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1

Detecting post-fire burn severity and vegetation recovery using multitemporal remote sensing spectral indices and field-collected composite burn index data in a ponderosa pine forest  

USGS Publications Warehouse

It is challenging to detect burn severity and vegetation recovery because of the relatively long time period required to capture the ecosystem characteristics. Multitemporal remote sensing data can providemultitemporal observations before, during and after a wildfire, and can improve the change detection accuracy. The goal of this study is to examine the correlations between multitemporal spectral indices and field-observed burn severity, and to provide a practical method to estimate burn severity and vegetation recovery. The study site is the Jasper Fire area in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota, that burned during August and September 2000. Six multitemporal Landsat images acquired from 2000 (pre-fire), 2001 (post-fire), 2002, 2003, 2005 and 2007 were used to assess burn severity. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), enhanced vegetation index (EVI), normalized burn ratio (NBR), integrated forest index (IFI) and the differences of these indices between the pre-fire and post-fire years were computed and analysed with 66 field-based composite burn index (CBI) plots collected in 2002. Results showed that differences of NDVI and differences of EVI between the pre-fire year and the first two years post-fire were highly correlated with the CBI scores. The correlations were low beyond the second year post-fire. Differences of NBR had good correlation with CBI scores in all study years. Differences of IFI had low correlation with CBI in the first year post-fire and had good correlation in later years. A CBI map of the burnt area was produced using regression tree models and the multitemporal images. The dynamics of four spectral indices from 2000 to 2007 indicated that both NBR and IFI are valuable for monitoring long-term vegetation recovery. The high burn severity areas had a much slower recovery than the moderate and low burn areas. ?? 2011 Taylor & Francis.

Chen, X.; Vogelmann, J.E.; Rollins, M.; Ohlen, D.; Key, C.H.; Yang, L.; Huang, C.; Shi, H.

2011-01-01

2

Boreal woodpecker assemblages in recently burned forested landscapes in Alberta, Canada: Effects of post-fire harvesting and burn severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canadian boreal forests are increasingly modified by post-fire removal of trees (salvage logging), yet the ecological consequences of this practice are little studied. As mixed-wood forests have recently become accessible for salvage operations, we studied woodpeckers in mixed-wood (trembling aspen Populus tremuloides and white spruce Picea glauca) and adjacent coniferous (black spruce Picea mariana and jack pine Pinus banksiana) areas

Matti J. Koivula; Fiona K. A. Schmiegelow

2007-01-01

3

Characterization of post-fire surface cover, soils, and burn severity at the Cerro Grande Fire, New Mexico, using hyperspectral and multispectral remote sensing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Forest fires leave behind a changed ecosystem with a patchwork of surface cover that includes ash, charred organic matter, soils and soil minerals, and dead, damaged, and living vegetation. The distributions of these materials affect post-fire processes of erosion, nutrient cycling, and vegetation regrowth. We analyzed high spatial resolution (2.4??m pixel size) Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data collected over the Cerro Grande fire, to map post-fire surface cover into 10 classes, including ash, soil minerals, scorched conifer trees, and green vegetation. The Cerro Grande fire occurred near Los Alamos, New Mexico, in May 2000. The AVIRIS data were collected September 3, 2000. The surface cover map revealed complex patterns of ash, iron oxide minerals, and clay minerals in areas of complete combustion. Scorched conifer trees, which retained dry needles heated by the fire but not fully combusted by the flames, were found to cover much of the post-fire landscape. These scorched trees were found in narrow zones at the edges of completely burned areas. A surface cover map was also made using Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) data, collected September 5, 2000, and a maximum likelihood, supervised classification. When compared to AVIRIS, the Landsat classification grossly overestimated cover by dry conifer and ash classes and severely underestimated soil and green vegetation cover. In a comparison of AVIRIS surface cover to the Burned Area Emergency Rehabilitation (BAER) map of burn severity, the BAER high burn severity areas did not capture the variable patterns of post-fire surface cover by ash, soil, and scorched conifer trees seen in the AVIRIS map. The BAER map, derived from air photos, also did not capture the distribution of scorched trees that were observed in the AVIRIS map. Similarly, the moderate severity class of Landsat-derived burn severity maps generated from the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) calculation had low agreement with the AVIRIS classes of scorched conifer trees. Burn severity and surface cover images were found to contain complementary information, with the dNBR map presenting an image of degree of change caused by fire and the AVIRIS-derived map showing specific surface cover resulting from fire.

Kokaly, R.F.; Rockwell, B.W.; Haire, S.L.; King, T.V.V.

2007-01-01

4

Effects of Pre-Fire Fuels Treatments on Post-Fire Burn Severity on the 2007 Fires in the Northern Rocky Mountains, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change may be contributing to regional warming and drying trends that are increasing the size and severity of wildfires. Regardless if climate is a factor, the escalating costs of fire suppression and post-fire rehabilitation on the many large fires of recent decades have driven a national effort to reduce hazardous fuels across large areas, particularly those in the wildland-urban

A. T. Hudak; P. Morgan; P. R. Robichaud; S. A. Lewis; J. S. Evans

2007-01-01

5

Decades-old silvicultural treatments influence surface wildfire severity and post-fire nitrogen availability in a ponderosa pine forest  

E-print Network

Decades-old silvicultural treatments influence surface wildfire severity and post-fire nitrogen and lingering changes in fuels. In 2002, the Hayman wildfire burned as a low to moderate-severity surface fire, surface-level burn severity and post-fire soil nitrogen-availability varied with pre-fire silvicultural

Fried, Jeremy S.

6

Characterization of post-fire surface cover, soils, and burn severity at the Cerro Grande Fire, New Mexico, using hyperspectral and multispectral remote sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest fires leave behind a changed ecosystem with a patchwork of surface cover that includes ash, charred organic matter, soils and soil minerals, and dead, damaged, and living vegetation. The distributions of these materials affect post-fire processes of erosion, nutrient cycling, and vegetation regrowth. We analyzed high spatial resolution (2.4 m pixel size) Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data

Raymond F. Kokaly; Barnaby W. Rockwell; Sandra L. Haire; Trude V. V. King

2007-01-01

7

Comparing fire severity models from post-fire and pre/post-fire differenced imagery  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wildland fires are common in rangelands worldwide. The potential for high severity fires to affect long-term changes in rangelands is considerable, and for this reason assessing fire severity shortly after the fire is critical. Such assessments are typically carried out following Burned Area Emergen...

8

Mapping forest post-fire canopy consumption in several overstory types using multi-temporal Landsat TM and ETM data  

Microsoft Academic Search

To facilitate the identification of appropriate post-fire watershed treatments and minimize erosion effects after socio-economically important fires, Interagency Burned Area Emergency Rehabilitation (BAER) teams produce initial timely estimates of the fire perimeter and classifications of burn severity, forest mortality, and vegetation mortality. Accurate, cost-effective, and minimal time-consuming methods of mapping fire are desirable to assist rehabilitation efforts immediately after containment

Jay D. Miller; Stephen R. Yool

2002-01-01

9

Post-Fire Burn Assessment--Remote Sensing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Module uses real-world data from the 2003 "Old Fire" which occurred in Southern California. Students will use this data to analyze the burned area using ITTVIS ENVI software & the ESRI ArcGIS Spatial Analyst tool. The activity is appropriate for introductory or intermediate GIS students. The learning unit includes a general summary of the activity, instructor and student guides, supporting documentation and data. The materials are available for download in PDF and RAR format. A quick, free login is required to view or download the materials.

10

Integrating MODIS-based products to improve post-fire recovery predictions for burned watersheds in Southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires in Southern California are natural and frequent events that result in dramatic land cover changes, affecting land-atmosphere interactions and hydrologic behavior. Changing climate and land use patterns (community expansion into fire-prone areas) contribute to shifts in natural fire regimes and increase pressure on policymakers to develop effective fire management and recovery plans. Our ongoing work seeks to understand the recovery of semi-arid regions through controls (i.e. precipitation, vegetation recovery, geophysical parameters, burn severity, etc.) on post-fire hydrology and vegetation. Given the lack of ground-based observations in burned areas, remote sensing data streams (i.e. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)) are crucial for understanding the spatial and temporal dynamics of post-fire recovery of vegetation and hydrologic fluxes. MODIS-based products, such as enhanced vegetation indices (EVI), land surface temperature (LST), and a UCLA-developed evapotranspiration (ET) product, are being utilized for post-fire assessment and provide detailed predictions of water balances for altered (burned) regions. Results show southern facing slopes receive increased exposure to solar radiation, resulting in increased vegetation biomass, increased damage during a wildfire, and relatively slower recovery than other watershed aspects, especially compared to north facing aspects. Similarly, the spatial and temporal patterns of MODIS-derived evaporative fraction (EF) and net radiation (Rn) show sensitivity to watershed controls and provide insight on water dynamics and loss. Evaluating the spatial and temporal variability of vegetation recovery and coupled hydrologic response within burned watersheds provides valuable information for water and natural resource managers as they plan for acute and long-term impacts from large-scale and urban-fringe wildfires.

Kinoshita, A. M.; Hogue, T. S.

2010-12-01

11

A Burning Question: Does Post-Fire Rehabilitation Alter the Likelihood of Future Fires?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically, aridlands have had infrequent fire due to patchy plant distributions, which limit fire spread. However, aridland fire regimes have changed because invasive annual grasses have created continuous fuel beds, which have led to increasingly frequent fires and a greater area burned each decade since the 1970s. Climate change is predicted to further increase the number and size of fires. Post-fire rehabilitation is enacted in order to reestablish plant communities and has the potential to further alter fire regimes. Rehabilitation treatments include tilling seeds using a tractor and drill (drill seeding), dropping seed aerially with helicopters (aerial seeding), or both. Few studies examine the impact of post-fire rehabilitation on the likelihood of future fires in these aridland ecosystems. We examined the effects of post-fire rehabilitation treatments on the number of years before the next fire. Using GIS layers detailing fire history and post-fire rehabilitation treatments in the southern Idaho Great Basin, we extracted information from randomly selected sites and analyzed them with generalized linear models. Preliminary analysis on 43 sites suggests the number of years before the next fire tended to be less in seeded than unseeded sites (P=0.055). Further investigation revealed that the number of years until the next fire differed among seed application methods. Sites that were drill seeded burned approximately 12 years later while sites with combined aerial and drill seeding burned again after 6.5 years (P=0.05). The total number of burns at a site was inversely related to the time before the next fire (P=0.001). After the first fire, sites averaged 17.4 years before the next fire occurred; this decreased with each subsequent fire to 7.1 years after the fifth fire. The number of times a site burned and the rehabilitation treatment interacted to affect the number of years between fires. In sites that burned once, there was on average 27.75 years before the second burn at unseeded sites, 18 years when only drill seeded, and 8.8 years when both aerially and drill seeded (P=0.038). Likewise, at sites that burned at least six times, the number of years before the next fire was significantly lower in the combination of aerial and drill seeding compared to unseeded sites (3.3 versus 6.9 years, respectively, P=0.047). The number of fires a site experienced altered the duration between fires, but the combination of drill and aerial seeding consistently experienced fire sooner than either technique used in isolation. These preliminary results suggest that post-fire rehabilitation may decrease the time between fires after the first two fires, but can decrease the time between after a threshold number of fires depending on the technique used. Drill seeding alone maintained a fire return interval of 9-10 years after 4, 5, or 6 fires which was the longest interval past that threshold, The results are shocking in a system that historically has fire return intervals of hundreds of years.

Bowman-Prideaux, C.; Newingham, B. A.

2013-12-01

12

Ecohydrologic Implications and Management of Post-fire Soil Water Repellency in Burned Pinon-Juniper Woodlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erosion and weed dominance often limit the recovery of piñon-juniper woodlands of western North America after high intensity wildfires. Soil water repellency (SWR) is one factor that may promote overland flow and impede seedling establishment. In spite of these effects, the influence of post-fire SWR on site recovery is poorly understood. Our presentation summarizes data collected within studies on burned piñon-juniper woodlands that provide new insight on: 1) the spatial distribution and severity of SWR, 2) influence of SWR on soil hydrology, nitrogen cycling, and site revegetation, and 3) the suitability of soil surfactants as a post-fire restoration tool. We demonstrate how patterns of SWR are highly correlated to pre-fire woodland canopy structure. At sites where SWR is present, infiltration, soil water content, and plant establishment is significantly less than at non-hydrophobic sites. We show how newly developed soil surfactants can significantly improve ecohydrologic properties required for plant growth by overcoming SWR; thus, increasing the amount and duration of available water for seed germination and plant growth. However, the application of soil surfactants in wildfire-affected ecosystems has been limited due to logistical and economic constraints associated with the standard practice of using large quantities of irrigation water as the surfactant carrier. We have developed a potential solution to this problem by using seed coating technology to use the seed as the carrier for the delivery of soil surfactant. Through this approach, precipitation leaches the surfactant from the seed into the soil where it absorbs onto the soil particles and ameliorates water repellency within the seeds microsite. We present findings from laboratory and field evaluations of surfactant seed coatings, which provide evidence that it may be plausible for the technology to improve post-fire seeding efforts by restoring soil hydrologic function and increasing seedling emergence and early seedling development.

Madsen, Matthew; Zvirzdin, Daniel; Fernelius, Kaitlynn; McMillan, Mica; Kostka, Stanley

2014-05-01

13

The effects of fire severity on black carbon additions to forest soils - 10 years post fire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires play an active role in the global carbon cycle. While large amounts of carbon dioxide are released, a small fraction of the biomass consumed by the fire is only partially combusted, yielding soot and charcoal. These products, also called black carbon (BC) make up only 1-5% of the biomass burnt, yet they can have a disproportionate effect on both the atmosphere and fluxes in long-term carbon pools. This project specifically considers the fraction that is sequestered in forest soils. Black carbon is not a specific compound, and exists along a continuum ranging from partially burned biomass to pure carbon or graphite. Increasing aromaticity as the result of partial combustion means charcoal is highly resistant to oxidation. Although debated, most studies indicate a turnover time on the order of 500-1,000 years in warm, wet, aerobic soils. Charcoal may function as a long-term carbon sink, however its overall significance depends on its rate of formation and loss. At the landscape level, fire characteristics are one of the major factors controlling charcoal production. A few studies suggest that charcoal production increases with cooler, less-severe fires. However, there are many factors to tease apart, partly because of a lack of specificity in how fire severity is defined. Within this greater context, our lab has been working on a landscape-level study within Routt National Forest, north of Steamboat Springs, Colorado. In 2002, a large fire swept through a subalpine spruce, fir and lodgepole pine forest. In 2011-2013 we sampled BC pools in 44 plots across a range of fire severities from unburned to severe crown We hypothesized that charcoal stocks will be higher in areas of low severity fire as compared to high severity because of decreased re-combustion of charcoal in the organic soil and increased overall charcoal production due to lower temperatures. In each of our plots we measured charcoal on snags and coarse woody debris, sampled the entire organic horizon and the top 10cm mineral horizon. The soils were sieved to 2mm and their BC content measured using the Kurth-MacKenzie-DeLuca method of digesting labile carbon using nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide at 95C for 20hrs. We integrated both remotely sensed data and field observations. We used the Relative Difference Normalized Burn Ratio (RdNBR) calculated by Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS). This index used Landsat images from July in the years before and after the fire and is based on differences in bands 4 and 7, with the aim of assessing coarse scale changes in soil and vegetation post fire. For each plot we also collected data on tree mortality and organic soil depth. These metrics were chosen from the Composite Burn Index as those that were most reliable even 10 years after the fire. We observed no significant differences in BC totals between high severity fire and unburned plots, although BC increased slightly on burned plots. Early results for low severity sites (analysis still in progress) suggest that BC increased in plots experiencing lower severity fires compared to unburned and high severity plots. Comparing carbon and BC totals on unburned and severely burned plots, and assuming no loss of BC from mineral soil during the fire, we observed a 1.2% conversion of burned biomass to BC, which corresponds with literature estimates of 1-4%.

Poore, R.; Wessman, C. A.; Buma, B.

2013-12-01

14

Post-fire Erosion in the Colorado Front Range Lee H. MacDonald  

E-print Network

mm hr-1 . Burning at high severity increases runoff and erosion rates in forested areas by at least 1 greater for sites burned at high severity than sites burned at moderate or low severity. Post-fire erosionPost-fire Erosion in the Colorado Front Range Lee H. MacDonald Department of Forest, Rangland

MacDonald, Lee

15

The temporal dimension of differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) fire\\/burn severity studies: The case of the large 2007 Peloponnese wildfires in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temporal dimension of differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) fire\\/burn severity studies was studied for the case of the large 2007 Peloponnese wildfires in Greece. Fire severity is defined as the degree of environmental change as measured immediately post-fire, whereas burn severity combines the direct fire impact and ecosystems responses. Geo Composite Burn Index (GeoCBI), two pre-\\/post-fire differenced Thematic Mapper

S. Veraverbeke; S. Lhermitte; W. W. Verstraeten; R. Goossens

2010-01-01

16

ORIGINAL PAPER Fire severity as a key factor in post-fire regeneration  

E-print Network

by a quantitative index based on the diameter of twigs, as well as by seed input and post- fire site conditions (ash collection, data analysis and paper write-up. Juli Pausas: data analysis and statistical design, supervision

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

17

Post-Fire Debris-Flow Hazard Assessment of the Area Burned by the 2013 Beaver Creek Fire near Hailey, Central Idaho  

E-print Network

Hailey, Central Idaho U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2013­1273 Prepared in cooperation with Blaine County, Idaho #12;#12;Post-Fire Debris-Flow Hazard Assessment of the Area Burned by the 2013 Beaver Creek Fire near Hailey, Central Idaho By Kenneth D. Skinner Prepared

Torgersen, Christian

18

Predicting gully rejuvenation after wildfire using remotely sensed burn severity data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The loss of surface vegetation and reduced infiltration caused by wildfires can trigger gully rejuvenation, resulting in damage to downstream aquatic resources and risk to human life and property. We developed a spatially explicit metric of burn severity — the Burn Severity Distribution Index (BSDI) — and tested its ability to predict post-fire gully rejuvenation in 1st and 2nd order

Kevin Hyde; Scott W. Woods; Jack Donahue

2007-01-01

19

Post-fire Vegetation Recovery--Remote Sensing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Module uses real-world data from the October 2003 Paradise Fire in San Diego County, California to (1) determine vegetation loss and burn severity due to wildfire through generating pre- and post-fire Normalized Burn Ratios (NBRs) and an approximated dNBR for study area; (2) monitor post-fire vegetation regeneration through landscape-scale remotely sensed imagery performing a multi-temporal Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) analysis; and (3) import the derived datasets into a GIS and, using a DEM for the study area, derive slope and aspect. Analysis of pre- and post-fire recovery of vegetation will be completed using products from derived datasets and Map Algebra in GIS. The materials are available for download in PDF and RAR format.

20

Land surface temperature as potential indicator of burn severity in forest Mediterranean ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires are one of the most important causes of environmental alteration in Mediterranean countries. Discrimination of different degrees of burn severity is critical for improving management of fire-affected areas. This paper aims to evaluate the usefulness of land surface temperature (LST) as potential indicator of burn severity. We used a large convention-dominated wildfire, which occurred on 19-21 September, 2012 in Northwestern Spain. From this area, a 1-year series of six LST images were generated from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) data using a single channel algorithm. Further, the Composite Burn Index (CBI) was measured in 111 field plots to identify the burn severity level (low, moderate, and high). Evaluation of the potential relationship between post-fire LST and ground measured CBI was performed by both correlation analysis and regression models. Correlation coefficients were higher in the immediate post-fire LST images, but decreased during the fall of 2012 and increased again with a second maximum value in summer, 2013. A linear regression model between post-fire LST and CBI allowed us to represent spatially predicted CBI (R-squaredadj > 85%). After performing an analysis of variance (ANOVA) between post-fire LST and CBI, a Fisher's least significant difference test determined that two burn severity levels (low-moderate and high) could be statistically distinguished. The identification of such burn severity levels is sufficient and useful to forest managers. We conclude that summer post-fire LST from moderate resolution satellite data may be considered as a valuable indicator of burn severity for large fires in Mediterranean forest ecosytems.

Quintano, C.; Fernández-Manso, A.; Calvo, L.; Marcos, E.; Valbuena, L.

2015-04-01

21

Post-fire debris-flow hazard assessment of the area burned by the 2013 Beaver Creek Fire near Hailey, central Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A preliminary hazard assessment was developed for debris-flow hazards in the 465 square-kilometer (115,000 acres) area burned by the 2013 Beaver Creek fire near Hailey in central Idaho. The burn area covers all or part of six watersheds and selected basins draining to the Big Wood River and is at risk of substantial post-fire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently burned basins throughout the Intermountain Region in Western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence, potential volume of debris flows, and the combined debris-flow hazard ranking along the drainage network within the burn area and to estimate the same for analyzed drainage basins within the burn area. Input data for the empirical models included topographic parameters, soil characteristics, burn severity, and rainfall totals and intensities for a (1) 2-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 2-year storm (13 mm); (2) 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 10-year storm (19 mm); and (3) 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 25-year storm (22 mm). Estimated debris-flow probabilities for drainage basins upstream of 130 selected basin outlets ranged from less than 1 to 78 percent with the probabilities increasing with each increase in storm magnitude. Probabilities were high in three of the six watersheds. For the 25-year storm, probabilities were greater than 60 percent for 11 basin outlets and ranged from 50 to 60 percent for an additional 12 basin outlets. Probability estimates for stream segments within the drainage network can vary within a basin. For the 25-year storm, probabilities for stream segments within 33 basins were higher than the basin outlet, emphasizing the importance of evaluating the drainage network as well as basin outlets. Estimated debris-flow volumes for the three modeled storms range from a minimal debris flow volume of 10 cubic meters [m3]) to greater than 100,000 m3. Estimated debris-flow volumes increased with basin size and distance downstream. For the 25-year storm, estimated debris-flow volumes were greater than 100,000 m3 for 4 basins and between 50,000 and 100,000 m3 for 10 basins. The debris-flow hazard rankings did not result in the highest hazard ranking of 5, indicating that none of the basins had a high probability of debris-flow occurrence and a high debris-flow volume estimate. The hazard ranking was 4 for one basin using the 10-year-recurrence storm model and for three basins using the 25-year-recurrence storm model. The maps presented herein may be used to prioritize areas where post-wildfire remediation efforts should take place within the 2- to 3-year period of increased erosional vulnerability.

Skinner, Kenneth D.

2013-01-01

22

Spatial Patterns of Post-Fire Soil Water Repellency in Rangelands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water repellent soils are naturally occurring but can be created or enhanced by wildfires. Post-fire runoff and the occurrence of fire-related floods and debris flows are related to the extent and continuity of water repellent soils. While many studies have positively correlated post-fire soil water repellency with burn severity and ash thickness in forested and chaparral environments, few studies have

N. A. Nelson; J. L. Pierce

2006-01-01

23

Remote sensing techniques to assess active fire characteristics and post-fire effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space and airborne sensors have been used to map area burned, assess characteristics of active fires, and characterize post-fire ecological effects. Confusion about fire intensity, fire severity, burn severity, and related terms can result in the potential misuse of the inferred information by land managers and remote sensing practitioners who require unambiguous remote sensing products for fire management. The objective

Leigh B. LentileA; Zachary A. HoldenA; Michael J. FalkowskiA; Andrew T. HudakB; Penelope MorganA; Sarah A. LewisB; Paul E. GesslerA; Nate C. BensonC

24

RECOVER - An Automated Burned Area Emergency Response Decision Support System for Post-fire Rehabilitation Management of Savanna Ecosystems in the Western US  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In partnership with the Department of Interior's Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the Idaho Department of Lands (IDL), we are building and evaluating the RECOVER decision support system. RECOVER - which stands for Rehabilitation Capability Convergence for Ecosystem Recovery - is an automatically deployable, context-aware decision support system for savanna wildfires that brings together in a single application the information necessary for post-fire rehabilitation decision-making and long-term ecosystem monitoring. RECOVER uses state-of-the-art cloud-based data management technologies to improve performance, reduce cost, and provide site-specific flexibility for each fire. The RECOVER Server uses Integrated Rule-Oriented Data System (iRODS) data grid technology deployed in the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2). The RECOVER Client is an Adobe Flex web map application that is able to provide a suite of convenient GIS analytical capabilities. In a typical use scenario, the RECOVER Server is provided a wildfire name and geospatial extent. The Server then automatically gathers Earth observational data and other relevant products from various geographically distributed data sources. The Server creates a database in the cloud where all relevant information about the wildfire is stored. This information is made available to the RECOVER Client and ultimately to fire managers through their choice of web browser. The Server refreshes the data throughout the burn and subsequent recovery period (3-5 years) with each refresh requiring two minutes to complete. Since remediation plans must be completed within 14 days of a fire's containment, RECOVER has the potential to significantly improve the decision-making process. RECOVER adds an important new dimension to post-fire decision-making by focusing on ecosystem rehabilitation in semiarid savannas. A novel aspect of RECOVER's approach involves the use of soil moisture estimates, which are an important but difficult-to-obtain element of post-fire rehabilitation planning. We will use downscaled soil moisture data from three primary observational sources to begin evaluation of soil moisture products and build the technology needed for RECOVER to use future SMAP products. As a result, RECOVER, BLM, and the fire applications community will be ready customers for data flowing out of new NASA missions, such as NPP, LDCM, and SMAP.

Weber, K.; Schnase, J. L.; Carroll, M.; Brown, M. E.; Gill, R.; Haskett, G.; Gardner, T.

2013-12-01

25

Resilience and Severe Burns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Incorporated findings of a general literature review with opinions offered by 39 burn survivors. Results indicate that care factors influencing resiliency include social support (cultural influences and community, school, personal, and familial support), cognitive skills (intelligence, coping style, personal control, and assignment of meaning),…

Holaday, Margot; McPhearson, Ruth W.

1997-01-01

26

Several Flame Balls Burning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Structure of Flameballs at Low Lewis Numbers (SOFBALL) experiments aboard the space shuttle in 1997 a series of sturningly successful burns. This sequence was taken during STS-94, July 12, 1997, MET:10/08:18 (approximate). It was thought these extremely dim flameballs (1/20 the power of a kitchen match) could last up to 200 seconds -- in fact, they can last for at least 500 seconds. This has ramifications in fuel-spray design in combustion engines, as well as fire safety in space. The SOFBALL principal investigator was Paul Ronney, University of Southern California, Los Angeles. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations planned for the International Space Station. (925KB, 9-second MPEG spanning 10 minutes, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300186.html.

2003-01-01

27

Modeling post-fire water erosion mitigation strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Severe wildfires are often followed by significant increase in runoff and erosion, due to vegetation damage and changes in physical and chemical soil properties. Peak flows and sediment yields can increase up to two orders of magnitude, becoming dangerous for human lives and the ecosystem, especially in the wildland-urban interface. Watershed post-fire rehabilitation measures are usually used to mitigate the effects of fire on runoff and erosion, by protecting soil from splash and shear stress detachment and enhancing its infiltration capacity. Modeling post-fire erosion and erosion mitigation strategies can be useful in selecting the effectiveness of a rehabilitation method. In this paper a distributed model based on the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), properly parameterized for a Mediterranean basin located in Sardinia, is used to determine soil losses for six different scenarios describing both natural and post-fire basin condition, the last also accounting for the single and combined effect of different erosion mitigation measures. Fire effect on vegetation and soil properties have been mimed by changing soil drainage capacity and organic matter content, and RUSLE factors related to soil cover and protection measures. Model results, validated using measured data on erosion rates from the literature and in situ field campaigns, show the effect of the analyzed rehabilitation treatments in reducing the amount of soil losses with the peculiar characteristics of the spatial distribution of such changes. In particular, the mulching treatment substantially decreases erosion both in its mean value (-75%) and in the spatially distribution of the erosion levels over the burned area . On the contrary, the breaking up of the hydrophobic layer decreases post-fire mean soil losses of about the 14%, although it strongly influences the spatial distribution of the erosion levels.

Rulli, M. C.; Offeddu, L.; Santini, M.

2013-06-01

28

Is proportion burned severely related to daily area burned?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ecological effects of forest fires burning with high severity are long-lived and have the greatest impact on vegetation successional trajectories, as compared to low-to-moderate severity fires. The primary drivers of high severity fire are unclear, but it has been hypothesized that wind-driven, large fire-growth days play a significant role, particularly on large fires in forested ecosystems. Here, we examined the relative proportion of classified burn severity for individual daily areas burned that occurred during 42 large forest fires in central Idaho and western Montana from 2005 to 2007 and 2011. Using infrared perimeter data for wildfires with five or more consecutive days of mapped perimeters, we delineated 2697 individual daily areas burned from which we calculated the proportions of each of three burn severity classes (high, moderate, and low) using the differenced normalized burn ratio as mapped for large fires by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity project. We found that the proportion of high burn severity was weakly correlated (Kendall ? = 0.299) with size of daily area burned (DAB). Burn severity was highly variable, even for the largest (95th percentile) in DAB, suggesting that other variables than fire extent influence the ecological effects of fires. We suggest that these results do not support the prioritization of large runs during fire rehabilitation efforts, since the underlying assumption in this prioritization is a positive relationship between severity and area burned in a day.

Birch, Donovan S.; Morgan, Penelope; Kolden, Crystal A.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Smith, Alistair M. S.

2014-05-01

29

Factors affecting plant diversity during post-fire recovery and succession of mediterranean-climate shrublands in California, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Plant community diversity, measured as species richness, is typically highest in the early post-fire years in California shrublands. However, this generalization is overly simplistic and the present study demonstrates that diversity is determined by a complex of temporal and spatial effects. Ninety sites distributed across southern California were studied for 5 years after a series of fires. Characteristics of the disturbance event, in this case fire severity, can alter post-fire diversity, both decreasing and increasing diversity, depending on life form. Spatial variability in resource availability is an important factor explaining patterns of diversity, and there is a complex interaction between landscape features and life form. Temporal variability in resource availability affects diversity, and the diversity peak in the immediate post-fire year (or two) appears to be driven by factors different from subsequent diversity peaks. Early post-fire diversity is influenced by life-history specialization, illustrated by species that spend the bulk of their life cycle as a dormant seed bank, which is then triggered to germinate by fire. Resource fluctuations, precipitation in particular, may be associated with subsequent post-fire diversity peaks. These later peaks in diversity comprise a flora that is compositionally different from the immediate post-fire flora, and their presence may be due to mass effects from population expansion of local populations in adjacent burned areas. ?? 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Keeley, J.E.; Fotheringham, C.J.; Baer-Keeley, M.

2005-01-01

30

Avifaunal responses to fire in southwestern montane forests along a burn severity gradient  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effects of burn severity on avian communities are poorly understood, yet this information is crucial to fire management programs. To quantify avian response patterns along a burn severity gradient, we sampled 49 random plots (2001-2002) at the 17 351-ha Cerro Grande Fire (2000) in New Mexico, USA. Additionally, pre-fire avian surveys (1986-1988, 1990) created a unique opportunity to quantify avifaunal changes in 13 pre-fire transects (resampled in 2002) and to compare two designs for analyzing the effects of unplanned disturbances: after-only analysis and before-after comparisons. Distance analysis was used to calculate densities. We analyzed after-only densities for 21 species using gradient analysis, which detected a broad range of responses to increasing burn severity: (I) large significant declines, (II) weak, but significant declines, (III) no significant density changes, (IV) peak densities in low- or moderate-severity patches, (V) weak, but significant increases, and (VI) large significant increases. Overall, 71% of the species included in the after-only gradient analysis exhibited either positive or neutral density responses to fire effects across all or portions of the severity gradient (responses III-VI). We used pre/post pairs analysis to quantify density changes for 15 species using before-after comparisons; spatiotemporal variation in densities was large and confounded fire effects for most species. Only four species demonstrated significant effects of burn severity, and their densities were all higher in burned compared to unburned forests. Pre- and post-fire community similarity was high except in high-severity areas. Species richness was similar pre- and post-fire across all burn severities. Thus, ecosystem restoration programs based on the assumption that recent severe fires in Southwestern ponderosa pine forests have overriding negative ecological effects are not supported by our study of post-fire avian communities. This study illustrates the importance of quantifying burn severity and controlling confounding sources of spatiotemporal variation in studies of fire effects. After-only gradient analysis can be an efficient tool for quantifying fire effects. This analysis can also augment historical data sets that have small samples sizes coupled with high non-process variation, which limits the power of before-after comparisons. ?? 2007 by the Ecological Society of America.

Kotliar, N.B.; Kennedy, P.L.; Ferree, K.

2007-01-01

31

Rapid Response Tools and Datasets for Post-fire Erosion Modeling: An Online Database to Support Post-fire Erosion Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Once the danger posed by an active wildfire has passed, land managers must rapidly assess risks posed by post-fire runoff and erosion due to fire-induced changes in soil properties and the loss of surface cover. Post-fire assessments and proposals to mitigate risks to downstream areas due to flooding, erosion, and sedimentation are typically undertaken by interdisciplinary Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams. One of the first and most important priorities of a BAER team is the development of a burn severity map that reflects the fire-induced changes in both vegetative cover and soils. Currently these maps are known as BARC (Burned Area Reflectance Classification) maps and they are generated from multi-spectral remote sensing data. BAER teams also have access to many erosion modeling tools and datasets, but process-based, spatially explicit models are currently under-utilized relative to simpler, lumped models because they are more difficult to set up and they require the preparation of spatially-explicit data layers such as digital elevation models (DEM), soils, and land cover. We are working to make spatially-explicit modeling easier by preparing large-scale spatial data sets that can be rapidly combined with burn severity maps and then used to quickly run more accurate, process-based models for spatially explicit predictions of post-fire erosion and runoff. A prototype database consisting of 30-m DEM, soil, land cover, and Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) maps for Colorado has been created for use in GeoWEPP (Geo-spatial interface for the Water Erosion Prediction Project) with Disturbed WEPP parameters developed for post-fire conditions. Additional soil data layers have been gathered to support a spatial empirical debris flow model that also utilizes BARC maps. Future plans include developing the dataset to support other models commonly used by BAER teams. The importance of preparing spatial data ahead of time can be illustrated with two contrasting modeling exercises from recent fires. The 2012 High Park Fire that burned near Fort Collins, Colorado and a small portion of the 2011 Rock House Fire (Hospital Canyon) that burned in western Texas. A lack of preparatory work meant useful products could not be produced in a timely manner for the Rock House Fire. In contrast, an earlier project meant that baseline soil and land cover data were readily available for the 2012 High Park Fire, which burned 330 km2 and threatened the drinking water for Fort Collins, Greeley, and other downstream communities. These datasets were combined with the burn severity map and used to model post-fire erosion and run-off in GeoWEPP using a two hour storm event with a total rainfall of 2.2 inches. Predictions of post-fire erosion rates ranged from 0 to 10.4 Mg/ha and the maps were used by the BAER team to assess relative erosion risks, and develop the associated proposals for post-fire mitigation efforts.

Miller, M. E.; Russel, A. M.; Billmire, M.; Endsley, K.; Elliot, W. E.; Robichaud, P. R.; MacDonald, L. H.; Renschler, C. S.

2013-12-01

32

High severity experimental burns in Siberian larch forests increase permafrost thaw and larch tree regeneration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global change models predict increased fire activity in boreal forests as climate warms and dries. We hypothesized that fire-driven decreases in soil organic layer (SOL) depth will (1) increase permafrost thaw by reducing the insulating capacity of the SOL and (2) improve seedbed conditions for tree regeneration. Over time, these changes will lead to altered patterns of above- and belowground carbon (C) accumulation. To test these hypotheses, we conducted plot-level experimental burns in July 2012 in a low-density, mature larch stand near the Northeast Science Station in Cherskii, Siberia. Dried fuels of naturally occurring vegetation were added to plots to achieve four burn severity treatments based on residual SOL depths: control, low (> 8 cm), moderate (5-8 cm), and high severity (2-5 cm). Pre-fire and during two growing seasons post-fire, we measured thaw depth, soil moisture, and soil temperature to determine severity effects on permafrost thaw. We also sowed larch seeds in fall 2012 and quantified germination rates the following growing season. By 1 wk post-fire, thaw depth was 15-25 cm deeper in plots burned at high severity (55 cm) compared to other treatments (30-40 cm). These differences in thaw depth with burn severity were maintained during the subsequent growing season and were associated with increased soil temperature and moisture. Larch regeneration was 10x higher on severely burned plots than those unburned. Our findings highlight the potential for increased fire severity to degrade permafrost and alter successional dynamics and patterns of C accumulation.

Alexander, H. D.; Davydov, S.; Zimov, N.; Mack, M. C.

2013-12-01

33

Post-fire hydrologic model assessment for peak flow estimates across diverse watersheds and climate conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires alter land surfaces and land-atmosphere interactions, enhancing hydrologic responses such as flooding and debris flows. Accurate prediction of post-fire events is important for efficient mitigation. The US Forest Service (USFS) Burn Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams are required to estimate post-fire runoff and sediment fluxes in areas that have values at risk or threaten human life and natural resources. The purpose of this study is to provide specialists and policy makers with guidance on tools to assist in post-fire hydrologic monitoring and management. A survey of post-fire hydrologic model usage by the USFS reveals inconsistency in model parameter attainment, model usage, and awareness of alternative modeling practices. To address the USFS needs for quick and accurate model predictions, an assessment of current modeling systems (USGS Regression, TR-55, HEC-HMS, Wildcat5, etc.), parameters (inputs and outputs), and regional application under pre- and post-fire scenarios is undertaken. This suite of models is then applied to a diverse set of sites affected by wildfire in the western United States to estimate peak flow events (pre- and post-fire). Results show inconsistency between model predictions for peak flow events at each site, with less confidence in the larger return periods (25- and 50-year peak flow events). Pre-fire, models developed and fine-tuned specifically for a region produce similar results to observed flows, however models are not readily transferable to different regions. More complex models are time and parameter intensive but often do not produce more confident results. Peak flow in all models is highly sensitive to model parameters and currently, a strict protocol for gathering parameters and running models does not exist. To validate study models, several post-fire sites (southern and northern California, Colorado, and Montana) have been instrumented and are being used to monitor in situ hydrologic variables such as discharge, precipitation, or channel alteration. The ability to accurately and confidently predict post-fire consequences is vital for human safety, protecting values at risk, deciding appropriate treatments, and managing mitigation costs.

Hale, B.; Kinoshita, A. M.; Hogue, T. S.; Napper, C.

2011-12-01

34

Tandir burns: a severe cause of burns in rural Turkey.  

PubMed

Tandir is the name given to an oven used for baking bread in the eastern and south-eastern part of Anatolia. Tandir burn is a special kind of burns in which primarily women and small children fall in it and have deep extensive burns (TBSA %). The records of 60 patients with tandir burn who were treated in our Burn Center from September 1999 to January 2006 were reviewed. The patients consisted of 9.2% of all burned patients. The mean age was 17.10 years (1-60 years) and 61.50% of the patients were female. The mean total body surface area (TBSA) burned was 21.09% (6-58) and 88% of the patients had third-degree burns. Eight of the patients underwent amputation of an extremity, 10 had fasciotomies, and 25 partial thickness skin grafts. The mean hospitalization period was 31.64 days (3-73 days). Fifteen patients (25%) died. Tandir burn is a severe kind of burn with a higher morbidity and mortality. PMID:17689872

Akçay, Müfide Nuran; Oztürk, Gürkan; Aydinli, Bülent; Ozo?ul, Bünyamin

2008-03-01

35

Determining relative contributions of vegetation and topography to burn severity from LANDSAT imagery.  

PubMed

Fire is a dominant process in boreal forest landscapes and creates a spatial patch mosaic with different burn severities and age classes. Quantifying effects of vegetation and topography on burn severity provides a scientific basis on which forest fire management plans are developed to reduce catastrophic fires. However, the relative contribution of vegetation and topography to burn severity is highly debated especially under extreme weather conditions. In this study, we hypothesized that relationships of vegetation and topography to burn severity vary with fire size. We examined this hypothesis in a boreal forest landscape of northeastern China by computing the burn severity of 24 fire patches as the difference between the pre- and post-fire Normalized Difference Vegetation Index obtained from two Landsat TM images. The vegetation and topography to burn severity relationships were evaluated at three fire-size levels of small (<100 ha, n = 12), moderate (100-1,000 ha, n = 9), and large (>1,000 ha, n = 3). Our results showed that vegetation and topography to burn severity relationships were fire-size-dependent. The burn severity of small fires was primary controlled by vegetation conditions (e.g., understory cover), and the burn severity of large fires was strongly influenced by topographic conditions (e.g., elevation). For moderate fires, the relationships were complex and indistinguishable. Our results also indicated that the pattern trends of relative importance for both vegetation and topography factors were not dependent on fire size. Our study can help managers to design fire management plans according to vegetation characteristics that are found important in controlling burn severity and prioritize management locations based on the relative importance of vegetation and topography. PMID:23887487

Wu, Zhiwei; He, Hong S; Liang, Yu; Cai, Longyan; Lewis, Bernard J

2013-10-01

36

Burn Severity Mapping in Australia 2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2009, the Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment estimated approximately 430,000 hectares of Victoria Australia were burned by numerous bushfires. Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams from the United States were deployed to Victoria to assist local fire managers. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (USGS/EROS) and U.S. Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (USFS/RSAC) aided the support effort by providing satellite-derived "soil burn severity " maps for over 280,000 burned hectares. In the United States, BAER teams are assembled to make rapid assessments of burned lands to identify potential hazards to public health and property. An early step in the assessment process is the creation of a soil burn severity map used to identify hazard areas and prioritize treatment locations. These maps are developed primarily using Landsat satellite imagery and the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) algorithm.

McKinley, R.; Clark, J.; Lecker, J.

2012-07-01

37

Predicting gully rejuvenation after wildfire using remotely sensed burn severity data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The loss of surface vegetation and reduced infiltration caused by wildfires can trigger gully rejuvenation, resulting in damage to downstream aquatic resources and risk to human life and property. We developed a spatially explicit metric of burn severity — the Burn Severity Distribution Index (BSDI) — and tested its ability to predict post-fire gully rejuvenation in 1st and 2nd order basins burned in the 2000 Valley Complex fires in the Sapphire Mountains of western Montana. The BSDI was derived from burn severity data interpreted from Landsat 7 satellite imagery using the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) method, and ranged from 0.0 for completely unburned basins to 4.0 for basins burned entirely at high severity. In July 2001 rainstorms with peak 30-minute intensities of up to 17 mm h - 1 triggered gully rejuvenation in 66 of the 171 basins examined. The frequency of gully rejuvenation was higher in basins with higher BSDI values, increasing from zero for basins with a BSDI less than 1.3 to 67% for basins with a BSDI greater than 3.0. Binary logistic regression indicated that BSDI was a more significant predictor of gully rejuvenation than basin morphometric variables. The absence of gully rejuvenation in several basins with a high BSDI was attributed to low gradient, dense riparian vegetation, or concentration of high burn severity at lower elevations in the basin. The presence of gully rejuvenation in several basins with a low BSDI was associated with false negative NBR classification errors in northwest aspects, and concentration of severe burn impacts in the drainage headslopes. BSDI is a useful metric for predicting gully rejuvenation after wildfire. The use of the BSDI in Burned Area Emergency Response team assessments could improve the planning, implementation, and monitoring of burned area recovery treatments.

Hyde, Kevin; Woods, Scott W.; Donahue, Jack

2007-05-01

38

EFFECTIVENESS OF REHABILITATION TREATMENTS IN REDUCING POST-FIRE EROSION AFTER THE HAYMAN AND SCHOONOVER FIRES,  

E-print Network

THESIS EFFECTIVENESS OF REHABILITATION TREATMENTS IN REDUCING POST-FIRE EROSION AFTER THE HAYMAN OF REHABILITATION TREATMENTS IN REDUCING POST- FIRE EROSION AFTER THE HAYMAN AND SCHOONOVER FIRES, COLORADO FRONT and damage human resources such as reservoirs, roads, and structures. Burned area emergency rehabilitation

MacDonald, Lee

39

Post-Fire Overland Flow Frequency, Volume and Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present results that assess the importance of post-fire hydrophobicity on runoff generation and the evolution of water quality following a stand-replacing chaparral fire. In September of 2002 85% of Southern California's San Dimas Experimental Forest (SDEF) was burned during the Williams' fire. Following this event, 58 overland flow collectors were installed at discrete locations within a chaparral catchment at

B. H. Valeron; T. Meixner

2003-01-01

40

Shrub Microsite Influences Post-Fire Perennial Grass Establishment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Woody plants can cause localized increases in resources (i.e. resource islands) that can persist after fire and create a heterogeneous environment for restoration. We tested the hypothesis that burned sagebrush subcanopies would have increased seedling establishment and performance of post-fire see...

41

Post-fire succession of ground vegetation of central Siberia in Scots pine forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extensive wildfires have affected the Russian region in the last decade. Scots pine forests (Pinus sylvestris L.) are widespread in central Siberia and fire occurrence is high in these forests, whose dominant fire regime is one of frequent surface fires. We studied post- fire succession of ground vegetation has been studied on nine experimental fires of varying severity (from 620 to 5220 kW/m) in middle taiga Scots pine forests of central Siberia (Russia). It proved from our study that all species of the succession process are present from initial stages. We did not find any trend of ground vegetation diversity with the time during 8 years after the fire. Our investigation showed that post- fire recovery of the ground vegetation is determined by initial forest type, fire severity and litter burning depth. Fire severity had a clear effect in initial succession in study area and it clearly had an impact on percentage cover, biomass and structure of ground vegetation. In a lesser degree the small shrubs are damaged during ground fires. The dominating species (Vaccinium vitis-idaea and V. myrtillus) regained the cover values above or close to 6—8 years. The post- fire biomass of ground vegetation 93—100% consists of species (Vaccinium vitis-idaea and V. myrtillus) that survived after the fire and increased in the cover with the time. In pine forests mosses and lichens suffer to a greater degree after ground fires. Lichen layer was completely lost after the fires of any severity. Decrease of mosses species diversity takes place after ground fires. The post- fire cover and species diversity of the green mosses were progressively lower with increasing the fire severity during the observation period. Maximum changes are discovered in the post- fire structure of plant microgroups after the high- severity fire which resulted in intensive invasion by the post- fire mosses (Polytrichum strictum and P. commune). There is a positive trend of green moss microgroups recovery after fires of moderate- and low- severity.

Kovaleva, N.; Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.

2012-04-01

42

Establishment of non-native plant species after wildfires: Effects of fuel treatments, abiotic and biotic factors, and post-fire grass seeding treatments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Establishment and spread of non-native species following wildfires can pose threats to long-term native plant recovery. Factors such as disturbance severity, resource availability, and propagule pressure may influence where non-native species establish in burned areas. In addition, pre- and post-fire management activities may influence the likelihood of non-native species establishment. In the present study we examine the establishment of non-native species after wildfires in relation to native species richness, fire severity, dominant native plant cover, resource availability, and pre- and post-fire management actions (fuel treatments and post-fire rehabilitation treatments). We used an information-theoretic approach to compare alternative hypotheses. We analysed post-fire effects at multiple scales at three wildfires in Colorado and New Mexico. For large and small spatial scales at all fires, fire severity was the most consistent predictor of non-native species cover. Non-native species cover was also correlated with high native species richness, low native dominant species cover, and high seeded grass cover. There was a positive, but non-significant, association of non-native species with fuel-treated areas at one wildfire. While there may be some potential for fuels treatments to promote non-native species establishment, wildfire and post-fire seeding treatments seem to have a larger impact on non-native species. ?? IAWF 2006.

Hunter, M.E.; Omi, P.N.; Martinson, E.J.; Chong, G.W.

2006-01-01

43

Reproductive success of the black-backed woodpecker ( Picoides arcticus) in burned boreal forests: Are burns source habitats?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The black-backed woodpecker (Picoides arcticus) is considered a fire specialist throughout its breeding range. Given its high abundance in recent burns, it has been hypothesized that post-fire forests are source habitats for this species. We conducted a 3-year post-fire study to evaluate the temporal occupancy and reproductive success of black-backed woodpeckers in high-severity burned black spruce forests of central Quebec,

Antoine Nappi; Pierre Drapeau

2009-01-01

44

A man with severe leg burns.  

PubMed

A 52-year-old Hispanic male was transported to the emergency department after sustaining severe bilateral lower extremity burns in an electroplating factory. His examination revealed circumferential burns to the lower extremities with spotting in the perineum. The epidermis was stained green and sloughed off with gentle pressure. The underlying dermis was white and non-blanching, consistent with a full thickness burn. His feet were partially protected by his work boots where he had small areas of pink, blanchable, partial thickness burns (Fig. 1). Pertinent initial studies included a lactic acid level of 3.1 mmol/L and a creatinine of 1.02 mg/dL. PMID:23992444

Chapman, A J; Deschler, D; Judge, B S

2013-11-01

45

RAPID POST-FIRE HYDROLOGIC WATERSHED ASSESSMENT USING THE AGWA GIS-BASED HYDROLOGIC MODELING TOOL  

EPA Science Inventory

Rapid post-fire watershed assessment to identify potential trouble spots for erosion and flooding can potentially aid land managers and Burned Area Emergency Rehabilitation (BAER) teams in deploying mitigation and rehabilitation resources. These decisions are inherently co...

46

REMOTE SENSING OF BURN SEVERITY AND THE INTERACTIONS BETWEEN BURN SEVERITY, TOPOGRAPHY AND VEGETATION IN INTERIOR ALASKA  

E-print Network

REMOTE SENSING OF BURN SEVERITY AND THE INTERACTIONS BETWEEN BURN SEVERITY, TOPOGRAPHY likely to change vegetation type. Finally, vegetation recovery, estimated using a remotely-sensed................................................................................6 Chapter 2. Mapping Burn Severity Using Satellite Remote Sensing..........................8

Ruess, Roger W.

47

A new parameterization of the post-fire snow albedo effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mountain snowpack serves as an important natural reservoir of water: recharging aquifers, sustaining streams, and providing important ecosystem services. Reduced snowpacks and earlier snowmelt have been shown to affect fire size, frequency, and severity in the western United States. In turn, wildfire disturbance affects patterns of snow accumulation and ablation by reducing canopy interception, increasing turbulent fluxes, and modifying the surface radiation balance. Recent work shows that after a high severity forest fire, approximately 60% more solar radiation reaches the snow surface due to the reduction in canopy density. Also, significant amounts of pyrogenic carbon particles and larger burned woody debris (BWD) are shed from standing charred trees, which concentrate on the snowpack, darken its surface, and reduce snow albedo by 50% during ablation. Although the post-fire forest environment drives a substantial increase in net shortwave radiation at the snowpack surface, driving earlier and more rapid melt, hydrologic models do not explicitly incorporate forest fire disturbance effects to snowpack dynamics. The objective of this study was to parameterize the post-fire snow albedo effect due to BWD deposition on snow to better represent forest fire disturbance in modeling of snow-dominated hydrologic regimes. Based on empirical results from winter experiments, in-situ snow monitoring, and remote sensing data from a recent forest fire in the Oregon High Cascades, we characterized the post-fire snow albedo effect, and developed a simple parameterization of snowpack albedo decay in the post-fire forest environment. We modified the recession coefficient in the algorithm: ? = ?0 + K exp (-nr) where ? = snowpack albedo, ?0 = minimum snowpack albedo (?0.4), K = constant (? 0.44), -n = number of days since last major snowfall, r = recession coefficient [Rohrer and Braun, 1994]. Our parameterization quantified BWD deposition and snow albedo decay rates and related these forest disturbance effects to radiative heating and snow melt rates. We validated our parameterization of the post-fire snow albedo effect at the plot scale using a physically-based, spatially-distributed snow accumulation and melt model, and in-situ eddy covariance and snow monitoring data. This research quantified wildfire impacts to snow dynamics in the Oregon High Cascades, and provided a new parameterization of post-fire drivers to changes in high elevation winter water storage.

Gleason, K. E.; Nolin, A. W.

2013-12-01

48

Mapping wildfire burn severity in the Arctic Tundra from downsampled MODIS data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wildfires are historically infrequent in the arctic tundra, but are projected to increase with climate warming. Fire effects on tundra ecosystems are poorly understood and difficult to quantify in a remote region where a short growing season severely limits ground data collection. Remote sensing has been widely utilized to characterize wildfire regimes, but primarily from the Landsat sensor, which has limited data acquisition in the Arctic. Here, coarse-resolution remotely sensed data are assessed as a means to quantify wildfire burn severity of the 2007 Anaktuvuk River Fire in Alaska, the largest tundra wildfire ever recorded on Alaska's North Slope. Data from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and downsampled Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were processed to spectral indices and correlated to observed metrics of surface, subsurface, and comprehensive burn severity. Spectral indices were strongly correlated to surface severity (maximum R2 = 0.88) and slightly less strongly correlated to substrate severity. Downsampled MODIS data showed a decrease in severity one year post-fire, corroborating rapid vegetation regeneration observed on the burned site. These results indicate that widely-used spectral indices and downsampled coarse-resolution data provide a reasonable supplement to often-limited ground data collection for analysis and long-term monitoring of wildfire effects in arctic ecosystems.

Kolden, Crystal A.; Rogan, John

2013-01-01

49

Optimizing burn severity assessments in Alaskan tussock tundra from optical imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade Alaskan tundra has experienced an increase in fire occurrence prompting rising concerns in the scientific community. Fire occurrence in tundra ecosystems has the potential to release a large amount of organic carbon stored in the deep organic layer, modify soil moisture and respiration, and make more organic matter available for decomposition and future burning through impacts on the active depth layer. Monitoring and characterization of fire occurrence and impacts in extensive, remote, and largely inaccessible tundra regions rely on satellite observations of land surface and require robust approaches to burn severity measurements. The relatively low fire activity in tundra regions between 1950 and 2000 has resulted in overall lack of understanding of fire impacts on tundra landscapes outside the Seward Peninsula where tundra fire record is better known. Thus satellite-based mapping of burn severity is limited by the lack of quantified knowledge of fire-induced physical changes on the landscape on the one hand and the capabilities of optical remote sensing systems to capture those characteristics on the other. Here we present an analysis of satellite mapping of burn severity using multi-date Landsat imagery and two field-based measurements of burn severity - the operationally applied Composite Burn Index (CBI) and the more simplistic Burn Severity Index (BSI), also known as the Burn Severity Code Matrix. The BSI used here is a four-point scale (unburned, low, moderate, severe) assessed for the surface substrate and vegetation layers. The BSI and CBI used to compare to the remote sensing data were determined from the field data by converting the qualitative fractional assessment of burn severity within 10 x 10 m plots to a single value. Since both indices represent mostly ocular assessment of the fire-impacted surface, they can relate well to Landsat's optical sensors measurements. The analysis shows that overall satellite indices have closer relationships with CBI compared to BSI (exceeding R2 of 0.8 in 10 and 4 instances for CBI and BSI, respectively) for single-date assessments. Similarly, for multi-date differenced assessments, the R2 between CBI and various Landsat-based indices exceeded 0.8 in 76 instances compared to only 20 instances for BSI. However, there are considerable differences between the timing of image acquisition post fire when the relationships between satellite observations and CBI or BSI are the closest as well and indices which field assessments of burn severity appear to be best correlated with. CBI produces closest relationships with near infrared, short-wave infrared at 1.5?m, relative differenced Normalized Burn Ratio, and Tasseled Cap Greenness indices when the post-fire image is acquired immediately after the fire event irrespective of the pre-burn date selection. In contrast, the relationship between BSI and spectral indices peaks when pre- and post-burn indices are computed from images preceding the full green-up conditions (i.e. late May imagery), with Tasseled Cap Brightness showing the closest relationship. Although on average CBI outperforms BSI, BSI produces closer relationships to spectral indices than CBI indicating that the two field assessments provide complimentary information which can be related to biophysical properties of impacted surface.

Loboda, T. V.; Jenkins, L. K.; French, N. H.; Bourgeau-Chavez, L. L.

