were subjected to full thickness scald burn. Apoptosis was significantly up-regulated in mouse kidney 24 h after the burn. Meanwhile, the TRAIL and DR5 expression levels were significantly increased in the kidney 24 h after the burn. Soluble DR5 treatment reduced apoptotic cell death and alleviated kidney injury induced by the burn through blocking the interaction of endogenous TRAIL with DR5. These results demonstrated that TRAIL plays a deleterious role in AKI pathogenesis induced by scald burns. Inhibition of TRAIL function in the kidney may represent a novel protective strategy to treat AKI in patients with burns. PMID:25031778

  9. Predicting the delivery of sediment and associated nutrients from post-fire debris flows in small upland catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyman, Petter; Sheridan, Gary; Smith, Hugh; Lane, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Post-fire debris flows are extreme erosion events that can dominate the long term supply of sediment from headwaters to streams in upland catchments. Predicting the location, frequency and magnitude of debris flows is therefore important for understanding sediment dynamics in upland catchments and providing a basis on which to manage hydro-geomorphic risk in burned areas. In this study we survey 10 post-fire debris flow events in southeast Australia with aims to i) identify rainfall conditions underlying the debris flow response, ii) quantify erosion rates in hillslope and channel source areas, and iii) estimate the delivery of sediment and water quality constituents to receiving waterways. Rainfall events that triggered debris flows had an annual exceedance probability ranging from 0.1 to 0.6, and 30-minute intensities, I30, ranging from 17-60 mm h-1. Sediment delivery by debris flows (100-200 t ha-1) is similar to that which has been reported for similar events in the western US and Spain. In terms of eroded volume, there was on average an equal contribution from hillslopes and channels to debris flows, which is in agreement with the calculations of surface and subsurface source contributions obtained from radionuclide concentrations. In terms of the potential water quality impacts from post-fire debris flows, the hillslopes had much higher concentration of constituents such as fine clay and silt, plant available phosphorous and total carbon. The data on debris flow magnitude was used to evaluate two different approaches for predicting sediment delivery from debris flows. A statistical debris flow model developed by the US Geological Surveys and parameterized for catchments in western US performed well (R2 = 0.92) in terms of predicting the overall volume of material delivered at the catchment outlet. An alternative modeling approach, using local slope and contributing area as predictors of erosion, also produced good results, and could be used to obtain more detailed predictions of sediment entrainment, deposition, the overall source contribution and the associated constituents. Future work will aim to link models of debris flow magnitude with models of initiation and debris flow frequency after fire.

  10. Late outcomes after grafting of the severely burned face: a quality improvement initiative.

    PubMed

    Philp, Lauren; Umraw, Nisha; Cartotto, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Many approaches to surgical management of the severely burned face are described, but there are few objective outcome studies. The purpose of this study was to perform a detailed evaluation of the late outcomes in adult patients who have undergone grafting using a standardized surgical and rehabilitation approach for full-thickness (FT) facial burns to identify areas for improvement in the treatment strategy of authors. This was a prospective observational study in which patients who had undergone grafting for FT facial burns by the senior investigator at a regional burn centre between 1999 and 2010 were examined by a single evaluator. The surgical approach included tangential excision based on the facial aesthetic units, temporary cover with allograft then autografting with scalp skin preferentially, split grafts for the upper eyelid, and FT grafts for the lower eyelid. Rehabilitation included compression (uvex and or soft cloth), scar massage, and silicone gel sheeting. Of 35 patients with facial grafts, 14 subjects (age 43 ± 16 years with 22 ± 21% TBSA burns) returned for late follow-up at 40 ± 33 months (range, 5-91 months). A mean of four facial aesthetic units per patient were grafted (range, 1-9 units), with six full facial grafts performed. Scalp was used as donor in 10 of 14 cases. Scalp donor sites were well tolerated with minor alopecia visible in only one case although the donor site visibly extended slightly past the hairline in two cases. Color match with native skin was rated at 8.8 ± 0.8 of 10 when scalp skin was used compared with 7.5 ± 1.6 with other donor sites (P = .06). On the lip and chin, hypertrophic scars were significantly worse compared with the rest of the facial grafts (Vancouver scar scale 8 ± 2 vs 3 ± 1, P < .01). Sensory recovery was poor with overall moving two-point discrimination at 11 ± 3 mm (range, 4-15 mm), and monofilament light touch was 3.8 ± 0.6. Graft borders were significantly more elevated than graft seams. On the forehead, the most notable problem was a gap between the graft and hairlines of the frontal scalp and eyebrows (range, 0-40 mm). Grafted eyelids required one or more subsequent ectropion releases in the majority of cases. The most common problem for the nose was asymmetry of the nostril apertures. The most problematic late outcomes that the authors identified after facial grafting for FT facial burns included relatively poor sensory return, elevation of graft edges, eyelid ectropion, gaps between grafts and hairline, and marked hypertrophic scarring around the mouth and chin. The results indicate that possible areas for quality improvement include greater attention to the limits of scalp harvest, more attention to pressure application to graft borders and the lip and chin during rehabilitation, greater accuracy in excision and graft placement on the forehead to avoid gaps with the hairlines, and counseling of the patient regarding the high probability of diminished facial sensation. PMID:22002207

  11. Polyacrylamide application versus forest residue mulching for reducing post-fire runoff and soil erosion.

    PubMed

    Prats, Sergio Alegre; Martins, Martinho António Dos Santos; Malvar, Maruxa Cortizo; Ben-Hur, Meni; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2014-01-15

    For several years now, forest fires have been known to increase overland flow and soil erosion. However, mitigation of these effects has been little studied, especially outside the USA. This study aimed to quantify the effectiveness of two so-called emergency treatments to reduce post-fire runoff and soil losses at the microplot scale in a eucalyptus plantation in north-central Portugal. The treatments involved the application of chopped eucalyptus bark mulch at a rate of 10-12 Mg ha(-1), and surface application of a dry, granular, anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) at a rate of 50 kg ha(-1). During the first year after a wildfire in 2010, 1419 mm of rainfall produced, on average, 785 mm of overland flow in the untreated plots and 8.4 Mg ha(-1) of soil losses. Mulching reduced these two figures significantly, by an average 52 and 93%, respectively. In contrast, the PAM-treated plots did not differ from the control plots, despite slightly lower runoff but higher soil erosion figures. When compared to the control plots, mean key factors for runoff and soil erosion were different in the case of the mulched but not the PAM plots. Notably, the plots on the lower half of the slope registered bigger runoff and erosion figures than those on the upper half of the slope. This could be explained by differences in fire intensity and, ultimately, in pre-fire standing biomass. PMID:24055663

  12. Characterizing demographics, injury severity, and intubation status for patients transported by air or ground ambulance to a rural burn center.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Azeemuddin; Van Heukelom, Paul; Harland, Karisa; Denning, Gerene; Liao, Junlin; Born, Janelle; Latenser, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Our study was designed to characterize intubation status among patients transported by air or ground ambulance to a rural burn center. A retrospective chart review of patients arriving at our burn center from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2009 was completed. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were performed. During the study period, 259 air and 590 ground ambulance patients met inclusion criteria. Air ambulance patients were older and had higher total body surface area burned, lower Glasgow Coma scores, longer lengths of stay, and more frequent inhalation injuries. Approximately 10% of patients arriving by air were intubated after burn center admission, and 49% of intubated patients were extubated within 24 hours of admission. These values were 2% and 40%, respectively, for patients transported by ground. Increasing age and air ambulance transport increased the overall likelihood of change in intubation status. The likelihood of intubation by burn center providers increased with age, with suspicion of inhalation injury, and for patients transported by air. The likelihood of extubation within 24 hours of burn center admission increased with age, decreased with suspected inhalation injury, and was independent of transport mode. Among our patient population, more severely injured patients were being transported by air ambulance. However, age, suspicion of inhalation injury, and mode of transport showed a complex pattern of associations with changes in intubation status, and illustrate the need to develop better prehospital guidelines for intubation in burn patients. PMID:23877143

  13. Wind erosion from a sagebrush steppe burned by wildfire: Measurements of PM10 and total horizontal sediment flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenbrenner, Natalie S.; Germino, Matthew J.; Lamb, Brian K.; Robichaud, Peter R.; Foltz, Randy B.

    2013-09-01

    Wind erosion and aeolian transport processes are under studied compared to rainfall-induced erosion and sediment transport on burned landscapes. Post-fire wind erosion studies have predominantly focused on near-surface sediment transport and associated impacts such as on-site soil loss and site fertility. Downwind impacts, including air quality degradation and deposition of dust or contaminants, are also likely post-fire effects; however, quantitative field measurements of post-fire dust emissions are needed for assessment of these downwind risks. A wind erosion monitoring system was installed immediately following a desert sagebrush and grass wildfire in southeastern Idaho, USA to measure wind erosion from the burned landscape. This paper presents measurements of horizontal sediment flux and PM10 vertical flux from the burned area. We determined threshold wind speeds and corresponding threshold friction velocities to be 6.0 and 0.20 m s-1, respectively, for the 4 months immediately following the fire and 10 and 0.55 m s-1 for the following spring months. Several major wind erosion events were measured in the months following the July 2010 Jefferson Fire. The largest wind erosion event occurred in early September 2010 and produced 1495 kg m-1 of horizontal sediment transport within the first 2 m above the soil surface, had a maximum PM10 vertical flux of 100 mg m-2 s-1, and generated a large dust plume that was visible in satellite imagery. The peak PM10 concentration measured on-site at a height of 2 m in the downwind portion of the burned area was 690 mg m-3. Our results indicate that wildfire can convert a relatively stable landscape into one that is a major dust source.

  14. Plasma proteome response to severe burn injury revealed by 18O-labeled "universal" reference-based quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Qian, Wei-Jun; Petritis, Brianne O; Kaushal, Amit; Finnerty, Celeste C; Jeschke, Marc G; Monroe, Matthew E; Moore, Ronald J; Schepmoes, Athena A; Xiao, Wenzhong; Moldawer, Lyle L; Davis, Ronald W; Tompkins, Ronald G; Herndon, David N; Camp, David G; Smith, Richard D

    2010-09-01

    A burn injury represents one of the most severe forms of human trauma and is responsible for significant mortality worldwide. Here, we present the first quantitative proteomics investigation of the blood plasma proteome response to severe burn injury by comparing the plasma protein concentrations of 10 healthy control subjects with those of 15 severe burn patients at two time-points following the injury. The overall analytical strategy for this work integrated immunoaffinity depletion of the 12 most abundant plasma proteins with cysteinyl-peptide enrichment-based fractionation prior to LC-MS analyses of individual patient samples. Incorporation of an 18O-labeled "universal" reference among the sample sets enabled precise relative quantification across samples. In total, 313 plasma proteins confidently identified with two or more unique peptides were quantified. Following statistical analysis, 110 proteins exhibited significant abundance changes in response to the burn injury. The observed changes in protein concentrations suggest significant inflammatory and hypermetabolic response to the injury, which is supported by the fact that many of the identified proteins are associated with acute phase response signaling, the complement system, and coagulation system pathways. The regulation of approximately 35 proteins observed in this study is in agreement with previous results reported for inflammatory or burn response, but approximately 50 potentially novel proteins previously not known to be associated with burn response or inflammation are also found. Elucidating proteins involved in the response to severe burn injury may reveal novel targets for therapeutic interventions as well as potential predictive biomarkers for patient outcomes such as multiple organ failure. PMID:20698492

  15. Topographic Controls on Southern California Ecosystem Function and Post-fire Recovery: a Satellite and Near-surface Remote Sensing Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzari, George

    Southern Californian wildfires can influence climate in a variety of ways, including changes in surface albedo, emission of greenhouse gases and aerosols, and the production of tropospheric ozone. Ecosystem post-fire recovery plays a key role in determining the strength, duration, and relative importance of these climate forcing agents. Southern California's ecosystems vary markedly with topography, creating sharp transitions with elevation, aspect, and slope. Little is known about the ways topography influences ecosystem properties and function, particularly in the context of post-fire recovery. We combined images from the USGS satellite Landsat 5 with flux tower measurements to analyze pre- and post-fire albedo and carbon exchanged by Southern California's ecosystems in the Santa Ana Mountains. We reduced the sources of external variability in Landsat images using several correction methods for topographic and bidirectional effects. We used time series of corrected images to infer the Net Ecosystem Exchange and surface albedo, and calculated the radiative forcing due to CO2 emissions and albedo changes. We analyzed the patterns of recovery and radiative forcing on north- and south-facing slopes, stratified by vegetation classes including grassland, coastal sage scrub, chaparral, and evergreen oak forest. We found that topography strongly influenced post-fire recovery and radiative forcing. Field observations are often limited by the difficulty of collecting ground validation data. Current instrumentation networks do not provide adequate spatial resolution for landscape-level analysis. The deployment of consumer-market technology could reduce the cost of near-surface measurements, allowing the installation of finer-scale instrument networks. We tested the performance of the Microsoft Kinect sensor for measuring vegetation structure. We used Kinect to acquire 3D vegetation point clouds in the field, and used these data to compute plant height, crown diameter, and volume. We found good agreement between Kinect-derived and manual measurements.

  16. Severe childhood burns in the Czech Republic: risk factors and prevention

    PubMed Central

    ?elko, Alexander Martin; Dá?ová, Jana; Barss, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess risk factors for paediatric burn injuries in the Czech Republic and to suggest preventive measures. Methods This study included all children aged 0–16 years hospitalized during 1993–2000 at the Prague Burn Centre and data from the Czech Ministry of Health on national paediatric burn hospitalizations during 1996–2006. Personal, equipment and environmental risk factors were identified from hospital records. Findings The incidence of burn admissions among 0–14 year-olds increased from 85 to 96 per 100 000 between 1996 and 2006, mainly due to a 13% increase among 1–4 year-olds. Between 1993–2000 and 2006, the proportion of burn victims in the country hospitalized at the Prague Burn Centre increased from 9% to 21%. Detailed data were available on 1064 children (64% boys). Around 31% of all burn hospitalizations were in 1 year-olds. Some 79% of burns occurred at home: 70% in the kitchen, 14% in the living room or bedroom and 11% in the bathroom. Of the 18% occurring outdoors, 80% involved boys. Scalds from hot liquids accounted for 70% of all burns. The mean hospital stay was 22 days for boys and 18 days for girls. Conclusion Most burns involved scalds from hot liquids at home: beverages in kitchens and water in bathrooms. There is a need for passive preventive measures, such as redesigned domestic cooking and eating areas, safer electrical kettles and temperature control devices for bathrooms. Educational programmes should be developed for parents and caregivers. A national plan for child burn prevention with specific targets would be helpful. PMID:19551256

  17. Astaxanthin Attenuates Early Acute Kidney Injury Following Severe Burns in Rats by Ameliorating Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial-Related Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Song-Xue; Zhou, Han-Lei; Huang, Chun-Lan; You, Chuan-Gang; Fang, Quan; Wu, Pan; Wang, Xin-Gang; Han, Chun-Mao

    2015-01-01

    Early acute kidney injury (AKI) is a devastating complication in critical burn patients, and it is associated with severe morbidity and mortality. The mechanism of AKI is multifactorial. Astaxanthin (ATX) is a natural compound that is widely distributed in marine organisms; it is a strong antioxidant and exhibits other biological effects that have been well studied in various traumatic injuries and diseases. Hence, we attempted to explore the potential protection of ATX against early post burn AKI and its possible mechanisms of action. The classic severe burn rat model was utilized for the histological and biochemical assessments of the therapeutic value and mechanisms of action of ATX. Upon ATX treatment, renal tubular injury and the levels of serum creatinine and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin were improved. Furthermore, relief of oxidative stress and tubular apoptosis in rat kidneys post burn was also observed. Additionally, ATX administration increased Akt and Bad phosphorylation and further down-regulated the expression of other downstream pro-apoptotic proteins (cytochrome c and caspase-3/9); these effects were reversed by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Moreover, the protective effect of ATX presents a dose-dependent enhancement. The data above suggested that ATX protects against early AKI following severe burns in rats, which was attributed to its ability to ameliorate oxidative stress and inhibit apoptosis by modulating the mitochondrial-apoptotic pathway, regarded as the Akt/Bad/Caspases signalling cascade. PMID:25871290

  18. Severity of motor oil aging in relation to oil burning loss

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Artem'ev; D. V. Boikov; M. A. Grigor'ev; S. N. Fedorov

    1993-01-01

    Oil consumption is one of the basic technoeconomic indexes of internal combustion engines, as it characterizes the operating economy of transport equipment or power units. Oil consumption is determined by three factors: the capacity of the lubricating system, the oil change period, and the quantity of oil added to make up for oil burning. The loss in oil burning amounts

  19. In situ measurements of post-fire debris flows in southern California: Comparisons of the timing and magnitude of 24 debris-flow events with rainfall and soil moisture conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kean, J.W.; Staley, D.M.; Cannon, S.H.

    2011-01-01

    Debris flows often occur in burned steeplands of southern California, sometimes causing property damage and loss of life. In an effort to better understand the hydrologic controls on post-fire debris-flow initiation, timing and magnitude, we measured the flow stage, rainfall, channel bed pore fluid pressure and hillslope soil-moisture accompanying 24 debris flows recorded in five different watersheds burned in the 2009 Station and Jesusita Fires (San Gabriel and Santa Ynez Mountains). The measurements show substantial differences in debris-flow dynamics between sites and between sequential events at the same site. Despite these differences, the timing and magnitude of all events were consistently associated with local peaks in short duration (< = 30 min) rainfall intensity. Overall, debris-flow stage was best cross-correlated with time series of 5-min rainfall intensity, and lagged the rainfall by an average of just 5 min. An index of debris-flow volume was also best correlated with short-duration rainfall intensity, but found to be poorly correlated with storm cumulative rainfall and hillslope soil water content. Post-event observations of erosion and slope stability modeling suggest that the debris flows initiated primarily by processes related to surface water runoff, rather than shallow landslides. By identifying the storm characteristics most closely associated with post-fire debris flows, these measurements provide valuable guidance for warning operations and important constraints for developing and testing models of post-fire debris flows. copyright. 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. -Linking microtopography with post-fire succession in bogs -453 Journal of Vegetation Science 16: 453-460, 2005

    E-print Network

    Benscoter, Brian W.

    - Linking microtopography with post-fire succession in bogs - 453 Journal of Vegetation Science 16 in boreal bogs vary microtopographically and are successional patterns re- producible among similar microtopographic features? Does succession preserve microtopography post-fire? Location: Boreal bog peatlands near

  1. A small single-nozzle rainfall simulator to measure erosion response on different burn severities in southern British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covert, Ashley; Jordan, Peter

    2010-05-01

    To study the effects of wildfire burn severity on runoff generation and soil erosion from high intensity rainfall, we constructed an effective yet simple rainfall simulator that was inexpensive, portable and easily operated by two people on steep, forested slopes in southern British Columbia, Canada. The entire apparatus, including simulator, pumps, hoses, collapsible water bladders and sample bottles, was designed to fit into a single full-sized pick-up truck. The three-legged simulator extended to approximately 3.3 metres above ground on steep slopes and used a single Spraying Systems 1/2HH-30WSQ nozzle which can easily be interchanged for other sized nozzles. Rainfall characteristics were measured using a digital camera which took images of the raindrops against a grid. Median drop size and velocity 5 cm above ground were measured and found to be 3/4 of the size of natural rain drops of that diameter class, and fell 7% faster than terminal velocity. The simulator was used for experiments on runoff and erosion on sites burned in 2007 by two wildfires in southern British Columbia. Simulations were repeated one and two years after the fires. Rainfall was simulated at an average rate of 67 mm hr-1 over a 1 m2 plot for 20 minutes. This rainfall rate is similar to the 100 year return period rainfall intensity for this duration at a nearby weather station. Simulations were conducted on five replicate 1 m2 plots in each experimental unit including high burn severity, moderate burn severity, unburned, and unburned with forest floor removed. During the simulation a sample was collected for 30 seconds every minute, with two additional samples until runoff ceased, resulting in 22 samples per simulation. Runoff, overland flow coefficient, infiltration and sediment yield were compared between treatments. Additional simulations were conducted immediately after a 2009 wildfire to test different mulch treatments. Typical results showed that runoff on plots with high burn severity and with forest floor removed was similar, reaching on average a steady rate of about 60% of rainfall rate after about 7 minutes. Runoff on unburned plots with intact forest floor was much lower, typically less than 20% of rainfall rate. Sediment yield was greatest on plots with forest floor removed, followed by severely burned plots. Sediment yield on unburned and moderately burned plots was very low to zero. These results are consistent with qualitative observations made following several extreme rainfall events on recent burns in the region.

  2. Effectiveness of post-fire seeding at the Fitzner-Eberhardt Arid Land Ecology Reserve, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wirth, Troy A.; Pyke, David A.

    2011-01-01

    In August 2007, the Milepost 17 and Wautoma fires burned a combined total of 77,349 acres (31,302 hectares) of the Fitzner-Eberhardt Arid Land Ecology Reserve (ALE), part of the Hanford Reach National Monument administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Mid-Columbia National Wildlife Refuge. In 2009, the USFWS implemented a series of seeding and herbicide treatments to mitigate potential negative consequences of these fires, including mortality of native vegetation, invasion of Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass), and soil erosion. Treatments included combinations of seeding (drill and aerial), herbicides, and one of six different mixtures of species. Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Wyoming big sagebrush) also was planted by hand in a small area in the southern end of the fire perimeter. Due to differences in plant communities prior to the fire and the multiple treatments applied, treatments were grouped into five treatment associations including mid-elevation aerial seedings, low-elevation aerial seedings, low-elevation drill seedings, high-elevation drill seeding, and no seeding treatments. Data collected at the mid-elevation aerial seedings indicate that the seeding did not appear to increase the density of seedlings compared to the non-seeded area in 2010. At the low-elevation aerial seedings, there were significantly more seedlings at seeded areas as compared to non-seeded areas. Low densities of existing perennial plants probably fostered a low-competition environment enabling seeds to germinate and emerge in 2010 during adequate moisture. Low-elevation drill seedings resulted in significant emergence of seeded grasses in 2009 and 2010 and forbs in 2010. This was likely due to adequate precipitation and that the drill seeding assured soil-to-seed contact. At the high-elevation drill seeding, which was implemented in 2009, there were a high number of seedlings in 2010. Transplanting of A. tridentata following the fires resulted in variable survival rates that warrant further testing; however, transplants located closer to washes tended to have the highest survival rates. Overall, the low-elevation aerial and drill seedings, and the high-elevation drill seedings resulted in significant numbers of seedlings. Further research is needed on methods that provide land managers with critical information about whether or not to seed post-fire areas including status of pre-fire vegetation and estimates of plant mortality due to fire.

  3. Post-fire vegetation of the Montane natural subregion of Jasper National Park

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. B. Nadeau; I. G. W. Corns

    2002-01-01

    Ecological Land Classification information gathered in the mid to late 1970s was used to predict post-fire vegetation for the Montane natural subregion of Jasper National Park. Percentage similarity indices (SI) between vegetation types based on understory species composition and cover, calculated distances (D) generated from altitude, nutrient and moisture, broad patterns of vegetation canopy based on moisture regimes, canonical correspondence

  4. Comparison of Post-fire Growth Rates between Elymus condensatus and Yucca Whipplei in Coastal Chaparral

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jae K Chung; Andrew J Ishibashi; Francisco B Sapigao

    2008-01-01

    The two monocot species, Yucca whippelei and Elymus condensata chosen for this study are two co-occurring species on the Pepperdine campus. We chose 6 samples of each species and looked at parameters that would allow us to compare their post fire growth rates. These parameters included leaf area index, internal CO2 levels, transpiration rate, and photosynthetic rate. We used the

  5. Post-fire Response of Coast Redwood One Year After the Mendocino Lightning

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    363 Post-fire Response of Coast Redwood One Year After the Mendocino Lightning Complex Fires Robert B. Douglas1 and Tom Bendure1 Abstract Coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) forests have undergone The fire ecology of coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) continues to be an area of active inquiry. Over

  6. Early post-fire regeneration in Pinus hrutia forest ecosystems of Samos island ( Greece)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Thanos; S. Marcou; D. Christodoulakis; A. Yannitsaros

    The recovery of the burnt pine (Pinus brutia) forests of Samos island was followed during the first three post-fire years. Samos is characterised by a Mediterranean-type climate with a mild, subhumid winter and a long xerothermic period. The natural regeneration of P. brutia is realised exclusively by seeds and is enhanced by a number of adaptations to fire: (i) the

  7. A comparative study of aboveground biomass of three Mediterranean species in a post-fire succession

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Montès; C. Ballini; G. Bonin; J. Faures

    2004-01-01

    The aboveground biomass of three woody species (Cistus albidus, Quercus coccifera and Pinus halepensis) in two early successional stages (3- and 10-year old) of a post-fire Mediterranean ecosystem was investigated. Among these three species, which belong to the successional series of holm oak (Quercus ilex), C. albidus and Q. coccifera are two dominant shrub species in the garrigue ecosystem and

  8. Rapid Post Fire Hydrologic Watershed Assessment using the AGWA GIS -based Hydrologic Modeling Tool

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Goodrich; H. Evan Canfield; I. Shea Burns; D. J. Semmens; S. N. Miller; M. Hernandez; L. R. Levick; D. P. Guertin; W. G. Kepner

    Rapid post -fire watershed assessment to identify potential trouble spots for erosion and flooding can potentially aid land managers and Bu rned Area Emergency Rehabilitation (BAER) teams in deploying mitigation and rehabilitation resources. These decisions are inherently complex and spatial in nature and require a distributed hydrological modeling approach. The extensive data requirements an d the task of building input

  9. Quantifying post-fire regrowth of remotely sensed mediterranean vegetation with percolation-based methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlo Ricotta; Carlo Blasi; Maria Laura Carranza; Pierpaolo Napolitano; Enrico Massaro

    2001-01-01

    Mediterranean landscapes are characterized by high stability to fire since regeneration of pre-existing spatial relationships among distinctive vegetation patches is quite rapid. The aim of this paper is to introduce a method based on percolation theory to quantitatively estimate structural variations in remotely sensed biomass data linked to post-fire dynamics of Mediterranean vegetation. The ability of the proposed method to

  10. Post-fire Erosion in the Colorado Front Range Lee H. MacDonald

    E-print Network

    MacDonald, Lee

    Post-fire Erosion in the Colorado Front Range Lee H. MacDonald Department of Forest, Rangland and erosion rates, and how these changes then affect downstream water resources and domestic water supplies and erosion rates in the Colorado Front Range at different spatial scales, and our primary objectives have

  11. PMS Post-fire Monitoring Study 2004 March, 2005 Pawnee Montane Skipper

    E-print Network

    Service South Platte Ranger District Morrison, Colorado And Denver Water Denver, Colorado Prepared Survey - September 2004 Prepared For U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lakewood, Colorado U.S. Forest By Colorado Natural Heritage Program Colorado State University January 2005 #12;PMS Post-fire Monitoring Study

  12. Analyzing post-fire topography at the hillslope-channel interface with terrestrial LiDAR: contrasting geomorphic responses from the 2012 Waldo Canyon Fire of Colorado and the 2013 Springs Fire of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storesund, R.; Chin, A.; Florsheim, J. L.; O'Hirok, L.; Williams, K.; Austin, K. E.

    2014-12-01

    Mountains areas are increasingly susceptible to wildfires because of warming climates. Although knowledge of the hydro-geomorphological impacts of wildfire has advanced in recent years, much is still unknown regarding how environmental fluxes move through burned watersheds. Because of the loss of vegetation and hydrophobic soils, flash floods often accompany elevated runoff events from burned watersheds, making direct process measurements challenging. Direct measurements are also only partly successful at capturing the spatial variations of post-fire effects. Coupled with short temporal windows for observing such responses, opportunities are often missed for collecting data needed for developing predictive models. Terrestrial LiDAR scanning (TLS) of burned areas allows detailed documentation of the post-fire topography to cm-level accuracy, providing pictures of geomorphic responses not previously possible. This paper reports a comparative study of hillslope-channel interactions, using repeat TLS, in two contrasting environments. Burned by the 2012 Waldo Canyon Fire and 2013 Springs Fire, in Colorado and California respectively, the study sites share many similarities including steep erosive slopes, small drainage areas, and step-pool channel morphologies. TLS provided a tool to test the central hypothesis that, dry ravel, distinct in the California Mediterranean environment, would prompt a greater sedimentological response from the Springs Fire compared to the Waldo Canyon Fire. At selected sites in each area, TLS documented baseline conditions immediately following the fire. Repeat scanning after major storms allowed detection of changes in the landscape. Results show a tendency for sedimentation in river channels in the study sites interacting with dry ravel on hillslopes, whereas erosion dominated the response from the Waldo Canyon Fire with an absence of dry ravel. These data provide clues to developing generalizations for post-fire effects at regional scales, which could assist with managing hazards from wildfires. TLS provides a promising tool to expand the range of studies concerning environmental responses through burned landscapes.

  13. A small single-nozzle rainfall simulator to measure erosion response on different burn severities in southern British Columbia, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashley Covert; Peter Jordan

    2010-01-01

    To study the effects of wildfire burn severity on runoff generation and soil erosion from high intensity rainfall, we constructed an effective yet simple rainfall simulator that was inexpensive, portable and easily operated by two people on steep, forested slopes in southern British Columbia, Canada. The entire apparatus, including simulator, pumps, hoses, collapsible water bladders and sample bottles, was designed

  14. Short and Long-term Effects of High-severity Fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, L. H.; Larsen, I. J.; Schaffrath, K. R.; Eccleston, D.; Welsh, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    Forests are subject to a wide variety of natural and anthropogenic disturbances, including extreme rainstorms, beetle kill, forest harvest, windthrow, and fires. Here we show that: (1) erosion and sedimentation following high-severity fires is more important and persistent than commonly believed; (2) these post-fire effects have feedbacks that that can alter the rates of other key processes; and (3) the post-fire erosion and feedback effects need to be accounted for in landscape-scale modeling. Hillslope-scale surface erosion measurements were initiated in unmanaged and managed mid-elevation forests in the Colorado Front Range in summer 2001, and half of these sites burned in the 2002 Hayman and Schoonover wildfires. Similarly, cross-sections and a flume were installed in a 2.3 and a 6.0 km2 watershed in 2001-02, and about 60% of these watersheds were subsequently burned in June 2002. Continued monitoring of these and other sites through summer 2006 has resulted in a unique pre- and post-fire dataset. For the unburned managed and unmanaged hillslopes, measurable erosion occurred for only three of the 222 hillslope-years of data, even when rainfall intensities exceeded 60 mm/hr. In contrast, sediment was produced from each of the severely-burned hillslopes for each of the first three years after burning, and the cumulative mean six-year sediment yield was 32 Mg/ha. Severe armoring has developed on the burned hillslopes while there is no comparable armor layer on the unburned hillslopes. The numerous rills and gullies developed after the fire are expected to slowly fill in, but the downstream deposition of coarse post-fire sediment in the smaller watershed has changed the runoff from surface to subsurface flow. The loss of forest cover, hillslope armoring, and change to subsurface flow are projected to cause long-term changes in hillslope erosion and downstream sediment transport rates. These fire-induced changes in processes and boundary conditions can have important feedbacks to future erosion and sediment transport rates, and hence to landscape evolution.

  15. Effects of glycyl-glutamine dipeptide supplementation on myocardial damage and cardiac function in rats after severe burn injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Yan, Hong; Lv, Shang-Gun; Wang, Lin; Liang, Guang-Ping; Wan, Qian-Xue; Peng, Xi

    2013-01-01

    Glutamine decreases myocardial damage in ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, the cardioprotective effect of glutamine after burn injury remains unclear. Present study was to explore the protective effect of glycyl-glutamine dipeptide on myocardial damage in severe burn rats. Seventy-two Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal control (C), burned control (B) and glycyl-glutamine dipeptide-treated (GG) groups. B and GG groups were inflicted with 30% total body surface area of full thickness burn. The GG group was given 1.5 g/kg glycyl-glutamine dipeptide per day and the B group was given the same dose of alanine via intraperitoneal injection for 3 days. The serum CK, LDH, AST, and, blood lactic acid levels, as well as the myocardium ATP and GSH contents, were measured. The indices of cardiac contractile function and histopathological change were analyzed at 12, 24, 48, and 72 post-burn hours (PBH). The serum CK, LDH, AST and blood lactic acid levels increased, and the myocardium ATP and GSH content decreased in both burned groups. Compared with B group, the CK, LDH, AST and blood lactic acid levels reduced, myocardium ATP and GSH content increased in GG group. Moreover, the inhibition of cardiac contractile function and myocardial histopathological damage were reduced significantly in GG group. We conclude that myocardial histological structure and function were damaged significantly after burn injury, glycyl-glutamine dipeptide supplementation is beneficial to myocardial preservation by improving cardiocyte energy metabolism, increasing ATP and glutathione synthesis. PMID:23638213

  16. Modeling of multi-strata forest fire severity using Landsat TM Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qingmin; Meentemeyer, Ross K.

    2011-02-01

    Most of fire severity studies use field measures of composite burn index (CBI) to represent forest fire severity and fit the relationships between CBI and Landsat imagery derived differenced normalized burn ratio (dNBR) to predict and map fire severity at unsampled locations. However, less attention has been paid on the multi-strata forest fire severity, which represents fire activities and ecological responses at different forest layers. In this study, using field measured fire severity across five forest strata of dominant tree, intermediate-sized tree, shrub, herb, substrate layers, and the aggregated measure of CBI as response variables, we fit statistical models with predictors of Landsat TM bands, Landsat derived NBR or dNBR, image differencing, and image ratioing data. We model multi-strata forest fire in the historical recorded largest wildfire in California, the Big Sur Basin Complex fire. We explore the potential contributions of the post-fire Landsat bands, image differencing, image ratioing to fire severity modeling and compare with the widely used NBR and dNBR. Models using combinations of post-fire Landsat bands perform much better than NBR, dNBR, image differencing, and image ratioing. We predict and map multi-strata forest fire severity across the whole Big Sur fire areas, and find that the overall measure CBI is not optimal to represent multi-strata forest fire severity.

  17. Five-Year Outcomes after Oxandrolone Administration in Severely Burned Children: A Randomized Clinical Trial of Safety and Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Porro, Laura J; Herndon, David N; Rodriguez, Noe A; Jennings, Kristofer; Klein, Gordon L; Mlcak, Ronald P; Meyer, Walter; Lee, Jong; Suman, Oscar E; Finnerty, Celeste C

    2012-01-01

    Background Oxandrolone, an anabolic agent, has been administered for 1 year post burn with beneficial effects in pediatric patients. However, the long-lasting effects of this treatment have not been studied. This single-center prospective trial determined the long-term effects of 1 year of oxandrolone administration in severely burned children; assessments were continued for up to 4 years post-therapy. Study Design Patients 0–18 years old with burns covering >30% of the total body surface area were randomized to receive placebo (n=152) or oxandrolone, 0.1 mg/kg twice daily for 12 months (n=70). At hospital discharge, patients were randomized to a 12 week exercise program or to standard of care. Resting energy expenditure (REE), standing height, weight, lean body mass, muscle strength, bone mineral content (BMC), cardiac work, rate pressure product (RPP), sexual maturation, and concentrations of serum inflammatory cytokines, hormones, and liver enzymes were monitored. Results Oxandrolone significantly decreased REE, RPP, and increased IGF-1 secretion during the first year after burn injury, and in combination with exercise significantly increased lean body mass and muscle strength. Oxandrolone-treated children exhibited improved height percentile and BMC content compared to controls. The maximal effect of oxandrolone was found in children aged 7–18 years. No deleterious side effects were attributed to long-term administration. Conclusions Administration of oxandrolone improves the long-term recovery of severely burned children in height, BMC, cardiac work and muscle strength; the increase in BMC is likely to occur by means of IGF 1. These benefits persist for up to 5 years post burn. PMID:22463890

  18. Influence of vegetation spatial heterogeneity on soil enzyme activity in burned Mediterranean areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Á. G. Mayor; S. Goirán; S. Bautista

    2009-01-01

    Mediterranean ecosystems are commonly considered resilient to wildfires. However, depending on fire severity and recurrence, post-fire climatic conditions and plant community type, the recovery rate of the vegetation can greatly vary. Often, the post-fire vegetation cover remains low and sparsely distributed many years after the wildfire, which could have profound impacts on ecosystem functioning. In this work, we studied the

  19. Large Scale Predictions of Potential Post-fire Erosion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Miller; L. H. MacDonald

    2005-01-01

    High-severity wildfires are of increasing concern because of their potential for initiating flash floods and surface erosion, degrading water quality, and reducing reservoir capacity. In many areas fire suppression has increased fuel accumulations and hence the potential for high-severity wildfires. Land management agencies are undertaking programs to reduce fuel loadings and the associated risk of high-severity wildfires, but the areas

  20. Emergency assessment of post-fire debris-flow hazards for the 2013 Powerhouse fire, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staley, Dennis M.; Smoczyk, Gregory M.; Reeves, Ryan R.

    2013-01-01

    Wildfire dramatically alters the hydrologic response of a watershed such that even modest rainstorms can produce dangerous flash floods and debris flows. Existing empirical models were used to predict the probability and magnitude of debris-flow occurrence in response to a 10-year recurrence interval rainstorm for the 2013 Powerhouse fire near Lancaster, California. Overall, the models predict a relatively low probability for debris-flow occurrence in response to the design storm. However, volumetric predictions suggest that debris flows that occur may entrain a significant volume of material, with 44 of the 73 basins identified as having potential debris-flow volumes between 10,000 and 100,000 cubic meters. These results suggest that even though the likelihood of debris flow is relatively low, the consequences of post-fire debris-flow initiation within the burn area may be significant for downstream populations, infrastructure, and wildlife and water resources. Given these findings, we recommend that residents, emergency managers, and public works departments pay close attention to weather forecasts and National-Weather-Service-issued Debris Flow and Flash Flood Outlooks, Watches, and Warnings and that residents adhere to any evacuation orders.

  1. Mapping Fire Severity Using Imaging Spectroscopy and Kernel Based Image Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, S.; Cui, M.; Zhang, Y.; Veraverbeke, S.

    2014-12-01

    Improved spatial representation of within-burn heterogeneity after wildfires is paramount to effective land management decisions and more accurate fire emissions estimates. In this work, we demonstrate feasibility and efficacy of airborne imaging spectroscopy (hyperspectral imagery) for quantifying wildfire burn severity, using kernel based image analysis techniques. Two different airborne hyperspectral datasets, acquired over the 2011 Canyon and 2013 Rim fire in California using the Airborne Visible InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) sensor, were used in this study. The Rim Fire, covering parts of the Yosemite National Park started on August 17, 2013, and was the third largest fire in California's history. Canyon Fire occurred in the Tehachapi mountains, and started on September 4, 2011. In addition to post-fire data for both fires, half of the Rim fire was also covered with pre-fire images. Fire severity was measured in the field using Geo Composite Burn Index (GeoCBI). The field data was utilized to train and validate our models, wherein the trained models, in conjunction with imaging spectroscopy data were used for GeoCBI estimation wide geographical regions. This work presents an approach for using remotely sensed imagery combined with GeoCBI field data to map fire scars based on a non-linear (kernel based) epsilon-Support Vector Regression (e-SVR), which was used to learn the relationship between spectra and GeoCBI in a kernel-induced feature space. Classification of healthy vegetation versus fire-affected areas based on morphological multi-attribute profiles was also studied. The availability of pre- and post-fire imaging spectroscopy data over the Rim Fire provided a unique opportunity to evaluate the performance of bi-temporal imaging spectroscopy for assessing post-fire effects. This type of data is currently constrained because of limited airborne acquisitions before a fire, but will become widespread with future spaceborne sensors such as those on the planned NASA HyspIRI mission.

  2. Self-perceptions of young adults who survived severe childhood burn injury.

    PubMed

    Russell, William; Robert, Rhonda S; Thomas, Christopher R; Holzer, Charles E; Blakeney, Patricia; Meyer, Walter J

    2013-01-01

    The transition of pediatric burn survivors into adulthood is accompanied by a reformulation of their self-concept. To anticipate the need for and guide development of appropriate psychosocial interventions, this study examines how young adults who were burned as children perceive themselves and how this perception might affect their self-esteem. Eighty-two young adult burn survivors (45 male, 37 female) were assessed using the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale, 2nd edition (TSCS2) to determine how the participants perceive themselves and their interaction with society. To gain insight into the possible effects of these self-concept scores, relationships were analyzed between self-concept, a behavioral assessment (Young Adult Self-Report [YASR]), and a psychiatric symptom assessment (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders [SCID I]). This group of burn survivors scored significantly lower in self-concepts, reflected in TSCS2 subscale scores of physical function, appearance, and sexuality, moral conduct, personal values, academics and work, and identity, than did the reference population. Pearson correlation coefficients showed that as moral, personal, family, and social aspects of self-concept decreased, clinical problems endorsed on the YASR subscales increased, including anxiety, somatic, attention, intrusive, and aggressive. Persons with lower self-concept scores on the TSCS2 personal, family, and social scales were more withdrawn on the YASR. Similarly, those with lower TSCS2 scores on the personal and family scales endorsed significantly more thought problems on the YASR. TSCS2 total self-concept, personal, and all of the supplementary scale scores were significantly lower for the group with an affective disorder. Those whose SCID I scores were consistent with a current anxiety disorder had significantly lower scores for the TSCS2 total self-concept and personal. Lower self-concept was associated with endorsement of SCID symptoms. In summary, the significantly lower self-concept scores on the TSCS2 physical scale are consistent with the physical disfigurement and handicaps common with major burn injuries, and a strong indication of this group's perception of the first impression made when interacting with others. The survivors seem to feel worthwhile within the contexts of family and friends. Although the major limitation of this study using the TSCS2 is the lack of a matched reference population to compare the burn survivors, the TSCS2 does help in gaining insight into the self-esteem issues of the burn survivor population. PMID:23202876

  3. Parameterizing fire effects on the carbon balance of western United States (U.S.) forests: Accounting for variation across forest types, fire severity, and carbon pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimire, B.; Williams, C. A.; Collatz, G. J.

    2010-12-01

    Fires are known to alter the carbon balance of forests by direct/consumptive or indirect/non-consumptive effects, but detailed representation of fire-induced combustion and mortality is generally lacking in carbon cycle models. Existing approaches fail to incorporate details on the direct and indirect consumption of carbon in individual pools (e.g. foliage, stem, and roots), and ignore severity-dependence of these effects. The few studies that do incorporate detailed parameterization have focused only on localized areas or single fires. Still other studies lack representation of fire associated inter-pool carbon transfer processes needed to characterize post-fire carbon dynamics through time. This study reviews the existing literature (e.g. restoration ecology and post-fire mortality studies) on fires across the whole of western U.S. forests to derive a comprehensive and detailed parameterization of fire effects suitable for incorporation in the Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach (CASA) carbon cycle model. This study relies on a comprehensive integration of remote sensing, field observations and biogeochemical modeling based analysis. Post-fire carbon fluxes are derived as a function of forest type, productivity and fire severity using a technique based on merging Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data, CASA carbon cycle modeling, 30 m spatial resolution Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) fire severity observations, and additional remotely sensed observations (e.g. temperature, precipitation and Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR)). As such, we obtain characteristic carbon trajectories and regional carbon flux estimates specific to forest types and fire severity levels in the western U.S. forests. This research elucidates new insights on carbon fluxes by performing an intensive and detailed literature survey of post-fire vegetation mortality studies in order to parameterize forest type and fire severity associated effects and processes in the CASA carbon cycle model at a regional landscape level scale.

  4. The increasing wildfire and post-fire debris-flow threat in western USA, and implications for consequences of climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; DeGraff, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    In southern California and the intermountain west of the USA, debris flows generated from recently-burned basins pose significant hazards. Increases in the frequency and size of wildfires throughout the western USA can be attributed to increases in the number of fire ignitions, fire suppression practices, and climatic influences. Increased urbanization throughout the western USA, combined with the increased wildfire magnitude and frequency, carries with it the increased threat of subsequent debris-flow occurrence. Differences between rainfall thresholds and empirical debris-flow susceptibility models for southern California and the intermountain west indicate a strong influence of climatic and geologic settings on post-fire debris-flow potential. The linkages between wildfires, debris-flow occurrence, and global warming suggests that the experiences in the western United States are highly likely to be duplicated in many other parts of the world, and necessitate hazard assessment tools that are specific to local climates and physiographies.

  5. The importance of mammalian torpor for survival in a post-fire landscape.

    PubMed

    Stawski, Clare; Körtner, Gerhard; Nowack, Julia; Geiser, Fritz

    2015-06-01

    Wildfires have increased in frequency and intensity worldwide with climate change as a main driving factor. While a number of studies have focused on population changes in regard to fires, there are essentially no quantitative data on behavioural and physiological adjustments that are vital for the persistence of individuals during and after fires. Here we show that brown antechinus, a small insectivorous marsupial mammal, (i) endured a prescribed fire in situ, (ii) remained in their scorched home range despite unburned areas nearby, and (iii) substantially increased post-fire torpor use and thus reduced foraging requirements and exposure to predators. Hence, torpor is a physiological adaptation that, although not quantified in this context previously, appears to play a key role in post-fire survival for this and other heterothermic species. PMID:26063748

  6. Combining Ketamine and Virtual Reality Pain Control During Severe Burn Wound Care: One Military and One Civilian Patient

    PubMed Central

    Maani, Christopher V.; Hoffman, Hunter G.; Fowler, Marcie; Maiers, Alan J.; Gaylord, Kathryn M.; DeSocio, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Background US soldiers injured in Iraq, and civilian burn trauma patients are treated at the US Army Institute of Surgical Research. Burn patients experience extrem pain during wound care, and they typically receive opioid analgesics and anxiolytics for debridement. Virtual Reality (VR) has been applied as an adjunct to opioid analgesics for procedural pain. We describe the first use of ketamine combined with immersive VR to reduce excessive pain during wound care. Case Report A 21-year-old male US Army soldier stationed in Iraq, and a 41-year-old civilian male sustained a 13% and 50% total body surface area (TBSA) burn, respectively. Each patient received 40 mg ketamine intraveneous (IV) for wound care. Using a within-subject design, nurses conducted half of a painful segment of wound care treatments with no VR and the other half with immersive VR. Graphic pain rating scores for each of the two treatment conditions served as the dependent variables. Results Compared to ketamine + no VR, both patients reported less pain during ketamine + VR for all three pain ratings. Both patients rated wound care during no VR as “no fun at all”, but those same patients rated wound care during virtual reality as either “pretty fun” or “extremely fun”, and rated nausea as either “mild” or “none”. Conclusions Results from these first two cases suggest that a moderate dose of ketamine combined with immersive virtual reality distraction may be an effective multimodal analgesic regimen for reducing acute procedural pain during severe burn wound cleanings. PMID:21481162

  7. Evolving forest fire burn severity classification algorithms for multi-spectral imagery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven P. Brumby; Neal R. Harvey; Jeffrey J. Bloch; James Theiler; Simon Perkins; A. Cody Young; John J. Szymanski

    2000-01-01

    Between May 6 and May 18, 2000, the Cerro Grande\\/Los Alamos wildfire burned approximately 43,000 acres (17,500 ha) and 235 residences in the town of Los Alamos, NM. Initial estimates of forest damage included 17,000 acres (6,900 ha) of 70-100% tree mortality. Restoration efforts following the fire were complicated by the large scale of the fire, and by the presence

  8. [A pathologic study of adenohypophyseal growth hormone cells in the rabbit after severe burn].

