Science.gov

Sample records for post-fire burn severity

  1. Detecting post-fire burn severity and vegetation recovery using multitemporal remote sensing spectral indices and field-collected composite burn index data in a ponderosa pine forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, X.; Vogelmann, J.E.; Rollins, M.; Ohlen, D.; Key, C.H.; Yang, L.; Huang, C.; Shi, H.

    2011-01-01

    It is challenging to detect burn severity and vegetation recovery because of the relatively long time period required to capture the ecosystem characteristics. Multitemporal remote sensing data can providemultitemporal observations before, during and after a wildfire, and can improve the change detection accuracy. The goal of this study is to examine the correlations between multitemporal spectral indices and field-observed burn severity, and to provide a practical method to estimate burn severity and vegetation recovery. The study site is the Jasper Fire area in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota, that burned during August and September 2000. Six multitemporal Landsat images acquired from 2000 (pre-fire), 2001 (post-fire), 2002, 2003, 2005 and 2007 were used to assess burn severity. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), enhanced vegetation index (EVI), normalized burn ratio (NBR), integrated forest index (IFI) and the differences of these indices between the pre-fire and post-fire years were computed and analysed with 66 field-based composite burn index (CBI) plots collected in 2002. Results showed that differences of NDVI and differences of EVI between the pre-fire year and the first two years post-fire were highly correlated with the CBI scores. The correlations were low beyond the second year post-fire. Differences of NBR had good correlation with CBI scores in all study years. Differences of IFI had low correlation with CBI in the first year post-fire and had good correlation in later years. A CBI map of the burnt area was produced using regression tree models and the multitemporal images. The dynamics of four spectral indices from 2000 to 2007 indicated that both NBR and IFI are valuable for monitoring long-term vegetation recovery. The high burn severity areas had a much slower recovery than the moderate and low burn areas. ?? 2011 Taylor & Francis.

  2. Does soil burn severity affect the post-fire runoff and interrill erosion response? A review based on meta-analysis of field rainfall simulation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, D. C. S.; Fernández, C.; Vega, J. A.; Keizer, J. J.

    2015-04-01

    Soil burn severity has been widely used to describe the impacts of fire on soils and is increasingly being recognised as a decisive factor controlling post-fire erosion rates. However, there is no unique definition of the term and the relationship between soil burn severity and post-fire hydrological and erosion response has not yet been fully established. The objective of this work was to review the existing literature on the role of soil burn severity on post-fire runoff and erosion ratios. To this end, a meta-analysis was carried out of the runoff and inter-rill erosion data from field rainfall simulation experiments (RSE's) that compared burnt and unburnt conditions. In this study, 109 individual observations were analysed that covered a wide geographical range, various types of land cover (forest, shrubland, and grassland) and two types of fire types (wildfire and prescribed fire). The effect size of the post-fire runoff and erosion response was determined for four key factors: (i) soil burn severity; (ii) time-since-fire; (iii) rainfall intensity; and (iv) bare soil cover. Statistical meta-analysis showed that fire occurrence had a significant effect on the hydrological and erosive response. However, this effect was only significantly higher with increasing soil burn severity for inter-rill erosion, and not for runoff. This study furthermore highlighted the incoherencies between existing burn severity classifications, and proposed an unambiguous classification.

  3. Characterization of post-fire surface cover, soils, and burn severity at the Cerro Grande Fire, New Mexico, using hyperspectral and multispectral remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, R.F.; Rockwell, B.W.; Haire, S.L.; King, T.V.V.

    2007-01-01

    Forest fires leave behind a changed ecosystem with a patchwork of surface cover that includes ash, charred organic matter, soils and soil minerals, and dead, damaged, and living vegetation. The distributions of these materials affect post-fire processes of erosion, nutrient cycling, and vegetation regrowth. We analyzed high spatial resolution (2.4??m pixel size) Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data collected over the Cerro Grande fire, to map post-fire surface cover into 10 classes, including ash, soil minerals, scorched conifer trees, and green vegetation. The Cerro Grande fire occurred near Los Alamos, New Mexico, in May 2000. The AVIRIS data were collected September 3, 2000. The surface cover map revealed complex patterns of ash, iron oxide minerals, and clay minerals in areas of complete combustion. Scorched conifer trees, which retained dry needles heated by the fire but not fully combusted by the flames, were found to cover much of the post-fire landscape. These scorched trees were found in narrow zones at the edges of completely burned areas. A surface cover map was also made using Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) data, collected September 5, 2000, and a maximum likelihood, supervised classification. When compared to AVIRIS, the Landsat classification grossly overestimated cover by dry conifer and ash classes and severely underestimated soil and green vegetation cover. In a comparison of AVIRIS surface cover to the Burned Area Emergency Rehabilitation (BAER) map of burn severity, the BAER high burn severity areas did not capture the variable patterns of post-fire surface cover by ash, soil, and scorched conifer trees seen in the AVIRIS map. The BAER map, derived from air photos, also did not capture the distribution of scorched trees that were observed in the AVIRIS map. Similarly, the moderate severity class of Landsat-derived burn severity maps generated from the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) calculation had low agreement with the AVIRIS classes of scorched conifer trees. Burn severity and surface cover images were found to contain complementary information, with the dNBR map presenting an image of degree of change caused by fire and the AVIRIS-derived map showing specific surface cover resulting from fire.

  4. Post-fire Vegetation Regeneration Dynamics to Topography and Burn Severity in two contrasting ecosystems: the Case of the Montane Cordillera Ecozones of Western Canada & that of a Typical Mediterranean site in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, Gareth; Petropoulos, George P.; Kalivas, Dionissios; Griffirths, Hywel M.; Louka, Panagiota

    2015-04-01

    Altering land cover dynamics is currently regarded as the single most important variable of global change affecting ecological systems. Wildfires are an integral part of many terrestrial ecosystems and are considered to dramatically affect land cover dynamics at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. In this context, knowledge of the spatio-temporal distribution of post-fire vegetation recovery dynamics is of key importance. In this study, we explore the relationships between vegetation recovery dynamics to topography and burn severity for two different ecosystems using a chronosequence of Landsat TM data images analysis. One of our experimental sites is the Okanagan Mountain Park, located in the Montane Cordillera Ecozones of western Canada at which a fire occurred in 2003. The other is Mt. Parnitha, located in Greece, representing a typical Mediterranean setting. The spatio-temporal patterns of regrowth for 8 years following the fire events were quantified based on the analysis of 2 widely used indices, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Regeneration Index (RI). Burn severity was derived from the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) index computed from the Landsat TM images. Topographical information for the studied area was obtained from the ASTER global operational product. Relationships of vegetation regrowth to both topography and burn severity was quantified using a series of additional statistical metrics. In overall, results indicated noticeable differences in the recovery rates of both ecosystems to the pre-fire patterns. Re-growth rates appeared to be somewhat higher in north-facing slopes in comparison to south facing ones for both experimental sites, in common with other similar studies in different ecosystems. Lastly, areas of lower burn severity exhibited a higher recovery rate compared to areas of high severity burns. Results are presented in detail and an explanation of the main observation trends is also attempted to be provided. To our knowledge, this study is one of the few attempting to explore the relationships between post-fire vegetation regrowth and topography or burn severity, particularly so in such a comparative and systematic manner between two contrasting ecosystem types. It corroborates the significance of EO technology as a successful and cost-effective solution in providing information related to post-fire regeneration assessment. Keywords: post-fire vegetation regeneration, topography, burn severity, Landsat, remote sensing, Cordillera Ecozones, Canada, Mt. Parnitha, Greece

  5. Comparing fire severity models from post-fire and pre/post-fire differenced imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wildland fires are common in rangelands worldwide. The potential for high severity fires to affect long-term changes in rangelands is considerable, and for this reason assessing fire severity shortly after the fire is critical. Such assessments are typically carried out following Burned Area Emergen...

  6. Ecohydrologic Implications and Management of Post-fire Soil Water Repellency in Burned Pinon-Juniper Woodlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Matthew; Zvirzdin, Daniel; Fernelius, Kaitlynn; McMillan, Mica; Kostka, Stanley

    2014-05-01

    Erosion and weed dominance often limit the recovery of piñon-juniper woodlands of western North America after high intensity wildfires. Soil water repellency (SWR) is one factor that may promote overland flow and impede seedling establishment. In spite of these effects, the influence of post-fire SWR on site recovery is poorly understood. Our presentation summarizes data collected within studies on burned piñon-juniper woodlands that provide new insight on: 1) the spatial distribution and severity of SWR, 2) influence of SWR on soil hydrology, nitrogen cycling, and site revegetation, and 3) the suitability of soil surfactants as a post-fire restoration tool. We demonstrate how patterns of SWR are highly correlated to pre-fire woodland canopy structure. At sites where SWR is present, infiltration, soil water content, and plant establishment is significantly less than at non-hydrophobic sites. We show how newly developed soil surfactants can significantly improve ecohydrologic properties required for plant growth by overcoming SWR; thus, increasing the amount and duration of available water for seed germination and plant growth. However, the application of soil surfactants in wildfire-affected ecosystems has been limited due to logistical and economic constraints associated with the standard practice of using large quantities of irrigation water as the surfactant carrier. We have developed a potential solution to this problem by using seed coating technology to use the seed as the carrier for the delivery of soil surfactant. Through this approach, precipitation leaches the surfactant from the seed into the soil where it absorbs onto the soil particles and ameliorates water repellency within the seeds microsite. We present findings from laboratory and field evaluations of surfactant seed coatings, which provide evidence that it may be plausible for the technology to improve post-fire seeding efforts by restoring soil hydrologic function and increasing seedling emergence and early seedling development.

  7. Hydrogeological controls on post-fire moss recovery in peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukenbach, M. C.; Devito, K. J.; Kettridge, N.; Petrone, R. M.; Waddington, J. M.

    2015-11-01

    Wildfire is the largest disturbance affecting boreal peatlands, however, little is known about the controls on post-fire peatland vegetation recovery. While small-scale variation in burn severity can reduce post-fire moss water availability, high water table (WT) positions following wildfire are also critical to enable the re-establishment of keystone peatland mosses (i.e. Sphagnum). Thus, post-fire moss water availability is also likely a function of landscape-scale controls on peatland WT dynamics, specifically, connectivity to groundwater flow systems (i.e. hydrogeological setting). For this reason, we assessed the interacting controls of hydrogeological setting and burn severity on post-fire moss water availability in three burned, Sphagnum-dominated peatlands in Alberta's Boreal Plains. At all sites, variation in burn severity resulted in a dichotomy between post-fire surface covers that: (1) exhibited low water availability, regardless of WT position, and had minimal (<5%) moss re-establishment (i.e. lightly burned feather mosses and severely burned Sphagnum fuscum) or (2) exhibited high water availability, depending on WT position, and had substantial (>50%) moss re-establishment (i.e. lightly burned S. fuscum and where depth of burn was >0.05 m). Notably, hydrogeological setting influenced the spatial coverage of these post-fire surface covers by influencing pre-fire WTs and stand characteristics (e.g., shading). Because feather moss cover is controlled by tree shading, lightly burned feather mosses were ubiquitous (>25%) in drier peatlands (deeper pre-fire WTs) that were densely treed and had little connection to large groundwater flow systems. Moreover, hydrogeological setting also controlled post-fire WT positions, thereby affecting moss re-establishment in post-fire surface covers that were dependent on WT position (e.g., lightly burned S. fuscum). Accordingly, higher recolonization rates were observed in a peatland located in a groundwater flow through system that had a shallow post-fire WT. Therefore, we argue that hydrogeological setting influences post-fire recovery in two ways: (1) by influencing vegetation structure prior to wildfire, thereby controlling the coverage of post-fire surface covers and (2) by influencing post-fire WT positions. These results suggest that post-fire moss recovery in peatlands isolated from groundwater flow systems may be particularly susceptible to droughts and future climate change.

  8. Hydrogeological controls on post-fire moss recovery in peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukenbach, Max; Devito, Kevin; Kettridge, Nicholas; Petrone, Richard; Waddington, James

    2015-04-01

    Wildfire is the largest disturbance affecting peatlands, however, little is known about the spatiotemporal variability of post-fire recovery in these ecosystems. High water table (WT) positions after wildfire are critical to limit atmospheric carbon losses and enable the re-establishment of keystone peatland mosses (i.e. Sphagnum). While small-scale variation in burn severity can reduce capillary flow from the WT and lead to a dry surface after fire, steep WT declines can also limit post-fire moss water availability. As such, post-fire moss water availability is also a function of large-scale controls on peatland WT dynamics, specifically, connectivity to groundwater flow systems (i.e. hydrogeological setting). For this reason, we assessed the interacting controls of hydrogeological setting and burn severity on post-fire moss water availability by measuring peatland WTs, soil tension (?) and surface volumetric moisture content (?) in three burned, Sphagnum-dominated peatlands located in different hydrogeological settings for three years following wildfire. The effect of burn severity on post-fire moss water availability did not vary with hydrogeological setting, however, the spatial coverage of high and low burn severity did vary between peatlands located in different hydrogeological settings due to its influence on pre-fire fuel loads and species cover. Locations covered by S. fuscum prior to fire exhibited decreasing post-fire water availability with increasing burn severity. In contrast, the lowest water availability (? > 400 cm, ? < 0.02) was observed in feather mosses that underwent low burn severity (residual branches identifiable). Where depth of burn was > 0.05 m (high burn severity) and pre-fire species were not identifiable, water availability was highest (? < 90 cm). Where burn severity did not limit water availability through a reduction of capillary flow, depth to WT (and therefore hydrogeological setting) played a large role in affecting post-fire moss water availability. A peatland located in a groundwater flow-through system exhibited high post-fire moss water availability (surface ? > 0.15, ? < 60 cm) and shallow WTs that were less variable and exhibited lagged responses to climatic variability. In contrast, peatlands in hydrogeological settings that were not connected or ephemerally connected to groundwater flow systems exhibited deeper and more dynamic WTs that led to lower post-fire moss water availability (surface ? < 0.15, ? > 60 cm), especially during dry periods. As such, we argue that the post-fire recovery of keystone peatland mosses is strongly linked to a peatland's hydrogeological setting. These results suggest that post-fire moss re-establishment in peatlands located in dry hydrogeological settings may be particularly vulnerable to post-fire droughts and future climate change.

  9. Land surface temperature as potential indicator of burn severity in forest Mediterranean ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintano, C.; Fernández-Manso, A.; Calvo, L.; Marcos, E.; Valbuena, L.

    2015-04-01

    Forest fires are one of the most important causes of environmental alteration in Mediterranean countries. Discrimination of different degrees of burn severity is critical for improving management of fire-affected areas. This paper aims to evaluate the usefulness of land surface temperature (LST) as potential indicator of burn severity. We used a large convention-dominated wildfire, which occurred on 19-21 September, 2012 in Northwestern Spain. From this area, a 1-year series of six LST images were generated from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) data using a single channel algorithm. Further, the Composite Burn Index (CBI) was measured in 111 field plots to identify the burn severity level (low, moderate, and high). Evaluation of the potential relationship between post-fire LST and ground measured CBI was performed by both correlation analysis and regression models. Correlation coefficients were higher in the immediate post-fire LST images, but decreased during the fall of 2012 and increased again with a second maximum value in summer, 2013. A linear regression model between post-fire LST and CBI allowed us to represent spatially predicted CBI (R-squaredadj > 85%). After performing an analysis of variance (ANOVA) between post-fire LST and CBI, a Fisher's least significant difference test determined that two burn severity levels (low-moderate and high) could be statistically distinguished. The identification of such burn severity levels is sufficient and useful to forest managers. We conclude that summer post-fire LST from moderate resolution satellite data may be considered as a valuable indicator of burn severity for large fires in Mediterranean forest ecosytems.

  10. Post-fire debris-flow hazard assessment of the area burned by the 2013 Beaver Creek Fire near Hailey, central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skinner, Kenneth D.

    2013-01-01

    A preliminary hazard assessment was developed for debris-flow hazards in the 465 square-kilometer (115,000 acres) area burned by the 2013 Beaver Creek fire near Hailey in central Idaho. The burn area covers all or part of six watersheds and selected basins draining to the Big Wood River and is at risk of substantial post-fire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently burned basins throughout the Intermountain Region in Western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence, potential volume of debris flows, and the combined debris-flow hazard ranking along the drainage network within the burn area and to estimate the same for analyzed drainage basins within the burn area. Input data for the empirical models included topographic parameters, soil characteristics, burn severity, and rainfall totals and intensities for a (1) 2-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 2-year storm (13 mm); (2) 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 10-year storm (19 mm); and (3) 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 25-year storm (22 mm). Estimated debris-flow probabilities for drainage basins upstream of 130 selected basin outlets ranged from less than 1 to 78 percent with the probabilities increasing with each increase in storm magnitude. Probabilities were high in three of the six watersheds. For the 25-year storm, probabilities were greater than 60 percent for 11 basin outlets and ranged from 50 to 60 percent for an additional 12 basin outlets. Probability estimates for stream segments within the drainage network can vary within a basin. For the 25-year storm, probabilities for stream segments within 33 basins were higher than the basin outlet, emphasizing the importance of evaluating the drainage network as well as basin outlets. Estimated debris-flow volumes for the three modeled storms range from a minimal debris flow volume of 10 cubic meters [m3]) to greater than 100,000 m3. Estimated debris-flow volumes increased with basin size and distance downstream. For the 25-year storm, estimated debris-flow volumes were greater than 100,000 m3 for 4 basins and between 50,000 and 100,000 m3 for 10 basins. The debris-flow hazard rankings did not result in the highest hazard ranking of 5, indicating that none of the basins had a high probability of debris-flow occurrence and a high debris-flow volume estimate. The hazard ranking was 4 for one basin using the 10-year-recurrence storm model and for three basins using the 25-year-recurrence storm model. The maps presented herein may be used to prioritize areas where post-wildfire remediation efforts should take place within the 2- to 3-year period of increased erosional vulnerability.

  11. Post-fire reconstructions of fire intensity from fire severity data: quantifying the role of spatial variability of fire intensity on forest dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Patrick; Oborne, Lisa

    2015-04-01

    Large, high-intensity fires have direct and long-lasting effects on forest ecosystems and present a serious threat to human life and property. However, even within the most catastrophic fires there is important variability in local-scale intensity that has important ramifications for forest mortality and regeneration. Quantifying this variability is difficult due to the rarity of catastrophic fire events, the extreme conditions at the time of the fires, and their large spatial extent. Instead fire severity is typically measured or estimated from observed patterns of vegetation mortality; however, differences in species- and size-specific responses to fires often makes fire severity a poor proxy for fire intensity. We developed a statistical method using simple, plot-based measurements of individual tree mortality to simultaneously estimate plot-level fire intensity and species-specific mortality patterns as a function of tree size. We applied our approach to an area of forest burned in the catastrophic Black Saturday fires that occurred near Melbourne, Australia, in February 2009. Despite being the most devastating fire in the past 70 years and our plots being located in the area that experienced some of the most intense fires in the 350,000 ha fire complex, we found that the estimated fire intensity was highly variable at multiple spatial scales. All eight tree species in our study differed in their susceptibility to fire-induced mortality, particularly among the largest size classes. We also found that seedling height and species richness of the post-fire seedling communities were both positively correlated with fire intensity. Spatial variability in disturbance intensity has important, but poorly understood, consequences for the short- and long-term dynamics of forests in the wake of catastrophic wildfires. Our study provides a tool to estimate fire intensity after a fire has passed, allowing new opportunities for linking spatial variability in fire intensity to forest ecosystem dynamics.

  12. Remote sensing of fire severity: linking post-fire reflectance data with physiological responses in two western conifer species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, A. M.; Smith, A. M.; Kolden, C.; Apostol, K. G.; Boschetti, L.

    2014-12-01

    Fire is a common disturbance in forested ecosystems in the western U.S. and can be responsible for long-term impacts on vegetation and soil. An improved understanding of how ecosystems recover after fire is necessary so that land managers can plan for and mitigate the effects of these disturbances. Although several studies have attempted to link fire intensity with severity, direct links between spectral indices of severity and key physiological changes in vegetation are not well understood. We conducted an assessment of how two western conifer species respond to four fire radiative energy treatments, with spectra acquired pre- and up to a month post-burn. After transforming the spectral data into Landsat 8 equivalent reflectance, burn severity indices commonly used in the remote sensing community were compared to concurrent physiological measurements including gas exchange and photosynthetic rate. Preliminary results indicate significant relationships between several fire severity indices and physiological responses measured in the conifer seedlings.

  13. RECOVER - An Automated Burned Area Emergency Response Decision Support System for Post-fire Rehabilitation Management of Savanna Ecosystems in the Western US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, K.; Schnase, J. L.; Carroll, M.; Brown, M. E.; Gill, R.; Haskett, G.; Gardner, T.

    2013-12-01

    In partnership with the Department of Interior's Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the Idaho Department of Lands (IDL), we are building and evaluating the RECOVER decision support system. RECOVER - which stands for Rehabilitation Capability Convergence for Ecosystem Recovery - is an automatically deployable, context-aware decision support system for savanna wildfires that brings together in a single application the information necessary for post-fire rehabilitation decision-making and long-term ecosystem monitoring. RECOVER uses state-of-the-art cloud-based data management technologies to improve performance, reduce cost, and provide site-specific flexibility for each fire. The RECOVER Server uses Integrated Rule-Oriented Data System (iRODS) data grid technology deployed in the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2). The RECOVER Client is an Adobe Flex web map application that is able to provide a suite of convenient GIS analytical capabilities. In a typical use scenario, the RECOVER Server is provided a wildfire name and geospatial extent. The Server then automatically gathers Earth observational data and other relevant products from various geographically distributed data sources. The Server creates a database in the cloud where all relevant information about the wildfire is stored. This information is made available to the RECOVER Client and ultimately to fire managers through their choice of web browser. The Server refreshes the data throughout the burn and subsequent recovery period (3-5 years) with each refresh requiring two minutes to complete. Since remediation plans must be completed within 14 days of a fire's containment, RECOVER has the potential to significantly improve the decision-making process. RECOVER adds an important new dimension to post-fire decision-making by focusing on ecosystem rehabilitation in semiarid savannas. A novel aspect of RECOVER's approach involves the use of soil moisture estimates, which are an important but difficult-to-obtain element of post-fire rehabilitation planning. We will use downscaled soil moisture data from three primary observational sources to begin evaluation of soil moisture products and build the technology needed for RECOVER to use future SMAP products. As a result, RECOVER, BLM, and the fire applications community will be ready customers for data flowing out of new NASA missions, such as NPP, LDCM, and SMAP.

  14. Several Flame Balls Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Structure of Flameballs at Low Lewis Numbers (SOFBALL) experiments aboard the space shuttle in 1997 a series of sturningly successful burns. This sequence was taken during STS-94, July 12, 1997, MET:10/08:18 (approximate). It was thought these extremely dim flameballs (1/20 the power of a kitchen match) could last up to 200 seconds -- in fact, they can last for at least 500 seconds. This has ramifications in fuel-spray design in combustion engines, as well as fire safety in space. The SOFBALL principal investigator was Paul Ronney, University of Southern California, Los Angeles. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations planned for the International Space Station. (925KB, 9-second MPEG spanning 10 minutes, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300186.html.

  15. Mapping burn severity in a disease-impacted forest landscape using Landsat and MASTER imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gang; Metz, Margaret R.; Rizzo, David M.; Meentemeyer, Ross K.

    2015-08-01

    Global environmental change has increased forest vulnerability to the occurrence of interacting disturbances, including wildfires and invasive diseases. Mapping post-fire burn severity in a disease-affected forest often faces challenges because burned and infested trees may exhibit a high similarity in spectral reflectance. In this study, we combined (pre- and post-fire) Landsat imagery and (post-fire) high-spectral resolution airborne MASTER data [MODIS (moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer)/ASTER (advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer)] to map burn severity in a California coastal forest environment, where a non-native forest disease sudden oak death (SOD) was causing substantial tree mortality. Results showed that the use of Landsat plus MASTER bundle performed better than using the individual sensors in most of the evaluated forest strata from ground to canopy layers (i.e., substrate, shrubs, intermediate-sized trees, dominant trees and average), with the best model performance achieved at the dominant tree layer. The mid to thermal infrared spectral bands (3.0-12.5 ?m) from MASTER were found to augment Landsat's visible to shortwave infrared bands in burn severity assessment. We also found that infested and uninfested forests similarly experienced moderate to high degrees of burns where CBI (composite burn index) values were higher than 1. However, differences occurred in the regions with low burn severity (CBI values lower than 1), where uninfested stands revealed a much lower burn effect than that in infested stands, possibly due to their higher resilience to small fire disturbances as a result of higher leaf water content.

  16. Burn severity estimation using GeoEye imagery, object-based image analysis (OBIA), and Composite Burn Index (CBI) measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragozi, E.; Gitas, Ioannis Z.; Stavrakoudis, Dimitris G.; Minakou, C.

    2015-06-01

    Forest fires greatly influence the stability and functions of the forest ecosystems. The ever increasing need for accurate and detailed information regarding post-fire effects (burn severity) has led to several studies on the matter. In this study the combined use of Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite data (GeoEye), Objectbased image analysis (OBIA) and Composite Burn Index (CBI) measurements in estimating burn severity, at two different time points (2011 and 2012) is assessed. The accuracy of the produced maps was assessed and changes in burn severity between the two dates were detected using the post classification comparison approach. It was found that the produced burn severity map for 2011 was approximately 10% more accurate than that of 2012. This was mainly attributed to the increased heterogeneity of the study area in the second year, which led to an increased number of mixed class objects and consequently made it more difficult to spectrally discriminate between the severity classes. Following the post-classification analysis, the severity class changes were mainly attributed to the trees' ability to survive severe fire damage and sprout new leaves. Moreover, the results of the study suggest that when classifying CBI-based burn severity using VHR imagery it would be preferable to use images captured soon after the fire.

  17. High severity experimental burns in Siberian larch forests lead to rapid permafrost thaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, H. D.; Davydov, S.; Zimov, N.; Loranty, M. M.; Petronio, B.; Ganzlin, P.; Berner, L. T.; Mack, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    Global change models predict an increase in fire activity in boreal forests as climate continues to warm and dry. Because fire consumes the soil organic layer (SOL), the layer of undecomposed mosses and roots atop the permafrost, we hypothesized that increased fire severity will increase permafrost thaw by reducing the depth, and therefore insulating capacity, of the SOL. To test this hypothesis, we conducted plot-level (2-m2) experimental burns in July 2012 in a low-density, mature larch stand located near the Northeast Science Station in Cherskii, Siberia. Dried fuels comprised of naturally occurring vegetation were added to plots to achieve four burn treatments based on residual SOL depths: control, low severity (> 8 cm), moderate severity (5-8 cm), and high severity (2-5 cm). Pre-fire and for several weeks post-fire, we measured thaw depth and subsurface resistivity to determine severity effects on permafrost thaw. Pre-fire and 1 day post-fire, thaw depth and resistivity patterns were similar among plots. However, by 1 wk post-fire, thaw depth was 10-15 cm deeper in plots burned at high severity (45 cm) compared to other treatments (30-35 cm), and soil moisture also increased. While thaw depth continued to increase in all plots throughout the summer, the magnitude of increase was substantially higher only in high severity plots. Our findings of rapid changes in permafrost thaw with increased fire severity at this small spatial scale highlight the potential for large changes in permafrost degradation following natural fires at the landscape level.

  18. Modeling post-fire water erosion mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rulli, M. C.; Offeddu, L.; Santini, M.

    2013-06-01

    Severe wildfires are often followed by significant increase in runoff and erosion, due to vegetation damage and changes in physical and chemical soil properties. Peak flows and sediment yields can increase up to two orders of magnitude, becoming dangerous for human lives and the ecosystem, especially in the wildland-urban interface. Watershed post-fire rehabilitation measures are usually used to mitigate the effects of fire on runoff and erosion, by protecting soil from splash and shear stress detachment and enhancing its infiltration capacity. Modeling post-fire erosion and erosion mitigation strategies can be useful in selecting the effectiveness of a rehabilitation method. In this paper a distributed model based on the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), properly parameterized for a Mediterranean basin located in Sardinia, is used to determine soil losses for six different scenarios describing both natural and post-fire basin condition, the last also accounting for the single and combined effect of different erosion mitigation measures. Fire effect on vegetation and soil properties have been mimed by changing soil drainage capacity and organic matter content, and RUSLE factors related to soil cover and protection measures. Model results, validated using measured data on erosion rates from the literature and in situ field campaigns, show the effect of the analyzed rehabilitation treatments in reducing the amount of soil losses with the peculiar characteristics of the spatial distribution of such changes. In particular, the mulching treatment substantially decreases erosion both in its mean value (-75%) and in the spatially distribution of the erosion levels over the burned area . On the contrary, the breaking up of the hydrophobic layer decreases post-fire mean soil losses of about the 14%, although it strongly influences the spatial distribution of the erosion levels.

  19. Avifaunal responses to fire in southwestern montane forests along a burn severity gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kotliar, N.B.; Kennedy, P.L.; Ferree, K.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of burn severity on avian communities are poorly understood, yet this information is crucial to fire management programs. To quantify avian response patterns along a burn severity gradient, we sampled 49 random plots (2001-2002) at the 17 351-ha Cerro Grande Fire (2000) in New Mexico, USA. Additionally, pre-fire avian surveys (1986-1988, 1990) created a unique opportunity to quantify avifaunal changes in 13 pre-fire transects (resampled in 2002) and to compare two designs for analyzing the effects of unplanned disturbances: after-only analysis and before-after comparisons. Distance analysis was used to calculate densities. We analyzed after-only densities for 21 species using gradient analysis, which detected a broad range of responses to increasing burn severity: (I) large significant declines, (II) weak, but significant declines, (III) no significant density changes, (IV) peak densities in low- or moderate-severity patches, (V) weak, but significant increases, and (VI) large significant increases. Overall, 71% of the species included in the after-only gradient analysis exhibited either positive or neutral density responses to fire effects across all or portions of the severity gradient (responses III-VI). We used pre/post pairs analysis to quantify density changes for 15 species using before-after comparisons; spatiotemporal variation in densities was large and confounded fire effects for most species. Only four species demonstrated significant effects of burn severity, and their densities were all higher in burned compared to unburned forests. Pre- and post-fire community similarity was high except in high-severity areas. Species richness was similar pre- and post-fire across all burn severities. Thus, ecosystem restoration programs based on the assumption that recent severe fires in Southwestern ponderosa pine forests have overriding negative ecological effects are not supported by our study of post-fire avian communities. This study illustrates the importance of quantifying burn severity and controlling confounding sources of spatiotemporal variation in studies of fire effects. After-only gradient analysis can be an efficient tool for quantifying fire effects. This analysis can also augment historical data sets that have small samples sizes coupled with high non-process variation, which limits the power of before-after comparisons. ?? 2007 by the Ecological Society of America.

  20. Avian community responses to post-fire forest structure: implications for fire management in mixed conifer forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Angela M.; Manley, Patricia N.; Tarbill, Gina; Richardson, T.L.; Russell, Robin E.; Safford, Hugh D.; Dobrowski, Solomon Z.

    2015-01-01

    Fire is a natural process and the dominant disturbance shaping plant and animal communities in many coniferous forests of the western US. Given that fire size and severity are predicted to increase in the future, it has become increasingly important to understand how wildlife responds to fire and post-fire management. The Angora Fire burned 1243 hectares of mixed conifer forest in South Lake Tahoe, California. We conducted avian point counts for the first 3 years following the fire in burned and unburned areas to investigate which habitat characteristics are most important for re-establishing or maintaining the native avian community in post-fire landscapes. We used a multi-species occurrence model to estimate how avian species are influenced by the density of live and dead trees and shrub cover. While accounting for variations in the detectability of species, our approach estimated the occurrence probabilities of all species detected including those that were rare or observed infrequently. Although all species encountered in this study were detected in burned areas, species-specific modeling results predicted that some species were strongly associated with specific post-fire conditions, such as a high density of dead trees, open-canopy conditions or high levels of shrub cover that occur at particular burn severities or at a particular time following fire. These results indicate that prescribed fire or managed wildfire which burns at low to moderate severity without at least some high-severity effects is both unlikely to result in the species assemblages that are unique to post-fire areas or to provide habitat for burn specialists. Additionally, the probability of occurrence for many species was associated with high levels of standing dead trees indicating that intensive post-fire harvest of these structures could negatively impact habitat of a considerable proportion of the avian community.

  1. Vegetation structure and fire weather influence variation in burn severity and fuel consumption during peatland wildfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, G. M.; Domènech, R.; Gray, A.; Johnson, P. C. D.

    2015-09-01

    Temperate peatland wildfires are of significant environmental concern but information on their environmental effects is lacking. We assessed variation in burn severity and fuel consumption within and between wildfires that burnt British moorlands in 2011 and 2012. We adapted the Composite Burn Index (pCBI) to provide semi-quantitative estimates of burn severity. Pre- and post-fire surface (shrubs and graminoids) and ground (litter, moss, duff) fuel loads associated with large wildfires were assessed using destructive sampling and analysed using a Generalised Linear Mixed Model (GLMM). Consumption during wildfires was compared with published estimates of consumption during prescribed burns. Burn severity and fuel consumption were related to fire weather, assessed using the Canadian Fire Weather Index System (FWI System), and pre-fire fuel structure. pCBI varied 1.6 fold between, and up to 1.7 fold within, wildfires. pCBI was higher where moisture codes of the FWI System indicated drier fuels. Spatial variation in pre- and post-fire fuel load accounted for a substantial proportion of the variance in fuel loads. Average surface fuel consumption was a linear function of pre-fire fuel load. Average ground fuel combustion completeness could be predicted by the Buildup Index. Carbon release ranged between 0.36 and 1.00 kg C m-2. The flammability of ground fuel layers may explain the higher C release-rates seen for wildfires in comparison to prescribed burns. Drier moorland community types appear to be at greater risk of severe burns than blanket-bog communities.

  2. Exploring wildfire impact on post-fire runoff water quality: field and laboratory investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.; Acharya, K.; Miller, J.; Berli, M.

    2014-12-01

    Wildfire can have complex effects on physical and chemical properties of soil and post-fire runoff. Water quality issues in the post-fire runoff may have caused catastrophic events in aquatic ecosystem in the Virgin River in Southwestern U.S. To examined the mechanisms of the impact of wildfire on post-fire runoff water quality, field sampling and experiments were conducted on surfaces of various fuel types at a burned site in the Virgin River Watershed. Rainfall simulation tests were performed to generate runoff for water quality test including in-situ DO and pH measurement and laboratory tests on a number of water quality constituents. Soil/ash samples collected from burned surfaces were applied in a laboratory test to produce solutions of different concentrations and DO changes over a 24-hour period were measured. Results confirmed that, for runoff carrying large amounts of sediment or debris, DO values can be substantially reduced to a level close to or lower than 5 mg/L. Fire effects may enhance this trend, but is not necessarily a critical reason for the reduction of DO levels. Laboratory runoff and soil sample analysis show that the post-fire runoff in this watershed may contain a large amount of ammonia (NH3 and NH4+). The concentration of ammonia can be higher than the lethal level to many (if not all) fish species. Fire effects appear to have a significant impact on the ammonia level, which lead to an increase of several times to one order of magnitude in the ammonia concentration in the runoff or soil solution under burned conditions. These results provide information to better understand post-fire water quality in this and similar watersheds.

  3. Rapid Response Tools and Datasets for Post-fire Erosion Modeling: An Online Database to Support Post-fire Erosion Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M. E.; Russel, A. M.; Billmire, M.; Endsley, K.; Elliot, W. E.; Robichaud, P. R.; MacDonald, L. H.; Renschler, C. S.

    2013-12-01

    Once the danger posed by an active wildfire has passed, land managers must rapidly assess risks posed by post-fire runoff and erosion due to fire-induced changes in soil properties and the loss of surface cover. Post-fire assessments and proposals to mitigate risks to downstream areas due to flooding, erosion, and sedimentation are typically undertaken by interdisciplinary Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams. One of the first and most important priorities of a BAER team is the development of a burn severity map that reflects the fire-induced changes in both vegetative cover and soils. Currently these maps are known as BARC (Burned Area Reflectance Classification) maps and they are generated from multi-spectral remote sensing data. BAER teams also have access to many erosion modeling tools and datasets, but process-based, spatially explicit models are currently under-utilized relative to simpler, lumped models because they are more difficult to set up and they require the preparation of spatially-explicit data layers such as digital elevation models (DEM), soils, and land cover. We are working to make spatially-explicit modeling easier by preparing large-scale spatial data sets that can be rapidly combined with burn severity maps and then used to quickly run more accurate, process-based models for spatially explicit predictions of post-fire erosion and runoff. A prototype database consisting of 30-m DEM, soil, land cover, and Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) maps for Colorado has been created for use in GeoWEPP (Geo-spatial interface for the Water Erosion Prediction Project) with Disturbed WEPP parameters developed for post-fire conditions. Additional soil data layers have been gathered to support a spatial empirical debris flow model that also utilizes BARC maps. Future plans include developing the dataset to support other models commonly used by BAER teams. The importance of preparing spatial data ahead of time can be illustrated with two contrasting modeling exercises from recent fires. The 2012 High Park Fire that burned near Fort Collins, Colorado and a small portion of the 2011 Rock House Fire (Hospital Canyon) that burned in western Texas. A lack of preparatory work meant useful products could not be produced in a timely manner for the Rock House Fire. In contrast, an earlier project meant that baseline soil and land cover data were readily available for the 2012 High Park Fire, which burned 330 km2 and threatened the drinking water for Fort Collins, Greeley, and other downstream communities. These datasets were combined with the burn severity map and used to model post-fire erosion and run-off in GeoWEPP using a two hour storm event with a total rainfall of 2.2 inches. Predictions of post-fire erosion rates ranged from 0 to 10.4 Mg/ha and the maps were used by the BAER team to assess relative erosion risks, and develop the associated proposals for post-fire mitigation efforts.

  4. High severity experimental burns in Siberian larch forests increase permafrost thaw and larch tree regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, H. D.; Davydov, S.; Zimov, N.; Mack, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    Global change models predict increased fire activity in boreal forests as climate warms and dries. We hypothesized that fire-driven decreases in soil organic layer (SOL) depth will (1) increase permafrost thaw by reducing the insulating capacity of the SOL and (2) improve seedbed conditions for tree regeneration. Over time, these changes will lead to altered patterns of above- and belowground carbon (C) accumulation. To test these hypotheses, we conducted plot-level experimental burns in July 2012 in a low-density, mature larch stand near the Northeast Science Station in Cherskii, Siberia. Dried fuels of naturally occurring vegetation were added to plots to achieve four burn severity treatments based on residual SOL depths: control, low (> 8 cm), moderate (5-8 cm), and high severity (2-5 cm). Pre-fire and during two growing seasons post-fire, we measured thaw depth, soil moisture, and soil temperature to determine severity effects on permafrost thaw. We also sowed larch seeds in fall 2012 and quantified germination rates the following growing season. By 1 wk post-fire, thaw depth was 15-25 cm deeper in plots burned at high severity (55 cm) compared to other treatments (30-40 cm). These differences in thaw depth with burn severity were maintained during the subsequent growing season and were associated with increased soil temperature and moisture. Larch regeneration was 10x higher on severely burned plots than those unburned. Our findings highlight the potential for increased fire severity to degrade permafrost and alter successional dynamics and patterns of C accumulation.

  5. Remote Measurement of Short-term Post-fire Vegetation Regrowth in Sierra Nevadan Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, R.; Dennison, P. E.; Huang, C.

    2014-12-01

    Forest ecosystems in the Sierra Nevada are greatly influenced by wildfire disturbance. A study of vegetation regrowth following fire is essential for us to better understand and evaluate the effects of disturbances on ecological processes, such as carbon and nitrogen storage, soil erosion, water quality and forest dynamics. The rate of short-term vegetation recovery, as measured by Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), was explored following fire over multiple years (1999-2006) in Sierra Nevadan forests. The role of both temporal (e.g. variations in multiple years' precipitation) and landscape factors (e.g. altitude, slope, aspect, pre-fire and immediate post-fire vegetation status, and burn severity) were investigated in explaining the short-term vegetation regrowth following fire using remote sensing on the landscape scale. Our results indicate that spatial-temporal variability existed in the short-term post-fire vegetation regrowth. Pre-fire vegetation status, burn severity, immediate post-fire wet season precipitation and elevation were found to play important roles in short-term post-fire vegetation recovery trends. Consistent with a local forest gap model, our results also corroborate that water availability may be the limiting factor for the post-fire vegetation regrowth in the lower elevation of Sierra Nevadan forests. In the future, post-disturbance vegetation regrowth trends and related controlling environmental factors following various forest disturbances (e.g. insect outbreak and forest harvest) other than wildfire can also be studied and compared using the methodology proposed in this study.

  6. Effects of fire and post-fire salvage logging on avian communities in conifer-dominated forests of the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kotliar, N.B.; Hejl, S.J.; Hutto, R.L.; Saab, V.A.; Melcher, C.P.; McFadzen, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    Historically, fire was one of the most widespread natural disturbances in the western United States. More recently, however, significant anthropogenic activities, especially fire suppression and silvicultural practices, have altered fire regimes; as a result, landscapes and associated communities have changed as well. Herein, we review current knowledge of how fire and post-fire salvaging practices affect avian communities in conifer-dominated forests of the western United States. Specifically, we contrast avian communities in (1) burned vs. unburned forest, and (2) unsalvaged vs. salvage-logged burns. We also examine how variation in burn characteristics (e.g., severity, age, size) and salvage logging can alter avian communities in burns. Of the 41 avian species observed in three or more studies comparing early post-fire and adjacent unburned forests, 22% are consistently more abundant in burned forests, 34% are usually more abundant in unburned forests, and 44% are equally abundant in burned and unburned forests or have varied responses. In general, woodpeckers and aerial foragers are more abundant in burned forest, whereas most foliage-gleaning species are more abundant in unburned forests. Bird species that are frequently observed in stand-replacement burns are less common in understory burns; similarly, species commonly observed in unburned forests often decrease in abundance with increasing burn severity. Granivores and species common in open-canopy forests exhibit less consistency among studies. For all species, responses to fire may be influenced by a number of factors including burn severity, fire size and shape, proximity to unburned forests, pre- and post-fire cover types, and time since fire. In addition, post-fire management can alter species' responses to burns. Most cavity-nesting species do not use severely salvaged burns, whereas some cavity-nesters persist in partially salvaged burns. Early post-fire specialists, in particular, appear to prefer unsalvaged burns. We discuss several alternatives to severe salvage-logging that will help provide habitat for cavity nesters. We provide an overview of critical research questions and design considerations crucial for evaluating the effects of prescribed fire and other anthropogenic disturbances, such as forest fragmentation. Management of native avifaunas may be most successful if natural disturbance regimes, including fire, are permitted to occur when possible. Natural fires could be augmented with practices, such as prescribed fire (including high-severity fire), that mimic inherent disturbance regimes.

  7. Post-fire succession of ground vegetation of central Siberia in Scots pine forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovaleva, N.; Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.

    2012-04-01

    Extensive wildfires have affected the Russian region in the last decade. Scots pine forests (Pinus sylvestris L.) are widespread in central Siberia and fire occurrence is high in these forests, whose dominant fire regime is one of frequent surface fires. We studied post- fire succession of ground vegetation has been studied on nine experimental fires of varying severity (from 620 to 5220 kW/m) in middle taiga Scots pine forests of central Siberia (Russia). It proved from our study that all species of the succession process are present from initial stages. We did not find any trend of ground vegetation diversity with the time during 8 years after the fire. Our investigation showed that post- fire recovery of the ground vegetation is determined by initial forest type, fire severity and litter burning depth. Fire severity had a clear effect in initial succession in study area and it clearly had an impact on percentage cover, biomass and structure of ground vegetation. In a lesser degree the small shrubs are damaged during ground fires. The dominating species (Vaccinium vitis-idaea and V. myrtillus) regained the cover values above or close to 6—8 years. The post- fire biomass of ground vegetation 93—100% consists of species (Vaccinium vitis-idaea and V. myrtillus) that survived after the fire and increased in the cover with the time. In pine forests mosses and lichens suffer to a greater degree after ground fires. Lichen layer was completely lost after the fires of any severity. Decrease of mosses species diversity takes place after ground fires. The post- fire cover and species diversity of the green mosses were progressively lower with increasing the fire severity during the observation period. Maximum changes are discovered in the post- fire structure of plant microgroups after the high- severity fire which resulted in intensive invasion by the post- fire mosses (Polytrichum strictum and P. commune). There is a positive trend of green moss microgroups recovery after fires of moderate- and low- severity.

  8. Post-Fire Vegetation Response 49 Barbara A. Holzman

    E-print Network

    Bruns, Tom

    Post-Fire Vegetation Response 49 Barbara A. Holzman Department of Geography San Francisco State The effect of the 1995 fire on the regeneration, composition and cover of the Bishop Pine (Pinus muricata) forest at Point Reyes National Seashore is examined. The human-caused fire burned over 12,000 acres

  9. Shrub Microsite Influences Post-Fire Perennial Grass Establishment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Woody plants can cause localized increases in resources (i.e. resource islands) that can persist after fire and create a heterogeneous environment for restoration. We tested the hypothesis that burned sagebrush subcanopies would have increased seedling establishment and performance of post-fire see...

  10. Severe metabolic acidosis following assault chemical burn

    PubMed Central

    Roock, Sophie D; Deleuze, Jean-Paul; Rose, Thomas; Jennes, Serge; Hantson, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Assault chemical burns are uncommon in northern Europe. Besides local toxicity, systemic manifestations are possible after strong acid exposure. A 40-year-old woman was admitted 1 h after a criminal assault with sulfuric acid. The total burned surface area was 35%, third degree. Injury was due to sulfuric acid (measured pH 0.9) obtained from a car battery. Immediate complications were obstructive dyspnea and metabolic acidosis. The admission arterial pH was 6.92, with total bicarbonate 8.6 mEq/l and base deficit 23.4 mEq/l. The correction of metabolic acidosis was achieved after several hours by the administration of bicarbonate and lactate buffers. The patient developed several burns-related complications (sepsis and acute renal failure). Cutaneous projections of strong acids may cause severe metabolic acidosis, particularly when copious irrigation and clothes removal cannot be immediately performed at the scene. PMID:22787349

  11. Post-fire Wind Erosion in a Semiarid Shrub Steppe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, N.; Sankey, J.; Germino, M.

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this project is to determine and describe the effects of fire on the potential for soil erosion by wind in a semiarid shrub steppe in southeastern Idaho. We apply a previously developed method for determining the threshold wind speed (critical threshold) required to initiate saltation of soil particles at several sampling locations within wildfires that burned in summers 2006 and 2007. Sampling locations have data collection stations with anemometers, a piezoelectric sensor mounted at 5 cm above the ground surface that records impacts from saltating soil particles, temperature and relative humidity sensors mounted at ground level, soil moisture sensors, and soil erosion bridges. Analysis is intended to identify key controlling variables of post- wildfire eolian transport with the intention of continued monitoring over longer time periods with the incorporation of LiDAR data for surface characterization. Initial field results indicate substantial differences in wind erosion potential between burned and unburned sites. Saltation activity is greater and more frequently detected at the burned sites in comparison to the unburned sites. Comparison between the burned sites indicates periods of similar saltation activity and threshold wind speeds. Comparison also shows periods when saltation is detected at one burned site but not the other, and periods when greater wind speeds are required at one burned site to initiate saltation. This suggests that within-burn variability exists in wind erosion potential and requires more complete characterization to accurately model and predict post-fire eolian transport. In parallel to the field-based research, we are developing remote sensing techniques to characterize the soil surface and vegetation communities at a scale appropriate for wind erosion modeling. These techniques include hyperspectral and LiDAR analysis of the soil surface and structural information of the vegetation. Soil and vegetation surface roughness information from LiDAR will be used to compare wind speed thresholds in the field areas. This work has important implications for land rehabilitation, soil conservation efforts, and human health.

  12. [Disturbances of electrolytes in severe thermal burns].

    PubMed

    Hauhouot-Attoungbre, M L; Mlan, W C H; Edjeme, N A; Ahibo, H; Vilasco, B; Monnet, D

    2005-01-01

    Thermal burns result in severe electrolytes disturbances which are life-threatening when the percentage of burnt body surface area (BSA) is above 20% in adults and 10% in children. If electrolytes disturbances are often mentioned in the physiopathology of burns, they are less documented in the daily practice of the follow up. The objective of this work was to describe variation of blood and urine electrolytes concentrations in severe burns. The survey concerned 30 patients hospitalized in the Burn Centre of Abidjan. The patients have been followed during the first three days after the burn, including the initial phase of shock resuscitation. The results showed, in accordance with data of the literature, the incidence of hypophosphoremia, hypoprotidemia and hypocalcemia. The hypoprotidemia and the hypocalcemia were correlated with the importance of the BSA. An elevation of potassium and a decrease of sodium have been also observed, but, in contrast to data of the literature, they were not significant. Moderate variations of chloride and magnesium have been noted. All urinary parameters were decreased. The present results suggest the necessity of proteins, phosphore and calcium administration in the therapeutic protocols. PMID:16061440

  13. Mapping wildfire burn severity in the Arctic Tundra from downsampled MODIS data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolden, Crystal A.; Rogan, John

    2013-01-01

    Wildfires are historically infrequent in the arctic tundra, but are projected to increase with climate warming. Fire effects on tundra ecosystems are poorly understood and difficult to quantify in a remote region where a short growing season severely limits ground data collection. Remote sensing has been widely utilized to characterize wildfire regimes, but primarily from the Landsat sensor, which has limited data acquisition in the Arctic. Here, coarse-resolution remotely sensed data are assessed as a means to quantify wildfire burn severity of the 2007 Anaktuvuk River Fire in Alaska, the largest tundra wildfire ever recorded on Alaska's North Slope. Data from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and downsampled Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were processed to spectral indices and correlated to observed metrics of surface, subsurface, and comprehensive burn severity. Spectral indices were strongly correlated to surface severity (maximum R2 = 0.88) and slightly less strongly correlated to substrate severity. Downsampled MODIS data showed a decrease in severity one year post-fire, corroborating rapid vegetation regeneration observed on the burned site. These results indicate that widely-used spectral indices and downsampled coarse-resolution data provide a reasonable supplement to often-limited ground data collection for analysis and long-term monitoring of wildfire effects in arctic ecosystems.

  14. Post-fire vegetation dynamics in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, C.; Dacamara, C. C.; Trigo, R. M.

    2009-04-01

    The number of fires and the extent of the burned surface in Mediterranean Europe have increased significantly during the last three decades. This may be due either to modifications in land-use (e.g. land abandonment and fuel accumulation) or to climatic changes (e.g. reduction of fuel humidity), both factors leading to an increase of fire risk and fire spread. As in the Mediterranean ecosystems, fires in Portugal have an intricate effect on vegetation regeneration due to the complexity of landscape structures as well as to the different responses of vegetation to the variety of fire regimes. A thorough evaluation of vegetation recovery after fire events becomes therefore crucial in land management. In the above mentioned context remote sensing plays an important role because of its ability to monitor and characterise post-fire vegetation dynamics. A number of fire recovery studies, based on remote sensing, have been conducted in regions characterised by Mediterranean climates and the use of NDVI to monitor plant regeneration after fire events was successfully tested (Díaz-Delgado et al., 1998). In particular, several studies have shown that rapid regeneration occurs within the first 2 years after the fire occurrences, with distinct recovery rates according to the geographical facing of the slopes (Pausas and Vallejo, 1999). In 2003 Portugal was hit by the most devastating sequence of large fires, responsible by a total burnt area of 450 000 ha (including 280 000 ha of forest), representing about 5% of the Portuguese mainland (Trigo et al., 2006). The aim of the present work is to assess and monitor the vegetation behaviour over Portugal following the 2003 fire episodes. For this purpose we have used the regional fields of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as obtained from the VEGETATION-SPOT5 instrument, from 1999 to 2008. We developed a methodology to identify large burnt scars in Portugal for the 2003 fire season. The vegetation dynamics was then analysed for some selected areas and a regression model of post-fire recovery was fitted to the recorded values of NDVI. The model allowed characterising the dynamics of the regeneration process. It was found that recovery rates depend on geographical location, fire intensity/severity and type of vegetation cover. Díaz-Delgado, R., Salvador, R. and Pons, X., 1998: Monitoring of plant community regeneration after fire by remote sensing. In L. Traboud (Ed.), Fire management and landscape ecology (pp. 315-324). International Association of Wildland Fire, Fairfield, WA. Pausas, G.J. and Vallejo, V.R., 1999: The role of fire in European Mediterranean Ecosystems. In: E. Chuvieco (Ed.), Remote sensing of large wildfires in the European Mediterranean basin (pp. 3-16). Springer-Verlag. Trigo R.M., Pereira J.M.C., Pereira M.G., Mota B., Calado M.T., DaCamara C.C., Santo F.E., 2006: Atmospheric conditions associated with the exceptional fire season of 2003 in Portugal. International Journal of Climatology 26 (13): 1741-1757 NOV 15 2006.

  15. Establishment of non-native plant species after wildfires: Effects of fuel treatments, abiotic and biotic factors, and post-fire grass seeding treatments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, M.E.; Omi, P.N.; Martinson, E.J.; Chong, G.W.

    2006-01-01

    Establishment and spread of non-native species following wildfires can pose threats to long-term native plant recovery. Factors such as disturbance severity, resource availability, and propagule pressure may influence where non-native species establish in burned areas. In addition, pre- and post-fire management activities may influence the likelihood of non-native species establishment. In the present study we examine the establishment of non-native species after wildfires in relation to native species richness, fire severity, dominant native plant cover, resource availability, and pre- and post-fire management actions (fuel treatments and post-fire rehabilitation treatments). We used an information-theoretic approach to compare alternative hypotheses. We analysed post-fire effects at multiple scales at three wildfires in Colorado and New Mexico. For large and small spatial scales at all fires, fire severity was the most consistent predictor of non-native species cover. Non-native species cover was also correlated with high native species richness, low native dominant species cover, and high seeded grass cover. There was a positive, but non-significant, association of non-native species with fuel-treated areas at one wildfire. While there may be some potential for fuels treatments to promote non-native species establishment, wildfire and post-fire seeding treatments seem to have a larger impact on non-native species. ?? IAWF 2006.

  16. Treatment of pain in severe burns.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, G; Rae, C P; Kinsella, J

    2000-01-01

    Burn pain can cause psychologic and functional difficulties, and is difficult to predict from wound depth. The initial painful stimulation of nerve endings by the burn with continued painful stimuli result in peripheral and central mechanisms causing amplification of painful stimuli, and the development of chronic pain syndromes that can be difficult to treat. In order to assess the effect of analgesic interventions it is essential to measure the patient's pain in a simple and reproducible manner. A number of tools exist for this measurement, ranging from longer and more detailed techniques such as the McGill pain questionnaire most suited to relatively stable pain, to visual analogue scores and picture-based scores for children. Pain management begins with the acute injury, with initial measures such as cooling of the burn and use of inhalational agents such as oxygen/nitrous oxide mixtures. On arrival in hospital, for any but trivial burns, intravenous opioids are appropriate and should be administered as small intravenous boluses titrated against effect. Following the initial resuscitation, pain may be divided into background pain and that associated with procedures. These often require different analgesic interventions. Background pain may be treated with potent intravenous opioids by infusion or patient controlled analgesia and then on to oral, less potent opioids, followed by other oral analgesics. Often drug combinations work best. More severe procedural pain may be treated with a variety of interventions from a slight increase in therapy for the background pain to more potent drugs, local blocks, or general anaesthesia. In addition to drug-based methods of managing burn pain, a number of nonpharmacologic approaches have been successfully employed including hypnosis, auricular electrical stimulation, massage, and a number of cognitive and behavioural techniques. PMID:11702609

  17. Rapid Response Tools and Datasets for Post-fire Erosion Modeling: Linking Remote Sensing and Process-based Hydrological Models to support Post-fire Remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M. E.; Elliot, W. J.; Endsley, K. A.; Robichaud, P. R.; Billmire, M.

    2014-11-01

    Post-fire flooding and erosion can pose a serious threat to life, property, and municipal water supplies. Increased peak flows and sediment delivery due to the loss of surface cover and fire-induced changes in soil properties are of great concern to both resource managers and the public. To respond to this threat, interdisciplinary Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) Teams are formed to assess potential erosion and flood risks. These teams are under tight deadlines as remediation plans and treatments must be developed and implemented before the first major storms in order to be effective. One of the primary sources of information for making these decisions is a burn severity map derived from remote sensing data (typically Landsat) that reflects fire induced changes in vegetative cover and soil properties. Slope, soils, land cover, and climate are also important parameters that need to be considered when accessing risk. Many modeling tools and datasets have been developed to assist BAER teams, but process-based and spatially explicit empirical models are currently under-utilized compared to simpler, lumped models because they are both more difficult to set up and require spatially explicit inputs such as digital elevation models, soils, and land cover. We are working to facilitate the use of models by preparing spatial datasets within a web-based tool that rapidly modifies model inputs using burn severity maps derived from earth observation data. Automating the creation of model inputs facilitates the wider use of more accurate, process-based models for spatially explicit predictions of post-fire erosion and runoff.

  18. Post-fire Sediment Production From Hillslopes in the Colorado Front Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benavides-Solorio, J.; MacDonald, L. H.

    2001-12-01

    Post-fire erosion and sediment yields are an important concern in the Colorado Front Range because past fires have adversely affected domestic water supplies, reservoir storage capacity, and coldwater fisheries habitat. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of season, fire severity, time since burning, and percent cover on erosion rates at the hillslope scale. Sediment production was monitored for 1-2 years from 48 sediment fences on six different wild and prescribed fires. Sediment production rates varied greatly between seasons, by time since burning, by fire severity, and between years. Summer rainstorms from June-September generally produced 10-50 times more sediment than snowmelt or mixed rain-and-snow events between October and May. The two oldest fires (1994 and 1998) had sediment production rates that were approximately 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than the four more recent fires. Fire severity was an important control on sediment production in the 2000 Bobcat wildfire and the November 1999 Old Flowers prescribed fire. In the case of the Bobcat fire, the high severity sites produced 50 times more sediment than the sites burned at moderate severity, and 500 times more sediment than the sites burned at low severity. There was little difference in sediment production rates between 2000 and 2001 for the Bobcat fire, while the other four more recent fires yielded very different amounts of sediment in 2000 and 2001. For two fires sediment production rates in summer 2000 were approximately seven times greater than in summer 2001, while the reverse was true for two other fires. The observed differences indicate that, at least for the first couple of years after burning, the amount and intensity of summer rainstorms can have a greater effect on sediment yields than time since burning. The decreases in sediment production with decreasing fire severity and increasing time since burning were strongly correlated with percent ground cover, as sites with more than 35% ground cover generally produced much less sediment than sites with less than 20% cover. The results suggest that relative sediment yields from burned areas are much easier to predict than absolute values, and that post-fire erosion control efforts should focus on increasing percent ground cover through mulching or other treatments.

  19. Post Fire Vegetation Recovery in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, Celia; Bastos, Ana; DaCamara, Carlos; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2011-01-01

    Fires in Portugal, as in the Mediterranean ecosystems, have a complex effect on vegetation regeneration due to the different responses of vegetation to the variety of fire regimes and to the complexity of landscape structures. A thorough evaluation of vegetation recovery after fire events becomes therefore crucial in land management. In 2005, Portugal suffered a strong damage from forest fires that damaged an area of 300 000 ha of forest and shrub. This year are particularly interesting because it is associated the severe drought of 2005. The aim of the present study is to identify large burnt scars in Portugal during the 2005 fire seasons and monitoring vegetation behaviour throughout the pre and the post fire periods. The mono-parametric model developed by Gouveia et al. (2010), based on monthly values of NDVI, at the 1km×1km spatial scale, as obtained from the VEGETATION-SPOT5 instrument, from 1999 to 2009, was used.

  20. Student Attitudes toward Children and Adolescents with Severe Burns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holaday, Margot; McPhearson, Ruth

    1996-01-01

    Color photographs of burned and nonburned children were used to study the attitudes of 218 practice teachers, nursing students, and counselors-in-training. Findings revealed that children with severe burns and facial scarring were regarded less favorably. Stresses that professionals should be well-trained and empathic in order to assist burned

  1. Is timing of prescribed fire critical for limiting post-fire erosion? Lessons from Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakesby, Richard A.; Ferreira, Carla S. S.; Walsh, Rory P. D.; Ferreira, António J. D.; Urbanek, Emilia; Stoof, Cathelijne R.

    2010-05-01

    The rapid increase in fire activity in parts of the Mediterranean from the 1960s onwards led to a rise in interest in the application of prescribed fire as a method of reducing fuel loads and thereby limiting the likelihood of the occurrence of severe wildfires and the size of the areas affected. The ‘windows of opportunity' for carrying out controlled burning are restricted to comparatively brief periods during the autumn through to late spring when wind direction and strength, air temperature and humidity, and fuel load moisture contents are judged to be appropriate. Given that the most erosive rainfall events are often in the autumn to early winter, delaying prescribed fire until later in the winter might be seen as having advantages in reducing post-fire erosional losses of ash, sediment and nutrients, particularly in wetter regions, as on the Atlantic fringe of the Mediterranean. Burning in late winter or spring might be expected to limit the chances of early post-fire heavy and erosive rainfall events. This would allow good vegetation recovery throughout spring and summer before the intense rainfall events likely to occur from the autumn onwards. As part of the EU-funded DESIRE project investigating ways of mitigating the detrimental effects of wildfire on land degradation, a small (9 ha), steep catchment comprising mainly scrub vegetation with encroaching pines in central Portugal was subjected to experimental fire. Although scheduled for autumn-early winter, delay of burning until February 20th 2009 proved necessary because of persistent rainfall and ground conditions too wet for burning. Sediment losses were monitored before and after the burn at the hillslope scale using a series of sediment fences. These comprise geotextile material supported against a frame made of steel bars forming a trap for sediment eroded from upslope. Knowing the contributing areas for eroded material reaching the fences enables erosion rates to be determined. Early results before summer 2009 indicated soil losses generally lower than those collected from similar terrain affected by wildfire. However, rainfall events during the 2009-10 autumn - winter period have been large and have included some intense storms sufficiently erosive to increase erosion rates relative to those recorded in the early post-fire months of spring and early summer 2009. Despite a relatively moist post-fire spring and the rapid appearance of new shoots from resprouting vegetation in particular, the thin degraded nature of the soil has been in large part responsible for the slow establishment of a vegetation cover sufficiently dense to be very effective at protecting the soil. Pre-fire and post-fire erosion and indicative nutrient content of soil collected from the sediment fences are considered and compared with results from the wildfire site and from the literature to assess whether timing of prescribed fire within the window of opportunity matters to any great extent.

  2. Factors Associated With Post-fire Sediment Yields From Hillslope Plots in the Colorado Front Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benavides-Solorio, J.; MacDonald, L. H.

    2003-12-01

    In recent years there has been a large increase in the number and size of wildfires in the mid-elevation zones of the Colorado Front Range. High-intensity rainstorms after these fires have increased erosion rates by several orders of magnitude and severely affected downstream aquatic resources. The objective of this study was to measure sediment production rates at the hillslope scale and determine the key controlling variables. To this end 48 sediment fences have been continuously monitored in three wildfires and three prescribed fires at elevations ranging from 1670 to 3050 m. The most intensively-studied area is the Bobcat fire, which burned 43 km2 in June 2000. Within this fire sediment production rates exceeded 10 Mg ha-1 yr-1 for areas burned at high severity. Prescribed fires produced substantially less sediment than the corresponding wildfires. Sediment production rates from sites burned at high severity were nearly 200 times higher than sites burned at moderate severity. Nearly all of the erosion occurred as a result of summer rainstorms rather than winter snowmelt. Sediment production rates per unit area were 2-3 times higher in swales or small drainages than from planar hillslopes. Data from the older fires indicate that sediment production rates remain elevated for sites burned at high severity for at least three years after burning. When the data from all fires were combined, 77% of the variability in sediment production rates could be explained by fire severity, percent bare soil, rainfall erosivity, soil water repellency, and soil texture. A simpler model using only percent cover and rainfall erosivity had a R2 of 0.62. Various models were tested against an independent data set from the Bobcat fire, and this showed that fire severity, percent bare soil, and rainfall erosivity could successfully predict post-fire erosion rates. The understanding and models developed in this project can help land managers predict the likely impacts from future wildfires and assist in the design of more effective post-fire rehabilitation techniques.

  3. Analysis of Alaskan burn severity patterns using remotely sensed data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffy, P.A.; Epting, J.; Graham, J.M.; Rupp, T.S.; McGuire, A.D.

    2007-01-01

    Wildland fire is the dominant large-scale disturbance mechanism in the Alaskan boreal forest, and it strongly influences forest structure and function. In this research, patterns of burn severity in the Alaskan boreal forest are characterised using 24 fires. First, the relationship between burn severity and area burned is quantified using a linear regression. Second, the spatial correlation of burn severity as a function of topography is modelled using a variogram analysis. Finally, the relationship between vegetation type and spatial patterns of burn severity is quantified using linear models where variograms account for spatial correlation. These results show that: 1) average burn severity increases with the natural logarithm of the area of the wildfire, 2) burn severity is more variable in topographically complex landscapes than in flat landscapes, and 3) there is a significant relationship between burn severity and vegetation type in flat landscapes but not in topographically complex landscapes. These results strengthen the argument that differential flammability of vegetation exists in some boreal landscapes of Alaska. Additionally, these results suggest that through feedbacks between vegetation and burn severity, the distribution of forest vegetation through time is likely more stable in flat terrain than it is in areas with more complex topography. ?? IAWF 2007.

  4. Post-fire Erosion: Long-term Recovery and Effectiveness of Rehabilitation Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, L. H.; Rough, D. T.; Schaffrath, K.

    2007-12-01

    Millions of dollars are spent each year to reduce runoff and erosion rates after high-severity wildfires, but there are relatively few data evaluating their effectiveness over longer time periods relative to natural recovery. In this study we summarize six years of hillslope erosion data from 18 untreated plots and five replicated post-fire rehabilitation treatments applied after the 2002 Hayman and Schoonover wildfires in the ponderosa pine zone in the central Colorado Front Range. The rate of recovery and effectiveness of these treatments are compared to the results from the 2000 Bobcat fire 130 km to the north (Wagenbrenner et al., 2006). On the Hayman fire straw mulching reduced hillslope-scale sediment yields by more than 90% in the first two summers after burning and by 77% in the third summer after burning. By the fourth summer the straw mulch had no significant effect on the amount of ground cover or sediment yields relative to the untreated controls. Aerial hydromulching had a similar effectiveness and longevity, but a ground-based hydromulch treatment was poorly formulated and did not significantly reduce sediment yields. Scarification and seeding did not increase the amount of surface cover or reduce sediment yields. The initial wet application of a polyacylamide appeared to reduce sediment yields, but subsequent applications did not have any significant effect. None of the treatments was effective for more than three summers after burning. The results confirm the fundamental importance of ground cover and are consistent with the mulching and seeding results from the Bobcat fire. The primary difference is the slower vegetative recovery rates for the coarser-textured soils in the Hayman and Schoonover fires, and this has caused post-fire sediment yields to remain elevated for six summers after burning as compared to a maximum of four summers for the Bobcat fire. Land managers must evaluate the duration of treatment effectiveness and post-fire erosion as well as the shorter-term efficacy of their proposed treatments, and these evaluations must be done on a site-specific basis.

  5. Soil water repellency within a burned pinon-juniper woodland: spatial distribution, severity, and ecohydrologic implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Post-fire recovery of juniper-dominated ecosystems is dependent on the extent that ecological processes have been altered. Soil water repellency is a common condition in these ecosystems that may limit site recovery. In this study we examined the extent, severity, and ecohydrologic implications of p...