2013-12-01

50

Initial Results Comparing Spectral Signatures of Post-fire Materials, Western Montana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current algorithms for estimating fire severity from remotely sensed imagery are based on pre-fire to post-fire changes in reflectance values within the sensor's bands, rather than on an understanding of how spectral signatures of burned areas differ from unburned areas. However, spectral signatures for materials commonly found in burned areas of the landscape, including ash, charcoal, and burned pine needles have not been published. With a fundamental understanding of how fire alters the spectral signatures of a landscape, fire severity algorithms could readily be derived for any sensor. Spectral signatures of charcoal, soil and other materials were collected for this project in several burned areas in western Montana during the summer of 2006. An ASD FieldSpec3 spectroradiometer (350-2500 nm) was used for collection. Time since burn ranged from one week to one year. Spectral signatures were also collected for vegetation and other common materials outside the burn perimeter and for areas 26 inches in diameter with a mix of vegetation and burned materials. We present characteristic spectra for these types of materials associated with wildland fire, and regions of the electromagnetic spectrum that experience the most change due to wildfire. These results aid interpretation of the environmental effects of wildfire in remotely sensed imagery of burned areas.

Klene, A.; Riley, K. L.; Kamp, U.

2006-12-01

51

Severe gastrointestinal burn with hydrochloric acid  

PubMed Central

Inadvertantly or purposely, an oral intake of corrosive substances may cause life-threatening problems. Early admission to the hospital, clinical and endoscopic evaluation, and early surgery when required, may reduce morbidity and mortality. We report the case of a 49-year-old male patient, who had attempted suicide, by drinking about 800 mL of 25% hydrochloric acid, and who had severe intra-abdominal damage. The aim of this report is to state the fact that a good outcome is possible in severe burns caused by oral intake of corrosive substances, when fast, multidisciplinary, and appropriate management is provided on time. PMID:24174955

Araz, Co?kun; Çekmen, Nedim; Erdemli, Özcan; Soylu, Lutfu; Atalay, Fuat; Demirba?, Tevfik Ali; Demirba?, Ali; Celep, Bahadir

2013-01-01

52

Evaluation of a post-fire tree mortality model for western USA conifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurately predicting fire-caused mortality is essential to developing prescribed fire burn plans and post-fire salvage marking guidelines. The mortality model included in the commonly used USA fire behaviour and effects models, the First Order Fire Effects Model (FOFEM), BehavePlus, and the Fire and Fuels Extension to the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FFE-FVS), has not been tested with independently collected post-fire tree

Sharon M. HoodA; Charles W. McHughA; Kevin C. RyanA; Sheri L. SmithB

53

Rapid Response Tools and Datasets for Post-fire Erosion Modeling: Linking Remote Sensing and Process-based Hydrological Models to support Post-fire Remediation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Post-fire flooding and erosion can pose a serious threat to life, property, and municipal water supplies. Increased peak flows and sediment delivery due to the loss of surface cover and fire-induced changes in soil properties are of great concern to both resource managers and the public. To respond to this threat, interdisciplinary Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) Teams are formed to assess potential erosion and flood risks. These teams are under tight deadlines as remediation plans and treatments must be developed and implemented before the first major storms in order to be effective. One of the primary sources of information for making these decisions is a burn severity map derived from remote sensing data (typically Landsat) that reflects fire induced changes in vegetative cover and soil properties. Slope, soils, land cover, and climate are also important parameters that need to be considered when accessing risk. Many modeling tools and datasets have been developed to assist BAER teams, but process-based and spatially explicit empirical models are currently under-utilized compared to simpler, lumped models because they are both more difficult to set up and require spatially explicit inputs such as digital elevation models, soils, and land cover. We are working to facilitate the use of models by preparing spatial datasets within a web-based tool that rapidly modifies model inputs using burn severity maps derived from earth observation data. Automating the creation of model inputs facilitates the wider use of more accurate, process-based models for spatially explicit predictions of post-fire erosion and runoff.

Miller, M. E.; Elliot, W. J.; Endsley, K. A.; Robichaud, P. R.; Billmire, M.

2014-11-01

54

Post-fire Sediment Production From Hillslopes in the Colorado Front Range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Post-fire erosion and sediment yields are an important concern in the Colorado Front Range because past fires have adversely affected domestic water supplies, reservoir storage capacity, and coldwater fisheries habitat. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of season, fire severity, time since burning, and percent cover on erosion rates at the hillslope scale. Sediment production was monitored for 1-2 years from 48 sediment fences on six different wild and prescribed fires. Sediment production rates varied greatly between seasons, by time since burning, by fire severity, and between years. Summer rainstorms from June-September generally produced 10-50 times more sediment than snowmelt or mixed rain-and-snow events between October and May. The two oldest fires (1994 and 1998) had sediment production rates that were approximately 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than the four more recent fires. Fire severity was an important control on sediment production in the 2000 Bobcat wildfire and the November 1999 Old Flowers prescribed fire. In the case of the Bobcat fire, the high severity sites produced 50 times more sediment than the sites burned at moderate severity, and 500 times more sediment than the sites burned at low severity. There was little difference in sediment production rates between 2000 and 2001 for the Bobcat fire, while the other four more recent fires yielded very different amounts of sediment in 2000 and 2001. For two fires sediment production rates in summer 2000 were approximately seven times greater than in summer 2001, while the reverse was true for two other fires. The observed differences indicate that, at least for the first couple of years after burning, the amount and intensity of summer rainstorms can have a greater effect on sediment yields than time since burning. The decreases in sediment production with decreasing fire severity and increasing time since burning were strongly correlated with percent ground cover, as sites with more than 35% ground cover generally produced much less sediment than sites with less than 20% cover. The results suggest that relative sediment yields from burned areas are much easier to predict than absolute values, and that post-fire erosion control efforts should focus on increasing percent ground cover through mulching or other treatments.

Benavides-Solorio, J.; MacDonald, L. H.

2001-12-01

55

Treatment of a severe alkali burn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case history of a 20-year-old male patient who sustained an 85 per cent total body surface area alkali burn to his skin, after falling into a caustic lime pit, is reported. Considerable problems regarding the correct estimate of burn wound depth, predominant location of the deepest burn on the posterior half of the body, appropriate wound coverage, and lack

D. Erdmann; J. Hussmann; J. O. Kucan

1996-01-01

56

The response of boreal forest songbird communities to fire and post-fire harvesting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-fire timber harvesting (salvage logging) is becoming more prevalent as logging companies try to recover some of the economic losses caused by fire. Because salvaging is a relatively new practice and because of the common perception that burned areas are of little value to wildlife, few guidelines exist for salvaging operations. We surveyed birds in unburned and burned stands of

J. L. Morissette; T. P. Cobb; R. M. Brigham; P. C. James

2002-01-01

57

Formation of post-fire water-repellent layers in Monterrey pine (Pinus radiata) plantations in south-central Chile.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wildfire burned around 15,000 ha of Monterrey Pine (Pinus radiata) plantations near Yungay, Chile, in January of 2007. Post-fire water repellency (hydrophobicity) was measured using the water-drop-penetration-time (WDPT) method at depths of 0, 5, and 10 mm from the soil surface. These measurements were collected on burned sites of both young (4-years old) and old (11-years old) plantations sampling both sand- and clay-rich soils. Water repellency was also measured one year after the wildfire on four unburned sites representing the same soil types and plantation ages as those occurring on the burned sites. These measurements were taken for comparison purposes. While water-repellent layers were documented on the burned sites, these layers were not found on the unburned sites. Significant differences in thickness and deepness of post-fire water repellent layers were found across most treatments. Several important management implications can be discerned from the results of this study, since a significant portion of Chile is compound by fire-adapted exotic species.

Garcia-Chevesich, Pablo; Stropki, Cody; Pizarro, Roberto; Ramirez de Arellano, Pablo; Ffolliott, Peter; Debano, Leonard; Neary, Daniel

2010-05-01

58

Factors Associated With Post-fire Sediment Yields From Hillslope Plots in the Colorado Front Range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years there has been a large increase in the number and size of wildfires in the mid-elevation zones of the Colorado Front Range. High-intensity rainstorms after these fires have increased erosion rates by several orders of magnitude and severely affected downstream aquatic resources. The objective of this study was to measure sediment production rates at the hillslope scale and determine the key controlling variables. To this end 48 sediment fences have been continuously monitored in three wildfires and three prescribed fires at elevations ranging from 1670 to 3050 m. The most intensively-studied area is the Bobcat fire, which burned 43 km2 in June 2000. Within this fire sediment production rates exceeded 10 Mg ha-1 yr-1 for areas burned at high severity. Prescribed fires produced substantially less sediment than the corresponding wildfires. Sediment production rates from sites burned at high severity were nearly 200 times higher than sites burned at moderate severity. Nearly all of the erosion occurred as a result of summer rainstorms rather than winter snowmelt. Sediment production rates per unit area were 2-3 times higher in swales or small drainages than from planar hillslopes. Data from the older fires indicate that sediment production rates remain elevated for sites burned at high severity for at least three years after burning. When the data from all fires were combined, 77% of the variability in sediment production rates could be explained by fire severity, percent bare soil, rainfall erosivity, soil water repellency, and soil texture. A simpler model using only percent cover and rainfall erosivity had a R2 of 0.62. Various models were tested against an independent data set from the Bobcat fire, and this showed that fire severity, percent bare soil, and rainfall erosivity could successfully predict post-fire erosion rates. The understanding and models developed in this project can help land managers predict the likely impacts from future wildfires and assist in the design of more effective post-fire rehabilitation techniques.

Benavides-Solorio, J.; MacDonald, L. H.

2003-12-01

59

Post-fire Erosion: Long-term Recovery and Effectiveness of Rehabilitation Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Millions of dollars are spent each year to reduce runoff and erosion rates after high-severity wildfires, but there are relatively few data evaluating their effectiveness over longer time periods relative to natural recovery. In this study we summarize six years of hillslope erosion data from 18 untreated plots and five replicated post-fire rehabilitation treatments applied after the 2002 Hayman and Schoonover wildfires in the ponderosa pine zone in the central Colorado Front Range. The rate of recovery and effectiveness of these treatments are compared to the results from the 2000 Bobcat fire 130 km to the north (Wagenbrenner et al., 2006). On the Hayman fire straw mulching reduced hillslope-scale sediment yields by more than 90% in the first two summers after burning and by 77% in the third summer after burning. By the fourth summer the straw mulch had no significant effect on the amount of ground cover or sediment yields relative to the untreated controls. Aerial hydromulching had a similar effectiveness and longevity, but a ground-based hydromulch treatment was poorly formulated and did not significantly reduce sediment yields. Scarification and seeding did not increase the amount of surface cover or reduce sediment yields. The initial wet application of a polyacylamide appeared to reduce sediment yields, but subsequent applications did not have any significant effect. None of the treatments was effective for more than three summers after burning. The results confirm the fundamental importance of ground cover and are consistent with the mulching and seeding results from the Bobcat fire. The primary difference is the slower vegetative recovery rates for the coarser-textured soils in the Hayman and Schoonover fires, and this has caused post-fire sediment yields to remain elevated for six summers after burning as compared to a maximum of four summers for the Bobcat fire. Land managers must evaluate the duration of treatment effectiveness and post-fire erosion as well as the shorter-term efficacy of their proposed treatments, and these evaluations must be done on a site-specific basis.

MacDonald, L. H.; Rough, D. T.; Schaffrath, K.

2007-12-01

60

Student Attitudes toward Children and Adolescents with Severe Burns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Color photographs of burned and nonburned children were used to study the attitudes of 218 practice teachers, nursing students, and counselors-in-training. Findings revealed that children with severe burns and facial scarring were regarded less favorably. Stresses that professionals should be well-trained and empathic in order to assist burned

Holaday, Margot; McPhearson, Ruth

1996-01-01

61

Post-fire forest sustainability in north-central Portugal: Assessing the impacts of pre- and post-fire ground preparations, logging and mitigation treatments on post-fire runoff and erosion.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires have been reported worldwide as producing strong and sometimes extreme responses in runoff and soil erosion. However, in the case of North-Central Portugal, little research had been carried out regarding the hydrologic and erosive impacts of several land management activities in recently burnt areas (such as ground preparation, post-fire logging or post-fire mitigation treatments). This is the main objective of this research. Several pre- and post-fire ground preparation operations (down-slope rip-ploughed, contour ploughed and terracing), post-fire logging activities, and post-fire soil erosion mitigation treatments (forest residue mulches, polyacrylamide and hydromulch) were assessed from the first to the third post-fire years. Repeated rainfall simulation experiments (RSE's), micro-scale runoff plots and bounded sediment fences were installed immediately after the wildfire in twelve burnt slopes and monitored at weekly-basis intervals. The results for the first post-fire year showed comparable runoff coefficient (20-60%) but lower sediment losses (1.2-10 Mg ha-1) than prior studies in Portugal and worldwide, which corresponded well with the historic intensive land use in the area. Terracing sharply increased soil erosion (up to 30 Mg ha-1) at the micro-plots scale during the first year after a wildfire and terracing. However, sediment limited erosion was measured in all the pre-fire ploughed sites, probably due to the time elapsed since ploughing. Post-fire logging activities enhanced 5- to 10- fold the sediment losses, which was related to the disturbance of the soil surface cover. The mulches (forest residue or hydromulch) were highly effective reducing post-fire soil erosion in more than 80%. The increase on sediment losses of the recently terraced area and the measured sediment exhaustion at all the pre-fire ploughed sites as well as the increasing frequency of ploughing in the forest areas implies the need to consider ploughing as a hazardous activity in the region. Furthermore, logging activities that maintain the needle cast and/or logging litter over the soil surface are suggested. The best options for post-fire mitigation treatments were forest residue or hydromulch. Due to its comparatively lower price, the forest residue mulch is highly recommended.

Malvar, Maruxa; Prats, Sérgio A.; Martins, Martinho A. S.; Gonzalez-Pelayo, Óscar; Keizer, Jacob J.

2014-05-01

62

Analysis of Alaskan burn severity patterns using remotely sensed data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wildland fire is the dominant large-scale disturbance mechanism in the Alaskan boreal forest, and it strongly influences forest structure and function. In this research, patterns of burn severity in the Alaskan boreal forest are characterised using 24 fires. First, the relationship between burn severity and area burned is quantified using a linear regression. Second, the spatial correlation of burn severity as a function of topography is modelled using a variogram analysis. Finally, the relationship between vegetation type and spatial patterns of burn severity is quantified using linear models where variograms account for spatial correlation. These results show that: 1) average burn severity increases with the natural logarithm of the area of the wildfire, 2) burn severity is more variable in topographically complex landscapes than in flat landscapes, and 3) there is a significant relationship between burn severity and vegetation type in flat landscapes but not in topographically complex landscapes. These results strengthen the argument that differential flammability of vegetation exists in some boreal landscapes of Alaska. Additionally, these results suggest that through feedbacks between vegetation and burn severity, the distribution of forest vegetation through time is likely more stable in flat terrain than it is in areas with more complex topography. ?? IAWF 2007.

Duffy, P.A.; Epting, J.; Graham, J.M.; Rupp, T.S.; McGuire, A.D.

2007-01-01

63

Perturbed mononuclear phagocyte system in severely burned and septic patients.  

PubMed

Burn is one of the most common and devastating forms of trauma. Major burn injury disturbs the immune system, resulting in marked alterations in bone marrow hematopoiesis and a progressive suppression of the immune response, which are thought to contribute to increased susceptibility to secondary infections and the development of sepsis. Immunosuppression in patients with severe burn and sepsis leads to high morbidity and mortality in these patients. mononuclear phagocytes system (MPS) is a critical component of the innate immune response and plays key roles in burn immunity. These phagocytes are the first cellular responders to severe burn injury after acute disruption of the skin barrier. They are not only able to internalize and digest bacteria and dead cells and scavenge toxic compounds produced by metabolism, but also able to initiate an adaptive immune response. Severe burn and sepsis profoundly inhibit the functions of dendritic cells, monocytes, and macrophages. Adoptive transfer of MPS or stem cells to patients with severe burn and sepsis that aim to restore MPS function is promising. A better understanding of the roles played by MPS in the pathophysiology of severe burn and sepsis will guarantee a more rational and effective immunotherapy of patients with severe burn and sepsis. PMID:23860581

Xiu, Fangming; Jeschke, Marc G

2013-08-01

64

Relationships between ericaceous vegetation and soil nutrient status in a post-fire Kalmia angustifolia -black spruce chronosequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-fire nutrient flushes are an important precursor to secondary succession in fire-driven boreal forest. We studied the magnitude of changes in post-fire soil nutrient status across a chronosequence of ericaceous shrub-dominated boreal forest stands in eastern Newfoundland, Canada. The chronosequence comprised nine stands burned between 1 and 38 years prior to the study. These sites have resisted tree reestablishment following forest

Robin G. Bloom; Azim U. Mallik

2006-01-01

65

Stem demography and post-fire recruitment of a resprouting serotinous conifer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The contribution of resprouts and seedling recruitment to post-fire regeneration of the South African fynbos conifer Widdringtonia nodiflora was compared eight months after wildfires in 1990. Stems on all trees were killed by fire but resprouting success was > 90 % at all but one site. A demographic study of burned skeletons revealed that prior to these fires, nearly all plants were multi-stemmed (4 - 9 stems/plant) and multi-aged, indicating continuous sprout production between fires. All stems were killed by these 1990 fires and at most sites > 90 % of the stems were burned to ground level. All diameter stems were susceptible to such incineration as, at most sites, there was no difference in average diameter of stems burned to ground level and those left standing. Individual genets usually had all ramets incinerated to ground level or all ramets charred, but intact, suggesting certain micro-sites burned hotter, whereas other sites were somewhat protected. Although not true of the 1990 fires, there was evidence that occasionally Widdringtonia stems may survive fire. At one site, four of the 16 plants sampled had a burned stem twice as old as the oldest burned stem on the other 12 plants at the site, suggesting some stems had survived the previous fire (ca. 1970) and this conclusion was supported by fire-scars on these four stems that dated to ca. 1970. Based on the highly significant correlation between stem diameter and cone density left standing after the 1990 fries, we calculated that for most sites > 80 % of the initial cone crop was incinerated by fire. This is important because we observed a strong relationship between size of the canopy cone crop surviving fire and post-fire seedling recruitment. Under these conditions we hypothesize that sprouting confers a selective advantage to genets when fires cause heavy losses of seed. The infrequent occurrence of sprouting in the Cupressaceae suggests the hypothesis that resprouting is an apomorphic or derived trait in Widdringtonia. Data from this study suggests resprouting provides a selective advantage under severe fynbos fires, which are not only 'stand-replacing fires,' but also are intense enough to incinerate cone-bearing stems.

Keeley, J.E.; Keeley, M.B.; Bond, W.J.

1999-01-01

66

Severe adult burn survivors. What information about skin allografts?  

E-print Network

as possible after the onset of the injury, and excised areas are covered by skin grafts. Ideal coverage1 Severe adult burn survivors. What information about skin allografts? Sonia Gaucher MD PhD1 head: Burn survivors. Skin allograft information. Tables: 3 inserm-00766733,version1-18Dec2012 Author

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

67

Procalcitonin—a sepsis parameter in severe burn injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Procalcitonin (PCT) levels increase in patients with systemic infections; the highest levels have been found in sepsis. This study tested whether plasma procalcitonin level was related to sepsis, CRP, burn size, inhalation injury or mortality in severely burned patients over the entire clinical course.In 27 patients with 51 (20–91)% TBSA, PCT was measured three times weekly from admission over the

D von Heimburg; W Stieghorst; R Khorram-Sefat; N Pallua

1998-01-01

68

Spatial frequency domain imaging of burn wounds in a preclinical model of graded burn severity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frequent monitoring of early-stage burns is necessary for deciding optimal treatment and management. Both superficial and full thickness burns are relatively easy to diagnose based on clinical observation. In between these two extremes are superficial-partial thickness and deep-partial thickness burns. These burns, while visually similar, differ dramatically in terms of clinical treatment and are known to progress in severity over time. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) for noninvasively mapping quantitative changes in chromophore and optical properties that may be an indicative of burn wound severity. A controlled protocol of graded burn severity was developed and applied to 17 rats. SFDI data was acquired at multiple near-infrared wavelengths over a course of 3 h. Burn severity was verified using hematoxylin and eosin histology. From this study, we found that changes in water concentration (edema), deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration, and optical scattering (tissue denaturation) to be statistically significant at differentiating superficial partial-thickness burns from deep-partial thickness burns.

Nguyen, John Quan; Crouzet, Christian; Mai, Tuan; Riola, Kathleen; Uchitel, Daniel; Liaw, Lih-Huei; Bernal, Nicole; Ponticorvo, Adrien; Choi, Bernard; Durkin, Anthony J.

2013-06-01

69

Index for characterizing post-fire soil environments in temperate coniferous forests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many scientists and managers have an interest in describing the environment following a fire to understand the effects on soil productivity, vegetation growth, and wildlife habitat, but little research has focused on the scientific rationale for classifying the post-fire environment. We developed an empirically-grounded soil post-fire index (PFI) based on available science and ecological thresholds. Using over 50 literature sources, we identified a minimum of five broad categories of post-fire outcomes: (a) unburned, (b) abundant surface organic matter ( > 85% surface organic matter), (c) moderate amount of surface organic matter ( ? 40 through 85%), (d) small amounts of surface organic matter ( < 40%), and (e) absence of surface organic matter (no organic matter left). We then subdivided each broad category on the basis of post-fire mineral soil colors providing a more fine-tuned post-fire soil index. We related each PFI category to characteristics such as soil temperature and duration of heating during fire, and physical, chemical, and biological responses. Classifying or describing post-fire soil conditions consistently will improve interpretations of fire effects research and facilitate communication of potential responses or outcomes (e.g., erosion potential) from fires of varying severities.

Jain, Theresa B.; Pilliod, David S.; Graham, Russell T.; Lentile, Leigh B.; Sandquist, Jonathan E.

2012-01-01

70

Multidecadal trends in burn severity and patch size in the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness Area, 1900-2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How the proportion of area burned severely has changed over time is critical to understanding trends in the ecological effects of fire, but most assessments over large areas are limited to 30 years of satellite data. Little is known about multidecadal trends in burn severity, patch size, and implications for species diversity. Our objective was to analyze the change in proportion of area burned severely and patch size across 346,304 ha in the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness Area in Idaho and Montana, USA. We used 30-meter fire perimeters and burn severity classes inferred from 1984-2007 satellite imagery from the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity project and 1900-2000 aerial photography. We also analyzed the effect of patch size on species diversity of understory vegetation from field data collected from 20 sites burned in 2000, a year of widespread fires in the region. Fires occurred in 38 out of the 107 years in the record; 13 of these in the early period (1900-1934), 4 in the middle (1935-1974), and 21 in the late (1975-2007). Although 78% (270,918 ha) burned at least once and 48% (131,198) of the area burned severely with >70% tree mortality, there was no trend in total area burned severely through time (n=38, Spearman's Rank Correlation r = -0.14, p = 0.39), nor in proportion of area burned severely through time (n=38, Spearman's Rank Correlation r = -00.27, p = 0.09). Median patch size decreased through time (n= 38, Spearman's Rank Correlation r = -0.73 and p<0.01) and the number of high severity patches increased (n = 38, Spearman's Rank Correlation r = 0.35 and p = 0.02). Median perimeter-to-area ratio of high severity patches increased (n = 38, Spearman's Rank Sum Test r = 0.79 and p <.01); the greater perimeter-to-area ratio and shorter distance to the unburned edge through time is not an artifact of satellite data as patch size inferred from aerial photography 1900-2000 decreased (n= 31, Spearman's Rank, r = -0.42 and p <0.01), but did not for satellite data 1984-2007(n = 16, Spearman's Rank Correlation r = -0.12 and p = 0.64). Total tree seedling density 12 years post-fire was lower in large patches (Kruskal Wallis ANOVA p = 0.005) with fewer trees at 40 m and 80 m than at 10 m from unburned edges in severely burned patches (respectively, Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test p = 0.03 and 0.01). Understory species richness and diversity did not differ with distance from unburned edge, likely because many species resprout or establish from existing seed banks. Understanding how proportion of area burned severely is changing over multiple decades will help ecologists and land managers better understand where, when, and why fires burn severely and their past, present, and future consequences.

Wells, A.; Morgan, P.; Smith, A. M.; Hudak, A. T.; Hicke, J. A.

2013-12-01

71

Linking runoff response to burn severity after a wildfire  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Extreme floods often follow wildfire in mountainous watersheds. However, a quantitative relation between the runoff response and burn severity at the watershed scale has not been established. Runoff response was measured as the runoff coefficient C, which is equal to the peak discharge per unit drainage area divided by the average maximum 30 min rainfall intensity during each rain storm. The magnitude of the bum severity was expressed as the change in the normalized burn ratio. A new burn severity variable, hydraulic functional connectivity ?? was developed and incorporates both the magnitude of the burn severity and the spatial sequence of the bum severity along hillslope flow paths. The runoff response and the burn severity were measured in seven subwatersheds (0.24 to 0.85 km2) in the upper part of Rendija Canyon burned by the 2000 Cerro Grande Fire Dear Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA. A rainfall-discharge relation was determined for four of the subwatersheds with nearly the same bum severity. The peak discharge per unit drainage area Qupeak was a linear function of the maximum 30 min rainfall intensity I30. This function predicted a rainfall intensity threshold of 8.5 mm h-1 below which no runoff was generated. The runoff coefficient C = Qupeak/I30 was a linear function of the mean hydraulic functional connectivity of the subwatersheds. Moreover, the variability of the mean hydraulic functional connectivity was related to the variability of the mean runoff coefficient, and this relation provides physical insight into why the runoff response from the same subwatershed can vary for different rainstorms with the same rainfall intensity. Published in 2007 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Moody, J.A.; Martin, D.A.; Haire, S.L.; Kinner, D.A.

2008-01-01

72

Pre- and post-fire pollutant loads in an urban fringe watershed in Southern California.  

PubMed

Post-fire runoff has the potential to be a large source of contaminants to downstream areas. However, the magnitude of this effect in urban fringe watersheds adjacent to large sources of airborne contaminants is not well documented. The current study investigates the impacts of wildfire on stormwater contaminant loading from the upper Arroyo Seco watershed, burned in 2009. This watershed is adjacent to the Greater Los Angeles, CA, USA area and has not burned in over 60 years. Consequently, it acts as a sink for regional urban pollutants and presents an opportunity to study the impacts of wildfire. Pre- and post-fire storm samples were collected and analyzed for basic cations, trace metals, and total suspended solids. The loss of vegetation and changes in soil properties from the fire greatly increased the magnitude of storm runoff, resulting in sediment-laden floods carrying high concentrations of particulate-bound constituents. Post-fire concentrations and loads were up to three orders of magnitude greater than pre-fire values for many trace metals, including lead and cadmium. A shift was also observed in the timing of chemical delivery, where maximum suspended sediment, trace metal, and cation concentrations coincided with, rather than preceded, peak discharge in the post-fire runoff, amplifying the fire's impacts on mass loading. The results emphasize the importance of sediment delivery as a primary mechanism for post-fire contaminant transport and suggest that traditional management practices that focus on treating only the early portion of storm runoff may be less effective following wildfire. We also advocate that watersheds impacted by regional urban pollutants have the potential to pose significant risk for downstream communities and ecosystems after fire. PMID:23912423

Burke, M P; Hogue, T S; Kinoshita, A M; Barco, J; Wessel, C; Stein, E D

2013-12-01

73

Post-fire resilience in the Alpine region estimated from MODIS satellite multispectral data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a methodology based on the analysis of MODIS (MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) time series was developed to estimate post-fire resilience of Alpine vegetation. To this end, satellite images of two vegetation indices (VIs), the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) were used. The analysis was conducted on wildfire affected areas in the Lombardy region (Italy) between 2003 and 2007. Some land surface (LS) descriptors (i.e. mean and maximum VI, growing season start, end and length) were extracted to characterize the time evolution of the vegetation. The descriptors from a burned area were compared to those from an undisturbed adjacent control site by means of analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA). Post-fire resilience was estimated on the basis of the number of subsequent years exhibiting a statistical difference between burned area and control site. The same methodologies were also applied to events aggregated by main land cover (broadleaf forest, prairies and mixed forest). The averaged resilience of broadleaf forest was 5-6 years, whereas prairie ecosystems exhibited a faster response of 0-2 years. Phenological analysis revealed that fire induces a shift of the start and end of growing season in forest ecosystems but has no effect on prairies. The method provides a useful and quantitative insight into complex post-fire vegetation dynamics in the Alps from a remote sensing perspective; results can apply to post-fire forest management and to multi-risk analysis. to compare the performance of NDVI and EVI for inferring post fire resilience.; to evaluate different LS descriptors (i.e. mean and maximum VI, start, end and length of the growing season) for resilience estimations; to compare the resilience to fire of different land covers (LCs) (i.e. broadleaf forest, mixed forest and prairies) affected by fire in Alpine areas.

Di Mauro, B.; Fava, F.; Busetto, L.; Crosta, G. F.; Colombo, R.

2014-10-01

74

A database on post-fire erosion rates and debris flows in Mediterranean-Basin watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires can affect many Mediterranean countries on a yearly bases, producing damage and economic losses, both as direct effect of the fires and as consequent events, including erosion and sedimentation in the recently burned areas. Even though most of the wildfires occur in Spain, Portugal, southern France, Italy and Greece, it can be stated that no one of the Mediterranean countries is completely immune by such hazards. In addition to destruction of the vegetation, and in addition to direct losses to the built-up environment, further effects may also be registered as a consequence of the fire, even weeks or months after its occurrence. Wildfire can have, in fact, profound effects on the hydrologic response of watersheds, and debris-flow activity is among the most destructive consequences of these effects, often causing extensive damage to human infrastructure. Wildfires are today continuously monitored by several European institutions, and forecasting of the conditions (weather, temperature, wind, etc.) more likely conducive to their occurrence is often available in real time. On the other hand, not much is known about the processes that occur as a consequence of the fire, including erosion and debris flows. These are often underestimated, and become object of study only after some catastrophic event has occurred. This is in strong contrast with all the established techniques of risk mitigation; as a result, no prevention action is generally considered, and the society relies only on the emergency phase following a disaster. Aimed at contributing to gather information about the occurrence of erosional and debris-flow activity in recently burned Mediterranean areas, and at making available these information to land planners and scientists, a specific database has been compiled and presented in this contribution. To date, scientific literature on the topic in Europe has never been catalogued, and was dispersed in a number of different journals and in conference proceedings. The database derives from critical analysis of the existing literature, integrated by case studies directly studied by the authors. Studies on recently burned areas in the Mediterranean basin are most frequently carried out on small experimental plots, often with simulated rainfall A problem of scale therefore exists when trying to extrapolate the erosion rates (also reported as sediment yields or as sediment losses) from these studies to a watershed scale. Very few articles, on the other hand, were found that document the watershed-scale response of basins to rainfall-induced erosion and debris flows following wildfires. The few reported cases of debris flows in the Mediterranean Basin describe erosion of sediment from the hillslopes and the channels (sometimes down to bedrock), and, for a limited number of sites, failure of discrete landslides. This information indicates that debris-flow generation from recently burned areas in the Mediterranean basin appears to occur primarily through sediment bulking processes. Nevertheless, the database so far compiled shows a distribution of post-fire erosion and debris flows in the western Mediterranean basin (Spain, essentially, but also Portugal), followed by the eastern Mediterranean area (Israel), and then by France, Italy and Greece. Even though still in a preliminary version, that needs to be integrated and updated from further sources, our data compilation allows for the unique opportunity to examine issues related to the generation of post-wildfire debris flows across a variety of environments and under a variety of conditions, and to move from a qualitative conception of the controls on post-fire debris-flow generation to the definition of specific conditions that result in their occurrence. Future activities of the project will include: i) updating and integration of the preliminary version of the database; ii) development of models that can be used to identify the probability of debris-flow occurrence and the magnitude of the event for pre- and post-fire hazard assessment in Mediterranean climates;

Parise, M.; Cannon, S. H.

2009-04-01

75

Post-fire mechanical properties of glass-reinforced polyester composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation into changes in the mechanical properties of glass-reinforced polyester composites after exposure to intense radiant heat is presented. The tension, compression, flexure and interlaminar shear properties fell rapidly with increasing heat flux and heat-exposure time owing, mainly, to charring and delamination cracking caused by burning of the composite. Substantially higher post-fire mechanical properties were attained when the composite

A. P. Mouritz; Z. Mathys

2001-01-01

76

Monitoring the Effects of Forest Restoration Treatments on Post-Fire Vegetation Recovery with MODIS Multitemporal Data  

PubMed Central

This study examines how satellite based time-series vegetation greenness data and phenological measurements can be used to monitor and quantify vegetation recovery after wildfire disturbances and examine how pre-fire fuel reduction restoration treatments impact fire severity and impact vegetation recovery trajectories. Pairs of wildfire affected sites and a nearby unburned reference site were chosen to measure the post-disturbance recovery in relation to climate variation. All site pairs were chosen in forested uplands in Arizona and were restricted to the area of the Rodeo-Chediski fire that occurred in 2002. Fuel reduction treatments were performed in 1999 and 2001. The inter-annual and seasonal vegetation dynamics before, during, and after wildfire events can be monitored using a time series of biweekly composited MODIS NDVI (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer - Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) data. Time series analysis methods included difference metrics, smoothing filters, and fitting functions that were applied to extract seasonal and inter-annual change and phenological metrics from the NDVI time series data from 2000 to 2007. Pre- and post-fire Landsat data were used to compute the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) and examine burn severity at the selected sites. The phenological metrics (pheno-metrics) included the timing and greenness (i.e. NDVI) for the start, peak and end of the growing season as well as proxy measures for the rate of green-up and senescence and the annual vegetation productivity. Pre-fire fuel reduction treatments resulted in lower fire severity, which reduced annual productivity much less than untreated areas within the Rodeo-Chediski fire perimeter. The seasonal metrics were shown to be useful for estimating the rate of post-fire disturbance recovery and the timing of phenological greenness phases. The use of satellite time series NDVI data and derived pheno-metrics show potential for tracking vegetation cover dynamics and successional changes in response to drought, wildfire disturbances, and forest restoration treatments in fire-suppressed forests.

van Leeuwen, Willem J. D.

2008-01-01

77

Two cases of jugular vein thrombosis in severely burned patients  

PubMed Central

Here we present two cases of jugular vein thrombosis in burn patients, with diagnosis, risk factor analysis, and treatment approaches. Severely burned patients have high risk of deep vein thrombosis occurrence due to multiple surgeries. The deep vein catheter should be carefully performed. Once deep vein thrombosis is detected, a wide ultrasonography helps to find other thrombosis sites. During the acute phase, low molecular weight heparin can be used. Upon long-term anti-thrombosis treatment, combined use of herbal medicine during rehabilitation is helpful. PMID:23885177

Cen, Hanghui; He, Xiaojie

2013-01-01

78

[Research progress in post-fire debris flow].  

PubMed

The occurrence of the secondary disasters of forest fire has significant impacts on the environment quality and human health and safety. Post-fire debris flow is one of the most hazardous secondary disasters of forest fire. To understand the occurrence conditions of post-fire debris flow and to master its occurrence situation are the critical elements in post-fire hazard assessment. From the viewpoints of vegetation, precipitation threshold and debris flow material sources, this paper elaborated the impacts of forest fire on the debris flow, analyzed the geologic and geomorphic conditions, precipitation and slope condition that caused the post-fire debris flow as well as the primary mechanisms of debris-flow initiation caused by shallow landslide or surface runoff, and reviewed the research progress in the prediction and forecast of post-fire debris flow and the related control measures. In the future research, four aspects to be focused on were proposed, i. e., the quantification of the relationships between the fire behaviors and environmental factors and the post-fire debris flow, the quantitative research on the post-fire debris flow initiation and movement processes, the mechanistic model of post-fire debris flow, and the rapid and efficient control countermeasures of post-fire debris flow. PMID:24380363

Di, Xue-ying; Tao, Yu-zhu

2013-08-01

79

Operative utilization following severe combat-related burns.  

PubMed

The goal of burn surgical therapy is to minimize mortality and to return survivors to their preinjury state. Prompt removal of the burn eschar, early durable coverage, and late corrections of functional deformities are the basic surgical principles. The operative burden, while presumed to be substantial and significant, is neither well described nor quantified. The burn registry at the U.S. Institute of Surgical Research Burn Center was queried from March 2003 to August 2011 for all active duty burn admissions; active duty subjects were chosen to eliminate subject follow-up as a significant variable. Subject demographics including age, sex, branch of service, injury type, injury severity score, transfusion, allograft use, length of stay, mechanism of injury, and survival were tabulated as were their percentage TBSA, specific body region involvement, and nature and dates of operations performed. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regressions were performed to determine independent factors which predict early and late operative burden. In the 8-year study period, 864 active duty patients were admitted to the burn center. Among them, 569 (66%) were operative in nature. The operations that were performed during acute hospitalization were 62%, while the remaining 38% were performed following discharge. A linear relationship exists between TBSA and the number of acute operations with an average of one acute operation required per 5% TBSA. No direct relationships however were found between TBSA and the number of reconstructive operations. Based on multiple logistic regression, battle vs nonbattle (odds ratio [OR], 0.559; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.298-1.050; P = .0706), injury severity score (OR, 1.021; 95% CI, 1.003-1.039; P = .0222), intensive care unit length of stay (OR, 1.076; 95% CI, 1.053-1.099; P ? .0001), allograft use (OR, 2.610; 95% CI, 1.472-4.628; P = .0010), and TBSA of the trunk (OR, 0.982; 95% CI, 0.965-1.000; P = .0439) (but not overall TBSA) were associated with a high acute operative burden. Battle vs nonbattle (OR, 0.546; 95% CI, 0.360-0.829; P = .0045), and TBSA of the upper extremities (OR, 1.008; 95% CI, 1.002-1.013; P = .0042) were noted to be significant variables in predicting late reconstruction operations. The operative burden of burn, not previously well characterized, consists of operations performed during as well as after the initial hospitalization. While injury severity and truncal involvement are significant determinants of acute surgical therapy, the presence of upper extremity burns is a significant determinant of reconstruction following discharge. PMID:25102231

Chan, Rodney K; Aden, James; Wu, Jesse; Hale, Robert G; Renz, Evan M; Wolf, Steven E

2015-01-01

80

RAPID POST-FIRE HYDROLOGIC WATERSHED ASSESSMENT USING THE AGWA GIS-BASED HYDROLOGIC MODELING TOOL 1807  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rapid post-fire watershed assessment to identify potential trouble spots for erosion and flooding can potentially aid land managers and Burned Area Emergency Rehabilitation (BAER) teams in deploying mitigation and rehabilitation resources. These decisions are inherently complex and spatial in natur...

81

Improving rangeland seeding success in post-fire water repellent soil using surfactant seed coating technology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Severe disturbance from catastrophic wildfires often requires that native plant materials be reintroduced through reseeding, but the success rate of these restoration efforts in arid environments is notoriously low. Post-fire soil water repellency can limit reseeding success by decreasing soil moist...

82

A data-driven approach for modeling post-fire debris-flow volumes and their uncertainty  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study demonstrates the novel application of genetic programming to evolve nonlinear post-fire debris-flow volume equations from variables associated with a data-driven conceptual model of the western United States. The search space is constrained using a multi-component objective function that simultaneously minimizes root-mean squared and unit errors for the evolution of fittest equations. An optimization technique is then used to estimate the limits of nonlinear prediction uncertainty associated with the debris-flow equations. In contrast to a published multiple linear regression three-variable equation, linking basin area with slopes greater or equal to 30 percent, burn severity characterized as area burned moderate plus high, and total storm rainfall, the data-driven approach discovers many nonlinear and several dimensionally consistent equations that are unbiased and have less prediction uncertainty. Of the nonlinear equations, the best performance (lowest prediction uncertainty) is achieved when using three variables: average basin slope, total burned area, and total storm rainfall. Further reduction in uncertainty is possible for the nonlinear equations when dimensional consistency is not a priority and by subsequently applying a gradient solver to the fittest solutions. The data-driven modeling approach can be applied to nonlinear multivariate problems in all fields of study. ?? 2011.

Friedel, M.J.

2011-01-01

83

Developing a post-fire flood chronology and recurrence probability from alluvial stratigraphy in the Buffalo Creek watershed, Colorado, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stratigraphic and geomorphic evidence indicate floods that occur soon after forest fires have been intermittent but common events in many mountainous areas during the past several thousand years. The magnitude and recurrence of these post-fire flood events reflects the joint probability between the recurrence of fires and the recurrence of subsequent rainfall events of varying magnitude and intensity. Following the May 1996 Buffalo Creek, Colorado, forest fire, precipitation amounts and intensities that generated very little surface runoff outside of the burned area resulted in severe hillslope erosion, floods, and streambed sediment entrainment in the rugged, severely burned, 48 km2 area. These floods added sediment to many existing alluvial fans, while simultaneously incising other fans and alluvial deposits. Incision of older fans revealed multiple sequences of fluvially transported sandy gravel that grade upward into charcoal-rich, loamy horizons. We interpret these sequences to represent periods of high sediment transport and aggradation during floods, followed by intervals of quiescence and relative stability in the watershed until a subsequent fire occurred.An alluvial sequence near the mouth of a tributary draining a 0·82 km2 area indicated several previous post-fire flood cycles in the watershed. Dendrochronologic and radiocarbon ages of material in this deposit span approximately 2900 years, and define three aggradational periods. The three general aggradational periods are separated by intervals of approximately nine to ten centuries and reflect a millennium-scale geomorphic response to a closely timed sequence of events: severe and intense, watershed-scale, stand-replacing fires and subsequent rainstorms and flooding. Millennium-scale aggradational units at the study site may have resulted from a scenario in which the initial runoff from the burned watershed transported and deposited large volumes of sediment on downstream alluvial surfaces and tributary fans. Subsequent storm runoff may have produced localized incision and channelization, preventing additional vertical aggradation on the sampled alluvial deposit for several centuries. Two of the millennium-scale aggradational periods at the study site consist of multiple gravel and loam sequences with similar radiocarbon ages. These closely dated sequences may reflect a multidecade-scale geomorphic response to more frequent, but aerially limited and less severe fires, followed by rainstorms of relatively common recurrence. Published in 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Elliott, John G.; Parker, R. S.

2001-10-01

84

Developing a post-fire flood chronology and recurrence probability from alluvial stratigraphy in the Buffalo Creek watershed, Colorado, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stratigraphic and geomorphic evidence indicate floods that occur soon after forest fires have been intermittent but common events in many mountainous areas during the past several thousand years. The magnitude and recurrence of these post-fire flood events reflects the joint probability between the recurrence of fires and the recurrence of subsequent rainfall events of varying magnitude and intensity. Following the May 1996 Buffalo Creek, Colorado, forest fire, precipitation amounts and intensities that generated very little surface runoff outside of the burned area resulted in severe hillslope erosion, floods, and streambed sediment entrainment in the rugged, severely burned, 48 km2 area. These floods added sediment to many existing alluvial fans, while simultaneously incising other fans and alluvial deposits. Incision of older fans revealed multiple sequences of fluvially transported sandy gravel that grade upward into charcoal-rich, loamy horizons. We interpret these sequences to represent periods of high sediment transport and aggradation during floods, followed by intervals of quiescence and relative stability in the watershed until a subsequent fire occurred. An alluvial sequence near the mouth of a tributary draining a 0??82 km2 area indicated several previous post-fire flood cycles in the watershed. Dendrochronologic and radiocarbon ages of material in this deposit span approximately 2900 years, and define three aggradational periods. The three general aggradational periods are separated by intervals of approximately nine to ten centuries and reflect a 'millennium-scale' geomorphic response to a closely timed sequence of events: severe and intense, watershed-scale, stand-replacing fires and subsequent rainstorms and flooding. Millennium-scale aggradational units at the study site may have resulted from a scenario in which the initial runoff from the burned watershed transported and deposited large volumes of sediment on downstream alluvial surfaces and tributary fans. Subsequent storm runoff may have produced localized incision and channelization, preventing additional vertical aggradation on the sampled alluvial deposit for several centuries. Two of the millennium-scale aggradational periods at the study site consist of multiple gravel and loam sequences with similar radiocarbon ages. These closely dated sequences may reflect a 'multidecade-scale' geomorphic response to more frequent, but aerially limited and less severe fires, followed by rainstorms of relatively common recurrence. Published in 2001 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

Elliott, J.G.; Parker, R.S.

2001-01-01

85

Post-fire land treatments and wind erosion -- lessons from the Milford Flat Fire, UT, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We monitored sediment flux at 25 plots located at the northern end of the 2007 Milford Flat Fire (Lake Bonneville Basin, west-central Utah) to examine the effectiveness of post-fire rehabilitation treatments in mitigating risks of wind erosion during the first 3 years post fire. Maximum values were recorded during Mar–Jul 2009 when horizontal sediment fluxes measured with BSNE samplers ranged from 16.3 to 1251.0 g m?2 d?1 in unburned plots (n = 8; data represent averages of three sampler heights per plot), 35.2–555.3 g m?2 d?1 in burned plots that were not treated (n = 5), and 21.0–44,010.7 g m?2 d?1 in burned plots that received one or more rehabilitation treatments that disturbed the soil surface (n = 12). Fluxes during this period exhibited extreme spatial variability and were contingent on upwind landscape characteristics and surficial soil properties, with maximum fluxes recorded in settings downwind of treated areas with long treatment length and unstable fine sand. Nonlinear patterns of wind erosion attributable to soil and fetch effects highlight the profound importance of landscape setting and soil properties as spatial factors to be considered in evaluating risks of alternative post-fire rehabilitation strategies. By Mar–Jul 2010, average flux for all plots declined by 73.6% relative to the comparable 2009 period primarily due to the establishment and growth of exotic annual plants rather than seeded perennial plants. Results suggest that treatments in sensitive erosion-prone settings generally exacerbated rather than mitigated wind erosion during the first 3 years post fire, although long-term effects remain uncertain.

Miller, Mark E.; Bowker, Matthew A.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Goldstein, Harland L.

2012-01-01

86

Post-fire land treatments and wind erosion - Lessons from the Milford Flat Fire, UT, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We monitored sediment flux at 25 plots located at the northern end of the 2007 Milford Flat Fire (Lake Bonneville Basin, west-central Utah) to examine the effectiveness of post-fire rehabilitation treatments in mitigating risks of wind erosion during the first 3 years post fire. Maximum values were recorded during Mar-Jul 2009 when horizontal sediment fluxes measured with BSNE samplers ranged from 16.3 to 1251.0 g m-2 d-1 in unburned plots (n = 8; data represent averages of three sampler heights per plot), 35.2-555.3 g m-2 d-1 in burned plots that were not treated (n = 5), and 21.0-44,010.7 g m-2 d-1 in burned plots that received one or more rehabilitation treatments that disturbed the soil surface (n = 12). Fluxes during this period exhibited extreme spatial variability and were contingent on upwind landscape characteristics and surficial soil properties, with maximum fluxes recorded in settings downwind of treated areas with long treatment length and unstable fine sand. Nonlinear patterns of wind erosion attributable to soil and fetch effects highlight the profound importance of landscape setting and soil properties as spatial factors to be considered in evaluating risks of alternative post-fire rehabilitation strategies. By Mar-Jul 2010, average flux for all plots declined by 73.6% relative to the comparable 2009 period primarily due to the establishment and growth of exotic annual plants rather than seeded perennial plants. Results suggest that treatments in sensitive erosion-prone settings generally exacerbated rather than mitigated wind erosion during the first 3 years post fire, although long-term effects remain uncertain.

Miller, Mark E.; Bowker, Matthew A.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Goldstein, Harland L.

2012-12-01

87

Testing the effectiveness of pine needlecast in reducing post-fire soil erosion using complementary experimental approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mediterranean wildfire activity has increased markedly in recent decades, leading to enhanced runoff and erosion. Limiting post-fire on-site soil degradation and off-site flooding and sedimentation, however, often has a low priority because of the high costs of materials and labour needed to implement many recognised techniques (e.g. seeding, hydromulching, installing logs along the contour). However, in pine plantations, the crowns may only be scorched so that after fire the needlecast can form a comparatively dense ground cover. Its post-fire erosion-limiting effectiveness is virtually unknown in the Mediterranean context, despite potentially protecting soil with minimal effort (requiring only a delay to existing salvage logging procedures at most). As part of the DESIRE research programme, this paper presents results from two complementary approaches testing the erosion-limiting effectiveness of needlecast. (1) Near Moinhos, central Portugal, two 8m2 erosion plots were established immediately post-fire in September 2009 on a steep (30°) slope representative of an adjacent burnt Pinus pinaster plantation. Soil erosion was monitored during a 3-month pre-treatment phase. Needles were then applied to one plot at a density (37.7% cover) measured on a post-fire pine plantation. Soil losses from treated and untreated plots were then monitored until April 2011. By taking the percentage increase or decrease in erosion between the two monitoring phases for the untreated control plot as the 'expected' pattern, the erosion-limiting effectiveness of needles applied to the treated plot could then be determined. (2) Six adjacent rectangular 1.23m2 lysimeters were filled with gravel and sand, and capped by 10 cm of topsoil taken from a long unburnt Pinus pinaster plantation. They were set at 15° and left open to natural rainfall. This angle was considered the steepest possible from logistical and soil stability points of view. All lysimeters underwent a phase under bare soil conditions. In a second phase, a representative amount (8.34 kg) of fermented litter and shrubs from a pine plantation was applied evenly to each of five lysimeters. In a third stage, four of the five treated lysimeters were burned to simulate a low-severity wildfire. After several more rainfall events, pine needles (37.7% cover) were applied to two of the burnt lysimeters. In the final stage, there was 1 lysimeter with bare soil, 1 unburnt with a vegetation cover, 2 burnt and untreated, and 2 burnt with needles. In all the lysimeters, runoff and percolated water were monitored during the entire study, as were the amounts of eroded sediment and organic matter contents for runoff. Calculating the erosion-limiting effect of needles was conducted in a similar fashion to (1) and based on results from stages 3 and 4. The results from both experiments show that the needles reduced erosion by as much as c.60% compared with the corresponding control situation, indicating that a needlecast 'carpet' is likely to be able to provide a highly effective, simple, cheap means of significantly reducing post-fire soil loss in pine forests where the tree canopies have been scorched but not consumed by fire.

Bento, C. P. M.; Shakesby, R. A.; Walsh, R. P. D.; Ferreira, C. S. S.; Ferreira, A. J. D.; Urbanek, E.

2012-04-01

88

Rapid Response Tools and Datasets for Post-fire Erosion Modeling: Lessons Learned from the Rock House and High Park Fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Once the danger posed by an active wildfire has passed, land managers must rapidly assess the threat from post-fire runoff and erosion due to the loss of surface cover and fire-induced changes in soil properties. Increased runoff and sediment delivery are of great concern to both the pubic and resource managers. Post-fire assessments and proposals to mitigate these threats are typically undertaken by interdisciplinary Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams. These teams are under very tight deadlines, so they often begin their analysis while the fire is still burning and typically must complete their plans within a couple of weeks. Many modeling tools and datasets have been developed over the years to assist BAER teams, but process-based, spatially explicit models are currently under-utilized relative to simpler, lumped models because they are more difficult to set up and require the preparation of spatially-explicit data layers such as digital elevation models, soils, and land cover. The difficulty of acquiring and utilizing these data layers in spatially-explicit models increases with increasing fire size. Spatially-explicit post-fire erosion modeling was attempted for a small watershed in the 1270 km2 Rock House fire in Texas, but the erosion modeling work could not be completed in time. The biggest limitation was the time required to extract the spatially explicit soils data needed to run the preferred post-fire erosion model (GeoWEPP with Disturbed WEPP parameters). The solution is to have the spatial soil, land cover, and DEM data layers prepared ahead of time, and to have a clear methodology for the BAER teams to incorporate these layers in spatially-explicit modeling interfaces like GeoWEPP. After a fire occurs the data layers can quickly be clipped to the fire perimeter. The soil and land cover parameters can then be adjusted according to the burn severity map, which is one of the first products generated for the BAER teams. Under a previous project for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency this preparatory work was done for much of Colorado, and in June 2012 the High Park wildfire in north central Colorado burned over 340 km2. The data layers for the entire burn area were quickly assembled and the spatially explicit runoff and erosion modeling was completed in less than three days. The resulting predictions were then used by the BAER team to quantify downstream risks and delineate priority areas for different post-fire treatments. These two contrasting case studies demonstrate the feasibility and the value of preparing datasets and modeling tools ahead of time. In recognition of this, the U.S. National Aeronautic and Space Administration has agreed to fund a pilot project to demonstrate the utility of acquiring and preparing the necessary data layers for fire-prone wildlands across the western U.S. A similar modeling and data acquisition approach could be followed

Miller, Mary Ellen; Elliot, William E.; MacDonald, Lee H.

2013-04-01

89

Fire intensity, fire severity and burn severity: A brief review and suggested usage  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Several recent papers have suggested replacing the terminology of fire intensity and fire severity. Part of the problem with fire intensity is that it is sometimes used incorrectly to describe fire effects, when in fact it is justifiably restricted to measures of energy output. Increasingly, the term has created confusion because some authors have restricted its usage to a single measure of energy output referred to as fireline intensity. This metric is most useful in understanding fire behavior in forests, but is too narrow to fully capture the multitude of ways fire energy affects ecosystems. Fire intensity represents the energy released during various phases of a fire, and different metrics such as reaction intensity, fireline intensity, temperature, heating duration and radiant energy are useful for different purposes. Fire severity, and the related term burn severity, have created considerable confusion because of recent changes in their usage. Some authors have justified this by contending that fire severity is defined broadly as ecosystem impacts from fire and thus is open to individual interpretation. However, empirical studies have defined fire severity operationally as the loss of or change in organic matter aboveground and belowground, although the precise metric varies with management needs. Confusion arises because fire or burn severity is sometimes defined so that it also includes ecosystem responses. Ecosystem responses include soil erosion, vegetation regeneration, restoration of community structure, faunal recolonization, and a plethora of related response variables. Although some ecosystem responses are correlated with measures of fire or burn severity, many important ecosystem processes have either not been demonstrated to be predicted by severity indices or have been shown in some vegetation types to be unrelated to severity. This is a critical issue because fire or burn severity are readily measurable parameters, both on the ground and with remote sensing, yet ecosystem responses are of most interest to resource managers.

Keeley, J.E.

2009-01-01

90

Preliminary assessment of the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity burned area accuracy for shrub-steppe wildfires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire is a common disturbance in shrub-steppe, but unlike other ecosystems, few studies have specifically tested burned area mapping methods in these semi-arid to arid environments. The Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) project is an initiative by the United States Forest Service (USFS) and United States Geological Survey (USGS) aimed at mapping burned area perimeters and burn severity for the entire territory of the United States. We conducted a preliminary assessment of the accuracy of the MTBS burned area perimeters on wildfires that exhibited varying degrees of within-fire patch heterogeneity. We cross-compared the MTBS perimeters with a classification produced using both the Relativised differenced Normalized Burn Index (RdNBR) and the mid-infrared burn index (MIRBI). Overall, MIRBI provided the most consistent accuracies, with only small commission errors. The MTBS-based fire perimeters had high burned area commission errors, primarily due to inclusion of unburned islands and fingers within the fire perimeter. The RdNBR burned area maps exhibited very high commission errors, however, when constrained by the MTBS perimeter provided accuracies comparable to MIRBI. Studies seeking to use MTBS data for assessing trends in burned area should use spectral indices able to discriminate burned versus unburned pixels and constrain them by the MTBS perimeters.

Argona, A. K.; Sparks, A. M.; Tinkham, W.; Smith, A. M.; Boschetti, L.; Newingham, B. A.; Lannom, K. O.

2013-12-01

91

Watershed-Scale Post-Fire Treatment Effects on Runoff and Erosion After the Hayman Fire, Colorado  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires can cause large increases in runoff and erosion. Although post-fire treatments are used to mitigate these effects, their effectiveness is not well documented. A study was initiated after the 2002 Hayman Fire to determine natural post-fire recovery rates, measure the effectiveness of contour-felled logs, straw mulch, and hydromulch, and determine effects of post-fire salvage logging. Sediment traps and weirs were installed in six severely burned small watersheds (3-5 ha) at 2 sites in the Hayman Fire. The above treatments were applied to four watersheds while one watershed at each site was left untreated as a control. Precipitation, runoff, and sediment yields were measured through 2007. Between 2002 and 2006, 11 rain events produced runoff in the contour-felled log site and 12 events produced runoff in the mulch site. The minimum rainfall required to produce runoff was 4.3 mm, while the 10-minute maximum intensity that produced runoff ranged from 9.1 to 72 mm hr-1. Snow melt did not produce runoff in any of the watersheds. Runoff from all six watersheds was flashy and heavily sediment-laden. Event runoff in the control watersheds was between 0 and 8.6 mm in the first year after the fire and between 0 and 0.6 mm 5 years later. The maximum peak flow rate in a control watershed occurred two years after the fire and was 7.1 m3 s-1 km-2. The mean annual sediment yields in the control watersheds were 23 Mg ha-1 yr-1 in 2003 and 22 Mg ha- 1 yr-1 in 2004. Only one site produced sediment from one event each in 2005 and 2006; the sediment yields from the controls for these events were 5.1 and 2.1 Mg ha-1, respectively. The contour-felled log and straw mulch watersheds produced less runoff, lower peak flows, and less sediment than their controls. The hydromulch watershed responses were closer to, if not greater than, those in its control. Salvage logging did not produce any measurable increases in runoff or sediment yields relative to its control. With large hydrologic responses occurring in these watersheds 5 years after the fire, it is clear these sites have not yet recovered to their pre-fire condition.