    PubMed

    Wu, J

    1989-06-01

    The growth hormone(GH), produced by the growth hormone cell in pars distalis of the adenohypophysis, acts on the sugar, protein and fat metabolism in various degrees. After trauma, the GH has relations with the energy supply, the maintenance of nitrogen balance, the tissue repair and the body resistance. However, pathological study on the GH cell after burn injury is rare in the literature so far. The purpose of the present investigation is to take a dynamic observation on the ultrastructural changes of the rabbit GH cell after napalm burn within one week. 46 male rabbits were used and divided into two groups, napalm burn group (N = 36) and control group (N = 10). The former is inflicted with 3rd degree burn covering 30% TBSA. The animals of former group were sacrificed at 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 168 hours postburn respectively. Using the light and electron microscopy and stereological method, the results revealed that: (1) the synthesis activity in GH cell was enhanced, the process of secretion was rapid, and the rate of granule maturation was increased; (2) the nude GH granules were found both in the sinusoids and the endothelial cells; (3) the newly formed mitochondria may be originated from the Golgi complex, and the newly formed Golgi complex from the reutilization of the plasma membrane components; (4) some endothelial cells manifested degeneration, and the others showed in active condition; (5) under the light microscopy, the distribution of the lower tint-phil GH cells had its regional-characteristics. PMID:2509038

  9. Perspectives on disconnects between scientific information and management decisions on post-fire recovery in Western US.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoli; Emery, Nathan; Garcia, Elizabeth S; Hanan, Erin J; Hodges, Heather E; Martin, Tyronne; Meyers, Matthew A; Peavey, Lindsey E; Peng, Hui; Santamaria, Jaime Sainz; Uyeda, Kellie A; Anderson, Sarah E; Tague, Christina

    2013-12-01

    Environmental regulations frequently mandate the use of "best available" science, but ensuring that it is used in decisions around the use and protection of natural resources is often challenging. In the Western US, this relationship between science and management is at the forefront of post-fire land management decisions. Recent fires, post-fire threats (e.g. flooding, erosion), and the role of fire in ecosystem health combine to make post-fire management highly visible and often controversial. This paper uses post-fire management to present a framework for understanding why disconnects between science and management decisions may occur. We argue that attributes of agencies, such as their political or financial incentives, can limit how effectively science is incorporated into decision-making. At the other end of the spectrum, the lack of synthesis or limited data in science can result in disconnects between science-based analysis of post-fire effects and agency policy and decisions. Disconnects also occur because of the interaction between the attributes of agencies and the attributes of science, such as their different spatial and temporal scales of interest. After offering examples of these disconnects in post-fire treatment, the paper concludes with recommendations to reduce disconnects by improving monitoring, increasing synthesis of scientific findings, and directing social-science research toward identifying and deepening understanding of these disconnects. PMID:24065384

  10. Biomass burning in boreal forests and peatlands: Effects on ecosystem carbon losses and soil carbon stabilization as black carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turetsky, M. R.; Kane, E. S.; Benscoter, B.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change has increased both annual area burned and the severity of biomass combustion in some boreal regions. For example, there has been a four-fold increase in late season fires in boreal Alaska over the last decade relative to the previous 50 years. Such changes in the fire regime are expected to stimulate ecosystem carbon losses through fuel combustion, reduced primary production, and increased decomposition. However, biomass burning also will influence the accumulation of black carbon in soils, which could promote long-term soil carbon sequestration. Variations in slope and aspect regulate soil temperatures and drainage conditions, and affect the development of permafrost and thick peat layers. Wet soil conditions in peatlands and permafrost forests often inhibit combustion during wildfires, leading to strong positive correlations between pre- and post- fire organic soil thickness that persist through multiple fire cycles. However, burning can occur in poorly drained ecosystems through smouldering combustion, which has implications for emission ratios of CO2:CH4:CO as well as black carbon formation. Our studies of combustion severity and black carbon concentrations in boreal soils show a negative relationship between concentrations of black carbon and organic carbon in soils post-fire. Relative to well drained stands, poorly drained sites with thick peat layers (such as north-facing stands) had less severe burning and low concentrations of black carbon in mineral soils post-fire. Conversely, drier forests lost a greater proportion of their organic soils during combustion but retained larger black carbon stocks following burning. Overall, we have quantified greater black carbon concentrations in surface mineral soil horizons than in organic soil horizons. This is surprising given that wildfires typically do not consume the entire organic soil layer in boreal forests, and could be indicative of the vulnerability of black carbon formed in organic horizons to burning during subsequent fire events. We also observed no correlations between black carbon stocks in soils and fire frequency, again suggesting that pyrogenic C is susceptible to re-burning, or decay in the post-burn environment. The majority of pyrogenic carbon in boreal soils appears to be derived from recent wildfire activity, as the age of the black carbon pool often is equivalent to stand age. Together these results show that landscape characteristics that control decomposition and the accumulation of peat also have strong controls on combustion processes and post-fire soil chemistry. Warmer temperatures and drier or more variable precipitation patterns are likely to result in more intense burning of organic soils in the future. Research linking the conditions of char formation with its stabilization mechanisms (either consumption in wildfire or microbial attack) will shed light on spatial patterns of black carbon formation and preservation in high latitude soils.

  11. The Establishment of Several Range Grasses Seeded in Burned and Unburned Slash of Ashe Junipe: (Juniperus Ashei Buchholz) 

    E-print Network

    Bonnett, Norman Neal

    1960-01-01

    requirements fox' thi dejxee ef = ' MASTER OP SCXENCE Vmy, 1960 FJa)ox SubJect: RANGE MANAGRMINY THE ESTABLISHMENT OP SEVERAL RANGE GRASSES SEEDED XN BURNED AND UNBURNED SLASH OP ASHE JUNXPER (JUNIPERUS ASHEI BUCHHOLZ) NORMAN NEAL BONNETT Ajpproved aa... Pigure 5. A steep rocky terrain i. nfested with Ashe juniper is characteristic of this portion of the Bdwards Plateau. The woody species have been cleared in the foreground by bulldozing, but a thick stand of Ashe )uniper can be seen on the slopes...

  12. A New Application to Facilitate Post-Fire Recovery and Rehabilitation in Savanna Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Mark L.; Schnase, John L.; Weber, Keith T.; Brown, Molly E.; Gill, Roger L.; Haskett, George W.; Gardner, Tess A.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. government spends an estimated $3billion per year to fight forest fires in the United States. Post-fire rehabilitation activities represent a small but essential portion of that total. The Rehabilitation Capability Convergence for Ecosystem Recovery (RECOVER) system is currently under development for Savanna ecosystems in the western U.S. The prototype of this system has been built and will have realworld testing during the summer 2013 fire season. When fully deployed, the RECOVER system will provide the emergency rehabilitation teams with critical and timely information for management decisions regarding stabilization and rehabilitation strategies.

  13. Microsite and herbaceous vegetation heterogeneity after burning Artemisia tridentata steppe.

    PubMed

    Davies, Kirk W; Bates, Jonathan D; James, Jeremy J

    2009-03-01

    Woody vegetation can create distinct subcanopy and interspace microsites, which often result in resource islands in subcanopies compared to interspaces. This heterogeneity in soil resources contributes to herbaceous vegetation heterogeneity in plant communities. However, information detailing the impact of disturbance, such as fire, that removes the woody vegetation on microsites and herbaceous vegetation heterogeneity is limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of burning on microsites and herbaceous vegetation in subcanopies and interspaces. Six study sites (blocks) were located at the Northern Great Basin Experimental Range in shrub (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh)-bunchgrass plant communities and one half of each block was burned to remove A. tridentata. Herbaceous vegetation and microsite characteristics were measured 2 years post-fire in intact and burned subcanopies and interspaces. Burning resulted in microsite and herbaceous vegetation differences between intact and burned subcanopies and intact and burned interspaces. However, burned subcanopies and burned interspaces appeared to be relatively similar. The similarity in microsite characteristics probably explains the lack of differences in herbaceous vegetation cover and biomass production between burned subcanopies and burned interspaces (P > 0.05). However, some microsite and herbaceous vegetation characteristics differed between burned subcanopies and burned interspaces. Our results suggest that disturbances that remove woody vegetation reduced microsite and herbaceous vegetation heterogeneity within plant communities, but do not completely remove the resource island effect. This suggests soil resource heterogeneity may influence post-fire community assembly and contribute to diversity maintenance. PMID:19066972

  14. [Subcellular distribution of trace elements in wound granulation tissue of severe burn patients by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiang-rong; Xie, Hua-lin; Fu, Liang; Yang, Hua-juan; Huang, Jian-hua

    2014-06-01

    A method for simultaneous and quantitative determination of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Se and Cd elements in the subcellular fractions of nuclei, mitochondria, lysosome, microsome and cytosol of wound granulation tissue of severe burn patients by octopole reaction system (ORS) inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was established. Using differential centrifugation, the sample is separated into different subcellular fractions. The subcellular fraction was digested by HNO3 + H2O2 with microwave digestion followed by dilution with ultrapure water then the above 8 trace elements in the solution were analyzed directly by ICP-MS. In the presented method, using ORS eliminates the polyatomic interferences caused by the matrixes. Rh as internal standard element was used to compensate matrix effect and signal drift. The detection limits of the 8 elements are in the range of 0.72-33.05 ng x L(-1), and the RSD is less than 8.4%. The results showed that the levels of some elements in subcellular fractions of wound granulation tissues were significantly different from those of normal skin tissues. ORS-ICP-MS is a useful tool for simultaneous determination of multi-elements in wound granulation tissue of severe burn patients, and could be widely used in other biological samples analysis. PMID:25358187

  15. Carbon and water vapour exchange in a recently burned east boreal jack pine stand, Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugent, K.; Strachan, I. B.

    2013-12-01

    The circumpolar boreal forest is an extensive carbon (C) reservoir, storing an estimated 88 petagrams (Pg) of C in vegetation biomass with an additional 471 PgC residing within the soil itself. In the North American boreal, fire disturbance acts as the main stand-renewing agent along an approximate 100-year return interval. However, recent studies suggest that fire intensity and severity are increasing, driven by disproportionate climate warming of the northern latitudes. While estimates of direct C emissions from combustion are becoming more accurate, indirect loss due to post-fire effects on decomposition and regeneration has only recently become a focus of research. Paradoxically, it has been estimated that post-fire C releases are in the order of three times the amount directly released during initial combustion. In this study, we examine carbon and water exchange in a 6-year old, post-burn, jack pine stand located in the eastern James Bay region of the Canadian boreal; an area currently under-represented in fire studies. Over 1.5 years, covering two growing seasons and the spring and fall transitions, we measured net CO2 and energy exchange at the ecosystem level using an eddy covariance tower, and supplemented this with chamber measurements of soil respiration. At this stage of recovery, while demonstrating diurnal and seasonal patterns of exchange, overall the site was a net source of C and water to the atmosphere with brief periods of C sink.

  16. Diversity and persistence of ectomycorrhizal fungi and their effect on nursery-inoculated Pinus pinaster in a post-fire plantation in Northern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Franco, Albina R; Sousa, Nadine R; Ramos, Miguel A; Oliveira, Rui S; Castro, Paula M L

    2014-11-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF) play an important role in forest ecosystems, often mitigating stress factors and increasing seedling performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a nursery inoculation on Pinus pinaster growth and on the fungal communities established when reforesting burned areas. Inoculated P. pinaster saplings showed 1.5-fold higher stem height than the non-inoculated controls after a 5 year growth period, suggesting that fungal inoculation could potentiate tree growth in the field. Ordination analysis revealed the presence of different ECMF communities on both plots. Among the nursery-inoculated fungi, Laccaria sp., Rhizopogon sp., Suillus bovinus and Pisolithus sp. were detected on inoculated Pinus saplings on both sampling periods, indicating that they persisted after field establishment. Other fungi were also detected in the inoculated plants. Phialocephala sp. was found on the first assessment, while Terfezia sp. was detected on both sampling periods. Laccaria sp. and Rhizopogon sp. were identified in the control saplings, belonging however to different species than those found in the inoculated plot. Inocybe sp., Thelephora sp. and Paxillus involutus were present on both sampling periods in the non-inoculated plots. The results suggest that ECMF inoculation at nursery stage can benefit plant growth after transplantation to a post-fire site and that the inoculated fungi can persist in the field. This approach has great potential as a biotechnological tool to aid in the reforestation of burned areas. PMID:25004993

  17. Aquatic ecological risks due to cyanide releases from biomass burning.

    PubMed

    Barber, Timothy R; Lutes, Christopher C; Doorn, Michiel R J; Fuchsman, Phyllis C; Timmenga, Hubert J; Crouch, Robert L

    2003-01-01

    Aquatic toxicity due to the creation and mobilization of chemical constituents by fire has been little studied, despite reports of post-fire fish kills attributed to unspecified pyrogenic toxicants. We examined releases of cyanides from biomass burning and their effect on surface runoff water. In laboratory test burns, available cyanide concentrations in leachate from residual ash were much higher than in leachate from partially burned and unburned fuel and were similar to or higher than the 96-h median lethal concentration (LC50) for rainbow trout (45 microg/l). Free cyanide concentrations in stormwater runoff collected after a wildfire in North Carolina averaged 49 microg/l, again similar to the rainbow trout LC50 and an order of magnitude higher than in samples from an adjacent unburned area. Pyrogenic cyanide inputs, together with other fire-related stressors, may contribute to post-fire fish mortalities, particularly those affecting salmonids. PMID:12656253

  18. Severe cutaneous adverse reactions: emergency approach to non-burn epidermolytic syndromes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel Florian Struck; Peter Hilbert; Maja Mockenhaupt; Beate Reichelt; Michael Steen

    2010-01-01

    Introduction  Although severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs), such as Stevens–Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis, are\\u000a rare, they are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The current knowledge regarding background, differential diagnoses, critical care and implications for inter-hospital emergency\\u000a medical service (EMS) transport of these patients is discussed.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Conclusion  SCAR patients will substantially benefit from early interdisciplinary care and thorough consideration of

  19. Post-fire changes in sediment transport connectivity from pedon to watershed scale. The Navalón wildfire in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Bodí, Merche B.; González, Óscar; Mataix Solera, Jorge; Doerr, Stefan Helmut

    2015-04-01

    Wildfire are present in the Earth System since vegetation was present in the continents (Doerr and Cerdà, 2005; Kaiho et al., 2013). Forest fire cause damage in the soil and the vegetation cover (Guénon et al., 2013). The years after a forest fire there is a sudden increase in the soil erosion rates that contribute to connect the pedon, slope tram, tram and watershed with surface flows that results in high erosion rates (Cerdà and Lasanta, 2005; Lasanta and Cerdà, 2005; Cawson et al., 2012; Pérez Cabello et al., 2012; Prats et al., 2015). Although the research on soil erosion after forest fire was carried out at different scales by different authors, there is not information about soil erosion at different scales at the same research site and during the post fire period. After the forest fire of April 2008 in Navalón, Eastern Spain, the Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Group from the University of Valencia initiated the measurement of the soil losses at pedon scale (microplots of 0.30 m2), at slope tram (silt fences of 1.8 m width), at slope scale (abandoned terraces) and at watershed scale, at the bottom of the valley (abandoned terraces). The results show that there is a reduction in the sediment yield from pedon to watershed scale and that the soil erosion took place in the first year after the fire. Acknowledgements To the "Ministerio de Economía and Competitividad" of Spanish Government for finance the POSTFIRE project (CGL2013- 47862-C2-1-R). The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and PREVENTING AND REMEDIATING DEGRADATION OF SOILS IN EUROPE THROUGH LAND CARE (RECARE)FP7-ENV-2013- supported this research. References Carreiras, M., Ferreira, A.J.D., Valente, S., Fleskens, L., Gonzales-Pelayo, Ó., Rubio, J.L., Stoof, C.R., Coelho, C.O.A., Ferreira, C.S.S., Ritsema, C.J. 2014. Comparative analysis of policies to deal with the wildfire risk. Land Degradation & Development, 25, 92-103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ldr.2274 Cawson, J. G., Sheridan, G. J., Smith, H. G., Lane, P. N. J. (2012). Surface runoff and erosion after prescribed burning and the effect of different fire regimes in forests and shrublands: a review. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 21(7), 857-872. Cerdà, A., Lasanta, A. 2005. Long-term erosional responses after fire in the Central Spanish Pyrenees: 1. Water and sediment yield. Catena, 60, 59-80. Doerr, S., Cerdà, A. 2005. Fire effects on soil system functioning: new insights and future challenges International Journal of Wildland Fire Preface. International Journal of Wildland Fire 14(4) 339-342 Guénon, R., Vennetier, M., Dupuy, N., Roussos, S., Pailler, A., Gros, R. 2013. Trends in recovery of Mediterranean soil chemical properties and microbial activities after infrequent and frequent wildfires. Land Degradation & Development, 24: 115- 128. DOI 10.1002/ldr.1109 Kaiho, K., Yatsu, S., Oba, M., Gorjan, P., Casier, J. G., Ikeda, M. (2013). A forest fire and soil erosion event during the Late Devonian mass extinction. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 392, 272-280. Lasanta, A., Cerdà, A. 2005. Long-term erosional responses after fire in the Central Spanish Pyrenees: 2. Solute release. Catena, 60, 80-101. Pérez-Cabello, F., Cerdà, A., de la Riva, J., Echeverría, M.T., García-Martín, A., Ibarra, P., Lasanta, T., Montorio, R., Palacios, V. 2012. Micro-scale post-fire surface cover changes monitored using high spatial resolution photography in a semiarid environment: A useful tool in the study of post-fire soil erosion processes, Journal of Arid Environments, 76: 88-96. 10.1016/j.jaridenv.2011.08.007 Prats, S.A., Malvar, M.C., Simões-Vieira, D.C., MacDonald, L., Keizer, J.J. 2015. Effectiveness of hydro- mulching to reduce runoff and erosion in a recently burnt pine plantation in central Portugal. Land Degradation & Development, DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2236.

  20. SIRT1 protects rat lung tissue against severe burn-induced remote ALI by attenuating the apoptosis of PMVECs via p38 MAPK signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xiaozhi; Fan, Lei; He, Ting; Jia, Wenbin; Yang, Longlong; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Yang; Shi, Jihong; Su, Linlin; Hu, Dahai

    2015-01-01

    Silent information regulator type-1 (SIRT1) has been reported to be involved in the cardiopulmonary protection. However, its role in the pathogenesis of burn-induced remote acute lung injury (ALI) is currently unknown. The present study aims to investigate the role of SIRT1 in burn-induced remote ALI and the involved signaling pathway. We observed that SIRT1 expression in rat lung tissue after burn injury appeared an increasing trend after a short period of suppression. The upregulation of SIRT1 stimulated by resveratrol exhibited remission of histopathologic changes, reduction of cell apoptosis, and downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in rat pulmonary tissues suffering from severe burn. We next used primary pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) challenged by burn serum (BS) to simulate in vivo rat lung tissue after burn injury, and found that BS significantly suppressed SIRT1 expression, increased cell apoptosis, and activated p38 MAPK signaling. The use of resveratrol reversed these effects, while knockdown of SIRT1 by shRNA further augmented BS-induced increase of cell apoptosis and activation of p38 MAPK. Taken together, these results indicate that SIRT1 might protect lung tissue against burn-induced remote ALI by attenuating PMVEC apoptosis via p38 MAPK signaling, suggesting its potential therapeutic effects on the treatment of ALI. PMID:25992481

  1. Burned and unburned peat water repellency: Implications for peatland evaporation following wildfire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettridge, N.; Humphrey, R. E.; Smith, J. E.; Lukenbach, M. C.; Devito, K. J.; Petrone, R. M.; Waddington, J. M.

    2014-05-01

    Water repellency alters soil hydrology after periods of wildfire, potentially modifying the ecosystem recovery to such disturbance. Despite this potential importance, the extent and severity of water repellency within burned peatlands and its importance in regulating peatland recovery to wildfire disturbance remains poorly understood. We characterised the water repellency of peat in a burned (one year post-fire) and unburned peatland in the Western Boreal Plain utilising the water drop penetration time and ethanol droplet molarity tests. Burned Sphagnum moss and feather moss sites had a more severe degree of water repellency than unburned sites, with differences being more pronounced between burned and unburned feather moss sites. Burned feather moss exhibited the most extreme water repellency, followed by unburned feather moss, and burned Sphagnum. The severity of water repellency varied with depth through the near surface of the moss/peat profile. This was most evident within the burned feathermoss where more extreme water repellency was observed at the near-surface compared to the surface, with the most extreme water repellency found at 1 and 5 cm depths. Unburned Sphagnum was completely hydrophilic at all depths. We suggest that the extreme water repellency in near-surface feather moss peat acts as a barrier that impedes the supply of water to the surface that replaces that lost via evaporation. This leads to drying of the near-surface vadose zone within feather moss areas and a concomitantly large decrease in peatland evaporation within feather moss dominated peatlands. This negative feedback mechanism likely enhances the resilience of such peatland to wildfire disturbance, maintaining a high water table position, thereby limiting peat decomposition. In comparison, such a feedback is not observed strongly within Sphagnum, leaving Sphagnum dominated peatlands potentially vulnerable to low water table positions post disturbance.

  2. Quantifying sources of fine sediment supplied to post-fire debris flows using fallout radionuclide tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, H. G.; Sheridan, G. J.; Nyman, P.; Child, D.; Lane, P. N.; Hotchkis, M.

    2011-12-01

    The supply of fine sediment and ash has been identified as an important factor contributing to the initiation of runoff-generated debris flows after fire. However, despite the significance of fines for post-fire debris flow generation, no investigations have sought to quantify sources of this material in debris flow affected catchments. In this study, we employ fallout radionuclides (Cs-137, excess Pb-210 and Pu-239,240) as tracers to measure proportional contributions of fine sediment (<10 ?m) from hillslope surface and channel bank sources to levee and terminal fan deposits formed by post-fire debris flows in two forest catchments in southeastern Australia. While Cs-137 and excess Pb-210 have been widely used in sediment tracing studies, application of Pu as a tracer represents a recent development and was limited to only one catchment. The estimated range in proportional hillslope surface contributions of fine sediment to individual debris flow deposits in each catchment was 22-69% and 32-74%. No systematic change in the proportional source contributions to debris flow deposits was observed with distance downstream from channel initiation points. Instead, spatial variability in source contributions was largely influenced by the pattern of debris flow surges forming the deposits. Linking the tracing analysis with interpretation of depositional evidence allowed reconstruction of temporal sequences in sediment source contributions to debris flow surges. Hillslope source inputs dominated most elevated channel deposits such as marginal levees that were formed under peak flow conditions. This indicated the importance of hillslope runoff and fine sediment supply for debris flow generation in both catchments. In contrast, material stored within channels that was deposited during subsequent surges was predominantly channel-derived. The results demonstrate that fallout radionuclide tracers may provide unique information on the changing source contributions of fine sediment during debris flow events.

  3. Quantifying sources of fine sediment supplied to post-fire debris flows using fallout radionuclide tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Hugh; Sheridan, Gary; Nyman, Petter; Child, David; Lane, Patrick; Hotchkis, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The supply of fine sediment and ash has been identified as an important factor contributing to the initiation of runoff-generated debris flows after fire. However, despite the significance of fines for post-fire debris flow generation, no investigations have sought to quantify sources of this material in debris flow affected catchments. In this study, we employ fallout radionuclides (Cs-137, excess Pb-210 and Pu-239,240) as tracers to measure proportional contributions of fine sediment (<10 ?m) from hillslope surface and channel bank sources to levee and terminal fan deposits formed by post-fire debris flows in two forest catchments in southeastern Australia. While Cs-137 and excess Pb-210 have been widely used in sediment tracing studies, application of Pu as a tracer represents a recent development and was limited to only one catchment. The estimated range in hillslope surface contributions of fine sediment to individual debris flow deposits in each catchment was 22-69% and 32-74%, respectively. No systematic change in the source contributions to debris flow deposits was observed with distance downstream from channel initiation points. Instead, spatial variability in source contributions was largely influenced by the pattern of debris flow surges forming the deposits. Linking the sediment tracing with interpretation of depositional evidence allowed reconstruction of temporal sequences in sediment source contributions to debris flow surges. Hillslope source inputs dominated most elevated channel deposits such as marginal levees that were formed under peak flow conditions. This indicated the importance of hillslope runoff and sediment supply for debris flow generation in both catchments. In contrast, material stored within channels that was deposited during subsequent surges was predominantly channel-derived. The results demonstrate that fallout radionuclide tracers may provide unique information on the changing source contributions of fine sediment during debris flow events.

  4. Moderate drop in water table increases peatland vulnerability to post-fire regime shift.

    PubMed

    Kettridge, N; Turetsky, M R; Sherwood, J H; Thompson, D K; Miller, C A; Benscoter, B W; Flannigan, M D; Wotton, B M; Waddington, J M

    2015-01-01

    Northern and tropical peatlands represent a globally significant carbon reserve accumulated over thousands of years of waterlogged conditions. It is unclear whether moderate drying predicted for northern peatlands will stimulate burning and carbon losses as has occurred in their smaller tropical counterparts where the carbon legacy has been destabilized due to severe drainage and deep peat fires. Capitalizing on a unique long-term experiment, we quantify the post-wildfire recovery of a northern peatland subjected to decadal drainage. We show that the moderate drop in water table position predicted for most northern regions triggers a shift in vegetation composition previously observed within only severely disturbed tropical peatlands. The combined impact of moderate drainage followed by wildfire converted the low productivity, moss-dominated peatland to a non-carbon accumulating shrub-grass ecosystem. This new ecosystem is likely to experience a low intensity, high frequency wildfire regime, which will further deplete the legacy of stored peat carbon. PMID:25623290

  5. Differences on post-fire regeneration of the pioneer trees Cecropia glazioui and Trema micrantha in a lowland Brazilian Atlantic forest.

    PubMed

    Silva-Matos, Dalva M; Fonseca, Giovana D F M; Silva-Lima, Leonardo

    2005-01-01

    A study of natural post-fire succession was carried out in a disturbed vegetation around fragments of the Atlantic Rain Forest (National Biological Reserve of Poço das Antas (22 degrees 30'-22 degrees 33'S. 42 degrees 15'-42 degrees 19'W), Rio de Janeiro State). All the pre-fire individuals of Cecropia and Trema in the area were numbered with plastic labels. In order to check for the presence of new sprouts and mortality, two other censuses were carried out, at 3 and 12 months after the fire. The dominant species were: Pteridium aquilinum, Panicum maximum. Trema micrantha and Cecropia glazioui. Few days after the passage of fire, grasses and ferns spread their area, while the stands of Trema and Cecropia were completely burned. Most of individuals of Cecropia produced some sprouts while most of individuals of Trema died. However, a great number of seedlings of Trema were recruited while only one single seedling of Cecropia were observed during a period of one year. Most of these seedlings died through the year while the sprouts were already reproducing. The uses of Cecropia in places where fire is recurrent could be more appropriate because of its higher chance of survival and faster recovering ability after fire. PMID:17354414

  6. Development of a Test Protocol for Spacecraft Post-Fire Atmospheric Cleanup and Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuniga, David; Hornung, Steven D.; Haas, Jon P.; Graf, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Detecting and extinguishing fires, along with post-fire atmospheric cleaning and monitoring, are vital components of a spacecraft fire response system. Preliminary efforts focused on the technology evaluation of these systems under realistic conditions are described in this paper. While the primary objective of testing is to determine a smoke mitigation filter s performance, supplemental evaluations measuring the smoke-filled chamber handheld commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) atmospheric monitoring devices (combustion product monitors) are also conducted. The test chamber consists of a 1.4 cubic meter (50 cu. ft.) volume containing a smoke generator. The fuel used to generate the smoke is a mixture of polymers in quantities representative of materials involved in a circuit board fire as a typical spacecraft fire. Two fire conditions were examined: no flame and flame. No flame events are produced by pyrolyzing the fuel mixture in a quartz tube furnace with forced ventilation to produce a white, lingering-type smoke. Flame events ignite the smoke at the outlet of the tube furnace producing combustion characterized by a less opaque smoke with black soot. Electrochemical sensor measurements showed carbon monoxide is a major indicator of each fire. Acid gas measurements were recorded, but cross interferents are currently uncharacterized. Electrochemical sensor measurements and sample acquisition techniques from photoacoustic sensors are being improved. Overall, this research shows fire characterization using traditional analytical chemistry techniques is required to verify measurements recorded using COTS atmospheric monitoring devices.

  7. An open study comparing topical silver sulfadiazine and topical silver sulfadiazine–cerium nitrate in the treatment of moderate and severe burns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. G de Gracia

    2001-01-01

    Sixty patients with moderate and severe burns were randomly assigned to receive topical silver sulfadiazine (SSD) alone (n=30) or SSD combined with cerium nitrate (SSD–CN) (n=30). There were four deaths in the SSD group and one in the SSD–CN group; more patients with higher risk severity survived in the SSD–CN group. Wound infection did not differ significantly between the groups.

  8. A comparative analysis of advanced techniques for skin reconstruction with autologous keratinocyte culture in severely burned children: own experience

    PubMed Central

    Nessler, Micha? B.; Drukala, Justyna; Bartoszewicz, Marzenna; M?dry, Ryszard

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The local treatment in burns larger than 50% of total body surface area is still the great challenge for surgeons. Aim This paper presents a review of different solutions for deep burn wound healing in children and the early outcomes of treatment with combined autologous cell culture technique. Material and methods For this study, 20 children aged between 4 and 12 years with 55–65% of TBSA III grade burn injury were analyzed. A skin sample, 1 cm × 1 cm in size, for keratinocyte cultivation, was taken on the day of the burn. After necrotic tissue excision, the covering of the burned area with an isolated meshed skin graft was carried out between day 4 and 7. After 7 days of keratinocyte cultivation, the mentioned areas were covered with cells from the culture. We divided the burned regions, according to the way of wound closure, into 3 groups each consisting of 15 treated regions of the body. We used meshed split thickness skin grafts (SSG group), cultured autologous keratinocytes (CAC group), and both techniques applied in one stage (SSG + CAC group). Results In the SSG group, the mean time for complete closure of wounds was 12.7 days. Wounds treated with CAC only needed a non-significantly longer time to heal – 14.2 days (p = 0.056) when compared to SSG. The shortest time to heal was observed in the group treated with SSG + CAC – 8.5 days, and it was significantly shorter when compared to the SSG and CAC groups (p < 0.001). Conclusions This study suggests that cultured keratinocytes obtained after short-time multiplication, combined with meshed autologous split thickness skin grafts, constitute the optimal wound closure in burned children. PMID:25097488

  9. Experimental testing of relationships between post-fire surface reflectance and fire characteristics and emissions in Southern African savannas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Smith; M. Wooster; N. Drake

    2003-01-01

    Fuel, fire and visible-infrared spectral reflectance measurements were carried out in nine experimental fire plots in semi-arid woodland savanna within the Chobe National Park (Botswana) during October 2001. Pre- and post-fire fuel component loads and nitrogen\\/carbon contents were measured, along with measures of fire line intensity (FLI), integrated fire temperature with time (Tdt) and maximum fire temperature (MaxT) that are

  10. Post-fire seeding on Wyoming big sagebrush ecological sites: Regression analyses of seeded nonnative and native species densities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark E. Eiswerth; Karl Krauter; Sherman R. Swanson; Mike Zielinski

    2009-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, sagebrush rangelands in the Great Basin of the United States have experienced more frequent and larger wildfires. These fires affect livestock forage, the sagebrush\\/grasses\\/forbs mosaic that is important for many wildlife species (e.g., the greater sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus)), post-fire flammability and fire frequency. When a sagebrush, especially a Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle

  11. Anchor chaining’s influence on soil hydrology and seeding success in burned piñon-juniper woodlands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broadcast seeding is one of the most commonly used rehabilitation treatments for the restoration of burned piñon (Pinus ssp.) and juniper (Juniperus spp.) woodlands, but the success rate of this treatment is notoriously low. In piñon-juniper woodlands, post-fire soil water repellency can impair rese...

  12. Donor site wound protein synthesis correlates with length of acute hospitalization in severely burned children: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Tuvdendorj, Demidmaa; Chinkes, David L.; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Aarsland, Asle; Herndon, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Autografting of burn wounds results in generation of donor site wounds. Here we measured donor site wound protein Fractional Synthesis Rate (FSR) in a burn pediatric population and showed that FSR increases over time postsurgery and correlates with the length of hospital stay (LOS) normalized for total body surface area (TBSA) burn size. 3.9±1.1 days after the grafting surgery patients participated in a metabolic study consisting of continuous infusion of L-[ring-2H5]-phenylalanine and donor site wound punch biopsies. Donor site wound protein FSR was 10.4±7.5 %/day. Wound FSR demonstrated linear correlation with the time postsurgery (p < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that LOS/TBSA correlated with donor site wound protein FSR and time postsurgery (p < 0.001) and the following equation describes the relationship: Estimated LOS/TBSA = (FSR - 12.95 – 1.414 × Postsurgery day)/(?17.8). This equation predicted that FSR corrected for the postsurgery day when the metabolic study was conducted accounted for 67 % of the variability (r2 = 0.673) in the LOS/TBSA. Donor site wound protein FSR correlated to LOS/TBSA of burn patients admitted to the intensive care unit. Measurement of protein deposition in regenerating donor site wound using stable isotope technique provides a quantitative measure of wound healing. PMID:20412556

  13. Heterogeneity in fire severity within early season and late season prescribed burns in a mixed-conifer forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric E. KnappA; Jon E. KeeleyB

    Structural heterogeneity in forests of the Sierra Nevada was historically produced through variation in fire regimes and local environmental factors. The amount of heterogeneity that prescription burning can achieve might now be more limited owing to high fuel loads and increased fuel continuity. Topography, woody fuel loading, and vegetative composition were quantified in plots within replicated early and late season

  14. Post-fire tree regeneration in lowland Bolivia: implications for fire management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. A. Gould; T. S. Fredericksen; F. Morales; D. Kennard; F. E. Putz; B. Mostacedo; M. Toledo

    2002-01-01

    Tree regeneration was compared in burned and unburned portions of a tropical dry forest (1110mmppt\\/year) and a tropical humid forest (1542mmppt\\/year) in southeastern Bolivia. Both forests burned 5 years prior to our study, and both forests were also lightly selectively logged (intensity<1m3\\/ha)—the dry forest during the 1970 and 1980s and the humid forest just prior to the wildfire. The objective

  15. Post-fire runoff and soil (fertility) losses in long-unburnt vs. repeatedly-burnt Maritime Pine stands, north-central Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, Mohammad; Gonzaléz-Pelayo, Oscar; Buchspies, Ben; Maia, Paula; Martins, Martinho; Varandas, Daniela; Geissen, Violette; Coelho, Celeste; Ritsem, Coen; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2013-04-01

    Whilst wildfires are a natural phenomenon in Mediterranean climate regions and a key evolutionary and ecological factor in several of its ecosystems, there are widespread concerns about the resilience of even these fire-adapted ecosystems under present-day fire regimes. The role of repeated wildfires in land degradation, however, has not been extensively studied. The EU-funded CASCADE project addresses this research gap in the study case in Portugal, assessing whether repeated wildfires in Maritime Pine stands lead to land degradation through a gradual process or, instead, through tipping-points in plant-water-soil relationships. In the present study, focus is on the indirect effects of (repeated) wildfires, due to fire-enhanced overland flow generation and the associated losses of sediments, organic matter and nutrients (N and P). Following a large wildfire in early September 2013, affecting roughly 3000 ha in the municipality of Viseu, six Maritime Pine stands were selected within the burnt area. According to the available burnt-area maps, covering the period 1975-2011, three of these sites were unburnt for over 35 years, whereas the other three sites had burnt three more times before 2012. At each of these sites, two pairs of micro-plots of approximately 0.25 m2 were installed as soon as possible after the wildfire, albeit not before the first two post-fire rainfall events, whilst a third pair was installed several weeks later. The first two plot pairs were installed halfway the upper and lower halves of the slope, the third pair in between. The paired-plot design was chosen to compare the hydrological and erosion response for two adjacent patches with contrasting post-fire vegetation recovery processes, i.e. through re-sprouting (by the shrub Pterospartum tridentatum) and by germination. Since the installation of the plots, runoff has been measured at 1- to 2-weekly intervals, depending on rainfall, and samples taken for laboratory analysis of sediment and organic matter loads as well as total N and P concentrations. The field and laboratory results are still being analyzed but personal observations suggest that overland flow generation is markedly higher at the repeatedly burnt than long-unburnt sites.

  16. Five-Lumen Antibiotic-Impregnated Femoral Central Venous Catheters in Severely Burned Patients: An Investigation of Device Utility and Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection Rates.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Bruce C; Mian, Mohammad A H; Mullins, Robert F; Hassan, Zaheed; Shaver, Joseph R; Johnston, Krystal K

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) rate in a severely burned patient population, many of whom required prolonged use of central venous catheters (CVCs). Between January 2008 and June 2012, 151 patients underwent placement of 455 five-lumen minocycline/rifampin-impregnated CVCs. CRBSI was defined as at least one blood culture (>100,000 colonies) and one simultaneous roll-plate CVC tip culture (>15 colony forming units) positive for the same organism. Most patients had accidental burns (81.5%) with a mean TBSA of 50%. A mean of three catheters were inserted per patient (range, 1-25). CVCs were inserted in the femoral vein (91.2%), subclavian vein (5.3%), and internal jugular vein (3.3%). Mean overall catheter indwell time was 8 days (range, 0-39 days). The overall rate of CRBSI per 1000 catheter days was 11.2; patients with a TBSA >60% experienced significantly higher rates of CRBSI than patients with a TBSA ?60% (16.2 vs 7.3, P = .01). CVCs placed through burned skin were four times more likely to be associated with CRBSI than CVCs placed through intact skin. The most common infectious organism was Acinetobacter baumannii. Deep venous thrombosis developed in eleven patients (7%). The overall rate of CRBSI was 11.2, consistent with published rates of CRBSI in burn patients. Thus, femoral placement of 5-lumen CVCs did not result in increased CRBSI rates. These data support the safety of femoral CVC placement in burn patients, contrary to the Centers for Disease Control recommendation to avoid femoral CVC insertion. PMID:25407386

  17. Molecular composition and size distribution of sugars, sugar-alcohols and carboxylic acids in airborne particles during a severe urban haze event caused by wheat straw burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gehui; Chen, Chunlei; Li, Jianjun; Zhou, Bianhong; Xie, Mingjie; Hu, Shuyuan; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Chen, Yan

    2011-05-01

    Molecular compositions and size distributions of water-soluble organic compounds (WSOC, i.e., sugars, sugar-alcohols and carboxylic acids) in particles from urban air of Nanjing, China during a severe haze event caused by field burning of wheat straw were characterized and compared with those in the summer and autumn non-haze periods. During the haze event levoglucosan (4030 ng m -3) was the most abundant compound among the measured WSOC, followed by succinic acid, malic acid, glycerol, arabitol and glucose, being different from those in the non-haze samples, in which sucrose or azelaic acid showed a second highest concentration, although levoglucosan was the highest. The measured WSOC in the haze event were 2-20 times more than those in the non-hazy days. Size distribution results showed that there was no significant change in the compound peaks in coarse mode (>2.1 ?m) with respect to the haze and non-haze samples, but a large difference in the fine fraction (<2.1 ?m) was found with a sharp increase during the hazy days mostly due to the increased emissions of wheat straw burning. Molecular compositions of organic compounds in the fresh smoke particles from wheat straw burning demonstrate that sharply increased concentrations of glycerol and succinic and malic acids in the fine particles during the haze event were mainly derived from the field burning of wheat straw, although the sources of glucose and related sugar-alcohols whose concentrations significantly increased in the fine haze samples are unclear. Compared to that in the fresh smoke particles of wheat straw burning an increase in relative abundance of succinic acid to levoglucosan during the haze event suggests a significant production of secondary organic aerosols during transport of the smoke plumes.

  18. Integrating a shrub growth model with remote sensing and geographic information system data to predict shrub spatial growth patterns in a post fire environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Gregory Dean

    The analysis of complex spatial distribution patterns and the prediction of vegetative biomass is crucial for understanding ecosystems and their reaction to disturbance. In this study, a Landsat TM image, an interpolated biomass predictive model, and a shrub biomass predictive equation are integrated, modeling the potential distribution and biomass of two shrub species, Physocarpus malvaceous (PHMA) and Holodiscus discolor (HODI), commonly found in the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington. A simple multiple regression technique was used to generate a shrub biomass predictive model based on shrub structural and biophysical variables. The predictive coefficients for each species were applied to a raster database of the significant regressor variables generated using a zonal method of Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) interpolation. The two predictive models were cross validated and compared, showing the zonal IDW process linked with the regression equation and resulting in a coefficient of variation (R2) of 0.80 and 0.73 for PHMA and HODI, respectively. In addition to these predictive models, a supervised classification was performed using a Landsat TM image predicting shrub biomass. The resulting biomass prediction's accuracy was validated using an analysis of fit resulting in an R2 of 0.68 for PHMA and 0.53 for HODI. These two biomass predictive models were then added and averaged using a raster calculator. The combined models improved the overall accuracy of the biomass prediction to an R2 of 0.86 for PHMA and 0.81 for HODI. To better understand and predict biomass change in a post-fire landscape, the biomass predictive model was integrated with FARSITE (Fire Area Simulator). A fire was simulated on a small drainage in the research site. The resulting footprint was removed from the original biomass predictive model and the shrub biomass was predicted for the burn area five years after the fire. The new prediction was combined with the original biomass prediction, resulting in a new shrub biomass prediction for the entire research site.

  19. ISSR and AFLP analysis of the temporal and spatial population structure of the post-fire annual, Nicotiana attenuata, in SW Utah

    PubMed Central

    Bahulikar, Rahul A; Stanculescu, Dominic; Preston, Catherine A; Baldwin, Ian T

    2004-01-01

    Background The native annual tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata, is found primarily in large ephemeral populations (typically for less than 3 growing seasons) after fires in sagebrush and pinyon-juniper ecosystems and in small persistent populations (for many growing seasons) in isolated washes typically along roadsides throughout the Great Basin Desert of the SW USA. This distribution pattern is due to its unusual germination behavior. Ephemeral populations are produced by the germination of dormant seeds from long-lived seed banks which are stimulated to germinate by a combination of unidentified positive cues found in wood smoke and the removal of inhibitors leached from the unburned litter of the dominant vegetation. Persistent populations may result where these inhibitors do not exist, as in washes or along disturbed roadsides. To determine if this germination behavior has influenced population structure, we conducted an AFLP (244 individuals), ISSR (175 individuals) and ISSR+ AFLP (175 individuals) analysis on plants originating from seed collected from populations growing in 11 wash and burns over 11 years from the SW USA. Results Genetic variance as measured by both ISSR and AFLP markers was low among sites and comparatively higher within populations. Cluster analysis of the Utah samples with samples collected from Arizona, California, and Oregon as out-groups also did not reveal patterns. AMOVA analysis of the combined AFLP and ISSR data sets yielded significantly low genetic differentiation among sites (?ct), moderate among populations within sites (?sc) and higher genetic differentiation within populations (?st). Conclusions We conclude that the seed dormancy of this post-fire annual and its resulting age structure in conjunction with natural selection processes are responsible for significantly low among sites and comparatively high within-population genetic variation observed in this species. PMID:15350209

  20. Frequency-magnitude distribution of debris flows compiled from global data, and comparison with post-fire debris flows in the western U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Karin L.; Bendick, Rebecca; Hyde, Kevin D.; Gabet, Emmanuel J.

    2013-06-01

    Forecasting debris flow hazard is challenging due to the episodic occurrence of debris flows in response to stochastic precipitation and, in some areas, wildfires. In order to facilitate hazard assessment, we have gathered available records of debris flow volumes into the first comprehensive global catalog of debris flows (n = 988). We also present results of field collection of recent debris flows (n = 77) in the northern Rocky Mountains, where debris flow frequency increases following wildfire. As a first step in parameterizing hazard models, we use frequency-magnitude distributions and empirical cumulative distribution functions (ECDFs) to compare volumes of post-fire debris flows to non-fire-related debris flows. The ECDF of post-fire debris flow volumes is significantly different (at 95% confidence) from that of non-fire-related debris flows, suggesting that the post-fire distribution is composed of a higher proportion of small events than that of non-fire-related debris flows. The slope of the frequency-magnitude distribution of post-fire debris flows is steeper than that of non-fire-related debris flows, corroborating evidence that small post-fire debris flows occur with a higher relative frequency than non-fire-related debris flows. Taken together, the statistical analyses suggest that post-fire debris flows come from a different population than non-fire-related debris flows, and their hazard must be modeled separately. We propose two possible non-exclusive explanations for the fact that the post-fire environment produces a higher proportion of small debris flows: 1) following fires, smaller storms or effective drainage areas can trigger debris flows due to increased runoff and/or decreases in root strength, resulting in smaller volumes and increased probability of failure, and 2) fire increases the probability and frequency of debris flows, causing their distribution to shift toward smaller events due to limitations in sediment supply.