  6. [Circulation therapy for severe burn injuries].

    PubMed

    Adams, H A; Vogt, P M

    2009-05-01

    Patients with burn injuries to more than 10% of the body surface area (BSA) are in potential danger of traumatic hypovolemic shock and from 20% BSA a generalized burn edema can occur. In the preclinical setting an increased infusion therapy is generally unnecessary. Clinical circulation therapy is goal-directed taking hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, MAP, diuresis, CVP and central venous sO(2 )into consideration. For initial volume replacement, balanced crystalloids with the addition of acetate and possibly malate are infused. Colloids should be given with great caution. Additional gelatine solution is only to be used in patients with impending hypotension and catecholamines should also be avoided if possible. If necessary, dobutamine is used to increase cardiac inotropy and cardiac output. Norepinephrine is only indicated in patients with significantly reduced SVR. Extended hemodynamic monitoring is necessary in all patients with prolonged catecholamine therapy. PMID:19440643

  7. Effects of post-fire salvage logging and a skid trail treatment on ground cover, soils, and sediment production in the interior western United

    E-print Network

    MacDonald, Lee

    Effects of post-fire salvage logging and a skid trail treatment on ground cover, soils 2014 Keywords: Erosion Wildfire Water repellency Soil compaction Salvage logging Mitigation a b s t r a c t Post-fire salvage logging adds another set of environmental effects to recently burned areas

  8. Determinants of Skeletal Muscle Catabolism After Severe Burn

    PubMed Central

    Hart, David W.; Wolf, Steven E.; Chinkes, David L.; Gore, Dennis C.; Mlcak, Ronald P.; Beauford, Robert B.; Obeng, Michael K.; Lal, Sophia; Gold, Warren F.; Wolfe, Robert R.; Herndon, David N.

    2000-01-01

    Objective To determine which patient factors affect the degree of catabolism after severe burn. Summary Background Data Catabolism is associated with severe burn and leads to erosion of lean mass, impaired wound healing, and delayed rehabilitation. Methods From 1996 to 1999, 151 stable-isotope protein kinetic studies were performed in 102 pediatric and 21 adult subjects burned over 20–99.5% of their total body surface area (TBSA). Patient demographics, burn characteristics, and hospital course variables were correlated with the net balance of skeletal muscle protein synthesis and breakdown across the leg. Data were analyzed sequentially and cumulatively through univariate and cross-sectional multiple regression. Results Increasing age, weight, and delay in definitive surgical treatment predict increased catabolism (P < .05). Body surface area burned increased catabolism until 40% TBSA was reached; catabolism did not consistently increase thereafter. Resting energy expenditure and sepsis were also strong predictors of net protein catabolism. Among factors that did not significantly correlate were burn type, pneumonia, wound contamination, and time after burn. From these results, the authors also infer that gross muscle mass correlates independently with protein wasting after burn. Conclusions Heavier, more muscular subjects, and subjects whose definitive surgical treatment is delayed are at the greatest risk for excess catabolism after burn. Sepsis and excessive hypermetabolism are also associated with protein catabolism. PMID:10998644

  9. Spatial frequency domain imaging of burn wounds in a preclinical model of graded burn severity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, John Quan; Crouzet, Christian; Mai, Tuan; Riola, Kathleen; Uchitel, Daniel; Liaw, Lih-Huei; Bernal, Nicole; Ponticorvo, Adrien; Choi, Bernard; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2013-06-01

    Frequent monitoring of early-stage burns is necessary for deciding optimal treatment and management. Both superficial and full thickness burns are relatively easy to diagnose based on clinical observation. In between these two extremes are superficial-partial thickness and deep-partial thickness burns. These burns, while visually similar, differ dramatically in terms of clinical treatment and are known to progress in severity over time. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) for noninvasively mapping quantitative changes in chromophore and optical properties that may be an indicative of burn wound severity. A controlled protocol of graded burn severity was developed and applied to 17 rats. SFDI data was acquired at multiple near-infrared wavelengths over a course of 3 h. Burn severity was verified using hematoxylin and eosin histology. From this study, we found that changes in water concentration (edema), deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration, and optical scattering (tissue denaturation) to be statistically significant at differentiating superficial partial-thickness burns from deep-partial thickness burns.

  10. EFFECTS OF SUMMER FIRE AND POST-FIRE GRAZING ON GRASSHOPPER ABUNDANCE AND SPECIES COMPOSITION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Habitat management practices such as burning or livestock grazing have the potential to be important tools in grasshopper management. Few studies have simultaneously examined the effects of fire and post-fire grazing on grasshopper populations. The responses of grasshoppers to late summer fire and...

  11. RAPID POST-FIRE HYDROLOGIC WATERSHED ASSESSMENT USING THE AGWA GIS-BASED HYDROLOGIC MODELING TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rapid post-fire watershed assessment to identify potential trouble spots for erosion and flooding can potentially aid land managers and Burned Area Emergency Rehabilitation (BAER) teams in deploying mitigation and rehabilitation resources.

    These decisions are inherently co...

  12. Stem demography and post-fire recruitment of a resprouting serotinous conifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, J.E.; Keeley, M.B.; Bond, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    The contribution of resprouts and seedling recruitment to post-fire regeneration of the South African fynbos conifer Widdringtonia nodiflora was compared eight months after wildfires in 1990. Stems on all trees were killed by fire but resprouting success was > 90 % at all but one site. A demographic study of burned skeletons revealed that prior to these fires, nearly all plants were multi-stemmed (4 - 9 stems/plant) and multi-aged, indicating continuous sprout production between fires. All stems were killed by these 1990 fires and at most sites > 90 % of the stems were burned to ground level. All diameter stems were susceptible to such incineration as, at most sites, there was no difference in average diameter of stems burned to ground level and those left standing. Individual genets usually had all ramets incinerated to ground level or all ramets charred, but intact, suggesting certain micro-sites burned hotter, whereas other sites were somewhat protected. Although not true of the 1990 fires, there was evidence that occasionally Widdringtonia stems may survive fire. At one site, four of the 16 plants sampled had a burned stem twice as old as the oldest burned stem on the other 12 plants at the site, suggesting some stems had survived the previous fire (ca. 1970) and this conclusion was supported by fire-scars on these four stems that dated to ca. 1970. Based on the highly significant correlation between stem diameter and cone density left standing after the 1990 fries, we calculated that for most sites > 80 % of the initial cone crop was incinerated by fire. This is important because we observed a strong relationship between size of the canopy cone crop surviving fire and post-fire seedling recruitment. Under these conditions we hypothesize that sprouting confers a selective advantage to genets when fires cause heavy losses of seed. The infrequent occurrence of sprouting in the Cupressaceae suggests the hypothesis that resprouting is an apomorphic or derived trait in Widdringtonia. Data from this study suggests resprouting provides a selective advantage under severe fynbos fires, which are not only 'stand-replacing fires,' but also are intense enough to incinerate cone-bearing stems.

  13. Predictive modelling of burn probability and burn severity in a desert spring ecosystem

    E-print Network

    Weisberg, Peter J.

    Predictive modelling of burn probability and burn severity in a desert spring ecosystem Stephanie O: pweisberg@cabnr.unr.edu Abstract. Little is known about the fire ecology of desert springs, despite their importance for biodiversity and for provision of ecosystem services. Desert spring ecosystems

  14. Heparin Reduced Mortality and Sepsis in Severely Burned Children

    PubMed Central

    Zayas, G.J.; Bonilla, A.M.; Saliba, M.J

    2007-01-01

    Summary Objectives. In El Salvador, before 1999, morbidity and mortality in severely burned children were high. In 1998, all children with burns of 40% or larger size died and sepsis was found. With heparin use in 1999, some similarly burned children survived, and sepsis, pain, procedures, and scars were noted to be less. This retrospective study presents the details. Methods. A study was conducted at the National Children's Hospital in El Salvador of all children with burns over 20% size treated in 1998, when no heparin was used, and in 1999, when heparin was added to burns treatment, using an ethics committee approved protocol in use in twelve other countries. Sodium aqueous heparin solution USP from an intestinal source was infused intravenously and applied topically onto burn surfaces and within blisters for the first 1-3 days post-burn. Then heparin, in diminishing doses, was continued only topically until healing. The treatments in 1998 and 1999 were otherwise the same, except that fewer procedures were needed in 1999. Results. There were no significant differences in gender, age, weight, burn aetiology, or burn size between the burned children in 1998 and those in 1999. Burn pain was relieved and pain medicine was not needed in children treated with heparin in 1999. In 1998, one child survived who had a 35% size burn, and the eight children died who had burns of 40% and over. The survival rate was one out of nine (11%). The average burn size was 51.7%. With heparin use in 1999, six of the ten children survived burns of 50.7% average size. The increase in survival with heparin from 11% to 60% and, therefore, the decrease in mortality from 89% to 40% were significant (p < 0.04). Clinical symptoms and positive blood cultures documented bacterial sepsis in the nine children in 1998. In 1999, the blood cultures for sepsis were positive in the four children who died and negative in the six who survived. The nine versus four differences in the incidence of sepsis between 1998 and 1999 was significant (p < 0.008). The survivors had notably smooth skin. Conclusions. The use of heparin in this study relieved burn pain, significantly reduced mortality and sepsis with fewer procedures, and discernibly improved cosmetic results. PMID:21991064

  15. Post-Fire Debris-Flow Hazard Assessments at the U.S. Geological Survey - Recent Advances and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staley, D. M.; Kean, J. W.; Smoczyk, G. M.; Negri, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Wildfire can have profound effects on the hydrologic response of a watershed, and debris-flow activity is among the most destructive consequences of these effects. The continued high likelihood of catastrophic wildfires in the western U. S. and the encroachment of development into fire-prone areas have created the need to develop tools to identify and quantify the potential hazards posed by debris flows generated from burned watersheds. These tools are critically needed by Federal, State, and local agencies to mitigate the impacts of debris flows on people, their property, infrastructure and natural resources. Applied research at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Landslide Hazards Program is focused on providing timely, science-based assessments of post-fire debris-flow hazard. Formerly, post-fire debris-flow hazard assessments were disseminated by means of the USGS Open-File Report publication series, which included poster-sized maps that predicted the probability, volume, and combined hazard for given watersheds. Feedback from collaborators suggested that 1) the reports were not sufficiently timely for immediate post-fire use, 2) the static maps were difficult to use for site-specific assessments, and 3) individual assessments were often cost-prohibitive. Beginning in January 2014, the USGS has transitioned to a web-based method for disseminating post-fire debris-flow hazard assessments. This new platform addresses the primary concerns of our stakeholders in three ways. First, the turnaround time has been reduced from 1-2 months for a map and written report, to 3-4 days for a web-based map assessment. This allows response teams to incorporate the assessment results into their reports, which are urgently needed immediately after fires. Second, the new website is interactive and accompanied by downloadable geospatial data of predictions for several storm scenarios. These features permit casual (local residents) and power-users (GIS experts) to evaluate site-specific debris-flow hazards. Finally, the new web-based assessments are completely free and publicly available online. This new method for assessment dissemination permits the Landslide Hazards Program to focus energies on improving existing predictive models of post-fire debris-flow probability, magnitude and timing.

  16. Index for characterizing post-fire soil environments in temperate coniferous forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jain, Theresa B.; Pilliod, David S.; Graham, Russell T.; Lentile, Leigh B.; Sandquist, Jonathan E.

    2012-01-01

    Many scientists and managers have an interest in describing the environment following a fire to understand the effects on soil productivity, vegetation growth, and wildlife habitat, but little research has focused on the scientific rationale for classifying the post-fire environment. We developed an empirically-grounded soil post-fire index (PFI) based on available science and ecological thresholds. Using over 50 literature sources, we identified a minimum of five broad categories of post-fire outcomes: (a) unburned, (b) abundant surface organic matter ( > 85% surface organic matter), (c) moderate amount of surface organic matter ( ? 40 through 85%), (d) small amounts of surface organic matter ( < 40%), and (e) absence of surface organic matter (no organic matter left). We then subdivided each broad category on the basis of post-fire mineral soil colors providing a more fine-tuned post-fire soil index. We related each PFI category to characteristics such as soil temperature and duration of heating during fire, and physical, chemical, and biological responses. Classifying or describing post-fire soil conditions consistently will improve interpretations of fire effects research and facilitate communication of potential responses or outcomes (e.g., erosion potential) from fires of varying severities.

  17. Do standard burn mortality formulae work on a population of severely burned children and adults?

    PubMed

    Tsurumi, Amy; Que, Yok-Ai; Yan, Shuangchun; Tompkins, Ronald G; Rahme, Laurence G; Ryan, Colleen M

    2015-08-01

    Accurate prediction of mortality following burns is useful as an audit tool, and for providing treatment plan and resource allocation criteria. Common burn formulae (Ryan Score, Abbreviated Burn Severity Index (ABSI), classic and revised Baux) have not been compared with the standard Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHEII) or re-validated in a severely (?20% total burn surface area) burned population. Furthermore, the revised Baux (R-Baux) has been externally validated thoroughly only once and the pediatric Baux (P-Baux) has yet to be. Using 522 severely burned patients, we show that burn formulae (ABSI, Baux, revised Baux) outperform APACHEII among adults (AUROC increase p<0.001 adults; p>0.5 children). The Ryan Score performs well especially among the most at-risk populations (estimated mortality [90% CI] original versus current study: 33% [26-41%] versus 30.18% [24.25-36.86%] for Ryan Score 2; 87% [78-93%] versus 66.48% [51.31-78.87%] for Ryan Score 3). The R-Baux shows accurate discrimination (AUROC 0.908 [0.869-0.947]) and is well-calibrated. However, the ABSI and P-Baux, although showing high measures of discrimination (AUROC 0.826 [0.737-0.916] and 0.848 [0.758-0.938]) in children), exceedingly overestimates mortality, indicating poor calibration. We highlight challenges in designing and employing scores that are applicable to a wide range of populations. PMID:25922299

  18. A project for monitoring trends in burn severity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Schwind, Brian; Brewer, Ken; Zhu, Zhu-Liang; Quayle, Brad; Howard, Stephen M.

    2007-01-01

    Jeff Eidenshink, Brian Schwind, Ken Brewer, Zhi-Liang Zhu, Brad Quayle, and Elected officials and leaders of environmental agencies need information about the effects of large wildfires in order to set policy and make management decisions. Recently, the Wildland Fire Leadership Council (WFLC), which implements and coordinates the National Fire Plan (NFP) and Federal Wildland Fire Management Policies (National Fire Plan 2004), adopted a strategy to monitor the effectiveness of the National Fire Plan and the Healthy Forests Restoration Act (HFRA). One component of this strategy is to assess the environmental impacts of large wildland fires and identify the trends of burn severity on all lands across the United States. To that end, WFLC has sponsored a six-year project, Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS), which requires the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USDA-FS) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to map and assess the burn severity for all large current and historical fires. Using Landsat data and the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) algorithm, the USGS Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) and USDA-FS Remote Sensing Applications Center will map burn severity of all fires since 1984 greater than 202 ha (500ac) in the east, and 404 ha (1,000 ac) in the west. The number of historical fires from this period combined with current fires occurring during the course of the project will exceed 9,000. The MTBS project will generate burn severity data, maps, and reports, which will be available for use at local, state, and national levels to evaluate trends in burn severity and help develop and assess the effectiveness of land management decisions. Additionally, the information developed will provide a baseline from which to monitor the recovery and health of fire-affected landscapes over time. Spatial and tabular data quantifying burn severity will augment existing information used to estimate risk associated with a range of current and future resource threats. The annual report of 2004 fires has been completed. All data and results will be distributed to the public on a Web site. A Project for Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity

  19. Linking runoff response to burn severity after a wildfire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, J.A.; Martin, D.A.; Haire, S.L.; Kinner, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Extreme floods often follow wildfire in mountainous watersheds. However, a quantitative relation between the runoff response and burn severity at the watershed scale has not been established. Runoff response was measured as the runoff coefficient C, which is equal to the peak discharge per unit drainage area divided by the average maximum 30 min rainfall intensity during each rain storm. The magnitude of the bum severity was expressed as the change in the normalized burn ratio. A new burn severity variable, hydraulic functional connectivity ?? was developed and incorporates both the magnitude of the burn severity and the spatial sequence of the bum severity along hillslope flow paths. The runoff response and the burn severity were measured in seven subwatersheds (0.24 to 0.85 km2) in the upper part of Rendija Canyon burned by the 2000 Cerro Grande Fire Dear Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA. A rainfall-discharge relation was determined for four of the subwatersheds with nearly the same bum severity. The peak discharge per unit drainage area Qupeak was a linear function of the maximum 30 min rainfall intensity I30. This function predicted a rainfall intensity threshold of 8.5 mm h-1 below which no runoff was generated. The runoff coefficient C = Qupeak/I30 was a linear function of the mean hydraulic functional connectivity of the subwatersheds. Moreover, the variability of the mean hydraulic functional connectivity was related to the variability of the mean runoff coefficient, and this relation provides physical insight into why the runoff response from the same subwatershed can vary for different rainstorms with the same rainfall intensity. Published in 2007 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Post-fire wood management alters water stress, growth, and performance of pine regeneration in a Mediterranean ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maranon-Jimenez, Sara; Castro, Jorge; Querejeta, José Ignacio; Fernandez-Ondono, Emilia; Allen, Craig D.

    2013-01-01

    Extensive research has focused on comparing the impacts of post-fire salvage logging versus those of less aggressive management practices on forest regeneration. However, few studies have addressed the effects of different burnt-wood management options on seedling/sapling performance, or the ecophysiological mechanisms underlying differences among treatments. In this study, we experimentally assess the effects of post-fire management of the burnt wood on the growth and performance of naturally regenerating pine seedlings (Pinus pinaster). Three post-fire management treatments varying in degree of intervention were implemented seven months after a high-severity wildfire burned Mediterranean pine forests in the Sierra Nevada, southeast Spain: (a) “No Intervention” (NI, all burnt trees left standing); (b) “Partial Cut plus Lopping” (PCL, felling most of the burnt trees, cutting off branches, and leaving all the biomass on site without mastication); and (c) “Salvage Logging” (SL, felling the burnt trees, piling up the logs and masticating the fine woody debris). Three years after the fire, the growth, foliar nutrient concentrations, and leaf carbon, nitrogen and oxygen isotopic composition (?13C, ?18O and ?15N) of naturally regenerating seedlings were measured in all the treatments. Pine seedlings showed greatest vigor and size in the PCL treatment, whereas growth was poorest in SL. The nutrient concentrations were similar among treatments, although greater growth in the two treatments with residual wood present indicated higher plant uptake. Seedlings in the SL treatment showed high leaf ?13C and ?18O values indicating severe water stress, in contrast to significantly alleviated water stress indications in the PCL treatment. Seedling growth and physiological performance in NI was intermediate between that of PCL and SL. After six growing seasons, P. pinaster saplings in PCL showed greater growth and cone production than SL saplings. In summary, salvage logging has a detrimental effect on the ecophysiological performance and growth of naturally regenerating pine seedlings, compared to alternative post-fire management practices in which burnt logs and branches are left in situ. Improved seedling growth and performance is associated with the amelioration of microsite/microclimate conditions by the presence of residual burnt wood, which alleviates seedling drought stress and improves nutrient availability through the decomposition of woody debris.

  1. A database on post-fire erosion rates and debris flows in Mediterranean-Basin watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parise, M.; Cannon, S. H.

    2009-04-01

    Wildfires can affect many Mediterranean countries on a yearly bases, producing damage and economic losses, both as direct effect of the fires and as consequent events, including erosion and sedimentation in the recently burned areas. Even though most of the wildfires occur in Spain, Portugal, southern France, Italy and Greece, it can be stated that no one of the Mediterranean countries is completely immune by such hazards. In addition to destruction of the vegetation, and in addition to direct losses to the built-up environment, further effects may also be registered as a consequence of the fire, even weeks or months after its occurrence. Wildfire can have, in fact, profound effects on the hydrologic response of watersheds, and debris-flow activity is among the most destructive consequences of these effects, often causing extensive damage to human infrastructure. Wildfires are today continuously monitored by several European institutions, and forecasting of the conditions (weather, temperature, wind, etc.) more likely conducive to their occurrence is often available in real time. On the other hand, not much is known about the processes that occur as a consequence of the fire, including erosion and debris flows. These are often underestimated, and become object of study only after some catastrophic event has occurred. This is in strong contrast with all the established techniques of risk mitigation; as a result, no prevention action is generally considered, and the society relies only on the emergency phase following a disaster. Aimed at contributing to gather information about the occurrence of erosional and debris-flow activity in recently burned Mediterranean areas, and at making available these information to land planners and scientists, a specific database has been compiled and presented in this contribution. To date, scientific literature on the topic in Europe has never been catalogued, and was dispersed in a number of different journals and in conference proceedings. The database derives from critical analysis of the existing literature, integrated by case studies directly studied by the authors. Studies on recently burned areas in the Mediterranean basin are most frequently carried out on small experimental plots, often with simulated rainfall A problem of scale therefore exists when trying to extrapolate the erosion rates (also reported as sediment yields or as sediment losses) from these studies to a watershed scale. Very few articles, on the other hand, were found that document the watershed-scale response of basins to rainfall-induced erosion and debris flows following wildfires. The few reported cases of debris flows in the Mediterranean Basin describe erosion of sediment from the hillslopes and the channels (sometimes down to bedrock), and, for a limited number of sites, failure of discrete landslides. This information indicates that debris-flow generation from recently burned areas in the Mediterranean basin appears to occur primarily through sediment bulking processes. Nevertheless, the database so far compiled shows a distribution of post-fire erosion and debris flows in the western Mediterranean basin (Spain, essentially, but also Portugal), followed by the eastern Mediterranean area (Israel), and then by France, Italy and Greece. Even though still in a preliminary version, that needs to be integrated and updated from further sources, our data compilation allows for the unique opportunity to examine issues related to the generation of post-wildfire debris flows across a variety of environments and under a variety of conditions, and to move from a qualitative conception of the controls on post-fire debris-flow generation to the definition of specific conditions that result in their occurrence. Future activities of the project will include: i) updating and integration of the preliminary version of the database; ii) development of models that can be used to identify the probability of debris-flow occurrence and the magnitude of the event for pre- and post-fire hazard assessment in Mediterranean climates;

  2. Monitoring the Effects of Forest Restoration Treatments on Post-Fire Vegetation Recovery with MODIS Multitemporal Data

    PubMed Central

    van Leeuwen, Willem J. D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how satellite based time-series vegetation greenness data and phenological measurements can be used to monitor and quantify vegetation recovery after wildfire disturbances and examine how pre-fire fuel reduction restoration treatments impact fire severity and impact vegetation recovery trajectories. Pairs of wildfire affected sites and a nearby unburned reference site were chosen to measure the post-disturbance recovery in relation to climate variation. All site pairs were chosen in forested uplands in Arizona and were restricted to the area of the Rodeo-Chediski fire that occurred in 2002. Fuel reduction treatments were performed in 1999 and 2001. The inter-annual and seasonal vegetation dynamics before, during, and after wildfire events can be monitored using a time series of biweekly composited MODIS NDVI (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer - Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) data. Time series analysis methods included difference metrics, smoothing filters, and fitting functions that were applied to extract seasonal and inter-annual change and phenological metrics from the NDVI time series data from 2000 to 2007. Pre- and post-fire Landsat data were used to compute the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) and examine burn severity at the selected sites. The phenological metrics (pheno-metrics) included the timing and greenness (i.e. NDVI) for the start, peak and end of the growing season as well as proxy measures for the rate of green-up and senescence and the annual vegetation productivity. Pre-fire fuel reduction treatments resulted in lower fire severity, which reduced annual productivity much less than untreated areas within the Rodeo-Chediski fire perimeter. The seasonal metrics were shown to be useful for estimating the rate of post-fire disturbance recovery and the timing of phenological greenness phases. The use of satellite time series NDVI data and derived pheno-metrics show potential for tracking vegetation cover dynamics and successional changes in response to drought, wildfire disturbances, and forest restoration treatments in fire-suppressed forests.

  3. Evolving forest fire burn severity classification algorithms for multispectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumby, Steven P.; Harvey, Neal R.; Bloch, Jeffrey J.; Theiler, James P.; Perkins, Simon J.; Young, Aaron C.; Szymanski, John J.

    2001-08-01

    Between May 6 and May 18, 2000, the Cerro Grande/Los Alamos wildfire burned approximately 43,000 acres (17,500 ha) and 235 residences in the town of Los Alamos, NM. Initial estimates of forest damage included 17,000 acres (6,900 ha) of 70-100% tree mortality. Restoration efforts following the fire were complicated by the large scale of the fire, and by the presence of extensive natural and man-made hazards. These conditions forced a reliance on remote sensing techniques for mapping and classifying the burn region. During and after the fire, remote-sensing data was acquired from a variety of aircraft-based and satellite-based sensors, including Landsat 7. We now report on the application of a machine learning technique, implemented in a software package called GENIE, to the classification of forest fire burn severity using Landsat 7 ETM+ multispectral imagery. The details of this automatic classification are compared to the manually produced burn classification, which was derived from field observations and manual interpretation of high-resolution aerial color/infrared photography.

  4. [Research progress in post-fire debris flow].

    PubMed

    Di, Xue-ying; Tao, Yu-zhu

    2013-08-01

    The occurrence of the secondary disasters of forest fire has significant impacts on the environment quality and human health and safety. Post-fire debris flow is one of the most hazardous secondary disasters of forest fire. To understand the occurrence conditions of post-fire debris flow and to master its occurrence situation are the critical elements in post-fire hazard assessment. From the viewpoints of vegetation, precipitation threshold and debris flow material sources, this paper elaborated the impacts of forest fire on the debris flow, analyzed the geologic and geomorphic conditions, precipitation and slope condition that caused the post-fire debris flow as well as the primary mechanisms of debris-flow initiation caused by shallow landslide or surface runoff, and reviewed the research progress in the prediction and forecast of post-fire debris flow and the related control measures. In the future research, four aspects to be focused on were proposed, i. e., the quantification of the relationships between the fire behaviors and environmental factors and the post-fire debris flow, the quantitative research on the post-fire debris flow initiation and movement processes, the mechanistic model of post-fire debris flow, and the rapid and efficient control countermeasures of post-fire debris flow. PMID:24380363

  5. Post-fire geomorphic response in steep, forested landscapes: Oregon Coast Range, USA

    E-print Network

    Roering, Joshua J.

    Post-fire geomorphic response in steep, forested landscapes: Oregon Coast Range, USA Molly Jackson Accepted 7 May 2008 a b s t r a c t The role of fire in shaping steep, forested landscapes depends, several studies postulate that fire primarily modulates sediment production via root reinforcement

  6. A data-driven approach for modeling post-fire debris-flow volumes and their uncertainty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedel, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrates the novel application of genetic programming to evolve nonlinear post-fire debris-flow volume equations from variables associated with a data-driven conceptual model of the western United States. The search space is constrained using a multi-component objective function that simultaneously minimizes root-mean squared and unit errors for the evolution of fittest equations. An optimization technique is then used to estimate the limits of nonlinear prediction uncertainty associated with the debris-flow equations. In contrast to a published multiple linear regression three-variable equation, linking basin area with slopes greater or equal to 30 percent, burn severity characterized as area burned moderate plus high, and total storm rainfall, the data-driven approach discovers many nonlinear and several dimensionally consistent equations that are unbiased and have less prediction uncertainty. Of the nonlinear equations, the best performance (lowest prediction uncertainty) is achieved when using three variables: average basin slope, total burned area, and total storm rainfall. Further reduction in uncertainty is possible for the nonlinear equations when dimensional consistency is not a priority and by subsequently applying a gradient solver to the fittest solutions. The data-driven modeling approach can be applied to nonlinear multivariate problems in all fields of study. ?? 2011.

  7. Biogeochemistry and plant physiological traits interact to reinforce patterns of post-fire dominance in boreal forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenoy, A.; Kielland, K.; Johnstone, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    Increases in the frequency, extent, and severity of fire in the North American boreal region are projected to continue under a warming climate and are likely to be associated with changes in future vegetation composition. In interior Alaska, fire severity is linked to the relative dominance of deciduous versus coniferous canopy species. Severely burned areas have high levels of deciduous recruitment and subsequent stand dominance, while lightly burned areas exhibit black spruce self-replacement. To elucidate potential mechanisms by which differential fire severity results in differential post-fire vegetation development, we examined changes in soil nitrogen (N) supply (NO3- and NH4+) and in situ 15N uptake by young aspen (Populus tremuloides) and black spruce (Picea mariana) trees growing in lightly and severely burned areas. We hypothesized that (a) soil nitrate supply would be higher in severely burned sites and (b) since conifers have been shown to have a reduced physiological capacity for NO3- uptake, aspen would display greater rates of NO3- uptake than spruce in severely burned sites. Our results suggested that the composition and magnitude of inorganic N supply 14 years after the fire was nearly identical in high-severity and low-severity sites, and nitrate represented nearly 50% of the supply. However, both aspen and spruce took up substantially more NH4+-N than NO3- -N regardless of fire severity. Surprisingly, spruce exhibited only a moderately lower rate of NO3- uptake (?g N/g root-1h-1) than aspen. At the stand level, aspen took up nearly an order-of-magnitude more N per hectare in severely burned sites compared to lightly burned sites, while spruce exhibited the opposite pattern of N uptake with respect to fire severity. Whereas ammonium appeared to be preferred by both species, nitrate represented a larger component of N uptake (based on the NO3-:NH4+ uptake ratio) in aspen (0.7) than in spruce (0.4). We suggest that these species-specific differences in N preference coupled with their respective physiological response to fire severity represent a positive feedback loop that reinforce the opposing stand dominance patterns that have developed at the two ends of the fire severity spectrum. Shifts in forest composition from the current dominance by conifers to a future landscape dominated by deciduous forest are of concern due to impacts on climate-albedo feedbacks, forest productivity, ecosystem carbon storage, and wildlife habitat use.

  8. Developing a post-fire flood chronology and recurrence probability from alluvial stratigraphy in the Buffalo Creek watershed, Colorado, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, J.G.; Parker, R.S.

    2001-01-01

    Stratigraphic and geomorphic evidence indicate floods that occur soon after forest fires have been intermittent but common events in many mountainous areas during the past several thousand years. The magnitude and recurrence of these post-fire flood events reflects the joint probability between the recurrence of fires and the recurrence of subsequent rainfall events of varying magnitude and intensity. Following the May 1996 Buffalo Creek, Colorado, forest fire, precipitation amounts and intensities that generated very little surface runoff outside of the burned area resulted in severe hillslope erosion, floods, and streambed sediment entrainment in the rugged, severely burned, 48 km2 area. These floods added sediment to many existing alluvial fans, while simultaneously incising other fans and alluvial deposits. Incision of older fans revealed multiple sequences of fluvially transported sandy gravel that grade upward into charcoal-rich, loamy horizons. We interpret these sequences to represent periods of high sediment transport and aggradation during floods, followed by intervals of quiescence and relative stability in the watershed until a subsequent fire occurred. An alluvial sequence near the mouth of a tributary draining a 0??82 km2 area indicated several previous post-fire flood cycles in the watershed. Dendrochronologic and radiocarbon ages of material in this deposit span approximately 2900 years, and define three aggradational periods. The three general aggradational periods are separated by intervals of approximately nine to ten centuries and reflect a 'millennium-scale' geomorphic response to a closely timed sequence of events: severe and intense, watershed-scale, stand-replacing fires and subsequent rainstorms and flooding. Millennium-scale aggradational units at the study site may have resulted from a scenario in which the initial runoff from the burned watershed transported and deposited large volumes of sediment on downstream alluvial surfaces and tributary fans. Subsequent storm runoff may have produced localized incision and channelization, preventing additional vertical aggradation on the sampled alluvial deposit for several centuries. Two of the millennium-scale aggradational periods at the study site consist of multiple gravel and loam sequences with similar radiocarbon ages. These closely dated sequences may reflect a 'multidecade-scale' geomorphic response to more frequent, but aerially limited and less severe fires, followed by rainstorms of relatively common recurrence. Published in 2001 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  9. Developing a post-fire flood chronology and recurrence probability from alluvial stratigraphy in the Buffalo Creek watershed, Colorado, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, John G.; Parker, R. S.

    2001-10-01

    Stratigraphic and geomorphic evidence indicate floods that occur soon after forest fires have been intermittent but common events in many mountainous areas during the past several thousand years. The magnitude and recurrence of these post-fire flood events reflects the joint probability between the recurrence of fires and the recurrence of subsequent rainfall events of varying magnitude and intensity. Following the May 1996 Buffalo Creek, Colorado, forest fire, precipitation amounts and intensities that generated very little surface runoff outside of the burned area resulted in severe hillslope erosion, floods, and streambed sediment entrainment in the rugged, severely burned, 48 km2 area. These floods added sediment to many existing alluvial fans, while simultaneously incising other fans and alluvial deposits. Incision of older fans revealed multiple sequences of fluvially transported sandy gravel that grade upward into charcoal-rich, loamy horizons. We interpret these sequences to represent periods of high sediment transport and aggradation during floods, followed by intervals of quiescence and relative stability in the watershed until a subsequent fire occurred.An alluvial sequence near the mouth of a tributary draining a 0·82 km2 area indicated several previous post-fire flood cycles in the watershed. Dendrochronologic and radiocarbon ages of material in this deposit span approximately 2900 years, and define three aggradational periods. The three general aggradational periods are separated by intervals of approximately nine to ten centuries and reflect a millennium-scale geomorphic response to a closely timed sequence of events: severe and intense, watershed-scale, stand-replacing fires and subsequent rainstorms and flooding. Millennium-scale aggradational units at the study site may have resulted from a scenario in which the initial runoff from the burned watershed transported and deposited large volumes of sediment on downstream alluvial surfaces and tributary fans. Subsequent storm runoff may have produced localized incision and channelization, preventing additional vertical aggradation on the sampled alluvial deposit for several centuries. Two of the millennium-scale aggradational periods at the study site consist of multiple gravel and loam sequences with similar radiocarbon ages. These closely dated sequences may reflect a multidecade-scale geomorphic response to more frequent, but aerially limited and less severe fires, followed by rainstorms of relatively common recurrence. Published in 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. [Experimental study on early multiple organ failure after severe burns].

    PubMed

    Chen, F M

    1992-03-01

    Forty-three male mongrel dogs (12.5 +/- 2.5 kg) were divided into normal control (n = 7), immediate infusion (n = 8), non-infusion (n = 13) and delayed infusion (n = 15) groups. A 50% TBSA third degree surface burn was produced by igniting 3% napalm for 30 seconds on the shaved back. Cardiac, pulmonary, hepatic, renal and gastrointestinal functions were monitored following the thermal injury. The findings of these studies showed that mean arterial pressure, cardiac index, left ventricular work, right ventricular work, ADP/O ratio and ATP were all significantly decreased (P less than 0.05). However pulmonary artery wedge pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance, systemic vascular resistance, P(A-a)O2, Beef, Cr, UN, ALT, LDH, TB, DB, and MDA were markedly increased (P less than 0.05). Severe shock occurred soon after burns. Thirteen dogs died within 12 hours in the non-infusion group. All the dogs were resuscitated when immediate infusion of lactic acid Ringers solution was given according to Parkland formula, and all of them tide over shock stage smoothly without obvious changes in visceral functions. However, dogs were not resuscitated when infusion was delayed 6 hours postburn. The changes in visceral were even more severe in this group than those in non-infusion group. These results demonstrated that delayed resuscitation was an important factor of MOF in the early postburn stage. The marked increase in MDA in the myocardiac, lung, liver, renal and gastrointestinal tissues indicated that lipoperoxidation by free oxygen radicals was closely related with visceral damages.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1596785

  11. Drought impact on vegetation in pre and post fire events in Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, C. M.; Bastos, A.; Trigo, R. M.; DaCamara, C.

    2012-04-01

    In 2004/2005, the Iberian Peninsula was stricken by an exceptional drought that affected more than one third of Portugal and part of southern Spain during more than 9 months. This severe drought had a strong negative impact on vegetation dynamics, as it coincided with the period of high photosynthetic activity (Gouveia et al., 2009). Since water availability is a crucial factor in post-fire vegetation recovery, it is desirable to assess the impact that such water-stress conditions had on fire sensitivity and post-fire vegetation recovery. Fire events in the European Mediterranean areas have become a serious problem and a major ecosystem disturbance, increasing erosion and soil degradation. In Portugal, the years 2003 and 2005 were particularly devastating. In 2003 it was registered the maximal burnt area since 1980, with more than 425000 ha burned, representing about 5% of Portuguese mainland. The 2005 fire season registered the highest number of fire occurrences in Portugal and the second year with the greatest number of fires in Spain. The high number of fire events observed during the summer 2005 in the Iberian Peninsula is linked, in part, to the extreme drought conditions that prevailed during the preceding winter and spring seasons of 2004/2005. Vegetation recovery after the 2003 and 2005 fire seasons was estimated using the mono-parametric model developed by Gouveia et al. (2010), which relies on monthly values of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), from 1999 to 2009, at 1kmresolution, as obtained from the VEGETATION-SPOT5 instrument.. This model was further used to evaluate the effect of drought in pre and post vegetation activity. Besides the standard NDVI, the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and the Normalized Difference Drought Index (NDDI) were computed in order to evaluate drought intensity. In the case of the burnt scars of 2003, when data corresponding to the months of drought are removed, recovery times are considerably shorter. The extreme water stress conditions to which vegetation is subject during drought events appear, therefore, to delay the regeneration process, which is to be expected since water availability is determinant to primary productivity. On the other hand, in the case of 2005 burnt areas, vegetation is more stressed and dryer in summer than in spring and, in general, fire damage is higher for pixels with higher vegetation density and higher moisture content during the months before the fire. These relationships are also related with the distinct vegetation behavior of the different land covers: in general, shrubland holds less quantity of very dry biomass, while needle leaf presents higher amounts of fairly dry biomass. Gouveia C., Trigo R.M., DaCamara C.C (2009) "Drought and Vegetation Stress Monitoring in Portugal using Satellite Data". Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 9, 1-11 Gouveia C., DaCamara C.C, Trigo R.M. (2010). "Post-fire vegetation dynamics in Portugal". Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 10, 4, 673-684.

  12. Comparison of post-fire seedling establishment between scrub communities in mediterranean and non-mediterranean climate ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carrington, M.E.; Keeley, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    I Both fire regimes and the conditions under which fires occur vary widely. Abiotic conditions (such as climate) in combination with fire season, frequency and intensity could influence vegetation responses to fire. A variety of adaptations facilitate post-fire recruitment in mediterranean climate ecosystems, but responses of other communities are less well known. We evaluated the importance of climate by comparing sites with mediterranean and subtropical climates. 2 We used paired burned and mature sites in chamise chaparral, mixed chaparral and coastal sage scrub (California), and rosemary scrub, sand pine scrub and sand-hill (Florida), to test whether (i) patterns of pre-fire and post-fire seedling recruitment are more similar between communities within a region than between regions, and (ii) post-fire stimulation of seedling establishment is greater in regions with marked fire-induced contrasts in abiotic site characteristics. 3 Post-fire seedling densities were more similar among sites within climatic regions than between regions. Both seedling densities and proportions of species represented by seedlings after fires were generally higher in California. 4 The only site characteristic showing a pre-fire-post-fire contrast was percentage open canopy, and the effect was greater in California than in Florida. Soil properties were unaffected by fire. 5 Mediterranean climate ecosystems in other regions have nutrient-poor soils similar to our subtropical Florida sites, but show post-fire seedling recruitment patterns more similar to the nutrient-rich sites in California. Climate therefore appears to play a more major role than soil characteristics.

  13. Predictors of muscle protein synthesis after severe pediatric burns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: Following a major burn, muscle protein synthesis rate increases but in most patients, this response is not sufficient to compensate the also elevated protein breakdown. Given the long-term nature of the pathophysiologic response to burn injury, we hypothesized that skeletal muscle prot...

  14. Assessing post-fire combustion of polyurethane

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, W.R.; Anderson, J.C.

    1994-05-01

    In defining hypothetical accident condition thermal test requirements, 10 CFR 71.73(c)(3) states that ``any combustion of materials of construction must be allowed to proceed until it terminates naturally.`` Two examples of extended burning of packages following the regulatory fire are documented. This paper addresses extended burning after cessation of the 30-min, 1475{degrees}F regulatory fire from an analytical perspective with specific application to a package containing polyurethane insulation. Issues include identifying conditions under which materials of construction bum, estimating burn rate, and establishing criteria for cessation of burning. These data and criteria are then applied to determine package temperature profiles using a finite element model. Development of the illustrative problem demonstrates a number of difficulties that are faced when using analytical models to simulate hypothetical thermal accident conditions.

  15. Severe adult burn survivors. What information about skin allografts?

    PubMed

    Gaucher, Sonia; Duchange, Nathalie; Jarraya, Mohamed; Magne, Jocelyne; Rochet, Jean-Michel; Stéphanazzi, Jean; Hervé, Christian; Moutel, Grégoire

    2013-09-01

    During the acute phase of a severe burn, surgery is an emergency. In this situation, human skin allografts constitute an effective temporary skin substitute. However, information about the use of human tissue can not be given to the patients because most of the allografted patients are unconscious due to their injury. This study explored the restitution of information on skin donation to patients who have been skin allografted and who have survived their injury. A qualitative study was conducted due to the limited number of patients in ability to be interviewed according to our medical and psychological criteria. 12 patients who had been treated between 2002 and 2008 were interviewed. Our results show that 10 of them ignored that they had received skin allografts. One of the two patients who knew that they had received allografts knew that skin had been harvested from deceased donor. All patients expressed that there is no information that should not be delivered. They also expressed their relief to have had the opportunity to discuss their case and at being informed during their interview. Their own experience impacted their view in favor of organ and tissue donation. PMID:23229877

  16. The role of exercise in the rehabilitation of patients with severe burns.

    PubMed

    Porter, Craig; Hardee, Justin P; Herndon, David N; Suman, Oscar E

    2015-01-01

    Severe burn trauma results in persistent skeletal muscle catabolism and prolonged immobilization. We hypothesize that structured rehabilitative exercise is a safe and efficacious strategy to restore lean body mass and physical function in burn victims. Here, we review the evidence for the utility of rehabilitative exercise training in restoring physiological function in burn survivors. PMID:25390300

  17. Burns

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NIGMS Home > Science Education > Burns Fact Sheet Burns Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area What is a burn? A burn is tissue damage caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, sunlight or nuclear radiation. The most common burns are ...

  18. Persistent Effects of Fire Severity on Early Successional Forests in Interior Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shenoy, Aditi; Johnstone, Jill F.; Kasischke, Eric S.; Kielland, Knut

    2011-01-01

    There has been a recent increase in the frequency and extent of wildfires in interior Alaska, and this trend is predicted to continue under a warming climate. Although less well documented, corresponding increases in fire severity are expected. Previous research from boreal forests in Alaska and western Canada indicate that severe fire promotes the recruitment of deciduous tree species and decreases the relative abundance of black spruce (Picea mariana) immediately after fire. Here we extend these observations by (1) examining changes in patterns of aspen and spruce density and biomass that occurred during the first two decades of post-fire succession, and (2) comparing patterns of tree composition in relation to variations in post-fire organic layer depth in four burned black spruce forests in interior Alaska after 10-20 years of succession.Wefound that initial effects of fire severity on recruitment and establishment of aspen and black spruce were maintained by subsequent effects of organic layer depth and initial plant biomass on plant growth during post-fire succession. The proportional contribution of aspen (Populus tremuloides) to total stand biomass remained above 90% during the first and second decades of succession in severely burned sites, while in lightly burned sites the proportional contribution of aspen was reduced due to a 40- fold increase in spruce biomass in these sites. Relationships between organic layer depth and stem density and biomass were consistently negative for aspen, and positive or neutral for black spruce in all four burns. Our results suggest that initial effects of post-fire organic layer depths on deciduous recruitment are likely to translate into a prolonged phase of deciduous dominance during post-fire succession in severely burned stands. This shift in vegetation distribution has important implications for climate-albedo feedbacks, future fire regime, wildlife habitat quality and natural resources for indigenous subsistence activities in interior Alaska.

  19. [Acute upper limb embolism in a severely burned patient].

    PubMed

    Wiebringhaus, P; Pierson, T; Menke, H

    2014-12-01

    Thrombosis and pulmonary embolisms are the most common complications in the hospital. The need for anticoagulation during hospital stay is obligatory. Arterial embolisms are rare. They often take place in patients with a pre-existing peripheral artery occlusive disease or in patients with atrial fibrillation. The most common complications in burn patients are wound infection, pneumonia, catheter-associated infections and paralytic ileus. There are almost no data available regarding arterial embolism in burn patients. Therefore we would like to present the case of a 60-year-old woman who was injured by a fire at home and was transported to our special burn unit. She sustained partial thickness burns of both legs and buttocks. The TBSA was 15%. During the first days of clinical stay the patient suffered from a pain induced movement reduction of the left hand. There were no peripheral pulses palpable or by pulsed-wave Doppler detectable. An urgent selected angiography of the left arm was performed and a arterial embolism of the proximal part of the a. brachialis was detected. The patient was operated immediately. After debridement and split-skin graft of the burn wounds the patient was taken to rehabiliation after 35 days. PMID:25564950

  20. Post-fire water quality in forest catchments: a review with implications for potable water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Hugh; Sheridan, Gary; Lane, Patrick; Nyman, Petter; Haydon, Shane

    2010-05-01

    In many locations fire-prone forest catchments are utilised for the supply of potable water to small communities up to large cities. For example, in south-eastern Australia, wildfires have burned part or all of forest catchments supplying drinking water to Sydney (2001 wildfire), Canberra (2003), Adelaide (2007), Melbourne (2009), as well as various regional towns. Generally, undisturbed forest catchments are a source of high quality water. However, increases in erosion and sediment flux, runoff generation, and changes to the supply of key constituents after wildfire may result in contamination of water supplies. In this review, we present key physical and chemical constituents from a drinking water perspective that may be generated in burned forest catchments and examine post-fire changes to concentrations of these constituents in streams and reservoirs. The World Health Organisation (WHO) drinking water guideline values were used to assess reported post-fire constituent concentrations. Constituents examined include suspended sediment, ash, nutrients, trace metals, anions (Cl-, SO42-), cyanides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Constituent concentrations in streams and reservoirs vary substantially following wildfire. In streams, maximum reported total suspended solid concentrations (SSC) in the first year after fire ranged from 11 to 143,000 mg L-1. SSC is often measured in studies of post-fire stream water quality, whereas turbidity is used in drinking water guidelines and more commonly monitored in water supply reservoirs. For burned catchment reservoirs in south-eastern Australia, peak turbidities increased over pre-fire conditions, as did the frequency of exceedance of the turbidity guideline. NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ may increase after wildfire but maximum recorded concentrations have not exceeded WHO guideline values. Large post-fire increases in total N and total P concentrations in streams and reservoirs have been observed, although there are no guideline values for total N or P. Studies of post-fire concentrations of dissolved organic carbon are mostly from North America and report generally minor increases after fire, with elevated concentrations reflecting background conditions. The few observations of trace metal concentrations in streams after wildfire found high concentrations that exceeded guideline values for Fe, Mn, As, Cr, Al, Ba, and Pb, which were associated with highly elevated sediment concentrations. In contrast, Cu, Zn, and Hg were below or only slightly above (?1.2 times) guideline values. Reports of Cl- and SO42- concentrations after wildfire are mostly confined to coniferous forest areas, where maximum sampled values were well below WHO guidelines. Total cyanide concentrations have been observed to exceed guidelines values, although increases are likely to be short-lived. Post-fire stream concentrations of PAHs have been found to increase but were below levels of concern. In assessing the risk to water supply from wildfires, constituents of concern may be identified according to both the reason for concern (health or aesthetic) and treatability. Determining the risk to human health from short duration exposure to elevated concentrations of many contaminants (such as toxic metals, PAHs) is problematic, given that the guideline values are based on a life-time of exposure. Other constituents may have more rapid health effects from consumption of contaminated water (e.g. cyanides, Cu, NO2-) or aesthetic concerns (e.g. Fe, Mn, SO42-, Zn). The increased flux of suspended sediment and sediment-associated constituents (particularly metals, nutrients and organic carbon) that can occur after wildfire may necessitate water treatment by coagulation and filtration. At very high sediment concentrations treatment problems may be encountered that reduce or delay the rate of water processing, potentially causing disruptions in supply. For other constituents, such as NO3-, NO2-, Cl-, SO42-, amenable cyanides, and PAHs, it appears the likelihood that concentrations of concern will occur in water suppl

  1. POST-FIRE REVEGETATION AT HANFORD

    SciTech Connect

    ROOS RC; JOHNSON AR; CAUDILL JG; RODRIGUEZ JM; WILDE JW

    2010-01-05

    Range fires on the Hanford Site can have a long lasting effect on native plant communities. Wind erosion following removal of protective vegetation from fragile soils compound the damaging effect of fires. Dust storms caused by erosion create health and safety hazards to personnel, and damage facilities and equipment. The Integrated Biological Control Program (IBC) revegetates burned areas to control erosion and consequent dust. Use of native, perennial vegetation in revegetation moves the resulting plant community away from fire-prone annual weeds, and toward the native shrub-steppe that is much less likely to burn in the future. Over the past 10 years, IBC has revegetated major fire areas with good success. IBC staff is monitoring the success of these efforts, and using lessons learned to improve future efforts.

  2. Influence of wildfires on atmospheric composition and carbon uptake of forest ecosystems in Central Siberia: the establishing of a long-term post-fire monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panov, Alexey; Chi, Xuguang; Winderlich, Jan; Prokushkin, Anatoly; Bryukhanov, Alexander; Korets, Mikhail; Ponomarev, Evgenii; Timokhina, Anastasya; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Heimann, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Calculations of direct emissions of greenhouse gases from boreal wildfires remain uncertain due to problems with emission factors, available carbon, and imprecise estimates of burned areas. Even more varied and sparse are accurate in situ calculations of temporal changes in boreal forest carbon dynamics following fire. Linking simultaneous instrumental atmospheric observations, GIS-based estimates of burned areas, and ecosystem carbon uptake calculations is vital to fill this knowledge gap. Since 2006 the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO; www.zottoproject.org) a research platform for large-scale climatic observations is operational in Central Siberia (60°48'N, 89°21'E). The data of ongoing greenhouse gases measurements at the tower are used in atmospheric inversions studies to infer the distribution of carbon sinks and sources over central Northern Eurasia. We present our contribution to reducing uncertainties in estimates of fire influence on atmospheric composition and post-fire ecosystem carbon uptake deduced from the large-scale fires that happened in 2012 in the tall tower footprint area. The burned areas were estimated from Landsat ETM 5,8 satellite images, while fires were detected from Terra/Aqua MODIS satellite data. The magnitude of ecological change caused by fires ("burn severity") was measured and mapped with a Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) index and further calibrated by a complementary field based Composite Burn Index (CBI). Measures of fire radiative power (FRP) index provided information on fire heat release intensity and on the amount and completeness of biomass combustion. Based on the analyzed GIS data, the system of study plots was established in the 5 dominating ecosystem types for a long-term post-fire monitoring. On the plots the comprehensive estimation of ecosystem parameters and carbon pools and their mapping was organized with a laser-based field instrumentation system. The work was supported financially by ISTC Project # 2757p, project of RFBR # 13-05-98053, and grant of president of RF for young scientists MK-1691.2014.5.

  3. Predicting post-fire erosion and sedimentation risk on a landscape scale: A case study from Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacDonald, L.H.; Sampson, R.; Brady, D.; Juarros, L.; Martin, D.

    2000-01-01

    Historic fire suppression efforts have increased the likelihood of large wildfires in much of the western U.S. Post-fire soil erosion and sedimentation risks are important concerns to resource managers. In this paper we develop and apply procedures to predict post-fire erosion and sedimentation risks on a pixel-, catchment-, and landscape-scale in central and western Colorado. Our model for predicting post-fire surface erosion risk is conceptually similar to the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). One key addition is the incorporation of a hydrophobicity risk index (HY-RISK) based on vegetation type, predicted fire severity, and soil texture. Post-fire surface erosion risk was assessed for each 90-m pixel by combining HYRISK, slope, soil erodibility, and a factor representing the likely increase in soil wetness due to removal of the vegetation. Sedimentation risk was a simple function of stream gradient. Composite surface erosion and sedimentation risk indices were calculated and compared across the 72 catchments in the study area. When evaluated on a catchment scale, two-thirds of the catchments had relatively little post-fire erosion risk. Steeper catchments with higher fuel loadings typically had the highest post-fire surface erosion risk. These were generally located along the major north-south mountain chains and, to a lesser extent, in west-central Colorado. Sedimentation risks were usually highest in the eastern part of the study area where a higher proportion of streams had lower gradients. While data to validate the predicted erosion and sedimentation risks are lacking, the results appear reasonable and are consistent with our limited field observations. The models and analytic procedures can be readily adapted to other locations and should provide useful tools for planning and management at both the catchment and landscape scale.

  4. Applying Spatial Statistics to Isolate the Effects of Fuels, Topography, and Weather on Burn Severity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimberly, M. C.; Cochrane, M. A.; Baer, A. D.; Zhu, Z.

    2007-12-01

    Fire severity datasets derived from satellite remote sensing data are now being used extensively in wildfire research and land management. Maps of burn severity based on the differenced normalized burn ratio (dNBR) are being produced and disseminated by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) project for all major wildfires in the United States from 1984 to present. This abundance of data presents unprecedented new opportunities for understanding how weather, terrain, and fuels interact to determine fire severity patterns, and for testing the effectiveness of fuel-reduction strategies for mitigating wildfire impacts. However, these datasets present challenges for statistical analysis because of their large sizes and the non-independence of spatially autocorrelated pixels. To explore the importance of spatial autocorrelation, we analyzed the spatial patterns of burn severity in two recent wildfires - the 2004 School Fire in the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington and the 2005 Warm Fire on the Kaibab Plateau in northern Arizona. Conditional autoregressive (CAR) models were fitted with dNBR as the dependent variable and topography, fuels, and locations of recent fuel treatments as the independent variables. In both fires, elevation, slope, and aspect had strong effects on burn severity. Fuels had stronger effects on burn severity for the School fire than for the Warm Fire. In both fires, fuel treatments that combined thinning and prescribed burning resulted in statistically significant reductions in fire severity. The CAR models were then decomposed to isolate the spatial signal, which reflected spatially structured variability in dNBR that was not related to the independent variables. The spatial signals were correlated with the burn progression maps, reflecting spatial and temporal variability in weather and fire behavior (e.g. wind versus plume driven) over the course of the fire. These results suggest that spatial autocorrelation in the analysis of remotely- sensed burn severity datasets is not simply a nuisance, but in fact captures substantive and interpretable effects of weather and fire behavior on burn severity.

  5. Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) in a severely burned patient

    PubMed Central

    kollias, S.; Stampolidis, N.; kourakos, P.; Mantzari, E.; Koupidis, S.; Tsaousi, S.; Dimitrouli, A.; Atiyeh, B.; Castana, O.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) occurs when increasing intra abdominal-pressure (IAP) reduces blood flow to abdominal organs. This results in impairment of pulmonary, cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, central nervous system and gastro-intestinal (gi) function, causing multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and death. The significant prognostic value of elevated intra-abdominal pressure has prompted many intensive care units to adopt measurement of this physiologic parameter as a routine vital sign in patients at risk. ACS generally occurs in patients who are critically ill due to any of a wide variety of medical and surgical conditions. it has been recently described as a rare complication of burn injury. it is fundamental to: 1) recognize IAP and ACS; 2) resuscitate effectively; and 3) prevent the development IAP-induced end-organ dysfunction and failure. We present our recent experience with one patient suffering from ACS secondary to burn injury and the physiologic results of abdominal wall escharotomy. PMID:26668555

  6. Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) in a severely burned patient.

    PubMed

    Kollias, S; Stampolidis, N; Kourakos, P; Mantzari, E; Koupidis, S; Tsaousi, S; Dimitrouli, A; Atiyeh, B; Castana, O

    2015-03-31

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) occurs when increasing intra abdominal-pressure (IAP) reduces blood flow to abdominal organs. This results in impairment of pulmonary, cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, central nervous system and gastro-intestinal (gi) function, causing multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and death. The significant prognostic value of elevated intra-abdominal pressure has prompted many intensive care units to adopt measurement of this physiologic parameter as a routine vital sign in patients at risk. ACS generally occurs in patients who are critically ill due to any of a wide variety of medical and surgical conditions. it has been recently described as a rare complication of burn injury. it is fundamental to: 1) recognize IAP and ACS; 2) resuscitate effectively; and 3) prevent the development IAP-induced end-organ dysfunction and failure. We present our recent experience with one patient suffering from ACS secondary to burn injury and the physiologic results of abdominal wall escharotomy. PMID:26668555

  7. Modeling hydrologic and geomorphic hazards across post-fire landscapes using a self-organizing map approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedel, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies attempt to model the range of possible post-fire hydrologic and geomorphic hazards because of the sparseness of data and the coupled, nonlinear, spatial, and temporal relationships among landscape variables. In this study, a type of unsupervised artificial neural network, called a self-organized map (SOM), is trained using data from 540 burned basins in the western United States. The sparsely populated data set includes variables from independent numerical landscape categories (climate, land surface form, geologic texture, and post-fire condition), independent landscape classes (bedrock geology and state), and dependent initiation processes (runoff, landslide, and runoff and landslide combination) and responses (debris flows, floods, and no events). Pattern analysis of the SOM-based component planes is used to identify and interpret relations among the variables. Application of the Davies-Bouldin criteria following k-means clustering of the SOM neurons identified eight conceptual regional models for focusing future research and empirical model development. A split-sample validation on 60 independent basins (not included in the training) indicates that simultaneous predictions of initiation process and response types are at least 78% accurate. As climate shifts from wet to dry conditions, forecasts across the burned landscape reveal a decreasing trend in the total number of debris flow, flood, and runoff events with considerable variability among individual basins. These findings suggest the SOM may be useful in forecasting real-time post-fire hazards, and long-term post-recovery processes and effects of climate change scenarios. ?? 2011.

  8. The role of large woody debris in modulating the dispersal of a post-fire sediment pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, Lauren E.; Gabet, Emmanuel J.; Hoffman, Daniel F.

    2015-10-01

    In 2001, a series of post-fire debris flows brought ~ 30,000 m3 of sediment, deposited as fans, to the narrow valley floor of Sleeping Child Creek in western Montana (USA). In 2005, pebble-counts and surveys of the channel in proximity to six of the debris flow fans documented a regular sequence of fine-grained aggradation upstream of the fans, incision through the fans, and coarse-grained aggradation downstream of the fans. These measurements were repeated in 2012. We found that the delivery of large woody debris (LWD) over the intervening 7 years has been a dominant factor in the disposition of the debris-flow material. The amount of LWD in the study reach has increased by as much as 50% in the areas with a high burn severity, leading to the formation of large logjams that interrupt the flow of sediment along the streambed. Nearly all of the surveyed reaches have aggraded since 2005, including those that had initially begun incising through the debris flow deposits, and the streambed has become generally finer. We hypothesize that, over the next few decades, debris flow sediment not colonized and anchored by riparian vegetation will trickle out of the affected reaches as the logjams slowly degrade.

  9. A Geographic Perspective on Factors Controlling Post-Fire Succession in Boreal Black Spruce Forests in Western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasischke, E. S.; Kane, E. S.; Genet, H.; Turetsky, M. R.; ODonnell, J. A.; Hoy, E.; Barrett, K.; Baltzer, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    Recent changes to climate and the fire regime have resulted in a number of distinct changes to patterns of post-fire succession in the boreal forest region of western North America. In interior Alaska and Yukon, these responses include a shift from spruce to deciduous dominated forests in black spruce forests that experienced exposure of mineral soils from deep burning of surface organic soils, as well as low seedling recruitment in white spruce forests as a result of moisture stress. In this presentation, we will use a physical geography framework to analyze factors controlling low seedling recruitment in recently burned black spruce forests in Alaska. This approach allows for understanding how changes in the biologic components of black spruce forest ecosystems (e.g., biogeography) are controlled by factors related to geomorphology and climate over multiple spatial and temporal scales. In particular, this framework will be used to examine how the interactions between fire, climate, topography and soil texture influence pre-fire and post-fire permafrost conditions, which interact to have a strong influence on variations in soil moisture. In turn, recent changes to climate combined with variations in soil moisture controlled by differences in permafrost conditions (ground ice content, active layer thickness) can be used to explain variations in post-fire seedling recruitment in black spruce forests, where low recruitment is occurring on the sites with the driest soils. In addition, we will examine the need for further research in other boreal forest regions of western North America where the presence of pine species (jack and lodgepole) that are absent in Alaska, as well as differences in soils and permafrost conditions, are likely resulting in additional patterns of post-fire succession as a result of recent changes to climate and the fire regime.

  10. Post Fire Vegetation Recovery in Greece after the large Drought event of 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, Célia M.; Bastos, Ana; DaCamara, Carlos; Trigo, Ricardo

    2013-04-01

    Fire is a natural factor of Mediterranean ecosystems. However, fire regimes in the European Mediterranean areas have been changing in the last decades, mainly due to land-use changes and climate driven factors possibly associated with climatic warming (e.g. decline of precipitation, increasing temperatures but also higher frequency of heatwaves). In Greece, the fire season of 2007 was particularly devastating, achieving the new all-time record of estimated burnt area (225 734 ha), since 1980. Additionally, we must stress that prior to the summer fire season in 2007, Greece suffered an exceptional drought event. This severe drought had a strong negative impact in vegetation dynamics. Since water availability is a crucial factor in post-fire vegetation recovery, it is desirable to assess the impact that such water-stress conditions had on fire sensitivity and post-fire vegetation recovery. Based on monthly values of NDVI, at the 1km×1km spatial scale, as obtained from the VEGETATION-SPOT5 instrument, from 1999 to 2010, large burnt scars are identified in Greece, during 2007 fire season. Vegetation recovery is then assessed based on a mono parametric regression model originally developed by Gouveia et al. (2010) to identify large burnt scars in Portugal during the 2003 fire season and after applied to 2005 fire season (Bastos et al., 2012). Some large burnt areas are selected and the respective NDVI behaviour is monitored throughout the pre and the post fire period. The vegetation dynamics during the pre-fire period is analysed and related to the extreme climatic events that characterised the considered period. An analysis is made of the dependence of recovery rates on land cover types and fire damage. Finally results are compared to results already obtained for Portugal (Gouveia et al. 2010). This work emphasises the use of a simple methodology, when applied to low resolution satellite imagery in order to monitor vegetation recovery after large fires events over distinct regions of Mediterranean Europe. Gouveia C., DaCamara C.C, Trigo R.M. (2010). "Post-fire vegetation dynamics in Portugal". Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 10, 4, 673-684. Bastos A., Gouveia C., DaCamara C.C., and Trigo R.M.: Modelling post-fire vegetation recovery in Portugal.Biogeosciences, 8, 4559-4601, 2011.

  11. Burns

    MedlinePLUS

    ... doing so puts you in danger as well. Chemical and Electrical Burns For chemical and electrical burns, call 911 or your local ... the power source has been turned off. For chemical burns: Dry chemicals should be brushed off the ...

  12. Effectiveness of Emergency Rehabilitation Treatments in Reducing Post-fire Erosion, Colorado Front Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rough, D. T.; MacDonald, L. H.

    2003-12-01

    Daniella T.M. Rough Department of Forest, Rangeland, and Watershed Stewardship, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Lee H. MacDonald Department of Forest, Rangeland, and Watershed Stewardship, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Burned area emergency rehabilitation (BAER) treatments are often applied to reduce post-fire flooding and erosion, but few studies have quantified their efficacy. The effectiveness of different BAER treatments in reducing post-fire erosion rates is being studied for three different wildfires in the Colorado Front Range. The treatments being monitored include seeding, contour felling, mulching, scarification with seeding, and a polyacrylamide (PAM). Sediment production rates are being measured at the hillslope scale using sediment fences installed immediately after the June 2000 Bobcat fire and the 2002 Hayman and Schoonover fires. Neither aerial- nor ground-based seeding significantly reduced erosion rates in the first three years after the Bobcat fire. In contrast, 4.5 t ha-1 of straw mulch consistently reduced sediment yields by more than 90%. Contour felling initially reduced erosion rates for small and moderate storms, but was less effective following the largest storms, presumably due to overwhelmed sediment storage capacity. A paired\\-swale design is being used for the 2002 Hayman and Schoonover fires, as this provides a more sensitive evaluation of BAER treatment effectiveness. The ground-based application of straw mulch and the aerial application of hydromulch each reduced sediment yields by more than 95% in both 2002 and 2003. However, the ground-based application of hydromulch in fall 2002 did not significantly reduce sediment yields in 2003. In 2002 the application of 11 kg ha-1 of PAM in an ammonium sulfate solution reduced sediment yields by 66%. In 2003 neither these sites nor three newly treated sites showed a significant reduction in sediment yields. A dry application of 5.6 kg ha-1 PAM had no detectable effect on sediment yields, nor did scarification and seeding in 2002 or 2003. These data suggest that treatment effectiveness varies with time since application, storm intensity, and amount of ground cover. Studies on these and other fires indicate that percent ground cover is the primary control on post-fire erosion rates because this reduces rainsplash, sheetwash, and rill erosion. Mulching has been the most effective BAER treatment because this immediately provides ground cover. Treatments that do not immediately increase ground cover (e.g., seeding, contour felling, and PAM) have shown more limited effectiveness in reducing post-fire erosion rates.

  13. Lessons from the fires of 2000: Post-fire heterogeneity in ponderosa pine forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kotliar, Natasha B.; Haire, Sandra L.; Key, Carl H.

    2003-01-01

    We evaluate burn-severity patterns for six burns that occurred in the southern Rocky Mountains and the Colorado Plateau in 2000. We compare the results of two data sources: Burned Area Rehabilitations Teams (BAER) and a spatial burnseverity model derived from satellite imagery (the Normalized Burn Ratio; NBR). BAER maps tended to overestimate area of severe burns and underestimate area of moderate-severity burns relative to NBR maps. Low elevation and more southern ponderosa pine burns were predominantly understory burns, whereas burns at higher elevations and farther north had a greater component of high-severity burns. Thus, much, if not most, of the area covered by these burns appears to be consistent with historic burns and contributes to healthy functioning ecosystems.

  14. Analysis and mapping of post-fire hydrologic hazards for the 2002 Hayman, Coal Seam, and Missionary Ridge wildfires, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, J.G.; Smith, M.E.; Friedel, M.J.; Stevens, M.R.; Bossong, C.R.; Litke, D.W.; Parker, R.S.; Costello, C.; Wagner, J.; Char, S.J.; Bauer, M.A.; Wilds, S.R.

