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1

Field Guide for Mapping Post-Fire Soil Burn Severity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Following wildfires in the United States, the U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of the Interior mobilize Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams to assess immediate post-fire watershed conditions. BAER teams must determine threats fro...

A. Parsons C. Napper J. T. Clark P. R. Robichaud S. A. Lewis

2010-01-01

2

Burn severity influences post fire surface energy and mass exchange in arctic tundra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of burn severity in influencing post fire surface exchanges of mass and energy has received little attention. The 2007 Anaktuvuk River (A.R.) fire on the North Slope of Alaska was the largest fire ever reported in arctic tundra, and created a mosaic of patches that differed in burn severity. We employed eddy covariance towers, MODIS data, and measurements of surface reflectance and thaw depth across three sites that differed in burn severity (i.e. unburned, moderately burned, and severely burned) to determine the effect of the A.R. fire on carbon, water and energy exchanges during the 2008 growing season. We demonstrate that burn severity influences a variety of surface properties including albedo, soil temperature, active layer depth and vegetation recovery, which in turn, affected exchanges of energy and mass. Eddy covariance and meteorological data are combined with surface reflectance data from MODIS in order to scale measurements to the region. Results indicate that knowledge of burn severity is critical in attempting to scale up post fire affects on regional exchanges of mass and energy.

Rocha, A. V.; Scott, G.; Peters, J.; Shaver, G.

2008-12-01

3

Detecting post-fire burn severity and vegetation recovery using multitemporal remote sensing spectral indices and field-collected composite burn index data in a ponderosa pine forest  

USGS Publications Warehouse

It is challenging to detect burn severity and vegetation recovery because of the relatively long time period required to capture the ecosystem characteristics. Multitemporal remote sensing data can providemultitemporal observations before, during and after a wildfire, and can improve the change detection accuracy. The goal of this study is to examine the correlations between multitemporal spectral indices and field-observed burn severity, and to provide a practical method to estimate burn severity and vegetation recovery. The study site is the Jasper Fire area in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota, that burned during August and September 2000. Six multitemporal Landsat images acquired from 2000 (pre-fire), 2001 (post-fire), 2002, 2003, 2005 and 2007 were used to assess burn severity. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), enhanced vegetation index (EVI), normalized burn ratio (NBR), integrated forest index (IFI) and the differences of these indices between the pre-fire and post-fire years were computed and analysed with 66 field-based composite burn index (CBI) plots collected in 2002. Results showed that differences of NDVI and differences of EVI between the pre-fire year and the first two years post-fire were highly correlated with the CBI scores. The correlations were low beyond the second year post-fire. Differences of NBR had good correlation with CBI scores in all study years. Differences of IFI had low correlation with CBI in the first year post-fire and had good correlation in later years. A CBI map of the burnt area was produced using regression tree models and the multitemporal images. The dynamics of four spectral indices from 2000 to 2007 indicated that both NBR and IFI are valuable for monitoring long-term vegetation recovery. The high burn severity areas had a much slower recovery than the moderate and low burn areas. ?? 2011 Taylor & Francis.

Chen, X.; Vogelmann, J. E.; Rollins, M.; Ohlen, D.; Key, C. H.; Yang, L.; Huang, C.; Shi, H.

2011-01-01

4

The influence of burn severity on post-fire vegetation recovery and albedo change during early succession in North American boreal forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Severity of burning can influence multiple aspects of forest composition, carbon cycling, and climate forcing. We quantified how burn severity affected vegetation recovery and albedo change during early succession in Canadian boreal regions by combining satellite observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Canadian Large Fire Data Base (LFDB). We used the difference Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) and changes in spring albedo derived from MODIS 500m albedo product as measures of burn severity. We found that the most severe burns had the greatest reduction in summer EVI in first year after fire, indicating greater loss of vegetation cover immediately following fire. By 5-7 years after fire, summer EVI for all severity classes had recovered to within 90-110% of pre-fire levels. Burn severity had a positive effect on the increase of post-fire spring albedo during the first 7 years after fire, and a shift from low to moderate or moderate to severe fires led to amplification of the post-fire albedo increase by approximately 30%. Fire-induced increases in both spring and summer albedo became progressively larger with stand age from years 1-7, with the trend in spring albedo likely driven by continued losses of needles and branches from trees killed by the fire (and concurrent losses of black carbon coatings on remaining debris), and the summer trend associated with increases in leaf area of short-stature herbs and shrubs. Our results suggest that increases in burn severity and carbon losses observed in some areas of boreal forests (e.g., Turetsky et al., 2011) may be at least partly offset by increases in negative forcing associated with changes in surface albedo.

Jin, Y.; Randerson, J. T.; Goetz, S. J.; Beck, P. S.; Loranty, M. M.; Goulden, M.

2011-12-01

5

Integrating MODIS-based products to improve post-fire recovery predictions for burned watersheds in Southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires in Southern California are natural and frequent events that result in dramatic land cover changes, affecting land-atmosphere interactions and hydrologic behavior. Changing climate and land use patterns (community expansion into fire-prone areas) contribute to shifts in natural fire regimes and increase pressure on policymakers to develop effective fire management and recovery plans. Our ongoing work seeks to understand the recovery of semi-arid regions through controls (i.e. precipitation, vegetation recovery, geophysical parameters, burn severity, etc.) on post-fire hydrology and vegetation. Given the lack of ground-based observations in burned areas, remote sensing data streams (i.e. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)) are crucial for understanding the spatial and temporal dynamics of post-fire recovery of vegetation and hydrologic fluxes. MODIS-based products, such as enhanced vegetation indices (EVI), land surface temperature (LST), and a UCLA-developed evapotranspiration (ET) product, are being utilized for post-fire assessment and provide detailed predictions of water balances for altered (burned) regions. Results show southern facing slopes receive increased exposure to solar radiation, resulting in increased vegetation biomass, increased damage during a wildfire, and relatively slower recovery than other watershed aspects, especially compared to north facing aspects. Similarly, the spatial and temporal patterns of MODIS-derived evaporative fraction (EF) and net radiation (Rn) show sensitivity to watershed controls and provide insight on water dynamics and loss. Evaluating the spatial and temporal variability of vegetation recovery and coupled hydrologic response within burned watersheds provides valuable information for water and natural resource managers as they plan for acute and long-term impacts from large-scale and urban-fringe wildfires.

Kinoshita, A. M.; Hogue, T. S.

2010-12-01

6

A Burning Question: Does Post-Fire Rehabilitation Alter the Likelihood of Future Fires?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically, aridlands have had infrequent fire due to patchy plant distributions, which limit fire spread. However, aridland fire regimes have changed because invasive annual grasses have created continuous fuel beds, which have led to increasingly frequent fires and a greater area burned each decade since the 1970s. Climate change is predicted to further increase the number and size of fires. Post-fire rehabilitation is enacted in order to reestablish plant communities and has the potential to further alter fire regimes. Rehabilitation treatments include tilling seeds using a tractor and drill (drill seeding), dropping seed aerially with helicopters (aerial seeding), or both. Few studies examine the impact of post-fire rehabilitation on the likelihood of future fires in these aridland ecosystems. We examined the effects of post-fire rehabilitation treatments on the number of years before the next fire. Using GIS layers detailing fire history and post-fire rehabilitation treatments in the southern Idaho Great Basin, we extracted information from randomly selected sites and analyzed them with generalized linear models. Preliminary analysis on 43 sites suggests the number of years before the next fire tended to be less in seeded than unseeded sites (P=0.055). Further investigation revealed that the number of years until the next fire differed among seed application methods. Sites that were drill seeded burned approximately 12 years later while sites with combined aerial and drill seeding burned again after 6.5 years (P=0.05). The total number of burns at a site was inversely related to the time before the next fire (P=0.001). After the first fire, sites averaged 17.4 years before the next fire occurred; this decreased with each subsequent fire to 7.1 years after the fifth fire. The number of times a site burned and the rehabilitation treatment interacted to affect the number of years between fires. In sites that burned once, there was on average 27.75 years before the second burn at unseeded sites, 18 years when only drill seeded, and 8.8 years when both aerially and drill seeded (P=0.038). Likewise, at sites that burned at least six times, the number of years before the next fire was significantly lower in the combination of aerial and drill seeding compared to unseeded sites (3.3 versus 6.9 years, respectively, P=0.047). The number of fires a site experienced altered the duration between fires, but the combination of drill and aerial seeding consistently experienced fire sooner than either technique used in isolation. These preliminary results suggest that post-fire rehabilitation may decrease the time between fires after the first two fires, but can decrease the time between after a threshold number of fires depending on the technique used. Drill seeding alone maintained a fire return interval of 9-10 years after 4, 5, or 6 fires which was the longest interval past that threshold, The results are shocking in a system that historically has fire return intervals of hundreds of years.