  1. Calibration and validation of the relative differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (RdNBR) to three measures of fire severity in the Sierra Nevada and Klamath Mountains, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, J.D.; Knapp, E.E.; Key, C.H.; Skinner, C.N.; Isbell, C.J.; Creasy, R.M.; Sherlock, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Multispectral satellite data have become a common tool used in the mapping of wildland fire effects. Fire severity, defined as the degree to which a site has been altered, is often the variable mapped. The Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) used in an absolute difference change detection protocol (dNBR), has become the remote sensing method of choice for US Federal land management agencies to map fire severity due to wildland fire. However, absolute differenced vegetation indices are correlated to the pre-fire chlorophyll content of the vegetation occurring within the fire perimeter. Normalizing dNBR to produce a relativized dNBR (RdNBR) removes the biasing effect of the pre-fire condition. Employing RdNBR hypothetically allows creating categorical classifications using the same thresholds for fires occurring in similar vegetation types without acquiring additional calibration field data on each fire. In this paper we tested this hypothesis by developing thresholds on random training datasets, and then comparing accuracies for (1) fires that occurred within the same geographic region as the training dataset and in similar vegetation, and (2) fires from a different geographic region that is climatically and floristically similar to the training dataset region but supports more complex vegetation structure. We additionally compared map accuracies for three measures of fire severity: the composite burn index (CBI), percent change in tree canopy cover, and percent change in tree basal area. User's and producer's accuracies were highest for the most severe categories, ranging from 70.7% to 89.1%. Accuracies of the moderate fire severity category for measures describing effects only to trees (percent change in canopy cover and basal area) indicated that the classifications were generally not much better than random. Accuracies of the moderate category for the CBI classifications were somewhat better, averaging in the 50%-60% range. These results underscore the difficulty in isolating fire effects to individual vegetation strata when fire effects are mixed. We conclude that the models presented here and in Miller and Thode ([Miller, J.D. & Thode, A.E., (2007). Quantifying burn severity in a heterogeneous landscape with a relative version of the delta Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR). Remote Sensing of Environment, 109, 66-80.]) can produce fire severity classifications (using either CBI, or percent change in canopy cover or basal area) that are of similar accuracy in fires not used in the original calibration process, at least in conifer dominated vegetation types in Mediterranean-climate California.

  2. Fire impact and assessment of post-fire actions of a typical Mediterranean forest from SW Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-González, Marco A.; María De la Rosa, José; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; Zavala, Lorena M.; Knicker, Heike

    2015-04-01

    Wildfires may cause significant changes in soil physical and chemical properties. In addition, soil organic matter (SOM) content and chemical properties are usually affected by fire. Fire impacts may negatively affect soil health and quality, and induce or enhance runoff generation and, thereby, soil erosion risk and cause damages to the habitat of species. This fact is especially dramatic in Mediterranean ecosystems, where forest fires are a frequent phenomenon and restoration strategies are a key issue. The goals of this study are to determine: i) the immediate effects of fire on soil properties, including changes occurred in the quantity and quality of SOM and ii) the effect of post-fire actions on soil properties. In August 2012, a wildfire affected a forest area of approx. 90 ha in Montellano (Seville, SW Spain; longitude 37.00 °, latitude -5.56 °). This area is dominated by pines (Pinus pinaster and Pinus halepensis), and eucalypts (Eucaliptus globulus) with a Mediterranean climate. Dominant soil types are Rendzic Leptosols and Calcaric Haplic Regosols. It is a poorly limestone-developed soil (usually swallower than 25 cm). Four soil subsamples were collected 1 month and 25 months after fire within an area of approximately 200 m2. Subsamples were mixed together, homogenized, air-dried, crushed and sieved (2 mm). One control sample was collected in an adjacent area. The litter layer was removed by hand and studied separately. Branches, stems, bushes and plant residues on the fire-affected area were removed 16 months after the fire using heavy machinery as part of the post-fire management. The present research focuses on the study of the elemental composition (C, H and N) and physical properties (pH, water holding capacity, electrical conductivity) of bulk soil samples, and on the spectroscopic analysis (FT-IR, 13C NMR) and analytical pyrolysis data obtained from bulk the oils and from the humic acid fraction. immediate effects of fire, including the charring of vegetation and litter, as the input of charred residues may contribute to increase the total amount of soil organic matter. The post-fire removal of vegetation probably contributed to an additional loss of soil material due to an increase of the erosion risk. In addition, preliminary results point out that the burnt soil is not being recovered to the pre-fire conditions at a molecular level neither in the elemental composition. Results of this study will constitute a valuable tool for stake holders and decision makers to avoid additional alterations caused by post fire management of fire affected forests.

  3. Bison grazing patterns on seasonally burned tallgrass prairie

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Range; Bryan R. Coppedge; James H. Shaw

    Abstract Patterns,of bin,(JIison bison,L.) grazing,were,examined,in a 2- year,study,on a tallgrass,prairie,site in Oklahoma,subjected,to a seasonally,and,spatially,variable,burning,regime. Mixed,groups,of bin, composed of cows, yearlings, calves, and young ( 5 years of age selected,unburned,areas,for graxing,29% of the time,and,burned areas,only,4% of the tie.,Temporal,patterns,in bin,grazing were,evident;,selective,use of burns,persisted,for only,a short period during the first post-fire growing season, after which burns,were,grazed,in proportion,to availabiity,and,then,selective- ly avoided,as bison,shifted,grazing,efforts,to newer,burns. Regression,analysis,verified,that,bison,grazing,was,negatively

  4. Fuel loads, fire regimes, and post-fire fuel dynamics in Florida Keys pine forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sah, J.P.; Ross, M.S.; Snyder, J.R.; Koptur, S.; Cooley, H.C.

    2006-01-01

    In forests, the effects of different life forms on fire behavior may vary depending on their contributions to total fuel loads. We examined the distribution of fuel components before fire, their effects on fire behavior, and the effects of fire on subsequent fuel recovery in pine forests within the National Key Deer Refuge in the Florida Keys. We conducted a burning experiment in six blocks, within each of which we assigned 1-ha plots to three treatments: control, summer, and winter burn. Owing to logistical constraints, we burned only 11 plots, three in winter and eight in summer, over a 4-year period from 1998 to 2001. We used path analysis to model the effects of fuel type and char height, an indicator of fire intensity, on fuel consumption. Fire intensity increased with surface fuel loads, but was negatively related to the quantity of hardwood shrub fuels, probably because these fuels are associated with a moist microenvironment within hardwood patches, and therefore tend to resist fire. Winter fires were milder than summer fires, and were less effective at inhibiting shrub encroachment. A mixed seasonal approach is suggested for fire management, with burns applied opportunistically under a range of winter and summer conditions, but more frequently than that prevalent in the recent past. ?? IAWF 2006.

  5. Responses of hardwood regeneration to fire in mesic forest openings. I. Post-fire community dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric L. Kruger; Peter B. Reich

    1997-01-01

    The influence of fire on the regeneration ecology of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and sympatric tree species was examined in mesic hardwood stands in southwestern Wisconsin. A plot in each of four openings was burned in the spring of 1989 and 1990. Density and height growth of tree regeneration, and leaf area index and percent cover of all

  6. Post-fire salvage logging alters species composition and reduces cover, richness, and diversity in Mediterranean plant communities.

    PubMed

    Leverkus, Alexandro B; Lorite, Juan; Navarro, Francisco B; Sánchez-Cañete, Enrique P; Castro, Jorge

    2014-01-15

    An intense debate exists on the effects of post-fire salvage logging on plant community regeneration, but scant data are available derived from experimental studies. We analyzed the effects of salvage logging on plant community regeneration in terms of species richness, diversity, cover, and composition by experimentally managing a burnt forest on a Mediterranean mountain (Sierra Nevada, S Spain). In each of three plots located at different elevations, three replicates of three treatments were implemented seven months after the fire, differing in the degree of intervention: "Non-Intervention" (all trees left standing), "Partial Cut plus Lopping" (felling 90% of the trees, cutting the main branches, and leaving all the biomass in situ), and "Salvage Logging" (felling and piling the logs, and masticating the woody debris). Plant composition in each treatment was monitored two years after the fire in linear point transects. Post-fire salvage logging was associated with reduced species richness, Shannon diversity, and total plant cover. Moreover, salvaged sites hosted different species assemblages and 25% lower cover of seeder species (but equal cover of resprouters) compared to the other treatments. Cover of trees and shrubs was also lowest in Salvage Logging, which could suggest a potential slow-down of forest regeneration. Most of these results were consistent among the three plots despite plots hosting different plant communities. Concluding, our study suggests that salvage logging may reduce species richness and diversity, as well as the recruitment of woody species, which could delay the natural regeneration of the ecosystem. PMID:24412981

  7. High Park burn in South Fork Cache la Poudre Basin: Preliminary findings from spring and summer 2013 hydrologic and sedimentation monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, S. E.; Dixon, M.; Rathburn, S. L.; Shahverdian, S.

    2013-12-01

    The High Park fire burned over 35,000 ha within the Cache la Poudre basin in early summer 2012, including an eastern portion of the Little South Fork Cache la Poudre (SFCLP) watershed. Given the proximity of the burn and the implications for water quality supplied to Fort Collins and Greeley, CO, there is an expressed interest on the part of the cities for improved understanding of sediment loads in SFCLP and main stem Cache la Poudre River over the next few years. Prior to burning, data on sediment transport (suspended sediment and bedload) were collected by researchers from the US Forest Service, providing baseline information on sedimentation comparable to similar measurements taken after the High Park fire. In 2013, bedload was measured during snowmelt runoff using standard pressure-difference samplers identical to those used previously in 1989 and 1997. Turbidity sensors were deployed as a surrogate measure of suspended sediment concentration. This signal was calibrated using both grab samples (from a DH-48) and samples obtained from an automated water sampler triggered to collect during substantial increases in turbidity. Additional sampling stations were later established downstream of this site in conjunction with assessments of channel extension and sedimentation from severely burned hillslopes and gulches, one of which was mulched for erosion control in spring 2013. The primary source of post-fire sediment to the most upstream site is from Monument Gulch, located about 1 km upstream of the sampling location. Debris flows emanated from this gulch within a few weeks post-fire and delivered charcoal, ash, burned trees and inorganic sediment to the main stem SFCLP. Although snowmelt runoff was less than bankfull in 2013, there was a substantial amount of burned organic matter transported and collected in the bedload and suspended sediment samplers. Low intensity storms during summer caused a few sediment rich flows, though not to the extent of those in 2012. In this presentation, we present initial findings on differences in sediment loads attributed to the fire.

  8. Facial burns - our experience.

    PubMed

    Zatriqi, Violeta; Arifi, Hysni; Zatriqi, Skender; Duci, Shkelzen; Rrecaj, Sh; Martinaj, M

    2013-01-01

    Facial burns are generally considered severe. This is due to the possibility of respiratory complications. First responders check the nostrils for singed hairs. In severe cases there may be soot around the nose and mouth and coughing may produce phlegm that includes ash. Facial and inhalational burns compromise airways. They pose difficulties in pre-hospital resuscitation and are challenge to clinicians managing surviving burn victims in the intensive care setting. Management problems - resuscitation, airway maintenance and clinical treatment of facial injuries are compounded if the victim is child. Inhalational burns reduce survivability, certainly in adult victim. In our retrospective study we found that facial burns dominated in male gender, liquids and scalds are the most common causes of facial burns in children whereas the flame and electricity were the most common causes of facial burns in adults. We came to the conclusion in our study that surgical treatment minimizes complications and duration of recovery. PMID:23687458

  9. Evaluation of post-fire strength of concrete flexural members reinforced with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Devon S.

    Owing to their corrosion resistance and superior strength to weight ratio, there has been, over the past two decades, increased interest in the use of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) reinforcing bars in reinforced concrete structural members. The mechanical behavior of FRP reinforcement differs from that of steel reinforcement. For example, FRP reinforcement exhibit a linear stress-strain behavior until the bar ruptures and the strength, stiffness and bond properties of FRP reinforcement are affected more adversely by elevated temperatures. All structures are subject to the risk of damage by fire and fires continue to be a significant cause of damage to structures. Many structures do not collapse after being exposed to fire. The safety of the structure for any future use is dependent on the ability to accurately estimate the post-fire load capacity of the structure. Assuming that the changes, due to fire exposure, in the mechanical behavior of the GFRP reinforcing bar and concrete, and the bond between the reinforcing bar and the concrete are understood, an analytical procedure for estimating the post-fire strength of GFRP reinforced concrete flexural elements can be developed. This thesis investigates the changes in: a) tensile properties and bond of GFRP bars; and b) the flexural behavior of GFRP reinforced concrete beams flexural after being exposed to elevated temperatures up to 400°C and cooled to ambient temperature. To this end, twelve tensile tests, twelve pullout bond tests and ten four-point beam tests were performed. The data from the tests were used to formulate analytical procedures for evaluating the post-fire strength of GFRP reinforced concrete beams. The procedure produced conservative results when compared with the experimental data. In general, the residual tensile strength and modulus of elasticity of GFRP bars decrease as the exposure temperature increases. The loss in properties is however, smaller than that observed by other researchers when similar bars were tested while hot. The residual bond strength was also found to decrease with increase in exposure temperature. Residual bond mechanism and flexural behavior were found to be influenced, in complex ways, by the exposure to elevated temperatures. Additionally, an apparent "yielding plateau" and an apparent increase in bar ductility was observed in the post-heat behavior of some of the tensile specimens. This points to a potential for heat treatment of FRP bars to achieve higher ductility.

  10. Fire Emissions Estimates in Siberia: Evaluation of Uncertainties in Area Burned, Land Cover, and Fuel Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, E.; Soja, A. J.; Ivanova, G. A.; Petkov, A.; Ponomarev, E. I.; Conard, S. G.

    2012-12-01

    Wildfire is one of the main disturbance factors in the boreal zone of Russia. Fires in the Russian boreal forest range from low-severity surface fires to high-severity crown fires. Estimates of carbon emissions from fires in Russia vary substantially due to differences in ecosystem classification and mapping, burned area calculations, and estimates of fuel consumption. We examined uncertainties in different parameters used to estimate biomass burning emissions. Several fire datasets (Institute of Forest burned area product, MCD45, MCD64, MOD14/MYD14, official data) were compared to estimate uncertainties in area burned in Siberia. Area burned was found to differ significantly by data source, with satellite data being by an order of magnitude greater than ground-based data. Differences between mapped ecosystems were also compared and contrasted on the basis of five land cover maps (GLC-2000, Globcover-2009, MODIS Collection 4 and 5 Global Land Cover, and the Digitized Ecosystem map of the Former Soviet Union) to evaluate the potential for error resulting from disparate vegetation structure and fuel consumption estimates. The examination of land cover maps showed that estimates of relative proportion of fire by ecosystem type varied substantially for the same year from map to map. Fuel consumption remains one of the main uncertainties in estimates of biomass burning emissions in Siberia. Accurate fuel consumption estimates are obtained in the course of fire experiments with pre- and post-fire biomass measuring. Our large-scale experiments carried out in the course of the FIRE BEAR (Fire Effects in the Boreal Eurasia Region) Project provided quantitative and qualitative data on ecosystem state and carbon emissions due to fires of known behavior in major forest types of Siberia that could be used to verify large-scale carbon emissions estimates. Global climate change is expected to result in increase of fire hazard and area burned, leading to impacts on global air quality and human health. Accurate emission estimates are required by air quality agencies to calculate local emissions and to develop strategies to mitigate negative smoke impacts. This research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program, Fulbright Program, and Russian Academy of Sciences.

  11. Corrosion of Metals Exposed to Combustion Products Generated by Burning Electrical Power Cables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugene A. Powell; Ben T. Zinn

    1989-01-01

    The post-fire corrosion hazard of the materials used in shipboard power and communication cables upon small specimens of HY80 steel, type 304 stainless steel, brass, and Monel 400 was investigated. The metal coupons were exposed to the combustion products generated by the burning cables in full-scale fire tests aboard an instrumented ship. Tests were conducted with cross-linked polyethylene cables and

  12. Salvage Logging Versus the Use of Burnt Wood as a Nurse Object to Promote Post-Fire Tree Seedling Establishment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castro, J.; Allen, C.D.; Molina-Morales, M.; Maranon-Jimenez, Sara; Sanchez-Miranda, A.; Zamora, R.

    2011-01-01

    Intense debate surrounds the effects of post-fire salvage logging (SL) versus nonintervention policies on forest regeneration, but scant support is available from experimental studies. We analyze the effect of three post-fire management treatments on the recruitment of a serotinous pine (Pinus pinaster) at a Mediterranean mountain. Treatments were applied 7 months after the fire and differ in the degree of intervention, ranging from "no intervention" (NI, all trees left standing) to "partial cut plus lopping" (PCL, felling most of the trees, cutting the main branches, and leaving all the biomass in situ without mastication), and "SL" (felling and piling the logs, and masticating the woody debris). Seedling survival after 3 years was the highest in PCL (47.3% versus 38.7% in SL). This was associated with the amelioration of microclimatic conditions under the scattered branches, which reduced radiation and soil temperature while increasing soil moisture. Seedling density after 2 years was approximately 5.5 times higher in PCL than in SL, as in SL a large fraction of seedlings was lost as a consequence of mechanized mastication. The NI treatment showed the lowest seedling survival (17.3%). Nevertheless, seedling density was similar to SL. Seedling growth scarcely differed among treatments. Our results show that branches left onsite acted as nurse objects that improved key microclimatic conditions for seedling recruitment. This creates a facilitative interaction ideal for seedling establishment in moisture-deficient ecosystems, as it provides the benefit of a shading overstory but without underground competition. ?? 2010 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  13. Objective definition of rainfall intensity-duration thresholds for the initiation of post-fire debris flows in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staley, Dennis; Kean, Jason W.; Cannon, Susan H.; Schmidt, Kevin M.; Laber, Jayme L.

    2012-01-01

    Rainfall intensity–duration (ID) thresholds are commonly used to predict the temporal occurrence of debris flows and shallow landslides. Typically, thresholds are subjectively defined as the upper limit of peak rainstorm intensities that do not produce debris flows and landslides, or as the lower limit of peak rainstorm intensities that initiate debris flows and landslides. In addition, peak rainstorm intensities are often used to define thresholds, as data regarding the precise timing of debris flows and associated rainfall intensities are usually not available, and rainfall characteristics are often estimated from distant gauging locations. Here, we attempt to improve the performance of existing threshold-based predictions of post-fire debris-flow occurrence by utilizing data on the precise timing of debris flows relative to rainfall intensity, and develop an objective method to define the threshold intensities. We objectively defined the thresholds by maximizing the number of correct predictions of debris flow occurrence while minimizing the rate of both Type I (false positive) and Type II (false negative) errors. We identified that (1) there were statistically significant differences between peak storm and triggering intensities, (2) the objectively defined threshold model presents a better balance between predictive success, false alarms and failed alarms than previous subjectively defined thresholds, (3) thresholds based on measurements of rainfall intensity over shorter duration (?60 min) are better predictors of post-fire debris-flow initiation than longer duration thresholds, and (4) the objectively defined thresholds were exceeded prior to the recorded time of debris flow at frequencies similar to or better than subjective thresholds. Our findings highlight the need to better constrain the timing and processes of initiation of landslides and debris flows for future threshold studies. In addition, the methods used to define rainfall thresholds in this study represent a computationally simple means of deriving critical values for other studies of nonlinear phenomena characterized by thresholds.

  14. The media glorifying burns: a hindrance to burn prevention.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

    2003-01-01

    The media have a profound influence on the actions of children and adults. Burns and burn prevention tend to be ignored or even mocked. The purpose of this presentation is to reveal the callousness of the media in its dealings with burns and burn prevention. Printed materials with a relationship to burns, risk of burning, or disrespect for the consequences of burns were collected. The materials were tabulated into four categories: comics, advertisements (ads), articles that made light of burns, and television shows that portrayed behavior that would risk burn injury. Most burn-related materials were found in comics or advertisements. Several comics made light of high-risk behavior with flames, scald injury, contact injury, or burns. In addition, several advertisements showed people on fire or actions that could easily lead to burns. Several articles and televisions shows portrayed high-risk behavior that, in some instances, led to copycat injuries. Flames are frequently used to sell items that target adolescent boys or young men. The high incidence injuries that frequent this population parallel the high-risk behaviors portrayed by the media. The media portrays flames and high-risk behavior for burn injury as being cool, funny, and without consequence. The use of flames on clothing and recreational equipment (skateboards, hot rods) particularly targets the high-risk adolescent male. The burn community should make the media aware of the harm it causes with its callous depiction and glorification of burns. PMID:12792237

  15. Postwildfire debris flows hazard assessment for the area burned by the 2011 Track Fire, northeastern New Mexico and southeastern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillery, Anne C.; Darr, Michael J.; Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.

    2011-01-01

    In June 2011, the Track Fire burned 113 square kilometers in Colfax County, northeastern New Mexico, and Las Animas County, southeastern Colorado, including the upper watersheds of Chicorica and Raton Creeks. The burned landscape is now at risk of damage from postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. This report presents a preliminary hazard assessment of the debris-flow potential from basins burned by the Track Fire. A pair of empirical hazard-assessment models developed using data from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows at the outlets of selected drainage basins within the burned area. The models incorporate measures of burn severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall to estimate the probability and volume of post-fire debris flows following the fire. In response to a design storm of 38 millimeters of rain in 30 minutes (10-year recurrence-interval), the probability of debris flow estimated for basins burned by the Track fire ranged between 2 and 97 percent, with probabilities greater than 80 percent identified for the majority of the tributary basins to Raton Creek in Railroad Canyon; six basins that flow into Lake Maloya, including the Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins; two tributary basins to Sugarite Canyon, and an unnamed basin on the eastern flank of the burned area. Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from 30 cubic meters to greater than 100,000 cubic meters. The largest volumes (greater than 100,000 cubic meters) were estimated for Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins, which drain into Lake Maloya. The Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Ranking identifies the Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins as having the highest probability of producing the largest debris flows. This finding indicates the greatest post-fire debris-flow impacts may be expected to Lake Maloya. In addition, Interstate Highway 25, Raton Creek and the rail line in Railroad Canyon, County road A-27, and State Highway 526 in Sugarite Canyon may also be affected where they cross drainages downstream from recently burned basins. Although this assessment indicates that a rather large debris flow (approximately 42,000 cubic meters) may be generated from the basin above the City of Raton (basin 9) in response to the design storm, the probability of such an event is relatively low (approximately 10 percent). Additional assessment is necessary to determine if the estimated volume of material is sufficient to travel into the City of Raton. In addition, even small debris flows may affect structures at or downstream from basin outlets and increase the threat of flooding downstream by damaging or blocking flood mitigation structures. The maps presented here may be used to prioritize areas where erosion mitigation or other protective measures may be necessary within a 2- to 3-year window of vulnerability following the Track Fire.

  16. Post-fire, seasonal and annual dynamics of the ectomycorrhizal community in a Quercus ilex L. forest over a 3-year period.

    PubMed

    de Román, Miriam; de Miguel, Ana María

    2005-09-01

    Two study plots, burned and control, were established in autumn 1998 in a Quercus ilex forest located in northern Spain, part of which had been affected by a low intensity fire in 1994. Soil samples for ectomycorrhizae (ECM) were taken over a 3-year period in each study plot in spring, summer, autumn and winter. ECM morphotypes were identified and the relative abundance of each morphotype in each soil sample calculated, along with species richness, Shannon diversity index and percentage of mycorrhization in each soil sample. The relative abundance of certain ECM morphotypes differed between burned and control plots, and the percentage of mycorrhizal tips was significantly lower in the burned than in the control plot. Nevertheless, there were no significant differences in the diversity, species richness or species composition of the ECM community in the burned and control plots. The dominant ECM morphotypes in both stands were Cenococcum geophilum and several thelephoroid fungi. Sphaerosporella brunnea and Pisolithus tinctorius thrived especially in the burned plot, whereas three ectomycorrhizal morphotypes assigned to the genus Hebeloma were especially abundant in the control plot. There was no significant variation in the relative abundance of the ECM morphotypes between seasons, but ECM community species richness was highest in autumn and lowest in summer. The percentage of mycorrhizal tips reached a maximum in winter, with its minimum in autumn. Collection of samples over the 3-year period also enabled us to detect a significant increase in percentage of ECM colonisation in the burned stand over time. PMID:15889285

  17. Burn Wound Infections

    PubMed Central

    Church, Deirdre; Elsayed, Sameer; Reid, Owen; Winston, Brent; Lindsay, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Burns are one of the most common and devastating forms of trauma. Patients with serious thermal injury require immediate specialized care in order to minimize morbidity and mortality. Significant thermal injuries induce a state of immunosuppression that predisposes burn patients to infectious complications. A current summary of the classifications of burn wound infections, including their diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, is given. Early excision of the eschar has substantially decreased the incidence of invasive burn wound infection and secondary sepsis, but most deaths in severely burn-injured patients are still due to burn wound sepsis or complications due to inhalation injury. Burn patients are also at risk for developing sepsis secondary to pneumonia, catheter-related infections, and suppurative thrombophlebitis. The introduction of silver-impregnated devices (e.g., central lines and Foley urinary catheters) may reduce the incidence of nosocomial infections due to prolonged placement of these devices. Improved outcomes for severely burned patients have been attributed to medical advances in fluid resuscitation, nutritional support, pulmonary and burn wound care, and infection control practices. PMID:16614255

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in post-fire soils of drained peatlands in western Meshchera (Moscow region, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsibart, A.; Gennadiev, A.; Koshovskii, T.; Watts, A.

    2014-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are priority pollutants that arrive in the environment from numerous anthropogenic and natural sources, but the data on their natural sources including wildfires remain insufficient. The level of contamination and the composition of PAHs in soils of the areas affected by wildfires were studied in this work. The study was conducted in the Moscow region (Russia) in areas occupied by drained peatland and strongly damaged by fires in 2002, 2010 and 2012. The features of PAH accumulation and the profile distributions in histosols and histic podzols after the fires of different times were analyzed. It was shown that new soil horizons formed after the fires - Cpir, Hpir and incipient O horizons - and that these horizons differ in PAH accumulation rate. Maximal total concentrations of 14 PAHs were detected in charred peat horizons Hpir (up to 330 ng g-1) and in post-fire incipient O horizons (up to 180 ng g-1), but the high-molecular-weight PAHs (benz(ghi)perylene, benz(a)pyrene, benz(k)fluoranthene) were revealed only in charry peat horizons. The trends of higher PAH concentrations were found in cases when smoldering combustion resulted in rather thick residual peat horizons. In cases of almost complete pyrogenic destruction of He horizons, total PAH concentrations were no more than 50 ng g-1. Also, PAH accumulation in upper horizons of soils near the sites of the latest fires was observed.

  19. Cognitive severity-specific neuronal degenerative network in charcoal burning suicide-related carbon monoxide intoxication: a multimodality neuroimaging study in taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nai-Ching; Huang, Chi-Wei; Huang, Shu-Hua; Chang, Wen-Neng; Chang, Ya-Ting; Lui, Chun-Chung; Lin, Pin-Hsuan; Lee, Chen-Chang; Chang, Yen-Hsiang; Chang, Chiung-Chih

    2015-05-01

    While carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication often triggers multiple intraneuronal immune- or inflammatory-related cascades, it is not known whether the pathological processes within the affected regions evolve equally in the long term. To understand the neurodegenerative networks, we examined 49 patients with a clinical diagnosis of CO intoxication related to charcoal burning suicide at the chronic stage and compared them with 15 age- and sex-matched controls. Reconstructions of degenerative networks were performed using T1 magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-tensor imaging, and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET). Tract-specific fractional anisotropy (FA) quantification of 11 association fibers was performed while the clinical significance of the reconstructed structural or functional networks was determined by correlating them with the cognitive parameters. Compared with the controls, the patients had frontotemporal gray matter (GM) atrophy, diffuse white matter (WM) FA decrement, and axial diffusivity (AD) increment. The patients were further stratified into 3 groups based on the cognitive severities. The spatial extents within the frontal-insular-caudate GM as well as the prefrontal WM AD increment regions determined the cognitive severities among 3 groups. Meanwhile, the prefrontal WM FA values and PET signals also correlated significantly with the patient's Mini-Mental State Examination score. Frontal hypometabolic patterns in PET analysis, even after adjusted for GM volume, were highly coherent to the GM atrophic regions, suggesting structural basis of functional alterations. Among the calculated major association bundles, only the anterior thalamic radiation FA values correlated significantly with all chosen cognitive scores. Our findings suggest that fronto-insular-caudate areas represent target degenerative network in CO intoxication. The topography that occurred at a cognitive severity-specific level at the chronic phase suggested the clinical roles of frontal areas. Although changes in FA are also diffusely distributed, different regional changes in AD suggested unequal long-term compensatory capacities among WM bundles. As such, the affected WM regions showing irreversible changes may exert adverse impacts to the interconnected GM structures. PMID:25984663

  20. Low-power laser-based carbon monoxide sensor for fire and post-fire detection using a compact Herriott multipass cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Thomazy; Stephen So; Anatoliy Kosterev; Rafal Lewicki; Lei Dong; Ardalan A. Sani; Frank K. Tittel

    2010-01-01

    With the anticipated retirement of Space Shuttles in the next few years, the re-supplying of short-lifetime sensors on the International Space Station (ISS) will be logistically more difficult. Carbon Monoxide (CO) is a well-known combustion product and its absence in a fire and post-fire environment is a reliable indicator for mission specialists that the air quality is at a safe

  1. Predicting and mitigating weed invasions to restore natural post-fire succession in Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Lisa FloydA; David HannaA; William H. RommeB; Timothy E. CrewsA

    2006-01-01

    Six large wildfires have burned in Mesa Verde National Park during the last 15 years, and extensive portions of burns were invaded by non-native plant species. The most threatening weed species include Carduus nutans, Cirsium arvense, and Bromus tectorum, and if untreated, they persist at least 13 years. We investigated patterns of weed distribution to identify plant communities most vulnerable

  2. Controlled Burn

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    GULF OF MEXICO — Dark clouds of smoke and fire emerge as oil burns during a controlled burn in the Gulf of Mexico. The U.S. Coast Guard working in partnership with BP PLC, local residents, and other Federal agencies conducted the controlled burn to aid in preventing the spread of oil following...

  3. Post-fire soil erosion on vineyards and canary pine-stands on the subtropical island of La Palma: scope of application of TLS?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umstaedter, Kathrin; Haas, Florian; Becht, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Land use is considered as a main factor regarding post-fire soil erosion. Especially in the subtropical climate with extreme rainfall events in winter and drought periods during summer times, soil erosion can clearly exceed the soil reproduction rate. On the Canary Island of La Palma frequent wildfires and steep slopes contribute to a high likelihood of post-fire soil erosion. For a quantitative measurement of the erosion rate a terrestrial Laser Scanner with high resolution in combination with a dGPS is used. The main target of this study is to quantify the post-fire soil erosion rates on study sites with a different land use on the island of La Palma (Canary Islands). The investigation focuses on two land use forms; both are very common and widespread on the island: canary pine stands and vineyard areas. The study sites are characterized by a varying steepness, a different fire history (wildfires in 2000, 2009 and 2012) and different stages of soil development. Both denudation and gully erosion processes are spread over the sites. Intense precipitation events can trigger debris flows and extensive soil erosion on post-fire sites, like in the year 2009 in the south or in 2012 on the west and east side of La Palma. Regarding that, erosion is not just a problem for agriculture, but for the infrastructure. For our project we assume, that different topography, different land use and different forest fire history can result in a different soil erosion rate and type (gully incision, denudation processes). To calculate the post-fire erosion rates of the two land use forms, 24 study sites - 10 sites in vineyard areas, 14 in canary pines stands - were selected. By means of a 3D terrestrial Laser Scanner (Riegl LMS Z420i), high resolution digital terrain models of the study sites were compiled. The data acquisition was carried out in October 2011, May 2012 and December 2012 and subsequently the terrain models were compared. With this method not only erosion rates can be detected, but areas with erosion and areas with accumulation can be identified. As additional information precipitation data of the measured time periods were acquired. For a better differentiation of the soil properties, soil profiles and soil samples of each study site were analyzed. Supplementary the occurrence of considerable erosion forms shall be detected by the comparison of aerial images of former years and analyzed in consideration of possible fire events. One target of our investigation shall be the answer of the question if the chosen methods can model the erosion rate and the distribution of erosion and accumulation in a satisfactory manner.

  4. Hand chemical burns.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Elliot P; Chhabra, A Bobby

    2015-03-01

    There is a vast and ever-expanding variety of potentially harmful chemicals in the military, industrial, and domestic landscape. Chemical burns make up a small proportion of all skin burns, yet they can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Additionally, the hand and upper extremity are the most frequently involved parts of the body in chemical burns, and therefore these injuries may lead to severe temporary or permanent loss of function. Despite this fact, discussion of the care of these injuries is sparse in the hand surgery literature. Although most chemical burns require only first response and wound care, some require the attention of a specialist for surgical debridement and, occasionally, skin coverage and reconstruction. Exposure to certain chemicals carries the risk of substantial systemic toxicity and even mortality. Understanding the difference between thermal and chemical burns, as well as special considerations for specific compounds, will improve patient treatment outcomes. PMID:25653184

  5. Chemical burns

    PubMed Central

    Cartotto, Robert C.; Peters, Walter J.; Neligan, Peter C.; Douglas, Leith G.; Beeston, Jeff

    1996-01-01

    Objectives To report a burn unit’s experience with chemical burns and to discuss the fundamental principles in managing chemical burns. Design A chart review. Setting A burn centre at a major university-affiliated hospital. Patients Twenty-four patients with chemical burns, representing 2.6% of all burn admissions over an 8-year period at the Ross Tilley Regional Adult Burn Centre. Seventy-five percent of the burn injuries were work-related accidents. Chemicals involved included hydrofluoric acid, sulfuric acid, black liquor, various lyes, potassium permanganate and phenol. Results Fourteen patients required excision and skin grafting. Complications were frequent and included ocular chemical contacts, wound infections, tendon exposures, toe amputation and systemic reactions from absorption of chemical. One patient died from a chemical scald burn to 98% of the body surface area. Conclusions The key principles in the management of chemical burns include removal of the chemical, copious irrigation, limited use of antidotes, correct estimation of the extent of injury, identification of systemic toxicity, treatment of ocular contacts and management of chemical inhalation injury. Individualized treatment is emphasized. PMID:8640619

  6. Post-Fire Rehabilitation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Colorado State Forest Service (CSFS) web page provides a collection of fact sheets to assist landowners in rehabilitating their property after wildfire. These include information on vegetative recovery, and soil erosion prevention strategies.

  7. Preventing tap water burns.

    PubMed Central

    Baptiste, M S; Feck, G

    1980-01-01

    Based on a 1974-1975 survey of hospital records in upstate New York, we estimate that 347 tap water burns will require inpatient treatment annually, with children and the elderly at increased risk. The number and severity of burns from tap water makes them an important prevention priority. Reducing the temperature of household hot water supplies could be a practical and effective prevention measure. PMID:7386711

  8. Clothing burns in Canadian children

    PubMed Central

    Stanwick, Richard S.

    1985-01-01

    A Canadian survey of 11 tertiary care pediatric centres with specialized burn facilities revealed that an estimated 37 children up to 9 years of age are admitted annually to such hospitals because of clothing burns. Sleepwear accounts for an estimated 21 such burns per year. Girls were found to suffer the most severe burns and represented eight of the nine children in the series who died. Loose and flowing garments dominated the girls' styles. The results of multiple-regression analysis confirmed that style of clothing (loose and flowing as opposed to snug) was the most significant predictor of burn severity, length of hospital stay, the need for skin grafting and survival. The ignition situation (avoidance of parental supervision at the time of injury) was the only other important predictor. The success of regulatory actions in other countries in reducing the incidence of severe clothing burns is reviewed, and preventive strategies for Canada are explored. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:3995433

  9. Does wildfire ash block soil pores? A micromorphological analysis of burned soils.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balfour, V.; Woods, S. W.

    2007-12-01

    Increases in runoff and erosion after forest wildfires are often attributed to the removal of surface cover, the formation of water repellent soils, and sealing of the soil surface by ash. The latter process involves clogging of pores by ash as well as rainsplash induced compaction of the ash layer. However, few studies have directly addressed the hydrologic role of ash and no studies have documented ash sealing in a forest fire environment. In an attempt to determine whether ash contributes to reduced infiltration after fire we conducted a micromorphological analysis of soils collected before and after three controlled pile burns at the Lubrecht Experimental Forest in western Montana. The burns were conducted with a fuel load of 90 Mg ha-1 on sites dominated by Lodgepole pine ( Pinus contorta) with scattered Douglas fir ( Pseudotoga menziesii), sandy loam soils and a mean of 99% ground cover (litter, duff and live vegetation). Soil cores were collected before burning, immediately after burning and after the burned areas had been subjected to simulated rainfall at an intensity of 80 mm hr-1 for 1 hour. The cores were impregnated with resin from which thin sections were made and microscopically analyzed to determine the vertical distribution of organic material, ash, mineral soil and porosity. Burning consumed all of the surface litter and duff and formed a <1cm layer of black and gray ash above the mineral soil, indicating a moderate severity burn. The mean soil temperature in the upper 1 cm of the mineral soil was 70° C, and there was no detectable increase in water repellency. Rainfall simulations conducted before and after the fires indicated that burning reduced the infiltration capacity from a pre-fire mean of 87 mm hr-1 to a post-fire mean of 35 mm hr-1. Prior to burning the upper 1 cm of the soil was comprised of 41% non- ash organic material, 4% clastic material and 55% pore space. After burning the porosity in the upper 1 cm decreased to 36% and the solid component consisted primarily of black and white ash (34% and 7% respectively). The biggest decrease in porosity was in the upper 2 mm of the soil where porosity decreased from 62 to 22% with a corresponding increase in the proportion of ash. Following the rainfall simulations the black ash content of the upper 1 cm decreased to 21%, suggesting that ash particles were removed in the runoff. However the remaining ash particles became noticeably more aligned parallel to the soil surface. Our observations indicate that ash may contribute to reduced infiltration after fire in two ways: 1) by filling pore space, and 2) by orienting parallel to the soil surface, so creating a thin water repellent organic layer in the upper few millimeters of the soil.

  10. A primer on burn resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Bacomo, Ferdinand K; Chung, Kevin K

    2011-01-01

    Since the early 1900s, the scope of burn resuscitation has evolved dramatically. Due to various advances in pre-hospital care and training, under-resuscitation of patients with severe burns is now relatively uncommon. Over-resuscitation, otherwise known as “fluid creep”, has emerged as one of the most important problems during the initial phases of burn care over the past decade. To avoid the complications of over-resuscitation, careful hourly titration of fluid rates based on compilation of various clinical end points by a bedside provider is vital. The aim of this review is to provide a practical approach to the resuscitation of severely burned patients. PMID:21633578

  11. Curbing Inflammation in Burn Patients

    PubMed Central

    Farina, Jayme A.; Rosique, Marina Junqueira; Rosique, Rodrigo G.

    2013-01-01

    Patients who suffer from severe burns develop metabolic imbalances and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) which can result in multiple organ failure and death. Research aimed at reducing the inflammatory process has yielded new insight into burn injury therapies. In this review, we discuss strategies used to curb inflammation in burn injuries and note that further studies with high quality evidence are necessary. PMID:23762773

  12. Response of the post-fire bryophyte community to salvage logging in boreal mixedwood forests of northeastern Alberta, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Bradbury

    2006-01-01

    Salvage logging is common practice in the boreal forest of northeastern Alberta, Canada. Fire-killed aspen snags are harvested as soon as is feasible after fire, and in the case of the House River fire (which burned over 250,000ha in May and June 2002), planning and harvesting began before the fire was extinguished and continued until summer 2003. The ecological consequences

  13. Effects of Fire Severity and Climate on Ring-Width Growth of Giant Sequoia After Fire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda S. Mutch; Thomas W. Swetnam

    Although fire has been recognized for several decades as a significant ecological force in giant sequoia ( Sequoiadendron giganteum)-mixed conifer forests (Hartesveldt 1964, Biswell 1967, Hartesveldt and Harvey 1967, Kilgore and Biswell 1971, Kilgore 1973, Harvey and others 1980), little is known about the growth response of giant sequoia to different types of fire and post-fire climate conditions. As early

  14. Burning issues

    SciTech Connect

    Raloff, J.

    1993-10-02

    The idea of burning oil slicks at sea has intrigued oil-cleanup managers for more than a decade, but it wasn't until the advent of fireproof booms in the mid-1980's and a major spill opportunity (the March 1989 Exxon Valdez) that in-situ burning got a real sea trial. The results of this and other burning experiments indicate that, when conditions allow it, nothing can compete with fire's ability to remove oil from water. Burns have the potential to remove as much oil in one day as mechanical devices can in one month, along with minimal equipment, labor and cost. Reluctance to burn in appropriate situations comes primarily from the formation of oily, black smoke. Analysis of the potentially toxic gases have been done, indicating that burning will not increase the levels of polluting aldehydes, ketones, dioxins, furans, and PAHs above those that normally evaporate from spilled oil. This article contains descriptions of planned oil fires and the discussion on the advantages and concerns of such a policy.

  15. Monitoring boreal forest leaf area index across a Siberian burn chronosequence: a MODIS validation study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Chen; L. Vierling; D. Deering; A. Conley

    2005-01-01

    Landscapes containing differing amounts of ecological disturbance provide an excellent opportunity to validate and better understand the emerging Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) vegetation products. Four sites, including 1?year post?fire coniferous, 13?year post?fire deciduous, 24?year post?fire deciduous, and >100 year old post?fire coniferous forests, were selected to serve as a post?fire chronosequence in the central Siberian region of Krasnoyarsk (57.3°N,

  16. Effects of Post-fire Succession and Edaphic Conditions on Tree Transpiration in a Boreal Black Spruce Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angstmann, J. L.; Ewers, B. E.; Kwon, H.; Bond-Lamberty, B.; Amiro, B.; Gower, S. T.

    2007-12-01

    Boreal forest ecosystems play an integral role in global climate change because of their large land area and ability to store large quantities of carbon. Quantifying and explaining tree water use in both well- and poorly- drained soils and across successional development is critical in understanding the influence of physiological processes on carbon, water, and energy cycling. Four black spruce stands burned in 1850, 1930, 1964, and 1989 were chosen for this research because they had been shown in previous studies to represent critical stages of forest development that capture the successional impacts of both leaf area and species composition change. We hypothesized that tree transpiration will differ between well- and poorly-drained areas and with age due to 1) tree size and age and edaphic-related hydraulic adjustments and 2) tree size will be explained by species specific growth differences from edaphic conditions. Sap flux, leaf water potential (\\PsiL), site specific allometric relationships between sapwood area and leaf area and soil properties such as texture and organic matter depth in each of the four burn ages were utilized to test these hypotheses. Results show that sap flux for Picea mariana at the 1964 burn age differed between well- and poorly-drained soils when scaled per unit xylem area with trees located on poorly-drained soils experiencing higher sap flux rates than trees in well- drained areas (101.79 & 83.02 g cm-2 day-1 respectively). However, when scaled to transpiration on a per tree basis, taking tree size into account, trees on well-drained soils had higher rates than those in poorly- drained locations (366.96 & 216.82 g tree-1 day-1 respectively). The presence of Pinus banksiana and Populus tremuloides in the well-drained areas increased stand transpiration rates for these areas considerably as compared to the poorly-drained areas. Midday \\PsiL for all four burns show no significant difference between well- and poorly-drained (average midday \\PsiL = -1.23 & -1.29 MPa respectively) sites for Picea mariana (t-value = -0.591, df = 6, p-value = 0.576). This indicates that tree size, which is constrained by growth and anaerobic conditions, drives differences in tree transpiration for well- and poorly-drained soils.

  17. Hillslope Erosion Processes after High Severity Wildfires, Colorado Front Range Joseph H. Pietraszek1 and Lee H. MacDonald2

    E-print Network

    MacDonald, Lee

    Hillslope Erosion Processes after High Severity Wildfires, Colorado Front Range Joseph H-severity forest fires can increase soil erosion rates by two or more orders of magnitude with potentially severe post-fire erosion is driven by high-intensity summer convective thunderstorms in the first 2-3 years

  18. Emergency assessment of post-fire debris-flow hazards for the 2013 Springs Fire, Ventura County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staley, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire can significantly alter the hydrologic response of a watershed to the extent that even modest rainstorms can produce dangerous flash floods and debris flows. In this report, empirical models are used to predict the probability and magnitude of debris-flow occurrence in response to a 10-year rainstorm for the 2013 Springs fire in Ventura County, California. Overall, the models predict a relatively high probability (60–80 percent) of debris flow for 9 of the 99 drainage basins in the burn area in response to a 10-year recurrence interval design storm. Predictions of debris-flow volume suggest that debris flows may entrain a significant volume of material, with 28 of the 99 basins identified as having potential debris-flow volumes greater than 10,000 cubic meters. These results of the relative combined hazard analysis suggest there is a moderate likelihood of significant debris-flow hazard within and downstream of the burn area for nearby populations, infrastructure, wildlife, and water resources. Given these findings, we recommend that residents, emergency managers, and public works departments pay close attention to weather forecasts and National Weather Service-issued Debris Flow and Flash Flood Outlooks, Watches, and Warnings, and that residents adhere to any evacuation orders.

  19. Emergency assessment of post-fire debris-flow hazards for the 2013 Mountain fire, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staley, Dennis M.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Smoczyk, Greg M.; Reeves, Ryan R.

    2013-01-01

    Wildfire dramatically alters the hydrologic response of a watershed such that even modest rainstorms can produce dangerous flash floods and debris flows. We use empirical models to predict the probability and magnitude of debris flow occurrence in response to a 10-year rainstorm for the 2013 Mountain fire near Palm Springs, California. Overall, the models predict a relatively high probability (60–100 percent) of debris flow for six of the drainage basins in the burn area in response to a 10-year recurrence interval design storm. Volumetric predictions suggest that debris flows that occur may entrain a significant volume of material, with 8 of the 14 basins identified as having potential debris-flow volumes greater than 100,000 cubic meters. These results suggest there is a high likelihood of significant debris-flow hazard within and downstream of the burn area for nearby populations, infrastructure, and wildlife and water resources. Given these findings, we recommend that residents, emergency managers, and public works departments pay close attention to weather forecasts and National Weather Service–issued Debris Flow and Flash Flood Outlooks, Watches and Warnings and that residents adhere to any evacuation orders.

