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1

Detecting post-fire burn severity and vegetation recovery using multitemporal remote sensing spectral indices and field-collected composite burn index data in a ponderosa pine forest  

USGS Publications Warehouse

It is challenging to detect burn severity and vegetation recovery because of the relatively long time period required to capture the ecosystem characteristics. Multitemporal remote sensing data can providemultitemporal observations before, during and after a wildfire, and can improve the change detection accuracy. The goal of this study is to examine the correlations between multitemporal spectral indices and field-observed burn severity, and to provide a practical method to estimate burn severity and vegetation recovery. The study site is the Jasper Fire area in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota, that burned during August and September 2000. Six multitemporal Landsat images acquired from 2000 (pre-fire), 2001 (post-fire), 2002, 2003, 2005 and 2007 were used to assess burn severity. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), enhanced vegetation index (EVI), normalized burn ratio (NBR), integrated forest index (IFI) and the differences of these indices between the pre-fire and post-fire years were computed and analysed with 66 field-based composite burn index (CBI) plots collected in 2002. Results showed that differences of NDVI and differences of EVI between the pre-fire year and the first two years post-fire were highly correlated with the CBI scores. The correlations were low beyond the second year post-fire. Differences of NBR had good correlation with CBI scores in all study years. Differences of IFI had low correlation with CBI in the first year post-fire and had good correlation in later years. A CBI map of the burnt area was produced using regression tree models and the multitemporal images. The dynamics of four spectral indices from 2000 to 2007 indicated that both NBR and IFI are valuable for monitoring long-term vegetation recovery. The high burn severity areas had a much slower recovery than the moderate and low burn areas. ?? 2011 Taylor & Francis.

Chen, X.; Vogelmann, J. E.; Rollins, M.; Ohlen, D.; Key, C. H.; Yang, L.; Huang, C.; Shi, H.

2011-01-01

2

Boreal woodpecker assemblages in recently burned forested landscapes in Alberta, Canada: Effects of post-fire harvesting and burn severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canadian boreal forests are increasingly modified by post-fire removal of trees (salvage logging), yet the ecological consequences of this practice are little studied. As mixed-wood forests have recently become accessible for salvage operations, we studied woodpeckers in mixed-wood (trembling aspen Populus tremuloides and white spruce Picea glauca) and adjacent coniferous (black spruce Picea mariana and jack pine Pinus banksiana) areas

Matti J. Koivula; Fiona K. A. Schmiegelow

2007-01-01

3

Characterization of post-fire surface cover, soils, and burn severity at the Cerro Grande Fire, New Mexico, using hyperspectral and multispectral remote sensing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Forest fires leave behind a changed ecosystem with a patchwork of surface cover that includes ash, charred organic matter, soils and soil minerals, and dead, damaged, and living vegetation. The distributions of these materials affect post-fire processes of erosion, nutrient cycling, and vegetation regrowth. We analyzed high spatial resolution (2.4??m pixel size) Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data collected over the Cerro Grande fire, to map post-fire surface cover into 10 classes, including ash, soil minerals, scorched conifer trees, and green vegetation. The Cerro Grande fire occurred near Los Alamos, New Mexico, in May 2000. The AVIRIS data were collected September 3, 2000. The surface cover map revealed complex patterns of ash, iron oxide minerals, and clay minerals in areas of complete combustion. Scorched conifer trees, which retained dry needles heated by the fire but not fully combusted by the flames, were found to cover much of the post-fire landscape. These scorched trees were found in narrow zones at the edges of completely burned areas. A surface cover map was also made using Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) data, collected September 5, 2000, and a maximum likelihood, supervised classification. When compared to AVIRIS, the Landsat classification grossly overestimated cover by dry conifer and ash classes and severely underestimated soil and green vegetation cover. In a comparison of AVIRIS surface cover to the Burned Area Emergency Rehabilitation (BAER) map of burn severity, the BAER high burn severity areas did not capture the variable patterns of post-fire surface cover by ash, soil, and scorched conifer trees seen in the AVIRIS map. The BAER map, derived from air photos, also did not capture the distribution of scorched trees that were observed in the AVIRIS map. Similarly, the moderate severity class of Landsat-derived burn severity maps generated from the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) calculation had low agreement with the AVIRIS classes of scorched conifer trees. Burn severity and surface cover images were found to contain complementary information, with the dNBR map presenting an image of degree of change caused by fire and the AVIRIS-derived map showing specific surface cover resulting from fire.

Kokaly, R. F.; Rockwell, B. W.; Haire, S. L.; King, T. V. V.

2007-01-01

4

Effects of Pre-Fire Fuels Treatments on Post-Fire Burn Severity on the 2007 Fires in the Northern Rocky Mountains, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change may be contributing to regional warming and drying trends that are increasing the size and severity of wildfires. Regardless if climate is a factor, the escalating costs of fire suppression and post-fire rehabilitation on the many large fires of recent decades have driven a national effort to reduce hazardous fuels across large areas, particularly those in the wildland-urban interface (WUI). Nationally, concern is especially focused on the numerous large wildfires currently burning in the Northern Rocky Mountains with a need for rapid science-based assessment of burn severity, even as fires and fire suppression efforts continue. Our objective is to assess if and how well various fuels reduction treatments applied pre-fire mitigated burn severity measured in the field immediately post-fire. We will obtain data from the incident command teams, including fire weather, daily fire progression maps, and where strategic and tactical fire suppression measures were applied. Location and type of fuels treatment as well as data on local vegetation type, structure, and fuels will be obtained from local management agencies and national databases. We will pair our sampled field plots in treated and burned areas with those not treated and burned in similar stand and topographic conditions across three or more large forest fires. Our analysis is both quantitative and qualitative, and linked with efforts to assess fuel treatment effects on fire behavior and ease of fire suppression. We report specifically on whether various fuels treatments are mitigating fire effects on soil (e.g., char, percent exposed, infiltration rate, water repellency) and vegetation (e.g., scorch, tree mortality, understory abundance, recovery). We discuss which fuels treatments work and which do not work, and the extent to which fire weather and other factors beyond the control of fire managers may determine whether or not fuels treatments are effectively mitigating severe fire effects.

Hudak, A. T.; Morgan, P.; Robichaud, P. R.; Lewis, S. A.; Evans, J. S.

2007-12-01

5

ORIGINAL PAPER Fire severity as a key factor in post-fire regeneration  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Fire severity as a key factor in post-fire regeneration of Pinus pinaster (Ait gaps in the role of fire severity on Pinus pinaster Ait. regeneration. & Objectives The principal questions were: (a) does post-fire regeneration of Maritime Pine differ where canopies were consumed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

6

Mapping forest post-fire canopy consumption in several overstory types using multi-temporal Landsat TM and ETM data  

Microsoft Academic Search

To facilitate the identification of appropriate post-fire watershed treatments and minimize erosion effects after socio-economically important fires, Interagency Burned Area Emergency Rehabilitation (BAER) teams produce initial timely estimates of the fire perimeter and classifications of burn severity, forest mortality, and vegetation mortality. Accurate, cost-effective, and minimal time-consuming methods of mapping fire are desirable to assist rehabilitation efforts immediately after containment

Jay D. Miller; Stephen R. Yool

2002-01-01

7

Integrating MODIS-based products to improve post-fire recovery predictions for burned watersheds in Southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires in Southern California are natural and frequent events that result in dramatic land cover changes, affecting land-atmosphere interactions and hydrologic behavior. Changing climate and land use patterns (community expansion into fire-prone areas) contribute to shifts in natural fire regimes and increase pressure on policymakers to develop effective fire management and recovery plans. Our ongoing work seeks to understand the recovery of semi-arid regions through controls (i.e. precipitation, vegetation recovery, geophysical parameters, burn severity, etc.) on post-fire hydrology and vegetation. Given the lack of ground-based observations in burned areas, remote sensing data streams (i.e. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)) are crucial for understanding the spatial and temporal dynamics of post-fire recovery of vegetation and hydrologic fluxes. MODIS-based products, such as enhanced vegetation indices (EVI), land surface temperature (LST), and a UCLA-developed evapotranspiration (ET) product, are being utilized for post-fire assessment and provide detailed predictions of water balances for altered (burned) regions. Results show southern facing slopes receive increased exposure to solar radiation, resulting in increased vegetation biomass, increased damage during a wildfire, and relatively slower recovery than other watershed aspects, especially compared to north facing aspects. Similarly, the spatial and temporal patterns of MODIS-derived evaporative fraction (EF) and net radiation (Rn) show sensitivity to watershed controls and provide insight on water dynamics and loss. Evaluating the spatial and temporal variability of vegetation recovery and coupled hydrologic response within burned watersheds provides valuable information for water and natural resource managers as they plan for acute and long-term impacts from large-scale and urban-fringe wildfires.

Kinoshita, A. M.; Hogue, T. S.

2010-12-01

8

Post-Fire Debris-Flow Hazard Assessment of the Area Burned by the 2013 Beaver Creek Fire near Hailey, Central Idaho  

E-print Network

Post-Fire Debris-Flow Hazard Assessment of the Area Burned by the 2013 Beaver Creek Fire near­1273 Prepared in cooperation with Blaine County, Idaho #12;#12;Post-Fire Debris-Flow Hazard Assessment information products, visit http://store.usgs.gov Suggested citation: Skinner, K.D., 2013, Post-fire debris

Torgersen, Christian

9

Post-fire effects on hydrological and erodibility factors in a simulated burn and rainfall experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mediterranean forests are frequently subject to wildfires, inducing risks of runoff and loss of nutrient-rich topsoil. Post-fire causes for soil erosion are hard to separate. These mechanisms are spatially variable due to differences in vegetation density, litter composition, soil texture and structure, and fire intensity. However, the characteristics of soil and surface in the immediate post-fire period are of critical importance to the hydrological response and erosion susceptibility of the burned hillslope and catchment. The mentioned variation is still present in laboratory experiments, however a lot of it can be reduced by using homogeneous litter, uniform soil amounts and texture, controlled temperature and rain regimes and by replicating treatments. Moreover, fire and rain events can be simulated, enabling an imitation of a post-fire period. In this study we looked at post-fire observations for laboratory fire and rainfall (nozzle-type) simulation experiments to evaluate short-term effects of fire on soil hydrological and erodibility parameters by investigating (i) soil water repellency (WR) levels and distribution, (ii) surface cover features, and (iii) sat. hydraulic conductivity (Ksat), electrical conductivity and values of infiltration, runoff and erosion responses to simulated rain on control (bare and needle covered) and burned (with and without ash cover) samples. In the laboratory experiments we used a novel combination of techniques: (i) prepared trays of soil were manually burned; (ii) WR was measured before, in-between and after rainfall simulations; (iii) assessing of the degree and spatial variation for preferential surface flow; (iv) two rainfall simulations with drying period to simulate a part of a rainy season with cycles of wetting and drying (with its effects on soil hydrology, (re-)establishment hydrophobicity). The fire-induced surface WR in the lab, tested by grid-wise Water Drop Penetration tests, was moderate but decreased for all treatments after rain. The responses to rain (33 mm h-1) differed for the two simulation runs. The rates of drainage and runoff of the burned samples showed in the first run values in between the values of cover (low runoff, high infiltration) and bare (high runoff, low infiltration). The drainage in the ash-covered samples was twice as high as in the samples where the ash was removed. In the second run both samples showed a similar response compared to bare conditions. After the first run most ash and organic material was washed off and Ksat was low, indicating crust formation. After the first run the EC values showed a significant drop, which represents the infiltration of the cation-binding organic matter, as this is not present for the bare samples. These laboratory observations show that apart from soil crusting, WR and protection by ash are factors to consider in erosion susceptibility of a burned forest soil.

Keesstra, S. D.; Wittenberg, L.; Voogt, A.; Argaman, E.; Malkinson, D.

2012-04-01

10

The effects of fire severity on black carbon additions to forest soils - 10 years post fire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires play an active role in the global carbon cycle. While large amounts of carbon dioxide are released, a small fraction of the biomass consumed by the fire is only partially combusted, yielding soot and charcoal. These products, also called black carbon (BC) make up only 1-5% of the biomass burnt, yet they can have a disproportionate effect on both the atmosphere and fluxes in long-term carbon pools. This project specifically considers the fraction that is sequestered in forest soils. Black carbon is not a specific compound, and exists along a continuum ranging from partially burned biomass to pure carbon or graphite. Increasing aromaticity as the result of partial combustion means charcoal is highly resistant to oxidation. Although debated, most studies indicate a turnover time on the order of 500-1,000 years in warm, wet, aerobic soils. Charcoal may function as a long-term carbon sink, however its overall significance depends on its rate of formation and loss. At the landscape level, fire characteristics are one of the major factors controlling charcoal production. A few studies suggest that charcoal production increases with cooler, less-severe fires. However, there are many factors to tease apart, partly because of a lack of specificity in how fire severity is defined. Within this greater context, our lab has been working on a landscape-level study within Routt National Forest, north of Steamboat Springs, Colorado. In 2002, a large fire swept through a subalpine spruce, fir and lodgepole pine forest. In 2011-2013 we sampled BC pools in 44 plots across a range of fire severities from unburned to severe crown We hypothesized that charcoal stocks will be higher in areas of low severity fire as compared to high severity because of decreased re-combustion of charcoal in the organic soil and increased overall charcoal production due to lower temperatures. In each of our plots we measured charcoal on snags and coarse woody debris, sampled the entire organic horizon and the top 10cm mineral horizon. The soils were sieved to 2mm and their BC content measured using the Kurth-MacKenzie-DeLuca method of digesting labile carbon using nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide at 95C for 20hrs. We integrated both remotely sensed data and field observations. We used the Relative Difference Normalized Burn Ratio (RdNBR) calculated by Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS). This index used Landsat images from July in the years before and after the fire and is based on differences in bands 4 and 7, with the aim of assessing coarse scale changes in soil and vegetation post fire. For each plot we also collected data on tree mortality and organic soil depth. These metrics were chosen from the Composite Burn Index as those that were most reliable even 10 years after the fire. We observed no significant differences in BC totals between high severity fire and unburned plots, although BC increased slightly on burned plots. Early results for low severity sites (analysis still in progress) suggest that BC increased in plots experiencing lower severity fires compared to unburned and high severity plots. Comparing carbon and BC totals on unburned and severely burned plots, and assuming no loss of BC from mineral soil during the fire, we observed a 1.2% conversion of burned biomass to BC, which corresponds with literature estimates of 1-4%.

Poore, R.; Wessman, C. A.; Buma, B.

2013-12-01

11

Factors associated with crown damage following recurring mixed-severity wildfires and post-fire management in southwestern Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildfires and post-fire logging and planting have a lasting influence on the quantity and arrangement of live and dead vegetation,\\u000a which can, in turn, affect the behavior of future fires. In 2002, the Biscuit Fire re-burned 38,000ha of mixed-conifer\\/evergreen\\u000a hardwood forest in southwestern Oregon that had burned heterogeneously during the 1987 Silver Fire and then was subject, in\\u000a part, to

Jonathan R. Thompson; Thomas A. Spies

2010-01-01

12

Post-fire Vegetation Recovery--Remote Sensing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Module uses real-world data from the October 2003 Paradise Fire in San Diego County, California to (1) determine vegetation loss and burn severity due to wildfire through generating pre- and post-fire Normalized Burn Ratios (NBRs) and an approximated dNBR for study area; (2) monitor post-fire vegetation regeneration through landscape-scale remotely sensed imagery performing a multi-temporal Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) analysis; and (3) import the derived datasets into a GIS and, using a DEM for the study area, derive slope and aspect. Analysis of pre- and post-fire recovery of vegetation will be completed using products from derived datasets and Map Algebra in GIS. The materials are available for download in PDF and RAR format.

2012-11-21

13

Post-fire debris-flow hazard assessment of the area burned by the 2013 Beaver Creek Fire near Hailey, central Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A preliminary hazard assessment was developed for debris-flow hazards in the 465 square-kilometer (115,000 acres) area burned by the 2013 Beaver Creek fire near Hailey in central Idaho. The burn area covers all or part of six watersheds and selected basins draining to the Big Wood River and is at risk of substantial post-fire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently burned basins throughout the Intermountain Region in Western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence, potential volume of debris flows, and the combined debris-flow hazard ranking along the drainage network within the burn area and to estimate the same for analyzed drainage basins within the burn area. Input data for the empirical models included topographic parameters, soil characteristics, burn severity, and rainfall totals and intensities for a (1) 2-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 2-year storm (13 mm); (2) 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 10-year storm (19 mm); and (3) 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 25-year storm (22 mm). Estimated debris-flow probabilities for drainage basins upstream of 130 selected basin outlets ranged from less than 1 to 78 percent with the probabilities increasing with each increase in storm magnitude. Probabilities were high in three of the six watersheds. For the 25-year storm, probabilities were greater than 60 percent for 11 basin outlets and ranged from 50 to 60 percent for an additional 12 basin outlets. Probability estimates for stream segments within the drainage network can vary within a basin. For the 25-year storm, probabilities for stream segments within 33 basins were higher than the basin outlet, emphasizing the importance of evaluating the drainage network as well as basin outlets. Estimated debris-flow volumes for the three modeled storms range from a minimal debris flow volume of 10 cubic meters [m3]) to greater than 100,000 m3. Estimated debris-flow volumes increased with basin size and distance downstream. For the 25-year storm, estimated debris-flow volumes were greater than 100,000 m3 for 4 basins and between 50,000 and 100,000 m3 for 10 basins. The debris-flow hazard rankings did not result in the highest hazard ranking of 5, indicating that none of the basins had a high probability of debris-flow occurrence and a high debris-flow volume estimate. The hazard ranking was 4 for one basin using the 10-year-recurrence storm model and for three basins using the 25-year-recurrence storm model. The maps presented herein may be used to prioritize areas where post-wildfire remediation efforts should take place within the 2- to 3-year period of increased erosional vulnerability.

Skinner, Kenneth D.

2013-01-01

14

RECOVER - An Automated Burned Area Emergency Response Decision Support System for Post-fire Rehabilitation Management of Savanna Ecosystems in the Western US  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In partnership with the Department of Interior's Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the Idaho Department of Lands (IDL), we are building and evaluating the RECOVER decision support system. RECOVER - which stands for Rehabilitation Capability Convergence for Ecosystem Recovery - is an automatically deployable, context-aware decision support system for savanna wildfires that brings together in a single application the information necessary for post-fire rehabilitation decision-making and long-term ecosystem monitoring. RECOVER uses state-of-the-art cloud-based data management technologies to improve performance, reduce cost, and provide site-specific flexibility for each fire. The RECOVER Server uses Integrated Rule-Oriented Data System (iRODS) data grid technology deployed in the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2). The RECOVER Client is an Adobe Flex web map application that is able to provide a suite of convenient GIS analytical capabilities. In a typical use scenario, the RECOVER Server is provided a wildfire name and geospatial extent. The Server then automatically gathers Earth observational data and other relevant products from various geographically distributed data sources. The Server creates a database in the cloud where all relevant information about the wildfire is stored. This information is made available to the RECOVER Client and ultimately to fire managers through their choice of web browser. The Server refreshes the data throughout the burn and subsequent recovery period (3-5 years) with each refresh requiring two minutes to complete. Since remediation plans must be completed within 14 days of a fire's containment, RECOVER has the potential to significantly improve the decision-making process. RECOVER adds an important new dimension to post-fire decision-making by focusing on ecosystem rehabilitation in semiarid savannas. A novel aspect of RECOVER's approach involves the use of soil moisture estimates, which are an important but difficult-to-obtain element of post-fire rehabilitation planning. We will use downscaled soil moisture data from three primary observational sources to begin evaluation of soil moisture products and build the technology needed for RECOVER to use future SMAP products. As a result, RECOVER, BLM, and the fire applications community will be ready customers for data flowing out of new NASA missions, such as NPP, LDCM, and SMAP.

Weber, K.; Schnase, J. L.; Carroll, M.; Brown, M. E.; Gill, R.; Haskett, G.; Gardner, T.

2013-12-01

15

Mapping burned areas and burn severity patterns across the Mediterranean region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mediterranean region is highly susceptible to wildfires. On average, about 60,000 fires take place in this region every year, burning on average half a million hectares of forests and natural vegetation. Wildfires cause environmental degradation and affect the lives of thousands of people in the region. In order to minimize the consequences of these catastrophic events, fire managers and national authorities need to have in their disposal accurate and updated spatial information concerning the size of the burned area as well as the burn severity patterns. Mapping burned areas and burn severity patterns is necessary to effectively support the decision-making process in what concerns strategic (long-term) planning with the definition of post-fire actions at European and national scales. Although a comprehensive archive of burnt areas exists at the European Forest Fire Information System, the analysis of the severity of the areas affected by forest fires in the region is not yet available. Fire severity is influenced by many variables, including fuel type, topography and meteorological conditions before and during the fire. The analysis of fire severity is essential to determine the socio-economic impact of forest fires, to assess fire impacts, and to determine the need of post-fire rehabilitation measures. Moreover, fire severity is linked to forest fire emissions and determines the rate of recovery of the vegetation after the fire. Satellite imagery can give important insights about the conditions of the live fuel moisture content and can be used to assess changes on vegetation structure and vitality after forest fires. Fire events occurred in Greece, Portugal and Spain during the fire season of 2009 were recorded and analyzed in a GIS environment. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) were calculated from 8-days composites MODIS/TERRA imagery from March to October 2009. In addition, subtracting a post-fire from a pre-fire image derived index produces a measure of absolute change of the vegetation condition, like the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio index (dNBR). The aim of this study was the assessment of fire severity across diverse ecological and environmental conditions in the Mediterranean region. The specific objectives were: The analysis of the correlation between the fire severity and local site conditions, including topography, fuel type, land use, land cover. The analysis of the correlation between fire severity and fire danger conditions during the fire, as estimated by the European Forest Fire Information System. Assessing the performance of several vegetation indices derived from MODIS imagery in estimating fire severity. Assessing the permanence of the burnt signal for large fires as an estimate of fire severity.

Kalogeropoulos, Christos; Amatulli, Giuseppe; Kempeneers, Pieter; Sedano, Fernando; San Miguel-Ayanz, Jesus; Camia, Andrea

2010-05-01

16

PMS Post-fire Monitoring Study 2004 March, 2005 Pawnee Montane Skipper  

E-print Network

PMS Post-fire Monitoring Study 2004 March, 2005 Pawnee Montane Skipper Post-fire Habitat Assessment By Colorado Natural Heritage Program Colorado State University January 2005 #12;PMS Post-fire Monitoring Study................................................................................................7-1 7.1 Post-fire Skipper Habitat Conditions on the Hayman Burn Area

17

Modeling post-fire water erosion mitigation strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Severe wildfires are often followed by significant increase in runoff and erosion, due to vegetation damage and changes in physical and chemical soil properties. Peak flows and sediment yields can increase up to two orders of magnitude, becoming dangerous for human lives and the ecosystem, especially in the wildland-urban interface. Watershed post-fire rehabilitation measures are usually used to mitigate the effects of fire on runoff and erosion, by protecting soil from splash and shear stress detachment and enhancing its infiltration capacity. Modeling post-fire erosion and erosion mitigation strategies can be useful in selecting the effectiveness of a rehabilitation method. In this paper a distributed model based on the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), properly parameterized for a Mediterranean basin located in Sardinia, is used to determine soil losses for six different scenarios describing both natural and post-fire basin condition, the last also accounting for the single and combined effect of different erosion mitigation measures. Fire effect on vegetation and soil properties have been mimed by changing soil drainage capacity and organic matter content, and RUSLE factors related to soil cover and protection measures. Model results, validated using measured data on erosion rates from the literature and in situ field campaigns, show the effect of the analyzed rehabilitation treatments in reducing the amount of soil losses with the peculiar characteristics of the spatial distribution of such changes. In particular, the mulching treatment substantially decreases erosion both in its mean value (-75%) and in the spatially distribution of the erosion levels over the burned area . On the contrary, the breaking up of the hydrophobic layer decreases post-fire mean soil losses of about the 14%, although it strongly influences the spatial distribution of the erosion levels.

Rulli, M. C.; Offeddu, L.; Santini, M.

2013-06-01

18

Is proportion burned severely related to daily area burned?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ecological effects of forest fires burning with high severity are long-lived and have the greatest impact on vegetation successional trajectories, as compared to low-to-moderate severity fires. The primary drivers of high severity fire are unclear, but it has been hypothesized that wind-driven, large fire-growth days play a significant role, particularly on large fires in forested ecosystems. Here, we examined the relative proportion of classified burn severity for individual daily areas burned that occurred during 42 large forest fires in central Idaho and western Montana from 2005 to 2007 and 2011. Using infrared perimeter data for wildfires with five or more consecutive days of mapped perimeters, we delineated 2697 individual daily areas burned from which we calculated the proportions of each of three burn severity classes (high, moderate, and low) using the differenced normalized burn ratio as mapped for large fires by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity project. We found that the proportion of high burn severity was weakly correlated (Kendall ? = 0.299) with size of daily area burned (DAB). Burn severity was highly variable, even for the largest (95th percentile) in DAB, suggesting that other variables than fire extent influence the ecological effects of fires. We suggest that these results do not support the prioritization of large runs during fire rehabilitation efforts, since the underlying assumption in this prioritization is a positive relationship between severity and area burned in a day.

Birch, Donovan S.; Morgan, Penelope; Kolden, Crystal A.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Smith, Alistair M. S.

2014-05-01

19

Factors affecting plant diversity during post-fire recovery and succession of mediterranean-climate shrublands in California, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Plant community diversity, measured as species richness, is typically highest in the early post-fire years in California shrublands. However, this generalization is overly simplistic and the present study demonstrates that diversity is determined by a complex of temporal and spatial effects. Ninety sites distributed across southern California were studied for 5 years after a series of fires. Characteristics of the disturbance event, in this case fire severity, can alter post-fire diversity, both decreasing and increasing diversity, depending on life form. Spatial variability in resource availability is an important factor explaining patterns of diversity, and there is a complex interaction between landscape features and life form. Temporal variability in resource availability affects diversity, and the diversity peak in the immediate post-fire year (or two) appears to be driven by factors different from subsequent diversity peaks. Early post-fire diversity is influenced by life-history specialization, illustrated by species that spend the bulk of their life cycle as a dormant seed bank, which is then triggered to germinate by fire. Resource fluctuations, precipitation in particular, may be associated with subsequent post-fire diversity peaks. These later peaks in diversity comprise a flora that is compositionally different from the immediate post-fire flora, and their presence may be due to mass effects from population expansion of local populations in adjacent burned areas. ?? 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Keeley, J.E.; Fotheringham, C.J.; Baer-Keeley, M.

2005-01-01

20

Avifaunal responses to fire in southwestern montane forests along a burn severity gradient  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effects of burn severity on avian communities are poorly understood, yet this information is crucial to fire management programs. To quantify avian response patterns along a burn severity gradient, we sampled 49 random plots (2001-2002) at the 17 351-ha Cerro Grande Fire (2000) in New Mexico, USA. Additionally, pre-fire avian surveys (1986-1988, 1990) created a unique opportunity to quantify avifaunal changes in 13 pre-fire transects (resampled in 2002) and to compare two designs for analyzing the effects of unplanned disturbances: after-only analysis and before-after comparisons. Distance analysis was used to calculate densities. We analyzed after-only densities for 21 species using gradient analysis, which detected a broad range of responses to increasing burn severity: (I) large significant declines, (II) weak, but significant declines, (III) no significant density changes, (IV) peak densities in low- or moderate-severity patches, (V) weak, but significant increases, and (VI) large significant increases. Overall, 71% of the species included in the after-only gradient analysis exhibited either positive or neutral density responses to fire effects across all or portions of the severity gradient (responses III-VI). We used pre/post pairs analysis to quantify density changes for 15 species using before-after comparisons; spatiotemporal variation in densities was large and confounded fire effects for most species. Only four species demonstrated significant effects of burn severity, and their densities were all higher in burned compared to unburned forests. Pre- and post-fire community similarity was high except in high-severity areas. Species richness was similar pre- and post-fire across all burn severities. Thus, ecosystem restoration programs based on the assumption that recent severe fires in Southwestern ponderosa pine forests have overriding negative ecological effects are not supported by our study of post-fire avian communities. This study illustrates the importance of quantifying burn severity and controlling confounding sources of spatiotemporal variation in studies of fire effects. After-only gradient analysis can be an efficient tool for quantifying fire effects. This analysis can also augment historical data sets that have small samples sizes coupled with high non-process variation, which limits the power of before-after comparisons. ?? 2007 by the Ecological Society of America.

Kotliar, N. B.; Kennedy, P. L.; Ferree, K.

2007-01-01

21

Rapid Response Tools and Datasets for Post-fire Erosion Modeling: An Online Database to Support Post-fire Erosion Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Once the danger posed by an active wildfire has passed, land managers must rapidly assess risks posed by post-fire runoff and erosion due to fire-induced changes in soil properties and the loss of surface cover. Post-fire assessments and proposals to mitigate risks to downstream areas due to flooding, erosion, and sedimentation are typically undertaken by interdisciplinary Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams. One of the first and most important priorities of a BAER team is the development of a burn severity map that reflects the fire-induced changes in both vegetative cover and soils. Currently these maps are known as BARC (Burned Area Reflectance Classification) maps and they are generated from multi-spectral remote sensing data. BAER teams also have access to many erosion modeling tools and datasets, but process-based, spatially explicit models are currently under-utilized relative to simpler, lumped models because they are more difficult to set up and they require the preparation of spatially-explicit data layers such as digital elevation models (DEM), soils, and land cover. We are working to make spatially-explicit modeling easier by preparing large-scale spatial data sets that can be rapidly combined with burn severity maps and then used to quickly run more accurate, process-based models for spatially explicit predictions of post-fire erosion and runoff. A prototype database consisting of 30-m DEM, soil, land cover, and Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) maps for Colorado has been created for use in GeoWEPP (Geo-spatial interface for the Water Erosion Prediction Project) with Disturbed WEPP parameters developed for post-fire conditions. Additional soil data layers have been gathered to support a spatial empirical debris flow model that also utilizes BARC maps. Future plans include developing the dataset to support other models commonly used by BAER teams. The importance of preparing spatial data ahead of time can be illustrated with two contrasting modeling exercises from recent fires. The 2012 High Park Fire that burned near Fort Collins, Colorado and a small portion of the 2011 Rock House Fire (Hospital Canyon) that burned in western Texas. A lack of preparatory work meant useful products could not be produced in a timely manner for the Rock House Fire. In contrast, an earlier project meant that baseline soil and land cover data were readily available for the 2012 High Park Fire, which burned 330 km2 and threatened the drinking water for Fort Collins, Greeley, and other downstream communities. These datasets were combined with the burn severity map and used to model post-fire erosion and run-off in GeoWEPP using a two hour storm event with a total rainfall of 2.2 inches. Predictions of post-fire erosion rates ranged from 0 to 10.4 Mg/ha and the maps were used by the BAER team to assess relative erosion risks, and develop the associated proposals for post-fire mitigation efforts.

Miller, M. E.; Russel, A. M.; Billmire, M.; Endsley, K.; Elliot, W. E.; Robichaud, P. R.; MacDonald, L. H.; Renschler, C. S.

2013-12-01

22

Using Aerial Hydromulch in Post-fire Chaparral in Southern California: Effectiveness and Consequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High severity wildfire can make landscapes susceptible to accelerated erosion that may retard resource recovery. High levels of erosion can also threaten life, property, and infrastructure in downstream human communities. Land managers often use mitigation measures on the burned hillside slopes to control post-fire sediment fluxes both as the first step in post-fire restoration and to protect off-site human developments. Aerial hydromulch, a slurry of paper or wood fiber with tackifiers and other amendments that dries to a permeable crust, is a relatively new erosion control treatment that has not been rigorously field-tested in wildland settings. Concerns have been raised over the ability of aerial hydromulch to reduce hillslope erosion as well as its potential for negative effects on post-fire ecosystem recovery. Since 2007 we have measured sediment fluxes and vegetation development on plots treated operationally with aerial hydromulch and compared them to untreated controls after three separate wildfires in southern California. These study plots, located on steep slopes with coarse upland soils previously covered with dense mixed chaparral vegetation, were monitored with silt fences to trap eroded sediment. Meter-square quadrats were used to measure ground and vegetation cover. Although dependent on rainfall and site characteristics, surface erosion on untreated plots generally attenuated sharply with years since burning. We found that aerial hydromulch did reduce bare ground on the treated plots and that this cover persisted through the first post-fire winter rainy season. For the initial year after a fire, aerial hydromulch reduced hillslope erosion from small and medium rainstorms, but not during an extremely high intensity rainfall event. Hydromulch had no effect on regrowing plant cover, shrub seedling density, or species richness. Thus, in chaparral ecosystems aerial hydromulch appears to be an effective post-fire erosion control measure that is environmentally benign with respect to vegetation.

Wohlgemuth, P. M.; Beyers, J. L.; Robichaud, P. R.

2012-12-01

23

Burn Severity Mapping in Australia 2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2009, the Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment estimated approximately 430,000 hectares of Victoria Australia were burned by numerous bushfires. Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams from the United States were deployed to Victoria to assist local fire managers. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (USGS/EROS) and U.S. Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (USFS/RSAC) aided the support effort by providing satellite-derived "soil burn severity " maps for over 280,000 burned hectares. In the United States, BAER teams are assembled to make rapid assessments of burned lands to identify potential hazards to public health and property. An early step in the assessment process is the creation of a soil burn severity map used to identify hazard areas and prioritize treatment locations. These maps are developed primarily using Landsat satellite imagery and the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) algorithm.

McKinley, R.; Clark, J.; Lecker, J.

2012-07-01

24

Monitoring post-fire recovery of shrublands in Mediterranean-type ecosystems using MODIS and TM/ETM+ data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildland fires in Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems (MTEs) are episodic events that dramatically alter land-cover conditions. Monitoring post-fire vegetation recovery is important for land management applications such as the scheduling of prescribed burns, post-fire resource management and soil erosion control. Full recovery of MTE shrublands may take many years and have a prolonged effect on water, energy and carbon fluxes in these ecosystems. Comparative studies of fynbos ecosystems in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa (Western Cape Region) and chaparral ecosystems of California have demonstrated that there is a considerable degree of convergence in some aspects of post-fire vegetation regeneration and marked differences in other aspects. Since these MTEs have contrasting rainfall and soil nutrient conditions, an obvious question arises as to the similarity or dissimilarity in remotely sensed post-fire recovery pathways of vegetation stands in these two regions and the extent to which fire severity and drought impact the rate of vegetation recovery. Post-fire recovery pathways of chaparral and fynbos vegetation stands were characterized using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) based on TM/ETM+ and MODIS (250 m) data. Procedures based on stands of unburned vegetation (control) were implemented to normalize the NDVI for variations associated with inter-annual differences in rainfall. Only vegetation stands that had not burned for 20 years were examined in this study to eliminate potential effects of variable fire histories on the recovery pathways. Post-fire recovery patterns of vegetation in both regions and across different vegetation types were found to be very similar. Post-fire stand age was the primary control over vegetation recovery and the NDVI returned to pre-fire values within seven to 10 years of the fires. Droughts were shown to cause slight interruptions in recovery rates while fire severity had no discernable effect. Intra-stand variability in the NDVI (pixel-scale) also returned to pre-fire values within the same time frame but increased with water stress associated with droughts. While these studies indicated that the NDVI of fynbos and chaparral stands recovered to pre-fire values within 10 years, it is recognized that other ecosystem characteristics may take considerably longer to recover. Despite the larger pixel size, MODIS data were found to be more suitable for monitoring vegetation post-fire recovery than TM/ETM+ data, requiring considerably less pre-processing and providing substantially more information regarding phenological characteristics of recovery pathways. Future studies will include consideration of fire history in the post-fire recovery characteristics of vegetation in these two MTEs.

Hope, Allen; Albers, Noah; Bart, Ryan

2010-05-01

25

Hazard Analysis for Post-Fire Debris-Flow Potential in Arizona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several large, devastating wildfires occurred in Arizona during the past 2 years, after a 4-year period without any large wildfires. In June, 2010, the human-caused Schultz Fire near Flagstaff burned 6,100 ha of mostly steep terrain. Subsequent rains from the 4th wettest monsoon on record produced numerous debris flows, significant erosion, and substantial flooding of the downslope residential areas. In May and June of 2011, 3 very large human-caused wildfires (Wallow, Horseshoe 2, and Monument Fires) burned over 320,000 ha, posing serious threats to communities below burned slopes. The Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams, in need of a rapid method to assess the potential for post-fire debris flows, turned to models developed by the USGS for this purpose [Cannon and others, 2010, GSA Bull, 122(1-2), 127-144]. These models, while providing quick results, have not been evaluated for use in Arizona's varied physiographic provinces. Here we use data from the Schultz Fire to compare basin responses with those predicted by the USGS post-fire debris-flow models. Data from the Schultz Fire includes detailed field documentation of debris-flow occurrence and runout distances, 1:12,000 stereo aerial photographs, high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) and tipping-bucket rainfall data. These data document debris-flow producing storms, basin response, and the extent of debris-flow runout, and provide estimates of debris-flow volumes. The hydrologic responses from 30 small, steep, upper basins burned by the Schultz Fire were assessed for debris or flood flow occurrences. Nineteen basins produced debris flows during a July 20th storm that had a peak 10-minute intensity of 24 mm. A second storm on August 16th, with a peak 10-minute intensity of 15 mm, produced additional debris flows in several of the same basins. Of the 30 basins assessed, 19 were completely burned; four at high severity and 12 at moderate to high severity. The basin with the smallest burned area (57%) produced debris flows while a completely (100%) burned basin produced only flood flows. One of the problems encountered while modeling with the USGS models was the poor-quality of the available 10 m USGS DEMs. Even in steep areas, drainage networks were inaccurate and did not reflect on-the-ground channel locations. Detailed data from Schultz Fire, along with documented debris-flow occurrences following the 2011 fires, provides an opportunity to compare post-fire basin responses in Arizona with predicted responses from the USGS post-fire debris-flow models.

Youberg, A.; Koestner, K. A.; Schiefer, E.; Neary, D. G.

2011-12-01

26

Post-Fire Vegetation Response 49 Barbara A. Holzman  

E-print Network

Post-Fire Vegetation Response 49 Barbara A. Holzman Department of Geography San Francisco State The effect of the 1995 fire on the regeneration, composition and cover of the Bishop Pine (Pinus muricata) forest at Point Reyes National Seashore is examined. The human-caused fire burned over 12,000 acres

California at Berkeley, University of

27

Effects of fire and post-fire salvage logging on avian communities in conifer-dominated forests of the western United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Historically, fire was one of the most widespread natural disturbances in the western United States. More recently, however, significant anthropogenic activities, especially fire suppression and silvicultural practices, have altered fire regimes; as a result, landscapes and associated communities have changed as well. Herein, we review current knowledge of how fire and post-fire salvaging practices affect avian communities in conifer-dominated forests of the western United States. Specifically, we contrast avian communities in (1) burned vs. unburned forest, and (2) unsalvaged vs. salvage-logged burns. We also examine how variation in burn characteristics (e.g., severity, age, size) and salvage logging can alter avian communities in burns. Of the 41 avian species observed in three or more studies comparing early post-fire and adjacent unburned forests, 22% are consistently more abundant in burned forests, 34% are usually more abundant in unburned forests, and 44% are equally abundant in burned and unburned forests or have varied responses. In general, woodpeckers and aerial foragers are more abundant in burned forest, whereas most foliage-gleaning species are more abundant in unburned forests. Bird species that are frequently observed in stand-replacement burns are less common in understory burns; similarly, species commonly observed in unburned forests often decrease in abundance with increasing burn severity. Granivores and species common in open-canopy forests exhibit less consistency among studies. For all species, responses to fire may be influenced by a number of factors including burn severity, fire size and shape, proximity to unburned forests, pre- and post-fire cover types, and time since fire. In addition, post-fire management can alter species' responses to burns. Most cavity-nesting species do not use severely salvaged burns, whereas some cavity-nesters persist in partially salvaged burns. Early post-fire specialists, in particular, appear to prefer unsalvaged burns. We discuss several alternatives to severe salvage-logging that will help provide habitat for cavity nesters. We provide an overview of critical research questions and design considerations crucial for evaluating the effects of prescribed fire and other anthropogenic disturbances, such as forest fragmentation. Management of native avifaunas may be most successful if natural disturbance regimes, including fire, are permitted to occur when possible. Natural fires could be augmented with practices, such as prescribed fire (including high-severity fire), that mimic inherent disturbance regimes.

Kotliar, N. B.; Hejl, S. J.; Hutto, R. L.; Saab, V. A.; Melcher, C. P.; McFadzen, M. E.

2002-01-01

28

Post-fire succession of ground vegetation of central Siberia in Scots pine forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extensive wildfires have affected the Russian region in the last decade. Scots pine forests (Pinus sylvestris L.) are widespread in central Siberia and fire occurrence is high in these forests, whose dominant fire regime is one of frequent surface fires. We studied post- fire succession of ground vegetation has been studied on nine experimental fires of varying severity (from 620 to 5220 kW/m) in middle taiga Scots pine forests of central Siberia (Russia). It proved from our study that all species of the succession process are present from initial stages. We did not find any trend of ground vegetation diversity with the time during 8 years after the fire. Our investigation showed that post- fire recovery of the ground vegetation is determined by initial forest type, fire severity and litter burning depth. Fire severity had a clear effect in initial succession in study area and it clearly had an impact on percentage cover, biomass and structure of ground vegetation. In a lesser degree the small shrubs are damaged during ground fires. The dominating species (Vaccinium vitis-idaea and V. myrtillus) regained the cover values above or close to 68 years. The post- fire biomass of ground vegetation 93100% consists of species (Vaccinium vitis-idaea and V. myrtillus) that survived after the fire and increased in the cover with the time. In pine forests mosses and lichens suffer to a greater degree after ground fires. Lichen layer was completely lost after the fires of any severity. Decrease of mosses species diversity takes place after ground fires. The post- fire cover and species diversity of the green mosses were progressively lower with increasing the fire severity during the observation period. Maximum changes are discovered in the post- fire structure of plant microgroups after the high- severity fire which resulted in intensive invasion by the post- fire mosses (Polytrichum strictum and P. commune). There is a positive trend of green moss microgroups recovery after fires of moderate- and low- severity.

Kovaleva, N.; Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.

2012-04-01

29

Multiscale mapping of burn area and severity using multisensor satellite data and spatial autocorrelation analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional methods of recording fire burned areas and fire severity involve expensive and time-consuming field surveys. Available remote sensing technologies may allow us to develop standardized burn-severity maps for evaluating fire effects and addressing post fire management activities. This paper focuses on multiscale characterization of fire severity using multisensor satellite data. To this aim, both MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) data have been processed using geo-statistic analyses to capture pattern features of burned areas. Even if in last decades different authors tried to integrate geo-statistics and remote sensing image processing, methods used since now are only variograms, semivariograms and kriging. In this paper, we propose an approach based on the use of spatial indicators of global and local autocorrelation. Spatial autocorrelation statistics, such as Moran's I and Getis-Ord Local Gi index, were used to measure and analyze dependency degree among spectral features of burned areas. This approach enables the characterization of pattern features of a burned area and improves the estimation of fire severity.

Lanorte, A.; Danese, M.; Lasaponara, R.; Murgante, B.

2013-02-01

30

Post-fire vegetation dynamics in Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of fires and the extent of the burned surface in Mediterranean Europe have increased significantly during the last three decades. This may be due either to modifications in land-use (e.g. land abandonment and fuel accumulation) or to climatic changes (e.g. reduction of fuel humidity), both factors leading to an increase of fire risk and fire spread. As in the Mediterranean ecosystems, fires in Portugal have an intricate effect on vegetation regeneration due to the complexity of landscape structures as well as to the different responses of vegetation to the variety of fire regimes. A thorough evaluation of vegetation recovery after fire events becomes therefore crucial in land management. In the above mentioned context remote sensing plays an important role because of its ability to monitor and characterise post-fire vegetation dynamics. A number of fire recovery studies, based on remote sensing, have been conducted in regions characterised by Mediterranean climates and the use of NDVI to monitor plant regeneration after fire events was successfully tested (Daz-Delgado et al., 1998). In particular, several studies have shown that rapid regeneration occurs within the first 2 years after the fire occurrences, with distinct recovery rates according to the geographical facing of the slopes (Pausas and Vallejo, 1999). In 2003 Portugal was hit by the most devastating sequence of large fires, responsible by a total burnt area of 450 000 ha (including 280 000 ha of forest), representing about 5% of the Portuguese mainland (Trigo et al., 2006). The aim of the present work is to assess and monitor the vegetation behaviour over Portugal following the 2003 fire episodes. For this purpose we have used the regional fields of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as obtained from the VEGETATION-SPOT5 instrument, from 1999 to 2008. We developed a methodology to identify large burnt scars in Portugal for the 2003 fire season. The vegetation dynamics was then analysed for some selected areas and a regression model of post-fire recovery was fitted to the recorded values of NDVI. The model allowed characterising the dynamics of the regeneration process. It was found that recovery rates depend on geographical location, fire intensity/severity and type of vegetation cover. Daz-Delgado, R., Salvador, R. and Pons, X., 1998: Monitoring of plant community regeneration after fire by remote sensing. In L. Traboud (Ed.), Fire management and landscape ecology (pp. 315-324). International Association of Wildland Fire, Fairfield, WA. Pausas, G.J. and Vallejo, V.R., 1999: The role of fire in European Mediterranean Ecosystems. In: E. Chuvieco (Ed.), Remote sensing of large wildfires in the European Mediterranean basin (pp. 3-16). Springer-Verlag. Trigo R.M., Pereira J.M.C., Pereira M.G., Mota B., Calado M.T., DaCamara C.C., Santo F.E., 2006: Atmospheric conditions associated with the exceptional fire season of 2003 in Portugal. International Journal of Climatology 26 (13): 1741-1757 NOV 15 2006.

Gouveia, C.; Dacamara, C. C.; Trigo, R. M.

2009-04-01

31

Infection control in severely burned patients  

PubMed Central

In the last two decades, much progress has been made in the control of burn wound infection and nasocomial infections (NI) in severely burned patients. The continiually changing epidemiology is partially related to greater understanding of and improved techniques for burn patient management as well as effective hospital infection control measures. With the advent of antimicrobial chemotherapeutic agents, infection of the wound site is now not as common as, for example, urinary and blood stream infections. Universal application of early excision of burned tissues has made a substantial improvement in the control of wound-related infections in burns. Additionally, the development of new technologies in wound care have helped to decrease morbidity and mortality in severe burn victims. Many examples can be given of the successful control of wound infection, such as the application of an appropriate antibiotic solution to invasive wound infection sites with simultaneous vacuum-assisted closure, optimal preservation of viable tissues with waterjet debridement systems, edema and exudate controlling dressings impregnated with Ag (Silvercel, Aquacell-Ag). The burned patient is at high risk for NI. Invasive interventions including intravenous and urinary chateterization, and entubation pose a further risk of NIs. The use of newly designed antimicrobial impregnated chateters or silicone devices may help the control of infection in these immunocomprimised patients. Strict infection control practices (physical isolation in a private room, use of gloves and gowns during patient contact) and appropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy guided by laboratory surveillance culture as well as routine microbial burn wound culture are essential to help reduce the incidance of infections due to antibiotic resistant microorganisms. PMID:24701406

Coban, Yusuf Kenan

2012-01-01

32

Establishment of non-native plant species after wildfires: Effects of fuel treatments, abiotic and biotic factors, and post-fire grass seeding treatments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Establishment and spread of non-native species following wildfires can pose threats to long-term native plant recovery. Factors such as disturbance severity, resource availability, and propagule pressure may influence where non-native species establish in burned areas. In addition, pre- and post-fire management activities may influence the likelihood of non-native species establishment. In the present study we examine the establishment of non-native species after wildfires in relation to native species richness, fire severity, dominant native plant cover, resource availability, and pre- and post-fire management actions (fuel treatments and post-fire rehabilitation treatments). We used an information-theoretic approach to compare alternative hypotheses. We analysed post-fire effects at multiple scales at three wildfires in Colorado and New Mexico. For large and small spatial scales at all fires, fire severity was the most consistent predictor of non-native species cover. Non-native species cover was also correlated with high native species richness, low native dominant species cover, and high seeded grass cover. There was a positive, but non-significant, association of non-native species with fuel-treated areas at one wildfire. While there may be some potential for fuels treatments to promote non-native species establishment, wildfire and post-fire seeding treatments seem to have a larger impact on non-native species. ?? IAWF 2006.

Hunter, M. E.; Omi, P. N.; Martinson, E. J.; Chong, G. W.

2006-01-01

33

Attitudes toward Children with Severe Burns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined reasons for negative attitudes toward children with severe burns by surveying 226 counseling and rehabilitation students. Results suggest that pessimistic expectations and negative attitudes built on conjecture are due to four sources: social standards of beauty, emotionality of the observer, reminders of personal vulnerability, and

Holaday, Margot; Wolfson, Aaron

1997-01-01

34

Mapping wildfire burn severity in the Arctic Tundra from downsampled MODIS data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wildfires are historically infrequent in the arctic tundra, but are projected to increase with climate warming. Fire effects on tundra ecosystems are poorly understood and difficult to quantify in a remote region where a short growing season severely limits ground data collection. Remote sensing has been widely utilized to characterize wildfire regimes, but primarily from the Landsat sensor, which has limited data acquisition in the Arctic. Here, coarse-resolution remotely sensed data are assessed as a means to quantify wildfire burn severity of the 2007 Anaktuvuk River Fire in Alaska, the largest tundra wildfire ever recorded on Alaska's North Slope. Data from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and downsampled Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were processed to spectral indices and correlated to observed metrics of surface, subsurface, and comprehensive burn severity. Spectral indices were strongly correlated to surface severity (maximum R2 = 0.88) and slightly less strongly correlated to substrate severity. Downsampled MODIS data showed a decrease in severity one year post-fire, corroborating rapid vegetation regeneration observed on the burned site. These results indicate that widely-used spectral indices and downsampled coarse-resolution data provide a reasonable supplement to often-limited ground data collection for analysis and long-term monitoring of wildfire effects in arctic ecosystems.

Kolden, Crystal A.; Rogan, John

2013-01-01

35

Neutrophil granulocyte functions in severely burned patients.  

PubMed

Burns wound sepsis is not only the most common but also the most severe complication following extensive thermal injury. One conceivable explanation of this problem is a reduced capacity of the polymorphonuclear neutrophil leucocytes of these patients to combat the invading microbes. Fifty patients (42 male and 8 female) with deep dermal burns, covering 20-90 per cent of the total body surface area, were investigated from immediately after the injury until death or until healing of the wounds. The following functions of the neutrophil granulocytes were studied: chemotaxis and random migration utilizing a modified Boyden chamber technique, phagocytosis of Staph. aureus and IgG-coated latex particles, bactericidal capacity, e.g. killing of Staph. aureus and the neutrophil granulocyte content of: myeloperoxidase, lactoferrin, and chymotrypsin-like cationic protein. The presence of stimulators and inhibitors of the granulocyte functions was studied using gel filtration of the patient's serum on Sephacryl gel columns. Sera from all patients obtained within the first 1-3 days post-burn contained significantly increased amounts of heat-labile chemokinetic stimulating activity. Sera obtained between days 4 and 10 after injury contained significantly decreased amounts of heat-stable chemokinetic stimulating activity. Reduced chemokinetic activity was found during the third and fourth weeks following major burns (greater than or equal to 40 per cent) due to the presence of one or both heat-stable chemokinetic inhibitory activities. During the second week post-burn patients with burns larger than 40 per cent of the body surface area who showed an inhibition of chemotaxis, also had defects in phagocytosis, and often impaired bactericidal capacity concomitant with lower contents than normal of the granular enzymes. A hyaluronic acid preparation in low concentrations was found to counteract the migration inhibitory effect demonstrated in vitro in sera from patients with severe burns. Based upon these results a series of patients with severe burns and impaired functions of the neutrophil granulocytes have been treated with small amounts of this hyaluronic acid preparation subcutaneously. Very promising results have been noticed, similar to those found in vitro. PMID:4027746

Arturson, G

1985-06-01

36

Initial Results Comparing Spectral Signatures of Post-fire Materials, Western Montana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current algorithms for estimating fire severity from remotely sensed imagery are based on pre-fire to post-fire changes in reflectance values within the sensor's bands, rather than on an understanding of how spectral signatures of burned areas differ from unburned areas. However, spectral signatures for materials commonly found in burned areas of the landscape, including ash, charcoal, and burned pine needles have not been published. With a fundamental understanding of how fire alters the spectral signatures of a landscape, fire severity algorithms could readily be derived for any sensor. Spectral signatures of charcoal, soil and other materials were collected for this project in several burned areas in western Montana during the summer of 2006. An ASD FieldSpec3 spectroradiometer (350-2500 nm) was used for collection. Time since burn ranged from one week to one year. Spectral signatures were also collected for vegetation and other common materials outside the burn perimeter and for areas 26 inches in diameter with a mix of vegetation and burned materials. We present characteristic spectra for these types of materials associated with wildland fire, and regions of the electromagnetic spectrum that experience the most change due to wildfire. These results aid interpretation of the environmental effects of wildfire in remotely sensed imagery of burned areas.

Klene, A.; Riley, K. L.; Kamp, U.