    2005-01-01

    Wildfires caused extreme changes in the hydrologic, hydraulic, and geomorphologic characteristics of many Colorado drainage basins in the summer of 2002. Detailed assessments were made of the short-term effects of three wildfires on burned and adjacent unburned parts of drainage basins. These were the Hayman, Coal Seam, and Missionary Ridge wildfires. Longer term runoff characteristics that reflect post-fire drainage basin recovery expected to develop over a period of several years also were analyzed for two affected stream reaches: the South Platte River between Deckers and Trumbull, and Mitchell Creek in Glenwood Springs. The 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year flood-plain boundaries and water-surface profiles were computed in a detailed hydraulic study of the Deckers-to-Trumbull reach. The Hayman wildfire burned approximately 138,000 acres (216 square miles) in granitic terrain near Denver, and the predominant potential hazard in this area is flooding by sediment-laden water along the large tributaries to and the main stem of the South Platte River. The Coal Seam wildfire burned approximately 12,200 acres (19.1 square miles) near Glenwood Springs, and the Missionary Ridge wildfire burned approximately 70,500 acres (110 square miles) near Durango, both in areas underlain by marine shales where the predominant potential hazard is debris-flow inundation of low-lying areas. Hydrographs and peak discharges for pre-burn and post-burn scenarios were computed for each drainage basin and tributary subbasin by using rainfall-runoff models because streamflow data for most tributary subbasins were not available. An objective rainfall-runoff model calibration method based on nonlinear regression and referred to as the ?objective calibration method? was developed and applied to rainfall-runoff models for three burned areas. The HEC-1 rainfall-runoff model was used to simulate the pre-burn rainfall-runoff processes in response to the 100-year storm, and HEC-HMS was used for runoff hydrograph generation. Post-burn rainfall-runoff parameters were determined by adjusting the runoff-curve numbers on the basis of a weighting procedure derived from the U.S. Soil Conservation Service (now the National Resources Conservation Service) equation for precipitation excess and the effect of burn severity. This weighting procedure was determined to be more appropriate than simple area weighting because of the potentially marked effect of even small burned areas on the runoff hydrograph in individual drainage basins. Computed water-peak discharges from HEC-HMS models were increased volumetrically to account for increased sediment concentrations that are expected as a result of accelerated erosion after burning. Peak discharge estimates for potential floods in the South Platte River were increased by a factor that assumed a volumetric sediment concentration (Cv) of 20 percent. Flood hydrographs for the South Platte River and Mitchell Creek were routed down main-stem channels using watershed-routing algorithms included in the HEC-HMS rainfall-runoff model. In areas subject to debris flows in the Coal Seam and Missionary Ridge burned areas, debris-flow discharges were simulated by 100-year rainfall events, and the inflow hydrographs at tributary mouths were simulated by using the objective calibration method. Sediment concentrations (Cv) used in debris-flow simulations were varied through the event, and were initial Cv 20 percent, mean Cv approximately 31 percent, maximum Cv 48 percent, Cv 43 percent at the time of the water hydrograph peak, and Cv 20 percent for the duration of the event. The FLO-2D flood- and debris-flow routing model was used to delineate the area of unconfined debris-flow inundation on selected alluvial fan and valley floor areas. A method was developed to objectively determine the post-fire recovery period for the Hayman and Coal Seam burned areas using runoff-curve numbers (RCN) for all drainage basins for a 50-year period. A

  15. Effect of vegetation type on post-fire enhancement of wind erosion in semi-arid landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi, S.; Zobeck, T. M.; D'Odorico, P.; Baddock, M.

    2010-12-01

    Aeolian processes redistribute sediments and nutrients within arid landscapes with important implications on the composition and structure of vegetation. Aeolian processes, on the other hand, are affected by vegetation cover and disturbances. For example, it has been reported that wind erosion is enhanced by fire occurrences, though it is still unclear how this post-fire erosion activity is affected by the vegetation type. In this study we monitored wind erosion activity in a managed grassland (CRP) and in a shrub encroached grassland within the Cimarron National Grasslands (KS). Measurements started after a naturally occurring wildfire and included both field observations - BSNE dust samplers, SENSIT particle impact sensors - and laboratory wind tunnel experiments. The results indicate that, by decreasing the threshold shear velocity (due to vegetation removal and soil water repellency), fires enhance the soil erodibility both in the CRP grassland and in the shrub-encroached grassland. The initial post-fire horizontal dust fluxes in grasslands and adjacent shrub encroached grasslands were comparable. However, the post fire recovery (decline in erosion activity) was rapid in the case of grasslands, while erosion activity remained high in the shrub encroached grasslands for several months after the wild fire. Our results support the hypothesis that woody plant encroachment decreases the resilience of semi arid grasslands - the capacity of these systems to recover from disturbances. This higher post-fire loss and redistribution of soil resources from shrub encroached grasslands further inhibits grass recovery, thereby favoring the shrub encroachment process.

  16. Hydrological modelling for flood forecasting: Calibrating the post-fire initial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papathanasiou, C.; Makropoulos, C.; Mimikou, M.

    2015-10-01

    Floods and forest fires are two of the most devastating natural hazards with severe socioeconomic, environmental as well as aesthetic impacts on the affected areas. Traditionally, these hazards are examined from different perspectives and are thus investigated through different, independent systems, overlooking the fact that they are tightly interrelated phenomena. In fact, the same flood event is more severe, i.e. associated with increased runoff discharge and peak flow and decreased time to peak, if it occurs over a burnt area than that occurring over a land not affected by fire. Mediterranean periurban areas, where forests covered with flammable vegetation coexist with agricultural land and urban zones, are typical areas particularly prone to the combined impact of floods and forest fires. Hence, the accurate assessment and effective management of post-fire flood risk becomes an issue of priority. The research presented in this paper aims to develop a robust methodological framework, using state of art tools and modern technologies to support the estimation of the change in time of five representative hydrological parameters for post-fire conditions. The proposed methodology considers both longer- and short-term initial conditions in order to assess the dynamic evolution of the selected parameters. The research focuses on typical Mediterranean periurban areas that are subjected to both hazards and concludes with a set of equations that associate post-fire and pre-fire conditions for five Fire Severity (FS) classes and three soil moisture states. The methodology has been tested for several flood events on the Rafina catchment, a periurban catchment in Eastern Attica (Greece). In order to validate the methodology, simulated hydrographs were produced and compared against available observed data. Results indicate a close convergence of observed and simulated flows. The proposed methodology is particularly flexible and thus easily adaptable to catchments with similar hydrometeorological and geomorphological features.

  17. Fire frequency, area burned, and severity: A quantitative approach to defining a normal fire year

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lutz, J.A.; Key, C.H.; Kolden, C.A.; Kane, J.T.; van Wagtendonk, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Fire frequency, area burned, and fire severity are important attributes of a fire regime, but few studies have quantified the interrelationships among them in evaluating a fire year. Although area burned is often used to summarize a fire season, burned area may not be well correlated with either the number or ecological effect of fires. Using the Landsat data archive, we examined all 148 wildland fires (prescribed fires and wildfires) >40 ha from 1984 through 2009 for the portion of the Sierra Nevada centered on Yosemite National Park, California, USA. We calculated mean fire frequency and mean annual area burned from a combination of field- and satellite-derived data. We used the continuous probability distribution of the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) values to describe fire severity. For fires >40 ha, fire frequency, annual area burned, and cumulative severity were consistent in only 13 of 26 years (50 %), but all pair-wise comparisons among these fire regime attributes were significant. Borrowing from long-established practice in climate science, we defined "fire normals" to be the 26 year means of fire frequency, annual area burned, and the area under the cumulative probability distribution of dNBR. Fire severity normals were significantly lower when they were aggregated by year compared to aggregation by area. Cumulative severity distributions for each year were best modeled with Weibull functions (all 26 years, r2 ??? 0.99; P < 0.001). Explicit modeling of the cumulative severity distributions may allow more comprehensive modeling of climate-severity and area-severity relationships. Together, the three metrics of number of fires, size of fires, and severity of fires provide land managers with a more comprehensive summary of a given fire year than any single metric.

  18. Post-Fire Spatial Patterns of Soil Nitrogen Mineralization and Microbial Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Smithwick, Erica A. H.; Naithani, Kusum J.; Balser, Teri C.; Romme, William H.; Turner, Monica G.

    2012-01-01

    Stand-replacing fires influence soil nitrogen availability and microbial community composition, which may in turn mediate post-fire successional dynamics and nutrient cycling. However, fires create patchiness at both local and landscape scales and do not result in consistent patterns of ecological dynamics. The objectives of this study were to (1) quantify the spatial structure of microbial communities in forest stands recently affected by stand-replacing fire and (2) determine whether microbial variables aid predictions of in situ net nitrogen mineralization rates in recently burned stands. The study was conducted in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and Engelmann spruce/subalpine fir (Picea engelmannii/Abies lasiocarpa) forest stands that burned during summer 2000 in Greater Yellowstone (Wyoming, USA). Using a fully probabilistic spatial process model and Bayesian kriging, the spatial structure of microbial lipid abundance and fungi-to-bacteria ratios were found to be spatially structured within plots two years following fire (for most plots, autocorrelation range varied from 1.5 to 10.5 m). Congruence of spatial patterns among microbial variables, in situ net N mineralization, and cover variables was evident. Stepwise regression resulted in significant models of in situ net N mineralization and included variables describing fungal and bacterial abundance, although explained variance was low (R2<0.29). Unraveling complex spatial patterns of nutrient cycling and the biotic factors that regulate it remains challenging but is critical for explaining post-fire ecosystem function, especially in Greater Yellowstone, which is projected to experience increased fire frequencies by mid 21st Century. PMID:23226324

  19. Burn severity and non-native species in Yosemite National Park, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaczynski, Kristen M.; Beatty, Susan W.; van Wagtendonk, Jan W.; Marshall, Kristin N.

    2011-01-01

    We examined non-native species density three years after the Tuolumne Fire, which burned 1540 ha in upper montane forest in California, USA. We sampled 60 plots, stratified by burn severity (low, moderate, or high severity) and landscape position (lowland or upland). We detected non-native species in 8 of 11 (73 %) of high severity lowland sites and in 5 of 10 (50 %) of moderate severity lowland sites but, overall, richness and abundance was low. We detected only five non-native species, of which bull thistle (Cirsium vulgare [Savi] Ten.) was the most common. Although non-native abundance is currently low, we recommend continued low intensity monitoring, especially on high severity burned lowland sites.

  20. Object-based assessment of burn severity in diseased forests using high-spatial and high-spectral resolution MASTER airborne imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gang; Metz, Margaret R.; Rizzo, David M.; Dillon, Whalen W.; Meentemeyer, Ross K.

    2015-04-01

    Forest ecosystems are subject to a variety of disturbances with increasing intensities and frequencies, which may permanently change the trajectories of forest recovery and disrupt the ecosystem services provided by trees. Fire and invasive species, especially exotic disease-causing pathogens and insects, are examples of disturbances that together could pose major threats to forest health. This study examines the impacts of fire and exotic disease (sudden oak death) on forests, with an emphasis on the assessment of post-fire burn severity in a forest where trees have experienced three stages of disease progression pre-fire: early-stage (trees retaining dried foliage and fine twigs), middle-stage (trees losing fine crown fuels), and late-stage (trees falling down). The research was conducted by applying Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) to MASTER airborne images that were acquired immediately following the fire for rapid assessment and contained both high-spatial (4 m) and high-spectral (50 bands) resolutions. Although GEOBIA has gradually become a standard tool for analyzing high-spatial resolution imagery, high-spectral resolution data (dozens to hundreds of bands) can dramatically reduce computation efficiency in the process of segmentation and object-based variable extraction, leading to complicated variable selection for succeeding modeling. Hence, we also assessed two widely used band reduction algorithms, PCA (principal component analysis) and MNF (minimum noise fraction), for the delineation of image objects and the subsequent performance of burn severity models using either PCA or MNF derived variables. To increase computation efficiency, only the top 5 PCA and MNF and top 10 PCA and MNF components were evaluated, which accounted for 10% and 20% of the total number of the original 50 spectral bands, respectively. Results show that if no band reduction was applied the models developed for the three stages of disease progression had relatively similar performance, where both spectral responses and texture contributed to burn assessments. However, the application of PCA and MNF introduced much greater variation among models across the three stages. For the early-stage disease progression, neither band reduction algorithms improved or retained the accuracy of burn severity modeling (except for the use of 10 MNF components). Compared to the no-band-reduction scenario, band reduction led to a greater level of overestimation of low-degree burns and underestimation of medium-degree burns, suggesting that the spectral variation removed by PCA and MNF was vital for distinguishing between the spectral reflectance from disease-induced dried crowns (still retaining high structural complexity) and fire ash. For the middle-stage, both algorithms improved the model R2 values by 2-37%, while the late-stage models had comparable or better performance to those using the original 50 spectral bands. This could be explained by the loss of tree crowns enabling better signal penetration, thus leading to reduced spectral variation from canopies. Hence, spectral bands containing a high degree of random noise were correctly removed by the band reduction algorithms. Compared to the middle-stage, the late-stage forest stands were covered by large piles of fallen trees and branches, resulting in higher variability of MASTER imagery. The ability of band reduction to improve the model performance for these late-stage forest stands was reduced, because the valuable spectral variation representing the actual late-stage forest status was partially removed by both algorithms as noise. Our results indicate that PCA and MNF are promising for balancing computation efficiency and the performance of burn severity models in forest stands subject to the middle and late stages of sudden oak death disease progression. Compared to PCA, MNF dramatically reduced image spectral variation, generating larger image objects with less complexity of object shapes. Whereas, PCA-based models delivered superior performance in most evaluated cases suggestin

  1. Burns

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to least common are: Fire/flame Scalding from steam or hot liquids Touching hot objects Electrical burns ... burn your airways if you breathe in smoke, steam, superheated air, or chemical fumes in poorly ventilated ...

  2. Arginine and ornithine kinetics in severely burned patients: increased rate of arginine disposal.

    PubMed

    Yu, Y M; Ryan, C M; Castillo, L; Lu, X M; Beaumier, L; Tompkins, R G; Young, V R

    2001-03-01

    Arginine serves multiple roles in the pathophysiological response to burn injury. Our previous studies in burn patients demonstrated a limited net rate of arginine de novo synthesis despite a significantly increased arginine turnover (flux), suggesting that this amino acid is a conditionally indispensable amino acid after major burns. This study used [15N2-guanidino-5,5-2H2]arginine and [5-13C]ornithine as tracers to assess the rate of arginine disposal via its conversion to and subsequent oxidation of ornithine; [5,5-2H2]proline and [5,5,5-2H3]leucine were also used to assess proline and protein kinetics. Nine severely burned patients were studied during a protein-free fast ("basal" or fast) and total parenteral nutrition (TPN) feedings. Compared with values from healthy volunteers, burn injury significantly increased 1) fluxes of arginine, ornithine, leucine, and proline; 2) arginine-to-ornithine conversion; 3) ornithine oxidation; and 4) arginine oxidation. TPN increased arginine-to-ornithine conversion and proportionally increased irreversible arginine oxidation. The elevated arginine oxidation, with limited net de novo synthesis from its immediate precursors, further implies that arginine is a conditionally indispensable amino acid in severely burned patients receiving TPN. PMID:11171607

  3. The use of impression cytology in the follow?up of severe ocular burns

    PubMed Central

    Gicquel, Jean?Jacques; Navarre, Renaud; Langman, Maria Elena; Coulon, Alix; Balayre, Stephanie; Milin, Serge; Mercie, Martial; Rossignol, Alexis; Barra, Anne; Levillain, Pierre?Marie; Gombert, Jean?Marc; Dighiero, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Aims To evaluate by impression cytology (IC) the expression of the MHC class II inflammatory marker HLA?DR by the conjunctival epithelium, the cytological modifications of the conjunctival surface according to the Nelson's classification, and the eventual correlation between the two after severe ocular burns. Methods A total of 24 patients (24 eyes) who presented with severe ocular burns underwent IC. We compared them with 18 healthy eyes. HLA?DR expression was studied by flow cytometry as well as the conjunctival histology evaluated with the Nelson's classification from 2–24?months after the onset of burns. Results There was a significant upregulation of the expression of HLA?DR in eyes with burns compared to the healthy population at 2?months (p<0.001), 6?months (p<0.001), 12?months (p?=?0.019), 18?months (p?=?0.0171) and 24?months (p?=?0.01766). A significant difference was found between the Nelson grade in the pathological population and those of the healthy population at 2?months (p?=?0.0157). HLA?DR upregulation was significantly correlated with the Nelson's grades between 2?months (r?=?0.69, p<0.0001) and 6?months (r?=?0.61, p?=?0.0001). Conclusion The IC technique can act as a useful tool for following?up ocular surface inflammation after severe ocular burns. PMID:17470529

  4. Remote sensing approaches for reconstructing fire perimeters and burn severity mosaics in desert spring ecosystems

    E-print Network

    Weisberg, Peter J.

    Remote sensing approaches for reconstructing fire perimeters and burn severity mosaics in desert. Remote sensing methods have been used in other environments to gain information about fires that have reported sizes of less than one hectare. Additional refinement of remote sensing methods is necessary

  5. Temporal evolution of water repellency and preferential flow in the post-fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alanís, Nancy; Jordán, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.

    2015-04-01

    Forest fires usually intensify erosive process due to the reduction of vegetation cover and degradation of aggregation in the topsoil. Another common effect of wildifres is the development of soil water repellency, which in turn favors the formation of runoff, inhibiting or delaying infiltration. Under these conditions, infiltration occurs only when ponded water or runoff flow finds macropores and cracks in the soil surface, producing preferential flow pathways. When water infiltrates through these paths, a significant portion of the soil remains dry, limiting the supply of nutrients to the roots, favoring the rapid leaching of nutrients and agrochemicals, and other impacts on flora and hydrological processes at hillslope- or basin-scale. The existence of irregular wetting fronts has been observed frequently in burned or unburned water repellent soils. Although some authors have suggested that preferential flow paths may be more or less permanent in the case of unburned soils, the temporal evolution of preferential flow has been rarely studied in burned soils during the post-fire, after water repellency decreases or disappears. This research focuses on the temporal evolution of water repellency and preferential flows in an area affected by fire.

  6. Effects of glutamine treatment on myocardial damage and cardiac function in rats after severe burn injury

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Hong; Zhang, Yong; Lv, Shang-jun; Wang, Lin; Liang, Guang-ping; Wan, Qian-xue; Peng, Xi

    2012-01-01

    Treatment with glutamine has been shown to reduce myocardial damage associated with ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, the cardioprotective effect of glutamine specifically after burn injury remains unclear. The present study explores the ability of glutamine to protect against myocardial damage in rats that have been severely burned. Seventy-two Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal controls (C), burned controls (B) and a glutamine-treated group (G). Groups B and G were subjected to full thickness burns comprising 30% of total body surface area. Group G was administered 1.5 g/ (kg•d) glutamine and group B was given the same dose of alanine via intragastric administration for 3 days. Levels of serum creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate transaminase (AST) and blood lactic acid were measured, as well as myocardial ATP and glutathione (GSH) contents. Cardiac function indices and histopathological changes were analyzed at 12, 24, 48 and 72 post-burn hours. In both burned groups, levels of serum CK, LDH, AST and blood lactic acid increased significantly, while myocardial ATP and GSH contents decreased. Compared with group B, CK, LDH, and AST levels were lower and blood lactic acid, myocardial ATP and GSH levels were higher in group G. Moreover, cardiac contractile function inhibition and myocardial histopathological damage were significantly reduced in group G compared to B. Taken together, these results show that glutamine supplementation protects myocardial structure and function after burn injury by improving energy metabolism and by promotedthe synthesis of ATP and GSH in cardiac myocytes. PMID:22977661

  7. [Correction of metabolic hypoxia in patients with severe burn injury and septic toxemia].

    PubMed

    Kozinets, G P; Osadchaia, O I; Tsygankov, V P; Isaenko, N P; Zhernov, A A; Boiarskaia, A M

    2012-12-01

    The clinical efficacy of the preparation reamberin in correction of metabolic hypoxia in patients with severe thermal burn injury under septicotoxemia was studied. It was established high efficacy of the preparation in the correction of the antioxidant defense system, its considerable antitoxic activity. Established role of reamberin in maintaining the functioning of the humoral detoxication systems, and antimicrobial resistance in patients with severe thermal injury. PMID:23610818

  8. Scale effects on post-fire runoff and soil erosion and their mitigation with forest residue mulching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prats, Sergio A.; Wagenbrenner, Joseph W.; Martins, Martinho M. A.; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2014-05-01

    Wildfires can have striking direct and indirect impacts on soils, including extreme runoff-erosion responses with serious negative consequences for land-use sustainability and downstream values-at-risk. Arguably, the best manner to reduce post-fire soil erosion consists of rapid application of a protective layer of "mulch", comprising straw, needles or wood-based materials. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of forest residue mulching for reducing runoff and soil erosion across two spatial scales, i.e. micro-plots of approximately 0.25 m2 vs. slope-scale plots of roughly 100 m2. We did so for a eucalypt plantation in north-central Portugal during the first two years following a moderate severity fire. We also tried to analyse which were the key factors underlying the erosive observed at untreated plots, with a special focus on soil moisture content and soil water repellencyf requency. . Forest residue mulch reduced post-fire runoff by around 50% and post-fire soil losses by about 90% at both plot scales. However, runoff was 10 times higher at the scale of the micro- than slope-scale plots. By contrast, soil erosion was "only" two times higher at the micro- than slope-scale plots. The main factor explaining runoff was rainfall intensity, while the main factor accounting for soil erosion was ground cover. Both soil moisture and soil water repellency played a secondary role in explaining the post-fire hydrologic response. This reflected the fact that neither of both factors differed markedly between the mulched and control conditions. Our results indicated that forest residue mulch was first and foremost an effective method due to the fact that it substantially increased ground cover.

  9. Effect of post-fire resprouting on leaf fluctuating asymmetry, extrafloral nectar quality, and ant-plant-herbivore interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves-Silva, Estevão; Del-Claro, Kleber

    2013-06-01

    Fires in the Cerrado savanna are a severe form of disturbance, but some species are capable of resprouting afterwards. It is unknown, however, how and whether post-fire resprouting represents a stressful condition to plants and how their rapid re-growth influences both the production of biochemical compounds, and interactions with mutualistic ants. In this study, we examined the influence of post-fire resprouting on biotic interactions (ant-plant-herbivore relationships) and on plant stress. The study was performed on two groups of the extrafloral nectaried shrub Banisteriopsis campestris (Malpighiaceae); one group was recovering from fire while the other acted as control. With respect to biotic interactions, we examined whether resprouting influenced extrafloral nectar concentration (milligrams per microliter), the abundance of the ant Camponotus crassus and leaf herbivory rates. Plant stress was assessed via fluctuating asymmetry (FA) analysis, which refers to deviations from perfect symmetry in bilaterally symmetrical traits (e.g., leaves) and indicates whether species are under stress. Results revealed that FA, sugar concentration, and ant abundance were 51.7 %, 35.7 % and 21.7 % higher in resprouting plants. Furthermore, C. crassus was significantly associated with low herbivory rates, but only in resprouting plants. This study showed that post-fire resprouting induced high levels of plant stress and influenced extrafloral nectar quality and ant-herbivore relationships in B. campestris. Therefore, despite being a stressful condition to the plant, post-fire resprouting individuals had concentrated extrafloral nectar and sustained more ants, thus strengthening the outcomes of ant-plant mutualism.

  10. Effect of post-fire resprouting on leaf fluctuating asymmetry, extrafloral nectar quality, and ant-plant-herbivore interactions.

    PubMed

    Alves-Silva, Estevão; Del-Claro, Kleber

    2013-06-01

    Fires in the Cerrado savanna are a severe form of disturbance, but some species are capable of resprouting afterwards. It is unknown, however, how and whether post-fire resprouting represents a stressful condition to plants and how their rapid re-growth influences both the production of biochemical compounds, and interactions with mutualistic ants. In this study, we examined the influence of post-fire resprouting on biotic interactions (ant-plant-herbivore relationships) and on plant stress. The study was performed on two groups of the extrafloral nectaried shrub Banisteriopsis campestris (Malpighiaceae); one group was recovering from fire while the other acted as control. With respect to biotic interactions, we examined whether resprouting influenced extrafloral nectar concentration (milligrams per microliter), the abundance of the ant Camponotus crassus and leaf herbivory rates. Plant stress was assessed via fluctuating asymmetry (FA) analysis, which refers to deviations from perfect symmetry in bilaterally symmetrical traits (e.g., leaves) and indicates whether species are under stress. Results revealed that FA, sugar concentration, and ant abundance were 51.7 %, 35.7 % and 21.7 % higher in resprouting plants. Furthermore, C. crassus was significantly associated with low herbivory rates, but only in resprouting plants. This study showed that post-fire resprouting induced high levels of plant stress and influenced extrafloral nectar quality and ant-herbivore relationships in B. campestris. Therefore, despite being a stressful condition to the plant, post-fire resprouting individuals had concentrated extrafloral nectar and sustained more ants, thus strengthening the outcomes of ant-plant mutualism. PMID:23625518

  11. Application of thermal analysis to measure the spatial heterogeneity of organic matter degradation after wildfire: implications for post-fire rehabilitation treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, Agustin; Fonturbel, M. Teresa; Vega, Jose A.

    2015-04-01

    Severe wildfires can cause drastic changes in SOM content and quality with important implications for soil conservation and global C balance. Soil heating usually leads to loss of the most labile SOM compounds (e.g. carbohydrates, lipids and peptides) and to generation of aromatic substances. However, these fire-related damages are not uniform over large areas, because of the spatial heterogeneity of different factors such as fire type and environmental conditions. Rapid diagnosis of soil burn severity is required to enable the design of emergency post-fire rehabilitation treatments. The study was conducted in soils from NW Spain, an Atlantic-climate zone that is particularly prone to wildfires. Intact soil cores (forest floor and uppermost mineral soil layer) were taken from a soil developed under granitic rock and subjected to experimental burning (in a bench positioned at the outlet of a wind tunnel). Soil temperature during fire was monitorised and five visual levels of soil burn severity (SBS) were recorded immediately after fire. Solid-state 13C CP-MAS NMR spectroscopy analyses were performed in an Agilent (Varian) VNMRS-500-WB spectrometer. The samples were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry (TGA/DSC, Mettler-Toledo Intl. Inc.). The analyses were performed with 4 mg of samples placed in open aluminium pans under dry air (flow rate, 50 mL-1) and at a scanning rate of 10 °C min-1. The temperature ranged between 50 and 600 °C. In the organic layer, the temperature reached during fire influenced the formation and characteristics of charred material. These materials showed an increasing degree of carbonization/aromatization in relation to the increase of temperature during burning. Burning also led to compounds of higher thermal recalcitrance (increases in T50 values -the temperature at which 50% of the energy stored in SOM is released-). However, values recorded in some samples were lower than those measured in highly polycondensed aromatic compounds. In the mineral soil, large reductions in SOM content were found in both moderate and high SBS (up to 70 %), whereas important effects on SOM quality were only associated with high SBS. NMR analysis revealed these changes as losses of O-alkyl, alkyl and carboxylic structures and increases of the aromatic structures (up to 50 %). In both organic and mineral soils the DSC analysis revealed decreased combustion heat released up to 375 °C, and increased T50. Relationships between thermal properties and chemical-shift regions in the NMR helped provide a better understanding of SOM quality after wildfire. The results also show that thermal analysis can be used as a rapid tool to assess the different degrees of SOM degradation, in areas where the complex heterogeneity of the fire damage requires different emergency post-fire rehabilitation treatments.

  12. EFFECTIVENESS OF REHABILITATION TREATMENTS IN REDUCING POST-FIRE EROSION AFTER THE HAYMAN AND SCHOONOVER FIRES,

    E-print Network

    MacDonald, Lee

    THESIS EFFECTIVENESS OF REHABILITATION TREATMENTS IN REDUCING POST-FIRE EROSION AFTER THE HAYMAN OF REHABILITATION TREATMENTS IN REDUCING POST- FIRE EROSION AFTER THE HAYMAN AND SCHOONOVER FIRES, COLORADO FRONT-fire increases in runoff and erosion. Flooding and sedimentation can pose ecological threats to wildlife habitat

  13. Environmental and climatic variables as potential drivers of post-fire cover of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) in seeded and unseeded semiarid ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shinneman, D.J.; Baker, W.L.

    2009-01-01

    Cheatgrass, a non-native annual grass, dominates millions of hectares in semiarid ecosystems of the Intermountain West (USA). Post-fire invasions can reduce native species diversity and alter ecological processes. To curb cheatgrass invasion, land managers often seed recently burned areas with perennial competitor species. We sampled vegetation within burned (19 years post-fire) and nearby unburned (representing pre-fire) pionjuniper (Pinus edulisJuniperus osteosperma) woodland and sagebrush (Artemisia sp.) in western Colorado to analyze variables that might explain cheatgrass cover after fire. A multiple regression model suggests higher cheatgrass cover after fire with: (1) sagebrush v. pionjuniper; (2) higher pre-fire cover of annual forbs; (3) increased time since fire; (4) lower pre-fire cover of biological soil crust; and (5) lower precipitation the year before fire. Time since fire, which coincided with higher precipitation, accounts for most of the variability in cheatgrass cover. No significant difference was found in mean cheatgrass cover between seeded and unseeded plots over time. However, negative relationships with pre-fire biological soil crust cover and native species richness suggest livestock-degraded areas are more susceptible to post-fire invasion. Proactive strategies for combating cheatgrass should include finding effective native competitors and restoring livestock-degraded areas. ?? 2009 IAWF.

  14. Wildfire and Permafrost: Post-Fire Changes in Flowpaths of Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, A. K.; Jones, J.

    2012-12-01

    Wildfire frequency and severity in the boreal forest is predicted to increase as a result of climate warming. Increased fire frequency will influence carbon and nutrient fluxes in streams through the loss of vegetation, combustion of soils, thawing of permafrost, alteration of watershed flowpaths, and changes in stream hydrology (such as surface water-ground water interactions and flow regime). At high latitudes, permafrost constrains watershed flowpaths to shallow soils and consequently influences stream nutrient inputs. Shallow flowpaths over permafrost have high dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration and low inorganic nitrogen concentration, compared to water moving through deeper flowpaths. The objective of this project was to quantify how wildfire in the boreal forest influences the concentration and export of dissolved organic matter and nutrients in headwater streams to better understand how changes in fire frequency and severity may influence future stream carbon and nutrient exports. The research was conducted in the Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed (CPCRW), specifically in the P6 subcatchment, which is underlain by 18% discontinuous permafrost. The CPCRW is located in the boreal forest of interior Alaska. Following a wildfire in 2004, stream DOC concentration declined, whereas nitrate concentration increased, potentially caused by the combustion of soil organic carbon stocks, alteration of hydrologic flows from shallow to deeper flowpaths, or decreased plant productivity and nutrient uptake. We used an end-member mixing model to determine the major sources of water contributing to stream flow, how wildfire impacted watershed flowpaths, and the consequences of changing hydrology for watershed nutrient fluxes. Water samples were collected from springs throughout the CPCRW to identify the chemistry of source waters and were used in the analysis with stream water chemistry data from 2002-2011. We found that the contribution from the shallow flowpath to stream flow declined from a pre-fire average of 51% to 32% in the three years post-fire (2004-2006), whereas the contribution from the deeper flowpath increased from 26% pre-fire to 37% in the three years post-fire. This change in watershed hydrology at least in part drove the decrease in stream water DOC and increase in inorganic nitrogen observed post-fire in the stream. Increase in fire frequency and severity will decrease the permafrost distribution over the landscape through thawing, and in turn increase the active layer depth. Our results suggest that such changes may change the contribution of shallow versus deep flowpaths and in turn stream water chemistry and nutrient cycling. In areas of discontinuous permafrost, the subsurface connection between stream and groundwater may shift with future increases in fire frequency and severity, increasing baseflow in streams. Furthermore, if such shifts in flowpaths occur, boreal vegetation, which is currently nitrogen limited, may become sources of nitrogen post-fire; potentially influencing terrestrial vegetation community composition and biotic stream processes.

  15. THE USE OF REMOTE SENSING IMAGERY TO DETERMINE WILDLAND BURN SEVERITY IN SEMIARID SAGEBRUSH-STEPPE RANGELANDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) is a remote sensing-based index used to calculate the extent and severity of a fire. NBR functions well in forested ecosystems due to a high contrast of vegetation change before and after fire. Preliminary results indicate that an alternate burn severity algorithm is ...

  16. A soil burn severity index for understanding soil-fire relations in tropical forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jain, T.B.; Gould, W.A.; Graham, R.T.; Pilliod, D.S.; Lentile, L.B.; Gonzalez, G.

    2008-01-01

    Methods for evaluating the impact of fires within tropical forests are needed as fires become more frequent and human populations and demands on forests increase. Short- and long-term fire effects on soils are determined by the prefire, fire, and postfire environments. We placed these components within a fire-disturbance continuum to guide our literature synthesis and develop an integrated soil burn severity index. The soil burn severity index provides a set of indicators that reflect the range of conditions present after a fire. The index consists of seven levels, an unburned level and six other levels that describe a range of postfire soil conditions. We view this index as a tool for understanding the effects of fires on the forest floor, with the realization that as new information is gained, the index may be modified as warranted. ?? Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2008.

  17. -Linking microtopography with post-fire succession in bogs -453 Journal of Vegetation Science 16: 453-460, 2005

    E-print Network

    Benscoter, Brian W.

    than hum- mocks, both in present composition and post-fire succession. The successional trajectory- Linking microtopography with post-fire succession in bogs - 453 Journal of Vegetation Science 16: 453-460, 2005 © IAVS; Opulus Press Uppsala. Abstract Questions: Does post-fire plant succession

  18. Omental transposition in treatment of severe ocular surface alkaline burn: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Shadmani, Athar; Kazemi, Kourosh; Khalili, Mohammad Reza; Eghtedari, Masoomeh

    2014-01-01

    Since alkaline substances can rapidly penetrate into the cornea and subsequently damage limbal stem cells, another source of stem cells may be necessary to reconstruct the ocular surface. Omentum has some such characteristics like ability to regenerate tissue as well as anti-inflammatory capacity. Presence of adult stem cells and pluripotent embryonic cell markers make it suitable in wound healing; therefore, it seems reasonable to evaluate whether omentum can be helpful to restoration of ocular surface in severe alkaline burn. In this experimental trial, two groups of dogs (5 in each) were assigned. Following ethics approval, ocular surface alkaline burn was induced in both groups by placing filter papers soaked with NaOH (0.5 mol/l) on the cornea of one eye. Subsequently, group 1 (n=5) was treated only by conventional therapy; group 2 (n=5) was treated with omental elongation and transposition to the injured eye immediately following injury. Both groups were followed for six months. Ocular surface was evaluated by slit lamp microscope and corneal clarity was assessed and graded. At the end of six months, corneal opacity and vascularization were significantly reduced in group 2 (p-values of 0.009, 0.049, and 0.032 for corneal opacity, fluorescein staining, and vascularization grades, respectively). We have concluded that transposition of omental pedicle may be an effective treatment for severe ocular surface alkaline burn although more studies might be required. PMID:25738161

  19. Post-fire vegetation behaviour in large burnt scars from 2005 fire season in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos, A.; Gouveia, C. M.; DaCamara, C. C.; Trigo, R. M.

    2012-04-01

    Wildfires have a wide diversity of impacts on landscape which, in turn, depend on the interaction of fire regimes (e.g. intensity, extent, frequency) and the response of vegetation to them in short and long-terms. The increase in erosion rates and the loss of nutrients by runoff in the first months following the fire are among the major impacts of wildfires. A minimum of 30% of vegetation cover is enough to protect soils against erosion but vegetation may require a long period to reach this threshold after severe fires. Since erosion risk is strongly linked to vegetation recovery rates, post-fire vegetation monitoring becomes crucial in land management. Fire regimes in the Mediterranean have been changing in the past decades due to modifications in both socio-economic and climate patterns. Although many vegetation species in Mediterranean ecosystems are adapted to wildfires, changes in fire regime characteristics affect the ability of ecosystems to recover to their previous state. In Spain, fire is an important driver of changes in landscape composition, leading to dominance of shrubland following fire and to a major decrease of pine woodlands (Viedma et al., 2006). Remote sensing is a powerful tool in land management, allowing vegetation monitoring on large spatial scales for relatively long periods of time. In order to assess vegetation dynamics, monthly NDVI data from 1998-2009 from SPOT/VEGETATION at 1km spatial resolution over the Iberian Peninsula were used. This work focuses on 2005 fire season in Spain, which registered the highest amount of burnt area since 1994, with more than 188000 ha burnt. Burnt scars in this fire season were identified by cluster analysis. Post-fire vegetation recovery was assessed based on the monoparametric model developed by Gouveia et al. (2010) that was applied to four large scars located in different geographical settings with different land cover characteristics. While the two northern regions presented fast recovery, in the remaining areas (centre and south), vegetation recovered very slowly and irregularly. Four years following the fire, vegetation density in these two scars was still markedly below pre-fire levels. Spatial patterns of recovery times were assessed in order to evaluate the influence of physical factors such as fire damage, pre-fire vegetation density and land-cover type, in post-fire behaviour of vegetation for each scar. Pre-fire land-cover type raised as a key factor that may partially explain the differences observed, with shrublands and mixed forests recovering faster than coniferous. Gouveia C., DaCamara C.C. and Trigo R.M.: Post fire vegetation recovery in Portugal based on SPOT-VEGETATION data, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 10, 673-684, 2010. Viedma, O., Moreno, J.M. and Rieiro, I.: Interactions between land use/land cover change, forest fires and landscape structure in Sierra de Gredos (central Spain), Environmental Conservation, 33, 212-222, 2006.

  20. Application of a Four-dimensional Mathematical Model in the Establishment of an Early Post-burn Cerebral Oedema Model in Severely Burned Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Haitao, L.; Dajun, Y.; Kaifa, W.; Xiuwu, B.; Jiansen, S.; Zongchen, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Summary The aim of this study was to explore the spatiotemporal development of cerebral oedema in the early stage of severe burn (50% TBSA, third degree), using a four-dimensional (4D) mathematical model. Twenty-six male mongrel dogs were randomly divided into control and 6, 12, 18, and 24 post-burn hour (PBH) groups. The manifestation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histopathology, changes of brain water content, and intracranial pressure were observed in each group respectively. A 4D mathematical model was established on the basis of the results of MRI scanning. Two turning points (6 and 18 PBH) and three phases of pathological change were displayed by the 4D mathematical model of cerebral oedema in the early stage of severe burn. The first phase was in the subclinical period, and effective treatment should therefore be performed as quickly as possible in order to prevent deterioration of post-burn cerebral oedema. The second phase (6-18 PBH), with pathological characteristics of cytotoxic cerebral oedema, was in the apoptosis period. The third stage (18-24 PBH) was the danger period of cerebral oedema. Intracranial pressure increased rapidly owing to the limitation of the cranial cavity. As a result, cerebral hernia could easily occur. An S-shape curve in the pathological process of cerebral oedema occurred in the early post-burn stage following severe burn. PMID:21990986

  1. A comparison study between early enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition in severe burn patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhongyong; Wang, Shiliang; Yu, Bin; Li, Ao

    2007-09-01

    This clinical study compares effects between enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition in the early stage of severe burns. Nineteen cases of severe burn patients were divided randomly into total enteral nutrition group (TEN) and total parenteral nutrition group (TPN). Plasma motilin, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), endotoxin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), serum gastrin, diamine oxidase (DAO), and urine lactulose/mannitol ratio (L/M) was determined on post burn day (PBD) 1, 4, 8, 14, respectively. The results showed that serum gastrin, plasma motilin, and SOD were significantly higher in TEN than in TPN on PBD4, 8 (p<0.05-0.01). Plasma MDA was obviously lower in TEN than in TPN on PBD4, 8 (p<0.01). Plasma endotoxin was significantly lower in TEN than in TPN on PBD4, 8 (p<0.01). Plasma TNF were significantly lower in TEN than in TPN on PBD4, 8, 14 (p<0.01). The level of serum DAO and urine L/M ratio in TEN was obviously lower than in TPN on PBD4 and 8, respectively (p<0.05-0.01). A positive correlation between L/M and DAO, MDA, TNF (r=0.5822-0.7598, p<0.05-0.01), and a negative correlation between L/M and SOD (r=-0.7771, p<0.01), and a positive correlation between plasma endotoxin and TNF, MDA (r=0.9038 and 0.6705, p<0.05-0.01) were found. These results indicate that enteral nutrition was a more effective route to preserve gastrin secretion and motility of gastrointestinal tract, lower intestinal ischemia and reperfusion injury, reduce intestinal permeability, decrease plasma endotoxin and inflammatory mediators, and maintain mucosa barrier function. Whenever gastrointestinal function permits, enteral nutrition was superior to parenteral nutrition early after burn. PMID:17467914

  2. Modeling Fluid Resuscitation by Formulating Infusion Rate and Urine Output in Severe Thermal Burn Adult Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qizhi; Li, Wei; Zou, Xin; Dang, Yongming; Wu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Acute burn injuries are among the most devastating forms of trauma and lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Appropriate fluid resuscitation after severe burn, specifically during the first 48 hours following injury, is considered as the single most important therapeutic intervention in burn treatment. Although many formulas have been developed to estimate the required fluid amount in severe burn patients, many lines of evidence showed that patients still receive far more fluid than formulas recommend. Overresuscitation, which is known as “fluid creep,” has emerged as one of the most important problems during the initial period of burn care. If fluid titration can be personalized and automated during the resuscitation phase, more efficient burn care and outcome will be anticipated. In the present study, a dynamic urine output based infusion rate prediction model was developed and validated during the initial 48 hours in severe thermal burn adult patients. The experimental results demonstrated that the developed dynamic fluid resuscitation model might significantly reduce the total fluid volume by accurately predicting hourly urine output and has the potential to aid fluid administration in severe burn patients. PMID:26090415

  3. RECOVER: An Automated, Cloud-Based Decision Support System for Post-Fire Rehabilitation Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnase, J. L.; Carroll, M. L.; Weber, K. T.; Brown, M. E.; Gill, R. L.; Wooten, M.; May, J.; Serr, K.; Smith, E.; Goldsby, R.; Newtoff, K.; Bradford, K.; Doyle, C.; Volker, E.; Weber, S.

    2014-11-01

    RECOVER is a site-specific decision support system that automatically brings together in a single analysis environment the information necessary for post-fire rehabilitation decision-making. After a major wildfire, law requires that the federal land management agencies certify a comprehensive plan for public safety, burned area stabilization, resource protection, and site recovery. These burned area emergency response (BAER) plans are a crucial part of our national response to wildfire disasters and depend heavily on data acquired from a variety of sources. Final plans are due within 21 days of control of a major wildfire and become the guiding document for managing the activities and budgets for all subsequent remediation efforts. There are few instances in the federal government where plans of such wide-ranging scope and importance are assembled on such short notice and translated into action more quickly. RECOVER has been designed in close collaboration with our agency partners and directly addresses their high-priority decision-making requirements. In response to a fire detection event, RECOVER uses the rapid resource allocation capabilities of cloud computing to automatically collect Earth observational data, derived decision products, and historic biophysical data so that when the fire is contained, BAER teams will have a complete and ready-to-use RECOVER dataset and GIS analysis environment customized for the target wildfire. Initial studies suggest that RECOVER can transform this information-intensive process by reducing from days to a matter of minutes the time required to assemble and deliver crucial wildfire-related data.

  4. RECOVER: An Automated Cloud-Based Decision Support System for Post-fire Rehabilitation Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnase, John L.; Carroll, Mark; Weber, K. T.; Brown, Molly E.; Gill, Roger L.; Wooten, Margaret; May J.; Serr, K.; Smith, E.; Goldsby, R.; Newtoff, Kiersten; Bradford, Kathryn; Doyle Colin S.; Volker, Emily; Weber, Samuel J.

    2014-01-01

    RECOVER is a site-specific decision support system that automatically brings together in a single analysis environment the information necessary for post-fire rehabilitation decision-making. After a major wildfire, law requires that the federal land management agencies certify a comprehensive plan for public safety, burned area stabilization, resource protection, and site recovery. These burned area emergency response (BAER) plans are a crucial part of our national response to wildfire disasters and depend heavily on data acquired from a variety of sources. Final plans are due within 21 days of control of a major wildfire and become the guiding document for managing the activities and budgets for all subsequent remediation efforts. There are few instances in the federal government where plans of such wide-ranging scope and importance are assembled on such short notice and translated into action more quickly. RECOVER has been designed in close collaboration with our agency partners and directly addresses their high-priority decision-making requirements. In response to a fire detection event, RECOVER uses the rapid resource allocation capabilities of cloud computing to automatically collect Earth observational data, derived decision products, and historic biophysical data so that when the fire is contained, BAER teams will have a complete and ready-to-use RECOVER dataset and GIS analysis environment customized for the target wildfire. Initial studies suggest that RECOVER can transform this information-intensive process by reducing from days to a matter of minutes the time required to assemble and deliver crucial wildfire-related data.

  5. [A propose to suspend the use of hydroxyethyl starch for fluid resuscitation in shock phase of severe burns].

    PubMed

    Luo, Gao-xing; Peng, Yi-zhi; Wu, Jun

    2013-10-01

    Based on the result of randomized controlled trials and meta-analysis recently, the infusion of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) was not shown to over match routine crystalline solution in exerting resuscitation effect against hypovolemia of patients with burn shock, severe systematic infection, or other critical conditions, on the other hand, it may induce renal toxicity and other toxic and side effects. Since the pathological mechanism underlying hypovolemia during shock phase after burn is similar to that of severe systemic infection, we propose to suspend the use of HES for fluid resuscitation during the shock phase of severe burn until further elucidation. PMID:24359998

  6. Soil geochemistry controls fire severity: A soil approach to improved understanding of forest fire consequences in southwest Montana.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, R.; Hartshorn, T.

    2014-12-01

    Fire severity can be defined using satellite imagery to ratio mid (~2.2 um) to near (~0.8 um) infrared reflectance values. We examined how lithology and topography affected burn severity, and how post-fire soils data could be used to ground-truth burn severity at two sites in southwestern Montana. A burned area reflectance classification (BARC), lithology, and terrain attributes were used to predict burn severity for the Millie Fire, which was triggered two years ago by lightning and burned ~4,000 ha. Burn severity showed a strong dependence on lithology: the ratio of areas with high burn severity vs. low or moderate burn severities was 2.9 for gneiss (vs. 0.3 for volcanics). The high-severity burn area for the gneiss was larger than the volcanics, despite the latter lithology covering ~270% greater area (~2,600 ha). Aspect and elevation also influenced burn severity with lower severity at higher elevations (2,600-3,000 m) and higher severity at lower elevations (1,800-2,400 m). Southern and western aspects burned more severely than northern and eastern aspects. To clarify whether post-fire soil geochemical changes might predict ground-based estimates of fire severity, a lab experiment was carried out . We expected residual enrichment of trace metal concentrations, as soil organic matter (SOM) was combusted, which we quantified as loss on ignition (LOI). To test this approach, burned and unburned soils were sampled from the ~6000 ha Beartrap 2 fire, which also burned two years. We simulated differing fire severities on unburned soil using a muffle furnace factorially (duration [5, 15, 30, 45, or 60 minutes] x temperature [50, 100, 200, 300, 400, or 500ºC]). Consistent with expectations, unburned samples had a lower mean (±1SD) concentrations for 23 of 30 elements than field-burned samples. For example, barium concentrations ([Ba]) in unburned samples were (708±37?g/g), 16% lower than field-burned [Ba] (841±7 ?g/g). Simulated burning yielded smaller [Ba] (732±9 ?g/g). Of the 30 trace metals examined, barium explained the greatest fraction of variance in post-burn LOI (R2 =0.79); gallium explained slightly less variance (R2=0.67). Our results document the promise of post-burn soil geochemistry to indicate soil burn severity, which could complement vegetation-based and remotely sensed indices.

  7. Modeling fire severity in black spruce stands in the Alaskan boreal forest using spectral and non-spectral geospatial data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrett, K.; Kasischke, E.S.; McGuire, A.D.; Turetsky, M.R.; Kane, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    Biomass burning in the Alaskan interior is already a major disturbance and source of carbon emissions, and is likely to increase in response to the warming and drying predicted for the future climate. In addition to quantifying changes to the spatial and temporal patterns of burned areas, observing variations in severity is the key to studying the impact of changes to the fire regime on carbon cycling, energy budgets, and post-fire succession. Remote sensing indices of fire severity have not consistently been well-correlated with in situ observations of important severity characteristics in Alaskan black spruce stands, including depth of burning of the surface organic layer. The incorporation of ancillary data such as in situ observations and GIS layers with spectral data from Landsat TM/ETM+ greatly improved efforts to map the reduction of the organic layer in burned black spruce stands. Using a regression tree approach, the R2 of the organic layer depth reduction models was 0.60 and 0.55 (p < 0.01) for relative and absolute depth reduction, respectively. All of the independent variables used by the regression tree to estimate burn depth can be obtained independently of field observations. Implementation of a gradient boosting algorithm improved the R2 to 0.80 and 0.79 (p < 0.01) for absolute and relative organic layer depth reduction, respectively. Independent variables used in the regression tree model of burn depth included topographic position, remote sensing indices related to soil and vegetation characteristics, timing of the fire event, and meteorological data. Post-fire organic layer depth characteristics are determined for a large (> 200,000 ha) fire to identify areas that are potentially vulnerable to a shift in post-fire succession. This application showed that 12% of this fire event experienced fire severe enough to support a change in post-fire succession. We conclude that non-parametric models and ancillary data are useful in the modeling of the surface organic layer fire depth. Because quantitative differences in post-fire surface characteristics do not directly influence spectral properties, these modeling techniques provide better information than the use of remote sensing data alone.

  8. Modeling Fire Severity in Black Spruce Stands in the Alaskan Boreal Forest Using Spectral and Non-Spectral Geospatial Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, K.; Kasischke, E. S.; McGuire, A. D.; Turetsky, M. R.; Kane, E. S.

    2010-01-01

    Biomass burning in the Alaskan interior is already a major disturbance and source of carbon emissions, and is likely to increase in response to the warming and drying predicted for the future climate. In addition to quantifying changes to the spatial and temporal patterns of burned areas, observing variations in severity is the key to studying the impact of changes to the fire regime on carbon cycling, energy budgets, and post-fire succession. Remote sensing indices of fire severity have not consistently been well-correlated with in situ observations of important severity characteristics in Alaskan black spruce stands, including depth of burning of the surface organic layer. The incorporation of ancillary data such as in situ observations and GIS layers with spectral data from Landsat TM/ETM+ greatly improved efforts to map the reduction of the organic layer in burned black spruce stands. Using a regression tree approach, the R2 of the organic layer depth reduction models was 0.60 and 0.55 (pb0.01) for relative and absolute depth reduction, respectively. All of the independent variables used by the regression tree to estimate burn depth can be obtained independently of field observations. Implementation of a gradient boosting algorithm improved the R2 to 0.80 and 0.79 (pb0.01) for absolute and relative organic layer depth reduction, respectively. Independent variables used in the regression tree model of burn depth included topographic position, remote sensing indices related to soil and vegetation characteristics, timing of the fire event, and meteorological data. Post-fire organic layer depth characteristics are determined for a large (N200,000 ha) fire to identify areas that are potentially vulnerable to a shift in post-fire succession. This application showed that 12% of this fire event experienced fire severe enough to support a change in post-fire succession. We conclude that non-parametric models and ancillary data are useful in the modeling of the surface organic layer fire depth. Because quantitative differences in post-fire surface characteristics do not directly influence spectral properties, these modeling techniques provide better information than the use of remote sensing data alone.

  9. The effect of post-fire stand age on the boreal forest energy balance

    E-print Network

    2006-01-01

    phase of the post-fire successional trajectory appears tothe successional trajectory by setting the initial post-firetrajectory, with deciduous broad-leafed species often being dominant in the early post-

  10. Estimating fire severity using satellite ASTER data and local Spatial autocorrelation statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coluzzi, Rosa; Lanorte, Antonio; Lasaponara, Rosa; de Santis, Fortunato

    2010-05-01

    What are the ecological effects of fires? The evaluation of fire-affected areas and fire severity is of primary importance to answer this question, because fire strongly affects the ecological processes, such as, productivity level, creation of altered patches, modification in vegetation structure and shifts in vegetation cover composition, as well as land surface processes (such as surface energy, water balance, carbon cycle). Traditional methods of recording fire burned areas and fire severity involve expensive and time -consuming field survey. The available remote sensing technologies may allow us to develop standardized burn-severity maps for evaluating fire effects and addressing post fire management activities. This paper is focused on preliminary results we obtained from ongoing research focused on the evaluation of spatial variability of fire effects on vegetation. For the purposes of this study satellite ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) data have been used. Both single (post-fire) and multi-date (pre and post fire) ASTER images were processed for some test areas in Southern Italy. Spatial autocorrelation statistics, such as Moran's I, Geary's C, and Getis-Ord Local Gi index (see Anselin 1995; Getis and Ord 1992), were used to measure and analyze the degree of dependency among spectral features of burned areas. The preliminary results pointed out that spatial autocorrelation statistics applied to ASTER data allow us to discriminate fire severity and to improve the monitoring of fire effects over time. Such information are effective data source for evaluating erosion/runoff, biomass and carbon issues, and other issues using mapped burn severity. Keywords: satellite; fire, burned area, Spatial autocorrelation statistics,

  11. 77 FR 70389 - Eligibility of Disabled Veterans and Members of the Armed Forces With Severe Burn Injuries for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ...DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 3 RIN 2900-AO31 Eligibility of Disabled Veterans and Members of the Armed Forces With Severe Burn Injuries for Financial Assistance in the Purchase of an...

  12. Quantifying Post-Fire Forest Biomass Recovery in Northeastern Siberia using Hierarchical Multi-Sensor Satellite Imagery and Field Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berner, L.; Beck, P. S.; Loranty, M. M.; Alexander, H. D.; Mack, M. C.; Goetz, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    Russian forests are the largest vegetation carbon pool outside of the tropics, with larch dominating northeastern Siberia where extreme temperatures, permafrost and wildfire currently limit persistence of other tree species. These ecosystems have experienced rapid climate warming over the past century and model simulations suggest that they will undergo profound changes by the end of the century if warming continues. Understanding the responses of these unique deciduous-conifer ecosystems to current and future climate is important given the potential changes in disturbance regimes and other climate feedbacks. The climate implications of changes in fire severity and return interval, as predicted under a warmer and drier climate, are not well understood given the trade-off between storage of C in forest biomass and post-fire surface albedo. We examined forest biomass recovery across a burn chronosequence near Cherskii, Sakha Republic, in far northeastern Siberia. We used high-quality Landsat imagery to date and map fires that occurred between 1972 and 2009, then complemented this data set using tree ring measurements to map older fires. A three stage approach was taken to map current biomass distribution. First, tree shadows were mapped from 50 cm panchromatic WorldView 1 imagery covering a portion of the region. Secondly, the tree shadow map was aggregated to 30 m resolution and used to train a regression-tree model that ingested mosaiced Landsat data. The model output correlated with allometry-based field estimates of biomass, allowing us to transform the model output to a map of regional aboveground biomass using a regression model. When combined with the fire history data, the new biomass map revealed a chronosequence of forest regrowth and carbon sequestration in aboveground biomass after fire. We discuss the potential for future carbon emissions from fires in northeastern Siberia, as well as carbon sequestration during recovery based on the observed biomass distribution and regrowth patterns. These results provide a basis for assessing regrowth trajectories in the region using a combination of field measurements and multi-sensor imagery, with the ultimate objective of better capturing forest carbon sequestration under changing fire disturbance regime.

  13. Heterogeneity in fire severity within early season and late season prescribed burns in a mixed-conifer forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knapp, E.E.; Keeley, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    Structural heterogeneity in forests of the Sierra Nevada was historically produced through variation in fire regimes and local environmental factors. The amount of heterogeneity that prescription burning can achieve might now be more limited owing to high fuel loads and increased fuel continuity. Topography, woody fuel loading, and vegetative composition were quantified in plots within replicated early and late season burn units. Two indices of fire severity were evaluated in the same plots after the burns. Scorch height ranged from 2.8 to 25.4 m in early season plots and 3.1 to 38.5 m in late season plots, whereas percentage of ground surface burned ranged from 24 to 96% in early season plots and from 47 to 100% in late season plots. Scorch height was greatest in areas with steeper slopes, higher basal area of live trees, high percentage of basal area composed of pine, and more small woody fuel. Percentage of area burned was greatest in areas with less bare ground and rock cover (more fuel continuity), steeper slopes, and units burned in the fall (lower fuel moisture). Thus topographic and biotic factors still contribute to the abundant heterogeneity in fire severity with prescribed burning, even under the current high fuel loading conditions. Burning areas with high fuel loads in early season when fuels are moister may lead to patterns of heterogeneity in fire effects that more closely approximate the expected patchiness of historical fires.

  14. Central American biomass burning smoke can increase tornado severity in the U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saide, P. E.; Spak, S. N.; Pierce, R. B.; Otkin, J. A.; Schaack, T. K.; Heidinger, A. K.; Silva, A. M.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; Redemann, J.; Carmichael, G. R.

    2015-02-01

    Tornadoes in the Southeast and central U.S. are episodically accompanied by smoke from biomass burning in central America. Analysis of the 27 April 2011 historical tornado outbreak shows that adding smoke to an environment already conducive to severe thunderstorm development can increase the likelihood of significant tornado occurrence. Numerical experiments indicate that the presence of smoke during this event leads to optical thickening of shallow clouds while soot within the smoke enhances the capping inversion through radiation absorption. The smoke effects are consistent with measurements of clouds and radiation before and during the outbreak. These effects result in lower cloud bases and stronger low-level wind shear in the warm sector of the extratropical cyclone generating the outbreak, two indicators of higher probability of tornadogenesis and tornado intensity and longevity. These mechanisms may contribute to tornado modulation by aerosols, highlighting the need to consider aerosol feedbacks in numerical severe weather forecasting.

  15. Comparing the influence of wildfire and prescribed burns on watershed nitrogen biogeochemistry using 15N natural abundance in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem components.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Kirsten; Kavanagh, Kathleen L; Koyama, Akihiro

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated differences in the effects of three low-severity spring prescribed burns and four wildfires on nitrogen (N) biogeochemistry in Rocky Mountain headwater watersheds. We compared paired (burned/unburned) watersheds of four wildfires and three spring prescribed burns for three growing seasons post-fire. To better understand fire effects on the entire watershed ecosystem, we measured N concentrations and ?15N in both the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems components, i.e., soil, understory plants in upland and riparian areas, streamwater, and in-stream moss. In addition, we measured nitrate reductase activity in foliage of Spiraea betulifolia, a dominant understory species. We found increases of ?15N and N concentrations in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem N pools after wildfire, but responses were limited to terrestrial N pools after prescribed burns indicating that N transfer from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystem components did not occur in low-severity prescribed burns. Foliar ?15N differed between wildfire and prescribed burn sites; the ?15N of foliage of upland plants was enriched by 2.9 ‰ (difference between burned and unburned watersheds) in the first two years after wildfire, but only 1.3 ‰ after prescribed burns. In-stream moss ?15N in wildfire-burned watersheds was enriched by 1.3 ‰, but there was no response by moss in prescription-burned watersheds, mirroring patterns of streamwater nitrate concentrations. S. betulifolia showed significantly higher nitrate reductase activity two years after wildfires relative to corresponding unburned watersheds, but no such difference was found after prescribed burns. These responses are consistent with less altered N biogeochemistry after prescribed burns relative to wildfire. We concluded that ?15N values in terrestrial and aquatic plants and streamwater nitrate concentrations after fire can be useful indicators of the magnitude and duration of fire effects and the fate of post-fire available N. PMID:25885257

  16. Comparing the Influence of Wildfire and Prescribed Burns on Watershed Nitrogen Biogeochemistry Using 15N Natural Abundance in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystem Components

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, Kirsten; Kavanagh, Kathleen L.; Koyama, Akihiro

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated differences in the effects of three low-severity spring prescribed burns and four wildfires on nitrogen (N) biogeochemistry in Rocky Mountain headwater watersheds. We compared paired (burned/unburned) watersheds of four wildfires and three spring prescribed burns for three growing seasons post-fire. To better understand fire effects on the entire watershed ecosystem, we measured N concentrations and ?15N in both the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems components, i.e., soil, understory plants in upland and riparian areas, streamwater, and in-stream moss. In addition, we measured nitrate reductase activity in foliage of Spiraea betulifolia, a dominant understory species. We found increases of ?15N and N concentrations in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem N pools after wildfire, but responses were limited to terrestrial N pools after prescribed burns indicating that N transfer from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystem components did not occur in low-severity prescribed burns. Foliar ?15N differed between wildfire and prescribed burn sites; the ?15N of foliage of upland plants was enriched by 2.9 ‰ (difference between burned and unburned watersheds) in the first two years after wildfire, but only 1.3 ‰ after prescribed burns. In-stream moss ?15N in wildfire-burned watersheds was enriched by 1.3 ‰, but there was no response by moss in prescription-burned watersheds, mirroring patterns of streamwater nitrate concentrations. S. betulifolia showed significantly higher nitrate reductase activity two years after wildfires relative to corresponding unburned watersheds, but no such difference was found after prescribed burns. These responses are consistent with less altered N biogeochemistry after prescribed burns relative to wildfire. We concluded that ?15N values in terrestrial and aquatic plants and streamwater nitrate concentrations after fire can be useful indicators of the magnitude and duration of fire effects and the fate of post-fire available N. PMID:25885257

  17. Simulating Local and Intercontinental Pollutant Effects of Biomass Burning: Integration of Several Remotely Sensed Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatfield, Robert B.; Vastano, John A.; Guild, Liane; Hlavka, Christine; Brass, James A.; Russell, Philip B. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Burning to clear land for crops and to destroy pests is an integral and largely unavoidable part of tropical agriculture. It is easy to note but difficult to quantify using remote sensing. This report describes our efforts to integrate remotely sensed data into our computer model of tropical chemical trace-gas emissions, weather, and reaction chemistry (using the MM5 mesoscale model and our own Global-Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Simulator). The effects of burning over the continents of Africa and South America have been noticed in observations from several satellites. Smoke plumes hundreds of kilometers long may be seen individually, or may merge into a large smoke pall over thousands of kilometers of these continents. These features are related to intense pollution in the much more confined regions with heavy burning. These emissions also translocate nitrogen thousands of kilometers in the tropical ecosystems, with large fixed-nitrogen losses balanced partially by locally intense fertilization downwind, where nitric acid is rained out. At a much larger scale, various satellite measurements have indicated the escape of carbon monoxide and ozone into large filaments which extend across the Tropical and Southern Atlantic Ocean. Our work relates the source emissions, estimated in part from remote sensing, in part from conventional surface reports, to the concentrations of these gases over these intercontinental regions. We will mention work in progress to use meteorological satellite data (AVHRR, GOES, and Meteosat) to estimate the surface temperature and extent and height of clouds, and explain why these uses are so important in our computer simulations of global biogeochemistry. We will compare our simulations and interpretation of remote observations to the international cooperation involving Brazil, South Africa, and the USA in the TRACE-A (Transport and Atmospheric Chemistry near the Equator - Atlantic) and SAFARI (Southern Africa Fire Atmosphere Research Initiative) and remote-sensing /aircraft/ecosystem observational campaigns.

  18. Aesthetic restoration of the severely disfigured face in burn victims: a comprehensive strategy.

    PubMed

    Rose, E H

    1995-12-01

    Although highly specialized burn centers have significantly reduced mortality rates following extensive total body surface area burns, survivors are often left with grotesque facial disfigurement. The strategy of modern facial restoration emphasizes enhancement of aesthetic appearance as significantly as mitigation of functional impairment. Criteria for success are (1) an undistracted "normal" look at conversational distance, (2) facial balance and symmetry, (3) distinct aesthetic units fused by inconspicuous scars, (4) "doughy" skin texture appropriate for corrective makeup, and (5) dynamic facial expression. Since 1985, the author has successfully restored 17 severely disfigured burned faces by replacement of entire aesthetic units with microvascular "prepatterned" composite flaps blended into the facial canvas by cosmetic camouflage techniques. The series includes hemiface (2), neck/jaw (5), chin/lower lip (3), cheek/malar (5), peri-orbital (2), nose (3), upper lip (4), and ear reconstructions (4). Flaps represented are free preauricular (1), radial forearm (6), ulnar forearm (1), free scapular (6), ilio-osteocutaneous (2), temporoparietal (8), vascularized forehead island (3), supraclavicular (1), and SMAS (1). Important to outcome is extensive initial intraoperative "sculpting" to simulate normal planes and contours. Seams are placed at junctions of facial components. Three-dimensional imaging is used to assess architectural asymmetries, and bone grafts are aided by computer-generated acrylic models. Adjunctive procedures include tensor fasciae latae slings, intraoperative tissue expansion, suction-assisted lipectomy, and scar management. After restoration of facial form and texture, flesh color make-up and/or tattooing of beard, lips, scars, eyebrows, etc., aid to hide scars and pigment the skin to harmonize with the rest of the face. In all cases, facial integrity has been aesthetically restored and, in most instances, with makeup, is near normal in social settings at conversational distances. Facial animation is retained and color matches are excellent. One flap was lost early in the series. PMID:7480277

  19. Clinical Impact of Sample Interference on Intensive Insulin Therapy in Severely Burned Patients: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Nam K.; Godwin, Zachary R.; Bockhold, Jennifer C.; Passerini, Anthony G.; Cheng, Julian; Ingemason, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Objective Severely burned patients benefit from intensive insulin therapy (IIT) for tight glycemic control (TGC). We evaluated the clinical impact of automatic correction of hematocrit and ascorbic acid interference for bedside glucose monitoring performance in critically ill burn patients. Methods The performance of two point-of-care glucose monitoring systems (GMS): (a) GMS1, an autocorrecting device, and (b) GMS2, a non-correcting device were compared. Sixty remnant arterial blood samples were collected in a prospective observational study to evaluate hematocrit and ascorbic acid effects on GMS1 vs. GMS2 accuracy paired against a plasma glucose reference. Next we enrolled 12 patients in a pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT). Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive IIT targeting a TGC interval of 111–151 mg/dL and guided by either GMS1 or GMS2. GMS bias, mean insulin rate, and glycemic variability were calculated. Results In the prospective study, GMS1 results were similar to plasma glucose results (mean bias: ?0.75[4.0] mg/dL, n=60, P=0.214). GMS2 results significantly differed from paired plasma glucose results (mean bias: ?5.66[18.7] mg/dL, n=60, P=0.048). Ascorbic acid therapy elicited significant GMS2 performance bias (29.2[27.2], P<0.001). RCT results reported lower mean bias (P<0.001), glycemic variability (P<0.05), mean insulin rate (P<0.001), and frequency of hypoglycemia (P<0.001) in the GMS1 group than the GMS2 group. Conclusions Anemia and high dose ascorbic acid therapy negatively impact GMS accuracy and TGC in burn patients. Automatic correction of confounding factors improves glycemic control. Further studies are warranted to determine outcomes associated with accurate glucose monitoring during IIT. PMID:23884048

  20. Contrasting long-term survival of two outplanted Mojave Desert perennials for post-fire revegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scoles-Sciulla, Sara J.; Defalco, Lesley A.; Esque, Todd C.

    2015-01-01

    Post-fire recovery of arid shrublands is typically slow, and planting greenhouse-raised seedlings may be a means of jump-starting this process. Recovery can be further accelerated by understanding the factors controlling post-planting survival. In fall 2007 and 2009, we outplanted seedlings of two contrasting native evergreen shrubs—fast-growing Nevada jointfir and slow-growing blackbrush—across five burned sites in the Mojave Desert. To increase soil moisture and optimize seedling survival, we experimentally applied and evaluated soil amendments and supplemental watering. We also evaluated two herbicides that reduce competitive invasive annual grasses and two types of herbivore protection. Survival of jointfir outplanted in 2007 was 61% after 43 months, and site largely influenced survival, while herbicide containing imazapic applied more than one year after outplanting reduced survival. Reduced survival of jointfir outplanted in 2009 coincided with delayed seasonal precipitation that intensified foliar damage by small mammals. In contrast, blackbrush survival was 4% after 43 months, and was influenced by site, type of herbivore protection, and greenhouse during the 2007 outplanting, and soil amendment during 2009. Counter to expectations, we found that supplemental watering and soil amendments did not influence long-term survival of either blackbrush or jointfir. Shrub species with rapid growth rates and broad environmental tolerances, such as jointfir, make ideal candidates for outplanting, provided that seedlings are protected from herbivores. Re-introduction of species with slow growth rates and narrow environmental tolerances, such as blackbrush, requires careful consideration to optimize pre- and post-planting conditions.