Wagenbrenner, J. W.; Robichaud, P. R.; Brown, R. E.

2007-12-01

92

Original article Post-fire succession in two Quercus pyrenaica  

E-print Network

a permanent plot was established and sampled for a period of 6 years after the disturbance. Colonisation rates: species diversity, richness and evenness. These results allowed us to determine a post-fire successional

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

93

Comparison of post-fire seedling establishment between scrub communities in mediterranean and non-mediterranean climate ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

I Both fire regimes and the conditions under which fires occur vary widely. Abiotic conditions (such as climate) in combination with fire season, frequency and intensity could influence vegetation responses to fire. A variety of adaptations facilitate post-fire recruitment in mediterranean climate ecosystems, but responses of other communities are less well known. We evaluated the importance of climate by comparing sites with mediterranean and subtropical climates. 2 We used paired burned and mature sites in chamise chaparral, mixed chaparral and coastal sage scrub (California), and rosemary scrub, sand pine scrub and sand-hill (Florida), to test whether (i) patterns of pre-fire and post-fire seedling recruitment are more similar between communities within a region than between regions, and (ii) post-fire stimulation of seedling establishment is greater in regions with marked fire-induced contrasts in abiotic site characteristics. 3 Post-fire seedling densities were more similar among sites within climatic regions than between regions. Both seedling densities and proportions of species represented by seedlings after fires were generally higher in California. 4 The only site characteristic showing a pre-fire-post-fire contrast was percentage open canopy, and the effect was greater in California than in Florida. Soil properties were unaffected by fire. 5 Mediterranean climate ecosystems in other regions have nutrient-poor soils similar to our subtropical Florida sites, but show post-fire seedling recruitment patterns more similar to the nutrient-rich sites in California. Climate therefore appears to play a more major role than soil characteristics.

Carrington, M.E.; Keeley, J.E.

1999-01-01

94

Drought impact on vegetation in pre and post fire events in Iberian Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2004/2005, the Iberian Peninsula was stricken by an exceptional drought that affected more than one third of Portugal and part of southern Spain during more than 9 months. This severe drought had a strong negative impact on vegetation dynamics, as it coincided with the period of high photosynthetic activity (Gouveia et al., 2009). Since water availability is a crucial factor in post-fire vegetation recovery, it is desirable to assess the impact that such water-stress conditions had on fire sensitivity and post-fire vegetation recovery. Fire events in the European Mediterranean areas have become a serious problem and a major ecosystem disturbance, increasing erosion and soil degradation. In Portugal, the years 2003 and 2005 were particularly devastating. In 2003 it was registered the maximal burnt area since 1980, with more than 425000 ha burned, representing about 5% of Portuguese mainland. The 2005 fire season registered the highest number of fire occurrences in Portugal and the second year with the greatest number of fires in Spain. The high number of fire events observed during the summer 2005 in the Iberian Peninsula is linked, in part, to the extreme drought conditions that prevailed during the preceding winter and spring seasons of 2004/2005. Vegetation recovery after the 2003 and 2005 fire seasons was estimated using the mono-parametric model developed by Gouveia et al. (2010), which relies on monthly values of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), from 1999 to 2009, at 1kmresolution, as obtained from the VEGETATION-SPOT5 instrument.. This model was further used to evaluate the effect of drought in pre and post vegetation activity. Besides the standard NDVI, the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and the Normalized Difference Drought Index (NDDI) were computed in order to evaluate drought intensity. In the case of the burnt scars of 2003, when data corresponding to the months of drought are removed, recovery times are considerably shorter. The extreme water stress conditions to which vegetation is subject during drought events appear, therefore, to delay the regeneration process, which is to be expected since water availability is determinant to primary productivity. On the other hand, in the case of 2005 burnt areas, vegetation is more stressed and dryer in summer than in spring and, in general, fire damage is higher for pixels with higher vegetation density and higher moisture content during the months before the fire. These relationships are also related with the distinct vegetation behavior of the different land covers: in general, shrubland holds less quantity of very dry biomass, while needle leaf presents higher amounts of fairly dry biomass. Gouveia C., Trigo R.M., DaCamara C.C (2009) "Drought and Vegetation Stress Monitoring in Portugal using Satellite Data". Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 9, 1-11 Gouveia C., DaCamara C.C, Trigo R.M. (2010). "Post-fire vegetation dynamics in Portugal". Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 10, 4, 673-684.

Gouveia, C. M.; Bastos, A.; Trigo, R. M.; DaCamara, C.

2012-04-01

95

Increased expression of atrogenes and TWEAK family members after severe burn injury in non-burned human skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

Severe burn induces rapid skeletal muscle proteolysis after the injury that persists for up to one year and results in skeletal muscle atrophy despite dietary and rehabilitative interventions. The purpose of this research was to determine acute changes in gene expression of skeletal muscle mass regulators post-burn injury. Biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis of a non-burned leg of eight burned subjects (6M, 2F: 34.8 ± 2.7 years: 29.9 ± 3.1% total body surface area burn) at 5.1 ± 1.1 days post-burn injury and from matched controls. mRNA expression of cytokines and receptors in the tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) families, and the ubiquitin proteasome E3 ligases, atrogin-1 and MuRF1, was determined. TNF receptor 1A was over 3.5 fold higher in burn. Expression of TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis and its receptor were over 1.6 and 6.0-fold higher in burn. IL-6, IL-6 receptor, and glycoprotein 130, were elevated in burned subjects with IL-6 receptor over 13-fold higher. Suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 was also elevated in burn nearly 6-fold. Atrogin-1 and MuRF1, were more than 4- and 3-fold higher in burn. These results demonstrate for the first time that severe burn in humans has a remarkable impact on gene expression in skeletal muscle of a non-burned limb of genes that promote inflammation and proteolysis. Because these changes likely contribute to the acute skeletal muscle atrophy in areas not directly affected by the burn, in the future it will be important to determine the responsible systemic cues. PMID:23816995

Merritt, Edward K.; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna; Cross, James M.; Windham, Samuel T.; Thomas, Steven J.; Bamman, Marcas M.

2012-01-01

96

Multidisciplinary care in severe pediatric electrical oral burn.  

PubMed

Oral burns in pediatric patient are commonly due to electrical injuries, representing an important reconstructive issue even for functional than esthetic reason. Different classification, surgical management and even oral device were described to allow the best long-term result. In most case a multidisciplinary approach is necessary to achieve a satisfactory outcome. A severe case of pediatric oral burn with germinative teeth damage is presented, describing a multispecialist team approach that guarantee a satisfactory outcome by reconstructive surgery, careful progressive evaluation of dental and soft tissue healing and speech recovery. The use of acellular dermal substitute template within traditional reconstructive surgery had provided a good functional and esthetic result joint to valid preservation of germinative dental element as shown at long-term X-ray evaluation. Intensive rehabilitation speech program has also avoided phonetic impairment in an important speech develop period. It was so evident that the necessity of a multispecialist care in such difficult injury to achieve the best long-term result. PMID:25716757

Pontini, A; Reho, F; Giatsidis, G; Bacci, C; Azzena, B; Tiengo, C

2015-05-01

97

Bacteremia caused by Leuconostoc cremoris in a patient with severe burn injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case ofLeuconostoc cremoris bacteremia in a patient with burn wounds over 45% of the body surface is presented.Leuconostoc bacteremia has not previously been reported in burn patients. The predisposing factors in this case were severe burn wounds resulting in immunocompromise, presence of both intravenous and enterai feeding catheters, several surgical interventions and previous treatment with imipenem plus amikacin. The

M. E. Jiménez-Mejías; B. Becerril; T. Gómez-Cía; M. Del Nozal; J. Palomino-Nicás

1997-01-01

98

Controls on early post-fire woody plant colonization in riparian areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire in riparian areas has the potential to influence the functions riparian vegetation provides to streams and aquatic biota. However, there is little information on the effects of fire on riparian areas. The objectives of the present study were to: (i) determine how fire severity interacts with riparian topographic setting, micro-environmental conditions, and pre-fire community composition to control post-fire regeneration;

Jessica E. Halofsky; David E. Hibbs

2009-01-01

99

Cajander larch (Larix cajanderi) biomass distribution, fire regime and post-fire recovery in northeastern Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change and land-use activities are increasing fire activity across much of the Siberian boreal forest, yet the climate feedbacks from forest disturbances remain difficult to quantify due to limited information on forest biomass distribution, disturbance regimes, and post-disturbance ecosystem recovery. Our primary objective here was to analyze post-fire accumulation of Cajander larch (Larix cajanderi Mayr.) aboveground biomass for a 100 000 km2 area of open forest in far northeastern Siberia. In addition to examining effects of fire size and topography on post-fire larch aboveground biomass, we assessed regional fire rotation and density, as well as performance of burned area maps generated from MODIS satellite imagery. Using Landsat imagery, we mapped 116 fire scar perimeters that dated ca. 1969-2007. We then mapped larch aboveground biomass by linking field biomass measurements to tree shadows mapped synergistically from WorldView-1 and Landsat 5 satellite imagery. Larch aboveground biomass tended to be low during early succession (? 25 yr, 271 ± 26 g m-2, n=66 [mean ± SE]) and decreased with increasing elevation and northwardly aspect. Larch aboveground biomass tended to be higher during mid-succession (33-38 yr, 746 ± 100 g m-2, n=32), though was highly variable. The high variability was not associated with topography and potentially reflected differences in post-fire density of tree regrowth. Neither fire size nor latitude were significant predictors of post-fire larch aboveground biomass. Fire activity was considerably higher in the Kolyma Mountains (fire rotation = 110 yr, fire density = 1.0 ± 1.0 fires yr-1 × 104 km-2 than along the forest-tundra border (fire rotation = 792 yr, fire density = 0.3 ± 0.3 fires yr-1 × 104 km-2. The MODIS burned area maps underestimated the total area burned in this region from 2000-2007 by 40%. Tree shadows mapped jointly using high and medium resolution satellite imagery were strongly associated (r2?0.9) with field measurements of forest structure, which permitted spatial extrapolation of aboveground biomass to a regional extent. Better understanding of forest biomass distribution, disturbances, and post-disturbance recovery is needed to improve predictions of the net climatic feedbacks associated with landscape-scale forest disturbances in northern Eurasia.

Berner, L. T.; Beck, P. S. A.; Loranty, M. M.; Alexander, H. D.; Mack, M. C.; Goetz, S. J.

2012-06-01

100

Cajander larch (Larix cajanderi) biomass distribution, fire regime and post-fire recovery in northeastern Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change and land-use activities are increasing fire activity across much of the Siberian boreal forest, yet the climate feedbacks from forest disturbances remain difficult to quantify due to limited information on forest biomass distribution, disturbance regimes and post-disturbance ecosystem recovery. Our primary objective here was to analyse post-fire accumulation of Cajander larch (Larix cajanderi Mayr.) aboveground biomass for a 100 000 km2 area of open forest in far northeastern Siberia. In addition to examining effects of fire size and topography on post-fire larch aboveground biomass, we assessed regional fire rotation and density, as well as performance of burned area maps generated from MODIS satellite imagery. Using Landsat imagery, we mapped 116 fire scar perimeters that dated c. 1966-2007. We then mapped larch aboveground biomass by linking field biomass measurements to tree shadows mapped synergistically from WorldView-1 and Landsat 5 satellite imagery. Larch aboveground biomass tended to be low during early succession (? 25 yr, 271 ± 26 g m-2, n = 66 [mean ± SE]) and decreased with increasing elevation and northwardly aspect. Larch aboveground biomass tended to be higher during mid-succession (33-38 yr, 746 ± 100 g m-2, n = 32), though was highly variable. The high variability was not associated with topography and potentially reflected differences in post-fire density of tree regrowth. Neither fire size nor latitude were significant predictors of post-fire larch aboveground biomass. Fire activity was considerably higher in the Kolyma Mountains (fire rotation = 110 yr, fire density = 1.0 ± 1.0 fires yr-1 × 104 km-2) than along the forest-tundra border (fire rotation = 792 yr, fire density = 0.3 ± 0.3 fires yr-1 × 104 km-2). The MODIS burned area maps underestimated the total area burned in this region from 2000-2007 by 40%. Tree shadows mapped jointly using high and medium resolution satellite imagery were strongly associated (r2 ? 0.9) with field measurements of forest structure, which permitted spatial extrapolation of aboveground biomass to a regional extent. Better understanding of forest biomass distribution, disturbances and post-disturbance recovery is needed to improve predictions of the net climatic feedbacks associated with landscape-scale forest disturbances in northern Eurasia.

Berner, L. T.; Beck, P. S. A.; Loranty, M. M.; Alexander, H. D.; Mack, M. C.; Goetz, S. J.

2012-10-01

101

Pre- and Post-Fire Infiltration Rates in a Montane Mixed Conifer Ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NSF-funded Catalina-Jemez Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) studies couplings among hydrologic, lithologic, ecological, and geochemical dynamics in the Southwest U.S. The motivation to study this region is to understand and to develop predictive models of how slow changes and abrupt disturbances affect landscape evolution and water resources for growing urban populations. One of the prevalent disturbances in Southwestern forested ecosystems is fire, which can dramatically alter near surface hydraulic properties and cause large changes in hydrological response in catchments. This poster will present a unique data set of pre- and post-fire infiltration and subsurface data collected before and shortly after the June 2013 Thompson Ridge Fire near Redondo Peak in the Valles Caldera 10 miles north of Jemez Springs, NM. Single ring pre-fire infiltration measurements were taken in July 2011 at 22 different locations with high-precision GPS tags. Similar post-fire infiltration measurements were taken within 1 meter of spatial accuracy of the pre-fire measurements in July 2013. The near-surface soil was analyzed for texture and organic matter content at 53 GPS-referenced locations in 2011, and a more detailed soil analysis is currently being analyzed in the laboratory for the 22 infiltration sites (5 depth increments down to about 50 cm). Because of the recent nature of the burn and subsequent sampling, complete results from data analysis are not yet available, however, the poster will provide a statistical analysis among pre- and post fire infiltration rates, established burn intensity classes, and subsurface changes such as soil texture and organic matter content.

Kopp, E. S.; Pohlmann, M. A.; Jones, C. A.; Chorover, J.; Schaap, M. G.

2013-12-01

102

Significant or negligible sediment and nutrient losses after fire? Pre- and post-fire comparisons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prescribed fire (or a controlled burn) is a management tool used in wildfire-prone areas to reduce the fuel load of living and dead biomass, while attempting to keep disturbance of the ground surface and soil to a minimum. We know that wildfire, particularly of moderate or extreme severity, can cause important changes to the chemical and physical properties of soil, typically leading to a reduction in aggregate stability, surface roughness and water storage capacity, and an increase in overland flow. It has also been shown that wildfire disturbance can cause major loss of soil, particularly at plot and hillslope scales. There is less information on soil losses at catchment scales, but it is known that losses particularly of organic-rich fine sediment and nutrients can undergo hillslope to channel transfer, where they can affect water quality. Far less research has been carried out into the effects of prescribed fire on soil and nutrient losses at all scales, but particularly at catchment scales. This paper considers the impact of an experimental fire (equivalent to a severe prescribed fire) on soil and nutrient losses. These losses have been monitored at a range of scales (small rainfall simulation plots, long-term erosion plot, erosion plot, hillslope sediment traps (sediment fences) and catchment) before and after the fire in a 10-ha catchment near Góis, central Portugal, which forms part of the 5-year DESIRE research programme concerning desertification and its mitigation at a range of study sites worldwide. The catchment has steep slopes covered mainly with scrub vegetation ranging from c. 0.15 to 2m in height. The soil is thin, stony and highly water repellent. Long-term pre-burn erosion rates are known from a c. 10-year record of soil losses from a small erosion plot (8 x 2m in size) and sediment accumulation in the weir pool of a subcatchment gauging station. Rainfall simulations carried out under dry and wet antecedent conditions before and after the fire, eroded soil collected in sediment fences installed in strategic locations on the catchment slopes and suspended sediment and bedload determinations at the catchment gauging station provide the evidence for pre- and post-fire erosional losses. Comparison with wildfire effects is provided by instrumented scrub-covered hillslopes burnt in early summer 2008 in the same area. In addition to monitoring soil losses in the small catchment, losses of selected nutrients in eroded soil and runoff together with determinations of pre- and post-fire vegetation cover, fuel loads and soil water repellency have been determined. The soil degradational implications are discussed and placed in the context of the literature on prescribed fire and wildfire impacts from elsewhere in the Mediterranean and from further afield.

Shakesby, R. A.; Ferreira, A. J. D.; Ferreira, C. S. S.; Stoof, C. R.; Urbanek, E.; Walsh, R. P. D.

2009-04-01

103

Waveform Analysis for the Extraction of Post-Fire Vegetation Characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Full-waveform is becoming increasingly available in today's LiDAR systems and the analysis of the full return signal can provide additional information on the reflecting surfaces. In this paper we present the results of an assessment on full-waveform analysis, as opposed to the more classic discrete return analysis, for discerning vegetation cover classes related to post-fire renovation. In the spring of 2011 an OPTECH ALTM sensor was used to survey an Alpine area of almost 20 km2 in the north of Italy. A forest fire event several years ago burned large patches of vegetation for a total of about 1.5 km2 . The renovation process in the area is varied because of the different interventions ranging from no intervention to the application of re-forestation techniques to accelerate the process of re-establishing protection forest. The LiDAR data was used to divide the study site into areas with different conditions in terms of re-establishment of the natural vegetation condition. The LiDAR survey provided both the full-waveform data in Optech's CSD+DGT (corrected sensor data) and NDF+IDX (digitizer data with index file) formats, and the discrete return in the LAS format. The method applied to the full-waveform uses canopy volume profiles obtained by modelling, whereas the method applied to discrete return uses point geometry and density indexes. The results of these two methods are assessed by ground truth obtained from sampling and comparison shows that the added information from the full-waveform does give a significant better discrimination of the vegetation cover classes.

Pirotti, F.; Guarnieri, A.; Vettore, A.

2012-08-01

104

Outcome predictors and quality of life of severe burn patients admitted to intensive care unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Despite significant medical advances and improvement in overall mortality rate following burn injury, the treatment of patients with extensive burns remains a major challenge for intensivists. We present a study aimed to evaluate the short- and the long-term outcomes of severe burn patients (total body surface area, TBSA > 40%) treated in a polyvalent intensive care unit (ICU) and

Vittorio Pavoni; Lara Gianesello; Laura Paparella; Laura Tadini Buoninsegni; Elisabetta Barboni

2010-01-01

105

Quantifying post-fire recovery of forest canopy structure and its environmental drivers using satellite image time-series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire is a recurring disturbance in most of Australia's forests. Depending on fire severity, impacts on forest canopies vary from light scorching to complete defoliation, with related variation in the magnitude and duration of post-fire gas exchange by that canopy. Estimates of fire impacts on forest canopy structure and carbon uptake for south-eastern Australia's forests do not exist. Here, we use 8-day composite measurements of the fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active radiation (FPAR) as recorded by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to characterise forest canopies before and after fire and to compare burnt and unburnt sites. FPAR is a key biophysical canopy variable and primary input for estimating Gross Primary Productivity (GPP). Post-fire FPAR loss was quantified for all forest areas burnt between 2001 and 2010, showing good agreement with independent assessments of fire severity patterns of 2009 Black Saturday fires. A new method was developed to determine the duration of post-fire recovery from MODIS-FPAR time-series. The method involves a spatial-mode principal component analysis on full FPAR time series followed by a K-means clustering to group pixels based on similarity in temporal patterns. Using fire history data, time series of FPAR for burnt and unburnt pixels in each cluster were then compared to quantify the duration of the post-fire recovery period, which ranged from less than 1 to 8 years. The results show that time series of MODIS FPAR are well suited to detect and quantify disturbances of forest canopy structure and function in large areas of highly variable climate and phenology. Finally, the role of post-fire climate conditions and previous fire history on the duration of the post-fire recovery of the forest canopy was examined using generalized additive models.

Khanal, Shiva; Duursma, Remko; Boer, Matthias

2014-05-01

106

MILD OBESITY IS PROTECTIVE AFTER SEVERE BURN INJURY  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the impact of obesity on morbidity and mortality in severely burned patients. Background Despite the increasing number of people with obesity, little is known about the impact of obesity on postburn outcomes. Methods A total of 405 patients were prospectively enrolled as part of the multicenter trial Inflammation and the Host Response to Injury Glue Grant with the following inclusion criteria: 0 to 89 years of age, admitted within 96 hours after injury, and more than 20% total body surface area burn requiring at least 1 surgical intervention. Body mass index was used in adult patients to stratify according to World Health Organization definitions: less than 18.5 (underweight), 18.5 to 29.9 (normal weight), 30 to 34.9 (obese I), 35 to 39.9 (obese II), and body mass index more than 40 (obese III). Pediatric patients (2 to ?18 years of age) were stratified by using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and World Health Organization body mass index-for-age growth charts to obtain a percentile ranking and then grouped as underweight (<5th percentile), normal weight (5th percentile to <95th percentile), and obese (?95th percentile). The primary outcome was mortality and secondary outcomes were clinical markers of patient recovery, for example, multiorgan function, infections, sepsis, and length of stay. Results A total of 273 patients had normal weight, 116 were obese, and 16 were underweight; underweight patients were excluded from the analyses because of insufficient patient numbers. There were no differences in primary and secondary outcomes when normal weight patients were compared with obese patients. Further stratification in pediatric and adult patients showed similar results. However, when adult patients were stratified in obesity categories, log-rank analysis showed improved survival in the obese I group and higher mortality in the obese III group compared with obese I group (P < 0.05). Conclusions Overall, obesity was not associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Subgroup analysis revealed that patients with mild obesity have the best survival, whereas morbidly obese patients have the highest mortality. PMID:23877367

Jeschke, Marc G.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Emdad, Fatemeh; Rivero, Haidy G.; Kraft, Robert; Williams, Felicia N; Gamelli, Richard L.; Gibran, Nicole S.; Klein, Matthew B.; Arnoldo, Brett D.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Herndon, David N.

2014-01-01

107

POST-FIRE REVEGETATION AT HANFORD  

SciTech Connect

Range fires on the Hanford Site can have a long lasting effect on native plant communities. Wind erosion following removal of protective vegetation from fragile soils compound the damaging effect of fires. Dust storms caused by erosion create health and safety hazards to personnel, and damage facilities and equipment. The Integrated Biological Control Program (IBC) revegetates burned areas to control erosion and consequent dust. Use of native, perennial vegetation in revegetation moves the resulting plant community away from fire-prone annual weeds, and toward the native shrub-steppe that is much less likely to burn in the future. Over the past 10 years, IBC has revegetated major fire areas with good success. IBC staff is monitoring the success of these efforts, and using lessons learned to improve future efforts.

ROOS RC; JOHNSON AR; CAUDILL JG; RODRIGUEZ JM; WILDE JW

2010-01-05

108

The effects of wildfire, salvage logging, and post-fire N-fixation on the nutrient budgets of a Sierran forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of fire, post-fire salvage logging, and revegetation on nutrient budgets were estimated for a site in the eastern Sierra Nevada Mountains that burned in a wildfire in 1981. Approximately two decades after the fire, the shrub (former fire) ecosystem contained less C and more N than the adjacent forest ecosystem. Reconstruction of pre-fire nutrient budgets suggested that most

D. W. Johnson; J. F. Murphy; R. B. Susfalk; T. G. Caldwell; W. W. Miller; R. F. Walker; R. F. Powers

2005-01-01

109

Persistent Effects of Fire Severity on Early Successional Forests in Interior Alaska  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There has been a recent increase in the frequency and extent of wildfires in interior Alaska, and this trend is predicted to continue under a warming climate. Although less well documented, corresponding increases in fire severity are expected. Previous research from boreal forests in Alaska and western Canada indicate that severe fire promotes the recruitment of deciduous tree species and decreases the relative abundance of black spruce (Picea mariana) immediately after fire. Here we extend these observations by (1) examining changes in patterns of aspen and spruce density and biomass that occurred during the first two decades of post-fire succession, and (2) comparing patterns of tree composition in relation to variations in post-fire organic layer depth in four burned black spruce forests in interior Alaska after 10-20 years of succession.Wefound that initial effects of fire severity on recruitment and establishment of aspen and black spruce were maintained by subsequent effects of organic layer depth and initial plant biomass on plant growth during post-fire succession. The proportional contribution of aspen (Populus tremuloides) to total stand biomass remained above 90% during the first and second decades of succession in severely burned sites, while in lightly burned sites the proportional contribution of aspen was reduced due to a 40- fold increase in spruce biomass in these sites. Relationships between organic layer depth and stem density and biomass were consistently negative for aspen, and positive or neutral for black spruce in all four burns. Our results suggest that initial effects of post-fire organic layer depths on deciduous recruitment are likely to translate into a prolonged phase of deciduous dominance during post-fire succession in severely burned stands. This shift in vegetation distribution has important implications for climate-albedo feedbacks, future fire regime, wildlife habitat quality and natural resources for indigenous subsistence activities in interior Alaska.

Shenoy, Aditi; Johnstone, Jill F.; Kasischke, Eric S.; Kielland, Knut

2011-01-01

110

Influence of wildfires on atmospheric composition and carbon uptake of forest ecosystems in Central Siberia: the establishing of a long-term post-fire monitoring system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calculations of direct emissions of greenhouse gases from boreal wildfires remain uncertain due to problems with emission factors, available carbon, and imprecise estimates of burned areas. Even more varied and sparse are accurate in situ calculations of temporal changes in boreal forest carbon dynamics following fire. Linking simultaneous instrumental atmospheric observations, GIS-based estimates of burned areas, and ecosystem carbon uptake calculations is vital to fill this knowledge gap. Since 2006 the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO; www.zottoproject.org) a research platform for large-scale climatic observations is operational in Central Siberia (60°48'N, 89°21'E). The data of ongoing greenhouse gases measurements at the tower are used in atmospheric inversions studies to infer the distribution of carbon sinks and sources over central Northern Eurasia. We present our contribution to reducing uncertainties in estimates of fire influence on atmospheric composition and post-fire ecosystem carbon uptake deduced from the large-scale fires that happened in 2012 in the tall tower footprint area. The burned areas were estimated from Landsat ETM 5,8 satellite images, while fires were detected from Terra/Aqua MODIS satellite data. The magnitude of ecological change caused by fires ("burn severity") was measured and mapped with a Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) index and further calibrated by a complementary field based Composite Burn Index (CBI). Measures of fire radiative power (FRP) index provided information on fire heat release intensity and on the amount and completeness of biomass combustion. Based on the analyzed GIS data, the system of study plots was established in the 5 dominating ecosystem types for a long-term post-fire monitoring. On the plots the comprehensive estimation of ecosystem parameters and carbon pools and their mapping was organized with a laser-based field instrumentation system. The work was supported financially by ISTC Project # 2757p, project of RFBR # 13-05-98053, and grant of president of RF for young scientists MK-1691.2014.5.

Panov, Alexey; Chi, Xuguang; Winderlich, Jan; Prokushkin, Anatoly; Bryukhanov, Alexander; Korets, Mikhail; Ponomarev, Evgenii; Timokhina, Anastasya; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Heimann, Martin

2014-05-01

111

Induction of heat shock protein 70 by sodium arsenite attenuates burn-induced intestinal injury in severe burned rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to assess the effects of induced heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) on intestinal injury after severe burn. Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group, burn group (B group), sodium arsenite pretreatment group (SA group), and sodium arsenite+quercetin pretreatment group (SA+Qu group). Plasma endotoxin and d-lactic acid content were determined at 3, 6,

Zhi-Qiang Yuan; Yi-Zhi Peng; Xiao-Lu Li; Yue-Sheng Huang; Zong-Cheng Yang

2008-01-01

112

[Acute upper limb embolism in a severely burned patient].  

PubMed

Thrombosis and pulmonary embolisms are the most common complications in the hospital. The need for anticoagulation during hospital stay is obligatory. Arterial embolisms are rare. They often take place in patients with a pre-existing peripheral artery occlusive disease or in patients with atrial fibrillation. The most common complications in burn patients are wound infection, pneumonia, catheter-associated infections and paralytic ileus. There are almost no data available regarding arterial embolism in burn patients. Therefore we would like to present the case of a 60-year-old woman who was injured by a fire at home and was transported to our special burn unit. She sustained partial thickness burns of both legs and buttocks. The TBSA was 15%. During the first days of clinical stay the patient suffered from a pain induced movement reduction of the left hand. There were no peripheral pulses palpable or by pulsed-wave Doppler detectable. An urgent selected angiography of the left arm was performed and a arterial embolism of the proximal part of the a. brachialis was detected. The patient was operated immediately. After debridement and split-skin graft of the burn wounds the patient was taken to rehabiliation after 35 days. PMID:25564950

Wiebringhaus, P; Pierson, T; Menke, H

2014-12-01

113

Burns  

MedlinePLUS

NIGMS Home > Science Education > Burns Fact Sheet Burns Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area What is a burn? A burn is tissue damage caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, sunlight ...

114

Modeling hydrologic and geomorphic hazards across post-fire landscapes using a self-organizing map approach  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Few studies attempt to model the range of possible post-fire hydrologic and geomorphic hazards because of the sparseness of data and the coupled, nonlinear, spatial, and temporal relationships among landscape variables. In this study, a type of unsupervised artificial neural network, called a self-organized map (SOM), is trained using data from 540 burned basins in the western United States. The sparsely populated data set includes variables from independent numerical landscape categories (climate, land surface form, geologic texture, and post-fire condition), independent landscape classes (bedrock geology and state), and dependent initiation processes (runoff, landslide, and runoff and landslide combination) and responses (debris flows, floods, and no events). Pattern analysis of the SOM-based component planes is used to identify and interpret relations among the variables. Application of the Davies-Bouldin criteria following k-means clustering of the SOM neurons identified eight conceptual regional models for focusing future research and empirical model development. A split-sample validation on 60 independent basins (not included in the training) indicates that simultaneous predictions of initiation process and response types are at least 78% accurate. As climate shifts from wet to dry conditions, forecasts across the burned landscape reveal a decreasing trend in the total number of debris flow, flood, and runoff events with considerable variability among individual basins. These findings suggest the SOM may be useful in forecasting real-time post-fire hazards, and long-term post-recovery processes and effects of climate change scenarios. ?? 2011.

Friedel, M.J.

2011-01-01

115

Burn severity and areas of daily fire growth for 42 forest fires in Idaho and Montana, 2005 - 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work consisted of two studies of burn severity using infrared perimeter maps and satellite-inferred burn severity data, differenced Normalized Burn Ratio, from 42 wildland fires from central Idaho and western Montana from 2005 to 2007, and 2011. Study 1 examined the proportion of burn severity categories for individual daily areas burned. We defined 2,697 areas, from which we calculated the proportion of three burn severity classes. The proportion of high severity was weakly correlated with size of area burned. Large areas burned do not consistently produced larger proportions of high severity. Study 2 analyzed burn severity relative to 20 environmental variables using the Random Forest machine learning algorithm. We used ten daily weather observations, eight 34-yr climate percentiles, seven topographical index measurements, and four vegetation characteristics from 10,819 randomly located points. We found that higher percentage existing vegetation cover had larger influences on changes in burn severity.

Birch, Donovan Shayne

116

Effectiveness of Emergency Rehabilitation Treatments in Reducing Post-fire Erosion, Colorado Front Range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daniella T.M. Rough Department of Forest, Rangeland, and Watershed Stewardship, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Lee H. MacDonald Department of Forest, Rangeland, and Watershed Stewardship, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Burned area emergency rehabilitation (BAER) treatments are often applied to reduce post-fire flooding and erosion, but few studies have quantified their efficacy. The effectiveness of different BAER treatments in reducing post-fire erosion rates is being studied for three different wildfires in the Colorado Front Range. The treatments being monitored include seeding, contour felling, mulching, scarification with seeding, and a polyacrylamide (PAM). Sediment production rates are being measured at the hillslope scale using sediment fences installed immediately after the June 2000 Bobcat fire and the 2002 Hayman and Schoonover fires. Neither aerial- nor ground-based seeding significantly reduced erosion rates in the first three years after the Bobcat fire. In contrast, 4.5 t ha-1 of straw mulch consistently reduced sediment yields by more than 90%. Contour felling initially reduced erosion rates for small and moderate storms, but was less effective following the largest storms, presumably due to overwhelmed sediment storage capacity. A paired\\-swale design is being used for the 2002 Hayman and Schoonover fires, as this provides a more sensitive evaluation of BAER treatment effectiveness. The ground-based application of straw mulch and the aerial application of hydromulch each reduced sediment yields by more than 95% in both 2002 and 2003. However, the ground-based application of hydromulch in fall 2002 did not significantly reduce sediment yields in 2003. In 2002 the application of 11 kg ha-1 of PAM in an ammonium sulfate solution reduced sediment yields by 66%. In 2003 neither these sites nor three newly treated sites showed a significant reduction in sediment yields. A dry application of 5.6 kg ha-1 PAM had no detectable effect on sediment yields, nor did scarification and seeding in 2002 or 2003. These data suggest that treatment effectiveness varies with time since application, storm intensity, and amount of ground cover. Studies on these and other fires indicate that percent ground cover is the primary control on post-fire erosion rates because this reduces rainsplash, sheetwash, and rill erosion. Mulching has been the most effective BAER treatment because this immediately provides ground cover. Treatments that do not immediately increase ground cover (e.g., seeding, contour felling, and PAM) have shown more limited effectiveness in reducing post-fire erosion rates.

Rough, D. T.; MacDonald, L. H.

2003-12-01

117

Post-fire surface water quality: comparison of fire retardant versus wildfire-related effects.  

PubMed

An understanding of the environmental effects of the use of wildland fire retardant is needed to provide informed decision-making regarding forest management. We compiled data from all post-fire surface water monitoring programs where the fire retardant constituents ammonia, phosphorus, and cyanide were measured, and data were available in the public domain. For streams near four major wildfires, we evaluated whether these chemicals originated primarily from fire or from retardant use. We compared measured concentrations in streams where chemical wildland fire retardant was applied with concentrations in streams draining areas where retardant was not used. Correlations with calcium provided an additional line of evidence, because calcium concentrations in ash are much higher than in retardant. Ammonia, phosphorus, and total cyanide were found in streams in burned areas where retardant was not used, at concentrations similar to those found in areas where retardant was applied. Concentrations of weak acid dissociable cyanide were generally non-detected or very low, whether or not wildland fire retardant was used in the watershed. These results indicate that the application of wildland fire retardant had minimal effects on proximate surface water quality. Cyanide concentrations in post-fire stormwater runoff were not affected by the presence of ferrocyanide in the retardant formulas and were due to pyrogenic sources. PMID:16023176

Crouch, Robert L; Timmenga, Hubert J; Barber, Timothy R; Fuchsman, Phyllis C

2006-02-01

118

[The Ogilvie syndrome in a severely burned patient].  

PubMed

The Ogilvie syndrome is an acute colonic dilatation of the previously healthy colon, without any organic obstruction. Pathological circumstances such as burns and antipsychotic medication have been identified as predisposing elements. The incidence of this complication, in the reanimation of burn patients, varies between 0.5 to 1%. The purpose of our study is to draw attention to the Ogilvie symptom by describing a case with its clinical and paraclinical data, its physiopathological causes, and the therapeutic aspects. The clinical picture in our patient was characteristic: extensive abdominal meteorism. The abdominal scan showed massive colonic dilatation without any mechanical obstacles. The outcome was successful after colonoscopic exsufflation. The Ogilvie syndrome is a rare occurrence which without effective treatment may result in caecal perforation and a poor prognosis. It is therefore necessary to establish the diagnosis early and, in particular, to initiate close radiological follow-up after the establishment of medical treatment, in which colonoscopy plays an important part. PMID:22396676

Siah, S; Seddik, H; Ababou, K; Ihrai, H; Drissi Kamili, N

2011-09-30

119

Fuel treatments and landform modify landscape patterns of burn severity in an extreme fire event.  

PubMed

Under a rapidly warming climate, a critical management issue in semiarid forests of western North America is how to increase forest resilience to wildfire. We evaluated relationships between fuel reduction treatments and burn severity in the 2006 Tripod Complex fires, which burned over 70,000 ha of mixed-conifer forests in the North Cascades range of Washington State and involved 387 past harvest and fuel treatment units. A secondary objective was to investigate other drivers of burn severity including landform, weather, vegetation characteristics, and a recent mountain pine beetle outbreak. We used sequential autoregression (SAR) to evaluate drivers of burn severity, represented by the relative differenced Normalized Burn Ratio index, in two study areas that are centered on early progressions of the wildfire complex. Significant predictor variables include treatment type, landform (elevation), fire weather (minimum relative humidity and maximum temperature), and vegetation characteristics, including canopy closure, cover type, and mountain pine beetle attack. Recent mountain pine beetle damage was a statistically significant predictor variable with red and mixed classes of beetle attack associated with higher burn severity. Treatment age and size were only weakly correlated with burn severity and may be partly explained by the lack of treatments older than 30 years and the low rates of fuel succession in these semiarid forests. Even during extreme weather, fuel conditions and landform strongly influenced patterns of burn severity. Fuel treatments that included recent prescribed burning of surface fuels were particularly effective at mitigating burn severity. Although surface and canopy fuel treatments are unlikely to substantially reduce the area burned in regional fire years, recent research, including this study, suggests that they can be an effective management strategy for increasing forest landscape resilience to wildfires. PMID:24834742

Prichard, Susan J; Kennedy, Maureen C

2014-04-01

120

Linking Burn Severity to Soil Infiltartion and Runoff in a Montane Watershed: Boulder, Colorado  

E-print Network

severities. Variability of field conditions, the presence of parameters affecting runoff not accounted for, and the limitations of point measurements, are reflected by the data analysis and lack of a strong correlation between burn severity, infiltration...

Ahlstrom, Anna 1988-

2012-11-28

121

Comparative Study of Cytokine Content in the Plasma and Wound Exudate from Children with Severe Burns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The content of 27 cytokines was measured in blood plasma from 19 children with severe uncomplicated burns (group 1) and complicated\\u000a burns (septic toxemia, toxemia, and pneumonia; group 2). Before surgical treatment (day 4 (±2) after burn), significant differences\\u000a were found in the concentrations of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, interleukin-10, tumor\\u000a necrosis factor-?, interferon-?, MCP-1, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.

E. V. Mikhal’chik; J. A. Piterskaya; L. Y. Budkevich; L. Yu. Pen’kov; A. Facchiano; C. De Luca; G. A. Ibragimova; L. G. Korkina

2009-01-01

122

Analysis and mapping of post-fire hydrologic hazards for the 2002 Hayman, Coal Seam, and Missionary Ridge wildfires, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wildfires caused extreme changes in the hydrologic, hydraulic, and geomorphologic characteristics of many Colorado drainage basins in the summer of 2002. Detailed assessments were made of the short-term effects of three wildfires on burned and adjacent unburned parts of drainage basins. These were the Hayman, Coal Seam, and Missionary Ridge wildfires. Longer term runoff characteristics that reflect post-fire drainage basin recovery expected to develop over a period of several years also were analyzed for two affected stream reaches: the South Platte River between Deckers and Trumbull, and Mitchell Creek in Glenwood Springs. The 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year flood-plain boundaries and water-surface profiles were computed in a detailed hydraulic study of the Deckers-to-Trumbull reach. The Hayman wildfire burned approximately 138,000 acres (216 square miles) in granitic terrain near Denver, and the predominant potential hazard in this area is flooding by sediment-laden water along the large tributaries to and the main stem of the South Platte River. The Coal Seam wildfire burned approximately 12,200 acres (19.1 square miles) near Glenwood Springs, and the Missionary Ridge wildfire burned approximately 70,500 acres (110 square miles) near Durango, both in areas underlain by marine shales where the predominant potential hazard is debris-flow inundation of low-lying areas. Hydrographs and peak discharges for pre-burn and post-burn scenarios were computed for each drainage basin and tributary subbasin by using rainfall-runoff models because streamflow data for most tributary subbasins were not available. An objective rainfall-runoff model calibration method based on nonlinear regression and referred to as the ?objective calibration method? was developed and applied to rainfall-runoff models for three burned areas. The HEC-1 rainfall-runoff model was used to simulate the pre-burn rainfall-runoff processes in response to the 100-year storm, and HEC-HMS was used for runoff hydrograph generation. Post-burn rainfall-runoff parameters were determined by adjusting the runoff-curve numbers on the basis of a weighting procedure derived from the U.S. Soil Conservation Service (now the National Resources Conservation Service) equation for precipitation excess and the effect of burn severity. This weighting procedure was determined to be more appropriate than simple area weighting because of the potentially marked effect of even small burned areas on the runoff hydrograph in individual drainage basins. Computed water-peak discharges from HEC-HMS models were increased volumetrically to account for increased sediment concentrations that are expected as a result of accelerated erosion after burning. Peak discharge estimates for potential floods in the South Platte River were increased by a factor that assumed a volumetric sediment concentration (Cv) of 20 percent. Flood hydrographs for the South Platte River and Mitchell Creek were routed down main-stem channels using watershed-routing algorithms included in the HEC-HMS rainfall-runoff model. In areas subject to debris flows in the Coal Seam and Missionary Ridge burned areas, debris-flow discharges were simulated by 100-year rainfall events, and the inflow hydrographs at tributary mouths were simulated by using the objective calibration method. Sediment concentrations (Cv) used in debris-flow simulations were varied through the event, and were initial Cv 20 percent, mean Cv approximately 31 percent, maximum Cv 48 percent, Cv 43 percent at the time of the water hydrograph peak, and Cv 20 percent for the duration of the event. The FLO-2D flood- and debris-flow routing model was used to delineate the area of unconfined debris-flow inundation on selected alluvial fan and valley floor areas. A method was developed to objectively determine the post-fire recovery period for the Hayman and Coal Seam burned areas using runoff-curve numbers (RCN) for all drainage basins for a 50-year period. A

Elliott, J.G.; Smith, M.E.; Friedel, M.J.; Stevens, M.R.; Bossong, C.R.; Litke, D.W.; Parker, R.S.; Costello, C.; Wagner, J.; Char, S.J.; Bauer, M.A.; Wilds, S.R.

2005-01-01

123

Soil microbiological properties and enzymatic activities of long-term post-fire recovery in dry and semiarid Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis M.) forest stands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires affecting forest ecosystems and post-fire silvicultural treatments may cause considerable changes in soil properties. The capacity of different microbial groups to recolonize soil after disturbances is crucial for proper soil functioning. The aim of this work was to investigate some microbial soil properties and enzyme activities in semiarid and dry Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis M.) forest stands. Different plots affected by a wildfire event 17 years ago without or with post-fire silvicultural treatments five years after the fire event were selected. A mature Aleppo pine stand unaffected by wildfire and not thinned was used as a control. Physicochemical soil properties (soil texture, pH, carbonates, organic matter, electrical conductivity, total N and P), soil enzymes (urease, phosphatase, ?-glucosidase and dehydrogenase activities), soil respiration and soil microbial biomass carbon were analysed in the selected forests areas and plots. The main finding was that long time after this fire event produces no differences in the microbiological soil properties and enzyme activities of soil after comparing burned and thinned, burned and not thinned, and mature plots. Thus, the long-term consequences and post-fire silvicultural management in the form of thinning have a significant effect on the site recovery after fire. Moreover, significant site variation was generally seen in soil enzyme activities and microbiological parameters. We conclude that total vegetation restoration normalises microbial parameters, and that wildfire and post-fire silvicultural treatments are not significant factors of soil properties after 17 years.

Hedo, J.; Lucas-Borja, M. E.; Wic, C.; Andrés Abellán, M.; de Las Heras, J.

2014-10-01

124

Soil microbiological properties and enzymatic activities of long-term post-fire recovery in dry and semiarid Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis M.) forest stands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires affecting forest ecosystems and post-fire silvicultural treatments may cause considerable changes in soil properties. The capacity of different microbial groups to recolonise soil after disturbances is crucial for proper soil functioning. The aim of this work was to investigate some microbial soil properties and enzyme activities in semiarid and dry Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis M.) forest stands. Different plots affected by a wildfire event 17 years ago without or with post-fire silvicultural treatments 5 years after the fire event were selected. A mature Aleppo pine stand, unaffected by wildfire and not thinned was used as a control. Physicochemical soil properties (soil texture, pH, carbonates, organic matter, electrical conductivity, total N and P), soil enzymes (urease, phosphatase, ?-glucosidase and dehydrogenase activities), soil respiration and soil microbial biomass carbon were analysed in the selected forests areas and plots. The main finding was that long time after this fire event produces no differences in the microbiological soil properties and enzyme activities of soil after comparing burned and thinned, burned and not thinned, and mature plots. Moreover, significant site variation was generally seen in soil enzyme activities and microbiological parameters. We conclude that total vegetation recovery normalises post-fire soil microbial parameters, and that wildfire and post-fire silvicultural treatments are not significant factors affecting soil properties after 17 years.

Hedo, J.; Lucas-Borja, M. E.; Wic, C.; Andrés-Abellán, M.; de Las Heras, J.

2015-02-01

125

Post-fire seeding on Wyoming big sagebrush ecological sites: regression analyses of seeded nonnative and native species densities.  

PubMed

Since the mid-1980s, sagebrush rangelands in the Great Basin of the United States have experienced more frequent and larger wildfires. These fires affect livestock forage, the sagebrush/grasses/forbs mosaic that is important for many wildlife species (e.g., the greater sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus)), post-fire flammability and fire frequency. When a sagebrush, especially a Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young)), dominated area largely devoid of herbaceous perennials burns, it often transitions to an annual dominated and highly flammable plant community that thereafter excludes sagebrush and native perennials. Considerable effort is devoted to revegetating rangeland following fire, but to date there has been very little analysis of the factors that lead to the success of this revegetation. This paper utilizes a revegetation monitoring dataset to examine the densities of three key types of vegetation, specifically nonnative seeded grasses, nonnative seeded forbs, and native Wyoming big sagebrush, at several points in time following seeding. We find that unlike forbs, increasing the seeding rates for grasses does not appear to increase their density (at least for the sites and seeding rates we examined). Also, seeding Wyoming big sagebrush increases its density with time since fire. Seeding of grasses and forbs is less successful at locations that were dominated primarily by annual grasses (cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.)), and devoid of shrubs, prior to wildfire. This supports the hypothesis of a "closing window of opportunity" for seeding at locations that burned sagebrush for the first time in recent history. PMID:18790557

Eiswerth, Mark E; Krauter, Karl; Swanson, Sherman R; Zielinski, Mike

2009-02-01

126

Severe burn injury in europe: a systematic review of the incidence, etiology, morbidity, and mortality  

PubMed Central

Introduction Burn injury is a serious pathology, potentially leading to severe morbidity and significant mortality, but it also has a considerable health-economic impact. The aim of this study was to describe the European hospitalized population with severe burn injury, including the incidence, etiology, risk factors, mortality, and causes of death. Methods The systematic literature search (1985 to 2009) involved PubMed, the Web of Science, and the search engine Google. The reference lists and the Science Citation Index were used for hand searching (snowballing). Only studies dealing with epidemiologic issues (for example, incidence and outcome) as their major topic, on hospitalized populations with severe burn injury (in secondary and tertiary care) in Europe were included. Language restrictions were set on English, French, and Dutch. Results The search led to 76 eligible studies, including more than 186,500 patients in total. The annual incidence of severe burns was 0.2 to 2.9/10,000 inhabitants with a decreasing trend in time. Almost 50% of patients were younger than 16 years, and ~60% were male patients. Flames, scalds, and contact burns were the most prevalent causes in the total population, but in children, scalds clearly dominated. Mortality was usually between 1.4% and 18% and is decreasing in time. Major risk factors for death were older age and a higher total percentage of burned surface area, as well as chronic diseases. (Multi) organ failure and sepsis were the most frequently reported causes of death. The main causes of early death (<48 hours) were burn shock and inhalation injury. Conclusions Despite the lack of a large-scale European registration of burn injury, more epidemiologic information is available about the hospitalized population with severe burn injury than is generally presumed. National and international registration systems nevertheless remain necessary to allow better targeting of prevention campaigns and further improvement of cost-effectiveness in total burn care. PMID:20958968

2010-01-01

127

Post-Fire Soil Respiration in Relation to the Burnt Wood Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires are the main cause of forests and understory destruction in Mediterranean areas. One of the most dramatic consequences is the perturbation of carbon fluxes. A high percentage of the CO2 emitted by the ecosystem after a wildfire is due to soil respiration, which represents the most important uncertainty in the global carbon cycle. In this study we have quantified the soil respiration and its seasonal variability in reforested pine forests in the National and Natural Park of Sierra Nevada which were burned in September of 2005. Measurement campaigns were carried out along two years in two experimental plots at different altitudinal levels (1500 and 2200 m a.s.l.), in which three post-fire silvicultural treatments of burned wood were established: 1) "Non-Intervention" (NI), leaving all of the burnt trees standing. 2) "Cut plus Lopping" (CL), a treatment where most of the trees were cut and felled, with the main branches also lopped off, but leaving all the cut biomass in situ covering partially the ground surface 3) "Salvage Logging" (SL), all trees were cut and the trunks and branches were removed. Soil respiration was highly determined by the effects derived of the altitudinal level, with the highest values at the lowest altitude. The seasonal precipitation regime had also a key role. Soil respiration kept a basal level during the summer drought, during this period the response to the altitudinal level and post-fire treatments were reduced. On the other hand, soil respiration boosted after rain events, when the differences between treatments became more pronounced. In general, especially under these conditions of absence of water limitation, the post-fire burnt wood treatment with the highest CO2 fluxes was that in which all the burnt wood biomass remained covering partially the soil surface ("Cut plus Lopping") while the lowest values were registered in the treatment in which the soil was bared ("Salvage Logging"). Results of this study are especially important for the management of forest areas affected by wildfires, now that they offer key information about the influence of the forest intervention related to the burnt wood after fires in the carbon cycle and about the soil capacity of CO2 sequestration.

Marañón Jiménez, Sara; Castro, J.; Kowalski, A.; Serrano-Ortiz, P.; Ruiz, B.; Sancez-Canete, Ep; Zamora, R.

2010-05-01

128

Post-Fire Spatial Patterns of Soil Nitrogen Mineralization and Microbial Abundance  

PubMed Central

Stand-replacing fires influence soil nitrogen availability and microbial community composition, which may in turn mediate post-fire successional dynamics and nutrient cycling. However, fires create patchiness at both local and landscape scales and do not result in consistent patterns of ecological dynamics. The objectives of this study were to (1) quantify the spatial structure of microbial communities in forest stands recently affected by stand-replacing fire and (2) determine whether microbial variables aid predictions of in situ net nitrogen mineralization rates in recently burned stands. The study was conducted in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and Engelmann spruce/subalpine fir (Picea engelmannii/Abies lasiocarpa) forest stands that burned during summer 2000 in Greater Yellowstone (Wyoming, USA). Using a fully probabilistic spatial process model and Bayesian kriging, the spatial structure of microbial lipid abundance and fungi-to-bacteria ratios were found to be spatially structured within plots two years following fire (for most plots, autocorrelation range varied from 1.5 to 10.5 m). Congruence of spatial patterns among microbial variables, in situ net N mineralization, and cover variables was evident. Stepwise regression resulted in significant models of in situ net N mineralization and included variables describing fungal and bacterial abundance, although explained variance was low (R2<0.29). Unraveling complex spatial patterns of nutrient cycling and the biotic factors that regulate it remains challenging but is critical for explaining post-fire ecosystem function, especially in Greater Yellowstone, which is projected to experience increased fire frequencies by mid 21st Century. PMID:23226324

Smithwick, Erica A. H.; Naithani, Kusum J.; Balser, Teri C.; Romme, William H.; Turner, Monica G.

2012-01-01

129

Dynamic modelling of post-fire transient hydrological behavior of the permafrost basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wilfire have profound effect on landscape properties and consequently on hydrological processes. In permafrost zone fire affects vegetation structure, soil moisture and ground thermal regime, active layer depth dynamics, talik formation and snow accumulation that drive flow generation mechanisms. The goal of the study was to develop a modelling approach that is able to explicitly account for rapid environmental changes after fire event to describe and potentially forecast the hydrological response to fire disturbance. The process-based Hydrograph model is the core of the developed dynamic modelling approach. The Hydrograph model uses observable landscape properties as the parameters. This ability is of high importance in presented study because it allows direct linking of flow formation conditions and mechanisms. The case study is the Vitimkan River basin, Eastern Siberia. It has an area of 969 km2. The basin is located in high-elevated permafrost zone and is covered by mountainous tundra and larch forest. In May-June 2003 78 % of the watershed was burned according to the MODIS Burned area date product. The pair-watershed approach was employed for preliminary investigation of fire impact on hydrological regime. For deeper insight into the processes the Hydrograph model was applied with conventional static parameters. The results of both pair-watershed and model detection methods suggest profound effect of the fire on the Vitimkan River runoff in 2003 and 2004. Post-fire soil and vegetation properties of the watershed were estimated in dynamic mode in each hydrological response unit according to remote sensing data and literature review and used as the model parameters for disturbed period. The ability of the dynamic modelling approach to present hydrological response in non-stationary post-fire conditions will be discussed.

Lebedeva, Liudmila; Semenova, Olga; Volkova, Nina; Forkel, Matthias; Eberle, Jonas; Urban, Marcel

2014-05-01

130

Post-fire spatial patterns of soil nitrogen mineralization and microbial abundance.  

PubMed

Stand-replacing fires influence soil nitrogen availability and microbial community composition, which may in turn mediate post-fire successional dynamics and nutrient cycling. However, fires create patchiness at both local and landscape scales and do not result in consistent patterns of ecological dynamics. The objectives of this study were to (1) quantify the spatial structure of microbial communities in forest stands recently affected by stand-replacing fire and (2) determine whether microbial variables aid predictions of in situ net nitrogen mineralization rates in recently burned stands. The study was conducted in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and Engelmann spruce/subalpine fir (Picea engelmannii/Abies lasiocarpa) forest stands that burned during summer 2000 in Greater Yellowstone (Wyoming, USA). Using a fully probabilistic spatial process model and Bayesian kriging, the spatial structure of microbial lipid abundance and fungi-to-bacteria ratios were found to be spatially structured within plots two years following fire (for most plots, autocorrelation range varied from 1.5 to 10.5 m). Congruence of spatial patterns among microbial variables, in situ net N mineralization, and cover variables was evident. Stepwise regression resulted in significant models of in situ net N mineralization and included variables describing fungal and bacterial abundance, although explained variance was low (R²<0.29). Unraveling complex spatial patterns of nutrient cycling and the biotic factors that regulate it remains challenging but is critical for explaining post-fire ecosystem function, especially in Greater Yellowstone, which is projected to experience increased fire frequencies by mid 21(st) Century. PMID:23226324

Smithwick, Erica A H; Naithani, Kusum J; Balser, Teri C; Romme, William H; Turner, Monica G

2012-01-01

131

The impact of severe burn injury on skeletal muscle mitochondrial function  

PubMed Central

Severe burn injury induces a pathophysiological response that affects almost every physiological system within the body. Inflammation, hypermetabolism, muscle wasting, and insulin resistance are all hallmarks of the pathophysiological response to burn injury, with perturbations in metabolism known to persist for several years post injury. Skeletal muscle is the main depot of lean tissue within the body and as the primary site of peripheral glucose disposal, plays an important role in metabolic regulation. Following a large burn, skeletal muscle functions as and endogenous amino acid store, providing substrates for more pressing functions post burn, such as the synthesis of acute phase proteins and the deposition of new skin. Subsequently, burn patients become cachexic, which is associated with poor outcomes in terms of metabolic health and functional capacity. While a loss of skeletal muscle contractile proteins per se will no doubt negatively impact functional capacity, detriments in skeletal muscle quality, i.e. a loss in mitochondrial number and/or function may be quantitatively just as important. The goal of this review article is to summarize the current understanding of the impact of burn injury on skeletal muscle mitochondrial content and function, to offer direction for future research concerning skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in patients with severe burns, and to renew interest in the role of these organelles in metabolic dysfunction following burn injury. PMID:23664225

Porter, Craig; Herndon, David N; Sidossis, Labros S; Borsheim, Elisabet

2013-01-01

132

Burns  

MedlinePLUS

A burn is damage to your body's tissues caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, sunlight or radiation. Scalds from hot ... and gases are the most common causes of burns. Another kind is an inhalation injury, caused by ...