2006-12-01

37

Coping with Severe Burns in the Early Stage After Burn Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between coping strategies, anxiety and depression levels and burn injury char- acteristics in the early phase of the treatment in burn-injured patients. Seventy patients with severe burns were inter- viewed within two weeks of their burn trauma. Coping strategies were measured by the coping with burns questionnaire (CBQ). Anxiety and depression levels were assessed with

Marijana Bra; Zoran Lon; Lovorka Brajkovi; Rudolf Gregurek

38

Predicting Post-fire Flooding and Sediment Delivery at the Watershed Scale: An Urgent Need for Upscaling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past 10-15 years tremendous advances have been made in understanding the effects of fires on runoff and erosion processes, the effectiveness of various post-fire rehabilitation treatments, and the prediction of these changes. The problem is that nearly all of this work has been done at the plot and hillslope scale, while it is the larger-scale issues of flooding, water quality, and sedimentation that are of primary concern to resource managers and the public. In most cases these larger-scale changes are predicted either by simple lumped models, such as the curve number technique, or by summing up the hillslope-scale responses. These approaches can greatly overestimate the downstream effects because they do not account for the spatial variability of rainfall or the complexities of routing and storage. While post-fire stormflows may be efficiently routed downstream, our observations from fires across the western US indicate very large differences in the amount of sediment delivered to downstream areas. As one example, a large storm after the 2012 High Park fire near Fort Collins generated huge amounts of sediment, but relatively little of this was delivered to the Cache la Poudre River; in the case of the 2002 Hayman fire near Denver even moderate-sized storms delivered enough sand and fine gravel to temporarily dam up the South Platte River and over time around 750,000 m3 of sediment was deposited into Strontia Springs Reservoir. In this paper we hypothesize that relatively simple set of tools can greatly improve our ability to predict post-fire runoff and sediment delivery at the watershed scale (5-100 km2). In areas dominated by convective storms post-fire flood risks should be modified according to the size of those storms relative to the upslope contributing area and extent of high or moderate burn severity. The potential delivery of post-fire sediment can be improved by combining the predicted flood risk with empirical adjustments based on valley confinement, valley slope, and the density of the residual riparian vegetation. Particle size is hypothesized to be a lesser control because most of the deposited post-fire sediment is easily transported. Valley slope can be estimated from existing DEMs, while the accurate characterization of valley confinement and riparian vegetation requires higher-resolution imagery such as lidar and Quickbird or SPOT. The development of such tools should greatly improve our ability to predict the larger-scale risks of flooding and sedimentation, and more efficiently allocate post-fire treatments to watersheds that have the highest sediment delivery potential.

MacDonald, Lee; Wagenbrenner, Joe; Nelson, Peter; Brogan, Dan

2013-04-01

39

Ocular flora in the severely burned patient.  

PubMed

One hundred six eyes of 53 patients with severe thermal burns were studied with serial conjunctival cultures during a four-month period. A dramatic shift of the normal conjunctival flora from the preponderance of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Corynebacterium to S aureus and Gram-negative bacilli was observed. This commonly occurred on the fifth to sixth postburn day and represented colonization of the conjunctiva by bacteria recovered from other sites in the body. Despite the high incidence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates (34%) of these eyes, deleterious effects were noted in only three eyes in two patients in whom infectious corneal ulcers developed before these patients died. PMID:98138

Pramhus, C; Runyan, T E; Lindberg, R B

1978-08-01

40

Post-fire vegetation recovery in Portugal based on spot/vegetation data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A procedure is presented that allows identifying large burned scars and the monitoring of vegetation recovery in the years following major fire episodes. The procedure relies on 10-day fields of Maximum Value Composites of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (MVC-NDVI), with a 1 km1 km spatial resolution obtained from the VEGETATION instrument. The identification of fire scars during the extremely severe 2003 fire season is performed based on cluster analysis of NDVI anomalies that persist during the vegetative cycle of the year following the fire event. Two regions containing very large burned scars were selected, located in Central and Southwestern Portugal, respectively, and time series of MVC-NDVI analysed before the fire events took place and throughout the post-fire period. It is shown that post-fire vegetation dynamics in the two selected regions may be characterised based on maps of recovery rates as estimated by fitting a monoparametric model of vegetation recovery to MVC-NDVI data over each burned scar. Results indicated that the recovery process in the region located in Central Portugal is mostly related to fire damage rather than to vegetation density before 2003, whereas the latter seems to have a more prominent role than vegetation conditions after the fire episode, e.g. in the case of the region in Southwestern Portugal. These differences are consistent with the respective predominant types of vegetation. The burned area located in Central Portugal is dominated by Pinus Pinaster whose natural regeneration crucially depends on the destruction of seeds present on the soil surface during the fire, whereas the burned scar in Southwestern Portugal was populated by Eucalyptus that may quickly re-sprout from buds after fire. Besides its simplicity, the monoparametric model of vegetation recovery has the advantage of being easily adapted to other low-resolution satellite data, as well as to other types of vegetation indices.

Gouveia, C.; Dacamara, C. C.; Trigo, R. M.

2010-04-01

41

Post-fire Erosion and Recovery in Chaparral Steeplands, Southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In fire-prone southern California chaparral environments, wildfire is a significant disturbance event. It incinerates vegetation, alters soil properties, and renders the landscape susceptible to the agents of erosion. Accelerated erosion can cause site degradation, can extirpate refugia populations of endangered species, and can harm human communities at the wildland/urban interface. The San Dimas Experimental Forest (SDEF) is a nearly 7000 ha research preserve located in the San Gabriel Mountains. Native vegetation in the SDEF consists primarily of mixed chaparral. Management treatments following a wildfire in 1960 involved the vegetation type-conversion of some native chaparral watersheds to a mixture of perennial grasses. In 1994, a study was initiated to quantify sediment fluxes through several small (1-3 ha) headwater catchments in the SDEF under both brush and grass vegetation. Several of these watersheds burned in a prescribed fire in May 2001. The remainder burned in a wildfire in September 2002. These burns provided a unique opportunity to quantify post-fire erosion on the same sites for which there were extensive pre- fire measurements. Hillslope erosion was sampled using sheet metal collector traps with a 30 cm aperture. Seventy-five traps were placed on unbounded plots scattered throughout each of four watersheds. Sediment yield was measured behind earthen dams in 17 small watersheds. A centrally located raingage recorded precipitation amounts and intensities. During this study period, the SDEF experienced both the wettest (2005) and driest (2007) years in its 74-year history. The values for the 15-minute maximum rainfall intensity show no relation to annual erosion (hillslope or small watershed) for either vegetation type before or after fire. Both hillslope erosion and small watershed sediment yield display remarkably similar patterns of post-fire erosion response: a one to two order of magnitude increase in first-year erosion followed by a relatively rapid recovery (2-3 years) to baseline levels. Post-fire erosion was very similar whether the watersheds burned in a prescribed fire or a wildfire. Although rainfall is a necessary driver, post-burn erosion is governed more by the fire-induced increased landscape sensitivity to the agents of erosion.

Wohlgemuth, P. M.

2007-12-01

42

Post-fire forest sustainability in north-central Portugal: Assessing the impacts of pre- and post-fire ground preparations, logging and mitigation treatments on post-fire runoff and erosion.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires have been reported worldwide as producing strong and sometimes extreme responses in runoff and soil erosion. However, in the case of North-Central Portugal, little research had been carried out regarding the hydrologic and erosive impacts of several land management activities in recently burnt areas (such as ground preparation, post-fire logging or post-fire mitigation treatments). This is the main objective of this research. Several pre- and post-fire ground preparation operations (down-slope rip-ploughed, contour ploughed and terracing), post-fire logging activities, and post-fire soil erosion mitigation treatments (forest residue mulches, polyacrylamide and hydromulch) were assessed from the first to the third post-fire years. Repeated rainfall simulation experiments (RSE's), micro-scale runoff plots and bounded sediment fences were installed immediately after the wildfire in twelve burnt slopes and monitored at weekly-basis intervals. The results for the first post-fire year showed comparable runoff coefficient (20-60%) but lower sediment losses (1.2-10 Mg ha-1) than prior studies in Portugal and worldwide, which corresponded well with the historic intensive land use in the area. Terracing sharply increased soil erosion (up to 30 Mg ha-1) at the micro-plots scale during the first year after a wildfire and terracing. However, sediment limited erosion was measured in all the pre-fire ploughed sites, probably due to the time elapsed since ploughing. Post-fire logging activities enhanced 5- to 10- fold the sediment losses, which was related to the disturbance of the soil surface cover. The mulches (forest residue or hydromulch) were highly effective reducing post-fire soil erosion in more than 80%. The increase on sediment losses of the recently terraced area and the measured sediment exhaustion at all the pre-fire ploughed sites as well as the increasing frequency of ploughing in the forest areas implies the need to consider ploughing as a hazardous activity in the region. Furthermore, logging activities that maintain the needle cast and/or logging litter over the soil surface are suggested. The best options for post-fire mitigation treatments were forest residue or hydromulch. Due to its comparatively lower price, the forest residue mulch is highly recommended.

Malvar, Maruxa; Prats, Srgio A.; Martins, Martinho A. S.; Gonzalez-Pelayo, scar; Keizer, Jacob J.

2014-05-01

43

Analysis of Alaskan burn severity patterns using remotely sensed data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wildland fire is the dominant large-scale disturbance mechanism in the Alaskan boreal forest, and it strongly influences forest structure and function. In this research, patterns of burn severity in the Alaskan boreal forest are characterised using 24 fires. First, the relationship between burn severity and area burned is quantified using a linear regression. Second, the spatial correlation of burn severity as a function of topography is modelled using a variogram analysis. Finally, the relationship between vegetation type and spatial patterns of burn severity is quantified using linear models where variograms account for spatial correlation. These results show that: 1) average burn severity increases with the natural logarithm of the area of the wildfire, 2) burn severity is more variable in topographically complex landscapes than in flat landscapes, and 3) there is a significant relationship between burn severity and vegetation type in flat landscapes but not in topographically complex landscapes. These results strengthen the argument that differential flammability of vegetation exists in some boreal landscapes of Alaska. Additionally, these results suggest that through feedbacks between vegetation and burn severity, the distribution of forest vegetation through time is likely more stable in flat terrain than it is in areas with more complex topography. ?? IAWF 2007.

Duffy, P.A.; Epting, J.; Graham, J.M.; Rupp, T.S.; McGuire, A.D.

2007-01-01

44

Mercury Binding and Mobilization in Post-fire Soil Horizons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fires affect watersheds in many ways, including through increased erosion and sediment transport, decreased water quality, and transport and cycling of nutrients and metals. This research addresses mercury (Hg) mobilization within post-fire stream systems, focusing on the influence of soil particle size on binding affinity and potential transport. Using a network of sampling sites within the Piru Creek watershed, affected by the Day Fire during September 2006, total mercury (THg) was measured in soils collected before, during, and after the 2006- 07 storm season. Unburned and burned soil samples from various levels of burn intensity were collected in one- inch increments to a depth of 6 inches and partitioned into fine, medium and coarse fractions. THg concentrations within each grain fraction were measured in triplicate using a Milestone Direct Mercury Analyzer. Initial findings indicate a loss of THg at the surface in the burned soils, as well as increased levels of THg at depths of 2-4 inches. We hypothesize this to be due to volatilization of Hg due to burning, which is either released upward into the atmosphere, or becomes bound to organic matter and settles just below the surface during the formation of a hydrophobic layer. Surface loss may also be attributed to post-fire erosional processes and storm transport. Additionally, analysis of the size fractionated soils reveals that the highest readings of THg in unburned soils occurred in the fine sediments in every case. THg concentrations in fine sediments in the burned soils were not significantly higher than THg concentrations in medium or coarse sands. More recently collected samples show evidence of continuing atmospheric deposition of Hg at the soil surface. Leaching tests are also being performed on this same set of soils to aid in evaluating potential mobilization of THg from transported soils during storm events.

Burke, M. P.; Navarro, B.; Mendez, C.; Lopez, S.; Ferreira, M.; Rademacher, L.; Jay, J.; Hogue, T. S.

2007-12-01

45

Stem demography and post-fire recruitment of a resprouting serotinous conifer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The contribution of resprouts and seedling recruitment to post-fire regeneration of the South African fynbos conifer Widdringtonia nodiflora was compared eight months after wildfires in 1990. Stems on all trees were killed by fire but resprouting success was > 90 % at all but one site. A demographic study of burned skeletons revealed that prior to these fires, nearly all plants were multi-stemmed (4 - 9 stems/plant) and multi-aged, indicating continuous sprout production between fires. All stems were killed by these 1990 fires and at most sites > 90 % of the stems were burned to ground level. All diameter stems were susceptible to such incineration as, at most sites, there was no difference in average diameter of stems burned to ground level and those left standing. Individual genets usually had all ramets incinerated to ground level or all ramets charred, but intact, suggesting certain micro-sites burned hotter, whereas other sites were somewhat protected. Although not true of the 1990 fires, there was evidence that occasionally Widdringtonia stems may survive fire. At one site, four of the 16 plants sampled had a burned stem twice as old as the oldest burned stem on the other 12 plants at the site, suggesting some stems had survived the previous fire (ca. 1970) and this conclusion was supported by fire-scars on these four stems that dated to ca. 1970. Based on the highly significant correlation between stem diameter and cone density left standing after the 1990 fries, we calculated that for most sites > 80 % of the initial cone crop was incinerated by fire. This is important because we observed a strong relationship between size of the canopy cone crop surviving fire and post-fire seedling recruitment. Under these conditions we hypothesize that sprouting confers a selective advantage to genets when fires cause heavy losses of seed. The infrequent occurrence of sprouting in the Cupressaceae suggests the hypothesis that resprouting is an apomorphic or derived trait in Widdringtonia. Data from this study suggests resprouting provides a selective advantage under severe fynbos fires, which are not only 'stand-replacing fires,' but also are intense enough to incinerate cone-bearing stems.

Keeley, J.E.; Keeley, M.B.; Bond, W.J.

1999-01-01

46

Spatial frequency domain imaging of burn wounds in a preclinical model of graded burn severity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frequent monitoring of early-stage burns is necessary for deciding optimal treatment and management. Both superficial and full thickness burns are relatively easy to diagnose based on clinical observation. In between these two extremes are superficial-partial thickness and deep-partial thickness burns. These burns, while visually similar, differ dramatically in terms of clinical treatment and are known to progress in severity over time. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) for noninvasively mapping quantitative changes in chromophore and optical properties that may be an indicative of burn wound severity. A controlled protocol of graded burn severity was developed and applied to 17 rats. SFDI data was acquired at multiple near-infrared wavelengths over a course of 3 h. Burn severity was verified using hematoxylin and eosin histology. From this study, we found that changes in water concentration (edema), deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration, and optical scattering (tissue denaturation) to be statistically significant at differentiating superficial partial-thickness burns from deep-partial thickness burns.

Nguyen, John Quan; Crouzet, Christian; Mai, Tuan; Riola, Kathleen; Uchitel, Daniel; Liaw, Lih-Huei; Bernal, Nicole; Ponticorvo, Adrien; Choi, Bernard; Durkin, Anthony J.

2013-06-01

47

Index for characterizing post-fire soil environments in temperate coniferous forests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many scientists and managers have an interest in describing the environment following a fire to understand the effects on soil productivity, vegetation growth, and wildlife habitat, but little research has focused on the scientific rationale for classifying the post-fire environment. We developed an empirically-grounded soil post-fire index (PFI) based on available science and ecological thresholds. Using over 50 literature sources, we identified a minimum of five broad categories of post-fire outcomes: (a) unburned, (b) abundant surface organic matter ( > 85% surface organic matter), (c) moderate amount of surface organic matter ( ? 40 through 85%), (d) small amounts of surface organic matter ( < 40%), and (e) absence of surface organic matter (no organic matter left). We then subdivided each broad category on the basis of post-fire mineral soil colors providing a more fine-tuned post-fire soil index. We related each PFI category to characteristics such as soil temperature and duration of heating during fire, and physical, chemical, and biological responses. Classifying or describing post-fire soil conditions consistently will improve interpretations of fire effects research and facilitate communication of potential responses or outcomes (e.g., erosion potential) from fires of varying severities.

Jain, Theresa B.; Pilliod, David S.; Graham, Russell T.; Lentile, Leigh B.; Sandquist, Jonathan E.

2012-01-01

48

Post-fire Gully Rejuvenation - Evidence of Process Thresholds Controlled by Vegetation Disturbance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High intensity rainfall may trigger gully rejuvenation on hillslopes recently disturbed by wildfire, leading to debris-laden flows which generally contribute the majority of sediment transported in post-fire erosion events. We investigated the extent to which the occurrence of gully rejuvenation can be predicted based upon burn severity, rainfall data and basin morphometric variables. Field surveys were conducted at six Northern Rockies sites to identify occurrence of gully rejuvenation in first order catchments and to map and characterize the location of gully heads. NEXRAD and rain gage data analysis coupled with field observations characterized rainfall intensity and extent. Building on previous work we quantified burn severity using the Vegetation Disturbance Index (VDI), a continuous metric based upon Burned Area Reflectance Classification (BARC) maps derived from satellite imagery using the dNBR algorithm. GIS analysis combined the VDI with morphometric factors expected to influence hillslope stability. Gully heads marked abrupt transition in channel form. Above gully heads, channels were shallow and U-shaped with gentle transition to the hillslope and fine root hairs intact. Angular edges marked deep gully head incisions which down-cut channel floors from 0.2-0.3 to 1.0 meter or more. Any remaining roots were coarse and the hillslope transition was sharp. Gully heads were located at variable distances below the master rill head of the catchment hollow. Distances were obviously greater where live canopy remained upslope. Gully head morphology strongly suggests flow force transition and exceedance of an erosion process threshold. The variable distance of the gully head below the hollow suggest upslope controls influencing initiation point, possibly degree and spatial pattern of burn severity. Binary logistic regression revealed stronger correlation between gully rejuvenation and VDI than morphometric variables. The statistical strength using the continuous BARC metric was greater than that obtained in prior work using standard classified BARC maps. Where gully rejuvenation occurred and the VDI predictor variable was low, higher burn severity was often concentrated in the catchment hollow further reinforcing the significance of upslope influences of vegetation disturbance on the occurrence of gully rejuvenation. These results confirm the overriding importance of burn severity as a predictor of gully rejuvenation in burned areas. Further, by incorporating measures of the spatial distribution of burn severity, it may be possible to further improve on existing predictive models.

Hyde, K.; Woods, S.

2011-12-01

49

Post-fire geomorphic response in steep, forested landscapes: Oregon Coast Range, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of fire in shaping steep, forested landscapes depends on a suite of hydrologic, biologic, and geological characteristics, including the propensity for hydrophobic soil layers to promote runoff erosion during subsequent rainfall events. In the Oregon Coast Range, several studies postulate that fire primarily modulates sediment production via root reinforcement and shallow landslide susceptibility, although few studies have documented post-fire geomorphic response. Here, we describe field observations and topographic analyses for three sites in the central Oregon Coast Range that burned in 1999, 2002, and 2003. The fires generated strongly hydrophobic soil layers that did not promote runoff erosion because the continuity of the layers was interrupted by pervasive discontinuities that facilitated rapid infiltration. At each of our sites, fire generated significant colluvial transport via dry ravel, consistent with other field-based studies in the western United States. Fire-driven dry ravel accumulation in low-order valleys of our Sulphur Creek site equated to a slope-averaged landscape lowering of 2.5 mm. Given Holocene estimates of fire frequency, these results suggest that fire may contribute 10-20% of total denudation across steep, dissected portions of the Oregon Coast Range. In addition, we documented more rapid decline of root strength at our sites than has been observed after timber harvest, suggesting that root strength was compromised prior to fire or that intense heat damaged roots in the shallow subsurface. Given that fire frequencies in the Pacific Northwest are predicted to increase with continued climate change, our findings highlight the importance of fire-induced dry ravel and post-fire debris flow activity in controlling sediment delivery to channels.

Jackson, Molly; Roering, Joshua J.

2009-06-01

50

Hepatic Autophagy after Severe Burn in Response to ER Stress  

PubMed Central

Introduction Previous studies showed liver dysfunction after severe burn, and that this is associated with activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Autophagy is a catabolic process to maintain cellular organelle balance; ER stress is associated with autophagy signaling cascades. We thus sought to determine whether autophagy signals were associated with damage in the liver after burn, and further whether burn associated ER stress activates autophagy signals in hepatocytes. Methods C57BL6 male mice received a 25% total body surface area full thickness (TBSA) scald burn, and liver was harvested at 24 hours after burn. HepG2 cells were stimulated with an ER stress inducer thapsigargin (TG) for 24 hours to mimic ER stress in vitro. TUNEL staining was performed on liver histology sections. Autophagy was assessed by immunoblotting. Statistical analysis was by Students t-test and significance was accepted at p<0.05. Results TUNEL positive stained hepatocytes increased in burned animals with a significant elevation of caspase 3 activity (p<0.05). A marked increase in hepatic ATG3, ATG5 and LC3B was detected as well (p<0.05). Expression of Beclin-1, LC3A and LC3B increased in HepG2 cells in response to TG, similar to the response seen in vivo. Cytosolic ATP dropped significantly, and AMPK and mTOR were phosphorylated as well in response to TG (p<0.05). Conclusion ER stress, which occurs in hepatocytes after severe injury, is associated with autophagy and liver damage following severe burn. In response to ER stress, activated autophagy is associated with AMPK/mTOR pathway. PMID:24209807

Song, Juquan; de Libero, Jana; Wolf, Steven E.

2014-01-01

51

Penetration of micafungin into the burn eschar in patients with severe burns.  

PubMed

Micafungin (MCFG) concentrations in the plasma and in burn eschar were investigated after daily intravenous infusion (1 h) of MCFG (200 mg) in three patients with severe burns. MCFG treatment was initiated more than 72 h after the burn injuries. The MCFG concentrations in the plasma were determined at the end of the first administration of MCFG, immediately before the second dosing, at the end of the MCFG infusion after at least 4 days from the initial treatment, and immediately before the subsequent dosing using high-performance liquid chromatography. In addition, the trough levels in burn eschar after both the initial administration and repeated administration were measured. The peak and trough levels in the plasma were comparable to or slightly lower than the reported values in healthy volunteers. The mean (range) MCFG concentrations in the burn eschar after initial administration and repeated administration were 1.41 ?g/mL (<0.1-3.98 ?g/mL) and 6.65 ?g/mL (1.10-14.81 ?g/mL), respectively. In most cases, the MCFG concentrations in the burn eschar, especially after repeated administration, were higher than the reported MIC90 of MCFG against the clinically important pathogenic species of Candida and Aspergillus. These results suggest that MCFG is capable of penetrating burn eschar. PMID:23771854

Sasaki, Junichi; Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Sato, Yukio; Abe, Shinya; Shinozawa, Yotaro; Kishino, Satoshi; Aikawa, Naoki; Hori, Shingo

2014-06-01

52

Post-fire resilience in the Alpine region estimated from MODIS satellite multispectral data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a methodology based on the analysis of MODIS (MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) time series was developed to estimate post-fire resilience of Alpine vegetation. To this end, satellite images of two vegetation indices (VIs), the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) were used. The analysis was conducted on wildfire affected areas in the Lombardy region (Italy) between 2003 and 2007. Some land surface (LS) descriptors (i.e. mean and maximum VI, growing season start, end and length) were extracted to characterize the time evolution of the vegetation. The descriptors from a burned area were compared to those from an undisturbed adjacent control site by means of analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA). Post-fire resilience was estimated on the basis of the number of subsequent years exhibiting a statistical difference between burned area and control site. The same methodologies were also applied to events aggregated by main land cover (broadleaf forest, prairies and mixed forest). The averaged resilience of broadleaf forest was 5-6 years, whereas prairie ecosystems exhibited a faster response of 0-2 years. Phenological analysis revealed that fire induces a shift of the start and end of growing season in forest ecosystems but has no effect on prairies. The method provides a useful and quantitative insight into complex post-fire vegetation dynamics in the Alps from a remote sensing perspective; results can apply to post-fire forest management and to multi-risk analysis. to compare the performance of NDVI and EVI for inferring post fire resilience.; to evaluate different LS descriptors (i.e. mean and maximum VI, start, end and length of the growing season) for resilience estimations; to compare the resilience to fire of different land covers (LCs) (i.e. broadleaf forest, mixed forest and prairies) affected by fire in Alpine areas.

Di Mauro, B.; Fava, F.; Busetto, L.; Crosta, G. F.; Colombo, R.

2014-10-01

53

Seasonal and Annual Variability of Hydrologic Fluxes in Post-fire Watersheds in Southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire dramatically alters watershed characteristics and in situ processes. Vegetation loss and acute changes in soil properties significantly change land-atmosphere interactions and overall water balance within a burned system. A significant number of studies have studied post-fire storm response, debris flows, sediment transport, and water quality impacts. However, fewer studies have investigated the spatial and temporal patterns of vegetation response (evaporative flux) and the corresponding impacts on flow regimes, especially in semi-arid regions. The current study is undertaken to further understanding of short- and long-term hydrologic response to fire and offer insight on vegetation response and evaporative processes in post-fire chaparral systems. Initial investigation centers on two watersheds (City Creek and Devil Canyon) burned during the 2003 Old Fire in San Bernardino in southern California. Climate and discharge data are used to evaluate seasonal and annual variability and provide information on post-fire fluxes. Additionally, we utilize an extensive array of MODIS satellite products to observe land surface and vegetation recovery, including a recently developed MODIS-based potential evapotranspiration product. Initial results indicate increased discharge up to four years in both systems, with apparent elevated dry season flow for much of the post-fire period. Vegetation response is heavily influenced by seasonal precipitation patterns, but does not appear to be back to pre-fire evaporative conditions during this same period. Studying pre and post-fire hydrologic variability and linkages to regional climate patterns will help to further our understanding of recovery processes and, ultimately, assist in flood control and water resource management activities.

Kinoshita, A.; Hogue, T. S.

2008-12-01

54

Methylene blue in the treatment of vasoplegia following severe burns.  

PubMed

Vasoplegia resulting from severe burns may persist despite adequate fluid resuscitation and treatment with norepinephrine (NE), vasopressin (VP), and steroids. The adenylate cyclase inhibitor methylene blue (MB), currently used in the burn patient to treat methemoglobinemia, has been used to treat vasoplegia after cardiopulmonary bypass. We report the case of MB infusion in two burn patients refractory to NE. The patients had severe burns, 95 and 80% TBSA not responding to conventional treatment. Fluid requirements were estimated according to Parkland formula and then to maintain a urinary output of 30-50 ml/hr. Patient #1, 95% TBSA, was adrenally insufficient and was receiving steroids according to the Annane protocol, as well as VP at 0.2 U/min. His NE requirements were 55 mcg/kg/min. Patient #2, 80% TBSA, was receiving 20 mcg/kg/min of NE. Circulatory failure was defined as inability to maintain mean arterial pressure >70 mm Hg. Hemodynamic and physiologic parameters were measured before and after infusion of a single dose of 2 mg/kg of MB. Both patients showed dramatic improvements in their shock after MB. Patient #1 had an initial reaction within 30 minutes and reached peak effect at 1 hour. His NE requirements decreased to 0.2 mcg/kg/min and VP decreased to 0.04 U/min. Patient #2 showed effects within 15 minutes of the infusion and by 2 hours the NE was stopped. No adverse side effects were noted in either of the two patients. The fact that MB successfully reversed refractory vasoplegia after severe burns suggests a new tool for treating a small subgroup of patients who exhibit persistent vasoplegia from their burn injury. A controlled randomized trial is needed to test its effects on a large number of patients and graft survival. PMID:18354304

Jaskille, Amn D; Jeng, James C; Jordan, Marion H

2008-01-01

55

Monitoring the Effects of Forest Restoration Treatments on Post-Fire Vegetation Recovery with MODIS Multitemporal Data  

PubMed Central

This study examines how satellite based time-series vegetation greenness data and phenological measurements can be used to monitor and quantify vegetation recovery after wildfire disturbances and examine how pre-fire fuel reduction restoration treatments impact fire severity and impact vegetation recovery trajectories. Pairs of wildfire affected sites and a nearby unburned reference site were chosen to measure the post-disturbance recovery in relation to climate variation. All site pairs were chosen in forested uplands in Arizona and were restricted to the area of the Rodeo-Chediski fire that occurred in 2002. Fuel reduction treatments were performed in 1999 and 2001. The inter-annual and seasonal vegetation dynamics before, during, and after wildfire events can be monitored using a time series of biweekly composited MODIS NDVI (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer - Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) data. Time series analysis methods included difference metrics, smoothing filters, and fitting functions that were applied to extract seasonal and inter-annual change and phenological metrics from the NDVI time series data from 2000 to 2007. Pre- and post-fire Landsat data were used to compute the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) and examine burn severity at the selected sites. The phenological metrics (pheno-metrics) included the timing and greenness (i.e. NDVI) for the start, peak and end of the growing season as well as proxy measures for the rate of green-up and senescence and the annual vegetation productivity. Pre-fire fuel reduction treatments resulted in lower fire severity, which reduced annual productivity much less than untreated areas within the Rodeo-Chediski fire perimeter. The seasonal metrics were shown to be useful for estimating the rate of post-fire disturbance recovery and the timing of phenological greenness phases. The use of satellite time series NDVI data and derived pheno-metrics show potential for tracking vegetation cover dynamics and successional changes in response to drought, wildfire disturbances, and forest restoration treatments in fire-suppressed forests.

van Leeuwen, Willem J. D.

2008-01-01

56

Incorporating multi-platform remote sensing products for prediction of post-fire hydrologic recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires are increasing in intensity and size across the western US, and more than half of the 20 largest fires in California have occurred within the last decade. Development in southern California has increased and as a result many homes at the wildland-urban interface (WUI) are affected by fire events themselves and post-fire processes. Current management efforts are mostly concentrated around immediate post-fire effects (first storm season); however, burned systems are often altered for prolonged periods of time, creating long-term concerns for downstream communities at the WUI. Previous work in two southern Californian watersheds, City Creek and Devil Canyon, shows lack of vegetation recovery and significant changes in annual and seasonal discharge for the post-fire study period (seven years). Applying remotely sensed data streams enhances monitoring of large and ungauged burned areas at high spatial and temporal resolutions. The goal of the current study is to integrate remote sensing data from multiple satellite platforms to improve prediction of the spatial and temporal variability of key hydrological variables controlling post-fire response. Remote sensing data streams from Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat are used to derive a range of land surface parameters and evaluate ecosystem and hydrologic recovery for the Arroyo Seco, an urban-fringe watershed in southern California burned by the 2009 Station Fire. A UCLA remotely-sensed evapotranspiration (ET) product is used to provide insight on vegetation growth and plant water availability. A UCLA MODIS-AMSR-E soil moisture product is used to evaluate the spatial variability of post-fire surface soil moisture and coupled storm runoff response. A range of other parameters, surface temperature, albedo and vegetation indices, are also evaluated to provide insight on the spatial variability of watershed recovery. Predicting the short and long-term risks of post-fire floods, debris flows and water quality degradation is critical in order to guide cost effective and efficient fire management policies at the WUI.

Kinoshita, A. M.; Hogue, T. S.; Kim, J.

2011-12-01

57

Evolving forest fire burn severity classification algorithms for multispectral imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between May 6 and May 18, 2000, the Cerro Grande/Los Alamos wildfire burned approximately 43,000 acres (17,500 ha) and 235 residences in the town of Los Alamos, NM. Initial estimates of forest damage included 17,000 acres (6,900 ha) of 70-100% tree mortality. Restoration efforts following the fire were complicated by the large scale of the fire, and by the presence of extensive natural and man-made hazards. These conditions forced a reliance on remote sensing techniques for mapping and classifying the burn region. During and after the fire, remote-sensing data was acquired from a variety of aircraft-based and satellite-based sensors, including Landsat 7. We now report on the application of a machine learning technique, implemented in a software package called GENIE, to the classification of forest fire burn severity using Landsat 7 ETM+ multispectral imagery. The details of this automatic classification are compared to the manually produced burn classification, which was derived from field observations and manual interpretation of high-resolution aerial color/infrared photography.

Brumby, Steven P.; Harvey, Neal R.; Bloch, Jeffrey J.; Theiler, James P.; Perkins, Simon J.; Young, Aaron C.; Szymanski, John J.

2001-08-01

58

Post-fire geomorphic response in steep, forested landscapes: Oregon Coast Range, USA  

E-print Network

Post-fire geomorphic response in steep, forested landscapes: Oregon Coast Range, USA Molly Jackson Accepted 7 May 2008 a b s t r a c t The role of fire in shaping steep, forested landscapes depends, several studies postulate that fire primarily modulates sediment production via root reinforcement

Roering, Joshua J.

59

A data-driven approach for modeling post-fire debris-flow volumes and their uncertainty  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study demonstrates the novel application of genetic programming to evolve nonlinear post-fire debris-flow volume equations from variables associated with a data-driven conceptual model of the western United States. The search space is constrained using a multi-component objective function that simultaneously minimizes root-mean squared and unit errors for the evolution of fittest equations. An optimization technique is then used to estimate the limits of nonlinear prediction uncertainty associated with the debris-flow equations. In contrast to a published multiple linear regression three-variable equation, linking basin area with slopes greater or equal to 30 percent, burn severity characterized as area burned moderate plus high, and total storm rainfall, the data-driven approach discovers many nonlinear and several dimensionally consistent equations that are unbiased and have less prediction uncertainty. Of the nonlinear equations, the best performance (lowest prediction uncertainty) is achieved when using three variables: average basin slope, total burned area, and total storm rainfall. Further reduction in uncertainty is possible for the nonlinear equations when dimensional consistency is not a priority and by subsequently applying a gradient solver to the fittest solutions. The data-driven modeling approach can be applied to nonlinear multivariate problems in all fields of study. ?? 2011.

Friedel, M. J.

2011-01-01

60

Biogeochemistry and plant physiological traits interact to reinforce patterns of post-fire dominance in boreal forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increases in the frequency, extent, and severity of fire in the North American boreal region are projected to continue under a warming climate and are likely to be associated with changes in future vegetation composition. In interior Alaska, fire severity is linked to the relative dominance of deciduous versus coniferous canopy species. Severely burned areas have high levels of deciduous recruitment and subsequent stand dominance, while lightly burned areas exhibit black spruce self-replacement. To elucidate potential mechanisms by which differential fire severity results in differential post-fire vegetation development, we examined changes in soil nitrogen (N) supply (NO3- and NH4+) and in situ 15N uptake by young aspen (Populus tremuloides) and black spruce (Picea mariana) trees growing in lightly and severely burned areas. We hypothesized that (a) soil nitrate supply would be higher in severely burned sites and (b) since conifers have been shown to have a reduced physiological capacity for NO3- uptake, aspen would display greater rates of NO3- uptake than spruce in severely burned sites. Our results suggested that the composition and magnitude of inorganic N supply 14 years after the fire was nearly identical in high-severity and low-severity sites, and nitrate represented nearly 50% of the supply. However, both aspen and spruce took up substantially more NH4+-N than NO3- -N regardless of fire severity. Surprisingly, spruce exhibited only a moderately lower rate of NO3- uptake (?g N/g root-1h-1) than aspen. At the stand level, aspen took up nearly an order-of-magnitude more N per hectare in severely burned sites compared to lightly burned sites, while spruce exhibited the opposite pattern of N uptake with respect to fire severity. Whereas ammonium appeared to be preferred by both species, nitrate represented a larger component of N uptake (based on the NO3-:NH4+ uptake ratio) in aspen (0.7) than in spruce (0.4). We suggest that these species-specific differences in N preference coupled with their respective physiological response to fire severity represent a positive feedback loop that reinforce the opposing stand dominance patterns that have developed at the two ends of the fire severity spectrum. Shifts in forest composition from the current dominance by conifers to a future landscape dominated by deciduous forest are of concern due to impacts on climate-albedo feedbacks, forest productivity, ecosystem carbon storage, and wildlife habitat use.

Shenoy, A.; Kielland, K.; Johnstone, J. F.

2011-12-01

61

Post-fire land treatments and wind erosion -- lessons from the Milford Flat Fire, UT, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We monitored sediment flux at 25 plots located at the northern end of the 2007 Milford Flat Fire (Lake Bonneville Basin, west-central Utah) to examine the effectiveness of post-fire rehabilitation treatments in mitigating risks of wind erosion during the first 3 years post fire. Maximum values were recorded during MarJul 2009 when horizontal sediment fluxes measured with BSNE samplers ranged from 16.3 to 1251.0 g m?2 d?1 in unburned plots (n = 8; data represent averages of three sampler heights per plot), 35.2555.3 g m?2 d?1 in burned plots that were not treated (n = 5), and 21.044,010.7 g m?2 d?1 in burned plots that received one or more rehabilitation treatments that disturbed the soil surface (n = 12). Fluxes during this period exhibited extreme spatial variability and were contingent on upwind landscape characteristics and surficial soil properties, with maximum fluxes recorded in settings downwind of treated areas with long treatment length and unstable fine sand. Nonlinear patterns of wind erosion attributable to soil and fetch effects highlight the profound importance of landscape setting and soil properties as spatial factors to be considered in evaluating risks of alternative post-fire rehabilitation strategies. By MarJul 2010, average flux for all plots declined by 73.6% relative to the comparable 2009 period primarily due to the establishment and growth of exotic annual plants rather than seeded perennial plants. Results suggest that treatments in sensitive erosion-prone settings generally exacerbated rather than mitigated wind erosion during the first 3 years post fire, although long-term effects remain uncertain.

Miller, Mark E.; Bowker, Matthew A.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Goldstein, Harland L.

2012-01-01

62

Developing a post-fire flood chronology and recurrence probability from alluvial stratigraphy in the Buffalo Creek watershed, Colorado, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stratigraphic and geomorphic evidence indicate floods that occur soon after forest fires have been intermittent but common events in many mountainous areas during the past several thousand years. The magnitude and recurrence of these post-fire flood events reflects the joint probability between the recurrence of fires and the recurrence of subsequent rainfall events of varying magnitude and intensity. Following the May 1996 Buffalo Creek, Colorado, forest fire, precipitation amounts and intensities that generated very little surface runoff outside of the burned area resulted in severe hillslope erosion, floods, and streambed sediment entrainment in the rugged, severely burned, 48 km2 area. These floods added sediment to many existing alluvial fans, while simultaneously incising other fans and alluvial deposits. Incision of older fans revealed multiple sequences of fluvially transported sandy gravel that grade upward into charcoal-rich, loamy horizons. We interpret these sequences to represent periods of high sediment transport and aggradation during floods, followed by intervals of quiescence and relative stability in the watershed until a subsequent fire occurred. An alluvial sequence near the mouth of a tributary draining a 0??82 km2 area indicated several previous post-fire flood cycles in the watershed. Dendrochronologic and radiocarbon ages of material in this deposit span approximately 2900 years, and define three aggradational periods. The three general aggradational periods are separated by intervals of approximately nine to ten centuries and reflect a 'millennium-scale' geomorphic response to a closely timed sequence of events: severe and intense, watershed-scale, stand-replacing fires and subsequent rainstorms and flooding. Millennium-scale aggradational units at the study site may have resulted from a scenario in which the initial runoff from the burned watershed transported and deposited large volumes of sediment on downstream alluvial surfaces and tributary fans. Subsequent storm runoff may have produced localized incision and channelization, preventing additional vertical aggradation on the sampled alluvial deposit for several centuries. Two of the millennium-scale aggradational periods at the study site consist of multiple gravel and loam sequences with similar radiocarbon ages. These closely dated sequences may reflect a 'multidecade-scale' geomorphic response to more frequent, but aerially limited and less severe fires, followed by rainstorms of relatively common recurrence. Published in 2001 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

Elliott, J. G.; Parker, R. S.

2001-01-01

63

Fire intensity, fire severity and burn severity: A brief review and suggested usage  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Several recent papers have suggested replacing the terminology of fire intensity and fire severity. Part of the problem with fire intensity is that it is sometimes used incorrectly to describe fire effects, when in fact it is justifiably restricted to measures of energy output. Increasingly, the term has created confusion because some authors have restricted its usage to a single measure of energy output referred to as fireline intensity. This metric is most useful in understanding fire behavior in forests, but is too narrow to fully capture the multitude of ways fire energy affects ecosystems. Fire intensity represents the energy released during various phases of a fire, and different metrics such as reaction intensity, fireline intensity, temperature, heating duration and radiant energy are useful for different purposes. Fire severity, and the related term burn severity, have created considerable confusion because of recent changes in their usage. Some authors have justified this by contending that fire severity is defined broadly as ecosystem impacts from fire and thus is open to individual interpretation. However, empirical studies have defined fire severity operationally as the loss of or change in organic matter aboveground and belowground, although the precise metric varies with management needs. Confusion arises because fire or burn severity is sometimes defined so that it also includes ecosystem responses. Ecosystem responses include soil erosion, vegetation regeneration, restoration of community structure, faunal recolonization, and a plethora of related response variables. Although some ecosystem responses are correlated with measures of fire or burn severity, many important ecosystem processes have either not been demonstrated to be predicted by severity indices or have been shown in some vegetation types to be unrelated to severity. This is a critical issue because fire or burn severity are readily measurable parameters, both on the ground and with remote sensing, yet ecosystem responses are of most interest to resource managers.

Keeley, J.E.

2009-01-01

64

Drought impact on vegetation in pre and post fire events in Iberian Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2004/2005, the Iberian Peninsula was stricken by an exceptional drought that affected more than one third of Portugal and part of southern Spain during more than 9 months. This severe drought had a strong negative impact on vegetation dynamics, as it coincided with the period of high photosynthetic activity (Gouveia et al., 2009). Since water availability is a crucial factor in post-fire vegetation recovery, it is desirable to assess the impact that such water-stress conditions had on fire sensitivity and post-fire vegetation recovery. Fire events in the European Mediterranean areas have become a serious problem and a major ecosystem disturbance, increasing erosion and soil degradation. In Portugal, the years 2003 and 2005 were particularly devastating. In 2003 it was registered the maximal burnt area since 1980, with more than 425000 ha burned, representing about 5% of Portuguese mainland. The 2005 fire season registered the highest number of fire occurrences in Portugal and the second year with the greatest number of fires in Spain. The high number of fire events observed during the summer 2005 in the Iberian Peninsula is linked, in part, to the extreme drought conditions that prevailed during the preceding winter and spring seasons of 2004/2005. Vegetation recovery after the 2003 and 2005 fire seasons was estimated using the mono-parametric model developed by Gouveia et al. (2010), which relies on monthly values of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), from 1999 to 2009, at 1kmresolution, as obtained from the VEGETATION-SPOT5 instrument.. This model was further used to evaluate the effect of drought in pre and post vegetation activity. Besides the standard NDVI, the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and the Normalized Difference Drought Index (NDDI) were computed in order to evaluate drought intensity. In the case of the burnt scars of 2003, when data corresponding to the months of drought are removed, recovery times are considerably shorter. The extreme water stress conditions to which vegetation is subject during drought events appear, therefore, to delay the regeneration process, which is to be expected since water availability is determinant to primary productivity. On the other hand, in the case of 2005 burnt areas, vegetation is more stressed and dryer in summer than in spring and, in general, fire damage is higher for pixels with higher vegetation density and higher moisture content during the months before the fire. These relationships are also related with the distinct vegetation behavior of the different land covers: in general, shrubland holds less quantity of very dry biomass, while needle leaf presents higher amounts of fairly dry biomass. Gouveia C., Trigo R.M., DaCamara C.C (2009) "Drought and Vegetation Stress Monitoring in Portugal using Satellite Data". Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 9, 1-11 Gouveia C., DaCamara C.C, Trigo R.M. (2010). "Post-fire vegetation dynamics in Portugal". Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 10, 4, 673-684.

Gouveia, C. M.; Bastos, A.; Trigo, R. M.; DaCamara, C.

2012-04-01

65

Comparison of post-fire seedling establishment between scrub communities in mediterranean and non-mediterranean climate ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

I Both fire regimes and the conditions under which fires occur vary widely. Abiotic conditions (such as climate) in combination with fire season, frequency and intensity could influence vegetation responses to fire. A variety of adaptations facilitate post-fire recruitment in mediterranean climate ecosystems, but responses of other communities are less well known. We evaluated the importance of climate by comparing sites with mediterranean and subtropical climates. 2 We used paired burned and mature sites in chamise chaparral, mixed chaparral and coastal sage scrub (California), and rosemary scrub, sand pine scrub and sand-hill (Florida), to test whether (i) patterns of pre-fire and post-fire seedling recruitment are more similar between communities within a region than between regions, and (ii) post-fire stimulation of seedling establishment is greater in regions with marked fire-induced contrasts in abiotic site characteristics. 3 Post-fire seedling densities were more similar among sites within climatic regions than between regions. Both seedling densities and proportions of species represented by seedlings after fires were generally higher in California. 4 The only site characteristic showing a pre-fire-post-fire contrast was percentage open canopy, and the effect was greater in California than in Florida. Soil properties were unaffected by fire. 5 Mediterranean climate ecosystems in other regions have nutrient-poor soils similar to our subtropical Florida sites, but show post-fire seedling recruitment patterns more similar to the nutrient-rich sites in California. Climate therefore appears to play a more major role than soil characteristics.

Carrington, M.E.; Keeley, J.E.

1999-01-01

66

Post-fire impacts on microclimate and convective precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the landscape by fire have been measured and documented during several field projects. In this study the effects of landscape changes on the microclimate of a burn scar are examined and the potential changes in precipitation amount and microphysical characteristics of storms over and near the burn area are investigated. The Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modeling System

Elizabeth Mulvihill Page

2007-01-01

67

Effects of sowing native herbaceous species on the post-fire recovery in a heathland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erica australis heathlands in Len province (NW Spain) have high resilience to disturbances and their post-fire recovery is very fast. The risk of soil erosion is high in the first few months after fire. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects on post-fire succession of sowing grass ( Agrostis capillaris and Festuca rubra) and legume ( Lotus corniculatus) seeds in a heathland burned by a summer wildfire, and to determine the most suitable native herbaceous species combination for protecting the soil in the first few phases of recovery. Fifteen permanent 4 m 2 plots are established in the burned area; four treatments and a control (unsown) are applied, each with three replicates. Three similar unburned plots are also considered (unburned control). Total cover is significantly higher in the sown plots in relation to the control in the first few months after sowing, but there are no differences after 18 months. Lotus corniculatus appears only in the first year and has no effect on the total cover. F. rubra appears earlier than Agrostis capillaris, but decreases significantly in cover after 18 months. Shrub species have the highest cover in the control plots and the lowest in the Agrostis plots. The correspondence analysis shows that the trend for vegetation in all plots reaches similar species composition by the time of final sampling. The last sampling of sown plots shows greater similarity to the control plots than the sampling of these plots within the first year. The fast initial growth of F. rubra, together with its decrease and subsequent low cover from the second year, make it more preferable than Agrostis capillaris for purposes of soil protection. However, additional research, both species- and site-specific, is necessary, as different responses due to different post-fire conditions and pre-fire species composition can have important implications on community dynamics.

Fernndez-Abascal, I.; Trrega, R.; Luis-Calabuig, E.; Marcos, E.

2003-07-01

68

Pre- and Post-Fire Infiltration Rates in a Montane Mixed Conifer Ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NSF-funded Catalina-Jemez Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) studies couplings among hydrologic, lithologic, ecological, and geochemical dynamics in the Southwest U.S. The motivation to study this region is to understand and to develop predictive models of how slow changes and abrupt disturbances affect landscape evolution and water resources for growing urban populations. One of the prevalent disturbances in Southwestern forested ecosystems is fire, which can dramatically alter near surface hydraulic properties and cause large changes in hydrological response in catchments. This poster will present a unique data set of pre- and post-fire infiltration and subsurface data collected before and shortly after the June 2013 Thompson Ridge Fire near Redondo Peak in the Valles Caldera 10 miles north of Jemez Springs, NM. Single ring pre-fire infiltration measurements were taken in July 2011 at 22 different locations with high-precision GPS tags. Similar post-fire infiltration measurements were taken within 1 meter of spatial accuracy of the pre-fire measurements in July 2013. The near-surface soil was analyzed for texture and organic matter content at 53 GPS-referenced locations in 2011, and a more detailed soil analysis is currently being analyzed in the laboratory for the 22 infiltration sites (5 depth increments down to about 50 cm). Because of the recent nature of the burn and subsequent sampling, complete results from data analysis are not yet available, however, the poster will provide a statistical analysis among pre- and post fire infiltration rates, established burn intensity classes, and subsurface changes such as soil texture and organic matter content.

Kopp, E. S.; Pohlmann, M. A.; Jones, C. A.; Chorover, J.; Schaap, M. G.

2013-12-01

69

Post-fire water quality in forest catchments: a review with implications for potable water supply  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many locations fire-prone forest catchments are utilised for the supply of potable water to small communities up to large cities. For example, in south-eastern Australia, wildfires have burned part or all of forest catchments supplying drinking water to Sydney (2001 wildfire), Canberra (2003), Adelaide (2007), Melbourne (2009), as well as various regional towns. Generally, undisturbed forest catchments are a source of high quality water. However, increases in erosion and sediment flux, runoff generation, and changes to the supply of key constituents after wildfire may result in contamination of water supplies. In this review, we present key physical and chemical constituents from a drinking water perspective that may be generated in burned forest catchments and examine post-fire changes to concentrations of these constituents in streams and reservoirs. The World Health Organisation (WHO) drinking water guideline values were used to assess reported post-fire constituent concentrations. Constituents examined include suspended sediment, ash, nutrients, trace metals, anions (Cl-, SO42-), cyanides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Constituent concentrations in streams and reservoirs vary substantially following wildfire. In streams, maximum reported total suspended solid concentrations (SSC) in the first year after fire ranged from 11 to 143,000 mg L-1. SSC is often measured in studies of post-fire stream water quality, whereas turbidity is used in drinking water guidelines and more commonly monitored in water supply reservoirs. For burned catchment reservoirs in south-eastern Australia, peak turbidities increased over pre-fire conditions, as did the frequency of exceedance of the turbidity guideline. NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ may increase after wildfire but maximum recorded concentrations have not exceeded WHO guideline values. Large post-fire increases in total N and total P concentrations in streams and reservoirs have been observed, although there are no guideline values for total N or P. Studies of post-fire concentrations of dissolved organic carbon are mostly from North America and report generally minor increases after fire, with elevated concentrations reflecting background conditions. The few observations of trace metal concentrations in streams after wildfire found high concentrations that exceeded guideline values for Fe, Mn, As, Cr, Al, Ba, and Pb, which were associated with highly elevated sediment concentrations. In contrast, Cu, Zn, and Hg were below or only slightly above (?1.2 times) guideline values. Reports of Cl- and SO42- concentrations after wildfire are mostly confined to coniferous forest areas, where maximum sampled values were well below WHO guidelines. Total cyanide concentrations have been observed to exceed guidelines values, although increases are likely to be short-lived. Post-fire stream concentrations of PAHs have been found to increase but were below levels of concern. In assessing the risk to water supply from wildfires, constituents of concern may be identified according to both the reason for concern (health or aesthetic) and treatability. Determining the risk to human health from short duration exposure to elevated concentrations of many contaminants (such as toxic metals, PAHs) is problematic, given that the guideline values are based on a life-time of exposure. Other constituents may have more rapid health effects from consumption of contaminated water (e.g. cyanides, Cu, NO2-) or aesthetic concerns (e.g. Fe, Mn, SO42-, Zn). The increased flux of suspended sediment and sediment-associated constituents (particularly metals, nutrients and organic carbon) that can occur after wildfire may necessitate water treatment by coagulation and filtration. At very high sediment concentrations treatment problems may be encountered that reduce or delay the rate of water processing, potentially causing disruptions in supply. For other constituents, such as NO3-, NO2-, Cl-, SO42-, amenable cyanides, and PAHs, it appears the likelihood that concentrations of concern will occur in water suppl

Smith, Hugh; Sheridan, Gary; Lane, Patrick; Nyman, Petter; Haydon, Shane

2010-05-01

70

[Preventing blood transfusion in a severely burned Jehovah's witness].  

PubMed

The treatment rationale of a burn victim (35% TBSA) who was child of Jehova's witnesses is described. Following a combined approach including erythropoetin and blood saving surgical techniques we were able to excise and graft the burn areas without blood transfusion. An extremely low hemoglobin of 3.4 g/dl was tolerated postoperatively and showed an increase to 10.9 g/dl 25 days later when the child was dismissed from the burn unit in stable condition. Possibilities to minimize blood loss and to avoid blood transfusions are discussed. PMID:7821070

Vogt, P M; Kurz-Mller, K; Peter, F W; Bttemeyer, R; Tryba, M; Steinau, H U

1994-11-01

71

Uncoupled skeletal muscle mitochondria contribute to hypermetabolism in severely burned adults.  