  20. Medical management of paediatric burn injuries: best practice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Leo K P; Martin, Hugh C O; Holland, Andrew J A

    2012-04-01

    Burns commonly occur in children and their first aid remains inadequate despite burn prevention programmes. While scald injuries predominate, contact and flame burns remain common. Although typically less severe injuries overall than those in adults, hypertrophic scarring complicating both the burn wound and even donor sites occur more frequently in children. The heterogeneous nature of burn wounds, coupled with the difficulties associated with the early clinical assessment of burn depth, has stimulated the application of novel technologies to predict burn wound outcome. This review explores current best practice in the management of paediatric burns, with a focus on prevention, optimal first aid, resuscitation, burn wound prediction and wound management strategies. PMID:21679339

  1. Development of life prediction capabilities for liquid propellant rocket engines. Post-fire diagnostic system for the SSME system architecture study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gage, Mark; Dehoff, Ronald

    1991-01-01

    This system architecture task (1) analyzed the current process used to make an assessment of engine and component health after each test or flight firing of an SSME, (2) developed an approach and a specific set of objectives and requirements for automated diagnostics during post fire health assessment, and (3) listed and described the software applications required to implement this system. The diagnostic system described is a distributed system with a database management system to store diagnostic information and test data, a CAE package for visual data analysis and preparation of plots of hot-fire data, a set of procedural applications for routine anomaly detection, and an expert system for the advanced anomaly detection and evaluation.

  2. Mapping post-fire forest regeneration and vegetation recovery using a combination of very high spatial resolution and hyperspectral satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitri, George H.; Gitas, Ioannis Z.

    2013-02-01

    Careful evaluation of forest regeneration and vegetation recovery after a fire event provides vital information useful in land management. The use of remotely sensed data is considered to be especially suitable for monitoring ecosystem dynamics after fire. The aim of this work was to map post-fire forest regeneration and vegetation recovery on the Mediterranean island of Thasos by using a combination of very high spatial (VHS) resolution (QuickBird) and hyperspectral (EO-1 Hyperion) imagery and by employing object-based image analysis. More specifically, the work focused on (1) the separation and mapping of three major post-fire classes (forest regeneration, other vegetation recovery, unburned vegetation) existing within the fire perimeter, and (2) the differentiation and mapping of the two main forest regeneration classes, namely, Pinus brutia regeneration, and Pinus nigra regeneration. The data used in this study consisted of satellite images and field observations of homogeneous regenerated and revegetated areas. The methodology followed two main steps: a three-level image segmentation, and, a classification of the segmented images. The process resulted in the separation of classes related to the aforementioned objectives. The overall accuracy assessment revealed very promising results (approximately 83.7% overall accuracy, with a Kappa Index of Agreement of 0.79). The achieved accuracy was 8% higher when compared to the results reported in a previous work in which only the EO-1 Hyperion image was employed in order to map the same classes. Some classification confusions involving the classes of P. brutia regeneration and P. nigra regeneration were observed. This could be attributed to the absence of large and dense homogeneous areas of regenerated pine trees in the study area.

  3. Science at Burning Man

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Recently, the Exploratorium Museum in San Francisco sent a dedicated crew to check out the activities at the Burning Man festival in Nevada. The results of their journey and explorations can be seen here, and interested parties can learn about pyrotechnics, flight, dust devils, and rainbows. The site contains several dozen short films that feature Exploratorium scientists like Paul Doherty investigating the properties of alkali and a rare double rainbow sighting. One of the most impressive videos is a bird's eye view from an 88-NV plane over the Burning Man site. Finally, visitors are also encouraged to share these resources with others via social media sites, including Twitter and Facebook.

  4. Management of burn injuries in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Slator; J. D. Frame

    1996-01-01

    120000 patients are seen with burns in emergency departments in the U.K. each year. Of these, 50% will be children. The average age of the children admitted to the North East Thames Regional Burns Unit (NETRBU) will be 4 years, and the size of the burn 10% body surface area. Some of the children admitted will be severely ill requiring

  5. Testing the potential of multi-spectral remote sensing for retrospectively estimating fire severity in African Savannahs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alistair M. S. Smith; Martin J. Wooster; Nick A. Drake; Frederick M. Dipotso; Michael J. Falkowski; Andrew T. Hudak

    2005-01-01

    The remote sensing of fire severity is a noted goal in studies of forest and grassland wildfires. Experiments were conducted to discover and evaluate potential relationships between the characteristics of African savannah fires and post-fire surface spectral reflectance in the visible to shortwave infrared spectral region. Nine instrumented experimental fires were conducted in semi-arid woodland savannah of Chobe National Park

  6. Fire severity, residuals and soil legacies affect regeneration of Scots pine in the Southern Alps.

    PubMed

    Vacchiano, Giorgio; Stanchi, Silvia; Marinari, Giulia; Ascoli, Davide; Zanini, Ermanno; Motta, Renzo

    2014-02-15

    Regeneration of non fire-adapted conifers following crown fires on the European Alps is often delayed or unsuccessful. Fire may limit establishment by eliminating seed trees, altering soil properties, or modifying microsite and soil conditions via disturbance legacies. However, the effect of soil legacies on post-fire establishment has rarely been discussed. We analyzed the abundance of Scots pine regeneration in a 257 ha wildfire in an inner-alpine forest. Our aims were (1) to model fire intensity at the soil surface and topsoil heating along a gradient of increasing fire severities; (2) to assess the differences in soil properties along the fire severity gradient; (3) to model the effect of disturbance and soil legacies on the density of pine seedlings. We reconstructed fire behavior and soil heating with the First Order Fire Effects Model (FOFEM), tested the effect of fire severity on soils by nonparametric distributional tests, and modeled seedling density as a function of site, disturbance and soil legacies by fitting a GLM following a variable selection procedure. Topsoil heating differed markedly between the moderate and high severity fires, reaching temperatures high enough to strongly and permanently alter soil properties only in the latter. High fire severity resulted in decreased soil consistency and wet aggregate stability. Burned soils had lower organic matter and cations than those unburned. Pine seedlings favored low-fertility, eroded, and chemically poor sites. Establishment was facilitated by the presence of coarse woody debris, but hampered by increasing distance from the seed source. These results suggest that in dry, inner-alpine valleys, fire residuals and soil legacies interact in determining the success of Scots pine re-establishment. High severity fire can promote favorable soil conditions, but distance from the seed source and high evaporation rates of bare soils must be mitigated in order to ensure a successful restoration. PMID:24334000

  7. Burn Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Fluid resuscitation following burn injury must support organ perfusion with the least amount of fluid necessary and the least physiological cost. Under resuscitation may lead to organ failure and death. With adoption of weight and injury size-based formulas for resuscitation, multiple organ dysfunction and inadequate resuscitation have become uncommon. Instead, administration of fluid volumes well in excess of historic guidelines has been reported. A number of strategies including greater use of colloids and vasoactive drugs are now under investigation to optimize preservation of end organ function while avoiding complications which can include respiratory failure and compartment syndromes. Adjuncts to resuscitation, such as antioxidants, are also being investigated along with parameters beyond urine output and vital signs to identify endpoints of therapy. Here we briefly review the state-of-the-art and provide a sample of protocols now under investigation in North American burn centers. PMID:22078326

  8. Burn Trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Brian Boyd

    \\u000a Burn trauma is still a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. It causes a spectrum of disability\\u000a and deformity primarily by damaging the integumentary system of its victims. However, it is the systemic effects caused by\\u000a sepsis, fluid and electrolyte imbalance, shock, inhalation injury and myone-crosis that are the usual agents of death. Patients\\u000a must be

  9. Global Burned Area and Biomass Burning Emissions from Small Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.

    2012-01-01

    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity analyses of key model parameters caused estimates of global burned area increases from small fires to vary between 24% and 54%. Biomass burning carbon emissions increased by 35% at a global scale when small fires were included in GFED3, from 1.9 Pg C/yr to 2.5 Pg C/yr. The contribution of tropical forest fires to year-to-year variability in carbon fluxes increased because small fires amplified emissions from Central America, South America and Southeast Asia-regions where drought stress and burned area varied considerably from year to year in response to El Nino-Southern Oscillation and other climate modes.

  10. Phenology-based, remote sensing of post-burn disturbance windows in rangelands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sankeya, Joel B.; Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Ravi, Sujith

    2013-01-01

    Wildland fire activity has increased in many parts of the world in recent decades. Ecological disturbance by fire can accelerate ecosystem degradation processes such as erosion due to combustion of vegetation that otherwise provides protective cover to the soil surface. This study employed a novel ecological indicator based on remote sensing of vegetation greenness dynamics (phenology) to estimate variability in the window of time between fire and the reemergence of green vegetation. The indicator was applied as a proxy for short-term, post-fire disturbance windows in rangelands; where a disturbance window is defined as the time required for an ecological or geomorphic process that is altered to return to pre-disturbance levels. We examined variability in the indicator determined for time series of MODIS and AVHRR NDVI remote sensing data for a database of ?100 historical wildland fires, with associated post-fire reseeding treatments, that burned 1990–2003 in cold desert shrub steppe of the Great Basin and Columbia Plateau of the western USA. The indicator-based estimates of disturbance window length were examined relative to the day of the year that fires burned and seeding treatments to consider effects of contemporary variability in fire regime and management activities in this environment. A key finding was that contemporary changes of increased length of the annual fire season could have indirect effects on ecosystem degradation, as early season fires appeared to result in longer time that soils remained relatively bare of the protective cover of vegetation after fires. Also important was that reemergence of vegetation did not occur more quickly after fire in sites treated with post-fire seeding, which is a strategy commonly employed to accelerate post-fire vegetation recovery and stabilize soil. Future work with the indicator could examine other ecological factors that are dynamic in space and time following disturbance – such as nutrient cycling, carbon storage, microbial community composition, or soil hydrology – as a function of disturbance windows, possibly using simulation modeling and historical wildfire information.

  11. [Current treatment strategies for paediatric burns].

    PubMed

    Küntscher, M V; Hartmann, B

    2006-06-01

    Paediatric burns occupy the third place in the severe accident statistics in Germany after traffic injuries and drowning. The paper reviews current treatment concepts of pre-hospital management, fluid resuscitation and surgical therapy in paediatric burned patients. Specific features in the approximation of the total body surface area burn and indications for transfer of paediatric burn victims to specialized units are discussed. The therapy of severe paediatric burns requires an interdisciplinary team consisting of especially skilled plastic or paediatric surgeons,anaesthetists, psychiatrists or psychologists, specifically trained nurses, physiotherapists and social workers. The rehabilitation process starts basically with admission to the burn unit. A tight cooperation between therapists and the relatives of the paediatric burn victim is needed for psychological recovery and reintegration into society.'The adaptation to the suffered trauma resulting in life-long disability and disfigurement is the main task of psychotherapy. PMID:16883500

  12. [Burn injuries of children in first aid care].

    PubMed

    Corvo, Maurizio; Isoardi, Patrizia; Startari, Rosario; Guerci, Sara; Bernardo, Luca

    2005-01-01

    Burn injury are second leading cause of accidental death in children. Treatment of burns depends on severity of injury, location, characteristics of child and mechanism of injury. Objective is to value the multiple problems in infant burns and immediate management in emergency room. The better and immediate treatment burns recover and prevent dirty scars. PMID:16910446

  13. Ken Burns

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-02-10

    Ken Burns is a popular documentarian and, as it turns out, he is now a popular app, in a manner of speaking. This particular app gives interested parties the ability to view scenes from his documentaries (such as "Baseball" and "Jazz") in a variety of settings. The latest version allows visitors to access the Innovation playlist absolutely free while other playlists containing clips from his other programs are available for a small fee. This version is compatible with iPads running iOS 7.0 and newer.

  14. Overview of current pediatric burn care.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Raquel; Shanti, Christina M

    2015-02-01

    Burn injuries affect approximately a million children in the United States on an annual basis. Moderate to severe burns require hospitalization, usually under the direction of a Pediatric Surgical service. Despite advancements in burn treatment, pediatric burn injuries account for approximately 2500 deaths annually. This article provides an overview of the initial evaluation and resuscitative measures for pediatric burn patients, most current wound care, indications for grafting, and the role of nutrition, including use of pharmacologic adjuncts. Use of colloid solutions, indications for use of skin substitutes, and transfer criteria will also be addressed. PMID:25639810

  15. Physical and psychiatric recovery from burns.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Frederick J; Ryan, Colleen M; Schneider, Jeffrey C

    2014-08-01

    Burn injuries pose complex biopsychosocial challenges to recovery and improved comprehensive care. The physical and emotional sequelae of burns differ, depending on burn severity, individual resilience, and stage of development when they occur. Most burn survivors are resilient and recover, whereas some are more vulnerable and have complicated outcomes. Physical rehabilitation is affected by orthopedic, neurologic, and metabolic complications and disabilities. Psychiatric recovery is affected by pain, mental disorders, substance abuse, and burn stigmatization. Individual resilience, social supports, and educational or occupational achievements affect outcomes. PMID:25085093

  16. Mcm Burn-In Experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Bardsley; Joseph Lisowski; Steven Wilson; Steve Vanaernam

    1994-01-01

    Multi-chip module burn-in has been utilized at IBM for several years. The current module bum-in tool stresses 121 chip multi-chip modules used in the IBM ES\\/9000 mainframes. MCM level burn-in has been performed on alumina and glass-ceramic substrates with bipolar and CMOS chip technologies resulting in various challenges to tool design and process development. This paper will focus on the

  17. Low-power laser-based carbon monoxide sensor for fire and post-fire detection using a compact Herriott multipass cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomazy, David; So, Stephen; Kosterev, Anatoliy; Lewicki, Rafal; Dong, Lei; Sani, Ardalan A.; Tittel, Frank K.

    2010-01-01

    With the anticipated retirement of Space Shuttles in the next few years, the re-supplying of short-lifetime sensors on the International Space Station (ISS) will be logistically more difficult. Carbon Monoxide (CO) is a well-known combustion product and its absence in a fire and post-fire environment is a reliable indicator for mission specialists that the air quality is at a safe to breathe level. We report on the development and performance of a prototype compact CO sensor, based on the PHOTONS platform [1], developed for the ISS based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). A CO absorption line at ~4285 cm-1 is targeted using a distributed-feedback (DFB) laser diode operating at room temperature. A custom designed Herriott multipass cell 16cm long, with an effective path length of 3.7 m is employed. Mechanical, optical and electronics systems are integrated into a compact package of dimensions measuring 12.4"x 3.4"x 5". Power consumption is less than 1 W, enabling prolonged battery life. A detection limit of 3 ppm is achieved when performing 40 second long temperature scans. A recent initial test at NASA-JSC was successful. Future improvements include the reduction of the sampling volume, scan time and an improved CO minimum detection limit.

  18. Characterizing the primary material sources and dominant erosional processes for post-fire debris-flow initiation in a headwater basin using multi-temporal terrestrial laser scanning data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staley, Dennis M.; Wasklewicz, Thad A.; Kean, Jason W.

    2014-06-01

    Wildfire dramatically alters the hydrologic response of a watershed such that even modest rainstorms can produce hazardous debris flows. Relative to shallow landslides, the primary sources of material and dominant erosional processes that contribute to post-fire debris-flow initiation are poorly constrained. Improving our understanding of how and where material is eroded from a watershed during a post-fire debris-flow requires (1) precise measurements of topographic change to calculate volumetric measurements of erosion and deposition, and (2) the identification of relevant morphometrically defined process domains to spatially constrain these measurements of erosion and deposition. In this study, we combine the morphometric analysis of a steep, small (0.01 km2) headwater drainage basin with measurements of topographic change using high-resolution (2.5 cm) multi-temporal terrestrial laser scanning data made before and after a post-fire debris flow. The results of the morphometric analysis are used to define four process domains: hillslope-divergent, hillslope-convergent, transitional, and channelized incision. We determine that hillslope-divergent and hillslope-convergent process domains represent the primary sources of material over the period of analysis in the study basin. From these results we conclude that raindrop-impact induced erosion, ravel, surface wash, and rilling are the primary erosional processes contributing to post-fire debris-flow initiation in the small, steep headwater basin. Further work is needed to determine (1) how these results vary with increasing drainage basin size, (2) how these data might scale upward for use with coarser resolution measurements of topography, and (3) how these results change with evolving sediment supply conditions and vegetation recovery.

  19. Characterizing the primary material sources and dominant erosional processes for post-fire debris-flow initiation in a headwater basin using multi-temporal terrestrial laser scanning data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staley, Dennis M.; Waslewicz, Thad A.; Kean, Jason W.

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire dramatically alters the hydrologic response of a watershed such that even modest rainstorms can produce hazardous debris flows. Relative to shallow landslides, the primary sources of material and dominant erosional processes that contribute to post-fire debris-flow initiation are poorly constrained. Improving our understanding of how and where material is eroded from a watershed during a post-fire debris-flow requires (1) precise measurements of topographic change to calculate volumetric measurements of erosion and deposition, and (2) the identification of relevant morphometrically defined process domains to spatially constrain these measurements of erosion and deposition. In this study, we combine the morphometric analysis of a steep, small (0.01 km2) headwater drainage basin with measurements of topographic change using high-resolution (2.5 cm) multi-temporal terrestrial laser scanning data made before and after a post-fire debris flow. The results of the morphometric analysis are used to define four process domains: hillslope-divergent, hillslope-convergent, transitional, and channelized incision. We determine that hillslope-divergent and hillslope-convergent process domains represent the primary sources of material over the period of analysis in the study basin. From these results we conclude that raindrop-impact induced erosion, ravel, surface wash, and rilling are the primary erosional processes contributing to post-fire debris-flow initiation in the small, steep headwater basin. Further work is needed to determine (1) how these results vary with increasing drainage basin size, (2) how these data might scale upward for use with coarser resolution measurements of topography, and (3) how these results change with evolving sediment supply conditions and vegetation recovery.

  20. A half-century of burn epidemiology and burn care in a rural state.

    PubMed

    Blaisdell, Laura L; Chace, Reeve; Hallagan, Lee D; Clark, David E

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the changes in incidence, severity, and mortality in burn injuries in the state of Maine over the past 50 years from both prevention and treatment perspectives. The authors analyzed the data from multiple sources, including the U.S. Census, death certificates, hospital discharge abstracts, and institutional burn registries in Maine and Boston. The average annual number of burn-related deaths decreased from 53 in 1960-1964 to 14 in 2004-2008. The Maine age-adjusted rate of burn deaths was 8.6% above the national rate in 1960 and 1.4% below it in 2006. The annual number of burn patients admitted to Maine hospitals declined by 65% from 1978 to 2009. Since 1999, 12% of hospitalized patients in Maine were treated in an American Burn Association-certified burn center in Boston. Mortality for Maine burn patients, including those treated at Boston hospitals, is directly related to age and burn severity and similar to stratified mortality in the National Burn Repository. Incidence, severity, and mortality of burn injuries in Maine have decreased dramatically over the past 5 decades. Prevention programs, legislation, and a regionalized system of burn care have all likely contributed to bringing Maine's morbidity and mortality rate below the national average. PMID:22002206

  1. Efficacy of topical phenol decontamination strategies on severity of acute phenol chemical burns and dermal absorption: in vitro and in vivo studies in pig skin.

    PubMed

    Monteiro-Riviere, N A; Inman, A O; Jackson, H; Dunn, B; Dimond, S

    2001-05-01

    Pure phenol is colorless and used in the manufacture of phenolic resins, plastics, explosives, fertilizers, paints, rubber, textiles, adhesives, pharmaceuticals, paper, soap, and wood preservatives. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of several phenol decontamination strategies following dermal exposure using the pig as a model for human exposure, and then assess the effect of the two best treatments on phenol absorption in the isolated perfused porcine skin flap (IPPSF). Six anesthetized Yorkshire pigs were exposed to 89% aqueous phenol for 1 min using Hilltop chambers (10 skin sites/pig; 400 microl/site). Exposure to phenol was followed by one of 10 different decontamination procedures: 1-, 5-, 15-, and 30-min water wash; Ivory soap solution; polyethylene glycol (PEG 400); PEG 400/industrial methylated spirits (IMS); PEG 400/ethanol (EtOH); polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP)/70% isopropanol (IPA); and 70% IPA. For each of the last five strategies, 1-min treatment washes were repeatedly alternated with 1-min water washes for a total of 15 min. Evaluation was based on scoring of erythema, edema, and histological parameters such as intracellular and intercellular epidermal edema, papillary dermal edema, perivascular infiltrates, pyknotic stratum basale cells, and epidermal-dermal separation. It was concluded that PEG 400 and 70% IPA were superior to the other treatments investigated and equally efficacious in the reduction of phenol-induced skin damage. In addition, phenol absorption was assessed utilizing the two most effective in vivo treatments in the IPPSF. The assessment of percutaneous absorption of phenol found the PEG 400, 70% IPA, and 15-min water treatments significantly (P < 0.05) reduced phenol absorption relative to no treatment. PMID:12479505

  2. First Aid: Burns

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Medical Care Think Prevention! Scald burns from hot water and other liquids are the most common burns in early childhood. Because burns range from mild to life threatening, some can be treated at home, while ...

  3. Burns in diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Maghsoudi, Hemmat; Aghamohammadzadeh, Naser; Khalili, Nasim

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT AND AIMS: Diabetic burn patients comprise a significant population in burn centers. The purpose of this study was to determine the demographic characteristics of diabetic burn patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective data were collected on 94 diabetic burn patients between March 20, 2000 and March 20, 2006. Of 3062 burns patients, 94 (3.1%) had diabetes; these patients were compared with 2968 nondiabetic patients with burns. Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical analysis software SPSS 10.05. Differences between the two groups were evaluated using Student's t-test and the chi square test. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. RESULTS: The major mechanism of injury for the diabetic patients was scalding and flame burns, as was also the case in the nondiabetic burn patients. The diabetic burn patients were significantly older, with a lower percentage of total burn surface area (TBSA) than the nondiabetic burn population. There was significant difference between the diabetic and nondiabetic patients in terms of frequency of infection. No difference in mortality rate between diabetic and nondiabetic burn patients was observed. The most common organism in diabetic and nondiabetic burn patients was methicillin-resistant staphylococcus. Increasing %TBSA burn and the presence of inhalation injury are significantly associated with increased mortality following burn injury. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetics have a higher propensity for infection. Education for diabetic patients must include caution about potential burn mishaps and the complications that may ensue from burns. PMID:19902035

  4. Comparison of tokamak burn cycle options

    SciTech Connect

    Ehst, D.A.; Brooks, J.N.; Cha, Y.; Evans, K. Jr.; Hassanein, A.M.; Kim, S.; Majumdar, S.; Misra, B.; Stevens, H.C.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental confirmation of noninductive current drive has spawned a number of suggestions as to how this technique can be used to extend the fusion burn period and improve the reactor prospects of tokamaks. Several distinct burn cycles, which employ various combinations of Ohmic and noninductive current generation, are possible, and we will study their relative costs and benefits for both a commerical reactor as well as an INTOR-class device. We begin with a review of the burn cycle options.

  5. Quantitative assessment of graded burn wounds in a porcine model using spatial frequency

    E-print Network

    Choi, Bernard

    Quantitative assessment of graded burn wounds in a porcine model using spatial frequency domain co-first authors *adurkin@uci.edu Abstract: Accurate and timely assessment of burn wound severity superficial burns and full thickness burns are easily diagnosed through visual inspection, burns that fall

  6. Paradoxical effect of burns in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Spillert, C R; Suval, W D; Vernese, N A; Lazaro, E J

    1986-01-01

    Since the microcirculation is impaired in diabetes and since burn injury is associated with microvascular thrombosis, the purpose of this study was to determine whether diabetes increases the severity of burns. Swiss white mice were made diabetic with alloxan, and control animals received saline. One week later, animals with over 2000 mg/dl urine sugar and the control animals were anesthetized and burned uniformly on the back with a steel disc at 100 C for 10 sec. At 24 hr, burn severity was evaluated on a scale of 0 to 4 using gross and microscopic criteria. The mean burn severity of the diabetic mice was 0.80 +/- .15 and that of the control mice was 3.22 +/- .09 at 24 hr (P less than 0.001.). At 5 days, the differences of the burn severity between the two groups were still significant, but 5/10 (50%) of the diabetic mice and none of the control mice died. In diabetic mice, through burn severity appears mild in the wound, the mortality is high. Therefore, the criteria for initial evaluation of the diabetic with burns need to be reassessed. PMID:3942390

  7. Burn Injuries: Causes, Consequences, Knowledge, Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healer, Cheryl V.; And Others

    This report covers Phase I of the Burn Injury Education Demonstration Project, a four-phased project designed to explore the feasibility of using educational intervention strategies to increase knowledge and appropriate behaviors and attitudes to reduce the number and severity of burns. Phase I involved a comprehensive needs assessment conducted…

  8. Alcohol and drug abuse in burn injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Haum; W. Perbix; H. J. Häck; G. B. Stark; G. Spilker; M. Doehn

    1995-01-01

    Two studies are described in this paper. In the first study 225 acutely, severely burned patients were retrospectively investigated as to admission blood alcohol level and history of chronic alcohol abuse. The influence of further risk factors, circumstances and therapeutic data was studied, in particular the influence of gender, full-thickness burns, smoke inhalation injury, smoking, length of total and ICU

  9. Spatial frequency domain imaging of burn wounds in a preclinical model of

    E-print Network

    Rose, Michael R.

    Spatial frequency domain imaging of burn wounds in a preclinical model of graded burn severity John Ponticorvo Bernard Choi Anthony J. Durkin #12;Spatial frequency domain imaging of burn wounds in a preclinical model of graded burn severity John Quan Nguyen,a Christian Crouzet,a Tuan Mai,a Kathleen Riola

  10. Spatial frequency domain imaging of burn wounds in a preclinical model of

    E-print Network

    Choi, Bernard

    Spatial frequency domain imaging of burn wounds in a preclinical model of graded burn severity John://biomedicaloptics.spiedigitallibrary.org/ on 07/15/2013 Terms of Use: http://spiedl.org/terms #12;Spatial frequency domain imaging of burn wounds in a preclinical model of graded burn severity John Quan Nguyen,a Christian Crouzet,a Tuan Mai,a Kathleen Riola

  11. Burn Control Mechanisms in Tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Maxwell; Stacey, Weston

    2013-10-01

    Burn control and passive safety in accident scenarios will be an important design consideration in future tokamaks, especially those used as a neutron source for fusion-fission hybrid reactors, such as the Subcritical Advanced Burner Reactor (SABR) concept. At Georgia Tech, we are developing a new burning plasma dynamics code to investigate passive safety mechanisms that could prevent power excursions in tokamak reactors. This code solves the coupled set of balance equations governing burning plasmas in conjunction with a two-point SOL-divertor model. Predictions have been benchmarked against data from DIII-D. We are examining several potential negative feedback mechanisms to limit power excursions: i) ion-orbit loss, ii) thermal instabilities, iii) the degradation of alpha-particle confinement resulting from ripples in the toroidal field, iv) modifications to the radial current profile, v) ``divertor choking'' and vi) Type 1 ELMs.

  12. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

  13. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

  14. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

  15. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

  16. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

  17. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

  18. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

  19. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

  20. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

  1. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

  2. A five-year review of burn injuries in Irrua

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew E Dongo; Eshobo E Irekpita; Lilian O Oseghale; Charles E Ogbebor; Christopher E Iyamu; John E Snr Onuminya

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The management of burns remains a challenge in developing countries. Few data exist to document the extent of the problem. This study provides data from a suburban setting by documenting the epidemiology of burn injury and ascertaining outcome of management. This will help in planning strategies for prevention of burns and reducing severity of complications. METHODS: A total of

  3. [Primary treatment of burn patients].

    PubMed

    Giessler, G A; Deb, R; Germann, G; Sauerbier, M

    2004-06-01

    Burn injuries can be caused by thermal, electrical, chemical, or mechanical trauma or radiation and are relatively rare, as they represent only about 1% of all emergencies. They are caused by accidents at home, during recreational activities, or in the occupational environment. Minor burn traumas are much more common than severe burn injuries with their systemic and potentially life-threatening effects. Altogether, these circumstances may result in a lack of routine for treating such injuries properly by physicians and their colleagues in the emergency room or intensive care unit. A clearly outlined concept for preclinical and clinical treatment can be the keystone of successful further clinical progress. The following article summarizes the current guidelines for first medical aid at the injury scene, burn stabilization and assessment in the emergency room, and the interdisciplinary approach for further clinical care. The treatment of dermatologic emergencies (acute epidermolytic syndromes) or caustic injuries by chemical agents is similar to the treatment of burn victims in many aspects but must be adapted in selected cases. PMID:15103423

  4. Burns and Fire Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    1 Burns and Fire Safety Fact Sheet (2015) Fatalities • 334 children ages 19 and under died from fires or ... from 2012 to 2013. 1 1999-2013 Fire/Burn Fatalities and Death Rate Among Children Ages 19 ...

  5. Economics of pediatric burns.

    PubMed

    Bass, Michael J; Phillips, Linda G

    2008-07-01

    Sustaining a burn injury sets in motion a cycle of pain, disfigurement, and a search for survival. In pediatric burns, the injury extends to the parents where fear, ignorance, and helplessness forever change their lives. Pediatric burn injuries are caused by fire, hot liquids, clothing irons, hair curlers, caustic substances like drain cleaner, the grounding of an electrical source, and exposure to radiation. Efficiency in the delivery of pediatric burn care is critical. Maximizing resource utilization means continual self-evaluation and economic analysis of therapeutic modalities. Griffiths et al found that most childhood burns are due to scalds, which can be treated for $1061 per percent burn. Paddock et al reduced the cost of treating superficial pediatric burns and reduced the length of stay in hospital using silver-impregnated gauze over traditional methods. Barrett et al found improved cosmesis of skin grafts using cultured epithelial autografts but at a substantially increased cost. Corpron et al showed that pediatric burn units that treat burns >10% total body surface area and operative treatment of pediatric burns regardless of size generate positive revenue. There is a paucity of evidentiary pediatric burn economic data. More research is needed to address areas of pediatric burn care inefficiency. Improving knowledge of cost in all health care endeavors will create competition and drive down expenditures. PMID:18650705

  6. Learn Not To Burn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Nancy; Hendricks, Charlotte M.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the "Learn Not to Burn Preschool Program," a low-cost fire safety awareness and burn prevention curriculum for young children. The program promotes eight burn prevention methods--including practicing an escape plan--using developmentally appropriate learning objectives to increase children's fire safety knowledge, skill, and…

  7. Effects of partial post-fire salvage harvesting on vegetation communities in the boreal mixedwood forest region of northeastern Alberta, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ellen Macdonald

    2007-01-01

    We examined forest structure and understory vascular plant communities of aspen (Populus tremuloides)-dominated mixedwood boreal forest in Alberta, Canada that had been burned by wildfire and then subjected to one of three treatments (salvage harvested with single-tree retention, salvage harvested with patch-retention, unsalvaged control). Both salvage harvesting treatments resulted in greater cover of regenerating aspen saplings, as compared to unsalvaged

  8. Sandal burns and their treatment in children.

    PubMed

    Shakirov, Babur M

    2004-01-01

    Sandal is an ancient, primitive heating device that is still in use by both poor and rich people in mountain areas of Middle Asia. Sandal burn injuries are a serious health problem. Characteristics of sandal burns include not only skin injuries of various depths but also injuries to underlying tissues: subcutaneous fat, fasciae, muscles, and even bones. Sandal burns are characterized by such severe deep injuries because of a close contact of the body with live coals or woods. The main goal of this work was to present the most complete information about sandal burns and discuss the most effective methods of treatment for sandal burns. This treatment is used to accelerate the rejection of necrotic tissue, to prepare the wound for early autodermoplastic surgery, to decrease the postburn contractures/deformities, and also to shorten hospital stay for the patients. PMID:15534459

  9. Modeling thermal burns due to airbag deployment.

    PubMed

    Mercer, G N; Sidhu, H S

    2005-12-01

    Automotive airbags are now a widely accepted safety measure designed to reduce morbidity associated with motor vehicle accidents. Their usage is increasing with multiple airbags (driver, passenger and side curtain) being fitted to many vehicles. However the deployment of airbags has been identified as causing injuries in some instances including minor burns. There are three mechanisms for thermal burns due to an airbag; contact with the hot expelled gases from the airbag, contact with the hot airbag itself and melting of clothing from either of these contacts. A mathematical model is used here to predict the likelihood and severity of the first two types of burns. It is shown that direct contact with high temperature exhaust gases venting from the airbag can indeed lead to burns and that burns from contacting the hot airbag material are possible but far less likely to occur. PMID:16274929

  10. Epidemiology of hospitalized burns patients in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chien, Wu-Chien; Pai, Lu; Lin, Chao-Cheng; Chen, Heng-Chang

    2003-09-01

    Previous studies based on either single hospital data or sampling of specific groups of hospitalized burns victims in Taiwan have provided only minimal epidemiological information. The study is designed to provide additional data on the epidemiology of hospitalized burns patients in Taiwan. Data were obtained from the Burn Injury Information System (BIIS), which brings together information supplied by 34 contracted hospitals. The study time course spanned a 2-year period from July 1997 to June 1999. Patient characteristics (age, sex, education level, etc.), causes and severity of injuries, and medical care measures were explored. A total of 4741 patients were registered with BIIS over the study period. The majority of hospitalized patients (67%) were male. The age distribution of burns patients showed peaks occurring at the age groups of 0-5 and 35-44 years. Over the time course of a day, burn injuries occurred more frequently from 10:00 to 12:00 h and 16:00 to 18:00 h. Injuries suspected as the result of suicide, homicide or child abuse accounted for 4.8% of hospitalized cases. More than 48% of the burns occurred in the home. The leading type of burn injury was scalding, followed by naked flame, explosion, electrical burns, and chemical burns due to caustic or corrosive substances. The mean percent total body surface area (%TBSA) for adults was 19%, and for young children was 12%. The average length of hospital stay was 18 days. In conclusion, children under 5 years and adults between 35 and 44 years of age are two high-risk groups for burn injuries. Corresponding to meal preparation time, hot substances such as boiling water, hot soup, etc. are the most common agents responsible for scalds. Prevention programs for reducing the risk of burn injuries during cooking and eating are required, especially for parents with young children. PMID:12927984

  11. Landscape aridity, fire severity and rainfall intensity as controls on debris flow frequency after the 2009 Black Saturday Wildfires in Victoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyman, Petter; Sherwin, Christopher; Sheridan, Gary; Lane, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    This study uses aerial imagery and field surveys to develop a statistical model for determining debris flow susceptibility in a landscape with variable terrain, soil and vegetation properties. A measure of landscape scale debris flow response was obtained by recording all debris flow affected drainage lines in the first year after fire in a ~258 000 ha forested area that was burned by the 2009 Black Saturday Wildfire in Victoria. A total of 12 500 points along the drainage network were sampled from catchments ranging in size from 0.0001 km2to 75 km2. Local slope and the attributes of the drainage areas (including the spatially averaged peak intensity) were extracted for each sample point. A logistic regression was used to model how debris flow susceptibility varies with the normalised burn ratio (dNBR, from Landsat imagery), rainfall intensity (from rainfall radar), slope (from DEM) and aridity (from long-term radiation, temperature and rainfall data).The model of debris flow susceptibility produced a good fit with the observed debris flow response of drainage networks within the burned area and was reliable in distinguishing between drainage lines which produced debris flows and those which didn't. The performance of the models was tested through multiple iterations of fitting and testing using unseen data. The local channel slope captured the effect of scale on debris flow susceptibility with debris flow probability approaching zero as the channel slope decreased with increasing drainage area. Aridity emerged as an important predictor of debris flow susceptibility, with increased likelihood of debris flows in drier parts of the landscape, thus reinforcing previous research in the region showing that post-fire surface runoff from wet Eucalypt forests is insufficient for initiating debris flows. Fire severity, measured as dNBR, was also a very important predictor. The inclusion of local channel slope as a predictor of debris flow susceptibility proved to be an effective approach for implicitly incorporating scale and relief as parameters. When combined with models of debris flow magnitude the results from this study can be used obtain continuous probability-magnitude relations of sediment flux from debris flows for drainage networks across entire burned areas.

  12. Emergency assessment of post-fire debris-flow hazards for the 2013 Rim Fire, Stanislaus National Forest and Yosemite National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staley, Dennis M.

    2013-01-01

    Wildfire can significantly alter the hydrologic response of a watershed to the extent that even modest rainstorms can produce dangerous flash floods and debris flows. In this report, empirical models are used to predict the probability and magnitude of debris-flow occurrence in response to a 10-year rainstorm for the 2013 Rim fire in Yosemite National Park and the Stanislaus National Forest, California. Overall, the models predict a relatively high probability (60–80 percent) of debris flow for 28 of the 1,238 drainage basins in the burn area in response to a 10-year recurrence interval design storm. Predictions of debris-flow volume suggest that debris flows may entrain a significant volume of material, with 901 of the 1,238 basins identified as having potential debris-flow volumes greater than 10,000 cubic meters. These results of the relative combined hazard analysis suggest there is a moderate likelihood of significant debris-flow hazard within and downstream of the burn area for nearby populations, infrastructure, wildlife, and water resources. Given these findings, we recommend that residents, emergency managers, and public works departments pay close attention to weather forecasts and National-Weather-Service-issued Debris Flow and Flash Flood Outlooks, Watches and Warnings and that residents adhere to any evacuation orders.

  13. Do Large Fire Runs Result in More Severe Fires?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, P.; Birch, D.; Kolden, C.; Smith, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    Do large fire runs consistently result in high severity fires, and how do climate, weather topography and fuels influence where they burn severely? We analyzed burn severity on 11,938 polygons representing daily area growth (0.09 - 5559 ha, median 0.75 ha) from 410 days of fire progression totaling more than 141,363 ha from 43 large forest fires from Idaho and Montana that burned 2007-2011. We used burn severity classes interpreted using differenced Normalized Burn Ratio from 30-m Landsat satellite imagery by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity project, along with infrared perimeter maps provided by the USDA Forest Service National Infrared Operations. Proportion burned with high severity, likely indicating tree mortality >70%, was not correlated with the daily area growth (Kendall Tau=0.288, p=<0.0001), and no burn severity class was correlated to the size of individual daily areas of growth. Burn severity proportions were variable even when extensive areas burned in a day, with proportion burned moderately commonly about 20%, proportion burned with low severity commonly about 23%, and proportion in high severity or other class more variable. On days of large fire growth, fires burn across areas of varying topography and fuels and under different weather conditions. We use the Random Forest Machine Learning algorithm to analyze burn severity relative to 31 fuel, topography, and weather factors, with weather factors such as temperature and relative humidity based on the 24-hour burn period, all at randomly located points within polygons. Results support our hypothesis that local, bottom-up fuels and topography influences where fires burn severely, while top-down climate and weather more strongly influence area burned, even when large areas burn within a single 24-hour period.

  14. Burns and military clothing.

    PubMed

    McLean, A D

    2001-02-01

    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under high heat loads in the laboratory, combat clothing can ignite, but there is little evidence that clothing ignition is a common occurrence in military burn casualties. Thermoplastic materials have many benefits in civil and military clothing. There is little objective evidence that they exacerbate burns, or complicate burn management. Their use in military clothing must be based on objective evidence, not hearsay. PMID:11307683

  15. Zinc burns: a rare burn injury.

    PubMed

    de Juan, A; Ramon, P; Santoyo, F; Alonso, S

    2000-08-01

    A patient was presented with significant burns resulting from a workplace accident in a zinc production unit. This occurred as a result of the spontaneous combustion of zinc bleed under high pressure. The patient sustained burns to the face, body, and hands and suffered significant injury to the left cornea. Computed imaging revealed solid particles in the ethmoid sinus and also in the right nasal fossa, dissecting the right lacrimal duct. Photographic documentation is presented. This injury was potentially preventable and resulted from poor observance of safety procedures. PMID:10812277

  16. [Burn rehabilitation and community reintegration-new challenge to burn surgery in China].

    PubMed

    Xie, Wei-Guo

    2010-12-01

    Burn patients often have severe disfigurement, dysfunction, and psychological disorder after discharge, which may last for a long time, even for a whole life. These problems may prevent patients from returning to normal life and re-entering society. Because of demographic and socioeconomic reasons, the number of burn patients in China is huge. The rising cure rate further increases the number of patients that need rehabilitation treatment. However, the level of burn rehabilitation in China is relatively low as compared with that in the developed countries. Along with the social and economical development, it is no longer satisfied to just save the life of patient. Improving the quality of wound healing, avoiding or decreasing disfigurement, dysfunction, and psychological disorder, and finally helping patients re-enter society is the ultimate goal of burn treatment. Modern concept of rehabilitation is to restore health or normal life for patients by medical, psychosocial, educational and occupational methods. Although increasing attention has been paid to burn rehabilitation in China recently, so far it is mainly focused on the fields of improving patients' appearance and body function, whereas the importance of psychosocial, educational, occupational, and social rehabilitation has still not been realized. Some fields of burn rehabilitation have not been well established and many are not carried out by professionals. The model of multidisciplinary team in burn centers of developed countries including surgeons and nurses, as well as allied professionals such as psychologists, physical and occupational therapists, dietitians, anesthesiologists and social workers has seldom been introduced into China. In most burn centers in China, psychological support is mainly given by nurses in their spare time of nursing. Burn treatment used to be divided into the early stage of life saving and wound repair, and the late stage of rehabilitation. It has not been realized until recent years that rehabilitation measurements should be carried out through the whole process of burn treatment. Organizations of burn survivors and summer camps for burnt children proved to be helpful for the patients' self-confidence and community integration have hardly been established in China. Lack of funding is one of the main reasons for the lagging behind in burn rehabilitation in China. According the experiences of other countries, raising money from donation through burn foundation may be a useful way to support burn rehabilitation. Solving the above problems and improving the burn rehabilitation will be a new challenge to burn surgery in China. PMID:21223648

  17. “Chemical Changes: Burning

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kris Ryan

    2012-07-25

    This lesson demonstrates how students can apply the process of identifying main idea and supporting details to show the different ways burning can chemically change matter. The students can identify these changes and discuss the details that support these changes, which will help them further understand how burning matter is considered a chemical change.

  18. Skin Burns (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... than 3 inches or 7.5 cm) or deep (deep partial-thickness or full thickness) (see 'Burn type' ... are good examples of superficial partial-thickness burns. Deep partial-thickness skin burns — Deep partial-thickness skin ...

  19. Burn wound healing and treatment: review and advancements.

    PubMed

    Rowan, Matthew P; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Elster, Eric A; Burmeister, David M; Rose, Lloyd F; Natesan, Shanmugasundaram; Chan, Rodney K; Christy, Robert J; Chung, Kevin K

    2015-01-01

    Burns are a prevalent and burdensome critical care problem. The priorities of specialized facilities focus on stabilizing the patient, preventing infection, and optimizing functional recovery. Research on burns has generated sustained interest over the past few decades, and several important advancements have resulted in more effective patient stabilization and decreased mortality, especially among young patients and those with burns of intermediate extent. However, for the intensivist, challenges often exist that complicate patient support and stabilization. Furthermore, burn wounds are complex and can present unique difficulties that require late intervention or life-long rehabilitation. In addition to improvements in patient stabilization and care, research in burn wound care has yielded advancements that will continue to improve functional recovery. This article reviews recent advancements in the care of burn patients with a focus on the pathophysiology and treatment of burn wounds. PMID:26067660

  20. Management of the Acutely Burned Hand.

    PubMed

    Pan, Brian S; Vu, Anthony T; Yakuboff, Kevin P

    2015-07-01

    Despite contributing a small percentage to the total body surface area, hands are the most commonly burned body part and are involved in over 90% of severe burns. Although the mortality of isolated hand burns is negligible, morbidity can be substantial given our need for functioning hands when performing activities of daily living. The greatest challenges of treating hand burns are 2-fold. First, determining the depth of injury can be difficult even for the most experienced surgeon, but despite many diagnostic options, clinical examination remains the gold standard. Second, appropriate postoperative hand therapy is crucial and requires a multidisciplinary approach with an experienced burn surgeon, hand surgeon, and hand therapist. Ultimately, the goals of treatment should include preservation of function and aesthetics. In this review, we present an approach to the management of the acutely burned hand with discussion of both conservative and surgical options. Regardless of the initial treatment decision, subsequent care for this subset of patients should be aimed at preventing debilitating postburn scar contractures that can severely limit hand function and ultimately require reconstructive surgery. PMID:26043803

  1. Epilepsy and Full-Thickness Burns

    PubMed Central

    Botan, A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary This paper presents various aspects of severe burns involving epileptic patients, who may suffer dramatic accidents during seizure attacks. Epileptics may fall onto an open fire or hot surface (e.g. a kitchen range) and they may upset containers full of boiling liquids, suffering deep burns and scalds. In our experience in this field, the most commonly affected body areas are the face and hands, the trunk, and the lower limbs. All such injuries are full-thickness burns, owing to the very long contact of the skin surface with the lesional agent. Three cases are presented of epileptics with severe burns who were admitted to the Burn Unit of Targu Mures Teaching Hospital, Romania, where they were hospitalized; conservative debridement using polyurethanefoam (PUR-foam) dressings was the standard procedure, which all the patients received. Split-thickness skin grafting was the final method for closing the granulating bed resulting from the conservative debridement. We have found that conservative debridement using PUR-foam dressings is a cheaper and more reliable alternative than sharp debridement (which may remove healthy tissue at the same time as burn eschars). PMID:21991200

  2. Ash and burn control through fishbones

    SciTech Connect

    Varadarajan, V.; Miley, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    The thermal alphas will accumulate in the center of the ignited thermonuclear plasma in the long pulse experiments. This accumulation increases the Z{sub eff} leading to increased synchrotron losses and decreases the effective fuel density which reduces the power output. Also the ignited plasma is burn-unstable and its temperature is expected to increase above the design point until a stable equilibrium is reached at a higher temperature. This higher operating temperature is not expected to be beneficial. Thus we are faced with the dual problem of ash accumulation and thermonuclear burn instability in the steadily burning tokamak plasma. So some means of controlling them is desirable. Several control schemes for both problems have been proposed. But it is felt that we need alternatives with more desirable characteristics. In this paper, we explore the use of fishbones' as possible scheme that will achieve the dual purpose of ash and burn control. 3 refs.