133

Burns  

MedlinePLUS

... clean dressing. Protect the burn from pressure and friction. Over-the-counter ibuprofen or acetaminophen can help ... heart. Protect the burn area from pressure and friction. You will also need to prevent shock . If ...

134

Integrating satellite imagery with simulation modeling to improve burn severity mapping.  

PubMed

Both satellite imagery and spatial fire effects models are valuable tools for generating burn severity maps that are useful to fire scientists and resource managers. The purpose of this study was to test a new mapping approach that integrates imagery and modeling to create more accurate burn severity maps. We developed and assessed a statistical model that combines the Relative differenced Normalized Burn Ratio, a satellite image-based change detection procedure commonly used to map burn severity, with output from the Fire Hazard and Risk Model, a simulation model that estimates fire effects at a landscape scale. Using 285 Composite Burn Index (CBI) plots in Washington and Montana as ground reference, we found that an integrated model explained more variability in CBI (R (2) = 0.47) and had lower mean squared error (MSE = 0.28) than image (R (2) = 0.42 and MSE = 0.30) or simulation-based models (R (2) = 0.07 and MSE = 0.49) alone. Overall map accuracy was also highest for maps created with the Integrated Model (63 %). We suspect that Simulation Model performance would greatly improve with higher quality and more accurate spatial input data. Results of this study indicate the potential benefit of combining satellite image-based methods with a fire effects simulation model to create improved burn severity maps. PMID:24817334

Karau, Eva C; Sikkink, Pamela G; Keane, Robert E; Dillon, Gregory K

2014-07-01

135

Integrating Satellite Imagery with Simulation Modeling to Improve Burn Severity Mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both satellite imagery and spatial fire effects models are valuable tools for generating burn severity maps that are useful to fire scientists and resource managers. The purpose of this study was to test a new mapping approach that integrates imagery and modeling to create more accurate burn severity maps. We developed and assessed a statistical model that combines the Relative differenced Normalized Burn Ratio, a satellite image-based change detection procedure commonly used to map burn severity, with output from the Fire Hazard and Risk Model, a simulation model that estimates fire effects at a landscape scale. Using 285 Composite Burn Index (CBI) plots in Washington and Montana as ground reference, we found that an integrated model explained more variability in CBI ( R 2 = 0.47) and had lower mean squared error (MSE = 0.28) than image ( R 2 = 0.42 and MSE = 0.30) or simulation-based models ( R 2 = 0.07 and MSE = 0.49) alone. Overall map accuracy was also highest for maps created with the Integrated Model (63 %). We suspect that Simulation Model performance would greatly improve with higher quality and more accurate spatial input data. Results of this study indicate the potential benefit of combining satellite image-based methods with a fire effects simulation model to create improved burn severity maps.

Karau, Eva C.; Sikkink, Pamela G.; Keane, Robert E.; Dillon, Gregory K.

2014-07-01

136

Burn severity and non-native species in Yosemite National Park, California, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined non-native species density three years after the Tuolumne Fire, which burned 1540 ha in upper montane forest in California, USA. We sampled 60 plots, stratified by burn severity (low, moderate, or high severity) and landscape position (lowland or upland). We detected non-native species in 8 of 11 (73 %) of high severity lowland sites and in 5 of 10 (50 %) of moderate severity lowland sites but, overall, richness and abundance was low. We detected only five non-native species, of which bull thistle (Cirsium vulgare [Savi] Ten.) was the most common. Although non-native abundance is currently low, we recommend continued low intensity monitoring, especially on high severity burned lowland sites.

Kaczynski, Kristen M.; Beatty, Susan W.; van Wagtendonk, Jan W.; Marshall, Kristin N.

2011-01-01

137

[Preclinical treatment of severe burn trauma due to an electric arc on an overhead railway cable].  

PubMed

Severe burns due to electrical accidents occur rarely in Germany but represent a challenge for emergency physicians and their team. Apart from extensive burns cardiac arrhythmia, neurological damage caused by electric current and osseous injury corresponding to the trauma mechanism are also common. It is important to perform a survey of the pattern of injuries and treat acute life-threatening conditions immediately in the field. Furthermore, specific conditions related to burns must be considered, e.g. fluid resuscitation, thermal management and analgesia. In addition, a correct strategy for further medical care in an appropriate hospital is essential. Exemplified by this case guidelines for the treatment of severe burns and typical pitfalls are presented. PMID:23149880

Spelten, O; Wetsch, W A; Hinkelbein, J

2013-09-01

138

Evaluation of post fire changes in soil properties and influence on the hydrological and erosive dynamics in a Mediterranean watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last fifty years, forest fires and changes in land use and management practices have had a significant influenceon the evolution of soil loss processes in the Mediterranean area. Forest fires have immediate effects in hydrological processes mainly due to sudden changes in soil properties and vegetation cover. After a fire there is an increase in runoff processes and peak flows and thus in the amount and composition of the sediments produced. Silting in dams downstream is often reported so the description of the post-fire hydrological processes is crucial in order to optimize decision making. This study analyzes a micro-watershed of 25 ha in the south of Spain that suffered a fire in October 2010 burning around a 2 km2 area. As the erosive processes in this area are directly related to concentrated overland flow, an indirect assessment of soil loss is presented in this work based on evaluating changes in runoff in Mediterranean post-fire situations. For this, the study is divided into two main parts. Firstly, changes in soil properties and vegetation cover are evaluated. Secondly, the effects of these changes in the hydrological and erosive dynamics are assessed.The watershed had been monitored in previous studies so soil properties and the vegetation cover before the fire took place were already characterized. Besides, the hydrological response was also available through an already calibrated and validated physically-based distributed hydrological model. For the evaluation of soil properties, field measurement campaigns were designed. Philip Dunne's tests for the determination of saturated hydraulic conductivity, as well as moisture content and bulk density measurements were carried out in both unaltered and burned soil samples. Changes in the vegetation cover fraction were assessed through desktop analysis of Landsat-TM5 platform satellite images as well as through visual inspection in the field campaigns. The analysis of the hydraulic conductivity revealed a reduction in post-fire values of near 90 % over those previous to the fire. Regarding the vegetation cover, the recovery of the burned covers, mainly herbaceous with some bushes, turned out to quick due to the wet character of the year. Nevertheless, an apparent decrease in the cover fraction and thus in the vegetation storage capacity was reported. These changes were incorporated into a new hydrological model configuration and compared to the response previous to the fire. The results point out the rainfall pattern to be a determinant factor in post-fire situation with an increase in modeled runoff of up to 350% and even more in dry years. These results have direct implications in soil erodibility changes in hillslopes as well as a considerable increase in bedload processes in Mediterranean alluvial rivers.

Sanz, Inés; Aguilar, Cristina; Millares, Agustín

2013-04-01

139

Fat Injection for Cases of Severe Burn Outcomes: A New Perspective of Scar Remodeling and Reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Despite civilization and progress, burns occur frequently in the world. Remarkable discoveries of wound healing mechanisms\\u000a have been reported. On the other hand, long-term outcomes from burn injuries represent a barrier to improvement of patients’\\u000a social, functional, and psychological condition. Lipofilling, described since the 1980s, currently is used for several clinical\\u000a applications. This study aimed to verify whether lipofilling could

M. Klinger; M. Marazzi; D. Vigo; M. Torre

2008-01-01

140

[Use of enterosgel in middle-aged and aged patients with medium-severity burns].  

PubMed

The comparative dynamics of intoxication and natural humoral organism resistance indexes in elderly and senile patients with burn disease of middle degree severity while application of generally used therapy and incorporating in treatment complex the enterosgel preparation prescribed since 24 hours after injury occurrence was studied. Under the enterosgel influence the intoxication syndrome intensity has been markedly decreased, what promoted the skin loss restoration, favourable burn disease course, mortality reduction, and the shortening of patients hospital stay. PMID:7799576

Na?da, I V

1994-01-01

141

Wildfire Impacts on Stream Sedimentation and Channel Morphology: Revisiting the Boulder Creek Burn in Little Granite Creek  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnitude of hydrologic and sedimentologic changes observed in watersheds following wildfire depend largely on the severity of the burn, landscape susceptibility to erosion, and the timing and magnitude of storms following the fire. In this study of a burned watershed in NW Wyoming (Boulder Creek burn in Little Granite Creek watershed), sedimentation impacts following a moderately sized fire (burned in 2000) were evaluated against known sediment loads measured prior to burning and against a comparable control watershed. Pre-burn data on rates of sediment transport provide useful information on the inherent variability of stream processes and were used to assess degree of departure due to disturbance from wildfire. Early observations of sediment yield showed substantially elevated rates (5x) the first year post-fire (2001), followed by less elevated rates in 2002 and 2003, signaling a return to baseline values by 3 years post-fire. More recent work, 8 years post-fire, has shown elevated suspended sediment concentrations relative to pre-burn values. We tentatively attribute this increase to destabilization of channels in the burned area due to the introduction of large wood (LW). Surveys indicated that the number of pieces of instream LW were doubled and tripled in some reaches as burned trees began to decay and fall in to the channel. Observed channel changes associated with the introduction of new wood include: 1) increase in the size and number of LW jams; 2) deposition of sediment within LW jams; 3) channel avulsions; 4) erosion of banks and terraces where wood re-directed flow into the bank; and 5) new sources of sediment due to channel instability. These results provide insight into longer-term geomorphic impacts of wildland fire that are associated with LW dynamics and changes to channel and bank stability in the burned riparian environment.

Ryan, S. E.; Dwire, K. A.; Air, Water,; Aquatic Ecosystems Program

2011-12-01

142

Use of a radiative transfer model to simulate the postfire spectral response to burn severity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Burn severity is related to fire intensity and fire duration and provides a quantitative measure related to fire impact and biomass consumption. Traditional field-based methods to estimate burn severity are time consuming, labor intensive, and normally limited in spatial extent. Remotely sensed data may provide a means to estimate severity levels across large areas, but it is critical to understand the causes of variability in spectral response with variations in burn severity. To address this issue, a combined leaf (Prospect) and canopy (Kuusk) reflectance model was used to simulate the spectral response of a range of vegetation canopies with different burn severity levels. The key aspects examined in the simulations were change in soil color, change in foliage color from green to brown (burned), and change in leaf area index (LAI). For each simulation the composite burn index (CBI) was determined using the same rules used in the field to estimate burn severity levels. Statistical analyses examined the strength of the correlations between CBI and reflectance in individual wave bands in the 400-2500 nm range and CBI and a range of spectral indices combining pairs of wave bands. The results showed that wave bands in the near infrared (NIR) were most strongly related to the CBI of the simulated canopies because of their sensitivity to reduction in LAI. Spectral indices combining reflectance in wave bands in the NIR and shortwave infrared and red edge region showed stronger correlations with CBI. Forward stepwise regression with two to six terms selected wave bands in these regions and accounted for more than 90% of the variation in CBI.

Chuvieco, E.; RiañO, D.; Danson, F. M.; Martin, P.

2006-12-01

143

Fire behavior, weather, and burn severity of the 2007 anaktuvuk river tundra fire, North Slope, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2007, the Anaktuvuk River Fire (ARF) became the largest recorded tundra fire on the North Slope of Alaska. The ARF burned for nearly three months, consuming more than 100,000 ha. At its peak in early September, the ARF burned at a rate of 7000 ha d-1. The conditions potentially responsible for this large tundra fire include modeled record high summer temperature and record low summer precipitation, a late-season high-pressure system located over the Beaufort Sea, extremely dry soil conditions throughout the summer, and sustained southerly winds during the period of vegetation senescence. Burn severity mapping revealed that more than 80% of the ARF burned at moderate to extreme severity, while the nearby Kuparuk River Fire remained small and burned at predominantly (80%) low severity. While this study provides information that may aid in the prediction of future large tundra fires in northern Alaska, the fact that three other tundra fires that occurred in 2007 combined to burn less than 1000 ha suggests site specific complexities associated with tundra fires on the North Slope, which may hamper the development of tundra fire forecasting models.

Jones, B.; Kolden, C.; Jandt, R.; Abatzoglou, J.; Urban, F.; Arp, C.

2009-01-01

144

Hydrogen-rich saline resuscitation alleviates inflammation induced by severe burn with delayed resuscitation.  

PubMed

Severe burns with delayed resuscitation are associated with high morbidity which is attributed to ischemia-reperfusion injury. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of hydrogen-rich saline known as a significant selective antioxidant on the inflammatory reaction induced by severe burns with delayed resuscitation. By establishing the model of severe burns with delayed resuscitation in rats, we recorded improvement on the mortality, secretion of cytokines and reaction of oxidative stress of rats treated with hydrogen-rich saline. We found that resuscitation by hydrogen-rich saline alleviated inflammation significantly. We further detected the change of the key nuclear factor NF-?B contributed to inflammation. The expression of both NF-?B and phosphorylated NF-?B in rats having severe burns with delayed resuscitation by hydrogen-rich saline was lower than that in rats with delayed resuscitation with Ringers' solution. Our data imply that hydrogen-rich saline significantly improves the inflammatory reaction in rats with severe burns with delayed resuscitation, possibly by inhibiting activation of NF-?B. PMID:25440852

Wang, Xiaojuan; Yu, Pan; YongYang; Liu, Xiaocong; Jiang, Jinheng; Liu, Degui; Xue, Gang

2015-03-01

145

Post-fire regeneration patterns in the eastern Iberian Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Post-fire regeneration patterns (plant cover and richness) in the Valencia region (eastern Iberian Peninsula) are studied by analysing data from two different samplings after two periods of large fires (1991 and 1994). Emphasis is given to comparing different environmental conditions (thermo-Mediterranean vs. meso-Mediterranean; south facing vs. north facing slopes) and different bedrock types (limestone vs. marls). Results suggest that the highest post-fire cover and species richness is reached in thermo-Mediterranean conditions on limestone, and the main species are the resprouters Quercus coccifera and Brachypodium retusum. North-facing sites have higher plant cover than south-facing ones, and most life forms (trees, shrubs, grasses) have higher cover in these sites. Species richness is higher on north-facing sites than on the south-facing ones at the small scale (1 to 200 m 2), but differences were not significant at the highest scale studied (1?000 m 2). Plant species richness with increasing sampling area follows the classical log-log relationship; however, when species are segregated by life forms (woody species and herbs), different species-area relationships were found.

Pausas, Juli G.; Carbó, Ester; Neus Caturla, Rosa; Gil, José M.; Vallejo, Ramon

1999-09-01

146

Influence of spatial patterns of fire severity on gully erosion thresholds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial configurations of burned and unburned vegetation patches influence post-fire overland flow response and erosion thresholds. However, the broad-scale relationships between fire severity, the patterns and structural connectivity of burn mosaics, and post-fire erosion response remain largely unexamined. We mapped 227 primarily first order catchments across four burned watersheds in the northern Rocky Mountains and identified 90 cases of channel incision that led to gully rejuvenation. We applied landscape pattern indices to remotely sensed satellite data to quantify the relationships between the spatial structure of burn mosaics and the probability of gully rejuvenation following wildfire. As the mean fire severity of a catchment increased, the percent of the landscape in high severity fire classes increased non-linearly, and large, connected, and more severely burned patches increasingly dominated the catchment area. Concomitantly, the probability of gully rejuvenation was positively correlated (R2=0.93) with catchment areas severely burned. Statistical analysis revealed a threshold for erosion whereby a transition zone of high patch fragmentation preceded the threshold and after which progressively larger contiguous patches of severely burned areas and gully rejuvenation were observed. These observations suggest that progressive loss of vegetation due to wildfire leads to critical thresholds of structural connectivity that may enhance the hydrologic connectivity of overland flow pathways that lead to gully rejuvenation.

Hyde, Kevin; Jencso, Kelsey; Riley, Karin

2014-05-01

147

Bloodstream infection as a predictor for mortality in severe burn patients: an 11-year study.  

PubMed

In this study we collected and analysed data of the severe burn patients at our institution over an 11-year period in order to shed light on the controversial role of bloodstream infection (BSI) as a predictive factor for mortality in this burn population. The factors examined were age, total body surface area, smoke inhalation, presence of BSI, and BSI with resistant bacteria. In total 1081 burn patients were hospitalized from 2001 to 2011, of whom 4% died. We focused here on 158 severe burn patients, 74 of whom developed BSI, and 35 who died. Using univariate analysis, it appeared that the BSI group had a threefold greater chance of mortality compared to the non-BSI group. Patients with a Ryan score 3 had a 100% chance of mortality and those with a score 0 had 0%. Thus, focusing only on Ryan score 1 and score 2 patients, BSI did not contribute to mortality, nor was it shown to contribute to mortality in a multivariate analysis in which the score and BSI were included together. When BSI did occur, it predicted longer hospitalization periods. We conclude that BSI predicts longer length of hospitalization stay but does not contribute to the prediction of mortality beyond that offered by the Ryan score in a severe burn population. PMID:24093600

Egozi, D; Hussein, K; Filson, S; Mashiach, T; Ullmann, Y; Raz-Pasteur, A

2014-10-01

148

Impact of oxandrolone treatment on acute outcomes after severe burn injury.  

PubMed

Pharmacologic modulation of hypermetabolism clearly benefits children with major burns, however, its role in adult burns remains to be defined. Oxandrolone appears to be a promising anabolic agent although few outcome data are as yet available. We examined whether early oxandrolone treatment in severely burned adults was associated with improved outcomes during acute hospitalization. We evaluated for potential associations between oxandrolone treatment and outcomes in a large cohort of severely burned adults in the context of a multicenter observational study. Patients were dichotomized with respect to oxandrolone treatment, defined as administration within 7 days after admission, with duration of at least 7 days. Acute hospitalization outcomes were compared with univariate and multivariate analyses. One hundred seventeen patients were included in this analysis. Mean patient age was 42.6 years (range, 18-86); 77% were male, with an average TBSA of 44.1%. Baseline and injury characteristics were similar among treatment and nontreatment cohorts. Oxandrolone treatment (N = 59) did not impact length of stay but was associated with a lower mortality rate (P = .01) by univariate analysis. Oxandrolone treatment was independently associated with higher survival by adjusted analyses (P = .02). Examination of early oxandrolone treatment in this cohort of severely burned adults suggests that this therapy is safe and may be associated with improved survival. Further studies are necessary to define the exact mechanisms by which oxandrolone is beneficial during inpatient treatment. PMID:18849836

Pham, Tam N; Klein, Matthew B; Gibran, Nicole S; Arnoldo, Brett D; Gamelli, Richard L; Silver, Geoffrey M; Jeschke, Marc G; Finnerty, Celeste C; Tompkins, Ronald G; Herndon, David N

2008-01-01

149

Effect of post-fire resprouting on leaf fluctuating asymmetry, extrafloral nectar quality, and ant-plant-herbivore interactions.  

PubMed

Fires in the Cerrado savanna are a severe form of disturbance, but some species are capable of resprouting afterwards. It is unknown, however, how and whether post-fire resprouting represents a stressful condition to plants and how their rapid re-growth influences both the production of biochemical compounds, and interactions with mutualistic ants. In this study, we examined the influence of post-fire resprouting on biotic interactions (ant-plant-herbivore relationships) and on plant stress. The study was performed on two groups of the extrafloral nectaried shrub Banisteriopsis campestris (Malpighiaceae); one group was recovering from fire while the other acted as control. With respect to biotic interactions, we examined whether resprouting influenced extrafloral nectar concentration (milligrams per microliter), the abundance of the ant Camponotus crassus and leaf herbivory rates. Plant stress was assessed via fluctuating asymmetry (FA) analysis, which refers to deviations from perfect symmetry in bilaterally symmetrical traits (e.g., leaves) and indicates whether species are under stress. Results revealed that FA, sugar concentration, and ant abundance were 51.7 %, 35.7 % and 21.7 % higher in resprouting plants. Furthermore, C. crassus was significantly associated with low herbivory rates, but only in resprouting plants. This study showed that post-fire resprouting induced high levels of plant stress and influenced extrafloral nectar quality and ant-herbivore relationships in B. campestris. Therefore, despite being a stressful condition to the plant, post-fire resprouting individuals had concentrated extrafloral nectar and sustained more ants, thus strengthening the outcomes of ant-plant mutualism. PMID:23625518

Alves-Silva, Estevão; Del-Claro, Kleber

2013-06-01

150

Scale effects on post-fire runoff and soil erosion and their mitigation with forest residue mulching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires can have striking direct and indirect impacts on soils, including extreme runoff-erosion responses with serious negative consequences for land-use sustainability and downstream values-at-risk. Arguably, the best manner to reduce post-fire soil erosion consists of rapid application of a protective layer of "mulch", comprising straw, needles or wood-based materials. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of forest residue mulching for reducing runoff and soil erosion across two spatial scales, i.e. micro-plots of approximately 0.25 m2 vs. slope-scale plots of roughly 100 m2. We did so for a eucalypt plantation in north-central Portugal during the first two years following a moderate severity fire. We also tried to analyse which were the key factors underlying the erosive observed at untreated plots, with a special focus on soil moisture content and soil water repellencyf requency. . Forest residue mulch reduced post-fire runoff by around 50% and post-fire soil losses by about 90% at both plot scales. However, runoff was 10 times higher at the scale of the micro- than slope-scale plots. By contrast, soil erosion was "only" two times higher at the micro- than slope-scale plots. The main factor explaining runoff was rainfall intensity, while the main factor accounting for soil erosion was ground cover. Both soil moisture and soil water repellency played a secondary role in explaining the post-fire hydrologic response. This reflected the fact that neither of both factors differed markedly between the mulched and control conditions. Our results indicated that forest residue mulch was first and foremost an effective method due to the fact that it substantially increased ground cover.

Prats, Sergio A.; Wagenbrenner, Joseph W.; Martins, Martinho M. A.; Keizer, Jan Jacob

2014-05-01

151

Effect of post-fire resprouting on leaf fluctuating asymmetry, extrafloral nectar quality, and ant-plant-herbivore interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fires in the Cerrado savanna are a severe form of disturbance, but some species are capable of resprouting afterwards. It is unknown, however, how and whether post-fire resprouting represents a stressful condition to plants and how their rapid re-growth influences both the production of biochemical compounds, and interactions with mutualistic ants. In this study, we examined the influence of post-fire resprouting on biotic interactions (ant-plant-herbivore relationships) and on plant stress. The study was performed on two groups of the extrafloral nectaried shrub Banisteriopsis campestris (Malpighiaceae); one group was recovering from fire while the other acted as control. With respect to biotic interactions, we examined whether resprouting influenced extrafloral nectar concentration (milligrams per microliter), the abundance of the ant Camponotus crassus and leaf herbivory rates. Plant stress was assessed via fluctuating asymmetry (FA) analysis, which refers to deviations from perfect symmetry in bilaterally symmetrical traits (e.g., leaves) and indicates whether species are under stress. Results revealed that FA, sugar concentration, and ant abundance were 51.7 %, 35.7 % and 21.7 % higher in resprouting plants. Furthermore, C. crassus was significantly associated with low herbivory rates, but only in resprouting plants. This study showed that post-fire resprouting induced high levels of plant stress and influenced extrafloral nectar quality and ant-herbivore relationships in B. campestris. Therefore, despite being a stressful condition to the plant, post-fire resprouting individuals had concentrated extrafloral nectar and sustained more ants, thus strengthening the outcomes of ant-plant mutualism.

Alves-Silva, Estevão; Del-Claro, Kleber

2013-06-01

152

Long-Term Propranolol Use in Severely Burned Pediatric Patients: A Randomized Controlled Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the safety and efficacy of propranolol given for 1 year on cardiac function, resting energy expenditure, and body composition in a prospective randomized single-center controlled study in pediatric patients with large burns. Summary Background Data Severe burns trigger a hypermetabolic response that persists for up to 2 years after burn. Propranolol given for 1 month post burn blunts this response. Whether propranolol administration for 1 year after injury provides a continued benefit is currently unclear. Methods One-hundred seventy nine pediatric patients with >30% total body surface area burns were randomized to receive control (n = 89) or 4 mg/kg/d propranolol (n = 90) for 12 months after burn. Changes in resting energy expenditure, cardiac function, and body composition were measured acutely at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postburn. Statistical analyses included techniques that adjust for non-normality, repeated measures, and regression analyses. P <0.05 was considered significant. Results Long-term propranolol treatment significantly reduced the percent of the predicted heart rate and percent of the predicted resting energy expenditure, decreased accumulation of central mass and central fat, prevented bone loss, and improved lean body mass accretion. There were very few adverse effects from the dose of propranolol used. Conclusions Propranolol treatment for 12 months, following thermal injury, ameliorates the hyperdynamic, hypermetabolic, hypercatabolic, and osteopenic responses in pediatric patients. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00675714. PMID:22895351

Herndon, David N.; Rodriguez, Noe A.; Diaz, Eva C.; Hegde, Sachin; Jennings, Kristofer; Mlcak, Ronald P.; Suri, Jaipreet S.; Lee, Jong O.; Williams, Felicia N.; Meyer, Walter; Suman, Oscar E.; Barrow, Robert E.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Finnerty, Celeste C.

2012-01-01

153

Difficult airway management following severe gasoline burn injury: a case report.  

PubMed

Airway management following severe gasoline burn injury can be difficult. Because patients with severe burns may be treated at a variety of hospitals that provide emergent care, it is valuable for Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists who work in such facilities to have an understanding of the care of these patients. Airway management is an extremely important consideration in the care of burn victims. If not done in a timely manner, lethal complications may result. This article reports the experience of caring for a female who was involved in an altercation, doused with gasoline, and set on fire. Consequently, airway obstruction developed and progressively worsened. Airway management interventions began with bag-valve-mask-assisted ventilation and progressed through orotracheal intubation attempts, attempts to insert a laryngeal mask airway, cricothyrotomy, emergency tracheostomy, and surgical tracheostomy. PMID:23251995

Greathouse, Jeffrey S; Stuart, Jamie L; White, William A

2012-08-01

154

Effective Treatment of Invasive Aspergillus fumigatus Infection Using Combinations of Topical and Systemic Antifungals in a Severely Burned Patient.  

PubMed

The authors describe an invasive Aspergillus fumigatus deep-burn wound infection in a severely burned patient that was successfully treated with a combination of topical terbinafine and systemic voriconazole antifungal therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing the effective control of an invasive deep-burn wound infection using this combination. PMID:25127025

Fournier, Anne; Pantet, Olivier; Guerid, Samia; Eggimann, Philippe; Pagani, Jean-Luc; Revelly, Jean-Pierre; Hauser, Philippe M; Marchetti, Oscar; Fontanella, Sara; Letovanec, Igor; Ravat, François; Berger, Mette M; Pannatier, André; Voirol, Pierre; Que, Yok-Ai

2015-01-01

155

Severe burn injuries and the role of elastin in the design of dermal substitutes.  

PubMed

Severe burn injuries are a major health problem as they can compromise whole body function and result in extensive emotional trauma exacerbated by prolonged hospital stay. Burn injury treatment has improved dramatically to increase the probability of survival, but burn survivors still suffer from excessive scarring and skin contractures, which substantially compromise their health and quality of life. Elastin is historically underrepresented in commercial dermal substitutes, yet deserves consideration because of its fundamental role in skin structure and function. Dermal elastic network is a strong determinant of skin resilience, texture, and quality but is not sufficiently regenerated following burn injury. In addition to its structural and mechanical roles, elastin has inherent cell signaling properties that promote a diverse range of cellular responses including chemotaxis, cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. Scaffold elasticity and regeneration of the elastic fiber system is now recognized as integral to the development of functional dermal substitutes. Dermal substitutes are intended to replace damaged dermal tissue in severe burn injuries. Elastin-based dermal substitutes have the potential to decrease wound contraction, improve scar appearance and functionality, and contribute to wound healing outcomes through a combination of elastin's mechanical and cell signaling properties. PMID:21091393

Rnjak, Jelena; Wise, Steven G; Mithieux, Suzanne M; Weiss, Anthony S

2011-04-01

156

FIRST-YEAR EFFECTS OF SUMMER FIRE AND POST-FIRE GRAZING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Summer wildfires occur naturally throughout the Northern Great Plains. However, research supporting post-fire grazing management decisions is limited. We evaluated summer fire and post-fire grazing effects on plant diversity, density, and frequency. Fire may affect fringed sage, cactus, and some ...

157

Development of post-fire crown damage mortality thresholds in ponderosa pine  

E-print Network

Development of post-fire crown damage mortality thresholds in ponderosa pine James F. Fowler@fs.fed.us G Corresponding author. Email: jffowler@fs.fed.us Abstract. Previous research has shown that crown scorch volume and crown consumption volume are the major predictors of post-fire mortality in ponderosa

158

ORIGINAL PAPER Effect of wildfires and post-fire forest treatments  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Effect of wildfires and post-fire forest treatments on rabbit abundance Àlex Rollan of agricultural and grazing activities. Nowadays, Mediterranean land- scapes suffer from wildfires that affect of wildfires and post-fire treatments on rabbit abundance to address policies to recover their populations

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

159

Environmental and climatic variables as potential drivers of post-fire cover of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) in seeded and unseeded semiarid ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cheatgrass, a non-native annual grass, dominates millions of hectares in semiarid ecosystems of the Intermountain West (USA). Post-fire invasions can reduce native species diversity and alter ecological processes. To curb cheatgrass invasion, land managers often seed recently burned areas with perennial competitor species. We sampled vegetation within burned (19 years post-fire) and nearby unburned (representing pre-fire) pionjuniper (Pinus edulisJuniperus osteosperma) woodland and sagebrush (Artemisia sp.) in western Colorado to analyze variables that might explain cheatgrass cover after fire. A multiple regression model suggests higher cheatgrass cover after fire with: (1) sagebrush v. pionjuniper; (2) higher pre-fire cover of annual forbs; (3) increased time since fire; (4) lower pre-fire cover of biological soil crust; and (5) lower precipitation the year before fire. Time since fire, which coincided with higher precipitation, accounts for most of the variability in cheatgrass cover. No significant difference was found in mean cheatgrass cover between seeded and unseeded plots over time. However, negative relationships with pre-fire biological soil crust cover and native species richness suggest livestock-degraded areas are more susceptible to post-fire invasion. Proactive strategies for combating cheatgrass should include finding effective native competitors and restoring livestock-degraded areas. ?? 2009 IAWF.

Shinneman, D.J.; Baker, W.L.

2009-01-01

160

Remote sensing approaches for reconstructing fire perimeters and burn severity mosaics in desert spring ecosystems  

E-print Network

Remote sensing approaches for reconstructing fire perimeters and burn severity mosaics in desert. Remote sensing methods have been used in other environments to gain information about fires that have reported sizes of less than one hectare. Additional refinement of remote sensing methods is necessary

Weisberg, Peter J.

161

Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Transplantation Promotes Cutaneous Wound Healing of Severe Burned Rats  

PubMed Central

Background Severe burns are a common and highly lethal trauma. The key step for severe burn therapy is to promote the wound healing as early as possible, and reports indicate that mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy contributes to facilitate wound healing. In this study, we investigated effect of human umbilical cord MSCs (hUC-MSCs) could on wound healing in a rat model of severe burn and its potential mechanism. Methods Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham, burn, and burn transplanted hUC-MSCs. GFP labeled hUC-MSCs or PBS was intravenous injected into respective groups. The rate of wound closure was evaluated by Image Pro Plus. GFP-labeled hUC-MSCs were tracked by in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI), and human-specific DNA expression in wounds was detected by PCR. Inflammatory cells, neutrophils, macrophages, capillaries and collagen types I/III in wounds were evaluated by histochemical staining. Wound blood flow was evaluated by laser Doppler blood flow meter. The levels of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors, VEGF, collagen types I/III in wounds were analyzed using an ELISA. Results We found that wound healing was significantly accelerated in the hUC-MSC therapy group. The hUC-MSCs migrated into wound and remarkably decreased the quantity of infiltrated inflammatory cells and levels of IL-1, IL-6, TNF-? and increased levels of IL-10 and TSG-6 in wounds. Additionally, the neovascularization and levels of VEGF in wounds in the hUC-MSC therapy group were markedly higher than those in other control groups. The ratio of collagen types I and III in the hUC-MSC therapy group were markedly higher than that in the burn group at indicated time after transplantation. Conclusion The study suggests that hUC-MSCs transplantation can effectively improve wound healing in severe burned rat model. Moreover, these data might provide the theoretical foundation for the further clinical application of hUC-MSC in burn areas. PMID:24586314

Chai, Jiake; Duan, Hongjie; Chu, Wanli; Zhang, Haijun; Hu, Quan; Du, Jundong

2014-01-01

162

Wildfire and Permafrost: Post-Fire Changes in Flowpaths of Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfire frequency and severity in the boreal forest is predicted to increase as a result of climate warming. Increased fire frequency will influence carbon and nutrient fluxes in streams through the loss of vegetation, combustion of soils, thawing of permafrost, alteration of watershed flowpaths, and changes in stream hydrology (such as surface water-ground water interactions and flow regime). At high latitudes, permafrost constrains watershed flowpaths to shallow soils and consequently influences stream nutrient inputs. Shallow flowpaths over permafrost have high dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration and low inorganic nitrogen concentration, compared to water moving through deeper flowpaths. The objective of this project was to quantify how wildfire in the boreal forest influences the concentration and export of dissolved organic matter and nutrients in headwater streams to better understand how changes in fire frequency and severity may influence future stream carbon and nutrient exports. The research was conducted in the Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed (CPCRW), specifically in the P6 subcatchment, which is underlain by 18% discontinuous permafrost. The CPCRW is located in the boreal forest of interior Alaska. Following a wildfire in 2004, stream DOC concentration declined, whereas nitrate concentration increased, potentially caused by the combustion of soil organic carbon stocks, alteration of hydrologic flows from shallow to deeper flowpaths, or decreased plant productivity and nutrient uptake. We used an end-member mixing model to determine the major sources of water contributing to stream flow, how wildfire impacted watershed flowpaths, and the consequences of changing hydrology for watershed nutrient fluxes. Water samples were collected from springs throughout the CPCRW to identify the chemistry of source waters and were used in the analysis with stream water chemistry data from 2002-2011. We found that the contribution from the shallow flowpath to stream flow declined from a pre-fire average of 51% to 32% in the three years post-fire (2004-2006), whereas the contribution from the deeper flowpath increased from 26% pre-fire to 37% in the three years post-fire. This change in watershed hydrology at least in part drove the decrease in stream water DOC and increase in inorganic nitrogen observed post-fire in the stream. Increase in fire frequency and severity will decrease the permafrost distribution over the landscape through thawing, and in turn increase the active layer depth. Our results suggest that such changes may change the contribution of shallow versus deep flowpaths and in turn stream water chemistry and nutrient cycling. In areas of discontinuous permafrost, the subsurface connection between stream and groundwater may shift with future increases in fire frequency and severity, increasing baseflow in streams. Furthermore, if such shifts in flowpaths occur, boreal vegetation, which is currently nitrogen limited, may become sources of nitrogen post-fire; potentially influencing terrestrial vegetation community composition and biotic stream processes.

Olsson, A. K.; Jones, J.

2012-12-01

163

Post-fire recovery of acorn production by four oak species in southern ridge sandhill association in south-central Florida.  

PubMed

We examined post-fire recovery of two components of acorn production (percentage of bearing ramets [stems] and number of acorns per bearing ramet) for four species of oaks in southern ridge sandhill vegetation in south-central peninsular Florida. Annual counts of acorns on two white oaks (Quercus chapmanii and Q. geminata) and two red oaks (Q. laevis and Q. myrtifolia) were conducted annually (except in 1991) on two 2.7-ha grids from 1969 to 1998. A prescribed burn was conducted on one of the grids in May 1993. Newly sprouted ramets of both white oaks produced acorns during the first year following the fire, whereas red oaks required 3 yr (Q. myrtifolia) or 4 yr (Q. laevis) to produce acorns. The difference in the timing of post-fire acorn production between the white and red oak species reflected the difference in the number of years from flower bud initiation to mature acorns in the two groups, with the additional year-long lag in Q. laevis probably attributable to the fact that it is typically a tree rather than a shrub species. The data suggested that percentage of bearing ramets in the smallest size class of the two white oak species was markedly lower in the burned than unburned grid in the first year of post-fire acorn production and higher in the fifth year, but these trends were not evident for the red oaks. Among all four species, differences between mean number of acorns in burned and unburned grids were significant in only two cases (the largest size class of both white oak species in the fifth year). There was no evidence of recruitment from acorns on the burned grid, possibly due to the rapid redevelopment of the shrub layer because of low mortality of the extensive clonal root systems. Rapid post-fire recovery of acorn production in xeric fire-prone habitats is presumably the result of selection to increase the probability of recovery and persistence following sufficiently intense fires that result in high oak mortality. The timing and magnitude of post-fire acorn production in sandhill and other xeric Florida associations has a potential impact on a wide variety of insects, birds, and mammals that feed on acorns, as well as on the species with which they interact. PMID:21669719

Abrahamson, Warren G; Layne, James N

2002-01-01

164

[Correction of metabolic hypoxia in patients with severe burn injury and septic toxemia].  

PubMed

The clinical efficacy of the preparation reamberin in correction of metabolic hypoxia in patients with severe thermal burn injury under septicotoxemia was studied. It was established high efficacy of the preparation in the correction of the antioxidant defense system, its considerable antitoxic activity. Established role of reamberin in maintaining the functioning of the humoral detoxication systems, and antimicrobial resistance in patients with severe thermal injury. PMID:23610818

Kozinets, G P; Osadchaia, O I; Tsygankov, V P; Isaenko, N P; Zhernov, A A; Boiarskaia, A M

2012-12-01

165

Aqueous and Gas Phase Sorption Properties of Mercury in Burned Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires are a common occurrence in the Mediterranean climate of Southern California. Many studies have focused on the post-fire physical impacts however; there is a lack of studies on the potential for post-fire metal transport, in particular mercury (Hg). Inorganic Hg contamination is present even in pristine areas due to atmospheric deposition, which can be microbially transformed to methylmercury (a bioaccumulative neurotoxin) in aquatic systems. In order to model the transport of mercury in burned soils, we need to understand the sorption properties of mercury in soils exposed to fire. To test the hypothesis that burned soils have different sorption properties than unburned ones, we have collected samples of unburned soils, and burned them in a controlled setting at different temperatures to simulate several fire intensities. Then, we applied traditional aqueous sorption techniques to determine the binding properties of mercury to each burned soil. Experimental data were fitted with FITEQL to derive constants for sorption reactions, which were in agreement with values observed in literature. Since Southern California does not receive much rain, most of the atmospheric mercury deposition is in form of dry deposition. Thus, we have designed and applied a novel sorption technique to determine the binding of mercury in the gas phase to the burned soils. Trends in sorption affinity and capacity with burning temperature are discussed, as well as a comparison between aqueous and gas phase sorption properties is made.

Jay, J.; Ferreira, M.; Burke, M.; Hogue, T.

2008-12-01

166

Post-Fire Recovery Sequence Of Black Spruce-Lichen Woodland in the Northwest Territories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree ring analyses have been used for determining the time since the most recent fire in several areas of burned black spruce-lichen woodland on drumlins in the Northwest Territories. The vegetation on these burns has been described in detail. Analysis of the data by principal component analysis and regression analysis shows that recovery of the ground vegetation after burning follows

Eugene Maikawa

1976-01-01

167

Impact of Stress-Induced Diabetes on Outcomes in Severely Burned Children  

PubMed Central

Background Post-burn hyperglycemia leads to graft failure, multiple organ failure, and death. A hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp is used to keep serum glucose between 60-110mg/dL. Because of frequent hypoglycemic episodes, a less stringent sliding scale insulin protocol is used to maintain serum glucose levels between 80-160mg/dL following elevations above 180mg/dL. Study Design We randomized pediatric patients with massive burns into two groups – patients receiving sliding scale insulin to lower blood glucose levels (n=145) and those receiving no insulin (n = 98) to determine the differences in morbidity and mortality. Patients 0-18 years old with burns covering ?30% of the total body surface area and not randomized to receive anabolic agents were included in this study. Endpoints included glucose levels, infections, resting energy expenditure (REE), lean body mass, bone mineral content (BMC), fat mass, muscle strength, and serum inflammatory cytokines, hormones, and liver enzymes. Results Maximal glucose levels occurred within 6 days of burn injury. Blood glucose levels were age dependent with older children requiring more insulin, p<0.05. Daily maximum and daily minimum, but not 6am,glucose levels were significantly different based on treatment group, p<0.05. Insulin significantly increased REE and improved BMC, p<0.05. Each additional wound infection increased incidence of hyperglycemia, p=0.004. There was no mortality in patients not receiving insulin, only in patients who received insulin (p<0.004). Muscle strength was increased in patients receiving insulin (p<0.05). Conclusions A subset of severely burned children develops burn-induced hyperglycemia. Length of stay was reduced in the no insulin group, and there were no deaths in this group. Administration of insulin positively impacted BMC and muscle strength, but increased REE, hypoglycemic episodes, and mortality. New glucose-lowering strategies may be needed. PMID:24655871

Finnerty, Celeste C.; Ali, Arham; McClean, Josef; Benjamin, Nicole; Clayton, Robert P.; Andersen, Clark R.; Mlcak, Ronald P.; Suman, Oscar E.; Meyer, Walter; Herndon, David N.

2014-01-01

168

Outcome predictors and quality of life of severe burn patients admitted to intensive care unit  

PubMed Central

Background Despite significant medical advances and improvement in overall mortality rate following burn injury, the treatment of patients with extensive burns remains a major challenge for intensivists. We present a study aimed to evaluate the short- and the long-term outcomes of severe burn patients (total body surface area, TBSA > 40%) treated in a polyvalent intensive care unit (ICU) and to assess the quality of life of survivors, one year after the injury using the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) questionnaire. Methods A prospective-observational study was performed in an ICU of a University-affiliated hospital. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors predicting in-hospital mortality. The EQ-5D questionnaire was used to asses participant's long term self-reported general health. Results During a period of five years, 50 patients participated in the study. Their mean age was 53.8 ± 19.8; they had a mean of %TBSA burned of 54.5 ± 18.1. 44% and 10% of patients died in the ICU and in the ward after ICU discharge, respectively. Baux index, SAPS II and SOFA on admission to the ICU, infectious and respiratory complications, and time of first burn wound excision were found to have a significant predictive value for hospital mortality. The level of health of all survivors was worse than before the injury. Problems in the five dimensions studied were present as follows: mobility (moderate 68.5%; extreme 0%), self-care (moderate 21%; extreme 36.9%), usual activities (moderate 68.5%; extreme 21%), pain/discomfort (moderate 68.5%; extreme 10.5%), anxiety/depression (moderate 36.9%; extreme 42.1%). Conclusions In severe burn patients, Baux index, severity of illness on admission to the ICU, complications, and time of first burn wound excision were the major contributors to hospital mortality. Quality of life was influenced by consequences of injury both in psychological and physical health. PMID:20420719

2010-01-01

169

Monitoring Post-Fire Vegetation Rehabilitation Projects: A Common Approach for Non-Forested Ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Emergency Stabilization and Rehabilitation (ES&R) and Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) treatments are short-term, high-intensity treatments designed to mitigate the adverse effects of wildfire on public lands. The federal government expends significant resources implementing ES&R and BAER treatments after wildfires; however, recent reviews have found that existing data from monitoring and research are insufficient to evaluate the effects of these activities. The purpose of this report is to: (1) document what monitoring methods are generally used by personnel in the field; (2) describe approaches and methods for post-fire vegetation and soil monitoring documented in agency manuals; (3) determine the common elements of monitoring programs recommended in these manuals; and (4) describe a common monitoring approach to determine the effectiveness of future ES&R and BAER treatments in non-forested regions. Both qualitative and quantitative methods to measure effectiveness of ES&R treatments are used by federal land management agencies. Quantitative methods are used in the field depending on factors such as funding, personnel, and time constraints. There are seven vegetation monitoring manuals produced by the federal government that address monitoring methods for (primarily) vegetation and soil attributes. These methods vary in their objectivity and repeatability. The most repeatable methods are point-intercept, quadrat-based density measurements, gap intercepts, and direct measurement of soil erosion. Additionally, these manuals recommend approaches for designing monitoring programs for the state of ecosystems or the effect of management actions. The elements of a defensible monitoring program applicable to ES&R and BAER projects that most of these manuals have in common are objectives, stratification, control areas, random sampling, data quality, and statistical analysis. The effectiveness of treatments can be determined more accurately if data are gathered using an approach that incorporates these six monitoring program design elements and objectives, as well as repeatable procedures to measure cover, density, gap intercept, and soil erosion within each ecoregion and plant community. Additionally, using a common monitoring program design with comparable methods, consistently documenting results, and creating and maintaining a central database for query and reporting, will ultimately allow a determination of the effectiveness of post-fire rehabilitation activities region-wide.

Wirth, Troy A.; Pyke, David A.

2007-01-01

170

Signals from Fat after Injury: Plasma Adipokines and Ghrelin Concentrations in the Severely Burned  

PubMed Central

Introduction Hypermetabolism is universal in the severely burned and is characterized by catabolism of lean mass and body fat with associated insulin resistance. Adipokines are likely to play a role in these changes but have not been identified to date in burn patients. Methods From a single burn ICU, 17 burn patients with an expected stay >14 days were studied. Study period began within 14 days of admission. Over seven days, plasma samples were collected for measurement of leptin, adiponectin, resistin, ghrelin, insulin, and cortisol by ELISA. For comparison, samples from 15 healthy controls of similar age, BMI, and blood glucose were obtained. Results Mean age was 33±17 years and BMI 26±3.4. Average burn size was 45±20% TBSA and ISS 32±10 with 72% having inhalation injury; in-hospital mortality was 29%. Estimated energy needs were 3626±710 kcal, of which 84±21% were met by enteral feeding with intensive insulin treatment (glucose 80-110 mg/ml). Using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, burned subjects were more resistant than controls (17±11.3 and 8±10.0). Insulin levels were elevated (57±35.6 ?U/ml in burned subject vs. 26±31.1 ?U/ml in controls), and cortisol concentrations increased (50±41.2 ?g/dl vs. 12±3.9 ?g/dl). These traditional hormone changes were associated with increased resistin (16.6±5.5 ng/ml vs. 3.8±0.9 ng/ml) and decreased leptin (8.8±8.9 ng/ml vs. 19.4±23.5 ng/ml), adiponectin (9±3.5 ng/ml vs. 17±10.2 ng/ml), and ghrelin (0.37±0.14 ng/ml vs.0.56±0.26 ng/ml). Conclusion Patients with burns, who are characteristically hypermetabolic with hypercortisolism and insulin resistant, have significant changes in adipokine levels that appear independent of the magnitude of initial injury or metabolic derangement. In addition, suppression of ghrelin in the presence of decreased leptin and adiponectin levels in combination with increased insulin and resistin levels represent unexpected changes in the metabolic milieu of the injured patient possibly due to dramatic activation of inflammatory pathways, indicating strategies for treatment. PMID:23021431

Wade, Charles E.; Mora, Alejandra G.; Shields, Beth A.; Pidcoke, Heather F.; Baer, Lisa A.; Chung, Kevin K.; Wolf, Steven E.

2012-01-01

171

THE USE OF REMOTE SENSING IMAGERY TO DETERMINE WILDLAND BURN SEVERITY IN SEMIARID SAGEBRUSH-STEPPE RANGELANDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) is a remote sensing-based index used to calculate the extent and severity of a fire. NBR functions well in forested ecosystems due to a high contrast of vegetation change before and after fire. Preliminary results indicate that an alternate burn severity algorithm is ...

172

A soil burn severity index for understanding soil-fire relations in tropical forests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Methods for evaluating the impact of fires within tropical forests are needed as fires become more frequent and human populations and demands on forests increase. Short- and long-term fire effects on soils are determined by the prefire, fire, and postfire environments. We placed these components within a fire-disturbance continuum to guide our literature synthesis and develop an integrated soil burn severity index. The soil burn severity index provides a set of indicators that reflect the range of conditions present after a fire. The index consists of seven levels, an unburned level and six other levels that describe a range of postfire soil conditions. We view this index as a tool for understanding the effects of fires on the forest floor, with the realization that as new information is gained, the index may be modified as warranted. ?? Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2008.

Jain, T.B.; Gould, W.A.; Graham, R.T.; Pilliod, D.S.; Lentile, L.B.; Gonzalez, G.

2008-01-01

173

Non-severe burn injury leads to depletion of bone volume that can be ameliorated by inhibiting TNF-?.  

PubMed

Bone loss after severe burn injury is well established, and is thought to be a consequence of the severe hyper-metabolic response as well as changes in cytokine and glucocorticoid levels that decrease bone synthesis and increase rate of loss. However, 90% of presentations are for non-severe burns which do not elicit this response. Little is known about whether these non-severe injuries may also affect bone tissue, and whether other mechanisms may be involved. To investigate whether bone loss occurs after a non-severe burn injury we used a mouse model of an approximately 8% total body surface area (TBSA) full-thickness burn and micro-CT. We also assessed whether blocking TNF-? after a burn injury by administration of an antibody could modulate the impacts of the burn on bone tissue. There was a significant loss of trabecular bone volume of (3.27% compared to 5.27%, p=0.0051) after non-severe burn injury. Trabecular number was significantly decreased (0.57/mm after injury compared to 1.02/mm controls, p=0.0051) and spacing increased after burn injury (0.40 compared to 0.28, p=0.0083). Anti-TNF-? antibodies significantly improved trabecular bone volume (8.53%, p=0.0034) and number after burn injury (1.28/mm, p=0.0034). There was no significant change observed in cortical bone after burn injury or administration of anti-TNF-? antibodies. These findings show that non-severe burn injury can lead to changes in bone metabolism. Monitoring bone density in patients with non-severe injuries and interventions to limit the impacts of the inflammatory storm may benefit patient recovery and outcomes. PMID:25305071

O'Halloran, Emily; Kular, Jasreen; Xu, Jiake; Wood, Fiona; Fear, Mark

2015-05-01

174

RECOVER: An Automated Cloud-Based Decision Support System for Post-fire Rehabilitation Planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

RECOVER is a site-specific decision support system that automatically brings together in a single analysis environment the information necessary for post-fire rehabilitation decision-making. After a major wildfire, law requires that the federal land management agencies certify a comprehensive plan for public safety, burned area stabilization, resource protection, and site recovery. These burned area emergency response (BAER) plans are a crucial part of our national response to wildfire disasters and depend heavily on data acquired from a variety of sources. Final plans are due within 21 days of control of a major wildfire and become the guiding document for managing the activities and budgets for all subsequent remediation efforts. There are few instances in the federal government where plans of such wide-ranging scope and importance are assembled on such short notice and translated into action more quickly. RECOVER has been designed in close collaboration with our agency partners and directly addresses their high-priority decision-making requirements. In response to a fire detection event, RECOVER uses the rapid resource allocation capabilities of cloud computing to automatically collect Earth observational data, derived decision products, and historic biophysical data so that when the fire is contained, BAER teams will have a complete and ready-to-use RECOVER dataset and GIS analysis environment customized for the target wildfire. Initial studies suggest that RECOVER can transform this information-intensive process by reducing from days to a matter of minutes the time required to assemble and deliver crucial wildfire-related data.

Schnase, John L.; Carroll, Mark; Weber, K. T.; Brown, Molly E.; Gill, Roger L.; Wooten, Margaret; May J.; Serr, K.; Smith, E.; Goldsby, R.; Newtoff, Kiersten; Bradford, Kathryn; Doyle Colin S.; Volker, Emily; Weber, Samuel J.

2014-01-01

175

RECOVER: An Automated, Cloud-Based Decision Support System for Post-Fire Rehabilitation Planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RECOVER is a site-specific decision support system that automatically brings together in a single analysis environment the information necessary for post-fire rehabilitation decision-making. After a major wildfire, law requires that the federal land management agencies certify a comprehensive plan for public safety, burned area stabilization, resource protection, and site recovery. These burned area emergency response (BAER) plans are a crucial part of our national response to wildfire disasters and depend heavily on data acquired from a variety of sources. Final plans are due within 21 days of control of a major wildfire and become the guiding document for managing the activities and budgets for all subsequent remediation efforts. There are few instances in the federal government where plans of such wide-ranging scope and importance are assembled on such short notice and translated into action more quickly. RECOVER has been designed in close collaboration with our agency partners and directly addresses their high-priority decision-making requirements. In response to a fire detection event, RECOVER uses the rapid resource allocation capabilities of cloud computing to automatically collect Earth observational data, derived decision products, and historic biophysical data so that when the fire is contained, BAER teams will have a complete and ready-to-use RECOVER dataset and GIS analysis environment customized for the target wildfire. Initial studies suggest that RECOVER can transform this information-intensive process by reducing from days to a matter of minutes the time required to assemble and deliver crucial wildfire-related data.

Schnase, J. L.; Carroll, M. L.; Weber, K. T.; Brown, M. E.; Gill, R. L.; Wooten, M.; May, J.; Serr, K.; Smith, E.; Goldsby, R.; Newtoff, K.; Bradford, K.; Doyle, C.; Volker, E.; Weber, S.

2014-11-01

176

USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-203. 2007. 213 The Relation Between Tree Burn Severity  

E-print Network

watersheds, habitats of threatened and/or endangered species, and other places that contain values important of uncertainty. The burn severity classification we developed integrates fire intensity, fire severity

Standiford, Richard B.

177

Treatment of severe burn with DermACELL(®), an acellular dermal matrix.  

PubMed

For treatment of skin burn injuries, there exist several methods of treatment related to tissue regeneration, including the use of autograft skin and cryopreserved skin. However, each method has drawbacks. An alternative method for tissue regeneration is allograft acellular dermal matrix, with potential as a biocompatible scaffold for new tissue growth. One recently produced material of this type is DermACELL(®), which was used in this case presentation for treating a scar resulting from second- and third-degree burns in a 33-year-old female patient. The patient presented with significant hypertrophic scarring from the elbow to the hand and with limited wrist and elbow motion. The scarring was removed, and the patient was treated with a 1:3 mesh of DermACELL. The wound was resurfaced with a split thickness skin graft, and postoperative care included application of pressure garment and silicone sheet, as well as range of motion exercise and massage. At 30 days after DermACELL application, the wound appeared well-healed with little scar formation. At 180 days post-application, the wound continued to appear healed well without significant scar formation. Additionally, the wound was supple, and the patient experienced significant improvement in range of motion. In the case presented, DermACELL appears to have been a successful method of treatment for scarring due to severe burns by preventing further scar formation and improving range of motion. PMID:23071908

Chen, Shyi-Gen; Tzeng, Yuan-Sheng; Wang, Chih-Hsin

2012-01-01

178

First experiences with the collagen-elastin matrix Matriderm ® as a dermal substitute in severe burn injuries of the hand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restoring function after hand burns plays a major role in the restitution of a quality of life. Thereby the reconstructed pliability of the grafted areas is of utmost importance for good hand function. The collagen elastin matrix Matriderm® was evaluated as a dermal substitute for the treatment of severe hand burns. In a series of 10 patients, mean age 43

W. Haslik; L.-P. Kamolz; G. Nathschläger; H. Andel; G. Meissl; M. Frey

2007-01-01

179

[Clinical efficacy and impact of preparation ronem on endogenous intoxication severity in the patients with deep burns].  