PubMed

Elevated metabolic rate is a hallmark of the stress response to severe burn injury. This response is mediated in part by adrenergic stress and is responsive to changes in ambient temperature. We hypothesize that uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle mitochondria contributes to increased metabolic rate in burn survivors. Here, we determined skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in healthy and severely burned adults. Indirect calorimetry was used to estimate metabolic rate in burn patients. Quadriceps muscle biopsies were collected on two separate occasions (11 5 and 21 8 days postinjury) from six severely burned adults (68 19% of total body surface area burned) and 12 healthy adults. Leak, coupled, and uncoupled mitochondrial respiration was determined in permeabilized myofiber bundles. Metabolic rate was significantly greater than predicted values for burn patients at both time points (P < 0.05). Skeletal muscle oxidative capacity, citrate synthase activity, a marker of mitochondrial abundance, and mitochondrial sensitivity to oligomycin were all lower in burn patients vs. controls at both time points (P < 0.05). A greater proportion of maximal mitochondrial respiration was linked to thermogenesis in burn patients compared with controls (P < 0.05). Increased metabolic rate in severely burned adults is accompanied by derangements in skeletal muscle mitochondrial function. Skeletal muscle mitochondria from burn victims are more uncoupled, indicating greater heat production within skeletal muscle. Our findings suggest that skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to increased metabolic rate in burn victims. PMID:25074988

Porter, Craig; Herndon, David N; Brsheim, Elisabet; Chao, Tony; Reidy, Paul T; Borack, Michael S; Rasmussen, Blake B; Chondronikola, Maria; Saraf, Manish K; Sidossis, Labros S

2014-09-01

72

The effects of wildfire, salvage logging, and post-fire N-fixation on the nutrient budgets of a Sierran forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of fire, post-fire salvage logging, and revegetation on nutrient budgets were estimated for a site in the eastern Sierra Nevada Mountains that burned in a wildfire in 1981. Approximately two decades after the fire, the shrub (former fire) ecosystem contained less C and more N than the adjacent forest ecosystem. Reconstruction of pre-fire nutrient budgets suggested that most

D. W. Johnson; J. F. Murphy; R. B. Susfalk; T. G. Caldwell; W. W. Miller; R. F. Walker; R. F. Powers

2005-01-01

73

Post-fire ecological succession: A theoretical modeling framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire is considered as an extreme disturbance in Mediterranean grasslands or shrublands as it often brings about many sudden changes in the vegetation structure, composition, and diversity patterns. In addition, it creates opportunities for exotic plant species to establish successfully in foreign habitat, and to outperform dominating native species. Monitoring and simulating post-fire successional changes, therefore, are essential tasks to

Amit Chakraborty; Bai-Lian Li

2009-01-01

74

Influence of wildfires on atmospheric composition and carbon uptake of forest ecosystems in Central Siberia: the establishing of a long-term post-fire monitoring system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calculations of direct emissions of greenhouse gases from boreal wildfires remain uncertain due to problems with emission factors, available carbon, and imprecise estimates of burned areas. Even more varied and sparse are accurate in situ calculations of temporal changes in boreal forest carbon dynamics following fire. Linking simultaneous instrumental atmospheric observations, GIS-based estimates of burned areas, and ecosystem carbon uptake calculations is vital to fill this knowledge gap. Since 2006 the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO; www.zottoproject.org) a research platform for large-scale climatic observations is operational in Central Siberia (6048'N, 8921'E). The data of ongoing greenhouse gases measurements at the tower are used in atmospheric inversions studies to infer the distribution of carbon sinks and sources over central Northern Eurasia. We present our contribution to reducing uncertainties in estimates of fire influence on atmospheric composition and post-fire ecosystem carbon uptake deduced from the large-scale fires that happened in 2012 in the tall tower footprint area. The burned areas were estimated from Landsat ETM 5,8 satellite images, while fires were detected from Terra/Aqua MODIS satellite data. The magnitude of ecological change caused by fires ("burn severity") was measured and mapped with a Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) index and further calibrated by a complementary field based Composite Burn Index (CBI). Measures of fire radiative power (FRP) index provided information on fire heat release intensity and on the amount and completeness of biomass combustion. Based on the analyzed GIS data, the system of study plots was established in the 5 dominating ecosystem types for a long-term post-fire monitoring. On the plots the comprehensive estimation of ecosystem parameters and carbon pools and their mapping was organized with a laser-based field instrumentation system. The work was supported financially by ISTC Project # 2757p, project of RFBR # 13-05-98053, and grant of president of RF for young scientists MK-1691.2014.5.

Panov, Alexey; Chi, Xuguang; Winderlich, Jan; Prokushkin, Anatoly; Bryukhanov, Alexander; Korets, Mikhail; Ponomarev, Evgenii; Timokhina, Anastasya; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Heimann, Martin

2014-05-01

75

Empirical models to predict the volumes of debris flows generated by recently burned basins in the western U.S  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently burned basins frequently produce debris flows in response to moderate-to-severe rainfall. Post-fire hazard assessments of debris flows are most useful when they predict the volume of material that may flow out of a burned basin. This study develops a set of empirically-based models that predict potential volumes of wildfire-related debris flows in different regions and geologic settings.The models were

Joseph E. Gartner; Susan H. Cannon; Paul M. Santi; Victor G. Dewolfe

2008-01-01

76

Plasma ceruloplasmin and total copper levels in burned children receiving parenteral copper: Effect of dose and burn severity  

SciTech Connect

The response to injury includes an acute-phase stimulation of plasma ceruloplasmin (CP). Patients recovering from nonburn trauma respond to copper (Cu) supplementation by increasing CP. However, plasma CP has been observed to decrease following moderate to severe burn injury, despite adequate enteral provision of Cu. The authors delivered intravenous Cu via TPN to 10 burned children daily at LOW dose or at HIGH dose during the first 3 weeks of recovery. Plasma CP and total Cu (tot Cu) were measured and nonceruloplasmin' Cu (nonCP-Cu) was calculated assuming 3 ug Cu/mg CP. All patients had low CP (range 6-25 mg/dl, normal = 27-37 mg/dl). The HIGH dose raised both CP and tot Cu without increasing non CP-Cu without increasing nonCp-Cu. CP explained 32% of the tot Cu variance while dose and CP explained 84%. Tot Cu was negatively correlated with % BSA burned. They also observed that this relationship does not hold for burns exceeding 95% BSA. These results are consistent with observations for enteral Cu in burns. They show that CP is responsive to dose in burns and suggest at least 20ug/kg as an appropriate daily Cu dose in TPN for burns.

Cunningham, J.; Chowanski, Z.; Leffell, M.; Stoker, T.; Lydon, M.; Harmatz, P. (Shriners Burns Inst., Boston, MA (United States) Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst (United States))

1991-03-15

77

Modeling hydrologic and geomorphic hazards across post-fire landscapes using a self-organizing map approach  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Few studies attempt to model the range of possible post-fire hydrologic and geomorphic hazards because of the sparseness of data and the coupled, nonlinear, spatial, and temporal relationships among landscape variables. In this study, a type of unsupervised artificial neural network, called a self-organized map (SOM), is trained using data from 540 burned basins in the western United States. The sparsely populated data set includes variables from independent numerical landscape categories (climate, land surface form, geologic texture, and post-fire condition), independent landscape classes (bedrock geology and state), and dependent initiation processes (runoff, landslide, and runoff and landslide combination) and responses (debris flows, floods, and no events). Pattern analysis of the SOM-based component planes is used to identify and interpret relations among the variables. Application of the Davies-Bouldin criteria following k-means clustering of the SOM neurons identified eight conceptual regional models for focusing future research and empirical model development. A split-sample validation on 60 independent basins (not included in the training) indicates that simultaneous predictions of initiation process and response types are at least 78% accurate. As climate shifts from wet to dry conditions, forecasts across the burned landscape reveal a decreasing trend in the total number of debris flow, flood, and runoff events with considerable variability among individual basins. These findings suggest the SOM may be useful in forecasting real-time post-fire hazards, and long-term post-recovery processes and effects of climate change scenarios. ?? 2011.

Friedel, M.J.

2011-01-01

78

Persistent Effects of Fire Severity on Early Successional Forests in Interior Alaska  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There has been a recent increase in the frequency and extent of wildfires in interior Alaska, and this trend is predicted to continue under a warming climate. Although less well documented, corresponding increases in fire severity are expected. Previous research from boreal forests in Alaska and western Canada indicate that severe fire promotes the recruitment of deciduous tree species and decreases the relative abundance of black spruce (Picea mariana) immediately after fire. Here we extend these observations by (1) examining changes in patterns of aspen and spruce density and biomass that occurred during the first two decades of post-fire succession, and (2) comparing patterns of tree composition in relation to variations in post-fire organic layer depth in four burned black spruce forests in interior Alaska after 10-20 years of succession.Wefound that initial effects of fire severity on recruitment and establishment of aspen and black spruce were maintained by subsequent effects of organic layer depth and initial plant biomass on plant growth during post-fire succession. The proportional contribution of aspen (Populus tremuloides) to total stand biomass remained above 90% during the first and second decades of succession in severely burned sites, while in lightly burned sites the proportional contribution of aspen was reduced due to a 40- fold increase in spruce biomass in these sites. Relationships between organic layer depth and stem density and biomass were consistently negative for aspen, and positive or neutral for black spruce in all four burns. Our results suggest that initial effects of post-fire organic layer depths on deciduous recruitment are likely to translate into a prolonged phase of deciduous dominance during post-fire succession in severely burned stands. This shift in vegetation distribution has important implications for climate-albedo feedbacks, future fire regime, wildlife habitat quality and natural resources for indigenous subsistence activities in interior Alaska.

Shenoy, Aditi; Johnstone, Jill F.; Kasischke, Eric S.; Kielland, Knut

2011-01-01

79

Post-fire surface water quality: comparison of fire retardant versus wildfire-related effects.  

PubMed

An understanding of the environmental effects of the use of wildland fire retardant is needed to provide informed decision-making regarding forest management. We compiled data from all post-fire surface water monitoring programs where the fire retardant constituents ammonia, phosphorus, and cyanide were measured, and data were available in the public domain. For streams near four major wildfires, we evaluated whether these chemicals originated primarily from fire or from retardant use. We compared measured concentrations in streams where chemical wildland fire retardant was applied with concentrations in streams draining areas where retardant was not used. Correlations with calcium provided an additional line of evidence, because calcium concentrations in ash are much higher than in retardant. Ammonia, phosphorus, and total cyanide were found in streams in burned areas where retardant was not used, at concentrations similar to those found in areas where retardant was applied. Concentrations of weak acid dissociable cyanide were generally non-detected or very low, whether or not wildland fire retardant was used in the watershed. These results indicate that the application of wildland fire retardant had minimal effects on proximate surface water quality. Cyanide concentrations in post-fire stormwater runoff were not affected by the presence of ferrocyanide in the retardant formulas and were due to pyrogenic sources. PMID:16023176

Crouch, Robert L; Timmenga, Hubert J; Barber, Timothy R; Fuchsman, Phyllis C

2006-02-01

80

Applying Spatial Statistics to Isolate the Effects of Fuels, Topography, and Weather on Burn Severity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire severity datasets derived from satellite remote sensing data are now being used extensively in wildfire research and land management. Maps of burn severity based on the differenced normalized burn ratio (dNBR) are being produced and disseminated by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) project for all major wildfires in the United States from 1984 to present. This abundance of data presents unprecedented new opportunities for understanding how weather, terrain, and fuels interact to determine fire severity patterns, and for testing the effectiveness of fuel-reduction strategies for mitigating wildfire impacts. However, these datasets present challenges for statistical analysis because of their large sizes and the non-independence of spatially autocorrelated pixels. To explore the importance of spatial autocorrelation, we analyzed the spatial patterns of burn severity in two recent wildfires - the 2004 School Fire in the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington and the 2005 Warm Fire on the Kaibab Plateau in northern Arizona. Conditional autoregressive (CAR) models were fitted with dNBR as the dependent variable and topography, fuels, and locations of recent fuel treatments as the independent variables. In both fires, elevation, slope, and aspect had strong effects on burn severity. Fuels had stronger effects on burn severity for the School fire than for the Warm Fire. In both fires, fuel treatments that combined thinning and prescribed burning resulted in statistically significant reductions in fire severity. The CAR models were then decomposed to isolate the spatial signal, which reflected spatially structured variability in dNBR that was not related to the independent variables. The spatial signals were correlated with the burn progression maps, reflecting spatial and temporal variability in weather and fire behavior (e.g. wind versus plume driven) over the course of the fire. These results suggest that spatial autocorrelation in the analysis of remotely- sensed burn severity datasets is not simply a nuisance, but in fact captures substantive and interpretable effects of weather and fire behavior on burn severity.

Wimberly, M. C.; Cochrane, M. A.; Baer, A. D.; Zhu, Z.

2007-12-01

81

Fuel treatments and landform modify landscape patterns of burn severity in an extreme fire event.  

PubMed

Under a rapidly warming climate, a critical management issue in semiarid forests of western North America is how to increase forest resilience to wildfire. We evaluated relationships between fuel reduction treatments and burn severity in the 2006 Tripod Complex fires, which burned over 70,000 ha of mixed-conifer forests in the North Cascades range of Washington State and involved 387 past harvest and fuel treatment units. A secondary objective was to investigate other drivers of burn severity including landform, weather, vegetation characteristics, and a recent mountain pine beetle outbreak. We used sequential autoregression (SAR) to evaluate drivers of burn severity, represented by the relative differenced Normalized Burn Ratio index, in two study areas that are centered on early progressions of the wildfire complex. Significant predictor variables include treatment type, landform (elevation), fire weather (minimum relative humidity and maximum temperature), and vegetation characteristics, including canopy closure, cover type, and mountain pine beetle attack. Recent mountain pine beetle damage was a statistically significant predictor variable with red and mixed classes of beetle attack associated with higher burn severity. Treatment age and size were only weakly correlated with burn severity and may be partly explained by the lack of treatments older than 30 years and the low rates of fuel succession in these semiarid forests. Even during extreme weather, fuel conditions and landform strongly influenced patterns of burn severity. Fuel treatments that included recent prescribed burning of surface fuels were particularly effective at mitigating burn severity. Although surface and canopy fuel treatments are unlikely to substantially reduce the area burned in regional fire years, recent research, including this study, suggests that they can be an effective management strategy for increasing forest landscape resilience to wildfires. PMID:24834742

Prichard, Susan J; Kennedy, Maureen C

2014-04-01

82

Analysis and mapping of post-fire hydrologic hazards for the 2002 Hayman, Coal Seam, and Missionary Ridge wildfires, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wildfires caused extreme changes in the hydrologic, hydraulic, and geomorphologic characteristics of many Colorado drainage basins in the summer of 2002. Detailed assessments were made of the short-term effects of three wildfires on burned and adjacent unburned parts of drainage basins. These were the Hayman, Coal Seam, and Missionary Ridge wildfires. Longer term runoff characteristics that reflect post-fire drainage basin recovery expected to develop over a period of several years also were analyzed for two affected stream reaches: the South Platte River between Deckers and Trumbull, and Mitchell Creek in Glenwood Springs. The 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year flood-plain boundaries and water-surface profiles were computed in a detailed hydraulic study of the Deckers-to-Trumbull reach. The Hayman wildfire burned approximately 138,000 acres (216 square miles) in granitic terrain near Denver, and the predominant potential hazard in this area is flooding by sediment-laden water along the large tributaries to and the main stem of the South Platte River. The Coal Seam wildfire burned approximately 12,200 acres (19.1 square miles) near Glenwood Springs, and the Missionary Ridge wildfire burned approximately 70,500 acres (110 square miles) near Durango, both in areas underlain by marine shales where the predominant potential hazard is debris-flow inundation of low-lying areas. Hydrographs and peak discharges for pre-burn and post-burn scenarios were computed for each drainage basin and tributary subbasin by using rainfall-runoff models because streamflow data for most tributary subbasins were not available. An objective rainfall-runoff model calibration method based on nonlinear regression and referred to as the ?objective calibration method? was developed and applied to rainfall-runoff models for three burned areas. The HEC-1 rainfall-runoff model was used to simulate the pre-burn rainfall-runoff processes in response to the 100-year storm, and HEC-HMS was used for runoff hydrograph generation. Post-burn rainfall-runoff parameters were determined by adjusting the runoff-curve numbers on the basis of a weighting procedure derived from the U.S. Soil Conservation Service (now the National Resources Conservation Service) equation for precipitation excess and the effect of burn severity. This weighting procedure was determined to be more appropriate than simple area weighting because of the potentially marked effect of even small burned areas on the runoff hydrograph in individual drainage basins. Computed water-peak discharges from HEC-HMS models were increased volumetrically to account for increased sediment concentrations that are expected as a result of accelerated erosion after burning. Peak discharge estimates for potential floods in the South Platte River were increased by a factor that assumed a volumetric sediment concentration (Cv) of 20 percent. Flood hydrographs for the South Platte River and Mitchell Creek were routed down main-stem channels using watershed-routing algorithms included in the HEC-HMS rainfall-runoff model. In areas subject to debris flows in the Coal Seam and Missionary Ridge burned areas, debris-flow discharges were simulated by 100-year rainfall events, and the inflow hydrographs at tributary mouths were simulated by using the objective calibration method. Sediment concentrations (Cv) used in debris-flow simulations were varied through the event, and were initial Cv 20 percent, mean Cv approximately 31 percent, maximum Cv 48 percent, Cv 43 percent at the time of the water hydrograph peak, and Cv 20 percent for the duration of the event. The FLO-2D flood- and debris-flow routing model was used to delineate the area of unconfined debris-flow inundation on selected alluvial fan and valley floor areas. A method was developed to objectively determine the post-fire recovery period for the Hayman and Coal Seam burned areas using runoff-curve numbers (RCN) for all drainage basins for a 50-year period. A

Elliott, J.G.; Smith, M.E.; Friedel, M.J.; Stevens, M.R.; Bossong, C.R.; Litke, D.W.; Parker, R.S.; Costello, C.; Wagner, J.; Char, S.J.; Bauer, M.A.; Wilds, S.R.

2005-01-01

83

Effect of vegetation type on post-fire enhancement of wind erosion in semi-arid landscapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aeolian processes redistribute sediments and nutrients within arid landscapes with important implications on the composition and structure of vegetation. Aeolian processes, on the other hand, are affected by vegetation cover and disturbances. For example, it has been reported that wind erosion is enhanced by fire occurrences, though it is still unclear how this post-fire erosion activity is affected by the vegetation type. In this study we monitored wind erosion activity in a managed grassland (CRP) and in a shrub encroached grassland within the Cimarron National Grasslands (KS). Measurements started after a naturally occurring wildfire and included both field observations - BSNE dust samplers, SENSIT particle impact sensors - and laboratory wind tunnel experiments. The results indicate that, by decreasing the threshold shear velocity (due to vegetation removal and soil water repellency), fires enhance the soil erodibility both in the CRP grassland and in the shrub-encroached grassland. The initial post-fire horizontal dust fluxes in grasslands and adjacent shrub encroached grasslands were comparable. However, the post fire recovery (decline in erosion activity) was rapid in the case of grasslands, while erosion activity remained high in the shrub encroached grasslands for several months after the wild fire. Our results support the hypothesis that woody plant encroachment decreases the resilience of semi arid grasslands - the capacity of these systems to recover from disturbances. This higher post-fire loss and redistribution of soil resources from shrub encroached grasslands further inhibits grass recovery, thereby favoring the shrub encroachment process.

Ravi, S.; Zobeck, T. M.; D'Odorico, P.; Baddock, M.

2010-12-01

84

Post-fire seeding on Wyoming big sagebrush ecological sites: regression analyses of seeded nonnative and native species densities.  

PubMed

Since the mid-1980s, sagebrush rangelands in the Great Basin of the United States have experienced more frequent and larger wildfires. These fires affect livestock forage, the sagebrush/grasses/forbs mosaic that is important for many wildlife species (e.g., the greater sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus)), post-fire flammability and fire frequency. When a sagebrush, especially a Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young)), dominated area largely devoid of herbaceous perennials burns, it often transitions to an annual dominated and highly flammable plant community that thereafter excludes sagebrush and native perennials. Considerable effort is devoted to revegetating rangeland following fire, but to date there has been very little analysis of the factors that lead to the success of this revegetation. This paper utilizes a revegetation monitoring dataset to examine the densities of three key types of vegetation, specifically nonnative seeded grasses, nonnative seeded forbs, and native Wyoming big sagebrush, at several points in time following seeding. We find that unlike forbs, increasing the seeding rates for grasses does not appear to increase their density (at least for the sites and seeding rates we examined). Also, seeding Wyoming big sagebrush increases its density with time since fire. Seeding of grasses and forbs is less successful at locations that were dominated primarily by annual grasses (cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.)), and devoid of shrubs, prior to wildfire. This supports the hypothesis of a "closing window of opportunity" for seeding at locations that burned sagebrush for the first time in recent history. PMID:18790557

Eiswerth, Mark E; Krauter, Karl; Swanson, Sherman R; Zielinski, Mike

2009-02-01

85

The Effects of Oxandrolone and Exercise on Muscle Mass and Function in Children With Severe Burns  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES.Severe burns are associated with a significant loss of muscle and strength. Studies have reported that oxandrolone improves lean body mass in muscle- wasting conditions. Also shown previously in burned children is that an exercise program increases lean body mass and muscle strength. We hypothesized that oxandrolone, in combination with exercise, would increase lean body mass and muscle strength in

Rene Przkora; David N. Herndon; Oscar E. Suman

86

Post-Fire Spatial Patterns of Soil Nitrogen Mineralization and Microbial Abundance  

PubMed Central

Stand-replacing fires influence soil nitrogen availability and microbial community composition, which may in turn mediate post-fire successional dynamics and nutrient cycling. However, fires create patchiness at both local and landscape scales and do not result in consistent patterns of ecological dynamics. The objectives of this study were to (1) quantify the spatial structure of microbial communities in forest stands recently affected by stand-replacing fire and (2) determine whether microbial variables aid predictions of in situ net nitrogen mineralization rates in recently burned stands. The study was conducted in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and Engelmann spruce/subalpine fir (Picea engelmannii/Abies lasiocarpa) forest stands that burned during summer 2000 in Greater Yellowstone (Wyoming, USA). Using a fully probabilistic spatial process model and Bayesian kriging, the spatial structure of microbial lipid abundance and fungi-to-bacteria ratios were found to be spatially structured within plots two years following fire (for most plots, autocorrelation range varied from 1.5 to 10.5 m). Congruence of spatial patterns among microbial variables, in situ net N mineralization, and cover variables was evident. Stepwise regression resulted in significant models of in situ net N mineralization and included variables describing fungal and bacterial abundance, although explained variance was low (R2<0.29). Unraveling complex spatial patterns of nutrient cycling and the biotic factors that regulate it remains challenging but is critical for explaining post-fire ecosystem function, especially in Greater Yellowstone, which is projected to experience increased fire frequencies by mid 21st Century. PMID:23226324

Smithwick, Erica A. H.; Naithani, Kusum J.; Balser, Teri C.; Romme, William H.; Turner, Monica G.

2012-01-01

87

Soil microbiological properties and enzymatic activities of long-term post-fire recovery in dry and semiarid Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis M.) forest stands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires affecting forest ecosystems and post-fire silvicultural treatments may cause considerable changes in soil properties. The capacity of different microbial groups to recolonize soil after disturbances is crucial for proper soil functioning. The aim of this work was to investigate some microbial soil properties and enzyme activities in semiarid and dry Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis M.) forest stands. Different plots affected by a wildfire event 17 years ago without or with post-fire silvicultural treatments five years after the fire event were selected. A mature Aleppo pine stand unaffected by wildfire and not thinned was used as a control. Physicochemical soil properties (soil texture, pH, carbonates, organic matter, electrical conductivity, total N and P), soil enzymes (urease, phosphatase, ?-glucosidase and dehydrogenase activities), soil respiration and soil microbial biomass carbon were analysed in the selected forests areas and plots. The main finding was that long time after this fire event produces no differences in the microbiological soil properties and enzyme activities of soil after comparing burned and thinned, burned and not thinned, and mature plots. Thus, the long-term consequences and post-fire silvicultural management in the form of thinning have a significant effect on the site recovery after fire. Moreover, significant site variation was generally seen in soil enzyme activities and microbiological parameters. We conclude that total vegetation restoration normalises microbial parameters, and that wildfire and post-fire silvicultural treatments are not significant factors of soil properties after 17 years.

Hedo, J.; Lucas-Borja, M. E.; Wic, C.; Andrs Abelln, M.; de Las Heras, J.

2014-10-01

88

Metabolic Implications of Severe Burn Injuries and Their Management: A Systematic Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSevere burn patients are some of the most challenging critically ill patients, with an extreme state of physiologic stress\\u000a and an overwhelming systemic metabolic response. A major component of severe burn injury is a hypermetabolic state associated\\u000a with protein losses and a significant reduction of lean body mass. The second prominent component is hyperglycemia. Reversal\\u000a of the hypermetabolic response by

Bishara S. Atiyeh; S. William A. Gunn; Saad A. Dibo

2008-01-01

89

American Three-toed Woodpecker Response to Burn Severity and Prey Availability at Multiple Spatial Scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated American three-toed woodpecker (Picoides dorsalis) response to spatial heterogeneity of burn severity and prey availability over multiple scales at the 56 000 ha Hayman Fire (2002) located in the Colorado Front Range. In 2003 and 2004, we quantified the response of three-toed woodpeckers to burn severity, beetle occurrence, and tree size at three levels: home-range scale (36 ha),

Natasha B. Kotliar; Elizabeth W. Reynolds; Douglas H. Deutschman

2008-01-01

90

Influence of patch size and shape on post-fire succession on the Yellowstone plateau  

SciTech Connect

The 1988 Yellowstone fires provided a unique opportunity to examine how the geometry of fire-created patches affects plant reestablishment. We initiated studies in 1990 in small (1 ha), moderated (74-200 ha), and large (480-3698 ha) crown-fire patches in each of 3 areas. Lodgepole pine forest is reestablishing in most burned areas, but seedling density varies by two orders of magnitude. At spatial scales <100 m, lodgepole seedling density declines with distance from the patch edge. Resprouting of herbaceous vegetation led to prompt revegetation in burned patches of all sizes, suggesting within-patch survival is a dominant recovery mechanism for grasses, forbs, and shrubs. Some annuals (e.g., Gayophytum diffusum) achieved greater densities in large vs. small crown-fire patches and colonized large patches more rapidly. Post-fire plant reestablishment in Yellowstone appears rapid and autogenic even in large burns, and the relative importance of factors controlling early postfire succession varies with spatial scale.

Turner, M.G.; Gardner, R.H.; Hargrove, W.W. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)); Romme, W.H. (Fort Lewis College, Durango, CO (United States))

1994-06-01

91

Severe complications after negative pressure wound therapy in burned wounds: two case reports  

PubMed Central

We present two typical cases of severe complications (sepsis and hemorrhage) after negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) in burned patients. Necrotic tissues in some deep burn wounds are difficult to judge correctly and remove thoroughly. An electrically burned blood vessel looks intact but can easily break. Necrotic tissue or injured blood vessels when using NPWT are dangerous, both for causing sepsis and hemorrhage. This is the first article that reports the severe complications of NPWT in burned patients. It is imperative to heed indications and avoid contraindications. Proper preparation of wound beds, close observation, and sufficient irrigation are also crucial to avoid these severe complications, and there is an urgent need to substitute the central vacuum system with the low-pressure system. PMID:25061310

Ren, Haitao; Li, Yuan

2014-01-01

92

Management of severe burn injuries with topical heparin: the first evidence-based study in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Conventional therapy for burns has always produced a nightmarish illness for patients. The lack of the ability to prevent contractures often produces dysfunctional limbs and the ugly scars resulting from severe burns are an ongoing reminder of this lengthy painful illness. This study is to determine the effectiveness of topical heparin in burns management among some patients at the Burns Intensive Care Unit (BICU) of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Kumasi, Ghana. Patients for this prospective study were burns victims who were transported to the Accident and Emergency Center of KATH. Complete clerking of the patients and related information were taken. Six patients with ages ranging from 5-35 years, TBSA 5-42% and a combination of 2 and 3 burns were enrolled in the case study. Anatomical locations of the burns included: face, neck, trunk and limbs. Using topical heparin produced smooth skin in two patients: Patients 3 and 5 who reported on Post-burn Day 85 and 116 at the BICU. Five out of the six patients assessed the degree of pain; before treatment with heparin, all five patients stated they were experiencing severe pains, however, three (60.0%) of the patients stated they experienced no pain at all while two (40.0%) were experiencing mild pain after topical heparin application. Heparin was observed to be very effective in the management of burn injuries in the patients studied. It was effective in reduction of pain and prevention of scars and contractures. However, due to the small number of patients and lack of control for the wound healing, a firm recommendation for the use of heparin therapy in burns cannot be made and further studies would be required to establish its use especially in the African population. PMID:23386983

Agbenorku, Pius; Fugar, Setri; Akpaloo, Joseph; Hoyte-Williams, Paa E; Alhassan, Zainab; Agyei, Fareeda

2013-01-01

93

Integrating satellite imagery with simulation modeling to improve burn severity mapping.  

PubMed

Both satellite imagery and spatial fire effects models are valuable tools for generating burn severity maps that are useful to fire scientists and resource managers. The purpose of this study was to test a new mapping approach that integrates imagery and modeling to create more accurate burn severity maps. We developed and assessed a statistical model that combines the Relative differenced Normalized Burn Ratio, a satellite image-based change detection procedure commonly used to map burn severity, with output from the Fire Hazard and Risk Model, a simulation model that estimates fire effects at a landscape scale. Using 285 Composite Burn Index (CBI) plots in Washington and Montana as ground reference, we found that an integrated model explained more variability in CBI (R (2)=0.47) and had lower mean squared error (MSE=0.28) than image (R (2)=0.42 and MSE=0.30) or simulation-based models (R (2)=0.07 and MSE=0.49) alone. Overall map accuracy was also highest for maps created with the Integrated Model (63%). We suspect that Simulation Model performance would greatly improve with higher quality and more accurate spatial input data. Results of this study indicate the potential benefit of combining satellite image-based methods with a fire effects simulation model to create improved burn severity maps. PMID:24817334

Karau, Eva C; Sikkink, Pamela G; Keane, Robert E; Dillon, Gregory K

2014-07-01

94

Examination of event magnitude, contributing drainage basin area, channel gradient, and rainfall influences on channel yield rates of post-fire debris flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of methods for estimating volumes of post-fire debris-flow material along drainage networks requires a better understanding of the factors that control channel erosion and deposition within recently-burned drainage basins. The amount of material eroded and deposited by debris flows at locations along a channel can be quantified using the channel yield rate; the change in debris-flow volume per unit length of channel caused by passage of a debris flow. Here, we use channel yield rates measured in basins recently burned the 2009 Station fire in the San Gabriel Mountains of southern California to examine relationships between these rates and event magnitude, contributing drainage basin area, channel gradient, and rainfall characteristics. Following the Station fire and prior to any significant rainstorms, two to nine cross section surveys were established along the entire lengths of the main channels of three steep, rugged drainage basins. Surveys of the channel cross sections were made both before and after two distinct debris-flow triggering storms. These data were used to calculate post-fire debris-flow channel yield rates at 40 locations. Tipping-bucket rain gages installed near the surveyed channels provide rainfall amounts and intensities. Measurements of the amount of material removed from debris-retention basins located at the drainage basin outlets provide information on debris-flow volumes deposited at drainage basin outlets. High-resolution LiDAR data (1 meter) provide accurate elevation data for defining contributing drainage basin areas and channel gradients. The measured channel yield rates varied from 1 to 19 m3/m, with a mean of 4 m3/m and standard deviation of 5 m3/m. The greatest yield rates coincide with locations immediately downstream of field-mapped bedrock steps or channel junctions. The coincidence with bedrock steps suggests that in-channel "fire-hose" entrainment is a major contributor to debris-flow volume. High channel yield rates measured below channel junctions indicate the influence of increasing volume from tributary flow on entrainment rates, suggesting the influence of channel network densities on debris-flow volumes. Channel yield rates were greatest for the largest-volume debris flows and triggering storm rainfall amounts and occurred at the same locations for both debris-flow events. The lowest channel yield rates were measured along field-mapped bedrock-lined channels or channels with little stored material available for erosion. A correlation between channel yield rates normalized by contributing drainage basin area and channel slope indicates that debris-flow entrainment rates will be greatest at locations with large contributing areas and steep slopes. This preliminary work highlights the importance of considering sediment availability, drainage network form, contributing drainage basin area, and channel slope when developing models for predicting post-fire debris-flows volumes along drainage networks. Future investigations will examine the influence of burn severity on channel yield rates and work towards developing a predictive model for channel yield rates within recently burned drainage basins.

Gartner, J. E.; Cannon, S. H.; Santi, P.

2011-12-01

95

Evaluation of post fire changes in soil properties and influence on the hydrological and erosive dynamics in a Mediterranean watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last fifty years, forest fires and changes in land use and management practices have had a significant influenceon the evolution of soil loss processes in the Mediterranean area. Forest fires have immediate effects in hydrological processes mainly due to sudden changes in soil properties and vegetation cover. After a fire there is an increase in runoff processes and peak flows and thus in the amount and composition of the sediments produced. Silting in dams downstream is often reported so the description of the post-fire hydrological processes is crucial in order to optimize decision making. This study analyzes a micro-watershed of 25 ha in the south of Spain that suffered a fire in October 2010 burning around a 2 km2 area. As the erosive processes in this area are directly related to concentrated overland flow, an indirect assessment of soil loss is presented in this work based on evaluating changes in runoff in Mediterranean post-fire situations. For this, the study is divided into two main parts. Firstly, changes in soil properties and vegetation cover are evaluated. Secondly, the effects of these changes in the hydrological and erosive dynamics are assessed.The watershed had been monitored in previous studies so soil properties and the vegetation cover before the fire took place were already characterized. Besides, the hydrological response was also available through an already calibrated and validated physically-based distributed hydrological model. For the evaluation of soil properties, field measurement campaigns were designed. Philip Dunne's tests for the determination of saturated hydraulic conductivity, as well as moisture content and bulk density measurements were carried out in both unaltered and burned soil samples. Changes in the vegetation cover fraction were assessed through desktop analysis of Landsat-TM5 platform satellite images as well as through visual inspection in the field campaigns. The analysis of the hydraulic conductivity revealed a reduction in post-fire values of near 90 % over those previous to the fire. Regarding the vegetation cover, the recovery of the burned covers, mainly herbaceous with some bushes, turned out to quick due to the wet character of the year. Nevertheless, an apparent decrease in the cover fraction and thus in the vegetation storage capacity was reported. These changes were incorporated into a new hydrological model configuration and compared to the response previous to the fire. The results point out the rainfall pattern to be a determinant factor in post-fire situation with an increase in modeled runoff of up to 350% and even more in dry years. These results have direct implications in soil erodibility changes in hillslopes as well as a considerable increase in bedload processes in Mediterranean alluvial rivers.

Sanz, Ins; Aguilar, Cristina; Millares, Agustn

2013-04-01

96

Fire behavior, weather, and burn severity of the 2007 anaktuvuk river tundra fire, North Slope, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2007, the Anaktuvuk River Fire (ARF) became the largest recorded tundra fire on the North Slope of Alaska. The ARF burned for nearly three months, consuming more than 100,000 ha. At its peak in early September, the ARF burned at a rate of 7000 ha d-1. The conditions potentially responsible for this large tundra fire include modeled record high summer temperature and record low summer precipitation, a late-season high-pressure system located over the Beaufort Sea, extremely dry soil conditions throughout the summer, and sustained southerly winds during the period of vegetation senescence. Burn severity mapping revealed that more than 80% of the ARF burned at moderate to extreme severity, while the nearby Kuparuk River Fire remained small and burned at predominantly (80%) low severity. While this study provides information that may aid in the prediction of future large tundra fires in northern Alaska, the fact that three other tundra fires that occurred in 2007 combined to burn less than 1000 ha suggests site specific complexities associated with tundra fires on the North Slope, which may hamper the development of tundra fire forecasting models.

Jones, B.; Kolden, C.; Jandt, R.; Abatzoglou, J.; Urban, F.; Arp, C.

2009-01-01

97

Influences of forest roads and their edge effects on the spatial pattern of burn severity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous research has shown that forest roads are an important feature in many landscapes and have significant effects on wildfire ignition and cessation. However, forest road effects on burn severity have not been studied at the landscape level. Therefore, the overarching goal of our study is to identify the influences of road edge effects on the spatial patterns of burn severity. We analyzed six fires within the Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forest on the eastern slope of the Cascades mountain range of central Washington. We generated two categories for assessing road variables: (1) Primary Road Effect Zone (area within 150 m of the nearest road) and (2) Secondary Road Effect Zone (area from 150 m to 300 m to the nearest road). A regular sampling grid including one out of every 9 cells was created for each fire. These grids were intersected with burn severity data in the form of the Relative Differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (RdNBR), road distance category, stream distance, elevation, slope, terrain shape index, heat load index, canopy cover, and fuel type. We fit spatial regression models with RdNBR as the dependent variable. We found that high burn severity is less likely to occur in the Primary Road Effect Zone for most fires, although one fire exhibited the opposite relationship. Forest road edge effects were hypothesized to be an important determinant of burn severity because fragmentation created by roads alters the roadside fuel profile and environment and because road corridors create barriers to fire spread. Recognizing roadside effects on burn severity patterns highlights the need for further study of the range of effects that roads have on fuels and the fire environment and the potential for incorporating road effects into landscape-level assessments of fire risk.

Narayanaraj, Ganapathy; Wimberly, Michael C.

2013-08-01

98

Understanding burn severity sensing in Arctic tundra: exploring vegetation indices, suboptimal assessment timing and the impact of increasing pixel size  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about how satellite imagery can be used to describe burn severity in tundra landscapes. The Anaktuvuk River Fire (ARF) in 2007 burned over 1000 km of tundra on the North Slope of Alaska, creating a mosaic of small (1 m) to large (>100 m) patches that differed in burn severity. The ARF scar provided us with an

Natalie T. Boelman; Adrian V. Rocha; Gaius R. Shaver

2011-01-01

99

The Impact of Muscle Disuse on Muscle Atrophy in Severely Burned Rats  

PubMed Central

Background Severe burn induces a sustained hypermetabolic response, which causes long-term loss of muscle mass and decrease in muscle strength. In this study, we sought to determine whether muscle disuse has additional impact on muscle atrophy after severe burn using a rat model combining severe cutaneous burn and hindlimb unloading. Methods Forty Sprague-Dawley rats (?300g) were randomly assigned to sham ambulatory (S/A), sham hindlimb unloading (S/HLU), burn ambulatory (B/A) or burn hindlimb unloading (B/HLU) groups. Rats received a 40% total body surface (TBSA) full thickness scald burn, and rats with hindlimb unloading were placed in a tail traction system. At day 14, lean body mass (LBM) was determined using DEXA scan, followed by measurement of the isometric mechanical properties in the predominantly fast-twitch plantaris muscle (PL) and the predominantly slow-twitch soleus muscle (SL). Muscle weight (wt), protein wt, and wet/dry wt were determined. Results At day 14, body weight had decreased significantly in all treatment groups; B/HLU resulted in significantly greater loss compared to the B/A, S/HLU and S/A. The losses could be attributed to loss of LBM. PL muscle wt and Po were lowest in the B/HLU group (<0.05 vs. S/A, S/HLU or B/A). SL muscle wt and Po were significantly less in both S/HLU and B/HLU compared that of S/A and B/A; no significant difference was found between S/HLU and B/HLU. Conclusions Cutaneous burn and hindlimb unloading have an additive effect on muscle atrophy, characterized by loss of muscle mass and decrease in muscle strength in both fast (PL) and slow (SL) twitch muscles. Of the two, disuse appeared to be the dominant factor for continuous muscle wasting after acute burn in this model. PMID:20888588

Wu, Xiaowu; Baer, Lisa A; Wolf, Steven E.; Wade, Charles E; Walters, Thomas J.

2010-01-01

100

Severe burn injuries caused by bioethanol-design fireplaces-an overview on recreational fire threats.  

PubMed

Commercially available bioethanol-fueled fireplaces have become increasingly popular additions for interior home decoration in Europe and more recently in the United States. These fireplaces are advertised as smokeless, ecologically friendly, and do not require professional installation, formal gas lines, or venting. Although manufacturers and businesses promote their safety, recent presentations of injuries have alerted the authors to the relevant danger bioethanol fireplaces can pose for the incautious user. Are bioethanol fireplaces going to become the future threat in domestic burn accidents beside common barbeque burns? A Medline literature search on barbeque and domestic fireplace accidents was performed to compare and stratify the injury patterns reported and to identify a risk profile for contemporary bioethanol-fueled fireplaces. To exemplify, two representative clinical cases of severe burn accidents caused by bioethanol-fueled fireplaces, both treated in the burn unit of the authors, are being presented. Design fireplaces are being recognized as an increasing source of fuel and fire-related danger in the home. This risk may be underestimated by the uninformed customer, resulting in severe burn injuries. Because bioethanol-fueled fireplaces have become more commonplace, they may overtake barbecue-related injury as the most common domestic burn injury. PMID:21233730

Kraemer, Robert; Knobloch, Karsten; Lorenzen, Johan; Breuing, Karl H; Koennecker, Soeren; Rennekampff, Hans-Oliver; Vogt, Peter M

2011-01-01

101

Burn  

E-print Network

ravenous with color: sage, pine, sun-yellow, and canyon-brown, the rich carnelian of a Mexican sunset. Lean, leggy, pink tongue wet and lolling, she stares me straight in the eye. Silver moonlight on her back, wildfire burning in her eyes... 1 Burn By Vivian Kathleen Johnson...

Johnson, Vivian Kathleen

2008-01-01

102

Spatial and Temporal Evolution of Mercury in Post-fire Soils in Southern California Watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires are well known sources of mercury (Hg) to the atmosphere, but there is a paucity of data characterizing how fire impacts the transport of Hg to surface waters where methylation can occur. Because post-fire storm events have the potential to carry large sediment loads to a stream system, it is important to understand the effects of wildfire on Hg binding and relative variability in terrestrial soils in order to assess its transport potential in burned watersheds. It has been widely reported that Hg stored in surface soils is lost to the atmosphere due to volatilization during wildfire and that higher metal concentrations are associated with fine-grained particle fractions due to higher surface area/volume ratios, and consequently, available binding sites. Following southern California's September 2006 Day Fire, seasonal terrestrial sampling was undertaken at burned and unburned soils over a 1.5 year period to assess both immediate and long term impacts of the fire on Hg binding in the soils of Piru Creek watershed. Freshly burned soils exhibited the loss of Hg at the surface that would be expected due to volatilization during the fire, but this was followed by a sharp increase in [Hg] in surface soils over the subsequent recovery period that was not seen in the unburned soils. Soils were also size-fractionated and Hg was measured on each grain size. Mercury in the fine grained soil fraction (<250 um) was not significantly higher than that measured in the coarser grain size fractions. This is contrary to the behavior observed in the unburned soils and has implications for modeling Hg transport to surface waters as a function of hill slope erosional processes and sediment re- distribution in burned watersheds.

Burke, M. P.; Ferreira, M.; Mendez, C. B.; Navarro, B. I.; Jay, J. A.; Hogue, T. S.

2008-12-01

103

Wildfire Impacts on Stream Sedimentation and Channel Morphology: Revisiting the Boulder Creek Burn in Little Granite Creek  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnitude of hydrologic and sedimentologic changes observed in watersheds following wildfire depend largely on the severity of the burn, landscape susceptibility to erosion, and the timing and magnitude of storms following the fire. In this study of a burned watershed in NW Wyoming (Boulder Creek burn in Little Granite Creek watershed), sedimentation impacts following a moderately sized fire (burned in 2000) were evaluated against known sediment loads measured prior to burning and against a comparable control watershed. Pre-burn data on rates of sediment transport provide useful information on the inherent variability of stream processes and were used to assess degree of departure due to disturbance from wildfire. Early observations of sediment yield showed substantially elevated rates (5x) the first year post-fire (2001), followed by less elevated rates in 2002 and 2003, signaling a return to baseline values by 3 years post-fire. More recent work, 8 years post-fire, has shown elevated suspended sediment concentrations relative to pre-burn values. We tentatively attribute this increase to destabilization of channels in the burned area due to the introduction of large wood (LW). Surveys indicated that the number of pieces of instream LW were doubled and tripled in some reaches as burned trees began to decay and fall in to the channel. Observed channel changes associated with the introduction of new wood include: 1) increase in the size and number of LW jams; 2) deposition of sediment within LW jams; 3) channel avulsions; 4) erosion of banks and terraces where wood re-directed flow into the bank; and 5) new sources of sediment due to channel instability. These results provide insight into longer-term geomorphic impacts of wildland fire that are associated with LW dynamics and changes to channel and bank stability in the burned riparian environment.

Ryan, S. E.; Dwire, K. A.; Air, Water,; Aquatic Ecosystems Program

2011-12-01

104

An Analysis of Post-Fire Debris Flow Occurrence at Two Temporal Scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seasonal climate, rugged topography and high relief of the Peninsular and Transverse Ranges of southern California contribute to a particularly high susceptibility to wildfire during the dry season and debris flows during the wet season. Debris flows generated in recently burned areas have repeatedly caused casualties and damaged infrastructure. With a goal of reducing the hazard to local populations, the U.S. Geological Survey has been intensively monitoring the meteorological conditions that contribute to the initiation of post-fire debris flows since 2003. Data collected in these monitoring efforts have been used to derive rainfall intensity-duration thresholds to predict the timing of debris flows. A perceived limitation of the existing thresholds is that they are temporally static, because they do not account for the influence of within-storm dynamics, seasonal rainfall, and changes in soil moisture content. Here, we attempt to develop relations between meteorological, climatic and hydrologic variables and the occurrence of debris flows with the long-term goal of developing a temporally dynamic rainfall intensity-duration threshold. We investigate the variability of debris-flow occurrence on two temporal scales. First, we compare the within-storm variability of recorded debris flow times with measures of cumulative rainfall, rainfall intensity and soil moisture content. Short-duration (? 30-minutes), high-intensity bursts of rainfall are tightly correlated with the recorded times of debris flows, regardless of soil moisture content or cumulative storm rainfall. Preliminary evidence suggests that debris-flow magnitude may correlate with temporally coincident local peaks of both short duration (? 30-minute) and longer duration (? 360-minute) peaks of rainfall intensity. Second, we investigate the influence of total rainfall accumulation, changes in soil moisture content, and number and average intensity of rainstorms on debris-flow occurrence during the first year following wildfire. Preliminary results suggest little correlation between these factors and the conditions which contribute to the initiation of debris flows in recently burned watersheds. Our results highlight the need for highly accurate forecasting and monitoring of incoming rainfall for successful early-warning of post-fire debris flows. Short-duration bursts of high-intensity rainfall proved to be most effective for predicting debris-flow initiation regardless of within-storm or seasonal cumulative rainfall and soil moisture content. However, real-time monitoring of rainfall intensities measured over short durations within the burned watersheds provides little or no lead time for warning or evacuation. Monitoring upwind conditions may provide additional lead time, though considerable spatial variability of rainfall rates may exist in complex topography. Furthermore, focusing future research upon the direct measurement of changes in soil properties, vegetation growth and slope morphology should improve our ability to predict the within-storm and seasonal occurrence of post-fire debris flows, as indirect measures of meteorological and climatological factors do not provide adequate levels of prediction.

Staley, D. M.; Kean, J. W.; Gartner, J. E.

2011-12-01

105

Severe burn injury in europe: a systematic review of the incidence, etiology, morbidity, and mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionBurn injury is a serious pathology, potentially leading to severe morbidity and significant mortality, but it also has a considerable\\u000a health-economic impact. The aim of this study was to describe the European hospitalized population with severe burn injury,\\u000a including the incidence, etiology, risk factors, mortality, and causes of death.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a MethodsThe systematic literature search (1985 to 2009) involved PubMed, the Web

Nele Brusselaers; Stan Monstrey; Dirk Vogelaers; Eric Hoste; Stijn Blot

2010-01-01

106

Scale effects on post-fire runoff and soil erosion and their mitigation with forest residue mulching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires can have striking direct and indirect impacts on soils, including extreme runoff-erosion responses with serious negative consequences for land-use sustainability and downstream values-at-risk. Arguably, the best manner to reduce post-fire soil erosion consists of rapid application of a protective layer of "mulch", comprising straw, needles or wood-based materials. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of forest residue mulching for reducing runoff and soil erosion across two spatial scales, i.e. micro-plots of approximately 0.25 m2 vs. slope-scale plots of roughly 100 m2. We did so for a eucalypt plantation in north-central Portugal during the first two years following a moderate severity fire. We also tried to analyse which were the key factors underlying the erosive observed at untreated plots, with a special focus on soil moisture content and soil water repellencyf requency. . Forest residue mulch reduced post-fire runoff by around 50% and post-fire soil losses by about 90% at both plot scales. However, runoff was 10 times higher at the scale of the micro- than slope-scale plots. By contrast, soil erosion was "only" two times higher at the micro- than slope-scale plots. The main factor explaining runoff was rainfall intensity, while the main factor accounting for soil erosion was ground cover. Both soil moisture and soil water repellency played a secondary role in explaining the post-fire hydrologic response. This reflected the fact that neither of both factors differed markedly between the mulched and control conditions. Our results indicated that forest residue mulch was first and foremost an effective method due to the fact that it substantially increased ground cover.

Prats, Sergio A.; Wagenbrenner, Joseph W.; Martins, Martinho M. A.; Keizer, Jan Jacob

2014-05-01

107

Sediment-driven mercury transport in post-fire storm runoff  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfire alters terrestrial stores of mercury (Hg) within a watershed, releasing Hg to the atmosphere and creating conditions that can be conducive to Hg export in streamwater. Hg transport to terrestrial waters is often associated with suspended sediments and organic matter, and particulate-bound Hg delivery to downstream water bodies may be enhanced following wildfire. Burned watersheds experience increased overland flow, soil erosion, sediment transport, and, consequently, transport of sediment bound contaminants during early post-fire storm events. Southern Californias September 2006 Day Fire consumed 660km2 and almost 50% of the 512km2 Piru Creek watershed. Piru Creek drains into Pyramid Lake, a storage reservoir for the California State Water Project, which provides drinking water for Los Angeles. Streamwater was collected from Piru Creek watershed over a 1.5 year period following the Day Fire, on a monthly basis during low flow periods, and every two hours during storm events using an automated sampler. Samples were analyzed for both dissolved and total Hg, total suspended solids, and basic anions and cations. Low Hg concentrations (> 1ng Hg/ L dissolved and > 5ng Hg/L total) were measured in inter-storm samples. The first winter (2006-07) following the Day Fire was one of the driest on record, with precipitation totals (130mm) less than one third of normal. The only significant storm measured total Hg concentrations just slightly higher than the inter-storm samples, while no change was observed in the dissolved Hg concentrations. However, these total Hg concentrations were well correlated to TSS measurements (r2 = 0.91) and followed the storm hydrograph. The following winter (2007-08) brought higher precipitation totals (370mm) and more intense storms. Elevated, turbid stream flow was observed in Piru Creek during many of the 2007-08 storms. Little change was observed in the dissolved Hg concentrations of the storm samples; however, a two-order magnitude increase was measured in both the total Hg and TSS concentrations. Though the total Hg and TSS concentrations were not as well correlated in the 2007-08 storms, it is clear that the sediment flux controls the Hg delivery to terrestrial waters in this burned, semi-arid watershed. The ultimate goal of this study is to elucidate the total Hg /TSS relationship in the post-fire runoff of Piru Creek and to model Hg delivery as a function of soil erosion and sediment transport.

Burke, M. P.; Ferreira, M.; Hogue, T. S.; Jay, J.; Rademacher, L. K.

2009-12-01

108

Environmental and climatic variables as potential drivers of post-fire cover of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) in seeded and unseeded semiarid ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cheatgrass, a non-native annual grass, dominates millions of hectares in semiarid ecosystems of the Intermountain West (USA). Post-fire invasions can reduce native species diversity and alter ecological processes. To curb cheatgrass invasion, land managers often seed recently burned areas with perennial competitor species. We sampled vegetation within burned (19 years post-fire) and nearby unburned (representing pre-fire) pionjuniper (Pinus edulisJuniperus osteosperma) woodland and sagebrush (Artemisia sp.) in western Colorado to analyze variables that might explain cheatgrass cover after fire. A multiple regression model suggests higher cheatgrass cover after fire with: (1) sagebrush v. pionjuniper; (2) higher pre-fire cover of annual forbs; (3) increased time since fire; (4) lower pre-fire cover of biological soil crust; and (5) lower precipitation the year before fire. Time since fire, which coincided with higher precipitation, accounts for most of the variability in cheatgrass cover. No significant difference was found in mean cheatgrass cover between seeded and unseeded plots over time. However, negative relationships with pre-fire biological soil crust cover and native species richness suggest livestock-degraded areas are more susceptible to post-fire invasion. Proactive strategies for combating cheatgrass should include finding effective native competitors and restoring livestock-degraded areas. ?? 2009 IAWF.

Shinneman, D.J.; Baker, W.L.

2009-01-01

109

[Severe burns of lower limb due to association of hot water and citrullus colocynthis].  

PubMed

The case is reported of a patient suffering from severe burns through having used Citrullus colocynthis as a medicinal plant together with hot water. This led to carbonization of the foot and to its amputation. A description of the plant and its toxicity is given. PMID:22262968

Fejjal, N; Gharib, N E; El Mazouz, S; Abbassi, A; Belmahi, A

2011-06-30

110

Wildfire and Permafrost: Post-Fire Changes in Flowpaths of Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfire frequency and severity in the boreal forest is predicted to increase as a result of climate warming. Increased fire frequency will influence carbon and nutrient fluxes in streams through the loss of vegetation, combustion of soils, thawing of permafrost, alteration of watershed flowpaths, and changes in stream hydrology (such as surface water-ground water interactions and flow regime). At high latitudes, permafrost constrains watershed flowpaths to shallow soils and consequently influences stream nutrient inputs. Shallow flowpaths over permafrost have high dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration and low inorganic nitrogen concentration, compared to water moving through deeper flowpaths. The objective of this project was to quantify how wildfire in the boreal forest influences the concentration and export of dissolved organic matter and nutrients in headwater streams to better understand how changes in fire frequency and severity may influence future stream carbon and nutrient exports. The research was conducted in the Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed (CPCRW), specifically in the P6 subcatchment, which is underlain by 18% discontinuous permafrost. The CPCRW is located in the boreal forest of interior Alaska. Following a wildfire in 2004, stream DOC concentration declined, whereas nitrate concentration increased, potentially caused by the combustion of soil organic carbon stocks, alteration of hydrologic flows from shallow to deeper flowpaths, or decreased plant productivity and nutrient uptake. We used an end-member mixing model to determine the major sources of water contributing to stream flow, how wildfire impacted watershed flowpaths, and the consequences of changing hydrology for watershed nutrient fluxes. Water samples were collected from springs throughout the CPCRW to identify the chemistry of source waters and were used in the analysis with stream water chemistry data from 2002-2011. We found that the contribution from the shallow flowpath to stream flow declined from a pre-fire average of 51% to 32% in the three years post-fire (2004-2006), whereas the contribution from the deeper flowpath increased from 26% pre-fire to 37% in the three years post-fire. This change in watershed hydrology at least in part drove the decrease in stream water DOC and increase in inorganic nitrogen observed post-fire in the stream. Increase in fire frequency and severity will decrease the permafrost distribution over the landscape through thawing, and in turn increase the active layer depth. Our results suggest that such changes may change the contribution of shallow versus deep flowpaths and in turn stream water chemistry and nutrient cycling. In areas of discontinuous permafrost, the subsurface connection between stream and groundwater may shift with future increases in fire frequency and severity, increasing baseflow in streams. Furthermore, if such shifts in flowpaths occur, boreal vegetation, which is currently nitrogen limited, may become sources of nitrogen post-fire; potentially influencing terrestrial vegetation community composition and biotic stream processes.