  1. Severe Burns and Amputation of Both Arms in the First Psychotic Episode of a Schizophrenic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Cruzado, Lizardo; Villafane-Alva, Ronald; Caballero-Atencio, Katia; Cortez-Vergara, Carla; Núñez-Moscoso, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    An alleged reduction of sensitivity to pain in people with schizophrenia has been reported, but the nature of this complex phenomenon has not been elucidated yet. Reports of insensitivity to burns from people with schizophrenia are extremely rare. We report the case of a 24-year-old man who set both of his arms on fire during the first break of paranoid schizophrenia. As a result of severe tissue damage, both of his limbs had to be amputated. Today, at the age of 59, the patient is physically and mentally rehabilitated and is adherent to treatment. Additionally, given the uncertainty about the true nature of the alleged hypoalgesia in schizophrenia, we postulate the need for a comprehensive phenomenological approach in the study of embodiment in people with this condition. PMID:26417469

  2. SHRUB MICROSITE INFLUENCE POST-FIRE PERENNIAL GRASS ESTABLISHMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many arid and semi-arid systems benefit from restoration of perennial grasses following wildfire. Woody plants can cause localized increases in resources (i.e. resource islands) that can persist after fire and create a heterogeneous environment for restoration. We tested the hypothesis that burned...

  3. Polyacrylamide application versus forest residue mulching for reducing post-fire runoff and soil erosion.

    PubMed

    Prats, Sergio Alegre; Martins, Martinho António Dos Santos; Malvar, Maruxa Cortizo; Ben-Hur, Meni; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2014-01-15

    For several years now, forest fires have been known to increase overland flow and soil erosion. However, mitigation of these effects has been little studied, especially outside the USA. This study aimed to quantify the effectiveness of two so-called emergency treatments to reduce post-fire runoff and soil losses at the microplot scale in a eucalyptus plantation in north-central Portugal. The treatments involved the application of chopped eucalyptus bark mulch at a rate of 10-12 Mg ha(-1), and surface application of a dry, granular, anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) at a rate of 50 kg ha(-1). During the first year after a wildfire in 2010, 1419 mm of rainfall produced, on average, 785 mm of overland flow in the untreated plots and 8.4 Mg ha(-1) of soil losses. Mulching reduced these two figures significantly, by an average 52 and 93%, respectively. In contrast, the PAM-treated plots did not differ from the control plots, despite slightly lower runoff but higher soil erosion figures. When compared to the control plots, mean key factors for runoff and soil erosion were different in the case of the mulched but not the PAM plots. Notably, the plots on the lower half of the slope registered bigger runoff and erosion figures than those on the upper half of the slope. This could be explained by differences in fire intensity and, ultimately, in pre-fire standing biomass. PMID:24055663

  4. Clinical review: Glucose control in severely burned patients - current best practice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Tight glucose control changed the way many burn centers practice burn ICU care. However, after the initial impressive data, various clinical trials followed that showed mixed results. The objective of the present review is to discuss recent studies in the area of burn and critical care, and to identify the current best practice for current burn care providers. We reviewed relevant publications from PubMed and selected high-impact publications on tight glycemic control in various patient populations with a focus on burn patients. We conclude that in burns there seems to be a signal that insulin administration to a target range of 130 to 150 mg/dl is beneficial in terms of morbidity and mortality without the risk of hypoglycemia. PMID:23890278

  5. Clinical review: Glucose control in severely burned patients - current best practice.

    PubMed

    Jeschke, Marc G

    2013-01-01

    Tight glucose control changed the way many burn centers practice burn ICU care. However, after the initial impressive data, various clinical trials followed that showed mixed results. The objective of the present review is to discuss recent studies in the area of burn and critical care, and to identify the current best practice for current burn care providers. We reviewed relevant publications from PubMed and selected high-impact publications on tight glycemic control in various patient populations with a focus on burn patients. We conclude that in burns there seems to be a signal that insulin administration to a target range of 130 to 150 mg/dl is beneficial in terms of morbidity and mortality without the risk of hypoglycemia. PMID:23890278

  6. Evaluation of burn severity in vivo in a mouse model using spectroscopic optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Maher, Jason R; Kim, Jina; Selim, Maria Angelica; Levinson, Howard; Wax, Adam

    2015-09-01

    Clinical management of burn injuries depends upon an accurate assessment of the depth of the wound. Current diagnostic methods rely primarily on subjective visual inspection, which can produce variable results. In this study, spectroscopic optical coherence tomography was used to objectively evaluate burn injuries in vivo in a mouse model. Significant spectral differences were observed and correlated with the depth of the injury as determined by histopathology. The relevance of these results to clinical burn management in human tissues is discussed. PMID:26417505

  7. Evaluation of burn severity in vivo in a mouse model using spectroscopic optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yang; Maher, Jason R.; Kim, Jina; Selim, Maria Angelica; Levinson, Howard; Wax, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Clinical management of burn injuries depends upon an accurate assessment of the depth of the wound. Current diagnostic methods rely primarily on subjective visual inspection, which can produce variable results. In this study, spectroscopic optical coherence tomography was used to objectively evaluate burn injuries in vivo in a mouse model. Significant spectral differences were observed and correlated with the depth of the injury as determined by histopathology. The relevance of these results to clinical burn management in human tissues is discussed. PMID:26417505

  8. Plasma Proteome Response to Severe Burn Injury Revealed by 18O-Labeled “Universal” Reference-based Quantitative Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Wei-Jun; Petritis, Brianne O.; Kaushal, Amit; Finnerty, Celeste C; Jeschke, Marc G; Monroe, Matthew E.; Moore, Ronald J.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Xiao, Wenzhong; Moldawer, Lyle L.; Davis, Ronald W.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Herndon, David N.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    A burn injury represents one of the most severe forms of human trauma and is responsible for significant mortality worldwide. Here, we present the first quantitative proteomics investigation of the blood plasma proteome response to severe burn injury by comparing the plasma protein concentrations of 10 healthy control subjects with those of 15 severe burn patients at two time-points following the injury. The overall analytical strategy for this work integrated immunoaffinity depletion of the 12 most abundant plasma proteins with cysteinyl-peptide enrichment-based fractionation prior to LC-MS analyses of individual patient samples. Incorporation of an 18O-labeled “universal” reference among the sample sets enabled precise relative quantification across samples. In total, 313 plasma proteins confidently identified with two or more unique peptides were quantified. Following statistical analysis, 110 proteins exhibited significant abundance changes in response to the burn injury. The observed changes in protein concentrations suggest significant inflammatory and hypermetabolic response to the injury, which is supported by the fact that many of the identified proteins are associated with acute phase response signaling, the complement system, and coagulation system pathways. The regulation of ~35 proteins observed in this study is in agreement with previous results reported for inflammatory or burn response, but approximately 50 potentially novel proteins previously not known to be associated with burn response or inflammation are also found. Elucidating proteins involved in the response to severe burn injury may reveal novel targets for therapeutic interventions, as well as potential predictive biomarkers for patient outcomes such as multiple organ failure. PMID:20698492

  9. Astaxanthin Attenuates Early Acute Kidney Injury Following Severe Burns in Rats by Ameliorating Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial-Related Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Song-Xue; Zhou, Han-Lei; Huang, Chun-Lan; You, Chuan-Gang; Fang, Quan; Wu, Pan; Wang, Xin-Gang; Han, Chun-Mao

    2015-01-01

    Early acute kidney injury (AKI) is a devastating complication in critical burn patients, and it is associated with severe morbidity and mortality. The mechanism of AKI is multifactorial. Astaxanthin (ATX) is a natural compound that is widely distributed in marine organisms; it is a strong antioxidant and exhibits other biological effects that have been well studied in various traumatic injuries and diseases. Hence, we attempted to explore the potential protection of ATX against early post burn AKI and its possible mechanisms of action. The classic severe burn rat model was utilized for the histological and biochemical assessments of the therapeutic value and mechanisms of action of ATX. Upon ATX treatment, renal tubular injury and the levels of serum creatinine and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin were improved. Furthermore, relief of oxidative stress and tubular apoptosis in rat kidneys post burn was also observed. Additionally, ATX administration increased Akt and Bad phosphorylation and further down-regulated the expression of other downstream pro-apoptotic proteins (cytochrome c and caspase-3/9); these effects were reversed by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Moreover, the protective effect of ATX presents a dose-dependent enhancement. The data above suggested that ATX protects against early AKI following severe burns in rats, which was attributed to its ability to ameliorate oxidative stress and inhibit apoptosis by modulating the mitochondrial-apoptotic pathway, regarded as the Akt/Bad/Caspases signalling cascade. PMID:25871290

  10. Topographic Controls on Southern California Ecosystem Function and Post-fire Recovery: a Satellite and Near-surface Remote Sensing Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzari, George

    Southern Californian wildfires can influence climate in a variety of ways, including changes in surface albedo, emission of greenhouse gases and aerosols, and the production of tropospheric ozone. Ecosystem post-fire recovery plays a key role in determining the strength, duration, and relative importance of these climate forcing agents. Southern California's ecosystems vary markedly with topography, creating sharp transitions with elevation, aspect, and slope. Little is known about the ways topography influences ecosystem properties and function, particularly in the context of post-fire recovery. We combined images from the USGS satellite Landsat 5 with flux tower measurements to analyze pre- and post-fire albedo and carbon exchanged by Southern California's ecosystems in the Santa Ana Mountains. We reduced the sources of external variability in Landsat images using several correction methods for topographic and bidirectional effects. We used time series of corrected images to infer the Net Ecosystem Exchange and surface albedo, and calculated the radiative forcing due to CO2 emissions and albedo changes. We analyzed the patterns of recovery and radiative forcing on north- and south-facing slopes, stratified by vegetation classes including grassland, coastal sage scrub, chaparral, and evergreen oak forest. We found that topography strongly influenced post-fire recovery and radiative forcing. Field observations are often limited by the difficulty of collecting ground validation data. Current instrumentation networks do not provide adequate spatial resolution for landscape-level analysis. The deployment of consumer-market technology could reduce the cost of near-surface measurements, allowing the installation of finer-scale instrument networks. We tested the performance of the Microsoft Kinect sensor for measuring vegetation structure. We used Kinect to acquire 3D vegetation point clouds in the field, and used these data to compute plant height, crown diameter, and volume. We found good agreement between Kinect-derived and manual measurements.

  11. Wind erosion from a sagebrush steppe burned by wildfire: Measurements of PM10 and total horizontal sediment flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenbrenner, Natalie S.; Germino, Matthew J.; Lamb, Brian K.; Robichaud, Peter R.; Foltz, Randy B.

    2013-09-01

    Wind erosion and aeolian transport processes are under studied compared to rainfall-induced erosion and sediment transport on burned landscapes. Post-fire wind erosion studies have predominantly focused on near-surface sediment transport and associated impacts such as on-site soil loss and site fertility. Downwind impacts, including air quality degradation and deposition of dust or contaminants, are also likely post-fire effects; however, quantitative field measurements of post-fire dust emissions are needed for assessment of these downwind risks. A wind erosion monitoring system was installed immediately following a desert sagebrush and grass wildfire in southeastern Idaho, USA to measure wind erosion from the burned landscape. This paper presents measurements of horizontal sediment flux and PM10 vertical flux from the burned area. We determined threshold wind speeds and corresponding threshold friction velocities to be 6.0 and 0.20 m s-1, respectively, for the 4 months immediately following the fire and 10 and 0.55 m s-1 for the following spring months. Several major wind erosion events were measured in the months following the July 2010 Jefferson Fire. The largest wind erosion event occurred in early September 2010 and produced 1495 kg m-1 of horizontal sediment transport within the first 2 m above the soil surface, had a maximum PM10 vertical flux of 100 mg m-2 s-1, and generated a large dust plume that was visible in satellite imagery. The peak PM10 concentration measured on-site at a height of 2 m in the downwind portion of the burned area was 690 mg m-3. Our results indicate that wildfire can convert a relatively stable landscape into one that is a major dust source.

  12. Improved Net Protein Balance, Lean Mass, and Gene Expression Changes With Oxandrolone Treatment in the Severely Burned

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Steven E.; Thomas, Steven J.; Dasu, Mohan R.; Ferrando, Arny A.; Chinkes, David L.; Wolfe, Robert R.; Herndon, David N.

    2003-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of the anabolic agent oxandrolone on muscle protein and gene expression in severely burned children. Summary Background Data The authors previously showed that oxandrolone increased net muscle protein synthesis in emaciated burned patients receiving delayed treatment for severe burns. They hypothesized that similar effects would be seen in those treated early after burn. Methods Thirty-two severely burned children were enrolled in a prospective randomized trial. Subjects underwent studies to assess leg protein net balance 5 days after the first excision and grafting procedure. Immediately after these studies, treatment with placebo (n = 18) or 0.1 mg/kg oxandrolone (n = 14) twice a day was started. One week after this, another net balance study was performed in each subject. Body weights and total body potassium counting were used to determine body compositional changes. Muscle biopsies were taken 1 week after treatment in oxandrolone subjects to examine gene expression changes with gene array (12,600 genes). Results Protein net balance did not change in the placebo group, while oxandrolone-treated subjects had a significant improvement. Body weights and fat free mass significantly decreased in the placebo group, while no changes were found in the oxandrolone-treated subjects. Expression changes were seen in 14 genes in the oxandrolone group compared to placebo. Some of these included myosin light chain (+2.7-fold change), tubulin (+2.3), calmodulin (?2.3), and protein phosphatase I inhibitor (?2.8). Conclusions Oxandrolone improves protein net balance and lean mass in the severely burned. These changes are associated with increased gene expression for functional muscle proteins. PMID:12796576

  13. SHORT-TERM EFFECTS OF SUMMER FIRE AND POST-FIRE GRAZING IN THE NORTHERN GREAT PLAINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Summer wildfire is common in the northern Great Plains. However, little research has been conducted to evaluate summer fire and post-fire grazing effects on plant communities. The objective of this study was to determine short-term effects of summer fire and post-fire grazing on standing crop, cur...

  14. In situ measurements of post-fire debris flows in southern California: Comparisons of the timing and magnitude of 24 debris-flow events with rainfall and soil moisture conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kean, J.W.; Staley, D.M.; Cannon, S.H.

    2011-01-01

    Debris flows often occur in burned steeplands of southern California, sometimes causing property damage and loss of life. In an effort to better understand the hydrologic controls on post-fire debris-flow initiation, timing and magnitude, we measured the flow stage, rainfall, channel bed pore fluid pressure and hillslope soil-moisture accompanying 24 debris flows recorded in five different watersheds burned in the 2009 Station and Jesusita Fires (San Gabriel and Santa Ynez Mountains). The measurements show substantial differences in debris-flow dynamics between sites and between sequential events at the same site. Despite these differences, the timing and magnitude of all events were consistently associated with local peaks in short duration (< = 30 min) rainfall intensity. Overall, debris-flow stage was best cross-correlated with time series of 5-min rainfall intensity, and lagged the rainfall by an average of just 5 min. An index of debris-flow volume was also best correlated with short-duration rainfall intensity, but found to be poorly correlated with storm cumulative rainfall and hillslope soil water content. Post-event observations of erosion and slope stability modeling suggest that the debris flows initiated primarily by processes related to surface water runoff, rather than shallow landslides. By identifying the storm characteristics most closely associated with post-fire debris flows, these measurements provide valuable guidance for warning operations and important constraints for developing and testing models of post-fire debris flows. copyright. 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. A low-cost method to measure the timing of post-fire flash floods and debris flows relative to rainfall

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kean, Jason W.; Staley, Dennis M.; Leeper, Robert J.; Schmidt, Kevin Michael; Gartner, Joseph E.

    2012-01-01

    Data on the specific timing of post-fire flash floods and debris flows are very limited. We describe a method to measure the response times of small burned watersheds to rainfall using a low-cost pressure transducer, which can be installed quickly after a fire. Although the pressure transducer is not designed for sustained sampling at the fast rates ({less than or equal to}2 sec) used at more advanced debris-flow monitoring sites, comparisons with high-data rate stage data show that measured spikes in pressure sampled at 1-min intervals are sufficient to detect the passage of most debris flows and floods. Post-event site visits are used to measure the peak stage and identify flow type based on deposit characteristics. The basin response timescale (tb) to generate flow at each site was determined from an analysis of the cross correlation between time series of flow pressure and 5-min rainfall intensity. This timescale was found to be less than 30 minutes for 40 post-fire floods and 11 post-fire debris flows recorded in 15 southern California watersheds ({less than or equal to} 1.4 km2). Including data from 24 other debris flows recorded at 5 more instrumentally advanced monitoring stations, we find there is not a substantial difference in the median tb for floods and debris flows (11 and 9 minutes, respectively); however, there are slight, statistically significant differences in the trends of flood and debris-flow tb with basin area, which are presumably related to differences in flow speed between floods and debris flows.

  16. Utilizing Remote Sensing Information to Improve Post-fire Rainfall-runoff Predictions after the 2010 Bull Fire in the Sequoia National Forest, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, A. M.; Hale, B.; Hogue, T. S.

    2012-12-01

    Post-fire management decisions are guided by rainfall-runoff predictions, which ultimately influence downstream treatment and mitigation costs. The current study investigates evolving rainfall-runoff partitioning at the watershed scale over a two-year period after the 2010 Bull Fire which occurred in the southern Sequoia National Forest in California. Stage height was measured at five-minute intervals using pressure transducers, tipping buckets were installed for rainfall duration and intensity, and channel cross-sections were measured approximately every two months to detail sediment deposition or scour. We also utilize remotely sensed vegetation data to evaluate vegetation recovery in the studied watersheds and the corresponding relationship to storm runoff. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), a measure of vegetation greenness, is evaluated for its potential use as a key recovery indicator. Preliminary results focus on alterations in annual and seasonal precipitation and discharge relationships using in-situ data and Landsat NDVI values for the period of study. NDVI values are consistent with a comprehensive burn, with an acute decrease observed in the initial post-fire period. However, vegetation recovery is highly variable in the studied systems and influenced by shorter-term biomass pulses (grasses) while longer-term recovery of other species (chaparral and pine) is ongoing. Runoff ratios are elevated during early storms and show some recovery in the later part of the study period. The ability to accurately and confidently predict post-fire runoff and longer-term recovery is critical for monitoring values-at-risk, reducing mitigation costs, and improving warnings to downstream public communities.

  17. Linking Burn Severity to Soil Infiltartion and Runoff in a Montane Watershed: Boulder, Colorado 

    E-print Network

    Ahlstrom, Anna 1988-

    2012-11-28

    Forest fires have an enormous impact on biotic and abiotic variables that control runoff and soil properties in watersheds. Because wildfires do not have a uniform effect on the burned area, significant variability occurs between areas of different...

  18. Long-Term Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Dysfunction is Associated with Hypermetabolism in Severely Burned Children.

    PubMed

    Porter, Craig; Herndon, David N; Børsheim, Elisabet; Bhattarai, Nisha; Chao, Tony; Reidy, Paul T; Rasmussen, Blake B; Andersen, Clark R; Suman, Oscar E; Sidossis, Labros S

    2016-01-01

    The long-term impact of burn trauma on skeletal muscle bioenergetics remains unknown. Here, the authors determined respiratory capacity and function of skeletal muscle mitochondria in healthy individuals and in burn victims for up to 2 years postinjury. Biopsies were collected from the m. vastus lateralis of 16 healthy men (26 ± 4 years) and 69 children (8 ± 5 years) with burns encompassing ?30% of their total BSA. Seventy-nine biopsies were collected from cohorts of burn victims at 2 weeks (n = 18), 6 months (n = 18), 12 months (n = 25), and 24 months (n = 18) postburn. Hypermetabolism was determined by the difference in predicted and measured metabolic rate. Mitochondrial respiration was determined in saponin-permeabilized myofiber bundles. Outcomes were modeled by analysis of variance, with differences in groups assessed by Tukey-adjusted contrasts. Burn patients were hypermetabolic for up to 2 years postinjury. Coupled mitochondrial respiration was lower at 2 weeks (17 [8] pmol/sec/mg; P < .001), 6 months (41 [30] pmol/sec/mg; P = .03), and 12 months (35 [14] pmol/sec/mg; P < .001) postburn compared with healthy controls (58 [13] pmol/sec/mg). Coupled respiration was greater at 6, 12, and 24 months postburn vs 2 weeks postburn (P < .001). Mitochondrial adenosine diphosphate and oligomycin sensitivity (measures of coupling control) were lower at all time-points postburn vs control (P < .05), but greater at 6, 12, and 24 months postburn vs 2 weeks postburn (P < .05). Muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity remains significantly lower in burn victims for 1-year postinjury. Mitochondrial coupling control is diminished for up to 2 years postinjury in burn victims, resulting in greater mitochondrial thermogenesis. These quantitative and qualitative derangements in skeletal muscle bioenergetics likely contribute to the long-term pathophysiological stress response to burn trauma. PMID:26361327

  19. Effectiveness of post-fire seeding at the Fitzner-Eberhardt Arid Land Ecology Reserve, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wirth, Troy A.; Pyke, David A.

    2011-01-01

    In August 2007, the Milepost 17 and Wautoma fires burned a combined total of 77,349 acres (31,302 hectares) of the Fitzner-Eberhardt Arid Land Ecology Reserve (ALE), part of the Hanford Reach National Monument administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Mid-Columbia National Wildlife Refuge. In 2009, the USFWS implemented a series of seeding and herbicide treatments to mitigate potential negative consequences of these fires, including mortality of native vegetation, invasion of Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass), and soil erosion. Treatments included combinations of seeding (drill and aerial), herbicides, and one of six different mixtures of species. Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Wyoming big sagebrush) also was planted by hand in a small area in the southern end of the fire perimeter. Due to differences in plant communities prior to the fire and the multiple treatments applied, treatments were grouped into five treatment associations including mid-elevation aerial seedings, low-elevation aerial seedings, low-elevation drill seedings, high-elevation drill seeding, and no seeding treatments. Data collected at the mid-elevation aerial seedings indicate that the seeding did not appear to increase the density of seedlings compared to the non-seeded area in 2010. At the low-elevation aerial seedings, there were significantly more seedlings at seeded areas as compared to non-seeded areas. Low densities of existing perennial plants probably fostered a low-competition environment enabling seeds to germinate and emerge in 2010 during adequate moisture. Low-elevation drill seedings resulted in significant emergence of seeded grasses in 2009 and 2010 and forbs in 2010. This was likely due to adequate precipitation and that the drill seeding assured soil-to-seed contact. At the high-elevation drill seeding, which was implemented in 2009, there were a high number of seedlings in 2010. Transplanting of A. tridentata following the fires resulted in variable survival rates that warrant further testing; however, transplants located closer to washes tended to have the highest survival rates. Overall, the low-elevation aerial and drill seedings, and the high-elevation drill seedings resulted in significant numbers of seedlings. Further research is needed on methods that provide land managers with critical information about whether or not to seed post-fire areas including status of pre-fire vegetation and estimates of plant mortality due to fire.

  20. Early post-fire succession in California chaparral: changes in diversity, density, cover, and biomass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guo, Q.

    2001-01-01

    For four consecutive years, following the fires in November 1993, temporal variations in species richness, cover and biomass of component plant groups in early post-fire chaparral succession were monitored on different aspects at the Stunt Ranch Santa Monica Mountains Reserve, southern California. Plant groups were categorized based on growth form, life form, ability to fix nitrogen, geographic origin and regeneration strategies. North-facing slopes exhibited higher species richness, higher species turnover rate over time and faster vegetation recovery in terms of biomass accumulation and return to pre-fire species composition. This was probably due to higher species richness and biomass of nitrogen-fixing species found on north-facing slopes in comparison to south-facing slopes. On both north- and south-facing slopes, annuals had the highest species turnover rate, followed by herbaceous perennials and shrubs. In the first four post-fire years, annual species were the largest floristic group, but herbaceous perennials and shrubs were the major contributors to community biomass. Nitrogen-fixing species and exotics contributed significantly to early post-fire community structure. Although the general trends in post-fire succession are clear in terms of temporal changes in the relative proportions of different plant groups, environmental variation and the nature of plant life histories of component species, especially dominant species, could alter such trends significantly.

  1. Early post-fire succession in California chaparral: Changes in diversity, density, cover and biomass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guo, Q.

    2001-01-01

    For four consecutive years, following the fires in November 1993, temporal variations in species richness, cover and biomass of component plant groups in early post-fire chaparral succession were monitored on different aspects at the Stunt Ranch Santa Monica Mountains Reserve, southern California. Plant groups were categorized based on growth form, life form, ability to fix nitrogen, geographic origin and regeneration strategies. North-facing slopes exhibited higher species richness, higher species turnover rate over time and faster vegetation recovery in terms of biomass accumulation and return to pre-fire species composition. This was probably due to higher species richness and biomass of nitrogen-fixing species found on north-facing slopes in comparison to south-facing slopes. On both north- and south-facing slopes, annuals had the highest species turnover rate, followed by herbaceous perennials and shrubs. In the first four post-fire years, annual species were the largest floristic group, but herbaceous perennials and shrubs were the major contributors to community biomass. Nitrogen-fixing species and exotics contributed significantly to early post-fire community structure. Although the general trends in post-fire succession are clear in terms of temporal changes in the relative proportions of different plant groups, environmental variation and the nature of plant life histories of component species, especially dominant species, could alter such trends significantly.

  2. Post-fire Downy Brome (Bromus tectorum) invasion at high elevation in Wyoming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The invasive annual grass downy brome is the most ubiquitous weed in sagebrush systems of western North America. The center of invasion has largely been the Great Basin region, but there is an increasing abundance and distribution in the Rocky Mountain States. We evaluated post-fire vegetation chang...

  3. Cognitive Severity-Specific Neuronal Degenerative Network in Charcoal Burning Suicide-Related Carbon Monoxide Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Nai-Ching; Huang, Chi-Wei; Huang, Shu-Hua; Chang, Wen-Neng; Chang, Ya-Ting; Lui, Chun-Chung; Lin, Pin-Hsuan; Lee, Chen-Chang; Chang, Yen-Hsiang; Chang, Chiung-Chih

    2015-01-01

    Abstract While carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication often triggers multiple intraneuronal immune- or inflammatory-related cascades, it is not known whether the pathological processes within the affected regions evolve equally in the long term. To understand the neurodegenerative networks, we examined 49 patients with a clinical diagnosis of CO intoxication related to charcoal burning suicide at the chronic stage and compared them with 15 age- and sex-matched controls. Reconstructions of degenerative networks were performed using T1 magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-tensor imaging, and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET). Tract-specific fractional anisotropy (FA) quantification of 11 association fibers was performed while the clinical significance of the reconstructed structural or functional networks was determined by correlating them with the cognitive parameters. Compared with the controls, the patients had frontotemporal gray matter (GM) atrophy, diffuse white matter (WM) FA decrement, and axial diffusivity (AD) increment. The patients were further stratified into 3 groups based on the cognitive severities. The spatial extents within the frontal-insular-caudate GM as well as the prefrontal WM AD increment regions determined the cognitive severities among 3 groups. Meanwhile, the prefrontal WM FA values and PET signals also correlated significantly with the patient's Mini-Mental State Examination score. Frontal hypometabolic patterns in PET analysis, even after adjusted for GM volume, were highly coherent to the GM atrophic regions, suggesting structural basis of functional alterations. Among the calculated major association bundles, only the anterior thalamic radiation FA values correlated significantly with all chosen cognitive scores. Our findings suggest that fronto-insular-caudate areas represent target degenerative network in CO intoxication. The topography that occurred at a cognitive severity-specific level at the chronic phase suggested the clinical roles of frontal areas. Although changes in FA are also diffusely distributed, different regional changes in AD suggested unequal long-term compensatory capacities among WM bundles. As such, the affected WM regions showing irreversible changes may exert adverse impacts to the interconnected GM structures. PMID:25984663

  4. INFLUENCE OF INHALATION INJURY ON ENERGY EXPENDITURE IN SEVERELY BURNED CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Przkora, Rene; Fram, Ricki Y.; Herndon, David N.; Suman, Oscar E.; Mlcak, Ronald P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Determine the effect of inhalation injury on burn-induced hypermetabolism in children. Design Prospective study comparing hypermetabolism (i.e., resting energy expenditure and oxygen consumption) in burned children with and without inhalation injury during acute hospitalization. Setting Single pediatric burn center. Patients Eighty-six children (1–18 years) with ? 40% total body surface area burns were stratified to two groups: no inhalation injury and inhalation injury. Interventions None. Main Measurements and Results Inhalation injury was diagnosed based on bronchoscopic evaluation. At admission, PaO2:FiO2 ratios (an index of respiratory distress) were significantly higher in patients with no inhalation injury than in patient with inhalation injury. No differences were detected in resting energy expenditure or percent of the predicted basal metabolic rate between groups. Additionally, oxygen consumption did not significantly differ between groups. Conclusions Inhalation injury does not augment the burn-induced hypermetabolic stress response in children, as reflected by resting energy expenditure and oxygen consumption. PMID:24893760

  5. Emergency assessment of post-fire debris-flow hazards for the 2013 Powerhouse fire, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staley, Dennis M.; Smoczyk, Gregory M.; Reeves, Ryan R.

    2013-01-01

    Wildfire dramatically alters the hydrologic response of a watershed such that even modest rainstorms can produce dangerous flash floods and debris flows. Existing empirical models were used to predict the probability and magnitude of debris-flow occurrence in response to a 10-year recurrence interval rainstorm for the 2013 Powerhouse fire near Lancaster, California. Overall, the models predict a relatively low probability for debris-flow occurrence in response to the design storm. However, volumetric predictions suggest that debris flows that occur may entrain a significant volume of material, with 44 of the 73 basins identified as having potential debris-flow volumes between 10,000 and 100,000 cubic meters. These results suggest that even though the likelihood of debris flow is relatively low, the consequences of post-fire debris-flow initiation within the burn area may be significant for downstream populations, infrastructure, and wildlife and water resources. Given these findings, we recommend that residents, emergency managers, and public works departments pay close attention to weather forecasts and National-Weather-Service-issued Debris Flow and Flash Flood Outlooks, Watches, and Warnings and that residents adhere to any evacuation orders.

  6. Mapping Fire Severity Using Imaging Spectroscopy and Kernel Based Image Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, S.; Cui, M.; Zhang, Y.; Veraverbeke, S.

    2014-12-01

    Improved spatial representation of within-burn heterogeneity after wildfires is paramount to effective land management decisions and more accurate fire emissions estimates. In this work, we demonstrate feasibility and efficacy of airborne imaging spectroscopy (hyperspectral imagery) for quantifying wildfire burn severity, using kernel based image analysis techniques. Two different airborne hyperspectral datasets, acquired over the 2011 Canyon and 2013 Rim fire in California using the Airborne Visible InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) sensor, were used in this study. The Rim Fire, covering parts of the Yosemite National Park started on August 17, 2013, and was the third largest fire in California's history. Canyon Fire occurred in the Tehachapi mountains, and started on September 4, 2011. In addition to post-fire data for both fires, half of the Rim fire was also covered with pre-fire images. Fire severity was measured in the field using Geo Composite Burn Index (GeoCBI). The field data was utilized to train and validate our models, wherein the trained models, in conjunction with imaging spectroscopy data were used for GeoCBI estimation wide geographical regions. This work presents an approach for using remotely sensed imagery combined with GeoCBI field data to map fire scars based on a non-linear (kernel based) epsilon-Support Vector Regression (e-SVR), which was used to learn the relationship between spectra and GeoCBI in a kernel-induced feature space. Classification of healthy vegetation versus fire-affected areas based on morphological multi-attribute profiles was also studied. The availability of pre- and post-fire imaging spectroscopy data over the Rim Fire provided a unique opportunity to evaluate the performance of bi-temporal imaging spectroscopy for assessing post-fire effects. This type of data is currently constrained because of limited airborne acquisitions before a fire, but will become widespread with future spaceborne sensors such as those on the planned NASA HyspIRI mission.

  7. Long-term post-fire effects on spatial ecology and reproductive output of female Agassiz’s desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) at a wind energy facility near Palm Springs, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Ennen, Joshua R.; Madrak, Sheila V.; Loughran, Caleb L.; Meyer, Katherin P.; Arundel, Terence R.; Bjurlin, Curtis D.

    2011-01-01

    We studied the long-term response of a cohort of eight female Agassiz’s desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) during the first 15 years following a large fire at a wind energy generation facility near Palm Springs, California, USA. The fire burned a significant portion of the study site in 1995. Tortoise activity areas were mapped using minimum convex polygons for a proximate post-fire interval from 1997 to 2000, and a long-term post-fire interval from 2009 to 2010. In addition, we measured the annual reproductive output of eggs each year and monitored the body condition of tortoises over time. One adult female tortoise was killed by the fire and five tortoises bore exposure scars that were not fatal. Despite predictions that tortoises would make the short-distance movements from burned to nearby unburned habitats, most activity areas and their centroids remained in burned areas for the duration of the study. The percentage of activity area burned did not differ significantly between the two monitoring periods. Annual reproductive output and measures of body condition remained statistically similar throughout the monitoring period. Despite changes in plant composition, conditions at this site appeared to be suitable for survival of tortoises following a major fire. High productivity at the site may have buffered tortoises from the adverse impacts of fire if they were not killed outright. Tortoise populations at less productive desert sites may not have adequate resources to sustain normal activity areas, reproductive output, and body conditions following fire.

  8. The importance of mammalian torpor for survival in a post-fire landscape.

    PubMed

    Stawski, Clare; Körtner, Gerhard; Nowack, Julia; Geiser, Fritz

    2015-06-01

    Wildfires have increased in frequency and intensity worldwide with climate change as a main driving factor. While a number of studies have focused on population changes in regard to fires, there are essentially no quantitative data on behavioural and physiological adjustments that are vital for the persistence of individuals during and after fires. Here we show that brown antechinus, a small insectivorous marsupial mammal, (i) endured a prescribed fire in situ, (ii) remained in their scorched home range despite unburned areas nearby, and (iii) substantially increased post-fire torpor use and thus reduced foraging requirements and exposure to predators. Hence, torpor is a physiological adaptation that, although not quantified in this context previously, appears to play a key role in post-fire survival for this and other heterothermic species. PMID:26063748

  9. Modelling threats to water quality from fire suppression chemicals and post-fire erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, Kevin; Ziemniak, Chris; Elliot, William; Samuels, William

    2014-05-01

    Misapplication of fire retardant chemicals into streams and rivers may threaten aquatic life. The possible threat depends on the contaminant concentration that, in part, is controlled by dispersion within flowing water. In the event of a misapplication, methods are needed to rapidly estimate the chemical mass entering the waterway and the dispersion and transport within the system. Here we demonstrate a new tool that calculates the chemical mass based on aircraft delivery system, fire chemical type, and stream and intersect geometry. The estimated mass is intended to be transferred into a GIS module that uses real-time stream data to map and simulate the dispersion and transport downstream. This system currently accounts only for aqueous transport. We envision that the GIS module can be modified to incorporate sediment transport, specifically to model movement of sediments from post-fire erosion. This modification could support assessment of threats of post-fire erosion to water quality and water supply systems.

  10. Parameterizing fire effects on the carbon balance of western United States (U.S.) forests: Accounting for variation across forest types, fire severity, and carbon pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimire, B.; Williams, C. A.; Collatz, G. J.

    2010-12-01

    Fires are known to alter the carbon balance of forests by direct/consumptive or indirect/non-consumptive effects, but detailed representation of fire-induced combustion and mortality is generally lacking in carbon cycle models. Existing approaches fail to incorporate details on the direct and indirect consumption of carbon in individual pools (e.g. foliage, stem, and roots), and ignore severity-dependence of these effects. The few studies that do incorporate detailed parameterization have focused only on localized areas or single fires. Still other studies lack representation of fire associated inter-pool carbon transfer processes needed to characterize post-fire carbon dynamics through time. This study reviews the existing literature (e.g. restoration ecology and post-fire mortality studies) on fires across the whole of western U.S. forests to derive a comprehensive and detailed parameterization of fire effects suitable for incorporation in the Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach (CASA) carbon cycle model. This study relies on a comprehensive integration of remote sensing, field observations and biogeochemical modeling based analysis. Post-fire carbon fluxes are derived as a function of forest type, productivity and fire severity using a technique based on merging Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data, CASA carbon cycle modeling, 30 m spatial resolution Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) fire severity observations, and additional remotely sensed observations (e.g. temperature, precipitation and Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR)). As such, we obtain characteristic carbon trajectories and regional carbon flux estimates specific to forest types and fire severity levels in the western U.S. forests. This research elucidates new insights on carbon fluxes by performing an intensive and detailed literature survey of post-fire vegetation mortality studies in order to parameterize forest type and fire severity associated effects and processes in the CASA carbon cycle model at a regional landscape level scale.

  11. Taxonomic and Functional Responses to Fire and Post-Fire Management of a Mediterranean Hymenoptera Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateos, Eduardo; Santos, Xavier; Pujade-Villar, Juli

    2011-11-01

    Fire is one of the commonest disturbances worldwide, transforming habitat structure and affecting ecosystem functioning. Understanding how species respond to such environmental disturbances is a major conservation goal that should be monitored using functionally and taxonomically diverse groups such as Hymenoptera. In this respect, we have analyzed the taxonomic and functional response to fire and post-fire management of a Hymenoptera community from a Mediterranean protected area. Thus, Hymenoptera were sampled at fifteen sites located in three burnt areas submitted to different post-fire practices, as well as at five sites located in peripheral unburnt pine forest. A total of 4882 specimens belonging to 33 families, which were classified into six feeding groups according to their dietary preferences, were collected. ANOVA and Redundancy Analyses showed a taxonomic and functional response to fire as all burnt areas had more Hymenoptera families, different community composition and higher numbers of parasitoids than the unburnt area. Taxonomic differences were also found between burnt areas in terms of the response of Hymenoptera to post-fire management. In general the number of parasitoids was positively correlated to the number of potential host arthropods. Parasitoids are recognized to be sensitive to habitat changes, thus highlighting their value for monitoring the functional responses of organisms to habitat disturbance. The taxonomic and functional responses of Hymenoptera suggest that some pine-forest fires can enhance habitat heterogeneity and arthropod diversity, hence increasing interspecific interactions such as those established by parasitoids and their hosts.

  12. A single date SWIR-MIR index (SMI) for rapid fire severity assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veraverbeke, S.; Hook, S.; Hulley, G.

    2012-04-01

    Rapid fire severity assessments are essential for timely post-fire rehabilitation responses. The Landsat differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) has become the standard spectral index for assessing fire severity. The dNBR is generally calculated using the first available cloud-free post-fire image and a pre-fire image. This bi-temporal image differencing can be problematic due to image-to-image differences in illumination and phenology for example. We have developed an alternative index based on single date short-wave infrared (SWIR) and mid infrared (MIR) reflectance. In contrast with the (d)NBR, the SWIR-MIR index (SMI) is robust against scattering caused by smoke plumes over active fires allowing fire severity assessments to be generated when the area is still obscured by smoke. The SMI was generated using MODIS/ASTER (MASTER) airborne simulator data acquired over the recent 2011 Wallow fire in Arizona, USA. Simulation experiments showed that the SMI is more sensitive to char fractional cover than the NBR. In addition, the SMI had a stronger correlation with Geo Composite Burn Index (GeoCBI) field data of severity than the NBR (GeoCBI-SMI R2 = 0.67 and GeoCBI-NBR R2 = 0.61). The dNBR trended slightly better with the GeoCBI field data than the SMI (GeoCBI-dNBR R2 = 0.69). Although no spaceborne sensors with pixel sizes smaller than 100 m currently offer the possibility of a SWIR-MIR band combination, the airborne results illustrate the potential of this band combination for the remote sensing of post-fire effects. Such data will become available with the advent of the next generation satellite sensors, such as the planned spaceborne Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI).

  13. Using NASA EOS to Assess Burn Severity and Perform Fire Risk Mapping of the 2011 North Carolina Wildfire Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleason, J. L.; Ehlen, A.

    2012-12-01

    Since the beginning of 2011 North Carolina has experienced dry conditions and high winds, which has increased the fuel load on the ground. This extreme weather led to several periods of severe wildfires which burned nearly 100,000 acres, caused significant damage to the Coastal Plains region's ecosystem, and greatly affected the livelihoods of many North Carolinians. Utilizing NASA's Earth Observing Systems (EOS), burn severity, real-time drought severity, and fire- risk mapping were conducted on the two largest fires in North Carolina during the 2011 wildfire season, the Pains Bay Fire in Dare County and the Juniper Road Fire in Pender County. In order to show the impact of fires on the ecosystem and the extent of ecological change the fires caused, burn severity maps were created using Landsat 5 TM and the Relative difference Normalized Burn Ratio (RdNBR). To assess drought conditions, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI) were derived from Landsat 5TM data to show changes in vegetation cover and moisture. In addition, MODIS Daily Surface Reflectance product (MOD09GA/MYD09GA) with the Normalized Multi-band Drought Index (NMDI) was utilized to estimate real-time drought severity of vegetation and soil moisture. Finally, Landsat 5 TM and various ancillary sources were used to create a fire risk map utilizing a Multi-criteria Evaluation (MCE) method with the new Fuzzification method in ArcGIS. Multiple variables were inserted into the MCE including soil survey data, Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI), slope data obtained from ASTER Global DEM, land cover/fuel data, and proximity to roads. Methodologies using NASA EOS to acquire all end products were provided to project partners, the Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge (ARNWR) and the North Carolina Forest Service (NCFS), in the form of a user tutorial to allow for a better understanding of how remote sensing can be applied to analyze wildfires. These methodologies, together with ground-truth data, will assist project partners in determining the best use of their resources for monitoring and responding to wildfires, as well as mitigating their effects.

  14. Perspectives on Disconnects Between Scientific Information and Management Decisions on Post-fire Recovery in Western US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaoli; Emery, Nathan; Garcia, Elizabeth S.; Hanan, Erin J.; Hodges, Heather E.; Martin, Tyronne; Meyers, Matthew A.; Peavey, Lindsey E.; Peng, Hui; Santamaria, Jaime Sainz; Uyeda, Kellie A.; Anderson, Sarah E.; Tague, Christina

    2013-12-01

    Environmental regulations frequently mandate the use of "best available" science, but ensuring that it is used in decisions around the use and protection of natural resources is often challenging. In the Western US, this relationship between science and management is at the forefront of post-fire land management decisions. Recent fires, post-fire threats (e.g. flooding, erosion), and the role of fire in ecosystem health combine to make post-fire management highly visible and often controversial. This paper uses post-fire management to present a framework for understanding why disconnects between science and management decisions may occur. We argue that attributes of agencies, such as their political or financial incentives, can limit how effectively science is incorporated into decision-making. At the other end of the spectrum, the lack of synthesis or limited data in science can result in disconnects between science-based analysis of post-fire effects and agency policy and decisions. Disconnects also occur because of the interaction between the attributes of agencies and the attributes of science, such as their different spatial and temporal scales of interest. After offering examples of these disconnects in post-fire treatment, the paper concludes with recommendations to reduce disconnects by improving monitoring, increasing synthesis of scientific findings, and directing social-science research toward identifying and deepening understanding of these disconnects.

  15. PATCH BURNING EFFECTS ON FORAGE UTILIZATION AND GRAZING DISTRIBUTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Post-fire forage growth is known to be a strong attractant for large herbivores. However, fire has generally been avoided as a grazing distribution tool for fear of localized over utilization of forage resources. Our objectives were to determine cattle grazing preference for burned sites relative ...

  16. Effect of N-acetylcysteine treatment on oxidative stress and inflammation after severe burn.

    PubMed

    Csontos, C; Rezman, B; Foldi, V; Bogar, L; Drenkovics, L; Röth, E; Weber, G; Lantos, J

    2012-05-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation generate edema in burns. The aim of our study was to assess effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on oxidative stress, inflammation, fluid requirement, multiple organ dysfunction (MOD) score and vasoactive drug requirement. In this study 15 patients were on standard therapy, whereas for other 15 patients NAC was supplemented. Blood samples were taken on admission and on the next five consecutive mornings. Levels of malondialdehyde, protein sulfhydril (PSH) groups, reduced gluthation (GSH), activity of myeloperoxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase enzymes and induced free radical generating capacity were measured as well as concentrations of TNF-?, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10. MOD score, use of vasopressor agents and fluid utilisation were recorded daily. NAC treatment increased GSH level on days 4-5 (p<0.05) and PSH level on days 2-6 (p<0.05) compared to controls. Plasma IL-6 was lower on days 4-5 (p<0.05), IL-8 on days 4-6 (p<0.05) and IL-10 on days 4-6 (p<0.05) in NAC group. NAC group received less catecholamines than controls (p<0.01) from day 4 without significant differences in MOD score. NAC treatment is associated with a diminished oxidative stress reflected in preserved antioxidant levels, lower inflammation mirrored in lower interleukin levels and less vasopressor requirement. PMID:21978796

  17. Seedling establishment along post-fire succession in Mediterranean shrublands dominated by obligate seeders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, Victor M.; Baeza, M. Jaime; Maestre, Fernando T.

    2012-02-01

    Seedlings are expected to be particularly sensitive to the environmental conditions at the time of establishment. Within succession, environmental conditions vary over time and a species will have a better chance to regenerate on a particular place depending on the intrinsic traits that determine its regeneration niche. We examined the regeneration niche and the pattern of seedling establishment along succession of the main species present in a Mediterranean shrubland. The establishment of Cistus albidus, Rosmarinus officinalis and Ulex parviflorus was monitored for three years using seasonal cohorts in three different stages along a successional gradient (post-fire, building and mature). There was a flush of establishment immediately after fire in all species. After this event, there was a decline in establishment as succession progressed, until practically no seedling establishment was found at mature stages. The presence of a thick litter layer probably precluded seedling establishment at this stage. The establishment of Cistus was very closely tied to the post-fire environment, while recruitment of Rosmarinus and Ulex also occurred in the building stage. In contrast to what has been reported in other Mediterranean shrublands, recruitment in our study area was not restricted solely to post-fire stages, and shrubs also recruited opportunistically when open gaps in the canopy were available along succession. The differences in preferred micro-sites for the establishment suggest a differentiation in regeneration niches and a particular set of environmental conditions where the different species would be particularly competitive through succession. Thus, Cistus regenerates mostly in highly perturbed environments, whereas Ulex and Rosmarinus benefit from environments with longer inter-fire periods.

  18. Classification of burn severity using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS): A case study in the jarrah-marri forest of southwest Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walz, Yvonne; Maier, Stefan W.; Dech, Stefan W.; Conrad, Christopher; Colditz, René R.

    2007-06-01

    The southwest of Western Australia is a fire-prone landscape. In this Mediterranean region, prescribed fuel reduction burning is applied as a management tool by the state government's Department of Conservation and Land Management (CALM). Remote sensing data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) with multiple observations per day are investigated for operational monitoring of prescribed burning activities.The Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) is sensitive to the amount of biomass, soil exposure and equivalent water content. The differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (?NBR) shows the greatest response of landscape change due to fire. The ratios, originally applied to 30-m Landsat 7 ETM+ data, have been transferred to 250-500 m MODIS data. The high temporal resolution and direct broadcast capability of MODIS are considered favorable for monitoring prefire and postfire conditions, in particular in near-real time. This study applies the ?NBR to classify burn severity using MODIS data with various levels of preprocessing. On the basis of field studies, four burn severity classes are distinguished with best discrimination for high burn severity where the top layer of the vegetation canopy is altered. As expected, the spatial detail of the classifications from MODIS is reduced when compared to results from Landsat 7 ETM+, but the large-scale spatial patterns are similar. NBR time series of daily data showed that classes of burn severity can be separated for each acquisition date. Large temporal variations of the NBR limit class separation with absolute thresholds, in particular for data uncorrected for effects due to varying viewing geometries. However, MODIS top of atmosphere data allow near-real-time assessment of burn severity, important to fire managers for monitoring postfire conditions.

  19. A New Application to Facilitate Post-Fire Recovery and Rehabilitation in Savanna Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Mark L.; Schnase, John L.; Weber, Keith T.; Brown, Molly E.; Gill, Roger L.; Haskett, George W.; Gardner, Tess A.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. government spends an estimated $3billion per year to fight forest fires in the United States. Post-fire rehabilitation activities represent a small but essential portion of that total. The Rehabilitation Capability Convergence for Ecosystem Recovery (RECOVER) system is currently under development for Savanna ecosystems in the western U.S. The prototype of this system has been built and will have realworld testing during the summer 2013 fire season. When fully deployed, the RECOVER system will provide the emergency rehabilitation teams with critical and timely information for management decisions regarding stabilization and rehabilitation strategies.

  20. Interactive effects of burn severity and canopy cover on ecophysiology of tree seedlings in boreal forests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wildfires are an important disturbance because they improve habitat conditions for establishing plants. Fires of differing severity can have dramatically different impacts on habitat, particularly when coupled with canopy-level disturbances. In a boreal forest, we outplanted seedlings of four specie...

  1. Diversity and persistence of ectomycorrhizal fungi and their effect on nursery-inoculated Pinus pinaster in a post-fire plantation in Northern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Franco, Albina R; Sousa, Nadine R; Ramos, Miguel A; Oliveira, Rui S; Castro, Paula M L

    2014-11-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF) play an important role in forest ecosystems, often mitigating stress factors and increasing seedling performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a nursery inoculation on Pinus pinaster growth and on the fungal communities established when reforesting burned areas. Inoculated P. pinaster saplings showed 1.5-fold higher stem height than the non-inoculated controls after a 5 year growth period, suggesting that fungal inoculation could potentiate tree growth in the field. Ordination analysis revealed the presence of different ECMF communities on both plots. Among the nursery-inoculated fungi, Laccaria sp., Rhizopogon sp., Suillus bovinus and Pisolithus sp. were detected on inoculated Pinus saplings on both sampling periods, indicating that they persisted after field establishment. Other fungi were also detected in the inoculated plants. Phialocephala sp. was found on the first assessment, while Terfezia sp. was detected on both sampling periods. Laccaria sp. and Rhizopogon sp. were identified in the control saplings, belonging however to different species than those found in the inoculated plot. Inocybe sp., Thelephora sp. and Paxillus involutus were present on both sampling periods in the non-inoculated plots. The results suggest that ECMF inoculation at nursery stage can benefit plant growth after transplantation to a post-fire site and that the inoculated fungi can persist in the field. This approach has great potential as a biotechnological tool to aid in the reforestation of burned areas. PMID:25004993

  2. Carbon and water vapour exchange in a recently burned east boreal jack pine stand, Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugent, K.; Strachan, I. B.

    2013-12-01

    The circumpolar boreal forest is an extensive carbon (C) reservoir, storing an estimated 88 petagrams (Pg) of C in vegetation biomass with an additional 471 PgC residing within the soil itself. In the North American boreal, fire disturbance acts as the main stand-renewing agent along an approximate 100-year return interval. However, recent studies suggest that fire intensity and severity are increasing, driven by disproportionate climate warming of the northern latitudes. While estimates of direct C emissions from combustion are becoming more accurate, indirect loss due to post-fire effects on decomposition and regeneration has only recently become a focus of research. Paradoxically, it has been estimated that post-fire C releases are in the order of three times the amount directly released during initial combustion. In this study, we examine carbon and water exchange in a 6-year old, post-burn, jack pine stand located in the eastern James Bay region of the Canadian boreal; an area currently under-represented in fire studies. Over 1.5 years, covering two growing seasons and the spring and fall transitions, we measured net CO2 and energy exchange at the ecosystem level using an eddy covariance tower, and supplemented this with chamber measurements of soil respiration. At this stage of recovery, while demonstrating diurnal and seasonal patterns of exchange, overall the site was a net source of C and water to the atmosphere with brief periods of C sink.

  3. Restoration of facial form and function after severe disfigurement from burn injury by a composite facial allograft.

    PubMed

    Pomahac, B; Pribaz, J; Eriksson, E; Annino, D; Caterson, S; Sampson, C; Chun, Y; Orgill, D; Nowinski, D; Tullius, S G

    2011-02-01

    Composite facial allotransplantation is emerging as a treatment option for severe facial disfigurements. The technical feasibility of facial transplantation has been demonstrated, and the initial clinical outcomes have been encouraging. We report an excellent functional and anatomical restoration 1 year after face transplantation. A 59-year-old male with severe disfigurement from electrical burn injury was treated with a facial allograft composed of bone and soft tissues to restore midfacial form and function. An initial potent antirejection treatment was tapered to minimal dose of immunosuppression. There were no surgical complications. The patient demonstrated facial redness during the initial postoperative months. One acute rejection episode was reversed with a brief methylprednisolone bolus treatment. Pathological analysis and the donor's medical history suggested that rosacea transferred from the donor caused the erythema, successfully treated with topical metronidazol. Significant restoration of nasal breathing, speech, feeding, sensation and animation was achieved. The patient was highly satisfied with the esthetic result, and regained much of his capacity for normal social life. Composite facial allotransplantation, along with minimal and well-tolerated immunosuppression, was successfully utilized to restore facial form and function in a patient with severe disfigurement of the midface. PMID:21214855

  4. Post-fire changes in sediment transport connectivity from pedon to watershed scale. The Navalón wildfire in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Bodí, Merche B.; González, Óscar; Mataix Solera, Jorge; Doerr, Stefan Helmut

    2015-04-01

    Wildfire are present in the Earth System since vegetation was present in the continents (Doerr and Cerdà, 2005; Kaiho et al., 2013). Forest fire cause damage in the soil and the vegetation cover (Guénon et al., 2013). The years after a forest fire there is a sudden increase in the soil erosion rates that contribute to connect the pedon, slope tram, tram and watershed with surface flows that results in high erosion rates (Cerdà and Lasanta, 2005; Lasanta and Cerdà, 2005; Cawson et al., 2012; Pérez Cabello et al., 2012; Prats et al., 2015). Although the research on soil erosion after forest fire was carried out at different scales by different authors, there is not information about soil erosion at different scales at the same research site and during the post fire period. After the forest fire of April 2008 in Navalón, Eastern Spain, the Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Group from the University of Valencia initiated the measurement of the soil losses at pedon scale (microplots of 0.30 m2), at slope tram (silt fences of 1.8 m width), at slope scale (abandoned terraces) and at watershed scale, at the bottom of the valley (abandoned terraces). The results show that there is a reduction in the sediment yield from pedon to watershed scale and that the soil erosion took place in the first year after the fire. Acknowledgements To the "Ministerio de Economía and Competitividad" of Spanish Government for finance the POSTFIRE project (CGL2013- 47862-C2-1-R). The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and PREVENTING AND REMEDIATING DEGRADATION OF SOILS IN EUROPE THROUGH LAND CARE (RECARE)FP7-ENV-2013- supported this research. References Carreiras, M., Ferreira, A.J.D., Valente, S., Fleskens, L., Gonzales-Pelayo, Ó., Rubio, J.L., Stoof, C.R., Coelho, C.O.A., Ferreira, C.S.S., Ritsema, C.J. 2014. Comparative analysis of policies to deal with the wildfire risk. Land Degradation & Development, 25, 92-103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ldr.2274 Cawson, J. G., Sheridan, G. J., Smith, H. G., Lane, P. N. J. (2012). Surface runoff and erosion after prescribed burning and the effect of different fire regimes in forests and shrublands: a review. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 21(7), 857-872. Cerdà, A., Lasanta, A. 2005. Long-term erosional responses after fire in the Central Spanish Pyrenees: 1. Water and sediment yield. Catena, 60, 59-80. Doerr, S., Cerdà, A. 2005. Fire effects on soil system functioning: new insights and future challenges International Journal of Wildland Fire Preface. International Journal of Wildland Fire 14(4) 339-342 Guénon, R., Vennetier, M., Dupuy, N., Roussos, S., Pailler, A., Gros, R. 2013. Trends in recovery of Mediterranean soil chemical properties and microbial activities after infrequent and frequent wildfires. Land Degradation & Development, 24: 115- 128. DOI 10.1002/ldr.1109 Kaiho, K., Yatsu, S., Oba, M., Gorjan, P., Casier, J. G., Ikeda, M. (2013). A forest fire and soil erosion event during the Late Devonian mass extinction. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 392, 272-280. Lasanta, A., Cerdà, A. 2005. Long-term erosional responses after fire in the Central Spanish Pyrenees: 2. Solute release. Catena, 60, 80-101. Pérez-Cabello, F., Cerdà, A., de la Riva, J., Echeverría, M.T., García-Martín, A., Ibarra, P., Lasanta, T., Montorio, R., Palacios, V. 2012. Micro-scale post-fire surface cover changes monitored using high spatial resolution photography in a semiarid environment: A useful tool in the study of post-fire soil erosion processes, Journal of Arid Environments, 76: 88-96. 10.1016/j.jaridenv.2011.08.007 Prats, S.A., Malvar, M.C., Simões-Vieira, D.C., MacDonald, L., Keizer, J.J. 2015. Effectiveness of hydro- mulching to reduce runoff and erosion in a recently burnt pine plantation in central Portugal. Land Degradation & Development, DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2236.

  5. Artificial skin, split-thickness autograft and cultured autologous keratinocytes combined to treat a severe burn injury of 93% of TBSA.

    PubMed

    Loss, M; Wedler, V; Künzi, W; Meuli-Simmen, C; Meyer, V E

    2000-11-01

    Despite refinements in burn shock resuscitation, improvements in surgical techniques, advances in intensive care medicine and the presence of very expert surgeons, the treatement of patients with severe burns exceeding 60% TBSA remains a big challenge. A major problem in the treatment of severe burn injuries is the lack of autologous skin. In selected cases cultured epidermal autograft (CEA) may be used. However, they are available only 2-3 weeks after biopsy, thus requiring a temporary wound closure after necrosectomy. A new option is Integra(TM), an artificial skin consisting of a bilayer membrane system. The three-dimensional porous matrix from bovine tendon collagen and a glycosaminoglycan layer is covered by a silicon sheet. The latter prevents fluid loss from the wounds and serves as a barrier against germ invasion. After adequate vascularisation of the dermal template, the silicon layer is removed and replaced by a thin autograft. We present a 26-year old male who sustained a 93% TBSA burn injury (60% full-thickness burn, 33% partial-thickness burn). He was treated with artificial skin, split-thickness autograft and CEA in combination. The clinical history and the follow-up of approx. 1 year are presented and the results discussed. We consider the survival of this patient being a result of the therapeutic progress of the recent decades. PMID:10925189

  6. Topography and climate are more important drivers of long-term, post-fire vegetation assembly than time-since-fire in the Sonoran Desert, US

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shryock, Daniel F.; Esque, Todd; Chen, Felicia

    2015-01-01

    We find substantial evidence that environmental filters, rather than TSF, drive the majority of variability in long-term, post-fire vegetation assembly within the Sonoran Desert. Careful consideration of spatial variability in abiotic conditions may benefit post-fire vegetation modelling, as well as fire management and restoration strategies.

  7. -POPULATION SIZE AND FIRE INTENSITY DETERMINE POST-FIRE ABUNDANCE IN GRASSLAND LICHENS -193 Applied Vegetation Science 8: 193-198, 2005

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    - POPULATION SIZE AND FIRE INTENSITY DETERMINE POST-FIRE ABUNDANCE IN GRASSLAND LICHENS - 193 is the variability in abundance of lichens on grassland soil between and within fields after prescribed fire? Is post-fire lichen abundance an effect of pre-fire population size? Location: Cedar Creek Natural History Area

  8. Quantifying sources of fine sediment supplied to post-fire debris flows using fallout radionuclide tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, H. G.; Sheridan, G. J.; Nyman, P.; Child, D.; Lane, P. N.; Hotchkis, M.

    2011-12-01

    The supply of fine sediment and ash has been identified as an important factor contributing to the initiation of runoff-generated debris flows after fire. However, despite the significance of fines for post-fire debris flow generation, no investigations have sought to quantify sources of this material in debris flow affected catchments. In this study, we employ fallout radionuclides (Cs-137, excess Pb-210 and Pu-239,240) as tracers to measure proportional contributions of fine sediment (<10 ?m) from hillslope surface and channel bank sources to levee and terminal fan deposits formed by post-fire debris flows in two forest catchments in southeastern Australia. While Cs-137 and excess Pb-210 have been widely used in sediment tracing studies, application of Pu as a tracer represents a recent development and was limited to only one catchment. The estimated range in proportional hillslope surface contributions of fine sediment to individual debris flow deposits in each catchment was 22-69% and 32-74%. No systematic change in the proportional source contributions to debris flow deposits was observed with distance downstream from channel initiation points. Instead, spatial variability in source contributions was largely influenced by the pattern of debris flow surges forming the deposits. Linking the tracing analysis with interpretation of depositional evidence allowed reconstruction of temporal sequences in sediment source contributions to debris flow surges. Hillslope source inputs dominated most elevated channel deposits such as marginal levees that were formed under peak flow conditions. This indicated the importance of hillslope runoff and fine sediment supply for debris flow generation in both catchments. In contrast, material stored within channels that was deposited during subsequent surges was predominantly channel-derived. The results demonstrate that fallout radionuclide tracers may provide unique information on the changing source contributions of fine sediment during debris flow events.

  9. Moderate drop in water table increases peatland vulnerability to post-fire regime shift

    PubMed Central

    Kettridge, N.; Turetsky, M. R.; Sherwood, J. H.; Thompson, D. K.; Miller, C. A.; Benscoter, B. W.; Flannigan, M. D.; Wotton, B. M.; Waddington, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Northern and tropical peatlands represent a globally significant carbon reserve accumulated over thousands of years of waterlogged conditions. It is unclear whether moderate drying predicted for northern peatlands will stimulate burning and carbon losses as has occurred in their smaller tropical counterparts where the carbon legacy has been destabilized due to severe drainage and deep peat fires. Capitalizing on a unique long-term experiment, we quantify the post-wildfire recovery of a northern peatland subjected to decadal drainage. We show that the moderate drop in water table position predicted for most northern regions triggers a shift in vegetation composition previously observed within only severely disturbed tropical peatlands. The combined impact of moderate drainage followed by wildfire converted the low productivity, moss-dominated peatland to a non-carbon accumulating shrub-grass ecosystem. This new ecosystem is likely to experience a low intensity, high frequency wildfire regime, which will further deplete the legacy of stored peat carbon. PMID:25623290

  10. Moderate drop in water table increases peatland vulnerability to post-fire regime shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettridge, N.; Turetsky, M. R.; Sherwood, J. H.; Thompson, D. K.; Miller, C. A.; Benscoter, B. W.; Flannigan, M. D.; Wotton, B. M.; Waddington, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Northern and tropical peatlands represent a globally significant carbon reserve accumulated over thousands of years of waterlogged conditions. It is unclear whether moderate drying predicted for northern peatlands will stimulate burning and carbon losses as has occurred in their smaller tropical counterparts where the carbon legacy has been destabilized due to severe drainage and deep peat fires. Capitalizing on a unique long-term experiment, we quantify the post-wildfire recovery of a northern peatland subjected to decadal drainage. We show that the moderate drop in water table position predicted for most northern regions triggers a shift in vegetation composition previously observed within only severely disturbed tropical peatlands. The combined impact of moderate drainage followed by wildfire converted the low productivity, moss-dominated peatland to a non-carbon accumulating shrub-grass ecosystem. This new ecosystem is likely to experience a low intensity, high frequency wildfire regime, which will further deplete the legacy of stored peat carbon.

  11. Moderate drop in water table increases peatland vulnerability to post-fire regime shift.

    PubMed

    Kettridge, N; Turetsky, M R; Sherwood, J H; Thompson, D K; Miller, C A; Benscoter, B W; Flannigan, M D; Wotton, B M; Waddington, J M

    2015-01-01

    Northern and tropical peatlands represent a globally significant carbon reserve accumulated over thousands of years of waterlogged conditions. It is unclear whether moderate drying predicted for northern peatlands will stimulate burning and carbon losses as has occurred in their smaller tropical counterparts where the carbon legacy has been destabilized due to severe drainage and deep peat fires. Capitalizing on a unique long-term experiment, we quantify the post-wildfire recovery of a northern peatland subjected to decadal drainage. We show that the moderate drop in water table position predicted for most northern regions triggers a shift in vegetation composition previously observed within only severely disturbed tropical peatlands. The combined impact of moderate drainage followed by wildfire converted the low productivity, moss-dominated peatland to a non-carbon accumulating shrub-grass ecosystem. This new ecosystem is likely to experience a low intensity, high frequency wildfire regime, which will further deplete the legacy of stored peat carbon. PMID:25623290

  12. Atmospheric effects on the performance and threshold extrapolation of multi-temporal Landsat derived dNBR for burn severity assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Lei; Yang, Jian

    2014-12-01

    The Landsat derived differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) is widely used for burn severity assessments. Studies of regional wildfire trends in response to climate change require consistency in dNBR mapping across multiple image dates, which may vary in atmospheric condition. Conversion of continuous dNBR images into categorical burn severity maps often requires extrapolation of dNBR thresholds from present fires for which field severity measurements such as Composite Burn Index (CBI) data are available, to historical fires for which CBI data are typically unavailable. Although differential atmospheric effects between image collection dates could lead to biased estimates of historical burn severity patterns, little is known concerning the influence of atmospheric effects on dNBR performance and threshold extrapolation. In this study, we compared the performance of dNBR calculated from six atmospheric correction methods using an optimality approach. The six correction methods included one partial (Top of atmosphere reflectance, TOA), two absolute, and three relative methods. We assessed how the correction methods affected the CBI-dNBR correlation and burn severity mapping in a Chinese boreal forest fire which occurred in 2010. The dNBR thresholds of the 2010 fire for each of the correction methods were then extrapolated to classify a historical fire from 2000. Classification accuracies of threshold extrapolations were assessed based on Cohen's Kappa analysis with 73 field-based validation plots. Our study found most correction methods improved mean dNBR optimality of the two fires. The relative correction methods generated 32% higher optimality than both TOA and absolute correction methods. All the correction methods yielded high CBI-dNBR correlations (mean R2 = 0.847) but distinctly different dNBR thresholds for severity classification of 2010 fire. Absolute correction methods could substantially increase optimality score, but were insufficient to provide a consistent scale of radiometric condition between multi-temporal Landsat images, which resulted in lower severity classification accuracies (Kappa = 0.53) than those relative correction methods (Kappa = 0.72) for the 2000 fire. Consistent radiometric response in remote sensing datasets proved essential for accuracy in regional burn severity trends monitoring. Extrapolation of empirical dNBR thresholds to historical conditions without relative normalization will likely lead to biased burn severity classifications.

  13. Burned and unburned peat water repellency: Implications for peatland evaporation following wildfire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettridge, N.; Humphrey, R. E.; Smith, J. E.; Lukenbach, M. C.; Devito, K. J.; Petrone, R. M.; Waddington, J. M.

    2014-05-01

    Water repellency alters soil hydrology after periods of wildfire, potentially modifying the ecosystem recovery to such disturbance. Despite this potential importance, the extent and severity of water repellency within burned peatlands and its importance in regulating peatland recovery to wildfire disturbance remains poorly understood. We characterised the water repellency of peat in a burned (one year post-fire) and unburned peatland in the Western Boreal Plain utilising the water drop penetration time and ethanol droplet molarity tests. Burned Sphagnum moss and feather moss sites had a more severe degree of water repellency than unburned sites, with differences being more pronounced between burned and unburned feather moss sites. Burned feather moss exhibited the most extreme water repellency, followed by unburned feather moss, and burned Sphagnum. The severity of water repellency varied with depth through the near surface of the moss/peat profile. This was most evident within the burned feathermoss where more extreme water repellency was observed at the near-surface compared to the surface, with the most extreme water repellency found at 1 and 5 cm depths. Unburned Sphagnum was completely hydrophilic at all depths. We suggest that the extreme water repellency in near-surface feather moss peat acts as a barrier that impedes the supply of water to the surface that replaces that lost via evaporation. This leads to drying of the near-surface vadose zone within feather moss areas and a concomitantly large decrease in peatland evaporation within feather moss dominated peatlands. This negative feedback mechanism likely enhances the resilience of such peatland to wildfire disturbance, maintaining a high water table position, thereby limiting peat decomposition. In comparison, such a feedback is not observed strongly within Sphagnum, leaving Sphagnum dominated peatlands potentially vulnerable to low water table positions post disturbance.