PubMed

Clinical efficacy of Ronem preparation was studied in injured persons, suffering deep burns. High efficacy of the preparation in an acute period of the burn disease was established concerning the reduction in severity of the syndrome of systemic inflammatory answer clinical signs, the infection complications prophylaxis, microbal sensibilization lowering and preservation of natural detoxication systems on subcompensation level. PMID:19408395

Kozinets, G P; Osadchaia, O I; Boiarskaia, A M; Tsygankov, V P; Isaenko, N P; Solodki?, Iu A

2008-10-01

180

Modeling fire severity in black spruce stands in the Alaskan boreal forest using spectral and non-spectral geospatial data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Biomass burning in the Alaskan interior is already a major disturbance and source of carbon emissions, and is likely to increase in response to the warming and drying predicted for the future climate. In addition to quantifying changes to the spatial and temporal patterns of burned areas, observing variations in severity is the key to studying the impact of changes to the fire regime on carbon cycling, energy budgets, and post-fire succession. Remote sensing indices of fire severity have not consistently been well-correlated with in situ observations of important severity characteristics in Alaskan black spruce stands, including depth of burning of the surface organic layer. The incorporation of ancillary data such as in situ observations and GIS layers with spectral data from Landsat TM/ETM+ greatly improved efforts to map the reduction of the organic layer in burned black spruce stands. Using a regression tree approach, the R2 of the organic layer depth reduction models was 0.60 and 0.55 (p < 0.01) for relative and absolute depth reduction, respectively. All of the independent variables used by the regression tree to estimate burn depth can be obtained independently of field observations. Implementation of a gradient boosting algorithm improved the R2 to 0.80 and 0.79 (p < 0.01) for absolute and relative organic layer depth reduction, respectively. Independent variables used in the regression tree model of burn depth included topographic position, remote sensing indices related to soil and vegetation characteristics, timing of the fire event, and meteorological data. Post-fire organic layer depth characteristics are determined for a large (> 200,000 ha) fire to identify areas that are potentially vulnerable to a shift in post-fire succession. This application showed that 12% of this fire event experienced fire severe enough to support a change in post-fire succession. We conclude that non-parametric models and ancillary data are useful in the modeling of the surface organic layer fire depth. Because quantitative differences in post-fire surface characteristics do not directly influence spectral properties, these modeling techniques provide better information than the use of remote sensing data alone.

Barrett, K.; Kasischke, E.S.; McGuire, A.D.; Turetsky, M.R.; Kane, E.S.

2010-01-01

181

Modeling Fire Severity in Black Spruce Stands in the Alaskan Boreal Forest Using Spectral and Non-Spectral Geospatial Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biomass burning in the Alaskan interior is already a major disturbance and source of carbon emissions, and is likely to increase in response to the warming and drying predicted for the future climate. In addition to quantifying changes to the spatial and temporal patterns of burned areas, observing variations in severity is the key to studying the impact of changes to the fire regime on carbon cycling, energy budgets, and post-fire succession. Remote sensing indices of fire severity have not consistently been well-correlated with in situ observations of important severity characteristics in Alaskan black spruce stands, including depth of burning of the surface organic layer. The incorporation of ancillary data such as in situ observations and GIS layers with spectral data from Landsat TM/ETM+ greatly improved efforts to map the reduction of the organic layer in burned black spruce stands. Using a regression tree approach, the R2 of the organic layer depth reduction models was 0.60 and 0.55 (pb0.01) for relative and absolute depth reduction, respectively. All of the independent variables used by the regression tree to estimate burn depth can be obtained independently of field observations. Implementation of a gradient boosting algorithm improved the R2 to 0.80 and 0.79 (pb0.01) for absolute and relative organic layer depth reduction, respectively. Independent variables used in the regression tree model of burn depth included topographic position, remote sensing indices related to soil and vegetation characteristics, timing of the fire event, and meteorological data. Post-fire organic layer depth characteristics are determined for a large (N200,000 ha) fire to identify areas that are potentially vulnerable to a shift in post-fire succession. This application showed that 12% of this fire event experienced fire severe enough to support a change in post-fire succession. We conclude that non-parametric models and ancillary data are useful in the modeling of the surface organic layer fire depth. Because quantitative differences in post-fire surface characteristics do not directly influence spectral properties, these modeling techniques provide better information than the use of remote sensing data alone.

Barrett, K.; Kasischke, E. S.; McGuire, A. D.; Turetsky, M. R.; Kane, E. S.

2010-01-01

182

A protocol guided by transpulmonary thermodilution and lactate levels for resuscitation of patients with severe burns.  

PubMed

Over-resuscitation is deleterious in many critically ill conditions, including major burns. For more than 15 years, several strategies to reduce fluid administration in burns during the initial resuscitation phase have been proposed, but no single or simple parameter has shown superiority. Fluid administration guided by invasive hemodynamic parameters usually resulted in over-resuscitation. As reported in the previous issue of Critical Care, Sánchez-Sánchez and colleagues analyzed the performance of a 'permissive hypovolemia' protocol guided by invasive hemodynamic parameters (PiCCO, Pulsion Medical Systems, Munich, Germany) and vital signs in a prospective cohort over a 3-year period. The authors' results confirm that resuscitation can be achieved with below-normal levels of preload but at the price of a fluid administration greater than predicted by the Parkland formula (2 to 4 mL/kg per% burn). The classic approach based on an adapted Parkland equation may still be the simplest until further studies identify the optimal bundle of resuscitation goals. PMID:24229466

Berger, Mette M; Que, Yok Ai

2013-01-01

183

Comparing the Influence of Wildfire and Prescribed Burns on Watershed Nitrogen Biogeochemistry Using 15N Natural Abundance in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystem Components  

PubMed Central

We evaluated differences in the effects of three low-severity spring prescribed burns and four wildfires on nitrogen (N) biogeochemistry in Rocky Mountain headwater watersheds. We compared paired (burned/unburned) watersheds of four wildfires and three spring prescribed burns for three growing seasons post-fire. To better understand fire effects on the entire watershed ecosystem, we measured N concentrations and ?15N in both the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems components, i.e., soil, understory plants in upland and riparian areas, streamwater, and in-stream moss. In addition, we measured nitrate reductase activity in foliage of Spiraea betulifolia, a dominant understory species. We found increases of ?15N and N concentrations in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem N pools after wildfire, but responses were limited to terrestrial N pools after prescribed burns indicating that N transfer from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystem components did not occur in low-severity prescribed burns. Foliar ?15N differed between wildfire and prescribed burn sites; the ?15N of foliage of upland plants was enriched by 2.9 ‰ (difference between burned and unburned watersheds) in the first two years after wildfire, but only 1.3 ‰ after prescribed burns. In-stream moss ?15N in wildfire-burned watersheds was enriched by 1.3 ‰, but there was no response by moss in prescription-burned watersheds, mirroring patterns of streamwater nitrate concentrations. S. betulifolia showed significantly higher nitrate reductase activity two years after wildfires relative to corresponding unburned watersheds, but no such difference was found after prescribed burns. These responses are consistent with less altered N biogeochemistry after prescribed burns relative to wildfire. We concluded that ?15N values in terrestrial and aquatic plants and streamwater nitrate concentrations after fire can be useful indicators of the magnitude and duration of fire effects and the fate of post-fire available N. PMID:25885257

Stephan, Kirsten; Kavanagh, Kathleen L.; Koyama, Akihiro

2015-01-01

184

Contrasting long-term survival of two outplanted Mojave Desert perennials for post-fire revegetation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Post-fire recovery of arid shrublands is typically slow, and planting greenhouse-raised seedlings may be a means of jump-starting this process. Recovery can be further accelerated by understanding the factors controlling post-planting survival. In fall 2007 and 2009, we outplanted seedlings of two contrasting native evergreen shrubs—fast-growing Nevada jointfir and slow-growing blackbrush—across five burned sites in the Mojave Desert. To increase soil moisture and optimize seedling survival, we experimentally applied and evaluated soil amendments and supplemental watering. We also evaluated two herbicides that reduce competitive invasive annual grasses and two types of herbivore protection. Survival of jointfir outplanted in 2007 was 61% after 43 months, and site largely influenced survival, while herbicide containing imazapic applied more than one year after outplanting reduced survival. Reduced survival of jointfir outplanted in 2009 coincided with delayed seasonal precipitation that intensified foliar damage by small mammals. In contrast, blackbrush survival was 4% after 43 months, and was influenced by site, type of herbivore protection, and greenhouse during the 2007 outplanting, and soil amendment during 2009. Counter to expectations, we found that supplemental watering and soil amendments did not influence long-term survival of either blackbrush or jointfir. Shrub species with rapid growth rates and broad environmental tolerances, such as jointfir, make ideal candidates for outplanting, provided that seedlings are protected from herbivores. Re-introduction of species with slow growth rates and narrow environmental tolerances, such as blackbrush, requires careful consideration to optimize pre- and post-planting conditions.

Scoles-Sciulla, Sara J.; Defalco, Lesley A.; Esque, Todd C.

2015-01-01

185

Predicting the delivery of sediment and associated nutrients from post-fire debris flows in small upland catchments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Post-fire debris flows are extreme erosion events that can dominate the long term supply of sediment from headwaters to streams in upland catchments. Predicting the location, frequency and magnitude of debris flows is therefore important for understanding sediment dynamics in upland catchments and providing a basis on which to manage hydro-geomorphic risk in burned areas. In this study we survey 10 post-fire debris flow events in southeast Australia with aims to i) identify rainfall conditions underlying the debris flow response, ii) quantify erosion rates in hillslope and channel source areas, and iii) estimate the delivery of sediment and water quality constituents to receiving waterways. Rainfall events that triggered debris flows had an annual exceedance probability ranging from 0.1 to 0.6, and 30-minute intensities, I30, ranging from 17-60 mm h-1. Sediment delivery by debris flows (100-200 t ha-1) is similar to that which has been reported for similar events in the western US and Spain. In terms of eroded volume, there was on average an equal contribution from hillslopes and channels to debris flows, which is in agreement with the calculations of surface and subsurface source contributions obtained from radionuclide concentrations. In terms of the potential water quality impacts from post-fire debris flows, the hillslopes had much higher concentration of constituents such as fine clay and silt, plant available phosphorous and total carbon. The data on debris flow magnitude was used to evaluate two different approaches for predicting sediment delivery from debris flows. A statistical debris flow model developed by the US Geological Surveys and parameterized for catchments in western US performed well (R2 = 0.92) in terms of predicting the overall volume of material delivered at the catchment outlet. An alternative modeling approach, using local slope and contributing area as predictors of erosion, also produced good results, and could be used to obtain more detailed predictions of sediment entrainment, deposition, the overall source contribution and the associated constituents. Future work will aim to link models of debris flow magnitude with models of initiation and debris flow frequency after fire.

Nyman, Petter; Sheridan, Gary; Smith, Hugh; Lane, Patrick

2014-05-01

186

Heterogeneity in fire severity within early season and late season prescribed burns in a mixed-conifer forest  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Structural heterogeneity in forests of the Sierra Nevada was historically produced through variation in fire regimes and local environmental factors. The amount of heterogeneity that prescription burning can achieve might now be more limited owing to high fuel loads and increased fuel continuity. Topography, woody fuel loading, and vegetative composition were quantified in plots within replicated early and late season burn units. Two indices of fire severity were evaluated in the same plots after the burns. Scorch height ranged from 2.8 to 25.4 m in early season plots and 3.1 to 38.5 m in late season plots, whereas percentage of ground surface burned ranged from 24 to 96% in early season plots and from 47 to 100% in late season plots. Scorch height was greatest in areas with steeper slopes, higher basal area of live trees, high percentage of basal area composed of pine, and more small woody fuel. Percentage of area burned was greatest in areas with less bare ground and rock cover (more fuel continuity), steeper slopes, and units burned in the fall (lower fuel moisture). Thus topographic and biotic factors still contribute to the abundant heterogeneity in fire severity with prescribed burning, even under the current high fuel loading conditions. Burning areas with high fuel loads in early season when fuels are moister may lead to patterns of heterogeneity in fire effects that more closely approximate the expected patchiness of historical fires.

Knapp, E.E.; Keeley, J.E.

2006-01-01

187

Post-fire regeneration in a Mediterranean pine forest with historically low fire frequency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Species of Mediterranean vegetation are known to regenerate directly after fire. The phenomenon of autosuccession (direct regeneration) has been found to be often combined with an increase of species richness during the first years after fire due to the high abundance of short-lived herbaceous plants facilitated by plentiful nutrients and light. The high degree of vegetation resilience, which is expressed in terms of autosuccession, has been explained by the selective pressure of fire in historic times. According to existing palaeoecological data, however, the Pinus halepensis forests in the Ricote Mountains (Province of Murcia, SE Spain) did not experience substantial fire impact before the presence of man nor are they especially fire-prone today. Therefore, we studied post-fire regeneration to find out if direct succession is present or if species from pre-fire vegetation are absent during the post-fire regeneration stages. Patterns of succession were deduced from observations made in sample plots on sites of a known regeneration age as well as in adjacent unburnt areas. The results of the vegetation analyses, including a Detrended Correspondence Analysis, indicate that Pinus halepensis forest regeneration after fire resembles autosuccession. As regards the presence of woody species, there is a high percentage similarity on north (83%) and south (70%) facing slopes during the first year after fire vs. reference areas which is due, for example, to direct regeneration of the resprouting Quercus coccifera or seeders like Pinus halepensis or Fumana laevipes. However, if herbaceous species are included in the comparison, the similarity on north-facing sites decreases (to 53%) with the presence of additional species, mainly ruderals like Anagallis arvensis or Reseda phyteuma, and even woody species on the burnt plots. This effect indicates "enhanced autosuccession", which was not found on south-facing sites where overall species richness was very high irrespective of the impact of fire. Locally we found limited regeneration of some species, for example Pinus halepensis at high altitudes (1000 m), even 22 years after fire. As we assume that historical fires did not play an important role in the area and direct succession is present nevertheless, our results support the theory that autosuccession is not a process restricted to fire-prone areas. Fire has been only one of several selective forces since human settlement that probably led to a set of species pre-adapted against recurrent disturbance.

Buhk, Constanze; Götzenberger, Lars; Wesche, Karsten; Gómez, Pedro Sánchez; Hensen, Isabell

2006-11-01

188

Central American biomass burning smoke can increase tornado severity in the U.S.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tornadoes in the Southeast and central U.S. are episodically accompanied by smoke from biomass burning in central America. Analysis of the 27 April 2011 historical tornado outbreak shows that adding smoke to an environment already conducive to severe thunderstorm development can increase the likelihood of significant tornado occurrence. Numerical experiments indicate that the presence of smoke during this event leads to optical thickening of shallow clouds while soot within the smoke enhances the capping inversion through radiation absorption. The smoke effects are consistent with measurements of clouds and radiation before and during the outbreak. These effects result in lower cloud bases and stronger low-level wind shear in the warm sector of the extratropical cyclone generating the outbreak, two indicators of higher probability of tornadogenesis and tornado intensity and longevity. These mechanisms may contribute to tornado modulation by aerosols, highlighting the need to consider aerosol feedbacks in numerical severe weather forecasting.

Saide, P. E.; Spak, S. N.; Pierce, R. B.; Otkin, J. A.; Schaack, T. K.; Heidinger, A. K.; Silva, A. M.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; Redemann, J.; Carmichael, G. R.

2015-02-01

189

Effects of oxandrolone on outcome measures in the severely burned: a multicenter prospective randomized double-blind trial.  

PubMed

Severe burns induce pathophysiologic problems, among them catabolism of lean mass, leading to protracted hospitalization and prolonged recovery. Oxandrolone is an anabolic agent shown to decrease lean mass catabolism and improve wound healing in the severely burned patients. We enrolled 81 adult subjects with burns 20% to 60% TBSA in a multicenter trial testing the effects of oxandrolone on length of hospital stay. Subjects were randomized between oxandrolone 10 mg every 12 hours or placebo. The study was stopped halfway through projected enrollment because of a significant difference between groups found on planned interim analysis. We found that length of stay was shorter in the oxandrolone group (31.6 +/- 3.1 days) than placebo (43.3 +/- 5.3 days; P < .05). This difference strengthened when deaths were excluded and hospital stay was indexed to burn size (1.24 +/- 0.15 days/% TBSA burned vs 0.87 +/- 0.05 days/% TBSA burned, P < .05). We conclude that treatment using oxandrolone should be considered for use in the severely burned while hepatic transaminases are monitored. PMID:16566555

Wolf, Steven E; Edelman, Linda S; Kemalyan, Nathan; Donison, Lorraine; Cross, James; Underwood, Marcia; Spence, Robert J; Noppenberger, Dene; Palmieri, Tina L; Greenhalgh, David G; Lawless, Marybeth; Voigt, David; Edwards, Paul; Warner, Petra; Kagan, Richard; Hatfield, Susan; Jeng, James; Crean, Daria; Hunt, John; Purdue, Gary; Burris, Agnes; Cairns, Bruce; Kessler, Mary; Klein, Robert L; Baker, Rose; Yowler, Charles; Tutulo, Wendy; Foster, Kevin; Caruso, Daniel; Hildebrand, Brian; Benjamin, Wesley; Villarreal, Cynthia; Sanford, Arthur P; Saffle, Jeffrey

2006-01-01

190

SHRUB MICROSITE INFLUENCE POST-FIRE PERENNIAL GRASS ESTABLISHMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many arid and semi-arid systems benefit from restoration of perennial grasses following wildfire. Woody plants can cause localized increases in resources (i.e. resource islands) that can persist after fire and create a heterogeneous environment for restoration. We tested the hypothesis that burned...

191

Aesthetic restoration of the severely disfigured face in burn victims: a comprehensive strategy.  

PubMed

Although highly specialized burn centers have significantly reduced mortality rates following extensive total body surface area burns, survivors are often left with grotesque facial disfigurement. The strategy of modern facial restoration emphasizes enhancement of aesthetic appearance as significantly as mitigation of functional impairment. Criteria for success are (1) an undistracted "normal" look at conversational distance, (2) facial balance and symmetry, (3) distinct aesthetic units fused by inconspicuous scars, (4) "doughy" skin texture appropriate for corrective makeup, and (5) dynamic facial expression. Since 1985, the author has successfully restored 17 severely disfigured burned faces by replacement of entire aesthetic units with microvascular "prepatterned" composite flaps blended into the facial canvas by cosmetic camouflage techniques. The series includes hemiface (2), neck/jaw (5), chin/lower lip (3), cheek/malar (5), peri-orbital (2), nose (3), upper lip (4), and ear reconstructions (4). Flaps represented are free preauricular (1), radial forearm (6), ulnar forearm (1), free scapular (6), ilio-osteocutaneous (2), temporoparietal (8), vascularized forehead island (3), supraclavicular (1), and SMAS (1). Important to outcome is extensive initial intraoperative "sculpting" to simulate normal planes and contours. Seams are placed at junctions of facial components. Three-dimensional imaging is used to assess architectural asymmetries, and bone grafts are aided by computer-generated acrylic models. Adjunctive procedures include tensor fasciae latae slings, intraoperative tissue expansion, suction-assisted lipectomy, and scar management. After restoration of facial form and texture, flesh color make-up and/or tattooing of beard, lips, scars, eyebrows, etc., aid to hide scars and pigment the skin to harmonize with the rest of the face. In all cases, facial integrity has been aesthetically restored and, in most instances, with makeup, is near normal in social settings at conversational distances. Facial animation is retained and color matches are excellent. One flap was lost early in the series. PMID:7480277

Rose, E H

1995-12-01

192

Polyacrylamide application versus forest residue mulching for reducing post-fire runoff and soil erosion.  

PubMed

For several years now, forest fires have been known to increase overland flow and soil erosion. However, mitigation of these effects has been little studied, especially outside the USA. This study aimed to quantify the effectiveness of two so-called emergency treatments to reduce post-fire runoff and soil losses at the microplot scale in a eucalyptus plantation in north-central Portugal. The treatments involved the application of chopped eucalyptus bark mulch at a rate of 10-12 Mg ha(-1), and surface application of a dry, granular, anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) at a rate of 50 kg ha(-1). During the first year after a wildfire in 2010, 1419 mm of rainfall produced, on average, 785 mm of overland flow in the untreated plots and 8.4 Mg ha(-1) of soil losses. Mulching reduced these two figures significantly, by an average 52 and 93%, respectively. In contrast, the PAM-treated plots did not differ from the control plots, despite slightly lower runoff but higher soil erosion figures. When compared to the control plots, mean key factors for runoff and soil erosion were different in the case of the mulched but not the PAM plots. Notably, the plots on the lower half of the slope registered bigger runoff and erosion figures than those on the upper half of the slope. This could be explained by differences in fire intensity and, ultimately, in pre-fire standing biomass. PMID:24055663

Prats, Sergio Alegre; Martins, Martinho António Dos Santos; Malvar, Maruxa Cortizo; Ben-Hur, Meni; Keizer, Jan Jacob

2014-01-15

193

Distribution and relative abundance of forest birds in relation to burn severity in southeastern Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The frequency of wild and prescribed fires in montane forests of the southwestern United States has increased after a century of fire suppression and subsequent fuels accumulation. To assess the effects of recent fires (median time since fire = 6 yr) on the montane forest bird community, we surveyed birds in 8 Sky Island mountain ranges in southeastern Arizona, USA, and examined how the distribution (i.e., presence-absence) of 65 species and relative abundance of 16 species correlated with evidence of severe and less severe fire at >1,500 survey points. We detected associations between fire and bird presence-absence for 17% of the 65 species analyzed and between fire and bird relative abundance for 25% of the 16 species analyzed. Most species (73%) were positively associated with burned areas and displayed stronger associations (i.e., more extreme odds ratios) with survey points that had evidence of severe as opposed to less severe fire. Positive associations with severe fire were strong (>3 to 1 odds) for western wood-pewee (Contopus sordidulus) and house wren (Troglodytes aedon), and negative associations with severe fire were strong for warbling vireo (Vireo gilvus) and red-breasted nuthatch (Sitta canadensis). Although recent fires appear to have had a positive effect on the distribution and relative abundance of several montane forest bird species in the region, these species are not the open-woodland birds that we would have expected to have benefited from fire based on previous research. Nevertheless, our results confirm associations between fire and bird presence-absence and relative abundance reported previously for 7 species of birds. Our results also provide new information for Grace's warbler (Dendroica graciae) and greater pewee (C. pertinax), 2 species for which fire data were formerly lacking. Managers can use these data to make and test predictions about the effects of future fires, both severe and less severe, on montane forest birds in the southwestern United States.

Kirkpatrick, C.; Conway, C.J.; Jones, P.B.

2006-01-01

194

Stimulation of muscle protein synthesis by long-term insulin infusion in severely burned patients.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine if long-term (7 days) infusion of insulin can ameliorate altered protein kinetics in skeletal muscle of severely burned patients and to investigate the hypothesis that changes in protein kinetics during insulin infusion are associated with an increased rate of transmembrane amino acid transport from plasma into the intracellular free amino acid pool. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: In critically ill patients, vigorous nutritional support alone may often fail to entirely curtail muscle catabolism; insulin stimulates muscle protein synthesis in normal volunteers. METHODS: Nine patients with severe burns were studied once during enteral feeding alone (control period), and once after 7 days of high-dose insulin. The order of treatment with insulin was randomized. Data were derived from a model based on a primed-continuous infusion of L-[15N]phenylalanine, sampling of blood from the femoral artery and vein, and biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle. RESULTS: Net leg muscle protein balance was significantly (p < 0.05) negative during the control period. Exogenous insulin eliminated this negative balance by stimulating protein synthesis approximately 350% (p < 0.01). This was made possible in part by a sixfold increase in the inward transport of amino acids from blood (p < 0.01). There was also a significant increase in leg muscle protein breakdown. The new rates of synthesis, breakdown, and inward transport during insulin were in balance, such that there was no difference in the intracellular phenylalanine concentration from the control period. The fractional synthetic rate of protein in the wound was also stimulated by insulin by approximately 50%, but the response was variable and did not reach significance. CONCLUSIONS: Exogenous insulin may be useful in promoting muscle protein synthesis in severely catabolic patients. PMID:7677459

Sakurai, Y; Aarsland, A; Herndon, D N; Chinkes, D L; Pierre, E; Nguyen, T T; Patterson, B W; Wolfe, R R

1995-01-01

195

TLR4 and TNF-? polymorphisms are associated with an increased risk for severe sepsis following burn injury  

PubMed Central

Context: Sepsis, organ failure, and shock remain common among patients with moderate to severe burn injuries. The inability of clinical factors to identify at-risk patients suggests that genetic variation may influence the risk for serious infection and the outcome from severe injury. Objective: Resolution of genetic variants associated with severe sepsis following burn injury. Patients: A total of 159 patients with burns ?20% of their total body surface area or any smoke inhalation injury without significant non-burn related trauma (injury severity score (ISS)?16), traumatic or anoxic brain injury, or spinal cord injury and who survived more than 48 h post-admission. Methods: Candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within bacterial recognition (TLR4 +896, CD14 –159) and inflammatory response (TNF-? –308, IL-1ß –31, IL-6 –174) loci were evaluated for association with increased risk for severe sepsis (sepsis plus organ dysfunction or septic shock) and mortality. Results: After adjustment for age, full-thickness burn size, ethnicity, and gender, carriage of the TLR4 +896 G-allele imparted at least a 1.8-fold increased risk of developing severe sepsis following a burn injury, relative to AA homozygotes (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 6.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8 to 23.2). Carriage of the TNF-? –308 A-allele imparted a similarly increased risk, relative to GG homozygotes (aOR = 4.5; 95% CI 1.7 to 12.0). None of the SNPs examined were significantly associated with mortality. Conclusions: The TLR4 +896 and TNF-? –308 polymorphisms were significantly associated with an increased risk for severe sepsis following burn trauma. PMID:15520404

Barber, R; Aragaki, C; Rivera-Chavez, F; Purdue, G; Hunt, J; Horton, J

2004-01-01

196

EARLY POST-FIRE PLANT ESTABLISHMENT ON A MOJAVE DESERT BURN SCOTT R. ABELLA  

E-print Network

Area in southern Nevada's Mojave Desert. Based on a spring sampling of 20, 0.01-ha plots, live + dead area. Perennial species composition shifted from dominance by late-successional native shrubs (e brevifolia Engelm. (Agavaceae). However, just as in more mesic regions, deserts contain early successional

Abella, Scott R.

197

Role of Central American biomass burning smoke in increasing tornado severity in the US  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Violent tornadoes in the Southeast and Central US during spring are often accompanied by smoke from biomass burning in Central America. We analyzed the effect of smoke on a historic severe weather outbreak that occurred 27 April 2011 using a coupled aerosol, chemistry and weather model (WRF-Chem) and a suite of satellite and ground-based observations. Smoke from Central American biomass burning was present in the boundary layer and lower free troposphere before and during the storm outbreak. Simulations show that adding smoke to the environment already conducive to severe thunderstorm development increases the likelihood of significant tornado occurrence, which is assessed by analyzing effects of smoke on meteorological conditions (tornado parameters) used by prediction centers to forecast tornado occurrence and severity. Smoke effects generate slightly lower rain rates and cloud top heights, indicating no evidence of storm invigoration for these storms and instead pointing towards convection inhibition. Further analysis shows that there are two mechanisms responsible for the parameter intensification: First, through indirect effects, stratiform clouds present during and before the outbreak became optically thicker, which reduced the amount of solar radiation reaching the ground and produced more stable conditions and higher low-level shear in the mixed layer. Second, through semi-direct effects, soot contained in the smoke heated the aerosol layer stabilizing the atmosphere and enhancing cloud cover below the aerosol layer, producing a more stable boundary layer and conditions leading to higher probability of violent tornadoes. The inclusion of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in weather forecasts may help improve the predictability of these extreme events, which can improve the timeliness and accuracy of severe weather alerts within future operational forecast systems. Left panel: Back trajectories from the beginning of violent tornado tracks, with circles marking 24 hours, observed AOD over ocean on 27 April and fire locations for the day before. Right panels: Maps of mean differences between simulations with and without fire emissions for the Significant Tornado Parameter (STP) and 0-1 km layer wind shear during the period of the outbreak.

Saide, P. E.; Spak, S.; Pierce, R.; Otkin, J.; Rabin, R.; Schaack, T.; Heidinger, A. K.; da Silva, A.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Redemann, J.; Carmichael, G. R.

2013-12-01

198

Burns (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... outlets, etc.) overexposure to the sun Types of Burns Burns are often categorized as first-, second-, or ... if the burn is severe). Continue First-Degree Burns First-degree burns, the mildest of the three, ...

199

Wind erosion from a sagebrush steppe burned by wildfire: Measurements of PM10 and total horizontal sediment flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind erosion and aeolian transport processes are under studied compared to rainfall-induced erosion and sediment transport on burned landscapes. Post-fire wind erosion studies have predominantly focused on near-surface sediment transport and associated impacts such as on-site soil loss and site fertility. Downwind impacts, including air quality degradation and deposition of dust or contaminants, are also likely post-fire effects; however, quantitative field measurements of post-fire dust emissions are needed for assessment of these downwind risks. A wind erosion monitoring system was installed immediately following a desert sagebrush and grass wildfire in southeastern Idaho, USA to measure wind erosion from the burned landscape. This paper presents measurements of horizontal sediment flux and PM10 vertical flux from the burned area. We determined threshold wind speeds and corresponding threshold friction velocities to be 6.0 and 0.20 m s-1, respectively, for the 4 months immediately following the fire and 10 and 0.55 m s-1 for the following spring months. Several major wind erosion events were measured in the months following the July 2010 Jefferson Fire. The largest wind erosion event occurred in early September 2010 and produced 1495 kg m-1 of horizontal sediment transport within the first 2 m above the soil surface, had a maximum PM10 vertical flux of 100 mg m-2 s-1, and generated a large dust plume that was visible in satellite imagery. The peak PM10 concentration measured on-site at a height of 2 m in the downwind portion of the burned area was 690 mg m-3. Our results indicate that wildfire can convert a relatively stable landscape into one that is a major dust source.

Wagenbrenner, Natalie S.; Germino, Matthew J.; Lamb, Brian K.; Robichaud, Peter R.; Foltz, Randy B.

2013-09-01

200

Post-fire mulching for runoff and erosion mitigation Part I: Effectiveness at reducing hillslope erosion rates  

E-print Network

Post-fire mulching for runoff and erosion mitigation Part I: Effectiveness at reducing hillslope erosion rates Peter R. Robichaud , Sarah A. Lewis, Joseph W. Wagenbrenner, Louise E. Ashmun, Robert E to mitigate post-fire increases in runoff and erosion rates but the comparative effectiveness of various

Flury, Markus

201

SHORT-TERM EFFECTS OF SUMMER FIRE AND POST-FIRE GRAZING IN THE NORTHERN GREAT PLAINS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Summer wildfire is common in the northern Great Plains. However, little research has been conducted to evaluate summer fire and post-fire grazing effects on plant communities. The objective of this study was to determine short-term effects of summer fire and post-fire grazing on standing crop, cur...

202

Post-fire successional effects on breeding grassland birds in mesquite savanna habitats of the Texas rolling plains  

E-print Network

) responded positively to post-fire succession, and lark sparrows (Chondestes grammacus) responded negatively to post-fire succession.; abundance of these avian groups was low on the control sites. During 2004�2005, 90 grassland bird nests were monitored...

Lee, Stephanie L.

2007-04-25

203

Utilizing Remote Sensing Information to Improve Post-fire Rainfall-runoff Predictions after the 2010 Bull Fire in the Sequoia National Forest, CA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Post-fire management decisions are guided by rainfall-runoff predictions, which ultimately influence downstream treatment and mitigation costs. The current study investigates evolving rainfall-runoff partitioning at the watershed scale over a two-year period after the 2010 Bull Fire which occurred in the southern Sequoia National Forest in California. Stage height was measured at five-minute intervals using pressure transducers, tipping buckets were installed for rainfall duration and intensity, and channel cross-sections were measured approximately every two months to detail sediment deposition or scour. We also utilize remotely sensed vegetation data to evaluate vegetation recovery in the studied watersheds and the corresponding relationship to storm runoff. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), a measure of vegetation greenness, is evaluated for its potential use as a key recovery indicator. Preliminary results focus on alterations in annual and seasonal precipitation and discharge relationships using in-situ data and Landsat NDVI values for the period of study. NDVI values are consistent with a comprehensive burn, with an acute decrease observed in the initial post-fire period. However, vegetation recovery is highly variable in the studied systems and influenced by shorter-term biomass pulses (grasses) while longer-term recovery of other species (chaparral and pine) is ongoing. Runoff ratios are elevated during early storms and show some recovery in the later part of the study period. The ability to accurately and confidently predict post-fire runoff and longer-term recovery is critical for monitoring values-at-risk, reducing mitigation costs, and improving warnings to downstream public communities.

Kinoshita, A. M.; Hale, B.; Hogue, T. S.

2012-12-01

204

A low-cost method to measure the timing of post-fire flash floods and debris flows relative to rainfall  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data on the specific timing of post-fire flash floods and debris flows are very limited. We describe a method to measure the response times of small burned watersheds to rainfall using a low-cost pressure transducer, which can be installed quickly after a fire. Although the pressure transducer is not designed for sustained sampling at the fast rates ({less than or equal to}2 sec) used at more advanced debris-flow monitoring sites, comparisons with high-data rate stage data show that measured spikes in pressure sampled at 1-min intervals are sufficient to detect the passage of most debris flows and floods. Post-event site visits are used to measure the peak stage and identify flow type based on deposit characteristics. The basin response timescale (tb) to generate flow at each site was determined from an analysis of the cross correlation between time series of flow pressure and 5-min rainfall intensity. This timescale was found to be less than 30 minutes for 40 post-fire floods and 11 post-fire debris flows recorded in 15 southern California watersheds ({less than or equal to} 1.4 km2). Including data from 24 other debris flows recorded at 5 more instrumentally advanced monitoring stations, we find there is not a substantial difference in the median tb for floods and debris flows (11 and 9 minutes, respectively); however, there are slight, statistically significant differences in the trends of flood and debris-flow tb with basin area, which are presumably related to differences in flow speed between floods and debris flows.

Kean, Jason W.; Staley, Dennis M.; Leeper, Robert J.; Schmidt, Kevin Michael; Gartner, Joseph E.

2012-01-01

205

In situ measurements of post-fire debris flows in southern California: Comparisons of the timing and magnitude of 24 debris-flow events with rainfall and soil moisture conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Debris flows often occur in burned steeplands of southern California, sometimes causing property damage and loss of life. In an effort to better understand the hydrologic controls on post-fire debris-flow initiation, timing and magnitude, we measured the flow stage, rainfall, channel bed pore fluid pressure and hillslope soil-moisture accompanying 24 debris flows recorded in five different watersheds burned in the 2009 Station and Jesusita Fires (San Gabriel and Santa Ynez Mountains). The measurements show substantial differences in debris-flow dynamics between sites and between sequential events at the same site. Despite these differences, the timing and magnitude of all events were consistently associated with local peaks in short duration (< = 30 min) rainfall intensity. Overall, debris-flow stage was best cross-correlated with time series of 5-min rainfall intensity, and lagged the rainfall by an average of just 5 min. An index of debris-flow volume was also best correlated with short-duration rainfall intensity, but found to be poorly correlated with storm cumulative rainfall and hillslope soil water content. Post-event observations of erosion and slope stability modeling suggest that the debris flows initiated primarily by processes related to surface water runoff, rather than shallow landslides. By identifying the storm characteristics most closely associated with post-fire debris flows, these measurements provide valuable guidance for warning operations and important constraints for developing and testing models of post-fire debris flows.

Kean, Jason W.; Staley, Dennis M.; Cannon, Susan H.

2011-12-01

206

In situ measurements of post-fire debris flows in southern California: Comparisons of the timing and magnitude of 24 debris-flow events with rainfall and soil moisture conditions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Debris flows often occur in burned steeplands of southern California, sometimes causing property damage and loss of life. In an effort to better understand the hydrologic controls on post-fire debris-flow initiation, timing and magnitude, we measured the flow stage, rainfall, channel bed pore fluid pressure and hillslope soil-moisture accompanying 24 debris flows recorded in five different watersheds burned in the 2009 Station and Jesusita Fires (San Gabriel and Santa Ynez Mountains). The measurements show substantial differences in debris-flow dynamics between sites and between sequential events at the same site. Despite these differences, the timing and magnitude of all events were consistently associated with local peaks in short duration (< = 30 min) rainfall intensity. Overall, debris-flow stage was best cross-correlated with time series of 5-min rainfall intensity, and lagged the rainfall by an average of just 5 min. An index of debris-flow volume was also best correlated with short-duration rainfall intensity, but found to be poorly correlated with storm cumulative rainfall and hillslope soil water content. Post-event observations of erosion and slope stability modeling suggest that the debris flows initiated primarily by processes related to surface water runoff, rather than shallow landslides. By identifying the storm characteristics most closely associated with post-fire debris flows, these measurements provide valuable guidance for warning operations and important constraints for developing and testing models of post-fire debris flows. copyright. 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

Kean, J.W.; Staley, D.M.; Cannon, S.H.

2011-01-01

207

Soil surfactant products for improving hydrologic function in post-fire water repellent soil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There are a wide range of soil surfactant chemistries on the market today that are primarily designed for the treatment of water repellent soils in cropping and turfgrass systems. These chemicals may also have potential in treating the deleterious effects associated with post-fire water repellent so...

208

Post-fire Downy Brome (Bromus tectorum) invasion at high elevation in Wyoming  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The invasive annual grass downy brome is the most ubiquitous weed in sagebrush systems of western North America. The center of invasion has largely been the Great Basin region, but there is an increasing abundance and distribution in the Rocky Mountain States. We evaluated post-fire vegetation chang...

209

Post-fire vegetation of the Montane natural subregion of Jasper National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological Land Classification information gathered in the mid to late 1970s was used to predict post-fire vegetation for the Montane natural subregion of Jasper National Park. Percentage similarity indices (SI) between vegetation types based on understory species composition and cover, calculated distances (D) generated from altitude, nutrient and moisture, broad patterns of vegetation canopy based on moisture regimes, canonical correspondence

L. B. Nadeau; I. G. W. Corns

2002-01-01

210

Rapid Post Fire Hydrologic Watershed Assessment using the AGWA GIS -based Hydrologic Modeling Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid post -fire watershed assessment to identify potential trouble spots for erosion and flooding can potentially aid land managers and Bu rned Area Emergency Rehabilitation (BAER) teams in deploying mitigation and rehabilitation resources. These decisions are inherently complex and spatial in nature and require a distributed hydrological modeling approach. The extensive data requirements an d the task of building input

D. C. Goodrich; H. Evan Canfield; I. Shea Burns; D. J. Semmens; S. N. Miller; M. Hernandez; L. R. Levick; D. P. Guertin; W. G. Kepner

211

Early post-fire succession in California chaparral: changes in diversity, density, cover, and biomass  

USGS Publications Warehouse

For four consecutive years, following the fires in November 1993, temporal variations in species richness, cover and biomass of component plant groups in early post-fire chaparral succession were monitored on different aspects at the Stunt Ranch Santa Monica Mountains Reserve, southern California. Plant groups were categorized based on growth form, life form, ability to fix nitrogen, geographic origin and regeneration strategies. North-facing slopes exhibited higher species richness, higher species turnover rate over time and faster vegetation recovery in terms of biomass accumulation and return to pre-fire species composition. This was probably due to higher species richness and biomass of nitrogen-fixing species found on north-facing slopes in comparison to south-facing slopes. On both north- and south-facing slopes, annuals had the highest species turnover rate, followed by herbaceous perennials and shrubs. In the first four post-fire years, annual species were the largest floristic group, but herbaceous perennials and shrubs were the major contributors to community biomass. Nitrogen-fixing species and exotics contributed significantly to early post-fire community structure. Although the general trends in post-fire succession are clear in terms of temporal changes in the relative proportions of different plant groups, environmental variation and the nature of plant life histories of component species, especially dominant species, could alter such trends significantly.

Guo, Q.

2001-01-01

212

Ecohydrological Response to Severe Disturbance by Wildfire and Salvage Logging in Oligotrophic Rocky Mountain Watersheds: Nutrient Loading, Plant Productivity, and Benthic Macroinvertebrate Community Response.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the initial magnitude and post-disturbance recovery of watershed hydrology and ecology after the 2003 Lost Creek wildfire in Southern Alberta's Rocky Mountains. Ecohydrological linkages between phosphorus (P) production and response of stream algal and benthic macroinvertebrate communities were studied for four years after this severe wildfire (2004-2007) to describe the early trajectory of post-disturbance recovery. Wildfire and salvage logging resulted in 3- to 12-times greater total phosphorus (TP) production with higher concentrations evident in salvage logged watersheds (p<0.001). Phosphorus recovery has been slow with strong differences in relationships between P and stream discharge still evident four years after the fire (p<0.001). Because particulate P comprised the dominant form of TP, coupled P and sediment interactions are likely implicated in the slow recovery of P production (particularly in salvage logged watersheds). Post-fire P loading was associated with strong ecological responses in stream biota in both burned and salvage logged watersheds. Large increases in algal productivity were observed in both burned and post-fire salvage logged streams immediately after the fire with 7- to 60-times greater biomass production and chlorophyll-a concentration than in reference streams (p<0.001). Algal productivity co-varied strongly with slow recovery in P production as high algal productivity persisted for four years. Elevated algal production was, in turn, associated with strong differences in benthic macroinvertebrate community structure four years after the fire, including higher invertebrate densities, shifts in species composition, and increased species diversity in the burned and post-fire salvage logged watersheds. Contrary to expectations based on River Continuum Theory, carbon and nitrogen isotopes indicated increased utilization of allochthonous (terrestrial) food sources by invertebrate communities after the fire, suggesting potentially complex ecohydrologic interactions between post-fire biogeochemical pathways and biological responses regulating the structure of aquatic food webs.

Silins, U.; Bladon, K. D.; Esch, E.; Spence, J. R.; Stone, M.; Emelko, M. B.; Wagner, M. J.; Williams, C.; Tichkowsky, I.; Boon, S.; Devito, K. J.; Mendoza, C. A.

2008-12-01

213

Emergency assessment of post-fire debris-flow hazards for the 2013 Powerhouse fire, southern California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wildfire dramatically alters the hydrologic response of a watershed such that even modest rainstorms can produce dangerous flash floods and debris flows. Existing empirical models were used to predict the probability and magnitude of debris-flow occurrence in response to a 10-year recurrence interval rainstorm for the 2013 Powerhouse fire near Lancaster, California. Overall, the models predict a relatively low probability for debris-flow occurrence in response to the design storm. However, volumetric predictions suggest that debris flows that occur may entrain a significant volume of material, with 44 of the 73 basins identified as having potential debris-flow volumes between 10,000 and 100,000 cubic meters. These results suggest that even though the likelihood of debris flow is relatively low, the consequences of post-fire debris-flow initiation within the burn area may be significant for downstream populations, infrastructure, and wildlife and water resources. Given these findings, we recommend that residents, emergency managers, and public works departments pay close attention to weather forecasts and National-Weather-Service-issued Debris Flow and Flash Flood Outlooks, Watches, and Warnings and that residents adhere to any evacuation orders.

Staley, Dennis M.; Smoczyk, Gregory M.; Reeves, Ryan R.

2013-01-01

214

Short and Long-term Effects of High-severity Fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forests are subject to a wide variety of natural and anthropogenic disturbances, including extreme rainstorms, beetle kill, forest harvest, windthrow, and fires. Here we show that: (1) erosion and sedimentation following high-severity fires is more important and persistent than commonly believed; (2) these post-fire effects have feedbacks that that can alter the rates of other key processes; and (3) the post-fire erosion and feedback effects need to be accounted for in landscape-scale modeling. Hillslope-scale surface erosion measurements were initiated in unmanaged and managed mid-elevation forests in the Colorado Front Range in summer 2001, and half of these sites burned in the 2002 Hayman and Schoonover wildfires. Similarly, cross-sections and a flume were installed in a 2.3 and a 6.0 km2 watershed in 2001-02, and about 60% of these watersheds were subsequently burned in June 2002. Continued monitoring of these and other sites through summer 2006 has resulted in a unique pre- and post-fire dataset. For the unburned managed and unmanaged hillslopes, measurable erosion occurred for only three of the 222 hillslope-years of data, even when rainfall intensities exceeded 60 mm/hr. In contrast, sediment was produced from each of the severely-burned hillslopes for each of the first three years after burning, and the cumulative mean six-year sediment yield was 32 Mg/ha. Severe armoring has developed on the burned hillslopes while there is no comparable armor layer on the unburned hillslopes. The numerous rills and gullies developed after the fire are expected to slowly fill in, but the downstream deposition of coarse post-fire sediment in the smaller watershed has changed the runoff from surface to subsurface flow. The loss of forest cover, hillslope armoring, and change to subsurface flow are projected to cause long-term changes in hillslope erosion and downstream sediment transport rates. These fire-induced changes in processes and boundary conditions can have important feedbacks to future erosion and sediment transport rates, and hence to landscape evolution.

MacDonald, L. H.; Larsen, I. J.; Schaffrath, K. R.; Eccleston, D.; Welsh, M. J.

2010-12-01

215

Primary triage of mass burn casualties with associated severe traumatic injuries  

PubMed Central

Summary A key aim in any mass disaster event is to avoid diverting resources by overwhelming specialized tertiary centers with minor casualties. The most crucial aspect of an effective disaster response is pre-hospital triage at the scene. Unfortunately, many triage systems have serious shortcomings in their methodologies and no existing triage system has enough scientific evidence to justify its universal adoption. Moreover, it is observed that the optimal approach to planning is by no means clear-cut and that each new incident involving burns appears to produce its own unique problems not all of which were predictable. In most major burns disasters, victims mostly have combined trauma burn injuries and form a heterogeneous group with a broad range of devastating injuries. Are these victims primarily burn patients or trauma patients? Should they be taken care of in a burn center or in a trauma center or only in a combined burns-trauma center? Who makes the decision? The present review is aimed at answering some of these questions. PMID:23966900

Atiyeh, B.; Gunn, S. William A.; Dibo, S.

2013-01-01

216

Five-Year Outcomes after Oxandrolone Administration in Severely Burned Children: A Randomized Clinical Trial of Safety and Efficacy  

PubMed Central

Background Oxandrolone, an anabolic agent, has been administered for 1 year post burn with beneficial effects in pediatric patients. However, the long-lasting effects of this treatment have not been studied. This single-center prospective trial determined the long-term effects of 1 year of oxandrolone administration in severely burned children; assessments were continued for up to 4 years post-therapy. Study Design Patients 0–18 years old with burns covering >30% of the total body surface area were randomized to receive placebo (n=152) or oxandrolone, 0.1 mg/kg twice daily for 12 months (n=70). At hospital discharge, patients were randomized to a 12 week exercise program or to standard of care. Resting energy expenditure (REE), standing height, weight, lean body mass, muscle strength, bone mineral content (BMC), cardiac work, rate pressure product (RPP), sexual maturation, and concentrations of serum inflammatory cytokines, hormones, and liver enzymes were monitored. Results Oxandrolone significantly decreased REE, RPP, and increased IGF-1 secretion during the first year after burn injury, and in combination with exercise significantly increased lean body mass and muscle strength. Oxandrolone-treated children exhibited improved height percentile and BMC content compared to controls. The maximal effect of oxandrolone was found in children aged 7–18 years. No deleterious side effects were attributed to long-term administration. Conclusions Administration of oxandrolone improves the long-term recovery of severely burned children in height, BMC, cardiac work and muscle strength; the increase in BMC is likely to occur by means of IGF 1. These benefits persist for up to 5 years post burn. PMID:22463890

Porro, Laura J; Herndon, David N; Rodriguez, Noe A; Jennings, Kristofer; Klein, Gordon L; Mlcak, Ronald P; Meyer, Walter; Lee, Jong; Suman, Oscar E; Finnerty, Celeste C

2012-01-01

217

Long-term post-fire effects on spatial ecology and reproductive output of female Agassiz’s desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) at a wind energy facility near Palm Springs, California, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied the long-term response of a cohort of eight female Agassiz’s desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) during the first 15 years following a large fire at a wind energy generation facility near Palm Springs, California, USA. The fire burned a significant portion of the study site in 1995. Tortoise activity areas were mapped using minimum convex polygons for a proximate post-fire interval from 1997 to 2000, and a long-term post-fire interval from 2009 to 2010. In addition, we measured the annual reproductive output of eggs each year and monitored the body condition of tortoises over time. One adult female tortoise was killed by the fire and five tortoises bore exposure scars that were not fatal. Despite predictions that tortoises would make the short-distance movements from burned to nearby unburned habitats, most activity areas and their centroids remained in burned areas for the duration of the study. The percentage of activity area burned did not differ significantly between the two monitoring periods. Annual reproductive output and measures of body condition remained statistically similar throughout the monitoring period. Despite changes in plant composition, conditions at this site appeared to be suitable for survival of tortoises following a major fire. High productivity at the site may have buffered tortoises from the adverse impacts of fire if they were not killed outright. Tortoise populations at less productive desert sites may not have adequate resources to sustain normal activity areas, reproductive output, and body conditions following fire.

Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Ennen, Joshua R.; Madrak, Sheila V.; Loughran, Caleb L.; Meyer, Katherin P.; Arundel, Terence R.; Bjurlin, Curtis D.

2011-01-01

218

Modelling threats to water quality from fire suppression chemicals and post-fire erosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Misapplication of fire retardant chemicals into streams and rivers may threaten aquatic life. The possible threat depends on the contaminant concentration that, in part, is controlled by dispersion within flowing water. In the event of a misapplication, methods are needed to rapidly estimate the chemical mass entering the waterway and the dispersion and transport within the system. Here we demonstrate a new tool that calculates the chemical mass based on aircraft delivery system, fire chemical type, and stream and intersect geometry. The estimated mass is intended to be transferred into a GIS module that uses real-time stream data to map and simulate the dispersion and transport downstream. This system currently accounts only for aqueous transport. We envision that the GIS module can be modified to incorporate sediment transport, specifically to model movement of sediments from post-fire erosion. This modification could support assessment of threats of post-fire erosion to water quality and water supply systems.

Hyde, Kevin; Ziemniak, Chris; Elliot, William; Samuels, William

2014-05-01

219

Predicting high severity fire occurrence and area burned in a changing climate for three regions in the Western US  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A long history of fire suppression in the western United States has interrupted the fire regimes of many forest types. This interruption has significantly changed forest structure and ecological function and led to increasingly uncharacteristic fires in terms of size and severity. Research has shown that climate variability drives the occurrence of large fires and is important to predicting fire severity. We found that Western US area burned in high severity fire can be accurately predicted using a generalized Pareto distribution model with covariates of climate, weather, topography, and vegetation. Our model was robust in all but the most extreme fire years, e.g. 1988, 2000, 2002, and 2003, where area burned in high severity was significantly greater than in other years. We modeled the Northern Rocky Mountains, the Sierra Nevada Mountains, and the Southwestern US to determine if regional differences in controls on severity were at play in extreme years. The regional analysis improved model performance by capturing extreme fire years and identified regionally unique covariates. For the Northern Rocky Mountains the addition of elevation and fire regime condition class improved the prediction in extreme years. In the Southwest relative humidity and moisture deficit in the month of fire and total fire size were critical to capturing extreme fire years. The Sierra Nevada model had the most complex set of covariates that included: vegetation, moisture deficit, evapotranspiration, precipitation, and fire regime condition class. By incorporating regionally specific variables, our models were robust in prediction of high severity area burned in all years. For this work, we will apply high and low CO2 emission scenarios from three general circulation models to our regional statistical models to predict probability of high severity fire occurrence as well as area burned in high severity for the period 1950-2099. We used the downscaled climate as an input into the VIC hydrologic model to generate independent variable sets for each future scenario. The modeling output will allow us to identify potential changes in the annual area burned with high severity fire under future climate as well as areas where the probable occurrence of high severity fires might increase.

Keyser, A.; Westerling, A. L.; Milostan, J.

2013-12-01

220

Taxonomic and Functional Responses to Fire and Post-Fire Management of a Mediterranean Hymenoptera Community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire is one of the commonest disturbances worldwide, transforming habitat structure and affecting ecosystem functioning. Understanding how species respond to such environmental disturbances is a major conservation goal that should be monitored using functionally and taxonomically diverse groups such as Hymenoptera. In this respect, we have analyzed the taxonomic and functional response to fire and post-fire management of a Hymenoptera community from a Mediterranean protected area. Thus, Hymenoptera were sampled at fifteen sites located in three burnt areas submitted to different post-fire practices, as well as at five sites located in peripheral unburnt pine forest. A total of 4882 specimens belonging to 33 families, which were classified into six feeding groups according to their dietary preferences, were collected. ANOVA and Redundancy Analyses showed a taxonomic and functional response to fire as all burnt areas had more Hymenoptera families, different community composition and higher numbers of parasitoids than the unburnt area. Taxonomic differences were also found between burnt areas in terms of the response of Hymenoptera to post-fire management. In general the number of parasitoids was positively correlated to the number of potential host arthropods. Parasitoids are recognized to be sensitive to habitat changes, thus highlighting their value for monitoring the functional responses of organisms to habitat disturbance. The taxonomic and functional responses of Hymenoptera suggest that some pine-forest fires can enhance habitat heterogeneity and arthropod diversity, hence increasing interspecific interactions such as those established by parasitoids and their hosts.

Mateos, Eduardo; Santos, Xavier; Pujade-Villar, Juli

2011-11-01

221

Using Landsat data to assess fire and burn severity in the North American boreal forest region: an overview and summary of results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. There has been considerable interest in the recent literature regarding the assessment,of post-fire effects on forested areas within the North American,boreal forest. Assessing the physical and ecological effects of fire in boreal forests has far-reaching implications for a variety of ecosystem,processes – such as post-fire forest succession – and land management,decisions. The present paper reviews past assessments,and the studies

Nancy H. F. French; Eric S. Kasischke; Ronald J. Hall; Karen A. Murphy; David L. Verbyla; Elizabeth E. Hoy; Jennifer L. Allen

2008-01-01

222

Perspectives on disconnects between scientific information and management decisions on post-fire recovery in Western US.  

PubMed

Environmental regulations frequently mandate the use of "best available" science, but ensuring that it is used in decisions around the use and protection of natural resources is often challenging. In the Western US, this relationship between science and management is at the forefront of post-fire land management decisions. Recent fires, post-fire threats (e.g. flooding, erosion), and the role of fire in ecosystem health combine to make post-fire management highly visible and often controversial. This paper uses post-fire management to present a framework for understanding why disconnects between science and management decisions may occur. We argue that attributes of agencies, such as their political or financial incentives, can limit how effectively science is incorporated into decision-making. At the other end of the spectrum, the lack of synthesis or limited data in science can result in disconnects between science-based analysis of post-fire effects and agency policy and decisions. Disconnects also occur because of the interaction between the attributes of agencies and the attributes of science, such as their different spatial and temporal scales of interest. After offering examples of these disconnects in post-fire treatment, the paper concludes with recommendations to reduce disconnects by improving monitoring, increasing synthesis of scientific findings, and directing social-science research toward identifying and deepening understanding of these disconnects. PMID:24065384

Chen, Xiaoli; Emery, Nathan; Garcia, Elizabeth S; Hanan, Erin J; Hodges, Heather E; Martin, Tyronne; Meyers, Matthew A; Peavey, Lindsey E; Peng, Hui; Santamaria, Jaime Sainz; Uyeda, Kellie A; Anderson, Sarah E; Tague, Christina

2013-12-01

223

Perspectives on Disconnects Between Scientific Information and Management Decisions on Post-fire Recovery in Western US  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental regulations frequently mandate the use of "best available" science, but ensuring that it is used in decisions around the use and protection of natural resources is often challenging. In the Western US, this relationship between science and management is at the forefront of post-fire land management decisions. Recent fires, post-fire threats (e.g. flooding, erosion), and the role of fire in ecosystem health combine to make post-fire management highly visible and often controversial. This paper uses post-fire management to present a framework for understanding why disconnects between science and management decisions may occur. We argue that attributes of agencies, such as their political or financial incentives, can limit how effectively science is incorporated into decision-making. At the other end of the spectrum, the lack of synthesis or limited data in science can result in disconnects between science-based analysis of post-fire effects and agency policy and decisions. Disconnects also occur because of the interaction between the attributes of agencies and the attributes of science, such as their different spatial and temporal scales of interest. After offering examples of these disconnects in post-fire treatment, the paper concludes with recommendations to reduce disconnects by improving monitoring, increasing synthesis of scientific findings, and directing social-science research toward identifying and deepening understanding of these disconnects.