Olsson, A. K.; Jones, J.

2012-12-01

111

Post-Fire Recovery Sequence Of Black Spruce-Lichen Woodland in the Northwest Territories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree ring analyses have been used for determining the time since the most recent fire in several areas of burned black spruce-lichen woodland on drumlins in the Northwest Territories. The vegetation on these burns has been described in detail. Analysis of the data by principal component analysis and regression analysis shows that recovery of the ground vegetation after burning follows

Eugene Maikawa

1976-01-01

112

Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Transplantation Promotes Cutaneous Wound Healing of Severe Burned Rats  

PubMed Central

Background Severe burns are a common and highly lethal trauma. The key step for severe burn therapy is to promote the wound healing as early as possible, and reports indicate that mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy contributes to facilitate wound healing. In this study, we investigated effect of human umbilical cord MSCs (hUC-MSCs) could on wound healing in a rat model of severe burn and its potential mechanism. Methods Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham, burn, and burn transplanted hUC-MSCs. GFP labeled hUC-MSCs or PBS was intravenous injected into respective groups. The rate of wound closure was evaluated by Image Pro Plus. GFP-labeled hUC-MSCs were tracked by in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI), and human-specific DNA expression in wounds was detected by PCR. Inflammatory cells, neutrophils, macrophages, capillaries and collagen types I/III in wounds were evaluated by histochemical staining. Wound blood flow was evaluated by laser Doppler blood flow meter. The levels of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors, VEGF, collagen types I/III in wounds were analyzed using an ELISA. Results We found that wound healing was significantly accelerated in the hUC-MSC therapy group. The hUC-MSCs migrated into wound and remarkably decreased the quantity of infiltrated inflammatory cells and levels of IL-1, IL-6, TNF-? and increased levels of IL-10 and TSG-6 in wounds. Additionally, the neovascularization and levels of VEGF in wounds in the hUC-MSC therapy group were markedly higher than those in other control groups. The ratio of collagen types I and III in the hUC-MSC therapy group were markedly higher than that in the burn group at indicated time after transplantation. Conclusion The study suggests that hUC-MSCs transplantation can effectively improve wound healing in severe burned rat model. Moreover, these data might provide the theoretical foundation for the further clinical application of hUC-MSC in burn areas. PMID:24586314

Chai, Jiake; Duan, Hongjie; Chu, Wanli; Zhang, Haijun; Hu, Quan; Du, Jundong

2014-01-01

113

[Surgical therapy and critical care medicine in severely burned patients - Part 1: the first 24 ours].  

PubMed

Critical care medicine in severely burned patients should be adapted to the different pathophysiological phases. Accordingly, surgical and non-surgical therapy must be coordinated adequately. Initial wound care comprises topical treatment of less severely injured skin and surgical debridement of severely burned areas. The first 24 hours of intensive care are focused on calculated fluid delivery to provide stable hemodynamics and avoid progression of local edema formation. In the further course wound treatment with split-thickness skin grafts is the major aim of surgical therapy. Critical care is focused on the avoidance of complications like infections and ventilator associated lung injury. Therefore, lung-protective ventilation strategies, weaning and sedation protocols, and early enteral nutrition are important cornerstones of the treatment. PMID:22968982

Dembinski, Rolf; Kauczok, Jens; Deisz, Robert; Pallua, Norbert; Marx, Gernot

2012-09-01

114

Post-fire mulching for runoff and erosion mitigation Part I: Effectiveness at reducing hillslope erosion rates  

E-print Network

Post-fire mulching for runoff and erosion mitigation Part I: Effectiveness at reducing hillslope Received in revised form 29 November 2012 Accepted 30 November 2012 Keywords: Post-fire rehabilitation to mitigate post-fire increases in runoff and erosion rates but the comparative effectiveness of various

Flury, Markus

115

Monitoring Post-Fire Vegetation Rehabilitation Projects: A Common Approach for Non-Forested Ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Emergency Stabilization and Rehabilitation (ES&R) and Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) treatments are short-term, high-intensity treatments designed to mitigate the adverse effects of wildfire on public lands. The federal government expends significant resources implementing ES&R and BAER treatments after wildfires; however, recent reviews have found that existing data from monitoring and research are insufficient to evaluate the effects of these activities. The purpose of this report is to: (1) document what monitoring methods are generally used by personnel in the field; (2) describe approaches and methods for post-fire vegetation and soil monitoring documented in agency manuals; (3) determine the common elements of monitoring programs recommended in these manuals; and (4) describe a common monitoring approach to determine the effectiveness of future ES&R and BAER treatments in non-forested regions. Both qualitative and quantitative methods to measure effectiveness of ES&R treatments are used by federal land management agencies. Quantitative methods are used in the field depending on factors such as funding, personnel, and time constraints. There are seven vegetation monitoring manuals produced by the federal government that address monitoring methods for (primarily) vegetation and soil attributes. These methods vary in their objectivity and repeatability. The most repeatable methods are point-intercept, quadrat-based density measurements, gap intercepts, and direct measurement of soil erosion. Additionally, these manuals recommend approaches for designing monitoring programs for the state of ecosystems or the effect of management actions. The elements of a defensible monitoring program applicable to ES&R and BAER projects that most of these manuals have in common are objectives, stratification, control areas, random sampling, data quality, and statistical analysis. The effectiveness of treatments can be determined more accurately if data are gathered using an approach that incorporates these six monitoring program design elements and objectives, as well as repeatable procedures to measure cover, density, gap intercept, and soil erosion within each ecoregion and plant community. Additionally, using a common monitoring program design with comparable methods, consistently documenting results, and creating and maintaining a central database for query and reporting, will ultimately allow a determination of the effectiveness of post-fire rehabilitation activities region-wide.

Wirth, Troy A.; Pyke, David A.

2007-01-01

116

The influence of burn severity on postfire vegetation recovery and albedo change during early succession in North American boreal forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Severity of burning can influence multiple aspects of forest composition, carbon cycling, and climate forcing. We quantified how burn severity affected vegetation recovery and albedo change during early succession in Canadian boreal regions by combining satellite observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Canadian Large Fire Database. We used the MODIS-derived difference Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) and initial changes in spring albedo as measures of burn severity. We found that the most severe burns had the greatest reduction in summer MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) in the first year after fire, indicating greater loss of vegetation cover. By 5-8 years after fire, summer EVI for all severity classes had recovered to within 90%-108% of prefire levels. Spring and summer albedo progressively increased during the first 7 years after fire, with more severely burned areas showing considerably larger postfire albedo increases during spring and more rapid increases during summer as compared with moderate- and low-severity burns. After 5-7 years, increases in spring albedo above prefire levels were considerably larger in high-severity burns (0.20 0.06; defined by dNBR percentiles greater than 75%) as compared to changes observed in moderate- (0.16 0.06; for dNBR percentiles between 45% and 75%) or low-severity burns (0.13 0.06; for dNBR percentiles between 20% and 45%). The sensitivity of spring albedo to dNBR was similar in all ecozones and for all vegetation types along gradients of burn severity. These results suggest carbon losses associated with increases in burn severity observed in some areas of boreal forests may be at least partly offset, in terms of climate impacts, by increases in negative forcing associated with changes in surface albedo.

Jin, Yufang; Randerson, James T.; Goetz, Scott J.; Beck, Pieter S. A.; Loranty, Michael M.; Goulden, Michael L.

2012-03-01

117

Signals from Fat after Injury: Plasma Adipokines and Ghrelin Concentrations in the Severely Burned  

PubMed Central

Introduction Hypermetabolism is universal in the severely burned and is characterized by catabolism of lean mass and body fat with associated insulin resistance. Adipokines are likely to play a role in these changes but have not been identified to date in burn patients. Methods From a single burn ICU, 17 burn patients with an expected stay >14 days were studied. Study period began within 14 days of admission. Over seven days, plasma samples were collected for measurement of leptin, adiponectin, resistin, ghrelin, insulin, and cortisol by ELISA. For comparison, samples from 15 healthy controls of similar age, BMI, and blood glucose were obtained. Results Mean age was 3317 years and BMI 263.4. Average burn size was 4520% TBSA and ISS 3210 with 72% having inhalation injury; in-hospital mortality was 29%. Estimated energy needs were 3626710 kcal, of which 8421% were met by enteral feeding with intensive insulin treatment (glucose 80-110 mg/ml). Using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, burned subjects were more resistant than controls (1711.3 and 810.0). Insulin levels were elevated (5735.6 ?U/ml in burned subject vs. 2631.1 ?U/ml in controls), and cortisol concentrations increased (5041.2 ?g/dl vs. 123.9 ?g/dl). These traditional hormone changes were associated with increased resistin (16.65.5 ng/ml vs. 3.80.9 ng/ml) and decreased leptin (8.88.9 ng/ml vs. 19.423.5 ng/ml), adiponectin (93.5 ng/ml vs. 1710.2 ng/ml), and ghrelin (0.370.14 ng/ml vs.0.560.26 ng/ml). Conclusion Patients with burns, who are characteristically hypermetabolic with hypercortisolism and insulin resistant, have significant changes in adipokine levels that appear independent of the magnitude of initial injury or metabolic derangement. In addition, suppression of ghrelin in the presence of decreased leptin and adiponectin levels in combination with increased insulin and resistin levels represent unexpected changes in the metabolic milieu of the injured patient possibly due to dramatic activation of inflammatory pathways, indicating strategies for treatment. PMID:23021431

Wade, Charles E.; Mora, Alejandra G.; Shields, Beth A.; Pidcoke, Heather F.; Baer, Lisa A.; Chung, Kevin K.; Wolf, Steven E.

2012-01-01

118

A soil burn severity index for understanding soil-fire relations in tropical forests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Methods for evaluating the impact of fires within tropical forests are needed as fires become more frequent and human populations and demands on forests increase. Short- and long-term fire effects on soils are determined by the prefire, fire, and postfire environments. We placed these components within a fire-disturbance continuum to guide our literature synthesis and develop an integrated soil burn severity index. The soil burn severity index provides a set of indicators that reflect the range of conditions present after a fire. The index consists of seven levels, an unburned level and six other levels that describe a range of postfire soil conditions. We view this index as a tool for understanding the effects of fires on the forest floor, with the realization that as new information is gained, the index may be modified as warranted. ?? Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2008.

Jain, T. B.; Gould, W. A.; Graham, R. T.; Pilliod, D. S.; Lentile, L. B.; Gonzalez, G.

2008-01-01

119

Post-fire plant recovery in the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts of western  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing wildfire activity is one of the most pressing management concerns in arid lands of the American West. To examine post-fire recovery of perennial vegetation in the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts, I analyzed data systematically synthesized from the literature. Post-fire sprouting by desert perennials is generally limited but varies among species. For example, only 3-37% of Larrea tridentata sprouted compared

S. R. Abell

120

Using ultrasonic pulse velocity to evaluate residua l compressive strength of post-fire-curing concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) is used to quantitatively evaluate the residual compressive strength of post-fire-curing c oncrete subjected to elevated temperatures. A series of tests were performed to examine the relat ionship between the residual UPV and strength of post-fire-curing concrete. Cylindrical specimens were made of concrete with various mixture proportions, and heated in an electric

Hsuanchih YANG; Yiching LIN; Chiamen HSIAO; Yu-Feng LIN

121

Strength and durability recovery of fire-damaged concrete after post-fire-curing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of post-fire-curing on the strength and durability recovery of fire-damaged concrete was investigated. Twenty normal- (NSC) and high-strength concrete (HSC) mixes incorporating different pozzolans were prepared and exposed to elevated temperatures till 800C. After natural cooling, the specimens were subjected to post-fire-curing in water and in a controlled environment for a total duration of 56 days. Unstressed compressive

Chi-Sun Poon; Salman Azhar; Mike Anson; Yuk-Lung Wong

2001-01-01

122

Severe Bullous Skin Diseases: Analysis of Seven Children Managed in a Burns Unit  

PubMed Central

Summary Patients suffering from considerable cutaneous loss must be treated under strict aseptic conditions and with positive pressure ventilation, which is available in burns units. The differentiation of severe bullous skin diseases remains a challenge for the clinician. We report seven cases of severe bullous skin diseases in a paediatric age group treated in a burns unit with the cooperation of a paediatric intensive care unit (King Saud Hospital, Unizah, Kingdom of Saudia Arabia) between 2001 and 2005. Toxic epidermal necrolysis (Lyell's syndrome) was encountered in five cases, staphylococcal scalded-skin syndrome in one, and generalized drug eruption in one. The mortality rate was 14% (one of the seven patients). Most of the children presented with about 35% desquamation and 45% intact bullous formation (70-80% total body surface area involvement). The majority presented after the sudden onset of high fever, signs of systemic toxicity, and intense mucocutaneous exfoliation. The diagnosis was confirmed by skin biopsy and culture swabs. All the patients were managed as for mixed second-degree burns with regard to fluid calculation and hydrotherapy. We used the closed technique for dressing. The results are presented, and the literature was searched for similar cases reported in other parts of the world. The importance of diagnosis and appropriate treatment of the condition is emphasized. PMID:21991048

Elkharaz, S.; Abdel-Razek, E.M.; Eldin, A.; Abdel-Razek, A.M.

2006-01-01

123

Quantifying Post-Fire Forest Biomass Recovery in Northeastern Siberia using Hierarchical Multi-Sensor Satellite Imagery and Field Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Russian forests are the largest vegetation carbon pool outside of the tropics, with larch dominating northeastern Siberia where extreme temperatures, permafrost and wildfire currently limit persistence of other tree species. These ecosystems have experienced rapid climate warming over the past century and model simulations suggest that they will undergo profound changes by the end of the century if warming continues. Understanding the responses of these unique deciduous-conifer ecosystems to current and future climate is important given the potential changes in disturbance regimes and other climate feedbacks. The climate implications of changes in fire severity and return interval, as predicted under a warmer and drier climate, are not well understood given the trade-off between storage of C in forest biomass and post-fire surface albedo. We examined forest biomass recovery across a burn chronosequence near Cherskii, Sakha Republic, in far northeastern Siberia. We used high-quality Landsat imagery to date and map fires that occurred between 1972 and 2009, then complemented this data set using tree ring measurements to map older fires. A three stage approach was taken to map current biomass distribution. First, tree shadows were mapped from 50 cm panchromatic WorldView 1 imagery covering a portion of the region. Secondly, the tree shadow map was aggregated to 30 m resolution and used to train a regression-tree model that ingested mosaiced Landsat data. The model output correlated with allometry-based field estimates of biomass, allowing us to transform the model output to a map of regional aboveground biomass using a regression model. When combined with the fire history data, the new biomass map revealed a chronosequence of forest regrowth and carbon sequestration in aboveground biomass after fire. We discuss the potential for future carbon emissions from fires in northeastern Siberia, as well as carbon sequestration during recovery based on the observed biomass distribution and regrowth patterns. These results provide a basis for assessing regrowth trajectories in the region using a combination of field measurements and multi-sensor imagery, with the ultimate objective of better capturing forest carbon sequestration under changing fire disturbance regime.

Berner, L.; Beck, P. S.; Loranty, M. M.; Alexander, H. D.; Mack, M. C.; Goetz, S. J.

2011-12-01

124

[Hemodynamic profile and serum cytokines in crush syndrome. Analogy with severe burns].  

PubMed

A 71-year-old woman remained under the rubble of her house for 4 hours after an accidental gas explosion. She suffered from a crush syndrome associating fractures, minor skin burns (< 10% body surface area), inhalation lung injury and moderate hypothermia (34 degrees C). In addition to local signs of compression of the lower limbs, the patient presented with hypovolemic shock and developed acute renal failure on day 3. We describe here the variations in hemodynamic and oxymetric parameters and cytokine response during the first post-injury week. A vasoplegic state resulting from low systemic vascular resistances with progressively increasing cardiac index, oxygen delivery and oxygen consumption closely followed the brief hypovolemic shock. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha remained below normal levels while interleukin-6 increased markedly with a major peak on day 2, in parallel with the drop in systemic vascular resistances. Interleukin-6 is a mediator of impairment in cell membrane function and a vasoconstriction inhibitor. Isolated increased interleukin-6 has been previously reported in severely burned patients suggesting a pathophysiological and hemodynamic similarity between crush syndrome and burn injury. PMID:8685194

Gueugniaud, P Y; Fabreguette, A; Perrin, C; Bertin-Maghit, M; Bouchard, C; Petit, P

1996-03-16

125

Use of spectral channels and vegetation indices from satellite VEGETATION time series for the Post-Fire vegetation recovery estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite data can help monitoring the dynamics of vegetation in burned and unburned areas. Several methods can be used to perform such kind of analysis. This paper is focused on the use of different satellite-based parameters for fire recovery monitoring. In particular, time series of single spectral channels and vegetation indices from SPOT-VEGETATION have investigated. The test areas is the Mediterranean ecosystems of Southern Italy. For this study we considered: 1) the most widely used index to follow the process of recovery after fire: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) obtained from the visible (Red) and near infrared (NIR) by using the following formula NDVI = (NIR_Red)/(NIR + Red), 2) moisture index MSI obtained from the near infrared and Mir for characterization of leaf and canopy water content. 3) NDWI obtained from the near infrared and Mir as in the case of MSI, but with the normalization (as the NDVI) to reduce the atmospheric effects. All analysis for this work was performed on ten-daily normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) image composites (S10) from the SPOT- VEGETATION (VGT) sensor. The final data set consisted of 279 ten-daily, 1 km resolution NDVI S1O composites for the period 1 April 1998 to 31 December 2005 with additional surface reflectance values in the blue (B; 0.43-0.47,um), red (R; 0.61-0.68,um), near-infrared (NIR; 0.78-0.89,um) and shortwave-infrared (SWIR; 1.58-1.75,um) spectral bands, and information on the viewing geometry and pixel status. Preprocessing of the data was performed by the Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek (VITO) in the framework of the Global Vegetation Monitoring (GLOVEG) preprocessing chain. It consisted of the Simplified Method for Atmospheric Correction (SMAC) and compositing at ten-day intervals based on the Maximum Value Compositing (MVC) criterion. All the satellite time series were analysed using the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) to estimate post fire vegetation recovery. The DFA is a well-known methodology, which allows the detectin of long-range power-law correlations in signals possibly characterized by non-stationarity, which features most of the observational and experimental signals. We analyzed time variation of both single channels and spectral indices from 1998 to 2005 of fire- affected and fire unaffected areas. In order to eliminate the seasonal and/or phenological fluctuations, for each decadal composition, we focused on the normalized departure: 1) NDVI; 2) NDWId, 3) MSId. Results from our analysis point out that the persistence of vegetation dynamics is significantly increased by the occurrence of fires. In particular, a scaling behavior of two classes of vegetation (burned and unburned) has been best revealed by NDVI. The estimated scaling exponents of both classes suggest a persistent character of the vegetation dynamics. But, the burned sites show much larger exponents than those calculated for the unburned sites. Small variations have been observed between the estimated scaling exponents of both fire-affected and fire-unaffected areas.

Coluzzi, Rosa; Lasaponara, Rosa; Montesano, Tiziana; Lanorte, Antonio; de Santis, Fortunato

2010-05-01

126

Contrasting long-term survival of two outplanted Mojave Desert perennials for post-fire revegetation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Post-fire recovery of arid shrublands is typically slow, and planting greenhouse-raised seedlings may be a means of jump-starting this process. Recovery can be further accelerated by understanding the factors controlling post-planting survival. In fall 2007 and 2009, we outplanted seedlings of two contrasting native evergreen shrubsfast-growing Nevada jointfir and slow-growing blackbrushacross five burned sites in the Mojave Desert. To increase soil moisture and optimize seedling survival, we experimentally applied and evaluated soil amendments and supplemental watering. We also evaluated two herbicides that reduce competitive invasive annual grasses and two types of herbivore protection. Survival of jointfir outplanted in 2007 was 61% after 43 months, and site largely influenced survival, while herbicide containing imazapic applied more than one year after outplanting reduced survival. Reduced survival of jointfir outplanted in 2009 coincided with delayed seasonal precipitation that intensified foliar damage by small mammals. In contrast, blackbrush survival was 4% after 43 months, and was influenced by site, type of herbivore protection, and greenhouse during the 2007 outplanting, and soil amendment during 2009. Counter to expectations, we found that supplemental watering and soil amendments did not influence long-term survival of either blackbrush or jointfir. Shrub species with rapid growth rates and broad environmental tolerances, such as jointfir, make ideal candidates for outplanting, provided that seedlings are protected from herbivores. Re-introduction of species with slow growth rates and narrow environmental tolerances, such as blackbrush, requires careful consideration to optimize pre- and post-planting conditions.

Scoles-Sciulla, Sara J.; DeFalco, Lesley A.; Esque, Todd C.

2014-01-01

127

Evaluation of vegetation post-fire resilience in the Alpine region using descriptors derived from MODIS spectral index time series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study a method based on the analysis of MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) time series is proposed to estimate the post-fire resilience of mountain vegetation (broadleaf forest and prairies) in the Italian Alps. Resilience is defined herewith as the ability of a dynamical system to counteract disturbances. It can be quantified by the amount of time the disturbed system takes to resume, in statistical terms, an ecological functionality comparable with its undisturbed behavior. Satellite images of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and of the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) with spatial resolution of 250m and temporal resolution of 16 days in the 2000-2012 time period were used. Wildfire affected areas in the Lombardy region between the years 2000 and 2010 were analysed. Only large fires (affected area >40ha) were selected. For each burned area, an undisturbed adjacent control site was located. Data pre-processing consisted in the smoothing of MODIS time series for noise removal and then a double logistic function was fitted. Land surface phenology descriptors (proxies for growing season start/end/length and green biomass) were extracted in order to characterize the time evolution of the vegetation. Descriptors from a burned area were compared to those extracted from the respective control site by means of the one-way analysis of variance. According to the number of subsequent years which exhibit statistically meaningful difference between burned and control site, five classes of resilience were identified and a set of thematic maps was created for each descriptor. The same method was applied to all 84 aggregated events and to events aggregated by main land cover. EVI index results more sensitive to fire impact than NDVI index. Analysis shows that fire causes both a reduction of the biomass and a variation in the phenology of the Alpine vegetation. Results suggest an average ecosystem resilience of 6-7 years. Moreover, broadleaf forest and prairies show different post-fire behavior in terms of land surface phenology descriptors. In addition to the above analysis, another method is proposed, which derives from the qualitative theory of dynamical systems. The (time dependent) spectral index of a burned area over the period of one year was plotted against its counterpart from the control site. Yearly plots (or scattergrams) before and after the fire were obtained. Each plot is a sequence of points on the plane, which are the vertices of a generally self-intersecting polygonal chain. Some geometrical descriptors were obtained from the yearly chains of each fire. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of geometrical descriptors was applied to a set of case studies and the obtained results provide a system dynamics interpretation of the natural process.

Di Mauro, Biagio; Fava, Francesco; Busetto, Lorenzo; Crosta, Giovanni Franco; Colombo, Roberto

2013-04-01

128

Sources of debris flow material in burned areas Paul M. Santi a,, Victor G. deWolfe a  

E-print Network

that many, if not most, post-fire debris flows are initiated by runoff and erosion and grow in size through been shown that many, if not most, post-fire debris flows are initiated by runoff and erosion (CannonSources of debris flow material in burned areas Paul M. Santi a,, Victor G. deWolfe a , Jerry D

129

Post-fire regeneration in a Mediterranean pine forest with historically low fire frequency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Species of Mediterranean vegetation are known to regenerate directly after fire. The phenomenon of autosuccession (direct regeneration) has been found to be often combined with an increase of species richness during the first years after fire due to the high abundance of short-lived herbaceous plants facilitated by plentiful nutrients and light. The high degree of vegetation resilience, which is expressed in terms of autosuccession, has been explained by the selective pressure of fire in historic times. According to existing palaeoecological data, however, the Pinus halepensis forests in the Ricote Mountains (Province of Murcia, SE Spain) did not experience substantial fire impact before the presence of man nor are they especially fire-prone today. Therefore, we studied post-fire regeneration to find out if direct succession is present or if species from pre-fire vegetation are absent during the post-fire regeneration stages. Patterns of succession were deduced from observations made in sample plots on sites of a known regeneration age as well as in adjacent unburnt areas. The results of the vegetation analyses, including a Detrended Correspondence Analysis, indicate that Pinus halepensis forest regeneration after fire resembles autosuccession. As regards the presence of woody species, there is a high percentage similarity on north (83%) and south (70%) facing slopes during the first year after fire vs. reference areas which is due, for example, to direct regeneration of the resprouting Quercus coccifera or seeders like Pinus halepensis or Fumana laevipes. However, if herbaceous species are included in the comparison, the similarity on north-facing sites decreases (to 53%) with the presence of additional species, mainly ruderals like Anagallis arvensis or Reseda phyteuma, and even woody species on the burnt plots. This effect indicates "enhanced autosuccession", which was not found on south-facing sites where overall species richness was very high irrespective of the impact of fire. Locally we found limited regeneration of some species, for example Pinus halepensis at high altitudes (1000 m), even 22 years after fire. As we assume that historical fires did not play an important role in the area and direct succession is present nevertheless, our results support the theory that autosuccession is not a process restricted to fire-prone areas. Fire has been only one of several selective forces since human settlement that probably led to a set of species pre-adapted against recurrent disturbance.

Buhk, Constanze; Gtzenberger, Lars; Wesche, Karsten; Gmez, Pedro Snchez; Hensen, Isabell

2006-11-01

130

Heterogeneity in fire severity within early season and late season prescribed burns in a mixed-conifer forest  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Structural heterogeneity in forests of the Sierra Nevada was historically produced through variation in fire regimes and local environmental factors. The amount of heterogeneity that prescription burning can achieve might now be more limited owing to high fuel loads and increased fuel continuity. Topography, woody fuel loading, and vegetative composition were quantified in plots within replicated early and late season burn units. Two indices of fire severity were evaluated in the same plots after the burns. Scorch height ranged from 2.8 to 25.4 m in early season plots and 3.1 to 38.5 m in late season plots, whereas percentage of ground surface burned ranged from 24 to 96% in early season plots and from 47 to 100% in late season plots. Scorch height was greatest in areas with steeper slopes, higher basal area of live trees, high percentage of basal area composed of pine, and more small woody fuel. Percentage of area burned was greatest in areas with less bare ground and rock cover (more fuel continuity), steeper slopes, and units burned in the fall (lower fuel moisture). Thus topographic and biotic factors still contribute to the abundant heterogeneity in fire severity with prescribed burning, even under the current high fuel loading conditions. Burning areas with high fuel loads in early season when fuels are moister may lead to patterns of heterogeneity in fire effects that more closely approximate the expected patchiness of historical fires.

Knapp, E. E.; Keeley, J. E.

2006-01-01

131

Modeling fire severity in black spruce stands in the Alaskan boreal forest using spectral and non-spectral geospatial data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Biomass burning in the Alaskan interior is already a major disturbance and source of carbon emissions, and is likely to increase in response to the warming and drying predicted for the future climate. In addition to quantifying changes to the spatial and temporal patterns of burned areas, observing variations in severity is the key to studying the impact of changes to the fire regime on carbon cycling, energy budgets, and post-fire succession. Remote sensing indices of fire severity have not consistently been well-correlated with in situ observations of important severity characteristics in Alaskan black spruce stands, including depth of burning of the surface organic layer. The incorporation of ancillary data such as in situ observations and GIS layers with spectral data from Landsat TM/ETM+ greatly improved efforts to map the reduction of the organic layer in burned black spruce stands. Using a regression tree approach, the R2 of the organic layer depth reduction models was 0.60 and 0.55 (p < 0.01) for relative and absolute depth reduction, respectively. All of the independent variables used by the regression tree to estimate burn depth can be obtained independently of field observations. Implementation of a gradient boosting algorithm improved the R2 to 0.80 and 0.79 (p < 0.01) for absolute and relative organic layer depth reduction, respectively. Independent variables used in the regression tree model of burn depth included topographic position, remote sensing indices related to soil and vegetation characteristics, timing of the fire event, and meteorological data. Post-fire organic layer depth characteristics are determined for a large (> 200,000 ha) fire to identify areas that are potentially vulnerable to a shift in post-fire succession. This application showed that 12% of this fire event experienced fire severe enough to support a change in post-fire succession. We conclude that non-parametric models and ancillary data are useful in the modeling of the surface organic layer fire depth. Because quantitative differences in post-fire surface characteristics do not directly influence spectral properties, these modeling techniques provide better information than the use of remote sensing data alone.

Barrett, K.; Kasischke, E. S.; McGuire, A. D.; Turetsky, M. R.; Kane, E. S.

2010-01-01

132

Aesthetic restoration of the severely disfigured face in burn victims: a comprehensive strategy.  

PubMed

Although highly specialized burn centers have significantly reduced mortality rates following extensive total body surface area burns, survivors are often left with grotesque facial disfigurement. The strategy of modern facial restoration emphasizes enhancement of aesthetic appearance as significantly as mitigation of functional impairment. Criteria for success are (1) an undistracted "normal" look at conversational distance, (2) facial balance and symmetry, (3) distinct aesthetic units fused by inconspicuous scars, (4) "doughy" skin texture appropriate for corrective makeup, and (5) dynamic facial expression. Since 1985, the author has successfully restored 17 severely disfigured burned faces by replacement of entire aesthetic units with microvascular "prepatterned" composite flaps blended into the facial canvas by cosmetic camouflage techniques. The series includes hemiface (2), neck/jaw (5), chin/lower lip (3), cheek/malar (5), peri-orbital (2), nose (3), upper lip (4), and ear reconstructions (4). Flaps represented are free preauricular (1), radial forearm (6), ulnar forearm (1), free scapular (6), ilio-osteocutaneous (2), temporoparietal (8), vascularized forehead island (3), supraclavicular (1), and SMAS (1). Important to outcome is extensive initial intraoperative "sculpting" to simulate normal planes and contours. Seams are placed at junctions of facial components. Three-dimensional imaging is used to assess architectural asymmetries, and bone grafts are aided by computer-generated acrylic models. Adjunctive procedures include tensor fasciae latae slings, intraoperative tissue expansion, suction-assisted lipectomy, and scar management. After restoration of facial form and texture, flesh color make-up and/or tattooing of beard, lips, scars, eyebrows, etc., aid to hide scars and pigment the skin to harmonize with the rest of the face. In all cases, facial integrity has been aesthetically restored and, in most instances, with makeup, is near normal in social settings at conversational distances. Facial animation is retained and color matches are excellent. One flap was lost early in the series. PMID:7480277

Rose, E H

1995-12-01

133

Simulating Local and Intercontinental Pollutant Effects of Biomass Burning: Integration of Several Remotely Sensed Datasets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Burning to clear land for crops and to destroy pests is an integral and largely unavoidable part of tropical agriculture. It is easy to note but difficult to quantify using remote sensing. This report describes our efforts to integrate remotely sensed data into our computer model of tropical chemical trace-gas emissions, weather, and reaction chemistry (using the MM5 mesoscale model and our own Global-Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Simulator). The effects of burning over the continents of Africa and South America have been noticed in observations from several satellites. Smoke plumes hundreds of kilometers long may be seen individually, or may merge into a large smoke pall over thousands of kilometers of these continents. These features are related to intense pollution in the much more confined regions with heavy burning. These emissions also translocate nitrogen thousands of kilometers in the tropical ecosystems, with large fixed-nitrogen losses balanced partially by locally intense fertilization downwind, where nitric acid is rained out. At a much larger scale, various satellite measurements have indicated the escape of carbon monoxide and ozone into large filaments which extend across the Tropical and Southern Atlantic Ocean. Our work relates the source emissions, estimated in part from remote sensing, in part from conventional surface reports, to the concentrations of these gases over these intercontinental regions. We will mention work in progress to use meteorological satellite data (AVHRR, GOES, and Meteosat) to estimate the surface temperature and extent and height of clouds, and explain why these uses are so important in our computer simulations of global biogeochemistry. We will compare our simulations and interpretation of remote observations to the international cooperation involving Brazil, South Africa, and the USA in the TRACE-A (Transport and Atmospheric Chemistry near the Equator - Atlantic) and SAFARI (Southern Africa Fire Atmosphere Research Initiative) and remote-sensing /aircraft/ecosystem observational campaigns.

Chatfield, Robert B.; Vastano, John A.; Guild, Liane; Hlavka, Christine; Brass, James A.; Russell, Philip B. (Technical Monitor)

1994-01-01

134

Late outcomes after grafting of the severely burned face: a quality improvement initiative.  

PubMed

Many approaches to surgical management of the severely burned face are described, but there are few objective outcome studies. The purpose of this study was to perform a detailed evaluation of the late outcomes in adult patients who have undergone grafting using a standardized surgical and rehabilitation approach for full-thickness (FT) facial burns to identify areas for improvement in the treatment strategy of authors. This was a prospective observational study in which patients who had undergone grafting for FT facial burns by the senior investigator at a regional burn centre between 1999 and 2010 were examined by a single evaluator. The surgical approach included tangential excision based on the facial aesthetic units, temporary cover with allograft then autografting with scalp skin preferentially, split grafts for the upper eyelid, and FT grafts for the lower eyelid. Rehabilitation included compression (uvex and or soft cloth), scar massage, and silicone gel sheeting. Of 35 patients with facial grafts, 14 subjects (age 43 16 years with 22 21% TBSA burns) returned for late follow-up at 40 33 months (range, 5-91 months). A mean of four facial aesthetic units per patient were grafted (range, 1-9 units), with six full facial grafts performed. Scalp was used as donor in 10 of 14 cases. Scalp donor sites were well tolerated with minor alopecia visible in only one case although the donor site visibly extended slightly past the hairline in two cases. Color match with native skin was rated at 8.8 0.8 of 10 when scalp skin was used compared with 7.5 1.6 with other donor sites (P = .06). On the lip and chin, hypertrophic scars were significantly worse compared with the rest of the facial grafts (Vancouver scar scale 8 2 vs 3 1, P < .01). Sensory recovery was poor with overall moving two-point discrimination at 11 3 mm (range, 4-15 mm), and monofilament light touch was 3.8 0.6. Graft borders were significantly more elevated than graft seams. On the forehead, the most notable problem was a gap between the graft and hairlines of the frontal scalp and eyebrows (range, 0-40 mm). Grafted eyelids required one or more subsequent ectropion releases in the majority of cases. The most common problem for the nose was asymmetry of the nostril apertures. The most problematic late outcomes that the authors identified after facial grafting for FT facial burns included relatively poor sensory return, elevation of graft edges, eyelid ectropion, gaps between grafts and hairline, and marked hypertrophic scarring around the mouth and chin. The results indicate that possible areas for quality improvement include greater attention to the limits of scalp harvest, more attention to pressure application to graft borders and the lip and chin during rehabilitation, greater accuracy in excision and graft placement on the forehead to avoid gaps with the hairlines, and counseling of the patient regarding the high probability of diminished facial sensation. PMID:22002207

Philp, Lauren; Umraw, Nisha; Cartotto, Robert

2012-01-01

135

Small low-power consumption CO-sensor for post-fire cleanup aboard spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this presentation we report on our progress in developing a small, lightweight and low power consumption carbon monoxide sensor for detection and post-fire cleanup aboard manned spacecraft. The sensor is a laser-based absorption spectrometer that uses a Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) operating at 4.61 microns. The target sensitivity for post-fire cleanup applications is 1 to 500 ppmv. The presentation will detail the laser design and performance and the bench-top performance of the TDLAS sensor including sensitivity and Allan variance measurements. The status of the prototype sensor including size, weight and power consumption estimates and measurements will be presented.

Bradshaw, John L.; Bruno, John D.; Lascola, Kevin M.; Leavitt, Richard P.; Pham, John T.; Towner, Frederick J.; Sonnenfroh, David M.; Parameswaran, Krishnan R.

2011-06-01

136

Effectiveness of post-fire seeding at the Fitzner-Eberhardt Arid Land Ecology Reserve, Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In August 2007, the Milepost 17 and Wautoma fires burned a combined total of 77,349 acres (31,302 hectares) of the Fitzner-Eberhardt Arid Land Ecology Reserve (ALE), part of the Hanford Reach National Monument administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Mid-Columbia National Wildlife Refuge. In 2009, the USFWS implemented a series of seeding and herbicide treatments to mitigate potential negative consequences of these fires, including mortality of native vegetation, invasion of Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass), and soil erosion. Treatments included combinations of seeding (drill and aerial), herbicides, and one of six different mixtures of species. Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Wyoming big sagebrush) also was planted by hand in a small area in the southern end of the fire perimeter. Due to differences in plant communities prior to the fire and the multiple treatments applied, treatments were grouped into five treatment associations including mid-elevation aerial seedings, low-elevation aerial seedings, low-elevation drill seedings, high-elevation drill seeding, and no seeding treatments. Data collected at the mid-elevation aerial seedings indicate that the seeding did not appear to increase the density of seedlings compared to the non-seeded area in 2010. At the low-elevation aerial seedings, there were significantly more seedlings at seeded areas as compared to non-seeded areas. Low densities of existing perennial plants probably fostered a low-competition environment enabling seeds to germinate and emerge in 2010 during adequate moisture. Low-elevation drill seedings resulted in significant emergence of seeded grasses in 2009 and 2010 and forbs in 2010. This was likely due to adequate precipitation and that the drill seeding assured soil-to-seed contact. At the high-elevation drill seeding, which was implemented in 2009, there were a high number of seedlings in 2010. Transplanting of A. tridentata following the fires resulted in variable survival rates that warrant further testing; however, transplants located closer to washes tended to have the highest survival rates. Overall, the low-elevation aerial and drill seedings, and the high-elevation drill seedings resulted in significant numbers of seedlings. Further research is needed on methods that provide land managers with critical information about whether or not to seed post-fire areas including status of pre-fire vegetation and estimates of plant mortality due to fire.

Wirth, Troy A.; Pyke, David A.

2011-01-01

137

ORIGINAL PAPER Effect of wildfires and post-fire forest treatments  

E-print Network

years after the fire, but decreased or even disappeared in unburnt ones, indicating that forest firesORIGINAL PAPER Effect of wildfires and post-fire forest treatments on rabbit abundance ?lex Rollan after a wildfire in Catalonia (NE Spain): (A) unburnt forests, (B) burnt forests with removal of burnt

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

138

Post-fire Erosion in the Colorado Front Range Lee H. MacDonald  

E-print Network

Post-fire Erosion in the Colorado Front Range Lee H. MacDonald Department of Forest, Rangland and erosion rates, and how these changes then affect downstream water resources and domestic water supplies and erosion rates in the Colorado Front Range at different spatial scales, and our primary objectives have

MacDonald, Lee

139

Post-fire vegetation of the Montane natural subregion of Jasper National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological Land Classification information gathered in the mid to late 1970s was used to predict post-fire vegetation for the Montane natural subregion of Jasper National Park. Percentage similarity indices (SI) between vegetation types based on understory species composition and cover, calculated distances (D) generated from altitude, nutrient and moisture, broad patterns of vegetation canopy based on moisture regimes, canonical correspondence

L. B. Nadeau; I. G. W. Corns

2002-01-01

140

Comparison of Post-fire Growth Rates between Elymus condensatus and Yucca Whipplei in Coastal Chaparral  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two monocot species, Yucca whippelei and Elymus condensata chosen for this study are two co-occurring species on the Pepperdine campus. We chose 6 samples of each species and looked at parameters that would allow us to compare their post fire growth rates. These parameters included leaf area index, internal CO2 levels, transpiration rate, and photosynthetic rate. We used the

Jae K Chung; Andrew J Ishibashi; Francisco B Sapigao

2008-01-01

141

Early post-fire succession in California chaparral: changes in diversity, density, cover, and biomass  

USGS Publications Warehouse

For four consecutive years, following the fires in November 1993, temporal variations in species richness, cover and biomass of component plant groups in early post-fire chaparral succession were monitored on different aspects at the Stunt Ranch Santa Monica Mountains Reserve, southern California. Plant groups were categorized based on growth form, life form, ability to fix nitrogen, geographic origin and regeneration strategies. North-facing slopes exhibited higher species richness, higher species turnover rate over time and faster vegetation recovery in terms of biomass accumulation and return to pre-fire species composition. This was probably due to higher species richness and biomass of nitrogen-fixing species found on north-facing slopes in comparison to south-facing slopes. On both north- and south-facing slopes, annuals had the highest species turnover rate, followed by herbaceous perennials and shrubs. In the first four post-fire years, annual species were the largest floristic group, but herbaceous perennials and shrubs were the major contributors to community biomass. Nitrogen-fixing species and exotics contributed significantly to early post-fire community structure. Although the general trends in post-fire succession are clear in terms of temporal changes in the relative proportions of different plant groups, environmental variation and the nature of plant life histories of component species, especially dominant species, could alter such trends significantly.

Guo, Q.

2001-01-01

142

Early post-fire succession in California chaparral: Changes in diversity, density, cover and biomass  

USGS Publications Warehouse

For four consecutive years, following the fires in November 1993, temporal variations in species richness, cover and biomass of component plant groups in early post-fire chaparral succession were monitored on different aspects at the Stunt Ranch Santa Monica Mountains Reserve, southern California. Plant groups were categorized based on growth form, life form, ability to fix nitrogen, geographic origin and regeneration strategies. North-facing slopes exhibited higher species richness, higher species turnover rate over time and faster vegetation recovery in terms of biomass accumulation and return to pre-fire species composition. This was probably due to higher species richness and biomass of nitrogen-fixing species found on north-facing slopes in comparison to south-facing slopes. On both north- and south-facing slopes, annuals had the highest species turnover rate, followed by herbaceous perennials and shrubs. In the first four post-fire years, annual species were the largest floristic group, but herbaceous perennials and shrubs were the major contributors to community biomass. Nitrogen-fixing species and exotics contributed significantly to early post-fire community structure. Although the general trends in post-fire succession are clear in terms of temporal changes in the relative proportions of different plant groups, environmental variation and the nature of plant life histories of component species, especially dominant species, could alter such trends significantly.

Guo, Q.

2001-01-01

143

Similarity of small mammal abundance in post-fire and clearcut forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the assumption that forest harvesting can maintain wildlife through emulating natural disturbance, we compared small mammal abundance between seven post-fire and nine clearcut plots representing three ages since disturbance (4, 14 and 27 years). On each site, two Victor snap traps were placed at 100 stations on 10 ? 10 grids spaced 20 m apart. Clethrionomys gapperi were

N. P. P. Simon; C. B. Stratton; G. J. Forbes; F. E. Schwab

144

Plasma proteome response to severe burn injury revealed by 18O-labeled "universal" reference-based quantitative proteomics.  

PubMed

A burn injury represents one of the most severe forms of human trauma and is responsible for significant mortality worldwide. Here, we present the first quantitative proteomics investigation of the blood plasma proteome response to severe burn injury by comparing the plasma protein concentrations of 10 healthy control subjects with those of 15 severe burn patients at two time-points following the injury. The overall analytical strategy for this work integrated immunoaffinity depletion of the 12 most abundant plasma proteins with cysteinyl-peptide enrichment-based fractionation prior to LC-MS analyses of individual patient samples. Incorporation of an 18O-labeled "universal" reference among the sample sets enabled precise relative quantification across samples. In total, 313 plasma proteins confidently identified with two or more unique peptides were quantified. Following statistical analysis, 110 proteins exhibited significant abundance changes in response to the burn injury. The observed changes in protein concentrations suggest significant inflammatory and hypermetabolic response to the injury, which is supported by the fact that many of the identified proteins are associated with acute phase response signaling, the complement system, and coagulation system pathways. The regulation of approximately 35 proteins observed in this study is in agreement with previous results reported for inflammatory or burn response, but approximately 50 potentially novel proteins previously not known to be associated with burn response or inflammation are also found. Elucidating proteins involved in the response to severe burn injury may reveal novel targets for therapeutic interventions as well as potential predictive biomarkers for patient outcomes such as multiple organ failure. PMID:20698492

Qian, Wei-Jun; Petritis, Brianne O; Kaushal, Amit; Finnerty, Celeste C; Jeschke, Marc G; Monroe, Matthew E; Moore, Ronald J; Schepmoes, Athena A; Xiao, Wenzhong; Moldawer, Lyle L; Davis, Ronald W; Tompkins, Ronald G; Herndon, David N; Camp, David G; Smith, Richard D

2010-09-01

145

Utilizing Remote Sensing Information to Improve Post-fire Rainfall-runoff Predictions after the 2010 Bull Fire in the Sequoia National Forest, CA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Post-fire management decisions are guided by rainfall-runoff predictions, which ultimately influence downstream treatment and mitigation costs. The current study investigates evolving rainfall-runoff partitioning at the watershed scale over a two-year period after the 2010 Bull Fire which occurred in the southern Sequoia National Forest in California. Stage height was measured at five-minute intervals using pressure transducers, tipping buckets were installed for rainfall duration and intensity, and channel cross-sections were measured approximately every two months to detail sediment deposition or scour. We also utilize remotely sensed vegetation data to evaluate vegetation recovery in the studied watersheds and the corresponding relationship to storm runoff. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), a measure of vegetation greenness, is evaluated for its potential use as a key recovery indicator. Preliminary results focus on alterations in annual and seasonal precipitation and discharge relationships using in-situ data and Landsat NDVI values for the period of study. NDVI values are consistent with a comprehensive burn, with an acute decrease observed in the initial post-fire period. However, vegetation recovery is highly variable in the studied systems and influenced by shorter-term biomass pulses (grasses) while longer-term recovery of other species (chaparral and pine) is ongoing. Runoff ratios are elevated during early storms and show some recovery in the later part of the study period. The ability to accurately and confidently predict post-fire runoff and longer-term recovery is critical for monitoring values-at-risk, reducing mitigation costs, and improving warnings to downstream public communities.

Kinoshita, A. M.; Hale, B.; Hogue, T. S.

2012-12-01

146

A low-cost method to measure the timing of post-fire flash floods and debris flows relative to rainfall  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data on the specific timing of post-fire flash floods and debris flows are very limited. We describe a method to measure the response times of small burned watersheds to rainfall using a low-cost pressure transducer, which can be installed quickly after a fire. Although the pressure transducer is not designed for sustained sampling at the fast rates ({less than or equal to}2 sec) used at more advanced debris-flow monitoring sites, comparisons with high-data rate stage data show that measured spikes in pressure sampled at 1-min intervals are sufficient to detect the passage of most debris flows and floods. Post-event site visits are used to measure the peak stage and identify flow type based on deposit characteristics. The basin response timescale (tb) to generate flow at each site was determined from an analysis of the cross correlation between time series of flow pressure and 5-min rainfall intensity. This timescale was found to be less than 30 minutes for 40 post-fire floods and 11 post-fire debris flows recorded in 15 southern California watersheds ({less than or equal to} 1.4 km2). Including data from 24 other debris flows recorded at 5 more instrumentally advanced monitoring stations, we find there is not a substantial difference in the median tb for floods and debris flows (11 and 9 minutes, respectively); however, there are slight, statistically significant differences in the trends of flood and debris-flow tb with basin area, which are presumably related to differences in flow speed between floods and debris flows.

Kean, Jason W.; Staley, Dennis M.; Leeper, Robert J.; Schmidt, Kevin Michael; Gartner, Joseph E.

2012-01-01

147

Severe childhood burns in the Czech Republic: risk factors andprevention  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To assess risk factors for paediatric burn injuries in the Czech Republic and to suggest preventive measures. Methods This study included all children aged 016 years hospitalized during 19932000 at the Prague Burn Centre and data from the Czech Ministry of Health on national paediatric burn hospitalizations during 19962006. Personal, equipment and environmental risk factors were identified from hospital records. Findings The incidence of burn admissions among 014 year-olds increased from 85 to 96 per 100 000 between 1996 and 2006, mainly due to a 13% increase among 14 year-olds. Between 19932000 and 2006, the proportion of burn victims in the country hospitalized at the Prague Burn Centre increased from 9% to 21%. Detailed data were available on 1064 children (64% boys). Around 31% of all burn hospitalizations were in 1 year-olds. Some 79% of burns occurred at home: 70% in the kitchen, 14% in the living room or bedroom and 11% in the bathroom. Of the 18% occurring outdoors, 80% involved boys. Scalds from hot liquids accounted for 70% of all burns. The mean hospital stay was 22 days for boys and 18 days for girls. Conclusion Most burns involved scalds from hot liquids at home: beverages in kitchens and water in bathrooms. There is a need for passive preventive measures, such as redesigned domestic cooking and eating areas, safer electrical kettles and temperature control devices for bathrooms. Educational programmes should be developed for parents and caregivers. A national plan for child burn prevention with specific targets would be helpful. PMID:19551256

?elko, Alexander Martin; D?ov, Jana; Barss, Peter

2009-01-01

148

In situ measurements of post-fire debris flows in southern California: Comparisons of the timing and magnitude of 24 debris-flow events with rainfall and soil moisture conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Debris flows often occur in burned steeplands of southern California, sometimes causing property damage and loss of life. In an effort to better understand the hydrologic controls on post-fire debris-flow initiation, timing and magnitude, we measured the flow stage, rainfall, channel bed pore fluid pressure and hillslope soil-moisture accompanying 24 debris flows recorded in five different watersheds burned in the 2009 Station and Jesusita Fires (San Gabriel and Santa Ynez Mountains). The measurements show substantial differences in debris-flow dynamics between sites and between sequential events at the same site. Despite these differences, the timing and magnitude of all events were consistently associated with local peaks in short duration (< = 30 min) rainfall intensity. Overall, debris-flow stage was best cross-correlated with time series of 5-min rainfall intensity, and lagged the rainfall by an average of just 5 min. An index of debris-flow volume was also best correlated with short-duration rainfall intensity, but found to be poorly correlated with storm cumulative rainfall and hillslope soil water content. Post-event observations of erosion and slope stability modeling suggest that the debris flows initiated primarily by processes related to surface water runoff, rather than shallow landslides. By identifying the storm characteristics most closely associated with post-fire debris flows, these measurements provide valuable guidance for warning operations and important constraints for developing and testing models of post-fire debris flows.

Kean, Jason W.; Staley, Dennis M.; Cannon, Susan H.

2011-12-01

149

Evolution of the Emergency Management of Severe Burns (EMSB) course in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principle of the `golden hour' is now well established and forms the basis of a growing number of instructional courses teaching a systematic approach to the management of major trauma. In April 1997, the EMSB course, developed by the Australian and New Zealand Burn Association, was adopted by the British Burn Association to meet the needs of health professionals

Christopher A Stone; Sarah A Pape

1999-01-01

150

Seasonal Variability in Boreal Wildfire Activity Associated with Landscape Patterns of Burned Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfire is the most prominent disturbance in the boreal forest, effecting changes in stand age and vegetation composition often over thousands of square kilometers. The effect of wildfire on ecosystem structure and function depends heavily on the seasonality of the burn, and periods of seasonally high fire activity are highly sporadic. The majority of area in Alaska that burns in a fire season does so during relatively short periods of high fire activity. These periods, which can be determined from active fire detections or fire management agency data records, are caused by elevated air temperatures and low precipitation which decrease fuel moisture and encourage the spread of fire. While fire fronts dominate during periods of low fire activity, more active periods have a higher proportion of residual burning which remains after a front has passed through. Residual burning is likely responsible for the extensive combustion of surface organic materials in the boreal forest, which can lead to post-fire changes in dominant vegetation type. Seasonal variations in fire activity are therefore an important factor in the mosaic of severity conditions across large burned areas and shifts in land cover over successional time scales. The purpose of this study is to characterize the temporal and spatial variability in periods of seasonal high fire activity that influence patterns of burned area. In large burns, unburned areas within a fire scar may serve as an important seed stock during post-fire recruitment. These areas may also feedback to future fire regimes through the preservation of more fire-resistant vegetation in unburned "islands".

Barrett, K. M.; Kasischke, E. S.

2012-12-01

151

A comparison of conservative versus early excision. Therapies in severely burned patients.  

PubMed Central

Early excision and grafting of small burn wounds is a generally accepted treatment. Early excision of burn injuries greater than 30% total body surface area (TBSA) in adults, however, has not been universally accepted. In this study, 85 patients whose ages ranged from 17 to 55 years with greater than 30% total body surface area (TBSA) burns were randomly assigned to either early excision or topical antimicrobial therapy and skin grafting after spontaneous eschar separation. Mortality from burns without inhalation injury was significantly decreased by early excision from 45% to 9% in patients who were 17 to 30 years of age (p less than 0.025). No differences in mortality could be demonstrated between therapies in adult patients older than 30 years of age or with a concomitant inhalation injury. Children (n = 259) with similar large burns treated by early excision showed a significant increase in mortality with increasing burn size and with concomitant inhalation injury (p less than 0.05). The mean length of hospital stay of survivors was less than one day per per cent of TBSA burn in both children and adults. PMID:2650643

Herndon, D N; Barrow, R E; Rutan, R L; Rutan, T C; Desai, M H; Abston, S

1989-01-01

152

Experience of the treatment of severe electric burns on special parts of the body.  