  14. University of Nevada, Reno Fire patterns and post-fire vegetation response in a Mojave Desert spring ecosystem

    E-print Network

    Weisberg, Peter J.

    University of Nevada, Reno Fire patterns and post-fire vegetation response in a Mojave Desert-Fire Vegetation Response In A Mojave Desert Spring Ecosystem be accepted in partial fulfillment School December, 2009 THE GRADUATE SCHOOL #12;i Abstract Desert spring ecosystems provide critical

  15. Field Evidence for Differences in Post-Fire Aeolian Transport Related to Vegetation Type in Semi-Arid Grasslands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disturbances such as wildfires, which cause a temporary reduction in vegetation cover, can greatly accelerate soil erosion by wind and promote dust emissions. Enhanced erosion leads to a reduction in soil fertility and the post-fire mobilization of soil and associated emissions of dust represent a s...

  16. Post-fire recovery of sagebrush communities: Assessment using SPOT5 and very large-scale aerial imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Much interest lies in the long-term recovery rates of sagebrush communities after fire in the western USA as sagebrush communities comprise millions of hectares of rangelands and important wildlife habitat. Little is known about post-fire changes in sagebrush canopy cover over time, especially at a...

  17. -Post-fire bryophyte establishment in a continental bog -647 Journal of Vegetation Science 17: 647-652, 2006

    E-print Network

    Benscoter, Brian W.

    - Post-fire bryophyte establishment in a continental bog - 647 Journal of Vegetation Science 17-fire bryophyte establishment in a continental bog Benscoter, Brian W. Department of Plant Biology, Center production of the ground layer bryophytes, return of the ground layer vegetation following disturbance

  18. Impacts of the post-fire erosion processes compared with the agricultural erosion rates for a mountain catchment in NW Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marisa Santos, Juliana; Nunes, João Pedro; Bernard-Jannin, Léonard; Gonzalez Pelayo, Oscar; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2014-05-01

    Mediterranean ecosystems are very vulnerable to soil erosion by water due to particular characteristics of climate, lithology and land use history. Moreover, the foreseen climate changes might worsen land degradation and desertification, in which soil erosion has been classified as one of the most important driving forces. In this context, the frequent forest fires seen in some Mediterranean regions can case disturbances to vegetation cover and enhance soil erosion processes. This work addresses this issue for the Caramulo mountain range, NW Iberia. In the past century, large land use changes occurred due to massive afforestation. Changes from mixed natural forest cover and shrublands to Pine, the introduction of Eucalyptus plantations and, more recently, a trend for the substitution of pines by eucalypts, are the evidence of a large and rapid land use change in the last decades. Forest fires started to occur as afforestation proceeded, as a consequence of the disappearance of pasturage and accumulation of highly inflammable material; they became more frequent after the 1960's and became a determinant factor for land use changes in this region. Data collection focused on the Macieira de Alcoba catchment, a headwater agro-forested catchment (94 ha) located in this region. It has a wet Mediterranean climate, with an average annual rainfall of about 1300 mm (2002-2012), concentrated in autumn and winter, while spring and summer are dryer seasons. The mean annual temperature is 14°C and in summer it can reach 35°C. The land use is mixed, with forest and agriculture lands covering respectively 60 and 35% of the catchment area, 5% being built-up areas in the village of Macieira de Alcoba. In the last decades, this catchment suffered several forest fires (in 1969, 1986, 1991, and 2011). Erosion processes are related with periods of low vegetation cover in autumn in fields with a pasture-corn rotation, but also with forest plantations after clear-cutting and especially after forest fires. The last forest fire in August 2011 burned 10% of the total area in the north-west part of the catchment. Post-fire management operations 9 month after the fire (clear-cutting and deep plowing operations) and after plantation of "Quercus robur" left the soil exposed, and relatively mild rainstorms led to large amounts of soil loss, including a large amount of rills and other erosion features. This constituted an opportunity to compare these erosion rates with the ones observed in agricultural fields for similar edapho-climatic conditions, and also observe distinct timing of erosion occurrence which was linked with different periods when soils are exposed. This communication presents the assessment of the impact of this fire on soil erosion rates, where results indicate that soil losses after soil preparation for forest replanting might be equivalent, in long-term, to soil losses in agricultural fields.

  19. Differential response of bird functional traits to post-fire salvage logging in a boreal forest ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azeria, Ermias T.; Ibarzabal, Jacques; Hébert, Christian; Boucher, Jonathan; Imbeau, Louis; Savard, Jean-Pierre L.

    2011-05-01

    The concept of functional trait-environment relationship posits that species in a local community should possess similar traits that match the selective environment. The present study examines species trait-habitat (using Fourth-corner and RLQ analyses) and habitat occupancy patterns (logistic regression models) of bird assemblages in boreal forest stands following disturbances by forest fire and salvage logging. The stands differed in the amount and composition of residual tree retention, salvage- and aquatic-edges, degree of burn severity (all measured at 100 and 500 m buffers), as well as landscape-level variables such as distance to previously burned forests. Tests of trait-habitat relationships showed that canopy-nesters and bark- and foliage- insectivores required high levels of residual trees of low burn severity, with the feeding guilds showing affinity for different stand composition. In contrast, ground-nesters and omnivores thrived in salvaged areas and associated edges. In addition, cavity-nesting and ground-foragers were associated with severely burned stands. The species' habitat occupancy patterns were commensurate with trait requirements, which also appeared to be scale-dependent. For example, some fire-associated species had high occupancy probability in severely burned stands at small-scale (100 m buffer), which was consistent with their cavity-nesting trait. This pattern, however, was not evident at large-scale, where their feeding requirement (bark-insectivores) for low-severity burns dominated. Our study suggests that trait-habitat relationships can provide critical information to the complex ways species' relate to key habitat factors following natural and anthropogenic disturbances.

  20. Predicting severity of pathological scarring due to burn injuries: a clinical decision making tool using Bayesian networks.

    PubMed

    Berchialla, Paola; Gangemi, Ezio Nicola; Foltran, Francesca; Haxhiaj, Arber; Buja, Alessandra; Lazzarato, Fulvio; Stella, Maurizio; Gregori, Dario

    2014-06-01

    It is important for clinicians to understand which are the clinical signs, the patient characteristics and the procedures that are related with the occurrence of hypertrophic burn scars in order to carry out a possible prognostic assessment. Providing clinicians with an easy-to- use tool for predicting the risk of pathological scars. A total of 703 patients with 2440 anatomical burn sites who were admitted to the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Burn Center of the Traumatological Hospital in Torino between January 1994 and May 2006 were included in the analysis. A Bayesian network (BN) model was implemented. The probability of developing a hypertrophic scar was evaluated on a number of scenarios. The error rate of the BN model was assessed internally and it was equal to 24·83%. While classical statistical method as logistic models can infer only which variables are related to the final outcome, the BN approach displays a set of relationships between the final outcome (scar type) and the explanatory covariates (patient's age and gender, burn surface area, full-thickness burn surface area, burn anatomical area and wound-healing time; burn treatment options such as advanced dressings, type of surgical approach, number of surgical procedures, type of skin graft, excision and coverage timing). A web-based interface to handle the BN model was developed on the website www.pubchild.org (burns header). Clinicians who registered at the website could submit their data in order to get from the BN model the predicted probability of observing a pathological scar type. PMID:22958613

  1. Prophylactic Antibiotics May Improve Outcome in Patients With Severe Burns Requiring Mechanical Ventilation: Propensity Score Analysis of a Japanese Nationwide Database

    PubMed Central

    Tagami, Takashi; Matsui, Hiroki; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Yasunaga, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Background.?The use of prophylactic antibiotics for severe burns in general settings remains controversial and is not suggested by recent guidelines owing to lack of evidence for efficacy. We examined the hypothesis that prophylactic systemic antibiotic therapy may reduce mortality in patients with severe burns. Methods.?We identified 2893 severe burns patients (burn index ?10) treated at 583 hospitals between July 2010 and March 2013 using the Japanese diagnosis procedure combination inpatient database. We categorized the patients according to whether they received mechanical ventilation within 2 days after admission (n = 692) or not (n = 2201). We further divided the patients into those with and without prophylactic antibiotics and generated 232 and 526 propensity score–matched pairs, respectively. We evaluated 28-day all-cause in-hospital mortality. Results.?Among the mechanically ventilated patients, significant differences in 28-day in-hospital mortality existed between control and prophylaxis groups in both unmatched (control vs prophylaxis; 48.6% vs 38.3%; difference, 10.2%; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 2.7 to 17.7) and propensity score–matched groups (47.0% vs 36.6%; difference, 10.3%; 95% CI, 1.4 to 19.3). Among patients without mechanical ventilation, there was no significant difference in 28-day in-hospital mortality between the 2 groups in both the unmatched (control vs prophylaxis; 7.0% vs 5.8%; difference, 1.2%; 95% CI, ?1.2 to 3.5) and propensity-matched groups (5.1% vs 4.2%; difference, 0.9%; 95% CI, ?1.6 to 3.5). Conclusions.?Prophylactic antibiotics use may result in improved 28-day in-hospital mortality in mechanically ventilated patients with severe burns but not in those who do not receive mechanical ventilation.

  2. Development of a Test Protocol for Spacecraft Post-Fire Atmospheric Cleanup and Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuniga, David; Hornung, Steven D.; Haas, Jon P.; Graf, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Detecting and extinguishing fires, along with post-fire atmospheric cleaning and monitoring, are vital components of a spacecraft fire response system. Preliminary efforts focused on the technology evaluation of these systems under realistic conditions are described in this paper. While the primary objective of testing is to determine a smoke mitigation filter s performance, supplemental evaluations measuring the smoke-filled chamber handheld commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) atmospheric monitoring devices (combustion product monitors) are also conducted. The test chamber consists of a 1.4 cubic meter (50 cu. ft.) volume containing a smoke generator. The fuel used to generate the smoke is a mixture of polymers in quantities representative of materials involved in a circuit board fire as a typical spacecraft fire. Two fire conditions were examined: no flame and flame. No flame events are produced by pyrolyzing the fuel mixture in a quartz tube furnace with forced ventilation to produce a white, lingering-type smoke. Flame events ignite the smoke at the outlet of the tube furnace producing combustion characterized by a less opaque smoke with black soot. Electrochemical sensor measurements showed carbon monoxide is a major indicator of each fire. Acid gas measurements were recorded, but cross interferents are currently uncharacterized. Electrochemical sensor measurements and sample acquisition techniques from photoacoustic sensors are being improved. Overall, this research shows fire characterization using traditional analytical chemistry techniques is required to verify measurements recorded using COTS atmospheric monitoring devices.

  3. Superthin Abdominal Wall Glove-Like Flap Combined With Vacuum-Assisted Closure Therapy for Soft Tissue Reconstruction in Severely Burned Hands or With Infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Liu, Sheng; Qiu, Le; Ma, Ben; Wang, Jian; Wang, Yong-Jie; Peszel, April; Chen, Xu-Lin

    2015-12-01

    Severe burn and infection to hands always involves the deep structures, such as tendons, joints, and bones. These wounds cannot be closed immediately and therefore creates a high risk for complication. We presented 9 cases with deep dermal burns to the dorsal of the hand (6 electrical burns and 3 thermal crush injuries) with wound infections in 2 cases. The vacuum-assisted closure system was used continuously until the flap reconstruction was performed. A random pattern and superthin abdominal wall skin flap-like glove was designed. The flap was transferred to the defected portion of the dorsum of the hand and resected from the abdominal wall about 3 weeks later. The flaps in 8 of the patients treated by this technique survived completely and partial necrosis of the distal flap occurred in 1 patient. The defect resolved after operative treatment and the function of the hands and fingers were successfully salvaged. All patients resulted in having a satisfactory aesthetic outcome with no or minor discomfort at the abdominal donor area. Integration of the vacuum-assisted closure system and the superthin abdominal wall glove-like flap reconstruction appeared to be successful and should be considered in patients with severely burned hands. PMID:26418768

  4. Post-Fire Recovery of Eco-Hydrologic Behavior Given Historic and Projected Climate Variability in California Mediterranean Type Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaby, L. P.; Tague, C. L.; Hope, A. S.

    2006-12-01

    The Mediterranean type environments (MTEs) of California are characterized by a distinct wet and dry season and high variability in inter-annual climate. Water limitation in MTEs makes eco-hydrological processes highly sensitive to both climate variability and frequent fire disturbance. This research modeled post-fire eco- hydrologic behavior under historical and moderate and extreme scenarios of future climate in a semi-arid chaparral dominated southern California MTE. We used a physically-based, spatially-distributed, eco- hydrological model (RHESSys - Regional Hydro-Ecologic Simulation System), to capture linkages between water and vegetation response to the combined effects of fire and historic and future climate variability. We found post-fire eco-hydrologic behavior to be strongly influenced by the episodic nature of MTE climate, which intensifies under projected climate change. Higher rates of post-fire net primary productivity were found under moderate climate change, while more extreme climate change produced water stressed conditions which were less favorable for vegetation productivity. Precipitation variability in the historic record follows the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and these inter-annual climate characteristics intensify under climate change. Inter-annual variation in streamflow follows these precipitation patterns. Post-fire streamflow and carbon cycling trajectories are strongly dependent on climate characteristics during the first 5 years following fire, and historic intra-climate variability during this period tends to overwhelm longer term trends and variation that might be attributable to climate change. Results have implications for water resource availability, vegetation type conversion from shrubs to grassland, and changes in ecosystem structure and function.

  5. 77 FR 66419 - Eligibility of Disabled Veterans and Members of the Armed Forces With Severe Burn Injuries for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... causes contractures and limits motion of one or more extremities or the trunk and precludes effective... normal range of motion and influences not only the underlying joint but also the adjacent joints. Burn... more scarring with contracture limiting motion and, therefore, be more disabling than a...

  6. Severe burns resulting from an exploding teat on a bottle of infant formula milk heated in a microwave oven.

    PubMed

    Dixon, J J; Burd, D A; Roberts, D G

    1997-05-01

    Accidental injury to infants can result from the use of home microwave ovens. The spectrum of injury includes scald burns of the trachea, palate oropharynx and oesophagus due to aspiration and ingestion of foods that have been overheated. There is one previous case report of a child with second-degree burns of 6 per cent of his body area due to explosion of the plastic liner and nipple on a feeding bottle top. We present a case report of an infant who suffered 7 per cent full-thickness burns following explosion of the bottle teat and subsequent splattering with hot milk. He required mid-palmar amputation of his left hand including thumb, index and middle fingers. The full-thickness burns of left cheek and left shoulder were grafted but will result in significant scarring. It is common practice in many homes to heat infant feeds in the microwaves. We suggest that health professionals dealing with children need to be aware of the potential hazards so that appropriate education of parents can take place. PMID:9232290

  7. Are High-Severity Fires Burning at Much Higher Rates Recently than Historically in Dry-Forest Landscapes of the Western USA?

    PubMed Central

    Baker, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Dry forests at low elevations in temperate-zone mountains are commonly hypothesized to be at risk of exceptional rates of severe fire from climatic change and land-use effects. Their setting is fire-prone, they have been altered by land-uses, and fire severity may be increasing. However, where fires were excluded, increased fire could also be hypothesized as restorative of historical fire. These competing hypotheses are not well tested, as reference data prior to widespread land-use expansion were insufficient. Moreover, fire-climate projections were lacking for these forests. Here, I used new reference data and records of high-severity fire from 1984–2012 across all dry forests (25.5 million ha) of the western USA to test these hypotheses. I also approximated projected effects of climatic change on high-severity fire in dry forests by applying existing projections. This analysis showed the rate of recent high-severity fire in dry forests is within the range of historical rates, or is too low, overall across dry forests and individually in 42 of 43 analysis regions. Significant upward trends were lacking overall from 1984–2012 for area burned and fraction burned at high severity. Upward trends in area burned at high severity were found in only 4 of 43 analysis regions. Projections for A.D. 2046–2065 showed high-severity fire would generally be still operating at, or have been restored to historical rates, although high projections suggest high-severity fire rotations that are too short could ensue in 6 of 43 regions. Programs to generally reduce fire severity in dry forests are not supported and have significant adverse ecological impacts, including reducing habitat for native species dependent on early-successional burned patches and decreasing landscape heterogeneity that confers resilience to climatic change. Some adverse ecological effects of high-severity fires are concerns. Managers and communities can improve our ability to live with high-severity fire in dry forests. PMID:26351850

  8. Using Rare Earth Element (REE) tracers to identify preferential micro-sites of post-fire aeolian erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Pelt, R.; Zobeck, T. M.; Barnes, M. A.; Baddock, M.; D'Odorico, P.

    2011-12-01

    Plant communities in desert environments are spatially anisotropic. Nutrient islands develop below shrub canopies and in the bases of bunch grasses that enhance plant growth and reinforce the spatial anisotropy. Catastrophic disturbance that removes the vegetation such as fire or drought can result in the release of the trapped sediment which becomes redistributed over the landscape by wind and water. We applied Rare Earth Element (REE) tracers to different landscape positions of an anisotropic Northern Chihuahua Desert ecosystem at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge in central New Mexico in an effort to study this process. We delineated three 0.5 m by 6 m plots of desert grassland and three plots of desert grassland-shrubland ecotone. Nitric acid was used to dissolve the REE oxides (Eu2O3, Dy2O3, and Pr6O11) which were then diluted in distilled water to a target concentration of 1 g REE l-1 and applied to the surface at a rate of 4 l m-2. From laboratory column studies using soil collected at the site, we estimated that this would penetrate the surface to a depth of 2.5 cm resulting in a sediment REE concentration of approximately 100 mg kg-1. Eu was applied to bare surfaces between vegetation characterized as sand with a surface covering of gravel, Pr was applied under grass clumps, and Dy was applied under Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata (DC.). Two replicate 0.25 m2 areas of each surface type were also tagged to obtain a sample of tagged surface sediment for analysis. The area containing the plots was burned by U.S. Fish and Wildlife personnel on April 14, 2010. During the next two days, two grassland plots and two grassland-shrubland ecotone plots were tested by placing a portable boundary layer field wind tunnel over the plots and blowing them with 12 m s-1 wind for 10 minutes during which time a paired set of entrained sediment samples were captured at the outlet of the wind tunnel. This period was followed by a 30 minute test in which clean quartz sand abrader was added to the wind tunnel flow and a second test of 10 minutes with abrader added to the flow. At the end of the first four tests, the wind tunnel cooling system broke and due to the extent of necessary repairs, the last two plots were tested two weeks later. Three paired aeolian sediment samples were collected for each plot tested. The results indicated that in desert grassland, a disproportionate amount of the post-fire sediment is entrained from areas under grass clumps and in grassland-shrubland ecotones, the soil under shrubs is the primary source of entrained sediment followed by areas under grass clumps. The bare surfaces between vegetation produced the least sediment. REEs appear to be a powerful tool for investigating spatial patterns of aeolian processes.

  9. Molecular composition and size distribution of sugars, sugar-alcohols and carboxylic acids in airborne particles during a severe urban haze event caused by wheat straw burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gehui; Chen, Chunlei; Li, Jianjun; Zhou, Bianhong; Xie, Mingjie; Hu, Shuyuan; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Chen, Yan

    2011-05-01

    Molecular compositions and size distributions of water-soluble organic compounds (WSOC, i.e., sugars, sugar-alcohols and carboxylic acids) in particles from urban air of Nanjing, China during a severe haze event caused by field burning of wheat straw were characterized and compared with those in the summer and autumn non-haze periods. During the haze event levoglucosan (4030 ng m -3) was the most abundant compound among the measured WSOC, followed by succinic acid, malic acid, glycerol, arabitol and glucose, being different from those in the non-haze samples, in which sucrose or azelaic acid showed a second highest concentration, although levoglucosan was the highest. The measured WSOC in the haze event were 2-20 times more than those in the non-hazy days. Size distribution results showed that there was no significant change in the compound peaks in coarse mode (>2.1 ?m) with respect to the haze and non-haze samples, but a large difference in the fine fraction (<2.1 ?m) was found with a sharp increase during the hazy days mostly due to the increased emissions of wheat straw burning. Molecular compositions of organic compounds in the fresh smoke particles from wheat straw burning demonstrate that sharply increased concentrations of glycerol and succinic and malic acids in the fine particles during the haze event were mainly derived from the field burning of wheat straw, although the sources of glucose and related sugar-alcohols whose concentrations significantly increased in the fine haze samples are unclear. Compared to that in the fresh smoke particles of wheat straw burning an increase in relative abundance of succinic acid to levoglucosan during the haze event suggests a significant production of secondary organic aerosols during transport of the smoke plumes.

  10. Application of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on Scleral Contact Lens Carrier in an Animal Model of Severe Acute Alkaline Burn

    PubMed Central

    Espandar, Ladan; Caldwell, Delmar; Watson, Richard; Blanco-Mezquita, Tomas; Zhang, Shijia; Bunnell, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the therapeutic effect of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) overlaid on a scleral contact lens (SCL) carrier in a rabbit model of ocular alkaline burn. Materials and Methods After inducing alkaline burn in 11 New Zealand white rabbits, hASCs cultured on SCLs were placed on the right eye of 5 rabbits, SCLs without cells were used in 5, and no treatment was applied in 1 eye. Each eye was examined and photographed for corneal vascularization, opacities, and epithelial defect in week 1, 2, and 4 after surgery. After 1 month, rabbits were killed and the corneas were removed and cut in half for electron and light microscopy examination. Results Human adipose-derived stem cells were attached to SCL surface and confluent easily. Human adipose-derived stem cells on SCL eyes showed smaller epithelial defect, less corneal opacity, corneal neovascularization relative to SCL eyes. Both groups showed no symblepharon. However, the cornea in the untreated eye was melted in 2 weeks and developed severe symblepharon. Conclusion Human adipose-derived stem cells on SCL can reduce inflammation and corneal haziness in severe ocular alkaline burn injury in rabbits. PMID:24901976

  11. Calibration and validation of the relative differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (RdNBR) to three measures of fire severity in the Sierra Nevada and Klamath Mountains, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, J.D.; Knapp, E.E.; Key, C.H.; Skinner, C.N.; Isbell, C.J.; Creasy, R.M.; Sherlock, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Multispectral satellite data have become a common tool used in the mapping of wildland fire effects. Fire severity, defined as the degree to which a site has been altered, is often the variable mapped. The Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) used in an absolute difference change detection protocol (dNBR), has become the remote sensing method of choice for US Federal land management agencies to map fire severity due to wildland fire. However, absolute differenced vegetation indices are correlated to the pre-fire chlorophyll content of the vegetation occurring within the fire perimeter. Normalizing dNBR to produce a relativized dNBR (RdNBR) removes the biasing effect of the pre-fire condition. Employing RdNBR hypothetically allows creating categorical classifications using the same thresholds for fires occurring in similar vegetation types without acquiring additional calibration field data on each fire. In this paper we tested this hypothesis by developing thresholds on random training datasets, and then comparing accuracies for (1) fires that occurred within the same geographic region as the training dataset and in similar vegetation, and (2) fires from a different geographic region that is climatically and floristically similar to the training dataset region but supports more complex vegetation structure. We additionally compared map accuracies for three measures of fire severity: the composite burn index (CBI), percent change in tree canopy cover, and percent change in tree basal area. User's and producer's accuracies were highest for the most severe categories, ranging from 70.7% to 89.1%. Accuracies of the moderate fire severity category for measures describing effects only to trees (percent change in canopy cover and basal area) indicated that the classifications were generally not much better than random. Accuracies of the moderate category for the CBI classifications were somewhat better, averaging in the 50%-60% range. These results underscore the difficulty in isolating fire effects to individual vegetation strata when fire effects are mixed. We conclude that the models presented here and in Miller and Thode ([Miller, J.D. & Thode, A.E., (2007). Quantifying burn severity in a heterogeneous landscape with a relative version of the delta Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR). Remote Sensing of Environment, 109, 66-80.]) can produce fire severity classifications (using either CBI, or percent change in canopy cover or basal area) that are of similar accuracy in fires not used in the original calibration process, at least in conifer dominated vegetation types in Mediterranean-climate California.

  12. Fire impact and assessment of post-fire actions of a typical Mediterranean forest from SW Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-González, Marco A.; María De la Rosa, José; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; Zavala, Lorena M.; Knicker, Heike

    2015-04-01

    Wildfires may cause significant changes in soil physical and chemical properties. In addition, soil organic matter (SOM) content and chemical properties are usually affected by fire. Fire impacts may negatively affect soil health and quality, and induce or enhance runoff generation and, thereby, soil erosion risk and cause damages to the habitat of species. This fact is especially dramatic in Mediterranean ecosystems, where forest fires are a frequent phenomenon and restoration strategies are a key issue. The goals of this study are to determine: i) the immediate effects of fire on soil properties, including changes occurred in the quantity and quality of SOM and ii) the effect of post-fire actions on soil properties. In August 2012, a wildfire affected a forest area of approx. 90 ha in Montellano (Seville, SW Spain; longitude 37.00 °, latitude -5.56 °). This area is dominated by pines (Pinus pinaster and Pinus halepensis), and eucalypts (Eucaliptus globulus) with a Mediterranean climate. Dominant soil types are Rendzic Leptosols and Calcaric Haplic Regosols. It is a poorly limestone-developed soil (usually swallower than 25 cm). Four soil subsamples were collected 1 month and 25 months after fire within an area of approximately 200 m2. Subsamples were mixed together, homogenized, air-dried, crushed and sieved (2 mm). One control sample was collected in an adjacent area. The litter layer was removed by hand and studied separately. Branches, stems, bushes and plant residues on the fire-affected area were removed 16 months after the fire using heavy machinery as part of the post-fire management. The present research focuses on the study of the elemental composition (C, H and N) and physical properties (pH, water holding capacity, electrical conductivity) of bulk soil samples, and on the spectroscopic analysis (FT-IR, 13C NMR) and analytical pyrolysis data obtained from bulk the oils and from the humic acid fraction. immediate effects of fire, including the charring of vegetation and litter, as the input of charred residues may contribute to increase the total amount of soil organic matter. The post-fire removal of vegetation probably contributed to an additional loss of soil material due to an increase of the erosion risk. In addition, preliminary results point out that the burnt soil is not being recovered to the pre-fire conditions at a molecular level neither in the elemental composition. Results of this study will constitute a valuable tool for stake holders and decision makers to avoid additional alterations caused by post fire management of fire affected forests.

  13. Bat Response to Differing Fire Severity in Mixed-Conifer Forest California, USA

    PubMed Central

    Heady, Paul A.; Hayes, John P.; Frick, Winifred F.

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife response to natural disturbances such as fire is of conservation concern to managers, policy makers, and scientists, yet information is scant beyond a few well-studied groups (e.g., birds, small mammals). We examined the effects of wildfire severity on bats, a taxon of high conservation concern, at both the stand (<1 ha) and landscape scale in response to the 2002 McNally fire in the Sierra Nevada region of California, USA. One year after fire, we conducted surveys of echolocation activity at 14 survey locations, stratified in riparian and upland habitat, in mixed-conifer forest habitats spanning three levels of burn severity: unburned, moderate, and high. Bat activity in burned areas was either equivalent or higher than in unburned stands for all six phonic groups measured, with four groups having significantly greater activity in at least one burn severity level. Evidence of differentiation between fire severities was observed with some Myotis species having higher levels of activity in stands of high-severity burn. Larger-bodied bats, typically adapted to more open habitat, showed no response to fire. We found differential use of riparian and upland habitats among the phonic groups, yet no interaction of habitat type by fire severity was found. Extent of high-severity fire damage in the landscape had no effect on activity of bats in unburned sites suggesting no landscape effect of fire on foraging site selection and emphasizing stand-scale conditions driving bat activity. Results from this fire in mixed-conifer forests of California suggest that bats are resilient to landscape-scale fire and that some species are preferentially selecting burned areas for foraging, perhaps facilitated by reduced clutter and increased post-fire availability of prey and roosts. PMID:23483936

  14. Fuel loads, fire regimes, and post-fire fuel dynamics in Florida Keys pine forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sah, J.P.; Ross, M.S.; Snyder, J.R.; Koptur, S.; Cooley, H.C.

    2006-01-01

    In forests, the effects of different life forms on fire behavior may vary depending on their contributions to total fuel loads. We examined the distribution of fuel components before fire, their effects on fire behavior, and the effects of fire on subsequent fuel recovery in pine forests within the National Key Deer Refuge in the Florida Keys. We conducted a burning experiment in six blocks, within each of which we assigned 1-ha plots to three treatments: control, summer, and winter burn. Owing to logistical constraints, we burned only 11 plots, three in winter and eight in summer, over a 4-year period from 1998 to 2001. We used path analysis to model the effects of fuel type and char height, an indicator of fire intensity, on fuel consumption. Fire intensity increased with surface fuel loads, but was negatively related to the quantity of hardwood shrub fuels, probably because these fuels are associated with a moist microenvironment within hardwood patches, and therefore tend to resist fire. Winter fires were milder than summer fires, and were less effective at inhibiting shrub encroachment. A mixed seasonal approach is suggested for fire management, with burns applied opportunistically under a range of winter and summer conditions, but more frequently than that prevalent in the recent past. ?? IAWF 2006.

  15. Early fasciotomy in electrically injured patients as a marker for injury severity and deep venous thrombosis risk: an analysis of the National Burn Repository.

    PubMed

    Pannucci, Christopher J; Osborne, Nicholas H; Jaber, Reda M; Cederna, Paul S; Wahl, Wendy L

    2010-01-01

    By using the National Burn Repository, the authors sought to identify markers for injury severity and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) risk after electrical injury. They identified adult patients in the National Burn Repository who were admitted with an electrical injury between 1995 and 2007 (n = 1469). Patients who died within 24 hours or were admitted for less than 1 day and hospitals reporting no complications were excluded. Independent variables included TBSA burned, duration of intensive care unit stay and hospital admission, duration of mechanical ventilation, the number of operative procedures, amputation, and early fasciotomy. Early fasciotomy was defined as fasciotomy performed on a patient's first trip to the operating room and was used as a proxy for severity of electrical injury. DVT and death were the dependent variables. Among electrically injured patients, 10.4% had early fasciotomy. Patients who had early fasciotomy had significantly prolonged intensive care unit stays (10.3 vs 4.8 days, P < .001), hospital days (36.7 vs 17.1 days, P < .001), amputations (49.0 vs 4.6%, P < .001), and a number of operative codes (17.6 vs 5.4, P < .001). DVT incidence was 0.9%. Electrically injured patients who had early fasciotomy were significantly more likely to have a DVT when compared with patients who did not have early fasciotomy (7.55 vs 0.95%, P = .002). Early fasciotomy after electrical injury is a marker for increased injury severity. Among patients who underwent early fasciotomy after electrical injury, 7.5% develop DVT, and 49% require amputation during their initial hospitalization. PMID:20861746

  16. High severity fire in forests of the southwest: conservation implications. Progress Report August 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haire, Sandra L.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The occurrence of large, severe fires in southwestern ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests has resulted in concern that these forests may not persist under such an extreme disturbance regime. In our research, we are examining the outcomes of high-severity fire in ponderosa pine forests and their neighboring communities across an elevational gradient. One goal of our work is to contribute to understanding the resiliency of these systems, but we also want to investigate the conservation values intrinsic to the diverse communities that represent alternative successional trajectories after severe fire. One assumption of our research is that the spatial pattern of a disturbance becomes increasingly important when the disturbance is large and biological legacies are few and sparse. We ask, therefore, what spectrum of plant communities results from high severity fire, and what is their relationship to spatial patterns of severity mapped in early post fire timeframes? Also, do spatial patterns of older burns (1950-80) differ from recent burns (1998-present) in ways that make us expect successional changes years from now to differ from those we observed at our older burn field sites? Here, we describe the first stages of our work in mapping burn severity at old and new burns as well as the work we have recently completed at our two field sites. The report is organized under our two main objectives with the purpose of summarizing the steps we have taken in working toward these objectives, as well as changes we have made in methodologies since the original study plan. We present some general observations and plans for the next steps in data analysis and product generation. This report, the study plan, a photograph gallery, slide presentations, and our contact information are available on the project Web site http://www.umass.edu/landeco/research/swfire/swfire.html .

  17. Burning Issue: Handling Household Burns

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hot objects or liquid, fire, friction, the sun, electricity, or certain chemicals. Each year, about a half- ... infant or elderly. the burn was caused by electricity, which can lead to “invisible” burns. Burns Burns ...

  18. Evaluation of post-fire strength of concrete flexural members reinforced with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Devon S.

    Owing to their corrosion resistance and superior strength to weight ratio, there has been, over the past two decades, increased interest in the use of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) reinforcing bars in reinforced concrete structural members. The mechanical behavior of FRP reinforcement differs from that of steel reinforcement. For example, FRP reinforcement exhibit a linear stress-strain behavior until the bar ruptures and the strength, stiffness and bond properties of FRP reinforcement are affected more adversely by elevated temperatures. All structures are subject to the risk of damage by fire and fires continue to be a significant cause of damage to structures. Many structures do not collapse after being exposed to fire. The safety of the structure for any future use is dependent on the ability to accurately estimate the post-fire load capacity of the structure. Assuming that the changes, due to fire exposure, in the mechanical behavior of the GFRP reinforcing bar and concrete, and the bond between the reinforcing bar and the concrete are understood, an analytical procedure for estimating the post-fire strength of GFRP reinforced concrete flexural elements can be developed. This thesis investigates the changes in: a) tensile properties and bond of GFRP bars; and b) the flexural behavior of GFRP reinforced concrete beams flexural after being exposed to elevated temperatures up to 400°C and cooled to ambient temperature. To this end, twelve tensile tests, twelve pullout bond tests and ten four-point beam tests were performed. The data from the tests were used to formulate analytical procedures for evaluating the post-fire strength of GFRP reinforced concrete beams. The procedure produced conservative results when compared with the experimental data. In general, the residual tensile strength and modulus of elasticity of GFRP bars decrease as the exposure temperature increases. The loss in properties is however, smaller than that observed by other researchers when similar bars were tested while hot. The residual bond strength was also found to decrease with increase in exposure temperature. Residual bond mechanism and flexural behavior were found to be influenced, in complex ways, by the exposure to elevated temperatures. Additionally, an apparent "yielding plateau" and an apparent increase in bar ductility was observed in the post-heat behavior of some of the tensile specimens. This points to a potential for heat treatment of FRP bars to achieve higher ductility.

  19. Feedbacks between climate, fire severity, and differential permafrost degradation in Alaskan black spruce forests - implications for carbon cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasischke, E. S.; Kane, E. S.; O'Donnell, J. A.; Christensen, N. L.; Mitchell, S. R.; Turetsky, M. R.; Hayes, D. J.; Hoy, E.; Barrett, K. M.; McGuire, A. D.; Yuan, F.

    2011-12-01

    Black spruce forests are the dominant forest cover type in the boreal region of Alaska and Canada In the northern portion of its range, permafrost is common to sites occupied by black spruce forest, which in turn, leads topromotes the accumulation of large reservoirs of organic carbon in mineral and organic soils. Another important trait of black spruce forests is the high occurrence of fire which is enhanced by the presence of flammable foliage, surface litter (duff), dead stems, aboreal lichens, and understory vegetation that is highly flammable during the dry conditions found during the summer fire season. In turn, fire plays an important role in carbon cycling in black spruce forests through direct burning of vegetation and organic soils, initiation of secondary succession, and alteration of the ambient environmental conditions, in particular, the permafrost and the soil thermal regimes, including permafrost stability. The spatial and temporal characteristics of permafrost (e.g. ice content and, seasonal deepening thawing of the active layer) not only control fire severity in terms of depth of burning of the active layer, but also the level of permafrost degradation that occurs in the post-fire environment. Fire severity, in combination with soil thermal properties (e.g. temperature, moisture, permafrost state), moisture and temperature conditions controlled by rates of permafrost warming and drying then controls the biological processes (plant succession and growth and heterotrophic respiration), thus regulating post-fire re-accumulation of carbon in biomass. In this paper, we will review research that investigates the interactions between fire and permafrost regimes that influence and how they influence carbon cycling in black spruce forests in interior Alaska.

  20. Early fasciotomy in electrically injured patients as a marker for injury severity and deep venous thrombosis risk: an analysis of the National Burn Repository

    PubMed Central

    Pannucci, CJ; Osborne, NH; Jaber, RM; Cederna, PS; Wahl, WL

    2010-01-01

    Background Using the National Burn Repository (NBR), we sought to identify markers for injury severity and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) risk after electrical injury. Methods We identified adult patients in the NBR admitted with an electrical injury between 1995 and 2007 (n=1469). Patients who died within 24 hours or were admitted for less than 1 day and hospitals reporting no complications were excluded. Independent variables included total body surface area (TBSA) burned, duration of ICU stay and hospital admission, duration of mechanical ventilation, number of operative procedures, amputation, and early fasciotomy. Early fasciotomy was defined as fasciotomy performed on a patient’s first trip to the operating room and was used as a proxy for severity of electrical injury. Deep venous thrombosis and death were the dependent variables. Results Among electrically injured patients, 10.4% had early fasciotomy. Patients who had early fasciotomy had significantly prolonged ICU stays (10.3 days vs. 4.8 days, p<0.001), hospital days (36.7 days vs. 17.1 days, p<0.001), amputations (49.0% vs. 4.6%, p<0.001), and number of operative codes (17.6 vs. 5.4, p<0.001). DVT incidence was 0.9%. Electrically injured patients who had early fasciotomy were significantly more likely to have a DVT when compared to patients who did not have early fasciotomy (7.55% vs. 0.95%, p=0.002). Conclusions Early fasciotomy after electrical injury is a marker for increased injury severity. Among patients who have early fasciotomy after electrical injury, 7.5% develop DVT and 49% require amputation during their initial hospitalization. PMID:20861746

  1. Salvage Logging Versus the Use of Burnt Wood as a Nurse Object to Promote Post-Fire Tree Seedling Establishment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castro, J.; Allen, C.D.; Molina-Morales, M.; Maranon-Jimenez, Sara; Sanchez-Miranda, A.; Zamora, R.

    2011-01-01

    Intense debate surrounds the effects of post-fire salvage logging (SL) versus nonintervention policies on forest regeneration, but scant support is available from experimental studies. We analyze the effect of three post-fire management treatments on the recruitment of a serotinous pine (Pinus pinaster) at a Mediterranean mountain. Treatments were applied 7 months after the fire and differ in the degree of intervention, ranging from "no intervention" (NI, all trees left standing) to "partial cut plus lopping" (PCL, felling most of the trees, cutting the main branches, and leaving all the biomass in situ without mastication), and "SL" (felling and piling the logs, and masticating the woody debris). Seedling survival after 3 years was the highest in PCL (47.3% versus 38.7% in SL). This was associated with the amelioration of microclimatic conditions under the scattered branches, which reduced radiation and soil temperature while increasing soil moisture. Seedling density after 2 years was approximately 5.5 times higher in PCL than in SL, as in SL a large fraction of seedlings was lost as a consequence of mechanized mastication. The NI treatment showed the lowest seedling survival (17.3%). Nevertheless, seedling density was similar to SL. Seedling growth scarcely differed among treatments. Our results show that branches left onsite acted as nurse objects that improved key microclimatic conditions for seedling recruitment. This creates a facilitative interaction ideal for seedling establishment in moisture-deficient ecosystems, as it provides the benefit of a shading overstory but without underground competition. ?? 2010 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  2. Objective definition of rainfall intensity-duration thresholds for the initiation of post-fire debris flows in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staley, Dennis; Kean, Jason W.; Cannon, Susan H.; Schmidt, Kevin M.; Laber, Jayme L.

    2012-01-01

    Rainfall intensity–duration (ID) thresholds are commonly used to predict the temporal occurrence of debris flows and shallow landslides. Typically, thresholds are subjectively defined as the upper limit of peak rainstorm intensities that do not produce debris flows and landslides, or as the lower limit of peak rainstorm intensities that initiate debris flows and landslides. In addition, peak rainstorm intensities are often used to define thresholds, as data regarding the precise timing of debris flows and associated rainfall intensities are usually not available, and rainfall characteristics are often estimated from distant gauging locations. Here, we attempt to improve the performance of existing threshold-based predictions of post-fire debris-flow occurrence by utilizing data on the precise timing of debris flows relative to rainfall intensity, and develop an objective method to define the threshold intensities. We objectively defined the thresholds by maximizing the number of correct predictions of debris flow occurrence while minimizing the rate of both Type I (false positive) and Type II (false negative) errors. We identified that (1) there were statistically significant differences between peak storm and triggering intensities, (2) the objectively defined threshold model presents a better balance between predictive success, false alarms and failed alarms than previous subjectively defined thresholds, (3) thresholds based on measurements of rainfall intensity over shorter duration (?60 min) are better predictors of post-fire debris-flow initiation than longer duration thresholds, and (4) the objectively defined thresholds were exceeded prior to the recorded time of debris flow at frequencies similar to or better than subjective thresholds. Our findings highlight the need to better constrain the timing and processes of initiation of landslides and debris flows for future threshold studies. In addition, the methods used to define rainfall thresholds in this study represent a computationally simple means of deriving critical values for other studies of nonlinear phenomena characterized by thresholds.

  3. Fire Emissions Estimates in Siberia: Evaluation of Uncertainties in Area Burned, Land Cover, and Fuel Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, E.; Soja, A. J.; Ivanova, G. A.; Petkov, A.; Ponomarev, E. I.; Conard, S. G.

    2012-12-01

    Wildfire is one of the main disturbance factors in the boreal zone of Russia. Fires in the Russian boreal forest range from low-severity surface fires to high-severity crown fires. Estimates of carbon emissions from fires in Russia vary substantially due to differences in ecosystem classification and mapping, burned area calculations, and estimates of fuel consumption. We examined uncertainties in different parameters used to estimate biomass burning emissions. Several fire datasets (Institute of Forest burned area product, MCD45, MCD64, MOD14/MYD14, official data) were compared to estimate uncertainties in area burned in Siberia. Area burned was found to differ significantly by data source, with satellite data being by an order of magnitude greater than ground-based data. Differences between mapped ecosystems were also compared and contrasted on the basis of five land cover maps (GLC-2000, Globcover-2009, MODIS Collection 4 and 5 Global Land Cover, and the Digitized Ecosystem map of the Former Soviet Union) to evaluate the potential for error resulting from disparate vegetation structure and fuel consumption estimates. The examination of land cover maps showed that estimates of relative proportion of fire by ecosystem type varied substantially for the same year from map to map. Fuel consumption remains one of the main uncertainties in estimates of biomass burning emissions in Siberia. Accurate fuel consumption estimates are obtained in the course of fire experiments with pre- and post-fire biomass measuring. Our large-scale experiments carried out in the course of the FIRE BEAR (Fire Effects in the Boreal Eurasia Region) Project provided quantitative and qualitative data on ecosystem state and carbon emissions due to fires of known behavior in major forest types of Siberia that could be used to verify large-scale carbon emissions estimates. Global climate change is expected to result in increase of fire hazard and area burned, leading to impacts on global air quality and human health. Accurate emission estimates are required by air quality agencies to calculate local emissions and to develop strategies to mitigate negative smoke impacts. This research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program, Fulbright Program, and Russian Academy of Sciences.

  4. ReproducedfromSoilScienceSocietyofAmericaJournal.PublishedbySoilScienceSocietyofAmerica.Allcopyrightsreserved. Post-fire Soil Water Repellency: Persistence and Soil Moisture Thresholds

    E-print Network

    MacDonald, Lee

    ScienceSocietyofAmerica.Allcopyrightsreserved. Post-fire Soil Water Repellency: Persistence and Soil Moisture Thresholds Lee H. MacDonald* and Edward on the persistence of soil water repellency and the soil moisture threshold at which water were the primary over time and identify on soil water repellency because of the large variability soil moisture

  5. Factors Affecting the Abundance of Leaf-Litter Arthropods in Unburned and Thrice-Burned Seasonally-Dry Amazonian Forests

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Juliana M.; Barlow, Jos; Louzada, Julio; Moutinho, Paulo

    2010-01-01

    Fire is frequently used as a land management tool for cattle ranching and annual crops in the Amazon. However, these maintenance fires often escape into surrounding forests, with potentially severe impacts for forest biodiversity. We examined the effect of experimental fires on leaf-litter arthropod abundance in a seasonally-dry forest in the Brazilian Amazon. The study plots (50 ha each) included a thrice-burned forest and an unburned control forest. Pitfall-trap samples were collected at 160 randomly selected points in both plots, with sampling stratified across four intra-annual replicates across the dry and wet seasons, corresponding to 6, 8, 10 and 12 months after the most recent fire. Arthropods were identified to the level of order (separating Formicidae). In order to better understand the processes that determine arthropod abundance in thrice-burned forests, we measured canopy openness, understory density and litter depth. All arthropod taxa were significantly affected by fire and season. In addition, the interactions between burn treatment and season were highly significant for all taxa but Isoptera. The burned plot was characterized by a more open canopy, lower understory density and shallower litter depth. Hierarchical partitioning revealed that canopy openness was the most important factor explaining arthropod order abundances in the thrice-burned plot, whereas all three environmental variables were significant in the unburned control plot. These results reveal the marked impact of recurrent wildfires and seasonality on litter arthropods in this transitional forest, and demonstrate the overwhelming importance of canopy-openness in driving post-fire arthropod abundance. PMID:20877720

  6. Biomass Burning

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-07-27

    Projects:  Biomass Burning Definition/Description:  Biomass Burning: This data set represents the geographical and temporal distribution of total amount of biomass burned. These data may be used in general circulation models (GCMs) and ...

  7. The media glorifying burns: a hindrance to burn prevention.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

    2003-01-01

    The media have a profound influence on the actions of children and adults. Burns and burn prevention tend to be ignored or even mocked. The purpose of this presentation is to reveal the callousness of the media in its dealings with burns and burn prevention. Printed materials with a relationship to burns, risk of burning, or disrespect for the consequences of burns were collected. The materials were tabulated into four categories: comics, advertisements (ads), articles that made light of burns, and television shows that portrayed behavior that would risk burn injury. Most burn-related materials were found in comics or advertisements. Several comics made light of high-risk behavior with flames, scald injury, contact injury, or burns. In addition, several advertisements showed people on fire or actions that could easily lead to burns. Several articles and televisions shows portrayed high-risk behavior that, in some instances, led to copycat injuries. Flames are frequently used to sell items that target adolescent boys or young men. The high incidence injuries that frequent this population parallel the high-risk behaviors portrayed by the media. The media portrays flames and high-risk behavior for burn injury as being cool, funny, and without consequence. The use of flames on clothing and recreational equipment (skateboards, hot rods) particularly targets the high-risk adolescent male. The burn community should make the media aware of the harm it causes with its callous depiction and glorification of burns. PMID:12792237

  8. Reduced predation risk for melanistic pygmy grasshoppers in post-fire environments.

    PubMed

    Karpestam, Einat; Merilaita, Sami; Forsman, Anders

    2012-09-01

    The existence of melanistic (black) color forms in many species represents interesting model systems that have played important roles for our understanding of selective processes, evolution of adaptations, and the maintenance of variation. A recent study reported on rapid evolutionary shifts in frequencies of the melanistic forms in replicated populations of Tetrix subulata pygmy grasshoppers; the incidence of the melanistic form was higher in recently burned areas with backgrounds blackened by fire than in nonburned areas, and it declined over time in postfire environments. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the frequency shifts of the black color variant were driven, at least in part, by changes in the selective regime imposed by visual predators. To study detectability of the melanistic form, we presented human "predators" with images of black grasshoppers and samples of the natural habitat on computer screens. We demonstrate that the protective value of black coloration differs between burnt and nonburnt environments and gradually increases in habitats that have been more blackened by fire. These findings support the notion that a black color pattern provides improved protection from visually oriented predators against blackened backgrounds and implicate camouflage and predation as important drivers of fire melanism in pygmy grasshoppers. PMID:23139879

  9. Divergent patterns of abundance and age-class structure of headwater stream tadpoles in burned and unburned watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hossack, B.R.; Corn, P.S.; Fagre, D.B.

    2006-01-01

    Wildfire is a potential threat to many species with narrow environmental tolerances like the Rocky Mountain tailed frog (Ascaphus montanus Mittleman and Myers, 1949), which inhabits a region where the frequency and intensity of wildfires are expected to increase. We compared pre- and post-fire counts of tadpoles in eight streams in northwestern Montana to determine the effects of wildfire on A. montanus. All streams were initially sampled in 2001, 2 years before four of them burned in a large wildfire, and were resampled during the 2 years following the fire. Counts of tadpoles were similar in the two groups of streams before the fire. After the fire, tadpoles were almost twice as abundant in unburned streams than in burned streams. The fire seemed to have the greatest negative effect on abundance of age-1 tadpoles, which was reflected in the greater variation in same-stream age-class structure compared with those in unburned streams. Despite the apparent effect on tadpoles, we do not expect the wildfire to be an extirpation threat to populations in the streams that we sampled. Studies spanning a chronosequence of fires, as well as in other areas, are needed to assess the effects of fires on streams with A. montanus and to determine the severity and persistence of these effects.

  10. Patch to landscape patterns in post fire recruitment of a serotinous conifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ne'eman, G.; Fotheringham, C.J.; Keeley, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    Obligate seeding species are highly specialized to fire disturbance and many conifers such as cypress, which are adapted to high intensity stand-replacing fires, have canopy seed banks stored in serotinous cones. Resilience of these trees to fire disturbance is a function of disturbance frequency and one focus of this study was to determine the effect of patch age on postfire recruitment. A second focus was to determine the extent to which fire induced a landscape level change in the location of the forest boundary. Prior to a fire in 1994, a large Cupressus sargentii forest was a mosaic landscape of different aged patches of nearly pure cypress bordered by chaparral. Patches less than 60 years of age were relatively dense with roughly one tree every 1-2 m2 but older patches had thinned to one tree every 3-15 m2. Older trees had substantially greater canopy cone crops but the stand level seed bank size was not significantly correlated with stand age. Fire-dependent obligate seeding species are sensitive to fire return interval because of potential changes in the size of seed banks - facing both a potential 'immaturity risk' and a 'senescence risk'. At our site, C. sargentii regeneration was substantial in stands as young as 20 years, suggesting that fire return interval would need to be shorter than this to pose any significant risk. Reduced seedling recruitment in stands nearly 100 years of age may indicate risk from senescence is greater, however, even the lowest density seedling recruitment was many times greater than the density of mature forests - thus this cypress would appear to be resilient to a wide range of fire return intervals. Changes in landscape patterning of forest and chaparral are unlikely except after fire. Factors that inhibit tree establishment within the shrubland, as well as factors that affect shrub establishment within the forest border likely affect the 'permeability' of this ecotone. After the 1994 fire this boundary appeared to be stable in that cypress recruited best within the shadow of burned canopies and cypress were weak invaders of adjacent shrublands.

  11. Empirical models to predict the volumes of debris flows generated by recently burned basins in the western U.S.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gartner, J.E.; Cannon, S.H.; Santi, P.M.; deWolfe, V.G.

    2008-01-01

    Recently burned basins frequently produce debris flows in response to moderate-to-severe rainfall. Post-fire hazard assessments of debris flows are most useful when they predict the volume of material that may flow out of a burned basin. This study develops a set of empirically-based models that predict potential volumes of wildfire-related debris flows in different regions and geologic settings. The models were developed using data from 53 recently burned basins in Colorado, Utah and California. The volumes of debris flows in these basins were determined by either measuring the volume of material eroded from the channels, or by estimating the amount of material removed from debris retention basins. For each basin, independent variables thought to affect the volume of the debris flow were determined. These variables include measures of basin morphology, basin areas burned at different severities, soil material properties, rock type, and rainfall amounts and intensities for storms triggering debris flows. Using these data, multiple regression analyses were used to create separate predictive models for volumes of debris flows generated by burned basins in six separate regions or settings, including the western U.S., southern California, the Rocky Mountain region, and basins underlain by sedimentary, metamorphic and granitic rocks. An evaluation of these models indicated that the best model (the Western U.S. model) explains 83% of the variability in the volumes of the debris flows, and includes variables that describe the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30%, the basin area burned at moderate and high severity, and total storm rainfall. This model was independently validated by comparing volumes of debris flows reported in the literature, to volumes estimated using the model. Eighty-seven percent of the reported volumes were within two residual standard errors of the volumes predicted using the model. This model is an improvement over previous models in that it includes a measure of burn severity and an estimate of modeling errors. The application of this model, in conjunction with models for the probability of debris flows, will enable more complete and rapid assessments of debris flow hazards following wildfire.

  12. Postwildfire debris flows hazard assessment for the area burned by the 2011 Track Fire, northeastern New Mexico and southeastern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillery, Anne C.; Darr, Michael J.; Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.

    2011-01-01

    In June 2011, the Track Fire burned 113 square kilometers in Colfax County, northeastern New Mexico, and Las Animas County, southeastern Colorado, including the upper watersheds of Chicorica and Raton Creeks. The burned landscape is now at risk of damage from postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. This report presents a preliminary hazard assessment of the debris-flow potential from basins burned by the Track Fire. A pair of empirical hazard-assessment models developed using data from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows at the outlets of selected drainage basins within the burned area. The models incorporate measures of burn severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall to estimate the probability and volume of post-fire debris flows following the fire. In response to a design storm of 38 millimeters of rain in 30 minutes (10-year recurrence-interval), the probability of debris flow estimated for basins burned by the Track fire ranged between 2 and 97 percent, with probabilities greater than 80 percent identified for the majority of the tributary basins to Raton Creek in Railroad Canyon; six basins that flow into Lake Maloya, including the Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins; two tributary basins to Sugarite Canyon, and an unnamed basin on the eastern flank of the burned area. Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from 30 cubic meters to greater than 100,000 cubic meters. The largest volumes (greater than 100,000 cubic meters) were estimated for Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins, which drain into Lake Maloya. The Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Ranking identifies the Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins as having the highest probability of producing the largest debris flows. This finding indicates the greatest post-fire debris-flow impacts may be expected to Lake Maloya. In addition, Interstate Highway 25, Raton Creek and the rail line in Railroad Canyon, County road A-27, and State Highway 526 in Sugarite Canyon may also be affected where they cross drainages downstream from recently burned basins. Although this assessment indicates that a rather large debris flow (approximately 42,000 cubic meters) may be generated from the basin above the City of Raton (basin 9) in response to the design storm, the probability of such an event is relatively low (approximately 10 percent). Additional assessment is necessary to determine if the estimated volume of material is sufficient to travel into the City of Raton. In addition, even small debris flows may affect structures at or downstream from basin outlets and increase the threat of flooding downstream by damaging or blocking flood mitigation structures. The maps presented here may be used to prioritize areas where erosion mitigation or other protective measures may be necessary within a 2- to 3-year window of vulnerability following the Track Fire.

  13. A comparison of burn season effects on nesting birds in North Dakota mixed-grass prairie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, K.F.

    1986-01-01

    During 1982-1985, the effects of single spring and fall burn treatments on ground nesting birds and residual cover were studied on five paired areas of native mixed-grass prairie in northwestern Stutsman County, ND. Annually, visual obstruction readings to index the height-density of residual cover were taken once and nest searches were made four times on each area. Residual nesting cover on fall burn plots averaged taller and denser than on spring burn plots during post-fire growing years 2-4. A total of 259 duck nests and 63 nests of non-passerine birds were found during the four years. Duck nesting success was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in fall burn plots than in spring burn plots for all species and years combined. Too few nests of other bird species were found for valid comparisons. Results suggest that vegetation structure and duck nesting response to spring and fall burns became similar again by the third post-fire growing season.

  14. PRESCRIBED BURNING IMPACTS ON SAGE GROUSE DIETARY RESOURCES IN EASTERN OREGON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fire in sagebrush steppe can enhance composition and/or productivity of forage species and invertebrates important to sage grouse. Response to fire is, however, highly variable and dependent on site potential, species composition, pre and post fire weather, fire severity, and time since fire. We eva...

  15. Early post-fire regeneration dynamics of Brachypodium retusum Pers. (Beauv.) in old fields of the Valencia region (eastern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caturla, Rosa N.; Raventós, Jose; Guàrdia, Roser; Vallejo, V. Ramon

    2000-01-01

    Extensive wildfires have affected the Valencia region in the last two decades. A large portion of the burnt areas has been localised in old fields. Although Mediterranean communities are usually resilient to fire and recover very quickly to the pre-fire state, burnt old fields with a low number of species could show poor recovery capacity. The response capacity of these systems to fire, and, especially, the role of the native herbaceous Brachypodium retusum were studied. Two years after fire, plant cover reached a value of 56 %. Resprouter species were more important in number and in specific cover. B. retusum represented the species with the highest contribution to total plant cover for all the study period. Total biomass in burnt plots was always lower than in unburnt plots. However, B. retusum green biomass showed a quick recovery to pre-disturbance levels, and below-ground biomass was similar in burnt and unburnt plots. Reproductive biomass greatly increased in burnt with respect to unburnt plots during the first post-fire year, with no stalk production in unburnt plots. B. retusum may be considered a promising species for the restoration of extremely degraded lands because of its high resilience to fire.

  16. Tracking sources of severe haze episodes and their physicochemical and hygroscopic properties under Asian continental outflow: Long-range transport pollution, postharvest biomass burning, and Asian dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jinsang; Kim, Young J.

    2011-01-01

    Aerosol physicochemical and hygroscopic properties were measured from 12 October to 21 November 2005 at a downwind area of the Asian continental outflow (Gwangju, Korea) to characterize severe haze episodes. Using optically measured elemental carbon (EC) at 660 nm (Opt.EC) and 880 nm (BC) wavelengths and Mie theory, it was estimated that the higher BC/Opt.EC ratio during the cloudy day of the long-range transport (LTP) period was mainly due to EC particle growth from in-cloud processing with secondary aerosols such as sulfate and organic aerosols. Single scattering albedo (SSA) of biomass burning (BB) aerosol increased sharply from 0.89 to 0.94 under a relative humidity >70%, suggesting that organic aerosols emitted from rice straw burning contained high amounts of hydrophilic compounds. The contribution of aerosol water content to the total light extinction coefficient (bext) was determined as 51.4% and 68.4% during the BB and BB + LTP periods, respectively, indicating that the haze episodes were highly enhanced by an increase in aerosol water content. The Asian dust event was characterized by the highest SSA (0.92 ± 0.02), the lowest mass scattering efficiency of fine particles (2.5 ± 1.0 m2 g-1), and the lowest hygroscopic nature (humidity-dependent light scattering enhancement factor, f(80%), which is defined by the ratio of light scattering coefficient at 80% relative humidity to that at dry condition, = ˜1.37). Based on the Ångström exponent (?) values observed at the source region of the Asian continent and the downwind area of South Korea during the BB + LTP period, it was found that the ? value of urban aerosols decreased ˜11% for 1-2 days of the transport, probably due to the increase in particle size through water uptake. Increasing rates of surface PM10 mass concentrations at western coastal areas of the South Korean peninsula were in the range 2.4-14.4 ?gm-3 h-1 at the beginning of the BB + LTP period (24 October 2005, 0700-2300 LT). Based on in situ and remote measurement techniques, Asian aerosol outflow over the South Korean peninsula is of the order of 388-3789 tons h-1 at the beginning of the LTP event.

  17. Burn Wound Infections

    PubMed Central

    Church, Deirdre; Elsayed, Sameer; Reid, Owen; Winston, Brent; Lindsay, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Burns are one of the most common and devastating forms of trauma. Patients with serious thermal injury require immediate specialized care in order to minimize morbidity and mortality. Significant thermal injuries induce a state of immunosuppression that predisposes burn patients to infectious complications. A current summary of the classifications of burn wound infections, including their diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, is given. Early excision of the eschar has substantially decreased the incidence of invasive burn wound infection and secondary sepsis, but most deaths in severely burn-injured patients are still due to burn wound sepsis or complications due to inhalation injury. Burn patients are also at risk for developing sepsis secondary to pneumonia, catheter-related infections, and suppurative thrombophlebitis. The introduction of silver-impregnated devices (e.g., central lines and Foley urinary catheters) may reduce the incidence of nosocomial infections due to prolonged placement of these devices. Improved outcomes for severely burned patients have been attributed to medical advances in fluid resuscitation, nutritional support, pulmonary and burn wound care, and infection control practices. PMID:16614255

  18. Increased dry season water yield in burned watersheds in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Alicia M.; Hogue, Terri S.

    2015-01-01

    The current work evaluates the effects of the 2003 Old Fire on semi-arid systems in the San Bernardino Mountains, California. Pre- and post-fire daily streamflow are used to analyze flow regimes in two burned watersheds. The average pre-fire runoff ratios in Devil Canyon and City Creek are 0.14 and 0.26, respectively, and both increase to 0.34 post-fire. Annual flow duration curves are developed for each watershed and the low flow is characterized by a 90% exceedance probability threshold. Post-fire low flow is statistically different from the pre-fire values (? = 0.05). In Devil Canyon the annual volume of pre-fire low flow increases on average from 2.6E + 02 to 3.1E + 03 m3 (1090% increase) and in City Creek the annual low flow volume increases from 2.3E + 03 to 5.0E + 03 m3 (118% increase). Predicting burn system resilience to disturbance (anthropogenic and natural) has significant implications for water sustainability and ultimately may provide an opportunity to utilize extended and increased water yield.

  19. Burn Institute

    MedlinePLUS

    ... save a close friend from a fiery plane crash. He spent nearly two months in the UCSD ... Burn Prevention Research and Treatment Burn Survivor Support Community Services Donate Now! Recent Photos Choose Language For ...

  20. Common environmental factors explain both ectomycorrhizal species diversity and pine regeneration variability in a post-fire Mediterranean forest.

    PubMed

    Buscardo, Erika; Freitas, Helena; Pereira, João Santos; De Angelis, Paolo

    2011-08-01

    Natural seedling regeneration and establishment after stand replacing wildfires is influenced by a series of environmental and biological constraints. In this study, we characterized the diversity and structure of the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal community associated with post-fire naturally regenerated maritime pine saplings, and individuate the environmental factors responsible for fungal species distribution. We also identify the main environmental factors responsible for maritime pine regeneration variability and assessed the relation between saplings performance and ECM fungal diversity indices. Fungal species were identified by direct sequencing of internal transcribed spacer regions. Five years after the disturbance event, a total of 30 taxa colonized the pine saplings. The ECM fungal community was dominated by ruderal species of the genus Rhizopogon (present in almost half of the samples). Almost one third of the identified ECM fungal species belonged to the family Thelephoraceae. Typical k-selected species like Amanita pantherina, Boletus aestivalis, Lactarius chrysorrheus, and Russula densifolia were found on pine saplings collected in proximity of unburnt pine trees, in correspondence with low erosion extents. Pine regeneration varied throughout the study areas and was enhanced at higher elevations, in correspondence with moderate slopes, shallower soils, and a reduced cover of ericaceous shrubs and bare ground. These conditions were found in close proximity to patches of pine trees that survived the disturbance event and were previously characterized by a higher pre-fire pine biomass. Even though no correlations were found between saplings performance and ECM fungal diversity indices, common environmental factors (i.e., ericaceous shrub cover, extent of erosion, slope, and soil depth) were responsible for shaping the ECM fungal distribution and for describing most of the explained regeneration variability. PMID:21301892

  1. Controlled Burn

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    GULF OF MEXICO — Dark clouds of smoke and fire emerge as oil burns during a controlled burn in the Gulf of Mexico. The U.S. Coast Guard working in partnership with BP PLC, local residents, and other Federal agencies conducted the controlled burn to aid in preventing the spread of oil following...

  2. Chemical burns

    PubMed Central

    Cartotto, Robert C.; Peters, Walter J.; Neligan, Peter C.; Douglas, Leith G.; Beeston, Jeff

    1996-01-01

    Objectives To report a burn unit’s experience with chemical burns and to discuss the fundamental principles in managing chemical burns. Design A chart review. Setting A burn centre at a major university-affiliated hospital. Patients Twenty-four patients with chemical burns, representing 2.6% of all burn admissions over an 8-year period at the Ross Tilley Regional Adult Burn Centre. Seventy-five percent of the burn injuries were work-related accidents. Chemicals involved included hydrofluoric acid, sulfuric acid, black liquor, various lyes, potassium permanganate and phenol. Results Fourteen patients required excision and skin grafting. Complications were frequent and included ocular chemical contacts, wound infections, tendon exposures, toe amputation and systemic reactions from absorption of chemical. One patient died from a chemical scald burn to 98% of the body surface area. Conclusions The key principles in the management of chemical burns include removal of the chemical, copious irrigation, limited use of antidotes, correct estimation of the extent of injury, identification of systemic toxicity, treatment of ocular contacts and management of chemical inhalation injury. Individualized treatment is emphasized. PMID:8640619

  3. Evaluation of changes in post-fire recharge under native woodland using hydrological measurements, modelling and remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silberstein, Richard P.; Dawes, Warrick R.; Bastow, Trevor P.; Byrne, John; Smart, Natalie F.

    2013-05-01

    SummaryThis paper examines the use of a controlled fuel reduction burn in native woodland to increase recharge to a shallow aquifer system for water supply in south-western Australia. Soil moisture trends from neutron probe measurements and watertable dynamics from piezometers under adjacent burned and unburned plots were compared to determine the difference in recharge resulting from the fire. Remotely sensed evapotranspiration (ET) subtracted from rainfall was used to independently estimate groundwater and soil moisture recharge and compare against a physically based model of soil-water fluxes. The use of naturally occurring chemicals (n-alkanes and cycloalkanes) produced in the fire as tracers of the recharge pulse in the winter following the fire was tested. It was found that in the winter following the fire (annual rainfall 701 mm), water storage in the 9 m thick unsaturated zone increased by about 300 mm but recharge to the watertable was only about 60 mm. In the subsequent year (rainfall 630 mm), leaf area index in the burned woodland recovered to be about 10% less than the unburned plot, remotely sensed ET rose above that in the unburned plot and recharge was lower in the burned than unburned plot. This trend continued and, after 3 years, increased ET negated any early recharge gains, and there was a net decrease in recharge resulting from the fire. The combination of water balance measurements, modelling and remote sensing provides a robust method to gain hydrological understanding of recharge mechanisms. Further work is required to refine the use of burn residue chemicals as soil water tracers, particularly in improving instrument design for groundwater sample collection in fine textured soils. As climate continues to change and regions with growing water shortages seek innovative solutions, approaches such as controlled burning may be needed; however, in this example, the approach was unproductive and further the environmental consequences need to be evaluated to make an appropriate assessment of trade-offs and viability of this approach.