Bowman-Prideaux, C.; Newingham, B. A.

2013-12-01

7

Ecohydrologic Implications and Management of Post-fire Soil Water Repellency in Burned Pinon-Juniper Woodlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erosion and weed dominance often limit the recovery of piñon-juniper woodlands of western North America after high intensity wildfires. Soil water repellency (SWR) is one factor that may promote overland flow and impede seedling establishment. In spite of these effects, the influence of post-fire SWR on site recovery is poorly understood. Our presentation summarizes data collected within studies on burned piñon-juniper woodlands that provide new insight on: 1) the spatial distribution and severity of SWR, 2) influence of SWR on soil hydrology, nitrogen cycling, and site revegetation, and 3) the suitability of soil surfactants as a post-fire restoration tool. We demonstrate how patterns of SWR are highly correlated to pre-fire woodland canopy structure. At sites where SWR is present, infiltration, soil water content, and plant establishment is significantly less than at non-hydrophobic sites. We show how newly developed soil surfactants can significantly improve ecohydrologic properties required for plant growth by overcoming SWR; thus, increasing the amount and duration of available water for seed germination and plant growth. However, the application of soil surfactants in wildfire-affected ecosystems has been limited due to logistical and economic constraints associated with the standard practice of using large quantities of irrigation water as the surfactant carrier. We have developed a potential solution to this problem by using seed coating technology to use the seed as the carrier for the delivery of soil surfactant. Through this approach, precipitation leaches the surfactant from the seed into the soil where it absorbs onto the soil particles and ameliorates water repellency within the seeds microsite. We present findings from laboratory and field evaluations of surfactant seed coatings, which provide evidence that it may be plausible for the technology to improve post-fire seeding efforts by restoring soil hydrologic function and increasing seedling emergence and early seedling development.

Madsen, Matthew; Zvirzdin, Daniel; Fernelius, Kaitlynn; McMillan, Mica; Kostka, Stanley

2014-05-01

8

Post-fire effects on hydrological and erodibility factors in a simulated burn and rainfall experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mediterranean forests are frequently subject to wildfires, inducing risks of runoff and loss of nutrient-rich topsoil. Post-fire causes for soil erosion are hard to separate. These mechanisms are spatially variable due to differences in vegetation density, litter composition, soil texture and structure, and fire intensity. However, the characteristics of soil and surface in the immediate post-fire period are of critical importance to the hydrological response and erosion susceptibility of the burned hillslope and catchment. The mentioned variation is still present in laboratory experiments, however a lot of it can be reduced by using homogeneous litter, uniform soil amounts and texture, controlled temperature and rain regimes and by replicating treatments. Moreover, fire and rain events can be simulated, enabling an imitation of a post-fire period. In this study we looked at post-fire observations for laboratory fire and rainfall (nozzle-type) simulation experiments to evaluate short-term effects of fire on soil hydrological and erodibility parameters by investigating (i) soil water repellency (WR) levels and distribution, (ii) surface cover features, and (iii) sat. hydraulic conductivity (Ksat), electrical conductivity and values of infiltration, runoff and erosion responses to simulated rain on control (bare and needle covered) and burned (with and without ash cover) samples. In the laboratory experiments we used a novel combination of techniques: (i) prepared trays of soil were manually burned; (ii) WR was measured before, in-between and after rainfall simulations; (iii) assessing of the degree and spatial variation for preferential surface flow; (iv) two rainfall simulations with drying period to simulate a part of a rainy season with cycles of wetting and drying (with its effects on soil hydrology, (re-)establishment hydrophobicity). The fire-induced surface WR in the lab, tested by grid-wise Water Drop Penetration tests, was moderate but decreased for all treatments after rain. The responses to rain (33 mm h-1) differed for the two simulation runs. The rates of drainage and runoff of the burned samples showed in the first run values in between the values of cover (low runoff, high infiltration) and bare (high runoff, low infiltration). The drainage in the ash-covered samples was twice as high as in the samples where the ash was removed. In the second run both samples showed a similar response compared to bare conditions. After the first run most ash and organic material was washed off and Ksat was low, indicating crust formation. After the first run the EC values showed a significant drop, which represents the infiltration of the cation-binding organic matter, as this is not present for the bare samples. These laboratory observations show that apart from soil crusting, WR and protection by ash are factors to consider in erosion susceptibility of a burned forest soil.

Keesstra, S. D.; Wittenberg, L.; Voogt, A.; Argaman, E.; Malkinson, D.

2012-04-01

9

Burn Severity Measurement Using LiDAR Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LiDAR data were collected before and after a prescribed burn of sagebrush rangeland in eastern Idaho in the fall of 2005. These data were processed to filter vegetation points from bare earth and calculate the vegetation heights. The pre-fire and post-fire vegetation heights, as well as derived surface texture products, were compared to determine the amount of burned vegetation and calculate burn severity indices. The resulting classifications were then validated using field data from the burn site. While all products clearly reflected variations in burn intensity, the change in surface roughness was found to most accurately reflect the field- measured burn severity.

Streutker, D.; Glenn, N.; Norton, J.

2007-12-01

10

Remote sensing for assessing post-fire effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires play an important role in many ecosystems by modifying the earth's carbon balance and post-fire landscape composition. Remote sensing can fulfill an important role for monitoring post-fire landscapes as it allows timely and cost-effective assessments. Most of the current applications rely on the visible and near infrared (VNIR) to short-wave infrared (SWIR) spectral region (0.4 to 2.5 ?m). In this spectral range many burn indices have been applied to assess post-fire effects, e.g. the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) or Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Few studies have assessed the potential of the mid infrared (MIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) data. In this paper MODIS/ASTER (MASTER) airborne simulator data acquired over several burn scars is used to evaluate spectral indices in the 0.4-13 ?m range. A first application focuses on the spectral separability of several burn indices for burned area mapping applied over three 2007 southern California scars. In a second application, a novel SWIR-MIR index (SMI) is proposed for assessing fire severity of the large 2011 Wallow wildfire in Arizona. Compared to the traditionally used differenced NBR (dNBR), the SMI has two major advantages: (i) the index is not impeded by smoke and (ii) the approach is based on a single date image. Findings can have important implications for the next generation spaceborne sensor, e.g. the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI).

Veraverbeke, S.; Hulley, G. C.; Harris, S. L.; Hook, S.

2011-12-01

11

A time-integrated MODIS burn severity assessment using the multi-temporal differenced normalized burn ratio (dNBR MT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burn severity is an important parameter in post-fire management. It incorporates both the direct fire impact (vegetation depletion) and ecosystem responses (vegetation regeneration). From a remote sensing perspective, burn severity is traditionally estimated using Landsat's differenced normalized burn ratio (dNBR). In this case study of the large 2007 Peloponnese (Greece) wildfires, Landsat dNBR estimates correlated reasonably well with Geo composite

S. Veraverbeke; S. Lhermitte; W. W. Verstraeten; R. Goossens

2011-01-01

12

Several Flame Balls Burning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Structure of Flameballs at Low Lewis Numbers (SOFBALL) experiments aboard the space shuttle in 1997 a series of sturningly successful burns. This sequence was taken during STS-94, July 12, 1997, MET:10/08:18 (approximate). It was thought these extremely dim flameballs (1/20 the power of a kitchen match) could last up to 200 seconds -- in fact, they can last for at least 500 seconds. This has ramifications in fuel-spray design in combustion engines, as well as fire safety in space. The SOFBALL principal investigator was Paul Ronney, University of Southern California, Los Angeles. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations planned for the International Space Station. (925KB, 9-second MPEG spanning 10 minutes, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300186.html.