Chen, Xiaoli; Emery, Nathan; Garcia, Elizabeth S.; Hanan, Erin J.; Hodges, Heather E.; Martin, Tyronne; Meyers, Matthew A.; Peavey, Lindsey E.; Peng, Hui; Santamaria, Jaime Sainz; Uyeda, Kellie A.; Anderson, Sarah E.; Tague, Christina

2013-12-01

224

The role of topographic correction in mapping recently burned Mediterranean forest areas from LANDSAT TM images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operational use of remote sensing as a tool for post?fire, Mediterranean forest management has been limited by problems of classification accuracy arising from confusion of burned and non?burned areas. Frequently, this occurs as a result of slope illumination and shadowing effects caused by the complex topography encountered in many forested areas. Cloud shadows can also be a problem. The aim

I. Z. Gitas; B. J. Devereux

2006-01-01

225

PATCH BURNING EFFECTS ON FORAGE UTILIZATION AND GRAZING DISTRIBUTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Post-fire forage growth is known to be a strong attractant for large herbivores. However, fire has generally been avoided as a grazing distribution tool for fear of localized over utilization of forage resources. Our objectives were to determine cattle grazing preference for burned sites relative ...

226

Seedling establishment along post-fire succession in Mediterranean shrublands dominated by obligate seeders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seedlings are expected to be particularly sensitive to the environmental conditions at the time of establishment. Within succession, environmental conditions vary over time and a species will have a better chance to regenerate on a particular place depending on the intrinsic traits that determine its regeneration niche. We examined the regeneration niche and the pattern of seedling establishment along succession of the main species present in a Mediterranean shrubland. The establishment of Cistus albidus, Rosmarinus officinalis and Ulex parviflorus was monitored for three years using seasonal cohorts in three different stages along a successional gradient (post-fire, building and mature). There was a flush of establishment immediately after fire in all species. After this event, there was a decline in establishment as succession progressed, until practically no seedling establishment was found at mature stages. The presence of a thick litter layer probably precluded seedling establishment at this stage. The establishment of Cistus was very closely tied to the post-fire environment, while recruitment of Rosmarinus and Ulex also occurred in the building stage. In contrast to what has been reported in other Mediterranean shrublands, recruitment in our study area was not restricted solely to post-fire stages, and shrubs also recruited opportunistically when open gaps in the canopy were available along succession. The differences in preferred micro-sites for the establishment suggest a differentiation in regeneration niches and a particular set of environmental conditions where the different species would be particularly competitive through succession. Thus, Cistus regenerates mostly in highly perturbed environments, whereas Ulex and Rosmarinus benefit from environments with longer inter-fire periods.

Santana, Victor M.; Baeza, M. Jaime; Maestre, Fernando T.

2012-02-01

227

Using NASA EOS to Assess Burn Severity and Perform Fire Risk Mapping of the 2011 North Carolina Wildfire Season  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the beginning of 2011 North Carolina has experienced dry conditions and high winds, which has increased the fuel load on the ground. This extreme weather led to several periods of severe wildfires which burned nearly 100,000 acres, caused significant damage to the Coastal Plains region's ecosystem, and greatly affected the livelihoods of many North Carolinians. Utilizing NASA's Earth Observing Systems (EOS), burn severity, real-time drought severity, and fire- risk mapping were conducted on the two largest fires in North Carolina during the 2011 wildfire season, the Pains Bay Fire in Dare County and the Juniper Road Fire in Pender County. In order to show the impact of fires on the ecosystem and the extent of ecological change the fires caused, burn severity maps were created using Landsat 5 TM and the Relative difference Normalized Burn Ratio (RdNBR). To assess drought conditions, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI) were derived from Landsat 5TM data to show changes in vegetation cover and moisture. In addition, MODIS Daily Surface Reflectance product (MOD09GA/MYD09GA) with the Normalized Multi-band Drought Index (NMDI) was utilized to estimate real-time drought severity of vegetation and soil moisture. Finally, Landsat 5 TM and various ancillary sources were used to create a fire risk map utilizing a Multi-criteria Evaluation (MCE) method with the new Fuzzification method in ArcGIS. Multiple variables were inserted into the MCE including soil survey data, Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI), slope data obtained from ASTER Global DEM, land cover/fuel data, and proximity to roads. Methodologies using NASA EOS to acquire all end products were provided to project partners, the Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge (ARNWR) and the North Carolina Forest Service (NCFS), in the form of a user tutorial to allow for a better understanding of how remote sensing can be applied to analyze wildfires. These methodologies, together with ground-truth data, will assist project partners in determining the best use of their resources for monitoring and responding to wildfires, as well as mitigating their effects.

Gleason, J. L.; Ehlen, A.

2012-12-01

228

A New Application to Facilitate Post-Fire Recovery and Rehabilitation in Savanna Ecosystems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. government spends an estimated $3billion per year to fight forest fires in the United States. Post-fire rehabilitation activities represent a small but essential portion of that total. The Rehabilitation Capability Convergence for Ecosystem Recovery (RECOVER) system is currently under development for Savanna ecosystems in the western U.S. The prototype of this system has been built and will have realworld testing during the summer 2013 fire season. When fully deployed, the RECOVER system will provide the emergency rehabilitation teams with critical and timely information for management decisions regarding stabilization and rehabilitation strategies.

Carroll, Mark L.; Schnase, John L.; Weber, Keith T.; Brown, Molly E.; Gill, Roger L.; Haskett, George W.; Gardner, Tess A.

2013-01-01

229

[Enhancement of gut absorptive function by early enteral feeding enriched with L-glutamine in severe burned miniswines].  

PubMed

14 miniswines (with multiple catheterization and 30% TBSA full thickness burns) were randomly and equally divided into N-Gln group and GLN group. Animals of GLN group were supplied with L-glutamine by 0.64%/kg.d and N-GLN group received equal amount of non-glutamine amino acids. Portal venous blood flow and gut absorptions of glucose, amino acids as well as fat were determined on PBD (post burn day) 1, 4, 7 and 10. The results indicated that the gut absorption obviously decreased in both group on PBD1, but the absorption of glucose and amino acids were much higher in Gln group than that of N-Gln group (P < 0.01). The absorptions of glucose, fat amino acids quickly increased in Gln group from PBD4, and tended to reach the preburn level on PBD7 and PBD10, meanwhile N-Gln group exhibited a slow increase of gut absorption. The absorptions of glucose, fat and amino acids were obviously lower than those of preburn on PBD7 and PBD10 (P < 0.01). This result suggests that oral feeding of glutamine improves efficiently the gut absorptive function after severe burns. PMID:8762553

Yu, B; Wang, S; You, Z

1995-12-01

230

Preparation and Evaluation of Gene-transfected Cultured Skin as a Novel Drug Delivery System for Severely Burned Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The purpose of this study is to prepare and evaluate gene-transfected cultured skin to establish a dermal patch consisting\\u000a of cultured skin as a new and novel delivery system for severely burned skin.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and Methods  Plasmid DNA encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene was used as a model gene and transfected to rat and human cultured\\u000a dermis models (CDMs)

Nobuko Hada; Hiroaki Todo; Fusao Komada; Kenji Sugibayashi

2007-01-01

231

The Establishment of Several Range Grasses Seeded in Burned and Unburned Slash of Ashe Junipe: (Juniperus Ashei Buchholz)  

E-print Network

better stand from actual seeding rates used. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Emergence (above) and establishment (below) of three grasses seeded on burned and unburned cedar slash. 20 Germination of green spranggetop seed planted iver sand, cedar... with burning. Love and Jones (1952) found that the ash left following burning makes an excellent seedbed and that seed should be sown in the ash before the first rains following the burning. Sampson (1944) states that, if burning and reseeding...

Bonnett, Norman Neal

1960-01-01

232

Can post-fire erosion rates be estimated using a novel plastic optical fibre turbidity sensor?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well-established that wildfires can play an important role in the hydrological and erosion response of forested catchments, substantially increasing overland as well as stream flow and associated sediment yield during the earlier stages of the window-of-disturbance. Even so, it continues a major challenge to quantify post-fire erosion rates and their evolution with time-since-fire, both for plot and catchment outlets. This constraint could to some extent be overcome by low-cost turbidity sensors, placed in runoff collection tanks and at multiple points across stream flow sections. Plastic optical fibre turbidity sensors (POF) have, in that respect, much potential, due to their reduced costs, suitability for multiplexing and robustness under adverse monitoring conditions. The present study explores this potential for recently burnt areas, where the characteristics of the transported sediments can be expected to change markedly over time due to exhaustion of ashes. To this end, a large number of plot- and catchment-scale runoff samples were studied that had been collected in the course of 1- to 2-weekly field monitoring of a recently burnt study area in north-central Portugal. Comparison of the sediment and organic matter contents of these samples with turbidity readings obtained with a novel POF sensor suggested that the POF sensor would greatly facilitate obtaining rough estimates of post-fire erosion rates but would not dispense of regular calibration under changing sediment load characteristics.

Keizer, Jan Jacob; Bilro, Lúcia; Martins, Martinho M. A.; Machado, Ana Isabel; Karine Boulet, Anne; Vieira, Diana C. S.; Sequeira, Filipa; Prats, Sergio A.; Nogueira, Rogério

2014-05-01

233

Microsite and herbaceous vegetation heterogeneity after burning Artemisia tridentata steppe.  

PubMed

Woody vegetation can create distinct subcanopy and interspace microsites, which often result in resource islands in subcanopies compared to interspaces. This heterogeneity in soil resources contributes to herbaceous vegetation heterogeneity in plant communities. However, information detailing the impact of disturbance, such as fire, that removes the woody vegetation on microsites and herbaceous vegetation heterogeneity is limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of burning on microsites and herbaceous vegetation in subcanopies and interspaces. Six study sites (blocks) were located at the Northern Great Basin Experimental Range in shrub (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh)-bunchgrass plant communities and one half of each block was burned to remove A. tridentata. Herbaceous vegetation and microsite characteristics were measured 2 years post-fire in intact and burned subcanopies and interspaces. Burning resulted in microsite and herbaceous vegetation differences between intact and burned subcanopies and intact and burned interspaces. However, burned subcanopies and burned interspaces appeared to be relatively similar. The similarity in microsite characteristics probably explains the lack of differences in herbaceous vegetation cover and biomass production between burned subcanopies and burned interspaces (P > 0.05). However, some microsite and herbaceous vegetation characteristics differed between burned subcanopies and burned interspaces. Our results suggest that disturbances that remove woody vegetation reduced microsite and herbaceous vegetation heterogeneity within plant communities, but do not completely remove the resource island effect. This suggests soil resource heterogeneity may influence post-fire community assembly and contribute to diversity maintenance. PMID:19066972

Davies, Kirk W; Bates, Jonathan D; James, Jeremy J

2009-03-01

234

Effect of thinning and prescribed burning on crown fire severity in ponderosa pine forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire exclusion policies have affected stand structure and wildfire hazard in north American ponderosa pine forests. Wildfires are becoming more severe in stands where trees are densely stocked with shade-tolerant understory trees. Although forest managers have been employing fuel treatment techniques to reduce wildfire hazard for decades, little scientific evidence documents the success of treatments in reducing fire severity. Our

Jolie PolletA; Philip N. OmiB

2002-01-01

235

Diversity and persistence of ectomycorrhizal fungi and their effect on nursery-inoculated Pinus pinaster in a post-fire plantation in Northern Portugal.  

PubMed

Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF) play an important role in forest ecosystems, often mitigating stress factors and increasing seedling performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a nursery inoculation on Pinus pinaster growth and on the fungal communities established when reforesting burned areas. Inoculated P. pinaster saplings showed 1.5-fold higher stem height than the non-inoculated controls after a 5 year growth period, suggesting that fungal inoculation could potentiate tree growth in the field. Ordination analysis revealed the presence of different ECMF communities on both plots. Among the nursery-inoculated fungi, Laccaria sp., Rhizopogon sp., Suillus bovinus and Pisolithus sp. were detected on inoculated Pinus saplings on both sampling periods, indicating that they persisted after field establishment. Other fungi were also detected in the inoculated plants. Phialocephala sp. was found on the first assessment, while Terfezia sp. was detected on both sampling periods. Laccaria sp. and Rhizopogon sp. were identified in the control saplings, belonging however to different species than those found in the inoculated plot. Inocybe sp., Thelephora sp. and Paxillus involutus were present on both sampling periods in the non-inoculated plots. The results suggest that ECMF inoculation at nursery stage can benefit plant growth after transplantation to a post-fire site and that the inoculated fungi can persist in the field. This approach has great potential as a biotechnological tool to aid in the reforestation of burned areas. PMID:25004993

Franco, Albina R; Sousa, Nadine R; Ramos, Miguel A; Oliveira, Rui S; Castro, Paula M L

2014-11-01

236

Carbon and water vapour exchange in a recently burned east boreal jack pine stand, Quebec, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The circumpolar boreal forest is an extensive carbon (C) reservoir, storing an estimated 88 petagrams (Pg) of C in vegetation biomass with an additional 471 PgC residing within the soil itself. In the North American boreal, fire disturbance acts as the main stand-renewing agent along an approximate 100-year return interval. However, recent studies suggest that fire intensity and severity are increasing, driven by disproportionate climate warming of the northern latitudes. While estimates of direct C emissions from combustion are becoming more accurate, indirect loss due to post-fire effects on decomposition and regeneration has only recently become a focus of research. Paradoxically, it has been estimated that post-fire C releases are in the order of three times the amount directly released during initial combustion. In this study, we examine carbon and water exchange in a 6-year old, post-burn, jack pine stand located in the eastern James Bay region of the Canadian boreal; an area currently under-represented in fire studies. Over 1.5 years, covering two growing seasons and the spring and fall transitions, we measured net CO2 and energy exchange at the ecosystem level using an eddy covariance tower, and supplemented this with chamber measurements of soil respiration. At this stage of recovery, while demonstrating diurnal and seasonal patterns of exchange, overall the site was a net source of C and water to the atmosphere with brief periods of C sink.

Nugent, K.; Strachan, I. B.

2013-12-01

237

Amino acid infusion fails to stimulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis up to one year post injury in children with severe burns  

PubMed Central

Background Burn injury results in increased skeletal muscle protein turnover, where the magnitude of protein breakdown outweighs synthesis resulting in muscle wasting. The impact of increased amino acid (AA) provision on skeletal muscle fractional synthesis rate (FSR) in severely burned patients during their convalescence after discharge from hospital is not known. Subsequently, the purpose of this study was to determine skeletal muscle FSR in response to AA infusion in severely burned pediatric patients at discharge from hospital, and at six and twelve months post injury. Methods Stable isotope infusion studies were performed in the postprandial state and during intravenous AA infusion. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained and isotope enrichment determined in order to calculate skeletal muscle FSR. Patients were studied at discharge from hospital (n=11), and at six (n=15), and twelve months (n=14) post injury. Results The cohorts of patients studied at each time point post injury were not different with regards to age, body mass or burn size. AA infusion failed to stimulate FSR above basal values at discharge from hospital (0.27±0.04 vs. 0.26±0.06 %·hr?1), six months post injury (0.20±0.04 vs. 0.22±0.03 %·hr?1), and twelve months post injury (0.16±0.03 vs. 0.15±0.05 %·hr?1). Daily FSR was numerically lower at six months post burn (5.51±0.79 %·day?1) and significantly (P<0.05) lower at 12 months post burn (3.67±0.65 %·day?1) relative to discharge group (6.32±1.02 %·day?1). Discussion The findings of the current study suggest that the deleterious impact of burn injury on skeletal muscle AA metabolism persists for up to one year post injury. In light of these findings, nutritional and pharmacological strategies aimed at attenuating muscle protein breakdown post burn may be a more efficacious approach to maintaining muscle mass in severely burned patients. PMID:23694875

Cotter, Matthew; Diaz, Eva C; Jennings, Kristofer; Herndon, David N; Børsheim, Elisabet

2013-01-01

238

Interactive effects of burn severity and canopy cover on ecophysiology of tree seedlings in boreal forests  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wildfires are an important disturbance because they improve habitat conditions for establishing plants. Fires of differing severity can have dramatically different impacts on habitat, particularly when coupled with canopy-level disturbances. In a boreal forest, we outplanted seedlings of four specie...

239

Use of 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance to screen a set of biomarkers for monitoring metabolic disturbances in severe burn patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction To establish a plasma metabolomics fingerprint spectrum for severe burn patients and to use it to identify a set of biomarkers that could be used for clinical monitoring. Methods Twenty-one severe burn patients and three healthy control individuals were enrolled in this study, and the plasma samples from patients and healthy individuals were collected for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements. The NMR spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) in order to establish the metabolomics fingerprint representing the changes in metabolism and to select the major biomarkers. Results NMR spectra of the plasma samples showed significant differences between burn patients and healthy individuals. Using metabolomics techniques, we found an Eigen-metabolome that consists of 12 metabolites, which are regulated by 103 enzymes in a global metabolic network. Among these metabolites, ?-ketoisovaleric acid, 3-methylhistidine, and ?-hydroxybutyric acid were the most important biomarkers that were significantly increased during the early stage of burn injury. These results suggest that the mitochondrial damage and carbohydrate, protein and fatty acid metabolism disturbances occur after burn injury. Our analysis also show that histone deacetylases, which are protein transcription suppressors, were remarkably increased and indicate that protein transcription was inhibited and anabolism was restrained during the early stage of burn injury. Conclusions Metabolomics techniques based on NMR can be used to monitor metabolism in severe burn patients. Our study demonstrates that integrated 1H-NMR metabolome and global metabolic network analysis is useful for visualizing complex metabolic disturbances after severe burn injury and may provide a new quantitative injury severity evaluation for future clinical use. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-OCC-12002145. Registered 25 April 2012. PMID:25059459

2014-01-01

240

-POPULATION SIZE AND FIRE INTENSITY DETERMINE POST-FIRE ABUNDANCE IN GRASSLAND LICHENS -193 Applied Vegetation Science 8: 193-198, 2005  

E-print Network

- POPULATION SIZE AND FIRE INTENSITY DETERMINE POST-FIRE ABUNDANCE IN GRASSLAND LICHENS - 193 is the variability in abundance of lichens on grassland soil between and within fields after prescribed fire? Is post-fire lichen abundance an effect of pre-fire population size? Location: Cedar Creek Natural History Area

Minnesota, University of

241

Regional constraints to biological nitrogen fixation in post-fire forest communities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is a key ecological process that can restore nitrogen (N) lost in wildfire and shape the pace and pattern of post-fire forest recovery. To date, there is limited information on how climate and soil fertility interact to influence different pathways of BNF in early forest succession. We studied asymbiotic (forest floor and soil) and symbiotic (the shrub Ceanothus integerrimus) BNF rates across six sites in the Klamath National Forest, California, USA. We used combined gradient and experimental phosphorus (P) fertilization studies to explore cross-site variation in BNF rates and then related these rates to abiotic and biotic variables. We estimate that our measured BNF rates 22 years after wildfire (6.1–12.1 kg N·ha-1·yr-1) are unlikely to fully replace wildfire N losses. We found that asymbiotic BNF is P limited, although this is not the case for symbiotic BNF in Ceanothus. In contrast, Ceanothus BNF is largely driven by competition from other vegetation: in high-productivity sites with high potential evapotranspiration (Et), shrub biomass is suppressed as tree biomass increases. Because shrub biomass governed cross-site variation in Ceanothus BNF, this competitive interaction led to lower BNF in sites with high productivity and Et. Overall, these results suggest that the effects of nutrients play a larger role in driving asymbiotic than symbiotic fixation across our post-fire sites. However, because symbiotic BNF is 8–90x greater than asymbiotic BNF, it is interspecific plant competition that governs overall BNF inputs in these forests.

Yelenik, Stephanie; Perakis, Steven S.; Hibbs, David

2013-01-01

242

Influence of vegetation spatial heterogeneity on soil enzyme activity in burned Mediterranean areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mediterranean ecosystems are commonly considered resilient to wildfires. However, depending on fire severity and recurrence, post-fire climatic conditions and plant community type, the recovery rate of the vegetation can greatly vary. Often, the post-fire vegetation cover remains low and sparsely distributed many years after the wildfire, which could have profound impacts on ecosystem functioning. In this work, we studied the influence of vegetation patchiness on soil enzyme activity (acid phosphatase, ?-glucosidase and urease), at the patch and landscape scales, in degraded dry Mediterranean shrublands affected by wildfires. At the patch scale, we assessed the variation in soil enzyme between bare soils and vegetation patches. At the landscape scale, we studied the relationships between soil enzyme activity and various landscape metrics (total patch cover, average interpatch length, average patch width, and patch density). The study was conducted in 19 sites in the Valencia Region (eastern Spain), which had been affected by large wildfires in 1991. Site selection aimed at capturing a wide range of the variability of post-fire plant recovery rates in Mediterranean areas. The activities of the three enzymes were significantly higher in soils under the vegetation canopies than in adjacent bare areas, which we attributed to the effect of plants on the soil amount of both enzyme substrates and enzymes. The differences between bare and plant microsites were larger in the case of the acid phosphatase and less marked for urease. The activity of acid phosphatase was also higher under patches of resprouter species than under patches of seeder species, probably due to the faster post-fire recovery and older age of resprouter patches in fire-prone ecosystems. Soil enzyme activities of ?-glucosidase and urease in both bare soils and vegetation patches showed no relationships with any of the landscape metrics analysed. However, the activity of acid phosphatase increased linearly with the total cover of vegetation patches, which is consistent with the strong effect of plant patches on the activity of this enzyme. According to our results, variations in the cover and composition of vegetation patches may have profound impacts on the soil enzyme activity and associated nutrient cycling processes in burned Mediterranean areas, particularly in the case of phosphorus. Keywords: wildfires, landscape metrics, Mediterranean shrublands, soil enzyme activity, resprouter species.

Mayor, Á. G.; Goirán, S.; Bautista, S.

2009-04-01

243

Topical application of docosanol- or stearic acid-containing creams reduces severity of phenol burn wounds in mice.  

PubMed

Because of their reported antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities, cream formulations containing n-docosanol (docosanol) or stearic acid were tested for effects on chemically-induced burns in mice. In this model, injury was induced by painting the abdomens of mice with a chloroform solution of phenol. This was followed by the topical application of test substances 0.5, 3, and 6 h later. Progression of the wounds was assessed by a single evaluator after 8 h, using a numerical score of gross morphology. Docosanol- and stearic acid-containing creams substantially and reproducibly lessened the severity and progression of skin lesions compared to untreated sites with a 76% and 57% reduction in mean lesion scores, respectively. Untreated wounds appeared red and ulcerated; docosanol cream-treated wounds showed only slight erythema. PMID:10945745

Khalil, M H; Marcelletti, J F; Katz, L R; Katz, D H; Pope, L E

2000-08-01

244

[Diagnosis of endogenous intoxication, prognostication of the course of pathological process and principles of the establishment of a treatment program for patients with severe burns].  

PubMed

The experience of treatment of 300 patients with burns was summarized. The ways of development of diagnostics and treatment system for endogenous intoxication syndrome in injured persons with burns are proposed. The elaborated test-system permits to define the endogenous intoxication severity and the degree of functional possibilities suppression of antitoxic resistance cytological and humoral factors. The differentiated detoxication programs are compiled. PMID:7799582

Kozinets, G V; Povstiano?, N E

1994-01-01

245

Moderate drop in water table increases peatland vulnerability to post-fire regime shift  

PubMed Central

Northern and tropical peatlands represent a globally significant carbon reserve accumulated over thousands of years of waterlogged conditions. It is unclear whether moderate drying predicted for northern peatlands will stimulate burning and carbon losses as has occurred in their smaller tropical counterparts where the carbon legacy has been destabilized due to severe drainage and deep peat fires. Capitalizing on a unique long-term experiment, we quantify the post-wildfire recovery of a northern peatland subjected to decadal drainage. We show that the moderate drop in water table position predicted for most northern regions triggers a shift in vegetation composition previously observed within only severely disturbed tropical peatlands. The combined impact of moderate drainage followed by wildfire converted the low productivity, moss-dominated peatland to a non-carbon accumulating shrub-grass ecosystem. This new ecosystem is likely to experience a low intensity, high frequency wildfire regime, which will further deplete the legacy of stored peat carbon. PMID:25623290

Kettridge, N.; Turetsky, M. R.; Sherwood, J. H.; Thompson, D. K.; Miller, C. A.; Benscoter, B. W.; Flannigan, M. D.; Wotton, B. M.; Waddington, J. M.

2015-01-01

246

Moderate drop in water table increases peatland vulnerability to post-fire regime shift.  

PubMed

Northern and tropical peatlands represent a globally significant carbon reserve accumulated over thousands of years of waterlogged conditions. It is unclear whether moderate drying predicted for northern peatlands will stimulate burning and carbon losses as has occurred in their smaller tropical counterparts where the carbon legacy has been destabilized due to severe drainage and deep peat fires. Capitalizing on a unique long-term experiment, we quantify the post-wildfire recovery of a northern peatland subjected to decadal drainage. We show that the moderate drop in water table position predicted for most northern regions triggers a shift in vegetation composition previously observed within only severely disturbed tropical peatlands. The combined impact of moderate drainage followed by wildfire converted the low productivity, moss-dominated peatland to a non-carbon accumulating shrub-grass ecosystem. This new ecosystem is likely to experience a low intensity, high frequency wildfire regime, which will further deplete the legacy of stored peat carbon. PMID:25623290

Kettridge, N; Turetsky, M R; Sherwood, J H; Thompson, D K; Miller, C A; Benscoter, B W; Flannigan, M D; Wotton, B M; Waddington, J M

2015-01-01

247

Moderate drop in water table increases peatland vulnerability to post-fire regime shift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Northern and tropical peatlands represent a globally significant carbon reserve accumulated over thousands of years of waterlogged conditions. It is unclear whether moderate drying predicted for northern peatlands will stimulate burning and carbon losses as has occurred in their smaller tropical counterparts where the carbon legacy has been destabilized due to severe drainage and deep peat fires. Capitalizing on a unique long-term experiment, we quantify the post-wildfire recovery of a northern peatland subjected to decadal drainage. We show that the moderate drop in water table position predicted for most northern regions triggers a shift in vegetation composition previously observed within only severely disturbed tropical peatlands. The combined impact of moderate drainage followed by wildfire converted the low productivity, moss-dominated peatland to a non-carbon accumulating shrub-grass ecosystem. This new ecosystem is likely to experience a low intensity, high frequency wildfire regime, which will further deplete the legacy of stored peat carbon.

Kettridge, N.; Turetsky, M. R.; Sherwood, J. H.; Thompson, D. K.; Miller, C. A.; Benscoter, B. W.; Flannigan, M. D.; Wotton, B. M.; Waddington, J. M.

2015-01-01

248

Severe cutaneous adverse reactions: emergency approach to non-burn epidermolytic syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Although severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs), such as Stevens–Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis, are\\u000a rare, they are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The current knowledge regarding background, differential diagnoses, critical care and implications for inter-hospital emergency\\u000a medical service (EMS) transport of these patients is discussed.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Conclusion  SCAR patients will substantially benefit from early interdisciplinary care and thorough consideration of

Manuel Florian Struck; Peter Hilbert; Maja Mockenhaupt; Beate Reichelt; Michael Steen

2010-01-01

249

Effects of post-fire conditions on germination and seedling success of diffuse knapweed in northern Arizona  

E-print Network

Effects of post-fire conditions on germination and seedling success of diffuse knapweed in northern changes. We hypothesized that diffuse knapweed germination and seedling growth would respond positively, unburned bare soil and unburned. We removed packets monthly and measured percent germination. Germination

250

Post-fire recovery of sagebrush communities: Assessment using SPOT5 and very large-scale aerial imagery  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Much interest lies in the long-term recovery rates of sagebrush communities after fire in the western USA as sagebrush communities comprise millions of hectares of rangelands and important wildlife habitat. Little is known about post-fire changes in sagebrush canopy cover over time, especially at a...

251

Field Evidence for Differences in Post-Fire Aeolian Transport Related to Vegetation Type in Semi-Arid Grasslands  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Disturbances such as wildfires, which cause a temporary reduction in vegetation cover, can greatly accelerate soil erosion by wind and promote dust emissions. Enhanced erosion leads to a reduction in soil fertility and the post-fire mobilization of soil and associated emissions of dust represent a s...

252

Burned and unburned peat water repellency: Implications for peatland evaporation following wildfire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water repellency alters soil hydrology after periods of wildfire, potentially modifying the ecosystem recovery to such disturbance. Despite this potential importance, the extent and severity of water repellency within burned peatlands and its importance in regulating peatland recovery to wildfire disturbance remains poorly understood. We characterised the water repellency of peat in a burned (one year post-fire) and unburned peatland in the Western Boreal Plain utilising the water drop penetration time and ethanol droplet molarity tests. Burned Sphagnum moss and feather moss sites had a more severe degree of water repellency than unburned sites, with differences being more pronounced between burned and unburned feather moss sites. Burned feather moss exhibited the most extreme water repellency, followed by unburned feather moss, and burned Sphagnum. The severity of water repellency varied with depth through the near surface of the moss/peat profile. This was most evident within the burned feathermoss where more extreme water repellency was observed at the near-surface compared to the surface, with the most extreme water repellency found at 1 and 5 cm depths. Unburned Sphagnum was completely hydrophilic at all depths. We suggest that the extreme water repellency in near-surface feather moss peat acts as a barrier that impedes the supply of water to the surface that replaces that lost via evaporation. This leads to drying of the near-surface vadose zone within feather moss areas and a concomitantly large decrease in peatland evaporation within feather moss dominated peatlands. This negative feedback mechanism likely enhances the resilience of such peatland to wildfire disturbance, maintaining a high water table position, thereby limiting peat decomposition. In comparison, such a feedback is not observed strongly within Sphagnum, leaving Sphagnum dominated peatlands potentially vulnerable to low water table positions post disturbance.

Kettridge, N.; Humphrey, R. E.; Smith, J. E.; Lukenbach, M. C.; Devito, K. J.; Petrone, R. M.; Waddington, J. M.

2014-05-01

253

Effect of gamma-hydroxybutyrate on keratinocytes proliferation: A preliminary prospective controlled study in severe burn patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Hypermetabolism and hyposomatotropism related to severe burns lead to impaired wound healing. Growth hormone (GH) boosts wound healing notably following stimulation of the production of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1), a mitogen factor for keratinocytes. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) stimulates endogenous GH secretion. Aim: To assess effects of GHB sedation on keratinocytes proliferation (based on immunohistochemical techniques). Design: Monocentric, prospective, controlled trial. Materials and Methods: Patients (aging 18-65 years, burn surface area >30%, expected to be sedated for at least one month) were alternately allocated, at the 5th day following injury, in three groups according to the intravenous GHB dose administered for 21 days: Evening bolus of 50 mg/kg (Group B), continuous infusion at the rate of 10 mg/kg/h (Group C), or absence of GHB (Group P). They all received local standard cares. Immunohistochemistry (Ki67/MIB-1, Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 and Mac 387 antibodies) was performed at D21 on adjacent unburned skin sample for assessing any keratinocyte activation. Serum IGF1 levels were measured at initiation and completion of the protocol. Statistical Analysis: Categorical variables were compared with Chi-square test. Comparisons of medians were made using Kruskal-Wallis test. Post hoc analyses were performed using Mann-Whitney test with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. A P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: A total of 14 patients completed the study (Group B: n = 5, Group C: n = 5, Group P: n = 4). Continuous administration of GHB was associated with a significant higher Ki67 immunolabeling at D21 (P = 0.049) and with a significant higher increase in the IGF1 concentrations at D21 (P = 0.024). No adverse effects were disclosed. Conclusions: Our preliminary data support a positive effect of GHB on keratinocyte proliferation and are encouraging enough to warrant large prospective studies. PMID:25024938

Rousseau, Anne-Françoise; Bargues, Laurent; Bever, Hervé Le; Vest, Philippe; Cavalier, Etienne; Ledoux, Didier; Piérard, Gérald E.; Damas, Pierre

2014-01-01

254

Impacts of the post-fire erosion processes compared with the agricultural erosion rates for a mountain catchment in NW Iberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mediterranean ecosystems are very vulnerable to soil erosion by water due to particular characteristics of climate, lithology and land use history. Moreover, the foreseen climate changes might worsen land degradation and desertification, in which soil erosion has been classified as one of the most important driving forces. In this context, the frequent forest fires seen in some Mediterranean regions can case disturbances to vegetation cover and enhance soil erosion processes. This work addresses this issue for the Caramulo mountain range, NW Iberia. In the past century, large land use changes occurred due to massive afforestation. Changes from mixed natural forest cover and shrublands to Pine, the introduction of Eucalyptus plantations and, more recently, a trend for the substitution of pines by eucalypts, are the evidence of a large and rapid land use change in the last decades. Forest fires started to occur as afforestation proceeded, as a consequence of the disappearance of pasturage and accumulation of highly inflammable material; they became more frequent after the 1960's and became a determinant factor for land use changes in this region. Data collection focused on the Macieira de Alcoba catchment, a headwater agro-forested catchment (94 ha) located in this region. It has a wet Mediterranean climate, with an average annual rainfall of about 1300 mm (2002-2012), concentrated in autumn and winter, while spring and summer are dryer seasons. The mean annual temperature is 14°C and in summer it can reach 35°C. The land use is mixed, with forest and agriculture lands covering respectively 60 and 35% of the catchment area, 5% being built-up areas in the village of Macieira de Alcoba. In the last decades, this catchment suffered several forest fires (in 1969, 1986, 1991, and 2011). Erosion processes are related with periods of low vegetation cover in autumn in fields with a pasture-corn rotation, but also with forest plantations after clear-cutting and especially after forest fires. The last forest fire in August 2011 burned 10% of the total area in the north-west part of the catchment. Post-fire management operations 9 month after the fire (clear-cutting and deep plowing operations) and after plantation of "Quercus robur" left the soil exposed, and relatively mild rainstorms led to large amounts of soil loss, including a large amount of rills and other erosion features. This constituted an opportunity to compare these erosion rates with the ones observed in agricultural fields for similar edapho-climatic conditions, and also observe distinct timing of erosion occurrence which was linked with different periods when soils are exposed. This communication presents the assessment of the impact of this fire on soil erosion rates, where results indicate that soil losses after soil preparation for forest replanting might be equivalent, in long-term, to soil losses in agricultural fields.

Marisa Santos, Juliana; Nunes, João Pedro; Bernard-Jannin, Léonard; Gonzalez Pelayo, Oscar; Keizer, Jan Jacob

2014-05-01

255

Atmospheric effects on the performance and threshold extrapolation of multi-temporal Landsat derived dNBR for burn severity assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Landsat derived differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) is widely used for burn severity assessments. Studies of regional wildfire trends in response to climate change require consistency in dNBR mapping across multiple image dates, which may vary in atmospheric condition. Conversion of continuous dNBR images into categorical burn severity maps often requires extrapolation of dNBR thresholds from present fires for which field severity measurements such as Composite Burn Index (CBI) data are available, to historical fires for which CBI data are typically unavailable. Although differential atmospheric effects between image collection dates could lead to biased estimates of historical burn severity patterns, little is known concerning the influence of atmospheric effects on dNBR performance and threshold extrapolation. In this study, we compared the performance of dNBR calculated from six atmospheric correction methods using an optimality approach. The six correction methods included one partial (Top of atmosphere reflectance, TOA), two absolute, and three relative methods. We assessed how the correction methods affected the CBI-dNBR correlation and burn severity mapping in a Chinese boreal forest fire which occurred in 2010. The dNBR thresholds of the 2010 fire for each of the correction methods were then extrapolated to classify a historical fire from 2000. Classification accuracies of threshold extrapolations were assessed based on Cohen's Kappa analysis with 73 field-based validation plots. Our study found most correction methods improved mean dNBR optimality of the two fires. The relative correction methods generated 32% higher optimality than both TOA and absolute correction methods. All the correction methods yielded high CBI-dNBR correlations (mean R2 = 0.847) but distinctly different dNBR thresholds for severity classification of 2010 fire. Absolute correction methods could substantially increase optimality score, but were insufficient to provide a consistent scale of radiometric condition between multi-temporal Landsat images, which resulted in lower severity classification accuracies (Kappa = 0.53) than those relative correction methods (Kappa = 0.72) for the 2000 fire. Consistent radiometric response in remote sensing datasets proved essential for accuracy in regional burn severity trends monitoring. Extrapolation of empirical dNBR thresholds to historical conditions without relative normalization will likely lead to biased burn severity classifications.

Fang, Lei; Yang, Jian

2014-12-01

256

Comparative physiology of burned and unburned Rhus laurina after chaparral wildfire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laurel Sumac (Rhus laurina) is a dominant member of the coastal chaparral community of southern California that survives periodic burning by wildfires by resprouting from a lignotuber (root crown). We investigated the physiological basis for resprouting by comparing shoot elongation, leaf nitrogen content, tissue water status, leaf conductance to water vapor diffusion, and photosynthetic rates of post-fire R. laurina to

J. DeSouza; P. A. Silka; S. D. Davis

1986-01-01

257

Differential response of bird functional traits to post-fire salvage logging in a boreal forest ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of functional trait-environment relationship posits that species in a local community should possess similar traits that match the selective environment. The present study examines species trait-habitat (using Fourth-corner and RLQ analyses) and habitat occupancy patterns (logistic regression models) of bird assemblages in boreal forest stands following disturbances by forest fire and salvage logging. The stands differed in the amount and composition of residual tree retention, salvage- and aquatic-edges, degree of burn severity (all measured at 100 and 500 m buffers), as well as landscape-level variables such as distance to previously burned forests. Tests of trait-habitat relationships showed that canopy-nesters and bark- and foliage- insectivores required high levels of residual trees of low burn severity, with the feeding guilds showing affinity for different stand composition. In contrast, ground-nesters and omnivores thrived in salvaged areas and associated edges. In addition, cavity-nesting and ground-foragers were associated with severely burned stands. The species' habitat occupancy patterns were commensurate with trait requirements, which also appeared to be scale-dependent. For example, some fire-associated species had high occupancy probability in severely burned stands at small-scale (100 m buffer), which was consistent with their cavity-nesting trait. This pattern, however, was not evident at large-scale, where their feeding requirement (bark-insectivores) for low-severity burns dominated. Our study suggests that trait-habitat relationships can provide critical information to the complex ways species' relate to key habitat factors following natural and anthropogenic disturbances.

Azeria, Ermias T.; Ibarzabal, Jacques; Hébert, Christian; Boucher, Jonathan; Imbeau, Louis; Savard, Jean-Pierre L.

2011-05-01

258

Development of a Test Protocol for Spacecraft Post-Fire Atmospheric Cleanup and Monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detecting and extinguishing fires, along with post-fire atmospheric cleaning and monitoring, are vital components of a spacecraft fire response system. Preliminary efforts focused on the technology evaluation of these systems under realistic conditions are described in this paper. While the primary objective of testing is to determine a smoke mitigation filter s performance, supplemental evaluations measuring the smoke-filled chamber handheld commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) atmospheric monitoring devices (combustion product monitors) are also conducted. The test chamber consists of a 1.4 cubic meter (50 cu. ft.) volume containing a smoke generator. The fuel used to generate the smoke is a mixture of polymers in quantities representative of materials involved in a circuit board fire as a typical spacecraft fire. Two fire conditions were examined: no flame and flame. No flame events are produced by pyrolyzing the fuel mixture in a quartz tube furnace with forced ventilation to produce a white, lingering-type smoke. Flame events ignite the smoke at the outlet of the tube furnace producing combustion characterized by a less opaque smoke with black soot. Electrochemical sensor measurements showed carbon monoxide is a major indicator of each fire. Acid gas measurements were recorded, but cross interferents are currently uncharacterized. Electrochemical sensor measurements and sample acquisition techniques from photoacoustic sensors are being improved. Overall, this research shows fire characterization using traditional analytical chemistry techniques is required to verify measurements recorded using COTS atmospheric monitoring devices.

Zuniga, David; Hornung, Steven D.; Haas, Jon P.; Graf, John C.

2009-01-01

259

Measuring Carbon and Nitrogen Eroded From Burned Forests In The Western U.S  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Post-wildfire upland landscapes and downstream aquatic resources are influenced by carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) losses due to soil erosion. As opposed to bulk soil erosion, few studies have quantified C and N losses after severe wildfire. We measured erosion of C and N for four to six years following eight wildfires in the western U.S. and compared C and N losses from untreated, burned hillslopes and small catchments with those from adjacent areas that received various erosion mitigation treatments. Losses of C, N and sediment were greatest the first two years and declined in subsequent years. Cumulative losses from untreated, burned areas were 16 - 4,700 kg C/ha and 0.7 - 185 kg N/ha over the study period. Individual storm events were responsible for > 50% of the total C and N lost. Across wildfire locations, median sediment C and N concentration ranged from 0.11 - 0.36 %N and 2.3 - 9.8 %C. Post-fire erosion control treatments reduced C, N and sediment losses by 65-75% compared to untreated areas and generally increased the concentrations of C and N in eroded material. The total C and N lost in post-fire erosion was < 20% of the estimated amount lost from organic and mineral soil layers during combustion and < 5% of the estimated amount remaining in mineral soils after combustion. The additional N lost with soil erosion is unlikely to impair the productivity of recovering forests, but the eroded N may have consequences on downstream water quality and aquatic habitat.

Pierson, D. N.; Robichaud, P. R.; Rhoades, C.

2013-12-01

260

Post-Fire Microsites and Effects of Bryophytes on Germination and Establishment of Conifers and Early-Seral Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bryophytes are often the dominant vegetation layer with patchy distributions in early post-fire succession. Little is known about early-seral bryophyte habitat requirements or their influence on germination and establishment of vascular plants. In the presence of seed or spore sources, microsite conditions can affect distributions of bryophytes, conifers and early-seral vegetation. The objectives of this study were to examine the

L. Kayes; K. Puettmann; P. Anderson

2009-01-01

261

Post-fire recovery and successional dynamics of an old growth red spruce forest in the southern Appalachian Mountains  

E-print Network

POST-FIRE RECOVERY AND SUCCESSIONAL DYNAMICS OF AN OLD- GROWTH RED SPRUCE FOREST IN THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS A Thesis by ADAM R. KRUSTCHINSKY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... MOUNTAINS A Thesis by ADAM R. KRUSTCHINSKY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Chair of Committee, Charles...

Krustchinsky, Adam R.

2009-05-15

262

Post-fire primary production and plant community dynamics in chaparral stands exposed to varying levels of nitrogen deposition.  

PubMed

High levels of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition to southern California chaparral shrublands may interact with fire to affect biomass production and plant species composition during secondary succession. To determine the potential interactions between post fire recovery and N deposition we compared rates of aboveground net primary production (ANPP), shrub growth, and the relative abundance of Adenostoma fasciculatum, other sub-dominant shrubs, and herbaceous species of three chaparral stands exposed to different levels of atmospheric N deposition over the first 3 years of post-fire succession. Our data suggest that rates of ANPP (gdw m(-2) month(-1)) and aboveground N storage (gN m(-2) month(-1)) for these chaparral stands were not related to N deposition even though sites exposed to high levels of N deposition had significantly higher rates of shrub growth (gdw plant(-1) month(-1)) and N uptake (gN plant(-1) month(-1)). However, high-N stands were composed of larger shrubs with a lower density, and this trade-off between shrub size and density may explain the low correlation between N deposition and post-fire ANPP. Differences in relative plant species abundance between sites were significantly correlated with N deposition exposure, where stands exposed to high N deposition had a lower relative abundance of A. fasciculatum and a higher relative abundance of other shrub and herbaceous species. While many factors can affect rates and patterns of post-fire recovery, these results suggest that chronic exposure to N deposition may significantly alter plant growth and species composition in successional chaparral stands. PMID:21731118

Pasquini, Sarah C; Vourlitis, George L

2010-02-01

263

Post-fire seeding on Wyoming big sagebrush ecological sites: Regression analyses of seeded nonnative and native species densities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the mid-1980s, sagebrush rangelands in the Great Basin of the United States have experienced more frequent and larger wildfires. These fires affect livestock forage, the sagebrush\\/grasses\\/forbs mosaic that is important for many wildlife species (e.g., the greater sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus)), post-fire flammability and fire frequency. When a sagebrush, especially a Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle

Mark E. Eiswerth; Karl Krauter; Sherman R. Swanson; Mike Zielinski

2009-01-01

264

Post-fire management in Mediterranean forest: researching to prevent global change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last few decades forest fire regimes have been changing, with fire recurrence and burned surfaces increasing: about 45000 forest fires occur in Europe each year and more than 4 million hectares were burned in the Mediterranean Basin, from 1995 to 2004. These processes could be influenced and are influencing global climate change. Forests are giving various improvements such

265

Post-fire geomorphic response in steep, forested landscapes: Oregon Coast Range, USA  

E-print Network

. Introduction Historical burns in vegetated, mountainous topography high- light the profound erosive potential soil layers to promote runoff erosion during subsequent rainfall events. In the Oregon Coast Range Range that burned in 1999, 2002, and 2003. The fires generated strongly hydrophobic soil layers that did

Roering, Joshua J.

266

Development and in vivo evaluation of silver sulfadiazine loaded hydrogel consisting polyvinyl alcohol and chitosan for severe burns.  

PubMed

A new Hydrogel containing silver Sulfadiazine (SSD) was developed for enhanced burns wound healing. The hydrogel was prepared by cross-linking of PVA and Chitosan by freeze thawing method. Their gel properties, moisture retaining capacity, fluid uptake capacity, in vitro release study, in vivo burn healing effect were evaluated. Chitosan and PVA cross linking decreased gel fraction upto 70% determined the good gel properties. This cross linked hydrogel increased the Swelling ratio and Water vapour transmission rate (WVTR) which provides the sustained release of drug and moist environment for healing respectively. The hydrogel containing 7.5% of PVA, 0.75% of chitosan found to have increased gel strength, higher water vapour transmission rate and fluid uptake capacity suitable for faster healing of burns. This hydrogel also sustained the release of 1% SSD required for longer antimicrobial activity and found better in vivo burn healing capacity as compared to marketed preparation. Thus hydrogel containing 7.5% of PVA, 0.75% of chitosan and 1% SSD is a potential burns dressing with better gel properties and excellent burns healing capacity. PMID:23066206

Chakavala, S R; Patel, N G; Pate, N Vi; Thakkar, V T; Patel, K V; Gandhi, T R

2012-03-01

267

An open study comparing topical silver sulfadiazine and topical silver sulfadiazine–cerium nitrate in the treatment of moderate and severe burns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty patients with moderate and severe burns were randomly assigned to receive topical silver sulfadiazine (SSD) alone (n=30) or SSD combined with cerium nitrate (SSD–CN) (n=30). There were four deaths in the SSD group and one in the SSD–CN group; more patients with higher risk severity survived in the SSD–CN group. Wound infection did not differ significantly between the groups.

C. G de Gracia

2001-01-01

268

Post-fire seedlings of Nothofagus alpina in Southern Chile show strong dominance of a single ectomycorrhizal fungus and a vertical shift in root architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated belowground responses of Nothofagus alpina seedlings to post-fire conditions during natural regeneration after a wildfire in Chile, focusing on mycorrhizal community\\u000a and root architecture. The complete root systems of 2-year-old N. alpina seedlings were extracted from a post-fire site with natural regeneration and compared to roots of seedlings from undisturbed\\u000a forest nearby. Mycorrhizal morphotype richness was determined in

Götz Palfner; Maria Ines Canseco; Angélica Casanova-Katny

2008-01-01

269

Post-fire changes in net shortwave radiation along a latitudinal gradient in boreal North America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding how a changing boreal fire regime is likely to influence regional climate requires detailed information about fire effects on the surface radiation budget. We used time series of satellite observations of surface albedo from 2000-2011 and fire perimeters since 1970 to study post-fire changes in surface net shortwave radiation along a latitudinal transect in central Canada. Fire-induced surface shortwave forcing (SSF) integrated over an annual cycle for the first 30 years after fire was similar (-4.1 W m-2 with a 95% confidence interval of -4.5 to -3.7 W m-2) between southern and northern boreal regions. The lack of a latitudinal difference in SSF was caused by counteracting latitudinal trends in seasonal contributions. Spring (March, April, and May) SSF increased with latitude, from -7.2 W m-2 in the south to -10.1 W m-2 in the north, primarily because of delayed snow melt, which amplified albedo differences between unburned forests and recovering stands. In contrast, winter incoming solar radiation and summer albedo change decreased from south to north, resulting in a decreasing latitudinal trend in winter and summer SSF. Vegetation recovery was slower in the north, leading to smaller increases in summer albedo during the first decade after fire, and a prolonged phase of elevated spring albedo during the second decade. Our results indicate that fires reduce surface net shortwave radiation considerably for many boreal forest ecosystems in North America, providing further evidence that disturbance-mediated shifts in surface energy exchange need to be considered in efforts to manage these forests for climate change mitigation.

Jin, Yufang; Randerson, James T.; Goulden, Michael L.; Goetz, Scott J.

2012-07-01

270

Post-fire hydrologic response in Central Portugal. A four years study at microplot scale.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires are a natural phenomenon in regions with a Mediterranean-type climate. However, their present-day widespread occurrence in southern Europe is unprecedented and strongly reflects human activity such as ignition, land-use changes, land abandonment and introduction of highly flammable plantations. Besides wildfires, post-fire management practices such as plowing, terracing, clearcutting and logging should also be considered, since their occurrence is getting increasingly common. And, in a long-term period these practices seem to be executed intercalated with repeated fire occurrences in the same site, sharing the impacts together with fire in an escalated degradational effect. In this sense, the work presented here concerns four years of runoff and erosion data at microplot scale after the wildfire, comparing different land management practices that occurred before the fire. Preliminary results indicate that in four years of monitoring, runoff is constantly higher in plowed sites than in the unplowed ones, with the exception of the first year. Regarding soil losses the plowed plots present always higher sediment rates than the unplowed ones. The comparison between two unplowed sites with different land uses, indicate higher runoff and erosion risk for pine comparatively to the eucalypt ones, however the reduced soil depth in the first can have an important role in these differences. Following these facts, the aim of the present work is to answer the following research questions: i) Do these four years of observations fit with the window of disturbance model presented by Prosser and Williams (1998). or the alternative version by Wittenberg and Inbar (2009)?; ii) Does pre-fire disturbances (wildfire, land use changes and land management practices) still have repercussions after wildfire?; In what sense does four years of intensive monitoring provides that one year couldn't provide?

Vieira, Diana; Malvar, Maruxa; Martins, Martinho; Machado, Ana; Nunes, João; Keizer, Jacob

2014-05-01

271

Using Rare Earth Element (REE) tracers to identify preferential micro-sites of post-fire aeolian erosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant communities in desert environments are spatially anisotropic. Nutrient islands develop below shrub canopies and in the bases of bunch grasses that enhance plant growth and reinforce the spatial anisotropy. Catastrophic disturbance that removes the vegetation such as fire or drought can result in the release of the trapped sediment which becomes redistributed over the landscape by wind and water. We applied Rare Earth Element (REE) tracers to different landscape positions of an anisotropic Northern Chihuahua Desert ecosystem at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge in central New Mexico in an effort to study this process. We delineated three 0.5 m by 6 m plots of desert grassland and three plots of desert grassland-shrubland ecotone. Nitric acid was used to dissolve the REE oxides (Eu2O3, Dy2O3, and Pr6O11) which were then diluted in distilled water to a target concentration of 1 g REE l-1 and applied to the surface at a rate of 4 l m-2. From laboratory column studies using soil collected at the site, we estimated that this would penetrate the surface to a depth of 2.5 cm resulting in a sediment REE concentration of approximately 100 mg kg-1. Eu was applied to bare surfaces between vegetation characterized as sand with a surface covering of gravel, Pr was applied under grass clumps, and Dy was applied under Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata (DC.). Two replicate 0.25 m2 areas of each surface type were also tagged to obtain a sample of tagged surface sediment for analysis. The area containing the plots was burned by U.S. Fish and Wildlife personnel on April 14, 2010. During the next two days, two grassland plots and two grassland-shrubland ecotone plots were tested by placing a portable boundary layer field wind tunnel over the plots and blowing them with 12 m s-1 wind for 10 minutes during which time a paired set of entrained sediment samples were captured at the outlet of the wind tunnel. This period was followed by a 30 minute test in which clean quartz sand abrader was added to the wind tunnel flow and a second test of 10 minutes with abrader added to the flow. At the end of the first four tests, the wind tunnel cooling system broke and due to the extent of necessary repairs, the last two plots were tested two weeks later. Three paired aeolian sediment samples were collected for each plot tested. The results indicated that in desert grassland, a disproportionate amount of the post-fire sediment is entrained from areas under grass clumps and in grassland-shrubland ecotones, the soil under shrubs is the primary source of entrained sediment followed by areas under grass clumps. The bare surfaces between vegetation produced the least sediment. REEs appear to be a powerful tool for investigating spatial patterns of aeolian processes.

Van Pelt, R.; Zobeck, T. M.; Barnes, M. A.; Baddock, M.; D'Odorico, P.

2011-12-01

272

Post-fire tree regeneration in lowland Bolivia: implications for fire management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree regeneration was compared in burned and unburned portions of a tropical dry forest (1110mmppt\\/year) and a tropical humid forest (1542mmppt\\/year) in southeastern Bolivia. Both forests burned 5 years prior to our study, and both forests were also lightly selectively logged (intensity<1m3\\/ha)—the dry forest during the 1970 and 1980s and the humid forest just prior to the wildfire. The objective

K. A. Gould; T. S. Fredericksen; F. Morales; D. Kennard; F. E. Putz; B. Mostacedo; M. Toledo

2002-01-01

273

Anchor chaining’s influence on soil hydrology and seeding success in burned piñon-juniper woodlands  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Broadcast seeding is one of the most commonly used rehabilitation treatments for the restoration of burned piñon (Pinus ssp.) and juniper (Juniperus spp.) woodlands, but the success rate of this treatment is notoriously low. In piñon-juniper woodlands, post-fire soil water repellency can impair rese...

274

Interactions between fire weather and biomass burning during Santa Ana events in southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fires occurring during Santa Ana (SA) events in southern California are driven by extreme fire weather characterized by high temperatures, low humidities, and high wind speeds. We studied the controls on fire activity during two intensive SA burning periods in 2003 and 2007. We therefore used remote sensing data from Landsat, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). We characterized fuel types in and nearby fire perimeters using the Fuel Characteristic Classification System. Fire weather severity was estimated using Reanalysis meteorological data downscaled using the Weather and Regional Forecast model. Total carbon emissions were approximately 1800 Gg in 2003 and 900 Gg in 2007. More than half of the fires that occurred during the 2003 and 2007 SA events were limited in their growth since they ran out of fuels when they progressed into developed areas under the prevailing winds. The size of the other fires was directly related to the timing and location of the ignition relative to the spatio-temporal structure of the SA conditions. On a regional scale, relatively strong positive correlations were found between the daily Fosberg fire weather index and burned area/emissions (p < 0.01). Using observations from the GOES Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm we found that the typical daytime peak in fire activity was extended and nighttime fire activity was distinctly high during SA fires. Landsat estimates of fire severity were uniformly high throughout the duration of the fires and we found no discernible control of the fire weather severity on post-fire severity, however, we found that fire intensity estimates from GOES were higher in the wind corridor areas which underwent more severe fire weather. Fire weather severity, as indicated by the Fosberg fire weather index, and burned area (white perimeters) during the peak fire day (Day of the year 295 = October 22) of the 2007 Santa Ana firestorm in southern California. Wind speed and direction are indicated by the black arrows.

Veraverbeke, S.; Capps, S. B.; Randerson, J. T.; Hook, S. J.; Jin, Y.; Hall, A. D.

2013-12-01

275

Post-fire runoff and soil (fertility) losses in long-unburnt vs. repeatedly-burnt Maritime Pine stands, north-central Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whilst wildfires are a natural phenomenon in Mediterranean climate regions and a key evolutionary and ecological factor in several of its ecosystems, there are widespread concerns about the resilience of even these fire-adapted ecosystems under present-day fire regimes. The role of repeated wildfires in land degradation, however, has not been extensively studied. The EU-funded CASCADE project addresses this research gap in the study case in Portugal, assessing whether repeated wildfires in Maritime Pine stands lead to land degradation through a gradual process or, instead, through tipping-points in plant-water-soil relationships. In the present study, focus is on the indirect effects of (repeated) wildfires, due to fire-enhanced overland flow generation and the associated losses of sediments, organic matter and nutrients (N and P). Following a large wildfire in early September 2013, affecting roughly 3000 ha in the municipality of Viseu, six Maritime Pine stands were selected within the burnt area. According to the available burnt-area maps, covering the period 1975-2011, three of these sites were unburnt for over 35 years, whereas the other three sites had burnt three more times before 2012. At each of these sites, two pairs of micro-plots of approximately 0.25 m2 were installed as soon as possible after the wildfire, albeit not before the first two post-fire rainfall events, whilst a third pair was installed several weeks later. The first two plot pairs were installed halfway the upper and lower halves of the slope, the third pair in between. The paired-plot design was chosen to compare the hydrological and erosion response for two adjacent patches with contrasting post-fire vegetation recovery processes, i.e. through re-sprouting (by the shrub Pterospartum tridentatum) and by germination. Since the installation of the plots, runoff has been measured at 1- to 2-weekly intervals, depending on rainfall, and samples taken for laboratory analysis of sediment and organic matter loads as well as total N and P concentrations. The field and laboratory results are still being analyzed but personal observations suggest that overland flow generation is markedly higher at the repeatedly burnt than long-unburnt sites.