  4. Improving post-fire rainfall-runoff modelling: The applicability of remotely sensed Leaf Area Index data as input for modelling catchment scale post-wildfire hydrological response.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eck, Christel Melissa; Keesstra, Saskia; Catarina Simões Vieira, Diana; Nunes, João Pedro; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2014-05-01

    Wildfires are a frequent phenomenon in European Mediterranean ecosystems. Fire-induced changes in the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the soils and the damaging or even complete removal of vegetation influence the post fire hydrology of catchments. Especially the first few years after a wildfire are marked by increased runoff and erosion and related risks such as floods. The subsequent decrease in runoff and erosion is generally held to be mainly related to post-fire vegetation recovery, emphasizing the importance of vegetation re-growth in restoring the pre-fire hydrological conditions of a burnt catchment. The often fast pace of vegetation recovery in the Mediterranean region limits the time available for research during this so-called window-of-disturbance. This study proposes the use of remote sensing (RS) images for quantifying post-fire vegetation recovery and its integration in post-fire rainfall-runoff modelling in order to facilitate estimating vegetation abundance and improve runoff predictions. To this end, the Leaf Area Index (LAI) - a commonly used parameter to represent interception in process-based rainfall-runoff models - was derived from the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as calculated from Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+ imagery. This was done for five rainfall events that occurred during contrasting seasons of the first 2 years after a wildfire in a micro-catchment in Serra de Lousã, central Portugal. A process-based rainfall-runoff model (LISEM) was applied to each of the five rainfall events using LAI data obtained not only from RS imagery but also from field measurements. For both methods of estimating LAI, model performance was assessed by means of the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (NSE) as well as the coefficient of determination (r2). Overall, the results showed a better model performance for events that occurred during winter than during summer, independent of the LAI input maps. Furthermore, model performance was very similar for the RS-based and the ground-based LAI maps, reflecting the similarity in LAI estimates obtained with the methods. Thus, the present results suggest that especially during the early stages of the window-of-disturbance remote sensing can be a suitable alternative for ground-based measurements, even though it does not necessarily improve runoff predictions.

  5. High latitude cooling associated with landscape changes from post-fire succession in North American boreal forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, B. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Bonan, G. B.

    2012-12-01

    Fires in the boreal forests of North America are generally stand-replacing, killing the majority of trees and initiating succession that may last over a century. Functional variation during succession can affect local surface energy budgets and regional climate. Burn area across Alaska and Canada has been increasing during the last few decades and is projected to be substantially higher by the end of the 21st century. If fire regimes do follow such trajectories, we should expect a future landscape with younger stands and modified biogeophysics. Here we simulated the changes in forest composition due to altered burn area using a probabilistic model of fire occurrence, historical fire data from national inventories, and succession trajectories derived from remote sensing. When coupled to an Earth system model, younger vegetation from increased burning cooled the high-latitude atmosphere, primarily in the winter and spring, with noticeable feedbacks from the ocean and sea ice. Results from multiple scenarios suggest that a doubling of burn area would result in surface cooling of approximately 0.23°C and 0.43°C for winter - spring and February - April time periods, respectively. This could provide a negative feedback to high-latitude terrestrial warming during winter on the order of 4 - 6% for a doubling, and 14 - 23% for a quadrupling, of burn area. While the characterization of succession is challenging due to its dynamic nature, time scale, and the lack of long-term data, this study highlights how remote sensing and national inventories can help quantify feedbacks from secondary forests under a changing climate.

  6. Lightning burns.

    PubMed

    Russell, Katie W; Cochran, Amalia L; Mehta, Sagar T; Morris, Stephen E; McDevitt, Marion C

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a lightning-strike victim. This case illustrates the importance of in-field care, appropriate referral to a burn center, and the tendency of lightning burns to progress to full-thickness injury. PMID:23799482

  7. 78 FR 34031 - Burned Area Emergency Response, Forest Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ...public. Notices of hearings and investigations, committee meetings, agency...planning and implementing post-fire emergency response actions...analyses for evaluating post-fire risks and determining appropriate...outlook for more and bigger fires almost certain. Also...

  8. High-severity wildfires can increase runoff and erosion rates by one or

    E-print Network

    MacDonald, Lee

    flood runoff and soil erosion. Few data have been available to systematically evaluate the effectivenessHigh-severity wildfires can increase runoff and erosion rates by one or more orders of magnitude. There also is an urgent need to develop and test models for predicting post-fire erosion and the likely

  9. Biomass Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Pinto, Joseph P.

    1993-01-01

    Biomass burning may be the overwhelming regional or continental-scale source of methane (CH4) as in tropical Africa and a significant global source of CH4. Our best estimate of present methane emissions from biomass burning is about 51.9 Tg/yr, or 10% of the annual methane emissions to the atmosphere. Increased frequency of fires that may result as the Earth warms up may result in increases in this source of atmospheric methane.

  10. First Aid: Burns

    MedlinePLUS

    ... burn may peel off after 1 or 2 days. Second-degree burns are thicker burns, are very painful and ... degree burns usually heal in 3 to 6 days. Second-degree burns usually heal in 2 to 3 weeks. ...

  11. Ball lightning burn.

    PubMed

    Selvaggi, Gennaro; Monstrey, Stan; von Heimburg, Dennis; Hamdi, Mustapha; Van Landuyt, Koen; Blondeel, Phillip

    2003-05-01

    Ball lightning is a rare physical phenomenon, which is not yet completely explained. It is similar to lightning but with different, peculiar characteristics. It can be considered a mix of fire and electricity, concentrated in a fireball with a diameter of 20-cm that most commonly appears suddenly, even in indoor conditions, during a thunderstorm. It moves quickly for several meters, can change direction, and ultimately disappears. During a great storm, a 28-year-old man and his 5-year-old daughter sustained burn wounds after ball lightning came from the outdoors through a chimney. These two patients demonstrated signs of fire and electrical injuries. The father, who lost consciousness, sustained superficial second-degree burn wounds bilaterally on the zygomatic area and deep second-degree burn wounds on his right hand (total body surface area, 4%). His daughter demonstrated superficial second-degree burn wounds on the left part of the face and deep second-degree and third-degree burn wounds (total body surface area, 30%) on the left neck, both upper arms, and the back. In this article, the authors report the first two cases of burn injuries resulting from ball lightning contact indoors. The literature on this rare phenomenon is reviewed to elucidate the nature of ball lightning. Emphasis is placed on the nature of injuries after ball lightning contact, the therapy used, and the long-term complications. PMID:12792547

  12. Hillslope Erosion Processes after High Severity Wildfires, Colorado Front Range Joseph H. Pietraszek1 and Lee H. MacDonald2

    E-print Network

    MacDonald, Lee

    Hillslope Erosion Processes after High Severity Wildfires, Colorado Front Range Joseph H-severity forest fires can increase soil erosion rates by two or more orders of magnitude with potentially severe post-fire erosion is driven by high-intensity summer convective thunderstorms in the first 2-3 years

  13. The Earth Could Burn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarrow, Ruth

    1982-01-01

    Environmental educators are worried about the ultimate ecological threat--nuclear war, which could burn thousands of square miles, sterilize the soil, destroy 70 percent of the ozone layer letting in lethal ultraviolet rays, and cause severe radiation sickness. Educators must inform themselves, teach others, contact government representatives, and…

  14. Desert tortoise use of burned habitat in the Eastern Mojave desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drake, Karla K.; Esque, Todd C.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Defalco, Lesley; Scoles, Sara; Modlin, Andrew T.; Medica, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Wildfires burned 24,254 ha of critical habitat designated for the recovery of the threatened Mojave desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) in southern Nevada during 2005. The proliferation of non-native annual grasses has increased wildfire frequency and extent in recent decades and continues to accelerate the conversion of tortoise habitat across the Mojave Desert. Immediate changes to vegetation are expected to reduce quality of critical habitat, yet whether tortoises will use burned and recovering habitat differently from intact unburned habitat is unknown. We compared movement patterns, home-range size, behavior, microhabitat use, reproduction, and survival for adult desert tortoises located in, and adjacent to, burned habitat to understand how tortoises respond to recovering burned habitat. Approximately 45% of home ranges in the post-fire environment contained burned habitat, and numerous observations (n = 12,223) corroborated tortoise use of both habitat types (52% unburned, 48% burned). Tortoises moved progressively deeper into burned habitat during the first 5 years following the fire, frequently foraging in burned habitats that had abundant annual plants, and returning to adjacent unburned habitat for cover provided by intact perennial vegetation. However, by years 6 and 7, the live cover of the short-lived herbaceous perennial desert globemallow (Sphaeralcea ambigua) that typically re-colonizes burned areas declined, resulting in a contraction of tortoise movements from the burned areas. Health and egg production were similar between burned and unburned areas indicating that tortoises were able to acquire necessary resources using both areas. This study documents that adult Mojave desert tortoises continue to use habitat burned once by wildfire. Thus, continued management of this burned habitat may contribute toward the recovery of the species in the face of many sources of habitat loss. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Burning Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2006-01-01

    Former Baltimore cop and teacher Ed Burns isn't a masochist. The writer-producer for "The Wire," a critically applauded HBO series about life and death on the streets of Baltimore, is just feverishly trying to save public schools. He thinks American education is hopelessly screwed up, but that it's also the country's only hope. So it makes sense…

  16. Fire severity, residuals and soil legacies affect regeneration of Scots pine in the Southern Alps.

    PubMed

    Vacchiano, Giorgio; Stanchi, Silvia; Marinari, Giulia; Ascoli, Davide; Zanini, Ermanno; Motta, Renzo

    2014-02-15

    Regeneration of non fire-adapted conifers following crown fires on the European Alps is often delayed or unsuccessful. Fire may limit establishment by eliminating seed trees, altering soil properties, or modifying microsite and soil conditions via disturbance legacies. However, the effect of soil legacies on post-fire establishment has rarely been discussed. We analyzed the abundance of Scots pine regeneration in a 257 ha wildfire in an inner-alpine forest. Our aims were (1) to model fire intensity at the soil surface and topsoil heating along a gradient of increasing fire severities; (2) to assess the differences in soil properties along the fire severity gradient; (3) to model the effect of disturbance and soil legacies on the density of pine seedlings. We reconstructed fire behavior and soil heating with the First Order Fire Effects Model (FOFEM), tested the effect of fire severity on soils by nonparametric distributional tests, and modeled seedling density as a function of site, disturbance and soil legacies by fitting a GLM following a variable selection procedure. Topsoil heating differed markedly between the moderate and high severity fires, reaching temperatures high enough to strongly and permanently alter soil properties only in the latter. High fire severity resulted in decreased soil consistency and wet aggregate stability. Burned soils had lower organic matter and cations than those unburned. Pine seedlings favored low-fertility, eroded, and chemically poor sites. Establishment was facilitated by the presence of coarse woody debris, but hampered by increasing distance from the seed source. These results suggest that in dry, inner-alpine valleys, fire residuals and soil legacies interact in determining the success of Scots pine re-establishment. High severity fire can promote favorable soil conditions, but distance from the seed source and high evaporation rates of bare soils must be mitigated in order to ensure a successful restoration. PMID:24334000

  17. Global Burned Area and Biomass Burning Emissions from Small Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.

    2012-01-01

    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity analyses of key model parameters caused estimates of global burned area increases from small fires to vary between 24% and 54%. Biomass burning carbon emissions increased by 35% at a global scale when small fires were included in GFED3, from 1.9 Pg C/yr to 2.5 Pg C/yr. The contribution of tropical forest fires to year-to-year variability in carbon fluxes increased because small fires amplified emissions from Central America, South America and Southeast Asia-regions where drought stress and burned area varied considerably from year to year in response to El Nino-Southern Oscillation and other climate modes.

  18. A one year post-fire biogeochemical cycling record of a sandstone mountain fynbos ecosystem, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergh, E.; Compton, J. S.

    2012-04-01

    The Cape Floristic Region (CFR) in southwestern South Africa is a Mediterranean-type ecosystem dominated by highly diverse and endemic fynbos vegetation. In this study, the chemistry of rainwater (total wet and dry deposition), stream water and soil saturated paste extracts of the sandstone fynbos biome of the Kogelberg Biosphere Reserve reveals how the cycling of Cl, Na, SO4,Mg, Ca and K varied over a one year period following a major fire event. Fire is a critical component of fynbos ecology, but the fynbos ecosystem is under threat as the fire return frequency increases as a result of human activities. The underlying bedrock geology of the sandstone fynbos biome is dominated by quartz-rich (>97 wt% SiO2) sandstone providing few nutrients to the overlying thin (2 to 20 cm), acidic soils. Additional sources of nutrients to the ecosystem are derived from windblown marine and dust (consisting of minerals, organic matter and fire ash) aerosols. Rainout of marine aerosols decreases away from the coast. The delivery of marine aerosols (Cl, Na, SO4and Mg) corresponds with summer southerly winds from the ocean and windblown dust (SO4,Mg, Ca and K) is delivered through winter northerly winds from the continental interior. Remineralization of organic matter, dissolution of fire ash and chemical weathering of clay minerals derived from the bedrock and from windblown minerals provide additional sources of nutrients to the vegetation. Salts accumulated within and on top of soil surfaces during the dry summer period are washed into streams during the wet winter months. Afromontane forests occur within deep rocky ravines cut by mountain streams and are protected from fire. The afromontane vegetation did not burn during the fire and benefited from the release of nutrients but regrowth of fynbos on open burnt slopes was slow and most of the released nutrients were lost via streams. Fynbos regrowth largely reflected the hydrology of the study area and corresponded to the pre-fire distribution of biomass with relatively low biomass on mountain ridges and slopes in comparison to lower slopes and valley floors, particularly along stream banks. The removal of above ground plant biomass increased streamflow from the reduction in transpiration and rainfall interception by plants. Hydrophobicity in soils increased following the fire leading to partially burnt organic plant debris being washed down slope to accumulate on the lower slopes and stream valley floors. The geochemical results of this study provide insights on the climate-hydrology-soil interactions of the fynbos ecosystem and its unusually rich biodiversity. The resetting of the ecosystem every 20 to 40 years by fire and the interaction between atmospheric processes and hydrology likely enhances its long term survival.

  19. Management of difficult pediatric facial burns: reconstruction of burn-related lower eyelid ectropion and perioral contractures.

    PubMed

    Egeland, Brent; More, Sunita; Buchman, Steven R; Cederna, Paul S

    2008-07-01

    Despite significant burn treatment advances, modern multidisciplinary care, and improved survival after burns, facial burn scars remain clinically challenging. Achieving a successful reconstruction requires a comprehensive approach, entailing many advanced techniques with an emphasis on preserving function and balancing intricate aesthetic requirements. Pediatric facial burns present the same reconstructive challenges seen in adults, with additional developmental and psychologic concerns. In this paper, we describe the basic principals of facial burn care in the pediatric burn population, with a specific focus on lower-eyelid burn ectropion and oral commissure burn scar contracture leading to microstomia. Several cases are demonstrated. PMID:18650718

  20. Post-fire recovery and successional dynamics of an old growth red spruce forest in the southern Appalachian Mountains 

    E-print Network

    Krustchinsky, Adam R.

    2009-05-15

    composition. Tree ring data were collected to investigate radial growth relations to inter-annual climatic variability and cross-sections were used to investigate fire history. Red spruce continued to establish throughout the 19th century until a severe fire...

  1. Modelling post-fire soil erosion hazard using ordinal logistic regression: A case study in South-eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notario del Pino, Jesús S.; Ruiz-Gallardo, José-Reyes

    2015-03-01

    Treatments that minimize soil erosion after large wildfires depend, among other factors, on fire severity and landscape configuration so that, in practice, most of them are applied according to emergency criteria. Therefore, simple tools to predict soil erosion risk help to decide where the available resources should be used first. In this study, a predictive model for soil erosion degree, based on ordinal logistic regression, has been developed and evaluated using data from three large forest fires in South-eastern Spain. The field data were successfully fit to the model in 60% of cases after 50 runs (i.e., agreement between observed and predicted soil erosion degrees), using slope steepness, slope aspect, and fire severity as predictors. North-facing slopes were shown to be less prone to soil erosion than the rest.

  2. Landscape-scale effects of fire severity on mixed-conifer and red fir forest structure in Yosemite National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, Van R.; Lutz, James A.; Roberts, Susan L.; Smith, Douglas F.; McGaughey, Robert J.; Povak, Nicholas A.; Brooks, Matthew L.

    2013-01-01

    While fire shapes the structure of forests and acts as a keystone process, the details of how fire modifies forest structure have been difficult to evaluate because of the complexity of interactions between fires and forests. We studied this relationship across 69.2 km2 of Yosemite National Park, USA, that was subject to 32 fires ?40 ha between 1984 and 2010. Forests types included ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), white fir-sugar pine (Abies concolor/Pinus lambertiana), and red fir (Abies magnifica). We estimated and stratified burned area by fire severity using the Landsat-derived Relativized differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (RdNBR). Airborne LiDAR data, acquired in July 2010, measured the vertical and horizontal structure of canopy material and landscape patterning of canopy patches and gaps. Increasing fire severity changed structure at the scale of fire severity patches, the arrangement of canopy patches and gaps within fire severity patches, and vertically within tree clumps. Each forest type showed an individual trajectory of structural change with increasing fire severity. As a result, the relationship between estimates of fire severity such as RdNBR and actual changes appears to vary among forest types. We found three arrangements of canopy patches and gaps associated with different fire severities: canopy-gap arrangements in which gaps were enclosed in otherwise continuous canopy (typically unburned and low fire severities); patch-gap arrangements in which tree clumps and gaps alternated and neither dominated (typically moderate fire severity); and open-patch arrangements in which trees were scattered across open areas (typically high fire severity). Compared to stands outside fire perimeters, increasing fire severity generally resulted first in loss of canopy cover in lower height strata and increased number and size of gaps, then in loss of canopy cover in higher height strata, and eventually the transition to open areas with few or no trees. However, the estimated fire severities at which these transitions occurred differed for each forest type. Our work suggests that low severity fire in red fir forests and moderate severity fire in ponderosa pine and white fir-sugar pine forests would restore vertical and horizontal canopy structures believed to have been common prior to the start of widespread fire suppression in the early 1900s. The fusion of LiDAR and Landsat data identified post-fire structural conditions that would not be identified by Landsat alone, suggesting a broad applicability of combining Landsat and LiDAR data for landscape-scale structural analysis for fire management.

  3. Burning plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Furth, H.P.; Goldston, R.J.; Zweben, S.J. . Plasma Physics Lab.); Sigmar, D.J. )

    1990-10-01

    The fraction of fusion-reaction energy that is released in energetic charged ions, such as the alpha particles of the D-T reaction, can be thermalized within the reacting plasma and used to maintain its temperature. This mechanism facilitates the achievement of very high energy-multiplication factors Q, but also raises a number of new issues of confinement physics. To ensure satisfactory reaction operation, three areas of energetic-ion interaction need to be addressed: single-ion transport in imperfectly symmetric magnetic fields or turbulent background plasmas; energetic-ion-driven (or stabilized) collective phenomena; and fusion-heat-driven collective phenomena. The first of these topics is already being explored in a number of tokamak experiments, and the second will begin to be addressed in the D-T-burning phase of TFTR and JET. Exploration of the third topic calls for high-Q operation, which is a goal of proposed next-generation plasma-burning projects. Planning for future experiments must take into consideration the full range of plasma-physics and engineering R D areas that need to be addressed on the way to a fusion power demonstration.

  4. Characterizing the primary material sources and dominant erosional processes for post-fire debris-flow initiation in a headwater basin using multi-temporal terrestrial laser scanning data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staley, Dennis M.; Waslewicz, Thad A.; Kean, Jason W.

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire dramatically alters the hydrologic response of a watershed such that even modest rainstorms can produce hazardous debris flows. Relative to shallow landslides, the primary sources of material and dominant erosional processes that contribute to post-fire debris-flow initiation are poorly constrained. Improving our understanding of how and where material is eroded from a watershed during a post-fire debris-flow requires (1) precise measurements of topographic change to calculate volumetric measurements of erosion and deposition, and (2) the identification of relevant morphometrically defined process domains to spatially constrain these measurements of erosion and deposition. In this study, we combine the morphometric analysis of a steep, small (0.01 km2) headwater drainage basin with measurements of topographic change using high-resolution (2.5 cm) multi-temporal terrestrial laser scanning data made before and after a post-fire debris flow. The results of the morphometric analysis are used to define four process domains: hillslope-divergent, hillslope-convergent, transitional, and channelized incision. We determine that hillslope-divergent and hillslope-convergent process domains represent the primary sources of material over the period of analysis in the study basin. From these results we conclude that raindrop-impact induced erosion, ravel, surface wash, and rilling are the primary erosional processes contributing to post-fire debris-flow initiation in the small, steep headwater basin. Further work is needed to determine (1) how these results vary with increasing drainage basin size, (2) how these data might scale upward for use with coarser resolution measurements of topography, and (3) how these results change with evolving sediment supply conditions and vegetation recovery.

  5. Does polyacrylamide reduce post-fire runoff and inter-rill erosion as effectively as forest residue mulching?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prats, Sergio; Martins, Martinho A. S.; Malvar Cortizo, Marutxa; Ben Hur, Meni; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2013-04-01

    Forest fires are well-known to increase both overland flow and soil erosion during several years before returning to pre-fire levels. The mitigation of these effects has been less well quantified, especially by forest residue mulching and application of polyacrylamides (PAM). In this study, the effectiveness of both treatments was determined for an eucalypt stand in north-central Portugal during the first year after a wildfire. This was done using twelve micro-plots organized in four triplets located at roughly equal distances from the base to the top of a steep but short slope. After a total rainfall of 1419 mm, the overall overland flow and soil loss figures were markedly and significantly lower for the mulched than untreated plots. The PAM plots, however, did not produce significantly different runoff volumes and sediment losses than the control plots, although they revealed a tendency towards less runoff and, at the same time, greater sediment losses. Also, the key factors explaining runoff and soil erosion were basically the same for the untreated and PAM plots but distinct for the mulched plots. A possible explanation for the poor performance of the PAM was its preferential binding to the ash particles and, at the same time, the selective transport of these ash particles by the overland flow. Of interest was further that the plots on the lower section of the slope tended to produce more runoff and greater soil losses than the plots on the upper part of the slope. Possibly, this was due to differences in fire severity, which, in turn, reflected differences in biomass accumulation and, more specifically, less dry plant growth conditions.

  6. Psychosocial problems among adult burn victims.

    PubMed

    Tucker, P

    1987-02-01

    The following tentative conclusions may be drawn from this pilot study: Depression and anxiety are moderately elevated in pre-discharge burn patients, and drop to normal or low levels with the passage of time. There is a significant incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder among recently burned patients, and the prevalence actually increases with time. This increase may be due to the incidence of the 'delayed' form of the disorder. Personality factors which may predict post-burn psychosocial outcome are neuroticism, trait anxiety and hypochondriasis. Burn severity does not usefully predict psychosocial outcome. The presence of compensation issues is associated with post-burn psychosocial difficulties, particularly in intimate family relationships. However there is no association with depression or anxiety. Pre-burn psychiatric morbidity is associated with poor post-burn psychosocial adjustment. PMID:3828859

  7. Satellite Microwave Detection of Vegetation Phenology; Climate Constraints, Temporal Offsets and Post-Fire Recovery as Compared to Optical-Infrared Phenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. O.; Jones, L. A.; Kimball, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    The Vegetation Optical Depth (VOD) parameter from satellite passive microwave remote sensing provides an alternative means for global phenology monitoring that is sensitive to photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic vegetation canopy biomass and water content with minimal sensitivity to atmosphere and solar illumination constraints. The VOD record from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) displayed North America ecoregion start of season patterns and offsets (as compared to satellite optical-infrared remote sensing measures) that coincide with primary climate constraints (temperature and water) to vegetation growth. The VOD start of season generally preceded optical-infrared NDVI and LAI greenup in cold temperature constrained ecoregions and followed greenup in warmer, water limited ecoregions, with delays increasing for areas with greater woody vegetation cover. The VOD also displayed alternate canopy recovery trajectories versus NDVI recovery following large scale fire disturbance in boreal regions. VOD time series from the extreme 2004 fire year in Alaska and Canada showed an approximate two year recovery lag relative to NDVI; these results are consistent with greater microwave sensitivity to woody biomass regeneration which is expected to show a slower response than canopy greenness recovery. The AMSR-E VOD record provides new, independent phenological information for vegetation start of season measures as well as canopy post fire recovery of both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic biomass, complementing phenological information from NDVI and LAI measures. Synergistic application of optical-infrared and microwave remote sensing data products will expand the scope of observable vegetation phenology parameters and advance regional disturbance, carbon, water and energy cycle studies. Four year (2004-2007) mean of microwave VOD SOS and MODIS-for-NACP NDVI Greenup Date by ecoregion. Offsets coincide with primary climate constraints (temperature and water) to vegetation growth.

  8. Direct and indirect responses of tallgrass prairie butterflies to prescribed burning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vogel, J.A.; Koford, R.R.; Debinski, D.M.

    2010-01-01

    Fire is an important tool in the conservation and restoration of tallgrass prairie ecosystems. We investigated how both the vegetation composition and butterfly community of tallgrass prairie remnants changed in relation to the elapsed time (in months) since prescribed fire. Butterfly richness and butterfly abundance were positively correlated with the time since burn. Habitat-specialist butterfly richness recovery time was greater than 70 months post-fire and habitat-specialist butterfly abundance recovery time was approximately 50 months post-fire. Thus, recovery times for butterfly populations after prescribed fires in our study were potentially longer than those previously reported. We used Path Analysis to evaluate the relative contributions of the direct effect of time since fire and the indirect effects of time since fire through changes in vegetation composition on butterfly abundance. Path models highlighted the importance of the indirect effects of fire on habitat features, such as increases in the cover of bare ground. Because fire return intervals on managed prairie remnants are often less than 5 years, information on recovery times for habitat-specialist insect species are of great importance. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  9. Occupational Burns Treated in Emergency Departments

    PubMed Central

    Reichard, Audrey A.; Konda, Srinivas; Jackson, Larry L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite reported declines, occupational burn injuries remain a workplace safety concern. More severe burns may result in costly medical treatment and long-term physical and psychological consequences. Methods We used the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System—Occupational Supplement to produce national estimates of burns treated in emergency departments (EDs). We analyzed data trends from 1999 to 2008 and provided detailed descriptions of 2008 data. Results From 1999 to 2008 there were 1,132,000 (95% CI: ±192,300) nonfatal occupational burns treated in EDs. Burn numbers and rates declined approximately 40% over the 10 years. In 2008, men and younger workers 15–24 years old had the highest rates. Scalds and thermal burns accounted for more than 60% of burns. Accommodation and food service, manufacturing, and construction industries had the largest number of burns. Conclusions Despite declining burn rates, emphasis is needed on reducing burn hazards to young food service workers and using job specific hazard analyses to prevent burns. PMID:25678457

  10. Parenteral nutrition providing a restricted amount of linoleic acid in severely burned patients: a randomised double-blind study of an olive oil-based lipid emulsion v. medium/long-chain triacylglycerols.

    PubMed

    García-de-Lorenzo, A; Denia, R; Atlan, P; Martinez-Ratero, S; Le Brun, A; Evard, D; Bereziat, G

    2005-08-01

    It has been claimed that lipid emulsions with a restricted linoleic acid content can improve the safety of total parenteral nutrition (TPN). The tolerability of TPN and its effects on the metabolism of fatty acids were assessed in this prospective, double-blind, randomised study comparing an olive/soyabean oil long-chain triacylglycerol (LCT) with a medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT)/LCT; 50:50 (w) based lipid emulsion in two groups (O and M, respectively; eleven per group) of severely burned patients. After resuscitation (48-72 h), patients received TPN providing 147 kJ/kg per d (35 kcal/kg per d) with fat (1.3 g/kg per d) for 6 d Plasma fatty acids, laboratory parameters including liver function tests, and plasma cytokines were assessed before and after TPN. Adverse events encountered during TPN and the clinical outcomes of patients within the subsequent 6 months were recorded. With both lipid emulsions, the conversion of linoleic acid in its higher derivatives (di-homo-gamma-linolenic acid) improved and essential fatty acid deficiency did not appear. Abnormalities of liver function tests occurred more frequently in the M (nine) than in the O (three) group (P = 0.04, Suissa-Shuster test). Seven patients (four from group O and three from group M) died as a consequence of severe sepsis 3-37 d after completion of the 6 d TPN period. When compared with the surviving patients, those who died were older (P = 0.01) and hyperglycaemic at baseline (P < 0.001), and their plasma IL-6 levels continued to increase (P < 0.04). Although fatty acid metabolism and TPN tolerability were similar with both lipid emulsions, the preservation of liver function noted with the use of the olive oil-based lipid emulsions deserves confirmation. PMID:16115356

  11. Scald Burns From Hair Braiding.

    PubMed

    Meizoso, Jonathan P; Ramaley, Stephen R; Ray, Juliet J; Allen, Casey J; Guarch, Gerardo A; Varas, Robin; Teisch, Laura F; Pizano, Louis R; Schulman, Carl I; Namias, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Only one previous case report has described scald burns secondary to hair braiding in pediatric patients. The present case study is the largest to date of scald burns as a result of hair braiding in children and adults. Charts of all 1609 female patients seen at a single burn center from 2008 to 2014 were retrospectively reviewed to identify patients with scald burns attributed to hair braiding. Demographics, injury severity, injury patterns, and complications were analyzed. Twenty-six patients (1.6%) had scald burns secondary to hair braiding with median TBSA 3%. Eighty-five percent of patients were pediatric with median age 8 years. Injury patterns were as follows: back (62%), shoulder (31%), chest (15%), buttocks (15%), abdomen (12%), arms (12%), neck (12%), and legs (4%). No patients required operative intervention. Three patients were admitted to the hospital. Two patients required time off from school for 6 and 10 days post burn for recovery. Complications included functional limitations (n = 2), hypertrophic scarring (n = 1), cellulitis requiring antibiotics (n = 1), and anxiety requiring medical/psychological therapy (n = 2). This peculiar mechanism of injury not only carries inherent morbidity that includes the risks of functional limitations, infection, and psychological repercussions but also increases usage of resources through hospital admissions and multiple clinic visits. Further work in the form of targeted outreach programs is necessary to educate the community regarding this preventable mechanism of injury. PMID:26594857

  12. Special problems in burns.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Robert L; Greenhalgh, David

    2014-08-01

    Burn units provide a unique set of resources to patients with complex wounds, sepsis, and organ failures. This resource set is useful in a number of traumatic, infectious, and medical conditions as well. Further, many burn patients have sustained simultaneous non-burn trauma which will be managed in burn programs. PMID:25085088

  13. Gram-Negative Bacterial Infection in Thigh Abscess Can Migrate to Distant Burn Depending on Burn Depth

    E-print Network

    Hamrahi, Victoria

    Sepsis remains the major cause of death in patients with major burn injuries. In the present investigation we evaluated the interaction between burn injuries of varying severity and preexisting distant infection. We used ...

  14. Nutrition in Burns: Galveston Contributions

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Noe A.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Williams, Felicia N.; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Herndon, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive nutrition support is recommended following severe burn injury. Initially, such injury results in a prolonged and persistent hypermetabolic response mediated by a 10- to 20-fold elevation in plasma catecholamines, cortisol, and inflammatory mediators. This response leads to twice-normal metabolic rates, whole-body catabolism, muscle wasting, and severe cachexia. Thus, it is relevant to review the literature on nutrition in burns to adjust/update treatment. Failure to meet the increased substrate requirements may result in impaired wound healing, multiorgan dysfunction, increased susceptibility to infection, and death. Therefore, aggressive nutrition support is essential to ensure adequate burn care, attenuate the hypermetabolic response, optimize wound healing, minimize devastating catabolism, and reduce morbidity and mortality. Here, the authors provide nutrition recommendations gained from prospective trials, retrospective analyses, and expert opinions based on the authors' practices in Galveston, Texas, and Vienna, Austria. PMID:21975669

  15. Optimal timing for burned hands in children

    PubMed Central

    Ionita, D.; Enescu, D.; Giuvelea, S.; Stoicescu, S.; Mitrache, P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Hand burns in children are frequent, severe, and require adequate treatment. A fundamental, though problematic aspect of this treatment is the assessment of the burn depth as this determines the surgical strategy. From a retrospective study of 369 hand burns admitted to our clinic, we were able to identify some patterns. A total of 14.91% required surgery, with varying etiology among these patients. Differences were also noticed in the number of days post-burn prior to surgical intervention. The patterns revealed by our results are reviewed in order to improve therapeutic strategy.

  16. Burn Injuries: Causes, Consequences, Knowledge, Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healer, Cheryl V.; And Others

    This report covers Phase I of the Burn Injury Education Demonstration Project, a four-phased project designed to explore the feasibility of using educational intervention strategies to increase knowledge and appropriate behaviors and attitudes to reduce the number and severity of burns. Phase I involved a comprehensive needs assessment conducted…

  17. Burn Control Mechanisms in Tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Maxwell; Stacey, Weston

    2013-10-01

    Burn control and passive safety in accident scenarios will be an important design consideration in future tokamaks, especially those used as a neutron source for fusion-fission hybrid reactors, such as the Subcritical Advanced Burner Reactor (SABR) concept. At Georgia Tech, we are developing a new burning plasma dynamics code to investigate passive safety mechanisms that could prevent power excursions in tokamak reactors. This code solves the coupled set of balance equations governing burning plasmas in conjunction with a two-point SOL-divertor model. Predictions have been benchmarked against data from DIII-D. We are examining several potential negative feedback mechanisms to limit power excursions: i) ion-orbit loss, ii) thermal instabilities, iii) the degradation of alpha-particle confinement resulting from ripples in the toroidal field, iv) modifications to the radial current profile, v) ``divertor choking'' and vi) Type 1 ELMs.

  18. High burn rate solid composite propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manship, Timothy D.

    High burn rate propellants help maintain high levels of thrust without requiring complex, high surface area grain geometries. Utilizing high burn rate propellants allows for simplified grain geometries that not only make production of the grains easier, but the simplified grains tend to have better mechanical strength, which is important in missiles undergoing high-g accelerations. Additionally, high burn rate propellants allow for a higher volumetric loading which reduces the overall missile's size and weight. The purpose of this study is to present methods of achieving a high burn rate propellant and to develop a composite propellant formulation that burns at 1.5 inches per second at 1000 psia. In this study, several means of achieving a high burn rate propellant were presented. In addition, several candidate approaches were evaluated using the Kepner-Tregoe method with hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB)-based propellants using burn rate modifiers and dicyclopentadiene (DCPD)-based propellants being selected for further evaluation. Propellants with varying levels of nano-aluminum, nano-iron oxide, FeBTA, and overall solids loading were produced using the HTPB binder and evaluated in order to determine the effect the various ingredients have on the burn rate and to find a formulation that provides the burn rate desired. Experiments were conducted to compare the burn rates of propellants using the binders HTPB and DCPD. The DCPD formulation matched that of the baseline HTPB mix. Finally, GAP-plasticized DCPD gumstock dogbones were attempted to be made for mechanical evaluation. Results from the study show that nano-additives have a substantial effect on propellant burn rate with nano-iron oxide having the largest influence. Of the formulations tested, the highest burn rate was a 84% solids loading mix using nano-aluminum nano-iron oxide, and ammonium perchlorate in a 3:1(20 micron: 200 micron) ratio which achieved a burn rate of 1.2 inches per second at 1000 psia. In addition, DCPD propellant was shown to burn at twice the rate of HTPB propellant, most likely a result of its lower decomposition temperature. A high burn rate DCPD propellant was developed, but due to poor wetting, the resulting propellant was brittle and fragmented during strand burn testing. Lastly, GAP-plasticized DCPD gumstocks were not able to be produced most likely due to an interaction between GAP and the cure catalyst for DCPD.

  19. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

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  20. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

  1. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

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  2. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

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  3. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

  4. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

  5. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

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  6. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

  7. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

  8. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

  9. Prevention-oriented epidemiology of burns in Ardabil provincial burn centre, Iran.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi Bazargani, H; Arshi, S; Ekman, R; Mohammadi, R

    2011-05-01

    In preventing burns, it is essential to know how they occur and which population groups, environments and heating appliances can be targeted for prevention work. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological characteristics of burns leading to hospitalisation in the northwest of Iran with a focus on the pre-event phase of injury. Between 2007 and 2008, 237 burn victims hospitalised in Ardabil provincial burn centre were enrolled into a descriptive study. A questionnaire was filled in during hospital stay for all patients, with a focus on obtaining information necessary for prevention purposes. Males constituted 56% of victims. Mean age was 22 years. The most severe burns occurred between the ages of 18 and 32 years, and were mainly flame related. Both in case of flame and non-flame burns, women suffered more severe burns and mortality than men. However, with respect to non-flame burns of which most were scalds, the majority of the severe cases involved children under the age of 5 years. More than 80% of burns occurred at home. The kitchen was the main place of injury in 47% of cases, followed by living rooms in 28%. Nearly 45% of burns were scalds and 47% were flame burns. The main container was the samovar in 37%, followed by kettles in 32% and pots in 22%. The overturning of a container was the major mechanism of contact with hot liquids in 86%. Bumping into a container was the main scenario of a scald injury, constituting nearly 70% of the cases. The difference between flame and non-flame burns in the distribution of burns in extremities was not statistically significant, but head and neck burns were 3.7 times more likely to be caused by flame. The two most important injury patterns, more common among women, were getting burned while using a camping gas stove or while refilling the chamber of kerosene-burning appliances without first extinguishing them. Domestic burns among children and young women are a priority in injury-prevention programmes. Camping gas stoves, valors (traditional dual-purpose heating and cooking appliances) and samovars can be considered as target appliances for burn-specific home-safety-promotion efforts in this area or in similar settings. PMID:21131133

  10. Burning and Burnout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Jane

    1981-01-01

    Examines the extended metaphor of "burnout" as it applies to the teaching profession. Examines three ancient Celtic invocations for the better tending of fires, which reveal ways that teachers can burn with enthusiasm without burning out from apathy. (RL)

  11. American Burn Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and the ABA is unable to respond to requests regarding personal medical concerns related to burn injuries. Your physician is the best source for information related to initial treatment, ongoing care, and follow-up issues for burn ...

  12. Learn Not To Burn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Nancy; Hendricks, Charlotte M.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the "Learn Not to Burn Preschool Program," a low-cost fire safety awareness and burn prevention curriculum for young children. The program promotes eight burn prevention methods--including practicing an escape plan--using developmentally appropriate learning objectives to increase children's fire safety knowledge, skill, and…

  13. Project Burn Prevention: outcome and implications.

    PubMed Central

    McLoughlin, E; Vince, C J; Lee, A M; Crawford, J D

    1982-01-01

    Project Burn Prevention was designed and implemented to determine the ability of a public education program to increase awareness about burn hazards and reduce the incidence and severity of burn injuries. Media messages were transmitted to residents of a large metropolitan area; separate school and community interventions were implemented in two demographically similar communities within the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA). A second metropolitan area and two of its communities served as control sites. Messages for specific, high-risk age groups emphasized flame burns because of their severity and scalds because of their frequency. Knowledge gains were demonstrable only as a result of the school program. Neither the school program nor the media campaign reduced burn incidence or severity; the community intervention may have brought about a moderate, temporary reduction in injuries. Multiplicity of messages, brevity of the campaign, and separation of the interventions are among possible reasons for the program's failure to significantly reduce burn injuries. Education for personal responsibility is not sufficient. Product modification and environmental redesign must be instituted through education and legislation for successful control of burn injuries. PMID:7058963

  14. Modeling thermal burns due to airbag deployment.

    PubMed

    Mercer, G N; Sidhu, H S

    2005-12-01

    Automotive airbags are now a widely accepted safety measure designed to reduce morbidity associated with motor vehicle accidents. Their usage is increasing with multiple airbags (driver, passenger and side curtain) being fitted to many vehicles. However the deployment of airbags has been identified as causing injuries in some instances including minor burns. There are three mechanisms for thermal burns due to an airbag; contact with the hot expelled gases from the airbag, contact with the hot airbag itself and melting of clothing from either of these contacts. A mathematical model is used here to predict the likelihood and severity of the first two types of burns. It is shown that direct contact with high temperature exhaust gases venting from the airbag can indeed lead to burns and that burns from contacting the hot airbag material are possible but far less likely to occur. PMID:16274929

  15. Sexual Function Following Burn Injuries: Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Atisha A; Corkill, Helen A; Goutos, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Sexual function is a profound facet of the human personality. Burns due their sudden and devastating nature can have longstanding effects on intimate function by virtue of physical sequelae as well as alterations in body image and perceived desirability. A considerable number of patients encounter problems with intimate function in burns rehabilitation; nevertheless, the topic appears to be poorly addressed in specialist centers worldwide. Review of the literature suggests that a number of parameters can affect the quality of sexual life following burn injuries including age at the time of injury, location, and severity of the burn as well as coping mechanisms employed by the individual survivor. Addressing issues of intimacy relies on awareness, education, and a holistic approach on behalf of the multidisciplinary team members and, to this effect, recommendations are made on managing sexual function concerns in burns rehabilitation. PMID:25423439

  16. Landscape aridity, fire severity and rainfall intensity as controls on debris flow frequency after the 2009 Black Saturday Wildfires in Victoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyman, Petter; Sherwin, Christopher; Sheridan, Gary; Lane, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    This study uses aerial imagery and field surveys to develop a statistical model for determining debris flow susceptibility in a landscape with variable terrain, soil and vegetation properties. A measure of landscape scale debris flow response was obtained by recording all debris flow affected drainage lines in the first year after fire in a ~258 000 ha forested area that was burned by the 2009 Black Saturday Wildfire in Victoria. A total of 12 500 points along the drainage network were sampled from catchments ranging in size from 0.0001 km2to 75 km2. Local slope and the attributes of the drainage areas (including the spatially averaged peak intensity) were extracted for each sample point. A logistic regression was used to model how debris flow susceptibility varies with the normalised burn ratio (dNBR, from Landsat imagery), rainfall intensity (from rainfall radar), slope (from DEM) and aridity (from long-term radiation, temperature and rainfall data).The model of debris flow susceptibility produced a good fit with the observed debris flow response of drainage networks within the burned area and was reliable in distinguishing between drainage lines which produced debris flows and those which didn't. The performance of the models was tested through multiple iterations of fitting and testing using unseen data. The local channel slope captured the effect of scale on debris flow susceptibility with debris flow probability approaching zero as the channel slope decreased with increasing drainage area. Aridity emerged as an important predictor of debris flow susceptibility, with increased likelihood of debris flows in drier parts of the landscape, thus reinforcing previous research in the region showing that post-fire surface runoff from wet Eucalypt forests is insufficient for initiating debris flows. Fire severity, measured as dNBR, was also a very important predictor. The inclusion of local channel slope as a predictor of debris flow susceptibility proved to be an effective approach for implicitly incorporating scale and relief as parameters. When combined with models of debris flow magnitude the results from this study can be used obtain continuous probability-magnitude relations of sediment flux from debris flows for drainage networks across entire burned areas.

  17. Bizarre paediatric facial burns.

    PubMed

    Ho, W S; Ying, S Y; Wong, T W

    2000-08-01

    Child abuse and neglect account for a significant number of paediatric burn injuries. It is of great importance because of the high mortality, high frequency of repeated abuse, as well as the physical, psychological and social sequelae that it causes. Burn abuse is often under-recognized and under-reported because it is difficult to define non-accidental injury. On the other hand, false accusation of burn abuse is extremely damaging to the family. Bizarre and unusual burn injuries can be caused by accident and should not automatically be assumed to be deliberate injury. Three boys of age 1-7 years with bizarre facial burns were admitted to the Burns Unit at the Prince of Wales Hospital between February 1995 and July 1999. One was burned by his baby-sitter with hot water steam and the other two were burned by their mothers with hot boiled eggs. The unusual causes of their burns raised the suspicion of child abuse and formal investigations were carried out by the Social Services Department. Detail assessment including a developmental history of the child and the psychosocial assessment of the family revealed that these three boys were burned because of poor medical advice and innocent cultural belief. PMID:10812279

  18. WHAT, HOW, AND HOW MUCH SHOULD BURN PATIENTS BE FED?

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Felicia N.; Branski, Ludwik K.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Herndon, David N.

    2011-01-01

    SYNOPSIS The hypermetabolic response to severe burn injury is characterized by hyperdynamic circulation, profound metabolic, physiologic, catabolic and immune system derangements. Failure to satisfy overwhelming energy and protein requirements after, and during severe burn injury, results in multi-organ dysfunction, increased susceptibility to infection, and death. Attenuation of the hypermetabolic response by various pharmacologic modalities is emerging as an essential component of the management of severe burn patients. This review focuses on the more recent advances in therapeutic strategies to attenuate the hypermetabolic response and its post-burn associated insulin resistance. Modulation of the response by early excision and grafting of burn wounds, environmental thermoregulation, early and continuous enteral feeding with high protein-high carbohydrate feedings and pharmacologic treatments that stimulate anabolism and oppose catabolism have markedly decreased morbidity in the acute phase post severe burn injury. PMID:21621699

  19. Emergency assessment of post-fire debris-flow hazards for the 2013 Rim Fire, Stanislaus National Forest and Yosemite National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staley, Dennis M.

    2013-01-01

    Wildfire can significantly alter the hydrologic response of a watershed to the extent that even modest rainstorms can produce dangerous flash floods and debris flows. In this report, empirical models are used to predict the probability and magnitude of debris-flow occurrence in response to a 10-year rainstorm for the 2013 Rim fire in Yosemite National Park and the Stanislaus National Forest, California. Overall, the models predict a relatively high probability (60–80 percent) of debris flow for 28 of the 1,238 drainage basins in the burn area in response to a 10-year recurrence interval design storm. Predictions of debris-flow volume suggest that debris flows may entrain a significant volume of material, with 901 of the 1,238 basins identified as having potential debris-flow volumes greater than 10,000 cubic meters. These results of the relative combined hazard analysis suggest there is a moderate likelihood of significant debris-flow hazard within and downstream of the burn area for nearby populations, infrastructure, wildlife, and water resources. Given these findings, we recommend that residents, emergency managers, and public works departments pay close attention to weather forecasts and National-Weather-Service-issued Debris Flow and Flash Flood Outlooks, Watches and Warnings and that residents adhere to any evacuation orders.

  20. Principles of microvascular reconstruction in burn and electrical burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Baumeister, S; Köller, M; Dragu, A; Germann, G; Sauerbier, M

    2005-02-01

    Free tissue transplantation is a rarely indicated procedure in burn reconstruction. As the versatility and variability of free flaps have significantly developed during recent years, so have the indications for this procedure expanded. This study reports retrospectively the results of 75 free flaps in 60 severely burned patients using 20 different free flaps. This experience enabled us to establish reconstructive principles pertinent to the type of injury (burn versus high voltage injuries) and the timing of reconstruction procedures. In high voltage injuries (n = 26) early free flap coverage (<21 days after trauma) with muscular flaps was the most frequently used type of reconstruction. Reconstruction site was predominantly the upper extremity and forearm. In burn injuries (flame, contact, fluid), free flap coverage was performed during a later stage of the treatment course (3-6 weeks after trauma), or as a secondary procedure. Reconstruction with cutaneous flaps was the preferred method. In contrast to high voltage injuries, the trunk and the face were also recipient sites. In the upper extremity, the elbow and dorsum of the hand were the most frequent sites of reconstruction. Overall, the flap failure rate was 13% (n = 10). We were able to show a relationship between flap failure rate and timing of the procedure. Eight out of 10 flap failures occurred within 5-21 days after trauma, all 10-flap failures occurred between 5 days and 6 weeks. No flap failure occurred during secondary reconstruction. For the reconstruction of complex or large defects (n = 14), we recommended combined 'chimeric' flaps, pre-expansion of free flaps, or the combination of a free and local flap. Our data demonstrate that burn and high voltage injuries are distinct entities, each requiring custom tailored reconstructive solution. PMID:15639372

  1. Burns and military clothing.

    PubMed

    McLean, A D

    2001-02-01

    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under high heat loads in the laboratory, combat clothing can ignite, but there is little evidence that clothing ignition is a common occurrence in military burn casualties. Thermoplastic materials have many benefits in civil and military clothing. There is little objective evidence that they exacerbate burns, or complicate burn management. Their use in military clothing must be based on objective evidence, not hearsay. PMID:11307683

  2. Minor burns - aftercare

    MedlinePLUS

    ... possible, especially if the burn is caused by chemicals, hold the burned skin under cool running water for 10 to 15 minutes until it does not hurt as much. Use a sink, shower, or garden hose. If this is not possible, put a ...

  3. On burning a lump of coal

    E-print Network

    Alonso-Serrano, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Burning something, (e.g. the proverbial lump of coal, or an encyclopaedia for that matter), in a blackbody furnace leads to an approximately Planck emission spectrum with an average entropy/information transfer of approximately $3.9 \\pm 2.5$ bits per emitted photon. This quantitative and qualitative result depends only on the underlying unitarity of the quantum physics of burning, combined with the statistical mechanics of blackbody radiation. The fact that the utterly standard and unitarity preserving process of burning something (in fact, burning anything) nevertheless *has* an associated entropy/information budget, and the quantitative *size* of that entropy/information budget, is a severely under-appreciated feature of standard quantum statistical physics.

  4. On burning a lump of coal

    E-print Network

    Ana Alonso-Serrano; Matt Visser

    2015-11-03

    Burning something, (e.g. the proverbial lump of coal, or an encyclopaedia for that matter), in a blackbody furnace leads to an approximately Planck emission spectrum with an average entropy/information transfer of approximately $3.9 \\pm 2.5$ bits per emitted photon. This quantitative and qualitative result depends only on the underlying unitarity of the quantum physics of burning, combined with the statistical mechanics of blackbody radiation. The fact that the utterly standard and unitarity preserving process of burning something (in fact, burning anything) nevertheless *has* an associated entropy/information budget, and the quantitative *size* of that entropy/information budget, is a severely under-appreciated feature of standard quantum statistical physics.

  5. Burning coal's waste

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, J.M.; Duffy, T.J.

    1988-07-01

    In an old Pennsylvania coal valley, growing fresh produce and eliminating ancient waste piles both depend on a fluidized bed boiler cogeneration plant. The builders of a complex now nearing completion at Archbald, however, will soon begin to turn two of the waste piles, called culm banks, into economic assets. Culm will burn although it has a low, variable heat content. The project combines several recently developed technologies to use culm as fuel for a fluidized bed boiler cogeneration plant that will heat a hydroponic greenhouse. What makes the venture economically viable are the products that will be sold: 23 mw of electricity to the local utility and fresh produce to meet burgeoning demands in East Coast supermarkets. For instance, if the ''salad plant'' were completely devoted to growing lettuce, 3 million heads could be harvested in 11 hydroponic seasons a year. The owners, Archbald Power Corp., chose a 271 acre stie that had been mined for anthracite by both open pit and deep shaft methods.

  6. Wildfire impacts on the processes that generate debris flows in burned watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parise, M.; Cannon, S.H.

    2012-01-01

    Every year, and in many countries worldwide, wildfires cause significant damage and economic losses due to both the direct effects of the fires and the subsequent accelerated runoff, erosion, and debris flow. Wildfires can have profound effects on the hydrologic response of watersheds by changing the infiltration characteristics and erodibility of the soil, which leads to decreased rainfall infiltration, significantly increased overland flow and runoff in channels, and movement of soil. Debris-flow activity is among the most destructive consequences of these changes, often causing extensive damage to human infrastructure. Data from the Mediterranean area and Western United States of America help identify the primary processes that result in debris flows in recently burned areas. Two primary processes for the initiation of fire-related debris flows have been so far identified: (1) runoff-dominated erosion by surface overland flow; and (2) infiltration-triggered failure and mobilization of a discrete landslide mass. The first process is frequently documented immediately post-fire and leads to the generation of debris flows through progressive bulking of storm runoff with sediment eroded from the hillslopes and channels. As sediment is incorporated into water, runoff can convert to debris flow. The conversion to debris flow may be observed at a position within a drainage network that appears to be controlled by threshold values of upslope contributing area and its gradient. At these locations, sufficient eroded material has been incorporated, relative to the volume of contributing surface runoff, to generate debris flows. Debris flows have also been generated from burned basins in response to increased runoff by water cascading over a steep, bedrock cliff, and incorporating material from readily erodible colluvium or channel bed. Post-fire debris flows have also been generated by infiltration-triggered landslide failures which then mobilize into debris flows. However, only 12% of documented cases exhibited this process. When they do occur, the landslide failures range in thickness from a few tens of centimeters to more than 6 m, and generally involve the soil and colluvium-mantled hillslopes. Surficial landslide failures in burned areas most frequently occur in response to prolonged periods of storm rainfall, or prolonged rainfall in combination with rapid snowmelt or rain-on-snow events. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  7. Burn injuries among children from a region-wide paediatric burns unit.

    PubMed

    Alnababtah, Khalid M; Davies, Paul; Jackson, Craig A; Ashford, Robert L; Filby, Mike

    Burns are known to be a cause of the most severe childhood injuries. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate socio-demographic and other factors involved in children being presented to a burns unit for treatment. This is the first reported comprehensive audit of burns admissions highlighting factors that may relate to the occurrence of burns in children. Raw data was obtained from the data service unit (DSU) and the ward registers of a paediatric burns unit. Of 1249 admissions, 1156 cases (92.5%) had clearly specified causes. The number of annual admissions ranged from 225 to 281 with a mean of 250 ± 25 per year. Eighty-eight percent of burns were superficial and covered less than 10% of body surface area. The majority of cases were males (744 cases; 60%). The mean age of cases was 4 years ± 1.8 years. The major causes of burns were 'spill' (765 cases; 61%) and 'contact' (150 cases; 12%). The largest group was white British (787 cases; 63%) followed by Asian (353 cases; 28%). Mixed and African population groups made up the remaining 9%. The risk of burns injuries is higher among younger children, during the early evening, and is disproportionately high in the Asian/Asian British groups. It is suggested that there is a need to increase injury prevention towards those at greatest risk. PMID:21378636

  8. Pathophysiologic Response to Burns in the Elderly?

    PubMed Central

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Patsouris, David; Stanojcic, Mile; Abdullahi, Abdikarim; Rehou, Sarah; Pinto, Ruxandra; Chen, Peter; Burnett, Marjorie; Amini-Nik, Saeid

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades advancements have improved survival and outcomes of severely burned patients except one population, elderly. The Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) burn size in elderly has remained the same over the past three decades, and so has morbidity and mortality, despite the increased demand for elderly burn care. The objective of this study is to gain insights on why elderly burn patients have had such a poor outcome when compared to adult burn patients. The significance of this project is that to this date, burn care providers recognize the extreme poor outcome of elderly, but the reason remains unclear. In this prospective translational trial, we have determined clinical, metabolic, inflammatory, immune, and skin healing aspects. We found that elderly have a profound increased mortality, more premorbid conditions, and stay at the hospital for longer, p < 0.05. Interestingly, we could not find a higher incidence of infection or sepsis in elderly, p > 0.05, but a significant increased incidence of multi organ failure, p < 0.05. These clinical outcomes were associated with a delayed hypermetabolic response, increased hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic responses, inversed inflammatory response, immune-compromisation and substantial delay in wound healing predominantly due to alteration in characteristics of progenitor cells, p < 0.05. In summary, elderly have substantially different responses to burns when compared to adults associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This study indicates that these responses are complex and not linear, requiring a multi-modal approach to improve the outcome of severely burned elderly. PMID:26629550

  9. Burns (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hot faucet to an accidental tipping of a coffee cup, burns are a potential hazard in every ... culprit (from steam, hot bath water, tipped-over coffee cups, hot foods, cooking fluids, etc.) contact with ...

  10. Lava Flow Burning Vegetation

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Lava flow activity continues to burn vegetation in the kipuka adjacent to the trail, causing the viewing trail to be closed beyond the trailhead. The new viewing area is still very close to the active flows. ...

  11. First Aid: Burns

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Shocks, and Fires Firesetting Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety A to Z: Burn, Second-Degree A ... Use the Oven and Stove? Finding Out About Fireworks Safety Being Safe in the Kitchen Dealing With ...

  12. Burning Mouth Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mock, David; Chugh, Deepika

    2010-01-01

    Most clinicians dread seeing the patient presenting with a primary complaint of a burning pain on one or more oral mucosal surfaces. Unlike most other clinical conditions presenting in a dental office, burning mouth syndrome is poorly understood with few evidence based remedies. More recently, advances have been made towards clarifying the possible etiology of the disorder and testing the possible therapeutic modalities available. This article attempts to summarize the “state of the art” today. PMID:20690412

  13. Burn Depth Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Supra Medical Systems is successfully marketing a device that detects the depth of burn wounds in human skin. To develop the product, the company used technology developed by NASA Langley physicists looking for better ultrasonic detection of small air bubbles and cracks in metal. The device is being marketed to burn wound analysis and treatment centers. Through a Space Act agreement, NASA and the company are also working to further develop ultrasonic instruments for new medical applications.

  14. Burn Depth Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Supra Medical Systems is successfully marketing a device that detects the depth of burn wounds in human skin. To develop the product, the company used technology developed by NASA Langley physicists looking for better ultrasonic detection of small air bubbles and cracks in metal. The device is being marketed to burn wound analysis and treatment centers. Through a Space Act agreement, NASA and the company are also working to further develop ultrasonic instruments for new medical applications

  15. Burn Depth Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Supra Medical Systems is successfully marketing a device that detects the depth of burn wounds in human skin. To develop the product, the companyused technology developed by NASA Langley physicists looking for better ultrasonic detection of small air bubbles and cracks in metal. The device is being marketed to burn wound analysis and treatment centers. Through a Space Act agreement, NASA and the company are also working to further develop ultrasonic instruments for new medical applications.

  16. PBXN-110 Burn Rate Estimate

    SciTech Connect

    Glascoe, E

    2008-08-11

    It is estimated that PBXN-110 will burn laminarly with a burn function of B = (0.6-1.3)*P{sup 1.0} (B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is pressure in MPa). This paper provides a brief discussion of how this burn behavior was estimated.

  17. Molten metal burn of the foot: a preventable injury.

    PubMed

    Himel, H J; Syptak, J M; Jones, K C; Towler, M A; Edlich, R F

    1992-01-01

    Molten metal burns of the feet remain a common injury to foundry workers. A case is reported of a foundry worker who sustained circumferential molten metal burns of the distal foot and toes necessitating amputation of four toes. This severe injury could easily have been prevented by the use of protective footwear and spats. PMID:1351490

  18. Insulin increases resistance to burn wound infection-associated sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Gauglitz, Gerd G.; Toliver-Kinsky, Tracy E.; Williams, Felicia N.; Song, Juquan; Cui, Weihua; Herndon, David N.; Jeschke, Marc G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to determine the ability of insulin to improve outcome following a Pseudomonas aeruginosa wound infection in a rodent model of severe burn injury. Background: Severe burn injury predisposes patients to burn wound infections that can disseminate, lead to uncontrolled inflammation, and induce septic shock. Whereas insulin administration has been extensively discussed to improve morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients, the ability of insulin to improve outcomes of severely burned patients with infected burn wounds is not known. Design: Sprague-Dawley rats. Setting: University setting. Intervention: Burn-injured Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into treatment groups that received either saline or insulin. Burn wounds were topically inoculated with a lethal dose of Pseudomonas aeruginosa 6 days after injury. Measurements and Main Results: Survival, systemic dissemination of bacteria, systemic inflammation, and immune activation were examined. Insulin decreased the early inflammatory response to a severe burn injury. Treatment with low doses of insulin following burn injury improved the outcome of rats in response to a lethal burn wound infection. Specifically, survival was improved and systemic dissemination of bacteria from the wound was decreased. Systemic inflammation, indicated by serum interleukin-6 levels, was significantly decreased by insulin treatments after injury. Additionally, insulin treatments were associated with alterations in B and T lymphocyte responses to wound infection. Conclusions: Although the mechanisms by which insulin improves outcome following a lethal burn wound infection are not known, the data suggest that immunologic responses to infection may be altered by postburn insulin treatments. (Crit Care Med 2010; 38:202–208) PMID:19770742

  19. Acute pavement burns: a unique subset of burn injuries: a five-year review of resource use and cost impact.

    PubMed

    Silver, Andrew G; Dunford, Gerrit M; Zamboni, William A; Baynosa, Richard C

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the hospital care of a rare subset of burn injuries caused by contact with environmentally heated pavement, to further understand the required use of resources. This article aims to show that pavement burns are typically more severe than their flame/scald counterparts. A retrospective review of patients admitted to the burn center with injuries suffered from contact with hot pavement was performed. Patients were stratified on the presence or absence of altered mental status (AMS) and additional inciting factors. A representative sample of similarly sized flame and scald wounds treated in the same time period was compiled for comparison. Those with pavement burns had a significantly greater requirement for operative intervention, repetitive debridements, overall cost/percent burned, and lengthier hospital stays than those with flame/scald burns. Pavement burn victims with AMS were significantly more likely to require an operation, a greater cost/percent burned, and longer hospital stays than those without AMS. Pavement burns are significantly worse than similarly sized scald/flame burns with regards to length of stay and total hospital costs, and the necessity of initial and repetitive operative intervention. These discrepancies are even greater in patients with AMS as a concomitant inciting factor. It is apparent that these wounds often continue to deepen during a patient's stay, likely because of continued pressure on the wounds while recumbent. As such, this article highly recommends pressure off-loading beds and more aggressive debridement in the treatment of these unique injuries. PMID:25207798

  20. Impact of burned areas on the northern African seasonal climate from the perspective of regional modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Sales, Fernando; Xue, Yongkang; Okin, Gregory S.

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates the impact of burned areas on the surface energy balance and monthly precipitation in northern Africa as simulated by a state-of-the-art regional model. Mean burned area fraction derived from MODIS date of burning product was implemented in a set of 1-year long WRF-NMM/SSiB2 model simulations. Vegetation cover fraction and LAI were degraded daily based on mean burned area fraction and on the survival rate for each vegetation land cover type. Additionally, ground darkening associated with wildfire-induced ash and charcoal deposition was imposed through lower ground albedo for a period after burning. In general, wildfire-induced vegetation and ground condition deterioration increased mean surface albedo by exposing the brighter bare ground, which in turn caused a decrease in monthly surface net radiation. On average, the wildfire-season albedo increase was approximately 6.3 % over the Sahel. The associated decrease in surface available energy caused a drop in surface sensible heat flux to the atmosphere during the dry months of winter and early spring, which gradually transitioned to a more substantial decrease in surface evapotranspiration in April and May that lessened throughout the rainy season. Overall, post-fire land condition deterioration resulted in a decrease in precipitation over sub-Saharan Africa, associated with the weakening of the West African monsoon progression through the region. A decrease in atmospheric moisture flux convergence was observed in the burned area simulations, which played a dominant role in reducing precipitation in the area, especially in the months preceding the monsoon onset. The areas with the largest precipitation impact were those covered by savannas and rainforests, where annual precipitation decreased by 3.8 and 3.3 %, respectively. The resulting precipitation decrease and vegetation deterioration caused a drop in gross primary productivity in the region, which was strongest in late winter and early spring. This study suggests the cooling and drying of atmosphere induced by burned areas caused the strengthening of subsidence during pre-onset and weakening of upward atmospheric motion during onset and mature stages of the monsoon leading to a waning of convective instability and precipitation. Monthly mid-tropospheric vertical wind showed a strengthening of downward motion in winter and spring seasons, and weakening of upward movement during the rainy months. Furthermore, precipitation energy analysis revealed that most of precipitation decrease originated from convective events, which supports the hypothesis of reduced convective instability due to wildfires.

  1. Semi-automated mapping of burned areas in semi-arid ecosystems using MODIS time-series imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardtke, Leonardo A.; Blanco, Paula D.; Valle, Héctor F. del; Metternicht, Graciela I.; Sione, Walter F.

    2015-06-01

    Understanding spatial and temporal patterns of burned areas at regional scales, provides a long-term perspective of fire processes and its effects on ecosystems and vegetation recovery patterns, and it is a key factor to design prevention and post-fire restoration plans and strategies. Remote sensing has become the most widely used tool to detect fire affected areas over large tracts of land (e.g., ecosystem, regional and global levels). Standard satellite burned area and active fire products derived from the 500-m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) are available to this end. However, prior research caution on the use of these global-scale products for regional and sub-regional applications. Consequently, we propose a novel semi-automated algorithm for identification and mapping of burned areas at regional scale. The semi-arid Monte shrublands, a biome covering 240,000 km2 in the western part of Argentina, and exposed to seasonal bushfires was selected as the test area. The algorithm uses a set of the normalized burned ratio index products derived from MODIS time series; using a two-phased cycle, it firstly detects potentially burned pixels while keeping a low commission error (false detection of burned areas), and subsequently labels them as seed patches. Region growing image segmentation algorithms are applied to the seed patches in the second-phase, to define the perimeter of fire affected areas while decreasing omission errors (missing real burned areas). Independently-derived Landsat ETM+ burned-area reference data was used for validation purposes. Additionally, the performance of the adaptive algorithm was assessed against standard global fire products derived from MODIS Aqua and Terra satellites, total burned area (MCD45A1), the active fire algorithm (MOD14); and the L3JRC SPOT VEGETATION 1 km GLOBCARBON products. The correlation between the size of burned areas detected by the global fire products and independently-derived Landsat reference data ranged from R2 = 0.01-0.28, while our algorithm performed showed a stronger correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.96). Our findings confirm prior research calling for caution when using the global fire products locally or regionally.

  2. Burning trees and bridges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1990-01-01

    Most burning of biomass is the result of human activity, and on a global scale it is increasing. Tropospheric concentrations of CO2, CO, CH4, non-methane hydrocarbons, and ozone are all increasing with time; global biomass burning may make an important contribution to this increase and thus to potential global climate change. The nitrogen cycle also can have important climatic effects. Nitrous oxide put into the atmosphere by biomass burning is a greenhouse gas 250 times more powerful (molecule for molecule) than carbon dioxide. Nitric oxide, as well as being a photochemical precursor of ozone, a major pollutant in the troposphere, produces nitric acid, the fastest-growing component of acid rain. Hence, the new bridge in the nitrogen cycle is of more than mere technical interest.

  3. Planning a Prescribed Burn 

    E-print Network

    Hanselka, C. Wayne

    2009-04-01

    per acre Closely grazed buffalo grass Curly mesquite and buffalo, mowed lawn Buffalo grass Texas wintergrass Sands dropseed Tobosa Sideoats gram Kleingrass Little bluestem Johnsongrass 300 600 1,000 2,000 2,200 2,300 3,000 5,000 6,200 7,000 Table 1... is vital for achieving the beneficial effects of a prescribed burn. The elements of a plan are described in Extension publication E-37, Prescribed Range Burning in Texas, which is available from your county Extension agent or on the web at http...

  4. Burn propagation rates of metals and alloys in gaseous oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benz, F. J.; Shaw, R. C.; Homa, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    The average burn rates of several metals and alloys were determined at oxygen pressures between 3.45 and 68.91 MPa (500 and 10,000 psig) and ambient temperature. Several materials were tested at elevated sample temperatures. The test materials were fabricated into solid cylindrical rods and mounted vertically in the test chamber. A magnesium igniter was positioned at the bottom end of each test specimen to promote upward burn propagations. Nickel 200 and copper 102 could not be ignited at all oxygen pressures tested whereas Monel 400 appeared to ignite but quickly self-extinguished. The other materials tested burned the entire length of the test sample. Aluminum 6061 exhibited the fastest burn propagation rate. Inconel 718 burned slower than aluminum but faster than the stainless steels (types 304 and 316). Increasing oxygen pressure generally increased the burn propagation rate of the materials. Increasing the ambient temperature of the test specimens for several materials to approximately 850 K (1070 F) had little effect upon the ignition or burn properties of nickel 200 or Monel 400. Type 316 stainless steel exhibited an increase in its burn propagation rate at this higher temperature.

  5. FIRE IMPACTS ON AN ENGINEERED BARRIER’S PERFORMANCE: THE HANFORD BARRIER ONE YEAR AFTER A CONTROLLED BURN

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Anderson L.; Link, Steven O.; Leary, Kevin D.; Berlin, Gregory T.