PubMed

The treatment in these eight cases with severe electric burns on special parts of the body was successful. Our experience can be summarized as follows: (1) The role of the immediate measures including resuscitation at the scene of the accident cannot be understated. If the patient presents with a complex injury such as open pneumothorax, first aid should be provided immediately and then the patient should be transferred to a specialized treatment center. (2) General conditions such as the presence of shock, water-electrolyte balance, renal function, and others should be continuously monitored. (3) Antibiotics should be suitably administered and combined with antianaerobic drugs. (4) For different wound sites, different plans of treatment, including various immediate and delayed procedures, could be appropriate. In life-threatening cases such as exposed carotid artery, perforative injury of the chest wall, spinal cord damage, and others, first-stage repair using skin flap or myocutaneous flap must be performed after early debridement. For other wound sites, such as oral area and tongue, eye socket, and penis, second-stage reconstruction may be more suitable for better cosmetic appearance and function. (5) Adequate nutritional supply and early treatment of anemia may expedite wound healing. PMID:10842626

Xu, X; Zhu, W; Wu, Y

1999-10-30

153

A small single-nozzle rainfall simulator to measure erosion response on different burn severities in southern British Columbia, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study the effects of wildfire burn severity on runoff generation and soil erosion from high intensity rainfall, we constructed an effective yet simple rainfall simulator that was inexpensive, portable and easily operated by two people on steep, forested slopes in southern British Columbia, Canada. The entire apparatus, including simulator, pumps, hoses, collapsible water bladders and sample bottles, was designed to fit into a single full-sized pick-up truck. The three-legged simulator extended to approximately 3.3 metres above ground on steep slopes and used a single Spraying Systems 1/2HH-30WSQ nozzle which can easily be interchanged for other sized nozzles. Rainfall characteristics were measured using a digital camera which took images of the raindrops against a grid. Median drop size and velocity 5 cm above ground were measured and found to be 3/4 of the size of natural rain drops of that diameter class, and fell 7% faster than terminal velocity. The simulator was used for experiments on runoff and erosion on sites burned in 2007 by two wildfires in southern British Columbia. Simulations were repeated one and two years after the fires. Rainfall was simulated at an average rate of 67 mm hr-1 over a 1 m2 plot for 20 minutes. This rainfall rate is similar to the 100 year return period rainfall intensity for this duration at a nearby weather station. Simulations were conducted on five replicate 1 m2 plots in each experimental unit including high burn severity, moderate burn severity, unburned, and unburned with forest floor removed. During the simulation a sample was collected for 30 seconds every minute, with two additional samples until runoff ceased, resulting in 22 samples per simulation. Runoff, overland flow coefficient, infiltration and sediment yield were compared between treatments. Additional simulations were conducted immediately after a 2009 wildfire to test different mulch treatments. Typical results showed that runoff on plots with high burn severity and with forest floor removed was similar, reaching on average a steady rate of about 60% of rainfall rate after about 7 minutes. Runoff on unburned plots with intact forest floor was much lower, typically less than 20% of rainfall rate. Sediment yield was greatest on plots with forest floor removed, followed by severely burned plots. Sediment yield on unburned and moderately burned plots was very low to zero. These results are consistent with qualitative observations made following several extreme rainfall events on recent burns in the region.

Covert, Ashley; Jordan, Peter

2010-05-01

154

Emergency assessment of post-fire debris-flow hazards for the 2013 Powerhouse fire, southern California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wildfire dramatically alters the hydrologic response of a watershed such that even modest rainstorms can produce dangerous flash floods and debris flows. Existing empirical models were used to predict the probability and magnitude of debris-flow occurrence in response to a 10-year recurrence interval rainstorm for the 2013 Powerhouse fire near Lancaster, California. Overall, the models predict a relatively low probability for debris-flow occurrence in response to the design storm. However, volumetric predictions suggest that debris flows that occur may entrain a significant volume of material, with 44 of the 73 basins identified as having potential debris-flow volumes between 10,000 and 100,000 cubic meters. These results suggest that even though the likelihood of debris flow is relatively low, the consequences of post-fire debris-flow initiation within the burn area may be significant for downstream populations, infrastructure, and wildlife and water resources. Given these findings, we recommend that residents, emergency managers, and public works departments pay close attention to weather forecasts and National-Weather-Service-issued Debris Flow and Flash Flood Outlooks, Watches, and Warnings and that residents adhere to any evacuation orders.

Staley, Dennis M.; Smoczyk, Gregory M.; Reeves, Ryan R.

2013-01-01

155

Linking Burn Severity to Soil Infiltartion and Runoff in a Montane Watershed: Boulder, Colorado  

E-print Network

Forest fires have an enormous impact on biotic and abiotic variables that control runoff and soil properties in watersheds. Because wildfires do not have a uniform effect on the burned area, significant variability occurs between areas of different...

Ahlstrom, Anna 1988-

2012-11-28

156

Association between severity of prescribed burns and subsequent activity of conifer-infesting beetles in stands of longleaf pine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A randomized complete block experiment was performed to measure the effect of prescribed, dormant-season burns of three different levels of severity (measured as fuel consumption and soil surface heating) on subsequent insect infestation and mortality of mature longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.). Multiple-funnel traps baited with a low release rate of turpentine and ethanol were used to monitor activity of

Brian T. Sullivan; Christopher J. Fettig; William J. Otrosina; Mark J. Dalusky; C. Wayne Berisford; C. W. Berrisford

2003-01-01

157

Frequencymagnitude distribution of debris flows compiled from global data, and comparison with post-fire debris flows in the western U.S.  

E-print Network

with post-fire debris flows in the western U.S. Karin L. Riley a, , Rebecca Bendick a , Kevin D. Hyde b March 2013 Keywords: Debris flow Frequency Magnitude Fire Forecasting debris flow hazard is challenging- umes of post-fire debris flows to non-fire-related debris flows. The ECDF of post-fire debris flow

Montana, University of

158

Post-fire mulching for runoff and erosion mitigation Part II: Effectiveness in reducing runoff and sediment yields from small catchments  

E-print Network

Post-fire mulching for runoff and erosion mitigation Part II: Effectiveness in reducing runoff form 29 November 2012 Accepted 30 November 2012 Keywords: Straw mulch Hydromulch Post-fire recovery are being used as post-fire hillslope treatments, but the differences in effectiveness among these mulch

Flury, Markus

159

Primary triage of mass burn casualties with associated severe traumatic injuries  

PubMed Central

Summary A key aim in any mass disaster event is to avoid diverting resources by overwhelming specialized tertiary centers with minor casualties. The most crucial aspect of an effective disaster response is pre-hospital triage at the scene. Unfortunately, many triage systems have serious shortcomings in their methodologies and no existing triage system has enough scientific evidence to justify its universal adoption. Moreover, it is observed that the optimal approach to planning is by no means clear-cut and that each new incident involving burns appears to produce its own unique problems not all of which were predictable. In most major burns disasters, victims mostly have combined trauma burn injuries and form a heterogeneous group with a broad range of devastating injuries. Are these victims primarily burn patients or trauma patients? Should they be taken care of in a burn center or in a trauma center or only in a combined burns-trauma center? Who makes the decision? The present review is aimed at answering some of these questions. PMID:23966900

Atiyeh, B.; Gunn, S. William A.; Dibo, S.

2013-01-01

160

Causes of Variability in the Effects of Vegetative Ash on Post-Fire Runoff and Erosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetative ash formed during forest wildfires has varying effects on post-fire runoff and erosion. In some cases the ash layer reduces runoff and erosion by storing rainfall and by protecting the soil surface from surface sealing and rainsplash detachment. In other cases, the ash layer increases runoff and erosion by forming a surface crust, clogging soil pores, and providing a ready source of highly erodible fine material. Since only a handful of studies have measured the hydrogeomorphic effect of ash, it is unclear whether the observed variability in its effect reflects initial spatial variability in the ash properties due to factors such as fuel type and fire severity, or differences that develop over time due to compaction and erosion or exposure of the ash to rainfall and air. The goal of our research was to determine if the observed differences in the effect of ash on runoff and erosion are due to: 1) variability in initial ash hydrologic properties due to differences in combustion temperature and fuel type, or 2) variability in ash hydrologic properties caused by mineralogical phase changes that develop after the ash is exposed to water. We created ash in the laboratory using wood and needles of Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), Ponderosa pine (Pinus Ponderosa) and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and at 100 C temperature increments from 300 to 900 C. A subsample of ash from each fuel type / temperature combination was saturated, left undisturbed for 24 hours and then oven dried at 104 C. Dry and wetted ash samples were characterized in terms of: structure (using a scanning electron microscope), carbon content, mineralogy (using X-ray diffraction), porosity, water retention properties and hydraulic conductivity. Ash produced at the higher combustion temperatures from all three fuel types contained lime (CaO), which on wetting was transformed to portlandite (Ca(OH)2) and calcite (CaCO3). This mineralogical transformation resulted in irreversible hardening and crusting of the ash, and hardened ash had a significantly lower hydraulic conductivity than unhardened ash. Ash produced by high severity fires may undergo this same hardening and crusting process after it is wetted by rainfall whereas ash produced by lower severity fires will not, and this may explain in part the contrasting hydrogeomorphic effects of ash that have been reported in the literature.

Balfour, V.; Woods, S.

2008-12-01

161

The effect of levamisole on mortality rate among patients with severe burn injuries  

PubMed Central

Background: Burn injuries are one of the main causes of mortality and morbidity throughout the world and burn patients have higher chances for infection due to their decreased immune resistance. Levamisole, as an immunomodulation agent, stimulates the immune response against infection. Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted in Motahari Burn Center, Tehran, Iran. Patients who had second- or third-degree burn with involvement of more than 50% of total body surface area (TBSA) were studied. The levamisole group received levamisole tablet, 100 mg per day. Meantime, both the levamisole and control groups received the standard therapy of the Burn Center, based on a standard protocol. Then, the outcome of the patients was evaluated. Results: 237 patients entered the study. After excluding 42 patients with inhalation injury, electrical and chemical burns, and the patients who died in the first 72 h, 195 patients remained in the study, including 110 patients in the control group and 85 in the treatment group. The mean age of all patients (between 13 to 64 years) was 33.29 11.39 years (Mean SD), and it was 33.86 11.45 years in the control group and 32.57 11.32 years in the treatment group. The mean percentage of TBSA burn was 64.50 14.34 and 68.58 14.55 for the levamisole and control groups, respectively, with the range of 50-100% and 50-95% TBSA. The mortality rate was 68 (61.8%) patients in the control group and 50 (58.8%) patients in the treatment group (P = 0.8). Conclusion: According to this study, there was no significant relationship between improvement of mortality and levamisole consumption. PMID:24381625

Fatemi, Mohammad Javad; Salehi, Hamid; Akbari, Hossein; Alinejad, Faranak; Saberi, Mohsen; Mousavi, Seyed Jaber; Soltani, Majid; Taghavi, Shahrzad; Payandan, Hossein

2013-01-01

162

Patients with epilepsy: a high-risk population prone to severe burns as a consequence of seizures while showering.  

PubMed

We document the severe burns sustained by three patients with epilepsy who suffered seizures while showering. On the basis of the circumstances of these accidents, we suggest preventative measures to help other patients with epilepsy avoid similar burn injuries. Patient data collected from January 1987 to May 2004 by the Burn Unit of the Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Aachen, Germany, were reviewed. Three patients with epileptic disorders were found who suffered severe burn injuries caused by seizures that occurred while showering. Scald location and depth was assessed. Three patients (two women, one man) sustained extensive scald injuries after epileptic seizures while showering. Burn extent ranged from 20% to 35% TBSA. Scalds primarily affected the trunk, legs, arms, and buttocks. Two of the three patients used showers with levers for controlling water temperature. Safety devices for limiting water temperature were absent. All patients used shower cubicles. Patients with epilepsy may sustain serious burns, typically affecting the trunk, legs, arms, and buttocks, when a seizure occurs while showering. We suggest that individuals with epilepsy use showers designed with pirouetting taps, rather than levers, to regulate water temperature. Pirouetting taps are less likely to be shifted out of position during a seizure. We also recommend that epileptic patients have safety devices installed in their water heaters that limit maximum water temperature. Such safety devices prevent scald injury. And, finally, we suggest that people with comparable disorders generally avoid using shower cubicles. Instead, showers with curtains should be used, which may allow occupants to escape from dangerously hot shower water more easily. PMID:16278569

Unglaub, Frank; Woodruff, Seth; Demir, Erhan; Pallua, Norbert

2005-01-01

163

Quantifying sources of fine sediment supplied to post-fire debris flows using fallout radionuclide tracers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fine sediment supply has been identified as an important factor contributing to the initiation of runoff-generated debris flows after fire. However, despite the significance of fines for post-fire debris flow generation, no investigations have sought to quantify sources of this material in debris flow affected catchments. In this study, we employ fallout radionuclides (137Cs, 210Pbex and 239,240Pu) as tracers to

Hugh G. Smith; Gary J. Sheridan; Petter Nyman; David P. Child; Michael A. C. Hotchkis; Geraldine E. Jacobsen

164

Similarity of small mammal abundance in post-fire and clearcut forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the assumption that forest harvesting can maintain wildlife through emulating natural disturbance, we compared small mammal abundance between seven post-fire and nine clearcut plots representing three ages since disturbance (4, 14 and 27 years). On each site, two Victor snap traps were placed at 100 stations on 1010 grids spaced 20m apart. Clethrionomysgapperi were more abundant in clearcut

N. P. P. Simon; C. B. Stratton; G. J. Forbes; F. E. Schwab

2002-01-01

165

Taxonomic and functional responses to fire and post-fire management of a Mediterranean hymenoptera community.  

PubMed

Fire is one of the commonest disturbances worldwide, transforming habitat structure and affecting ecosystem functioning. Understanding how species respond to such environmental disturbances is a major conservation goal that should be monitored using functionally and taxonomically diverse groups such as Hymenoptera. In this respect, we have analyzed the taxonomic and functional response to fire and post-fire management of a Hymenoptera community from a Mediterranean protected area. Thus, Hymenoptera were sampled at fifteen sites located in three burnt areas submitted to different post-fire practices, as well as at five sites located in peripheral unburnt pine forest. A total of 4882 specimens belonging to 33 families, which were classified into six feeding groups according to their dietary preferences, were collected. ANOVA and Redundancy Analyses showed a taxonomic and functional response to fire as all burnt areas had more Hymenoptera families, different community composition and higher numbers of parasitoids than the unburnt area. Taxonomic differences were also found between burnt areas in terms of the response of Hymenoptera to post-fire management. In general the number of parasitoids was positively correlated to the number of potential host arthropods. Parasitoids are recognized to be sensitive to habitat changes, thus highlighting their value for monitoring the functional responses of organisms to habitat disturbance. The taxonomic and functional responses of Hymenoptera suggest that some pine-forest fires can enhance habitat heterogeneity and arthropod diversity, hence increasing interspecific interactions such as those established by parasitoids and their hosts. PMID:21947367

Mateos, Eduardo; Santos, Xavier; Pujade-Villar, Juli

2011-11-01

166

Taxonomic and Functional Responses to Fire and Post-Fire Management of a Mediterranean Hymenoptera Community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire is one of the commonest disturbances worldwide, transforming habitat structure and affecting ecosystem functioning. Understanding how species respond to such environmental disturbances is a major conservation goal that should be monitored using functionally and taxonomically diverse groups such as Hymenoptera. In this respect, we have analyzed the taxonomic and functional response to fire and post-fire management of a Hymenoptera community from a Mediterranean protected area. Thus, Hymenoptera were sampled at fifteen sites located in three burnt areas submitted to different post-fire practices, as well as at five sites located in peripheral unburnt pine forest. A total of 4882 specimens belonging to 33 families, which were classified into six feeding groups according to their dietary preferences, were collected. ANOVA and Redundancy Analyses showed a taxonomic and functional response to fire as all burnt areas had more Hymenoptera families, different community composition and higher numbers of parasitoids than the unburnt area. Taxonomic differences were also found between burnt areas in terms of the response of Hymenoptera to post-fire management. In general the number of parasitoids was positively correlated to the number of potential host arthropods. Parasitoids are recognized to be sensitive to habitat changes, thus highlighting their value for monitoring the functional responses of organisms to habitat disturbance. The taxonomic and functional responses of Hymenoptera suggest that some pine-forest fires can enhance habitat heterogeneity and arthropod diversity, hence increasing interspecific interactions such as those established by parasitoids and their hosts.

Mateos, Eduardo; Santos, Xavier; Pujade-Villar, Juli

2011-11-01

167

[Severely burned patients: epidemiology and treatment (a study of 104 Gabonese cases)].  

PubMed

This retrospective study was carried out over five years (August 1993 to August 1998) and included 104 patients admitted to the intensive care unit for heat-induced or electrical burns affecting more than 10% of their total body surface area. Most of the patients were children or young adults and the mean age of the group was 24 years. Seventy-eight of the patients were the victims of domestic fires. The other 26 cases involved work-related burns and car accidents. Most of the burns observed were caused by fire or scalding, but there were also two cases of electrical burns. Lesions affected predominantly the head (45.1%), upper limbs (31.5%) and perineum (5.8%). Hemodynamic rescuscitation and intensive respiratory care were administered initially, along with topical surgical treatment. Triple antibiotic treatment was also given immediately in cases of shock or burns to the body's natural orifices. If triple antibiotic treatment was not administered immediately then, within six hours of the burn, treatment was given to prevent infection with Staphylococcus aureus and soil-borne microorganisms and anti-tetanus vaccination was adminstered systematically. The treatment was then modified to prevent infection with Gram-negative bacilli, common second-stage microoganisms. The bacteria most frequently isolated, particularly from the skin and urine, were Pseudomonas (52%), Escherichia coli (37.5%) and Staphylococcus aureus (10.5%). Enteral and parenteral nutrition was begun as soon as possible. The presence of the patient's family during care and rehabilitation was of great psychological benefit to the patients. The mean duration of hospital stay was 12 days. In those cases in which the patient died, early death (within one week) was due to respiratory distress and hydroelectrolytic problems whereas deaths after the first week were due to septic shock. The overall death rate was 54.8%. Prevention should be taught, with particular emphasis on those at high risk. PMID:10827361

Nguema, P N; Matsiegui, P B; Nsafu, D N

2000-01-01

168

The increasing wildfire and post-fire debris-flow threat in western USA, and implications for consequences of climate change  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In southern California and the intermountain west of the USA, debris flows generated from recently-burned basins pose significant hazards. Increases in the frequency and size of wildfires throughout the western USA can be attributed to increases in the number of fire ignitions, fire suppression practices, and climatic influences. Increased urbanization throughout the western USA, combined with the increased wildfire magnitude and frequency, carries with it the increased threat of subsequent debris-flow occurrence. Differences between rainfall thresholds and empirical debris-flow susceptibility models for southern California and the intermountain west indicate a strong influence of climatic and geologic settings on post-fire debris-flow potential. The linkages between wildfires, debris-flow occurrence, and global warming suggests that the experiences in the western United States are highly likely to be duplicated in many other parts of the world, and necessitate hazard assessment tools that are specific to local climates and physiographies.

Cannon, Susan H.; DeGraff, Jerry

2009-01-01

169

Predicting high severity fire occurrence and area burned in a changing climate for three regions in the Western US  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A long history of fire suppression in the western United States has interrupted the fire regimes of many forest types. This interruption has significantly changed forest structure and ecological function and led to increasingly uncharacteristic fires in terms of size and severity. Research has shown that climate variability drives the occurrence of large fires and is important to predicting fire severity. We found that Western US area burned in high severity fire can be accurately predicted using a generalized Pareto distribution model with covariates of climate, weather, topography, and vegetation. Our model was robust in all but the most extreme fire years, e.g. 1988, 2000, 2002, and 2003, where area burned in high severity was significantly greater than in other years. We modeled the Northern Rocky Mountains, the Sierra Nevada Mountains, and the Southwestern US to determine if regional differences in controls on severity were at play in extreme years. The regional analysis improved model performance by capturing extreme fire years and identified regionally unique covariates. For the Northern Rocky Mountains the addition of elevation and fire regime condition class improved the prediction in extreme years. In the Southwest relative humidity and moisture deficit in the month of fire and total fire size were critical to capturing extreme fire years. The Sierra Nevada model had the most complex set of covariates that included: vegetation, moisture deficit, evapotranspiration, precipitation, and fire regime condition class. By incorporating regionally specific variables, our models were robust in prediction of high severity area burned in all years. For this work, we will apply high and low CO2 emission scenarios from three general circulation models to our regional statistical models to predict probability of high severity fire occurrence as well as area burned in high severity for the period 1950-2099. We used the downscaled climate as an input into the VIC hydrologic model to generate independent variable sets for each future scenario. The modeling output will allow us to identify potential changes in the annual area burned with high severity fire under future climate as well as areas where the probable occurrence of high severity fires might increase.

Keyser, A.; Westerling, A. L.; Milostan, J.

2013-12-01

170

Self-perceptions of young adults who survived severe childhood burn injury.  

PubMed

The transition of pediatric burn survivors into adulthood is accompanied by a reformulation of their self-concept. To anticipate the need for and guide development of appropriate psychosocial interventions, this study examines how young adults who were burned as children perceive themselves and how this perception might affect their self-esteem. Eighty-two young adult burn survivors (45 male, 37 female) were assessed using the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale, 2nd edition (TSCS2) to determine how the participants perceive themselves and their interaction with society. To gain insight into the possible effects of these self-concept scores, relationships were analyzed between self-concept, a behavioral assessment (Young Adult Self-Report [YASR]), and a psychiatric symptom assessment (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders [SCID I]). This group of burn survivors scored significantly lower in self-concepts, reflected in TSCS2 subscale scores of physical function, appearance, and sexuality, moral conduct, personal values, academics and work, and identity, than did the reference population. Pearson correlation coefficients showed that as moral, personal, family, and social aspects of self-concept decreased, clinical problems endorsed on the YASR subscales increased, including anxiety, somatic, attention, intrusive, and aggressive. Persons with lower self-concept scores on the TSCS2 personal, family, and social scales were more withdrawn on the YASR. Similarly, those with lower TSCS2 scores on the personal and family scales endorsed significantly more thought problems on the YASR. TSCS2 total self-concept, personal, and all of the supplementary scale scores were significantly lower for the group with an affective disorder. Those whose SCID I scores were consistent with a current anxiety disorder had significantly lower scores for the TSCS2 total self-concept and personal. Lower self-concept was associated with endorsement of SCID symptoms. In summary, the significantly lower self-concept scores on the TSCS2 physical scale are consistent with the physical disfigurement and handicaps common with major burn injuries, and a strong indication of this group's perception of the first impression made when interacting with others. The survivors seem to feel worthwhile within the contexts of family and friends. Although the major limitation of this study using the TSCS2 is the lack of a matched reference population to compare the burn survivors, the TSCS2 does help in gaining insight into the self-esteem issues of the burn survivor population. PMID:23202876

Russell, William; Robert, Rhonda S; Thomas, Christopher R; Holzer, Charles E; Blakeney, Patricia; Meyer, Walter J

2013-01-01

171

Role of the Duff Layer in Post-fire Soil Hydrology and Erosion: Field and Modelling Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildfires are generally thought to result in increased propensity for overland flow and soil erosion in the immediate years following the disturbance. Despite documentation of significant post-fire soil erosion in certain well-studied regional settings, the relevance of such findings to other regions remains questionable. In studies with notable post-fire soil erosion, the duff layer may be removed and hydrophobicity may

Y. E. Martin; E. A. Johnson; J. Gallaway

2010-01-01

172

Perspectives on Disconnects Between Scientific Information and Management Decisions on Post-fire Recovery in Western US  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental regulations frequently mandate the use of "best available" science, but ensuring that it is used in decisions around the use and protection of natural resources is often challenging. In the Western US, this relationship between science and management is at the forefront of post-fire land management decisions. Recent fires, post-fire threats (e.g. flooding, erosion), and the role of fire in ecosystem health combine to make post-fire management highly visible and often controversial. This paper uses post-fire management to present a framework for understanding why disconnects between science and management decisions may occur. We argue that attributes of agencies, such as their political or financial incentives, can limit how effectively science is incorporated into decision-making. At the other end of the spectrum, the lack of synthesis or limited data in science can result in disconnects between science-based analysis of post-fire effects and agency policy and decisions. Disconnects also occur because of the interaction between the attributes of agencies and the attributes of science, such as their different spatial and temporal scales of interest. After offering examples of these disconnects in post-fire treatment, the paper concludes with recommendations to reduce disconnects by improving monitoring, increasing synthesis of scientific findings, and directing social-science research toward identifying and deepening understanding of these disconnects.

Chen, Xiaoli; Emery, Nathan; Garcia, Elizabeth S.; Hanan, Erin J.; Hodges, Heather E.; Martin, Tyronne; Meyers, Matthew A.; Peavey, Lindsey E.; Peng, Hui; Santamaria, Jaime Sainz; Uyeda, Kellie A.; Anderson, Sarah E.; Tague, Christina

2013-12-01

173

Resurfacing severe facial burn scars: an algorithm based on three different types of prefabricated expanded flaps.  

PubMed

Background?In the reconstruction of facial burn scars, large, thin, color-matching flaps are desirable due to aesthetic and functional demands. There have been many reports using prefabricated flaps to resurface facial skin lesions. However, an algorithm to select the most suitable treatment option for the individual patient is lacking. Methods?An algorithm for facial resurfacing based on three types of prefabricated flaps from the cervical, periclavicular, and lateral thoracic area was setup, and 15 were patients treated accordingly. Results?All 15 prefabricated flaps survived. Minor necrosis at the distal flap edge developed in three cases. After a follow-up of at least 6 months, all patients showed satisfactory aesthetic and functional outcomes. Conclusion?By individual selection of the most suitable option among these three types of prefabricated flaps, satisfactory resurfacing can be achieved for most facial burn scars. PMID:25025508

Xie, Feng; Zhu, Hainan; Gu, Bin; Zan, Tao; Liu, Kai; Li, Qingfeng

2014-11-01

174

Seedling establishment along post-fire succession in Mediterranean shrublands dominated by obligate seeders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seedlings are expected to be particularly sensitive to the environmental conditions at the time of establishment. Within succession, environmental conditions vary over time and a species will have a better chance to regenerate on a particular place depending on the intrinsic traits that determine its regeneration niche. We examined the regeneration niche and the pattern of seedling establishment along succession of the main species present in a Mediterranean shrubland. The establishment of Cistus albidus, Rosmarinus officinalis and Ulex parviflorus was monitored for three years using seasonal cohorts in three different stages along a successional gradient (post-fire, building and mature). There was a flush of establishment immediately after fire in all species. After this event, there was a decline in establishment as succession progressed, until practically no seedling establishment was found at mature stages. The presence of a thick litter layer probably precluded seedling establishment at this stage. The establishment of Cistus was very closely tied to the post-fire environment, while recruitment of Rosmarinus and Ulex also occurred in the building stage. In contrast to what has been reported in other Mediterranean shrublands, recruitment in our study area was not restricted solely to post-fire stages, and shrubs also recruited opportunistically when open gaps in the canopy were available along succession. The differences in preferred micro-sites for the establishment suggest a differentiation in regeneration niches and a particular set of environmental conditions where the different species would be particularly competitive through succession. Thus, Cistus regenerates mostly in highly perturbed environments, whereas Ulex and Rosmarinus benefit from environments with longer inter-fire periods.

Santana, Victor M.; Baeza, M. Jaime; Maestre, Fernando T.

2012-02-01

175

EFFECTIVENESS OF DEBRIS FLOW MITIGATION METHODS IN BURNED AREAS Paul M. Santi1  

E-print Network

of this study was to quantify the effectiveness of post-fire debris flow mitigation techniques. Debris volumesEFFECTIVENESS OF DEBRIS FLOW MITIGATION METHODS IN BURNED AREAS Paul M. Santi1 , Victor G. deWolfe2 Survey (e-mail: jegartner@usgs.gov) Abstract: The fire-flood sequence, in which recently burned areas

176

Catastrophic and severity burning type among the middle asia countries Tandoor burns and its hard complications in our life: review of 15 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present 852 patients with particular types of burn injuries in addition to burn injuries of late sequelae that occurred\\u000a as a result of falling inside clay cookers. These patient records are from the Palandoken SSK Hospital, Department of Emergency\\u000a and Erzurum Numune State Hospital Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Emergency Department. Acute and late period\\u000a tandir burns and

Ilteris Murat Emsen; Akgn Oral; nder zcan; Eyphan Gencel

2008-01-01

177

Sources of debris flow material in burned areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vulnerability of recently burned areas to debris flows has been well established. Likewise, it has been shown that many, if not most, post-fire debris flows are initiated by runoff and erosion and grow in size through erosion and scour by the moving debris flow, as opposed to landslide-initiated flows with little growth. To better understand the development and character

Paul M. Santi; Victor G. deWolfe; Jerry D. Higgins; Susan H. Cannon; Joseph E. Gartner

2008-01-01

178

Can post-fire erosion rates be estimated using a novel plastic optical fibre turbidity sensor?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well-established that wildfires can play an important role in the hydrological and erosion response of forested catchments, substantially increasing overland as well as stream flow and associated sediment yield during the earlier stages of the window-of-disturbance. Even so, it continues a major challenge to quantify post-fire erosion rates and their evolution with time-since-fire, both for plot and catchment outlets. This constraint could to some extent be overcome by low-cost turbidity sensors, placed in runoff collection tanks and at multiple points across stream flow sections. Plastic optical fibre turbidity sensors (POF) have, in that respect, much potential, due to their reduced costs, suitability for multiplexing and robustness under adverse monitoring conditions. The present study explores this potential for recently burnt areas, where the characteristics of the transported sediments can be expected to change markedly over time due to exhaustion of ashes. To this end, a large number of plot- and catchment-scale runoff samples were studied that had been collected in the course of 1- to 2-weekly field monitoring of a recently burnt study area in north-central Portugal. Comparison of the sediment and organic matter contents of these samples with turbidity readings obtained with a novel POF sensor suggested that the POF sensor would greatly facilitate obtaining rough estimates of post-fire erosion rates but would not dispense of regular calibration under changing sediment load characteristics.

Keizer, Jan Jacob; Bilro, Lcia; Martins, Martinho M. A.; Machado, Ana Isabel; Karine Boulet, Anne; Vieira, Diana C. S.; Sequeira, Filipa; Prats, Sergio A.; Nogueira, Rogrio

2014-05-01

179

Sustained Oxidative Stress Causes Late Acute Renal Failure via Duplex Regulation on p38 MAPK and Akt Phosphorylation in Severely Burned Rats  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical evidence indicates that late acute renal failure (ARF) predicts high mortality in severely burned patients but the pathophysiology of late ARF remains undefined. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that sustained reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced late ARF in a severely burned rat model and to investigate the signaling mechanisms involved. Materials and Methods Rats were exposed to 100C bath for 15 s to induce severe burn injury (40% of total body surface area). Renal function, ROS generation, tubular necrosis and apoptosis, and phosphorylation of MAPK and Akt were measured during 72 hours after burn. Results Renal function as assessed by serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen deteriorated significantly at 3 h after burn, alleviated at 6 h but worsened at 48 h and 72 h, indicating a late ARF was induced. Apoptotic cells and cleavage caspase-3 in the kidney went up slowly and turned into significant at 48 h and 72 h. Tubular cell ROS production shot up at 6 h and continuously rose during the 72-h experiment. Scavenging ROS with tempol markedly attenuated tubular apoptosis and renal dysfunction at 72 h after burn. Interestingly, renal p38 MAPK phosphorylation elevated in a time dependent manner whereas Akt phosphorylation increased during the first 24 h but decreased at 48 h after burn. The p38 MAPK specific inhibitor SB203580 alleviated whereas Akt inhibitor exacerbated burn-induced tubular apoptosis and renal dysfunction. Furthermore, tempol treatment exerted a duplex regulation through inhibiting p38 MAPK phosphorylation but further increasing Akt phosphorylation at 72 h postburn. Conclusions These results demonstrate that sustained renal ROS overproduction induces continuous tubular cell apoptosis and thus a late ARF at 72 h after burn in severely burned rats, which may result from ROS-mediated activation of p38 MAPK but a late inhibition of Akt phosphorylation. PMID:23349934

Cai, Xiaoqing; Wang, Dexin; Wu, Kaimin; Chen, Hongli; Li, Jia; Lei, Wei

2013-01-01

180

Diversity and Persistence of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi and Their Effect on Nursery-Inoculated Pinus pinaster in a Post-fire Plantation in Northern Portugal.  

PubMed

Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF) play an important role in forest ecosystems, often mitigating stress factors and increasing seedling performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a nursery inoculation on Pinus pinaster growth and on the fungal communities established when reforesting burned areas. Inoculated P. pinaster saplings showed 1.5-fold higher stem height than the non-inoculated controls after a 5 year growth period, suggesting that fungal inoculation could potentiate tree growth in the field. Ordination analysis revealed the presence of different ECMF communities on both plots. Among the nursery-inoculated fungi, Laccaria sp., Rhizopogon sp., Suillus bovinus and Pisolithus sp. were detected on inoculated Pinus saplings on both sampling periods, indicating that they persisted after field establishment. Other fungi were also detected in the inoculated plants. Phialocephala sp. was found on the first assessment, while Terfezia sp. was detected on both sampling periods. Laccaria sp. and Rhizopogon sp. were identified in the control saplings, belonging however to different species than those found in the inoculated plot. Inocybe sp., Thelephora sp. and Paxillus involutus were present on both sampling periods in the non-inoculated plots. The results suggest that ECMF inoculation at nursery stage can benefit plant growth after transplantation to a post-fire site and that the inoculated fungi can persist in the field. This approach has great potential as a biotechnological tool to aid in the reforestation of burned areas. PMID:25004993

Franco, Albina R; Sousa, Nadine R; Ramos, Miguel A; Oliveira, Rui S; Castro, Paula M L

2014-11-01

181

Microsite and herbaceous vegetation heterogeneity after burning Artemisia tridentata steppe.  

PubMed

Woody vegetation can create distinct subcanopy and interspace microsites, which often result in resource islands in subcanopies compared to interspaces. This heterogeneity in soil resources contributes to herbaceous vegetation heterogeneity in plant communities. However, information detailing the impact of disturbance, such as fire, that removes the woody vegetation on microsites and herbaceous vegetation heterogeneity is limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of burning on microsites and herbaceous vegetation in subcanopies and interspaces. Six study sites (blocks) were located at the Northern Great Basin Experimental Range in shrub (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh)-bunchgrass plant communities and one half of each block was burned to remove A. tridentata. Herbaceous vegetation and microsite characteristics were measured 2 years post-fire in intact and burned subcanopies and interspaces. Burning resulted in microsite and herbaceous vegetation differences between intact and burned subcanopies and intact and burned interspaces. However, burned subcanopies and burned interspaces appeared to be relatively similar. The similarity in microsite characteristics probably explains the lack of differences in herbaceous vegetation cover and biomass production between burned subcanopies and burned interspaces (P > 0.05). However, some microsite and herbaceous vegetation characteristics differed between burned subcanopies and burned interspaces. Our results suggest that disturbances that remove woody vegetation reduced microsite and herbaceous vegetation heterogeneity within plant communities, but do not completely remove the resource island effect. This suggests soil resource heterogeneity may influence post-fire community assembly and contribute to diversity maintenance. PMID:19066972

Davies, Kirk W; Bates, Jonathan D; James, Jeremy J

2009-03-01

182

Quantifying sources of fine sediment supplied to post-fire debris flows using fallout radionuclide tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The supply of fine sediment and ash has been identified as an important factor contributing to the initiation of runoff-generated debris flows after fire. However, despite the significance of fines for post-fire debris flow generation, no investigations have sought to quantify sources of this material in debris flow affected catchments. In this study, we employ fallout radionuclides (Cs-137, excess Pb-210 and Pu-239,240) as tracers to measure proportional contributions of fine sediment (<10 ?m) from hillslope surface and channel bank sources to levee and terminal fan deposits formed by post-fire debris flows in two forest catchments in southeastern Australia. While Cs-137 and excess Pb-210 have been widely used in sediment tracing studies, application of Pu as a tracer represents a recent development and was limited to only one catchment. The estimated range in hillslope surface contributions of fine sediment to individual debris flow deposits in each catchment was 22-69% and 32-74%, respectively. No systematic change in the source contributions to debris flow deposits was observed with distance downstream from channel initiation points. Instead, spatial variability in source contributions was largely influenced by the pattern of debris flow surges forming the deposits. Linking the sediment tracing with interpretation of depositional evidence allowed reconstruction of temporal sequences in sediment source contributions to debris flow surges. Hillslope source inputs dominated most elevated channel deposits such as marginal levees that were formed under peak flow conditions. This indicated the importance of hillslope runoff and sediment supply for debris flow generation in both catchments. In contrast, material stored within channels that was deposited during subsequent surges was predominantly channel-derived. The results demonstrate that fallout radionuclide tracers may provide unique information on the changing source contributions of fine sediment during debris flow events.

Smith, Hugh; Sheridan, Gary; Nyman, Petter; Child, David; Lane, Patrick; Hotchkis, Michael

2013-04-01

183

Quantifying sources of fine sediment supplied to post-fire debris flows using fallout radionuclide tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fine sediment supply has been identified as an important factor contributing to the initiation of runoff-generated debris flows after fire. However, despite the significance of fines for post-fire debris flow generation, no investigations have sought to quantify sources of this material in debris flow affected catchments. In this study, we employ fallout radionuclides ( 137Cs, 210Pb ex and 239,240Pu) as tracers to measure proportional contributions of fine sediment (< 10 ?m) from hillslope surface and channel bank sources to levee and terminal fan deposits formed by post-fire debris flows in two forest catchments in southeastern Australia. While 137Cs and 210Pb ex have been widely used in sediment tracing studies, application of Pu as a tracer represents a recent development and was limited to only one catchment. The ranges in estimated proportional hillslope surface contributions of fine sediment to individual debris flow deposits in each catchment were 22-69% and 32-74%. The greater susceptibility of 210Pb ex to apparent reductions in the ash content of channel deposits relative to hillslope sources resulted in its exclusion from the final analysis. No systematic change in the proportional source contributions to debris flow deposits was observed with distance downstream from channel initiation points. Instead, spatial variability in source contributions was largely influenced by the pattern of debris flow surges forming the deposits. Linking the tracing analysis with interpretation of depositional evidence allowed reconstruction of temporal sequences in sediment source contributions to debris flow surges. Hillslope source inputs dominated most elevated channel deposits such as marginal levees that were formed under peak flow conditions. This indicated the importance of hillslope runoff and fine sediment supply for debris flow generation in both catchments. In contrast, material stored within channels that was deposited during subsequent surges was predominantly channel-derived. The results demonstrate that fallout radionuclide tracers may provide unique information on changing source contributions of fine sediment during debris flow events.

Smith, Hugh G.; Sheridan, Gary J.; Nyman, Petter; Child, David P.; Lane, Patrick N. J.; Hotchkis, Michael A. C.; Jacobsen, Geraldine E.

2012-02-01

184

Regional constraints to biological nitrogen fixation in post-fire forest communities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is a key ecological process that can restore nitrogen (N) lost in wildfire and shape the pace and pattern of post-fire forest recovery. To date, there is limited information on how climate and soil fertility interact to influence different pathways of BNF in early forest succession. We studied asymbiotic (forest floor and soil) and symbiotic (the shrub Ceanothus integerrimus) BNF rates across six sites in the Klamath National Forest, California, USA. We used combined gradient and experimental phosphorus (P) fertilization studies to explore cross-site variation in BNF rates and then related these rates to abiotic and biotic variables. We estimate that our measured BNF rates 22 years after wildfire (6.112.1 kg Nha-1yr-1) are unlikely to fully replace wildfire N losses. We found that asymbiotic BNF is P limited, although this is not the case for symbiotic BNF in Ceanothus. In contrast, Ceanothus BNF is largely driven by competition from other vegetation: in high-productivity sites with high potential evapotranspiration (Et), shrub biomass is suppressed as tree biomass increases. Because shrub biomass governed cross-site variation in Ceanothus BNF, this competitive interaction led to lower BNF in sites with high productivity and Et. Overall, these results suggest that the effects of nutrients play a larger role in driving asymbiotic than symbiotic fixation across our post-fire sites. However, because symbiotic BNF is 890x greater than asymbiotic BNF, it is interspecific plant competition that governs overall BNF inputs in these forests.

Yelenik, Stephanie; Perakis, Steven; Hibbs, David

2013-01-01

185

Use of 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance to screen a set of biomarkers for monitoring metabolic disturbances in severe burn patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction To establish a plasma metabolomics fingerprint spectrum for severe burn patients and to use it to identify a set of biomarkers that could be used for clinical monitoring. Methods Twenty-one severe burn patients and three healthy control individuals were enrolled in this study, and the plasma samples from patients and healthy individuals were collected for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements. The NMR spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) in order to establish the metabolomics fingerprint representing the changes in metabolism and to select the major biomarkers. Results NMR spectra of the plasma samples showed significant differences between burn patients and healthy individuals. Using metabolomics techniques, we found an Eigen-metabolome that consists of 12 metabolites, which are regulated by 103 enzymes in a global metabolic network. Among these metabolites, ?-ketoisovaleric acid, 3-methylhistidine, and ?-hydroxybutyric acid were the most important biomarkers that were significantly increased during the early stage of burn injury. These results suggest that the mitochondrial damage and carbohydrate, protein and fatty acid metabolism disturbances occur after burn injury. Our analysis also show that histone deacetylases, which are protein transcription suppressors, were remarkably increased and indicate that protein transcription was inhibited and anabolism was restrained during the early stage of burn injury. Conclusions Metabolomics techniques based on NMR can be used to monitor metabolism in severe burn patients. Our study demonstrates that integrated 1H-NMR metabolome and global metabolic network analysis is useful for visualizing complex metabolic disturbances after severe burn injury and may provide a new quantitative injury severity evaluation for future clinical use. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-OCC-12002145. Registered 25 April 2012. PMID:25059459

2014-01-01

186

App. 1-5. Internet supplement to: Benscoter, B.W.; Kelman Wieder, R. & Vitt, D.H. 2005. Linking microtopography with post-fire succession in bogs  

E-print Network

microtopography with post-fire succession in bogs J. Veg. Sci. 16: 453-460. App. 1a. Characteristics used.W.; Kelman Wieder, R. & Vitt, D.H. 2005. Linking microtopography with post-fire succession in bogs J. Veg (morphology follows, in part, Lévesque et al. 1988). Classification Characteristics Woody debris Bark Rough

Benscoter, Brian W.

187

Increased poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in skeletal muscle tissue of pediatric patients with severe burn injury: prevention by propranolol treatment  

PubMed Central

Summary Activation of the nuclear enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) has been shown to promote cellular energetic collapse and cellular necrosis in various forms of critical illness. Most of the evidence implicating the PARP pathway in disease processes is derived from preclinical studies. With respect to PARP and burns, studies in rodent and large animal models of burn injury have demonstrated the activation of PARP in various tissues and the beneficial effect of its pharmacological inhibition. The aim of the current study was to measure the activation of PARP in human skeletal muscle biopsies at various stages of severe pediatric burn injury and to identify the cell types where this activation may occur. Another aim of the study was to test the effect of propranolol (an effective treatment of patients with burns), on the activation of PARP in skeletal muscle biopsies. PARP activation was measured by Western blotting for its product, poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). The localization of PARP activation was determined by PAR immunohistochemistry. The results showed that PARP becomes activated in the skeletal muscle tissue after burns, with the peak of the activation occurring in the middle stage of the disease (1318 days after burns). Even at the late stage of the disease (69369 days post-burn) an elevated degree of PARP activation persisted in some of the patients. Immunohistochemical studies localized the staining of PAR primarily to vascular endothelial cells, and occasionally to resident mononuclear cells. There was a marked suppression of PARP activation in the skeletal muscle biopsies of patients who received propranolol treatment. We conclude that human burn injury is associated with the activation of PARP. We hypothesize that this response may contribute to the inflammatory responses and cell dysfunction in burns. Some of the clinical benefit of propranolol in burns may be related to its inhibitory effect on PARP activation. PMID:21368715

Olah, Gabor; Finnerty, Celeste; Sbrana, Elena; Elijah, Itoro; Gero, Domokos; Herndon, David; Szabo, Csaba

2011-01-01

188

Evaluating spectral indices for burned area discrimination using MODIS\\/ASTER (MASTER) airborne simulator data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildland fires are an annually recurring phenomenon in many terrestrial ecosystems. Accurate burned area estimates are important for modeling fire-induced trace gas emissions and rehabilitating post-fire landscapes. High spatial and spectral resolution MODIS\\/ASTER (MASTER) airborne simulator data acquired over three 2007 southern California burns were used to evaluate the sensitivity of different spectral indices at discriminating burned land shortly after

S. Veraverbeke; S. Harris; S. Hook

2011-01-01

189

Effect of gamma-hydroxybutyrate on keratinocytes proliferation: A preliminary prospective controlled study in severe burn patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Hypermetabolism and hyposomatotropism related to severe burns lead to impaired wound healing. Growth hormone (GH) boosts wound healing notably following stimulation of the production of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1), a mitogen factor for keratinocytes. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) stimulates endogenous GH secretion. Aim: To assess effects of GHB sedation on keratinocytes proliferation (based on immunohistochemical techniques). Design: Monocentric, prospective, controlled trial. Materials and Methods: Patients (aging 18-65 years, burn surface area >30%, expected to be sedated for at least one month) were alternately allocated, at the 5th day following injury, in three groups according to the intravenous GHB dose administered for 21 days: Evening bolus of 50 mg/kg (Group B), continuous infusion at the rate of 10 mg/kg/h (Group C), or absence of GHB (Group P). They all received local standard cares. Immunohistochemistry (Ki67/MIB-1, Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 and Mac 387 antibodies) was performed at D21 on adjacent unburned skin sample for assessing any keratinocyte activation. Serum IGF1 levels were measured at initiation and completion of the protocol. Statistical Analysis: Categorical variables were compared with Chi-square test. Comparisons of medians were made using Kruskal-Wallis test. Post hoc analyses were performed using Mann-Whitney test with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. A P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: A total of 14 patients completed the study (Group B: n = 5, Group C: n = 5, Group P: n = 4). Continuous administration of GHB was associated with a significant higher Ki67 immunolabeling at D21 (P = 0.049) and with a significant higher increase in the IGF1 concentrations at D21 (P = 0.024). No adverse effects were disclosed. Conclusions: Our preliminary data support a positive effect of GHB on keratinocyte proliferation and are encouraging enough to warrant large prospective studies. PMID:25024938

Rousseau, Anne-Franoise; Bargues, Laurent; Bever, Herv Le; Vest, Philippe; Cavalier, Etienne; Ledoux, Didier; Pirard, Grald E.; Damas, Pierre

2014-01-01

190

Impacts of the post-fire erosion processes compared with the agricultural erosion rates for a mountain catchment in NW Iberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mediterranean ecosystems are very vulnerable to soil erosion by water due to particular characteristics of climate, lithology and land use history. Moreover, the foreseen climate changes might worsen land degradation and desertification, in which soil erosion has been classified as one of the most important driving forces. In this context, the frequent forest fires seen in some Mediterranean regions can case disturbances to vegetation cover and enhance soil erosion processes. This work addresses this issue for the Caramulo mountain range, NW Iberia. In the past century, large land use changes occurred due to massive afforestation. Changes from mixed natural forest cover and shrublands to Pine, the introduction of Eucalyptus plantations and, more recently, a trend for the substitution of pines by eucalypts, are the evidence of a large and rapid land use change in the last decades. Forest fires started to occur as afforestation proceeded, as a consequence of the disappearance of pasturage and accumulation of highly inflammable material; they became more frequent after the 1960's and became a determinant factor for land use changes in this region. Data collection focused on the Macieira de Alcoba catchment, a headwater agro-forested catchment (94 ha) located in this region. It has a wet Mediterranean climate, with an average annual rainfall of about 1300 mm (2002-2012), concentrated in autumn and winter, while spring and summer are dryer seasons. The mean annual temperature is 14C and in summer it can reach 35C. The land use is mixed, with forest and agriculture lands covering respectively 60 and 35% of the catchment area, 5% being built-up areas in the village of Macieira de Alcoba. In the last decades, this catchment suffered several forest fires (in 1969, 1986, 1991, and 2011). Erosion processes are related with periods of low vegetation cover in autumn in fields with a pasture-corn rotation, but also with forest plantations after clear-cutting and especially after forest fires. The last forest fire in August 2011 burned 10% of the total area in the north-west part of the catchment. Post-fire management operations 9 month after the fire (clear-cutting and deep plowing operations) and after plantation of "Quercus robur" left the soil exposed, and relatively mild rainstorms led to large amounts of soil loss, including a large amount of rills and other erosion features. This constituted an opportunity to compare these erosion rates with the ones observed in agricultural fields for similar edapho-climatic conditions, and also observe distinct timing of erosion occurrence which was linked with different periods when soils are exposed. This communication presents the assessment of the impact of this fire on soil erosion rates, where results indicate that soil losses after soil preparation for forest replanting might be equivalent, in long-term, to soil losses in agricultural fields.

Marisa Santos, Juliana; Nunes, Joo Pedro; Bernard-Jannin, Lonard; Gonzalez Pelayo, Oscar; Keizer, Jan Jacob

2014-05-01

191

Integrating MODIS-based products to improve post-fire recovery predictions for burned watersheds in Southern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildfires in Southern California are natural and frequent events that result in dramatic land cover changes, affecting land-atmosphere interactions and hydrologic behavior. Changing climate and land use patterns (community expansion into fire-prone areas) contribute to shifts in natural fire regimes and increase pressure on policymakers to develop effective fire management and recovery plans. Our ongoing work seeks to understand the

A. M. Kinoshita; T. S. Hogue

2010-01-01

192

Guanylate cyclase inhibition by methylene blue as an option in the treatment of vasoplegia after a severe burn. A medical hypothesis  

PubMed Central

Summary Today it is known that severe burns can be accompanied by the phenomenon of vasoplegic syndrome (VS), which is manifested by persistent and diffuse vasodilation, hypotension and low vascular resistance, resulting in circulatory and respiratory failure. The decrease in systemic vascular resistance observed in VS is associated with excessive production of nitric oxide (NO). In the last 2 decades, studies have reported promising results from the administration of an NO competitor, methylene blue (MB), which is an inhibitor of the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), in the treatment of refractory cases of vasoplegia. This medical hypothesis rationale is focused on the tripod of burns/vasoplegia catecholamine resistant/methylene blue. This article has 3 main objectives: 1) to study the guanylate cyclase inhibition by MB in burns; 2) to suggest MB as a viable, safe and useful co-adjuvant therapeutic tool of fluid resuscitation, and; 3) to suggest MB as burns hypotensive vasoplegia amine-resistant treatment. PMID:22534716

Farina, Jayme A.; Celotto, Andrea Carla; da Silva, Marcelo Felix; Evora, Paulo Roberto B.

2012-01-01

193

Differential response of bird functional traits to post-fire salvage logging in a boreal forest ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of functional trait-environment relationship posits that species in a local community should possess similar traits that match the selective environment. The present study examines species trait-habitat (using Fourth-corner and RLQ analyses) and habitat occupancy patterns (logistic regression models) of bird assemblages in boreal forest stands following disturbances by forest fire and salvage logging. The stands differed in the amount and composition of residual tree retention, salvage- and aquatic-edges, degree of burn severity (all measured at 100 and 500 m buffers), as well as landscape-level variables such as distance to previously burned forests. Tests of trait-habitat relationships showed that canopy-nesters and bark- and foliage- insectivores required high levels of residual trees of low burn severity, with the feeding guilds showing affinity for different stand composition. In contrast, ground-nesters and omnivores thrived in salvaged areas and associated edges. In addition, cavity-nesting and ground-foragers were associated with severely burned stands. The species' habitat occupancy patterns were commensurate with trait requirements, which also appeared to be scale-dependent. For example, some fire-associated species had high occupancy probability in severely burned stands at small-scale (100 m buffer), which was consistent with their cavity-nesting trait. This pattern, however, was not evident at large-scale, where their feeding requirement (bark-insectivores) for low-severity burns dominated. Our study suggests that trait-habitat relationships can provide critical information to the complex ways species' relate to key habitat factors following natural and anthropogenic disturbances.

Azeria, Ermias T.; Ibarzabal, Jacques; Hbert, Christian; Boucher, Jonathan; Imbeau, Louis; Savard, Jean-Pierre L.

2011-05-01

194

Differences on post-fire regeneration of the pioneer trees Cecropia glazioui and Trema micrantha in a lowland Brazilian Atlantic forest.  