  3. Tap water scald burns in children

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, K.; Schaller, R.; Feldman, J.; McMillon, M.

    1998-01-01

    Tap water scald burns account for 7% to 17% of all childhood scald burns that require hospitalization. Often the burns are severe and disabling. Toddlers and preschool children are the most frequent victims. In 45% of the injuries, the unsupervised victim or a peer turned on the tap water; in 28% the cause was abuse. Eighty per cent of the homes tested had unsafe bathtub water temperatures of 54°C (130°F) or greater, exposing the occupants to the risk of full thickness scalds with 30 second exposure to hot water. Such burns may be prevented passively by limiting household water temperatures to less than 52°C (125°F). New water heaters could be preset at this temperature and families could be taught to turn down the temperature on existing units. PMID:9867427

  4. Burning coal's waste

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, J.M.; Duffy, T.J.

    1988-07-01

    In an old Pennsylvania coal valley, growing fresh produce and eliminating ancient waste piles both depend on a fluidized bed boiler cogeneration plant. The builders of a complex now nearing completion at Archbald, however, will soon begin to turn two of the waste piles, called culm banks, into economic assets. Culm will burn although it has a low, variable heat content. The project combines several recently developed technologies to use culm as fuel for a fluidized bed boiler cogeneration plant that will heat a hydroponic greenhouse. What makes the venture economically viable are the products that will be sold: 23 mw of electricity to the local utility and fresh produce to meet burgeoning demands in East Coast supermarkets. For instance, if the ''salad plant'' were completely devoted to growing lettuce, 3 million heads could be harvested in 11 hydroponic seasons a year. The owners, Archbald Power Corp., chose a 271 acre stie that had been mined for anthracite by both open pit and deep shaft methods.

  5. Chryseobacterium in burn wounds.

    PubMed

    Kienzle, N; Muller, M; Pegg, S

    2001-03-01

    Chryseobacteria are gram negative organisms, formerly known as Flavobacteria, which rarely cause infections of burn wounds. This article documents three cases of Chryseobacterium infection in burn wounds and adds to the other two cases that have been reported in English literature. Two patients died, with one of the deaths linked to a Chryseobacteria bacteraemia. In two patients, there was an associated history of first aid treatment with untreated water. Patients whose burn wounds are suspected to be infected with Chryseobacterium require wound excision and coverage in combination with antibiotic therapy such as ciprofloxacin, vancomycin and rifampicin. PMID:11226658

  6. Post-burn philtrum restoration.

    PubMed

    Grishkevich, Viktor M

    2010-08-01

    One of the consequences of face burn is upper lip deformation with philtrum injury. The philtrum's absence poses severe cosmetic defects. A literature review shows no effective developed technique which allows the surgeon to restore the upper lip and the philtrum in a single-stage procedure. The article presents a new method for burn-damaged philtrum restoration. Two scar stripes are deliberately left in place above the upper lip where the normal philtral ridges should be. The width of these two stripes (ridges) should be around 4mm. The upper lip scars, lateral both ridges and between them, are excised forming the philtral dimple. The wound is covered with a split thickness skin graft. Two U-shaped sutures are led through the skin graft, both scar stripes and deeper through the underlying tissues between stripes. A bolster is plunged between the ridges in order to fill the dimple and is fixed by the tie-over dressing with tension. The skin transplant lying laterally to the ridges is covered with a separate tie-over dressing. The bolster is being kept in place for the duration of 7 days. As a result, the scar ridges preserve their height and the dimple keeps its depth. Good long-time follow-up results (up to 7 years) were observed in all 18 patients. In most cases the dimple can be slightly smoothed with time. The suggested method of philtrum restoration is an important component of the burned upper lip reconstruction as part of the post-burn facial resurfacing. PMID:19969425

  7. Dermal burn during hip arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Curtin, Brian; Friebe, Ilvy

    2014-08-01

    Radiofrequency devices are often used during arthroscopic surgery, most commonly of the shoulder and knee, and increasingly in hip arthroscopy. The most commonly described complication is elevation of joint temperature, leading to capsular shrinkage, chondrolysis, and nerve damage. A less commonly reported complication is that of dermal burns from the heated irrigation fluid. There are several case reports describing dermal burns after shoulder arthroscopy; however, to the authors' knowledge, there are none describing the complication in hip arthroscopy that is often performed by surgeons doing limited if any shoulder arthroscopy. The authors report this case to raise awareness that the use of radiofrequency devices can also lead to extra-articular complications because of the effect of elevated irrigant fluid temperatures on the patient's skin. Sufficiently high temperatures were generated inside the joint, causing a superficial second-degree burn from the outflow irrigant. In the course of instrument switching from sucker/shaver to radiofrequency wand, the outflow valve was inadvertently left open with no attached suction while the radiofrequency wand was in use. Most second-degree burns like the one reported require only conservative therapy with cool compresses to decrease the temperature of the wound. The authors did recommend bacitracin ointment to prevent superficial wound infection, however unlikely with no disruption of the skin. The authors continue to use radio-frequency devices in hip arthroscopy, but are vigilant to maintain dedicated suction at the outflow tubing throughout the procedure. Surgeons should take strict precautions to avoid this preventable complication and follow all manufacturer instructions on the use of such devices. PMID:25102513

  8. Chemical burn or reaction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the skin has come in contact with the toxic substance Rash , blisters , burns on the skin Unconsciousness ... locked cabinet. Avoid mixing different products that contain toxic chemicals such as ammonia and bleach. The mixture ...

  9. Temporal and spatial variation of episodic wind erosion in unburned and burned semiarid shrubland.

    PubMed

    Whicker, Jeffrey J; Breshears, David D; Wasiolek, Piotr T; Kirchner, Thomas B; Tavani, Rebecca A; Schoep, David A; Rodgers, John C

    2002-01-01

    Redistribution of soil, nutrients, and contaminants is often driven by wind erosion in semiarid shrublands. Wind erosion depends on wind velocity (particularly during episodic, high-velocity winds) and on vegetation, which is generally sparse and spatially heterogeneous in semiarid ecosystems. Further, the vegetation cover can be rapidly and greatly altered due to disturbances, particularly fire. Few studies, however, have evaluated key temporal and spatial components of wind erosion with respect to (i) erosion rates on the scale of weeks as a function of episodic high-velocity winds, (ii) rates at unburned and burned sites, and (iii) within-site spatial heterogeneity in erosion. Measuring wind erosion in unburned and recently burned Chihuahuan desert shrubland, we found (i) weekly wind erosion was related more to daily peak wind velocities than to daily average velocities as consistent with our findings of a threshold wind velocity at approximately 7 m s(-1); (ii) greater erodibility in burned vs. unburned shrubland as indicated by erosion thresholds, aerodynamic roughness, and nearground soil movement; and (iii) burned shrubland lost soil from intercanopy and especially canopy patches in contrast to unburned shrubland, where soil accumulated in canopy patches. Our results are among the first to quantify post-fire wind erosion and highlight the importance of accounting for finer temporal and spatial variation in shrubland wind erosion. This finer-scale variation relates to semiarid land degradation, and is particularly relevant for predictions of contaminant resuspension and redistribution, both of which historically ignore finer-scale temporal and spatial variation in wind erosion. PMID:11931452

  10. Burning Mouth Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mock, David; Chugh, Deepika

    2010-01-01

    Most clinicians dread seeing the patient presenting with a primary complaint of a burning pain on one or more oral mucosal surfaces. Unlike most other clinical conditions presenting in a dental office, burning mouth syndrome is poorly understood with few evidence based remedies. More recently, advances have been made towards clarifying the possible etiology of the disorder and testing the possible therapeutic modalities available. This article attempts to summarize the “state of the art” today. PMID:20690412

  11. Burns in the disabled.

    PubMed

    Backstein, R; Peters, W; Neligan, P

    1993-06-01

    A retrospective analysis of 812 patients admitted to the Ross Tilley Burn Centre between 1984 and 1992 resulted in 37 cases of burn injuries which were directly related to premorbid disabilities. The majority of these burns (83.8 per cent) occurred in the patient's home, most commonly as scald injuries in the bath tub, the shower, or following hot water spills. Nineteen patients were male, 17 were female. The median age was 58 years. Six patients had spinal cord disorders: four had traumatic cord damage, two had spina bifida. Six patients had seizure disorders. Five of these patients had been taking anti-seizure medications, but all had subtherapeutic blood levels on admission to hospital. Two patients had diabetes mellitus with peripheral neuropathies. Thirteen patients had four miscellaneous neurological disorders, including: tardive dyskinesia (two), CVA (four), Parkinson's disease (two), Alzheimer's disease (two), cerebral palsy (one), multiple sclerosis (one) and blindness (one). Three patients had a diagnosis of syncope. Two patients had emphysema, and four were morbidly obese. The average length of stay (LOS) for the disabled patients was 27.6 days for a median burn size of 10 per cent body surface area (BSA), compared to an average LOS for the general population of 25.7 days for a larger median burn size of 21 per cent BSA. The mortality rate was also much higher in the disabled population (22.2 per cent vs. 6.0 per cent). Most of these burn injuries were preventable. A series of burn prevention guidelines is presented, in an attempt to reduce the incidence of these burn injuries in disabled patients. PMID:8507362

  12. Books2burn

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Weinstein, Matthew

    Developed by Professor Matthew Weinstein of Kent State University, Books2burn translates text files into a series of audio files, which may then subsequently be converted to mp3's or other formats. This program will be a great boon to scholars and the general public alike, as the application allows for the easy transfer and replication of potentially large and problematic files into a number of audio formats. Books2burn is compatible with all systems running Mac OS X.

  13. PBXN-110 Burn Rate Estimate

    SciTech Connect

    Glascoe, E

    2008-08-11

    It is estimated that PBXN-110 will burn laminarly with a burn function of B = (0.6-1.3)*P{sup 1.0} (B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is pressure in MPa). This paper provides a brief discussion of how this burn behavior was estimated.

  14. Language barriers and paediatric burns: Does education make a difference?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Livingston; A. J. A. Holland; D. Dickson

    2006-01-01

    A focused first aid education campaign was conducted in Sydney in 1996 for parents of children from Non-English speaking backgrounds (NESB) to improve their knowledge of correct burns first aid treatment (BFAT). This study sought to determine the correlation, if any, between the reported beneficial results of this education campaign and the subsequent severity of burns in children. A retrospective

  15. Use of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes in burn patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Patton; L. R. Haith; T. J. Germain; W. T. Goldman; J. T. Raymond

    1994-01-01

    Alimentation and decompression are imperative to the successful management of the severely burned patient. Utilization of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tubes for these purposes has become a proven effective procedure in nonburned patients with few major complications. We retrospectively reviewed placement of PEG tubes in 31 burn patients, some of whom had been admitted with additional diagnoses such as inhalation

  16. The devastating effects a fire burn in a child.

    PubMed

    Istek, ?eref

    2015-01-01

    Burn injuries are a serious global public health concern with significant worldwide mortality and morbidity rates. Burns are among the most devastating of all injuries, with outcomes ranging from physical impairment and disability to emotional and mental consequences. Paediatric burns requiring treatment often incur significant health and opportunity costs, and frequently result in death or long-term disability. A recent systemic review showed that almost 50% of patients hospitalised with severe burns in Europe were younger than 16?years of age, and nearly 60% were male. This report discusses the case of a 2-year-old boy with second and third-degree skin burns over almost 45% of his body, including his head and arms, who presented to the eye clinic at the State Hospital in Hakkari 1?month after a fire burn accident. Both eyes had been burnt and the bilateral anterior chambers had been injured so badly that the patient was left blind. PMID:26055581

  17. Functional Characterization of Cultured Keratinocytes after Acute Cutaneous Burn Injury

    PubMed Central

    Gauglitz, Gerd G.; Zedler, Siegfried; v. Spiegel, Felix; Fuhr, Jasmin; v. Donnersmarck, Guido Henkel; Faist, Eugen

    2012-01-01

    Background In addition to forming the epithelial barrier against the outside environment keratinocytes are immunologically active cells. In the treatment of severely burned skin, cryoconserved keratinocyte allografts gain in importance. It has been proposed that these allografts accelerate wound healing also due to the expression of a favourable - keratinocyte-derived - cytokine and growth factor milieu. Methods In this study the morphology and cytokine expression profile of keratinocytes from skin after acute burn injury was compared to non-burned skin. Skin samples were obtained from patients after severe burn injury and healthy controls. Cells were cultured and secretion of selected inflammatory mediators was quantified using Bioplex Immunoassays. Immunohistochemistry was performed to analyse further functional and morphologic parameters. Results Histology revealed increased terminal differentiation of keratinocytes (CK10, CK11) in allografts from non-burned skin compared to a higher portion of proliferative cells (CK5, vimentin) in acute burn injury. Increased levels of IL-1?, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IFN-? and TNF? could be detected in culture media of burn injury skin cultures. Both culture groups contained large amounts of IL-1RA. IL-6 and GM-CSF were increased during the first 15 days of culture of burned skin compared to control skin. Levels of VEGF, FGF-basic, TGF-ß und G-CSF were high in both but not significantly different. Cryoconservation led to a diminished mediator synthesis except for higher levels of intracellular IL-1? and IL-1ß. Conclusion Skin allografts from non-burned skin show a different secretion pattern of keratinocyte-derived cytokines and inflammatory mediators compared to keratinocytes after burn injury. As these secreted molecules exert auto- and paracrine effects and subsequently contribute to healing and barrier restoration after acute burn injury therapies affecting this specific cytokine/growth factor micromilieu could be beneficial in burned patients. PMID:22359539

  18. Burns and Their Psychological Effects on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luther, Stephen L.; Price, James H.

    1981-01-01

    The psychological aspects of a child's reaction to major burn injuries include acute emotional reactions resulting from upsetting reactions of family members and unfamiliar hospital surroundings. Emotional and social adjustment problems of severely scarred children are viewed, and suggestions are made as to what health professionals might do to…

  19. Impact of burned areas on the northern African seasonal climate from the perspective of regional modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Sales, Fernando; Xue, Yongkang; Okin, Gregory S.

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates the impact of burned areas on the surface energy balance and monthly precipitation in northern Africa as simulated by a state-of-the-art regional model. Mean burned area fraction derived from MODIS date of burning product was implemented in a set of 1-year long WRF-NMM/SSiB2 model simulations. Vegetation cover fraction and LAI were degraded daily based on mean burned area fraction and on the survival rate for each vegetation land cover type. Additionally, ground darkening associated with wildfire-induced ash and charcoal deposition was imposed through lower ground albedo for a period after burning. In general, wildfire-induced vegetation and ground condition deterioration increased mean surface albedo by exposing the brighter bare ground, which in turn caused a decrease in monthly surface net radiation. On average, the wildfire-season albedo increase was approximately 6.3 % over the Sahel. The associated decrease in surface available energy caused a drop in surface sensible heat flux to the atmosphere during the dry months of winter and early spring, which gradually transitioned to a more substantial decrease in surface evapotranspiration in April and May that lessened throughout the rainy season. Overall, post-fire land condition deterioration resulted in a decrease in precipitation over sub-Saharan Africa, associated with the weakening of the West African monsoon progression through the region. A decrease in atmospheric moisture flux convergence was observed in the burned area simulations, which played a dominant role in reducing precipitation in the area, especially in the months preceding the monsoon onset. The areas with the largest precipitation impact were those covered by savannas and rainforests, where annual precipitation decreased by 3.8 and 3.3 %, respectively. The resulting precipitation decrease and vegetation deterioration caused a drop in gross primary productivity in the region, which was strongest in late winter and early spring. This study suggests the cooling and drying of atmosphere induced by burned areas caused the strengthening of subsidence during pre-onset and weakening of upward atmospheric motion during onset and mature stages of the monsoon leading to a waning of convective instability and precipitation. Monthly mid-tropospheric vertical wind showed a strengthening of downward motion in winter and spring seasons, and weakening of upward movement during the rainy months. Furthermore, precipitation energy analysis revealed that most of precipitation decrease originated from convective events, which supports the hypothesis of reduced convective instability due to wildfires.

  20. Semi-automated mapping of burned areas in semi-arid ecosystems using MODIS time-series imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardtke, Leonardo A.; Blanco, Paula D.; Valle, Héctor F. del; Metternicht, Graciela I.; Sione, Walter F.

    2015-06-01

    Understanding spatial and temporal patterns of burned areas at regional scales, provides a long-term perspective of fire processes and its effects on ecosystems and vegetation recovery patterns, and it is a key factor to design prevention and post-fire restoration plans and strategies. Remote sensing has become the most widely used tool to detect fire affected areas over large tracts of land (e.g., ecosystem, regional and global levels). Standard satellite burned area and active fire products derived from the 500-m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) are available to this end. However, prior research caution on the use of these global-scale products for regional and sub-regional applications. Consequently, we propose a novel semi-automated algorithm for identification and mapping of burned areas at regional scale. The semi-arid Monte shrublands, a biome covering 240,000 km2 in the western part of Argentina, and exposed to seasonal bushfires was selected as the test area. The algorithm uses a set of the normalized burned ratio index products derived from MODIS time series; using a two-phased cycle, it firstly detects potentially burned pixels while keeping a low commission error (false detection of burned areas), and subsequently labels them as seed patches. Region growing image segmentation algorithms are applied to the seed patches in the second-phase, to define the perimeter of fire affected areas while decreasing omission errors (missing real burned areas). Independently-derived Landsat ETM+ burned-area reference data was used for validation purposes. Additionally, the performance of the adaptive algorithm was assessed against standard global fire products derived from MODIS Aqua and Terra satellites, total burned area (MCD45A1), the active fire algorithm (MOD14); and the L3JRC SPOT VEGETATION 1 km GLOBCARBON products. The correlation between the size of burned areas detected by the global fire products and independently-derived Landsat reference data ranged from R2 = 0.01-0.28, while our algorithm performed showed a stronger correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.96). Our findings confirm prior research calling for caution when using the global fire products locally or regionally.

  1. Burning and detonation

    SciTech Connect

    Forest, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of confined burning explosive abutting nonburning explosive in a variety of one-dimensional geometries has been studied by numerical simulation, demonstrating the effects of confinement, burning rate, and shock sensitivity. The model includes porous bed burning, compressible solids and gases, shock-induced decomposition with possible transition to detonation, and constant velocity ignition waves. Two-phase flow, gas relative to solid, is not allowed. Because the shock sensitivity of an explosive changes with explosive density and because such experimental data is rarely available over a range of densities, a method for the calculation of the density effect on the initial-shock-pressure, distance-to-detonation (wedge test) measure of shock sensitivity is given. The calculation uses the invariance with density of the shock particle velocity as a function of time to detonation, and the experimental data at some high density.

  2. 'Special effects' burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Peters, W

    1991-02-01

    Three patients are presented with significant flame burns, resulting from accidents occurring during 'special effects' situations in the entertainment industry. These occurred as a result of the spontaneous combustion of various materials, during events in live theatre (gun powder), a television commercial (artificial 'rocket fuel'), and a video presentation (magnesium oxide). All three patients sustained flash burns to the face and hands. One patient sustained a significant bilateral corneal injury, a gamekeeper's thumb, and a permanent continuous right-sided high frequency tinnitus, in addition to his burn injury. Photographic documentation of all three patients is presented. The total loss of time from work for all patients was 6 months. All these injuries were potentially preventable. PMID:2031675

  3. Burning trees and bridges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1990-01-01

    Most burning of biomass is the result of human activity, and on a global scale it is increasing. Tropospheric concentrations of CO2, CO, CH4, non-methane hydrocarbons, and ozone are all increasing with time; global biomass burning may make an important contribution to this increase and thus to potential global climate change. The nitrogen cycle also can have important climatic effects. Nitrous oxide put into the atmosphere by biomass burning is a greenhouse gas 250 times more powerful (molecule for molecule) than carbon dioxide. Nitric oxide, as well as being a photochemical precursor of ozone, a major pollutant in the troposphere, produces nitric acid, the fastest-growing component of acid rain. Hence, the new bridge in the nitrogen cycle is of more than mere technical interest.

  4. Burning Down the House

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Glenn Dolphin

    In this demonstration, the teacher will use a potato and hydrogen peroxide to generate oxygen in a closed environment. Students can then observe its effects on a burning wooden splint and on burning steel wool. They will understand that a large amount of energy can be released by the process of oxidation. As an extension, the teacher can discuss how the appearance of oxygen (produced by cyanobacteria) in Earth's early atmosphere initially resulted in the formation of large deposits of iron oxide (Banded Iron Formations) and then aided in the evolution of more complex life forms.

  5. Noninvasive determination of burn depth in children by digital infrared thermal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina-Preciado, Jose David; Kolosovas-Machuca, Eleazar Samuel; Velez-Gomez, Ezequiel; Miranda-Altamirano, Ariel; González, Francisco Javier

    2013-06-01

    Digital infrared thermal imaging is used to assess noninvasively the severity of burn wounds in 13 pediatric patients. A delta-T (?T) parameter obtained by subtracting the temperature of a healthy contralateral region from the temperature of the burn wound is compared with the burn depth measured histopathologically. Thermal imaging results show that superficial dermal burns (IIa) show increased temperature compared with their contralateral healthy region, while deep dermal burns (IIb) show a lower temperature than their contralateral healthy region. This difference in temperature is statistically significant (p<0.0001) and provides a way of distinguishing deep dermal from superficial dermal burns. These results show that digital infrared thermal imaging could be used as a noninvasive procedure to assess burn wounds. An additional advantage of using thermal imaging, which can image a large skin surface area, is that it can be used to identify regions with different burn depths and estimate the size of the grafts needed for deep dermal burns.

  6. Burns: learning from the past in order to be fit for the future

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars-Peter Kamolz

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Many advances have been made in the understanding and treatment of burns. Advances in burn surgery and critical care have decreased mortality and morbidity. Survival from severe burns is no longer the exception, but unfortunately death still occurs. Williams and colleagues have determined in their recent paper the predominant causes of death in order to develop new treatment avenues

  7. An Interactive Simulation Framework for Burning Objects Zeki Melek John Keyser

    E-print Network

    Keyser, John

    An Interactive Simulation Framework for Burning Objects Zeki Melek John Keyser Department a simulation framework to integrate several aspects of the combustion and burning process in a unified burning. Heat information is transferred from the fluid simulator to a solid simulator, while the solid

  8. TIRES, OPEN BURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter describes available information on the health effects from open burning of rubber tires. It concentrates on the three known sources of detailed measurements: (1) a small-scale emissions characterization study performed by the U.S. EPA in a facility designed to simulat...

  9. Burning Your Own CDs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekhaml, Leticia

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the use of CDs (Compact Disks) for backing up data as an alternative to using floppy disks and explains how to burn, or record, a CD. Topics include differences between CD-R (CD-Recordable) and CD-RW (CD-Rewritable); advantages of CD-R and CD-RW; selecting a CD burner; technology trends; and care of CDs. (LRW)

  10. Correlating Aluminum Burning Times

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. W. Beckstead

    2005-01-01

    Characteristics of aluminum combustion are summarized in an overview of the subject, focusing on the burning time of individual particles. Combustion data from over ten different sources with almost 400 datum points have been cataloged and correlated. Available models have also been used to evaluate combustion trends with key environmental parameters. The fundamental concepts that control aluminum combustion are discussed,

  11. Gas Hydrates Burning

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    An image of gas hydrates burning. Gas hydrates are naturally-occurring “ice-like” combinations of natural gas and water that have the potential to provide an immense resource of natural gas from the world’s oceans and polar regions....

  12. Burn a Peanut

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this activity, learners burn a peanut, which produces a flame that can be used to boil away water and count the calories contained in the peanut. Learners use a formula to calculate the calories in a peanut and then differentiate between food calories and physicist calories as well as calories and joules.

  13. Post-fire overland flow generation and inter-rill erosion under simulated rainfall in two eucalypt stands in north-central Portugal.

    PubMed

    Malvar, M C; Prats, S A; Nunes, J P; Keizer, J J

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the existing knowledge of the runoff and inter-rill erosion response of forest stands following wildfire, focusing on commercial eucalypt plantations and employing field rainfall simulation experiments (RSE's). Repeated RSE's were carried out in two adjacent but contrasting eucalypt stands on steep hill slopes in north-central Portugal that suffered a moderate severity fire in July 2005. This was done at six occasions ranging from 3 to 24 months after the fire and using a paired-plot experimental design that comprised two pairs of RSE's at each site and occasion. Of the 46 RSE's: (i) 24 and 22 RSE's involved application rates of 45-50 and 80-85 mm h(-1), respectively; (ii) 22 took place in a stand that had been ploughed in down slope direction several years before the wildfire and 24 in an unploughed stand. The results showed a clear tendency for extreme-intensity RSE's to produce higher runoff amounts and greater soil and organic matter losses than the simultaneous high-intensity RSE's on the neighbouring plots. However, there existed marked exceptions, both in space (for one of the plot pairs) and time (under intermediate soil water repellency conditions). Also, overland flow generation and erosion varied significantly between the various field campaigns. This temporal pattern markedly differed from a straightforward decline with time-after-fire and rather suggested a seasonal component, reflecting broad variations in topsoil water repellency. The ploughed site produced less runoff and erosion than the unploughed site, contrary to what would be expected if the down slope ploughing had occurred after the wildfire instead of several years before it. Finally, sediment losses at both study sites were noticeably lower than those reported by other studies involving repeat RSE's, i.e. in Australia and western Spain. This possibly reflected a history of intensive land use in the study region, including in more recent times after the widespread introduction of eucalypt plantations. PMID:20880520

  14. Iron burns: a problem in adults as well as children

    PubMed Central

    Chipp, E.; Pape, S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Burns from domestic irons are potentially preventable injuries which can result in significant morbidity. Several studies have reported these injuries in children but there are no reports to date in adults. Epidemiology, management and outcome of these injuries is described, and possible preventative strategies are discussed. We present a retrospective case note review of 50 adult and paediatric patients with electric iron burns. Cases were identified from data collected for a national burns database. Information regarding demographics, burn characteristics, treatment and long term outcome was gathered from the medical records. 42 children and 8 adults sustained a burn from an iron during the 4-year study period. The majority of paediatric patients were under 4 years of age. Most burns were small (< 1% TBSA) but despite this 30 (60%) patients were admitted to hospital and 13 (26%) required at least one surgical procedure. In children, most burns occurred at home and were commonly due to pulling the flex or knocking the iron from its surface. In adults, 50% of injuries were associated with epilepsy. Burns from domestic irons are relatively common and cause significant morbidity despite their small size. A bimodal presentation is seen with injuries occurring either before the age of 4 years or during adulthood, when they are typically associated with an underlying medical condition. Education campaigns and design features such as a retractable cord may further reduce the incidence of this type of burn. PMID:24799845

  15. Iatrogenic burns: beware of microwaves!

    PubMed

    2008-08-01

    (1) The traditional hot-water bottle now faces competition from a variety of similar devices, such as microwave-heated compresses and gel packs; (2) These devices can cause severe burns; (3) Microwave-heated gel packs can be harmful for two main reasons. First, microwave ovens heat deeply and unevenly and dangerous temperatures can quickly be reached. In addition, gels retain heat longer than other materials such as cotton compresses or towels; (4) Burns are sometimes caused by lengthy contact with an object that is not hot enough to cause pain or even discomfort. The heat perceived by the user does not reflect the quantity of heat actually transferred. Instructions that can be inadequate and that vary among different brands are further contributing factors; (5) These heating devices must be used with care. The recommended microwaving duration must not be exceeded, the device should be let stand for at least 10 minutes before use, and the heat-retaining material should be homogenised before applying the device to the skin. PMID:19492489

  16. Deep foot burns: effects of early excision and grafting.

    PubMed

    Shakirov, Babur M

    2011-12-01

    Few on the problem of foot burns can be found in the available scientific literature. It is necessary to mention that often deep foot burns occur in Central Asia since many natives still use the ancient means of heating called 'Sandal' during the winter months. Eighty-four patients with severe foot burns were treated in the Burn department of RCSUMA and the Inter-regional Burn Center, Uzbekistan. The patients were subdivided into two groups, depending upon the terms of performing operative intervention. There was no special allocation of patients to groups. Criteria for selection were isolated deep burns of the foot. As for the character of the injury, area of deep burn and the severity of injury, patients of the control and basic groups were not different. The first group included 34 patients on whom early excision was done using skin graft 4-5 days after resuscitation, and the second group consisted of 50 patients who were treated in the traditional way. Methods used on the first group, described in this article, helped to improve the general condition of patients, contributed to the restoration of their foot function, lessened joint deformities and post-burn contracture deformities, shortened their stay in hospital and also reduced expenses. PMID:21855217

  17. The overall patterns of burns

    PubMed Central

    Almoghrabi, A.; Abu Shaban, N.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Burn patterns differ across the whole world and not only in relation to lack of education, overcrowding, and poverty. Cultures, habits, traditions, psychiatric illness, and epilepsy are strongly correlated to burn patterns. However, burns may also occur because of specific religious beliefs and activities, social events and festivals, traditional medical practices, occupational activities, and war. PMID:22639565

  18. 7, 1733917366, 2007 Biomass burning

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 7, 17339­17366, 2007 Biomass burning plumes during the AMMA wet season experiment C. H. Mari a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Tracing biomass burning plumes from. Mari (marc@aero.obs-mip.fr) 17339 #12;ACPD 7, 17339­17366, 2007 Biomass burning plumes during the AMMA

  19. 5, 27912831, 2005 Biomass burning

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    measurements of trace gas and aerosol particle emissions from biomass burning in Amazonia P. Guyon1 , G. Frank1ACPD 5, 2791­2831, 2005 Biomass burning emissions P. Guyon et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction. 2791 #12;ACPD 5, 2791­2831, 2005 Biomass burning emissions P. Guyon et al. Title Page Abstract

  20. BURN DATA COORDINATING CENTER (BDCC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Burn Data Coordinating Center (BDCC) began collecting data in 1994 and is currently the largest burn database in the country. Pediatric burn data was added in 1998. The BMS database contains over 2,800 cases supporting clinical research and research on outcomes including empl...

  1. Comparison of childhood burns associated with use of microwave ovens and conventional stoves.

    PubMed

    Powell, E C; Tanz, R R

    1993-02-01

    To identify the incidence, type, and severity of burns associated with microwave oven (MW) use and to compare MW-associated burns with those associated with use of conventional stoves, we conducted a review of a national data base. Data were obtained from the US Consumer Product Safety Commission Injury Information Clearinghouse for 1986 through 1990 concerning burn injuries to children (0 to 19 years). There were an estimated 5160 burns associated with MW use. The mean age was 7.6 years (median, 6 years); 25% of burns were to children younger than 36 months old. Fifty-eight percent involved females. Most MW burns were scalds (95%); 16% of these scalds were from exploding eggs or other food. No MW burn involved a body surface area greater than 25% and no patient required hospital admission. Microwave oven burns were compared with stove burns. There were an estimated 41198 stove-associated burns to children. The mean age was 5.8 years; the median was 3 years. Forty-five percent of burns were to children younger than 36 months old; 55% were to males. Most stove burns (74%) were thermal; 7% involved a body surface area greater than 25%. Five percent of children with stove burns required hospital admission. We conclude that (1) burns to children associated with MW use are less frequent and less severe than stove burns; (2) MW burns predominantly affect females; and (3) burn prevention efforts should emphasize the hazards of stoves, which vastly exceed those of MWs. PMID:8424008

  2. Burning Magnesium (GCMP)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Burning Magnesium: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". In this problem we will look at the reactions of two elements with oxygen in air. We will begin by observing the reaction of magnesium metal with oxygen when the metal is heated in air. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

  3. Comparative effectiveness of topical treatments for hydrofluoric acid burns.

    PubMed

    Bracken, W M; Cuppage, F; McLaury, R L; Kirwin, C; Klaassen, C D

    1985-10-01

    Hydrofluoric acid (HF) burns are characterized by progressive tissue necrosis and severe pain. Numerous topical treatments have been proposed, yet few have been studied experimentally. The present study was designed to examine the comparative efficacy of recommended treatments. Hair on the hind legs of rats was removed and 48 hours later 70% HF was applied. Calcium gluconate, Zephiran (benzalkonium chloride), A + D Ointment, aloe gel, and magnesium ointment were applied topically and burn development was monitored. Calcium gluconate significantly reduced burn size as early as one hour after application. Significant protection continued for seven days after the single application. The other treatments were not effective in decreasing or delaying HF burn development. The results indicated that calcium gluconate ointment was the most effective topical treatment for HF burns. PMID:4067676

  4. Reduced antimicrobial peptide expression in human burn wounds.

    PubMed

    Milner, S M; Ortega, M R

    1999-08-01

    Severely burned skin ceases to perform its natural protective role and surrenders itself as a nidus and portal for bacterial invasion. Antimicrobial peptides are part of a non-specific chemical defence system, separate from cellular and humoral immunity. Two of these peptides, human beta-defensins 1 and 2 have been recently found in skin and are produced by keratinocytes. Beta defensins have potent bactericidal activity against a wide spectrum of bacterial and fungal organisms commonly responsible for burn wound infections. To date, expression of beta defensins has not been examined in the human burn wound. Our findings demonstrate that expression of hBD-2 is greatly decreased in the burn wound whereas hBD-1 appears to be preserved. These results may have important implications in the pathogenesis and treatment of invasive burn sepsis. PMID:10439149

  5. [Present and future of cell therapy in burns].

    PubMed

    Bargues, L; Prat, M; Leclerc, T; Bey, E; Lataillade, J-J

    2011-06-01

    Severe burned patients need definitive and efficient wound coverage. Outcome of massive burns has been improved by using cultured epithelial autografts (CEA). Despite fragility, percentages of success take, cost of treatment and long-term tendency to contracture, this surgical technique has been developed in few burn centres. First improvements were to combine CEA and dermis-like substitute. Cultured skin substitutes provide earlier skin closure and satisfying functional result. These methods have been used successfully in massive burns. Second improvement was to allow skin regeneration by using epidermal stem cells. Stem cells have capacity to differentiate into keratinocytes, to promote wound repair and to regenerate skin appendages. Human mesenchymal stem cells contribute to wound healing and were evaluated in cutaneous radiation syndrome. Skin regeneration and tissue engineering methods remain a complex challenge and offer the possibility of new treatment for injured and burned patients. PMID:20167439

  6. The Effect of Prescribed Burns and Wildfire on Vegetation in Bastrop State Park, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justice, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    In 2011, central Texas had its worst drought since the 1950's. This, in conjunction with the strong winds produced by Tropical Storm Lee created conditions that made possible the Bastrop County Complex Fire in September 2011. These record-breaking wildfires burned over 95% of the 6,565-acre Bastrop State Park (BSP). Since 2003, BSP had been using prescribed burns as a management practice to reduce fuel load and prevent high severity wildfires. Although these prescribed fires did not prevent the 2011 wildfires they may have mitigated their effects. This study considered the effect of prescribed burn history and wildfire burn severity on vegetation recovery in BSP since the 2011 wildfire. The hypotheses of this study are that prescribed burn history and wildfire burn severity separately and jointly have affected post wildfire vegetation. To test these hypotheses, data were collected in 2013 from 46 plots across BSP using the Fire Effects Monitoring and Inventory (FIREMON) protocol to determine herbaceous plant density, shrub density, overstory density, and midstory tree density. Data were analyzed using analyses of variance (ANOVA) to determine the effects of prescribed fire and wildfire severity on these vegetation measurements. It was found that more severely burned plots had more herbaceous plants, fewer midstory trees, and lower shrub densities than less severely burned plots. Contrary to an initial hypotheses, there were few relationships between prescribed burn history and wildfire effects. The only significant effect detected for prescribed burning was the positive effect of prescribed fire on midstory tree density, but only for plots that were not severely burned in the wildfire. In this system, burn severity had a greater effect on post-wildfire vegetation than prescribed burns.

  7. A Computer Program to Evaluate Experimental Therapies for Treating Burned Patients

    PubMed Central

    Flora, Jairus D.; Flora, Sharyl Ann

    1980-01-01

    Determining the worth of new therapies for burn patients has been difficult because of the rarity of the burn injury and the disparate survival chances associated with different sizes of burns. Recently a burn survival model has been developed that estimates the risk of death from a burn as a function of the patient's age, sex, area of full thickness (third degree) burn, area of partial thickness burn, involvement of the perineum, and time from burn to admission. An alternative risk model uses the total area burned in place of the areas of partial thickness burn and full thickness burn, and is appropriate if the amount of full thickness burn is not determined accurately. This paper describes a program that uses these risk models to correct or standardize for demographic and severity factors, then, after that adjustment, tests whether a group of burn patients who received a new or experimental therapy shows a significantly better survival rate than that predicted by a baseline model. The program is a simple one written in Fortran for easy adaptation to other computer systems.

  8. Post-fire analysis of construction materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Allen Schroeder

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to determine and document the extent to which the fire damage in wood, concrete, and gypsum wallboard can be used to determine the time and heat flux exposure of the incipient stages of an uncontrolled fire event. A literature review outlines the state-of-the-art in three distinct areas: (1) Fire investigation; (2) The physical properties

  9. A 1-year prospective study of burns in an Irish paediatric burns unit.

    PubMed

    Cronin, K J; Butler, P E; McHugh, M; Edwards, G

    1996-05-01

    Burns are the fourth leading cause of injury death in children in the USA, accounting for 1300 paediatric deaths annually. The majority of paediatric burns mortality and morbidity result from simple domestic accidents that are preventable. A prospective study of paediatric burns from 1 January 1992 to 1 January 1993 was undertaken at our burns unit to outline the profile of the Irish paediatric burns problem. A total of 336 burns were referred to our unit over the 12 months (80 per cent self-referrals, 15 per cent tertiary referrals from district hospitals and 5 per cent GP referrals). Sixteen per cent (57) of the patients required admission and 33 per cent (112) required prolonged dressings as outpatients. Mortality and morbidity rates were comparable to other centres at 1.8 per cent and 39 per cent respectively. The demographic analysis of the patient population was similar to that seen in other studies from developed countries but there were some notable differences. First, there was an alarmingly high incidence of serious sunburn injuries, especially among young infants. Most parents were unaware of the association between childhood sunburn and the development of skin cancer in later life. Second, 90 per cent of the accidents occurred in the home and almost all were preventable. A parent or guardian was present in 87 per cent of cases but parental knowledge of the appropriate first aid measures was poor. It is suggested that a public health education campaign on this issue would help in reducing the incidence and severity of paediatric burn injuries in Ireland. PMID:8726262

  10. Open air refuse burning video: Proton Dan the science man explores open air refuse burning

    SciTech Connect

    Eastburn, M.D.; Sipple, J.L.; Deramo, A.R.

    1999-07-01

    The goal of this video is to educate school children to the potential hazards of open air trash burning; to demonstrate alternative ways to dispose of trash; and to motivate students to take action to change the behavior of their parents with regard to trash burning. The burning of household trash, although illegal, is still a common practice in rural areas of Delaware. Enforcement has been difficult because the practice is often performed at night and is done across a wide rural area that is difficult to patrol on a continuing basis. The prohibition on trash burning (revised Regulation 13 of The Delaware Code of Regulations Governing The Control of Air Pollution) has been in effect since 1968, but the public has been slow to comply because trash burning has been practiced for many generations and because much of the public is unaware of the environmental impacts and/or the human health risks. This video may be valuable for other States to use as a public outreach tool regarding their problems with open air refuse burning. The focus of the video is a 7th grade science class is given various assignments relating to Earth Day and preservation of natural resources. Two children in particular are given the assignment to research and report on the hazards of open air trash burning and are asked to investigate alternative ways to dispose of refuse. Upon brainstorming how to find information on the topic, the kids decide to contact the host of a popular children's science show on broadcast television named Proton Dan the Science Man (a fictitious character and show based on Bill Nye the Science Guy). The host then invites the kids to the studio where he films his show and takes them through the topic. The TV host character takes the children to several external locations like a landfill, recycling centers, etc..

  11. Assessment of burn depth and burn wound healing potential.

    PubMed

    Monstrey, Stan; Hoeksema, Henk; Verbelen, Jos; Pirayesh, Ali; Blondeel, Phillip

    2008-09-01

    The depth of a burn wound and/or its healing potential are the most important determinants of the therapeutic management and of the residual morbidity or scarring. Traditionally, burn surgeons divide burns into superficial which heal by rapid re-epithelialization with minimal scarring and deep burns requiring surgical therapy. Clinical assessment remains the most frequent technique to measure the depth of a burn wound although this has been shown to be accurate in only 60-75% of the cases, even when carried out by an experienced burn surgeon. In this article we review all current modalities useful to provide an objective assessment of the burn wound depth, from simple clinical evaluation to biopsy and histology and to various perfusion measurement techniques such as thermography, vital dyes, video angiography, video microscopy, and laser Doppler techniques. The different needs according to the different diagnostic situations are considered. It is concluded that for the initial emergency assessment, the use of telemetry and simple burn photographs are the best option, that for research purposes a wide range of different techniques can be used but that, most importantly, for the actual treatment decisions, laser Doppler imaging is the only technique that has been shown to accurately predict wound outcome with a large weight of evidence. Moreover this technique has been approved for burn depth assessment by regulatory bodies including the FDA. PMID:18511202

  12. [A case of chemical burn of the penis].

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Suguru; Kinjo, Takanori; Oida, Takeshi; Takezawa, Kentaro; Nomura, Hironori; Tei, Norihide; Takada, Shingo; Matsumiya, Kiyomi; Shiroyama, Yoshimi

    2012-11-01

    A chemical burn is not so common in the urological field. In addition, a chemical burn of the penis is quite rare. We experienced a case of chemical burn of the penis caused by resin for making fiber-glass reinforced plastics (FRP). He was a 41-year-old man and was referred to our hospital complaining of genital pain. He had sustained an injury to his penis induced by FRP at his workplace and had developed phimosis by the severe edematous foreskin. He underwent dorsal incision immediately and his postoperative course was favorable. PMID:23254789

  13. Physical rehabilitation of pediatric burns

    PubMed Central

    Atiyeh, B.; Janom, H.H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Significant improvements have been made in the acute treatment of pediatric burn injuries over the past 3 decades which have significantly decreased mortality. Each year, more burned children are necessitating serious medical attention during their convalescence. For children with serious consequences resulting from burns that can persist from childhood through adolescence into adulthood, the value of long-term rehabilitation cannot be over stated. Burn injury management should not focus only on the immediate treatment. Long-term functional outcome and the required rehabilitation that burn victims must go through should be given equal if not more attention. The present is a review of the available modalities utilized for the physical rehabilitation of convalescent pediatric burns in order to overcome the catabolic state, improve muscle power and fitness, reduce disfiguring scars and prevent contractures. PMID:25249846

  14. Marginally Stable Nuclear Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Altamirano, D.

    2012-01-01

    Thermonuclear X-ray bursts result from unstable nuclear burning of the material accreted on neutron stars in some low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). Theory predicts that close to the boundary of stability oscillatory burning can occur. This marginally stable regime has so far been identified in only a small number of sources. We present Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the bursting, high- inclination LMXB 4U 1323-619 that reveal for the first time in this source the signature of marginally stable burning. The source was observed during two successive RXTE orbits for approximately 5 ksec beginning at 10:14:01 UTC on March 28, 2011. Significant mHz quasi- periodic oscillations (QPO) at a frequency of 8.1 mHz are detected for approximately 1600 s from the beginning of the observation until the occurrence of a thermonuclear X-ray burst at 10:42:22 UTC. The mHz oscillations are not detected following the X-ray burst. The average fractional rms amplitude of the mHz QPOs is 6.4% (3 - 20 keV), and the amplitude increases to about 8% below 10 keV.This phenomenology is strikingly similar to that seen in the LMXB 4U 1636-53. Indeed, the frequency of the mHz QPOs in 4U 1323-619 prior to the X-ray burst is very similar to the transition frequency between mHz QPO and bursts found in 4U 1636-53 by Altamirano et al. (2008). These results strongly suggest that the observed QPOs in 4U 1323-619 are, like those in 4U 1636-53, due to marginally stable nuclear burning. We also explore the dependence of the energy spectrum on the oscillation phase, and we place the present observations within the context of the spectral evolution of the accretion-powered flux from the source.