    2010-03-31

    A critical unknown for long-term engineered barrier performance is the effect of wild fire during a post-institutional control environment where routine maintenance may be limited or non-existent. In September 2008, a controlled burn was conducted on one half of a vegetated, multilayered capillary barrier emplaced over a Hanford waste site. The effects on barrier performance have been monitored and documented over the past year. Soil physical, chemical, and hydrologic properties; plant floristics and density; and animal-use were characterized before and after the fire with the unburned half of the barrier serving as a control. Temperatures during the controlled burn ranged from 250 oC at 1.5 cm below the surface to over 700 oC at 1 m above the surface. Significant decreases in hydraulic conductivity and surface-soil wettability were observed immediately after the fire due primarily to hydrophobic conditions created by the fire. Major soil nutrients, pH, and electrical conductivity remain elevated post-fire. Up until June 2009, post-burn soil moisture content in the 0-1 m depth interval was significantly lower on the burned section than the unburned section and is attributed to differences in surface evaporation. Higher soil moisture contents in the 1-2 m interval on the burned section are attributed to insignificant water uptake owing to the absence of deep-rooted shrubs. Moisture profiles reversed after June to show lower water contents throughout the profile on the unburned section. Dense stands of sagebrush were destroyed from the fire allowing many more species to emerge thereby increasing species diversity. Seed sources contributing to this species diversification were from either the existing seedbank and/or wind-blown sources. Measurements are ongoing and the results are expected to help close a knowledge gap about barrier recovery after major disturbances.

  6. Noninvasive determination of burn depth in children by digital infrared thermal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina-Preciado, Jose David; Kolosovas-Machuca, Eleazar Samuel; Velez-Gomez, Ezequiel; Miranda-Altamirano, Ariel; González, Francisco Javier

    2013-06-01

    Digital infrared thermal imaging is used to assess noninvasively the severity of burn wounds in 13 pediatric patients. A delta-T (?T) parameter obtained by subtracting the temperature of a healthy contralateral region from the temperature of the burn wound is compared with the burn depth measured histopathologically. Thermal imaging results show that superficial dermal burns (IIa) show increased temperature compared with their contralateral healthy region, while deep dermal burns (IIb) show a lower temperature than their contralateral healthy region. This difference in temperature is statistically significant (p<0.0001) and provides a way of distinguishing deep dermal from superficial dermal burns. These results show that digital infrared thermal imaging could be used as a noninvasive procedure to assess burn wounds. An additional advantage of using thermal imaging, which can image a large skin surface area, is that it can be used to identify regions with different burn depths and estimate the size of the grafts needed for deep dermal burns.

  7. TIRES, OPEN BURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter describes available information on the health effects from open burning of rubber tires. It concentrates on the three known sources of detailed measurements: (1) a small-scale emissions characterization study performed by the U.S. EPA in a facility designed to simulat...

  8. TRIAL BURNS: METHODS PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    When conducting a trial burn, it is necessary to make a number of measurements in order to adequately define the performance of the incinerator. n addition to flue gas emissions for particulate matter, HCl, and selected organics, it is also necessary to measure selected organics ...

  9. Hot spring burns.

    PubMed

    Baruchin, A M

    1996-03-01

    This case report describes a woman who, while visiting a hot spring, received partial- and full-thickness immersion scald burns of both ankles and heels. The prevention of such accidents is most important; efforts should be made to educate guides and tourists about the potential hazards inherent in these resorts. PMID:8634128

  10. Burns and Fire Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a high risk area for burn and scald incidents. 12 • All code-making bodies at the national ... www. nfpa. org/ categoryList. asp? categoryID= 278& URL= Safety% 20Information/ For% 20consumers/ Fire% 20& % 20safety% 20equipment/ S moke% ...

  11. Gas Hydrates Burning

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    An image of gas hydrates burning. Gas hydrates are naturally-occurring “ice-like” combinations of natural gas and water that have the potential to provide an immense resource of natural gas from the world’s oceans and polar regions....

  12. Treating and Preventing Burns

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ignition sources. Lower the temperature of your water heater to below 120 degrees Fahrenheit (48.9 degrees Celsius) to prevent hot water scalds and burns. Don’t plug appliances or other electrical equipment into extension cords if they place too much “amperage” or load on the cord, ...

  13. Chemical burn caused by topical application of garlic under occlusion.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuai; Heller, Marissa; Wu, Peggy A; Nambudiri, Vinod E

    2014-01-01

    Allium sativum (garlic) can cause an irritant contact dermatitis, secondary to naturopathic practices. We report an unusually severe case of chemical burn following garlic applied under occlusion. PMID:24456964

  14. Phoenix Society for Burn Survivors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... injury. Learn More Burn Community Blog PEG Helps 16 Students Continue Their Education in 2015-16 23 Nov 2015 Sixteen burn survivors are furthering their education in 2015-16 with the financial assistance of a... Continue Reading ...

  15. The overall patterns of burns

    PubMed Central

    Almoghrabi, A.; Abu Shaban, N.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Burn patterns differ across the whole world and not only in relation to lack of education, overcrowding, and poverty. Cultures, habits, traditions, psychiatric illness, and epilepsy are strongly correlated to burn patterns. However, burns may also occur because of specific religious beliefs and activities, social events and festivals, traditional medical practices, occupational activities, and war. PMID:22639565

  16. Biomass Burning Data and Information

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-04-21

    Biomass Burning Data and Information This data set represents ... geographical and temporal distribution of total amount of biomass burned. These data may be used in general circulation models (GCMs) and ... models of the atmosphere. Project Title:  Biomass Burning Discipline:  Tropospheric Chemistry ...

  17. 13, 3226932289, 2013 Biomass burning

    E-print Network

    Dong, Xiquan

    ACPD 13, 32269­32289, 2013 Biomass burning aerosol properties over the Northern Great Plains T (ACP). Please refer to the corresponding final paper in ACP if available. Biomass burning aerosol Geosciences Union. 32269 #12;ACPD 13, 32269­32289, 2013 Biomass burning aerosol properties over the Northern

  18. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning... obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits....

  19. Noncontact imaging of burn depth and extent in a porcine model using spatial frequency domain imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mazhar, Amaan; Saggese, Steve; Pollins, Alonda C.; Cardwell, Nancy L.; Nanney, Lillian; Cuccia, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. The standard of care for clinical assessment of burn severity and extent lacks a quantitative measurement. In this work, spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) was used to measure 48 thermal burns of graded severity (superficial partial, deep partial, and full thickness) in a porcine model. Functional (total hemoglobin and tissue oxygen saturation) and structural parameters (tissue scattering) derived from the SFDI measurements were monitored over 72 h for each burn type and compared to gold standard histological measurements of burn depth. Tissue oxygen saturation (stO2) and total hemoglobin (ctHbT) differentiated superficial partial thickness burns from more severe burn types after 2 and 72 h, respectively (p<0.01), but were unable to differentiate deep partial from full thickness wounds in the first 72 h. Tissue scattering parameters separated superficial burns from all burn types immediately after injury (p<0.01), and separated all three burn types from each other after 24 h (p<0.01). Tissue scattering parameters also showed a strong negative correlation to histological burn depth as measured by vimentin immunostain (r2>0.89). These results show promise for the use of SFDI-derived tissue scattering as a correlation to burn depth and the potential to assess burn depth via a combination of SFDI functional and structural parameters. PMID:25147961

  20. Face Allotransplantation and Burns: a Review

    PubMed Central

    A, Arno; JP, Barret; RA, Harrison; MG, Jeschke

    2012-01-01

    Burns may represent one of the main indications for face allotransplantation. Severely disfigured faces featuring a devastating appearance and great functional impairments are not only seen as burn sequelae, but also occur as a result of other traumatic injuries, oncological surgical resections, benign tumors (e.g., neurofibromatosis), and major congenital malformations. To date, sixteen human face composite tissue allotransplantations have been performed with success. Despite the initial scepticism about its applicability, due mainly to ethical and technical reasons, the previous worldwide cases and their associated positive outcomes –including acceptable immunosuppressive regimens, excellent aesthetic and functional results, and good psychological acceptance by the recipient- , enable the conclusion that face composite tissue allotransplantation has become another therapeutic strategy in the reconstructive surgical armamentarium, which bears special consideration when dealing with severely disfigured burned patients. The aim of this review is to describe the basics of face composite tissue allotransplantation and give an overview of some of the cases performed until now, with special attention paid to debating the pros and cons of its applicability in burn patients. PMID:22274632

  1. The Effect of Prescribed Burns and Wildfire on Vegetation in Bastrop State Park, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justice, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    In 2011, central Texas had its worst drought since the 1950's. This, in conjunction with the strong winds produced by Tropical Storm Lee created conditions that made possible the Bastrop County Complex Fire in September 2011. These record-breaking wildfires burned over 95% of the 6,565-acre Bastrop State Park (BSP). Since 2003, BSP had been using prescribed burns as a management practice to reduce fuel load and prevent high severity wildfires. Although these prescribed fires did not prevent the 2011 wildfires they may have mitigated their effects. This study considered the effect of prescribed burn history and wildfire burn severity on vegetation recovery in BSP since the 2011 wildfire. The hypotheses of this study are that prescribed burn history and wildfire burn severity separately and jointly have affected post wildfire vegetation. To test these hypotheses, data were collected in 2013 from 46 plots across BSP using the Fire Effects Monitoring and Inventory (FIREMON) protocol to determine herbaceous plant density, shrub density, overstory density, and midstory tree density. Data were analyzed using analyses of variance (ANOVA) to determine the effects of prescribed fire and wildfire severity on these vegetation measurements. It was found that more severely burned plots had more herbaceous plants, fewer midstory trees, and lower shrub densities than less severely burned plots. Contrary to an initial hypotheses, there were few relationships between prescribed burn history and wildfire effects. The only significant effect detected for prescribed burning was the positive effect of prescribed fire on midstory tree density, but only for plots that were not severely burned in the wildfire. In this system, burn severity had a greater effect on post-wildfire vegetation than prescribed burns.

  2. Interactions Among Wildland Fires in a Long-Established Sierra Nevada

    E-print Network

    Kelly, Maggi

    and satellite-based estimates of post-fire effects (referred to hereafter as fire severity) for 19 fires burning data by 10-year periods revealed a fair degree of stability in the proportion of area burned among fireInteractions Among Wildland Fires in a Long-Established Sierra Nevada Natural Fire Area Brandon M

  3. Temporal changes in cellular energy following burn injury.

    PubMed

    Gore, Dennis C; Rinehart, Amanda; Asimakis, Greg

    2005-12-01

    Availability of ADP is a predominant influence on respiratory control. Associated with severe burn injury is an increase in energy expenditure. The purpose of this study was to determine the temporal changes in ATP, ADP, NAD, and NADH following severe burn and thereby assess any related alterations in respiratory control and energy deficit. During isoflurane anesthesia and following intraperitoneal injection of saline, 32 mice were flame burned at 40% body surface area. Twelve mice served as controls. At 12, 24, 72, and 168 h post-burn, groups of mice underwent celiotomy with determination of hepatic surface blood flow using laser Doppler and oxygen saturation using pulse oximetry. Biopsies of liver were then frozen in liquid nitrogen for subsequent quantification of ATP, ADP, AMP, NAD, and NADH by HPLC. Mortality was 12.5% at 72 h post-burn and 25% at 1 week. Oxygen saturation and hepatic surface blood flow remained similar to control values throughout the week after burn. ATP, ADP, and energy charge decreased progressively following burn reaching a significant decrease from unburned controls at 72 h. Availability of NADH remained statistically similar to unburned controls throughout the week after burn. These results demonstrate that despite maintenance of baseline oxygen delivery, there was a nadir in ATP and ADP availability and energy charge in the liver at 72 h after burn. This finding supports the concept of a limitation in phosphorylation after injury. Availability of NADH remained at or above pre-burn concentrations suggesting that the rate of fuel oxidation was not a limiting factor for ongoing oxidative phosphorylation for energy. PMID:16280201

  4. In vivo rabbit hindquarter model for assessment of regional burn hypermetabolism.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ji; Fei, Zhewei; Yu, Yong-Ming; Xu, Wenyin; Rhodes, Andrew; Tompkins, Ronald G; Schulz, John T

    2003-01-01

    Severe burn injury evokes hypermetabolism and muscle wasting, despite nominally adequate nutrition. Although there is much information on whole organism and isolated tissue metabolism after burn injury, data examining regional burn hypermetabolism in vivo are lacking. Using surgically implanted (general anesthesia) regional vascular catheters and primed constant infusion of l-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine tracer, we have determined in vivo burn-induced alterations in rabbit hindquarter protein and energy metabolism. Burn injury evokes increased whole body resting energy expenditure and phenylalanine turnover, accompanied by significantly increased hindquarter proteolysis, creating a negative protein balance in burned rabbit hindquarter. Hindquarter oxygen consumption showed an increase after burn injury, but it did not reach statistical significance. Burn-induced changes in hindquarter protein turnover account for approximately one-third of the whole animal hypermetabolism. This model offers a system for regional manipulation of postburn hypermetabolism. PMID:12391055

  5. Bending Burning Matches and Crumpling Burning Paper Texas A&M University

    E-print Network

    Keyser, John

    Bending Burning Matches and Crumpling Burning Paper Zeki Melek Texas A&M University Department burning. Specifically, we can simulate the bending of burning matches, and the folding of burning paper objects. Examples include the upward bending seen in burning matches and the crumpling of burning paper

  6. Open air refuse burning video: Proton Dan the science man explores open air refuse burning

    SciTech Connect

    Eastburn, M.D.; Sipple, J.L.; Deramo, A.R.

    1999-07-01

    The goal of this video is to educate school children to the potential hazards of open air trash burning; to demonstrate alternative ways to dispose of trash; and to motivate students to take action to change the behavior of their parents with regard to trash burning. The burning of household trash, although illegal, is still a common practice in rural areas of Delaware. Enforcement has been difficult because the practice is often performed at night and is done across a wide rural area that is difficult to patrol on a continuing basis. The prohibition on trash burning (revised Regulation 13 of The Delaware Code of Regulations Governing The Control of Air Pollution) has been in effect since 1968, but the public has been slow to comply because trash burning has been practiced for many generations and because much of the public is unaware of the environmental impacts and/or the human health risks. This video may be valuable for other States to use as a public outreach tool regarding their problems with open air refuse burning. The focus of the video is a 7th grade science class is given various assignments relating to Earth Day and preservation of natural resources. Two children in particular are given the assignment to research and report on the hazards of open air trash burning and are asked to investigate alternative ways to dispose of refuse. Upon brainstorming how to find information on the topic, the kids decide to contact the host of a popular children's science show on broadcast television named Proton Dan the Science Man (a fictitious character and show based on Bill Nye the Science Guy). The host then invites the kids to the studio where he films his show and takes them through the topic. The TV host character takes the children to several external locations like a landfill, recycling centers, etc..

  7. A ten-year review of lower extremity burns in diabetics: small burns that lead to major problems.

    PubMed

    Barsun, Alura; Sen, Soman; Palmieri, Tina L; Greenhalgh, David G

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus with its resulting neurovascular changes may lead to an increased risk of burns and impaired wound healing. The purpose of this article is to review 10 years of experience with foot and lower leg burns in patients with diabetes at a single adult burn center. Patients with lower extremity burns and diabetes mellitus, between May 1999 and December 2009, were identified in the Trauma Registry of the American College of Surgeons database, and their charts were reviewed for data related to their outcomes. Sixty-eight diabetic patients, 87% male, with a mean age of 54 years, sustained foot or lower extremity burns with 37 having burns resulting from insensate feet. The pathogenesis included walking on a hot or very cold surface (8), soaking feet in hot water (22), warming feet on or near something hot such as a heater (13), or spilling hot water (7). The majority of patients were taking insulin (59.6%) or oral hyperglycemic medications (34.6%). Blood sugar levels were not well controlled (mean glucose, 215.8 mg/dl; mean hemoglobin A1c, 9.08%). Renal disease was common with admission serum blood urea nitrogen (27.5 mg/dl) and creatinine (2.21 mg/dl), and 13 were on dialysis preinjury. Cardiovascular problems were common with 39 (57%) having hypertension or cardiac disease, 3 having peripheral vascular disease, and 9, previous amputations. The mean burn size was 4.2% TBSA (range, 0.5-15%) with 57% being full thickness. Despite the small burn, the mean length of stay was 15.2 days (range, 1-95), with 5.65 days per 1% TBSA. Inability to heal these wounds was evident in 19 patients requiring readmission (one required 10 operative procedures). At least one patient sustained more than one burn. There were 62 complications with 30 episodes of infection (cellulitis, 28; osteomyelitis, 4; deep plantar infections, 2; ruptured Achilles tendon, 1) and 3 deaths. Eleven patients needed amputations (7 below-knee amputations, 4 transmetatarsal amputations, and 20 toe amputations) with several needing revisions or higher amputations. Patients with diabetes have an increased risk for lower extremity complications, but the risk of burns is not well known. The majority of lower extremity burns result from intentional exposure to sources of heat without recognition for the risk of burns. Once a burn occurs, morbidity and cost to the patient and society are severe. Prevention programs should be initiated to make diabetic patients and their doctors aware of the significant risk for burns. PMID:22929524

  8. SystemBurn

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-08-30

    SystemBurn is a tool for creating a synthetic computational load for the purpose of measuring how much power a computer will draw under that type of load. The loads include fundamental library function calls like matrix multiply, memory copies, fourier transforms, bit manipulation, I/O, network packet transfers, and some code contrived to cause the processor to dray more or less power. The code produces some diagnostic and progress output, but the actual measurements would bemore »recorded from the power panels within the computer room.« less

  9. Sigmoid diverticulitis perforation in burns: case reports and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cirodde, A; Jault, P; Leclerc, T; Donat, N; Bargues, L

    2012-03-31

    Burned patients are prone to develop severe intestinal complications because of decreased splanchnic circulation. We report three cases of sigmoid perforation in burn patients appearing late during hospitalization. The common aetiological factor was a state of septic shock treated with infusion of vasopressors. Two patients also received corticosteroids as treatment for acute respiratory distress syndrome. These cases underline the necessity to maintain adequate organ perfusion and to prevent intestinal ischaemia in severe burns. PMID:23012612

  10. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning January 1, 2007, a person must apply for... under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits....

  11. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning January 1, 2007, a person must apply for... under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits....

  12. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning January 1, 2007, a person must apply for... under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits....

  13. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning January 1, 2007, a person must apply for... under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits....

  14. Burning mouth syndrome: a review on diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Coculescu, EC; Radu, A; Coculescu, BI

    2014-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is defined as a chronic pain condition characterized by a burning sensation in the clinically healthy oral mucosa. It is difficult to diagnose BMS because there is a discrepancy between the severity, extensive objective pain felt by the patient and the absence of any clinical changes of the oral mucosa. This review presents some aspects of BMS, including its clinical diagnosis, classification, differential diagnosis, general treatment, evolution and prognosis. PMID:25713611

  15. Burning Fuel Droplet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Fuel ignites and burns in the Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) on STS-94 on July 4 1997, MET:2/05:40 (approximate). The DCE was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. DCE used various fuels -- in drops ranging from 1 mm (0.04 inches) to 5 mm (0.2 inches) -- and mixtures of oxidizers and inert gases to learn more about the physics of combustion in the simplest burning configuration, a sphere. The experiment elapsed time is shown at the bottom of the composite image. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (121KB JPEG, 654 x 977 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300169.html.

  16. Influence of soil water repellency on seedling emergence and plant survival in a burned semi-arid woodland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite post-fire reseeding efforts, Pinus-Juniperus (piñon-juniper) woodlands often become invaded by annual weeds that out-compete native species, degrade ecological processes, and modify natural fire patterns. In order to develop successful post-fire restoration approaches in these communities, i...

  17. Oral Rehydration Therapy in Burn Patients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-24

    Burn Any Degree Involving 20-29 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 30-39 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 40-49 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 50-59 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 60-65 Percent of Body Surface

  18. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine waste fires shall be...

  19. MODIS-informed greenness responsesto daytime land surface temperaturefluctuations and wildfire disturbancesin the Alaskan Yukon River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tan, Zhengxi; Liu, Shu-Guang; Jenkerson, Calli; Oeding, Jennifer; Wylie, Bruce K.; Rover, Jennifer; Young, Claudia J.

    2012-01-01

    Pronounced climate warming and increased wildfire disturbances are known to modify forest composition and control the evolution of the boreal ecosystem over the Yukon River Basin (YRB) in interior Alaska. In this study, we evaluate the post-fire green-up rate using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) derived from 250 m 7 day eMODIS (an alternative and application-ready type of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data) acquired between 2000 and 2009. Our analyses indicate measureable effects on NDVI values from vegetation type, burn severity, post-fire time, and climatic variables. The NDVI observations from both fire scars and unburned areas across the Alaskan YRB showed a tendency of an earlier start to the growing season (GS); the annual variations in NDVI were significantly correlated to daytime land surface temperature (LST) fluctuations; and the rate of post-fire green-up depended mainly on burn severity and the time of post-fire succession. The higher average NDVI values for the study period in the fire scars than in the unburned areas between 1950 and 2000 suggest that wildfires enhance post-fire greenness due to an increase in post-fire evergreen and deciduous species components

  20. Treatment of hot tar burns

    PubMed Central

    Bose, B.; Tredget, T.

    1982-01-01

    Hot tar burns, although rare, usually occur in workers in the paving and roofing industries. When tar is heated to high temperatures it can cause deep burns, and its removal often causes further damage. However, the use of one of the polysorbates (surface-active agents) makes removal easy and painless. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:7083105

  1. Burned Wetland Near Tebicuary River

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    In the rangelands of southern Paraguay, wetlands are burned to encourage new growth for cattle grazing. The burned wetland grasses are in the Family Poaceae (Gramineae), and may be in one of these genera: Panicum, Paspalum, Pennisetum, Tripogon. The Ñeembucú Region is typified by exten...

  2. 'Tertiary' nuclear burning - Neutron star deflagration?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michel, F. Curtis

    1988-01-01

    A motivation is presented for the idea that dense nuclear matter can burn to a new class of stable particles. One of several possibilities is an 'octet' particle which is the 16 baryon extension of alpha particle, but now composed of a pair of each of the two nucleons, (3Sigma, Delta, and 2Xi). Such 'tertiary' nuclear burning (here 'primary' is H-He and 'secondary' is He-Fe) may lead to neutron star explosions rather than collapse to a black hole, analogous to some Type I supernovae models wherein accreting white dwarfs are pushed over the Chandrasekhar mass limit but explode rather than collapse to form neutron stars. Such explosions could possibly give gamma-ray bursts and power quasars, with efficient particle acceleration in the resultant relativistic shocks. The new stable particles themselves could possibly be the sought-after weakly interacting, massive particles (WIMPs) or 'dark' matter.

  3. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or burned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  4. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or burned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  5. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or burned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  6. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or burned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  7. Cardiovascular Dysfunction Following Burn Injury: What We Have Learned from Rat and Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Guillory, Ashley N; Clayton, Robert P; Herndon, David N; Finnerty, Celeste C

    2016-01-01

    Severe burn profoundly affects organs both proximal and distal to the actual burn site. Cardiovascular dysfunction is a well-documented phenomenon that increases morbidity and mortality following a massive thermal trauma. Beginning immediately post-burn, during the ebb phase, cardiac function is severely depressed. By 48 h post-injury, cardiac function rebounds and the post-burn myocardium becomes tachycardic and hyperinflammatory. While current clinical trials are investigating a variety of drugs targeted at reducing aspects of the post-burn hypermetabolic response such as heart rate and cardiac work, there is still a paucity of knowledge regarding the underlying mechanisms that induce cardiac dysfunction in the severely burned. There are many animal models of burn injury, from rodents, to sheep or swine, but the majority of burn related cardiovascular investigations have occurred in rat and mouse models. This literature review consolidates the data supporting the prevalent role that ?-adrenergic receptors play in mediating post-burn cardiac dysfunction and the idea that pharmacological modulation of this receptor family is a viable therapeutic target for resolving burn-induced cardiac deficits. PMID:26729111

  8. Fires and Burns Involving Home Medical Oxygen

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nfpa.org Fires and Burns Involving Home Medical Oxygen The air is normally 21% oxygen. Oxygen is not flammable, but fire needs it to burn. ¾ When more oxygen is present, any fire that starts will burn ...

  9. Minor burn management: potions and lotions

    PubMed Central

    Hyland, Ela J; Connolly, Siobhan M; Fox, Jade A; Harvey, John G

    2015-01-01

    Summary The first aid for burns is to run cold water over the burn for 20 minutes. This is effective for up to three hours after the injury. Assess the affected body surface area using the rule of nines. Consult a burn unit if more than 5% of the total body surface area is burnt in a child or if more than 10% in an adult. Extensive or deep burns and burns to special areas, such as the hands, should be referred. Chemical or electrical burns should also be assessed by a burn unit. For minor burns, antimicrobial dressings are recommended, but oral antibiotics should be avoided unless there are signs of infection. As burns are tetanus prone, check the patient’s immunisation status. Burns that become infected or are slow to heal should be discussed with a burn unit. The burn unit can also provide advice if there are uncertainties about how to manage a patient. PMID:26648640

  10. 40 CFR 52.273 - Open burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...disapproved because they relax the control on open burning (including agricultural burning) without accompanying analyses demonstrating...52.223, are retained as applicable to the burning of wood waste.) (ii) Regulation VII...

  11. 40 CFR 52.273 - Open burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...disapproved because they relax the control on open burning (including agricultural burning) without accompanying analyses demonstrating...52.223, are retained as applicable to the burning of wood waste.) (ii) Regulation VII...

  12. 40 CFR 52.273 - Open burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...disapproved because they relax the control on open burning (including agricultural burning) without accompanying analyses demonstrating...52.223, are retained as applicable to the burning of wood waste.) (ii) Regulation VII...

  13. 40 CFR 52.273 - Open burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...disapproved because they relax the control on open burning (including agricultural burning) without accompanying analyses demonstrating...52.223, are retained as applicable to the burning of wood waste.) (ii) Regulation VII...

  14. 40 CFR 52.273 - Open burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...disapproved because they relax the control on open burning (including agricultural burning) without accompanying analyses demonstrating...52.223, are retained as applicable to the burning of wood waste.) (ii) Regulation VII...

  15. Smartphones and burn size estimation: “Rapid Burn Assessor”

    PubMed Central

    Kamolz, L.P.; Lumenta, D.B.; Parvizi, D.; Dirnberger, J.; Owen, R.; Höller, J.; Giretzlehner, M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Estimation of the total body surface area burned (%TBSA) following a burn injury is used in determining whether to transfer the patient to a burn center and the required fluid resuscitation volumes. Unfortunately, the commonly applied methods of estimation have revealed inaccuracies, which are mostly related to human error. To calculate the %TBSA (quotient), it is necessary to divide the burned surface area (Burned BSA) (numerator in cm2) by the total body surface area (Total BSA) (denominator in cm2). By using everyday objects (eg. credit cards, smartphones) with well-defined surface areas as reference for estimations of Burned BSA on the one hand and established formulas for Total BSA calculation on the other (eg. Mosteller), we propose an approximation method to assess %TBSA more accurately than the established methods. To facilitate distribution, and respective user feedback, we have developed a smartphone app integrating all of the above parameters, available on popular mobile device platforms. This method represents a simple and ready-to-use clinical decision support system which addresses common errors associated with estimations of Burned BSA (=numerator). Following validation and respective user feedback, it could be deployed for testing in future clinical trials. This study has a level of evidence of IV and is a brief report based on clinical observation, which points to further study. PMID:26170784

  16. Decrease of circulating dendritic cells in burn patients.

    PubMed

    D'Arpa, A; Accardo-Palumbo, A; Amato, G; D'Amelio, L; Napoli, B; Pileri, D; Cataldo, V; Mogavero, R; Lombardo, C; Conte, F

    2007-12-31

    Burn injury is associated with immune suppression and the subsequent development of sepsis. Severe burn injury is associated with depressed immune response, including a functional impairment of Th1 lymphocytes and natural killer cells and a decrease in interferon-a production. Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells and play a key role in T cell activation; they are essential in coordinating the host response to pathogens. Using three-colour flow cytometry, we determined the percentage of lineage-negative LIN-DR+ DCs in burn patients and healthy subjects. The percentages of DCs were lower in the circulation of septic than in nonseptic patients and healthy subjects at all times examined (14 days) after burn injury. In contrast, the DC percentage in nonseptic patients was low at day 1, increased from day 3 to day 10, and reverted to normal levels at day 14. The data from the present study suggest that the DC percentage decreased early after burn injury. In addition, in the presence of severe sepsis, the DC percentage remained lower until day 14. This DC reduction may contribute to the immunosuppression observed after burn injury. PMID:21991097

  17. Acute concentrated phenol dermal burns: Complications and management

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Tapan Jayantilal

    2015-01-01

    Phenol burns can result in multiple organ failure. This is a case report of acute severe phenol dermal burn after accidental splash of 94% phenol on 35-year-old patient's body who was brought to hospital after 90 min of exposure. Decontamination was done with high-density water and glycerol. Early complications in form of metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure required hemodialysis. Extensive protein denaturation was managed with IV albumin and high protein diet. Patient also developed pleural effusion and acute respiratory distress syndrome, but these were successfully managed by intercostal drain tube insertion and noninvasive ventilation. The patient survived after multiple organ failures and widespread burns despite the fact that it has been observed that outcome of phenol burns with >602 inches of skin affected or two or more organs failure involving renal system is nearly fatal. PMID:25983436

  18. Slash-and-burn farmers: villains or victims?

    PubMed

    Rambo, T

    1990-01-01

    Slash and burn farmers in southeast Asia are blamed for deforestation and are considered backward or ignorant. Efforts have been made by agricultural development experts to urge farmers to switch to fixed field methods. Slash and burn methods are used in upland areas with steep slopes, low soil fertility, and unpredictable natural hazards in order to allow survival in an environment made difficult for cultivation by other methods. Slash and burn farmers may be stable or migratory and use rotational or pioneering methods. Rotational methods involve clearing and burning a new plot every year, and then allowing regeneration of forest for 10-20 years. When population density is 40/square km, this method does not degrade the environment. Pioneering involves clearance of primary forest, cultivation for several years until soil fertility is destroyed, and then replacement with low productivity "imperata cylindrica grass." Pioneering tends to cause long-term environmental degradation. Humid tropic soils tend toward infertility, and in many areas of southeast Asia the soils are nutrient-poor and acidic. Ash from burning also reduces soil acidity. In northeast Thailand, 454 kg of calcium are released from burning one hectare of mature forest. The advantages are affordable natural fertilization and freedom from technical experts and imported spare parts. Frequent rotation also helps to expand the crops and provide disease protection. Population densities, competition for scarce resources, and social and economic pressures make the slash and burn technique inappropriate. As yet unavailable alternative farming techniques are needed which take advantage of slash and burn benefits. Slash and burn farmers are victims of deforestation even though they may appear to be the villains. PMID:12283382

  19. Climatic stress increases forest fire severity across the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, Philip J.; Nesmith, Jonathan C. B.; Keifer, MaryBeth; Knapp, Eric E.; Flint, Alan; Flint, Lorriane

    2013-01-01

    Pervasive warming can lead to chronic stress on forest trees, which may contribute to mortality resulting from fire-caused injuries. Longitudinal analyses of forest plots from across the western US show that high pre-fire climatic water deficit was related to increased post-fire tree mortality probabilities. This relationship between climate and fire was present after accounting for fire defences and injuries, and appeared to influence the effects of crown and stem injuries. Climate and fire interactions did not vary substantially across geographical regions, major genera and tree sizes. Our findings support recent physiological evidence showing that both drought and heating from fire can impair xylem conductivity. Warming trends have been linked to increasing probabilities of severe fire weather and fire spread; our results suggest that warming may also increase forest fire severity (the number of trees killed) independent of fire intensity (the amount of heat released during a fire).

  20. Severe Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Evan B.

    2004-01-01

    Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This month's insert, Severe Weather, has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in this poster are hurricanes,…

  1. Severe Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Evan B.

    2004-01-01

    Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This article deals with a poster entitled, "Severe Weather," that has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in…

  2. Burns treatment in ancient times.

    PubMed

    Pe?anac, Marija; Janji?, Zlata; Komarcevi?, Aleksandar; Paji?, Milos; Dobanovacki, Dusanka; Miskovi?, Sanja Skeledzija

    2013-01-01

    Discovery of fire at the dawn of prehistoric time brought not only the benefits to human beings offering the light and heat, but also misfortune due to burns; and that was the beginning of burns treatment. Egyptian doctors made medicines from plants, animal products and minerals, which they combined with magic and religious procedures. The earliest records described burns dressings with milk from mothers of male babies. Goddess Isis was called upon to help. Some remedies and procedures proved so successful that their application continued for centuries. The Edwin Smith papyrus (1500 BC) mentioned the treatment of burns with honey and grease. Ebers Papyrus (1500 BC) contains descriptions of application of mud, excrement, oil and plant extracts. They also used honey, Aloe and tannic acid to heal burns. Ancient Egyptians did not know about microorganisms but they knew that honey, moldy bread and copper salts could prevent infections from dirt in burns healing. Thyme, opium and belladona were used for pain relief. In the 4th century BC, Hippocrates recorded that Greek and Roman doctors used rendered pig fat, resin and bitumen to treat burns. Mixture of honey and bran, or lotion of wine and myrrh were used by Celsus. Honey was also known in Ayurveda (Indian medicine) time. Ayurvedic records Characa and Sushruta included honey in their dressing aids to purify sores and promote the healing. Burn treatment in Chinese medicine was traditional. It was a compilation of philosophy, knowledge and herbal medicine. The successful treatment of burns started in recent time and it has been made possible by better knowledge of the pathophysiology of thermal injuries and their consequences, medical technology advances and improved surgical techniques. PMID:23888738

  3. Efficacy of moist exposed burn ointment on burns.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Qi; Yip, Tsui-Pik; Hui, Irene; Lai, Vincy; Wong, Ann

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we sought to test the medical efficacy of a Chinese medical herb product, moist exposed burn ointment (MEBO), on wound healing rate and infection control in burn injury. Standardized deep burn wounds were created on the back skin of rats by applying a hot brass bar for 12 to 18 seconds. MEBO was applied four times per day and compared with petroleum jelly, silver sulfadiazine, and dry exposure therapy. Under such a controlled setting, although MEBO had a better wound healing rate than the dry exposure treatment, it did not show the medical advantage statistically, as has been claimed, over the other two treatments (P > .05), either in terms of wound healing rate or bacterial control. We conclude that the MEBO is not suitable for deep burn wound treatment, particularly when infection is a concern. PMID:15879746

  4. Burn Safety Awareness on Playgrounds: Thermal Burns from Playground Equipment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... burns from playground equipment. You may remember the metal slides of your youth and how they could ... plastic slide. I only have to worry about metal slides, right? No. Metal is not the only ...

  5. The biochemistry of blister fluid from pediatric burn injuries: proteomics and metabolomics aspects.

    PubMed

    Zang, Tuo; Broszczak, Daniel A; Broadbent, James A; Cuttle, Leila; Lu, Haitao; Parker, Tony J

    2016-01-01

    Burn injury is a prevalent and traumatic event for pediatric patients. At present, the diagnosis of burn injury severity is subjective and lacks a clinically relevant quantitative measure. This is due in part to a lack of knowledge surrounding the biochemistry of burn injuries and that of blister fluid. A more complete understanding of the blister fluid biochemistry may open new avenues for diagnostic and prognostic development. Burn insult induces a highly complex network of signaling processes and numerous changes within various biochemical systems, which can ultimately be examined using proteome and metabolome measurements. This review reports on the current understanding of burn wound biochemistry and outlines a technical approach for 'omics' profiling of blister fluid from burn wounds of differing severity. PMID:26581649

  6. Nursing a teenager with burns.

    PubMed

    Wallace, E

    Development of body image is an integral part of a teenager's psychological growth. Burned teenagers experience great difficulty in readjusting psychosocially after injury as they have not yet formed their own self-concept and sense of worth. Burns patients experience a range of psychological problems as a consequence of disfigurement. These include depression, phobias, insomnia, sexual problems, high divorce rates, juvenile delinquency and impaired employment or academic status. Few nursing research articles have addressed the psychosocial problems of burns patients. Even if nurses are not skilled in counselling they must be able to recognize problems and refer patients to colleagues with the appropriate skills. PMID:8485360

  7. Getting beyond burning dirt

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, R.J. )

    1994-05-01

    To fix and make the nation's Superfund law work, two related questions must be answered. First, where will the innovative technology come from the clean up Superfund and other waste sites Burning dirt--the best technology currently available--is an expensive nonsolution. Second, can man muster the political will to make Superfund a waste cleanup law instead of an expanding welfare program for lawyers Under the sponsorship of EPA, a number of companies and other groups are participating in the Remediation Technology Development Forum, focusing on the areas where the real breakthroughs might occur and the most promising collaborations. Currently, this effort is focused on bioremediation, the lasagna process, soil flushing, and characterization. Another area of investigation is stabilization technology--stabilizing a site to keep contaminants from flowing away. Some scientists, for example, are looking at vitrification technology, which fuses contaminated soil into a glass-like brick. And still other technology efforts include air flushing of contaminated sites and vapor extraction and heating processes. A number of groups and consortia have been working on waste remediation technologies. For the first time since 1980, when Superfund became law, one can give positive answers to the two critical questions. Groups are finding innovative technologies to clean up Superfund and other waste sites. And, as a nation, Americans are exercising the political will to create a Superfund law that will work effectively and fairly.

  8. Biomass Burning: Major Uncertainties, Advances, and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokelson, R. J.; Stockwell, C.; Veres, P. R.; Hatch, L. E.; Barsanti, K. C.; Liu, X.; Huey, L. G.; Ryerson, T. B.; Dibb, J. E.; Wisthaler, A.; Müller, M.; Alvarado, M. J.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Robinson, A. L.; Toon, O. B.; Peischl, J.; Pollack, I. B.

    2014-12-01

    Domestic and open biomass burning are poorly-understood, major influences on Earth's atmosphere composed of countless individual fires that (along with their products) are difficult to quantify spatially and temporally. Each fire is a minimally-controlled complex phenomenon producing a diverse suite of gases and aerosols that experience many different atmospheric processing scenarios. New lab, airborne, and space-based observations along with model and algorithm development are significantly improving our knowledge of biomass burning. Several campaigns provided new detailed emissions profiles for previously undersampled fire types; including wildfires, cooking fires, peat fires, and agricultural burning; which may increase in importance with climate change and rising population. Multiple campaigns have better characterized black and brown carbon and used new instruments such as high resolution PTR-TOF-MS and 2D-GC/TOF-MS to improve quantification of semi-volatile precursors to aerosol and ozone. The aerosol evolution and formation of PAN and ozone, within hours after emission, have now been measured extensively. The NASA DC-8 sampled smoke before and after cloud-processing in two campaigns. The DC-8 performed continuous intensive sampling of a wildfire plume from the source in California to Canada probing multi-day aerosol and trace gas aging. Night-time plume chemistry has now been measured in detail. Fire inventories are being compared and improved, as is modeling of mass transfer between phases and sub-grid photochemistry for global models.

  9. Recent acceleration of biomass burning and carbon losses in Alaskan forests and peatlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turetsky, M.R.; Kane, E.S.; Harden, J.W.; Ottmar, R.D.; Manies, K.L.; Hoy, E.; Kasischke, E.S.

    2011-01-01

    Climate change has increased the area affected by forest fires each year in boreal North America. Increases in burned area and fire frequency are expected to stimulate boreal carbon losses. However, the impact of wildfires on carbon emissions is also affected by the severity of burning. How climate change influences the severity of biomass burning has proved difficult to assess. Here, we examined the depth of ground-layer combustion in 178 sites dominated by black spruce in Alaska, using data collected from 31 fire events between 1983 and 2005. We show that the depth of burning increased as the fire season progressed when the annual area burned was small. However, deep burning occurred throughout the fire season when the annual area burned was large. Depth of burning increased late in the fire season in upland forests, but not in peatland and permafrost sites. Simulations of wildfire-induced carbon losses from Alaskan black spruce stands over the past 60 years suggest that ground-layer combustion has accelerated regional carbon losses over the past decade, owing to increases in burn area and late-season burning. As a result, soils in these black spruce stands have become a net source of carbon to the atmosphere, with carbon emissions far exceeding decadal uptake.

  10. Empirical models to predict the volumes of debris flows generated by recently burned basins in the western U.S.

    E-print Network

    California, the Rocky Mountain region, and basins underlain by sedimentary, metamorphic and granitic rocks measures of basin morphology, basin areas burned at different severities, soil material properties, rock

  11. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... Tribe of Idaho § 49.10411 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and... person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and...

  12. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... Tribe of Idaho § 49.10411 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and... person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and...

  13. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... Tribe of Idaho § 49.10411 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and... person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and...

  14. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... Reservation, Oregon § 49.11021 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and..., 2007, a person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry...

  15. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... Tribe of Idaho § 49.10411 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and... person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and...

  16. Prescribed Range Burning in Texas 

    E-print Network

    White, Larry D.; Hanselka, C. Wayne

    2000-04-25

    Prescribed burning is an effective brush management technique for improving pasture accessibility and increasing the production of forage and browse. Fire also suppresses most brush and cactus species. This bulletin discusses how to plan...

  17. Preventing Burns in Your Home

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hot water burns in our home? Test the water temperature before you or your children get into the ... the faucet handles during a bath. Set the temperature on your water heater to 120º F, or use the "low- ...

  18. Lawn mower-related burns.

    PubMed

    Still, J; Orlet, H; Law, E; Gertler, C

    2000-01-01

    Lawn mower-related injuries are fairly common and are usually caused by the mower blades. Burns may also be associated with the use of power lawn mowers. We describe 27 lawn mower-related burn injuries of 24 male patients and 3 female patients. Three of the patients with burn injuries were children. Burn sizes ranged from 1% to 99% of the total body surface area (mean, 18.1%). Two of the patients died. The hospital stay ranged from 1 day to 45 days. Twenty-six injuries involved gasoline, which is frequently associated with refueling accidents. Safety measures should involve keeping children away from lawn mowers that are being used. The proper use and storage of gasoline is stressed. PMID:11020046

  19. Burning wastes in steam boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Feeley, F.G.

    1984-01-01

    A review of the advantages and precautions in the burning of a wide variety of industrial wastes is presented. The reasons for burning industrial wastes are economics and pollution control. The incineration of the following industrial wastes is discussed: pulp cooking liquors, wood wastes, coffee grounds and other biomass, pitch and tars, gases, and miscellaneous solid fuels. Boiler cycles and types are also discussed. (RCK)

  20. Regimes of Helium Burning

    SciTech Connect

    Timmes, F. X.; Niemeyer, J. C.

    2000-07-10

    The burning regimes encountered by laminar deflagrations and Zeldovich von Neumann Doering [ZND] detonations propagating through helium-rich compositions in the presence of buoyancy-driven turbulence are analyzed. Particular attention is given to models of X-ray bursts that start with a thermonuclear runaway on the surface of a neutron star and to the thin-shell helium instability of intermediate-mass stars. In the X-ray burst case, turbulent deflagrations propagating in the lateral or radial direction encounter a transition from the distributed regime to the flamelet regime at a density of {approx}108 g cm-3. In the radial direction, the purely laminar deflagration width is larger than the pressure scale height for densities smaller than {approx}106 g cm-3. Self-sustained laminar deflagrations traveling in the radial direction cannot exist below this density. Similarly, the planar ZND detonation width becomes larger than the pressure scale height at {approx}107 g cm-3, suggesting that steady state, self-sustained detonations cannot come into existence in the radial direction. In the thin helium shell case, turbulent deflagrations traveling in the lateral or radial direction encounter the distributed regime at densities below {approx}107 g cm-3 and the flamelet regime at larger densities. In the radial direction, the purely laminar deflagration width is larger than the pressure scale height for densities smaller than {approx}104 g cm-3, indicating that steady state laminar deflagrations cannot form below this density. The planar ZND detonation width becomes larger than the pressure scale height at {approx}5x10{sup 4} g cm-3, suggesting that steady state, self-sustained detonations cannot come into existence in the radial direction. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society.

  1. Quantitative assessment of graded burn wounds in a porcine model using spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) and laser speckle imaging (LSI)

    PubMed Central

    Ponticorvo, Adrien; Burmeister, David M.; Yang, Bruce; Choi, Bernard; Christy, Robert J.; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and timely assessment of burn wound severity is a critical component of wound management and has implications related to course of treatment. While most superficial burns and full thickness burns are easily diagnosed through visual inspection, burns that fall between these extremes are challenging to classify based on clinical appearance. Because of this, appropriate burn management may be delayed, increasing the risk of scarring and infection. Here we present an investigation that employs spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) and laser speckle imaging (LSI) as non-invasive technologies to characterize in-vivo burn severity. We used SFDI and LSI to investigate controlled burn wounds of graded severity in a Yorkshire pig model. Burn wounds were imaged starting at one hour after the initial injury and daily at approximately 24, 48 and 72 hours post burn. Biopsies were taken on each day in order to correlate the imaging data to the extent of burn damage as indicated via histological analysis. Changes in reduced scattering coefficient and blood flow could be used to categorize burn severity as soon as one hour after the burn injury. The results of this study suggest that SFDI and LSI information have the potential to provide useful metrics for quantifying the extent and severity of burn injuries. PMID:25360365

  2. Acute discrimination between superficial-partial and deep-partial thickness burns in a preclinical model with laser speckle imaging.

    PubMed

    Crouzet, Christian; Nguyen, John Quan; Ponticorvo, Adrien; Bernal, Nicole P; Durkin, Anthony J; Choi, Bernard

    2015-08-01

    A critical need exists for a robust method that enables early discrimination between superficial-partial and deep-partial thickness burn wounds. In this study, we report on the use of laser speckle imaging (LSI), a simple, non-invasive, optical imaging modality, to measure acute blood flow dynamics in a preclinical burn model. We used a heated brass comb to induce burns of varying severity to nine rats and collected raw speckle reflectance images over the course of three hours after burn. We induced a total of 12 superficial-partial and 18 deep-partial thickness burn wounds. At 3h after burn we observed a 28% and 44% decrease in measured blood flow for superficial-partial and deep-partial thickness burns, respectively, and that these reductions were significantly different (p=0.00007). This preliminary data suggests the potential role of LSI in the clinical management of burn wounds. PMID:25814299

  3. Chemical Burn Injury in Kumasi: The Trend and Complications following and Their Management

    PubMed Central

    Akpaloo, Joseph; Chirurgie, Facharzt; Aboah, Ken; Klutsey, Ellen; Hoyte-Williams, Paa Ekow; Farhat, Boutros; Turkson, Edmund; Yorke, Joseph; Chirurgie, Facharzt; Ametih, Richard; Hussey, Romeo

    2015-01-01

    Background: A chemical burn refers to irritation and destruction of human tissue caused by exposure to a chemical, usually by direct contact with the chemical or its fumes. The study investigated the trend and complications following chemical burns and their management. Methods: The study involved a retrospective review of Burns Registry at the Burns Intensive Care Unit of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital on patients who were admitted for burns from May 1, 2009 to April 30, 2013. Results: Chemical burns admissions accounted for 3.5% (n = 17) out of the total 487 burns cases, consisting of 12 males (70.6%) and 5 females (29.4%). Mean total burns surface area was 21.9%; mean length of stay in Burns Intensive Care Unit was 9.5 days. The etiological agents for the chemical burns included the following: hot caustic soda 1 (5.9%); acid 9 (53.9%)—the most common; hot ethanol 3 (17.6%); and other chemicals such as other bases, oxidizers, solvents, etc. accounted for 4 (23.5%) etiological agents. Outcome included 11 discharges (64.7%), 6 transferred out to other wards (35.3%), and 0 deaths (0.0%). The complications included severe scar contractures in 5 patients (29.4%), loss of vision: partial/total = 2 (11.8%), gross keloidal/hypertrophic scars = 10 (58.8%). Conclusions: Chemical burns are severe and often cause severe debilitating sequelae including partial/total loss of vision. But the current study showed that only a small population (3.5%) were affected by chemical burns and no death was recorded; society has to be continually conscious of chemicals, especially caustic agents, and hence take the necessary precautions so as to prevent these avoidable complications. PMID:26579354

  4. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or unburned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  5. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or unburned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  6. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or unburned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  7. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or unburned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  8. Burn plasma transfer induces burn edema in healthy rats.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Thomas; Abé, Dorotheé; Weihrauch, Marc; Peters, Christopher; Gebhardt, Martha Maria; Germann, Guenter; Heitmann, Christoph; Walther, Andreas

    2008-10-01

    Thermal injuries greater than 20% body surface area (BSA) result in systemic shock with generalized edema in addition to local tissue destruction. Burn shock is induced by a variety of mediators, mainly immunomodulative cytokines. This experimental study evaluates if burn shock can be induced in healthy rats by transfer of burn plasma (BP) with mediators. Thermal injury was induced by hot water (100 degrees C water, 12 s, 30% BSA) in male syngenic Wistar rats. Donor rats were killed 4 h posttrauma, and BP was harvested. Burn plasma was transferred to healthy animals by continuous intravenous infusion in three types of dilution (100%, 10%, and 1%). Positive controls were directly examined 4 h after thermal injury, and negative control rats had a continuous infusion done with sham burn (SB) plasma (37 degrees C water, 12 s, 30% BSA). Afterwards, intravital fluorescence microscopy was performed in postcapillary mesenteric venules at 0, 60, and 120 min. Edema formation was assessed by relative changes over time in fluorescence intensity of fluorescein isothiocyanate-albumin in the intravascular versus the extravascular space. The interactions of leucocytes and endothelium were evaluated by quantification of leukocyte sticking. Additionally, microhemodynamic (volumetric blood flow, erythrocyte velocity, venular wall shear rate, venular diameters) and macrohemodynamic parameters (blood pressure, heart frequency, temperature) were assessed online (arterial catheter). For statistics, an ANOVA was performed with Bonferroni adjustment procedure. Differences were considered significant when P < 0.05. There are no statistically significant differences in microhemodynamics or macrohemodynamics between study groups. Burn plasma infusion and thermal injury lead to significant increases in fluorescein isothiocyanate-albumin extravasation, whereas SB plasma shows no significant changes. Even BP diluted in 0.9% saline (10% and 1%) results in a similar transvascular flux of plasma proteins as direct thermal injury. Differences between positive controls and BP infusion are not significant, whereas all groups are statistically different from the SB group (P<0.05). Leukocyte sticking is significantly increased in all groups except the SB group, and the number of adherent leukocytes is dose dependent. The present study demonstrates that as early as 4 h after thermal injury, there are sufficient factors (e.g., cytokines) in BP to induce systemic burn shock in healthy rats even in diluted plasma (1%). However, the "key" cytokines are not identified at this point. The burned tissue is no longer required for burn shock induction, and the pathophysiologic process seems to be self-perpetuating as early as 4 h posttrauma. Leukocytes are activated by thermal injury and BP infusion. The role of leukocyte-endothelium interactions for edema formation remains uncertain and requires further investigation. PMID:18323747

  9. Review of Burn Research for Year 2014.

    PubMed

    Sen, Soman; Palmieri, Tina; Greenhalgh, David

    2015-01-01

    Management of burn injuries requires treatments and interventions from many disciplines. Worldwide, burn patients suffer from physical and psychological challenges that impact their lives socially and economically. In this review, we will highlight a handful of the numerous articles published in multiple areas of burn care. The areas of burn care addressed in the article are: epidemiology; burn resuscitation, critical care, and infection; nutrition and metabolism; pain and rehabilitation; prevention and firefighter safety; psychology; and reconstruction and wounds. PMID:26204384

  10. Severe Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Kouranos, Vasileios; Jacob, Joe; Wells, Athol U

    2015-12-01

    In sarcoidosis, reduction in mortality and the prevention of disability due to major organ involvement are treatment goals. Thus, it is important to recognize severe disease and identify patients at higher risk of progression to severe disease. In this article, fibrotic lung disease and cardiac sarcoidosis are reviewed as the major contributors to sarcoidosis mortality and morbidity. In the absence of a standardized definition of severe pulmonary disease, a multidisciplinary approach to clinical staging is suggested, based on symptoms, pulmonary function tests, and imaging findings at presentation, integrated with the duration of disease and longitudinal disease behavior during early follow-up. PMID:26593144

  11. Radiative heating and erosive burn of a solid propellant subject to electrothermal plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Bourham, M.A.; Gilligan, J.G.

    1996-12-31

    Electrothermal-chemical (ETC) devices have shown a growing interest for possible various applications that exhibit the generation of high density, high enthalpy flows such as military guns. The interaction of electrothermal plasmas with solid or liquid propellants is not clearly understood. Several experiments have been conducted on specific propellants that show either enhanced burn rates or no effect from plasma impinging on the propellant. The question of whether the externally high heat flux produced from the electrothermal plasma will enhance the propellant burn rate, or the burn rate will be limited by the vapor shield at the combustion flame temperature is still unanswered. Erosive burn experiments conducted on JA-2 solid propellant have shown enhanced burn rates through plasma erosion. This paper explores the erosive burn and radiative heating, their implication on the ETC performance, and whether they re sufficient as augmentation and control mechanisms in electrothermal-chemical devices.

  12. Traditional Herbal Remedies for Burn Wound Healing in Canon of Avicenna

    PubMed Central

    Aliasl, Jale; Khoshzaban, Fariba

    2013-01-01

    Burns are a worldwide problem. The incidence of severe burns has been higher than the combined incidence of tuberculosis and HIV infections. Throughout history there have been many different treatments prescribed for burns. The Canon is the masterpiece of Avicenna’s medical books. The Canon includes a description of 785 simple drugs. Avicenna believed in burn treatment, which follows two goals. The first goal is prevention of blistering and the second goal is treatment of the burn wound after it has created blisters, cold drugs are suitable for the first goal and dry drugs with moderate in cold and hot qualities are better for second goal, this study reviewed remedies for burn wounds in Canon.

  13. Burning the Corporate Ladder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowdle, Kurt

    1994-01-01

    Describes several businesses founded by talented, yet jobless, young entrepreneurs. Examines the growing phenomena of student interest in entrepreneurship and its economic and ideological impetus. Owners of one organic foods business describe how they combined their environmental ideals with business expertise. (LZ)

  14. Examining the Correlation between Objective Injury Parameters, Personality Traits, and Adjustment Measures among Burn Victims

    PubMed Central

    Weissman, Oren; Domniz, Noam; Potachnik, Yoel; Gilboa, Dalia; Raviv, Tal; Barzilai, Liran; Farber, Nimrod; Harats, Moti; Winkler, Eyal; Haik, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Background: Burn victims experience immense physical and mental hardship during their process of rehabilitation and regaining functionality. We examined different objective burn-related factors as well as psychological ones, in the form of personality traits that may affect the rehabilitation process and its outcome. Objective: To assess the influence and correlation of specific personality traits and objective injury-related parameters on the adjustment of burn victims post-injury. Methods: Sixty-two male patients admitted to our burn unit due to burn injuries were compared with 36 healthy male individuals by use of questionnaires to assess each group’s psychological adjustment parameters. Multivariate and hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to identify differences between the groups. Results: A significant negative correlation was found between the objective burn injury severity (e.g., total body surface area and burn depth) and the adjustment of burn victims (p?severely injured tend to be more neurotic (p?burn victims tend to adjust better to their post-injury life while the neurotic patients tend to have difficulties adjusting. This finding may suggest new tools for early identification of maladjustment-prone patients and therefore provide them with better psychological support in a more dedicated manner. PMID:25874193

  15. Telemedicine and burns: an overview.

    PubMed

    Atiyeh, B; Dibo, S A; Janom, H H

    2014-06-30

    Access to specialized burn care is becoming more difficult and is being restricted by the decreasing number of specialized burn centers. It is also limited by distance and resources for many patients, particularly those living in poverty or in rural medically underserved communities. Telemedicine is a rapidly evolving technology related to the practice of medicine at a distance through rapid access to remote medical expertise by telecommunication and information technologies. Feasibility of telemedicine in burn care has been demonstrated by various centers. Its use facilitates the delivery of care to patients with burn injuries of all sizes. It allows delivery of acute care and can be appropriately used for a substantial portion of the long-term management of patients after a burn by guiding less-experienced surgeons to treat and follow-up patients more appropriately. Most importantly, it allows better effective triage which reduces unnecessary time and resource demanding referrals that might overwhelm system capacities. However, there are still numerous barriers to the implementation of telemedicine, including technical difficulties, legal uncertainties, limited financial support, reimbursement issues, and an inadequate evidence base of its value and efficiency. PMID:26170782

  16. Chemistry of burning the forest floor during the FROSTFIRE experimental burn, interior Alaska, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, J.W.; Neff, J.C.; Sandberg, D.V.; Turetsky, M.R.; Ottmar, R.; Gleixner, G.; Fries, T.L.; Manies, K.L.

    2004-01-01

    Wildfires represent one of the most common disturbances in boreal regions, and have the potential to reduce C, N, and Hg stocks in soils while contributing to atmospheric emissions. Organic soil layers of the forest floor were sampled before and after the FROSTFIRE experimental burn in interior Alaska, and were analyzed for bulk density, major and trace elements, and organic compounds. Concentrations of carbon, nutrients, and several major and trace elements were significantly altered by the burn. Emissions of C, N, and Hg, estimated from chemical mass balance equations using Fe, Al, and Si as stable constituents, indicated that 500 to 900 g C and up to 0 to 4 ?? 10-4 g Hg/M2 were lost from the site. Calculations of nitrogen loss range from -4 to +6 g/m2 but were highly variable (standard deviation 19), with some samples showing increased N concentrations post-burn potentially from canopy ash. Noncombustible major nutrients such as Ca and K also were inherited from canopy ash. Thermogravimetry indicates a loss of thermally labile C and increase of lignin-like C in char and ash relative to unburned counterparts. Overall, atmospheric impacts of boreal fires include large emissions of C, N and Hg that vary greatly as a function of severe fire weather and its access to deep organic layers rich in C, N, and Hg. In terrestrial systems, burning rearranges the vertical distribution of nutrients in fuels and soils, the proximity of nutrients and permafrost to surface biota, and the chemical composition of soil including its nutrient and organic constituents, all of which impact C cycling. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Flooding after fire: Impacts of the 2013 Colorado Front Range floods on the High Park Fire burn scar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampf, S. K.; Schmeer, S.; MacDonald, L. H.; Brogan, D. J.; Nelson, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    In June 2012, the High Park Fire west of Fort Collins, CO burned 350 km2 of steep forested terrain, leading to elevated runoff and erosion in watersheds draining the burned area. Under the auspices of a NSF RAPID grant we began monitoring precipitation, hillslope-scale sediment production, stream stage, and channel geomorphic change in Skin Gulch and Hill Gulch, two 15 km2 watersheds within the High Park Fire. Short-duration summer thunderstorms are typically the dominant cause of post-fire runoff and erosion in the central and southern Rocky Mountains, but in September 2013 an extreme, long duration storm dropped more than 200 mm of rain in 48 hours. This storm provided a unique opportunity to compare the hydrologic and geomorphic effects of smaller summer thunderstorms to those of the long duration, high magnitude September event. Mean June-August 2013 precipitation in these watersheds was 125 mm, less than half the total for the September 2013 event, but this summer precipitation led to a mean sediment yield of 8 Mg ha-1, about double the mean sediment yield of the much larger September storm. Hillslope sediment production was highest during summer storms that were shorter duration but had higher 5-15 minute precipitation intensities than the September storm. These localized summer 2013 storms led to flashy pulses of flow in the channel network that caused relatively small amounts of channel aggradation or incision. In contrast, the September 2013 event produced sustained high flows that led to substantial geomorphic change throughout the channel network, with more than 2 m of aggradation at the outlet of Skin Gulch. These results indicate that the high intensity summer thunderstorms were most effective at mobilizing sediment from hillslopes, but the more spatially uniform rainfall during the September event produced much more dramatic downstream channel geomorphic change.

  18. Burns during Easter festivities in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Pallantzas, A.; Kourakos, P.; Stampolidis, N.; Papagianni, E.; Balagoura, A.; Stathopoulos, A.; Polizoi, A.; Emvalomata, A.; Evaggelopoulou, M.; Castana, O.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Easter is the most important holiday for the Greek Church. It is rich in traditions and rituals but during the Greek Easter festivities, especially at midnight Mass on Easter Saturday night, it is customary to throw fireworks around. These fireworks are not part of the true Easter tradition and they are potentially fatal. Unfortunately, in the past few years, the custom has become more and more popular in Greece. There are some local variations, mainly in the Aegean islands, where homemade rockets are used to have a “rocket war”. The rockets consist of wooden sticks loaded with an explosive mixture containing gunpowder and launched from special platforms. Many severe injuries involving loss of sight and limbs as well as major burns are also caused by the use of illegal fireworks at Easter. Every year numerous burn victims are hospitalized. The most affected areas are the face, the upper extremities, and the chest, often in association with slight or severe wounds and injuries. This study presents our department’s experience with incidents due to the use of fireworks during Easter festivities. PMID:23766749

  19. Burns during Easter festivities in Greece.

    PubMed

    Pallantzas, A; Kourakos, P; Stampolidis, N; Papagianni, E; Balagoura, A; Stathopoulos, A; Polizoi, A; Emvalomata, A; Evaggelopoulou, M; Castana, O

    2012-12-31

    Easter is the most important holiday for the Greek Church. It is rich in traditions and rituals but during the Greek Easter festivities, especially at midnight Mass on Easter Saturday night, it is customary to throw fireworks around. These fireworks are not part of the true Easter tradition and they are potentially fatal. Unfortunately, in the past few years, the custom has become more and more popular in Greece. There are some local variations, mainly in the Aegean islands, where homemade rockets are used to have a "rocket war". The rockets consist of wooden sticks loaded with an explosive mixture containing gunpowder and launched from special platforms. Many severe injuries involving loss of sight and limbs as well as major burns are also caused by the use of illegal fireworks at Easter. Every year numerous burn victims are hospitalized. The most affected areas are the face, the upper extremities, and the chest, often in association with slight or severe wounds and injuries. This study presents our department's experience with incidents due to the use of fireworks during Easter festivities. PMID:23766749

  20. [Skin allograft, from the donor to the burn patient].

    PubMed

    Gaucher, Sonia; Marchix, Thierry; Jarraya, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Severely burned patients are treated through the use of donor skin or skin allografts. It is a vital treatment. From the donor to the recipient, the process involves numerous procedures which are performed in accordance with ethical and medical safety rules. PMID:22916399

  1. Analyzing and Tracking Burning Structures in Lean Premixed Hydrogen Flames

    E-print Network

    Analyzing and Tracking Burning Structures in Lean Premixed Hydrogen Flames P.-T. Bremer1, G. Weber2 simulation over several hundred time steps. Finally, we discuss a user interface that correlates the tracking of the temporal behavior. We demonstrate our approach by analyzing three numerical simulations of lean hydrogen

  2. Short-term effects of burn season on flowering phenology of savanna plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pavlovic, N.B.; Leicht-Young, S. A.; Grundel, R.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effect of season of burn on flowering phenology of groundlayer species, in the year following burns, in a mesic-sand Midwestern oak savanna. Burn treatments were fall, early-season, growing-season, late-season, and 1 or 5 years after a prior early-season wildfire. For these treatments, we compared the number of flowering stems and of flowers for species overall, for the 20 most prolifically flowering species, as well as for species grouped by flowering phenoperiods, and by growth form. Growing-season burn had a significant negative effect on number of flowering stems and total number of flowers. This effect occurred when either the burn occurred during the flowering season or during the season prior to the flowering phenoperiod. Tradescantia ohiensis showed expedited flowering and Phlox pilosa showed delayed flowering in response to early-season burning. Flowering of early shrubs was reduced by the previous fall and early-spring fires, while flowering of mid-season blooming shrubs was reduced by the early- and growing-season burns. Vaccinium and Gaylussacia, early-flowering shrubs, produced fewer flowers 1 year after than 5 years after an early-season burn. Arabis lyrata showed reduced flowering from the early-season burn. We also found four instances where the early-spring burn effect on flowering was more severe than the fall burn effect, suggesting that many frequent early-season burns may be deleterious to flowering and reproduction of some species. Burns occurring too frequently in the same season could negatively affect future flowering and reproduction of these plant species.

  3. Droplet burning at zero G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, F. A.

    1978-01-01

    Questions of the importance and feasibility of performing experiments on droplet burning at zero gravity in Spacelab were studied. Information on the physics and chemistry of droplet combustion, with attention directed specifically to the chemical kinetics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid mechanics of the phenomena involved, are presented. The work was divided into three phases, the justification, the feasibility, and the conceptual development of a preliminary design. Results from the experiments performed revealed a few new facts concerning droplet burning, notably burning rates in excess of theoretical prediction and a phenomenon of flash extinction, both likely traceable to accumulation of carbon produced by gas-phase pyrolysis in the fuel-rich zone enclosed by the reaction surface. These experiments also showed that they were primarily due to timing difficulties.

  4. Sever's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... after activity. If the child has a pronated foot, a flat or high arch, or another condition that increases the risk of Sever's disease, the doctor might recommend special shoe inserts, called ... goes away on its own when foot growth is complete and the growth plate has ...

  5. Ocular burn from microwaved egg.

    PubMed

    Shukla, P C

    1994-08-01

    Ocular thermal injuries from improper use of a microwave oven are rare. Manufacturers recommend cooking eggs in the microwave only after the shell has been removed and the yolk sac has been pierced with a pin. Failure to follow these instructions is likely to result in ocular and facial burns. Only eight adult cases of such injuries have been documented so far. Ocular burn from the explosion of a microwaved egg in a pediatric patient is being reported for the first time in the English medical literature. PMID:7937303

  6. Conducting a Prescribed Burn and Prescribed Burning Checklist

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grasslands of the central Great Plains developed with periodic fire. Prescribed burning is an important tool for managing grasslands to maintain desirable species composition, increase grazing livestock performance, maintain productivity, and control invasive weeds. The safe and effective use of pre...

  7. Role of burning season on initial understory vegetation response to prescribed fire in a mixed conifer forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knapp, E.E.; Schwilk, D.W.; Kane, J.M.; Keeley, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Although the majority of fires in the western United States historically occurred during the late summer or early fall when fuels were dry and plants were dormant or nearly so, early-season prescribed burns are often ignited when fuels are still moist and plants are actively growing. The purpose of this study was to determine if burn season influences postfire vegetation recovery. Replicated early-season burn, late-season burn, and unburned control units were established in a mixed conifer forest, and understory vegetation was evaluated before and after treatment. Vegetation generally recovered rapidly after prescribed burning. However, late-season burns resulted in a temporary but significant drop in cover and a decline in species richness at the 1 m 2 scale in the following year. For two of the several taxa that were negatively affected by burning, the reduction in frequency was greater after late-season than early-season burns. Early-season burns may have moderated the effect of fire by consuming less fuel and lessening the amount of soil heating. Our results suggest that, when burned under high fuel loading conditions, many plant species respond more strongly to differences in fire intensity and severity than to timing of the burn relative to stage of plant growth. ?? 2007 NRC.

  8. Inpatient peer support for adult burn survivors-a valuable resource: a phenomenological analysis of the Australian experience.