2003-01-01

13

Large Scale Predictions of Potential Post-fire Erosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-severity wildfires are of increasing concern because of their potential for initiating flash floods and surface erosion, degrading water quality, and reducing reservoir capacity. In many areas fire suppression has increased fuel accumulations and hence the potential for high-severity wildfires. Land management agencies are undertaking programs to reduce fuel loadings and the associated risk of high-severity wildfires, but the areas needing treatment greatly exceed the available funding. It is therefore necessary to determine which areas should have a higher priority for such treatments. Similarly, when wildfires do occur there is an immediate need to determine which areas should have the highest priority for post-fire rehabilitation treatments. One criterion for allocating treatments is the potential risk of post-fire erosion, but to be effective this assessment needs to be carried out at a broad scale. This paper presents a procedure and initial results for predicting spatially-explicit, post-fire erosion risks at the hillslope scale for forest and shrub lands across the western U.S. Our approach utilizes existing physical models and datasets in a GIS framework. The model for predicting erosion is GeoWEPP, the Geographical interface for the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP). The primary inputs for GeoWEPP include climate, topography, soils, and land cover/land use. Daily climate inputs were generated with Cligen, which is a stochastic weather generator distributed with WEPP. A 30-m digital elevation model, STATSGO-derived soils data, and vegetation cover were obtained from the U.S. Forest Service's LANDFIRE project. Since recent research has shown that percent ground cover is a dominant control on post-fire erosion rates, we generated a spatially-explicit map of post-fire ground cover by first using historic weather data to determine the 1000-hr fuel moisture values when fuel conditions were at 98-100% ERC (Energy Released Component). These fuel moisture values were fed into FOFEM (First Order Fire Effects Model) to obtain spatially-explicit predictions of percent ground cover, and this provided the additional land cover/land use information needed by GeoWEPP. The predicted erosion rates are comparable to measured values in the Colorado Front Range, but are much too high for the higher rainfall areas along the Pacific Coast. This pattern indicates that precipitation is having a pre-dominant effect on predicted post-fire erosion rates, especially in areas that are projected to burn at low severity. Hence the predicted erosion rates will be most useful in relative terms at the local and possibly regional scale, while comparisons between regions may be of more limited validity.

Miller, M. E.; MacDonald, L. H.

2005-12-01

14

Modeling post-fire water erosion mitigation strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Severe wildfires are often followed by significant increase in runoff and erosion, due to vegetation damage and changes in physical and chemical soil properties. Peak flows and sediment yields can increase up to two orders of magnitude, becoming dangerous for human lives and the ecosystem, especially in the wildland-urban interface. Watershed post-fire rehabilitation measures are usually used to mitigate the effects of fire on runoff and erosion, by protecting soil from splash and shear stress detachment and enhancing its infiltration capacity. Modeling post-fire erosion and erosion mitigation strategies can be useful in selecting the effectiveness of a rehabilitation method. In this paper a distributed model based on the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), properly parameterized for a Mediterranean basin located in Sardinia, is used to determine soil losses for six different scenarios describing both natural and post-fire basin condition, the last also accounting for the single and combined effect of different erosion mitigation measures. Fire effect on vegetation and soil properties have been mimed by changing soil drainage capacity and organic matter content, and RUSLE factors related to soil cover and protection measures. Model results, validated using measured data on erosion rates from the literature and in situ field campaigns, show the effect of the analyzed rehabilitation treatments in reducing the amount of soil losses with the peculiar characteristics of the spatial distribution of such changes. In particular, the mulching treatment substantially decreases erosion both in its mean value (-75%) and in the spatially distribution of the erosion levels over the burned area . On the contrary, the breaking up of the hydrophobic layer decreases post-fire mean soil losses of about the 14%, although it strongly influences the spatial distribution of the erosion levels.

Rulli, M. C.; Offeddu, L.; Santini, M.

2013-06-01

15

Factors affecting plant diversity during post-fire recovery and succession of mediterranean-climate shrublands in California, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Plant community diversity, measured as species richness, is typically highest in the early post-fire years in California shrublands. However, this generalization is overly simplistic and the present study demonstrates that diversity is determined by a complex of temporal and spatial effects. Ninety sites distributed across southern California were studied for 5 years after a series of fires. Characteristics of the disturbance event, in this case fire severity, can alter post-fire diversity, both decreasing and increasing diversity, depending on life form. Spatial variability in resource availability is an important factor explaining patterns of diversity, and there is a complex interaction between landscape features and life form. Temporal variability in resource availability affects diversity, and the diversity peak in the immediate post-fire year (or two) appears to be driven by factors different from subsequent diversity peaks. Early post-fire diversity is influenced by life-history specialization, illustrated by species that spend the bulk of their life cycle as a dormant seed bank, which is then triggered to germinate by fire. Resource fluctuations, precipitation in particular, may be associated with subsequent post-fire diversity peaks. These later peaks in diversity comprise a flora that is compositionally different from the immediate post-fire flora, and their presence may be due to mass effects from population expansion of local populations in adjacent burned areas. ?? 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Keeley, J. E.; Fotheringham, C. J.; Baer-Keeley, M.

2005-01-01

16

Is proportion burned severely related to daily area burned?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ecological effects of forest fires burning with high severity are long-lived and have the greatest impact on vegetation successional trajectories, as compared to low-to-moderate severity fires. The primary drivers of high severity fire are unclear, but it has been hypothesized that wind-driven, large fire-growth days play a significant role, particularly on large fires in forested ecosystems. Here, we examined the relative proportion of classified burn severity for individual daily areas burned that occurred during 42 large forest fires in central Idaho and western Montana from 2005 to 2007 and 2011. Using infrared perimeter data for wildfires with five or more consecutive days of mapped perimeters, we delineated 2697 individual daily areas burned from which we calculated the proportions of each of three burn severity classes (high, moderate, and low) using the differenced normalized burn ratio as mapped for large fires by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity project. We found that the proportion of high burn severity was weakly correlated (Kendall ? = 0.299) with size of daily area burned (DAB). Burn severity was highly variable, even for the largest (95th percentile) in DAB, suggesting that other variables than fire extent influence the ecological effects of fires. We suggest that these results do not support the prioritization of large runs during fire rehabilitation efforts, since the underlying assumption in this prioritization is a positive relationship between severity and area burned in a day.

Birch, Donovan S.; Morgan, Penelope; Kolden, Crystal A.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Smith, Alistair M. S.

2014-05-01

17

Avifaunal responses to fire in southwestern montane forests along a burn severity gradient  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effects of burn severity on avian communities are poorly understood, yet this information is crucial to fire management programs. To quantify avian response patterns along a burn severity gradient, we sampled 49 random plots (2001-2002) at the 17 351-ha Cerro Grande Fire (2000) in New Mexico, USA. Additionally, pre-fire avian surveys (1986-1988, 1990) created a unique opportunity to quantify avifaunal changes in 13 pre-fire transects (resampled in 2002) and to compare two designs for analyzing the effects of unplanned disturbances: after-only analysis and before-after comparisons. Distance analysis was used to calculate densities. We analyzed after-only densities for 21 species using gradient analysis, which detected a broad range of responses to increasing burn severity: (I) large significant declines, (II) weak, but significant declines, (III) no significant density changes, (IV) peak densities in low- or moderate-severity patches, (V) weak, but significant increases, and (VI) large significant increases. Overall, 71% of the species included in the after-only gradient analysis exhibited either positive or neutral density responses to fire effects across all or portions of the severity gradient (responses III-VI). We used pre/post pairs analysis to quantify density changes for 15 species using before-after comparisons; spatiotemporal variation in densities was large and confounded fire effects for most species. Only four species demonstrated significant effects of burn severity, and their densities were all higher in burned compared to unburned forests. Pre- and post-fire community similarity was high except in high-severity areas. Species richness was similar pre- and post-fire across all burn severities. Thus, ecosystem restoration programs based on the assumption that recent severe fires in Southwestern ponderosa pine forests have overriding negative ecological effects are not supported by our study of post-fire avian communities. This study illustrates the importance of quantifying burn severity and controlling confounding sources of spatiotemporal variation in studies of fire effects. After-only gradient analysis can be an efficient tool for quantifying fire effects. This analysis can also augment historical data sets that have small samples sizes coupled with high non-process variation, which limits the power of before-after comparisons. ?? 2007 by the Ecological Society of America.