PubMed

A study of natural post-fire succession was carried out in a disturbed vegetation around fragments of the Atlantic Rain Forest (National Biological Reserve of Poo das Antas (22 degrees 30'-22 degrees 33'S. 42 degrees 15'-42 degrees 19'W), Rio de Janeiro State). All the pre-fire individuals of Cecropia and Trema in the area were numbered with plastic labels. In order to check for the presence of new sprouts and mortality, two other censuses were carried out, at 3 and 12 months after the fire. The dominant species were: Pteridium aquilinum, Panicum maximum. Trema micrantha and Cecropia glazioui. Few days after the passage of fire, grasses and ferns spread their area, while the stands of Trema and Cecropia were completely burned. Most of individuals of Cecropia produced some sprouts while most of individuals of Trema died. However, a great number of seedlings of Trema were recruited while only one single seedling of Cecropia were observed during a period of one year. Most of these seedlings died through the year while the sprouts were already reproducing. The uses of Cecropia in places where fire is recurrent could be more appropriate because of its higher chance of survival and faster recovering ability after fire. PMID:17354414

Silva-Matos, Dalva M; Fonseca, Giovana D F M; Silva-Lima, Leonardo

2005-01-01

195

Burned and unburned peat water repellency: Implications for peatland evaporation following wildfire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water repellency alters soil hydrology after periods of wildfire, potentially modifying the ecosystem recovery to such disturbance. Despite this potential importance, the extent and severity of water repellency within burned peatlands and its importance in regulating peatland recovery to wildfire disturbance remains poorly understood. We characterised the water repellency of peat in a burned (one year post-fire) and unburned peatland in the Western Boreal Plain utilising the water drop penetration time and ethanol droplet molarity tests. Burned Sphagnum moss and feather moss sites had a more severe degree of water repellency than unburned sites, with differences being more pronounced between burned and unburned feather moss sites. Burned feather moss exhibited the most extreme water repellency, followed by unburned feather moss, and burned Sphagnum. The severity of water repellency varied with depth through the near surface of the moss/peat profile. This was most evident within the burned feathermoss where more extreme water repellency was observed at the near-surface compared to the surface, with the most extreme water repellency found at 1 and 5 cm depths. Unburned Sphagnum was completely hydrophilic at all depths. We suggest that the extreme water repellency in near-surface feather moss peat acts as a barrier that impedes the supply of water to the surface that replaces that lost via evaporation. This leads to drying of the near-surface vadose zone within feather moss areas and a concomitantly large decrease in peatland evaporation within feather moss dominated peatlands. This negative feedback mechanism likely enhances the resilience of such peatland to wildfire disturbance, maintaining a high water table position, thereby limiting peat decomposition. In comparison, such a feedback is not observed strongly within Sphagnum, leaving Sphagnum dominated peatlands potentially vulnerable to low water table positions post disturbance.

Kettridge, N.; Humphrey, R. E.; Smith, J. E.; Lukenbach, M. C.; Devito, K. J.; Petrone, R. M.; Waddington, J. M.

2014-05-01

196

Atmospheric effects on the performance and threshold extrapolation of multi-temporal Landsat derived dNBR for burn severity assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Landsat derived differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) is widely used for burn severity assessments. Studies of regional wildfire trends in response to climate change require consistency in dNBR mapping across multiple image dates, which may vary in atmospheric condition. Conversion of continuous dNBR images into categorical burn severity maps often requires extrapolation of dNBR thresholds from present fires for which field severity measurements such as Composite Burn Index (CBI) data are available, to historical fires for which CBI data are typically unavailable. Although differential atmospheric effects between image collection dates could lead to biased estimates of historical burn severity patterns, little is known concerning the influence of atmospheric effects on dNBR performance and threshold extrapolation. In this study, we compared the performance of dNBR calculated from six atmospheric correction methods using an optimality approach. The six correction methods included one partial (Top of atmosphere reflectance, TOA), two absolute, and three relative methods. We assessed how the correction methods affected the CBI-dNBR correlation and burn severity mapping in a Chinese boreal forest fire which occurred in 2010. The dNBR thresholds of the 2010 fire for each of the correction methods were then extrapolated to classify a historical fire from 2000. Classification accuracies of threshold extrapolations were assessed based on Cohen's Kappa analysis with 73 field-based validation plots. Our study found most correction methods improved mean dNBR optimality of the two fires. The relative correction methods generated 32% higher optimality than both TOA and absolute correction methods. All the correction methods yielded high CBI-dNBR correlations (mean R2 = 0.847) but distinctly different dNBR thresholds for severity classification of 2010 fire. Absolute correction methods could substantially increase optimality score, but were insufficient to provide a consistent scale of radiometric condition between multi-temporal Landsat images, which resulted in lower severity classification accuracies (Kappa = 0.53) than those relative correction methods (Kappa = 0.72) for the 2000 fire. Consistent radiometric response in remote sensing datasets proved essential for accuracy in regional burn severity trends monitoring. Extrapolation of empirical dNBR thresholds to historical conditions without relative normalization will likely lead to biased burn severity classifications.

Fang, Lei; Yang, Jian

2014-12-01

197

Sodium bromide by instrumental neutron activation analysis quantifies change in extracellular water space with wound closure in severely burned children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The ability to measure extracellular water (ECW) in critically ill patients can significantly enhance current methods of assessing fluid homeostasis, body composition, and response to nutritional therapy. We measured corrected bromide space to determine change in ECW with wound closure among acutely burned children. Methods. Fifteen children with burns over 30% of their total body surface area had their

Kathy Prelack; Robert Sheridan; Yong-Ming Yu; Ion E. Stamatelatos; Johanna Dwyer; Gerard E. Dallal; Martha Lydon; Lisa Petras; Joseph J. Kehayias

2003-01-01

198

Does direct transport to provincial burn centres improve outcomes? A spatial epidemiology of severe burn injury in British Columbia, 20012006  

PubMed Central

Background In Canada and the United States, research has shown that injured patients initially treated at smaller emergency departments before transfer to larger regional facilities are more likely to require longer stays in hospital or suffer greater mortality. It remains unknown whether transport status is an independent predictor of adverse health events among persons requiring care from provincial burn centres. Methods We obtained case records from the British Columbia Trauma Registry for adult patients (age ? 18 yr) referred or transported directly to the Vancouver General Hospital and Royal Jubilee Hospital burn centres between Jan. 1, 2001, and Mar. 31, 2006. Prehospital and in-transit deaths and deaths in other facilities were identified using the provincial Coroner Service database. Place of injury was identified through data linkage with census records. We performed bivariate analysis for continuous and discrete variables. Relative risk (RR) of prehospital and in-hospital mortality and hospital stay by transport status were analyzed using a Poisson regression model. Results After controlling for patient and injury characteristics, indirect referral did not influence RR of in-facility death (RR 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.543.22) or hospital stay (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.651.42). Rural populations experienced an increased risk of total mortality (RR 1.22, 95% CI 1.001.48). Conclusion Transfer status is not a significant indicator of RR of death or hospital stay among patients who received care at primary care facilities before transport to regional burn centres. However, significant differences in prehospital mortality show that improvements in rural mortality can still be made. PMID:22564514

Bell, Nathaniel; Simons, Richard; Hameed, S. Morad; Schuurman, Nadine; Wheeler, Stephen

2012-01-01

199

Ocular surface reconstruction using amniotic membrane allograft for severe surface disorders in chemical burns: case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Ocular chemical burns are frustrating disorders. The conjunctival surface provides a defense mechanism protecting against infection, desiccation, and injury, being centered in the epithelial lining of the ocular surface. A monocular case of severe acid chemical burn is presented. Postinjury-stratified epithelium in the inferior cul-de-sac with eye movement and contact with the lower eyelid resulted in repeated corneal abrasions, vascularization, and scarring. This vexing problem was recalcitrant to medical and conservative treatment because of delayed and prevented healing from continuous conjunctival abrasive irritation inflicted on the corneal surface. Amniotic membrane allograft transplantation in destructive lesions of the conjunctiva acts as a reconstructive graft in nonhealing lesions of the ocular surface. Successful placement of an amniotic membrane allograft (AmbioDry) in conjunction with excision of an extensive amount of stratified epithelial scar tissue was accomplished. Marked improvement followed surgery, and a definitive solution resulted for the severely burned right eye. PMID:15912900

Fournier, John H; McLachlan, Daniel L

2005-01-01

200

A data-driven approach for modeling post-fire debris-flow volumes and their uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study demonstrates the novel application of genetic programming to evolve nonlinear post-fire debris-flow volume equations from variables associated with a data-driven conceptual model of the western United States. The search space is constrained using a multi-component objective function that simultaneously minimizes root-mean squared and unit errors for the evolution of fittest equations. An optimization technique is then used to

Michael J. Friedel

201

Post-Fire Microsites and Effects of Bryophytes on Germination and Establishment of Conifers and Early-Seral Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bryophytes are often the dominant vegetation layer with patchy distributions in early post-fire succession. Little is known about early-seral bryophyte habitat requirements or their influence on germination and establishment of vascular plants. In the presence of seed or spore sources, microsite conditions can affect distributions of bryophytes, conifers and early-seral vegetation. The objectives of this study were to examine the

L. Kayes; K. Puettmann; P. Anderson

2009-01-01

202

Post-fire seeding on Wyoming big sagebrush ecological sites: Regression analyses of seeded nonnative and native species densities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the mid-1980s, sagebrush rangelands in the Great Basin of the United States have experienced more frequent and larger wildfires. These fires affect livestock forage, the sagebrush\\/grasses\\/forbs mosaic that is important for many wildlife species (e.g., the greater sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus)), post-fire flammability and fire frequency. When a sagebrush, especially a Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle

Mark E. Eiswerth; Karl Krauter; Sherman R. Swanson; Mike Zielinski

2009-01-01

203

Post-fire changes in net shortwave radiation along a latitudinal gradient in boreal North America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding how a changing boreal fire regime is likely to influence regional climate requires detailed information about fire effects on the surface radiation budget. We used time series of satellite observations of surface albedo from 2000-2011 and fire perimeters since 1970 to study post-fire changes in surface net shortwave radiation along a latitudinal transect in central Canada. Fire-induced surface shortwave forcing (SSF) integrated over an annual cycle for the first 30 years after fire was similar (-4.1 W m-2 with a 95% confidence interval of -4.5 to -3.7 W m-2) between southern and northern boreal regions. The lack of a latitudinal difference in SSF was caused by counteracting latitudinal trends in seasonal contributions. Spring (March, April, and May) SSF increased with latitude, from -7.2 W m-2 in the south to -10.1 W m-2 in the north, primarily because of delayed snow melt, which amplified albedo differences between unburned forests and recovering stands. In contrast, winter incoming solar radiation and summer albedo change decreased from south to north, resulting in a decreasing latitudinal trend in winter and summer SSF. Vegetation recovery was slower in the north, leading to smaller increases in summer albedo during the first decade after fire, and a prolonged phase of elevated spring albedo during the second decade. Our results indicate that fires reduce surface net shortwave radiation considerably for many boreal forest ecosystems in North America, providing further evidence that disturbance-mediated shifts in surface energy exchange need to be considered in efforts to manage these forests for climate change mitigation.

Jin, Yufang; Randerson, James T.; Goulden, Michael L.; Goetz, Scott J.

2012-07-01

204

Post-fire hydrologic response in Central Portugal. A four years study at microplot scale.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires are a natural phenomenon in regions with a Mediterranean-type climate. However, their present-day widespread occurrence in southern Europe is unprecedented and strongly reflects human activity such as ignition, land-use changes, land abandonment and introduction of highly flammable plantations. Besides wildfires, post-fire management practices such as plowing, terracing, clearcutting and logging should also be considered, since their occurrence is getting increasingly common. And, in a long-term period these practices seem to be executed intercalated with repeated fire occurrences in the same site, sharing the impacts together with fire in an escalated degradational effect. In this sense, the work presented here concerns four years of runoff and erosion data at microplot scale after the wildfire, comparing different land management practices that occurred before the fire. Preliminary results indicate that in four years of monitoring, runoff is constantly higher in plowed sites than in the unplowed ones, with the exception of the first year. Regarding soil losses the plowed plots present always higher sediment rates than the unplowed ones. The comparison between two unplowed sites with different land uses, indicate higher runoff and erosion risk for pine comparatively to the eucalypt ones, however the reduced soil depth in the first can have an important role in these differences. Following these facts, the aim of the present work is to answer the following research questions: i) Do these four years of observations fit with the window of disturbance model presented by Prosser and Williams (1998). or the alternative version by Wittenberg and Inbar (2009)?; ii) Does pre-fire disturbances (wildfire, land use changes and land management practices) still have repercussions after wildfire?; In what sense does four years of intensive monitoring provides that one year couldn't provide?

Vieira, Diana; Malvar, Maruxa; Martins, Martinho; Machado, Ana; Nunes, Joo; Keizer, Jacob

2014-05-01

205

Burning Mouth Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burning mouth syndrome is characterized by a painful burning or stinging sensation affecting the tongue or other areas of the mouth without obvious signs of an organic cause on physical examination. A burning mouth sensation can occur in several cutaneous or systemic diseases that must be ruled out prior to making a diagnosis of burning mouth syndrome, since this term

C. Brufau-Redondo; R. Martn-Brufau; R. Corbaln-Velez; A. de Concepcin-Salesa

2008-01-01

206

A comparative analysis of advanced techniques for skin reconstruction with autologous keratinocyte culture in severely burned children: own experience  

PubMed Central

Introduction The local treatment in burns larger than 50% of total body surface area is still the great challenge for surgeons. Aim This paper presents a review of different solutions for deep burn wound healing in children and the early outcomes of treatment with combined autologous cell culture technique. Material and methods For this study, 20 children aged between 4 and 12 years with 5565% of TBSA III grade burn injury were analyzed. A skin sample, 1 cm 1 cm in size, for keratinocyte cultivation, was taken on the day of the burn. After necrotic tissue excision, the covering of the burned area with an isolated meshed skin graft was carried out between day 4 and 7. After 7 days of keratinocyte cultivation, the mentioned areas were covered with cells from the culture. We divided the burned regions, according to the way of wound closure, into 3 groups each consisting of 15 treated regions of the body. We used meshed split thickness skin grafts (SSG group), cultured autologous keratinocytes (CAC group), and both techniques applied in one stage (SSG + CAC group). Results In the SSG group, the mean time for complete closure of wounds was 12.7 days. Wounds treated with CAC only needed a non-significantly longer time to heal 14.2 days (p = 0.056) when compared to SSG. The shortest time to heal was observed in the group treated with SSG + CAC 8.5 days, and it was significantly shorter when compared to the SSG and CAC groups (p < 0.001). Conclusions This study suggests that cultured keratinocytes obtained after short-time multiplication, combined with meshed autologous split thickness skin grafts, constitute the optimal wound closure in burned children. PMID:25097488

Nessler, Michal B.; Drukala, Justyna; Bartoszewicz, Marzenna; Madry, Ryszard

2014-01-01

207

Measuring Carbon and Nitrogen Eroded From Burned Forests In The Western U.S  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Post-wildfire upland landscapes and downstream aquatic resources are influenced by carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) losses due to soil erosion. As opposed to bulk soil erosion, few studies have quantified C and N losses after severe wildfire. We measured erosion of C and N for four to six years following eight wildfires in the western U.S. and compared C and N losses from untreated, burned hillslopes and small catchments with those from adjacent areas that received various erosion mitigation treatments. Losses of C, N and sediment were greatest the first two years and declined in subsequent years. Cumulative losses from untreated, burned areas were 16 - 4,700 kg C/ha and 0.7 - 185 kg N/ha over the study period. Individual storm events were responsible for > 50% of the total C and N lost. Across wildfire locations, median sediment C and N concentration ranged from 0.11 - 0.36 %N and 2.3 - 9.8 %C. Post-fire erosion control treatments reduced C, N and sediment losses by 65-75% compared to untreated areas and generally increased the concentrations of C and N in eroded material. The total C and N lost in post-fire erosion was < 20% of the estimated amount lost from organic and mineral soil layers during combustion and < 5% of the estimated amount remaining in mineral soils after combustion. The additional N lost with soil erosion is unlikely to impair the productivity of recovering forests, but the eroded N may have consequences on downstream water quality and aquatic habitat.

Pierson, D. N.; Robichaud, P. R.; Rhoades, C.

2013-12-01

208

Severe burns resulting from an exploding teat on a bottle of infant formula milk heated in a microwave oven.  

PubMed

Accidental injury to infants can result from the use of home microwave ovens. The spectrum of injury includes scald burns of the trachea, palate oropharynx and oesophagus due to aspiration and ingestion of foods that have been overheated. There is one previous case report of a child with second-degree burns of 6 per cent of his body area due to explosion of the plastic liner and nipple on a feeding bottle top. We present a case report of an infant who suffered 7 per cent full-thickness burns following explosion of the bottle teat and subsequent splattering with hot milk. He required mid-palmar amputation of his left hand including thumb, index and middle fingers. The full-thickness burns of left cheek and left shoulder were grafted but will result in significant scarring. It is common practice in many homes to heat infant feeds in the microwaves. We suggest that health professionals dealing with children need to be aware of the potential hazards so that appropriate education of parents can take place. PMID:9232290

Dixon, J J; Burd, D A; Roberts, D G

1997-05-01

209

Post-fire runoff and soil (fertility) losses in long-unburnt vs. repeatedly-burnt Maritime Pine stands, north-central Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whilst wildfires are a natural phenomenon in Mediterranean climate regions and a key evolutionary and ecological factor in several of its ecosystems, there are widespread concerns about the resilience of even these fire-adapted ecosystems under present-day fire regimes. The role of repeated wildfires in land degradation, however, has not been extensively studied. The EU-funded CASCADE project addresses this research gap in the study case in Portugal, assessing whether repeated wildfires in Maritime Pine stands lead to land degradation through a gradual process or, instead, through tipping-points in plant-water-soil relationships. In the present study, focus is on the indirect effects of (repeated) wildfires, due to fire-enhanced overland flow generation and the associated losses of sediments, organic matter and nutrients (N and P). Following a large wildfire in early September 2013, affecting roughly 3000 ha in the municipality of Viseu, six Maritime Pine stands were selected within the burnt area. According to the available burnt-area maps, covering the period 1975-2011, three of these sites were unburnt for over 35 years, whereas the other three sites had burnt three more times before 2012. At each of these sites, two pairs of micro-plots of approximately 0.25 m2 were installed as soon as possible after the wildfire, albeit not before the first two post-fire rainfall events, whilst a third pair was installed several weeks later. The first two plot pairs were installed halfway the upper and lower halves of the slope, the third pair in between. The paired-plot design was chosen to compare the hydrological and erosion response for two adjacent patches with contrasting post-fire vegetation recovery processes, i.e. through re-sprouting (by the shrub Pterospartum tridentatum) and by germination. Since the installation of the plots, runoff has been measured at 1- to 2-weekly intervals, depending on rainfall, and samples taken for laboratory analysis of sediment and organic matter loads as well as total N and P concentrations. The field and laboratory results are still being analyzed but personal observations suggest that overland flow generation is markedly higher at the repeatedly burnt than long-unburnt sites.

Hosseini, Mohammad; Gonzalz-Pelayo, Oscar; Buchspies, Ben; Maia, Paula; Martins, Martinho; Varandas, Daniela; Geissen, Violette; Coelho, Celeste; Ritsem, Coen; Keizer, Jan Jacob

2013-04-01

210

ISSR and AFLP analysis of the temporal and spatial population structure of the post-fire annual, Nicotiana attenuata, in SW Utah  

PubMed Central

Background The native annual tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata, is found primarily in large ephemeral populations (typically for less than 3 growing seasons) after fires in sagebrush and pinyon-juniper ecosystems and in small persistent populations (for many growing seasons) in isolated washes typically along roadsides throughout the Great Basin Desert of the SW USA. This distribution pattern is due to its unusual germination behavior. Ephemeral populations are produced by the germination of dormant seeds from long-lived seed banks which are stimulated to germinate by a combination of unidentified positive cues found in wood smoke and the removal of inhibitors leached from the unburned litter of the dominant vegetation. Persistent populations may result where these inhibitors do not exist, as in washes or along disturbed roadsides. To determine if this germination behavior has influenced population structure, we conducted an AFLP (244 individuals), ISSR (175 individuals) and ISSR+ AFLP (175 individuals) analysis on plants originating from seed collected from populations growing in 11 wash and burns over 11 years from the SW USA. Results Genetic variance as measured by both ISSR and AFLP markers was low among sites and comparatively higher within populations. Cluster analysis of the Utah samples with samples collected from Arizona, California, and Oregon as out-groups also did not reveal patterns. AMOVA analysis of the combined AFLP and ISSR data sets yielded significantly low genetic differentiation among sites (?ct), moderate among populations within sites (?sc) and higher genetic differentiation within populations (?st). Conclusions We conclude that the seed dormancy of this post-fire annual and its resulting age structure in conjunction with natural selection processes are responsible for significantly low among sites and comparatively high within-population genetic variation observed in this species. PMID:15350209

Bahulikar, Rahul A; Stanculescu, Dominic; Preston, Catherine A; Baldwin, Ian T

2004-01-01

211

Integrating a shrub growth model with remote sensing and geographic information system data to predict shrub spatial growth patterns in a post fire environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of complex spatial distribution patterns and the prediction of vegetative biomass is crucial for understanding ecosystems and their reaction to disturbance. In this study, a Landsat TM image, an interpolated biomass predictive model, and a shrub biomass predictive equation are integrated, modeling the potential distribution and biomass of two shrub species, Physocarpus malvaceous (PHMA) and Holodiscus discolor (HODI), commonly found in the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington. A simple multiple regression technique was used to generate a shrub biomass predictive model based on shrub structural and biophysical variables. The predictive coefficients for each species were applied to a raster database of the significant regressor variables generated using a zonal method of Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) interpolation. The two predictive models were cross validated and compared, showing the zonal IDW process linked with the regression equation and resulting in a coefficient of variation (R2) of 0.80 and 0.73 for PHMA and HODI, respectively. In addition to these predictive models, a supervised classification was performed using a Landsat TM image predicting shrub biomass. The resulting biomass prediction's accuracy was validated using an analysis of fit resulting in an R2 of 0.68 for PHMA and 0.53 for HODI. These two biomass predictive models were then added and averaged using a raster calculator. The combined models improved the overall accuracy of the biomass prediction to an R2 of 0.86 for PHMA and 0.81 for HODI. To better understand and predict biomass change in a post-fire landscape, the biomass predictive model was integrated with FARSITE (Fire Area Simulator). A fire was simulated on a small drainage in the research site. The resulting footprint was removed from the original biomass predictive model and the shrub biomass was predicted for the burn area five years after the fire. The new prediction was combined with the original biomass prediction, resulting in a new shrub biomass prediction for the entire research site.

Harris, Gregory Dean

212

The effects of log erosion barriers on post-fire hydrologic response and sediment yield in small forested watersheds, southern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildfire usually promotes flooding and accelerated erosion in upland watersheds. In the summer of 1999, a high-severity wildfire burned a series of mixed pine\\/oak headwater catchments in the San Jacinto Mountains of southern California. Log erosion barriers (LEBs) were constructed across much of the burned area as an erosion control measure. We built debris basins in two watersheds, each about

Peter M. Wohlgemuth; Ken R. Hubbert; Peter R. Robichaud

2001-01-01

213

A database on post-fire erosion rates and debris flows in Mediterranean-Basin watersheds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildfires can affect many Mediterranean countries on a yearly bases, producing damage and economic losses, both as direct effect of the fires and as consequent events, including erosion and sedimentation in the recently burned areas. Even though most of the wildfires occur in Spain, Portugal, southern France, Italy and Greece, it can be stated that no one of the Mediterranean

M. Parise; S. H. Cannon

2009-01-01

214

Postfire Alterations in Mechanical Strength of Leaves in Heteromeles Arbutifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildfires in the Santa Monica mountains in Southern California burn down a decent percentage of the local vegetation. However, some plants like Heteromeles Arbutifolia, are considered to be resprouters because they return a mere two years after being burnt down. It is hypothesized that the artificially browsed resprout leaves will have a lower tensile strength than both the young and

Andrew Hair; Madeline DiLascia; Nick Novella; Taylor Wurdeman

2010-01-01

215

Fuel loads, fire regimes, and post-fire fuel dynamics in Florida Keys pine forests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In forests, the effects of different life forms on fire behavior may vary depending on their contributions to total fuel loads. We examined the distribution of fuel components before fire, their effects on fire behavior, and the effects of fire on subsequent fuel recovery in pine forests within the National Key Deer Refuge in the Florida Keys. We conducted a burning experiment in six blocks, within each of which we assigned 1-ha plots to three treatments: control, summer, and winter burn. Owing to logistical constraints, we burned only 11 plots, three in winter and eight in summer, over a 4-year period from 1998 to 2001. We used path analysis to model the effects of fuel type and char height, an indicator of fire intensity, on fuel consumption. Fire intensity increased with surface fuel loads, but was negatively related to the quantity of hardwood shrub fuels, probably because these fuels are associated with a moist microenvironment within hardwood patches, and therefore tend to resist fire. Winter fires were milder than summer fires, and were less effective at inhibiting shrub encroachment. A mixed seasonal approach is suggested for fire management, with burns applied opportunistically under a range of winter and summer conditions, but more frequently than that prevalent in the recent past. ?? IAWF 2006.

Sah, J. P.; Ross, M. S.; Snyder, J. R.; Koptur, S.; Cooley, H. C.

2006-01-01

216

Frequency-magnitude distribution of debris flows compiled from global data, and comparison with post-fire debris flows in the western U.S.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forecasting debris flow hazard is challenging due to the episodic occurrence of debris flows in response to stochastic precipitation and, in some areas, wildfires. In order to facilitate hazard assessment, we have gathered available records of debris flow volumes into the first comprehensive global catalog of debris flows (n = 988). We also present results of field collection of recent debris flows (n = 77) in the northern Rocky Mountains, where debris flow frequency increases following wildfire. As a first step in parameterizing hazard models, we use frequency-magnitude distributions and empirical cumulative distribution functions (ECDFs) to compare volumes of post-fire debris flows to non-fire-related debris flows. The ECDF of post-fire debris flow volumes is significantly different (at 95% confidence) from that of non-fire-related debris flows, suggesting that the post-fire distribution is composed of a higher proportion of small events than that of non-fire-related debris flows. The slope of the frequency-magnitude distribution of post-fire debris flows is steeper than that of non-fire-related debris flows, corroborating evidence that small post-fire debris flows occur with a higher relative frequency than non-fire-related debris flows. Taken together, the statistical analyses suggest that post-fire debris flows come from a different population than non-fire-related debris flows, and their hazard must be modeled separately. We propose two possible non-exclusive explanations for the fact that the post-fire environment produces a higher proportion of small debris flows: 1) following fires, smaller storms or effective drainage areas can trigger debris flows due to increased runoff and/or decreases in root strength, resulting in smaller volumes and increased probability of failure, and 2) fire increases the probability and frequency of debris flows, causing their distribution to shift toward smaller events due to limitations in sediment supply.

Riley, Karin L.; Bendick, Rebecca; Hyde, Kevin D.; Gabet, Emmanuel J.

2013-06-01

217

Guanylate cyclase inhibition by methylene blue as an option in the treatment of vasoplegia after a severe burn. A medical hypothesis.  

PubMed

Today it is known that severe burns can be accompanied by the phenomenon of vasoplegic syndrome (VS), which is manifested by persistent and diffuse vasodilation, hypotension and low vascular resistance, resulting in circulatory and respiratory failure. The decrease in systemic vascular resistance observed in VS is associated with excessive production of nitric oxide (NO). In the last 2 decades, studies have reported promising results from the administration of an NO competitor, methylene blue (MB), which is an inhibitor of the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), in the treatment of refractory cases of vasoplegia. This medical hypothesis rationale is focused on the tripod of burns/vasoplegia catecholamine resistant/methylene blue. This article has 3 main objectives: 1) to study the guanylate cyclase inhibition by MB in burns; 2) to suggest MB as a viable, safe and useful co-adjuvant therapeutic tool of fluid resuscitation, and; 3) to suggest MB as burns hypotensive vasoplegia amine-resistant treatment.
PMID:22534716

Farina Junior, Jayme A; Celotto, Andrea Carla; da Silva, Marcelo Felix; Evora, Paulo Roberto B

2012-05-01

218

Burn Institute  

MedlinePLUS

... do each year a burn injury. Learn more Fire and Burn Prevention Each year, the Burn Institute ... thousands of children and adults each year through fire and burn prevention education, burn survivor support programs ...

219

Use of a pediatric oxygenator integrated in a veno-venous hemofiltration circuit to remove CO2: A case report in a severe burn patient with refractory hypercapnia.  

PubMed

Acute respiratory distress syndrome management is currently based on lung protective ventilation. Such strategy may lead to hypercapnic acidosis. We report a case of refractory hypercapnia in a severe burn adult, treated with simplified veno-venous extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal technique. We integrated a pediatric oxygenator in a continuous veno-venous hemofiltration circuit. This technique, used during at least 96h, was feasible, sure and efficient with carbon dioxide removal rate up to 32%. PMID:24685066

Rousseau, Anne-Franoise; Damas, Pierre; Renwart, Ludovic; Amand, Tho; Erpicum, Marie; Morimont, Philippe; Dubois, Bernard; Massion, Paul B

2014-11-01

220

Release of severe post-burn contracture of the first web space using the reverse posterior interosseous flap: Our experience with 12 cases.  

PubMed

We retrospectively assessed outcomes after treating severe contractures of the first web space from burns with the reverse posterior interosseous flaps (RPIF). Twelve consecutive patients (ages 18-58 years) with burns from 10% to 70% (mean, 30.1%) total body surface area and severe contractures of the first web space of the hand (initial thumb to index angles from 10 to 35 [mean, 23]) underwent contracture release using the RPIF. Seventeen RPIFs were used, with sizes from 9cm6cm to 14cm10cm (mean area, 83.6cm(2)). The patients were followed for 5-26 months. All flaps survived completely, rapidly adapted to the recipient beds, and achieved good color and texture harmony. No early complications occurred. Fifteen donor sites were closed with skin grafts. Two donor sites were closed by direct suture. No paralysis of the posterior interosseous nerve was observed in these cases. At last follow-up the mean thumb to index angle was 78, increasing the web length 260%. All patients regained fundamental hand functions. The RPIF is reliable and safe for releasing severe contractures of the first web space of the hand after burn, with distinct advantages over currently used alternative methods. PMID:23523223

Kai, Shi; Zhao, Jingchun; Jin, Zhenghua; Wu, Weiwei; Yang, Ming; Wang, Yan; Xie, Chunhui; Yu, Jiaao

2013-09-01

221

The protective effects of sildenafil in acute lung injury in a rat model of severe scald burn: A biochemical and histopathological study.  

PubMed

Severe burn induces biochemical mediators such as reactive oxygen species that leads to lipid peroxidation which may have a key role in formation of acute lung injury (ALI). Sildenafil is a selective and potent inhibitor of cyclic guanosine monophosphate specific phosphodiesterase-5. Sildenafil preserves alveolar growth, angiogenesis, reduces inflammation and airway reactivity. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different dosages of sildenafil in ALI due to severe scald burn in rats. Twenty-four rats were subjected to 30% total body surface area severe scald injury and were randomly divided into three equal groups as follow: control, 10 and 20mg/kg sildenafil groups. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), activities of glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), catalase (Cat), total oxidative stress (TOS), and total antioxidative capacity (TAC) were measured in both tissues and serums. Oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated. A semi-quantitative scoring system was used for the evaluation of histopatological findings. Sildenafil increased Gpx, Cat, TAC and decreased MDA, TOS and OSI. Sildenafil decreased inflammation scores in lungs. Our results reveal that sildenafil is protective against scald burn related ALI by decreasing oxidative stress and inflammation and the dosage of 10mg/kg could be apparently better than 20mg/kg. PMID:23313241

Gokakin, Ali Kagan; Deveci, Koksal; Kurt, Atilla; Karakus, Boran Cihat; Duger, Cevdet; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Topcu, Omer

2013-09-01

222

Effects of a 12-week rehabilitation program with music & exercise groups on range of motion in young children with severe burns.  

PubMed

Previous studies indicate that rehabilitation programs supplemented with a strength and endurance-based exercise program improve lean body mass, pulmonary function, endurance, strength, and functional outcomes in severely burned children over the age of 7-years when compared with standard of care (SOC). To date, supplemental exercise programming for severely burned children under the age of 7-years has not yet been explored. The purpose of this study was to determine if a 12-week rehabilitation program supplemented with music & exercise, was more effective in improving functional outcomes than the SOC alone. This is a descriptive study that measured elbow and knee range of motion (ROM) in 24 severely burned children between ages 2 and 6 years. Groups were compared for demographics as well as active and passive ROM to bilateral elbows and knees. A total of 15 patients completed the rehabilitation with supplemental music and exercise, and data was compared with 9 patients who received SOC. Patients receiving the 12-week program significantly improved ROM in all joints assessed except for one. Patients receiving SOC showed a significant improvement in only one of the joints assessed. Providing a structured supplemental music and exercise program in conjunction with occupational and physical therapy seems to improve both passive and active ROM to a greater extent than the SOC alone. PMID:18849852

Neugebauer, Christine Tuden; Serghiou, Michael; Herndon, David N; Suman, Oscar E

2008-01-01

223

Effects of a 12-week Rehabilitation Program with Music & Exercise Groups on Range of Motion in Young Children with Severe Burns  

PubMed Central

Previous studies indicate that rehabilitation programs supplemented with a strength and endurance-based exercise program improve lean body mass, pulmonary function, endurance, strength, and functional outcomes in severely burned children over the age of 7-years when compared to standard of care. To date, supplemental exercise programming for severely burned children under the age of 7-years has not yet been explored. The purpose of this study was to determine if a 12-week rehabilitation program supplemented with music & exercise, was more effective in improving functional outcomes than the standard of care alone. METHODS This is a descriptive study that measured elbow and knee range of motion (ROM) in 24 severely burned children between ages two and six years. Groups were compared for demographics as well as active and passive ROM to bilateral elbows and knees. A total of 15 patients completed the rehabilitation with supplemental music and exercise, and data was compared to 9 patients who received standard of care. RESULTS Patients receiving the 12-week program significantly improved ROM in all joints assessed except for one. Patients receiving standard of care showed a significant improvement in only one of the joints assessed. CONCLUSION Providing a structured supplemental music and exercise program in conjunction with occupational and physical therapy seems to improve both passive and active ROM to a greater extent than the standard of care alone. PMID:18849852

Neugebauer, Christine Tuden; Serghiou, Michael; Herndon, David N.; Suman, Oscar E.

2013-01-01

224

Molecular composition and size distribution of sugars, sugar-alcohols and carboxylic acids in airborne particles during a severe urban haze event caused by wheat straw burning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular compositions and size distributions of water-soluble organic compounds (WSOC, i.e., sugars, sugar-alcohols and carboxylic acids) in particles from urban air of Nanjing, China during a severe haze event caused by field burning of wheat straw were characterized and compared with those in the summer and autumn non-haze periods. During the haze event levoglucosan (4030 ng m -3) was the most abundant compound among the measured WSOC, followed by succinic acid, malic acid, glycerol, arabitol and glucose, being different from those in the non-haze samples, in which sucrose or azelaic acid showed a second highest concentration, although levoglucosan was the highest. The measured WSOC in the haze event were 2-20 times more than those in the non-hazy days. Size distribution results showed that there was no significant change in the compound peaks in coarse mode (>2.1 ?m) with respect to the haze and non-haze samples, but a large difference in the fine fraction (<2.1 ?m) was found with a sharp increase during the hazy days mostly due to the increased emissions of wheat straw burning. Molecular compositions of organic compounds in the fresh smoke particles from wheat straw burning demonstrate that sharply increased concentrations of glycerol and succinic and malic acids in the fine particles during the haze event were mainly derived from the field burning of wheat straw, although the sources of glucose and related sugar-alcohols whose concentrations significantly increased in the fine haze samples are unclear. Compared to that in the fresh smoke particles of wheat straw burning an increase in relative abundance of succinic acid to levoglucosan during the haze event suggests a significant production of secondary organic aerosols during transport of the smoke plumes.

Wang, Gehui; Chen, Chunlei; Li, Jianjun; Zhou, Bianhong; Xie, Mingjie; Hu, Shuyuan; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Chen, Yan

2011-05-01

225

Influence of patch size and shape on post-fire succession on the Yellowstone plateau  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1988 Yellowstone fires provided a unique opportunity to examine how the geometry of fire-created patches affects plant reestablishment. We initiated studies in 1990 in small (1 ha), moderated (74-200 ha), and large (480-3698 ha) crown-fire patches in each of 3 areas. Lodgepole pine forest is reestablishing in most burned areas, but seedling density varies by two orders of magnitude.

M. G. Turner; R. H. Gardner; W. W. Hargrove; W. H. Romme

1994-01-01

226

The Establishment of Several Range Grasses Seeded in Burned and Unburned Slash of Ashe Junipe: (Juniperus Ashei Buchholz)  

E-print Network

to atyLe ~ content by: a ommt ee ead o epact meat May, 1960 Special appreciation is extended to Dr. Wayne G. McCully of the Range and Forestry Department for his untiring en- couragement and guidance in conducting the research and in the writing... in the background. . . . . . . . . ~ . . . . . . 3 Slash left from flat-chopping a heavy stand of cedar i. nterferes with livestock management and the establishment of a stand of forage plants. . 8 Burning is an effective control for seedling cedars. Seedling...

Bonnett, Norman Neal

2012-06-07

227

Calibration and validation of the relative differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (RdNBR) to three measures of fire severity in the Sierra Nevada and Klamath Mountains, California, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Multispectral satellite data have become a common tool used in the mapping of wildland fire effects. Fire severity, defined as the degree to which a site has been altered, is often the variable mapped. The Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) used in an absolute difference change detection protocol (dNBR), has become the remote sensing method of choice for US Federal land management agencies to map fire severity due to wildland fire. However, absolute differenced vegetation indices are correlated to the pre-fire chlorophyll content of the vegetation occurring within the fire perimeter. Normalizing dNBR to produce a relativized dNBR (RdNBR) removes the biasing effect of the pre-fire condition. Employing RdNBR hypothetically allows creating categorical classifications using the same thresholds for fires occurring in similar vegetation types without acquiring additional calibration field data on each fire. In this paper we tested this hypothesis by developing thresholds on random training datasets, and then comparing accuracies for (1) fires that occurred within the same geographic region as the training dataset and in similar vegetation, and (2) fires from a different geographic region that is climatically and floristically similar to the training dataset region but supports more complex vegetation structure. We additionally compared map accuracies for three measures of fire severity: the composite burn index (CBI), percent change in tree canopy cover, and percent change in tree basal area. User's and producer's accuracies were highest for the most severe categories, ranging from 70.7% to 89.1%. Accuracies of the moderate fire severity category for measures describing effects only to trees (percent change in canopy cover and basal area) indicated that the classifications were generally not much better than random. Accuracies of the moderate category for the CBI classifications were somewhat better, averaging in the 50%-60% range. These results underscore the difficulty in isolating fire effects to individual vegetation strata when fire effects are mixed. We conclude that the models presented here and in Miller and Thode ([Miller, J.D. & Thode, A.E., (2007). Quantifying burn severity in a heterogeneous landscape with a relative version of the delta Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR). Remote Sensing of Environment, 109, 66-80.]) can produce fire severity classifications (using either CBI, or percent change in canopy cover or basal area) that are of similar accuracy in fires not used in the original calibration process, at least in conifer dominated vegetation types in Mediterranean-climate California.

Miller, J. D.; Knapp, E. E.; Key, C. H.; Skinner, C. N.; Isbell, C. J.; Creasy, R. M.; Sherlock, J. W.

2009-01-01

228

Influence of Plant Communities on Active Layer Depth in Unburned and Post-fire Forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation plays a crucial role in determining active layer depth and is thought to be an important control for permafrost persistence in areas where the mean annual air temperature is as high as +2C. However this critical component of the interface between the soil and atmosphere is often poorly represented in models, and the relative importance of contrasting vegetation communities is not understood. In particular the role of certain vegetation types such as mosses is completely neglected, in spite of their potential to exhibit contrasting thermal properties depending on their moisture content. Furthermore, most models assume steady states and so ignore important dynamic disturbance events such as fires. Given that the frequency of forest fires is predicted to increase due to climate change in boreal regions, the influence of these ecologically important events on active layer thickness must be established. Contrasting rates of vegetation recovery within and between burn sites may strongly impact on the rate of increase of active layer thickness. Using a combination of targeted and cyclic sampling in boreal forests within a discontinuous permafrost zone in Southern Yukon, Canada we have aimed to further our understanding of how key characteristics of the understory and canopy vegetation influence soil physical conditions including soil moisture, temperature and thaw depth throughout the growing season. By undertaking these surveys in sites with contrasting hydrological conditions in both burned and unburned areas we have been able to determine which features of the vegetation control frost table thawing and how this relationship changes after a fire event and on different soil types.

Fisher, J. P.; Estop-Aragones, C.; Xenakis, G.; Hartley, I. P.; Murton, J.; Charman, D.; Williams, M.; Phoenix, G. K.

2013-12-01

229

Objective definition of rainfall intensity-duration thresholds for the initiation of post-fire debris flows in southern California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rainfall intensityduration (ID) thresholds are commonly used to predict the temporal occurrence of debris flows and shallow landslides. Typically, thresholds are subjectively defined as the upper limit of peak rainstorm intensities that do not produce debris flows and landslides, or as the lower limit of peak rainstorm intensities that initiate debris flows and landslides. In addition, peak rainstorm intensities are often used to define thresholds, as data regarding the precise timing of debris flows and associated rainfall intensities are usually not available, and rainfall characteristics are often estimated from distant gauging locations. Here, we attempt to improve the performance of existing threshold-based predictions of post-fire debris-flow occurrence by utilizing data on the precise timing of debris flows relative to rainfall intensity, and develop an objective method to define the threshold intensities. We objectively defined the thresholds by maximizing the number of correct predictions of debris flow occurrence while minimizing the rate of both Type I (false positive) and Type II (false negative) errors. We identified that (1) there were statistically significant differences between peak storm and triggering intensities, (2) the objectively defined threshold model presents a better balance between predictive success, false alarms and failed alarms than previous subjectively defined thresholds, (3) thresholds based on measurements of rainfall intensity over shorter duration (?60 min) are better predictors of post-fire debris-flow initiation than longer duration thresholds, and (4) the objectively defined thresholds were exceeded prior to the recorded time of debris flow at frequencies similar to or better than subjective thresholds. Our findings highlight the need to better constrain the timing and processes of initiation of landslides and debris flows for future threshold studies. In addition, the methods used to define rainfall thresholds in this study represent a computationally simple means of deriving critical values for other studies of nonlinear phenomena characterized by thresholds.

Dennis Staley; Jason W Kean; Susan H Cannon; Schmidt, Kevin M.; Laber, Jayme L.

2012-01-01

230

Bat response to differing fire severity in mixed-conifer forest California, USA.  

PubMed

Wildlife response to natural disturbances such as fire is of conservation concern to managers, policy makers, and scientists, yet information is scant beyond a few well-studied groups (e.g., birds, small mammals). We examined the effects of wildfire severity on bats, a taxon of high conservation concern, at both the stand (<1 ha) and landscape scale in response to the 2002 McNally fire in the Sierra Nevada region of California, USA. One year after fire, we conducted surveys of echolocation activity at 14 survey locations, stratified in riparian and upland habitat, in mixed-conifer forest habitats spanning three levels of burn severity: unburned, moderate, and high. Bat activity in burned areas was either equivalent or higher than in unburned stands for all six phonic groups measured, with four groups having significantly greater activity in at least one burn severity level. Evidence of differentiation between fire severities was observed with some Myotis species having higher levels of activity in stands of high-severity burn. Larger-bodied bats, typically adapted to more open habitat, showed no response to fire. We found differential use of riparian and upland habitats among the phonic groups, yet no interaction of habitat type by fire severity was found. Extent of high-severity fire damage in the landscape had no effect on activity of bats in unburned sites suggesting no landscape effect of fire on foraging site selection and emphasizing stand-scale conditions driving bat activity. Results from this fire in mixed-conifer forests of California suggest that bats are resilient to landscape-scale fire and that some species are preferentially selecting burned areas for foraging, perhaps facilitated by reduced clutter and increased post-fire availability of prey and roosts. PMID:23483936

Buchalski, Michael R; Fontaine, Joseph B; Heady, Paul A; Hayes, John P; Frick, Winifred F

2013-01-01

231

Bat Response to Differing Fire Severity in Mixed-Conifer Forest California, USA  

PubMed Central

Wildlife response to natural disturbances such as fire is of conservation concern to managers, policy makers, and scientists, yet information is scant beyond a few well-studied groups (e.g., birds, small mammals). We examined the effects of wildfire severity on bats, a taxon of high conservation concern, at both the stand (<1 ha) and landscape scale in response to the 2002 McNally fire in the Sierra Nevada region of California, USA. One year after fire, we conducted surveys of echolocation activity at 14 survey locations, stratified in riparian and upland habitat, in mixed-conifer forest habitats spanning three levels of burn severity: unburned, moderate, and high. Bat activity in burned areas was either equivalent or higher than in unburned stands for all six phonic groups measured, with four groups having significantly greater activity in at least one burn severity level. Evidence of differentiation between fire severities was observed with some Myotis species having higher levels of activity in stands of high-severity burn. Larger-bodied bats, typically adapted to more open habitat, showed no response to fire. We found differential use of riparian and upland habitats among the phonic groups, yet no interaction of habitat type by fire severity was found. Extent of high-severity fire damage in the landscape had no effect on activity of bats in unburned sites suggesting no landscape effect of fire on foraging site selection and emphasizing stand-scale conditions driving bat activity. Results from this fire in mixed-conifer forests of California suggest that bats are resilient to landscape-scale fire and that some species are preferentially selecting burned areas for foraging, perhaps facilitated by reduced clutter and increased post-fire availability of prey and roosts. PMID:23483936

Heady, Paul A.; Hayes, John P.; Frick, Winifred F.

2013-01-01

232

High severity fire in forests of the southwest: conservation implications. Progress Report August 2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction: The occurrence of large, severe fires in southwestern ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests has resulted in concern that these forests may not persist under such an extreme disturbance regime. In our research, we are examining the outcomes of high-severity fire in ponderosa pine forests and their neighboring communities across an elevational gradient. One goal of our work is to contribute to understanding the resiliency of these systems, but we also want to investigate the conservation values intrinsic to the diverse communities that represent alternative successional trajectories after severe fire. One assumption of our research is that the spatial pattern of a disturbance becomes increasingly important when the disturbance is large and biological legacies are few and sparse. We ask, therefore, what spectrum of plant communities results from high severity fire, and what is their relationship to spatial patterns of severity mapped in early post fire timeframes? Also, do spatial patterns of older burns (1950-80) differ from recent burns (1998-present) in ways that make us expect successional changes years from now to differ from those we observed at our older burn field sites? Here, we describe the first stages of our work in mapping burn severity at old and new burns as well as the work we have recently completed at our two field sites. The report is organized under our two main objectives with the purpose of summarizing the steps we have taken in working toward these objectives, as well as changes we have made in methodologies since the original study plan. We present some general observations and plans for the next steps in data analysis and product generation. This report, the study plan, a photograph gallery, slide presentations, and our contact information are available on the project Web site http://www.umass.edu/landeco/research/swfire/swfire.html .

Haire, Sandra L.

2006-01-01

233

-POPULATION SIZE AND FIRE INTENSITY DETERMINE POST-FIRE ABUNDANCE IN GRASSLAND LICHENS -193 Applied Vegetation Science 8: 193-198, 2005  

E-print Network

- POPULATION SIZE AND FIRE INTENSITY DETERMINE POST-FIRE ABUNDANCE IN GRASSLAND LICHENS - 193 is the variability in abundance of lichens on grassland soil between and within fields after prescribed fire? Is post of pre-fire cover. Conclusions: This study provides an example of how species response to disturbance can

Minnesota, University of

234

ReproducedfromSoilScienceSocietyofAmericaJournal.PublishedbySoilScienceSocietyofAmerica.Allcopyrightsreserved. Post-fire Soil Water Repellency: Persistence and Soil Moisture Thresholds  

E-print Network

ScienceSocietyofAmerica.Allcopyrightsreserved. Post-fire Soil Water Repellency: Persistence and Soil Moisture Thresholds Lee H. MacDonald* and Edward on the persistence of soil water repellency and the soil moisture threshold at which water were the primary over time and identify on soil water repellency because of the large variability soil moisture

MacDonald, Lee

235

[Burning mouth].  

PubMed

Various conditions of the oral mucosa can give rise to a burning sensation. Candidosis, geographic tongue (erythema migrans), mucocutaneous conditions and stomatitis can all cause mouth burns with visible changes to the oral mucosa. The so-called 'burning-mouth syndrome' (BMS) is a fairly rare but extremely unpleasant condition characterised by a bilateral burning sensation of the oral mucosa in the absence of clinically visible mucosal changes. Frequently-associated symptoms include dry mouth and loss or change of taste. The aetiology is unknown, even though most of the literature focuses on the role of a possible underlying psychogenic disorder. Several mucosal disorders can cause symptoms similar to BMS. Therefore, careful oral examination is required before establishing the diagnosis of BMS. Additional laboratory tests or a specialist examination rarely yield abnormal findings of relevance. Reassurance and understanding are important keywords in the management of patients suffering from BMS. Unless clearly indicated dental or medical treatment should be avoided, even if the patient insists on it, since such treatment is rarely effective. PMID:15932134

van der Waal, I

2005-05-14

236

Reduced predation risk for melanistic pygmy grasshoppers in post-fire environments.  

PubMed

The existence of melanistic (black) color forms in many species represents interesting model systems that have played important roles for our understanding of selective processes, evolution of adaptations, and the maintenance of variation. A recent study reported on rapid evolutionary shifts in frequencies of the melanistic forms in replicated populations of Tetrix subulata pygmy grasshoppers; the incidence of the melanistic form was higher in recently burned areas with backgrounds blackened by fire than in nonburned areas, and it declined over time in postfire environments. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the frequency shifts of the black color variant were driven, at least in part, by changes in the selective regime imposed by visual predators. To study detectability of the melanistic form, we presented human "predators" with images of black grasshoppers and samples of the natural habitat on computer screens. We demonstrate that the protective value of black coloration differs between burnt and nonburnt environments and gradually increases in habitats that have been more blackened by fire. These findings support the notion that a black color pattern provides improved protection from visually oriented predators against blackened backgrounds and implicate camouflage and predation as important drivers of fire melanism in pygmy grasshoppers. PMID:23139879

Karpestam, Einat; Merilaita, Sami; Forsman, Anders

2012-09-01

237

Facial Burns - Our Experience  

PubMed Central

Facial burns are generally considered severe. This is due to the possibility of respiratory complications. First responders check the nostrils for singed hairs. In severe cases there may be soot around the nose and mouth and coughing may produce phlegm that includes ash. Facial and inhalational burns compromise airways. They pose difficulties in pre-hospital resuscitation and are challenge to clinicians managing surviving burn victims in the intensive care setting. Management problems resuscitation, airway maintenance and clinical treatment of facial injuries are compounded if the victim is child. Inhalational burns reduce survivability, certainly in adult victim. In our retrospective study we found that facial burns dominated in male gender, liquids and scalds are the most common causes of facial burns in children whereas the flame and electricity were the most common causes of facial burns in adults. We came to the conclusion in our study that surgical treatment minimizes complications and duration of recovery. PMID:23687458

Zatriqi, Violeta; Arifi, Hysni; Zatriqi, Skender; Duci, Shkelzen; Rrecaj, Sh.; Martinaj, M.

2013-01-01

238

Burn epidemiology: a basis for burn prevention.  

PubMed

An appreciation of the causes of burn injury is essential in order to direct burn prevention programs. Toward this goal, 1,564 patients treated at the UCI Burn Center were studied. There were 699 patients admitted acutely and 865 outpatients. The most common cause of thermal injury in both adults and children was scalding. In children scald burns accounted for 42% of the total number of children treated. In children under 4 years old scalds caused 75% of all burn injuries, most in the kitchen. Flammable liquids were responsible for the majority of the severe burns in the adult group (19% of acute admissions). Housefires, while accounting for only 5% of the adults treated, were responsible for 44% of the adult deaths. Continued public education in safety practices at home especially in the kitchen and bath, and with automobiles and outdoor stoves and fires is recommended, as well as planned escapes from homes and use of smoke detectors. PMID:592443

Jay, K M; Bartlett, R H; Danet, R; Allyn, P A

1977-12-01

239

Patch to landscape patterns in post fire recruitment of a serotinous conifer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Obligate seeding species are highly specialized to fire disturbance and many conifers such as cypress, which are adapted to high intensity stand-replacing fires, have canopy seed banks stored in serotinous cones. Resilience of these trees to fire disturbance is a function of disturbance frequency and one focus of this study was to determine the effect of patch age on postfire recruitment. A second focus was to determine the extent to which fire induced a landscape level change in the location of the forest boundary. Prior to a fire in 1994, a large Cupressus sargentii forest was a mosaic landscape of different aged patches of nearly pure cypress bordered by chaparral. Patches less than 60 years of age were relatively dense with roughly one tree every 1-2 m2 but older patches had thinned to one tree every 3-15 m2. Older trees had substantially greater canopy cone crops but the stand level seed bank size was not significantly correlated with stand age. Fire-dependent obligate seeding species are sensitive to fire return interval because of potential changes in the size of seed banks - facing both a potential 'immaturity risk' and a 'senescence risk'. At our site, C. sargentii regeneration was substantial in stands as young as 20 years, suggesting that fire return interval would need to be shorter than this to pose any significant risk. Reduced seedling recruitment in stands nearly 100 years of age may indicate risk from senescence is greater, however, even the lowest density seedling recruitment was many times greater than the density of mature forests - thus this cypress would appear to be resilient to a wide range of fire return intervals. Changes in landscape patterning of forest and chaparral are unlikely except after fire. Factors that inhibit tree establishment within the shrubland, as well as factors that affect shrub establishment within the forest border likely affect the 'permeability' of this ecotone. After the 1994 fire this boundary appeared to be stable in that cypress recruited best within the shadow of burned canopies and cypress were weak invaders of adjacent shrublands.