  15. Rates of compliance with first aid recommendations in burn patients.

    PubMed

    Taira, Breena R; Singer, Adam J; Cassara, Guy; Salama, Michael N; Sandoval, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Several techniques (such as cooling and covering) are recommended in the first aid management of burn injured patients, both for lay persons and for EMS. Few studies have examined the rates of compliance with these recommendations. This study is a burn registry query performed in a suburban academic medical center with a regional burn unit. Patients seen by the burn service between January 2008 and February 2009 were included. Demographics, injury characteristics, rates of implementation of first aid, and method of transport to medical care (self vs ambulance) were recorded. Rates of implementation are reported as proportions with confidence intervals (CIs) and rates of implementation in those transported by self vs ambulance and work-related vs nonwork-related burns are compared using chi tests. Two hundred eleven burn patients were entered in the registry during the study period. Mean age was 27.0 (SD, 22.1) years, 44.3% were female, 95.2% were thermal burns, and 29.9% were transported by ambulance; 72.7% (95% CI, 66-78%) reported cooling their burn before presentation for medical care. Of those, 39.9% reported using tap water to cool their burn (95% CI, 33.4-46.8%), whereas 25.2% used ice (95% CI, 18.4-33.5%), and 8.9% used a cooling blanket (95% CI, 5-15%). Only 22.2% reported having applied a dressing before arrival in the hospital (95% CI, 16.9-28.5%). There were no significant differences between the groups who transported themselves to care in comparison with those who were brought in by ambulance in terms of cooling with water (P = .516), cooling with ice (P = .063), or application of dressing (P = .506). Further, no differences existed between those reporting cooling of the burn and those who did not in terms of patient characteristics. Rates of first aid administered for burn injury by lay persons before arrival at a burn center are high. A substantial percentage of people continue to use ice to cool their burns despite evidence of its potential detrimental nature. There is no difference in the rates of first aid implementation in those who did and did not contact EMS. The initial call to EMS might be used to instruct lay persons in appropriate burn first aid while awaiting the ambulance. PMID:20061846

  16. Control of Invasive Weeds with Prescribed Burning 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOSEPH M. DiTOMASO; MATTHEW L. BROOKS; EDITH B. ALLEN; RALPH MINNICH; PETER M. RICE; GUY B. KYSER

    2006-01-01

    Prescribed burning has primarily been used as a tool for the control of invasive late-season annual broadleaf and grass species, particularly yellow starthistle, medusahead, barb goatgrass, and several bromes. However, timely burning of a few invasive biennial broadleaves (e.g., sweetclover and garlic mustard), perennial grasses (e.g., bluegrasses and smooth brome), and woody species (e.g., brooms and Chinese tallow tree) also

  17. Burning mouth syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a debilitating medical condition affecting nearly 1.3 million of Americans. Its common features include a burning painful sensation in the mouth, often associated with dysgeusia and xerostomia, despite normal salivation. Classically, symptoms are better in the morning, worsen during the day and typically subside at night. Its etiology is largely multifactorial, and associated medical conditions may include gastrointestinal, urogenital, psychiatric, neurologic and metabolic disorders, as well as drug reactions. BMS has clear predisposition to peri-/post menopausal females. Its pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated and involves peripheral and central neuropathic pathways. Clinical diagnosis relies on careful history taking, physical examination and laboratory analysis. Treatment is often tedious and is aimed at correction of underlying medical conditions, supportive therapy, and behavioral feedback. Drug therapy with alpha lipoic acid, clonazepam, capsaicin, and antidepressants may provide symptom relief. Psychotherapy may be helpful. Short term follow up data is promising, however, long term prognosis with treatment is lacking. BMS remains an important medical condition which often places a recognizable burden on the patient and health care system and requires appropriate recognition and treatment. PMID:23429751

  18. Burning mouth syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Burning mouth syndrome mainly affects women, particularly after the menopause, when its prevalence may be 18-33%. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for burning mouth syndrome? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to February 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 12 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: anaesthetics (local), antidepressants, benzodiazepines (topical clonazepam), benzydamine hydrochloride, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), dietary supplements, and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in postmenopausal women. PMID:19450321

  19. Burning mouth syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Burning mouth syndrome mainly affects women, particularly after the menopause, when its prevalence may be 18% to 33%. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for burning mouth syndrome? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to November 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 15 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: anaesthetics (local), antidepressants, benzodiazepines (topical clonazepam), benzydamine hydrochloride, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), dietary supplements, and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in postmenopausal women. PMID:21418666

  20. Thermal injury induces impaired function in polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes and reduced control of burn wound infection

    PubMed Central

    Calum, H; Moser, C; Jensen, P Ø; Christophersen, L; Maling, D S; van Gennip, M; Bjarnsholt, T; Hougen, H P; Givskov, M; Jacobsen, G K; Høiby, N

    2009-01-01

    Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6% third-degree burn injury was induced in mice with a hot-air blower. The third-degree burn was confirmed histologically. The mice were allocated into five groups: control, shave, burn, infection and burn infection group. At 48 h, a decline in the concentration of peripheral blood leucocytes was observed in the group of mice with burn wound. The reduction was ascribed to the decline in concentration of polymorphonuclear neutrophil leucocytes and monocytes. When infecting the skin with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a dissemination of bacteria was observed only in the burn wound group. Histological characterization of the skin showed a more polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes (PMNs)-dominated inflammation in the group of mice with infected burn wound compared with the with burn wound group. In contrast, a higher degree of inflammation was observed in the burn wound group compared with the group of mice with infected burn wound. Furthermore, the oxidative burst and the phagocytic capacity of the PMNs were reduced in the group of mice with burn wound. Using this novel mouse model of thermal injury a decline of peripheral leucocytes was observed, whereas the increased local inflammatory response at the site of infection showed reduced capacity to contain and eliminate the infection. PMID:19210518

  1. Acid burns from personal assault in Uganda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Asaria; O. C. Kobusingye; B. A. Khingi; R. Balikuddembe; M. Gomezc; M. Beveridge

    2004-01-01

    Acid burns from assault represent a substantial and neglected proportion of burn injuries in the developing world. A retrospective chart review was conducted to assess the frequency of acid burns in relation to total burns requiring admission in Kampala, Uganda. Seventeen percent of the adult burns admitted at New Mulago hospital over an 18-month period resulted from acid assault. Patients

  2. A Project for Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeff Eidenshink; Brian Schwind; Ken Brewer; Zhi-Liang Zhu; Brad Quayle; Stephen Howard

    2007-01-01

    Elected offi cials and leaders of environmental agencies need information about the effects of large wildfi res in order to set policy and make management decisions. Recently, the Wildland Fire Leadership Council (WFLC), which implements and coordinates the National Fire Plan (NFP) and Federal Wildland Fire Management Policies (National Fire Plan, 2004), adopted a strategy to monitor the effectiveness of

  3. Severe Burns May Trigger Dangerous Shifts in Gut Germs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Gut Germs Study suggests that treating patients with probiotics might help prevent complications To use the sharing ... treating patients with live beneficial bacteria known as probiotics may help restore their microbiotic health. The findings ...

  4. Propolis and amnion reepithelialise second-degree burns in rats.

    PubMed

    Pessolato, Alicia Greyce Turatti; Martins, Daniele dos Santos; Ambrósio, Carlos Eduardo; Mançanares, Celina Almeida Furlanetto; de Carvalho, Ana Flávia

    2011-11-01

    Burns are serious consequences of trauma in terms of both imminent mortality and prolonged periods of morbidity. They are often accompanied by unsatisfactory cosmetic as well as functional and psychological outcomes. These complications emphasise the need for stronger efforts in achieving greater diversity and effectiveness in the treatment of skin burns. This study aimed to verify the effectiveness of gross and microscopic epidermal and dermal responses in the process of regenerative repair or healing of burns in rats that were treated either daily with 5% propolis ointment or by autologous amnion graft. Second-degree burns were inflicted in the neck region of female rats by contact with a hot metal (at 130 °C) for 5 s. Propolis treatment accelerated the process of tissue repair and led to decreased local inflammation, which indicates that treatment with propolis was successful in the initial period (7 days) and stimulated the production of collagen fibre (assessed by morphometry) in all the periods evaluated (14 and 21 days). Amnion treatment inhibited local inflammation (assessed macroscopically), stimulated local epithelial regeneration (assessed microscopically) and stimulated the production of collagen fibre (assessed by morphometry) in the days following burn. These treatments offer new therapeutic strategies for treating severe skin burns; these strategies may allow the minimisation of scar formation, a more rapid return of function and, ultimately, a better quality of life for burn patients. PMID:21741176

  5. A five-year review of burn injuries in Irrua

    PubMed Central

    Dongo, Andrew E; Irekpita, Eshobo E; Oseghale, Lilian O; Ogbebor, Charles E; Iyamu, Christopher E; Onuminya, John E

    2007-01-01

    Background The management of burns remains a challenge in developing countries. Few data exist to document the extent of the problem. This study provides data from a suburban setting by documenting the epidemiology of burn injury and ascertaining outcome of management. This will help in planning strategies for prevention of burns and reducing severity of complications. Methods A total of 72 patients admitted for burns between January 1st, 2002 and December 31st, 2006 at the Irrua specialist teaching hospital were studied retrospectively. Sources of information were the case notes and operation registers. Data extracted included demographics as well as treatment methods and outcome Results The results revealed male to female ratio of 2.1:1. Over 50% of the injuries occurred at home. There was a seasonal variation with over 40% of injuries occurring between November and January. The commonest etiologic agent was flame burn from kerosene explosion. There were 7 deaths in the series. Conclusion Burns are preventable. We recommend adequate supply of unadulterated petroleum products and establishment of burn centers. PMID:17956614

  6. Burning crude oil without pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, J.

    1979-01-01

    Crude oil can be burned at drilling sites by two-stage combustion process without producing pollution. Process allows easier conformance to strict federal or state clean air standards without installation of costly pollution removal equipment. Secondary oil recovery can be accomplished with injection of steam heating by burning oil.

  7. Burned Wetland Near Tebicuary River

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    In the rangelands of southern Paraguay, wetlands are burned to encourage new growth for cattle grazing. The burned wetland grasses are in the Family Poaceae (Gramineae), and may be in one of these genera: Panicum, Paspalum, Pennisetum, Tripogon. The Ñeembucú Region is typified by exten...

  8. [Intraoperative burns. An unforeseen danger?].

    PubMed

    Bonde, Christian T; Alsbjørn, Bjarne F

    2002-01-28

    Two patients were admitted to the department of burns in Copenhagen. Both had suffered burns following uncontrolled ignition of chlorhexidine-alcohol during surgery. The aim of this article is to highlight this potentially detrimental risk, which exists in almost all operating rooms, unless simple precautions are taken. PMID:11871219

  9. Environmentally clean multifuel burning industrial steam generation

    SciTech Connect

    Mesko, J.E. (Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade and Douglas, Inc., New York, NY (US))

    1990-01-01

    Steam generation and distribution at a major industrial facility of the Federal Government faced several problems. Existing local boiler plants and steam distribution systems were inefficient, unreliable, and difficult to maintain. The facility also faced the problem of disposing of large quantities of scrap wood, paper and cardboard wastes. The design solution presented successfully solved the problems and met the project objectives of burning variable solid fuels with changing size consist, heat and moisture content, in a modern environmentally controlled automatic highly efficient new central steam plant. In this new plant steam is generated by three high pressure field-erected boilers burning 100% coal, 100% refuse and/or combinations of the two, while maintaining particulate emissions, SO{sub 2} concentration, NO{sub x} and Chlorine levels at, or below clean air standards.

  10. Wood burning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, V.J.

    1982-08-10

    An air tight wood burning stove (10) for heating a designated space comprises a housing (12) having an access opening (50) in the front wall (14) thereof and at least one glass panel (64) containing door (54, 56) hingedly mounted on the front wall for closing the opening (50). A latching mechanism (60) on the door (54, 56) engages with undercut flange means (52, 53) surrounding opening (50) for positively maintaining the door (54, 56) in the closed position. A firebrick lined combustion chamber (34) within the housing receives logs through opening (50) for burning and the production of hot combustion gases. An air chamber (48) is formed within the housing (12) in air flow communication with the combustion chamber (34) for feeding air thereto through openings (94, 96) in the air chamber walls (46, 90). A damper 92, which may be manually or thermostatically controlled, controls cool air flow from room floor level into the air chamber (48) and then through openings (94, 96) into combustion chamber (34) wherein the air is heated. The hot combustion gases and heated air rise within housing (12) and are discharged through flue means (28, 30) to the outside. In passing upwardly the gases and air fl over the outside surface of and heat the air within a plurality of air carrying tubular heat exchange conduits (98) which are disposed adjacent the top of assembly (12) and extend therethrough upwardly and forwardly from conduit air inlets at the rear wall (24) to conduit air discharge outlets at the front wall (14).

  11. Interactive simulation of fire, burn and decomposition 

    E-print Network

    Melek, Zeki

    2009-05-15

    level set method, driven by the pyrolysis process, where the burning object releases combustible gases. Secondary deformation effects, such as bending burning matches and crumpling burning paper, are modeled as a proxy based deformation. Physically based...

  12. Interactive simulation of fire, burn and decomposition 

    E-print Network

    Melek, Zeki

    2008-10-10

    level set method, driven by the pyrolysis process, where the burning object releases combustible gases. Secondary deformation effects, such as bending burning matches and crumpling burning paper, are modeled as a proxy based deformation. Physically based...

  13. Smartphones and burn size estimation: “Rapid Burn Assessor”

    PubMed Central

    Kamolz, L.P.; Lumenta, D.B.; Parvizi, D.; Dirnberger, J.; Owen, R.; Höller, J.; Giretzlehner, M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Estimation of the total body surface area burned (%TBSA) following a burn injury is used in determining whether to transfer the patient to a burn center and the required fluid resuscitation volumes. Unfortunately, the commonly applied methods of estimation have revealed inaccuracies, which are mostly related to human error. To calculate the %TBSA (quotient), it is necessary to divide the burned surface area (Burned BSA) (numerator in cm2) by the total body surface area (Total BSA) (denominator in cm2). By using everyday objects (eg. credit cards, smartphones) with well-defined surface areas as reference for estimations of Burned BSA on the one hand and established formulas for Total BSA calculation on the other (eg. Mosteller), we propose an approximation method to assess %TBSA more accurately than the established methods. To facilitate distribution, and respective user feedback, we have developed a smartphone app integrating all of the above parameters, available on popular mobile device platforms. This method represents a simple and ready-to-use clinical decision support system which addresses common errors associated with estimations of Burned BSA (=numerator). Following validation and respective user feedback, it could be deployed for testing in future clinical trials. This study has a level of evidence of IV and is a brief report based on clinical observation, which points to further study.

  14. Assault by burning in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Haddadin, W.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Criminal attacks by burns on women in Jordan are highlighted in this retrospective study carried out of all proved cases of criminal burns in female patients treated at the burn unit of the Royal Rehabilitation Center in Jordan between January 2005 and June 2012. Thirteen patients were included in our study, out of a total of 550 patients admitted, all in the age range of 16-45 yr. Of these 13 women, six were burned by acid throwing, five by hot water, and two by direct flames from fuel thrown over them. Burn percentage ranged from 15 to 75% of the total body surface area, with involvement in most cases of the face and upper trunk. The mean hospital stay was 33 days and the mortality rate was 3/13, i.e. 23%. Violence against women exists in Jordanian society, yet burning assaults are rare. Of these, burning by throwing acid is the most common and most disfiguring act, with a higher mortality rate in domestic environments. PMID:23766757

  15. Burns treatment in ancient times.

    PubMed

    Pe?anac, Marija; Janji?, Zlata; Komarcevi?, Aleksandar; Paji?, Milos; Dobanovacki, Dusanka; Miskovi?, Sanja Skeledzija

    2013-01-01

    Discovery of fire at the dawn of prehistoric time brought not only the benefits to human beings offering the light and heat, but also misfortune due to burns; and that was the beginning of burns treatment. Egyptian doctors made medicines from plants, animal products and minerals, which they combined with magic and religious procedures. The earliest records described burns dressings with milk from mothers of male babies. Goddess Isis was called upon to help. Some remedies and procedures proved so successful that their application continued for centuries. The Edwin Smith papyrus (1500 BC) mentioned the treatment of burns with honey and grease. Ebers Papyrus (1500 BC) contains descriptions of application of mud, excrement, oil and plant extracts. They also used honey, Aloe and tannic acid to heal burns. Ancient Egyptians did not know about microorganisms but they knew that honey, moldy bread and copper salts could prevent infections from dirt in burns healing. Thyme, opium and belladona were used for pain relief. In the 4th century BC, Hippocrates recorded that Greek and Roman doctors used rendered pig fat, resin and bitumen to treat burns. Mixture of honey and bran, or lotion of wine and myrrh were used by Celsus. Honey was also known in Ayurveda (Indian medicine) time. Ayurvedic records Characa and Sushruta included honey in their dressing aids to purify sores and promote the healing. Burn treatment in Chinese medicine was traditional. It was a compilation of philosophy, knowledge and herbal medicine. The successful treatment of burns started in recent time and it has been made possible by better knowledge of the pathophysiology of thermal injuries and their consequences, medical technology advances and improved surgical techniques. PMID:23888738

  16. Hair bleaching and skin burning.

    PubMed

    Forster, K; Lingitz, R; Prattes, G; Schneider, G; Sutter, S; Schintler, M; Trop, M

    2012-12-31

    Hairdressing-related burns are preventable and therefore each case is one too many. We report a unique case of a 16-yr-old girl who suffered full-thickness chemical and thermal burns to the nape of her neck and superficial burns to the occiput after her hair had been dyed blond and placed under a dryer to accelerate the highlighting procedure. The wound on the nape of the neck required surgical debridement and skin grafting. The grafted area resulted in subsequent scar formation. PMID:23766754

  17. [Reconstructions after periorbital burn injuries].

    PubMed

    Klett, A; Rebane, R

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays burn patients who also have periocular symptoms are usually treated by reconstructive surgeons and the role of the ophthalmic surgeon has decreased.Although periocular complications occur in a minority of burned patients, they pose a greater challenge in surgical and non-surgical treatment. Chemical, electrical and thermal burns can lead to disfiguring scar formations and delayed treatment can lead to devastating ocular complications. Achieving a successful reconstruction requires a comprehensive approach, entailing many advanced techniques with an emphasis on preserving function and balancing intricate aesthetic requirements. The theory is illustrated in this article with clinical examples. PMID:23345146

  18. [Cooling and irrigation, volume replacement, pain management. First aid in burns].

    PubMed

    Boscher, A; Lackner, K; Ruppert, M; Kanz, G K; Mutschler, W E

    2002-06-13

    Of decisive importance for the outcome of burn victims are the depth and extent of the burn, and the age and general state of health of the patient. At the site of the injury, the most important initial measure is the abundant application of cold water to the undressed victim. Early intubation of the burn victim should not be employed too readily. When the burns cover more than 10% of the body surface there is an acute danger of shock, and rapid fluid replacement must be aggressively pursued; the infused volume is calculated on the basis of the extent of the burn (Parkland formula). To treat pain, the i.v. administration of opiates or ketamine in combination with benzodiazepines has proven value. The onsite management of the burns should be restricted to the application of sterile dressings. Grade 1 and 2a burns may be treated out of hospital by cooling, cold water application, burn ointment dressings. More severe burns require hospitalization and surgical management. Since the severity of burn trauma is often underestimated, rapid hospitalization is to be recommended. PMID:12134720

  19. Getting beyond burning dirt

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, R.J. (Monsanto Co., St. Louis, MO (United States))

    1994-05-01

    To fix and make the nation's Superfund law work, two related questions must be answered. First, where will the innovative technology come from the clean up Superfund and other waste sites Burning dirt--the best technology currently available--is an expensive nonsolution. Second, can man muster the political will to make Superfund a waste cleanup law instead of an expanding welfare program for lawyers Under the sponsorship of EPA, a number of companies and other groups are participating in the Remediation Technology Development Forum, focusing on the areas where the real breakthroughs might occur and the most promising collaborations. Currently, this effort is focused on bioremediation, the lasagna process, soil flushing, and characterization. Another area of investigation is stabilization technology--stabilizing a site to keep contaminants from flowing away. Some scientists, for example, are looking at vitrification technology, which fuses contaminated soil into a glass-like brick. And still other technology efforts include air flushing of contaminated sites and vapor extraction and heating processes. A number of groups and consortia have been working on waste remediation technologies. For the first time since 1980, when Superfund became law, one can give positive answers to the two critical questions. Groups are finding innovative technologies to clean up Superfund and other waste sites. And, as a nation, Americans are exercising the political will to create a Superfund law that will work effectively and fairly.

  20. Refuse burning process

    SciTech Connect

    Lientz, laC.

    1983-08-23

    A process is provided for burning refuse containing polyvinyl chloride without the consequent production of phosgene. The refuse is carbonized in a rotary furnace at temperatures below 1200 degrees F., especially 700 degrees F., in an oxygen deficient atmosphere. A burnable gas containing the carbonized refuse is drawn from the furnace by an air jet wherein same is mixed with oxygen and selectively combusted. Uncarbonized refuse is collected and withdrawn after exiting the furnace. An apparatus is provided for combustion of the refuse in the nonphosgene generating process and includes the rotary furnace. Special seals are provided for the furnace to prevent excess oxygen from entering thereinto. In particular, the seals are utilized between the rotary ends of the furnace and stationary head associated with each end respectively. Each seal includes an upper and lower flap of fire resistant material secured to an end of the furnace and a companion flap of like material is secured to an associated end of the stationary head such that the intermediate flap sealably slides between the upper and lower flaps during rotation of the furnace thereby substantially sealing between the furnace and the stationary head.

  1. Automatic Burned Land Mapping From MODIS Time Series Images: Assessment in Mediterranean Ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aitor Bastarrika; Emilio Chuvieco; M. Pilar Martin

    2011-01-01

    A novel automatic burned area mapping algorithm for Mediterranean ecosystems based on Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) time series data is presented in this paper. This algorithm is based on a two-phase approach. The first phase detects the most severely burned areas, using spectral\\/temporal rules computed from dynamic temporal win- dows. The second phase improves the discrimination of burned areas around

  2. Alcohol and drug abuse in burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Haum, A; Perbix, W; Häck, H J; Stark, G B; Spilker, G; Doehn, M

    1995-05-01

    Two studies are described in this paper. In the first study 225 acutely, severely burned patients were retrospectively investigated as to admission blood alcohol level and history of chronic alcohol abuse. The influence of further risk factors, circumstances and therapeutic data was studied, in particular the influence of gender, full-thickness burns, smoke inhalation injury, smoking, length of total and ICU stay, and suicide attempt. The 70 patients with positive blood alcohol levels on admission had a significantly higher fatality rate (31.5 per cent) in comparison with the 18.1 per cent fatality rate of patients with a negative blood alcohol level. Both groups had nearly identical mean TBSA and mean age. Chronic alcohol abuse was noted in 59 patients. These patients were found to have a higher fatality rate (31.4 per cent, 22/70) compared with that of patients without a history of chronic alcohol abuse who had an overall fatality rate of 18.1 per cent (28/155). No significant difference was found between non-intoxicated and acutely intoxicated alcoholics (31.4 vs 29.3 per cent). Our conclusion is that intake of alcohol before burn injury represents an independent risk factor. The second study was a prospective study of 16 consecutively admitted burn patients, who were evaluated for both drug and alcohol intake. Five patients had positive drug levels and five had positive alcohol levels. Five patients had a history of chronic drug and/or alcohol abuse. This incidence of alcohol and drug abuse supports the findings of our retrospective study. PMID:7794500

  3. Climatic stress increases forest fire severity across the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, Philip J.; Nesmith, Jonathan C.B.; Keifer, MaryBeth; Knapp, Eric E.; Flint, Alan; Flint, Lorriane

    2013-01-01

    Pervasive warming can lead to chronic stress on forest trees, which may contribute to mortality resulting from fire-caused injuries. Longitudinal analyses of forest plots from across the western US show that high pre-fire climatic water deficit was related to increased post-fire tree mortality probabilities. This relationship between climate and fire was present after accounting for fire defences and injuries, and appeared to influence the effects of crown and stem injuries. Climate and fire interactions did not vary substantially across geographical regions, major genera and tree sizes. Our findings support recent physiological evidence showing that both drought and heating from fire can impair xylem conductivity. Warming trends have been linked to increasing probabilities of severe fire weather and fire spread; our results suggest that warming may also increase forest fire severity (the number of trees killed) independent of fire intensity (the amount of heat released during a fire).

  4. Prescribed Range Burning in Texas 

    E-print Network

    White, Larry D.; Hanselka, C. Wayne

    2000-04-25

    Prescribed burning is an effective brush management technique for improving pasture accessibility and increasing the production of forage and browse. Fire also suppresses most brush and cactus species. This bulletin discusses how to plan...

  5. Phoenix Society for Burn Survivors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Create a Legacy Join Team Phoenix Phoenix Store Who We Are Our History Our Leadership Team Financial Accountability Phoenix ... World Burn Congress Get Involved Ways to Give Who We Are Quick Links Media Blog Contact Legal Privacy Policy ...

  6. Chemical burns: pathophysiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Palao, R; Monge, I; Ruiz, M; Barret, J P

    2010-05-01

    Chemical burns continue to pose a variety of dilemmas to the clinician managing such cases. Assessment of burn depth is often difficult and the decision whether to excise the wound early is not always clear-cut. In this updated review, common agents are classified and the basic principles of management and specific recommendations are examined. The complications arising from exposure to these chemicals and the supportive measures needed during treatment are also described. PMID:19864073

  7. Burning Questions About a Candle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-17

    In this activity, learners will observe a deceptively simple process: a burning candle. In fact, what takes place during the initiation and dynamically stable combustion process is enormously complex. This activity gives learners important insights into basic physics and chemistry, and shows learners the importance of critical observations. The link to this activity is on the left hand side, under "Activities," and is called "How a Candle Burns." Adult supervision required.

  8. Smokeless burning system and method

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, R.E.

    1988-10-04

    This patent describes a system for burning wood and other fuel materials: an elongated, pivotally mounted burning chamber having inlet and outlet ends and being capable of being tilted to different angles of inclination to facilitate movement of material through the chamber, an accumulation chamber at the inlet end of the burning chamber, a hopper for receiving fuel material to be burned, an air lock chamber positioned between the hopper and the accumulation chamber, a first gate between the hopper and the air lock chamber for passing the fuel material from the hopper to the air lock chamber when opened and preventing the passage of smoke from the air lock chamber to the hopper when closed, a second gate between the air lock chamber and the accumulation chamber for passing the fuel material from the air lock chamber to the accumulation chamber when opened and preventing the passage of smoke from the burning chamber to the air lock chamber when closed, and means for pushing the fuel material from the accumulation chamber into the inlet end of the burning chamber and thereby causing material already in the chamber to move down the inclined chamber toward the outlet end.

  9. Acute discrimination between superficial-partial and deep-partial thickness burns in a preclinical model with laser speckle imaging.

    PubMed

    Crouzet, Christian; Nguyen, John Quan; Ponticorvo, Adrien; Bernal, Nicole P; Durkin, Anthony J; Choi, Bernard

    2015-08-01

    A critical need exists for a robust method that enables early discrimination between superficial-partial and deep-partial thickness burn wounds. In this study, we report on the use of laser speckle imaging (LSI), a simple, non-invasive, optical imaging modality, to measure acute blood flow dynamics in a preclinical burn model. We used a heated brass comb to induce burns of varying severity to nine rats and collected raw speckle reflectance images over the course of three hours after burn. We induced a total of 12 superficial-partial and 18 deep-partial thickness burn wounds. At 3h after burn we observed a 28% and 44% decrease in measured blood flow for superficial-partial and deep-partial thickness burns, respectively, and that these reductions were significantly different (p=0.00007). This preliminary data suggests the potential role of LSI in the clinical management of burn wounds. PMID:25814299

  10. Nitramine propellants. [gun propellant burning rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, N. S.; Strand, L. D. (inventors)

    1978-01-01

    Nitramine propellants without a pressure exponent shift in the burning rate curves are prepared by matching the burning rate of a selected nitramine or combination of nitramines within 10% of burning rate of a plasticized active binder so as to smooth out the break point appearance in the burning rate curve.

  11. [Studies on the treatment of combined radiation-burn injury].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tian-min; Ran, Xin-ze

    2008-10-01

    Combined radiation-burn injuries mainly occur under the circumstances of nuclear explosion, nuclear accident, nuclear terrorism, depleted uranium attack, as well as secondary injuries following attack on nuclear installation. Combination of burn and radiation injuries bring along more serious whole body damage, more complicated pathological mechanism and much more difficult management. Research progress on the pathological mechanism and medical management of several key links of combined injury were discussed in this paper. (1) Enhancement of early first aid and prevention of early death of wounded. (2) Damage and restoration of hemopoietic function. (3) Disturbance of immune function and prevention and treatment of infection (mainly on the intestinal mucosa immunity and enterological infection). (4) Management of burn wound. (5) The role of several important measures in the comprehensive treatment. PMID:19103027

  12. [Findings in the detection of fibronectin in skin burns].

    PubMed

    Dao, T Q; Hirt, M; Zelený, M; Pexa, T

    2001-11-01

    Occurrence of fibronectin was detected in paraffin sections of burn skin samples, excised from surviving patients, as well as skin samples removed from the death persons, who succumbed burn wounds. The other groups of samples, used for comparison with the previous one, consisted of the intact skin excisions and skin samples post-mortem exposed to thermic changes. Indirect immunoperoxidase reaction was the immunohistochemical method used in all examinations. In post-mortem burn skin samples there was a loss of fibronectin activity in the epidermo-dermal junction area as well as in the papillary dermis. In burn skin samples, excised from patients who only survived for very short time their (serious skin) burns, no evidence of any fibronectin activity was seen. Also in two other cases, when patients--due to their severe burns--survived for several hours only, there were no conspicuous differences in the intensity of fibronectin activity seen in comparison with features found in the intact skin samples. Fibronectin activity was, however, increased in all other burn skin samples, where the survival time of patients was from 30 minutes to 5 weeks and there were following differences in its intensity and also in its pattern of distribution. In the 1st-degree and in a superficial 2nd-degree skin burn wounds, fibronectin was also present in the epidermis. In the papillary dermis, fibronectin was distributed rather diffusely or in a spot-like pattern while in the reticular dermis, there was a tendency to form net-like structures among collagen fibers. In deeper 2nd-degree and in the 3rd-degree burn wounds, fibronectin was deposited in vicinity of blood vessels and skin appendages in a fibrillar pattern. In 6 out of 11 samples, where the survival time ranged from 7 to 21 days, fibroblasts were arranged among fine collagen fibers and some of these cells exhibited positive fibronectin activity on their surface. Numerous fibroblasts with finely scattered fibronectin spots and also a decrease of fibronectin activity were observed in more mature granulation tissue, present in burn skin samples where survival time of patients was five weeks. PMID:11813493

  13. Burn wounds infected by contaminated water: Case reports, review of the literature and recommendations for treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noel F. F. Ribeiro; Christopher H. Heath; Jessica Kierath; Suzanne Rea; Mark Duncan-Smith; Fiona M. Wood

    2010-01-01

    First-aid education for the management of burns advocates cool running water over burnt skin to limit soft tissue damage. However, the water used may itself constitute a risk.We report three cases of severe invasive and necrotizing infection in patients who used or immersed themselves in contaminated water in an attempt to extinguish the fire following acute major burns. Wound cultures

  14. Virtual reality as an adjunctive pain control during burn wound care in adolescent patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hunter G. Hoffman; Jason N; David R. Patterson; Gretchen J. Carrougher; Thomas A. Furness III

    2000-01-01

    For daily burn wound care procedures, opioid analgesics alone are often inadequate. Since most burn patients experience severe to excruciating pain during wound care, analgesics that can be used in addition to opioids are needed. This case report provides the first evidence that entering an immersive virtual environment can serve as a powerful adjunctive, nonpharmacologic analgesic. Two patients received virtual

  15. Radiative heating and erosive burn of a solid propellant subject to electrothermal plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Bourham, M.A.; Gilligan, J.G. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1996-12-31

    Electrothermal-chemical (ETC) devices have shown a growing interest for possible various applications that exhibit the generation of high density, high enthalpy flows such as military guns. The interaction of electrothermal plasmas with solid or liquid propellants is not clearly understood. Several experiments have been conducted on specific propellants that show either enhanced burn rates or no effect from plasma impinging on the propellant. The question of whether the externally high heat flux produced from the electrothermal plasma will enhance the propellant burn rate, or the burn rate will be limited by the vapor shield at the combustion flame temperature is still unanswered. Erosive burn experiments conducted on JA-2 solid propellant have shown enhanced burn rates through plasma erosion. This paper explores the erosive burn and radiative heating, their implication on the ETC performance, and whether they re sufficient as augmentation and control mechanisms in electrothermal-chemical devices.

  16. Helium processing for deuterium/helium burns in ITER's physics phase

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, P.A.; Sze, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    The requirements for vacuum pumping and fuel processing for deuterium/helium (D/{sup 3}He) burns in the physics operating phase for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) were assessed. These burns are expected to have low fusion power (100 MW), short burn times ({le}30 s), limited operation (2000 shots), and a fractional burn {approximately}0.3%. For the physics phase, the fuel processing system will include several units to separate deuterium and helium (activated charcoal bed, SAES getter and a Pd/Ag diffuser), as well as an isotopic separation system to separate {sup 3}He and {sup 4}He. The needed vacuum system's cryosorption surface area may be as large as 10 m{sup 2} if the burn time is {approximately}200 s, the fractional burn is <0.3%, or the fusion power is >100 MW. 8 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  17. Developing a trial burn plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Walter S.; Wong, Tony; Williams, Gary L.; Brintle, David G.

    1991-04-01

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) was designed to ensure that incineration facilities which treat hazardous wastes operate in an environmentally responsible manner. Under the requirements of RCRA, a trial burn must be conducted in order to obtain a fmalized operating permit. A trial burn is a test which determines whether an incinerator is capable of meeting or exceeding RCRA performance standards. If the standards are met, then the trial burn should identify the operating conditions necessary to ensure the incinerator's ability to meet or exceed the performance standards throughout the life of the permit. Development of the trial burn must incorporate interests of both the permit writer and the applicant. The permit writer wishes to obtain sufficient data necessary to establish the final permit conditions. The applicant wishes to obtain a final permit which allows the greatest flexibility of incinerator operating parameters. The areas of interest to be discussed, which allow the applicant and permit writer to achieve their goals, include understanding the problem, selecting a waste feed, choosing the principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs), determining operating conditions, choosing appropriate sampling methods, and obtaining representative samples (QAIQC). The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of what is required to develop a trial burn plan.

  18. Flooding after fire: Impacts of the 2013 Colorado Front Range floods on the High Park Fire burn scar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampf, S. K.; Schmeer, S.; MacDonald, L. H.; Brogan, D. J.; Nelson, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    In June 2012, the High Park Fire west of Fort Collins, CO burned 350 km2 of steep forested terrain, leading to elevated runoff and erosion in watersheds draining the burned area. Under the auspices of a NSF RAPID grant we began monitoring precipitation, hillslope-scale sediment production, stream stage, and channel geomorphic change in Skin Gulch and Hill Gulch, two 15 km2 watersheds within the High Park Fire. Short-duration summer thunderstorms are typically the dominant cause of post-fire runoff and erosion in the central and southern Rocky Mountains, but in September 2013 an extreme, long duration storm dropped more than 200 mm of rain in 48 hours. This storm provided a unique opportunity to compare the hydrologic and geomorphic effects of smaller summer thunderstorms to those of the long duration, high magnitude September event. Mean June-August 2013 precipitation in these watersheds was 125 mm, less than half the total for the September 2013 event, but this summer precipitation led to a mean sediment yield of 8 Mg ha-1, about double the mean sediment yield of the much larger September storm. Hillslope sediment production was highest during summer storms that were shorter duration but had higher 5-15 minute precipitation intensities than the September storm. These localized summer 2013 storms led to flashy pulses of flow in the channel network that caused relatively small amounts of channel aggradation or incision. In contrast, the September 2013 event produced sustained high flows that led to substantial geomorphic change throughout the channel network, with more than 2 m of aggradation at the outlet of Skin Gulch. These results indicate that the high intensity summer thunderstorms were most effective at mobilizing sediment from hillslopes, but the more spatially uniform rainfall during the September event produced much more dramatic downstream channel geomorphic change.

  19. Modeling rates of life form cover change in burned and unburned alpine heathland subject to experimental warming.

    PubMed

    Camac, James S; Williams, Richard J; Wahren, Carl-Henrik; Jarrad, Frith; Hoffmann, Ary A; Vesk, Peter A

    2015-06-01

    Elevated global temperatures are expected to alter vegetation dynamics by interacting with physiological processes, biotic relationships and disturbance regimes. However, few studies have explicitly modeled the effects of these interactions on rates of vegetation change, despite such information being critical to forecasting temporal patterns in vegetation dynamics. In this study, we build and parameterize rate-change models for three dominant alpine life forms using data from a 7-year warming experiment. These models allowed us to examine how the interactions between experimental warming, the abundance of bare ground (a measure of past disturbance) and neighboring life forms (a measure of life form interaction) affect rates of cover change in alpine shrubs, graminoids and forbs. We show that experimental warming altered rates of life form cover change by reducing the negative effects of neighboring life forms and positive effects of bare ground. Furthermore, we show that our models can predict the observed direction and rate of life form cover change at burned and unburned long-term monitoring sites. Model simulations revealed that warming in unburned vegetation is expected to result in increased forb and shrub cover and decreased graminoid cover. In contrast, in burned vegetation, warming is predicted to slow post-fire regeneration in both graminoids and forbs and facilitate rapid expansion in shrub cover. These findings illustrate the applicability of modeling rates of vegetation change using experimental data. Our results also highlight the need to account for both disturbance and the abundance of other life forms when examining and forecasting vegetation dynamics under climatic change. PMID:25694042

  20. Burning the Corporate Ladder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowdle, Kurt

    1994-01-01

    Describes several businesses founded by talented, yet jobless, young entrepreneurs. Examines the growing phenomena of student interest in entrepreneurship and its economic and ideological impetus. Owners of one organic foods business describe how they combined their environmental ideals with business expertise. (LZ)

  1. Short-term effects of burn season on flowering phenology of savanna plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pavlovic, N.B.; Leicht-Young, S. A.; Grundel, R.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effect of season of burn on flowering phenology of groundlayer species, in the year following burns, in a mesic-sand Midwestern oak savanna. Burn treatments were fall, early-season, growing-season, late-season, and 1 or 5 years after a prior early-season wildfire. For these treatments, we compared the number of flowering stems and of flowers for species overall, for the 20 most prolifically flowering species, as well as for species grouped by flowering phenoperiods, and by growth form. Growing-season burn had a significant negative effect on number of flowering stems and total number of flowers. This effect occurred when either the burn occurred during the flowering season or during the season prior to the flowering phenoperiod. Tradescantia ohiensis showed expedited flowering and Phlox pilosa showed delayed flowering in response to early-season burning. Flowering of early shrubs was reduced by the previous fall and early-spring fires, while flowering of mid-season blooming shrubs was reduced by the early- and growing-season burns. Vaccinium and Gaylussacia, early-flowering shrubs, produced fewer flowers 1 year after than 5 years after an early-season burn. Arabis lyrata showed reduced flowering from the early-season burn. We also found four instances where the early-spring burn effect on flowering was more severe than the fall burn effect, suggesting that many frequent early-season burns may be deleterious to flowering and reproduction of some species. Burns occurring too frequently in the same season could negatively affect future flowering and reproduction of these plant species.

  2. Burn Injury Reduces Neutrophil Directional Migration Speed in Microfluidic Devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathryn L. Butler; Vijayakrishnan Ambravaneswaran; Nitin Agrawal; Maryelizabeth Bilodeau; Mehmet Toner; Ronald G. Tompkins; Shawn Fagan; Daniel Irimia

    2010-01-01

    Thermal injury triggers a fulminant inflammatory cascade that heralds shock, end-organ failure, and ultimately sepsis and death. Emerging evidence points to a critical role for the innate immune system, and several studies had documented concurrent impairment in neutrophil chemotaxis with these post-burn inflammatory changes. While a few studies suggest that a link between neutrophil motility and patient mortality might exist,

  3. Reduced antimicrobial peptide expression in human burn wounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen M Milner; Marcos R Ortega

    1999-01-01

    Severely burned skin ceases to perform its natural protective role and surrenders itself as a nidus and portal for bacterial invasion. Antimicrobial peptides are part of a non-specific chemical defence system, separate from cellular and humoral immunity. Two of these peptides, human beta-defensins 1 and 2 have been recently found in skin and are produced by keratinocytes. Beta defensins have

  4. Droplet burning at zero G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, F. A.

    1978-01-01

    Questions of the importance and feasibility of performing experiments on droplet burning at zero gravity in Spacelab were studied. Information on the physics and chemistry of droplet combustion, with attention directed specifically to the chemical kinetics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid mechanics of the phenomena involved, are presented. The work was divided into three phases, the justification, the feasibility, and the conceptual development of a preliminary design. Results from the experiments performed revealed a few new facts concerning droplet burning, notably burning rates in excess of theoretical prediction and a phenomenon of flash extinction, both likely traceable to accumulation of carbon produced by gas-phase pyrolysis in the fuel-rich zone enclosed by the reaction surface. These experiments also showed that they were primarily due to timing difficulties.

  5. Urban, Regional and Global Impacts of Biomass Burning Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaxo, P.; Ferreira De Brito, J.; Barbosa, H. M.; Rizzo, L. V.; Setzer, A.; Cirino, G.

    2013-05-01

    Biomass burning is a major regional and global driver for atmospheric composition. Its effects in regional and global climate are very significant, but still difficult to assess. Even in large urban areas in Latin America such as Mexico City, Sao Paulo and Santiago, and in developed areas such as Paris and Californian cities it is possible to observe significant biomass burning effects air quality. The wood burning components as well as inner city and vicinities burning if agricultural residues impact heavily the concentration of organic aerosol, carbon monoxide and ozone in urban areas. Regionally, regions such as Amazonia and Central America show large plumes of smoke that extend their impact over continental areas, with changes in the radiation balance, air quality and climate. The deforestation rate in Amazonia have dropped strongly from 27,000 Km2 in 2004 to 6,200 Km2 in 2011, a very significant reduction, but this reduction was not observed in Africa and Southeast Asia. Health effects of biomass burning emissions are very significant, and observed in several key regions. Remote sensing techniques for fire detection have progressed significantly and long time series (10-15 years) are now feasible. The black carbon associated with biomass burning has important impacts in formation and development of clouds in Amazonia and other regions. The organic component of biomass burning emissions scatter light and increase diffuse radiation that alters carbon uptake in large regions of Amazonia and certainly other forested areas. Increase of up to 30% in carbon uptake associated with biomass burning emissions was observed in Amazonia, as part of the LBA Experiment. New analytical methods that quantify the absorption angstrom exponent of biomass burning and fossil fuel black carbon (BC) can differentiate BC from different burning sources. In addition, the hygroscopic properties of particles with a core shell of BC coated with organic compounds can be measured and shows very significant cloud nucleation properties of these complex particles that can change cloud formation and development mechanisms. Recent papers on the radiative forcing of black carbon estimate that BC can have a very high positive forcing of +0.5 watts/m2, and at the same time the organic compounds associated with BC emissions can bring the total radiative forcing to zero. This would imply that policies to reduce BC emissions as a strategy to quickly reduce global warming could not be that much effective. BC continues to be a critically important global driver of climate change, but its effects are still quite unknown.

  6. Conducting a Prescribed Burn and Prescribed Burning Checklist

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grasslands of the central Great Plains developed with periodic fire. Prescribed burning is an important tool for managing grasslands to maintain desirable species composition, increase grazing livestock performance, maintain productivity, and control invasive weeds. The safe and effective use of pre...

  7. [The organization of emergency actions for ocular burns in conditions of military unit (of the ship)].

    PubMed

    Bo?ko, É V; Chernysh, V F

    2014-06-01

    Prehospital services for ocular burns are delivered by servicemen as self or mutual management and also by paramedic. Every case of ocular burn should be considered as severe one. The patient, shortly after the first aid, should be transported to the medical company or medical unit. Under conditions of medical unit military doctor has to organize an ophthalmological working space (ophthalmological comer) with the necessary equipment. Eye irrigation has to be made for chemical ocular burns. Military doctor should consider any previous irrigation as insufficient. For severe ocular burns during evacuation to the hospital it is necessary to perform a simple blepharorrhaphy or (if the condition of lids allows) to make a hermetic seal with aid of aid-band. Doctor's obligations should also include prophylaxis of ocular burns. PMID:25286571

  8. Iron/potassium perchlorate pellet burn rate measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, J.W.; Walters, R.R.

    1995-01-25

    A burn rate test having several advantages for low gas-producing pyrotechnic compacts has been developed. The technique involves use of a high speed video motion analysis system that allows immediate turnaround and produces all required data for rate computation on magnetic tape and becomes immediately available on the display screen. The test technique provides a quick method for material qualification along with data for improved reliability and function. Burn rate data has been obtained for both UPI and Eagle Pitcher Iron/Potassium Perchlorate blends. The data obtained for the UPI blends cover a range of composition, pellet density, and ambient (before ignition) pellet temperature. Burn rate data for the E-P blends were extended to include surface conditions or particle size as a variable parameter.

  9. Assessment and management of scalds and burns in children.

    PubMed

    Hollywood, Eleanor; O'Neill, Tracey

    2014-03-01

    In childhood, burn or scald injuries are comparatively common, and the greatest risk is to infants and toddlers. The extent and severity of injuries can vary greatly, which can significantly affect recovery and outcome. To provide high quality nursing care to the child who has sustained a burn injury and the family, the children's nurse should understand the pathophysiology of the trauma and the associated physical and psychological suffering. Evidence-based nursing management of these aspects is an essential component of recovery. Children's nurses working in hospitals, schools or in the community can engage with parents, families, school staff and children to provide information, advice, and health and safety promotion for burn prevention. PMID:24617891

  10. High-tension Electrical Burns: Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, A.D.; Dabkana, T.M.; Tahir, C.; Naaya, H.U.

    2009-01-01

    Summary High-tension electrical burns are a rare but devastating form of injury. The objective of this case report is to bring to the fore the severity of this rare form of injury and highlight the benefits of active surgical management of such a condition. We report the cases of two patients who were managed for high-tension electrical burns and highlight the main features of their presentation and management. Both patients needed urgent resuscitation and subsequent multiple amputations and disarticulations to save their lives. In high-tension electrical burns early resuscitation and wound exploration coupled with decisive action on the need for amputation would reduce the morbidity and mortality often associated with the ensuing overwhelming sepsis. PMID:21991174

  11. 'Pheran' Induced Fourth Degree Friction Burn of the Brain.