Kotliar, N. B.; Kennedy, P. L.; Ferree, K.

2007-01-01

18

Using Aerial Hydromulch in Post-fire Chaparral in Southern California: Effectiveness and Consequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High severity wildfire can make landscapes susceptible to accelerated erosion that may retard resource recovery. High levels of erosion can also threaten life, property, and infrastructure in downstream human communities. Land managers often use mitigation measures on the burned hillside slopes to control post-fire sediment fluxes both as the first step in post-fire restoration and to protect off-site human developments. Aerial hydromulch, a slurry of paper or wood fiber with tackifiers and other amendments that dries to a permeable crust, is a relatively new erosion control treatment that has not been rigorously field-tested in wildland settings. Concerns have been raised over the ability of aerial hydromulch to reduce hillslope erosion as well as its potential for negative effects on post-fire ecosystem recovery. Since 2007 we have measured sediment fluxes and vegetation development on plots treated operationally with aerial hydromulch and compared them to untreated controls after three separate wildfires in southern California. These study plots, located on steep slopes with coarse upland soils previously covered with dense mixed chaparral vegetation, were monitored with silt fences to trap eroded sediment. Meter-square quadrats were used to measure ground and vegetation cover. Although dependent on rainfall and site characteristics, surface erosion on untreated plots generally attenuated sharply with years since burning. We found that aerial hydromulch did reduce bare ground on the treated plots and that this cover persisted through the first post-fire winter rainy season. For the initial year after a fire, aerial hydromulch reduced hillslope erosion from small and medium rainstorms, but not during an extremely high intensity rainfall event. Hydromulch had no effect on regrowing plant cover, shrub seedling density, or species richness. Thus, in chaparral ecosystems aerial hydromulch appears to be an effective post-fire erosion control measure that is environmentally benign with respect to vegetation.

Wohlgemuth, P. M.; Beyers, J. L.; Robichaud, P. R.

2012-12-01

19

Hazard Analysis for Post-Fire Debris-Flow Potential in Arizona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several large, devastating wildfires occurred in Arizona during the past 2 years, after a 4-year period without any large wildfires. In June, 2010, the human-caused Schultz Fire near Flagstaff burned 6,100 ha of mostly steep terrain. Subsequent rains from the 4th wettest monsoon on record produced numerous debris flows, significant erosion, and substantial flooding of the downslope residential areas. In May and June of 2011, 3 very large human-caused wildfires (Wallow, Horseshoe 2, and Monument Fires) burned over 320,000 ha, posing serious threats to communities below burned slopes. The Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams, in need of a rapid method to assess the potential for post-fire debris flows, turned to models developed by the USGS for this purpose [Cannon and others, 2010, GSA Bull, 122(1-2), 127-144]. These models, while providing quick results, have not been evaluated for use in Arizona's varied physiographic provinces. Here we use data from the Schultz Fire to compare basin responses with those predicted by the USGS post-fire debris-flow models. Data from the Schultz Fire includes detailed field documentation of debris-flow occurrence and runout distances, 1:12,000 stereo aerial photographs, high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) and tipping-bucket rainfall data. These data document debris-flow producing storms, basin response, and the extent of debris-flow runout, and provide estimates of debris-flow volumes. The hydrologic responses from 30 small, steep, upper basins burned by the Schultz Fire were assessed for debris or flood flow occurrences. Nineteen basins produced debris flows during a July 20th storm that had a peak 10-minute intensity of 24 mm. A second storm on August 16th, with a peak 10-minute intensity of 15 mm, produced additional debris flows in several of the same basins. Of the 30 basins assessed, 19 were completely burned; four at high severity and 12 at moderate to high severity. The basin with the smallest burned area (57%) produced debris flows while a completely (100%) burned basin produced only flood flows. One of the problems encountered while modeling with the USGS models was the poor-quality of the available 10 m USGS DEMs. Even in steep areas, drainage networks were inaccurate and did not reflect on-the-ground channel locations. Detailed data from Schultz Fire, along with documented debris-flow occurrences following the 2011 fires, provides an opportunity to compare post-fire basin responses in Arizona with predicted responses from the USGS post-fire debris-flow models.

Youberg, A.; Koestner, K. A.; Schiefer, E.; Neary, D. G.

2011-12-01

20

Predicting post-fire sediment yields with RULSE, WEPP, and ERMiT: accuracy and limitations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High severity wildfires can increase hillslope- and watershed-scale sediment yields by two or more orders of magnitude. Resource managers need models to predict the potential effects of burning on site productivity and downstream aquatic resources, and to determine whether post-fire rehabilitation treatments should be applied. RUSLE and Disturbed WEPP are commonly used to predict annual post-fire sediment yields, whereas the Erosion Risk Management Tool (ERMiT) predicts storm-based sediment yields on a probabilistic basis. The goals of this study were to: 1) test these models against 2-5 years of annual and storm-based sediment yields from 88 plots in 10 Colorado Front Range fires; and 2) identify potential improvements to each model. Both RUSLE and WEPP poorly predicted annual post-fire sediment yields, as the R2 values ranged from 0.16 to 0.26 and the root mean square error for sediment yields greater than 1 Mg ha-1 yr-1 was comparable to the mean measured value of 9-10 Mg ha-1 yr-1. The variability in sediment yields among plots within the same fire was about twice the predicted variability, and both models were much more successful at predicting mean values from plots grouped by burn severity or fire (R2=0.53-0.60). These results indicate that the poor performance was at least partly due to the inability of the models to adequately account for the plot-scale factors that affect post-fire sediment yields. Field measurements show that variations in rilling, soil water repellency, and micro-topography are important controls on post-fire sediment yields, but neither model directly simulates these components, particularly on a spatially explicit basis. ERMiT was designed to overcome some of these limitations by varying the hydraulic conductivity, rill erodibility, and burn severity across a hillslope to generate a probability distribution of predicted post-fire sediment yields. A comparison of ERMiT predictions against 290 storm-based sediment yields shows that half of the measured sediment yields were larger than the 10% exceedence probability for a 1.33-year rain storm, even though the measured storms were only 1.0-1.33-year events. This under-prediction is at least partly due to the fact that ERMiT assigns a relatively low probability for an entire hillslope to burn at high severity. Both ERMiT and Disturbed WEPP also assume a more rapid decline in post-fire sediment yields than shown by our field data. In conclusion, the current limitations on model accuracy include the inability of the models to represent all of the factors affecting post-fire sediment yields, our inability to adequately characterize these factors in the field, and the limited data for model parameterization and calibration. Only some of these limitations can be addressed by model improvements.

Larsen, I. J.; MacDonald, L. H.