Ne'eman, G.; Fotheringham, C.J.; Keeley, J.E.

1999-01-01

240

Tree Growth and Competition in a Betula platyphyllaLarix cajanderi Post-fire Forest in Central Kamchatka  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Fire is the dominant disturbance in central Kamchatka boreal forests, yet patterns and mechanisms of stand recovery have not been investigated. Methods Measurements were made of 1433 stems ?13 m height and annual radial increments of 225 randomly selected trees in a 04-ha plot of a 53-year-old fire-origin mixed-species stand to examine the spatio-temporal variation in establishment, growth, size inequality and the mode of competition among individual trees. Growth variations were related to tree size, age and local interference with neighbours. Key Results Betula platyphylla formed the main canopy following a fire in 1947, with Larix cajanderi and Pinus pumila progressively reinvading the lower tree and shrub stratum. Most B. platyphylla originated from sprouts in small patches (polycormons) during the first 15 post-fire years. Betula platyphylla had normal distributions of diameter and age classes, but negatively skewed height distribution, as expected from shade-intolerant, pioneer species. Larix cajanderi had fewer tall and many short individuals. The smaller and younger B. platyphylla grew disproportionately more in diameter than larger trees from 1950 to 1975, and hence stem size inequalities decreased. The reverse trend was observed from 1995 to 2000: larger trees grew more, indicating an increasing asymmetry of competition for light. Betula platyphylla had steady diameter growth in the first 25 post-fire years, after which the growth declined in smaller trees. Neighbourhood analysis showed that the decline resulted from increased competition from taller neighbours. Conclusions The observed growth patterns suggest that mode of interactions altered during stand development from early stages of weak competition for soil resources released by fire to later stages of asymmetric competition for light. Asymmetric crown competition started later than reported in other studies, which can be attributed to the lower stem density leaving much space for individual growth, greater relative importance of below-ground competition in this site of nutrient-poor volcanic soil, and the vegetative origin of B. platyphylla. Larix cajanderi growing under B. platyphylla had steady diameter growth during the first 20 years, after which growth declined. It is suggested that early succession fits the tolerance model of succession, while inhibition dominates in later stages. PMID:15256381

DOLEAL, JI?; ISHII, HIROAKI; VETROVA, VALENTINA P.; SUMIDA, AKIHIRO; HARA, TOSHIHIKO

2004-01-01

241

Feedbacks between climate, fire severity, and differential permafrost degradation in Alaskan black spruce forests - implications for carbon cycling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black spruce forests are the dominant forest cover type in the boreal region of Alaska and Canada In the northern portion of its range, permafrost is common to sites occupied by black spruce forest, which in turn, leads topromotes the accumulation of large reservoirs of organic carbon in mineral and organic soils. Another important trait of black spruce forests is the high occurrence of fire which is enhanced by the presence of flammable foliage, surface litter (duff), dead stems, aboreal lichens, and understory vegetation that is highly flammable during the dry conditions found during the summer fire season. In turn, fire plays an important role in carbon cycling in black spruce forests through direct burning of vegetation and organic soils, initiation of secondary succession, and alteration of the ambient environmental conditions, in particular, the permafrost and the soil thermal regimes, including permafrost stability. The spatial and temporal characteristics of permafrost (e.g. ice content and, seasonal deepening thawing of the active layer) not only control fire severity in terms of depth of burning of the active layer, but also the level of permafrost degradation that occurs in the post-fire environment. Fire severity, in combination with soil thermal properties (e.g. temperature, moisture, permafrost state), moisture and temperature conditions controlled by rates of permafrost warming and drying then controls the biological processes (plant succession and growth and heterotrophic respiration), thus regulating post-fire re-accumulation of carbon in biomass. In this paper, we will review research that investigates the interactions between fire and permafrost regimes that influence and how they influence carbon cycling in black spruce forests in interior Alaska.

Kasischke, E. S.; Kane, E. S.; O'Donnell, J. A.; Christensen, N. L.; Mitchell, S. R.; Turetsky, M. R.; Hayes, D. J.; Hoy, E.; Barrett, K. M.; McGuire, A. D.; Yuan, F.

2011-12-01

242

Post-fire geomorphic response in steep, forested landscapes: Oregon Coast Range, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of fire in shaping steep, forested landscapes depends on a suite of hydrologic, biologic, and geological characteristics, including the propensity for hydrophobic soil layers to promote runoff erosion during subsequent rainfall events. In the Oregon Coast Range, several studies postulate that fire primarily modulates sediment production via root reinforcement and shallow landslide susceptibility, although few studies have documented

Molly Jackson; Joshua J. Roering

2009-01-01

243

[The pain from burns].  

PubMed

The painful events associated with the treatment of a severe burn can, because of their long-lasting and repetitive characteristics, be one of the most excruciating experiences in clinical practice. Moreover, burn pain has been shown to be detrimental to burn patients. Although nociception and peripheral hyperalgesia are considered the major causes of burn pain, the study of more hypothetical mechanisms like central hyperalgesia and neuropathic pain may lead to a better understanding of burn pain symptoms and to new therapeutic approaches. Continuous pain and intermittent pain due to therapeutic procedures are two distinct components of burn pain. They have to be evaluated and managed separately. Although continuous pain is by far less severe than intermittent pain, the treatment is, in both cases, essentially pharmacological relying basically on opioids. Because of wide intra- and inter-individual variations, protocols will have to leave large possibilities of adaptation for each case, systematic pain evaluation being mandatory to achieve the best risk/benefit ratio. Surprisingly, the dose of medication decreases only slowly with time, a burn often remaining painful for long periods after healing. Non pharmacological treatments are often useful and sometimes indispensable adjuncts; but their rationale and their feasibility depends entirely on previous optimal pharmacological control of burn pain. Several recent studies show that burn pain management is inadequate in most burn centres. PMID:11933833

Latarjet, J

2002-03-01

244

Early fluid resuscitation with hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 (6%) in severe burn injury: a randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction There are limited data on the efficacy of early fluid resuscitation with third-generation hydroxyethyl starch (HES 130) in burn injury. Adverse effects of HES on survival and organ function have been reported. Methods In this randomized, controlled, double-blind trial, 48 patients with severe burn injury were assigned to receive either lactated Ringers solution plus 6% HES 130/0.4 in a ratio of 2:1 or lactated Ringers solution with no colloid supplement for the first 72 hours. Primary outcome parameter was the group difference of administered total fluid from intensive care unit (ICU) admission up to day 3. Secondary outcomes included kidney and lung injury and failure, length of stay, and mortality. Results Three-day totals of administered resuscitation fluid (medians) were 21,190 mL in the lactated Ringers group and 19,535 mL in the HES group (HES: ?1,213 mL; P?=?0.39). Creatinine levels from day 1 to 3 (HES: +0.4 ?mol/L; 95% confidence interval (CI) ?18.7 to 19.5; P?=?0.97) and urinary outputs from day 1 to 3 (HES: ?58 mL; 95% CI ?400 to 283; P?=?0.90) were not different. Six patients in each group developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (risk ratio 0.96; 95% CI 0.35 to 2.64; P?=?0.95). Length of ICU stay (HES vs. lactated Ringers: 28 vs. 24 days; P?=?0.80) and length of hospital stay (31 vs. 29 days; P?=?0.57) were similar. Twenty-eight-day mortality was 4 patients in each group (risk ratio 0.96; 95% CI 0.27 to 4.45; P?=?0.95), and in-hospital mortality was 8 in the HES group vs. 5 patients in the lactated Ringers group (hazard ratio 1.86; 95% CI 0.56 to 6.19; P?=?0.31). Conclusions There was no evidence that early fluid resuscitation with balanced HES 130/0.4 (6%) in addition to lactated Ringers solution would lead to a volume-sparing effect in severe burn injury. Together with the findings that early renal function, incidence of ARDS, length of stay, and mortality were not negatively influenced by HES in this setting, balanced HES 130/0.4 (6%) plus lactated Ringers solution could not be considered superior to lactated Ringers solution alone. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01012648 PMID:24365167

2013-01-01

245

Hydrologic recovery in post-burn watersheds in the western U.S  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Post-wildfire hydrologic studies predominantly focus on initial post-fire floods and generally do not provide information on longer-term trends toward baseline or pre-fire conditions, including dry season changes. This presentation will focus on analysis of long-term recovery through cross-site comparisons and hydrologic metrics to quantify and assess watershed recovery times. Metrics include spatial statistics of annual monthly flows, estimates of consecutive high flow days, and total low flow duration periods using long-term USGS discharge data. Preliminary results from Devil Canyon, a southern Californian basin burned by the 2003 Old Fire shows elevated post-fire runoff ratios (0.4) during the 2004-2010 post-burn period compared to pre-fire conditions (0.2). The dry season discharge for the entire basin is statistically different from the pre-fire period at 95%. Using the threshold obtained from Devil Canyon's flow duration curve; there is an average of 200 low flow days in the historical period (WY 1941-2003). Post-fire the annual number of days below the historical low flow threshold is near 0, indicating increased baseflow throughout the entire water year. Predicting burn system resilience to disturbance (anthropogenic and natural) has significant implications for water sustainability, ecosystem regimes, and ultimately may improve forest and hydrological management.

Kinoshita, A. M.; Hogue, T. S.

2013-12-01

246

The media glorifying burns: a hindrance to burn prevention.  

PubMed

The media have a profound influence on the actions of children and adults. Burns and burn prevention tend to be ignored or even mocked. The purpose of this presentation is to reveal the callousness of the media in its dealings with burns and burn prevention. Printed materials with a relationship to burns, risk of burning, or disrespect for the consequences of burns were collected. The materials were tabulated into four categories: comics, advertisements (ads), articles that made light of burns, and television shows that portrayed behavior that would risk burn injury. Most burn-related materials were found in comics or advertisements. Several comics made light of high-risk behavior with flames, scald injury, contact injury, or burns. In addition, several advertisements showed people on fire or actions that could easily lead to burns. Several articles and televisions shows portrayed high-risk behavior that, in some instances, led to copycat injuries. Flames are frequently used to sell items that target adolescent boys or young men. The high incidence injuries that frequent this population parallel the high-risk behaviors portrayed by the media. The media portrays flames and high-risk behavior for burn injury as being cool, funny, and without consequence. The use of flames on clothing and recreational equipment (skateboards, hot rods) particularly targets the high-risk adolescent male. The burn community should make the media aware of the harm it causes with its callous depiction and glorification of burns. PMID:12792237

Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

2003-01-01

247

Moving beyond the cambium necrosis hypothesis of post-fire tree mortality: cavitation and deformation of xylem in forest fires.  

PubMed

It is widely assumed that post-fire tree mortality results from necrosis of phloem and vascular cambium in stems, despite strong evidence that reduced xylem conductivity also plays an important role. In this study, experiments with Populus balsamifera were used to demonstrate two mechanisms by which heat reduces the hydraulic conductivity of xylem: air seed cavitation and conduit wall deformation. Heat effects on air seed cavitation were quantified using air injection experiments that isolate potential temperature-dependent changes in sap surface tension and pit membrane pore diameters. Heat effects on conduit wall structure were demonstrated using air conductivity measurements and light microscopy. Heating increased vulnerability to cavitation because sap surface tension varies inversely with temperature. Heating did not affect cavitation via changes in pit membrane pore diameters, but did cause significant reductions in xylem air conductivity that were associated with deformation of conduit walls (probably resulting from thermal softening of viscoelastic cell wall polymers). Additional work is required to understand the relative roles of cavitation and deformation in the reduction of xylem conductivity, and how reduced xylem conductivity in roots, stems, and branches correlates and interacts with foliage and root necroses to cause tree mortality. Future research should also examine how heat necrosis of ray parenchyma cells affects refilling of embolisms that occur during and after the fire event. PMID:22276783

Michaletz, S T; Johnson, E A; Tyree, M T

2012-04-01

248

Anatomical and physiological regulation of post-fire carbon and water exchange in canopies of two resprouting Eucalyptus species.  

PubMed

The great majority of Eucalyptus spp. are facultative resprouters, and they dominate the eucalypt forests of Australia. Despite this numeric and geographic dominance, there is a general lack of knowledge of their capacity for carbon capture and water loss during canopy reinstation. After a crown-removing fire, we measured leaf-level determinants of carbon and water flux in resprouting canopies of Eucalyptus dives and E. radiata over the 3 years that followed. Leaf anatomy and physiology changed markedly during canopy reinstation, and leaves produced in the second year (2010) were distinct from those produced later. Leaves produced in 2010 were thicker (all measures of leaf anatomy), yet more porous (increased intercellular airspace), causing specific leaf area also to be greater. Indicators of heterotrophic activity, leaf respiration rate and light compensation point, were twofold greater in 2010, whereas all measures of photosynthetic capacity were greatest in leaves produced in 2011 and 2012. Whilst stomatal density, vein density and leaf hydraulic conductance all progressively decreased with time, neither leaf water status nor carbon isotope discrimination were affected. We conclude that canopy reinstation is primarily limited by pre-fire carbon stores, rather than by post-fire edaphic conditions (e.g., water availability), and thus argue that capacity for recovery is directly linked to pre-fire forest health. PMID:25108550

Turnbull, Tarryn L; Buckley, Thomas N; Barlow, Alexandra M; Adams, Mark A

2014-10-01

249

Drivers of post-fire successional trajectories in arctic tundra: the importance of physical and biophysical interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fires in arctic tundra are rare with return intervals in the hundreds to thousands of years, but these events have large implications for carbon and energy fluxes in an environmentally changing and sensitive ecosystem. Permafrost degradation, species composition shifts, and ecosystem function alterations are just a few of the potential consequences of fire that could feedback on future climate change. Here we describe remote sensing, eddy covariance, thaw depth, and biomass measurements along an arctic tundra chronosequence to understand long-term post-fire carbon and energy budgets. Historical remote sensing and fire perimeter data were used to choose sites that were representative of a 0-6, 18, and 36 year old fire scar, which were paired with a representative nearby unburned control. Fires caused successional changes to carbon and energy budgets through changes to the soil thermal regime, caused by decreased organic layer from combustion, and shifts from tussock to grass and shrub dominated systems. Measurements and modeling with the Multiple Element Limitation (MEL) model indicate that nutrients played a key role in these shifts and that these dynamics change are controlled by biophysical conditions immediately after fire (i.e. residual organic layer depth) and climate during early succession. Results highlight the importance of initial conditions in determining the successional trajectory of arctic tundra and yield important insights on how these systems will respond to future climate change.

Rocha, A. V.; Jiang, Y.; Rastetter, E. B.; Drysdale, J.; Kremers, K.; Shaver, G. R.

2013-12-01

250

Burns in Nigeria: a Review  

PubMed Central

Summary Burn injuries continue to be a major source of mortality and morbidity in low- and middle-income countries of the world, of which Nigeria is a part. Overview data on burn care in Nigeria are sparse but the available literature on burns and burn care in Nigeria was retrieved through Internet-based search engines, collated, and reviewed. Peculiarities of epidemiology, types of burn, pattern of injuries, complications, and outcome of burn care were reviewed. There were no broad-based overview statistical data on burns in Nigeria in all the articles reviewed. There was no documentation on the regionalization of care and there were no national databases. All reports on epidemiology were hospital-based. Flame is emerging as the predominant cause of burns, and burn injury is occurring increasingly away from the domestic setting. The severity of the injuries is also increasing. Deliberate burn injury remains a practice and a wide range of complications occur as burns sequelae in Nigeria. Several challenges militate against optimal care for burn victims. Burn injuries continue to contribute significantly to the burden of disease in Nigeria. There is a need for broad-based data collection systems. Avoidable complications are common and mortality remains high. Pooling of resources by regionalization of care could increase focus on burn prevention and improve the care of burn victims. Nongovernmental and governmental support to reduce the burden of burns is advocated. PMID:21991210

Oladele, A.O.; Olabanji, J.K.

2010-01-01

251

Pediatric cutaneous bleach burns.  

PubMed

Bleach is a common household product which can cause caustic injuries. Its effects on mucosal tissues and the eye have been well-described in the literature. However, there is little information published regarding the appearance and effect of bleach on a child's skin. We report three children who sustained chemical burns after contact with bleach. All three children sustained accidental bleach burns while at home, and each child had a distinct brown discoloration to the skin from the injury. All three children had treatment and follow-up for their burns. Two of the children sustained more severe burns, which were extensive and required more time to heal. There was also long-term scarring associated with the severe burns. Like most burns, pain control is required until the injury heals. PMID:23545350

Lang, Cathleen; Cox, Matthew

2013-07-01

252

Predicting and mitigating weed invasions to restore natural post-fire succession in Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six large wildfires have burned in Mesa Verde National Park during the last 15 years, and extensive portions of burns were invaded by non-native plant species. The most threatening weed species include Carduus nutans, Cirsium arvense, and Bromus tectorum, and if untreated, they persist at least 13 years. We investigated patterns of weed distribution to identify plant communities most vulnerable

M. Lisa FloydA; David HannaA; William H. RommeB; Timothy E. CrewsA

2006-01-01

253

By Air and Land: Estimating Post-Fire Debris-Flow Susceptibility through High-Resolution Radar Reflectivity and Tipping-Bucket Gage Rainfall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildfires often increase the occurrence of post-fire hazardous flash floods and debris flows from steeplands during intense rainfall. Rainfall intensity-duration thresholds have been used to forecast when this hazard increases rapidly; one threshold for Southern California is 15 mm\\/hr. However, such thresholds are usually developed with point measurements that only capture a small portion of the landscape. In an attempt

M. N. Hanshaw; K. M. Schmidt; D. P. Jorgensen; J. D. Stock

2008-01-01

254

Postwildfire debris flows hazard assessment for the area burned by the 2011 Track Fire, northeastern New Mexico and southeastern Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In June 2011, the Track Fire burned 113 square kilometers in Colfax County, northeastern New Mexico, and Las Animas County, southeastern Colorado, including the upper watersheds of Chicorica and Raton Creeks. The burned landscape is now at risk of damage from postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. This report presents a preliminary hazard assessment of the debris-flow potential from basins burned by the Track Fire. A pair of empirical hazard-assessment models developed using data from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows at the outlets of selected drainage basins within the burned area. The models incorporate measures of burn severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall to estimate the probability and volume of post-fire debris flows following the fire. In response to a design storm of 38 millimeters of rain in 30 minutes (10-year recurrence-interval), the probability of debris flow estimated for basins burned by the Track fire ranged between 2 and 97 percent, with probabilities greater than 80 percent identified for the majority of the tributary basins to Raton Creek in Railroad Canyon; six basins that flow into Lake Maloya, including the Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins; two tributary basins to Sugarite Canyon, and an unnamed basin on the eastern flank of the burned area. Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from 30 cubic meters to greater than 100,000 cubic meters. The largest volumes (greater than 100,000 cubic meters) were estimated for Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins, which drain into Lake Maloya. The Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Ranking identifies the Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins as having the highest probability of producing the largest debris flows. This finding indicates the greatest post-fire debris-flow impacts may be expected to Lake Maloya. In addition, Interstate Highway 25, Raton Creek and the rail line in Railroad Canyon, County road A-27, and State Highway 526 in Sugarite Canyon may also be affected where they cross drainages downstream from recently burned basins. Although this assessment indicates that a rather large debris flow (approximately 42,000 cubic meters) may be generated from the basin above the City of Raton (basin 9) in response to the design storm, the probability of such an event is relatively low (approximately 10 percent). Additional assessment is necessary to determine if the estimated volume of material is sufficient to travel into the City of Raton. In addition, even small debris flows may affect structures at or downstream from basin outlets and increase the threat of flooding downstream by damaging or blocking flood mitigation structures. The maps presented here may be used to prioritize areas where erosion mitigation or other protective measures may be necessary within a 2- to 3-year window of vulnerability following the Track Fire.

Tillery, Anne C.; Darr, Michael J.; Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.

2011-01-01

255

Post-fire soil erosion on vineyards and canary pine-stands on the subtropical island of La Palma: scope of application of TLS?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land use is considered as a main factor regarding post-fire soil erosion. Especially in the subtropical climate with extreme rainfall events in winter and drought periods during summer times, soil erosion can clearly exceed the soil reproduction rate. On the Canary Island of La Palma frequent wildfires and steep slopes contribute to a high likelihood of post-fire soil erosion. For a quantitative measurement of the erosion rate a terrestrial Laser Scanner with high resolution in combination with a dGPS is used. The main target of this study is to quantify the post-fire soil erosion rates on study sites with a different land use on the island of La Palma (Canary Islands). The investigation focuses on two land use forms; both are very common and widespread on the island: canary pine stands and vineyard areas. The study sites are characterized by a varying steepness, a different fire history (wildfires in 2000, 2009 and 2012) and different stages of soil development. Both denudation and gully erosion processes are spread over the sites. Intense precipitation events can trigger debris flows and extensive soil erosion on post-fire sites, like in the year 2009 in the south or in 2012 on the west and east side of La Palma. Regarding that, erosion is not just a problem for agriculture, but for the infrastructure. For our project we assume, that different topography, different land use and different forest fire history can result in a different soil erosion rate and type (gully incision, denudation processes). To calculate the post-fire erosion rates of the two land use forms, 24 study sites - 10 sites in vineyard areas, 14 in canary pines stands - were selected. By means of a 3D terrestrial Laser Scanner (Riegl LMS Z420i), high resolution digital terrain models of the study sites were compiled. The data acquisition was carried out in October 2011, May 2012 and December 2012 and subsequently the terrain models were compared. With this method not only erosion rates can be detected, but areas with erosion and areas with accumulation can be identified. As additional information precipitation data of the measured time periods were acquired. For a better differentiation of the soil properties, soil profiles and soil samples of each study site were analyzed. Supplementary the occurrence of considerable erosion forms shall be detected by the comparison of aerial images of former years and analyzed in consideration of possible fire events. One target of our investigation shall be the answer of the question if the chosen methods can model the erosion rate and the distribution of erosion and accumulation in a satisfactory manner.

Umstaedter, Kathrin; Haas, Florian; Becht, Michael

2013-04-01

256

Tracking sources of severe haze episodes and their physicochemical and hygroscopic properties under Asian continental outflow: Long-range transport pollution, postharvest biomass burning, and Asian dust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosol physicochemical and hygroscopic properties were measured from 12 October to 21 November 2005 at a downwind area of the Asian continental outflow (Gwangju, Korea) to characterize severe haze episodes. Using optically measured elemental carbon (EC) at 660 nm (Opt.EC) and 880 nm (BC) wavelengths and Mie theory, it was estimated that the higher BC/Opt.EC ratio during the cloudy day of the long-range transport (LTP) period was mainly due to EC particle growth from in-cloud processing with secondary aerosols such as sulfate and organic aerosols. Single scattering albedo (SSA) of biomass burning (BB) aerosol increased sharply from 0.89 to 0.94 under a relative humidity >70%, suggesting that organic aerosols emitted from rice straw burning contained high amounts of hydrophilic compounds. The contribution of aerosol water content to the total light extinction coefficient (bext) was determined as 51.4% and 68.4% during the BB and BB + LTP periods, respectively, indicating that the haze episodes were highly enhanced by an increase in aerosol water content. The Asian dust event was characterized by the highest SSA (0.92 0.02), the lowest mass scattering efficiency of fine particles (2.5 1.0 m2 g-1), and the lowest hygroscopic nature (humidity-dependent light scattering enhancement factor, f(80%), which is defined by the ratio of light scattering coefficient at 80% relative humidity to that at dry condition, = 1.37). Based on the ngstrm exponent (?) values observed at the source region of the Asian continent and the downwind area of South Korea during the BB + LTP period, it was found that the ? value of urban aerosols decreased 11% for 1-2 days of the transport, probably due to the increase in particle size through water uptake. Increasing rates of surface PM10 mass concentrations at western coastal areas of the South Korean peninsula were in the range 2.4-14.4 ?gm-3 h-1 at the beginning of the BB + LTP period (24 October 2005, 0700-2300 LT). Based on in situ and remote measurement techniques, Asian aerosol outflow over the South Korean peninsula is of the order of 388-3789 tons h-1 at the beginning of the LTP event.

Jung, Jinsang; Kim, Young J.

2011-01-01

257

Burns (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... skin (epidermis) and cause pain, redness and swelling (erythema). Second degree burns damage the epidermis and the inner layer, the dermis, causing erythema and blistering. Damage from third degree burns extend ...

258

Combat burn life support: a military burn-education program.  

PubMed

The Advanced Burn Life Support Course has been used to train military physicians and nurses for more than 16 years. Although it useful for teaching the fundamentals of burn care, the course is designed for a civilian audience, covers only the first 24 hours of burn care, and presumes the availability of a burn center for patient transfer. In preparation for hostilities in Iraq, we developed several add-on modules to the standard Advanced Burn Life Support course to meet specific needs of military audiences. These modules cover the treatment of white phosphorus burns; the treatment of mustard gas exposure; the long-range aeromedical transfer of burn patients; the management of burn patients beyond the first 24 hours; and the delivery of burn care in austere environments. These add-on modules are termed Combat Burn Life Support. Between January 22, 2003, and May 12, 2003, Advanced Burn Life Support and/or Combat Burn Life Support courses were provided to a total of 1035 military health care providers in the United States, Germany, and the Middle East. Student feedback was largely positive and is being used for further course refinement. The Combat Burn Life Support Course is designed to augment, rather than replace, the Advanced Burn Life Support Course. Although intended for a military audience, the course material is equally applicable to civilian terrorist or mass casualty situations. PMID:15756118

Barillo, David J; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Hutton, Brad G; Mittelsteadt, Paul J; Gueller, Glen E; Holcomb, John B

2005-01-01

259

The impact of broadcast burning and fire severity on species composition and abundance of surface vegetation in a jack pine ( Pinus banksiana) clear-cut  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species composition and abundance of surface vegetation was examined within 4-year-old jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) clear-cuts and clear-cuts treated with prescribed burning. Six unique species including Diervilla Lonicera Mill., Convulvulus spithameus L., Erigeron canadensis L., Salix spp., Viola adunca J.W. Smith and Rubus allegheniensis Porter were found solely within burned-over sites whereas only one species, Linnea borealis L., was

C. A. Whittle; L. C. Duchesne; T. Needham

1997-01-01

260

Burned to the bone.  

PubMed

Heterotopic ossification-a complication of severe burns, head or blast injuries, and orthopaedic trauma-can result from altered adenosine metabolism in mesenchymal stem cells in response to elevated extracellular ATP (Peterson et al., this issue). PMID:25253672

Forsberg, Jonathan A; Davis, Thomas A; Elster, Eric A; Gimble, Jeffrey M

2014-09-24

261

Evaluation of changes in post-fire recharge under native woodland using hydrological measurements, modelling and remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThis paper examines the use of a controlled fuel reduction burn in native woodland to increase recharge to a shallow aquifer system for water supply in south-western Australia. Soil moisture trends from neutron probe measurements and watertable dynamics from piezometers under adjacent burned and unburned plots were compared to determine the difference in recharge resulting from the fire. Remotely sensed evapotranspiration (ET) subtracted from rainfall was used to independently estimate groundwater and soil moisture recharge and compare against a physically based model of soil-water fluxes. The use of naturally occurring chemicals (n-alkanes and cycloalkanes) produced in the fire as tracers of the recharge pulse in the winter following the fire was tested. It was found that in the winter following the fire (annual rainfall 701 mm), water storage in the 9 m thick unsaturated zone increased by about 300 mm but recharge to the watertable was only about 60 mm. In the subsequent year (rainfall 630 mm), leaf area index in the burned woodland recovered to be about 10% less than the unburned plot, remotely sensed ET rose above that in the unburned plot and recharge was lower in the burned than unburned plot. This trend continued and, after 3 years, increased ET negated any early recharge gains, and there was a net decrease in recharge resulting from the fire. The combination of water balance measurements, modelling and remote sensing provides a robust method to gain hydrological understanding of recharge mechanisms. Further work is required to refine the use of burn residue chemicals as soil water tracers, particularly in improving instrument design for groundwater sample collection in fine textured soils. As climate continues to change and regions with growing water shortages seek innovative solutions, approaches such as controlled burning may be needed; however, in this example, the approach was unproductive and further the environmental consequences need to be evaluated to make an appropriate assessment of trade-offs and viability of this approach.

Silberstein, Richard P.; Dawes, Warrick R.; Bastow, Trevor P.; Byrne, John; Smart, Natalie F.

2013-05-01

262

Improving post-fire rainfall-runoff modelling: The applicability of remotely sensed Leaf Area Index data as input for modelling catchment scale post-wildfire hydrological response.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires are a frequent phenomenon in European Mediterranean ecosystems. Fire-induced changes in the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the soils and the damaging or even complete removal of vegetation influence the post fire hydrology of catchments. Especially the first few years after a wildfire are marked by increased runoff and erosion and related risks such as floods. The subsequent decrease in runoff and erosion is generally held to be mainly related to post-fire vegetation recovery, emphasizing the importance of vegetation re-growth in restoring the pre-fire hydrological conditions of a burnt catchment. The often fast pace of vegetation recovery in the Mediterranean region limits the time available for research during this so-called window-of-disturbance. This study proposes the use of remote sensing (RS) images for quantifying post-fire vegetation recovery and its integration in post-fire rainfall-runoff modelling in order to facilitate estimating vegetation abundance and improve runoff predictions. To this end, the Leaf Area Index (LAI) - a commonly used parameter to represent interception in process-based rainfall-runoff models - was derived from the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as calculated from Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+ imagery. This was done for five rainfall events that occurred during contrasting seasons of the first 2 years after a wildfire in a micro-catchment in Serra de Lous, central Portugal. A process-based rainfall-runoff model (LISEM) was applied to each of the five rainfall events using LAI data obtained not only from RS imagery but also from field measurements. For both methods of estimating LAI, model performance was assessed by means of the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (NSE) as well as the coefficient of determination (r2). Overall, the results showed a better model performance for events that occurred during winter than during summer, independent of the LAI input maps. Furthermore, model performance was very similar for the RS-based and the ground-based LAI maps, reflecting the similarity in LAI estimates obtained with the methods. Thus, the present results suggest that especially during the early stages of the window-of-disturbance remote sensing can be a suitable alternative for ground-based measurements, even though it does not necessarily improve runoff predictions.

van Eck, Christel Melissa; Keesstra, Saskia; Catarina Simes Vieira, Diana; Nunes, Joo Pedro; Keizer, Jan Jacob

2014-05-01

263

A morphometric analysis of gullies scoured by post-fire progressively bulked debris flows in southwest Montana, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the fall of 2001, an intense thunderstorm in southwest Montana triggered many debris flows in the burned area of Sleeping Child Creek. In most instances, the debris flows cut deep gullies into previously unchannelized colluvial hollows and deposited large volumes of sediment onto the valley floor. The presence of rill networks above the gullies as well as the absence

Emmanuel J. Gabet; Andy Bookter

2008-01-01

264

Effects of Fire Severity and Climate on Ring-Width Growth of Giant Sequoia  

E-print Network

Effects of Fire Severity and Climate on Ring-Width Growth of Giant Sequoia After Fire Linda S could be quantified in terms of post-fire sequoia tree-ring widths. Quantification of fire severity. Mutch Thomas W. Swetnam Although fire has been recognized for several decades as a significant

Swetnam, Thomas W.

265

Burns Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provide by Burns Country, this full-text, online version of "the definitive Robert Burns reference volume" serves as a useful handbook to Scotland's most famous poet and the intellectual circles in which he turned. The encyclopedia, which is in HTML format, is organized alphabetically. Burns Country offers a number of other related resources, chief among them a songs and poems archive containing 100 of the poet's works. Other features at the site include a discussion area, Burns and Scottish association links, and some commercial content.

Lindsay, Maurice.

266

Moving from Status to Trends: Forest Inventory and Analysis Symposium 2012 222GTR-NRS-P-105 MONITORING TRENDS AND BURN SEVERITY (MTBS): MONITORING  

E-print Network

of Federal and state wildland fire directors and have been chosen because the authorizing body for the MTBS in the MTBS project refers to "degree to which a site has been altered or disrupted by fire; loosely and the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) (Eidenshink et al. 2007). Analysts use dNBR images to delineate fire

267

Response of the post-fire bryophyte community to salvage logging in boreal mixedwood forests of northeastern Alberta, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salvage logging is common practice in the boreal forest of northeastern Alberta, Canada. Fire-killed aspen snags are harvested as soon as is feasible after fire, and in the case of the House River fire (which burned over 250,000ha in May and June 2002), planning and harvesting began before the fire was extinguished and continued until summer 2003. The ecological consequences

S. M. Bradbury

2006-01-01

268

Fire severity analysis using LANDSAT data in an heterogeneus landscape of semiarid NW Patagonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fires at landscape level are result from complex interactions among ignitions, weather and vegetation. Factors related to fire, such as fuel moisture, vegetation structure and topography, can exhibit substantial spatial and temporal variability. Arrangements of patches with different degree of burn severity are found after to fire and this heterogeneity could have major implications for ecosystem processes. For instance, severely burned patches may be more affected by fire returning to pre-fire conditions in a large time period while areas with low burn severity may be seed sources accelerating the plant recovery process. Interactions between fire severity, type vegetation and others environmental factors are poorly known, in particular in large fires. For overcome this lack, the first step is rely on accurate data regarding fire severity at landscape scale. Remote sensing tools are particularly suitable assessment fire effects at landscape scale, where monitoring the entire surface affected by large fires is laborious. In addition, the integration into a GIS of data obtained by remote sensing facilitates to explore causal relationships involved in fire severity and the influence of them in the recovery process. In this context, spectral indices can be used to relate burn severity observed in the surface to values measured by the satellite sensor. One of the most widely used indices is the "Normalized Burn Ratio" (NBR) which enables to infer the degree of post-fire ecological change. Nevertheless, in heterogeneous landscapes, to map fire effects may be required pre-disturbance data in addition to post-disturbance image, because precisely to non-homogeneity conditions. Thus, two NBR derivatives, delta-NBR (dNBR) and Relative delta-NBR (RdNBR), have been developed to remove biasing of the pre-fire vegetation present in the uni-temporal approach. To difference of dNBR, in which it is obtained an absolute change value, RdNBR is a relative measure that allows independence from the pre-fire condition of vegetation. Considering that: 1) the dNBRand RdNBR indexes are proposed to evaluate fire severity by remote sensing in different environments and 2) exist few information about its behavior in communities with low biomass load as the semiarid grasslands. Then, the general objective of work was to analyze and compare the behavior of dNBR and RdNBR in their ability to discriminate the degrees of fire severity in semiarid environments dominated by herbaceous vegetation.

Lanorte, Antonio; Lasaponara, Rosa; Ghermandi, Luciana; Oddi, Facundo

2014-05-01

269

Clothing burns in Canadian children  

PubMed Central

A Canadian survey of 11 tertiary care pediatric centres with specialized burn facilities revealed that an estimated 37 children up to 9 years of age are admitted annually to such hospitals because of clothing burns. Sleepwear accounts for an estimated 21 such burns per year. Girls were found to suffer the most severe burns and represented eight of the nine children in the series who died. Loose and flowing garments dominated the girls' styles. The results of multiple-regression analysis confirmed that style of clothing (loose and flowing as opposed to snug) was the most significant predictor of burn severity, length of hospital stay, the need for skin grafting and survival. The ignition situation (avoidance of parental supervision at the time of injury) was the only other important predictor. The success of regulatory actions in other countries in reducing the incidence of severe clothing burns is reviewed, and preventive strategies for Canada are explored. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:3995433

Stanwick, Richard S.

1985-01-01

270

Emergency assessment of post-fire debris-flow hazards for the 2013 Springs Fire, Ventura County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wildfire can significantly alter the hydrologic response of a watershed to the extent that even modest rainstorms can produce dangerous flash floods and debris flows. In this report, empirical models are used to predict the probability and magnitude of debris-flow occurrence in response to a 10-year rainstorm for the 2013 Springs fire in Ventura County, California. Overall, the models predict a relatively high probability (6080 percent) of debris flow for 9 of the 99 drainage basins in the burn area in response to a 10-year recurrence interval design storm. Predictions of debris-flow volume suggest that debris flows may entrain a significant volume of material, with 28 of the 99 basins identified as having potential debris-flow volumes greater than 10,000 cubic meters. These results of the relative combined hazard analysis suggest there is a moderate likelihood of significant debris-flow hazard within and downstream of the burn area for nearby populations, infrastructure, wildlife, and water resources. Given these findings, we recommend that residents, emergency managers, and public works departments pay close attention to weather forecasts and National Weather Service-issued Debris Flow and Flash Flood Outlooks, Watches, and Warnings, and that residents adhere to any evacuation orders.

Staley, Dennis M.

2014-01-01

271

Emergency assessment of post-fire debris-flow hazards for the 2013 Mountain fire, southern California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wildfire dramatically alters the hydrologic response of a watershed such that even modest rainstorms can produce dangerous flash floods and debris flows. We use empirical models to predict the probability and magnitude of debris flow occurrence in response to a 10-year rainstorm for the 2013 Mountain fire near Palm Springs, California. Overall, the models predict a relatively high probability (60100 percent) of debris flow for six of the drainage basins in the burn area in response to a 10-year recurrence interval design storm. Volumetric predictions suggest that debris flows that occur may entrain a significant volume of material, with 8 of the 14 basins identified as having potential debris-flow volumes greater than 100,000 cubic meters. These results suggest there is a high likelihood of significant debris-flow hazard within and downstream of the burn area for nearby populations, infrastructure, and wildlife and water resources. Given these findings, we recommend that residents, emergency managers, and public works departments pay close attention to weather forecasts and National Weather Serviceissued Debris Flow and Flash Flood Outlooks, Watches and Warnings and that residents adhere to any evacuation orders.

Staley, Dennis M.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Smoczyk, Greg M.; Reeves, Ryan R.

2013-01-01

272

Soil Erosion in a Burned Mountainous Watershed, Kootenay National Park, British Columbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In late July 2003, lightning ignited wildfires in Kootenay National Park, southeastern British Columbia. Following the wildfires, a study was initiated to investigate post-fire soil erosion in Hawk Creek watershed, located with the National Park. Hillslope gradients are moderate (generally less than 30 degrees) in the lower third of the basin and become steeper with increasing elevation. Summer rainfall is delivered by convectional thunderstorms, and average annual rainfall is about 340 mm. The mean fire return interval in this region is about 165 years and fire frequency has changed over time in response to climate. Silt fences were installed to measure soil erosion in the summers of 2004 and 2005. Results indicate a threshold rainfall intensity of 1.6 mm in 15 minutes is required to mobilize sediment and based on this value, a rain day herein refers to days when the maximum 15-minute rainfall intensity exceeds 1.5 mm. Sediment transport data show many rain days producing no sediment, while relatively small amounts of soil erosion occurred during several rain events in 2004 and 2005. An important finding is that post-fire soil erosion rates are very small, and considerably lower than many other results reported in the literature. The sandy soils exhibited no signs of soil hydrophobicity, but rather displayed high infiltration capacities that precluded the development of overland flow. No evidence of hydrophobic soils or rilling was evident in the hillslope plots during sediment collection after the rain events and it is probable that the majority of soil erosion occurred by rainsplash. The increased soil erosion measured on steeper plots would be in accordance with the increased rates in downslope rainsplash erosion expected on higher gradient slopes. Grain sizes trapped by the silt fence relative to the soil profile are based on soil samples collected from silt fences and nearby hillslopes. Most of the sediment collected in the silt fence traps fell in the size range less than 2 mm, indicating stresses associated with rainsplash were generally not sufficient to entrain larger particles.The less than 2 mm fractions for silt fence and hillslope samples were extracted for comparison, with the hillslope samples containing 45-58 percent of particles less than 354 microns, and silt fence percentages ranging from 72-90 percent. The higher percentage of fines in the silt fence samples suggests that fines less than 354 microns are being selectively entrained, transported and deposited in the silt fence. Selective transport of particles less than 0.5 mm occurred, with minimal mobilization of coarse sand. Soil erosion data collected herein provides the necessary data to derive gradient-driven transport equations, which can be combined with a stochastic algorithm for wildfire return interval and precipitation events (such as storm duration, interstorm duration, and average storm rainfall intensity) to explore implications of rainsplash erosion on burned hillslopes in this region over longer time scales. A brief window of opportunity exists after a fire for effective rainsplash or overland flow transport, and high energy storms are required in these same post-fire years to enable such an occurrence.

Martin, Y. E.; Gallaway, J. M.; Johnson, E. A.

2007-12-01

273

Biomass Burning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biomass burning may be the overwhelming regional or continental-scale source of methane (CH4) as in tropical Africa and a significant global source of CH4. Our best estimate of present methane emissions from biomass burning is about 51.9 Tg/yr, or 10% of the annual methane emissions to the atmosphere. Increased frequency of fires that may result as the Earth warms up may result in increases in this source of atmospheric methane.

Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Pinto, Joseph P.

1993-01-01

274

[Clinical aspects of corneal burns].  

PubMed

Clinical aspects and prognosis of corneal burns mainly depend on the agent responsible for the trauma. The most severe burns are caustic burns, which should be classified as burns caused by basic agents, associated with deep and prolonged injuries, and burns caused by acidic agents, associated with more superficial injuries. At the acute stage, caustic burns induce epithelial defects, corneal edema, and ischemic necrosis of the limbus, conjunctiva, iris and ciliary body. At the early stage, reepithelialization occurs and is often associated with corneal vascularization and stromal infiltrates, followed by corneal scar formation. At the chronic stage, the following complications are possible: corneal scars, limbal stem cell insufficiency, lachrymal insufficiency, irregular astigmatism, ocular surface fibrosis, cataract, glaucoma, decreased intraocular pressure, and ocular atrophy. The Ropper-Hall classification is based on the extent of limbal ischemia. Thermal burns induce epithelial defects at the acute stage, with the more severe forms giving the same complications as caustic burns. Radiation-related burns can be caused by ultraviolet radiations (acute epithelial keratitis, pterygium, droplet-like keratitis), microwaves, infrared radiations, ionizing radiations or, laser radiations. Electrical burns are often a result of torture and give corneal stroma opacification. PMID:15687932

Borderie, V

2004-12-01

275

Curbing Inflammation in Burn Patients  

PubMed Central

Patients who suffer from severe burns develop metabolic imbalances and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) which can result in multiple organ failure and death. Research aimed at reducing the inflammatory process has yielded new insight into burn injury therapies. In this review, we discuss strategies used to curb inflammation in burn injuries and note that further studies with high quality evidence are necessary. PMID:23762773

Farina, Jayme A.; Rosique, Marina Junqueira; Rosique, Rodrigo G.

2013-01-01

276

A morphometric analysis of gullies scoured by post-fire progressively bulked debris flows in southwest Montana, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the fall of 2001, an intense thunderstorm in southwest Montana triggered many debris flows in the burned area of Sleeping Child Creek. In most instances, the debris flows cut deep gullies into previously unchannelized colluvial hollows and deposited large volumes of sediment onto the valley floor. The presence of rill networks above the gullies as well as the absence of landslide features indicate that the gullies were scoured by progressively bulked debris flows, a process in which dilute surface runoff becomes increasingly more laden with sediment until it transforms into a debris flow. In this contribution, we present a morphometric analysis of six of the gullies to better understand this relatively understudied process. We find that the locations of the rill heads and gully heads conform to slope-area thresholds that are characteristic of erosion by overland flow. Our data also suggest that the volumes of the debris flows increase exponentially with normalized drainage area, thus lending support to an assumption used in a recently proposed debris flow incision law. Finally, the debris flow fans have been relatively unaltered since deposition, suggesting that the valley may be currently aggrading while the hillslopes are being denuded.

Gabet, Emmanuel J.; Bookter, Andy

2008-04-01

277

Burning rubber  

SciTech Connect

Mario Andretti, look out You are about to be surpassed in the burning rubber category by a joint venture between Oxford Energy Company and General Electric. The two companies are building the first whole tire-to-energy facility in the US in Modesto, California. This $41 million facility does not require tires to be shredded prior to incineration; it has the capacity to burn 700 tires per minute. The electricity generated will be provided to a utility company. Oxford says there are two billion waste tires on the ground and this number is increasing by 220 million a year. Of that amount, only 18 million a year are recycled.

Not Available

1987-09-01

278

The Earth Could Burn.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Environmental educators are worried about the ultimate ecological threat--nuclear war, which could burn thousands of square miles, sterilize the soil, destroy 70 percent of the ozone layer letting in lethal ultraviolet rays, and cause severe radiation sickness. Educators must inform themselves, teach others, contact government representatives, and

Yarrow, Ruth

1982-01-01

279

Burn Teams and Burn Centers: The Importance of a Comprehensive Team Approach to Burn Care  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Advances in burn care have been colossal, but while extra work is needed, it is clear that the organized effort of burn teams can continue making improvements in survival rates and quality of life possible for patients. Burn patients are unique, representing the most severe model of trauma,33 and hence this necessitates treatment in the best facilities available for that endeavor. Burn centers have developed to meet these intricate needs but can only function productively and most efficiently through well organized, multifaceted, patient-centered teams in areas of clinical care and research. PMID:19793550

Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M.; Mecott-Rivera, Gabriel A.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Herndon, David N.

2009-01-01

280

Early-successional vegetation dynamics and microsite preferences following post-fire forest restoration in southwestern Oregon.  

E-print Network

??Reforestation-based restoration of severely burnt plantations is one of the primary management activities following wildfire on U.S. federal lands. Restoration effects on early-seral plant and (more)

Kayes, Lori J.

2008-01-01

281

A one year post-fire biogeochemical cycling record of a sandstone mountain fynbos ecosystem, South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cape Floristic Region (CFR) in southwestern South Africa is a Mediterranean-type ecosystem dominated by highly diverse and endemic fynbos vegetation. In this study, the chemistry of rainwater (total wet and dry deposition), stream water and soil saturated paste extracts of the sandstone fynbos biome of the Kogelberg Biosphere Reserve reveals how the cycling of Cl, Na, SO4,Mg, Ca and K varied over a one year period following a major fire event. Fire is a critical component of fynbos ecology, but the fynbos ecosystem is under threat as the fire return frequency increases as a result of human activities. The underlying bedrock geology of the sandstone fynbos biome is dominated by quartz-rich (>97 wt% SiO2) sandstone providing few nutrients to the overlying thin (2 to 20 cm), acidic soils. Additional sources of nutrients to the ecosystem are derived from windblown marine and dust (consisting of minerals, organic matter and fire ash) aerosols. Rainout of marine aerosols decreases away from the coast. The delivery of marine aerosols (Cl, Na, SO4and Mg) corresponds with summer southerly winds from the ocean and windblown dust (SO4,Mg, Ca and K) is delivered through winter northerly winds from the continental interior. Remineralization of organic matter, dissolution of fire ash and chemical weathering of clay minerals derived from the bedrock and from windblown minerals provide additional sources of nutrients to the vegetation. Salts accumulated within and on top of soil surfaces during the dry summer period are washed into streams during the wet winter months. Afromontane forests occur within deep rocky ravines cut by mountain streams and are protected from fire. The afromontane vegetation did not burn during the fire and benefited from the release of nutrients but regrowth of fynbos on open burnt slopes was slow and most of the released nutrients were lost via streams. Fynbos regrowth largely reflected the hydrology of the study area and corresponded to the pre-fire distribution of biomass with relatively low biomass on mountain ridges and slopes in comparison to lower slopes and valley floors, particularly along stream banks. The removal of above ground plant biomass increased streamflow from the reduction in transpiration and rainfall interception by plants. Hydrophobicity in soils increased following the fire leading to partially burnt organic plant debris being washed down slope to accumulate on the lower slopes and stream valley floors. The geochemical results of this study provide insights on the climate-hydrology-soil interactions of the fynbos ecosystem and its unusually rich biodiversity. The resetting of the ecosystem every 20 to 40 years by fire and the interaction between atmospheric processes and hydrology likely enhances its long term survival.

Bergh, E.; Compton, J. S.

2012-04-01

282

Hillslope Erosion Processes after High Severity Wildfires, Colorado Front Range Joseph H. Pietraszek1 and Lee H. MacDonald2  

E-print Network

Hillslope Erosion Processes after High Severity Wildfires, Colorado Front Range Joseph H-severity forest fires can increase soil erosion rates by two or more orders of magnitude with potentially severe post-fire erosion is driven by high-intensity summer convective thunderstorms in the first 2-3 years

MacDonald, Lee

283

[Psychological support to burn patients].  

PubMed

Severe burns and their treatment are among the most painful experiences a person can have. Emotional needs of burn patients have long been overshadowed by the focus on survival. Today, when the survival rate is much higher than in the past, the need of psychological and psychosocial engagement in working with victims of severe burns has emerged. A patient undergoing various stages of adjustment is faced with emotional challenges that accompany physical recovery. Adapting to burn injury involves a complex interplay between patient characteristics before the occurrence of burn, environmental factors, and the nature of the burns and medical care required. Adaptation implies adoption of new ideas about themselves and their body, new body image and new self image. Psychiatric and psychological treatment must be incorporated in burn treatment centers within a multidisciplinary treatment team. Psychology and psychotherapy should address the problem of loss, grief, acceptance of body image and self image, in terms of psychiatric conditions of delirium, acute stress disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression and other psychiatric disorders. Technical assistance and support should be provided to the patient family members. In some cases, psychosocial treatment never ends; it takes years, later related to rehabilitated burns. PMID:25326989

Vlastelica, Mirela

2014-10-01

284

Low-power laser-based carbon monoxide sensor for fire and post-fire detection using a compact Herriott multipass cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the anticipated retirement of Space Shuttles in the next few years, the re-supplying of short-lifetime sensors on the International Space Station (ISS) will be logistically more difficult. Carbon Monoxide (CO) is a well-known combustion product and its absence in a fire and post-fire environment is a reliable indicator for mission specialists that the air quality is at a safe to breathe level. We report on the development and performance of a prototype compact CO sensor, based on the PHOTONS platform [1], developed for the ISS based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). A CO absorption line at ~4285 cm-1 is targeted using a distributed-feedback (DFB) laser diode operating at room temperature. A custom designed Herriott multipass cell 16cm long, with an effective path length of 3.7 m is employed. Mechanical, optical and electronics systems are integrated into a compact package of dimensions measuring 12.4"x 3.4"x 5". Power consumption is less than 1 W, enabling prolonged battery life. A detection limit of 3 ppm is achieved when performing 40 second long temperature scans. A recent initial test at NASA-JSC was successful. Future improvements include the reduction of the sampling volume, scan time and an improved CO minimum detection limit.

Thomazy, David; So, Stephen; Kosterev, Anatoliy; Lewicki, Rafal; Dong, Lei; Sani, Ardalan A.; Tittel, Frank K.

2010-01-01

285

Global Burned Area and Biomass Burning Emissions from Small Fires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity analyses of key model parameters caused estimates of global burned area increases from small fires to vary between 24% and 54%. Biomass burning carbon emissions increased by 35% at a global scale when small fires were included in GFED3, from 1.9 Pg C/yr to 2.5 Pg C/yr. The contribution of tropical forest fires to year-to-year variability in carbon fluxes increased because small fires amplified emissions from Central America, South America and Southeast Asia-regions where drought stress and burned area varied considerably from year to year in response to El Nino-Southern Oscillation and other climate modes.

Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.

2012-01-01

286

Global burned area and biomass burning emissions from small fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity analyses of key model parameters caused estimates of global burned area increases from small fires to vary between 24% and 54%. Biomass burning carbon emissions increased by 35% at a global scale when small fires were included in GFED3, from 1.9 Pg C/yr to 2.5 Pg C/yr. The contribution of tropical forest fires to year-to-year variability in carbon fluxes increased because small fires amplified emissions from Central America, South America and Southeast Asiaregions where drought stress and burned area varied considerably from year to year in response to El Nino-Southern Oscillation and other climate modes.

Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; van der Werf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.

2012-12-01

287

Animal models in burn research.  

PubMed

Burn injury is a severe form of trauma affecting more than 2 million people in North America each year. Burn trauma is not a single pathophysiological event but a devastating injury that causes structural and functional deficits in numerous organ systems. Due to its complexity and the involvement of multiple organs, in vitro experiments cannot capture this complexity nor address the pathophysiology. In the past two decades, a number of burn animal models have been developed to replicate the various aspects of burn injury, to elucidate the pathophysiology, and to explore potential treatment interventions. Understanding the advantages and limitations of these animal models is essential for the design and development of treatments that are clinically relevant to humans. This review aims to highlight the common animal models of burn injury in order to provide investigators with a better understanding of the benefits and limitations of these models for translational applications. While many animal models of burn exist, we limit our discussion to the skin healing of mouse, rat, and pig. Additionally, we briefly explain hypermetabolic characteristics of burn injury and the animal model utilized to study this phenomena. Finally, we discuss the economic costs associated with each of these models in order to guide decisions of choosing the appropriate animal model for burn research. PMID:24714880

Abdullahi, A; Amini-Nik, S; Jeschke, M G

2014-09-01

288

Characterizing the primary material sources and dominant erosional processes for post-fire debris-flow initiation in a headwater basin using multi-temporal terrestrial laser scanning data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wildfire dramatically alters the hydrologic response of a watershed such that even modest rainstorms can produce hazardous debris flows. Relative to shallow landslides, the primary sources of material and dominant erosional processes that contribute to post-fire debris-flow initiation are poorly constrained. Improving our understanding of how and where material is eroded from a watershed during a post-fire debris-flow requires (1) precise measurements of topographic change to calculate volumetric measurements of erosion and deposition, and (2) the identification of relevant morphometrically defined process domains to spatially constrain these measurements of erosion and deposition. In this study, we combine the morphometric analysis of a steep, small (0.01 km2) headwater drainage basin with measurements of topographic change using high-resolution (2.5 cm) multi-temporal terrestrial laser scanning data made before and after a post-fire debris flow. The results of the morphometric analysis are used to define four process domains: hillslope-divergent, hillslope-convergent, transitional, and channelized incision. We determine that hillslope-divergent and hillslope-convergent process domains represent the primary sources of material over the period of analysis in the study basin. From these results we conclude that raindrop-impact induced erosion, ravel, surface wash, and rilling are the primary erosional processes contributing to post-fire debris-flow initiation in the small, steep headwater basin. Further work is needed to determine (1) how these results vary with increasing drainage basin size, (2) how these data might scale upward for use with coarser resolution measurements of topography, and (3) how these results change with evolving sediment supply conditions and vegetation recovery.