    PubMed

    Rasool, Altaf; Bashir, Sheikh Adil; Zaroo, Mohamad Inam; Bijli, Akram Hussain; Wani, Iqbal Rasool

    2015-06-01

    Friction burns result from the rubbing between the skin and any other rough surface. We present a case of fourth degree friction burn of the brain, which was predisposed due to the wearing of traditional long loose clothing known as 'Pheran'. The patient was pillion riding a motor bike on a highway and was wearing a Pheran. The loose arm sleeves of the pheran were hanging by the side. The bike met with a side-on collision with a load-carrier lorry. The patient fell down and the left loose arm sleeve of the pheran was trapped in the axle of the lorry. He was dragged on the road for about half a km before the fast moving lorry stopped, the driver being oblivious of the accident. The patient developed friction injury to various parts of the body in addition to a severe fourth degree friction burn to brain and a fracture shaft of left femur. PMID:26080182

  12. Development of a framework for fire risk assessment using remote sensing and geographic information system technologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emilio Chuvieco; Inmaculada Aguado; Marta Yebra; Héctor Nieto; Javier Salas; M. Pilar Martín; Lara Vilar; Javier Martínez; Susana Martín; Paloma Ibarra; Juan de la Riva; Jaime Baeza; Francisco Rodríguez; Juan R. Molina; Miguel A. Herrera; Ricardo Zamora

    2010-01-01

    Forest fires play a critical role in landscape transformation, vegetation succession, soil degradation and air quality. Improvements in fire risk estimation are vital to reduce the negative impacts of fire, either by lessen burn severity or intensity through fuel management, or by aiding the natural vegetation recovery using post-fire treatments. This paper presents the methods to generate the input variables

  13. Tissue engineered fetal skin constructs for pediatric burns

    PubMed Central

    Norbury, William B; Jeschke, Marc G; Herndon, David N

    2005-01-01

    The management of patients with partial thickness (second degree) burns is problematic due to the different treatments needed for varying depths of injury. A report recently published in The Lancet describes a novel treatment for deep second degree burns using a fetal skin construct (FSC). The authors included eight pediatric patients with small second degree burns. They showed that FSCs reduced the need for autografting of deep second degree burns, with little hypertrophy of new skin and no skin contraction. This technology is new and exciting, but in our opinion several issues must be addressed before FSCs can enter the clinical arena. All of the patients were included in the treatment group, and therefore no comparison with conventional skin substitutes was possible. There is no mention of the use of laser Doppler in any initial assessment of patients. The debridement carried out before application of the FSC is not elaborated upon, and the surface areas involved in the study were very small in most cases, which limits the relevance to patients with larger burns. The use of FSCs gives us an additional option in a range of possible treatments for this notoriously difficult-to-treat patient group. PMID:16356232

  14. Burn-Resistant, Strong Metal-Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Tayal, Moti J.

    2003-01-01

    Ceramic particulate fillers increase the specific strengths and burn resistances of metals: This is the conclusion drawn by researchers at Johnson Space Center's White Sands Test Facility. The researchers had theorized that the inclusion of ceramic particles in metal tools and other metal objects used in oxygen-rich atmospheres (e.g., in hyperbaric chambers and spacecraft) could reduce the risk of fire and the consequent injury or death of personnel. In such atmospheres, metal objects act as ignition sources, creating fire hazards. However, not all metals are equally hazardous: some are more burn-resistant than others are. It was the researchers purpose to identify a burn-resistant, high-specific-strength ceramic-particle/metal-matrix composite that could be used in oxygen-rich atmospheres. The researchers studied several metals. Nickel and cobalt alloys exhibit high burn resistances and are dense. The researchers next turned to ceramics, which they knew do not act as ignition sources. Unlike metals, ceramics are naturally burn-resistant. Unfortunately, they also exhibit low fracture toughnesses.

  15. Complication of full-thickness calvarial burn in an infant.

    PubMed

    Egozi, Dana; Maor, Udi; Ullmann, Yehuda

    2011-01-01

    Calvarial burns are rare and represent a treatment challenge with a high risk for complications. Although scalp burns may be reconstructed by methods such as skin grafting and tissue expansion, deeper burns with involvement of the underlying bone require more advanced techniques such as prosthetic or autologic cranioplasty and cutaneous coverage using soft tissue transfer. This is a report of a rare case of a 5-month-old boy who presented with severe second-, third-, and fourth-degree burns involving parts of his face, scalp, and hands (?15% TBSA). Because of the extensive damage, debridement of the soft necrotic tissues of the scalp, a right frontal bone craniectomy, and removal of the underlying dura were performed. To reconstruct the dura, a periosteal graft was used, and a large, posteriorly based pedicled fasciocutaneous scalp flap was transposed to cover the defect of the scalp and forehead. Postoperatively, the child developed an unusual sequella of a growing skull defect, presented by a bulging frontal lobe through the bone defect, which produced a cranial deformity, signs of raised intracranial pressure, and resulting altered neurological status. To relieve the pressure, a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was inserted. Later, cranioplasty using alloplastic material (methyl methacrylate) was performed. Further reconstructive surgeries were subsequently performed to improve the child's appearance and functioning. A 5-year follow-up after the burn revealed that the patient demonstrated no gross or fine motor skill deficits or any gross behavioral impairment. PMID:21562461

  16. Alkali-related ocular burns: a case series and review.

    PubMed

    Bunker, Daniel J L; George, Robert J; Kleinschmidt, Andrew; Kumar, Rohit J; Maitz, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Alkali burns are known to possess high pathological potential because of their inherent ability to lyse cell membranes and penetrate intraocular structures with devastating results. The authors aimed to evaluate the most common cause of this presentation, the current treatment approaches to injury, and eventual outcome as related to severity. The authors performed a retrospective review of all patients who sustained chemical-related ocular injuries seen at the Concord Hospital Burns Unit, Australia between January 2005 and March 2012. Management was based on cooperation between ophthalmic staff and the burns unit, with emphasis on early aggressive intervention and rigorous follow-up. The records of 39 patients who presented with chemical-related injury were assessed, 12 of whom had confirmed alkali burns involving the cornea. The most commonly implicated agent was sodium hydroxide, usually in the context of otherwise trivial domestic accidents. Acute medical management included copious irrigation and the use of analgesics, cycloplegics, and topical antibiotics. In half the cases, steroid drops and oral vitamin C were also used. Ten of the 12 patients (83%) had return to premorbid visual acuity. Complications included cicatrical ectropion (n = 1), pseudoexfoliative syndrome (n = 1), and symblepharon (n = 1). Surgical correction was needed in the one patient with cicatrical ectropion. This case series shows that appropriate acute management minimizes the potentially devastating sequelae of ocular alkali burns. Emphasis should be placed on prevention of domestic and workplace injuries when using alkaline products. PMID:23877138

  17. Short term spatio-temporal variability of soil water-extractable calcium and magnesium after a low severity grassland fire in Lithuania.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Martin, David

    2014-05-01

    Fire has important impacts on soil nutrient spatio-temporal distribution (Outeiro et al., 2008). This impact depends on fire severity, topography of the burned area, type of soil and vegetation affected, and the meteorological conditions post-fire. Fire produces a complex mosaic of impacts in soil that can be extremely variable at small plot scale in the space and time. In order to assess and map such a heterogeneous distribution, the test of interpolation methods is fundamental to identify the best estimator and to have a better understanding of soil nutrients spatial distribution. The objective of this work is to identify the short-term spatial variability of water-extractable calcium and magnesium after a low severity grassland fire. The studied area is located near Vilnius (Lithuania) at 54° 42' N, 25° 08 E, 158 masl. Four days after the fire, it was designed in a burned area a plot with 400 m2 (20 x 20 m with 5 m space between sampling points). Twenty five samples from top soil (0-5 cm) were collected immediately after the fire (IAF), 2, 5, 7 and 9 months after the fire (a total of 125 in all sampling dates). The original data of water-extractable calcium and magnesium did not respected the Gaussian distribution, thus a neperian logarithm (ln) was applied in order to normalize data. Significant differences of water-extractable calcium and magnesium among sampling dates were carried out with the Anova One-way test using the ln data. In order to assess the spatial variability of water-extractable calcium and magnesium, we tested several interpolation methods as Ordinary Kriging (OK), Inverse Distance to a Weight (IDW) with the power of 1, 2, 3 and 4, Radial Basis Functions (RBF) - Inverse Multiquadratic (IMT), Multilog (MTG), Multiquadratic (MTQ) Natural Cubic Spline (NCS) and Thin Plate Spline (TPS) - and Local Polynomial (LP) with the power of 1 and 2. Interpolation tests were carried out with Ln data. The best interpolation method was assessed using the cross validation method. Cross-validation was obtained by taking each observation in turn out of the sample pool and estimating from the remaining ones. The errors produced (observed-predicted) are used to evaluate the performance of each method. With these data, the mean error (ME) and root mean square error (RMSE) were calculated. The best method was the one which had the lower RMSE (Pereira et al. in press). The results shown significant differences among sampling dates in the water-extractable calcium (F= 138.78, p< 0.001) and extractable magnesium (F= 160.66; p< 0.001). Water-extractable calcium and magnesium was high IAF decreasing until 7 months after the fire, rising in the last sampling date. Among the tested methods, the most accurate to interpolate the water-extractable calcium were: IAF-IDW1; 2 Months-IDW1; 5 months-OK; 7 Months-IDW4 and 9 Months-IDW3. In relation to water-extractable magnesium the best interpolation techniques were: IAF-IDW2; 2 Months-IDW1; 5 months- IDW3; 7 Months-TPS and 9 Months-IDW1. These results suggested that the spatial variability of these water-extractable is variable with the time. The causes of this variability will be discussed during the presentation. References Outeiro, L., Aspero, F., Ubeda, X. (2008) Geostatistical methods to study spatial variability of soil cation after a prescribed fire and rainfall. Catena, 74: 310-320. Pereira, P., Cerdà, A., Úbeda, X., Mataix-Solera, J. Arcenegui, V., Zavala, L. Modelling the impacts of wildfire on ash thickness in a short-term period, Land Degradation and Development, (In Press), DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2195

  18. Methoxyflurane analgesia for burns dressings

    PubMed Central

    Packer, Kathleen J.

    1972-01-01

    The requirements for analgesia for burns dressings are discussed. Methoxyflurane has proved satisfactory in a clinical trial, and can be administered by one of two types of vaporizer. The possibility of nephrotoxicity due to methoxyflurane has not been eliminated. PMID:5024149

  19. Deepwater Horizon Controlled Oil Burn

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    OFF THE LOUISIANA COAST — A controlled burn of oil from the Deepwater Horizon/BP oil spill sends towers of fire hundreds of feet into the air over the Gulf of Mexico. U.S. Coast Guard Photo by Petty Officer First Class John Masson....

  20. Suicidal burn in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chan, R C; Burd, A

    2012-09-01

    The aim of our study is to review our experience in the management of patients who sustained burns associated with suicidal attempts over a 10-year period. In particular, we look into the outcome and incidence of self-harm/suicide after discharge among the survivors. Thirty-one patients with median age 36 years, ranging from 10 to 74, were included. Twenty-three (74%) were males and eight (26%) were females. Nearly three quarters (74%) of our patients had a known history of psychiatric illness: 11 had known history of substance abuse; 3 of them had drug-induced psychosis; 6 had schizophrenia; 5 had depression; 4 had personality disorders; 1 had pathological gambling and another one had adjustment disorder. Relationship problems and work/financial difficulties were the commonest reason for the suicidal attempts. Self-inflicted flame burn was the most frequent (39%; 12 patients) method of burning. Six patients (19%) died. The remaining 25 patients healed and were discharged. Seventeen patients required ICU care. The median length of stay in ICU was 7 days. The overall median length of stay was 35 days. The median follow up time for those survived is 63 months. Only 4 of these patients had further suicidal/parasuicidal attempts. Despite the high mortality, once these patients survived the initial injury, they are unlikely to commit suicide again. Thus, we believe that aggressive resuscitation should therefore be advocated for all suicidal burn patients. PMID:22360959

  1. Furnance for burning flammable particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Comtois

    1985-01-01

    There is disclosed a furnace for burning wooden wastes and, more specifically, sawdust and\\/or barks. The furnace is provided with an oil burner required for starting the fire. The draught from the oil burner fan is directed within a perforated box, located in the combustion chamber of the furnace, and the sawdust or the barks or other wooden particles fall,

  2. Spectral hole burning in polysilanes

    SciTech Connect

    Trommsdorff, H.P.; Zeigler, J.M.; Hochstrasser, R.M.

    1988-10-01

    The first observation of hole burning in the optical spectra of delocalized polymer backbone states is reported. The polymer chosen for this study is poly-(di-n-hexyl)-silane, consisting of chains of roughly 5100 silicon atoms. Absorption spectra of polysilane in solution at 1.6K and 77K are reported.(AIP)

  3. Burning Mouth Syndrome and Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Dahiya, Parveen; Kamal, Reet; Kumar, Mukesh; Niti; Gupta, Rajan; Chaudhary, Karun

    2013-01-01

    Menopause is a physiological process typically occurring in the fifth decade of life. One of the most annoying oral symptoms in this age group is the burning mouth syndrome (BMS), which may be defined as an intraoral burning sensation occurring in the absence of identifiable oral lesion or laboratory findings. Pain in burning mouth syndrome may be described as burning, tender, tingling, hot, scalding, and numb sensation in the oral mucosa. Multiple oral sites may be involved, but the anterior two-third part and the tip of tongue are most commonly affected site. There is no definite etiology for BMS other than the precipitating causative factors, and it is still considered idiopathic. Various treatment options like use of benzodiazepine, anti-depressants, analgesics, capsaicin, alpha lipoic acids, and cognitive behavioral therapy are found to be effective, but definite treatment is still unknown. The present article discusses some of the recent concepts of etiopathogenesis of BMS as well as the role of pharmacotherapeutic management in this disorder. PMID:23411996

  4. Monitoring Soil Erosion of a Burn Site in the Central Basin and Range Ecoregion: Final Report on Measurements at the Gleason Fire Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Julianne [DRI] [DRI; Etyemezian, Vicken [DRI] [DRI; Shillito, Rose [DRI] [DRI; Cablk, Mary [DRI] [DRI; Fenstermaker, Lynn [DRI] [DRI; Shafer, David [DOE Legacy Management] [DOE Legacy Management

    2013-10-01

    The increase in wildfires in arid and semi-arid parts of Nevada and elsewhere in the southwestern United States has implications for post-closure management and long-term stewardship for Soil Corrective Action Units (CAUs) on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) for which the Nevada Field Office of the United States Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration has responsibility. For many CAUs and Corrective Action Sites, where closure-in-place alternatives are now being implemented or considered, there is a chance that these sites could burn over at some time while they still pose a risk to the environment or human health, given the long half lives of some of the radionuclide contaminants. This study was initiated to examine the effects and duration of wildfire on wind and water erodibility on sites analogous to those that exist on the NNSS. The data analyzed herein were gathered at the prescribed Gleason Fire site near Ely, Nevada, a site comparable to the northern portion of the NNSS. Quantification of wind erosion was conducted with a Portable In-Situ Wind ERosion Lab (PI-SWERL) on unburned soils, and on interspace and plant understory soils within the burned area. The PI-SWERL was used to estimate emissions of suspendible particles (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than or equal to 10 micrometers) at different wind speeds. Filter samples, collected from the exhaust of the PI-SWERL during measurements, were analyzed for chemical composition. Based on nearly three years of data, the Gleason Fire site does not appear to have returned to pre burn wind erosion levels. Chemical composition data of suspendible particles are variable and show a trend toward pre-burn levels, but provide little insight into how the composition has been changing over time since the fire. Soil, runoff, and sediment data were collected from the Gleason Fire site to monitor the water erosion potential over the nearly three-year period. Soil hydrophobicity (water repellency) was noted on burned understory soils up to 12 months after the fire, as was the presence of ash on the soil surface. Soil deteriorated from a strong, definable pre-fire structure to a weakly cohesive mass (unstructured soil) immediately after the fire. Surface soil structure was evident 34 months after the fire at both burned and unburned sites, but was rare and weaker at burned sites. The amount of runoff and sediment was highly variable, but runoff occurred more frequently at burned interspace sites compared to burned understory and unburned interspace sites up to 34 months after the burn. No discernible pattern was evident on the amount of sediment transported, but the size of sediment from burned understory sites was almost double that of burned and unburned interspace soils after the fire, and decreased over the monitoring period. Curve numbers, a measure of the runoff potential, did not indicate any obvious runoff response to the fire. However, slight seasonal changes in curve numbers and runoff potential and, therefore, post-fire runoff response may be a function of fire impacts as well as the time of year that precipitation occurs. Site (interspace or understory) differences in soil properties and runoff persisted even after the fire. Vegetation data showed the presence of invasive grasses after the fire. Results from analysis of wind and water coupled with the spatial analysis of vegetation suggest that wind erosion may continue to occur due to the additional exposed soil surface (burned understory sites) until vegetation becomes re-established, and runoff may occur more frequently in interspace sites. The potential for fire-related wind erosion and water erosion may persist beyond three years in this system.

  5. Charring temperatures are driven by the fuel types burned in a peatland wildfire

    PubMed Central

    Hudspith, Victoria A.; Belcher, Claire M.; Yearsley, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    Peatlands represent a globally important carbon store; however, the human exploitation of this ecosystem is increasing both the frequency and severity of fires on drained peatlands. Yet, the interactions between the hydrological conditions (ecotopes), the fuel types being burned, the burn severity, and the charring temperatures (pyrolysis intensity) remain poorly understood. Here we present a post-burn assessment of a fire on a lowland raised bog in Co. Offaly, Ireland (All Saints Bog). Three burn severities were identified in the field (light, moderate, and deeply burned), and surface charcoals were taken from 17 sites across all burn severities. Charcoals were classified into two fuel type categories (either ground or aboveground fuel) and the reflectance of each charcoal particle was measured under oil using reflectance microscopy. Charcoal reflectance shows a positive relationship with charring temperature and as such can be used as a temperature proxy to reconstruct minimum charring temperatures after a fire event. Resulting median reflectance values for ground fuels are 1.09 ± 0.32%Romedian, corresponding to estimated minimum charring temperatures of 447°C ± 49°C. In contrast, the median charring temperatures of aboveground fuels were found to be considerably higher, 646°C ± 73°C (3.58 ± 0.77%Romedian). A mixed-effects modeling approach was used to demonstrate that the interaction effects of burn severity, as well as ecotope classes, on the charcoal reflectance is small compared to the main effect of fuel type. Our findings reveal that the different fuel types on raised bogs are capable of charring at different temperatures within the same fire, and that the pyrolysis intensity of the fire on All Saints Bog was primarily driven by the fuel types burning, with only a weak association to the burn severity or ecotope classes. PMID:25566288

  6. BIOMASS BURNING AND THE PRODUCTION OF METHANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomass burning and its environmental implications have also become important research elements of the International Geosphere-Bio sphere Program and the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project. he production of atmospheric methane (CH4) by biomass burning will be asse...

  7. Beneficial Effects of Hydrogen-Rich Saline on Early Burn-Wound Progression in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Song Xue; Jin, Yun Yun; Fang, Quan; You, Chuan Gang; Wang, Xin Gang; Hu, Xin Lei; Han, Chun-Mao

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Deep burn wounds undergo a dynamic process known as wound progression that results in a deepening and extension of the initial burn area. The zone of stasis is more likely to develop more severe during wound progression in the presence of hypoperfusion. Hydrogen has been reported to alleviate injury triggered by ischaemia/reperfusion and burns in various organs by selectively quenching oxygen free radicals. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective effects of hydrogen against early burn-wound progression. Methods Deep-burn models were established through contact with a boiled, rectangular, brass comb for 20 s. Fifty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham, burn plus saline, and burn plus hydrogen-rich saline (HS) groups with sacrifice and analysis at various time windows (6 h, 24 h, 48 h) post burn. Indexes of oxidative stress, apoptosis and autophagy were measured in each group. The zone of stasis was evaluated using immunofluorescence staining, ELISA, and Western blot to explore the underlying effects and mechanisms post burn. Results The burn-induced increase in malondialdehyde was markedly reduced with HS, while the activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes were significantly increased. Moreover, HS treatment attenuated increases in apoptosis and autophagy postburn in wounds, according to the TUNEL staining results and the expression analysis of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, Beclin-1 and Atg-5 proteins. Additionally, HS lowered the level of myeloperoxidase and expression of TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 in the zone of stasis while augmenting IL-10. The elevated levels of Akt phosphorylation and NF-?B p65 expression post burn were also downregulated by HS management. Conclusion Hydrogen can attenuate early wound progression following deep burn injury. The beneficial effect of hydrogen was mediated by attenuating oxidative stress, which inhibited apoptosis and inflammation, and the Akt/NF-?B signalling pathway may be involved in regulating the release of inflammatory cytokines. PMID:25874619

  8. Severe Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2005-04-01

    Meteorologists disagree as to what constitutes severe weather. However, most concur that thunderstorms, tornadoes, and hurricanes, all considered to be "convective" weather, fit the definition of severe weather, which is a weather condition likely to cause hardship. This science guide will explore each of the three weather phenomena. By virtue of their locations, most students are familiar with at least one of the three severe weather events. Students who tour the web sites will have an opportunity to make connections between the familiar and the perhaps less understood weather events.

  9. The epidemiology of burns in rural Ethiopia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Courtright; D. Haile; E. Kohls

    1993-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aims were (1) to review inpatient burn records of Attat Hospital (Ethiopia) for the years 1983-1989, and (2) to determine the prevalence of burns and knowledge of first aid for burns in 16 communities served by Attat Hospital in rural Ethiopia. DESIGN--A retrospective review of all records was used to describe characteristics of the inpatient with burns and

  10. Spectral hole burning studies of photosystem II

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, H.C.

    1995-11-01

    Low temperature absorption and hole burning spectroscopies were applied to the D1-D2-cyt b{sub 559} and the CP47 and CP43 antenna protein complexes of Photosystem H from higher plants. Low temperature transient and persistent hole-burning data and theoretical calculations on the kinetics and temperature dependence of the P680 hole profile are presented and provide convincing support for the linker model. Implicit in the linker model is that the 684-nm-absorbing Chl a serve to shuttle energy from the proximal antenna complex to reaction center. The stoichiometry of isolated Photosystem H Reaction Center (PSII RC) in several different preparations is also discussed. The additional Chl a are due to 684-nm-absorbing Chl a, some contamination by the CP47 complex, and non-native Chl a absorbing near 670 nm. In the CP47 protein complex, attention is focused on the lower energy chlorophyll a Q{sub y}-states. High pressure hole-burning studies of PSII RC revealed for the first time a strong pressure effect on the primary electron transfer dynamics. The 4.2 K lifetime of P680*, the primary donor state, increases from 2.0 ps to 7.0 ps as pressure increases from 0.1 to 267 MPa. Importantly, this effect is irreversible (plastic) while the pressure induced effect on the low temperature absorption and non-line narrowed P680 hole spectra are reversible (elastic). Nonadiabatic rate expressions, which take into account the distribution of energy gap values, are used to estimate the linear pressure shift of the acceptor state energy for both the superexchange and two-step mechanisms for primary charge separation. It was found that the pressure dependence could be explained with a linear pressure shift of {approximately} 1 cm{sup -1}/MPa in magnitude for the acceptor state. The results point to the marriage of hole burning and high pressures as having considerable potential for the study of primary transport dynamics in reaction centers and antenna complexes.

  11. Extensive Burn Scars in Russia's Amur Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Vast areas of southeastern Russia have been scorched by fires over the last few weeks. All across Siberia fires have been raging, and this Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 15, 2002, shows extensive, dark burn scars along with actively burning fires (red dots) on the north side of the Amur River, which separates Russia (north) and China (south). The southern Amur region is largely devoted to farming and other agriculture, and these fires may have been set intentionally to prepare the land for the growing season. Fire is often used to clear land of unwanted vegetation, and to return the nutrients stored in vegetation back to the soil. However, fires that are too frequent or severe can devastate the soil, eventually making it unsuitable for farming or grazing. Fires can also escape control and spread into protected areas. In this image, fires are mostly concentrated in a lowland area within the drainage basin of the Zeya River, which drains from the frozen lake at the top of the image. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  12. Severe Storms

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    Part of the University of Illinois Weather World 2010 project, this guide uses multimedia technology and the dynamic capabilities of the web to incorporate text, colorful diagrams, animations, computer simulations, audio, and video to introduce topics and concepts in the atmospheric sciences. This module is a combination of two elements. The first is the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Severe Storms Spotters Guide. The second is a section discussing the efforts and results of modeling severe storms. The Spotters Guide contains supplemental instructional resources and a program designed to familiarize meteorologists and advanced severe storm spotters with the building blocks of convective storm structure. The focus of the training series is the development of a thunderstorm spectrum and a discussion of the physical characteristics and severe weather potential of the various storm types in the spectrum.

  13. Sever's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pretty frightening, Sever's disease is really a common heel injury that occurs in kids. It can be ... inflammation (swelling) of the growth plate in the heel. A growth plate, also called an epiphyseal plate, ...

  14. A 1-year prospective study of burns in an Irish paediatric burns unit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Cronin; P. E. M. Butler; M. McHugh; G. Edwards

    1996-01-01

    Burns are the fourth leading cause of injury death in children in the USA, accounting for 1300 paediatric deaths annually. The majority of paediatric burns mortality and morbidity result from simple domestic accidents that are preventable. A prospective study of paediatric burns from 1 January 1992 to 1 January 1993 was undertaken at our burns unit to outline the profile

  15. Epidemiology of hospitalized burns patients in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wu-Chien Chien; Lu Pai; Chao-Cheng Lin; Heng-Chang Chen

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies based on either single hospital data or sampling of specific groups of hospitalized burns victims in Taiwan have provided only minimal epidemiological information. The study is designed to provide additional data on the epidemiology of hospitalized burns patients in Taiwan. Data were obtained from the Burn Injury Information System (BIIS), which brings together information supplied by 34 contracted

  16. INTERACTIVE SIMULATION OF FIRE, BURN AND DECOMPOSITION

    E-print Network

    Keyser, John

    INTERACTIVE SIMULATION OF FIRE, BURN AND DECOMPOSITION A Dissertation by ZEKI MELEK Submitted OF FIRE, BURN AND DECOMPOSITION A Dissertation by ZEKI MELEK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies Science #12;iii ABSTRACT Interactive Simulation of Fire, Burn and Decomposition. (December 2007) Zeki

  17. Treatment of burns with topical Heparin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Akhtar; R. K. Gang

    1979-01-01

    This prospective study was undertaken to analyse the incidence of relief of pain in our burn unit by the topical application of Heparin in 450 cases of burns irrespective of age and percentage of burn from Oct. 1977 to June 1978. The observations were recorded in proformas and results thus analysed. This study shows that topical Heparin is very useful

  18. Export of solids and nutrients from burnt areas: effects of fire severity and forest type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrantes, Nelson; Morais, Inês; Silva, Vera; Malvar, Mauxa C.; Prats, Sérgio; Coelho, Celeste; Keizer, Jan J.

    2015-04-01

    In the last few decades, the number of wildfires has markedly increased in Mediterranean Europe, including Portugal. Besides a range of direct impacts, wildfires can significantly alter the geomorphological and hydrological processes during a period commonly referred to as the "window-of-disturbance". It is now increasingly recognized that these indirect wildfire effects depend strongly on fire severity, i.e. the heating-induced changes in vegetation and litter cover as well as in topsoil properties such as infiltration capacity, aggregate stability and soil water repellency. Nonetheless, the exact role of fire severity in post-fire hydrological and erosion processes is still poorly quantified in many parts of the world, including Portugal. Another important gap in fire-related research stills to be the impacts of wildfire on soil fertility losses, in particular through erosion by runoff. Both research gaps were addressed in this study, following a wildfire that took place in July 2013 in Talhadas (Sever do Vouga, Aveiro) and burnt circa 815 ha. In the burnt area and the surrounding unburnt areas, six study sites were selected and, immediately after the fire, instrumented with slope-scale runoff plots. Two of the sites were long-unburnt, two were burnt at low severity and the other two were burnt at high severity; for all of them one being covered by a Eucalyptus globulus plantation and the other by a Pinus pinaster plantation. Following the instrumentation of the sites, runoff was measured at 1- to 2-weekly intervals and, whenever possible, runoff samples were collected for subsequent analysis in the laboratory with respect to total suspended sediments content and total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations. The results obtained in this study showed that the severity of the fire played a more important role in the loss of nutrients and solids than the type of vegetation. While the occurrence of fire markedly increased soil (fertility) losses, this effect was much stronger following a high-severity than low-severity fire. In the case of the pine slope, this effect of fire severity could be attributed to post-fire pine needle cast, with pine needles being scorched by the low-severity fire and being combusted in the high-severity fire. Looking at the temporal evolution, for both pine and eucalyptus slopes, significant exportations of solids as well nutrients were still found 10 months after the fire occurrence (May 2014) . This study highlight the importance of wildfire as a driver for the soil and fertility loss with consequent/potential impacts on surface water quality.

  19. To Burn or not to Burn: Late Quaternary Fire-History Reconstructions from Alaskan Tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipman, M. L.; Hu, F.; Hudspith, V.

    2013-12-01

    During the observational record of the past 60 years, fire was a rare occurrence in the majority of tundra ecoregions throughout Alaska. However, recent large fires in areas that have not burned in several millennia, such as the Alaskan North Slope, as well as statistical modeling of climate-driven increases in fires, suggest the possibility of future increases in tundra burning. The impact of climate change in tundra ecosystems will likely be most pronounced in regions historically characterized by rare fires if these regions cross the climatic thresholds for burning in the future. For example, a shift to high occurrence and increased severity of fires could potentially release large carbon stocks that have been accumulating in these ecosystems for thousands of years. Given the rarity of historic tundra burning, it is difficult to assess the novelty of recent burning in tundra ecosystems such as the Alaskan North Slope. To address this limitation, and to place recent fire regimes in a broader context of past variability, we reconstructed the fire history of three Alaskan ecoregions that are characterized by rare fires in the observational record and that span a range of climate conditions and tundra-vegetation types. The long temporal span of these records (~9,500-35,000 years) allows for interpreting fire trends under varying climate conditions, refining our understanding of climate thresholds that may alter fire regimes in the future. Our data suggest that fires in all three tundra regions were rare throughout the late Quaternary. Fires from a boreal /tundra transition site in the southern Brooks Range supported a mean fire-return interval of ~850 years/fire, and individual fire return intervals were as high as ~2500 years/fire. Comparably, the fire-history reconstruction from the Alaskan North Slope also reveals long fire return intervals (~3000 to 6000 years/fire). In the shrub tundra of southwestern Alaska, fires have been extremely rare (>7000 to >28,000 years/fire) throughout the past 35,000 years, despite large-scale vegetation and climate changes during this time period. The fire frequency of our three study regions is strikingly low compared to the highly flammable tundra in northwestern Alaska, which supported fire return intervals comparable to modern boreal forest (~100-200 years/fire) over the past 6000 years. Thus, the stark contrast of rare tundra fires in these regions with the frequent tundra burning in northwestern Alaska appears to have existed through time, implying that spatial differences in climate and vegetation controls remained stationary. In this context, the recent burning on the Alaskan North Slope may be a harbinger of changes to come in other tundra regions of Alaska as anthropogenic warming continues to affect this biome.

  20. Toxic emissions from open burning.

    PubMed

    Estrellan, Carl Renan; Iino, Fukuya

    2010-06-01

    This review compiled the data from recent actual and simulation studies on toxic emissions from open burning and categorized into sources, broadly as biomass and anthropogenic fuels. Emission factors, in mass of pollutant per mass of material being burned, and actual concentrations, in mass of pollutant per unit volume have been compared based on source classifications. In addition to gaseous emissions, this review presents the updated data on emissions to air in the form of particulate matter, and emissions to soil and water environment. Data from forest fires, accidental fires such as vehicle fires, house fires, and unintentional landfill fires are included in this review as well as combustion involving traditional and recreational activities. PMID:20471058

  1. Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell transplantation ameliorates burn-induced acute kidney injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Gang; Huang, Sha; Chen, Yongbin; Ma, Kui

    2013-09-01

    Excessive systemic inflammation following burns could lead to acute kidney injury (AKI). Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) suppress immune cell responses and have beneficial effects in various inflammatory-related immune disorders. However, autologous MSCs are not vital enough for the treatment because of the severely burned patients' deleterious condition. Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) could be a suitable substitute cell candidate but no data are available on the therapeutic effectiveness of UC-MSCs transplantation for burn injury and its consequences. In this study, UC-MSCs or ulinastatin was administered intravenously in the rats with burn trauma, and the therapeutic effects of UC-MSCs on the survival of severe burn-induced AKI rats and functional protection of kidney were analyzed. Results showed that UC-MSCs promoted the survival and prevented commitment to apoptosis of resident kidney cells and reduced organ microscopic damage in kidneys after thermal trauma. Thus, our study demonstrates that intravenously delivered UC-MSCs protected the host from death caused by kidney injury subsequent to severe burn, identifying UC-MSCs transplantation may be an attractive candidate for cell-based treatments for burns and induced organ damage. PMID:24043673

  2. Game-based mass casualty burn training.

    PubMed

    Kurenov, Sergei N; Cance, William W; Noel, Ben; Mozingo, David W

    2009-01-01

    An interactive, video game-based training module, Burn Center, was developed to simulate the real-life emergency events of a mass casualty disaster scenario, involving in 40 victims.The game contains two components - triage and resuscitation. The goal of the triage game is to correctly stabilize, sort, tag and transport burn victims during a mass casualty event at a busy theme park. After complete the triage component, the player will then take on the role of a burn care provider, balancing the clinical needs of multiple burn patients through a 36-hour resuscitation period, using familiar computer-simulated hospital devices. Once complete, players of Burn Center will come away with applicable skills and knowledge of burn care, for both field triage and initial resuscitation of the burn patients. PMID:19377134

  3. Pre-hospital care in burn injury.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Prabhat; Goel, Arun

    2010-09-01

    The care provided to the victims of burn injury immediately after sustaining burns can largely affect the extent and depth of the wound. Although standard guidelines have been formulated by various burn associations, they are still not well known to public at large in our country. In burn injuries, most often, the bystanders are the first care providers. The swift implementation of the measures described in this article for first aid in thermal, chemical, electrical and inhalational injuries in the practical setting, within minutes of sustaining the burn, plays a vital role and can effectively reduce the morbidity and mortality to a great extent. In case of burn disasters, triage needs to be carried out promptly as per the defined protocols. Proper communication and transport from the scene of the accident to the primary care centre and onto the burn care facility greatly influences the execution of the management plans. PMID:21321651

  4. Pre-hospital care in burn injury

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Prabhat; Goel, Arun

    2010-01-01

    The care provided to the victims of burn injury immediately after sustaining burns can largely affect the extent and depth of the wound. Although standard guidelines have been formulated by various burn associations, they are still not well known to public at large in our country. In burn injuries, most often, the bystanders are the first care providers. The swift implementation of the measures described in this article for first aid in thermal, chemical, electrical and inhalational injuries in the practical setting, within minutes of sustaining the burn, plays a vital role and can effectively reduce the morbidity and mortality to a great extent. In case of burn disasters, triage needs to be carried out promptly as per the defined protocols. Proper communication and transport from the scene of the accident to the primary care centre and onto the burn care facility greatly influences the execution of the management plans PMID:21321651

  5. Post Burn Contracture Neck: Clinical Profile and Management

    PubMed Central

    Bankar, Sanket S.; Patil, Avinash

    2014-01-01

    Background: Morbidity related to hypertrophic scars and contractures which are well known sequel after burns remains high and in fact has increased as more severely burned patients are surviving. This study was undertaken in order to assess the varied clinical presentation, precipitating factors, preventive measures, treatment modalities of neck contractures and evaluate the results after surgical procedures. Materials and Methods: This hospital based study was conducted on patients admitted in our institution with proven cases of Post burn neck contracture from 1st August 2009 to 31st July 2011. Twenty two patients of post burn neck contracture who underwent operative treatment were included. Observation: 10 of 22 cases were in the middle age group i.e. between 21-30 years. There were 5 males and 17 females. Accidental flame burn was the commonest aetiology. Fourteen patients were treated within 1 year of burns for functional disability. Excisional release was performed in 13 and incisional release in 9 of our patients. Resurfacing with STSG (split thickness skin graft) was carried out in 19 cases and a local or regional flap with or without a graft in 3 patients. Hypertrophy and recontracture were the commonest late complications and occurred in 3 cases. Good to fair results were obtained in 19 patients Conclusion: Local flaps have many advantages and are to be used whenever possible. It is preferable to place the grafts if used in the area surrounding the neck (donor site of flap) or at least in the non-visible area of the neck (submental area). When a combination of flap & graft is used, it’s preferable to place the flap in a horizontal intersecting fashion in between the two patches of the graft. A follow up program for reasonable period is highly desired. PMID:25478392

  6. [Psychiatric co-morbidity, body image problems and psychotherapeutic interventions for burn survivors: a review].

    PubMed

    Jasper, Stefanie; Rennekampff, Hans-Oliver; de Zwaan, Martina

    2013-11-01

    Due to progress in burn treatment, more patients even with severe burn injuries survive. Despite this positive development, however, there are still negative somatic and mental consequences. These include the life-long care of scars and pain. In addition, posttraumatic-stress disorder and depression are common consequences. Also distress due to disfigurement and body image problems have to be considered, since this is likely to result in social withdrawal, low self-esteem, and reduction of quality of life. Overall, the impact of mental strain on burn victims is quite high. Therefore, psychotherapeutic treatment approaches should be integrated into the care of patients with burns. This might be helpful for both coping and compliance with long-term treatment. This paper provides a review of the mental co-morbidity of burn victims and of psychotherapeutic treatment approaches focusing on changes in body image and the respective social consequences. PMID:23709185

  7. Serum from human burn victims impairs myogenesis and protein synthesis in primary myoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Corrick, Katie L.; Stec, Michael J.; Merritt, Edward K.; Windham, Samuel T.; Thomas, Steven J.; Cross, James M.; Bamman, Marcas M.

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiological response to a severe burn injury involves a robust increase in circulating inflammatory/endocrine factors and a hypermetabolic state, both of which contribute to prolonged skeletal muscle atrophy. In order to characterize the role of circulating factors in muscle atrophy following a burn injury, human skeletal muscle satellite cells were grown in culture and differentiated to myoblasts/myotubes in media containing serum from burn patients or healthy, age, and sex-matched controls. While incubation in burn serum did not affect NF?B signaling, cells incubated in burn serum displayed a transient increase in STAT3 phosphorlyation (Tyr705) after 48 h of treatment with burn serum (? + 70%; P < 0.01), with these levels returning to normal by 96 h. Muscle cells differentiated in burn serum displayed reduced myogenic fusion signaling (phospho-STAT6 (Tyr641), ??75%; ADAM12, ?-20%; both P < 0.01), and reduced levels of myogenin (??75%; P < 0.05). Concomitantly, myotubes differentiated in burn serum demonstrated impaired myogenesis (assessed by number of nuclei/myotube). Incubation in burn serum for 96 h did not increase proteolytic signaling (assessed via caspase-3 and ubiquitin levels), but reduced anabolic signaling [p-p70S6k (Ser421/Thr424), ?30%; p-rpS6 (Ser240/244), ?-50%] and impaired protein synthesis (?24%) (P < 0.05). This resulted in a loss of total protein content (?18%) and reduced cell size (?33%) (P < 0.05). Overall, incubation of human muscle cells in serum from burn patients results in impaired myogenesis and reduced myotube size, indicating that circulating factors may play a significant role in muscle loss and impaired muscle recovery following burn injury. PMID:26136691

  8. DELAYED TOPICAL p38 MAPK INHIBITION ATTENUATES FULL-THICKNESS BURN WOUND INFLAMMATORY SIGNALING

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Damien; Warsen, Adelaide; Mandell, Katherine; Cuschieri, Joseph; Maier, Ronald V.; Arbabi, Saman

    2013-01-01

    Objective Inflammatory signaling pathways, such as p38 MAPK play a central role in host responses to injury. In our previous studies, topical p38 MAPK inhibitors effectively attenuated inflammatory signaling in a partial-thickness scald burn model, when applied to the burn wound immediately after injury. However, clinically relevant full-thickness scald burn wounds may act as a barrier to topical immune modulators and delayed application of topical p38 MAPK inhibitors may not be effective. In this study, we evaluate the efficacy of topical p38 MAPK inhibition on full-thickness scald burns with immediate and delayed treatment. Methods C57/BL6 mice received `Sham' or 30% TBSA full-thickness scald burn injury. After injury, the burn wounds were treated with a topical p38 MAPK inhibitor or vehicle. The treatment group received topical p38 MAPK inhibitor either immediately after burn or 4 hours (delayed) after injury. All animals were sacrificed at 12 or 24 h. Burn wounds underwent histological analyses. Skin and plasma were analyzed by ELISA or RT-qPCR for cytokine expression. Results Full-thickness scald burns resulted from immersion in 62°C water for 25 s. Topical p38 MAPK inhibitor attenuated dermal IL-6, MIP-2, and IL-1? expression and plasma IL-6 and MIP-2 cytokine expression. In addition, delayed application of topical p38 MAPK inhibitors significantly reduced dermal and plasma cytokine expression compared to vehicle control. Conclusion Topical p38 MAPK inhibitors remain potent in reducing full-thickness burn wound inflammatory signaling, even when treatment is delayed by several hours post injury. Topical application of p38 MAPK inhibitor may be a clinically viable treatment after burn injury. PMID:23666384

  9. Serum from human burn victims impairs myogenesis and protein synthesis in primary myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Corrick, Katie L; Stec, Michael J; Merritt, Edward K; Windham, Samuel T; Thomas, Steven J; Cross, James M; Bamman, Marcas M

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiological response to a severe burn injury involves a robust increase in circulating inflammatory/endocrine factors and a hypermetabolic state, both of which contribute to prolonged skeletal muscle atrophy. In order to characterize the role of circulating factors in muscle atrophy following a burn injury, human skeletal muscle satellite cells were grown in culture and differentiated to myoblasts/myotubes in media containing serum from burn patients or healthy, age, and sex-matched controls. While incubation in burn serum did not affect NF?B signaling, cells incubated in burn serum displayed a transient increase in STAT3 phosphorlyation (Tyr705) after 48 h of treatment with burn serum (? + 70%; P < 0.01), with these levels returning to normal by 96 h. Muscle cells differentiated in burn serum displayed reduced myogenic fusion signaling (phospho-STAT6 (Tyr641), ?-75%; ADAM12, ?-20%; both P < 0.01), and reduced levels of myogenin (?-75%; P < 0.05). Concomitantly, myotubes differentiated in burn serum demonstrated impaired myogenesis (assessed by number of nuclei/myotube). Incubation in burn serum for 96 h did not increase proteolytic signaling (assessed via caspase-3 and ubiquitin levels), but reduced anabolic signaling [p-p70S6k (Ser421/Thr424), -30%; p-rpS6 (Ser240/244), ?-50%] and impaired protein synthesis (-24%) (P < 0.05). This resulted in a loss of total protein content (-18%) and reduced cell size (-33%) (P < 0.05). Overall, incubation of human muscle cells in serum from burn patients results in impaired myogenesis and reduced myotube size, indicating that circulating factors may play a significant role in muscle loss and impaired muscle recovery following burn injury. PMID:26136691

  10. Different surgical treatment of post-burn trophic ulcers of the plantar surface in foot burns.

    PubMed

    Shakirov, Babur M

    2011-12-01

    Burns of the plantar surface of the foot with the subsequent formation of scar is often complicated by unhealing trophic ulcers. Trophic ulcers increase due to constant local irritation, reaching various depth and area, penetrating to the bone and the tendons and covering the area of several centimetres in diameter up to the whole heel area. A total of 21 patients (12 men and nine women) have been under our observation at Samarkand Inter-Regional Burn Center, Uzbekistan, for prolonged trophic ulcers of soft tissues of the plantar surface of the foot. Ulcers sizes were from 1.0-2.5 to 3-5 cm in diameter. All patients had undergone earlier unsuccessful operation (3-5 times). The method of closure should be chosen according to both severity and localisation of the injury, using local uninjured tissues and soft scars to make bilobed skin-flap plasty, one-lobed skin-flat flap, tube graft and other shaped flaps and free grafts placed on the area of the excised scars. In 18 observations, a good result was achieved and no complications were noted. The grafts were viable, sensibility was preserved and no marginal necrosis was noticed. Patients can take up their work by 1.5-2.0 months after surgery. PMID:21924835

  11. Wetland fire scar monitoring and analysis using archival Landsat data for the Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, John W.; Hall, Annette E.; Foster, Ann M.; Smith, Thomas J., III

    2013-01-01

    The ability to document the frequency, extent, and severity of fires in wetlands, as well as the dynamics of post-fire wetland land cover, informs fire and wetland science, resource management, and ecosystem protection. Available information on Everglades burn history has been based on field data collection methods that evolved through time and differ by land management unit. Our objectives were to (1) design and test broadly applicable and repeatable metrics of not only fire scar delineation but also post-fire land cover dynamics through exhaustive use of the Landsat satellite data archives, and then (2) explore how those metrics relate to various hydrologic and anthropogenic factors that may influence post-fire land cover dynamics. Visual interpretation of every Landsat scene collected over the study region during the study time frame produced a new, detailed database of burn scars greater than 1.6 ha in size in the Water Conservation Areas and post-fire land cover dynamics for Everglades National Park fires greater than 1.6 ha in area. Median burn areas were compared across several landscape units of the Greater Everglades and found to differ as a function of administrative unit and fire history. Some burned areas transitioned to open water, exhibiting water depths and dynamics that support transition mechanisms proposed in the literature. Classification tree techniques showed that time to green-up and return to pre-burn character were largely explained by fire management practices and hydrology. Broadly applicable as they use data from the global, nearly 30-year-old Landsat archive, these methods for documenting wetland burn extent and post-fire land cover change enable cost-effective collection of new data on wetland fire ecology and independent assessment of fire management practice effectiveness.