2006-12-01

21

Relationships between fire severity and post-fire landscape pattern following a large mixed-severity fire in the Valle Vidal, New Mexico, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predominant fire regime associated with ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests in the southwestern US has shifted from the historic norm of frequent, low-severity fires to less frequent mixed-severity and crown fires. This change in the severity of fire has altered ponderosa pine forests from the open stands typical of pre-settlement times to even-aged, high-density stands at increased risk of

James J. Hayes; Scott M. Robeson

2011-01-01

22

Post-fire vegetation dynamics in Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of fires and the extent of the burned surface in Mediterranean Europe have increased significantly during the last three decades. This may be due either to modifications in land-use (e.g. land abandonment and fuel accumulation) or to climatic changes (e.g. reduction of fuel humidity), both factors leading to an increase of fire risk and fire spread. As in the Mediterranean ecosystems, fires in Portugal have an intricate effect on vegetation regeneration due to the complexity of landscape structures as well as to the different responses of vegetation to the variety of fire regimes. A thorough evaluation of vegetation recovery after fire events becomes therefore crucial in land management. In the above mentioned context remote sensing plays an important role because of its ability to monitor and characterise post-fire vegetation dynamics. A number of fire recovery studies, based on remote sensing, have been conducted in regions characterised by Mediterranean climates and the use of NDVI to monitor plant regeneration after fire events was successfully tested (Díaz-Delgado et al., 1998). In particular, several studies have shown that rapid regeneration occurs within the first 2 years after the fire occurrences, with distinct recovery rates according to the geographical facing of the slopes (Pausas and Vallejo, 1999). In 2003 Portugal was hit by the most devastating sequence of large fires, responsible by a total burnt area of 450 000 ha (including 280 000 ha of forest), representing about 5% of the Portuguese mainland (Trigo et al., 2006). The aim of the present work is to assess and monitor the vegetation behaviour over Portugal following the 2003 fire episodes. For this purpose we have used the regional fields of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as obtained from the VEGETATION-SPOT5 instrument, from 1999 to 2008. We developed a methodology to identify large burnt scars in Portugal for the 2003 fire season. The vegetation dynamics was then analysed for some selected areas and a regression model of post-fire recovery was fitted to the recorded values of NDVI. The model allowed characterising the dynamics of the regeneration process. It was found that recovery rates depend on geographical location, fire intensity/severity and type of vegetation cover. Díaz-Delgado, R., Salvador, R. and Pons, X., 1998: Monitoring of plant community regeneration after fire by remote sensing. In L. Traboud (Ed.), Fire management and landscape ecology (pp. 315-324). International Association of Wildland Fire, Fairfield, WA. Pausas, G.J. and Vallejo, V.R., 1999: The role of fire in European Mediterranean Ecosystems. In: E. Chuvieco (Ed.), Remote sensing of large wildfires in the European Mediterranean basin (pp. 3-16). Springer-Verlag. Trigo R.M., Pereira J.M.C., Pereira M.G., Mota B., Calado M.T., DaCamara C.C., Santo F.E., 2006: Atmospheric conditions associated with the exceptional fire season of 2003 in Portugal. International Journal of Climatology 26 (13): 1741-1757 NOV 15 2006.

Gouveia, C.; Dacamara, C. C.; Trigo, R. M.

2009-04-01

23

Quantifying the Influence of Hillslope Form, Aspect and Burn Severity on Post-Wildfire Hillslope Erosion Rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires can profoundly affect hillslope erosion rates by altering the physical and chemical attributes of the soil and denuding stabilizing vegetation. Increased hillslope erosion can raise stream channel sediment loads, which can change the channel morphology and impact aquatic habitat structure and downstream dam sedimentation. Current climate change predictions for the intermountain West forecast more frequent and severe droughts, and correspondingly more severe fire events, increasing the potential for post-fire erosion. Despite the widespread impacts of such erosion events, hillslope erosion processes remain poorly understood. Thus, to better understand these processes, we measure hillslope erosion rates in the mountainous terrain of central Idaho following a large, severe 2007 forest fire. Specifically, we use radionuclide (Lead-210, Cesium-137) inventories to quantify hillslope erosion rates in several watersheds with different burn severity (severe, moderate and unburned), on different aspects (north vs. south facing slopes), and on different hillslope forms (concave vs. convex profiles). In mid-latitude areas of high relief, aspect strongly influences the amount of solar radiation received and thus impacts local moisture conditions, vegetation and soil development, all of which can affect soil erosion rates. Hillslope form may influence the dominant erosion process, with convex profiles characterized by diffusive erosion, and concave profiles potentially enabling more overland flow, rill and gully formation. These variables, in addition to burn severity, are therefore likely to affect erosion rates. Our study quantifies the effect of burn severity, hillslope form, and aspect on the rates and processes of post-fire hillslope erosion. In addition, our study offers insight into the relatively novel use of radionuclide inventories to measure post-wildfire erosion rates. An improved quantitative understanding of hillslope erosion processes would enable us to validate or improve existing hillslope erosion models. Such models may be used to predict and potentially mitigate the effects of severe forest fires by indicating priority areas for post-fire rehabilitation.

Perreault, L. M.; Yager, E. M.; Aalto, R. E.

2010-12-01

24

Myocardial Autophagy after Severe Burn in Rats  

PubMed Central

Background Autophagy plays a major role in myocardial ischemia and hypoxia injury. The present study investigated the effects of autophagy on cardiac dysfunction in rats after severe burn. Methods Protein expression of the autophagy markers LC3 and Beclin 1 were determined at 0, 1, 3, 6, and 12 h post-burn in Sprague Dawley rats subjected to 30% total body surface area 3rd degree burns. Autophagic, apoptotic, and oncotic cell death were evaluated in the myocardium at each time point by immunofluorescence. Changes of cardiac function were measured in a Langendorff model of isolated heart at 6 h post-burn, and the autophagic response was measured following activation by Rapamycin and inhibition by 3-methyladenine (3-MA). The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor enalaprilat, the angiotensin receptor I blocker losartan, and the reactive oxygen species inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI) were also applied to the ex vivo heart model to examine the roles of these factors in post-burn cardiac function. Results Autophagic cell death was first observed in the myocardium at 3 h post-burn, occurring in 0.008 ± 0.001% of total cardiomyocytes, and continued to increase to a level of 0.022 ± 0.005% by 12 h post-burn. No autophagic cell death was observed in control hearts. Compared with apoptosis, autophagic cell death occurred earlier and in larger quantities. Rapamycin enhanced autophagy and decreased cardiac function in isolated hearts 6 h post-burn, while 3-MA exerted the opposite response. Enalaprilat, losartan, and DPI all inhibited autophagy and enhanced heart function. Conclusion Myocardial autophagy is enhanced in severe burns and autophagic cell death occurred early at 3 h post-burn, which may contribute to post-burn cardiac dysfunction. Angiotensin II and reactive oxygen species may play important roles in this process by regulating cell signaling transduction.

Zhang, Qiong; Shi, Xiao-hua; Huang, Yue-sheng

2012-01-01

25

Establishment of non-native plant species after wildfires: Effects of fuel treatments, abiotic and biotic factors, and post-fire grass seeding treatments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Establishment and spread of non-native species following wildfires can pose threats to long-term native plant recovery. Factors such as disturbance severity, resource availability, and propagule pressure may influence where non-native species establish in burned areas. In addition, pre- and post-fire management activities may influence the likelihood of non-native species establishment. In the present study we examine the establishment of non-native species after wildfires in relation to native species richness, fire severity, dominant native plant cover, resource availability, and pre- and post-fire management actions (fuel treatments and post-fire rehabilitation treatments). We used an information-theoretic approach to compare alternative hypotheses. We analysed post-fire effects at multiple scales at three wildfires in Colorado and New Mexico. For large and small spatial scales at all fires, fire severity was the most consistent predictor of non-native species cover. Non-native species cover was also correlated with high native species richness, low native dominant species cover, and high seeded grass cover. There was a positive, but non-significant, association of non-native species with fuel-treated areas at one wildfire. While there may be some potential for fuels treatments to promote non-native species establishment, wildfire and post-fire seeding treatments seem to have a larger impact on non-native species. ?? IAWF 2006.

Hunter, M. E.; Omi, P. N.; Martinson, E. J.; Chong, G. W.