Staley, Dennis M.; Waslewicz, Thad A.; Kean, Jason W.

2014-01-01

289

Burning system and method  

SciTech Connect

A substantially smokeless burning system is discussed for burning waste material fuels. An elongated hollow burning chamber is supported in a generally horizontal orientation. An elongated fuel accumulation chamber and a hydraulic hoist driven ram in the chamber are adapted to push elongated volumes of new fuel into the lower front end of the burning chamber such that already burning fuel is pushed to the rear of the chamber. This establishes a charcoal burning zone which at least partially overlies a volatile burning zone such that incomplete combustion products from the volatile burning zone pass over and through the charcoal burning zone to be substantially burned before exiting at the rear of the burning chamber. Integral preheat and air delivery channels are formed in the walls of the burning chamber. A pipe section is mounted within the burning chamber for incinerating liquid waste materials.

Burton, E.B.

1984-02-07

290

Prolonged Effect of Severe Wildfires on Mercury and Other Volatiles in Forest Soils of the Lake Superior Region, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soils in Isle Royale National Park, Michigan and Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota show spatial patterns of depletion of total Hg, organic C, Se, total S, P, and Pb within areas of severe, stand-replacing wildfires that burned in 1936, approximately 65 years prior to our current study. The fires burned during a regional drought, were of high severity, and likely consumed a high percentage of organic forest-floor material (O-horizon). A "fire factor" is defined by positive correlations among Hg, C, Se, S, P, and Pb. A factor score for this six-element grouping derived from factor analysis was assigned to each sample. The scores show a high spatial correlation with the footprint of the 1936 fires in both parks, particularly for A-horizon soils. Because many of these elements are volatile, and are highly correlated with soil organic matter, observed depletions likely represent instantaneous atmospheric release during combustion of O-horizon soils coupled with decades-long reduction of organic matter on the forest floor and near-surface soils. Nearly complete combustion of the modern O-horizon would release roughly 1 mg Hg/m2 from the forest floor. Decades-long disturbance resulting from destruction of mature forests and gradual regrowth following fire also play an important role in Hg cycling. Destruction of a mature forest results in decreased deposition of Hg from litterfall as well as throughfall, which contributes Hg by wash-off of dry deposited Hg from foliar surfaces. Hg in forest soils may follow a fire-dependent cycle in which sudden Hg loss during fire is followed by a period of continued Hg loss as evasion exceeds sequestration in the early stand-replacement stage, finally to resume gradual buildup in later stages of forest regrowth. In the Lake Superior region this cycle exceeds 65 years in duration and is of the same magnitude as the fire return interval for this region. Forests that are controlled by fire-induced cycles of stand replacement may also be in continuous cycles of Hg sequestration and emission. Fire history appears to be a major determinant in the amount of Hg stored in forest soils. Fire almost certainly releases Hg to the atmosphere as forest floor material is burned and thus contributes to atmospheric Hg loads. Fire also appears to cleanse burned areas of Hg both by the atmospheric release during combustion and longer-term release during post-fire forest reorganization. Fire cleansing appears to persist for decades after severe fires and may ameliorate Hg contamination of aquatic food webs by decreasing the soil Hg load of burned watersheds.

Cannon, W. F.; Woodruff, L. G.

2003-12-01

291

Physical and psychiatric recovery from burns.  

PubMed

Burn injuries pose complex biopsychosocial challenges to recovery and improved comprehensive care. The physical and emotional sequelae of burns differ, depending on burn severity, individual resilience, and stage of development when they occur. Most burn survivors are resilient and recover, whereas some are more vulnerable and have complicated outcomes. Physical rehabilitation is affected by orthopedic, neurologic, and metabolic complications and disabilities. Psychiatric recovery is affected by pain, mental disorders, substance abuse, and burn stigmatization. Individual resilience, social supports, and educational or occupational achievements affect outcomes. PMID:25085093

Stoddard, Frederick J; Ryan, Colleen M; Schneider, Jeffrey C

2014-08-01

292

[Burning mouth syndrome (glossalgia)].  

PubMed

Burning mouth syndrome (glossalgia) is manifested by oral pin and tingling sensations, numbness and even burning and severe pains, more frequently in the tongue. Unpleasant sensations may involve the anterior two thirds of the tongue or be extended to the front part of the hard palate and the mucous membrane of the lower lip. This condition is characterized by "mirror" and "food dominant" symptoms, disordered salivation, dysgeusia, or psychological disorders. The disease shows a chronic course. Its etiology may be multifactorial. There are no universally accepted diagnostic criteria; the diagnosis of glossalgia is made to rule out all other causes. A thorough examination should be conducted to establish a differential diagnosis. Glossalgia occurs primarily in middle-aged and elderly people. Women get sick much more frequently than men of the same age. Glossalgia remains difficult to treat. Continuous symptomatic treatment and follow-up help relieve its symptoms. PMID:24757710

2014-01-01

293

Ram Burn Observations (RAMBO)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ram Burn Observations (RAMBO) is a Department of Defense experiment that observes shuttle Orbital Maneuvering System engine burns for the purpose of improving plume models. On STS-107 the appropriate sensors will observe selected rendezvous and orbit adjust burns.

2002-01-01

294

Planning a Prescribed Burn  

E-print Network

This leaflet explains how to plan for adequate fuel for a prescribed burn, control the fire, notify the proper authority, manage the burn itself, and conduct follow-up management. A ranch checklist for prescribed burning is included....

Hanselka, C. Wayne

2009-04-01

295

Burns, hypertrophic scar and galactorrhea  

PubMed Central

Abstract: An 18-year old woman was admitted to Motahari Burn Center suffering from 30% burns. Treatment modalities were carried out for the patient and she was discharged after 20 days. Three to four months later she developed hypertrophic scar on her chest and upper limbs. At the same time she developed galactorrhea in both breasts and had a disturbed menstrual cycle four months post-burn. On investigation, we found hyperprolactinemia and no other reasons for the high level of prolactin were detected. She received treatment for both the hypertrophic scar and the severe itching she was experiencing. After seven months, her prolactin level had decreased but had not returned to the normal level. It seems that refractory hypertrophic scar is related to the high level of prolactin in burns patients. PMID:23456048

Karimi, Hamid; Nourizad, Samad; Momeni, Mahnoush; Rahbar, Hosein; Momeni, Mazdak; Farhadi, Khosro

2013-01-01

296

Chemical Debridement of Burns  

PubMed Central

The development of effective, non-toxic (local and systemic) methods for the rapid chemical (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) debridement of third degree burns would dramatically reduce the morbidity and mortality of severely burned patients. Sepsis is still the major cause of death of patients with extensive deep burns. The removal of the devitalized tissue, without damage to unburned skin or skin only partially injured by burning, and in ways which would permit immediate (or very prompt) skin grafting, would lessen substantially the problems of sepsis, speed convalescence and the return of these individuals to society as effective human beings, and would decrease deaths. The usefulness and limitations of surgical excision for patients with extensive third degree burns are discussed. Chemical debridement lends itself to complementary use with surgical excision and has the potential advantage over surgical excision in not requiring anesthesia or a formal surgical operation. The authors' work with the chemical debridement of burns, in particular the use of Bromelain, indicates that this approach will likely achieve clinical usefulness. The experimental studies indicate that rapid controlled debridement, with minimal local and systemic toxicity, is possible, and that effective chemotherapeutic agents may be combined with the Bromelain without either interfering with the actions of the other. The authors believe that rapid (hours) debridement accomplished by the combined use of chemical debriding and chemotherapeutic agents will obviate the possibility of any increase in infection, caused by the use of chemical agents for debridement, as reported for Paraenzyme21 and Travase.39,48 It is possible that the short term use of systemic antibiotics begun just before and continued during, and for a short time after, the rapid chemical debridement may prove useful for the prevention of infection, as appears to be the case for abdominal operations of the clean-contaminated and contaminated types. ImagesFigs. 1a-c.Fig. 1b.Fig. 1c.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9a.Fig. 9B.Fig. 10.Fig. 11.Figs. 12a-c.Fig. 12b.Fig. 12c.Figs. 14a-c.Fig. 14b.Fig. 14c.Figs. 15a-c.Fig. 15b.Fig. 15c. PMID:4606330

Levenson, Stanley M.; Kan, Dorinne; Gruber, Charles; Crowley, Leo V.; Lent, Richard; Watford, Alvin; Seifter, Eli

1974-01-01

297

Landscape-scale effects of fire severity on mixed-conifer and red fir forest structure in Yosemite National Park  

USGS Publications Warehouse

While fire shapes the structure of forests and acts as a keystone process, the details of how fire modifies forest structure have been difficult to evaluate because of the complexity of interactions between fires and forests. We studied this relationship across 69.2 km2 of Yosemite National Park, USA, that was subject to 32 fires ?40 ha between 1984 and 2010. Forests types included ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), white fir-sugar pine (Abies concolor/Pinus lambertiana), and red fir (Abies magnifica). We estimated and stratified burned area by fire severity using the Landsat-derived Relativized differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (RdNBR). Airborne LiDAR data, acquired in July 2010, measured the vertical and horizontal structure of canopy material and landscape patterning of canopy patches and gaps. Increasing fire severity changed structure at the scale of fire severity patches, the arrangement of canopy patches and gaps within fire severity patches, and vertically within tree clumps. Each forest type showed an individual trajectory of structural change with increasing fire severity. As a result, the relationship between estimates of fire severity such as RdNBR and actual changes appears to vary among forest types. We found three arrangements of canopy patches and gaps associated with different fire severities: canopy-gap arrangements in which gaps were enclosed in otherwise continuous canopy (typically unburned and low fire severities); patch-gap arrangements in which tree clumps and gaps alternated and neither dominated (typically moderate fire severity); and open-patch arrangements in which trees were scattered across open areas (typically high fire severity). Compared to stands outside fire perimeters, increasing fire severity generally resulted first in loss of canopy cover in lower height strata and increased number and size of gaps, then in loss of canopy cover in higher height strata, and eventually the transition to open areas with few or no trees. However, the estimated fire severities at which these transitions occurred differed for each forest type. Our work suggests that low severity fire in red fir forests and moderate severity fire in ponderosa pine and white fir-sugar pine forests would restore vertical and horizontal canopy structures believed to have been common prior to the start of widespread fire suppression in the early 1900s. The fusion of LiDAR and Landsat data identified post-fire structural conditions that would not be identified by Landsat alone, suggesting a broad applicability of combining Landsat and LiDAR data for landscape-scale structural analysis for fire management.

Kane, Van R.; Lutz, James A.; Roberts, Susan L.; Smith, Douglas F.; McGaughey, Robert J.; Povak, Nicholas A.; Brooks, Matthew L.

2013-01-01

298

Direct and indirect responses of tallgrass prairie butterflies to prescribed burning  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fire is an important tool in the conservation and restoration of tallgrass prairie ecosystems. We investigated how both the vegetation composition and butterfly community of tallgrass prairie remnants changed in relation to the elapsed time (in months) since prescribed fire. Butterfly richness and butterfly abundance were positively correlated with the time since burn. Habitat-specialist butterfly richness recovery time was greater than 70 months post-fire and habitat-specialist butterfly abundance recovery time was approximately 50 months post-fire. Thus, recovery times for butterfly populations after prescribed fires in our study were potentially longer than those previously reported. We used Path Analysis to evaluate the relative contributions of the direct effect of time since fire and the indirect effects of time since fire through changes in vegetation composition on butterfly abundance. Path models highlighted the importance of the indirect effects of fire on habitat features, such as increases in the cover of bare ground. Because fire return intervals on managed prairie remnants are often less than 5 years, information on recovery times for habitat-specialist insect species are of great importance. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Vogel, J.A.; Koford, R.R.; Debinski, D.M.

2010-01-01

299

Burns: an update on current pharmacotherapy  

PubMed Central

Introduction The world-wide occurrence of burn injuries remains high despite efforts to reduce injury incidence through public awareness campaigns and improvements in living conditions. In 2004, almost 11 million people experienced burns severe enough to warrant medical treatment. Advances over the past several decades in aggressive resuscitation, nutrition, excision, and grafting have reduced morbidity and mortality. Incorporation of pharmacotherapeutics into treatment regimens may further reduce complications of severe burn injuries. Areas covered Severe burn injuries, as well as other forms of stress and trauma, trigger a hypermetabolic response that, if left untreated, impedes recovery. In the past two decades, use of anabolic agents, beta adrenergic receptor antagonists, and anti-hyperglycemic agents has successfully counteracted post-burn morbidities including catabolism, the catecholamine-mediated response, and insulin resistance. Here we review the most up-to-date information on currently used pharmacotherapies in the treatment of these sequelae of severe burns and the insights that have expanded our understanding of the pathophysiology of severe burns. Expert opinion Existing drugs offer promising advances in the care of burn injuries. Continued gains in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving the hypermetabolic response will enable the application of additional existing drugs to be broadened to further attenuate the hypermetabolic response. PMID:23121414

Rojas, Yesinia; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Radhakrishnan, Ravi S.; Herndon, David N.

2013-01-01

300

Can salvage logging affect seed dispersal by birds into burned forests?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recovery of vegetation in Mediterranean ecosystems after wildfire is mostly a result of direct regeneration, since the same species existing before the fire regenerate on-site by seeding or resprouting. However, the possibility of plant colonization by dispersal of seeds from unburned areas remains poorly studied. We addressed the role of the frugivorous, bird-dependent seed dispersal (seed rain) of fleshy-fruited plants in a burned and managed forest in the second winter after a fire, before on-site fruit production had begun. We also assessed the effect on seed rain of different microhabitats resulting from salvage logging (erosion barriers, standing snags, open areas), as well as the microhabitats of unlogged patches and an unburned control forest, taking account of the importance of perches as seed rain sites. We found considerable seed rain by birds in the burned area. Seeds, mostly from Olive trees Olea europaea and Evergreen pistaches Pistacia lentiscus, belonged to plants fruiting only in surrounding unburned areas. Seed rain was heterogeneous, and depended on microhabitat, with the highest seed density in the unburned control forest but closely followed by the wood piles of erosion barriers. In contrast, very low densities were found under perches of standing snags. Furthermore, frugivorous bird richness seemed to be higher in the erosion barriers than elsewhere. Our results highlight the importance of this specific post-fire management in bird-dependent seed rain and also may suggest a consequent heterogeneous distribution of fleshy-fruited plants in burned and managed areas. However, there needs to be more study of the establishment success of dispersed seeds before an accurate assessment can be made of the role of bird-mediated seed dispersal in post-fire regeneration.

Rost, J.; Pons, P.; Bas, J. M.

2009-09-01

301

Comparison of tokamak burn cycle options  

SciTech Connect

Experimental confirmation of noninductive current drive has spawned a number of suggestions as to how this technique can be used to extend the fusion burn period and improve the reactor prospects of tokamaks. Several distinct burn cycles, which employ various combinations of Ohmic and noninductive current generation, are possible, and we will study their relative costs and benefits for both a commerical reactor as well as an INTOR-class device. We begin with a review of the burn cycle options.

Ehst, D.A.; Brooks, J.N.; Cha, Y.; Evans, K. Jr.; Hassanein, A.M.; Kim, S.; Majumdar, S.; Misra, B.; Stevens, H.C.

1985-01-01

302

Gram-Negative Bacterial Infection in Thigh Abscess Can Migrate to Distant Burn Depending on Burn Depth  

E-print Network

Sepsis remains the major cause of death in patients with major burn injuries. In the present investigation we evaluated the interaction between burn injuries of varying severity and preexisting distant infection. We used ...

Hamrahi, Victoria

303

Pathophysiology of primary burning mouth syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is severe, disabling and chronic intraoral pain condition for which no local or systemic cause can be found and clinical examination is normal. It mostly affects elderly citizens, especially postmenopausal women with prevalence up to 1218%. In addition to spontaneous burning pain, patients may complain of taste alterations. Recent neurophysiologic, psychophysical, neuropathological, and functional imaging

Satu K. Jskelinen

304

Training and burn care in rural India  

PubMed Central

Burn care is a huge challenge in India, having the highest female mortality globally due to flame burns. Burns can happen anywhere, but are more common in the rural region, affecting the poor. Most common cause is flame burns, the culprit being kerosene and flammable flowing garments worn by the women. The infrastructure of healthcare network is good but there is a severe resource crunch. In order to bring a positive change, there will have to be more trained personnel willing to work in the rural areas. Strategies for prevention and training of burn team are discussed along with suggestions on making the career package attractive and satisfying. This will positively translate into improved outcomes in the burns managed in the rural region and quick transfer to appropriate facility for those requiring specialised attention. PMID:21321647

Chamania, Shobha

2010-01-01

305

Lessons learned from an emergency release of a post-fire debris-flow hazard assessment for the 2009 Station fire, San Gabriel Mountains, southern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2009 Station fire burned through portions of the steep, rugged terrain of the San Gabriel Mountains in southern California with a known history of producing large magnitude debris flows following fires. In response to the emergency, the U.S. Geological Survey released an assessment of debris-flow hazards as maps showing estimates of the probability and volume of debris-flow production from

S. H. Cannon; S. C. Perry; D. M. Staley

2010-01-01

306

Effects of partial post-fire salvage harvesting on vegetation communities in the boreal mixedwood forest region of northeastern Alberta, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined forest structure and understory vascular plant communities of aspen (Populus tremuloides)-dominated mixedwood boreal forest in Alberta, Canada that had been burned by wildfire and then subjected to one of three treatments (salvage harvested with single-tree retention, salvage harvested with patch-retention, unsalvaged control). Both salvage harvesting treatments resulted in greater cover of regenerating aspen saplings, as compared to unsalvaged

S. Ellen Macdonald

2007-01-01

307

Burning system and method  

SciTech Connect

A substantially smokeless burning system for burning waste material fuels. An elongated hollow burning chamber is supported in a generally horizontal orientation with a slight degree of upward tilt from front to rear. An elongated fuel accumulation chamber and a hydraulic hoist driven ram in the chamber are adapted to push elongated volumes of new fuel into the lower front end of the burning chamber such that already burning fuel is pushed to the rear of the chamber. This establishes a charcoal burning zone which at least partially overlies a volatile burning zone such that incomplete combustion products from the volatile burning zone pass over and through the charcoal burning zone to be substantially burned before exiting at the rear of the burning chamber. The burning chamber is formed of a plurality of pipe sections which are molded of refractory material in a concrete pipe making machine. Integral preheat and air delivery channels are formed in the walls of the burning chamber during the molding process.

Burton, R.E.

1982-05-18

308

Burning Rate Emulator  

NASA Video Gallery

The Burning Rate Emulator is a gas fuel investigation attempting to emulate the burning of solids to improve our understanding of materials''flammability over a wide range of conditions. The approa...

309

40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

2011-07-01

310

40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

2010-07-01

311

40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

2011-07-01

312

40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

2010-07-01

313

40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

2013-07-01

314

40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

2013-07-01

315

40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

2012-07-01

316

40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

2012-07-01

317

Exercise behaviors after burn injury.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate exercise behaviors in adult burn survivors and to identify barriers to exercise in this population. A two-page questionnaire developed by the authors was administered on a single occasion to adults attending the ambulatory burns clinic at a metropolitan hospital. Data from 68 adult burn survivors were analyzed. Within this cohort, 59% of subjects reported exercising several times per week or more and the remaining 41% exercised once per week or less. There was no correlation among exercise frequency and age, TBSA, or hospital length of stay. Walking was the most common type of exercise, and subjects reported lower compliance with stretching and strengthening exercises. Physical condition and motivation were identified as the main barriers to exercise. Although this preliminary study reveals that a higher proportion of burn survivors engage in exercise compared with their healthy counterparts, a substantial number are exercising just once per week or less, below the recommended guidelines to improve physical fitness. Physical and occupational therapists play an important role in providing exercise prescription and education, as well as addressing barriers to exercise in burn survivors. The potential for further research into physical activity across all domains of life using a validated questionnaire is identified. PMID:23816997

Baldwin, Jennifer; Li, Frank

2013-01-01

318

Prevention-oriented epidemiology of burns in Ardabil provincial burn centre, Iran.  

PubMed

In preventing burns, it is essential to know how they occur and which population groups, environments and heating appliances can be targeted for prevention work. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological characteristics of burns leading to hospitalisation in the northwest of Iran with a focus on the pre-event phase of injury. Between 2007 and 2008, 237 burn victims hospitalised in Ardabil provincial burn centre were enrolled into a descriptive study. A questionnaire was filled in during hospital stay for all patients, with a focus on obtaining information necessary for prevention purposes. Males constituted 56% of victims. Mean age was 22 years. The most severe burns occurred between the ages of 18 and 32 years, and were mainly flame related. Both in case of flame and non-flame burns, women suffered more severe burns and mortality than men. However, with respect to non-flame burns of which most were scalds, the majority of the severe cases involved children under the age of 5 years. More than 80% of burns occurred at home. The kitchen was the main place of injury in 47% of cases, followed by living rooms in 28%. Nearly 45% of burns were scalds and 47% were flame burns. The main container was the samovar in 37%, followed by kettles in 32% and pots in 22%. The overturning of a container was the major mechanism of contact with hot liquids in 86%. Bumping into a container was the main scenario of a scald injury, constituting nearly 70% of the cases. The difference between flame and non-flame burns in the distribution of burns in extremities was not statistically significant, but head and neck burns were 3.7 times more likely to be caused by flame. The two most important injury patterns, more common among women, were getting burned while using a camping gas stove or while refilling the chamber of kerosene-burning appliances without first extinguishing them. Domestic burns among children and young women are a priority in injury-prevention programmes. Camping gas stoves, valors (traditional dual-purpose heating and cooking appliances) and samovars can be considered as target appliances for burn-specific home-safety-promotion efforts in this area or in similar settings. PMID:21131133

Sadeghi Bazargani, H; Arshi, S; Ekman, R; Mohammadi, R

2011-05-01

319

CURRICULUM VITAE Diana L. Doan-Crider, Ph.D.  

E-print Network

Science and Management Faculty Member & Researcher: 2007�present � Post-fire assessment and burn severity (USDA) Consultant: 2010-2011 � Assessment of education, experience, and employment model recruiting negotiation for private landowners, r

320

Emergency assessment of post-fire debris-flow hazards for the 2013 Rim Fire, Stanislaus National Forest and Yosemite National Park, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wildfire can significantly alter the hydrologic response of a watershed to the extent that even modest rainstorms can produce dangerous flash floods and debris flows. In this report, empirical models are used to predict the probability and magnitude of debris-flow occurrence in response to a 10-year rainstorm for the 2013 Rim fire in Yosemite National Park and the Stanislaus National Forest, California. Overall, the models predict a relatively high probability (6080 percent) of debris flow for 28 of the 1,238 drainage basins in the burn area in response to a 10-year recurrence interval design storm. Predictions of debris-flow volume suggest that debris flows may entrain a significant volume of material, with 901 of the 1,238 basins identified as having potential debris-flow volumes greater than 10,000 cubic meters. These results of the relative combined hazard analysis suggest there is a moderate likelihood of significant debris-flow hazard within and downstream of the burn area for nearby populations, infrastructure, wildlife, and water resources. Given these findings, we recommend that residents, emergency managers, and public works departments pay close attention to weather forecasts and National-Weather-Service-issued Debris Flow and Flash Flood Outlooks, Watches and Warnings and that residents adhere to any evacuation orders.

Staley, Dennis M.

2013-01-01

321

Burn-induced Bone Loss  

PubMed Central

Objective: The purpose of this article is to familiarize the reader with the issue of bone loss that accompanies severe burn injury. Why is this important? How does it happen? How can we treat it? Methods: The published findings on this subject are reviewed and integrated into a conceptual framework. Results: Bone loss occurs quickly following a severe burn, is sustained, and increases the risk of postburn fracture. The likely mechanisms responsible are the increase in endogenous glucocorticoid production resulting from the stress response and resorptive cytokines resulting from the systemic inflammatory response and likely aggravated by progressive vitamin D deficiency. Calcium metabolism is also disrupted as the patients develop hypocalcemic hypoparathyroidism likely due to an upregulation of the parathyroid calcium-sensing receptor, possibly due to inflammatory cytokine stimulation. Treatment is achieved by use of anabolic agents and vitamin D supplementation. Studies of acute administration of the antiresorptive agent pamidronate are also promising. Conclusion: Postburn bone loss should be looked for in patients with a burn injury of 40% or greater total body surface area. The cause is inherent to the adaptive mechanisms following burn injury. Methods are available to treat this condition. PMID:16921418

Klein, Gordon L.

2006-01-01

322

Pediatric burn injuries  

PubMed Central

Pediatric burns comprise a major mechanism of injury, affecting millions of children worldwide, with causes including scald injury, fire injury, and child abuse. Burn injuries tend to be classified based on the total body surface area involved and the depth of injury. Large burn injuries have multisystemic manifestations, including injuries to all major organ systems, requiring close supportive and therapeutic measures. Management of burn injuries requires intensive medical therapy for multi-organ dysfunction/failure, and aggressive surgical therapy to prevent sepsis and secondary complications. In addition, pain management throughout this period is vital. Specialized burn centers, which care for these patients with multidisciplinary teams, may be the best places to treat children with major thermal injuries. This review highlights the major components of burn care, stressing the pathophysiologic consequences of burn injury, circulatory and respiratory care, surgical management, and pain management of these often critically ill patients. PMID:23181206

Krishnamoorthy, Vijay; Ramaiah, Ramesh; Bhananker, Sanjay M

2012-01-01

323

Soil Water Repellency and Groundcover Effects on Infiltration in Response to Prescribed Burning of Steeply-Sloped Sagebrush Hillslopes. Weigel, Pierson, Kormos, Williams, Pierce  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rangeland managers and scientists are in need of predictive tools to accurately simulate post-fire hydrologic responses and provide hydrologic risk assessment. Rangeland hydrologic modeling has advanced in recent years; however, model advancements have largely been associated with data from gently-sloping sites and have not included the effects of soil water repellency on runoff generation. This study seeks to enhance current understanding of post-fire hydrologic responses on steeply-sloped sagebrush rangelands, emphasizing the influences of soil water repellency and ground cover. The Northwest Watershed Research Center conducted small plot rainfall simulations on a sagebrush-dominated mountainous site in the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed, Idaho, USA. This site is characterized by steep slopes, fine grained volcanic soils and a northeasterly aspect which affords it more moisture than the majority of the surrounding hill slopes due to drifting snow. Soil water repellency was assessed using the water drop penetration procedure and ground cover was measured using point frame methodologies. Experiments were conducted immediately before and one year following prescribed burning of the site (2007 and 2008 respectively). The study results explain the collective interaction of soil water repellency and ground cover effects on infiltration and runoff under burned and unburned conditions and provide insights for expanding and improving process- based rangeland hillslope hydrologic models.

Weigel, A. B.; Pierson, F. B.; Kormos, P. R.; Williams, C. J.; Pierce, J. L.

2008-12-01

324

Project Burn Prevention: outcome and implications.  

PubMed Central

Project Burn Prevention was designed and implemented to determine the ability of a public education program to increase awareness about burn hazards and reduce the incidence and severity of burn injuries. Media messages were transmitted to residents of a large metropolitan area; separate school and community interventions were implemented in two demographically similar communities within the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA). A second metropolitan area and two of its communities served as control sites. Messages for specific, high-risk age groups emphasized flame burns because of their severity and scalds because of their frequency. Knowledge gains were demonstrable only as a result of the school program. Neither the school program nor the media campaign reduced burn incidence or severity; the community intervention may have brought about a moderate, temporary reduction in injuries. Multiplicity of messages, brevity of the campaign, and separation of the interventions are among possible reasons for the program's failure to significantly reduce burn injuries. Education for personal responsibility is not sufficient. Product modification and environmental redesign must be instituted through education and legislation for successful control of burn injuries. PMID:7058963

McLoughlin, E; Vince, C J; Lee, A M; Crawford, J D

1982-01-01

325

Hospital costs associated with pediatric burn injury.  

PubMed

Modern burn care is a resource intensive endeavor requiring specialized equipment, personnel, and facilities in order to provide optimum care. The costs associated with burn injury to both patients and society as a whole can be multifaceted and large. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between hospital costs, patient characteristics, and injury factors in a cohort of pediatric patients admitted to a regional burn center. We performed a review of the hospital charges accrued by pediatric patients (age <16 years) admitted to our burn center from 1994 to 2004 and explored the relationship between baseline patient, injury and hospital course characteristics and total costs. Hospital charges were converted to 2005 dollar costs using an inflation index and a cost to charge ratio. Univariate and multivariate regressions were performed to identify the factors most significantly associated with cost. In addition, we performed a subset cost analysis for patients with burns more than 20% TBSA. A total of 1443 pediatric patients (age <16) were admitted to our burn center during the study period. The overall mean hospital cost in 2005 dollars was dollars 9026 (SD = dollars 25,483; median = dollars 2138). Area of full thickness burn was the only patient or injury factor significantly associated with greater hospital costs (P < .05) on multivariate analysis. No single anatomic area was associated with increased hospital costs when adjusted for total overall burn size. Injury severity was the most significant factor impacting index hospitalization costs following pediatric burn injury. Further studies defining the long-term societal costs impact of burn injury are needed as are studies that evaluate the impact of burn injury on quality of life. PMID:18535469

Klein, Matthew B; Hollingworth, William; Rivara, Frederick P; Kramer, C Bradley; Askay, Shelley W; Heimbach, David M; Gibran, Nicole S

2008-01-01

326

Vegetation dynamics and exotic plant invasion following high severity crown fire in a southern California conifer forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early post-fire vegetation dynamics following large, severe forest fires are largely unknown for the southern California mountains\\u000a owing to historic fire suppression. Vegetation in 38 forest stands was surveyed (2004, 2005, and 2007) following the 2003\\u000a Cedar Fire in the Cuyamaca Mountains, Peninsular Ranges, San Diego County, California, USA. Each stand was sampled using four\\u000a 10-m radius plots for the

Janet Franklin

2010-01-01

327

Outpatient burn management.  

PubMed

Most burn patients have injuries that may be treated on an outpatient basis. Newer silver-based dressings and improved medications for the treatment of pain and pruritus have led to further growth of outpatient care. The final barrier of distance from the burn center will decrease with the growth of telemedicine. It is incumbent for burn centers to develop outpatient guidelines to facilitate this growth of outpatient care. PMID:25085094

Warner, Petra M; Coffee, Tammy L; Yowler, Charles J

2014-08-01

328

WHAT, HOW, AND HOW MUCH SHOULD BURN PATIENTS BE FED?  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS The hypermetabolic response to severe burn injury is characterized by hyperdynamic circulation, profound metabolic, physiologic, catabolic and immune system derangements. Failure to satisfy overwhelming energy and protein requirements after, and during severe burn injury, results in multi-organ dysfunction, increased susceptibility to infection, and death. Attenuation of the hypermetabolic response by various pharmacologic modalities is emerging as an essential component of the management of severe burn patients. This review focuses on the more recent advances in therapeutic strategies to attenuate the hypermetabolic response and its post-burn associated insulin resistance. Modulation of the response by early excision and grafting of burn wounds, environmental thermoregulation, early and continuous enteral feeding with high protein-high carbohydrate feedings and pharmacologic treatments that stimulate anabolism and oppose catabolism have markedly decreased morbidity in the acute phase post severe burn injury. PMID:21621699

Williams, Felicia N.; Branski, Ludwik K.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Herndon, David N.

2011-01-01

329

THE EFFECT OF HALOGENATED HYDROCARBONS ON THE BURNING OF URANIUM AND ZIRCONIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was found that the addition of several percent of any of a score of ; halogenated hydrocarbons to air in which uranium or zirconium foil is burning ; will markedly lower both the burning propagation velocity and the maximum burning ; temperature. For example, the addition of 2% CHCl will lower the burning ; propagation velocity of 0.013 x

L. Leibowitz; J. G. Schnizlein; L. W. Mishler

1963-01-01

330

Burns and military clothing.  

PubMed

Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under high heat loads in the laboratory, combat clothing can ignite, but there is little evidence that clothing ignition is a common occurrence in military burn casualties. Thermoplastic materials have many benefits in civil and military clothing. There is little objective evidence that they exacerbate burns, or complicate burn management. Their use in military clothing must be based on objective evidence, not hearsay. PMID:11307683

McLean, A D

2001-02-01

331

Can climate change increase fire severity independent of fire intensity?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a growing realization that regional warming may be linked to increasing fire size and frequency in forests of the western US, a trend occurring in concert with increased fuel loads in forests that historically experienced frequent surface fires. Recent studies have also suggested that warming temperatures are correlated with increased fire severity (post-fire tree mortality). The mechanism whereby fire severity might increase in response to warming is presumed to be increasing probabilities of hazardous fire weather (higher air temperature, lower relative humidity and fuel moisture). While likely true, this view does not consider the biological context of the fire event. Here we present evidence that trees subject to environmental stress are more sensitive to subsequent fire damage. Tree growth records, used as an index of health for individuals, show that for two tree species (Abies concolor and Pinus lambertiana) in the Sierra Nevada of California poor growth leads to increased probabilities of mortality following fire. Plot-based fire monitoring databases from over 300 sites across the western US demonstrate that indices of drought stress are strongly predictive of post-fire tree survivorship. In sum, these results suggest that recent climatic trends may lead to a de facto increase in fire severity, even when there is no change in fire intensity.

van Mantgem, P.; Nesmith, J.; Keifer, M.; Knapp, E.; Flint, A. L.; Flint, L. E.

2013-12-01

332

Characteristics of bath-related burns in Japan.  

PubMed

A retrospective study of bath-related burn injuries was carried out at our institution. A total of 216 patients with burns were admitted between 1982 and 1996. Bath-related burns were identified in 58 patients (26.9%). The number of patients with bath-related burns increased throughout the study period. The percentage body surface area burned was 43.8 +/- 25.7% in the bath-related burn group and 27.3 +/- 28.3% in the bath-unrelated burn group. This difference was significant. There was no significant difference between the two groups with respect to mortality rate. The mechanism by which the patients sustained a bath-related burn clearly differed according to age. The percentage of burns which are bath-related and the severity of bath-related burns are higher in Japan than in any other country. This can be attributed to lifestyle, bathing systems, bathroom architecture, housing conditions and an increase in the elderly population. These burns can be prevented. Education based on this study will play a critical role in the prevention of the bath-related burn injuries. PMID:10323615

Fukunishi, K; Maruyama, J; Takahashi, H; Kitagishi, H; Uejima, T; Maruyama, K; Sakata, I

1999-05-01

333

78 FR 34031 - Burned Area Emergency Response, Forest Service  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...implementing post-fire emergency response actions on National Forest System (NFS...issues affect the Forest Service BAER program...resides in the fire operations budget...the Interior and Forest Service for cooperation in fire management...

2013-06-06

334

Chemical burn or reaction  

MedlinePLUS

... the skin has come in contact with the toxic substance Rash , blisters , burns on the skin Unconsciousness ... locked cabinet. Avoid mixing different products that contain toxic chemicals such as ammonia and bleach. The mixture ...

335

Burns (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... hot faucet to an accidental tipping of a coffee cup, burns are a potential hazard in every ... culprit (from steam, hot bath water, tipped-over coffee cups, hot foods, cooking fluids, etc.) contact with ...

336

Treating and Preventing Burns  

MedlinePLUS

... injury worse. For anything more serious than a superficial burn, or if redness and pain continue for ... or ignition sources. Lower the temperature of your water heater to below 120 degrees Fahrenheit (48.9 ...

337

American Burn Association  

MedlinePLUS

... center and disaster related information View the ABA U.S. Regional Map Click above to access the new ... and Exhibitor Prospectus Now Available! 2014 Western Region Burn Conference November 6-8, 2014 | Las ...

338

Lava Flow Burning Vegetation  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Lava flow activity continues to burn vegetation in the kipuka adjacent to the trail, causing the viewing trail to be closed beyond the trailhead. The new viewing area is still very close to the active flows. ...

2010-06-18

339

Burning mouth syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic disease characterized by burning of the oral mucosa associated with a sensation\\u000a of dry mouth and\\/or taste alterations. BMS occurs more frequently among postmenopausal women. The pathophysiology of the disease\\u000a is still unknown, and evidence is conflicting; although some studies suggest a central origin, others point to a peripheral\\u000a neuropathic origin. The efficacy

Jos G. Speciali; Juliana Stuginski-Barbosa

2008-01-01

340

Multispectral Imaging Of Burn Wounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research program successfully developed a real-time video imaging system (the Imaging Burn Depth Indicator, or IBDI) which can discriminate areas of burn wounds expected to heal in three weeks or less from the day of injury from those areas not expected to heal in that time period. The analysis can be performed on or about the third day post-burn on debrided burn wounds. Early evaluation of burn healing probability is a crucial factor in the decision to tangentially excise the burn wound. The IBDI measures the reflectivity of the burn wound in the red, green, and near infrared wavelength bands, which data correlate with burn healing probability. The instrument uses an algorithm established in an earlier study to translate the optical data into burn healing probabilities. The IBDI produces two types of images: a true-color image of the burn and a false-color image of the burn. The false-color image consists of up to four colors, each of which indicates a distinct range of probability that the area of the burn so colored will heal within 21 days. Over 100 burn wound sites were studied. Burn sites were evaluated on day three post-burn by our instrument and by the attending physician. Of 55 sites considered to be of intermediate depth, the IBDI predicted the healing outcome accurately in 84% of the cases. By comparison, the predictions of burn surgeons supervising the care of these patients were accurate in 62% of the cases.

Afromowitz, Martin A.; Callis, James B.; Heimbach, David M.; DeSoto, Larry A.; Norton, Mary K.

1988-06-01

341

Can Consumers Escape the Market? Emancipatory Illuminations from Burning Man  

Microsoft Academic Search

This ethnography explores the emancipatory dynamics of the Burning Man project, a one-week-long antimarket event. Practices used at Burning Man to distance consumers from the market include discourses supporting communality and disparaging market logics, alternative exchange practices, and positioning consumption as self-expressive art. Findings reveal several communal practices that distance consumption from broader rhetorics of efficiency and rationality. Although Burning

Robert V. Kozinets

2002-01-01

342

Sepsis in burned patients.  

PubMed

A prospective study was conducted from June 2001 to May 2002 at the Burns Unit of Hospital Regional da Asa Norte, Braslia, Brazil. During the period of the study, 252 patients were treated at the Burns Unit, 49 (19.4%) developed clinically and microbiologically proven sepsis. Twenty-six (53.1%) were males and 23 (46.9%) females with a mean age of 22 years (range one to 89 years) and mean burned body surface area of 37.7 +/- 18.4% (range 7 to 84%). Forty-three patients had flame burns, five a scald and one an electric burn. These 49 patients had a total of 62 septic episodes. Forty (81.6%) patients had only one and nine (18.4%) had up to three episodes of sepsis. Thirty (61.2%) patients had their first septicemic episode either earlier or by one week postburn. Out of 62 septic episodes, 58 were due to bacteria and four due to Candida sp. The most common bacteria isolated from blood culture were Staphylococccus aureus, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Eleven (18.9%) episodes were due to oxacillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Acinetobacter baumannii was sensitive to ampicillin/sulbactam in 71.4% and to imipenem in 85.7% of the cases. The primary foci of sepsis were the burn wound in 15 (24.2%) episodes. The most common clinical findings of sepsis in these patients were fever, dyspnea, hypotension and oliguria. The most common laboratory findings of these patients were anemia, leukocytosis, hypoalbuminemia and thrombocytopenia. Twelve (24.5%) patients died. The appropriate knowledge of clinical, epidemiological, laboratorial and microbiological aspects of sepsis in burned patients permits an adequate diagnosis and treatment of this complication. PMID:15049101

de Macedo, Jefferson Lessa; Rosa, Simone C; Castro, Cleudson

2003-01-01

343

Case of extreme growth deceleration after burns.  

PubMed

Studies have demonstrated deceleration in both weight and height following burns in children. It is expected patients will display catch up growth and return to normal weight within three years but continued height deficiency may remain in cases of severe burns. We describe a case of severe growth retardation of 8 years old orphan child from Ukraine who suffered of burn less than 40% of total body surface area when he was a 3 years of life. His case was complicated by domestic abuse, neglect and limited medical care. He initially presented to the United States for surgical care of his contractures but his treatment quickly focused on his profound growth retardation. Despite aggressive nutritional supplementation and evaluation he did not demonstrate any weight gain. PMID:24268621

Bline, Cheryl; Dylewski, Maggie L; Driscoll, Daniel N; Fuzaylov, Gennadiy

2014-05-01

344

Combining Landsat TM multispectral satellite imagery and different modelling approaches for mapping post-fire erosion changes in a Mediterranean site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

South European countries are naturally vulnerable to wildfires. Their natural resources such as soil, vegetation and water may be severely affected by wildfires, causing an imminent environmental deterioration due to the complex interdependence among biophysical components. Soil surface water erosion is a natural process essential for soil formation that is affected by such interdependences. Accelerated erosion due to wildfires, constitutes a major restrictive factor for ecosystem sustainability. In 2007, South European countries were severely affected by wildfires, with more than 500,000 hectares of land burnt in that year alone, well above the average of the last 30 years. The present work examines the changes in spatial variability of soil erosion rates as a result of a wildfire event that took place in Greece in 2007, one of the most devastating years in terms of wildfire hazards. Regional estimates of soil erosion rates before and after the fire outbreak were derived from the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE, Renard et al. 1991) and the Pan-European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment model (PESERA, Kirkby, 1999; Kirkby et al., 2000). Inputs for both models included climatic, land-use, soil type, topography and land use management data. Where appropriate, both models were also fed with input data derived from the analysis of LANDSAT TM satellite imagery available in our study area, acquired before and shortly after the fire suppression. Our study was compiled and performed in a GIS environment. In overall, the loss of vegetation from the fire outbreak caused a substantial increase of soil erosion rates in the affected area, particularly towards the steep slopes. Both tested models were compared to each other and noticeable differences were observed in the soil erosion predictions before and after the fire event. These are attributed to the different parameterization requirements of the 2 models. This quantification of sediment supply through the river network provides also important insights regarding both the present-day sedimentation processes in the study area as well as the potential flooding hazard. Our work underpins that valuable contribution of remote sensing technology, combined with modeling approaches for depicting the spatial distribution of changes in erosion rates after the wildfire. KEYWORDS: erosion risk, RUSLE, PESERA, wildland fires, LANDSAT TM, remote sensing, Geographical Information Systems, Greece.

Petropoulos, George P.; Kairis, Orestis; Karamesouti, Mina; Papanikolaou, Ioannis D.; Kosmas, Constantinos

2013-04-01

345

Ethnicity and etiology in burn trauma.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to retrieve data from the British Columbia Professional Firefighters Burn Unit registry, with a focus on ethnicity and how it is involved in burn trauma. It is hypothesized that mechanism, severity, and other patient characteristics are significantly different among different ethnic groups. Furthermore, it is believed that these data can be used to augment burn prevention strategies. Data for burn patients admitted from 1979 to 2009 were reviewed from the burn registry. The main focus was with differences seen among the four main ethnicities throughout the analysis, Caucasian, Aboriginal, Asian, and Indoasian, reflecting the population distribution of the region. Age and sex were also considered when looking at burn mechanism, severity, contributing and copresenting factors. Caucasians were the largest group (79.1%) and included the largest male:female ratio (3.3:1), with high numbers of flame injury (53.9%). Caucasians presented with the highest mortality (6.6% compared with 4.1% for all other ethnicities; P < .006). Asian patients (8.1%) showed significantly higher occurrences of urban (64%) and workplace (28.9%) injuries with a larger proportion of scald injury (38.9%). Indoasian patients included larger numbers of women (36.4%) and household scald injuries (33.9%) whereas Aboriginals suffered the most flame injuries (60.1%) in rural areas with more frequent contributing factors such as alcohol. The study found multiple significant differences in the burn injury population when segmented by ethnicity. Though the exact reasons for these differences are difficult to say with certainty, it allows a unique opportunity to focus communication and prevention efforts to specific communities. PMID:24503965

Papp, Anthony; Haythornthwaite, Jordan

2014-01-01

346

Nitrated Secondary Organic Tracer Compounds in Biomass Burning Smoke  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural and human-initiated biomass burning releases large amounts of gases and particles into the atmosphere, impacting climate, environment and affecting public health. Several hundreds of compounds are emitted from biomass burning and these compounds largely originate from the pyrolysis of biopolymers such as lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose. Some of compounds are known to be specific to biomass burning and widely recognized as tracer compounds that can be used to identify the presence of biomass burning PM. Detailed chemical analysis of biomass burning influenced PM samples often reveals the presence compounds that correlated well with levoglucosan, a known biomass burning tracer compound. In particular, nitrated aromatic compounds correlated very well with levoglucosan, indicating that biomass burning as a source for this class of compounds. In the present study, we present evidence for the presence of biomass burning originating secondary organic aerosol (BSOA) compounds in biomass burning influenced ambient PM. These BSOA compounds are typically nitrated aromatic compounds that are produced in the oxidation of precursor compounds in the presence of NOx. The precursor identification was performed from a series of aerosol chamber experiments. m-Cresol, which is emitted from biomass burning at significant levels, is found to be a major precursor compounds for nitrated BSOA compounds found in the ambient PM. We estimate that the total concentrations of these compounds in the ambient PM are comparable to biogenic SOA compounds in winter months, indicating the BSOA contributes important amounts to the regional organic aerosol loading.

Iinuma, Y.; Bge, O.; Grfe, R.; Herrmann, H.

2010-12-01

347

Post-burn duct carcinoma breast: An unusual case report  

PubMed Central

Malignancies arising from burn scars though rare are well documented in the literature; squamous cell carcinoma is the most common burn scar neoplasm, and adenocarcinoma is an extremely uncommon and rarely reported tumor in these scars. We hereby report a case of a young woman who presented with a rapidly growing lump in a scar in the mammary region that sustained severe burns 20 years back. It was diagnosed as duct carcinoma breast on cytology and later confirmed on histopathology and immunohistochemistry. The case mandates regular follow-up of patients with post-burn scars, and any lump arising in that region should be promptly investigated. PMID:23833406

Singh, Neha; Rao, Seema; Jain, Shyama

2013-01-01

348

Burning trees and bridges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most burning of biomass is the result of human activity, and on a global scale it is increasing. Tropospheric concentrations of CO2, CO, CH4, non-methane hydrocarbons, and ozone are all increasing with time; global biomass burning may make an important contribution to this increase and thus to potential global climate change. The nitrogen cycle also can have important climatic effects. Nitrous oxide put into the atmosphere by biomass burning is a greenhouse gas 250 times more powerful (molecule for molecule) than carbon dioxide. Nitric oxide, as well as being a photochemical precursor of ozone, a major pollutant in the troposphere, produces nitric acid, the fastest-growing component of acid rain. Hence, the new bridge in the nitrogen cycle is of more than mere technical interest.

Levine, Joel S.

1990-01-01

349

Use of speech pathology services in the burn unit.  

PubMed

Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) provide intervention for communication challenges and swallowing disorders (dysphagia) that are common in cases of severe burns because of ventilator use, prolonged or multiple intubations, and tracheostomy tubes. To identify current inclusion of SLP services in burn care management, a survey was sent to 139 burn units across the United States. Results revealed limited inclusion of SLPs in burn care despite pertinent areas of SLP expertise. Education of burn care teams on the benefits of SLP inclusion is needed. Potential benefits in pain and medical management reducing length of hospitalization and increasing cost-effective care by inclusion of SLPs in burn care management warrants further research. PMID:14501415

Snyder, C; Ubben, P

2003-01-01

350

Fast burning propellants  

SciTech Connect

A solid or semisolid propellant is described comprising grains of propellant or propellant components bonded together to create voids within the propellant volume. The grains are of near-uniform size and have less than about a 20% size variation between the largest and smallest grains, the voids comprising from about 10% to about 50% of the propellant volume. The grains are bonded together with sufficient strength to substantially delay the fluidization of the propellant by the onset of Taylor unstable burning. The propellant has a rapid burn rate of from about 10 cm sec/sup -1/ to about 10/sup 4/cm sec/sup -1/.

Colgate, S.A.; Roos, G.E.

1987-07-21

351

Burning Down the House  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this demonstration, the teacher will use a potato and hydrogen peroxide to generate oxygen in a closed environment. Students can then observe its effects on a burning wooden splint and on burning steel wool. They will understand that a large amount of energy can be released by the process of oxidation. As an extension, the teacher can discuss how the appearance of oxygen (produced by cyanobacteria) in Earth's early atmosphere initially resulted in the formation of large deposits of iron oxide (Banded Iron Formations) and then aided in the evolution of more complex life forms.

Dolphin, Glenn

352

Burning Your Own CDs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of CDs (Compact Disks) for backing up data as an alternative to using floppy disks and explains how to burn, or record, a CD. Topics include differences between CD-R (CD-Recordable) and CD-RW (CD-Rewritable); advantages of CD-R and CD-RW; selecting a CD burner; technology trends; and care of CDs. (LRW)

Ekhaml, Leticia

2001-01-01

353

Burns and Fire Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... Pressman M, Blank E, Mickalide A. Hot tap water legislation in the United States. J Burn Care Res . 2010; 31(6): 918?925. 13 Safe Kids Worldwide, Public Policy Department, 2005. 14 AntiScald, Inc. Available from: http:// ...

354

[Burns with lighter gas].  

PubMed

Attention is drawn to a particularly dangerous party activity. Balloons filled with lighter gas so as to float are used for party decorations. A case of hand burn caused by accidentally lighting such a balloon with a cigarette is reported. The method is strongly advised against, it is a much better idea to use helium for such purposes. PMID:7734004

Davidsen, M T

1993-06-28

355

TIRES, OPEN BURNING  

EPA Science Inventory

The chapter describes available information on the health effects from open burning of rubber tires. It concentrates on the three known sources of detailed measurements: (1) a small-scale emissions characterization study performed by the U.S. EPA in a facility designed to simulat...

356

Bacteriology of burns  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective study was undertaken at University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, Delhi, to examine the bacterial isolates from the Burns unit and to determine the antibiograms of the isolates to commonly used antimicrobial agents. A total of 600 pus samples from as many patients received, over a period of 5 years (June 1993June 1997) yielded

G. Revathi; J. Puri; B. K. Jain

1998-01-01

357

Effects of Surface Sealing, Soil Moisture Evolution, and Rainfall Intensity on Runoff From Hillslope Plots Burned by Wildfire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The High Meadow Fire burned 43 square kilometers of mountainous semi-arid terrain southwest of Denver, CO during June of 2000. Burned areas like Hi Meadow are prone to extreme post-fire geomorphic responses including rill, sheet and channel erosion if the fire is followed by a significant rain event. As all of these processes are related to runoff development, it is important to develop accurate hillslope runoff models before developing erosion models. In this study, we examine the dynamics of near surface runoff-generation processes on burned hillslopes by integrating plot-scale measurements and physical models. In the summers (May-September) of 2002-2003, four 1 square meter plots were monitored for precipitation, soil moisture, sediment movement and runoff data. Sediment and runoff were collected on a daily basis, whereas soil moisture was collected every 15 minutes and the rainfall record was continuous. Measurements from the four plots were averaged to account for spatial variability. The largest rainfall event for which data were collected produced 0.026 m of runoff. The largest monitored events for which data were collected were of similar magnitude to those that have lead to catastrophic floods from burned areas in the past. Modeling of infiltration-excess processes using Richard's Equation were conducted to evaluate the effects of surface sealing from raindrop impact, soil moisture evolution and rainfall intensity. Soil particle size analyses, infiltration experiments, and soil moisture-suction curves were used to parameterize the models. The plot experiment results show the importance of antecedent soil moisture in runoff production. Modeling infiltration at this scale is the first step to predicting overland flow over entire hillslopes in burned regions.

Kinner, D. A.; Moody, J. A.; Martin, D. A.

2003-12-01

358

Discovery Performs Terminal Initiation Burn  

NASA Video Gallery

The terminal initiation burn, a left Orbital Maneuvering System engine firing that gave Discovery one last big push toward the space station, took place Feb. 26, 2011 at 10:33 a.m. The burn lasted ...

359

Harborview Burns 1974 to 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundBurn demographics, prevention and care have changed considerably since the 1970s. The objectives were to 1) identify new and confirm previously described changes, 2) make comparisons to the American Burn Association National Burn Repository, 3) determine when the administration of fluids in excess of the Baxter formula began and to identify potential causes, and 4) model mortality over time, during

Loren H. Engrav; David M. Heimbach; Frederick P. Rivara; Kathleen F. Kerr; Turner Osler; Tam N. Pham; Sam R. Sharar; Peter C. Esselman; Eileen M. Bulger; Gretchen J. Carrougher; Shari Honari; Nicole S. Gibran

2012-01-01

360

7, 1733917366, 2007 Biomass burning  

E-print Network

ACPD 7, 17339­17366, 2007 Biomass burning plumes during the AMMA wet season experiment C. H. Mari a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Tracing biomass burning plumes from. Mari (marc@aero.obs-mip.fr) 17339 #12;ACPD 7, 17339­17366, 2007 Biomass burning plumes during the AMMA

Paris-Sud XI, Université de