Hosseini, Mohammad; Gonzaléz-Pelayo, Oscar; Buchspies, Ben; Maia, Paula; Martins, Martinho; Varandas, Daniela; Geissen, Violette; Coelho, Celeste; Ritsem, Coen; Keizer, Jan Jacob

2013-04-01

276

Structural adjustments in resprouting trees drive differences in post-fire transpiration.  

PubMed

Following disturbance many woody species are capable of resprouting new foliage, resulting in a reduced leaf-to-sapwood area ratio and altered canopy structure. We hypothesized that such changes would promote adjustments in leaf physiology, resulting in higher rates of transpiration per unit leaf area, consistent with the mechanistic framework proposed by Whitehead et al. (Whitehead D, Jarvis PG, Waring RH (1984) Stomatal conductance, transpiration and resistance to water uptake in a Pinus sylvestris spacing experiment. Can J For Res 14:692-700). We tested this in Eucalyptus obliqua L'Hér following a wildfire by comparing trees with unburnt canopies with trees that had been subject to 100% canopy scorch and were recovering their leaf area via resprouting. In resprouting trees, foliage was distributed along the trunk and on lateral branches, resulting in shorter hydraulic path lengths. We evaluated measurements of whole-tree transpiration and structural and physiological traits expected to drive any changes in transpiration. We used these structural and physiological measurements to parameterize the Whitehead et al. equation, and found that the expected ratio of transpiration per unit leaf area between resprouting and unburnt trees was 3.41. This is similar to the observed ratio of transpiration per unit leaf area, measured from sapflow observations, which was 2.89 (i.e., resprouting trees had 188% higher transpiration per unit leaf area). Foliage at low heights (<2 m) was found to be significantly different to foliage in the tree crown (14-18 m) in a number of traits, including higher specific leaf area, midday leaf water potential and higher rates of stomatal conductance and photosynthesis. We conclude that these post-fire adjustments in resprouting trees help to drive increased stomatal conductance and hydraulic efficiency, promoting the rapid return of tree-scale transpiration towards pre-disturbance levels. These transient patterns in canopy transpiration have important implications for modelling stand-level water fluxes in forests capable of resprouting, which is frequently done on the basis of the leaf area index. PMID:24536069

Nolan, Rachael H; Mitchell, Patrick J; Bradstock, Ross A; Lane, Patrick N J

2014-02-01

277

ISSR and AFLP analysis of the temporal and spatial population structure of the post-fire annual, Nicotiana attenuata, in SW Utah  

PubMed Central

Background The native annual tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata, is found primarily in large ephemeral populations (typically for less than 3 growing seasons) after fires in sagebrush and pinyon-juniper ecosystems and in small persistent populations (for many growing seasons) in isolated washes typically along roadsides throughout the Great Basin Desert of the SW USA. This distribution pattern is due to its unusual germination behavior. Ephemeral populations are produced by the germination of dormant seeds from long-lived seed banks which are stimulated to germinate by a combination of unidentified positive cues found in wood smoke and the removal of inhibitors leached from the unburned litter of the dominant vegetation. Persistent populations may result where these inhibitors do not exist, as in washes or along disturbed roadsides. To determine if this germination behavior has influenced population structure, we conducted an AFLP (244 individuals), ISSR (175 individuals) and ISSR+ AFLP (175 individuals) analysis on plants originating from seed collected from populations growing in 11 wash and burns over 11 years from the SW USA. Results Genetic variance as measured by both ISSR and AFLP markers was low among sites and comparatively higher within populations. Cluster analysis of the Utah samples with samples collected from Arizona, California, and Oregon as out-groups also did not reveal patterns. AMOVA analysis of the combined AFLP and ISSR data sets yielded significantly low genetic differentiation among sites (?ct), moderate among populations within sites (?sc) and higher genetic differentiation within populations (?st). Conclusions We conclude that the seed dormancy of this post-fire annual and its resulting age structure in conjunction with natural selection processes are responsible for significantly low among sites and comparatively high within-population genetic variation observed in this species. PMID:15350209

Bahulikar, Rahul A; Stanculescu, Dominic; Preston, Catherine A; Baldwin, Ian T

2004-01-01

278

Integrating a shrub growth model with remote sensing and geographic information system data to predict shrub spatial growth patterns in a post fire environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of complex spatial distribution patterns and the prediction of vegetative biomass is crucial for understanding ecosystems and their reaction to disturbance. In this study, a Landsat TM image, an interpolated biomass predictive model, and a shrub biomass predictive equation are integrated, modeling the potential distribution and biomass of two shrub species, Physocarpus malvaceous (PHMA) and Holodiscus discolor (HODI), commonly found in the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington. A simple multiple regression technique was used to generate a shrub biomass predictive model based on shrub structural and biophysical variables. The predictive coefficients for each species were applied to a raster database of the significant regressor variables generated using a zonal method of Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) interpolation. The two predictive models were cross validated and compared, showing the zonal IDW process linked with the regression equation and resulting in a coefficient of variation (R2) of 0.80 and 0.73 for PHMA and HODI, respectively. In addition to these predictive models, a supervised classification was performed using a Landsat TM image predicting shrub biomass. The resulting biomass prediction's accuracy was validated using an analysis of fit resulting in an R2 of 0.68 for PHMA and 0.53 for HODI. These two biomass predictive models were then added and averaged using a raster calculator. The combined models improved the overall accuracy of the biomass prediction to an R2 of 0.86 for PHMA and 0.81 for HODI. To better understand and predict biomass change in a post-fire landscape, the biomass predictive model was integrated with FARSITE (Fire Area Simulator). A fire was simulated on a small drainage in the research site. The resulting footprint was removed from the original biomass predictive model and the shrub biomass was predicted for the burn area five years after the fire. The new prediction was combined with the original biomass prediction, resulting in a new shrub biomass prediction for the entire research site.

Harris, Gregory Dean

279

Frequency-magnitude distribution of debris flows compiled from global data, and comparison with post-fire debris flows in the western U.S.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forecasting debris flow hazard is challenging due to the episodic occurrence of debris flows in response to stochastic precipitation and, in some areas, wildfires. In order to facilitate hazard assessment, we have gathered available records of debris flow volumes into the first comprehensive global catalog of debris flows (n = 988). We also present results of field collection of recent debris flows (n = 77) in the northern Rocky Mountains, where debris flow frequency increases following wildfire. As a first step in parameterizing hazard models, we use frequency-magnitude distributions and empirical cumulative distribution functions (ECDFs) to compare volumes of post-fire debris flows to non-fire-related debris flows. The ECDF of post-fire debris flow volumes is significantly different (at 95% confidence) from that of non-fire-related debris flows, suggesting that the post-fire distribution is composed of a higher proportion of small events than that of non-fire-related debris flows. The slope of the frequency-magnitude distribution of post-fire debris flows is steeper than that of non-fire-related debris flows, corroborating evidence that small post-fire debris flows occur with a higher relative frequency than non-fire-related debris flows. Taken together, the statistical analyses suggest that post-fire debris flows come from a different population than non-fire-related debris flows, and their hazard must be modeled separately. We propose two possible non-exclusive explanations for the fact that the post-fire environment produces a higher proportion of small debris flows: 1) following fires, smaller storms or effective drainage areas can trigger debris flows due to increased runoff and/or decreases in root strength, resulting in smaller volumes and increased probability of failure, and 2) fire increases the probability and frequency of debris flows, causing their distribution to shift toward smaller events due to limitations in sediment supply.

Riley, Karin L.; Bendick, Rebecca; Hyde, Kevin D.; Gabet, Emmanuel J.

2013-06-01

280

Molecular composition and size distribution of sugars, sugar-alcohols and carboxylic acids in airborne particles during a severe urban haze event caused by wheat straw burning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular compositions and size distributions of water-soluble organic compounds (WSOC, i.e., sugars, sugar-alcohols and carboxylic acids) in particles from urban air of Nanjing, China during a severe haze event caused by field burning of wheat straw were characterized and compared with those in the summer and autumn non-haze periods. During the haze event levoglucosan (4030 ng m -3) was the most abundant compound among the measured WSOC, followed by succinic acid, malic acid, glycerol, arabitol and glucose, being different from those in the non-haze samples, in which sucrose or azelaic acid showed a second highest concentration, although levoglucosan was the highest. The measured WSOC in the haze event were 2-20 times more than those in the non-hazy days. Size distribution results showed that there was no significant change in the compound peaks in coarse mode (>2.1 ?m) with respect to the haze and non-haze samples, but a large difference in the fine fraction (<2.1 ?m) was found with a sharp increase during the hazy days mostly due to the increased emissions of wheat straw burning. Molecular compositions of organic compounds in the fresh smoke particles from wheat straw burning demonstrate that sharply increased concentrations of glycerol and succinic and malic acids in the fine particles during the haze event were mainly derived from the field burning of wheat straw, although the sources of glucose and related sugar-alcohols whose concentrations significantly increased in the fine haze samples are unclear. Compared to that in the fresh smoke particles of wheat straw burning an increase in relative abundance of succinic acid to levoglucosan during the haze event suggests a significant production of secondary organic aerosols during transport of the smoke plumes.

Wang, Gehui; Chen, Chunlei; Li, Jianjun; Zhou, Bianhong; Xie, Mingjie; Hu, Shuyuan; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Chen, Yan

2011-05-01

281

Calibration and validation of the relative differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (RdNBR) to three measures of fire severity in the Sierra Nevada and Klamath Mountains, California, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Multispectral satellite data have become a common tool used in the mapping of wildland fire effects. Fire severity, defined as the degree to which a site has been altered, is often the variable mapped. The Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) used in an absolute difference change detection protocol (dNBR), has become the remote sensing method of choice for US Federal land management agencies to map fire severity due to wildland fire. However, absolute differenced vegetation indices are correlated to the pre-fire chlorophyll content of the vegetation occurring within the fire perimeter. Normalizing dNBR to produce a relativized dNBR (RdNBR) removes the biasing effect of the pre-fire condition. Employing RdNBR hypothetically allows creating categorical classifications using the same thresholds for fires occurring in similar vegetation types without acquiring additional calibration field data on each fire. In this paper we tested this hypothesis by developing thresholds on random training datasets, and then comparing accuracies for (1) fires that occurred within the same geographic region as the training dataset and in similar vegetation, and (2) fires from a different geographic region that is climatically and floristically similar to the training dataset region but supports more complex vegetation structure. We additionally compared map accuracies for three measures of fire severity: the composite burn index (CBI), percent change in tree canopy cover, and percent change in tree basal area. User's and producer's accuracies were highest for the most severe categories, ranging from 70.7% to 89.1%. Accuracies of the moderate fire severity category for measures describing effects only to trees (percent change in canopy cover and basal area) indicated that the classifications were generally not much better than random. Accuracies of the moderate category for the CBI classifications were somewhat better, averaging in the 50%-60% range. These results underscore the difficulty in isolating fire effects to individual vegetation strata when fire effects are mixed. We conclude that the models presented here and in Miller and Thode ([Miller, J.D. & Thode, A.E., (2007). Quantifying burn severity in a heterogeneous landscape with a relative version of the delta Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR). Remote Sensing of Environment, 109, 66-80.]) can produce fire severity classifications (using either CBI, or percent change in canopy cover or basal area) that are of similar accuracy in fires not used in the original calibration process, at least in conifer dominated vegetation types in Mediterranean-climate California.

Miller, J.D.; Knapp, E.E.; Key, C.H.; Skinner, C.N.; Isbell, C.J.; Creasy, R.M.; Sherlock, J.W.

2009-01-01

282

dNBR imagery and xeric pine-oak forest stand characteristics for fires of different severity in Great Smoky Mountains National Park  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire suppression has changed forest structure and composition on xeric sites in the southern Appalachians from open, pine-oak dominated stands to closed canopy, mixed hardwood stands. Improved understanding of fire-related tools and ecological responses will improve effectiveness of fire management aimed at restoring pre-fire suppression forest communities on these xeric sites. Although occurrence of fire is known to be related to ecosystem functioning, vegetation responses to multi-severity fires are not as well understood in the southern Appalachians. Additionally, the relationship between satellite imagery and ground-based methods for designating burn severity (post-fire term describing fire severity) are not established for the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP). The purpose of my study was to (1) determine if burn severity designations were consistent between satellite imagery and ground-based methods, and (2) evaluate vegetation responses to different burn severities on xeric sites dominated by pine (Pinus) and oak ( Quercus) species in the GSMNP. Plots were randomly located using satellite-based (dNBR) burn severity maps. For part (1) of my study these sites were ground-truthed using the FIREMON Composite Burn Index (CBI). Initial scatter plots between CBI and dNBR indicated a saturated growth relationship and square-root transformed dNBR data were overall strongly correlated to ground-based ratings (CBI) for 169 total plots (p<0.001, R2=0.90). Strong relationships were found between CBI and dNBR across different xeric forest types and time since burn categories. For part (2) of my study, variables related to stand regeneration were measured at the ground, mid-story, and overstory layers across different burn severities for 48 plots. Differences in post-fire forest structure and composition across burn severity classifications were tested using analyses of variance and relationships between stand variables were evaluated using linear regression. Results showed overstory mortality was significantly higher in moderate and high severity sites versus low severity and no burn sites. Stand density and basal area were lowest in high severity sites and litter layer depth decreased significantly in higher severity fires. Pine regeneration did not vary across burn severities and oak regeneration was highest in moderate severity sites. Mixed mesophytic regeneration was highest in sites absent of fire. Desired pine and oak regeneration was greatest in moderate burn severity sites. Changes in species composition following fire may have been caused by greater amount of exposed mineral soil, increased light penetration to forest floor, and reduced mid-story stem densities. Overall results from both studies show that (1) burn severity can be predicted from satellite imagery and (2) different burn severities are associated with different forest structure and composition related to pine and oak regeneration on xeric sites in GSMNP.

Abla, Scott A.

283

High-severity wildfires can increase runoff and erosion rates by one or  

E-print Network

. Each year millions of dollars are spent on emergency post- fire rehabilitation treatments to minimize over time of four different burned area emergency rehabilitation (BAER) treatments (straw mulching. STREAM is a unit of the Watershed, Fish, Wildlife, Air, and Rare Plants Staff in Washington, D.C. John

MacDonald, Lee

284

Bat Response to Differing Fire Severity in Mixed-Conifer Forest California, USA  

PubMed Central

Wildlife response to natural disturbances such as fire is of conservation concern to managers, policy makers, and scientists, yet information is scant beyond a few well-studied groups (e.g., birds, small mammals). We examined the effects of wildfire severity on bats, a taxon of high conservation concern, at both the stand (<1 ha) and landscape scale in response to the 2002 McNally fire in the Sierra Nevada region of California, USA. One year after fire, we conducted surveys of echolocation activity at 14 survey locations, stratified in riparian and upland habitat, in mixed-conifer forest habitats spanning three levels of burn severity: unburned, moderate, and high. Bat activity in burned areas was either equivalent or higher than in unburned stands for all six phonic groups measured, with four groups having significantly greater activity in at least one burn severity level. Evidence of differentiation between fire severities was observed with some Myotis species having higher levels of activity in stands of high-severity burn. Larger-bodied bats, typically adapted to more open habitat, showed no response to fire. We found differential use of riparian and upland habitats among the phonic groups, yet no interaction of habitat type by fire severity was found. Extent of high-severity fire damage in the landscape had no effect on activity of bats in unburned sites suggesting no landscape effect of fire on foraging site selection and emphasizing stand-scale conditions driving bat activity. Results from this fire in mixed-conifer forests of California suggest that bats are resilient to landscape-scale fire and that some species are preferentially selecting burned areas for foraging, perhaps facilitated by reduced clutter and increased post-fire availability of prey and roosts. PMID:23483936

Heady, Paul A.; Hayes, John P.; Frick, Winifred F.

2013-01-01

285

Effects of a Hospital Based Wellness and Exercise Program on Quality of Life of Children with Severe Burns  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the effect of a 12-week Wellness and Exercise (W&E) program on the quality of life of pediatric burn survivors with burns of ? 40% total body surface area. We hypothesized this comprehensive regimen would improve physical and psychosocial outcomes. Methods Children were recruited for participation upon their discharge from the ICU. They were not taking anabolic/cardiovascular agents. Seventeen children participated in the W&E group and 14 children in the Standard of Care (SOC) group. Quality of life was assessed with the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) at discharge and 3 months. Children completed the CHQ-CF 87 and caregivers completed the CHQ-PF 28. Results The mean age of children in the W&E group was 14.07y±3.5 and mean TBSA was 58%±11.8. The mean age of children in the SOC group was 13.9y±3.1 and mean TBSA was 49%±7.8. ANOVA did not reveal statistically significant differences between the groups. Matched paired t-tests revealed that parents with children in the W&E group reported significant improvements with their children’s physical functioning, role/social physical functioning, mental health, overall physical and psychosocial functioning post-exercise. Conclusions These results are clinically relevant in that a comprehensive W&E program may be beneficial in promoting physical and psychosocial outcomes. PMID:22985974

Rosenberg, Marta; Celis, Mario M; Meyer, Walter; Tropez-Arceneaux, Lisa; McEntire, Serina J.; Fuchs, Helen; Richardson, Lisa; Holzer, Charles; Herndon, David N.; Suman, Oscar E.

2012-01-01

286

High severity fire in forests of the southwest: conservation implications. Progress Report August 2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction: The occurrence of large, severe fires in southwestern ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests has resulted in concern that these forests may not persist under such an extreme disturbance regime. In our research, we are examining the outcomes of high-severity fire in ponderosa pine forests and their neighboring communities across an elevational gradient. One goal of our work is to contribute to understanding the resiliency of these systems, but we also want to investigate the conservation values intrinsic to the diverse communities that represent alternative successional trajectories after severe fire. One assumption of our research is that the spatial pattern of a disturbance becomes increasingly important when the disturbance is large and biological legacies are few and sparse. We ask, therefore, what spectrum of plant communities results from high severity fire, and what is their relationship to spatial patterns of severity mapped in early post fire timeframes? Also, do spatial patterns of older burns (1950-80) differ from recent burns (1998-present) in ways that make us expect successional changes years from now to differ from those we observed at our older burn field sites? Here, we describe the first stages of our work in mapping burn severity at old and new burns as well as the work we have recently completed at our two field sites. The report is organized under our two main objectives with the purpose of summarizing the steps we have taken in working toward these objectives, as well as changes we have made in methodologies since the original study plan. We present some general observations and plans for the next steps in data analysis and product generation. This report, the study plan, a photograph gallery, slide presentations, and our contact information are available on the project Web site http://www.umass.edu/landeco/research/swfire/swfire.html .

Haire, Sandra L.

2006-01-01

287

Rainfall influence on plot-scale runoff and soil loss from repeated burning in a Mediterranean-shrub ecosystem, Valencia, Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of a repeated burning on soil hydrology and erosive parameters was studied on a Mediterranean forest soil (Rendzic leptosol) with the aim of identifying the effects of the fire and climatic parameters related to the post-fire runoff and soil loss. The study was carried out in an Experimental Permanent Field Station (La Concordia), close to Valencia (Spain). This

O. González-Pelayo; V. Andreu; E. Gimeno-García; J. Campo; J. L. Rubio

2010-01-01

288

High Park burn in South Fork Cache la Poudre Basin: Preliminary findings from spring and summer 2013 hydrologic and sedimentation monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The High Park fire burned over 35,000 ha within the Cache la Poudre basin in early summer 2012, including an eastern portion of the Little South Fork Cache la Poudre (SFCLP) watershed. Given the proximity of the burn and the implications for water quality supplied to Fort Collins and Greeley, CO, there is an expressed interest on the part of the cities for improved understanding of sediment loads in SFCLP and main stem Cache la Poudre River over the next few years. Prior to burning, data on sediment transport (suspended sediment and bedload) were collected by researchers from the US Forest Service, providing baseline information on sedimentation comparable to similar measurements taken after the High Park fire. In 2013, bedload was measured during snowmelt runoff using standard pressure-difference samplers identical to those used previously in 1989 and 1997. Turbidity sensors were deployed as a surrogate measure of suspended sediment concentration. This signal was calibrated using both grab samples (from a DH-48) and samples obtained from an automated water sampler triggered to collect during substantial increases in turbidity. Additional sampling stations were later established downstream of this site in conjunction with assessments of channel extension and sedimentation from severely burned hillslopes and gulches, one of which was mulched for erosion control in spring 2013. The primary source of post-fire sediment to the most upstream site is from Monument Gulch, located about 1 km upstream of the sampling location. Debris flows emanated from this gulch within a few weeks post-fire and delivered charcoal, ash, burned trees and inorganic sediment to the main stem SFCLP. Although snowmelt runoff was less than bankfull in 2013, there was a substantial amount of burned organic matter transported and collected in the bedload and suspended sediment samplers. Low intensity storms during summer caused a few sediment rich flows, though not to the extent of those in 2012. In this presentation, we present initial findings on differences in sediment loads attributed to the fire.

Ryan, S. E.; Dixon, M.; Rathburn, S. L.; Shahverdian, S.

2013-12-01

289

Salvage Logging Versus the Use of Burnt Wood as a Nurse Object to Promote Post-Fire Tree Seedling Establishment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Intense debate surrounds the effects of post-fire salvage logging (SL) versus nonintervention policies on forest regeneration, but scant support is available from experimental studies. We analyze the effect of three post-fire management treatments on the recruitment of a serotinous pine (Pinus pinaster) at a Mediterranean mountain. Treatments were applied 7 months after the fire and differ in the degree of intervention, ranging from "no intervention" (NI, all trees left standing) to "partial cut plus lopping" (PCL, felling most of the trees, cutting the main branches, and leaving all the biomass in situ without mastication), and "SL" (felling and piling the logs, and masticating the woody debris). Seedling survival after 3 years was the highest in PCL (47.3% versus 38.7% in SL). This was associated with the amelioration of microclimatic conditions under the scattered branches, which reduced radiation and soil temperature while increasing soil moisture. Seedling density after 2 years was approximately 5.5 times higher in PCL than in SL, as in SL a large fraction of seedlings was lost as a consequence of mechanized mastication. The NI treatment showed the lowest seedling survival (17.3%). Nevertheless, seedling density was similar to SL. Seedling growth scarcely differed among treatments. Our results show that branches left onsite acted as nurse objects that improved key microclimatic conditions for seedling recruitment. This creates a facilitative interaction ideal for seedling establishment in moisture-deficient ecosystems, as it provides the benefit of a shading overstory but without underground competition. ?? 2010 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

Castro, J.; Allen, C.D.; Molina-Morales, M.; Maranon-Jimenez, S.; Sanchez-Miranda, A.; Zamora, R.

2011-01-01

290

[The stabilizing effect of enterosgel on the structural bases of membrane digestion and absorption in the small intestine in severe thermal skin burns].  

PubMed

Enterosgel effect on morphofunctional indices of the small intestine has been ascertained in experiments on animals, histochemical, electron-microscopic and morphometric methods being used. Enterosorbent in the dose of 0.3 g/kg body weight was injected orally to the guinea-pigs for 14 days. The results of the investigations prove the severe burn traumas to result in sufficient structural changes in the small intestine wall which causes impairment of membranous digestion processes and absorption of nutrients. It is to be noted that the developing burn disease results in the increase of changes severity and reaches the highest values at the stage of septicotoxemia. The enterosorbent assessed positively affects morphofunctional values of the small intestine. The enterosorbent does not enhance conventional development of the pathologic process but considerably decreases its manifestation. The enterosgel promotes the improvement of membranous digestion and absorption in the small intestine, increasing alkaline phosphatase action and rising the number of endocellular vesicles in epitheliocytes having brush margins. PMID:9044818

Pasechka, N V

1996-01-01

291

Post-fire mulching for runoff and erosion mitigation Part II: Effectiveness in reducing runoff and sediment yields from small catchments  

E-print Network

Post-fire mulching for runoff and erosion mitigation Part II: Effectiveness in reducing runoff at least double the sediment yields measured on hillslope plots. The longer periods of greater erosion rates in the catchments likely reflect the addition of channel erosion processes and a difference

Flury, Markus

292

-Effect of fire interval on post-fire understorey communities in Yellowstone National Park -797 Journal of Vegetation Science 15: 797-806, 2004  

E-print Network

variability on post-fire understorey cover and richness. Results: Between paired plots, annuals were less; Noble & Slatyer 1980; Rowe 1983); (4) successional status (long fire intervals should decrease the importance of early-successional, shade- intolerant perennials; Peterson & Carson 1996); (5) abil- ity to fix

Turner, Monica G.

293

Leaf and Shoot Water Content and Leaf Dry Matter Content of Mediterranean Woody Species with Different Post-fire Regenerative Strategies  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Post-fire regeneration is a key process in Mediterranean shrubland dynamics, strongly determining the functional properties of the community. In this study, a test is carried out to deteremine whether there is co-variation between species regenerative types and functional attributes related to water use. Methods An analysis was made of the seasonal variations in leaf relative water content (RWC), leaf dry matter content (LDMC), leaf moisture (LM) and live fine fuel moisture (LFFM) in 30 woody species of a coastal shrubland, with different post-fire regenerative strategies (seeding, resprouting or both). Key Results RWC results suggest that the studied resprouters have more efficient mechanisms to reduce water losses and maintain water supply between seasons. In contrast, seeders are more drought tolerant. LDMC is higher in resprouters over the course of the year, suggesting a more efficient conservation of nutrients. The weight of the phylogenetic constraint to understand differences between regenerative strategies tends to be important for LDMC, while it is not the case for variables such as RWC. Conclusions Groups of species with different post-fire regenerative strategies (seeders and resprouters) have different functional traits related to water use. In addition to the role of phylogenetical constraints, these differences are also likely to be related to the respective life history characteristics. Therefore, the presence and abundance of species with different post-fire regenerative responses influence the functional properties of the communities. PMID:17237213

Saura-Mas, S.; Lloret, F.

2007-01-01

294

Influence of Plant Communities on Active Layer Depth in Unburned and Post-fire Forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation plays a crucial role in determining active layer depth and is thought to be an important control for permafrost persistence in areas where the mean annual air temperature is as high as +2°C. However this critical component of the interface between the soil and atmosphere is often poorly represented in models, and the relative importance of contrasting vegetation communities is not understood. In particular the role of certain vegetation types such as mosses is completely neglected, in spite of their potential to exhibit contrasting thermal properties depending on their moisture content. Furthermore, most models assume steady states and so ignore important dynamic disturbance events such as fires. Given that the frequency of forest fires is predicted to increase due to climate change in boreal regions, the influence of these ecologically important events on active layer thickness must be established. Contrasting rates of vegetation recovery within and between burn sites may strongly impact on the rate of increase of active layer thickness. Using a combination of targeted and cyclic sampling in boreal forests within a discontinuous permafrost zone in Southern Yukon, Canada we have aimed to further our understanding of how key characteristics of the understory and canopy vegetation influence soil physical conditions including soil moisture, temperature and thaw depth throughout the growing season. By undertaking these surveys in sites with contrasting hydrological conditions in both burned and unburned areas we have been able to determine which features of the vegetation control frost table thawing and how this relationship changes after a fire event and on different soil types.

Fisher, J. P.; Estop-Aragones, C.; Xenakis, G.; Hartley, I. P.; Murton, J.; Charman, D.; Williams, M.; Phoenix, G. K.

2013-12-01

295

Structure and phylogenetic diversity of post-fire ectomycorrhizal communities of maritime pine.  

PubMed

Environmental disturbances define the diversity and assemblage of species, affecting the functioning of ecosystems. Fire is a major disturbance of Mediterranean pine forests. Pines are highly dependent on the ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal symbiosis, which is critical for tree recruitment under primary succession. To determine the effects of time since fire on the structure and recovery of EM fungal communities, we surveyed the young Pinus pinaster regenerate in three sites differing in the elapsed time after the last fire event. Pine roots were collected, and EM fungi characterized by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the large subunit (LSU) regions of the nuclear ribosomal (nr)-DNA. The effects of the elapsed time after fire on the EM community structure (richness, presence/absence of fungi, phylogenetic diversity) and on soil properties were analysed.Fungal richness decreased with the elapsed time since the fire; although, the phylogenetic diversity of the EM community increased. Soil properties were different depending on the elapsed time after fire and particularly, the organic matter, carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio, nitrogen and iron significantly correlated with the assemblage of fungal species. Ascomycetes, particularly Tuberaceae and Pezizales, were significantly over-represented on saplings in the burned site. On seedlings, a significant over-representation of Rhizopogonaceae and Atheliaceae was observed in the most recently burned site, while other fungi (i.e. Cortinariaceae) were significantly under-represented. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that fire can act as a selective agent by printing a phylogenetic signal on the EM fungal communities associated with naturally regenerated pines, pointing out to some groups as potential fire-adapted fungi. PMID:23955264

Rincón, A; Santamaría, B P; Ocaña, L; Verdú, M

2014-02-01

296

Influence of Plant Communities on Active Layer Depth in Unburned and Post-fire Forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation plays a crucial role in determining active layer depth and is thought to be an important control for permafrost persistence in areas where the mean annual air temperature is as high as +2oC. However this critical component of the interface between the soil and atmosphere is often poorly represented in models, and the relative importance of contrasting vegetation communities is not understood. In particular the role of certain vegetation types such as mosses is completely neglected, in spite of their potential to exhibit contrasting thermal properties depending on their moisture content. Furthermore, most models assume steady states and so ignore important dynamic disturbance events such as fires. Given that the frequency of forest fires is predicted to increase due to climate change in boreal regions, the influence of these ecologically important events on active layer thickness must be established. Contrasting rates of vegetation recovery within and between burn sites may strongly impact on the rate of increase of active layer thickness. Using a combination of targeted and cyclic sampling in boreal forests within a discontinuous permafrost zone in Southern Yukon, Canada we have aimed to further our understanding of how key characteristics of the understory and canopy vegetation influence soil physical conditions including soil moisture, temperature and thaw depth throughout the growing season. By undertaking these surveys in sites with contrasting hydrological conditions in both burned and unburned areas we have been able to determine which features of the vegetation control frost table thawing and how this relationship changes after a fire event and on different soil types.

Fisher, James; Estop Aragones, Cristian; Xenakis, Geogrios; Hartley, Iain; Murton, Julian; Charman, Daniel; Williams, Mathew; Phoenix, Gareth

2014-05-01

297

Corrosion of Metals Exposed to Combustion Products Generated by Burning Electrical Power Cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The post-fire corrosion hazard of the materials used in shipboard power and communication cables upon small specimens of HY80 steel, type 304 stainless steel, brass, and Monel 400 was investigated. The metal coupons were exposed to the combustion products generated by the burning cables in full-scale fire tests aboard an instrumented ship. Tests were conducted with cross-linked polyethylene cables and

Eugene A. Powell; Ben T. Zinn

1989-01-01

298

Foraging-Habitat Selection of Black-backed Woodpeckers in Forest Burns of Southwestern Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined foraging-habitat selection of Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) in burned forests of southwestern Idaho during 2000 and 2002 (6 and 8 years following wildfire). This woodpecker responds positively to large-scale fire disturbances and may be at risk from logging and post-fire management. With 100 radio-locations of four adult males, we used resource-selection probability functions in logistic form in an

Jonathan G. Dudley; Victoria A. Saab; Jeffrey P. Hollenbeck

2012-01-01

299

Facial Burns - Our Experience  

PubMed Central

Facial burns are generally considered severe. This is due to the possibility of respiratory complications. First responders check the nostrils for singed hairs. In severe cases there may be soot around the nose and mouth and coughing may produce phlegm that includes ash. Facial and inhalational burns compromise airways. They pose difficulties in pre-hospital resuscitation and are challenge to clinicians managing surviving burn victims in the intensive care setting. Management problems – resuscitation, airway maintenance and clinical treatment of facial injuries are compounded if the victim is child. Inhalational burns reduce survivability, certainly in adult victim. In our retrospective study we found that facial burns dominated in male gender, liquids and scalds are the most common causes of facial burns in children whereas the flame and electricity were the most common causes of facial burns in adults. We came to the conclusion in our study that surgical treatment minimizes complications and duration of recovery. PMID:23687458

Zatriqi, Violeta; Arifi, Hysni; Zatriqi, Skender; Duci, Shkelzen; Rrecaj, Sh.; Martinaj, M.

2013-01-01

300

Fire Emissions Estimates in Siberia: Evaluation of Uncertainties in Area Burned, Land Cover, and Fuel Consumption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfire is one of the main disturbance factors in the boreal zone of Russia. Fires in the Russian boreal forest range from low-severity surface fires to high-severity crown fires. Estimates of carbon emissions from fires in Russia vary substantially due to differences in ecosystem classification and mapping, burned area calculations, and estimates of fuel consumption. We examined uncertainties in different parameters used to estimate biomass burning emissions. Several fire datasets (Institute of Forest burned area product, MCD45, MCD64, MOD14/MYD14, official data) were compared to estimate uncertainties in area burned in Siberia. Area burned was found to differ significantly by data source, with satellite data being by an order of magnitude greater than ground-based data. Differences between mapped ecosystems were also compared and contrasted on the basis of five land cover maps (GLC-2000, Globcover-2009, MODIS Collection 4 and 5 Global Land Cover, and the Digitized Ecosystem map of the Former Soviet Union) to evaluate the potential for error resulting from disparate vegetation structure and fuel consumption estimates. The examination of land cover maps showed that estimates of relative proportion of fire by ecosystem type varied substantially for the same year from map to map. Fuel consumption remains one of the main uncertainties in estimates of biomass burning emissions in Siberia. Accurate fuel consumption estimates are obtained in the course of fire experiments with pre- and post-fire biomass measuring. Our large-scale experiments carried out in the course of the FIRE BEAR (Fire Effects in the Boreal Eurasia Region) Project provided quantitative and qualitative data on ecosystem state and carbon emissions due to fires of known behavior in major forest types of Siberia that could be used to verify large-scale carbon emissions estimates. Global climate change is expected to result in increase of fire hazard and area burned, leading to impacts on global air quality and human health. Accurate emission estimates are required by air quality agencies to calculate local emissions and to develop strategies to mitigate negative smoke impacts. This research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program, Fulbright Program, and Russian Academy of Sciences.

Kukavskaya, E.; Soja, A. J.; Ivanova, G. A.; Petkov, A.; Ponomarev, E. I.; Conard, S. G.

2012-12-01

301

Early fasciotomy in electrically injured patients as a marker for injury severity and deep venous thrombosis risk: an analysis of the National Burn Repository  

PubMed Central

Background Using the National Burn Repository (NBR), we sought to identify markers for injury severity and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) risk after electrical injury. Methods We identified adult patients in the NBR admitted with an electrical injury between 1995 and 2007 (n=1469). Patients who died within 24 hours or were admitted for less than 1 day and hospitals reporting no complications were excluded. Independent variables included total body surface area (TBSA) burned, duration of ICU stay and hospital admission, duration of mechanical ventilation, number of operative procedures, amputation, and early fasciotomy. Early fasciotomy was defined as fasciotomy performed on a patient’s first trip to the operating room and was used as a proxy for severity of electrical injury. Deep venous thrombosis and death were the dependent variables. Results Among electrically injured patients, 10.4% had early fasciotomy. Patients who had early fasciotomy had significantly prolonged ICU stays (10.3 days vs. 4.8 days, p<0.001), hospital days (36.7 days vs. 17.1 days, p<0.001), amputations (49.0% vs. 4.6%, p<0.001), and number of operative codes (17.6 vs. 5.4, p<0.001). DVT incidence was 0.9%. Electrically injured patients who had early fasciotomy were significantly more likely to have a DVT when compared to patients who did not have early fasciotomy (7.55% vs. 0.95%, p=0.002). Conclusions Early fasciotomy after electrical injury is a marker for increased injury severity. Among patients who have early fasciotomy after electrical injury, 7.5% develop DVT and 49% require amputation during their initial hospitalization. PMID:20861746

Pannucci, CJ; Osborne, NH; Jaber, RM; Cederna, PS; Wahl, WL

2010-01-01

302

Hydrologic recovery in post-burn watersheds in the western U.S  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Post-wildfire hydrologic studies predominantly focus on initial post-fire floods and generally do not provide information on longer-term trends toward baseline or pre-fire conditions, including dry season changes. This presentation will focus on analysis of long-term recovery through cross-site comparisons and hydrologic metrics to quantify and assess watershed recovery times. Metrics include spatial statistics of annual monthly flows, estimates of consecutive high flow days, and total low flow duration periods using long-term USGS discharge data. Preliminary results from Devil Canyon, a southern Californian basin burned by the 2003 Old Fire shows elevated post-fire runoff ratios (0.4) during the 2004-2010 post-burn period compared to pre-fire conditions (0.2). The dry season discharge for the entire basin is statistically different from the pre-fire period at 95%. Using the threshold obtained from Devil Canyon's flow duration curve; there is an average of 200 low flow days in the historical period (WY 1941-2003). Post-fire the annual number of days below the historical low flow threshold is near 0, indicating increased baseflow throughout the entire water year. Predicting burn system resilience to disturbance (anthropogenic and natural) has significant implications for water sustainability, ecosystem regimes, and ultimately may improve forest and hydrological management.

Kinoshita, A. M.; Hogue, T. S.

2013-12-01

303

Quantifying the Influence of Hillslope Form, Aspect and Burn Severity on Post-Wildfire Hillslope Erosion Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildfires can profoundly affect hillslope erosion rates by altering the physical and chemical attributes of the soil and denuding stabilizing vegetation. Increased hillslope erosion can raise stream channel sediment loads, which can change the channel morphology and impact aquatic habitat structure and downstream dam sedimentation. Current climate change predictions for the intermountain West forecast more frequent and severe droughts, and

L. M. Perreault; E. M. Yager; R. E. Aalto

2010-01-01

304

Reduced predation risk for melanistic pygmy grasshoppers in post-fire environments.  

PubMed

The existence of melanistic (black) color forms in many species represents interesting model systems that have played important roles for our understanding of selective processes, evolution of adaptations, and the maintenance of variation. A recent study reported on rapid evolutionary shifts in frequencies of the melanistic forms in replicated populations of Tetrix subulata pygmy grasshoppers; the incidence of the melanistic form was higher in recently burned areas with backgrounds blackened by fire than in nonburned areas, and it declined over time in postfire environments. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the frequency shifts of the black color variant were driven, at least in part, by changes in the selective regime imposed by visual predators. To study detectability of the melanistic form, we presented human "predators" with images of black grasshoppers and samples of the natural habitat on computer screens. We demonstrate that the protective value of black coloration differs between burnt and nonburnt environments and gradually increases in habitats that have been more blackened by fire. These findings support the notion that a black color pattern provides improved protection from visually oriented predators against blackened backgrounds and implicate camouflage and predation as important drivers of fire melanism in pygmy grasshoppers. PMID:23139879

Karpestam, Einat; Merilaita, Sami; Forsman, Anders

2012-09-01

305

[Fire severity of burnt area in Huzhong forest region of Great Xing' an Mountains, Northeast China based on normalized burn ratio analysis].  

PubMed

Based on the TM images and 3S technology, and by using normalized burn ratio (NBR) , this paper quantitatively evaluated the fire severity of burnt area in Huzhong forest region of the Great Xing' an Mountains from 1986 to 2010, and analyzed the relationships of the fire severity with environmental factors such as vegetation type, elevation, slope, and aspect. In Huzhong forest region, the fire occurrence frequency and total burnt area had an obvious inter-annual change. High incidence of forest fire was from June to August, and heavily burnt area occupied 84. 2% of the total burnt area. In the burnt area, larch forest accounted for 89. 9%. 68. 8% of burnt area located at the elevations from 1000 m to 1500 m, and 62. 5% located in eastern, southern, western, and northern slopes. There was no obvious difference in the burnt area between sunny and shady slopes. The burnt area at the slope degrees 15 degree-25 degrees occupied 38.4% of the total. High severity burnt area was the largest (70% of the total), followed by moderate severity burnt area (about 10%), and low severity burnt area and un-burnt area (<5% ). The majority of the forest fires in Huzhong forest region were of high severity fire, which caused great damages to the forest resources. It was suggested that in the forest fire management in Great Xing' an Mountains forest region, it would be urgent to implement forest fuel treatments to reduce fire severity to guarantee the forest ecosystem security. PMID:23898653

Wang, Xiao-li; Wang, Wen-juan; Chang, Yu; Feng, Yu-ting; Chen, Hong-wei; Hu, Yuan-man; Chi, Jian-guo

2013-04-01

306

Lessons learned from an emergency release of a post-fire debris-flow hazard assessment for the 2009 Station fire, San Gabriel Mountains, southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2009 Station fire burned through portions of the steep, rugged terrain of the San Gabriel Mountains in southern California with a known history of producing large magnitude debris flows following fires. In response to the emergency, the U.S. Geological Survey released an assessment of debris-flow hazards as maps showing estimates of the probability and volume of debris-flow production from 678 burned drainage basins, and the areas that may be inundated by debris flows. The assessment was based on statistical-empirical models developed from post-fire hydrologic-response monitoring data throughout southern California steeplands. The intent of the assessment was to provide state-of-the-art information about potential debris-flow impacts to the public, and quantitative data critical for mitigation, resource-deployment and evacuation decisions by land-management, city and county public-works and flood-control, and emergency-response agencies. Here, we describe a research scientist perspective of the hits and misses associated with the release of this information. Release of the assessment was accompanied by an extensive multi-agency public information campaign. Hazards information was provided to the media and presented at numerous well-attended public meetings organized by local politicians, homeowner and religious associations, city councils, and a multi-agency response team. Meetings targeted to specific ethnic and religious groups resulted in increased attendance by members of these groups. Even with the extensive information campaign, the public response to both mandatory and voluntary evacuation orders was low, and decreased with each sequential winter storm. Interviews with local residents indicated that the low compliance could be attributed to: 1) a lack of a personal understanding of just how dangerous and destructive debris flows can be, 2) inconsistent messaging from different agencies regarding potential magnitudes of a debris-flow response, 3) a poor understanding of the uncertainties inherent to both weather and debris-flow predictions, and 4) a desire to protect personal property. Communication on a one-to-one basis throughout the storm season was necessary to avoid this last, all-too-human tendency. These observations also indicate that effective evacuations in response to debris-flow hazards require an increased awareness of the potential magnitudes and impacts by all parties involved, and this awareness must be established well in advance of any emergency. Most public-response agencies were receptive and appreciative of the information provided, although some were not. The information included in the hazard assessment was used as intended by numerous agencies, and many requested the GIS shapefiles so they would have the capability to generate maps for specific areas of responsibility. However, not every agency had the flexibility to adopt new information during the crisis. A state of emergency is not a good time to advocate for acceptance of new approaches or techniques.

Cannon, S. H.; Perry, S. C.; Staley, D. M.

2010-12-01

307

Pediatric cutaneous bleach burns.  

PubMed

Bleach is a common household product which can cause caustic injuries. Its effects on mucosal tissues and the eye have been well-described in the literature. However, there is little information published regarding the appearance and effect of bleach on a child's skin. We report three children who sustained chemical burns after contact with bleach. All three children sustained accidental bleach burns while at home, and each child had a distinct brown discoloration to the skin from the injury. All three children had treatment and follow-up for their burns. Two of the children sustained more severe burns, which were extensive and required more time to heal. There was also long-term scarring associated with the severe burns. Like most burns, pain control is required until the injury heals. PMID:23545350

Lang, Cathleen; Cox, Matthew

2013-07-01

308

Post-fire geomorphic response in steep, forested landscapes: Oregon Coast Range, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of fire in shaping steep, forested landscapes depends on a suite of hydrologic, biologic, and geological characteristics, including the propensity for hydrophobic soil layers to promote runoff erosion during subsequent rainfall events. In the Oregon Coast Range, several studies postulate that fire primarily modulates sediment production via root reinforcement and shallow landslide susceptibility, although few studies have documented

Molly Jackson; Joshua J. Roering

2009-01-01

309

Moving beyond the cambium necrosis hypothesis of post-fire tree mortality: cavitation and deformation of xylem in forest fires.  

PubMed

• It is widely assumed that post-fire tree mortality results from necrosis of phloem and vascular cambium in stems, despite strong evidence that reduced xylem conductivity also plays an important role. • In this study, experiments with Populus balsamifera were used to demonstrate two mechanisms by which heat reduces the hydraulic conductivity of xylem: air seed cavitation and conduit wall deformation. Heat effects on air seed cavitation were quantified using air injection experiments that isolate potential temperature-dependent changes in sap surface tension and pit membrane pore diameters. Heat effects on conduit wall structure were demonstrated using air conductivity measurements and light microscopy. • Heating increased vulnerability to cavitation because sap surface tension varies inversely with temperature. Heating did not affect cavitation via changes in pit membrane pore diameters, but did cause significant reductions in xylem air conductivity that were associated with deformation of conduit walls (probably resulting from thermal softening of viscoelastic cell wall polymers). • Additional work is required to understand the relative roles of cavitation and deformation in the reduction of xylem conductivity, and how reduced xylem conductivity in roots, stems, and branches correlates and interacts with foliage and root necroses to cause tree mortality. Future research should also examine how heat necrosis of ray parenchyma cells affects refilling of embolisms that occur during and after the fire event. PMID:22276783

Michaletz, S T; Johnson, E A; Tyree, M T

2012-04-01

310

Drivers of post-fire successional trajectories in arctic tundra: the importance of physical and biophysical interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fires in arctic tundra are rare with return intervals in the hundreds to thousands of years, but these events have large implications for carbon and energy fluxes in an environmentally changing and sensitive ecosystem. Permafrost degradation, species composition shifts, and ecosystem function alterations are just a few of the potential consequences of fire that could feedback on future climate change. Here we describe remote sensing, eddy covariance, thaw depth, and biomass measurements along an arctic tundra chronosequence to understand long-term post-fire carbon and energy budgets. Historical remote sensing and fire perimeter data were used to choose sites that were representative of a 0-6, 18, and 36 year old fire scar, which were paired with a representative nearby unburned control. Fires caused successional changes to carbon and energy budgets through changes to the soil thermal regime, caused by decreased organic layer from combustion, and shifts from tussock to grass and shrub dominated systems. Measurements and modeling with the Multiple Element Limitation (MEL) model indicate that nutrients played a key role in these shifts and that these dynamics change are controlled by biophysical conditions immediately after fire (i.e. residual organic layer depth) and climate during early succession. Results highlight the importance of initial conditions in determining the successional trajectory of arctic tundra and yield important insights on how these systems will respond to future climate change.

Rocha, A. V.; Jiang, Y.; Rastetter, E. B.; Drysdale, J.; Kremers, K.; Shaver, G. R.

2013-12-01

311

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in post-fire soils of drained peatlands in western Meshchera (Moscow region, Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are priority pollutants that arrive in the environment from numerous anthropogenic and natural sources, but the data on their natural sources including wildfires remain insufficient. The level of contamination and the composition of PAHs in soils of the areas affected by wildfires were studied in this work. The study was conducted in the Moscow region (Russia) in areas occupied by drained peatland and strongly damaged by fires in 2002, 2010 and 2012. The features of PAH accumulation and the profile distributions in histosols and histic podzols after the fires of different times were analyzed. It was shown that new soil horizons formed after the fires - Cpir, Hpir and incipient O horizons - and that these horizons differ in PAH accumulation rate. Maximal total concentrations of 14 PAHs were detected in charred peat horizons Hpir (up to 330 ng g-1) and in post-fire incipient O horizons (up to 180 ng g-1), but the high-molecular-weight PAHs (benz(ghi)perylene, benz(a)pyrene, benz(k)fluoranthene) were revealed only in charry peat horizons. The trends of higher PAH concentrations were found in cases when smoldering combustion resulted in rather thick residual peat horizons. In cases of almost complete pyrogenic destruction of He horizons, total PAH concentrations were no more than 50 ng g-1. Also, PAH accumulation in upper horizons of soils near the sites of the latest fires was observed.

Tsibart, A.; Gennadiev, A.; Koshovskii, T.; Watts, A.

2014-12-01

312

Anatomical and physiological regulation of post-fire carbon and water exchange in canopies of two resprouting Eucalyptus species.  

PubMed

The great majority of Eucalyptus spp. are facultative resprouters, and they dominate the eucalypt forests of Australia. Despite this numeric and geographic dominance, there is a general lack of knowledge of their capacity for carbon capture and water loss during canopy reinstation. After a crown-removing fire, we measured leaf-level determinants of carbon and water flux in resprouting canopies of Eucalyptus dives and E. radiata over the 3 years that followed. Leaf anatomy and physiology changed markedly during canopy reinstation, and leaves produced in the second year (2010) were distinct from those produced later. Leaves produced in 2010 were thicker (all measures of leaf anatomy), yet more porous (increased intercellular airspace), causing specific leaf area also to be greater. Indicators of heterotrophic activity, leaf respiration rate and light compensation point, were twofold greater in 2010, whereas all measures of photosynthetic capacity were greatest in leaves produced in 2011 and 2012. Whilst stomatal density, vein density and leaf hydraulic conductance all progressively decreased with time, neither leaf water status nor carbon isotope discrimination were affected. We conclude that canopy reinstation is primarily limited by pre-fire carbon stores, rather than by post-fire edaphic conditions (e.g., water availability), and thus argue that capacity for recovery is directly linked to pre-fire forest health. PMID:25108550

Turnbull, Tarryn L; Buckley, Thomas N; Barlow, Alexandra M; Adams, Mark A

2014-10-01

313

A comparison of burn season effects on nesting birds in North Dakota mixed-grass prairie  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1982-1985, the effects of single spring and fall burn treatments on ground nesting birds and residual cover were studied on five paired areas of native mixed-grass prairie in northwestern Stutsman County, ND. Annually, visual obstruction readings to index the height-density of residual cover were taken once and nest searches were made four times on each area. Residual nesting cover on fall burn plots averaged taller and denser than on spring burn plots during post-fire growing years 2-4. A total of 259 duck nests and 63 nests of non-passerine birds were found during the four years. Duck nesting success was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in fall burn plots than in spring burn plots for all species and years combined. Too few nests of other bird species were found for valid comparisons. Results suggest that vegetation structure and duck nesting response to spring and fall burns became similar again by the third post-fire growing season.

Higgins, K.F.

1986-01-01

314

Empirical models to predict the volumes of debris flows generated by recently burned basins in the western U.S.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recently burned basins frequently produce debris flows in response to moderate-to-severe rainfall. Post-fire hazard assessments of debris flows are most useful when they predict the volume of material that may flow out of a burned basin. This study develops a set of empirically-based models that predict potential volumes of wildfire-related debris flows in different regions and geologic settings. The models were developed using data from 53 recently burned basins in Colorado, Utah and California. The volumes of debris flows in these basins were determined by either measuring the volume of material eroded from the channels, or by estimating the amount of material removed from debris retention basins. For each basin, independent variables thought to affect the volume of the debris flow were determined. These variables include measures of basin morphology, basin areas burned at different severities, soil material properties, rock type, and rainfall amounts and intensities for storms triggering debris flows. Using these data, multiple regression analyses were used to create separate predictive models for volumes of debris flows generated by burned basins in six separate regions or settings, including the western U.S., southern California, the Rocky Mountain region, and basins underlain by sedimentary, metamorphic and granitic rocks. An evaluation of these models indicated that the best model (the Western U.S. model) explains 83% of the variability in the volumes of the debris flows, and includes variables that describe the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30%, the basin area burned at moderate and high severity, and total storm rainfall. This model was independently validated by comparing volumes of debris flows reported in the literature, to volumes estimated using the model. Eighty-seven percent of the reported volumes were within two residual standard errors of the volumes predicted using the model. This model is an improvement over previous models in that it includes a measure of burn severity and an estimate of modeling errors. The application of this model, in conjunction with models for the probability of debris flows, will enable more complete and rapid assessments of debris flow hazards following wildfire.

Gartner, J.E.; Cannon, S.H.; Santi, P.M.; deWolfe, V.G.

2008-01-01

315

PRESCRIBED BURNING IMPACTS ON SAGE GROUSE DIETARY RESOURCES IN EASTERN OREGON  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fire in sagebrush steppe can enhance composition and/or productivity of forage species and invertebrates important to sage grouse. Response to fire is, however, highly variable and dependent on site potential, species composition, pre and post fire weather, fire severity, and time since fire. We eva...

316

Predicting and mitigating weed invasions to restore natural post-fire succession in Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six large wildfires have burned in Mesa Verde National Park during the last 15 years, and extensive portions of burns were invaded by non-native plant species. The most threatening weed species include Carduus nutans, Cirsium arvense, and Bromus tectorum, and if untreated, they persist at least 13 years. We investigated patterns of weed distribution to identify plant communities most vulnerable

M. Lisa FloydA; David HannaA; William H. RommeB; Timothy E. CrewsA

2006-01-01

317

Increased dry season water yield in burned watersheds in Southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current work evaluates the effects of the 2003 Old Fire on semi-arid systems in the San Bernardino Mountains, California. Pre- and post-fire daily streamflow are used to analyze flow regimes in two burned watersheds. The average pre-fire runoff ratios in Devil Canyon and City Creek are 0.14 and 0.26, respectively, and both increase to 0.34 post-fire. Annual flow duration curves are developed for each watershed and the low flow is characterized by a 90% exceedance probability threshold. Post-fire low flow is statistically different from the pre-fire values (? = 0.05). In Devil Canyon the annual volume of pre-fire low flow increases on average from 2.6E + 02 to 3.1E + 03 m3 (1090% increase) and in City Creek the annual low flow volume increases from 2.3E + 03 to 5.0E + 03 m3 (118% increase). Predicting burn system resilience to disturbance (anthropogenic and natural) has significant implications for water sustainability and ultimately may provide an opportunity to utilize extended and increased water yield.

Kinoshita, Alicia M.; Hogue, Terri S.

2015-01-01

318

Malignant degeneration in burn scars.  

PubMed

The malignant potential of burn scars has been recognized since Marjolin's classical description of cancer arising in several types of post-traumatic scars. With improved burn therapy since the last war, there has been a higher survival rate of severe burns with proportionate increase in cancer associated with burn scars. This will create increasing problems of permanent disability and compensation. The younger the patient at the time of the burn, the longer the time required for the cancer to develop. Acute cancer development in burn scars has been reported after a four-week interval. Cancer may develop from six weeks to fifty years or more. The etiology of cancer in burn scars is not known. The most important clinical finding is the fact that most of the burn cancers occur in areas which were not grafted. The most common type of cancer encountered in burn scars is squamous cell carcinoma, which forms in Marjolin ulcers. Basal cell carcinoma may develop in the most superficial of burn scars.Treatment should be directed primarily to prompt and adequate skin grafting in all deep burns in order to prevent malignant degeneration of the burn scars. Once it has developed the treatment is the same as for other malignancies which are not associated with burns. Wide surgical excision with block dissection of the regional lymph nodes when they are involved is the treatment of choice. The prognosis of burn scar cancer is poor, once the process has extended because of early and distant metastasis. PMID:13691372

CASTANARES, S

1961-03-01

319

Tracking sources of severe haze episodes and their physicochemical and hygroscopic properties under Asian continental outflow: Long-range transport pollution, postharvest biomass burning, and Asian dust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosol physicochemical and hygroscopic properties were measured from 12 October to 21 November 2005 at a downwind area of the Asian continental outflow (Gwangju, Korea) to characterize severe haze episodes. Using optically measured elemental carbon (EC) at 660 nm (Opt.EC) and 880 nm (BC) wavelengths and Mie theory, it was estimated that the higher BC/Opt.EC ratio during the cloudy day of the long-range transport (LTP) period was mainly due to EC particle growth from in-cloud processing with secondary aerosols such as sulfate and organic aerosols. Single scattering albedo (SSA) of biomass burning (BB) aerosol increased sharply from 0.89 to 0.94 under a relative humidity >70%, suggesting that organic aerosols emitted from rice straw burning contained high amounts of hydrophilic compounds. The contribution of aerosol water content to the total light extinction coefficient (bext) was determined as 51.4% and 68.4% during the BB and BB + LTP periods, respectively, indicating that the haze episodes were highly enhanced by an increase in aerosol water content. The Asian dust event was characterized by the highest SSA (0.92 ± 0.02), the lowest mass scattering efficiency of fine particles (2.5 ± 1.0 m2 g-1), and the lowest hygroscopic nature (humidity-dependent light scattering enhancement factor, f(80%), which is defined by the ratio of light scattering coefficient at 80% relative humidity to that at dry condition, = ˜1.37). Based on the Ångström exponent (?) values observed at the source region of the Asian continent and the downwind area of South Korea during the BB + LTP period, it was found that the ? value of urban aerosols decreased ˜11% for 1-2 days of the transport, probably due to the increase in particle size through water uptake. Increasing rates of surface PM10 mass concentrations at western coastal areas of the South Korean peninsula were in the range 2.4-14.4 ?gm-3 h-1 at the beginning of the BB + LTP period (24 October 2005, 0700-2300 LT). Based on in situ and remote measurement techniques, Asian aerosol outflow over the South Korean peninsula is of the order of 388-3789 tons h-1 at the beginning of the LTP event.