2006-01-01

26

A new parameterization of the post-fire snow albedo effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mountain snowpack serves as an important natural reservoir of water: recharging aquifers, sustaining streams, and providing important ecosystem services. Reduced snowpacks and earlier snowmelt have been shown to affect fire size, frequency, and severity in the western United States. In turn, wildfire disturbance affects patterns of snow accumulation and ablation by reducing canopy interception, increasing turbulent fluxes, and modifying the surface radiation balance. Recent work shows that after a high severity forest fire, approximately 60% more solar radiation reaches the snow surface due to the reduction in canopy density. Also, significant amounts of pyrogenic carbon particles and larger burned woody debris (BWD) are shed from standing charred trees, which concentrate on the snowpack, darken its surface, and reduce snow albedo by 50% during ablation. Although the post-fire forest environment drives a substantial increase in net shortwave radiation at the snowpack surface, driving earlier and more rapid melt, hydrologic models do not explicitly incorporate forest fire disturbance effects to snowpack dynamics. The objective of this study was to parameterize the post-fire snow albedo effect due to BWD deposition on snow to better represent forest fire disturbance in modeling of snow-dominated hydrologic regimes. Based on empirical results from winter experiments, in-situ snow monitoring, and remote sensing data from a recent forest fire in the Oregon High Cascades, we characterized the post-fire snow albedo effect, and developed a simple parameterization of snowpack albedo decay in the post-fire forest environment. We modified the recession coefficient in the algorithm: ? = ?0 + K exp (-nr) where ? = snowpack albedo, ?0 = minimum snowpack albedo (?0.4), K = constant (? 0.44), -n = number of days since last major snowfall, r = recession coefficient [Rohrer and Braun, 1994]. Our parameterization quantified BWD deposition and snow albedo decay rates and related these forest disturbance effects to radiative heating and snow melt rates. We validated our parameterization of the post-fire snow albedo effect at the plot scale using a physically-based, spatially-distributed snow accumulation and melt model, and in-situ eddy covariance and snow monitoring data. This research quantified wildfire impacts to snow dynamics in the Oregon High Cascades, and provided a new parameterization of post-fire drivers to changes in high elevation winter water storage.

Gleason, K. E.; Nolin, A. W.

2013-12-01

27

Evaluating spectral indices and spectral mixture analysis for assessing fire severity and adjusting burning efficiency using Landsat data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire severity data are of paramount importance to (i) organize post-fire rehabilitation plans and (ii) reduce uncertainties in wildfire emission estimates by allowing spatio-temporal variability in burning efficiency values. We have used a Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) image to assess fire severity of the large 2011 Wallow fire in Arizona, USA. The Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR), differenced NBR (dNBR), Relative dNBR (RdNBR) and the char fraction estimated by Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA) were evaluated. Geo Composite Burn Index (GeoCBI) and vegetation mortality data were used as ground truth. Of all remotely sensed measures tested the dNBR had the highest performance (GeoCBI-dNBR R2 = 0.84 and % black trees-dNBR R2 = 0.91), which supports the operational use of the dNBR for post-fire management. Without initial calibration with field data, however, dNBR values lack biophysical meaning. The SMA-derived char fraction also had moderate-high correlations with the field data (GeoCBI-char fraction R2 = 0.66 and % black trees-char fraction R2 = 0.82). The char fractions provide a direct mechanistic link with the fire processes that occurred on the ground. Such data have big potential to adjust burning efficiency values. This is of great importance to reduce uncertainties in wildfire emission estimates.

Veraverbeke, S.; Hook, S.

2012-04-01

28

A man with severe leg burns.  

PubMed

A 52-year-old Hispanic male was transported to the emergency department after sustaining severe bilateral lower extremity burns in an electroplating factory. His examination revealed circumferential burns to the lower extremities with spotting in the perineum. The epidermis was stained green and sloughed off with gentle pressure. The underlying dermis was white and non-blanching, consistent with a full thickness burn. His feet were partially protected by his work boots where he had small areas of pink, blanchable, partial thickness burns (Fig. 1). Pertinent initial studies included a lactic acid level of 3.1 mmol/L and a creatinine of 1.02 mg/dL. PMID:23992444

Chapman, A J; Deschler, D; Judge, B S

2013-11-01

29

Current treatment of severely burned patients.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The authors provide an update on a multidisciplinary approach to the treatment of severely burned patients. A review of studies and clinical trials from the past to the present include fluid resuscitation, sepsis, immune function, hypermetabolism, early excision, wound healing, scar formation, and inhalation injury. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Advances in treating initial burn shock, infection control, early wound closure, and modulation of the hypermetabolic response have decreased morbidity and mortality in the last two decades. Specialized burn care centers, using a multidisciplinary approach, not only successfully treat large burns and their complications, but provide the necessary rehabilitation and psychological support required for readjustment back into society. CONCLUSIONS: Thermal injury results in a number of physiologic alterations that can be minimized by adequate fluid resuscitation to maintain tissue perfusion, early excision of burn wounds, and rapid wound coverage. These measures, in combination with antibiotic coverage and nutritional support in the form of early enteral tube feedings, will decrease the hypermetabolic response and the incidence of sepsis that can lead to hemodynamic instability and organ failure. Ongoing clinical trials using anabolic agents (e.g., recombinant human growth hormone) and pharmacologic agents that modulate inflammatory and endocrine mediators (e.g., ibuprofen and propranolol) show promise in the treatment of severe burn injuries.

Nguyen, T T; Gilpin, D A; Meyer, N A; Herndon, D N

1996-01-01

30

Infection control in severely burned patients  

PubMed Central

In the last two decades, much progress has been made in the control of burn wound infection and nasocomial infections (NI) in severely burned patients. The continiually changing epidemiology is partially related to greater understanding of and improved techniques for burn patient management as well as effective hospital infection control measures. With the advent of antimicrobial chemotherapeutic agents, infection of the wound site is now not as common as, for example, urinary and blood stream infections. Universal application of early excision of burned tissues has made a substantial improvement in the control of wound-related infections in burns. Additionally, the development of new technologies in wound care have helped to decrease morbidity and mortality in severe burn victims. Many examples can be given of the successful control of wound infection, such as the application of an appropriate antibiotic solution to invasive wound infection sites with simultaneous vacuum-assisted closure, optimal preservation of viable tissues with waterjet debridement systems, edema and exudate controlling dressings impregnated with Ag (Silvercel, Aquacell-Ag). The burned patient is at high risk for NI. Invasive interventions including intravenous and urinary chateterization, and entubation pose a further risk of NIs. The use of newly designed antimicrobial impregnated chateters or silicone devices may help the control of infection in these immunocomprimised patients. Strict infection control practices (physical isolation in a private room, use of gloves and gowns during patient contact) and appropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy guided by laboratory surveillance culture as well as routine microbial burn wound culture are essential to help reduce the incidance of infections due to antibiotic resistant microorganisms.

Coban, Yusuf Kenan

2012-01-01

31

Initial Results Comparing Spectral Signatures of Post-fire Materials, Western Montana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current algorithms for estimating fire severity from remotely sensed imagery are based on pre-fire to post-fire changes in reflectance values within the sensor's bands, rather than on an understanding of how spectral signatures of burned areas differ from unburned areas. However, spectral signatures for materials commonly found in burned areas of the landscape, including ash, charcoal, and burned pine needles have not been published. With a fundamental understanding of how fire alters the spectral signatures of a landscape, fire severity algorithms could readily be derived for any sensor. Spectral signatures of charcoal, soil and other materials were collected for this project in several burned areas in western Montana during the summer of 2006. An ASD FieldSpec3 spectroradiometer (350-2500 nm) was used for collection. Time since burn ranged from one week to one year. Spectral signatures were also collected for vegetation and other common materials outside the burn perimeter and for areas 26 inches in diameter with a mix of vegetation and burned materials. We present characteristic spectra for these types of materials associated with wildland fire, and regions of the electromagnetic spectrum that experience the most change due to wildfire. These results aid interpretation of the environmental effects of wildfire in remotely sensed imagery of burned areas.

Klene, A.; Riley, K. L.; Kamp, U.