  12. Local Burn Injury Impairs Epithelial Permeability and Antimicrobial Peptide Barrier Function in Distal Unburned Skin*

    PubMed Central

    Plichta, Jennifer K.; Droho, Steve; Curtis, Brenda J.; Patel, Parita; Gamelli, Richard L.; Radek, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Our objective was to characterize the mechanisms by which local burn injury compromises epithelial barrier function in burn margin, containing the elements necessary for healing of the burn site, and in distal unburned skin, which serves as potential donor tissue. Design Experimental mouse scald burn injury. Setting University Research Laboratory. Subjects C57/Bl6 Male mice, 8–12 weeks old. Interventions To confirm that dehydration was not contributing to our observed barrier defects, in some experiments mice received 1 mL of saline fluid immediately after burn, while a subgroup received an additional 0.5 mL at 4 hours and 1 mL at 24 hours following burn. We then assessed skin pH and transepidermal water loss every 12 hours on the burn wounds for 72 hours postburn. Measurements and Main Results Burn margin exhibited increased epidermal barrier permeability indicated by higher pH, greater transepidermal water loss, and reduced lipid synthesis enzyme expression and structural protein production up to 96 hours postburn. By contrast, antimicrobial peptide production and protease activity were elevated in burn margin. Skin extracts from burn margin did not exhibit changes in the ability to inhibit bacterial growth. However, distal unburned skin from burned mice also demonstrated an impaired response to barrier disruption, indicated by elevated transepidermal water loss and reduced lipid synthesis enzyme and structural protein expression up to 96 hours postburn. Furthermore, skin extracts from distal unburned skin exhibited greater protease activity and a reduced capacity to inhibit bacterial growth of several skin pathogens. Finally, we established that antimicrobial peptide levels were also altered in the lung and bladder, which are common sites of secondary infection in burn-injured patients. Conclusions These findings reveal several undefined deficiencies in epithelial barrier function at the burn margin, potential donor skin sites, and organs susceptible to secondary infection. These functional and biochemical data provide novel insights into the mechanisms for graft failure and secondary infection after burn injury. PMID:24717471

  13. An evaluation of the uncertainties in biomass burning emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, A.; Garcia Menendez, F.; Hu, Y.; Odman, M.

    2012-12-01

    The contribution of biomass burning emissions to the atmospheric loads of gases and aerosols can lead to major air quality problems and have significant climate impacts. Whether from wildfires, natural or human-induced, or controlled burns, biomass burning emissions are an important source of air pollutants regionally in certain parts of the world as well as globally. There are two common ways of estimating biomass burning emissions: by using either ground-based information or satellite observations. When there is sufficient local information about the burn area, the types of fuels and their consumption amounts, and the progression of the fire, ground-based estimation is preferred. For controlled burns a.k.a. prescribed burns and wildfires in places where land management is practiced to a certain extent there is typically sufficient ground-based information for emissions estimation. However, for remote regions where no ground-based information is available on the size, intensity, or the spread of the fire, estimates based on satellite observations are preferred. For example, burn location, size and timing information can be obtained from satellite retrievals of thermal anomalies and fuel loading information can be obtained from satellite products of vegetation cover. In both cases, reasonable emission estimates for a variety of pollutants can be obtained by using emission factors (mass of pollutant released per unit mass of fuel consumed) derived from field or laboratory studies. Here, emissions from a controlled burn and a wildfire are estimated using both ground-based information and satellite observations. The controlled burn was conducted on 17 November 2009 near Santa Barbara, California over 80 ha of land covered with chaparral. An aircraft tracked the smoke plume and measured CO2, light scattering, as well as meteorological parameters during the burn (Akagi et al., 2011). The wildfire is from the summer of 2008 when tens of thousands hectares of wild land burned in Northern California causing unprecedented damage. NASA Aircraft commissioned for the ARCTAS campaign at the time flew over the fires and collected data detailing composition of gases and aerosols in the fire plumes (Singh et al., 2012). We model the fires using a newly developed system consisting of a plume rise and dispersion model specifically designed for wild-land fire plumes (Daysmoke; Achtemeier et al., 2011) coupled with a regional-scale chemistry-transport model (CMAQ). Wind fields generated by a weather prediction model (WRF) are adjusted locally to match the aircraft measurements of wind speed and direction. The fires are simulated using both ground-based and satellite-based estimates of emissions. Predicted concentrations of gases and aerosols are compared to corresponding aircraft measurements. Satellite retrievals of aerosol optical depth are also used in evaluating model predictions. The new modeling system along with the wind adjustments reduces several of the uncertainties inherent to regional-scale modeling of plume transport. This allows for a more reliable analysis of the uncertainties related to emissions. Uncertainties in the magnitudes and timings of emissions, and in plume injection heights with respect to boundary layer heights are investigated. Uncertainties associated with ground-based and satellite-based emissions estimation methods are compared to each other.

  14. Peripherally inserted central line catheter infections in burn patients.

    PubMed

    Barsun, Alura; Sen, Soman; Palmieri, Tina L; Greenhalgh, David G

    2014-01-01

    Peripherally inserted central line catheter (PICC) use has increased in burn patients. While the risks of central line associated blood stream infections (CLABSI) in burn patients have been well studied, the risks of PICC infections have yet to be fully elucidated. A retrospective chart review was performed of all burn patients with a PICC admitted to our regional burn center from 2006 to 2008. Information collected included: age, total body surface area (TBSA) burn injury, length of hospital stay, duration of PICC line insertion, hospital day of PICC line insertion, and development of infections. All mean values are presented as the mean ± standard error. A total of 56 patients received a PICC during this time period. Eight patients developed PICC infections with an overall rate of 11.7/1000 catheter days. Burn patient CLABSI for the same time period was 12.9/1000 catheter days. Duration of PICC did not differ between infected and noninfected patients (13.3 ± 6 vs. 12.1 ± 9.6 days). Patients with PICC infections had a higher percentage of TBSA (42.7 ± 3.2 vs. 20.6 ± 2.4*), longer length of admission (72.4 ± 6 vs. 35 ± 3.2*), and later hospital day of PICC insertion (48 ± 4.6 vs. 17.1 ± 2.5*). On linear regression analysis, PICC infection was significantly associated with TBSA (B = 22.1*), length of admission (B = 37.4*), and hospital day of PICC insertion (B = 30.3*). On multivariate analysis, TBSA (Odds ratio [OR] = 1.05*), length of admission (OR = 1.04*), and hospital day of PICC insertion (OR = 1.05*) all independently increased the risk of developing a PICC infection. Patients with severe burn injury, long hospital admissions, and later hospital day of PICC insertions are at higher risk of developing PICC infections. This data suggests that protocols should be developed about routine PICC changes in this high-risk burn population. PMID:25055005

  15. Myosin Light Chain Kinase Mediates Intestinal Barrier Disruption following Burn Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chuanli; Wang, Pei; Su, Qin; Wang, Shiliang; Wang, Fengjun

    2012-01-01

    Background Severe burn injury results in the loss of intestinal barrier function, however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation mediated by MLC kinase (MLCK) is critical to the pathophysiological regulation of intestinal barrier function. We hypothesized that the MLCK-dependent MLC phosphorylation mediates the regulation of intestinal barrier function following burn injury, and that MLCK inhibition attenuates the burn-induced intestinal barrier disfunction. Methodology/Principal Findings Male balb/c mice were assigned randomly to either sham burn (control) or 30% total body surface area (TBSA) full thickness burn without or with intraperitoneal injection of ML-9 (2 mg/kg), an MLCK inhibitor. In vivo intestinal permeability to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran was measured. Intestinal mucosa injury was assessed histologically. Tight junction proteins ZO-1, occludin and claudin-1 was analyzed by immunofluorescent assay. Expression of MLCK and phosphorylated MLC in ileal mucosa was assessed by Western blot. Intestinal permeability was increased significantly after burn injury, which was accompanied by mucosa injury, tight junction protein alterations, and increase of both MLCK and MLC phosphorylation. Treatment with ML-9 attenuated the burn-caused increase of intestinal permeability, mucosa injury, tight junction protein alterations, and decreased MLC phosphorylation, but not MLCK expression. Conclusions/Significance The MLCK-dependent MLC phosphorylation mediates intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction after severe burn injury. It is suggested that MLCK-dependent MLC phosphorylation may be a critical target for the therapeutic treatment of intestinal epithelial barrier disruption after severe burn injury. PMID:22529961

  16. Skill, teamwork save severely burned dog F o r A n d A b o u t A l u m n i A n d F r i e n d s O f T h e U G A C o l l e g e O f Ve t e r i n a r y M e d i c i n e F a l l 2 0 0 1

    E-print Network

    Hall, Daniel

    specialized care and recon- structive surgery. When she arrived on May 16, Honey's burns were so painful she with the hour-long process of removing burned, dead skin, as well as cleaning and re-band- aging her wounds for global avian medicine, page 5 Gift received for scholar- ship, page 7 Honors and aw

  17. A Prospective Multi-Center Audit of Nutrition Support Parameters Following Burn Injury.

    PubMed

    Kurmis, Rochelle; Heath, Kathryn; Ooi, Selena; Munn, Zachary; Forbes, Sharon; Young, Vicki; Rigby, Paul; Wood, Kate; Phillips, Frances; Greenwood, John

    2015-01-01

    The importance of nutrition support delivery to the severe burn-injured patient is well recognized, however, nutrition provision to the patient may be sub optimal in practice. The aim of this study was to conduct a prospective multi-center audit across Australia and New Zealand using the Joanna Briggs Institute Burns Node Nutrition audit criteria. Thirty-four patients with severe burn injury (?20% TBSA in adults and ?10% TBSA in children) were identified on admission or on referral to the Dietitian at the eight participating Burn Units between February 1, 2012 and April 30, 2012 for inclusion in the study. De-identified patient data was analyzed using the Joanna Briggs Institute, Practical Application of Clinical Evidence System. Compliance with individual audit criterion ranged from 33 to 100%. Provision of prescribed enteral feed volumes and weekly weighing of patients were highlighted as key areas for clinical improvement. Clinical audit is a valuable tool for evaluating current practice against best evidence to ensure that quality patient care is delivered. The use of the Joanna Briggs Institute Burns Node audit criteria has allowed for a standardized multi-center audit to be conducted. Improving nutrition support delivery in burn patients was identified as a key area requiring ongoing clinical improvement across Australia and New Zealand. Clinician feedback on use of the audit criteria will allow for future refinement of individual criterion, and presentation of results of this audit has resulted in a review of the Bi-National Burns Registry nutrition quality indicators. PMID:25094004

  18. Wood crib fire free burning test in ISO room

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Xu; Griffin, Greg; Bradbury, Glenn; Dowling, Vince

    2006-04-01

    In the research of application potential of water mist fire suppression system for fire fighting in train luggage carriage, a series of experiments were conducted in ISO room on wood crib fire with and without water mist actuation. The results of free burn test without water mist suppression are used as reference in evaluating the efficiency of water mist suppression system. As part of the free burn test, several tests have been done under the hood of ISO room to calibrate the size of the crib fire and these tests can also be used in analyzing the wall effect in room fire hazard. In these free burning experiments, wood cribs of four sizes under the hood were tested. The temperature of crib fire, heat flux around the fire, gas concentration in hood of ISO room were measured in the experiments and two sets of thermal imaging system were used to get the temperature distribution and the typical shape of the free burning flames. From the experiments, the radiation intensity in specific positions around the fire, the effective heat of combustion, mass loss, oxygen consumption rate for different sizes of fire, typical structure of the flame and self extinguishment time was obtained for each crib size.

  19. Photoacoustic diagnosis of edema in rat burned skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Ken; Sato, Shunichi; Hatanaka, Kosuke; Saitoh, Daizoh; Ashida, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Toshihisa; Obara, Minoru

    2010-02-01

    Diagnosis of edema, abnormal accumulation of water in tissue, is important for managing various traumatic injuries and diseases. However, there is no established method for real-time, noninvasive monitoring of edema. In severe extensive burn injuries, edema develops both topically and systemically due to the increased permeability of blood vessels. In this study, we examined photoacoustic (PA) monitoring of edema formed in rat burn models. Deep dermal burn with a 20% total body surface area was made in the dorsal skin of rats. Burn and its adjacent nonburn tissues were irradiated with 6-ns light pulses at 1430 nm, which is one of the absorption peak wavelengths of water in the near infrared. The PA signal amplitude increased until 12 - 24 hr postburn, and thereafter it gradually decreased to its initial level; the latter phase (after 24 hr postburn) coincided with a diuretic phase in the rats. There was a significant correlation between the PA signal amplitudes and water contents in the tissue measured by wet/dry weight method. These findings demonstrate the validity of PA measurement for real-time, noninvasive monitoring of edema.

  20. Airborne Observations of Ammonia in Aged Biomass Burning Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, J. B.; Neuman, J.; Holloway, J.; Parrish, D. D.; Degouw, J.; Warneke, C.; Ryerson, T. B.; Brock, C. A.; Wollny, A. G.; Weber, R.; Peltier, R. E.; Trainer, M.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.

    2009-12-01

    During the New England Air Quality Study - Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (NEAQS - ITCT) field program in 2004 the NOAA WP-3D aircraft sampled several aged forest fire plumes from Alaska and western Canada. These biomass burning plumes were identified by coincident enhancements in acetonitrile and carbon monoxide. Ammonia enhancements were observed in plumes on 4 flights using measurements from a chemical ionization mass spectrometer with 5s time resolution and an estimated uncertainty of +/- (25% + 100 pptv). The age of these plumes has been estimated at 8 to 12 days using the FLEXPART transport model. In most biomass burning plumes, ammonia mixing ratios ranged from 1 to 5 ppbv and was much greater than the average ammonia mixing ratio observed over the Northeastern United States of 0.29 ppbv. Typically, ammonia was correlated with carbon monoxide in these plumes with slopes ranging from 0.007 to 0.015 ppbv/ppbv and linear correlation coefficients ranging from 0.81 to 0.94. Some biomass burning plumes had been influenced by precipitation or cloud processing during transport as indicated by meteorological, aerosol, and volatile organic compound measurement. In these plumes ammonia was not enhanced and was uncorrelated with carbon monoxide indicating wet removal of ammonia. These observations suggest that biomass burning plumes lofted to the free troposphere can transport significant levels of ammonia multiple days downwind of the source if the plumes do not encounter precipitation or cloud processing during transport.

  1. Trigeminal small-fiber sensory neuropathy causes burning mouth syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Lauria; Alessandra Majorana; Monica Borgna; Raffaella Lombardi; Paola Penza; Alessandro Padovani; Pierluigi Sapelli

    2005-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a common disorder that frequently affects women in the 5th–7th decade. It is characterized by persisting painful symptoms mainly involving the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. For several years it has been attributed to psychological causes. We investigated the innervation of the epithelium of the tongue to assess whether damage of peripheral nerve fibers underlies the

  2. Burning time and size of aluminum, magnesium, zirconium, tantalum, and pyrofuze particles burning in steam. Contractor's report, November 1984-March 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Kol, J.; Chozev, Y.

    1985-07-01

    The energy released by metals burning in steam has several important applications including torpedo propulsion, nuclear reactor safety, underwater vehicles, underwater ordnance, etc. This report continues the studies that were performed by Hallenbeck and Kol, Fuhs and Berger which are related to underwater shaped-charge investigations. Wires of various metals were exploded in a steam atmosphere. The metals investigated were aluminum, magnesium, tantalum, zirconium, and pyrofuze. Exploding wires generated numerous hot, small particles. Using photography, the burning time and particle sizes were measured. Typical results are as follows: 125 + or - 25 micron diameter aluminum burns in 3.8 + or - .75 ms; 175 + or - 35 micron diameter magnesium burns in 3.8 + or - .75 ms; 125 + or - 25 micron diameter zirconium in 25 to 31 ms; 125 + or - 25 micron diameter tantalum in 24 to 50 ms; and 125 + or - 25 micron pyrofuze in 30 to 50 ms. The atmosphere was pure saturated steam at approximately 20 psig.

  3. Use of an amphoteric lavage solution for emergency treatment of eye burns First animal type experimental clinical considerations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norbert Franz Schrage; Sirpa Kompa; Wolfram Haller; Stéphanie Langefeld

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Severe eye burns occur rarely, but are related to a poor prognosis in rehabilitation. As emergency treatment has been identified as decisive factor for the prognosis of eye burns, new first aid rinsing solutions should be considered carefully in their clinical action. In a first approach, the new drug Diphoterine ® was subjected to a comparison with saline solution

  4. The use of a cardiac output monitor to guide the initial fluid resuscitation in a patient with burns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Darren Reid; John Jayamaha

    2007-01-01

    A case of initial resuscitation of a patient with severe burns is described. Such patients can have hypotension and reduced organ perfusion for a number of reasons, and can remain in the emergency department for many hours while awaiting transfer to specialist centres. The case provides a comparison between resuscitation using traditional burns formulae and a relatively new and simple-to-use

  5. Carbon Monoxide from Biomass Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This pair of images shows levels of carbon monoxide at the atmospheric pressure level of 700 millibars (roughly 12,000 feet in altitude) over the continent of South America, as observed by the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) sensor flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. Data for producing the image on the left were acquired on March 3, 2000, and for the image on the right on September 7, 2000. Blue pixels show low values, yellows show intermediate values, and the red to pink and then white pixels are progressively higher values. In the lefthand image (March 3), notice the fairly low levels of carbon monoxide over the entire continent. The slightly higher equatorial values are the result of burning emissions in sub-Saharan Africa that are convected at the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and spread by the trade winds. Also, notice the effect of the elevated surface topography across the Andes Mountains running north to south along the western coastline. (In this region, white pixels show no data.) In the righthand image (September 7), a large carbon monoxide plume is seen over Brazil, produced primarily by biomass burning across Amazonia and lofted into the atmosphere by strong cloud convection. The generally higher carbon monoxide levels as compared to March are both the result of South American fire emissions and the transport of carbon monoxide across the Atlantic Ocean from widespread biomass burning over Southern Africa. These images were produced using MOPITT data, which are currently being validated. These data were assimilated into an atmospheric chemical transport model using wind vectors provided by the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). Although there is good confidence in the relative seasonal values and geographic variation measured by MOPITT, that team anticipates their level of confidence will improve further with ongoing intensive validation campaigns and comparisons with in situ and ground-based spectroscopic measurements. Images courtesy David Edwards and John Gille, MOPITT Science Team, NCAR

  6. Thigh burn associated with laptop computer use.

    PubMed

    Paulius, Karina; Napoles, Phyllis; Maguina, Pirko

    2008-01-01

    Laptop computers are an uncommon source of burns to the thighs and perineum. Burns can result from the prolonged contact of hot surfaces at the base of the computer with the user's lap. The authors report a case of second-degree burns to the thigh of an otherwise healthy patient that resulted from prolonged use of the laptop. We measured the temperatures of the patient's computer and the temperatures of other popular laptop computers. Laptops can develop temperatures that can pose a risk for burns if the skin is exposed for prolonged periods of time. Patients with impaired lower extremity sensation, altered consciousness, or decreased mobility are at higher risk for laptop burns. To their knowledge, this is the first case report of such a burn injury in the American literature. PMID:18695609

  7. Steam cooled rich-burn combustor liner

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, D.F.

    1989-04-11

    A combustor system, including a primary rich burn section having a liner and followed by one or more lean burn sections, is described, comprising: a cylindrical jacket disposed outwardly of the combustor rich burn section liner to form an annular space; a plurality of barriers disposed in the annular space, each barrier being in the form of a spiral, thereby forming a plurality of spiral passageways; a first annular manifold disposed at one end of the rich burn section liner adjacent the one lean burn section and communicating with the annular space; a second annular manifold disposed at the other end of the rich burn section liner and communicating with the annular space; and means for directing steam into the first manifold at a pressure approximately equal to the discharge pressure.

  8. The consequences of global biomass burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1991-01-01

    Global biomass burning encompasses forest burning for land clearing, the annual burning of grasslands, the annual burning of agricultural stubble and waste after harvests, and the burning of wood as fuel. These activities generate CO2, CH4 and other hydrocarbons, CO, H2, NO, NH3, and CH3Cl; of these, CO, CH4 and the hydrocarbons, and NO, are involved in the photochemical production of tropospheric O3, while NO is transformed to NO2 and then to nitric acid, which falls as acid rain. Biomass burning is also a major source of atmospheric particulates and aerosols which affect the transmission of incoming solar radiation and outgoing IR radiation through the atmosphere, with significant climatic effects.

  9. Actinide Burning in CANDU Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hyland, B.; Dyck, G.R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Actinide burning in CANDU reactors has been studied as a method of reducing the actinide content of spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors, and thereby decreasing the associated long term decay heat load. In this work simulations were performed of actinides mixed with natural uranium to form a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, and also mixed with silicon carbide to form an inert matrix (IMF) fuel. Both of these fuels were taken to a higher burnup than has previously been studied. The total transuranic element destruction calculated was 40% for the MOX fuel and 71% for the IMF. (authors)

  10. A unique case of facial burn superinfected with Dermatobia Hominis larvae resulting in a bilateral enucleation of the eyes.

    PubMed

    Pinos, Victor Hugo; Ortiz-Prado, Esteban; Bermeo, Carlos; León, Juan; Armijos, Luciana; Almeida, Estibaliz

    2014-10-01

    We present a case of a female Ecuadorian patient who presented a deep facial burn injury complicated with a severe infestation of Dermatobia Hominis larvae. The burn injury was complicated by severe myiasis attributable to the poor management of the wound received at home, using tropical plants, which caused a secondary infection and severe necrosis of the tissue involving the forehead, cheeks, chin, scalp, nose, mouth and the eyes resulting in a bilateral enucleation and long inpatient hospital care. PMID:24728977

  11. Evaluating Post-wildfire Vegetation Regeneration as a Response to Multiple Environmental Determinants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grant M. Casady; Willem J. D. van Leeuwen; Stuart E. Marsh

    2010-01-01

    Vegetation regeneration in post-fire environments varies across the landscape of a burned area. Variations are caused by interacting\\u000a factors, including soil properties, vegetation characteristics, hydrology, land management history, and burn severity. While\\u000a many of these factors have been explored previously, few studies have investigated the combination of multiple factors. A\\u000a time-series of the remotely sensed enhanced vegetation index data has

  12. An unusual cause of caustic burns.

    PubMed

    Knight, Robert J; McWilliams, Tania; Reeler, Dawn; Whan, Liz; Wood, Fiona

    2011-09-19

    Two children in far northern Western Australia tattooed their arms with maangga berries (Grevillea pyramidalis ssp. leucadendron), which resulted in unintentional, caustic, partial thickness skin burns requiring specialist burn care. An understanding of the chemistry of the burn agent (5-n-alkyl resorcinol), appropriate first aid management and referral, and possible physiological sequelae are essential for optimal medical management and preventive community education. PMID:21929502

  13. Admissions across state lines: harnessing the insight of the National Burn Repository for the healthcare accessibility, fiscal, and legislative concerns facing the American Burn Association.

    PubMed

    Guagliardo, Mark F; Jeng, James C; Browning, Susan; Bilodeau, Mary-Elizabeth; Dimick, Alan; Hickerson, William; Miller, Sidney; Peck, Michael

    2008-01-01

    One of the most significant data collection efforts undertaken by the American Burn Association, the National Burn Repository (NBR) now encompasses more than 180,000 admissions. The Government Affairs Committee designated the prevalence of across-state-line burn admissions as one of its initial major inquiries to be made of the NBR. This line of inquiry could have bearings on healthcare access, legislative advocacy, and burn center solvency. The NBR Advisory Committee provided a specifically abstracted report after the 2005 call for data. Because of patient confidentiality concerns the file only contained admission frequencies by state-of-injury:state-of-care pairs. Nevertheless we were able to produce suggestive summary statistics and national maps for interpretations. This abstracted data encompasses records between 1995 and 2005, during which 8157 cross-state border admissions occurred, 6714 of which were to non-Shriner's hospitals. The rate of border crossing ranged from 0 to 202 patients annually. The highest rates were from the northernmost western states, northernmost New England states, and several southern states. Utah, West coast, and Great Lakes states sent relatively few admissions to other states. Twenty-seven states received no out-of-state admissions whereas several states had very high hosting rates. Although mapping cross-state burn admissions is an elementary exercise it demonstrated the value of the NBR for the Committees on Organization and Delivery, Government Affairs, and other facets of the American Burn Association. Anticipated access to ZIP Code data will permit: 1) granular identification of underserved areas, 2) documentation and prediction of reimbursement challenges, 3) mapping of de facto burn center referral markets, 4) mass disaster capacity planning, and 5) community-level burn risk factor analyses. PMID:18182914

  14. Effects of burn temperature on ash nutrient forms and availability from cattail (Typha domingensis) and sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense) in the Florida Everglades.

    PubMed

    Qian, Y; Miao, S L; Gu, B; Li, Y C

    2009-01-01

    Plant ash derived from fire plays an important role in nutrient balance and cycling in ecosystems. Factors that determine the composition and availability of ash nutrients include fire intensity (burn temperature and duration), plant species, habitat nutrient enrichment, and leaf type (live or dead leaf). We used laboratory simulation methods to evaluate temperature effects on nutrient composition and metals in the residual ash of sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense) and cattail (Typha domingensis), particularly on post-fire phosphorus (P) availability in plant ash. Live and dead leaf samples were collected from Water Conservation Area 2A in the northern Everglades along a soil P gradient, where prescribed fire may be used to accelerate recovery of this unique ecosystem. Significant decreases in total carbon and total nitrogen were detected with increasing fire temperature. Organic matter combustion was nearly complete at temperatures > or = 450 degrees C. HCl-extractable P (average, 50% of total P in the ash) and NH(4)Cl-extractable P (average, 33% of total P in the ash) were the predominant P fractions for laboratory-burned ash. Although a low-intensity fire could induce an elevation of P availability, an intense fire generally resulted in decreased water-soluble P. Significant differences in nutrient compositions were observed between species, habitat nutrient status, and leaf types. More labile inorganic P remained in sawgrass ash than in cattail ash; hence, sawgrass ash has a greater potential to release available P than cattail. Fire intensity affected plant ash nutrient composition, particularly P availability, and the effects varied with plant species and leaf type. Therefore, it is important to consider fire intensity and vegetation community when using a prescribed fire for ecosystem management. PMID:19202015

  15. Burns - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) ... ????? - ??? (Japanese) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Korean (???) Burn Care ?? ?? - ??? (Korean) Bilingual ...

  16. The assessment and management of burns.

    PubMed

    Dowsett, Caroline

    2002-05-01

    Each year many people seek medical advice or hospital treatment for burn or scald injuries. There is limited data on the number of burns patients seen in primary care, however a recent national survey suggested that there are 250,000 presentations of burn injuries to primary care teams in the UK per year (National Burn Care Review, 2001). This article discusses the nursing management of burns in the community, outlining the initial assessment of the burns patient in terms of trauma management, and focusing primarily on those patients with non-complex burns. A full patient assessment incorporates the patient's general condition, the type, cause, depth and extent of the burn and the effects on the individual patient. Good patient management is an essential element of care and the focus of this is the management of pain, prevention of infection, provision of evidence based wound care and onward referrals as appropriate. However not all patients can be managed solely in the community and the nurse needs to know when to refer and to whom to refer. The article outlines the recommendations from the National Burn Care Review in terms of patient referral. PMID:12048496

  17. Satellite Contributions to the Quantitative Characterization of Biomass Burning for Climate Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichoku, Charles; Kahn, Ralph; Chin, Mian

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of biomass burning from space has been the subject of an extensive body of literature published over the last few decades. Given the importance of this topic, we review how satellite observations contribute toward improving the representation of biomass burning quantitatively in climate and air-quality modeling and assessment. Satellite observations related to biomass burning may be classified into five broad categories: (i) active fire location and energy release, (ii) burned areas and burn severity, (iii) smoke plume physical disposition, (iv) aerosol distribution and particle properties, and (v) trace gas concentrations. Each of these categories involves multiple parameters used in characterizing specific aspects of the biomass-burning phenomenon. Some of the parameters are merely qualitative, whereas others are quantitative, although all are essential for improving the scientific understanding of the overall distribution (both spatial and temporal) and impacts of biomass burning. Some of the qualitative satellite datasets, such as fire locations, aerosol index, and gas estimates have fairly long-term records. They date back as far as the 1970s, following the launches of the DMSP, Landsat, NOAA, and Nimbus series of earth observation satellites. Although there were additional satellite launches in the 1980s and 1990s, space-based retrieval of quantitative biomass burning data products began in earnest following the launch of Terra in December 1999. Starting in 2000, fire radiative power, aerosol optical thickness and particle properties over land, smoke plume injection height and profile, and essential trace gas concentrations at improved resolutions became available. The 2000s also saw a large list of other new satellite launches, including Aqua, Aura, Envisat, Parasol, and CALIPSO, carrying a host of sophisticated instruments providing high quality measurements of parameters related to biomass burning and other phenomena. These improved data products have enabled significant progress in the study of biomass burning from space. However, appreciable uncertainty remains in many of the measurements that still needs to be addressed. Nevertheless, climate and other atmospheric models are

  18. Shortening Burn-In Test: Application of HVST and Weibull Statistical Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melanie Po-Leen Ooi; Zainal Abu Kassim; Serge N. Demidenko

    2007-01-01

    Testing plays an important role in controlling and ensuring required quality and reliability of manufactured integrated circuits (ICs) before supplying them to final users. Several types of testing are performed at different stages of the IC manufacturing process. One of them is the so-called burn-in testing (i.e., accelerated testing performed under elevated temperature and other stress conditions). Burn-in aims to

  19. A simple ocular irrigation system for alkaline burns of the eye.

    PubMed

    Terzidou, C; Georgiadis, N

    1997-03-01

    An alkaline burn of the eye constitutes an ocular emergency. Emergency treatment consisting of copious irrigation begins at the site of the accident and alters the outcome of the injury. The authors describe a low-cost, simple, and effective system for continuous irrigation of the ocular surface after a severe alkaline burn of the eye. This system also can be applied by inexperienced personnel during the transport of a patient to an ophthalmologic center. PMID:9076805

  20. Relation of surface climate and burned area in Yellowstone National Park

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R BALLINGJR; Grant A. Meyer; Stephen G. Wells

    1992-01-01

    Bailing, R.C., Jr., Meyer, G.A. and Wells, S.G., 1992. Relation of surface climate and burned area in Yellowstone National Park. Agric. For. Meteorol., 60: 285-293. The statistical relation between annual burn area in Yellowstone National Park and local climate conditions is established over the past century. Our analyses reveal that the summer Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) can account for

  1. Spectral hole burning in naphthalocyanines derivatives in the region 800 nm for holographic storage applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Turukhin; A. A. Gorokhovsky; C. Moser; I. V. Solomatin; D. Psaltis

    2000-01-01

    Persistent spectral hole burning is studied for several free-based and metallo-naphthalocyanine derivatives in polymer hosts. These materials exhibit a strong 0–0 absorption band in the region 800nm matching the wavelength range of most semiconductor diode lasers and Ti:Sapphire lasers. Metallo-naphthalocyanines demonstrate a nonphotochemical hole-burning mechanism that is likely related to rotations of small molecular groups attached to a relatively rigid

  2. Electrical burns of the abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Ritesh

    2013-01-01

    A 35-year-old male farmer came in contact with 11,000 volts high tension electric wire and sustained full thickness burn wounds over scapula, upper limb and anterior abdominal wall along with perforation of the intestine. Patient was initially managed conservatively in general surgery ward and was referred to us after 3 days with necrosis of the burned skin and muscles over the shoulder and abdomen. Patient was initially managed conservatively and then thorough debridement of the necrotic skin over the left shoulder and upper arm was done and the area was split skin grafted. Patient developed enterocutaneous fistula, which healed over a period of 8 weeks. The granulating wound over the abdomen was also skin grafted and patient was discharged after 18 days. About 4 months, after the discharge patient presented with ventral hernia. Repair of ventral hernia by synthetic mesh application and reconstruction of the abdominal wall with a free tensor fascia lata flap was done over the mesh, but the flap failed. Then after debridement two random pattern transposition skin flaps, one from the right upper and another from the left lower abdomen were transposed over the abdominal wound and donor area was skin grafted. Patient was discharged after 17 days. PMID:24459356

  3. A radical way to burn

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, S.

    1996-08-01

    By manipulating chamber geometries as well as engine cycle pressures and timing, engineers are exploiting a long-obscure technology known as activated radical combustion. Piston-driven internal combustion engines generally come in two varieties: compression-ignited diesels and spark-ignited gasoline power plants. There, is however, a third way to initiate burning of the fuel-air mixture. The technique--variously called radical ignition (RI), activated radical (AR) combustion, Toyota-Soken combustion, and active thermo-atmosphere combustion--is not exactly new, but only recently have engineers begun to exploit the process in practical power plants. These new units include a lightweight two-stroke racing-motorcycle engine, truck diesels with reduced soot output, and lean-burn spark-ignited car engines. This long-obscure combustion process is based on a range of specialized chemical kinetic and physical acoustic techniques developed over decades. Engineers manipulate fundamental combustion parameter such as chamber geometries, valving and porting configurations, and engine cycle pressures and timing to foster the formation of certain highly reactive chemical species that lower the fuel-air mixture`s flash point so that even modest compression make sit self-ignite. These chemical initiators are then retained into the next cycle to start combustion, allowing the engineer to run stably with no spark.

  4. Serum albumin level as a risk factor for mortality in burn patients

    PubMed Central

    Alejandra Aguayo-Becerra, Olivia; Torres-Garibay, Carlos; Dassaejv Macías-Amezcua, Michel; Fuentes-Orozco, Clotilde; de Guadalupe Chávez-Tostado, Mariana; Andalón-Dueñas, Elizabeth; Espinosa Partida, Arturo; Álvarez-Villaseñor, Andrea Del Socorro; Cortés-Flores, Ana Olivia; Alejandro González-Ojeda

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Hypoalbuminemia is a common clinical deficiency in burn patients and is associated with complications related to increased extravascular fluid, including edema, abnormal healing, and susceptibility to sepsis. Some prognostic scales do not include biochemical parameters, whereas others consider them together with comorbidities. The purpose of this study was to determine whether serum albumin can predict mortality in burn patients. METHODS: We studied burn patients ?16 years of age who had complete clinical documentation, including the Abbreviated Burn Severity Index, serum albumin, globulin, and lipids. Sensitivity and specificity analyses were performed to determine the cut-off level of albumin that predicts mortality. RESULTS: In our analysis of 486 patients, we found that mortality was higher for burns caused by flame (p?=?0.000), full-thickness burns (p?=?0.004), inhalation injuries (p?=?0.000), burns affecting >30% of the body surface area (p?=?0.001), and burns associated with infection (p?=?0.008). Protein and lipid levels were lower in the patients who died (p<0.05). Albumin levels showed the highest sensitivity and specificity (84% and 83%, respectively), and the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (0.869) had a cut-off of 1.95 g/dL for mortality. CONCLUSION: Patients with albumin levels <2 g/dL had a mortality risk of >80%, with 84% sensitivity and 83% specificity. At admission, the albumin level could be used as a sensitive and specific marker of burn severity and an indicator of mortality. PMID:23917657

  5. Tumescent infiltration of lidocaine and adrenaline for burn surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gümü?, N.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Tumescent infiltration is a widely used type of regional anaesthesia for cutaneous surgery. This technique makes it possible to administer high doses of lidocaine and adrenaline within the safety limits, leading to reduction in pain and bleeding during the operation. In this study, tumescent infiltration of lidocaine and adrenaline was used in routine procedures of burn surgery such as escharectomy, debridement, tangential excision, and skin grafting. In 17 patients with scald and flame burns, tumescent infiltration was performed prior to surgical procedures under either general anaesthesia or intravenous sedation. After 15 minutes, escharectomy, debridement of necrotic tissues, tangential excision of the burned skin, removal of the granulation tissue, and harvesting of the skin graft were performed. No complications occurred. All vital signs remained within safety limits during the operations. Haemorrhage was minimal and the operations were thus performed easily and rapidly. During removal of granulation tissue, very little blood loss occurred so that both the excision of granulation tissue and skin grafting were accomplished rapidly because of the minimal need of severe haemostasis. The duration of surgery was considerably reduced. No haematoma or bruising developed after surgery. No blood transfusions were required as the decline in haematocrit levels was not more than 3%. Postoperative analgesia was excellent for the first 8 h, eliminating the need of additional measures. Tumescent infiltration of adrenaline and lidocaine is a simple, effective and safe technique which facilitates anaesthesia in large areas of the burned body surface and leads to less bleeding and easy surgical dissection and hydrodissection, allowing fast, easy and painless burn surgery. PMID:22396674

  6. Epidemiology of childhood burns in the burn unit of Ain Shams University in Cairo, Egypt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed El-Badawy; Amr R Mabrouk

    1998-01-01

    Childhood burns in Egypt are a significant problem, especially in families of low socioeconomic status. These families live in overcrowded flats, which lack proper hygiene and tend to use kerosene stoves, which lack any safety measures. Three hundred and five burned children presented to the burn unit of Ain Shams University over a 20 month period. Proportionately more boys than

  7. Bacterial Profile of Blood and Burn Wound Infections in Burn Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herjinder Kaur; Jyothi Bhat; Anup R. Anvikar; Savinder Rao; Vijay Gadge

    Infections are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in burn patients. Three fourth of deaths in burn patients occur due to infections. The objective behind this work was to find out the bacteriological profile of post burn infections in blood and wound in first week along with the evaluation of the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the organisms isolated. Fifty

  8. Schoenberg, Chang, Pompa, Woods, Xu. Burning Index. 1 RH: Burning index in Los Angeles

    E-print Network

    Schoenberg, Frederic Paik (Rick)

    the McArthur Forest Fire Danger Index (FFDI) (McArthur 1967), Canada the Fire Weather Index (FWISchoenberg, Chang, Pompa, Woods, Xu. Burning Index. 1 RH: Burning index in Los Angeles A Critical Assessment of the Burning Index in Los Angeles County, California Frederic Paik SchoenbergA,E , Chien

  9. Schoenberg, Chang, Keeley, Pompa, Woods, Xu. Burning Index. 1 RH: Burning index in Los Angeles

    E-print Network

    Schoenberg, Frederic Paik (Rick)

    the McArthur Forest Fire Danger Index (FFDI) (McArthur 1967), Canada the Fire Weather Index (FWISchoenberg, Chang, Keeley, Pompa, Woods, Xu. Burning Index. 1 RH: Burning index in Los Angeles A Critical Assessment of the Burning Index in Los Angeles County, California Frederic Paik Schoenberg

  10. Epidermal Healing in Burns: Autologous Keratinocyte Transplantation as a Standard Procedure: Update and Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Barrault, Christine; Levard, Guillaume; Morel, Franck; Bernard, François-Xavier; Lecron, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Background: Treatment of burned patients is a tricky clinical problem not only because of the extent of the physiologic abnormalities but also because of the limited area of normal skin available. Methods: Literature indexed in the National Center (PubMed) has been reviewed using combinations of key words (burns, children, skin graft, tissue engineering, and keratinocyte grafts). Articles investigating the association between burns and graft therapeutic modalities have been considered. Further literature has been obtained by analysis of references listed in reviewed articles. Results: Severe burns are conventionally treated with split-thickness skin autografts. However, there are usually not enough skin donor sites. For years, the question of how covering the wound surface became one of the major challenges in clinical research area and several procedures were proposed. The microskin graft is one of the oldest methods to cover extensive burns. This technique of skin expansion is efficient, but results remain inconsistent. An alternative is to graft cultured human epidermal keratinocytes. However, because of several complications and labor-intensive process of preparing grafts, the initial optimism for cultured epithelial autograft has gradually declined. In an effort to solve these drawbacks, isolated epithelial cells from selecting donor site were introduced in skin transplantation. Conclusions: Cell suspensions transplanted directly to the wound is an attractive process, removing the need for attachment to a membrane before transfer and avoiding one potential source of inefficiency. Choosing an optimal donor site containing cells with high proliferative capacity is essential for graft success in burns. PMID:25426401

  11. Tan, don't burn : how long before you burn?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM)

    2002-01-01

    This online activity offers students the opportunity to reason with numbers as they examine the practical implications of sun protection factor (SPF) numbers on sunblock. The activity is part of the Figure This! collection of 80 online mathematical challenges emphasizing real-world uses of mathematics. In this activity, the Hint and Getting Started sections illustrate how to apply mathematical reasoning. They demonstrate how to think through the answer to the initial question about how a person using sunblock could burn after being in the sun for only one hour. In similar activity questions, the student determines cooking time for a baked potato and the time required to fill a pool. The activity includes information and web links addressing the hazards of overexposure to the sun. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  12. Suicidal burns in Samarkand burn centers and their consequences.

    PubMed

    Shakirov, B M; Ahmedov, Y M; Hakimov, E A; Tagaev, K R; Karabaev, B H

    2013-12-31

    Suicide is a global public health problem, particularly in Asia where few countries with large populations have high suicide rates accounting for the majority of the world's suicides. During a 14-year period, 76 individuals, aged 17 to 66 years, committed suicide from 1995 to 2008 and were included in this report. Data was collected on each patient including, age, sex, place of injury, patient occupation, accommodation, psychiatric illness, suicidal motives, flammable substances used, place of burn, season of the year, and total body surface area (TBSA) burnt. Most suicidal cases (55 out of 76) had a history of depressive episodes and emotional unstable disorders, and 18 of them had a known history of psychiatric illness. In 5 cases alcohol intoxication was present at the moment of suicide, and 3 patients had chronic alcohol dependence together with basic psychiatric disease. It is also evident from this study that the causes of suicide in females are mainly socio-economical and psychological. PMID:24799853

  13. Is aridity a high-order control on the hydro-geomorphic response of burned landscapes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, Gary; Van der Sant, Rene; Nyman, Petter; Lane, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Fire results in hydro-geomorphic changes that are spatially variable and difficult to predict. In this study we compile 294 infiltration measurements, ten other soil, catchment runoff and erosion datasets, and a year of new data from 15 natural runoff plots across an aridity gradient from the eastern Victorian uplands in SE Australia. The results show that aridity (a function of the long term mean precipitation and net radiation) is associated with low post-fire infiltration capacities, increasing the chance of surface runoff, and strongly increasing the chance of debris flows. Runoff plots from the wettest site (aridity = 1.1) had an average runoff ratio of 0.3% compared with 33.6% for the most arid sites (aridity = 2.4). Post-fire debris flows were only observed in the more arid locations within the Victorian uplands, and resulted in erosion rates more than two orders of magnitude greater than non-debris flow processes. We therefore argue that in south eastern Australia aridity is a high-order control on the magnitude of post-wildfire hydro-geomorphic processes. The results from this Australian study may also help to provide insight into the landscape controls on post fire debris flows elsewhere. Aridity is a landscape-scale parameter that is mappable at a high resolution and therefore is a useful predictor of the spatial variability of the magnitude of post-fire hydro-geomorphic responses.

  14. Reflective THz and MR imaging of burn wounds: a potential clinical validation of THz contrast mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajwa, Neha; Nowroozi, Bryan; Sung, Shijun; Garritano, James; Maccabi, Ashkan; Tewari, Priyamvada; Culjat, Martin; Singh, Rahul; Alger, Jeffry; Grundfest, Warren; Taylor, Zachary

    2012-10-01

    Terahertz (THz) imaging is an expanding area of research in the field of medical imaging due to its high sensitivity to changes in tissue water content. Previously reported in vivo rat studies demonstrate that spatially resolved hydration mapping with THz illumination can be used to rapidly and accurately detect fluid shifts following induction of burns and provide highly resolved spatial and temporal characterization of edematous tissue. THz imagery of partial and full thickness burn wounds acquired by our group correlate well with burn severity and suggest that hydration gradients are responsible for the observed contrast. This research aims to confirm the dominant contrast mechanism of THz burn imaging using a clinically accepted diagnostic method that relies on tissue water content for contrast generation to support the translation of this technology to clinical application. The hydration contrast sensing capabilities of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically T2 relaxation times and proton density values N(H), are well established and provide measures of mobile water content, lending MRI as a suitable method to validate hydration states of skin burns. This paper presents correlational studies performed with MR imaging of ex vivo porcine skin that confirm tissue hydration as the principal sensing mechanism in THz burn imaging. Insights from this preliminary research will be used to lay the groundwork for future, parallel MRI and THz imaging of in vivo rat models to further substantiate the clinical efficacy of reflective THz imaging in burn wound care.

  15. Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a Regional Burns Centre

    PubMed Central

    Dexter, F.

    1971-01-01

    The construction of a Regional Burns Centre in Pinderfields General Hospital, Wakefield, presented an opportunity to study Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in patients with extensive burns. During the first year (Barclay & Dexter, 1968) a system of disinfection and bacteriological control created conditions permitting more detailed studies to be undertaken which resulted in a significant reduction of infection and cross-infection. PMID:4996925

  16. Fusion Burning Waves in Degenerate Plasmas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo T. LeÛn; Shalom Eliezer; J. M. MartÌnez-Val; Mireia Piera

    Degenerate plasmas present very interesting features for fusion burning waves ignition and propagation. However, the outcome of fusion burning waves in non-degenerate plasmas is limited by the strength of ion-electron Coulomb collisions and subsequent energy loss mechanisms as electron heat conduction and radiation emission (bremsstrahlung.) In this paper, an analysis is presented on the degeneracy effects in the stopping power

  17. Topical Antimicrobials for Burn Wound Infections

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Tianhong; Huang, Ying-Ying; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Hashmi, Javad T.; Kurup, Divya B.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout most of history, serious burns occupying a large percentage of body surface area were an almost certain death sentence because of subsequent infection. A number of factors such as disruption of the skin barrier, ready availability of bacterial nutrients in the burn milieu, destruction of the vascular supply to the burned skin, and systemic disturbances lead to immunosuppression combined together to make burns particularly susceptible to infection. In the 20th century the introduction of antibiotic and antifungal drugs, the use of topical antimicrobials that could be applied to burns, and widespread adoption of early excision and grafting all helped to dramatically increase survival. However the relentless increase in microbial resistance to antibiotics and other antimicrobials has led to a renewed search for alternative approaches to prevent and combat burn infections. This review will cover patented strategies that have been issued or filed with regard to new topical agents, preparations, and methods of combating burn infections. Animal models that are used in preclinical studies are discussed. Various silver preparations (nanocrystalline and slow release) are the mainstay of many approaches but antimicrobial peptides, topical photodynamic therapy, chitosan preparations, new iodine delivery formulations, phage therapy and natural products such as honey and essential oils have all been tested. This active area of research will continue to provide new topical antimicrobials for burns that will battle against growing multi-drug resistance. PMID:20429870

  18. Emissions from burning biofuels in metal cookstoves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Veena Joshi; Chandra Venkataraman; Dilip R. Ahuja

    1989-01-01

    Promoting stoves that burn wood and other biofuels more efficiently is one of the means to reduce fuel consumption, but such efficient stoves may also emit more carbon monoxide and total suspended particulates. In an earlier study, a standard chamber method was proposed to estimate emission factors from burning fuelwood (Acacia nilotica). Here that methodology is extended to measure emission