Jung, Jinsang; Kim, Young J.

2011-01-01

320

Sources of debris flow material in burned areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vulnerability of recently burned areas to debris flows has been well established. Likewise, it has been shown that many, if not most, post-fire debris flows are initiated by runoff and erosion and grow in size through erosion and scour by the moving debris flow, as opposed to landslide-initiated flows with little growth. To better understand the development and character of these flows, a study has been completed encompassing 46 debris flows in California, Utah, and Colorado, in nine different recently burned areas. For each debris flow, progressive debris production was measured at intervals along the length of the channel, and from these measurements graphs were developed showing cumulative volume of debris as a function of channel length. All 46 debris flows showed significant bulking by scour and erosion, with average yield rates for each channel ranging from 0.3 to 9.9 m 3 of debris produced for every meter of channel length, with an overall average value of 2.5 m 3/m. Significant increases in yield rate partway down the channel were identified in 87% of the channels, with an average of a three-fold increase in yield rate. Yield rates for short reaches of channels (up to several hundred meters) ranged as high as 22.3 m 3/m. Debris was contributed from side channels into the main channels for 54% of the flows, with an average of 23% of the total debris coming from those side channels. Rill erosion was identified for 30% of the flows, with rills contributing between 0.1 and 10.5% of the total debris, with an average of 3%. Debris was deposited as levees in 87% of the flows, with most of the deposition occurring in the lower part of the basin. A median value of 10% of the total debris flow was deposited as levees for these cases, with a range from near zero to nearly 100%. These results show that channel erosion and scour are the dominant sources of debris in burned areas, with yield rates increasing significantly partway down the channel. Side channels are much more important sources of debris than rills. Levees are very common, but the size and effect on the amount of debris that reaches a canyon mouth is highly variable.

Santi, Paul M.; deWolfe, Victor G.; Higgins, Jerry D.; Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.

2008-04-01

321

The impact of broadcast burning and fire severity on species composition and abundance of surface vegetation in a jack pine ( Pinus banksiana) clear-cut  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species composition and abundance of surface vegetation was examined within 4-year-old jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) clear-cuts and clear-cuts treated with prescribed burning. Six unique species including Diervilla Lonicera Mill., Convulvulus spithameus L., Erigeron canadensis L., Salix spp., Viola adunca J.W. Smith and Rubus allegheniensis Porter were found solely within burned-over sites whereas only one species, Linnea borealis L., was

C. A. Whittle; L. C. Duchesne; T. Needham

1997-01-01

322

Post-Fire Rehabilitation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Colorado State Forest Service (CSFS) web page provides a collection of fact sheets to assist landowners in rehabilitating their property after wildfire. These include information on vegetative recovery, and soil erosion prevention strategies.

323

Controlled Burn  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

GULF OF MEXICO — Dark clouds of smoke and fire emerge as oil burns during a controlled burn in the Gulf of Mexico. The U.S. Coast Guard working in partnership with BP PLC, local residents, and other Federal agencies conducted the controlled burn to aid in preventing the spread of oil following...

324

Scald Burns  

MedlinePLUS

... visit: www.burninstitute.org Safety tipS & info Scald Burns Thousands of scald burns occur annually, and ALL are preventable! The two ... the single most important factor in preventing scald burns. Increased awareness is the key to scald prevention! ...

325

Hand chemical burns.  

PubMed

There is a vast and ever-expanding variety of potentially harmful chemicals in the military, industrial, and domestic landscape. Chemical burns make up a small proportion of all skin burns, yet they can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Additionally, the hand and upper extremity are the most frequently involved parts of the body in chemical burns, and therefore these injuries may lead to severe temporary or permanent loss of function. Despite this fact, discussion of the care of these injuries is sparse in the hand surgery literature. Although most chemical burns require only first response and wound care, some require the attention of a specialist for surgical debridement and, occasionally, skin coverage and reconstruction. Exposure to certain chemicals carries the risk of substantial systemic toxicity and even mortality. Understanding the difference between thermal and chemical burns, as well as special considerations for specific compounds, will improve patient treatment outcomes. PMID:25653184

Robinson, Elliot P; Chhabra, A Bobby

2015-03-01

326

Fire severity analysis using LANDSAT data in an heterogeneus landscape of semiarid NW Patagonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fires at landscape level are result from complex interactions among ignitions, weather and vegetation. Factors related to fire, such as fuel moisture, vegetation structure and topography, can exhibit substantial spatial and temporal variability. Arrangements of patches with different degree of burn severity are found after to fire and this heterogeneity could have major implications for ecosystem processes. For instance, severely burned patches may be more affected by fire returning to pre-fire conditions in a large time period while areas with low burn severity may be seed sources accelerating the plant recovery process. Interactions between fire severity, type vegetation and others environmental factors are poorly known, in particular in large fires. For overcome this lack, the first step is rely on accurate data regarding fire severity at landscape scale. Remote sensing tools are particularly suitable assessment fire effects at landscape scale, where monitoring the entire surface affected by large fires is laborious. In addition, the integration into a GIS of data obtained by remote sensing facilitates to explore causal relationships involved in fire severity and the influence of them in the recovery process. In this context, spectral indices can be used to relate burn severity observed in the surface to values measured by the satellite sensor. One of the most widely used indices is the "Normalized Burn Ratio" (NBR) which enables to infer the degree of post-fire ecological change. Nevertheless, in heterogeneous landscapes, to map fire effects may be required pre-disturbance data in addition to post-disturbance image, because precisely to non-homogeneity conditions. Thus, two NBR derivatives, delta-NBR (dNBR) and Relative delta-NBR (RdNBR), have been developed to remove biasing of the pre-fire vegetation present in the uni-temporal approach. To difference of dNBR, in which it is obtained an absolute change value, RdNBR is a relative measure that allows independence from the pre-fire condition of vegetation. Considering that: 1) the dNBRand RdNBR indexes are proposed to evaluate fire severity by remote sensing in different environments and 2) exist few information about its behavior in communities with low biomass load as the semiarid grasslands. Then, the general objective of work was to analyze and compare the behavior of dNBR and RdNBR in their ability to discriminate the degrees of fire severity in semiarid environments dominated by herbaceous vegetation.

Lanorte, Antonio; Lasaponara, Rosa; Ghermandi, Luciana; Oddi, Facundo

2014-05-01

327

Chemical burns  

PubMed Central

Objectives To report a burn unit’s experience with chemical burns and to discuss the fundamental principles in managing chemical burns. Design A chart review. Setting A burn centre at a major university-affiliated hospital. Patients Twenty-four patients with chemical burns, representing 2.6% of all burn admissions over an 8-year period at the Ross Tilley Regional Adult Burn Centre. Seventy-five percent of the burn injuries were work-related accidents. Chemicals involved included hydrofluoric acid, sulfuric acid, black liquor, various lyes, potassium permanganate and phenol. Results Fourteen patients required excision and skin grafting. Complications were frequent and included ocular chemical contacts, wound infections, tendon exposures, toe amputation and systemic reactions from absorption of chemical. One patient died from a chemical scald burn to 98% of the body surface area. Conclusions The key principles in the management of chemical burns include removal of the chemical, copious irrigation, limited use of antidotes, correct estimation of the extent of injury, identification of systemic toxicity, treatment of ocular contacts and management of chemical inhalation injury. Individualized treatment is emphasized. PMID:8640619

Cartotto, Robert C.; Peters, Walter J.; Neligan, Peter C.; Douglas, Leith G.; Beeston, Jeff

1996-01-01

328

Can post-wildfire Burned Area Emergency Response treatments mitigate watershed degradation?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfire is a natural phenomenon that began with the development of terrestrial vegetation in a lightning-filled atmosphere 350 million years ago. As human populations developed in the Pleistocene and Holocene epochs, mankind transformed fire into one of its oldest tools. A negative impact of prime concern in the 21st Century is desertification. This term refers to land degradation, not the immediate creation of classical deserts. It is about the loss of the land's proper hydrologic function and biological productivity as a result of human activities and climate change. It affects 33% of the earth's surface and over a billion people. Fire-related desertification has a number of environmental, social, and economic consequences. The two key environmental consequences are soil erosion and exotic plant invasions. Wildfires typically have exotic plant species abundances ten times that of undisturbed forests (Neary et al. 2003). Seeding has been used for many years in the USA as a prime Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) treatment. Until recently, this seeding contributed to exotic plant invasions since fast-growing, but non native plants seeds were used. The use of native plant seeds and sterile hybrids has reduced this problem somewhat. Erosion after wildfires documented in the USA can be in the range of <1 to 370 Mg/ha, depending on fire severity, degree of water repellency, slope, and post-fire rainfall events. Soil losses in the high end of that range definitely exceed soil loss tolerances and contribute to desertification. Soil disturbance and degradation after wildfires is a function of fire severity, and the impacts can range from the minimal to catastrophic and long-lasting. The most obvious impact is the loss of organic matter from combustion of the forest floor. Changes in soil physical and chemical properties with high-severity wildfire can produce water repellency, aggravating rainfall runoff and erosion. Since soils take long times to form (50 to 75,000 years), degradation as a result of wildfire-related erosion or soil property changes can result in severe and rapid desertification. Soil degradation is a "one-way street" not easily reversed. Although trees can be replanted on burned sites, soil lost in erosion is rarely replaced, just rehabilitated. There are techniques to rehabilitate these degraded soils but they are quite expensive. Disruptions to soil micro-fauna and micro-flora can also reduce post-fire site vegetation productivity. An environmental consequence of wildfire related to soil disturbance, is the loss of hydrologic function. Again, the level of hydrologic function loss is related to fire severity. Although this ecosystem function tends to recover within 5 - 10 years after wildfire as vegetation cover returns, the immediate impacts can be considerable. The removal of the protective layer of the forest floor by combustion, and the development of water repellent layers in the soil combine to aggrevate flood potentials. Flood peak flows after wildfires with high percentages of high severity wildfire (>30%) commonly have increases of 10-fold. Higher increases (20 to 2,000 fold) have been measured as the percentage of high-severity soil damage approaches 100%. The other side of high flood runoff is the reduction in baseflow that sustains stream flow due to the reduction in rainfall infiltration. This has water supply implications for forested watersheds that are sources for municipal water supplies. In addition, post-wildfire ash slurry flows can substantially degrade the quality of municipal water sources. Although this phenomenon is relatively short lived (<2 years), it can have serious supply impacts. This paper examines the capabilities of BAER treatments in dealing with this problem.

Neary, D.; Ffolliott, P.; Bautista, S.; Wittenberg, L.

2009-04-01

329

Response of the post-fire bryophyte community to salvage logging in boreal mixedwood forests of northeastern Alberta, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salvage logging is common practice in the boreal forest of northeastern Alberta, Canada. Fire-killed aspen snags are harvested as soon as is feasible after fire, and in the case of the House River fire (which burned over 250,000ha in May and June 2002), planning and harvesting began before the fire was extinguished and continued until summer 2003. The ecological consequences

S. M. Bradbury

2006-01-01

330

Lightning burns.  

PubMed

We present the case of a lightning-strike victim. This case illustrates the importance of in-field care, appropriate referral to a burn center, and the tendency of lightning burns to progress to full-thickness injury. PMID:23799482

Russell, Katie W; Cochran, Amalia L; Mehta, Sagar T; Morris, Stephen E; McDevitt, Marion C

2014-01-01

331

Does wildfire ash block soil pores? A micromorphological analysis of burned soils.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increases in runoff and erosion after forest wildfires are often attributed to the removal of surface cover, the formation of water repellent soils, and sealing of the soil surface by ash. The latter process involves clogging of pores by ash as well as rainsplash induced compaction of the ash layer. However, few studies have directly addressed the hydrologic role of ash and no studies have documented ash sealing in a forest fire environment. In an attempt to determine whether ash contributes to reduced infiltration after fire we conducted a micromorphological analysis of soils collected before and after three controlled pile burns at the Lubrecht Experimental Forest in western Montana. The burns were conducted with a fuel load of 90 Mg ha-1 on sites dominated by Lodgepole pine ( Pinus contorta) with scattered Douglas fir ( Pseudotoga menziesii), sandy loam soils and a mean of 99% ground cover (litter, duff and live vegetation). Soil cores were collected before burning, immediately after burning and after the burned areas had been subjected to simulated rainfall at an intensity of 80 mm hr-1 for 1 hour. The cores were impregnated with resin from which thin sections were made and microscopically analyzed to determine the vertical distribution of organic material, ash, mineral soil and porosity. Burning consumed all of the surface litter and duff and formed a <1cm layer of black and gray ash above the mineral soil, indicating a moderate severity burn. The mean soil temperature in the upper 1 cm of the mineral soil was 70° C, and there was no detectable increase in water repellency. Rainfall simulations conducted before and after the fires indicated that burning reduced the infiltration capacity from a pre-fire mean of 87 mm hr-1 to a post-fire mean of 35 mm hr-1. Prior to burning the upper 1 cm of the soil was comprised of 41% non- ash organic material, 4% clastic material and 55% pore space. After burning the porosity in the upper 1 cm decreased to 36% and the solid component consisted primarily of black and white ash (34% and 7% respectively). The biggest decrease in porosity was in the upper 2 mm of the soil where porosity decreased from 62 to 22% with a corresponding increase in the proportion of ash. Following the rainfall simulations the black ash content of the upper 1 cm decreased to 21%, suggesting that ash particles were removed in the runoff. However the remaining ash particles became noticeably more aligned parallel to the soil surface. Our observations indicate that ash may contribute to reduced infiltration after fire in two ways: 1) by filling pore space, and 2) by orienting parallel to the soil surface, so creating a thin water repellent organic layer in the upper few millimeters of the soil.

Balfour, V.; Woods, S. W.

2007-12-01

332

A protocol for resuscitation of severe burn patients guided by transpulmonary thermodilution and lactate levels: a 3-year prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Introduction The use of urinary output and vital signs to guide initial burn resuscitation may lead to suboptimal resuscitation. Invasive hemodynamic monitoring may result in over-resuscitation. This study aimed to evaluate the results of a goal-directed burn resuscitation protocol that used standard measures of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and urine output, plus transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD) and lactate levels to adjust fluid therapy to achieve a minimum level of preload to allow for sufficient vital organ perfusion. Methods We conducted a three-year prospective cohort study of 132 consecutive critically burned patients. These patients underwent resuscitation guided by MAP (>65 mmHg), urinary output (0.5 to 1 ml/kg), TPTD and lactate levels. Fluid therapy was adjusted to achieve a cardiac index (CI) >2.5 L/minute/m2 and an intrathoracic blood volume index (ITBVI) >600 ml/m2, and to optimize lactate levels. Statistical analysis was performed using mixed models. We also used Pearson or Spearman methods and the Mann-Whitney U-test. Results A total of 98 men and 34 women (mean age, 48 ± 18 years) was studied. The mean total body surface area (TBSA) burned was 35% ± 22%. During the early resuscitation phase, lactate levels were elevated (2.58 ± 2.05 mmol/L) and TPTD showed initial hypovolemia by the CI (2.68 ± 1.06 L/minute/m2) and the ITBVI (709 ± 254 mL/m2). At 24 to 32 hours, the CI and lactic levels were normalized, although the ITBVI remained below the normal range (744 ± 276 ml/m2). The mean fluid rate required to achieve protocol targets in the first 8 hours was 4.05 ml/kg/TBSA burned, which slightly increased in the next 16 hours. Patients with a urine output greater than or less than 0.5 ml/kg/hour did not show differences in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, CI, ITBVI or lactate levels. Conclusions Initial hypovolemia may be detected by TPTD monitoring during the early resuscitation phase. This hypovolemia might not be reflected by blood pressure and hourly urine output. An adequate CI and tissue perfusion can be achieved with below-normal levels of preload. Early resuscitation guided by lactate levels and below-normal preload volume targets appears safe and avoids unnecessary fluid input. PMID:23947945

2013-01-01

333

MALIGNANT DEGENERATION IN BURN SCARS  

PubMed Central

The malignant potential of burn scars has been recognized since Marjolin's classical description of cancer arising in several types of post-traumatic scars. With improved burn therapy since the last war, there has been a higher survival rate of severe burns with proportionate increase in cancer associated with burn scars. This will create increasing problems of permanent disability and compensation. The younger the patient at the time of the burn, the longer the time required for the cancer to develop. Acute cancer development in burn scars has been reported after a four-week interval. Cancer may develop from six weeks to fifty years or more. The etiology of cancer in burn scars is not known. The most important clinical finding is the fact that most of the burn cancers occur in areas which were not grafted. The most common type of cancer encountered in burn scars is squamous cell carcinoma, which forms in Marjolin ulcers. Basal cell carcinoma may develop in the most superficial of burn scars. Treatment should be directed primarily to prompt and adequate skin grafting in all deep burns in order to prevent malignant degeneration of the burn scars. Once it has developed the treatment is the same as for other malignancies which are not associated with burns. Wide surgical excision with block dissection of the regional lymph nodes when they are involved is the treatment of choice. The prognosis of burn scar cancer is poor, once the process has extended because of early and distant metastasis. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:13691372

Castañares, Salvador

1961-01-01

334

Curbing Inflammation in Burn Patients  

PubMed Central

Patients who suffer from severe burns develop metabolic imbalances and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) which can result in multiple organ failure and death. Research aimed at reducing the inflammatory process has yielded new insight into burn injury therapies. In this review, we discuss strategies used to curb inflammation in burn injuries and note that further studies with high quality evidence are necessary. PMID:23762773

Farina, Jayme A.; Rosique, Marina Junqueira; Rosique, Rodrigo G.

2013-01-01

335

Biomass Burning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biomass burning may be the overwhelming regional or continental-scale source of methane (CH4) as in tropical Africa and a significant global source of CH4. Our best estimate of present methane emissions from biomass burning is about 51.9 Tg/yr, or 10% of the annual methane emissions to the atmosphere. Increased frequency of fires that may result as the Earth warms up may result in increases in this source of atmospheric methane.

Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Pinto, Joseph P.

1993-01-01

336

Development of life prediction capabilities for liquid propellant rocket engines. Post-fire diagnostic system for the SSME system architecture study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This system architecture task (1) analyzed the current process used to make an assessment of engine and component health after each test or flight firing of an SSME, (2) developed an approach and a specific set of objectives and requirements for automated diagnostics during post fire health assessment, and (3) listed and described the software applications required to implement this system. The diagnostic system described is a distributed system with a database management system to store diagnostic information and test data, a CAE package for visual data analysis and preparation of plots of hot-fire data, a set of procedural applications for routine anomaly detection, and an expert system for the advanced anomaly detection and evaluation.

Gage, Mark; Dehoff, Ronald

1991-01-01

337

Burn and Scald Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

Burn and Scald Prevention Approximately 450,000 burn injuries require medical treatment each year. American Burn Association National Burn Repository (2011 report) Prevent burns and scalds in the kitchen: • Place objects so ...

338

Mapping post-fire forest regeneration and vegetation recovery using a combination of very high spatial resolution and hyperspectral satellite imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Careful evaluation of forest regeneration and vegetation recovery after a fire event provides vital information useful in land management. The use of remotely sensed data is considered to be especially suitable for monitoring ecosystem dynamics after fire. The aim of this work was to map post-fire forest regeneration and vegetation recovery on the Mediterranean island of Thasos by using a combination of very high spatial (VHS) resolution (QuickBird) and hyperspectral (EO-1 Hyperion) imagery and by employing object-based image analysis. More specifically, the work focused on (1) the separation and mapping of three major post-fire classes (forest regeneration, other vegetation recovery, unburned vegetation) existing within the fire perimeter, and (2) the differentiation and mapping of the two main forest regeneration classes, namely, Pinus brutia regeneration, and Pinus nigra regeneration. The data used in this study consisted of satellite images and field observations of homogeneous regenerated and revegetated areas. The methodology followed two main steps: a three-level image segmentation, and, a classification of the segmented images. The process resulted in the separation of classes related to the aforementioned objectives. The overall accuracy assessment revealed very promising results (approximately 83.7% overall accuracy, with a Kappa Index of Agreement of 0.79). The achieved accuracy was 8% higher when compared to the results reported in a previous work in which only the EO-1 Hyperion image was employed in order to map the same classes. Some classification confusions involving the classes of P. brutia regeneration and P. nigra regeneration were observed. This could be attributed to the absence of large and dense homogeneous areas of regenerated pine trees in the study area.

Mitri, George H.; Gitas, Ioannis Z.

2013-02-01

339

The Earth Could Burn.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Environmental educators are worried about the ultimate ecological threat--nuclear war, which could burn thousands of square miles, sterilize the soil, destroy 70 percent of the ozone layer letting in lethal ultraviolet rays, and cause severe radiation sickness. Educators must inform themselves, teach others, contact government representatives, and…

Yarrow, Ruth

1982-01-01

340

Burning rubber  

SciTech Connect

Mario Andretti, look out You are about to be surpassed in the burning rubber category by a joint venture between Oxford Energy Company and General Electric. The two companies are building the first whole tire-to-energy facility in the US in Modesto, California. This $41 million facility does not require tires to be shredded prior to incineration; it has the capacity to burn 700 tires per minute. The electricity generated will be provided to a utility company. Oxford says there are two billion waste tires on the ground and this number is increasing by 220 million a year. Of that amount, only 18 million a year are recycled.

Not Available

1987-09-01

341

Science at Burning Man  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently, the Exploratorium Museum in San Francisco sent a dedicated crew to check out the activities at the Burning Man festival in Nevada. The results of their journey and explorations can be seen here, and interested parties can learn about pyrotechnics, flight, dust devils, and rainbows. The site contains several dozen short films that feature Exploratorium scientists like Paul Doherty investigating the properties of alkali and a rare double rainbow sighting. One of the most impressive videos is a bird's eye view from an 88-NV plane over the Burning Man site. Finally, visitors are also encouraged to share these resources with others via social media sites, including Twitter and Facebook.

342

Minor burn - first aid - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

To treat a minor burn, run cool water over the area of the burn or soak it in a cool water bath (not ice water). ... flushing or soaking for several minutes, cover the burn with a sterile bandage or a clean cloth. ...

343

Fire severity, residuals and soil legacies affect regeneration of Scots pine in the Southern Alps.  

PubMed

Regeneration of non fire-adapted conifers following crown fires on the European Alps is often delayed or unsuccessful. Fire may limit establishment by eliminating seed trees, altering soil properties, or modifying microsite and soil conditions via disturbance legacies. However, the effect of soil legacies on post-fire establishment has rarely been discussed. We analyzed the abundance of Scots pine regeneration in a 257 ha wildfire in an inner-alpine forest. Our aims were (1) to model fire intensity at the soil surface and topsoil heating along a gradient of increasing fire severities; (2) to assess the differences in soil properties along the fire severity gradient; (3) to model the effect of disturbance and soil legacies on the density of pine seedlings. We reconstructed fire behavior and soil heating with the First Order Fire Effects Model (FOFEM), tested the effect of fire severity on soils by nonparametric distributional tests, and modeled seedling density as a function of site, disturbance and soil legacies by fitting a GLM following a variable selection procedure. Topsoil heating differed markedly between the moderate and high severity fires, reaching temperatures high enough to strongly and permanently alter soil properties only in the latter. High fire severity resulted in decreased soil consistency and wet aggregate stability. Burned soils had lower organic matter and cations than those unburned. Pine seedlings favored low-fertility, eroded, and chemically poor sites. Establishment was facilitated by the presence of coarse woody debris, but hampered by increasing distance from the seed source. These results suggest that in dry, inner-alpine valleys, fire residuals and soil legacies interact in determining the success of Scots pine re-establishment. High severity fire can promote favorable soil conditions, but distance from the seed source and high evaporation rates of bare soils must be mitigated in order to ensure a successful restoration. PMID:24334000

Vacchiano, Giorgio; Stanchi, Silvia; Marinari, Giulia; Ascoli, Davide; Zanini, Ermanno; Motta, Renzo

2014-02-15

344

A one year post-fire biogeochemical cycling record of a sandstone mountain fynbos ecosystem, South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cape Floristic Region (CFR) in southwestern South Africa is a Mediterranean-type ecosystem dominated by highly diverse and endemic fynbos vegetation. In this study, the chemistry of rainwater (total wet and dry deposition), stream water and soil saturated paste extracts of the sandstone fynbos biome of the Kogelberg Biosphere Reserve reveals how the cycling of Cl, Na, SO4,Mg, Ca and K varied over a one year period following a major fire event. Fire is a critical component of fynbos ecology, but the fynbos ecosystem is under threat as the fire return frequency increases as a result of human activities. The underlying bedrock geology of the sandstone fynbos biome is dominated by quartz-rich (>97 wt% SiO2) sandstone providing few nutrients to the overlying thin (2 to 20 cm), acidic soils. Additional sources of nutrients to the ecosystem are derived from windblown marine and dust (consisting of minerals, organic matter and fire ash) aerosols. Rainout of marine aerosols decreases away from the coast. The delivery of marine aerosols (Cl, Na, SO4and Mg) corresponds with summer southerly winds from the ocean and windblown dust (SO4,Mg, Ca and K) is delivered through winter northerly winds from the continental interior. Remineralization of organic matter, dissolution of fire ash and chemical weathering of clay minerals derived from the bedrock and from windblown minerals provide additional sources of nutrients to the vegetation. Salts accumulated within and on top of soil surfaces during the dry summer period are washed into streams during the wet winter months. Afromontane forests occur within deep rocky ravines cut by mountain streams and are protected from fire. The afromontane vegetation did not burn during the fire and benefited from the release of nutrients but regrowth of fynbos on open burnt slopes was slow and most of the released nutrients were lost via streams. Fynbos regrowth largely reflected the hydrology of the study area and corresponded to the pre-fire distribution of biomass with relatively low biomass on mountain ridges and slopes in comparison to lower slopes and valley floors, particularly along stream banks. The removal of above ground plant biomass increased streamflow from the reduction in transpiration and rainfall interception by plants. Hydrophobicity in soils increased following the fire leading to partially burnt organic plant debris being washed down slope to accumulate on the lower slopes and stream valley floors. The geochemical results of this study provide insights on the climate-hydrology-soil interactions of the fynbos ecosystem and its unusually rich biodiversity. The resetting of the ecosystem every 20 to 40 years by fire and the interaction between atmospheric processes and hydrology likely enhances its long term survival.

Bergh, E.; Compton, J. S.

2012-04-01

345

Phenology-based, remote sensing of post-burn disturbance windows in rangelands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wildland fire activity has increased in many parts of the world in recent decades. Ecological disturbance by fire can accelerate ecosystem degradation processes such as erosion due to combustion of vegetation that otherwise provides protective cover to the soil surface. This study employed a novel ecological indicator based on remote sensing of vegetation greenness dynamics (phenology) to estimate variability in the window of time between fire and the reemergence of green vegetation. The indicator was applied as a proxy for short-term, post-fire disturbance windows in rangelands; where a disturbance window is defined as the time required for an ecological or geomorphic process that is altered to return to pre-disturbance levels. We examined variability in the indicator determined for time series of MODIS and AVHRR NDVI remote sensing data for a database of ?100 historical wildland fires, with associated post-fire reseeding treatments, that burned 1990–2003 in cold desert shrub steppe of the Great Basin and Columbia Plateau of the western USA. The indicator-based estimates of disturbance window length were examined relative to the day of the year that fires burned and seeding treatments to consider effects of contemporary variability in fire regime and management activities in this environment. A key finding was that contemporary changes of increased length of the annual fire season could have indirect effects on ecosystem degradation, as early season fires appeared to result in longer time that soils remained relatively bare of the protective cover of vegetation after fires. Also important was that reemergence of vegetation did not occur more quickly after fire in sites treated with post-fire seeding, which is a strategy commonly employed to accelerate post-fire vegetation recovery and stabilize soil. Future work with the indicator could examine other ecological factors that are dynamic in space and time following disturbance – such as nutrient cycling, carbon storage, microbial community composition, or soil hydrology – as a function of disturbance windows, possibly using simulation modeling and historical wildfire information.

Sankeya, Joel B.; Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Ravi, Sujith

2013-01-01

346

Burn resuscitation.  

PubMed

Fluid resuscitation following burn injury must support organ perfusion with the least amount of fluid necessary and the least physiological cost. Under resuscitation may lead to organ failure and death. With adoption of weight and injury size-based formulas for resuscitation, multiple organ dysfunction and inadequate resuscitation have become uncommon. Instead, administration of fluid volumes well in excess of historic guidelines has been reported. A number of strategies including greater use of colloids and vasoactive drugs are now under investigation to optimize preservation of end organ function while avoiding complications which can include respiratory failure and compartment syndromes. Adjuncts to resuscitation, such as antioxidants, are also being investigated along with parameters beyond urine output and vital signs to identify endpoints of therapy. Here we briefly review the state-of-the-art and provide a sample of protocols now under investigation in North American burn centers. PMID:22078326

Endorf, Frederick W; Dries, David J

2011-01-01

347

Global Burned Area and Biomass Burning Emissions from Small Fires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity analyses of key model parameters caused estimates of global burned area increases from small fires to vary between 24% and 54%. Biomass burning carbon emissions increased by 35% at a global scale when small fires were included in GFED3, from 1.9 Pg C/yr to 2.5 Pg C/yr. The contribution of tropical forest fires to year-to-year variability in carbon fluxes increased because small fires amplified emissions from Central America, South America and Southeast Asia-regions where drought stress and burned area varied considerably from year to year in response to El Nino-Southern Oscillation and other climate modes.

Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.

2012-01-01

348

Aztreonam pharmacokinetics in burn patients.  

PubMed Central

The pharmacokinetics of aztreonam in eight adult patients with severe burn injuries (total body surface area burn, 49% +/- 21% [mean +/- standard deviation]) were studied. The time of initiation of study following burn injury was 7.0 +/- 1.4 days. Four patients at first dose and at steady state were studied. Aztreonam concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, and a two-compartment model was used to fit the data. No significant differences in any pharmacokinetic parameters between first dose and steady state were observed. Volume of distribution of the central compartment after first dose (0.14 liters/kg) and volume of distribution at steady state (0.31 liters/kg) were approximately 30% higher than those reported for other patient populations. Total drug clearance and renal drug clearance when normalized to creatinine clearance (CLCR) were similar to those previously reported for other critically ill patients. CLCR was strongly correlated with renal drug clearance (r = 0.94) and total drug clearance (r = 0.95). The extent and degree of burn (percent second or third degree burn) were poorly correlated with all pharmacokinetic parameters with the exception of the volume of distribution at steady state, which was correlated with both total body surface area burn (r = 0.95) and percent second degree burn (r = 0.83). Aztreonam pharmacokinetics are altered as a result of thermal injury; however, CLCR can be used to assess the clearance of aztreonam in burn patients. PMID:2014982

Friedrich, L V; White, R L; Kays, M B; Brundage, D M; Yarbrough, D

1991-01-01

349

Animal models in burn research.  

PubMed

Burn injury is a severe form of trauma affecting more than 2 million people in North America each year. Burn trauma is not a single pathophysiological event but a devastating injury that causes structural and functional deficits in numerous organ systems. Due to its complexity and the involvement of multiple organs, in vitro experiments cannot capture this complexity nor address the pathophysiology. In the past two decades, a number of burn animal models have been developed to replicate the various aspects of burn injury, to elucidate the pathophysiology, and to explore potential treatment interventions. Understanding the advantages and limitations of these animal models is essential for the design and development of treatments that are clinically relevant to humans. This review aims to highlight the common animal models of burn injury in order to provide investigators with a better understanding of the benefits and limitations of these models for translational applications. While many animal models of burn exist, we limit our discussion to the skin healing of mouse, rat, and pig. Additionally, we briefly explain hypermetabolic characteristics of burn injury and the animal model utilized to study this phenomena. Finally, we discuss the economic costs associated with each of these models in order to guide decisions of choosing the appropriate animal model for burn research. PMID:24714880

Abdullahi, A; Amini-Nik, S; Jeschke, M G

2014-09-01

350

Progressive burn injury documented with vimentin immunostaining.  

PubMed

Precise determination of burn depth during the immediate postburn period remains an unresolved clinical problem. In an attempt to provide a new clinical option to aid in diagnosis of burn depth, an immunohistochemical marker (antivimentin) was used to examine excisional tissues or serial punch biopsies, or both, in partial-thickness human burn injuries. To test the hypothesis that burn injury continues to progress beyond the first 24 hours, burn depth was assessed by quantitative morphometric analysis in both a partial-thickness porcine burn model and in sequential samples from human patients. Vimentin immunostaining of ubiquitous mesenchymal populations resulted in a precise demarcation between burn eschar and the viable underlying dermis at 1 to 5 days after burn trauma. Porcine wounds showed continuous and significant progression in burn depth during days 1 through 3, but wounds were no deeper on the fourth postburn day. Similarly, 13 of 14 patients showed significant progression in burn depth between 1 to 5 days after burn injury. In conclusion, immunohistochemical staining with an antisera targeted toward a widely dispersed cell population in the dermis can be utilized as an effective tool to confirm the depth of tissue injury during the acute postburn period. Data from our randomly selected patients with partial-thickness burn suggest that burn wounds continue to demarcate for several days. PMID:8736363

Nanney, L B; Wenczak, B A; Lynch, J B

1996-01-01

351

Characterizing the primary material sources and dominant erosional processes for post-fire debris-flow initiation in a headwater basin using multi-temporal terrestrial laser scanning data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wildfire dramatically alters the hydrologic response of a watershed such that even modest rainstorms can produce hazardous debris flows. Relative to shallow landslides, the primary sources of material and dominant erosional processes that contribute to post-fire debris-flow initiation are poorly constrained. Improving our understanding of how and where material is eroded from a watershed during a post-fire debris-flow requires (1) precise measurements of topographic change to calculate volumetric measurements of erosion and deposition, and (2) the identification of relevant morphometrically defined process domains to spatially constrain these measurements of erosion and deposition. In this study, we combine the morphometric analysis of a steep, small (0.01 km2) headwater drainage basin with measurements of topographic change using high-resolution (2.5 cm) multi-temporal terrestrial laser scanning data made before and after a post-fire debris flow. The results of the morphometric analysis are used to define four process domains: hillslope-divergent, hillslope-convergent, transitional, and channelized incision. We determine that hillslope-divergent and hillslope-convergent process domains represent the primary sources of material over the period of analysis in the study basin. From these results we conclude that raindrop-impact induced erosion, ravel, surface wash, and rilling are the primary erosional processes contributing to post-fire debris-flow initiation in the small, steep headwater basin. Further work is needed to determine (1) how these results vary with increasing drainage basin size, (2) how these data might scale upward for use with coarser resolution measurements of topography, and (3) how these results change with evolving sediment supply conditions and vegetation recovery.

Staley, Dennis M.; Waslewicz, Thad A.; Kean, Jason W.

2014-01-01

352

Ken Burns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ken Burns is a popular documentarian and, as it turns out, he is now a popular app, in a manner of speaking. This particular app gives interested parties the ability to view scenes from his documentaries (such as "Baseball" and "Jazz") in a variety of settings. The latest version allows visitors to access the Innovation playlist absolutely free while other playlists containing clips from his other programs are available for a small fee. This version is compatible with iPads running iOS 7.0 and newer.

2014-02-10

353

Does polyacrylamide reduce post-fire runoff and inter-rill erosion as effectively as forest residue mulching?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires are well-known to increase both overland flow and soil erosion during several years before returning to pre-fire levels. The mitigation of these effects has been less well quantified, especially by forest residue mulching and application of polyacrylamides (PAM). In this study, the effectiveness of both treatments was determined for an eucalypt stand in north-central Portugal during the first year after a wildfire. This was done using twelve micro-plots organized in four triplets located at roughly equal distances from the base to the top of a steep but short slope. After a total rainfall of 1419 mm, the overall overland flow and soil loss figures were markedly and significantly lower for the mulched than untreated plots. The PAM plots, however, did not produce significantly different runoff volumes and sediment losses than the control plots, although they revealed a tendency towards less runoff and, at the same time, greater sediment losses. Also, the key factors explaining runoff and soil erosion were basically the same for the untreated and PAM plots but distinct for the mulched plots. A possible explanation for the poor performance of the PAM was its preferential binding to the ash particles and, at the same time, the selective transport of these ash particles by the overland flow. Of interest was further that the plots on the lower section of the slope tended to produce more runoff and greater soil losses than the plots on the upper part of the slope. Possibly, this was due to differences in fire severity, which, in turn, reflected differences in biomass accumulation and, more specifically, less dry plant growth conditions.

Prats, Sergio; Martins, Martinho A. S.; Malvar Cortizo, Marutxa; Ben Hur, Meni; Keizer, Jan Jacob

2013-04-01

354

Overview of current pediatric burn care.  

PubMed

Burn injuries affect approximately a million children in the United States on an annual basis. Moderate to severe burns require hospitalization, usually under the direction of a Pediatric Surgical service. Despite advancements in burn treatment, pediatric burn injuries account for approximately 2500 deaths annually. This article provides an overview of the initial evaluation and resuscitative measures for pediatric burn patients, most current wound care, indications for grafting, and the role of nutrition, including use of pharmacologic adjuncts. Use of colloid solutions, indications for use of skin substitutes, and transfer criteria will also be addressed. PMID:25639810

Gonzalez, Raquel; Shanti, Christina M

2015-02-01

355

Burning plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The fraction of fusion-reaction energy that is released in energetic charged ions, such as the alpha particles of the D-T reaction, can be thermalized within the reacting plasma and used to maintain its temperature. This mechanism facilitates the achievement of very high energy-multiplication factors Q, but also raises a number of new issues of confinement physics. To ensure satisfactory reaction operation, three areas of energetic-ion interaction need to be addressed: single-ion transport in imperfectly symmetric magnetic fields or turbulent background plasmas; energetic-ion-driven (or stabilized) collective phenomena; and fusion-heat-driven collective phenomena. The first of these topics is already being explored in a number of tokamak experiments, and the second will begin to be addressed in the D-T-burning phase of TFTR and JET. Exploration of the third topic calls for high-Q operation, which is a goal of proposed next-generation plasma-burning projects. Planning for future experiments must take into consideration the full range of plasma-physics and engineering R D areas that need to be addressed on the way to a fusion power demonstration.

Furth, H.P.; Goldston, R.J.; Zweben, S.J. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.); Sigmar, D.J. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA))

1990-10-01

356

Efficacy of topical phenol decontamination strategies on severity of acute phenol chemical burns and dermal absorption: in vitro and in vivo studies in pig skin.  

PubMed

Pure phenol is colorless and used in the manufacture of phenolic resins, plastics, explosives, fertilizers, paints, rubber, textiles, adhesives, pharmaceuticals, paper, soap, and wood preservatives. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of several phenol decontamination strategies following dermal exposure using the pig as a model for human exposure, and then assess the effect of the two best treatments on phenol absorption in the isolated perfused porcine skin flap (IPPSF). Six anesthetized Yorkshire pigs were exposed to 89% aqueous phenol for 1 min using Hilltop chambers (10 skin sites/pig; 400 microl/site). Exposure to phenol was followed by one of 10 different decontamination procedures: 1-, 5-, 15-, and 30-min water wash; Ivory soap solution; polyethylene glycol (PEG 400); PEG 400/industrial methylated spirits (IMS); PEG 400/ethanol (EtOH); polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP)/70% isopropanol (IPA); and 70% IPA. For each of the last five strategies, 1-min treatment washes were repeatedly alternated with 1-min water washes for a total of 15 min. Evaluation was based on scoring of erythema, edema, and histological parameters such as intracellular and intercellular epidermal edema, papillary dermal edema, perivascular infiltrates, pyknotic stratum basale cells, and epidermal-dermal separation. It was concluded that PEG 400 and 70% IPA were superior to the other treatments investigated and equally efficacious in the reduction of phenol-induced skin damage. In addition, phenol absorption was assessed utilizing the two most effective in vivo treatments in the IPPSF. The assessment of percutaneous absorption of phenol found the PEG 400, 70% IPA, and 15-min water treatments significantly (P < 0.05) reduced phenol absorption relative to no treatment. PMID:12479505

Monteiro-Riviere, N A; Inman, A O; Jackson, H; Dunn, B; Dimond, S

2001-05-01

357

Satellite Microwave Detection of Vegetation Phenology; Climate Constraints, Temporal Offsets and Post-Fire Recovery as Compared to Optical-Infrared Phenology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Vegetation Optical Depth (VOD) parameter from satellite passive microwave remote sensing provides an alternative means for global phenology monitoring that is sensitive to photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic vegetation canopy biomass and water content with minimal sensitivity to atmosphere and solar illumination constraints. The VOD record from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) displayed North America ecoregion start of season patterns and offsets (as compared to satellite optical-infrared remote sensing measures) that coincide with primary climate constraints (temperature and water) to vegetation growth. The VOD start of season generally preceded optical-infrared NDVI and LAI greenup in cold temperature constrained ecoregions and followed greenup in warmer, water limited ecoregions, with delays increasing for areas with greater woody vegetation cover. The VOD also displayed alternate canopy recovery trajectories versus NDVI recovery following large scale fire disturbance in boreal regions. VOD time series from the extreme 2004 fire year in Alaska and Canada showed an approximate two year recovery lag relative to NDVI; these results are consistent with greater microwave sensitivity to woody biomass regeneration which is expected to show a slower response than canopy greenness recovery. The AMSR-E VOD record provides new, independent phenological information for vegetation start of season measures as well as canopy post fire recovery of both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic biomass, complementing phenological information from NDVI and LAI measures. Synergistic application of optical-infrared and microwave remote sensing data products will expand the scope of observable vegetation phenology parameters and advance regional disturbance, carbon, water and energy cycle studies. Four year (2004-2007) mean of microwave VOD SOS and MODIS-for-NACP NDVI Greenup Date by ecoregion. Offsets coincide with primary climate constraints (temperature and water) to vegetation growth.

Jones, M. O.; Jones, L. A.; Kimball, J. S.

2012-12-01

358

Rehabilitation of the burn patient  

PubMed Central

Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of burn treatment. It is not something which takes place following healing of skin grafts or discharge from hospital; instead it is a process that starts from day one of admission and continues for months and sometimes years after the initial event. Burns rehabilitation is not something which is completed by one or two individuals but should be a team approach, incorporating the patient and when appropriate, their family. The term ‘Burns Rehabilitation’ incorporates the physical, psychological and social aspects of care and it is common for burn patients to experience difficulties in one or all of these areas following a burn injury. Burns can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. The aims of burn rehabilitation are to minimise the adverse effects caused by the injury in terms of maintaining range of movement, minimising contracture development and impact of scarring, maximising functional ability, maximising psychological wellbeing, maximising social integration PMID:21321643

Procter, Fiona

2010-01-01

359

American Burn Association  

MedlinePLUS

... burn center and disaster related information View the ABA U.S. Regional Map Click above to access the ... Member Website Fire & Burn Prevention Newsletter - Winter 2014 ABA Membership Newsletter | Spring 2014 National Burn Repository ABA ...

360

Avoiding Household Burns  

MedlinePLUS

... Vehicle Safety En Español Injury Prevention Avoiding Household Burns On average, in the U.S., someone dies in ... minutes. There were 40,000 hospitalizations related to burn injury, including 30,000 at hospital burn centers. " ...

361

Ram Burn Observations (RAMBO)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ram Burn Observations (RAMBO) is a Department of Defense experiment that observes shuttle Orbital Maneuvering System engine burns for the purpose of improving plume models. On STS-107 the appropriate sensors will observe selected rendezvous and orbit adjust burns.

2002-01-01

362

Direct and indirect responses of tallgrass prairie butterflies to prescribed burning  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fire is an important tool in the conservation and restoration of tallgrass prairie ecosystems. We investigated how both the vegetation composition and butterfly community of tallgrass prairie remnants changed in relation to the elapsed time (in months) since prescribed fire. Butterfly richness and butterfly abundance were positively correlated with the time since burn. Habitat-specialist butterfly richness recovery time was greater than 70 months post-fire and habitat-specialist butterfly abundance recovery time was approximately 50 months post-fire. Thus, recovery times for butterfly populations after prescribed fires in our study were potentially longer than those previously reported. We used Path Analysis to evaluate the relative contributions of the direct effect of time since fire and the indirect effects of time since fire through changes in vegetation composition on butterfly abundance. Path models highlighted the importance of the indirect effects of fire on habitat features, such as increases in the cover of bare ground. Because fire return intervals on managed prairie remnants are often less than 5 years, information on recovery times for habitat-specialist insect species are of great importance. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Vogel, J.A.; Koford, R.R.; Debinski, D.M.

2010-01-01

363

Burns, hypertrophic scar and galactorrhea  

PubMed Central

Abstract: An 18-year old woman was admitted to Motahari Burn Center suffering from 30% burns. Treatment modalities were carried out for the patient and she was discharged after 20 days. Three to four months later she developed hypertrophic scar on her chest and upper limbs. At the same time she developed galactorrhea in both breasts and had a disturbed menstrual cycle four months post-burn. On investigation, we found hyperprolactinemia and no other reasons for the high level of prolactin were detected. She received treatment for both the hypertrophic scar and the severe itching she was experiencing. After seven months, her prolactin level had decreased but had not returned to the normal level. It seems that refractory hypertrophic scar is related to the high level of prolactin in burns patients. PMID:23456048

Karimi, Hamid; Nourizad, Samad; Momeni, Mahnoush; Rahbar, Hosein; Momeni, Mazdak; Farhadi, Khosro

2013-01-01

364

Chemical Debridement of Burns  

PubMed Central

The development of effective, non-toxic (local and systemic) methods for the rapid chemical (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) debridement of third degree burns would dramatically reduce the morbidity and mortality of severely burned patients. Sepsis is still the major cause of death of patients with extensive deep burns. The removal of the devitalized tissue, without damage to unburned skin or skin only partially injured by burning, and in ways which would permit immediate (or very prompt) skin grafting, would lessen substantially the problems of sepsis, speed convalescence and the return of these individuals to society as effective human beings, and would decrease deaths. The usefulness and limitations of surgical excision for patients with extensive third degree burns are discussed. Chemical debridement lends itself to complementary use with surgical excision and has the potential advantage over surgical excision in not requiring anesthesia or a formal surgical operation. The authors' work with the chemical debridement of burns, in particular the use of Bromelain, indicates that this approach will likely achieve clinical usefulness. The experimental studies indicate that rapid controlled debridement, with minimal local and systemic toxicity, is possible, and that effective chemotherapeutic agents may be combined with the Bromelain without either interfering with the actions of the other. The authors believe that rapid (hours) debridement accomplished by the combined use of chemical debriding and chemotherapeutic agents will obviate the possibility of any increase in infection, caused by the use of chemical agents for debridement, as reported for Paraenzyme21 and Travase.39,48 It is possible that the short term use of systemic antibiotics begun just before and continued during, and for a short time after, the rapid chemical debridement may prove useful for the prevention of infection, as appears to be the case for abdominal operations of the clean-contaminated and contaminated types. ImagesFigs. 1a-c.Fig. 1b.Fig. 1c.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9a.Fig. 9B.Fig. 10.Fig. 11.Figs. 12a-c.Fig. 12b.Fig. 12c.Figs. 14a-c.Fig. 14b.Fig. 14c.Figs. 15a-c.Fig. 15b.Fig. 15c. PMID:4606330

Levenson, Stanley M.; Kan, Dorinne; Gruber, Charles; Crowley, Leo V.; Lent, Richard; Watford, Alvin; Seifter, Eli

1974-01-01

365

Burns: an update on current pharmacotherapy  

PubMed Central

Introduction The world-wide occurrence of burn injuries remains high despite efforts to reduce injury incidence through public awareness campaigns and improvements in living conditions. In 2004, almost 11 million people experienced burns severe enough to warrant medical treatment. Advances over the past several decades in aggressive resuscitation, nutrition, excision, and grafting have reduced morbidity and mortality. Incorporation of pharmacotherapeutics into treatment regimens may further reduce complications of severe burn injuries. Areas covered Severe burn injuries, as well as other forms of stress and trauma, trigger a hypermetabolic response that, if left untreated, impedes recovery. In the past two decades, use of anabolic agents, beta adrenergic receptor antagonists, and anti-hyperglycemic agents has successfully counteracted post-burn morbidities including catabolism, the catecholamine-mediated response, and insulin resistance. Here we review the most up-to-date information on currently used pharmacotherapies in the treatment of these sequelae of severe burns and the insights that have expanded our understanding of the pathophysiology of severe burns. Expert opinion Existing drugs offer promising advances in the care of burn injuries. Continued gains in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving the hypermetabolic response will enable the application of additional existing drugs to be broadened to further attenuate the hypermetabolic response. PMID:23121414

Rojas, Yesinia; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Radhakrishnan, Ravi S.; Herndon, David N.

2013-01-01

366

Burned Area Emergency Response Report July 8, 2010  

E-print Network

;Executive Summary Burned Area Report Cost Benefit Analysis Soil Burn Severity Map Treatment Map Values at Risk Resource Area Executive Summaries Botany Geology Heritage Hydrology Soils Wildlife Treatment of the 15,051 acre fire area was mapped as high soil burn severity due to creation of hydrophobic conditions

367

Comparison of tokamak burn cycle options  

SciTech Connect

Experimental confirmation of noninductive current drive has spawned a number of suggestions as to how this technique can be used to extend the fusion burn period and improve the reactor prospects of tokamaks. Several distinct burn cycles, which employ various combinations of Ohmic and noninductive current generation, are possible, and we will study their relative costs and benefits for both a commerical reactor as well as an INTOR-class device. We begin with a review of the burn cycle options.

Ehst, D.A.; Brooks, J.N.; Cha, Y.; Evans, K. Jr.; Hassanein, A.M.; Kim, S.; Majumdar, S.; Misra, B.; Stevens, H.C.

1985-01-01

368

Burn Incidence and Treatment in the U.S.  

MedlinePLUS

... have been derived from statistics provided by the U.S. Vital Statistics, several ongoing national surveys, selected states ... hospital burn centers Over 60% of the estimated U.S. acute hospitalizations related to burn injury were admitted ...

369

Parenteral nutrition providing a restricted amount of linoleic acid in severely burned patients: a randomised double-blind study of an olive oil-based lipid emulsion v. medium/long-chain triacylglycerols.  

PubMed

It has been claimed that lipid emulsions with a restricted linoleic acid content can improve the safety of total parenteral nutrition (TPN). The tolerability of TPN and its effects on the metabolism of fatty acids were assessed in this prospective, double-blind, randomised study comparing an olive/soyabean oil long-chain triacylglycerol (LCT) with a medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT)/LCT; 50:50 (w) based lipid emulsion in two groups (O and M, respectively; eleven per group) of severely burned patients. After resuscitation (48-72 h), patients received TPN providing 147 kJ/kg per d (35 kcal/kg per d) with fat (1.3 g/kg per d) for 6 d Plasma fatty acids, laboratory parameters including liver function tests, and plasma cytokines were assessed before and after TPN. Adverse events encountered during TPN and the clinical outcomes of patients within the subsequent 6 months were recorded. With both lipid emulsions, the conversion of linoleic acid in its higher derivatives (di-homo-gamma-linolenic acid) improved and essential fatty acid deficiency did not appear. Abnormalities of liver function tests occurred more frequently in the M (nine) than in the O (three) group (P = 0.04, Suissa-Shuster test). Seven patients (four from group O and three from group M) died as a consequence of severe sepsis 3-37 d after completion of the 6 d TPN period. When compared with the surviving patients, those who died were older (P = 0.01) and hyperglycaemic at baseline (P < 0.001), and their plasma IL-6 levels continued to increase (P < 0.04). Although fatty acid metabolism and TPN tolerability were similar with both lipid emulsions, the preservation of liver function noted with the use of the olive oil-based lipid emulsions deserves confirmation. PMID:16115356

García-de-Lorenzo, A; Denia, R; Atlan, P; Martinez-Ratero, S; Le Brun, A; Evard, D; Bereziat, G

2005-08-01

370

Burns and Ulcerative Colitis  

PubMed Central

Summary The co-existence of an extensive burn with a systemic disease negatively affects the outcome of the burn as well as the progress of the disease. A case report is presented regarding a 70-yr-old female patient with 45% total body surface area burns and ulcerative colitis under treatment. The outcome of the burns is described and it is pointed out that the healing process of the burns and the remission of the ulcerative colitis were related. PMID:21991043

Castana, O.; Makrodimou, M.; Mantzaris, G.; Tsandoulas, Z.; Prigouris, S.; Alexakis, D.

2006-01-01

371

Burns and ulcerative colitis.  

PubMed

The co-existence of an extensive burn with a systemic disease negatively affects the outcome of the burn as well as the progress of the disease. A case report is presented regarding a 70-yr-old female patient with 45% total body surface area burns and ulcerative colitis under treatment. The outcome of the burns is described and it is pointed out that the healing process of the burns and the remission of the ulcerative colitis were related. PMID:21991043

Castana, O; Makrodimou, M; Mantzaris, G; Tsandoulas, Z; Prigouris, S; Alexakis, D

2006-09-30

372

Cimetidine kinetics during resuscitation from burn shock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severely burned patients suffer from rapidly changing metabolic and hemodynamic abnormalities that could alter drug kinetics. The kinetics of cimetidine, commonly used in the prophylaxis of acute stress erosions, were studied during fluid resuscitation of 11 patients with mean burn sizes of 45% total body surface area. Six patients were studied after the completion of fluid resuscitation. Total clearance, steady-state

John A Ziemniak; William A Watson; Jeffrey R Saffle; Ian L Smith; John Russo; Glenn D Warden; Jerome J Schentag; Jerome J Schentag PharmD

1984-01-01

373

Burn Injuries: Causes, Consequences, Knowledge, Behaviors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report covers Phase I of the Burn Injury Education Demonstration Project, a four-phased project designed to explore the feasibility of using educational intervention strategies to increase knowledge and appropriate behaviors and attitudes to reduce the number and severity of burns. Phase I involved a comprehensive needs assessment conducted…

Healer, Cheryl V.; And Others

374

Training and burn care in rural India  

PubMed Central

Burn care is a huge challenge in India, having the highest female mortality globally due to flame burns. Burns can happen anywhere, but are more common in the rural region, affecting the poor. Most common cause is flame burns, the culprit being kerosene and flammable flowing garments worn by the women. The infrastructure of healthcare network is good but there is a severe resource crunch. In order to bring a positive change, there will have to be more trained personnel willing to work in the rural areas. Strategies for prevention and training of burn team are discussed along with suggestions on making the career package attractive and satisfying. This will positively translate into improved outcomes in the burns managed in the rural region and quick transfer to appropriate facility for those requiring specialised attention. PMID:21321647

Chamania, Shobha

2010-01-01

375

Evaluating the effectiveness of contour-felled log erosion barriers as a post-fire runoff and erosion mitigation treatment in the western United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Between 1998 and 2002, six sites were established immediately after large wildfires in the western United States to determine,the effectiveness of contour-felled log erosion barriers in mitigating post-wildfire runoff and erosion. In each pair of matched, burned, and small watersheds (1–13 ha), one was treated with contour-felled log erosion barriers and one was left untreated as a control. For