2006-12-01

32

Optimizing burn severity assessments in Alaskan tussock tundra from optical imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade Alaskan tundra has experienced an increase in fire occurrence prompting rising concerns in the scientific community. Fire occurrence in tundra ecosystems has the potential to release a large amount of organic carbon stored in the deep organic layer, modify soil moisture and respiration, and make more organic matter available for decomposition and future burning through impacts on the active depth layer. Monitoring and characterization of fire occurrence and impacts in extensive, remote, and largely inaccessible tundra regions rely on satellite observations of land surface and require robust approaches to burn severity measurements. The relatively low fire activity in tundra regions between 1950 and 2000 has resulted in overall lack of understanding of fire impacts on tundra landscapes outside the Seward Peninsula where tundra fire record is better known. Thus satellite-based mapping of burn severity is limited by the lack of quantified knowledge of fire-induced physical changes on the landscape on the one hand and the capabilities of optical remote sensing systems to capture those characteristics on the other. Here we present an analysis of satellite mapping of burn severity using multi-date Landsat imagery and two field-based measurements of burn severity - the operationally applied Composite Burn Index (CBI) and the more simplistic Burn Severity Index (BSI), also known as the Burn Severity Code Matrix. The BSI used here is a four-point scale (unburned, low, moderate, severe) assessed for the surface substrate and vegetation layers. The BSI and CBI used to compare to the remote sensing data were determined from the field data by converting the qualitative fractional assessment of burn severity within 10 x 10 m plots to a single value. Since both indices represent mostly ocular assessment of the fire-impacted surface, they can relate well to Landsat's optical sensors measurements. The analysis shows that overall satellite indices have closer relationships with CBI compared to BSI (exceeding R2 of 0.8 in 10 and 4 instances for CBI and BSI, respectively) for single-date assessments. Similarly, for multi-date differenced assessments, the R2 between CBI and various Landsat-based indices exceeded 0.8 in 76 instances compared to only 20 instances for BSI. However, there are considerable differences between the timing of image acquisition post fire when the relationships between satellite observations and CBI or BSI are the closest as well and indices which field assessments of burn severity appear to be best correlated with. CBI produces closest relationships with near infrared, short-wave infrared at 1.5?m, relative differenced Normalized Burn Ratio, and Tasseled Cap Greenness indices when the post-fire image is acquired immediately after the fire event irrespective of the pre-burn date selection. In contrast, the relationship between BSI and spectral indices peaks when pre- and post-burn indices are computed from images preceding the full green-up conditions (i.e. late May imagery), with Tasseled Cap Brightness showing the closest relationship. Although on average CBI outperforms BSI, BSI produces closer relationships to spectral indices than CBI indicating that the two field assessments provide complimentary information which can be related to biophysical properties of impacted surface.

Loboda, T. V.; Jenkins, L. K.; French, N. H.; Bourgeau-Chavez, L. L.

2013-12-01

33

Mapping wildfire burn severity in the Arctic Tundra from downsampled MODIS data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wildfires are historically infrequent in the arctic tundra, but are projected to increase with climate warming. Fire effects on tundra ecosystems are poorly understood and difficult to quantify in a remote region where a short growing season severely limits ground data collection. Remote sensing has been widely utilized to characterize wildfire regimes, but primarily from the Landsat sensor, which has limited data acquisition in the Arctic. Here, coarse-resolution remotely sensed data are assessed as a means to quantify wildfire burn severity of the 2007 Anaktuvuk River Fire in Alaska, the largest tundra wildfire ever recorded on Alaska's North Slope. Data from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and downsampled Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were processed to spectral indices and correlated to observed metrics of surface, subsurface, and comprehensive burn severity. Spectral indices were strongly correlated to surface severity (maximum R2 = 0.88) and slightly less strongly correlated to substrate severity. Downsampled MODIS data showed a decrease in severity one year post-fire, corroborating rapid vegetation regeneration observed on the burned site. These results indicate that widely-used spectral indices and downsampled coarse-resolution data provide a reasonable supplement to often-limited ground data collection for analysis and long-term monitoring of wildfire effects in arctic ecosystems.

Kolden, Crystal A.; Rogan, John

2013-01-01

34

Predicting Post-fire Flooding and Sediment Delivery at the Watershed Scale: An Urgent Need for Upscaling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past 10-15 years tremendous advances have been made in understanding the effects of fires on runoff and erosion processes, the effectiveness of various post-fire rehabilitation treatments, and the prediction of these changes. The problem is that nearly all of this work has been done at the plot and hillslope scale, while it is the larger-scale issues of flooding, water quality, and sedimentation that are of primary concern to resource managers and the public. In most cases these larger-scale changes are predicted either by simple lumped models, such as the curve number technique, or by summing up the hillslope-scale responses. These approaches can greatly overestimate the downstream effects because they do not account for the spatial variability of rainfall or the complexities of routing and storage. While post-fire stormflows may be efficiently routed downstream, our observations from fires across the western US indicate very large differences in the amount of sediment delivered to downstream areas. As one example, a large storm after the 2012 High Park fire near Fort Collins generated huge amounts of sediment, but relatively little of this was delivered to the Cache la Poudre River; in the case of the 2002 Hayman fire near Denver even moderate-sized storms delivered enough sand and fine gravel to temporarily dam up the South Platte River and over time around 750,000 m3 of sediment was deposited into Strontia Springs Reservoir. In this paper we hypothesize that relatively simple set of tools can greatly improve our ability to predict post-fire runoff and sediment delivery at the watershed scale (5-100 km2). In areas dominated by convective storms post-fire flood risks should be modified according to the size of those storms relative to the upslope contributing area and extent of high or moderate burn severity. The potential delivery of post-fire sediment can be improved by combining the predicted flood risk with empirical adjustments based on valley confinement, valley slope, and the density of the residual riparian vegetation. Particle size is hypothesized to be a lesser control because most of the deposited post-fire sediment is easily transported. Valley slope can be estimated from existing DEMs, while the accurate characterization of valley confinement and riparian vegetation requires higher-resolution imagery such as lidar and Quickbird or SPOT. The development of such tools should greatly improve our ability to predict the larger-scale risks of flooding and sedimentation, and more efficiently allocate post-fire treatments to watersheds that have the highest sediment delivery potential.

MacDonald, Lee; Wagenbrenner, Joe; Nelson, Peter; Brogan, Dan

2013-04-01

35

Outcome analysis of 286 severely burned patients: retrospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To evaluate the outcomes of severely burned patients treated at a regional burns unit and to develop a predictive model for survival and length of hospital stay for major burn patients in Hong Kong. Design. Retrospective study.

SY Ying; A Burd

2002-01-01

36

Snow Cover Contributes to Post-fire Vegetation Regeneration in Mediterranean Climate Regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predictions for the 21st century western United States climate include amplified fire regimes, earlier spring snowmelt and reduced snowpack. In the Pacific Northwest, burned area is projected to increase by as much as 300% by the end of this century. Continued declines in snowpack are also anticipated, especially at lower elevations. Previous research has established a link between declining snowpacks and wildfire. But what is the role of snow in the regeneration of vegetation after a fire? This investigation examines the relationship between post-fire vegetation and snowcover. We analyze the complex relationships between remotely sensed winter snow frequency and subsequent spring and summer vegetation biomass before and after large wildfires using a form of nonparametric multiplicative regression. We use snow cover and vegetation biomass data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). At each fire site, multiple physiographic predictor variables, (snow frequency, elevation, slope, aspect, vegetation type, and burn severity), are incorporated for the vegetation biomass response variable. For the Biscuit Fire (Klamath Mountains Ecoregion in SW Oregon), we see a negative correlation between winter snow frequency and subsequent spring EVI before the 2002 Biscuit Fire and a shift to a positive correlation after the fire during regeneration, while fires in other western ecoregions do not exhibit this shift. We also examine fire sites in the California Sierra Nevada and the Oregon Cascade Mountains. Snow cover frequency appears to be a valid predictor of post-fire biomass in climate regions where the summer dry period is relatively long. This research evaluates the relative importance of snowpack and other physiographic variables in post-fire vegetation regeneration across a latitudinal gradient of fire sites.

Blauvelt, K. J.; Nolin, A. W.; Lintz, H. E.; Sproles, E. A.

2012-12-01

37

Nutrition in the severely burned child.  