    PubMed

    Kornhaber, R; Wilson, A; Abu-Qamar, M; McLean, L; Vandervord, J

    2015-02-01

    Peer support has long been recognised as an essential component of a supportive network for people facing adversity. In particular, burn survivor peer support is a valuable and credible resource available to those rehabilitating from a severe burn. The aim of this study was to explore burn survivors' experiences of providing and receiving inpatient peer support to develop an in-depth understanding of the influence during the rehabilitation journey. In 2011, twenty-one burn survivors were recruited from four severe burn units across Australia. A qualitative phenomenological methodology was used to construct themes depicting survivors' experiences. Participants were selected through purposeful sampling, and data collected through in-depth individual semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using Colaizzi's phenomenological method of data analysis. Central to burn rehabilitation was the notion of peer support having a significant impact on burn survivors' psychosocial rehabilitation. The emergent theme 'Burn Survivor Peer Support' identified five cluster themes: (1) Encouragement, inspiration and hope (2) Reassurance (3) The Importance of Timing (4) The Same Skin (5) Appropriate Matching. These findings demonstrate that peer support assists with fostering reassurance, hope and motivation in burn rehabilitation. A national network based on a clinician led inpatient burn survivor peer support programme could provide burn survivors across Australia, and in particular remote access locations, with the benefits of peer support necessary to endure the rehabilitation journey. PMID:24927991

  9. Benchmarking Outcomes in the Critically Injured Burn Patient

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Matthew B.; Goverman, Jeremy; Hayden, Douglas L.; Fagan, Shawn P.; McDonald-Smith, Grace P.; Alexander, Andrew K.; Gamelli, Richard L.; Gibran, Nicole S.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Arnoldo, Brett; Wispelwey, Bram; Mindrinos, Michael N.; Xiao, Wenzhong; Honari, Shari E.; Mason, Philip H.; Schoenfeld, David A.; Herndon, David N.; Tompkins, Ronald G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine and compare outcomes with accepted benchmarks in burn care at six academic burn centers. Background Since the 1960s, U.S. morbidity and mortality rates have declined tremendously for burn patients, likely related to improvements in surgical and critical care treatment. We describe the baseline patient characteristics and well-defined outcomes for major burn injuries. Methods We followed 300 adults and 241 children from 2003–2009 through hospitalization using standard operating procedures developed at study onset. We created an extensive database on patient and injury characteristics, anatomic and physiological derangement, clinical treatment, and outcomes. These data were compared with existing benchmarks in burn care. Results Study patients were critically injured as demonstrated by mean %TBSA (41.2±18.3 for adults and 57.8±18.2 for children) and presence of inhalation injury in 38% of the adults and 54.8% of the children. Mortality in adults was 14.1% for those less than 55 years old and 38.5% for those age ?55 years. Mortality in patients less than 17 years old was 7.9%. Overall, the multiple organ failure rate was 27%. When controlling for age and %TBSA, presence of inhalation injury was not significant. Conclusions This study provides the current benchmark for major burn patients. Mortality rates, notwithstanding significant % TBSA and presence of inhalation injury, have significantly declined compared to previous benchmarks. Modern day surgical and medically intensive management has markedly improved to the point where we can expect patients less than 55 years old with severe burn injuries and inhalation injury to survive these devastating conditions. PMID:24722222

  10. [Unusual and fatal type of burn injury: hot air sauna burn].

    PubMed

    García-Tutor, E; Koljonen, V

    2007-01-01

    Sauna bathing is a popular recreational activity in Finland and is generally considered safe even for pregnant women and patients suffering from heart problems; but mixing alcohol with sauna bathing can be hazardous. In the normal Finnish recreational sauna the temperature is usually between 80 and 90 degrees C. A wide variety of burn injuries, in all age groups, are related to sauna bathing; scalds and contact burns account for over 85% while hot air, steam and flame burns for only 15%. Dehydration in patients under the influence of alcohol heightens the risk of hypotension which impairs skin blood circulation. This increased warming of the skin is an effect that is more marked on the outer and upper parts of the body exposed to hot air. Such patients require intensive care on admission: fluid replacement according to the Parkland formula, forced diuresis and immediate correction of acidosis and myoglobinuria. These patients have significant rhabdomyolysis on admission. The best predictor of survival is the creatine kinase level on the second post-injury day. CT scans are necessary to diagnose the underlying conditions of unconsciousness. The necrotic area extends to subcutaneous fat tissue and even to the underlying muscles. The level of excision is typically fascial and, in some areas, layers of the muscle must be removed. Owing to the popularity of sauna bathing throughout the world, it is important to know the extent of damage in this type of injury, in order not to underestimate the severity of such lesions. PMID:17886710

  11. Export of solids and nutrients from burnt areas: effects of fire severity and forest type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrantes, Nelson; Morais, Inês; Silva, Vera; Malvar, Mauxa C.; Prats, Sérgio; Coelho, Celeste; Keizer, Jan J.

    2015-04-01

    In the last few decades, the number of wildfires has markedly increased in Mediterranean Europe, including Portugal. Besides a range of direct impacts, wildfires can significantly alter the geomorphological and hydrological processes during a period commonly referred to as the "window-of-disturbance". It is now increasingly recognized that these indirect wildfire effects depend strongly on fire severity, i.e. the heating-induced changes in vegetation and litter cover as well as in topsoil properties such as infiltration capacity, aggregate stability and soil water repellency. Nonetheless, the exact role of fire severity in post-fire hydrological and erosion processes is still poorly quantified in many parts of the world, including Portugal. Another important gap in fire-related research stills to be the impacts of wildfire on soil fertility losses, in particular through erosion by runoff. Both research gaps were addressed in this study, following a wildfire that took place in July 2013 in Talhadas (Sever do Vouga, Aveiro) and burnt circa 815 ha. In the burnt area and the surrounding unburnt areas, six study sites were selected and, immediately after the fire, instrumented with slope-scale runoff plots. Two of the sites were long-unburnt, two were burnt at low severity and the other two were burnt at high severity; for all of them one being covered by a Eucalyptus globulus plantation and the other by a Pinus pinaster plantation. Following the instrumentation of the sites, runoff was measured at 1- to 2-weekly intervals and, whenever possible, runoff samples were collected for subsequent analysis in the laboratory with respect to total suspended sediments content and total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations. The results obtained in this study showed that the severity of the fire played a more important role in the loss of nutrients and solids than the type of vegetation. While the occurrence of fire markedly increased soil (fertility) losses, this effect was much stronger following a high-severity than low-severity fire. In the case of the pine slope, this effect of fire severity could be attributed to post-fire pine needle cast, with pine needles being scorched by the low-severity fire and being combusted in the high-severity fire. Looking at the temporal evolution, for both pine and eucalyptus slopes, significant exportations of solids as well nutrients were still found 10 months after the fire occurrence (May 2014) . This study highlight the importance of wildfire as a driver for the soil and fertility loss with consequent/potential impacts on surface water quality.

  12. Burn-Resistant, Strong Metal-Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Tayal, Moti J.

    2003-01-01

    Ceramic particulate fillers increase the specific strengths and burn resistances of metals: This is the conclusion drawn by researchers at Johnson Space Center's White Sands Test Facility. The researchers had theorized that the inclusion of ceramic particles in metal tools and other metal objects used in oxygen-rich atmospheres (e.g., in hyperbaric chambers and spacecraft) could reduce the risk of fire and the consequent injury or death of personnel. In such atmospheres, metal objects act as ignition sources, creating fire hazards. However, not all metals are equally hazardous: some are more burn-resistant than others are. It was the researchers purpose to identify a burn-resistant, high-specific-strength ceramic-particle/metal-matrix composite that could be used in oxygen-rich atmospheres. The researchers studied several metals. Nickel and cobalt alloys exhibit high burn resistances and are dense. The researchers next turned to ceramics, which they knew do not act as ignition sources. Unlike metals, ceramics are naturally burn-resistant. Unfortunately, they also exhibit low fracture toughnesses.

  13. Decreases in Soil Moisture and Organic Matter Quality Suppress Microbial Decomposition Following a Boreal Forest Fire

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, Sandra R.; Berhe, Asmeret A.; Treseder, Kathleen K.

    2015-08-01

    Climate warming is projected to increase the frequency and severity of wildfires in boreal forests, and increased wildfire activity may alter the large soil carbon (C) stocks in boreal forests. Changes in boreal soil C stocks that result from increased wildfire activity will be regulated in part by the response of microbial decomposition to fire, but post-fire changes in microbial decomposition are poorly understood. Here, we investigate the response of microbial decomposition to a boreal forest fire in interior Alaska and test the mechanisms that control post-fire changes in microbial decomposition. We used a reciprocal transplant between a recently burned boreal forest stand and a late successional boreal forest stand to test how post-fire changes in abiotic conditions, soil organic matter (SOM) composition, and soil microbial communities influence microbial decomposition. We found that SOM decomposing at the burned site lost 30.9% less mass over two years than SOM decomposing at the unburned site, indicating that post-fire changes in abiotic conditions suppress microbial decomposition. Our results suggest that moisture availability is one abiotic factor that constrains microbial decomposition in recently burned forests. In addition, we observed that burned SOM decomposed more slowly than unburned SOM, but the exact nature of SOM changes in the recently burned stand are unclear. Finally, we found no evidence that post-fire changes in soil microbial community composition significantly affect decomposition. Taken together, our study has demonstrated that boreal forest fires can suppress microbial decomposition due to post-fire changes in abiotic factors and the composition of SOM. Models that predict the consequences of increased wildfires for C storage in boreal forests may increase their predictive power by incorporating the observed negative response of microbial decomposition to boreal wildfires.

  14. Burning Plasma Developments Presented to

    E-print Network

    SAC Recommendation on Burning Plasma Experiment* 5) Solid support within a broad scientific community for US will be required. The US scientific community needs to take the lead in articulating the goals of an achievable positioned strategically as a science program, advocacy by the larger scientific community for the next US

  15. Deepwater Horizon Controlled Oil Burn

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    OFF THE LOUISIANA COAST — A controlled burn of oil from the Deepwater Horizon/BP oil spill sends towers of fire hundreds of feet into the air over the Gulf of Mexico. U.S. Coast Guard Photo by Petty Officer First Class John Masson....

  16. Burning Mouth Syndrome and Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Dahiya, Parveen; Kamal, Reet; Kumar, Mukesh; Niti; Gupta, Rajan; Chaudhary, Karun

    2013-01-01

    Menopause is a physiological process typically occurring in the fifth decade of life. One of the most annoying oral symptoms in this age group is the burning mouth syndrome (BMS), which may be defined as an intraoral burning sensation occurring in the absence of identifiable oral lesion or laboratory findings. Pain in burning mouth syndrome may be described as burning, tender, tingling, hot, scalding, and numb sensation in the oral mucosa. Multiple oral sites may be involved, but the anterior two-third part and the tip of tongue are most commonly affected site. There is no definite etiology for BMS other than the precipitating causative factors, and it is still considered idiopathic. Various treatment options like use of benzodiazepine, anti-depressants, analgesics, capsaicin, alpha lipoic acids, and cognitive behavioral therapy are found to be effective, but definite treatment is still unknown. The present article discusses some of the recent concepts of etiopathogenesis of BMS as well as the role of pharmacotherapeutic management in this disorder. PMID:23411996

  17. Burning mouth syndrome and menopause.

    PubMed

    Dahiya, Parveen; Kamal, Reet; Kumar, Mukesh; Niti; Gupta, Rajan; Chaudhary, Karun

    2013-01-01

    Menopause is a physiological process typically occurring in the fifth decade of life. One of the most annoying oral symptoms in this age group is the burning mouth syndrome (BMS), which may be defined as an intraoral burning sensation occurring in the absence of identifiable oral lesion or laboratory findings. Pain in burning mouth syndrome may be described as burning, tender, tingling, hot, scalding, and numb sensation in the oral mucosa. Multiple oral sites may be involved, but the anterior two-third part and the tip of tongue are most commonly affected site. There is no definite etiology for BMS other than the precipitating causative factors, and it is still considered idiopathic. Various treatment options like use of benzodiazepine, anti-depressants, analgesics, capsaicin, alpha lipoic acids, and cognitive behavioral therapy are found to be effective, but definite treatment is still unknown. The present article discusses some of the recent concepts of etiopathogenesis of BMS as well as the role of pharmacotherapeutic management in this disorder. PMID:23411996

  18. Charring temperatures are driven by the fuel types burned in a peatland wildfire

    PubMed Central

    Hudspith, Victoria A.; Belcher, Claire M.; Yearsley, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    Peatlands represent a globally important carbon store; however, the human exploitation of this ecosystem is increasing both the frequency and severity of fires on drained peatlands. Yet, the interactions between the hydrological conditions (ecotopes), the fuel types being burned, the burn severity, and the charring temperatures (pyrolysis intensity) remain poorly understood. Here we present a post-burn assessment of a fire on a lowland raised bog in Co. Offaly, Ireland (All Saints Bog). Three burn severities were identified in the field (light, moderate, and deeply burned), and surface charcoals were taken from 17 sites across all burn severities. Charcoals were classified into two fuel type categories (either ground or aboveground fuel) and the reflectance of each charcoal particle was measured under oil using reflectance microscopy. Charcoal reflectance shows a positive relationship with charring temperature and as such can be used as a temperature proxy to reconstruct minimum charring temperatures after a fire event. Resulting median reflectance values for ground fuels are 1.09 ± 0.32%Romedian, corresponding to estimated minimum charring temperatures of 447°C ± 49°C. In contrast, the median charring temperatures of aboveground fuels were found to be considerably higher, 646°C ± 73°C (3.58 ± 0.77%Romedian). A mixed-effects modeling approach was used to demonstrate that the interaction effects of burn severity, as well as ecotope classes, on the charcoal reflectance is small compared to the main effect of fuel type. Our findings reveal that the different fuel types on raised bogs are capable of charring at different temperatures within the same fire, and that the pyrolysis intensity of the fire on All Saints Bog was primarily driven by the fuel types burning, with only a weak association to the burn severity or ecotope classes. PMID:25566288

  19. Scald burns in young children--a review of Arizona burn center pediatric patients and a proposal for prevention in the Hispanic community.

    PubMed

    Rimmer, Ruth B; Weigand, Shannon; Foster, Kevin N; Wadsworth, Michelle M; Jacober, Katie; Matthews, Marc R; Drachman, David; Caruso, Daniel M

    2008-01-01

    Arizona Burn Center staff observed an increasing number of pediatric scald burn admissions. Therefore, a retrospective study was conducted to identify scald demographics and etiologies. Focus groups were subsequently conducted to determine burn prevention knowledge in the target community. Arizona Burn Center scald admission variables (ages 0-5 years) reviewed included age, sex, ethnicity, TBSA, body parts burned, occurrence month and location, caregiver present, child and caregiver activities when injured, payor source, length of stay, parental language, and zip code. High-risk zip code area focus groups were then conducted. There were a total of 170 pediatric patients, aged 0 to 5 years, admitted to the burn center during 2005 to 2006. Of this total, 124 of the patients were admitted for scald burns, accounting for 59% of all pediatric burn admissions. Scald burn patient's demographics included male (52%), female (48%) with a mean age of 1.7 years. Majority ethnicity was Hispanic (63%). The mean TBSA was 8% with mean length of stay of 8 days. The remaining pediatric admissions for children aged 0 to 5 were for burns caused by fire or flame 15%, contact with a hot object 13%, friction burns 7%, chemical burns 3%, and electrical burns 3%. Demographics for the combined etiologies included an identical sex breakdown with male (52%) and female (48%). The majority ethnicity in the nonscald group was also Hispanic at 59% with a mean length of stay of 7 days and an average TBSA of 9.5%. Main etiologies of scald burns included hot water (25%), soup (24%), and coffee or tea (21%). Most common child behaviors were pulling hot substance from stove (24%), from countertop (13%), and having liquid spilled on them (13%) typically while caregiver was cooking. Mean TBSA was 8% with mean length of stay (8 days). Scalds occurred in the kitchen (83%) and mainly in child's home (94%). Mother was primary caregiver (78%). Payor source was Medicaid (86%) and the average admission cost was dollars 60,075. Only 36% of parents spoke Spanish as their primary language. Scalds (43%) usually occurred during year's first quarter (P < .001). Focus group participants (85%) reported receiving no prior burn prevention education and preferred to receive prevention instruction in small groups through established community agencies. Results suggest that culturally sensitive, bilingual scald prevention education, targeting Hispanics, is needed to create awareness of the frequency, severity, and danger associated with pediatric scalds. PMID:18535476

  20. [Severe Asthma].

    PubMed

    Hagmeyer, Lars; Randerath, Winfried J

    2015-10-01

    The European Respiratory Society and the American Thoracic Society recently published the international ERS/ATS guidelines on definition, evaluation and treatment of severe asthma. It is aim of the guideline to establish standardized diagnostic criteria and to develop evidence based diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. In the diagnostic approach verifying the diagnosis of asthma and identifying comorbidities and contributing factors are very important. In the therapeutic guidance of asthma patients steroid insensitivity and overdosage of betamimetic inhaler therapy are typical challenges. Novel therapeutic strategies open the perspective to personalized therapy in asthma. PMID:26445257

  1. Monitoring Soil Erosion of a Burn Site in the Central Basin and Range Ecoregion: Final Report on Measurements at the Gleason Fire Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Julianne; Etyemezian, Vicken; Shillito, Rose; Cablk, Mary; Fenstermaker, Lynn; Shafer, David

    2013-10-01

    The increase in wildfires in arid and semi-arid parts of Nevada and elsewhere in the southwestern United States has implications for post-closure management and long-term stewardship for Soil Corrective Action Units (CAUs) on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) for which the Nevada Field Office of the United States Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration has responsibility. For many CAUs and Corrective Action Sites, where closure-in-place alternatives are now being implemented or considered, there is a chance that these sites could burn over at some time while they still pose a risk to the environment or human health, given the long half lives of some of the radionuclide contaminants. This study was initiated to examine the effects and duration of wildfire on wind and water erodibility on sites analogous to those that exist on the NNSS. The data analyzed herein were gathered at the prescribed Gleason Fire site near Ely, Nevada, a site comparable to the northern portion of the NNSS. Quantification of wind erosion was conducted with a Portable In-Situ Wind ERosion Lab (PI-SWERL) on unburned soils, and on interspace and plant understory soils within the burned area. The PI-SWERL was used to estimate emissions of suspendible particles (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than or equal to 10 micrometers) at different wind speeds. Filter samples, collected from the exhaust of the PI-SWERL during measurements, were analyzed for chemical composition. Based on nearly three years of data, the Gleason Fire site does not appear to have returned to pre burn wind erosion levels. Chemical composition data of suspendible particles are variable and show a trend toward pre-burn levels, but provide little insight into how the composition has been changing over time since the fire. Soil, runoff, and sediment data were collected from the Gleason Fire site to monitor the water erosion potential over the nearly three-year period. Soil hydrophobicity (water repellency) was noted on burned understory soils up to 12 months after the fire, as was the presence of ash on the soil surface. Soil deteriorated from a strong, definable pre-fire structure to a weakly cohesive mass (unstructured soil) immediately after the fire. Surface soil structure was evident 34 months after the fire at both burned and unburned sites, but was rare and weaker at burned sites. The amount of runoff and sediment was highly variable, but runoff occurred more frequently at burned interspace sites compared to burned understory and unburned interspace sites up to 34 months after the burn. No discernible pattern was evident on the amount of sediment transported, but the size of sediment from burned understory sites was almost double that of burned and unburned interspace soils after the fire, and decreased over the monitoring period. Curve numbers, a measure of the runoff potential, did not indicate any obvious runoff response to the fire. However, slight seasonal changes in curve numbers and runoff potential and, therefore, post-fire runoff response may be a function of fire impacts as well as the time of year that precipitation occurs. Site (interspace or understory) differences in soil properties and runoff persisted even after the fire. Vegetation data showed the presence of invasive grasses after the fire. Results from analysis of wind and water coupled with the spatial analysis of vegetation suggest that wind erosion may continue to occur due to the additional exposed soil surface (burned understory sites) until vegetation becomes re-established, and runoff may occur more frequently in interspace sites. The potential for fire-related wind erosion and water erosion may persist beyond three years in this system.

  2. Burning Rate Emulator - Duration: 16 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Burning Rate Emulator is a gas fuel investigation attempting to emulate the burning of solids to improve our understanding of materials''flammability over a wide range of conditions. The approa...

  3. Aging and the Pathogenic Response to Burn

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Meenakshi; Schwacha, Martin G.

    2012-01-01

    Aging is an important and critical factor that contributes to the clinical outcome of burn patients. The very young and the elderly are more likely to succumb after major burn as compared to their adult counterparts. With the aging population, improved understanding of the mechanisms underlying age-associated complications after burns becomes even more demanding. It is widely accepted that elderly burn patients have significantly increased morbidity and mortality. Irrespective of the type of burn injury, the aged population shows slower recoveries and suffers more complications. Age-associated immune dysfunction, immunosenescence, may predispose the elderly burn patients to more infections, slower healing and/or to other complications. Furthermore, pre-existing, age-related medical conditions such as, pulmonary/cardiovascular dysfunctions and diabetes in the elderly are other important factors that contribute to their poorer outcomes after major burn. The present review describes the impact of aging on burn patients outcomes. PMID:22724078

  4. Beneficial Effects of Hydrogen-Rich Saline on Early Burn-Wound Progression in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Song Xue; Jin, Yun Yun; Fang, Quan; You, Chuan Gang; Wang, Xin Gang; Hu, Xin Lei; Han, Chun-Mao

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Deep burn wounds undergo a dynamic process known as wound progression that results in a deepening and extension of the initial burn area. The zone of stasis is more likely to develop more severe during wound progression in the presence of hypoperfusion. Hydrogen has been reported to alleviate injury triggered by ischaemia/reperfusion and burns in various organs by selectively quenching oxygen free radicals. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective effects of hydrogen against early burn-wound progression. Methods Deep-burn models were established through contact with a boiled, rectangular, brass comb for 20 s. Fifty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham, burn plus saline, and burn plus hydrogen-rich saline (HS) groups with sacrifice and analysis at various time windows (6 h, 24 h, 48 h) post burn. Indexes of oxidative stress, apoptosis and autophagy were measured in each group. The zone of stasis was evaluated using immunofluorescence staining, ELISA, and Western blot to explore the underlying effects and mechanisms post burn. Results The burn-induced increase in malondialdehyde was markedly reduced with HS, while the activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes were significantly increased. Moreover, HS treatment attenuated increases in apoptosis and autophagy postburn in wounds, according to the TUNEL staining results and the expression analysis of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, Beclin-1 and Atg-5 proteins. Additionally, HS lowered the level of myeloperoxidase and expression of TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 in the zone of stasis while augmenting IL-10. The elevated levels of Akt phosphorylation and NF-?B p65 expression post burn were also downregulated by HS management. Conclusion Hydrogen can attenuate early wound progression following deep burn injury. The beneficial effect of hydrogen was mediated by attenuating oxidative stress, which inhibited apoptosis and inflammation, and the Akt/NF-?B signalling pathway may be involved in regulating the release of inflammatory cytokines. PMID:25874619

  5. Uncoupling protein 3 expression and intramyocellular lipid accumulation by NMR following local burn trauma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qunhao; Cao, Haihui; Astrakas, Loukas G; Mintzopoulos, Dionyssios; Mindrinos, Michael N; Schulz, John; Tompkins, Ronald G; Rahme, Laurence G; Tzika, A Aria

    2006-12-01

    Burn trauma is a clinical condition accompanied by muscle wasting that severely impedes rehabilitation in burn survivors. Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is uniformly expressed in myoskeletal mitochondria and its expression has been found to increase in other clinical syndromes that, like burn trauma, are associated with muscle wasting (e.g., starvation, fasting, cancer, sepsis). The aim of this study was to explore the effects of burn trauma on UCP3 expression, intramyocellular lipids, and plasma-free fatty acids. Mice were studied at 6 h, 1 d and 3 d after nonlethal hindlimb burn trauma. Intramyocellular lipids in hindlimb skeletal muscle samples collected from burned and normal mice were measured using 1H NMR spectroscopy on a Bruker 14.1 Tesla spectrometer at 4 degrees C. UCP3 mRNA and protein levels were also measured in these samples. Plasma-free fatty acids were measured in burned and normal mice. Local burn trauma was found to result in: 1) upregulation of UCP3 mRNA and protein expression in hindlimb myoskeletal mitochondria by 6 h postburn; 2) increased intramyocellular lipids; and 3) increased plasma-free fatty acids. Our findings show that the increase in UCP3 after burn trauma may be linked to burn-induced alterations in lipid metabolism. Such a link could reveal novel insights into how processes related to energy metabolism are controlled in burn and suggest that induction of UCP3 by burn in skeletal muscle is protective by either activating cellular redox signaling and/or mitochondrial uncoupling. PMID:17089030

  6. Spectral hole burning studies of photosystem II

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, H.C.

    1995-11-01

    Low temperature absorption and hole burning spectroscopies were applied to the D1-D2-cyt b{sub 559} and the CP47 and CP43 antenna protein complexes of Photosystem H from higher plants. Low temperature transient and persistent hole-burning data and theoretical calculations on the kinetics and temperature dependence of the P680 hole profile are presented and provide convincing support for the linker model. Implicit in the linker model is that the 684-nm-absorbing Chl a serve to shuttle energy from the proximal antenna complex to reaction center. The stoichiometry of isolated Photosystem H Reaction Center (PSII RC) in several different preparations is also discussed. The additional Chl a are due to 684-nm-absorbing Chl a, some contamination by the CP47 complex, and non-native Chl a absorbing near 670 nm. In the CP47 protein complex, attention is focused on the lower energy chlorophyll a Q{sub y}-states. High pressure hole-burning studies of PSII RC revealed for the first time a strong pressure effect on the primary electron transfer dynamics. The 4.2 K lifetime of P680*, the primary donor state, increases from 2.0 ps to 7.0 ps as pressure increases from 0.1 to 267 MPa. Importantly, this effect is irreversible (plastic) while the pressure induced effect on the low temperature absorption and non-line narrowed P680 hole spectra are reversible (elastic). Nonadiabatic rate expressions, which take into account the distribution of energy gap values, are used to estimate the linear pressure shift of the acceptor state energy for both the superexchange and two-step mechanisms for primary charge separation. It was found that the pressure dependence could be explained with a linear pressure shift of {approximately} 1 cm{sup -1}/MPa in magnitude for the acceptor state. The results point to the marriage of hole burning and high pressures as having considerable potential for the study of primary transport dynamics in reaction centers and antenna complexes.

  7. Extensive Burn Scars in Russia's Amur Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Vast areas of southeastern Russia have been scorched by fires over the last few weeks. All across Siberia fires have been raging, and this Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 15, 2002, shows extensive, dark burn scars along with actively burning fires (red dots) on the north side of the Amur River, which separates Russia (north) and China (south). The southern Amur region is largely devoted to farming and other agriculture, and these fires may have been set intentionally to prepare the land for the growing season. Fire is often used to clear land of unwanted vegetation, and to return the nutrients stored in vegetation back to the soil. However, fires that are too frequent or severe can devastate the soil, eventually making it unsuitable for farming or grazing. Fires can also escape control and spread into protected areas. In this image, fires are mostly concentrated in a lowland area within the drainage basin of the Zeya River, which drains from the frozen lake at the top of the image. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  8. Transdermal Nicotine Application Attenuates Cardiac Dysfunction after Severe Thermal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Claassen, Leif; Papst, Stephan; Reimers, Kerstin; Stukenborg-Colsman, Christina; Steinstraesser, Lars; Vogt, Peter M.; Kraft, Theresia; Niederbichler, Andreas D.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Severe burn trauma leads to an immediate and strong inflammatory response inciting cardiac dysfunction that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine whether transdermal application of nicotine could influence the burn-induced cardiac dysfunction via its known immunomodulatory effects. Material and Methods. A standardized rat burn model was used in 35 male Sprague Dawley rats. The experimental animals were divided into a control group, a burn trauma group, a burn trauma group with additional nicotine treatment, and a sham group with five experimental animals per group. The latter two groups received nicotine administration. Using microtip catheterization, functional parameters of the heart were assessed 12 or 24 hours after infliction of burn trauma. Results. Burn trauma led to significantly decreased blood pressure (BP) values whereas nicotine administration normalized BP. As expected, burn trauma also induced a significant deterioration of myocardial contractility and relaxation parameters. After application of nicotine these adverse effects were attenuated. Conclusion. The present study showed that transdermal nicotine administration has normalizing effects on burn-induced myocardial dysfunction parameters. Further research is warranted to gain insight in molecular mechanisms and pathways and to evaluate potential treatment options in humans. PMID:26290866

  9. Diabetic foot burns: a case series.

    PubMed

    Nerone, Vincent S; Springer, Kevin D; Atway, Said A

    2014-01-01

    Burn injury in diabetic patients has been a recent topic of interest in published studies. Previous studies have shown increased complications in diabetic patients compared with nondiabetic controls who have sustained these injuries. A paucity of research has been devoted to foot-specific diabetic burn injury. We present a case series evaluating the mechanisms and complications of diabetic foot burns. PMID:24746533

  10. INTERACTIVE SIMULATION OF FIRE, BURN AND DECOMPOSITION

    E-print Network

    Keyser, John

    This work presents an approach to effectively integrate into one unified modular fire simulation framework- mentation can model fire, objects catching fire, burning objects, decomposition of burning objectsINTERACTIVE SIMULATION OF FIRE, BURN AND DECOMPOSITION A Dissertation by ZEKI MELEK Submitted

  11. Schoenberg, Chang, Pompa, Woods, Xu. Burning Index. 1 RH: Burning index in Los Angeles

    E-print Network

    Schoenberg, Frederic Paik (Rick)

    Schoenberg, Chang, Pompa, Woods, Xu. Burning Index. 1 RH: Burning index in Los Angeles A Critical-794-5193; email: frederic@stat.ucla.edu #12;Schoenberg, Chang, Pompa, Woods, Xu. Burning Index. 2 Abstract), and the USA the National Fire Danger Rating System (NFDRS). #12;Schoenberg, Chang, Pompa, Woods, Xu. Burning

  12. Schoenberg, Chang, Keeley, Pompa, Woods, Xu. Burning Index. 1 RH: Burning index in Los Angeles

    E-print Network

    Schoenberg, Frederic Paik (Rick)

    Schoenberg, Chang, Keeley, Pompa, Woods, Xu. Burning Index. 1 RH: Burning index in Los Angeles-794-5193; email: frederic@stat.ucla.edu #12;Schoenberg, Chang, Keeley, Pompa, Woods, Xu. Burning Index. 2 Abstract A Critical Assessment of the Burning Index in Los Angeles County, California Frederic Paik Schoenberg

  13. Surgical management of burn flexion and extension contractures of the toes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jessica B; Kung, Theodore A; Levi, Benjamin; Irwin, Todd; Kadakia, Anish; Cederna, Paul S

    2014-01-01

    Burn contracture of the toes is a devastating sequela of thermal injury to the foot. Without proper treatment of toe burn contractures, patients suffer from significant functional and social limitations, including difficulties with activities of daily living. The authors classify the severity of toe burn scar contractures (TBSCs) by considering important characteristics of the deformity and tailor definitive surgical treatment based on the individual needs of the patient's condition. A retrospective review was performed on 20 patients who underwent a total of 32 reconstructive operations involving 275 TBSC procedures from 2000 to 2010. Multiple clinical, functional, and anatomic criteria were used to describe each patient's contracture as mild, moderate, or severe. Mild TBSC involved scarring of the superficial tissues only with no functional impairment; these were treated with scar release or local tissue rearrangement. Moderate TBSC involved soft tissue shortages requiring skin grafts and occasional closed joint capsulotomy. Severe TBSC caused the greatest impairment in function and involved burn injury to deeper structures. For these difficult contractures, a patient-specific technique was paramount to optimal reconstruction. There were six, three, and 11 patients with mild, moderate, and severe TBSC, respectively. The mean number of primary procedures per toe increased with increasing burn complexity from 1.1 procedures for mild, 1.5 for moderate, and 1.8 for severe groups, with severe TBSC undergoing more primary procedures overall (13.7 in severe vs 2.8 in mild TBSC). Complication rates per toe were highest for severe TBSC (59.0%). Only severe TBSC received secondary operations, and overall contracture recurrence was 35%. An individualized surgical approach based on TBSC severity is recommended for addressing burn contracture of the toes. Careful analysis of the clinical, functional, and anatomic characteristics of the burned foot determines the severity of each toe contracture and dictates the interventions necessary for reconstruction. PMID:24390110

  14. Exploration of the effects of burn parameters on THz wound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajwa, Neha; Sung, Shijun; Fishbein, Michael; Grundfest, Warren S.; Taylor, Zachary D.

    2015-08-01

    The high contrast resolution afforded by terahertz (1 THz = 1012 Hz) imaging of physiologic tissue continues to drive explorations into the utility of THz technology for burn wound detection. Although we have previously reported the use of a novel, reflective THz imaging technology to sense spatiotemporal differences in reflectivity between partial and full thickness burn wounds, no evidence exists of a one-to-one correlation between structural damage observed in histological assessments of burn severity and THz signal. For example, varying burn induction methods may all result in a common burn wound severity, however, burn features observed in parallel THz imagery may not be identical. Successful clinical translation of THz technology as a comprehensive burn guidance tool, therefore, necessitates an understanding of THz signal and its relation to wound pathophysiology. In this work, longitudinal THz imagery was acquired with a quartz (n = 2.1, 500 ?m) window of cutaneous wounds induced with the same brand geometry and contact pressure but varying contact times (5, 7, and 10 seconds) in in vivo, pre-clinical rat models (n=3) over a period of 3 days. Though all burn wounds were evaluated to be deep partial thickness with histology, THz contrasts observed for each burn contact time were intrinsically unique. This is the first preliminary in vivo evidence of a many-to-one relationship between changes in THz contrast and burn severity as ascertained by histology. Future large-scale studies are required to assess whether these observed changes in THz contrast may be interpreted as physiological changes occurring over time, morphometric changes related to anatomical change, or electromagnetic changes between dielectric substrate windows and the underlying tissue.

  15. Tissue expansion for burn sequelae: Jeitawe Burn Center, Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Ghanime, G; Rizkallah, N; Said, J M

    2011-06-30

    Burn sequelae used to be treated with skin grafts and local or distant flaps with a high morbidity on the donor site. The purpose of treatment today by skin expansion is to achieve aesthetic amelioration, as the advantage of this technique is that it becomes possible to obtain local flaps with the same characteristics of colour, texture, hair, and sensitivity as normal skin. This is a review of 14 cases of burn patients treated between 2006 and 2010 at our burn centre at Jeitawe Hospital, Lebanon. The patients' ages ranged from 6 to 50 yr. The regions expanded were the scalp, forehead, neck, trunk, and the upper and lower limbs. The implants were positioned on the fascial layer; antibiotics and drainage were routinely used. The inflation of the expander began two weeks after surgery and continued for an average time of three months. Complications were rare. Results were good with an improvement of scars and minimal morbidity. Fifty per cent of our patients underwent another expansion. PMID:22262964

  16. [Treatment of sequelae of burns in children].

    PubMed

    Poiret, G; Guerreschi, P; Maillet, M; de Broucker, V; Gottrand, L; Pellerin, P; Duquennoy-Martinot, V

    2011-10-01

    Burn sequelae in children are conveyed in the form of retraction, deformity and growth problems together with dyschromia and trophic disorders. All the plastic surgical procedures can be used to correct them: full thickness or split thickness skin grafts, Z plasty and its derivatives (trident plasty, IC flaps), expansion, flaps, artificial skin, and dermabrasion. In most cases, these procedures will be combined. The aim of surgical treatment coordinated with rehabilitation is to restore the function, correct the deformities induced, improve the morphological aspect and permit normal growth. Good knowledge of the paediatric environment is, however, required to cope with the specificities of the child: treat the severe local inflammation, get the family to participate in the projects of rehabilitation, sometimes with the help of social services, maintain normal schooling, accompany the disorders in body schema, and, finally, prolong follow-up until growth is complete, a challenge in these patients who are often very young at the time of the accident. PMID:21907480

  17. Emissions from Biomass Burning in the Yucatan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yokelson, R.; Crounse, J. D.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Karl, T.; Urbanski, S.; Atlas, E.; Campos, T.; Shinozuka, Y.; Kapustin, V.; Clarke, A. D.; Weinheimer, A.; Knapp, D. J.; Montzka, D. D.; Holloway, J.; Weibring, P.; Flocke, F.; Zheng, W.; Toohey, D.; Wennberg, P. O.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Mauldin, L.; Fried, A.; Richter, D.; Walega, J.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2009-01-01

    In March 2006 two instrumented aircraft made the first detailed field measurements of biomass burning (BB) emissions in the Northern Hemisphere tropics as part of the MILAGRO project. The aircraft were the National Center for Atmospheric Research C-130 and a University of Montana/US Forest Service Twin Otter. The initial emissions of up to 49 trace gas or particle species were measured from 20 deforestation and crop residue fires on the Yucatan peninsula. This included two trace gases useful as indicaters of BB (HCN and acetonitrile) and several rarely, or never before, measured species: OH, peroxyacetic acid, propanoic acid, hydrogen peroxide, methane sulfonic acid, and sulfuric acid. Crop residue fires emitted more organic acids and ammonia than deforestation fires, but the emissions from the main fire types were otherwise fairly similar. The Yucatan fires emitted unusually amounts of SO2 and particle chloride, likely due to a strong marine influence on the peninsula.

  18. Experimental research on the management of combined radiation-burn injury in China.

    PubMed

    Ran, Xin-Ze; Shi, Chun-Meng; Zheng, Huai-En; Su, Yong-Ping; Cheng, Tian-Min

    2011-03-01

    Combined radiation-burn injury can occur in people exposed to nuclear explosions, nuclear accidents or radiological terrorist attacks. Using different combined radiation-burn injury animal models, the pathological mechanisms underlying combined radiation-burn injury and effective medical countermeasures have been explored for several years in China, mainly at our institute. Targeting key features of combined radiation-burn injury, several countermeasures have been developed. Fluid transfusion and the calcium antagonist verapamil can prevent early shock and improve myocardial function after combined radiation-burn injury. Recombinant human interleukin 4 (rhIL-4) is able to effectively reduce bacterial infection and increase intestinal immunological ability. Chitosan-wrapped human defensin 5 (HD5) and glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) nanoparticles can increase the average survival time of animals with severe combined radiation-burn injury. After treatment by cervical sympathetic ganglia block (SB), hematopoietic function is promoted and the release of inflammatory cytokines is suppressed. The optimal time for escharectomy and allo-skin grafting is 24 h after injury. Transfusion of irradiated (20 Gy) or stored (4°C, 7 days) blood improves the survival of allo-skin grafting and allo-bone marrow cells. In conclusion, as our understanding of the mechanisms of combined radiation-burn injury has progressed, new countermeasures have been developed for its treatment. Because of the complexity of its pathology and the difficulty in clinical management, further efforts are needed to improve the treatment of this kind of injury. PMID:21388282

  19. Isolated Chemical Burns to the Genitalia

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Razek, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    Summary Perineal or genital burns are mostly part of large body surface injuries, and isolated burns to the genitalia are not common. Nevertheless, they are of major concern to the patient and clinician. Highly concentrated solutions of sulphuric acid are available to unclog drains. We have noted a substantial number of both accidental and intentional cutaneous burns caused by these agents and we therefore conducted a study on the incidence and treatment of isolated chemical burns in the genitalia. The study was performed in the Burns Unit, King Saud Hospital, Al-Qassim, Kingdom Saudi Arabia, from April 2001 to December 2004. During this period we received 12 patients with isolated chemical burns in the genitalia, representing 3.4% of all cases of burns treated between 2001 and 2004 (350 patients with different causes and variable percentages of burns). Of these 12 patients, 11 were males and one female. The patients' ages ranged from 9 to 75 yr. The mean burn size was 2% of the total body surface area. The cause of the burn injury was sulphuric acid, which is famous in this area for water closet cleaning. Eight patients (66.7%) required skin grafting, one healed with minimal scarring, and three (25%) healed with minimal contractures treated with multiple Z-plasty. We concluded that conservative management of perineal and genital chemical burns was recommended until the demarcation zone became clear. Split-thickness skin grafts were durable, safe, and technically easy, with satisfactory cosmetic and functional results. PMID:21991041

  20. Game-based mass casualty burn training.

    PubMed

    Kurenov, Sergei N; Cance, William W; Noel, Ben; Mozingo, David W

    2009-01-01

    An interactive, video game-based training module, Burn Center, was developed to simulate the real-life emergency events of a mass casualty disaster scenario, involving in 40 victims.The game contains two components - triage and resuscitation. The goal of the triage game is to correctly stabilize, sort, tag and transport burn victims during a mass casualty event at a busy theme park. After complete the triage component, the player will then take on the role of a burn care provider, balancing the clinical needs of multiple burn patients through a 36-hour resuscitation period, using familiar computer-simulated hospital devices. Once complete, players of Burn Center will come away with applicable skills and knowledge of burn care, for both field triage and initial resuscitation of the burn patients. PMID:19377134

  1. Pre-hospital care in burn injury

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Prabhat; Goel, Arun

    2010-01-01

    The care provided to the victims of burn injury immediately after sustaining burns can largely affect the extent and depth of the wound. Although standard guidelines have been formulated by various burn associations, they are still not well known to public at large in our country. In burn injuries, most often, the bystanders are the first care providers. The swift implementation of the measures described in this article for first aid in thermal, chemical, electrical and inhalational injuries in the practical setting, within minutes of sustaining the burn, plays a vital role and can effectively reduce the morbidity and mortality to a great extent. In case of burn disasters, triage needs to be carried out promptly as per the defined protocols. Proper communication and transport from the scene of the accident to the primary care centre and onto the burn care facility greatly influences the execution of the management plans PMID:21321651

  2. Nanofiber applications for burn care.

    PubMed

    Hromadka, Michael; Collins, James B; Reed, Courtney; Han, Li; Kolappa, Kamal K; Cairns, Bruce A; Andrady, Tony; van Aalst, John A

    2008-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a growing field of manufactured materials with sizes less than 1 mum, and it is particularly useful in the field of medicine because these applications replicate components of a cell's in vivo environment. Nanofibers, which mimic collagen fibrils in the extracellular matrix (ECM), can be created from a host of natural and synthetic compounds and have multiple properties that may be beneficial to burn wound care. These properties include a large surface-area-to-volume ratio, high porosity, improved cell adherence, proliferation and migration, and controlled in vivo degradation rates. The large surface area of nanofiber mats allows for increased interaction with compounds and provides a mechanism for sustained release of antibiotics, analgesics, or growth factors into burn wounds; high porosity allows diffusion of nutrients and waste. Improved cell function on these scaffolds will promote healing. Controlled degradation rates of these scaffolds will promote scaffold absorption after its function is no longer required. The objective of this article is to review the current literature describing nanofibers and their potential application to burn care. PMID:18779672

  3. A Spatio-temporal Data Mining Approach to Global scale Burned Area Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mithal, V.; Khandelwal, A.; Nayak, G.; Kumar, V.; Nemani, R. R.; Oza, N.

    2014-12-01

    We present a novel technique for burned area mapping in forests using the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from the MODIS 16-day Level 3 1km Vegetation Indices (MOD13A2) and the Active Fire (AF) from the MODIS 8-day Level 3 1km Thermal Anomalies and Fire products (MOD14A2). The proposed method leverages the spatial and temporal co-occurrence of thermal anomalies and vegetation loss caused due to forest fires to detect burned areas. Our approach derives features from Enhanced Vegetation Index that target locations which show an abrupt change in their vegetation time series that take at least several months to recover. One unique aspect of our approach is that it uses data from multiple months around the fire event and is therefore more robust to issues in data quality. Comparison with other burned area products show that our approach detects several large previously undetected burned areas across multiple geographical regions. In particular, we found that our approach detects several large burned regions in the tropical forests of Indonesia and South America that had been missed by the state-of-arts burned area approaches. For example, using our approach in Indonesia we discovered that the state-of-the-art MODIS Burned area product had missed around 20,000 sq. km. of burned area (nearly as much burned area as it has reported). We show that all these previously unreported burned areas detected by our approach are actually significant fires which suffered a large, abrupt loss in their vegetation at the time of the fire event and take at least several months to recover back to their normal vegetation. To evaluate these burned areas we compared the Landsat-based composites before and after the date of the event. Our Landsat analysis shows that the burned areas detected by the proposed approach are true burns with a very small error of commission. We believe our work has the potential to provide a scalable approach to global forest monitoring as well as reduce the uncertainty in quantifying the carbon emissions from forests due to fire activity.

  4. The Effect of Wildfire on Soil Mercury Concentrations in Southern California Watersheds

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Marcia; Mendez, Carolina B.; Navarro, Bridget; Lopez, Sonya; Jay, Jennifer A.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) stored in vegetation and soils is known to be released to the atmosphere during wildfires, increasing atmospheric stores and altering terrestrial budgets. Increased erosion and transport of sediments is well-documented in burned watersheds, both immediately post-fire and as the watershed recovers; however, understanding post-fire mobilization of soil Hg within burned watersheds remains elusive. The goal of the current study is to better understand the impact of wildfire on soil-bound Hg during the immediate post-fire period as well as during recovery, in order to assess the potential for sediment-driven transport to and within surface waters in burned watersheds. Soils were collected from three southern California watersheds of similar vegetation and soil characteristics that experienced wildfire. Sampling in one of these watersheds was extended for several seasons (1.5 years) in order to investigate temporal changes in soil Hg concentrations. Laboratory analysis included bulk soil total Hg concentrations and total organic carbon of burned and unburned samples. Soils were also fractionated into a subset of grain sizes with analysis of Hg on each fraction. Low Hg concentrations were observed in surface soils immediately post-fire. Accumulation of Hg coincident with moderate vegetative recovery was observed in the burned surface soils 1 year following the fire, and mobilization was also noted during the second winter (rainy) season. Hg concentrations were highest in the fine-grained fraction of unburned soils; however, in the burned soils, the distribution of soil-bound Hg was less influenced by grain size. The accelerated accumulation of Hg observed in the burned soils, along with the elevated risk of erosion, could result in increased delivery of organic- or particulate-bound Hg to surface waters in post-fire systems. PMID:20936165

  5. Outcomes of outpatient management of pediatric burns.

    PubMed

    Brown, Matthew; Coffee, Tammy; Adenuga, Paul; Yowler, Charles J

    2014-01-01

    The literature surrounding pediatric burns has focused on inpatient management. The goal of this study is to characterize the population of burned children treated as outpatients and assess outcomes validating this method of burn care. A retrospective review of 953 patients treated the burn clinic and burn unit of a tertiary care center. Patient age, burn etiology, burn characteristics, burn mechanism, and referral pattern were recorded. The type of wound care and incidence of outcomes including subsequent hospital admission, infection, scarring, and surgery served as the primary outcome data. Eight hundred and thirty children were treated as outpatients with a mean time of 1.8 days for the evaluation of burn injury in our clinic. Scalds accounted for 53% of the burn mechanism, with burns to the hand/wrist being the most frequent area involved. The mean percentage of TBSA was 1.4% for the outpatient cohort and 8% for the inpatient cohort. Burns in the outpatient cohort healed with a mean time of 13.4 days. In the outpatient cohort, nine (1%) patients had subsequent admissions and three (0.4%) patients had concern for infection. Eight patients from the outpatient cohort were treated with excision and grafting. The vast majority of pediatric burns are small, although they may often involve more critical areas such as the face and hand. Outpatient wound care is an effective treatment strategy which results in low rates of complications and should become the standard of care for children with appropriate burn size and home support. PMID:25055004

  6. Serum from human burn victims impairs myogenesis and protein synthesis in primary myoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Corrick, Katie L.; Stec, Michael J.; Merritt, Edward K.; Windham, Samuel T.; Thomas, Steven J.; Cross, James M.; Bamman, Marcas M.

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiological response to a severe burn injury involves a robust increase in circulating inflammatory/endocrine factors and a hypermetabolic state, both of which contribute to prolonged skeletal muscle atrophy. In order to characterize the role of circulating factors in muscle atrophy following a burn injury, human skeletal muscle satellite cells were grown in culture and differentiated to myoblasts/myotubes in media containing serum from burn patients or healthy, age, and sex-matched controls. While incubation in burn serum did not affect NF?B signaling, cells incubated in burn serum displayed a transient increase in STAT3 phosphorlyation (Tyr705) after 48 h of treatment with burn serum (? + 70%; P < 0.01), with these levels returning to normal by 96 h. Muscle cells differentiated in burn serum displayed reduced myogenic fusion signaling (phospho-STAT6 (Tyr641), ??75%; ADAM12, ?-20%; both P < 0.01), and reduced levels of myogenin (??75%; P < 0.05). Concomitantly, myotubes differentiated in burn serum demonstrated impaired myogenesis (assessed by number of nuclei/myotube). Incubation in burn serum for 96 h did not increase proteolytic signaling (assessed via caspase-3 and ubiquitin levels), but reduced anabolic signaling [p-p70S6k (Ser421/Thr424), ?30%; p-rpS6 (Ser240/244), ?-50%] and impaired protein synthesis (?24%) (P < 0.05). This resulted in a loss of total protein content (?18%) and reduced cell size (?33%) (P < 0.05). Overall, incubation of human muscle cells in serum from burn patients results in impaired myogenesis and reduced myotube size, indicating that circulating factors may play a significant role in muscle loss and impaired muscle recovery following burn injury. PMID:26136691

  7. Disaster planning: the basics of creating a burn mass casualty disaster plan for a burn center.

    PubMed

    Kearns, Randy D; Conlon, Kathe M; Valenta, Andrea L; Lord, Graydon C; Cairns, Charles B; Holmes, James H; Johnson, Daryhl D; Matherly, Annette F; Sawyer, Dalton; Skarote, Mary Beth; Siler, Sean M; Helminiak, Radm Clare; Cairns, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    In 2005, the American Burn Association published burn disaster guidelines. This work recognized that local and state assets are the most important resources in the initial 24- to 48-hour management of a burn disaster. Historical experiences suggest there is ample opportunity to improve local and state preparedness for a major burn disaster. This review will focus on the basics of developing a burn surge disaster plan for a mass casualty event. In the event of a disaster, burn centers must recognize their place in the context of local and state disaster plan activation. Planning for a burn center takes on three forms; institutional/intrafacility, interfacility/intrastate, and interstate/regional. Priorities for a burn disaster plan include: coordination, communication, triage, plan activation (trigger point), surge, and regional capacity. Capacity and capability of the plan should be modeled and exercised to determine limitations and identify breaking points. When there is more than one burn center in a given state or jurisdiction, close coordination and communication between the burn centers are essential for a successful response. Burn surge mass casualty planning at the facility and specialty planning levels, including a state burn surge disaster plan, must have interface points with governmental plans. Local, state, and federal governmental agencies have key roles and responsibilities in a burn mass casualty disaster. This work will include a framework and critical concepts any burn disaster planning effort should consider when developing future plans. PMID:23877135

  8. The Use of Stem Cells in Burn Wound Healing: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ghieh, Fadi; Jurjus, Rosalyn; Ibrahim, Amir; Geagea, Alice Gerges; Daouk, Hisham; El Baba, Bassel; Chams, Sana; Matar, Michel; Zein, Wadih; Jurjus, Abdo

    2015-01-01

    Burn wound healing involves a series of complex processes which are subject to intensive investigations to improve the outcomes, in particular, the healing time and the quality of the scar. Burn injuries, especially severe ones, are proving to have devastating effects on the affected patients. Stem cells have been recently applied in the field to promote superior healing of the wounds. Not only have stem cells been shown to promote better and faster healing of the burn wounds, but also they have decreased the inflammation levels with less scar progression and fibrosis. This review aims to highlight the beneficial therapeutic effect of stem cells in burn wound healing and to discuss the involved pathways and signaling molecules. The review covers various types of burn wound healing like skin and corneal burns, along with the alternative recent therapies being studied in the field of burn wound healing. The current reflection of the attitudes of people regarding the use of stem cells in burn wound healing is also stated. PMID:26236731

  9. Applications of virtual reality for pain management in burn-injured patients

    PubMed Central

    Miller, William; Teeley, Aubriana; Soltani, Maryam; Hoffman, Hunter G; Jensen, Mark P; Patterson, David R

    2009-01-01

    The pain associated with burn injuries is intense, unremitting and often exacerbated by anxiety, depression and other complicating patient factors. On top of this, modern burn care involves the repetitive performance – often on a daily basis for weeks to months – of painful and anxiety-provoking procedures that create additional treatment-related pain, such as wound care, dressing changes and rehabilitation activities. Pain management in burn patients is primarily achieved by potent pharmacologic analgesics (e.g., opioids), but is necessarily complemented by nonpharmacologic techniques, including distraction or hypnosis. Immersive virtual reality provides a particularly intense form of cognitive distraction during such brief, painful procedures, and has undergone preliminary study by several research groups treating burn patients over the past decade. Initial reports from these groups are consistent in suggesting that immersive virtual reality is logistically feasible, safe and effective in ameliorating the pain and anxiety experienced in various settings of post-burn pain. Furthermore, the technique appears applicable to a wide age range of patients and may be particularly well-adapted for use in children, one of the most challenging populations of burn victims to treat. However, confirmation and extension of these results in larger numbers of patients in various types of burn-related pain is necessary to more clearly define the specific benefits and limitations of virtual reality analgesia in the burn care setting. PMID:18986237

  10. A review of treatment strategies for hydrofluoric acid burns: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingang; Zhang, Yuanhai; Ni, Liangfang; You, Chuangang; Ye, Chunjiang; Jiang, Ruiming; Liu, Liping; Liu, Jia; Han, Chunmao

    2014-12-01

    Hydrofluoric acid (HF), a dangerous inorganic acid, can cause severe corrosive effects and systemic toxicity. HF enters the human body via where it contacts, such as skin and mucosa, alimentary and respiratory tracts, and ocular surfaces. In the recent years, the incidence of HF burn has tended to increase over time. The injury mechanism of HF is associated primarily with the massive absorption of HF and the release of hydrogen ions. Correct diagnosis and timely treatment are especially important for HF burns. The critical procedure to treat HF burn is to prevent on-going HF absorption, and block the progressive destruction caused by fluoride ions. Due to the distinct characteristics of HF burns, the topical treatment, as well as systemic support, has been emphasised. Whereas, management of patients with HF burns remains a great challenge in some situations. To date, there has been no widely accepted protocol for the rescue of HF burns, partly due to the diversity of HF burns. This paper overviews the current status and problems of treatment strategies for HF burns, for the purpose of promoting the future researches and improvement. PMID:24946967

  11. An evaluation of the uncertainties in biomass burning emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, A.; Garcia Menendez, F.; Hu, Y.; Odman, M.

    2012-12-01

    The contribution of biomass burning emissions to the atmospheric loads of gases and aerosols can lead to major air quality problems and have significant climate impacts. Whether from wildfires, natural or human-induced, or controlled burns, biomass burning emissions are an important source of air pollutants regionally in certain parts of the world as well as globally. There are two common ways of estimating biomass burning emissions: by using either ground-based information or satellite observations. When there is sufficient local information about the burn area, the types of fuels and their consumption amounts, and the progression of the fire, ground-based estimation is preferred. For controlled burns a.k.a. prescribed burns and wildfires in places where land management is practiced to a certain extent there is typically sufficient ground-based information for emissions estimation. However, for remote regions where no ground-based information is available on the size, intensity, or the spread of the fire, estimates based on satellite observations are preferred. For example, burn location, size and timing information can be obtained from satellite retrievals of thermal anomalies and fuel loading information can be obtained from satellite products of vegetation cover. In both cases, reasonable emission estimates for a variety of pollutants can be obtained by using emission factors (mass of pollutant released per unit mass of fuel consumed) derived from field or laboratory studies. Here, emissions from a controlled burn and a wildfire are estimated using both ground-based information and satellite observations. The controlled burn was conducted on 17 November 2009 near Santa Barbara, California over 80 ha of land covered with chaparral. An aircraft tracked the smoke plume and measured CO2, light scattering, as well as meteorological parameters during the burn (Akagi et al., 2011). The wildfire is from the summer of 2008 when tens of thousands hectares of wild land burned in Northern California causing unprecedented damage. NASA Aircraft commissioned for the ARCTAS campaign at the time flew over the fires and collected data detailing composition of gases and aerosols in the fire plumes (Singh et al., 2012). We model the fires using a newly developed system consisting of a plume rise and dispersion model specifically designed for wild-land fire plumes (Daysmoke; Achtemeier et al., 2011) coupled with a regional-scale chemistry-transport model (CMAQ). Wind fields generated by a weather prediction model (WRF) are adjusted locally to match the aircraft measurements of wind speed and direction. The fires are simulated using both ground-based and satellite-based estimates of emissions. Predicted concentrations of gases and aerosols are compared to corresponding aircraft measurements. Satellite retrievals of aerosol optical depth are also used in evaluating model predictions. The new modeling system along with the wind adjustments reduces several of the uncertainties inherent to regional-scale modeling of plume transport. This allows for a more reliable analysis of the uncertainties related to emissions. Uncertainties in the magnitudes and timings of emissions, and in plume injection heights with respect to boundary layer heights are investigated. Uncertainties associated with ground-based and satellite-based emissions estimation methods are compared to each other.

  12. Rationalizing Burned Carbon with Carbon Monoxide Exported from South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatfield, R.; Freitas, S. R.; SilvaDias, M. A.; SilvaDias, P. O.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present several estimates cross-checking the fluxes of carbon to the atmosphere from burning, comparing models that are based on simple land-surface parameterizations and atmospheric transport dynamics. Both estimates made by NASA Ames and USP modeling techniques are quite high compared to some detailed satellite/land-use studies of emissions. The flux of carbon liberated to the atmosphere via biomass burning is important for several reasons. This flux is a fundamental statistic for the parameterization of the large-scale flux of gases controlling the reactive greenhouse gases methane and ozone. Similarly, it is central to the estimation of the translocation of nitrogen and pyrodenitrification in the tropics. Thirdly, CO2 emitted from rainforest clearing contributes directly to carbon lost from the rainforest system as it contributes to greenhouse gas forcing. While CO2 from pasturage, agriculture, etc, is considered to be reabsorbed seasonally, and so "off budget" for the carbon cycle, it must also be accounted. CO2 anomalies related to daily weather and interannual climatic variation are strong enough to perturb our scientific perception of long-term carbon storage trends. We compare fluxes deduced from land-use statistics (originally, W.M. Hao) and from satellite hot pixels (A. Setzer) with atmospheric fluxes determined by the mesoscale/continental scale models RAMS and MM5, and point to some new work with highly resolved global models (the NASA Data Assimilation Office's GEOS4). Our simulations are tied to events, so that measured tracers like CO tie the models directly to the burning and meteorology of a specific period. We point out a particular sensitivity in estimates based on CO, and indicate how analysis of CO2 along with other biomass-burning tracers may lead to an improved multi-species estimator of carbon burned.

  13. Assault by burning in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Das, Kishore Kumar; Khondokar, M Sazzad; Quamruzzaman, M; Ahmed, Syed Shamsuddin; Peck, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Assault by burning in Dhaka, Bangladesh, occurs in a variety of forms, resulting from various causes and motives. A total of 311 cases of intentional burns from the Burn Unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital from April 2004 to May 2011 (6 years) were studied by retrospective and prospective observational review. The majority of victims (68%) were female. Concentrated sulphuric acid was the most commonly used chemical for attack. Disfigurement was the principal complication (mortality, 4%). Dowry-related issues, divorce and other marital quarrels were frequent backgrounds for assault by burning. Kerosene oil was used to ignite 78 girls or young women, most often related to conflicts over dowry (mortality 97%). A total of 102 victims (32%) in all burn groups were attacked because of dowry-related issues. Intentional contact burns were often inflicted on domestic servants. Although physical morbidity and mortality were not reported in contact and other types of burns, psychological disturbances were reported in all victims. A few victims had been assaulted prior to receiving burns, and fractures and deformities were also present on examination at the time of presentation for burn treatment. Ophthalmic injury, with frequent visual impairment, was very common in cases of chemical attack. Legal and social support for victims and their families are frequently inadequate to compensate for losses. Clearly, more attention in our community should be focussed on the prevention of burn assaults, adequate compensation and medical care for victims, as well as speedy retribution for perpetrators. PMID:22551741

  14. Burn

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Vivian Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    in thyme and lavender. Bluestem blows in the wind. A shooting star streaks across black sky, leaving a magenta and cobalt question mark, briefly, above us all. 12 Love means nothing. Even the word itself...

  15. Wood crib fire free burning test in ISO room

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Xu; Griffin, Greg; Bradbury, Glenn; Dowling, Vince

    2006-04-01

    In the research of application potential of water mist fire suppression system for fire fighting in train luggage carriage, a series of experiments were conducted in ISO room on wood crib fire with and without water mist actuation. The results of free burn test without water mist suppression are used as reference in evaluating the efficiency of water mist suppression system. As part of the free burn test, several tests have been done under the hood of ISO room to calibrate the size of the crib fire and these tests can also be used in analyzing the wall effect in room fire hazard. In these free burning experiments, wood cribs of four sizes under the hood were tested. The temperature of crib fire, heat flux around the fire, gas concentration in hood of ISO room were measured in the experiments and two sets of thermal imaging system were used to get the temperature distribution and the typical shape of the free burning flames. From the experiments, the radiation intensity in specific positions around the fire, the effective heat of combustion, mass loss, oxygen consumption rate for different sizes of fire, typical structure of the flame and self extinguishment time was obtained for each crib size.

  16. Photoacoustic diagnosis of edema in rat burned skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Ken; Sato, Shunichi; Hatanaka, Kosuke; Saitoh, Daizoh; Ashida, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Toshihisa; Obara, Minoru

    2010-02-01

    Diagnosis of edema, abnormal accumulation of water in tissue, is important for managing various traumatic injuries and diseases. However, there is no established method for real-time, noninvasive monitoring of edema. In severe extensive burn injuries, edema develops both topically and systemically due to the increased permeability of blood vessels. In this study, we examined photoacoustic (PA) monitoring of edema formed in rat burn models. Deep dermal burn with a 20% total body surface area was made in the dorsal skin of rats. Burn and its adjacent nonburn tissues were irradiated with 6-ns light pulses at 1430 nm, which is one of the absorption peak wavelengths of water in the near infrared. The PA signal amplitude increased until 12 - 24 hr postburn, and thereafter it gradually decreased to its initial level; the latter phase (after 24 hr postburn) coincided with a diuretic phase in the rats. There was a significant correlation between the PA signal amplitudes and water contents in the tissue measured by wet/dry weight method. These findings demonstrate the validity of PA measurement for real-time, noninvasive monitoring of edema.

  17. Tropospheric Ozone and Biomass Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, Sushil; Ziemke, J. R.; Bhartia, P. K.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the significance of pyrogenic (e.g., biomass burning) emissions in the production of tropospheric ozone in the tropics associated with the forest and savanna fires in the African, South American, and Indonesian regions. Using aerosol index (Al) and tropospheric column ozone (TCO) time series from 1979 to 2000 derived from the Nimbus-7 and Earth Probe TOMS measurements, our study shows significant differences in the seasonal and spatial characteristics of pyrogenic emissions north and south of the equator in the African region and Brazil in South America. In general, they are not related to the seasonal and spatial characteristics of tropospheric ozone in these regions. In the Indonesian region, the most significant increase in TCO occurred during September and October 1997, following large-scale forest and savanna fires associated with the El Nino-induced dry season. However, the increase in TCO extended over most of the western Pacific well outside the burning region and was accompanied by a decrease in the eastern Pacific resembling a west-to-east dipole about the date-line. The net increase in TCO integrated over the tropical region between 15 deg N and 15 deg S was about 6-8 Tg (1 Tg = 10(exp 12) gm) over the mean climatological value of about 72 Tg. This increase is well within the range of interannual variability of TCO in the tropical region and does not necessarily suggest a photochemical source related to biomass burning. The interannual variability in TCO appears to be out of phase with the interannual variability of stratospheric column ozone (SCO). These variabilities seem to be manifestations of solar cycle and quasibiennial oscillations.

  18. Carbon Monoxide from Biomass Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This pair of images shows levels of carbon monoxide at the atmospheric pressure level of 700 millibars (roughly 12,000 feet in altitude) over the continent of South America, as observed by the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) sensor flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. Data for producing the image on the left were acquired on March 3, 2000, and for the image on the right on September 7, 2000. Blue pixels show low values, yellows show intermediate values, and the red to pink and then white pixels are progressively higher values. In the lefthand image (March 3), notice the fairly low levels of carbon monoxide over the entire continent. The slightly higher equatorial values are the result of burning emissions in sub-Saharan Africa that are convected at the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and spread by the trade winds. Also, notice the effect of the elevated surface topography across the Andes Mountains running north to south along the western coastline. (In this region, white pixels show no data.) In the righthand image (September 7), a large carbon monoxide plume is seen over Brazil, produced primarily by biomass burning across Amazonia and lofted into the atmosphere by strong cloud convection. The generally higher carbon monoxide levels as compared to March are both the result of South American fire emissions and the transport of carbon monoxide across the Atlantic Ocean from widespread biomass burning over Southern Africa. These images were produced using MOPITT data, which are currently being validated. These data were assimilated into an atmospheric chemical transport model using wind vectors provided by the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). Although there is good confidence in the relative seasonal values and geographic variation measured by MOPITT, that team anticipates their level of confidence will improve further with ongoing intensive validation campaigns and comparisons with in situ and ground-based spectroscopic measurements. Images courtesy David Edwards and John Gille, MOPITT Science Team, NCAR

  19. A unique case of facial burn superinfected with Dermatobia Hominis larvae resulting in a bilateral enucleation of the eyes.

    PubMed

    Pinos, Victor Hugo; Ortiz-Prado, Esteban; Bermeo, Carlos; León, Juan; Armijos, Luciana; Almeida, Estibaliz

    2014-10-01

    We present a case of a female Ecuadorian patient who presented a deep facial burn injury complicated with a severe infestation of Dermatobia Hominis larvae. The burn injury was complicated by severe myiasis attributable to the poor management of the wound received at home, using tropical plants, which caused a secondary infection and severe necrosis of the tissue involving the forehead, cheeks, chin, scalp, nose, mouth and the eyes resulting in a bilateral enucleation and long inpatient hospital care. PMID:24728977

  20. Actinide Burning in CANDU Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hyland, B.; Dyck, G.R.

    2007-07-01

    Actinide burning in CANDU reactors has been studied as a method of reducing the actinide content of spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors, and thereby decreasing the associated long term decay heat load. In this work simulations were performed of actinides mixed with natural uranium to form a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, and also mixed with silicon carbide to form an inert matrix (IMF) fuel. Both of these fuels were taken to a higher burnup than has previously been studied. The total transuranic element destruction calculated was 40% for the MOX fuel and 71% for the IMF. (authors)

  1. The Hypermetabolic Response to Burn Injury and Interventions to Modify This Response

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Felicia N; Herndon, David N; Jeschke, Marc G

    2013-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Severe burn injury is followed by a profound hypermetabolic response that persists up to 24 months after injury. It is mediated by up to 50-fold elevations in plasma catecholamines, cortisol and inflammatory cells that lead to whole body catabolism, elevated resting energy expenditures and multi-organ dysfunction. All of these metabolic and physiologic derangements prevent full rehabilitation and acclimatization of burn survivors back into society. Modulation of the response by early excision and grafting of burn wounds, thermoregulation, early and continuous enteral feeding with high protein–high carbohydrate feedings and pharmacologic treatments have markedly decreased morbidity. PMID:19793553

  2. The consequences of global biomass burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1991-01-01

    Global biomass burning encompasses forest burning for land clearing, the annual burning of grasslands, the annual burning of agricultural stubble and waste after harvests, and the burning of wood as fuel. These activities generate CO2, CH4 and other hydrocarbons, CO, H2, NO, NH3, and CH3Cl; of these, CO, CH4 and the hydrocarbons, and NO, are involved in the photochemical production of tropospheric O3, while NO is transformed to NO2 and then to nitric acid, which falls as acid rain. Biomass burning is also a major source of atmospheric particulates and aerosols which affect the transmission of incoming solar radiation and outgoing IR radiation through the atmosphere, with significant climatic effects.

  3. Legal scenario in burn care in India

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Atul Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Physicians engaged in management of burn patients in India need to keep themselves abreast with the legal requirements. Clinical burn management and liaison with local authorities go almost parallel. Concept of the legal rights of Burn Survivor and the family are emerging now in India. Demarcation between physical impairment status and disability to sustain are discussed. Burn Physicians can help their patients by imparting this information. Pertinent details about Workmen’s compensation act, Persons with disabilities act and guidelines for calculation of physical impairments are listed. PMID:21321650