PubMed

Adequate nutrition in the severely burned child often determines the morbidity and mortality and its supervision demands a high priority in the management of the burn injury. A disciplined, detailed programme is required, but this is often neglected. The hypermetabolism experienced in the severe burn may require a calorie intake up to 2 1/2 times normal, and in the growing child, with extra requirements, a negative balance can easily eventuate if careful management is not instituted. A daily metabolic plan provides firstly, the basic calories and protein per kilogram depending on age as for a normal child and, secondly additional requirements depending on the surface area of the burn. With such a programme the weakness of treating all children, whatever their age, on the same formula related only to surface area burn, is overcome. Parenteral nutrition is commenced as soon as the shock phase has been controlled and is continued until enteral intake by gastric tube is sufficient to cover the requirements. Such tube feeding requires the selection of an isotonic liquid diet so as so limit the possibility of diarrhoea. Isocal (Mead Johnson) has been found generally acceptable. Gradually as the patient recovers, oral intake is introduced and the child returns home on a normal nutritional diet, expectantly without weight loss and even with some weight gain, which befits any normal child under treatment for some months. Preburn nutrition, disease and infection, hyperthermia, hypothermia, evaporative water loss, active exercise, psychological well being, social state, early skin cover and limitation of stress are important aspects affecting metabolism and require careful supervision and management. The limitation of metabolism is as important as increasing the caloric intake and this is exemplified at the time of operation, which should be as nonstressful as possible. Every two weeks an adjusted assessment is made of the burned area still to be grafted and the caloric requirements are reduced accordingly. Assessment as to the success of the regime is made upon the results of daily weighing. Extra vitamins and elements are given and blood electrolytes and urine glucose and protein are regularly monitored. PMID:6784187

Solomon, J R

1981-01-01

38

Severe gastrointestinal burn with hydrochloric acid  

PubMed Central

Inadvertantly or purposely, an oral intake of corrosive substances may cause life-threatening problems. Early admission to the hospital, clinical and endoscopic evaluation, and early surgery when required, may reduce morbidity and mortality. We report the case of a 49-year-old male patient, who had attempted suicide, by drinking about 800 mL of 25% hydrochloric acid, and who had severe intra-abdominal damage. The aim of this report is to state the fact that a good outcome is possible in severe burns caused by oral intake of corrosive substances, when fast, multidisciplinary, and appropriate management is provided on time.

Araz, Coskun; Cekmen, Nedim; Erdemli, Ozcan; Soylu, Lutfu; Atalay, Fuat; Demirbas, Tevfik Ali; Demirbag, Ali; Celep, Bahadir

2013-01-01

39

Formation of post-fire water-repellent layers in Monterrey pine (Pinus radiata) plantations in south-central Chile.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wildfire burned around 15,000 ha of Monterrey Pine (Pinus radiata) plantations near Yungay, Chile, in January of 2007. Post-fire water repellency (hydrophobicity) was measured using the water-drop-penetration-time (WDPT) method at depths of 0, 5, and 10 mm from the soil surface. These measurements were collected on burned sites of both young (4-years old) and old (11-years old) plantations sampling both sand- and clay-rich soils. Water repellency was also measured one year after the wildfire on four unburned sites representing the same soil types and plantation ages as those occurring on the burned sites. These measurements were taken for comparison purposes. While water-repellent layers were documented on the burned sites, these layers were not found on the unburned sites. Significant differences in thickness and deepness of post-fire water repellent layers were found across most treatments. Several important management implications can be discerned from the results of this study, since a significant portion of Chile is compound by fire-adapted exotic species.

Garcia-Chevesich, Pablo; Stropki, Cody; Pizarro, Roberto; Ramirez de Arellano, Pablo; Ffolliott, Peter; Debano, Leonard; Neary, Daniel

2010-05-01

40

Application of MODSCAG and MODIS snow products in post-fire watersheds in the western U.S  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires across the western U.S. have the potential to alter watershed processes for years after the event and have significant impact on snow accumulation and melt behavior, directly altering water yield. The paucity of literature on spatial and temporal variability in post-fire snow cover patterns is primarily due to the lack of available pre- and post-fire data. The current work evaluates the distribution of snow after large forest fires through the use of remotely sensed snow covered area (SCA). Accurately monitoring snow cover in mountainous terrain is complex, but recent remote sensing techniques have been shown to identify snow cover relatively well. Specifically, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow covered area and grain size (MODSCAG) algorithm provides an accurate representation of snow cover at 500 m resolution through an improved multi-spectral mixing analysis. MODSCAG shows little sensitivity to vegetation cover types at the regional scale, and is therefore ideal for monitoring changes in spatial snow coverage after wildfire. MODSCAG is currently only available over the Sierra Nevada from 2000-2010. NASA MODIS SCA products, such as MOD10A1, however, are readily available from 2000-present over the entire U.S. Initial analysis includes investigation of relative changes in pre- and post-fire snow covered area over the 2007 Moonlight Fire in the northern Sierra Nevada (California), utilizing both MODSCAG and MOD10A1fractional SCA products. Preliminary results show statistically significant increases (at 95%) in post-fire basin averaged MODSCAG SCA, compared to a nearby unburned control basin and taking into account annual climate variability. Basin averaged snow cover during winter months show increases of 25% during the post-fire period with annual SCA averages increasing up to 10%. We also undertake a pixel by pixel analysis to study the effects of burn severity and slope aspect. Results show that regardless of these attributes, there is statistically increased SCA post-fire due to acute changes in forest structure. MODIS fSCA compliments MODSCAG with an extra 2 years of available data. The MODIS fSCA product is also being used to investigate changes after the Moonlight Fire and to adjust for bias between the two products (MODIS and MODSCAG). Ultimately, this study will provide critical insight in the area of natural hazards and the impacts of wildfire on downstream water sustainability from fire-induced shifts in snow cover and snowmelt patterns through the use of remote sensing platforms (i.e. MODIS).

Micheletty, P. D.; Kinoshita, A. M.; Hogue, T. S.

2013-12-01

41

Production and Aerial Application of Wood Shreds as a Post-Fire Hillslope Erosion Mitigation Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Guidelines for the production and aerial application of wood shred mulch as a post-fire hillslope treatment were developed from laboratory and field studies, several field operations, and the evaluations of professionals involved in those operations. At t...

C. G. Showers J. S. Groenier L. E. Ashmun P. R. Jobichaud R. B. Foltz

2013-01-01

42

Post-fire forest sustainability in north-central Portugal: Assessing the impacts of pre- and post-fire ground preparations, logging and mitigation treatments on post-fire runoff and erosion.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires have been reported worldwide as producing strong and sometimes extreme responses in runoff and soil erosion. However, in the case of North-Central Portugal, little research had been carried out regarding the hydrologic and erosive impacts of several land management activities in recently burnt areas (such as ground preparation, post-fire logging or post-fire mitigation treatments). This is the main objective of this research. Several pre- and post-fire ground preparation operations (down-slope rip-ploughed, contour ploughed and terracing), post-fire logging activities, and post-fire soil erosion mitigation treatments (forest residue mulches, polyacrylamide and hydromulch) were assessed from the first to the third post-fire years. Repeated rainfall simulation experiments (RSE's), micro-scale runoff plots and bounded sediment fences were installed immediately after the wildfire in twelve burnt slopes and monitored at weekly-basis intervals. The results for the first post-fire year showed comparable runoff coefficient (20-60%) but lower sediment losses (1.2-10 Mg ha-1) than prior studies in Portugal and worldwide, which corresponded well with the historic intensive land use in the area. Terracing sharply increased soil erosion (up to 30 Mg ha-1) at the micro-plots scale during the first year after a wildfire and terracing. However, sediment limited erosion was measured in all the pre-fire ploughed sites, probably due to the time elapsed since ploughing. Post-fire logging activities enhanced 5- to 10- fold the sediment losses, which was related to the disturbance of the soil surface cover. The mulches (forest residue or hydromulch) were highly effective reducing post-fire soil erosion in more than 80%. The increase on sediment losses of the recently terraced area and the measured sediment exhaustion at all the pre-fire ploughed sites as well as the increasing frequency of ploughing in the forest areas implies the need to consider ploughing as a hazardous activity in the region. Furthermore, logging activities that maintain the needle cast and/or logging litter over the soil surface are suggested. The best options for post-fire mitigation treatments were forest residue or hydromulch. Due to its comparatively lower price, the forest residue mulch is highly recommended.

Malvar, Maruxa; Prats, Sérgio A.; Martins, Martinho A. S.; Gonzalez-Pelayo, Óscar; Keizer, Jacob J.

2014-05-01

43

Student Attitudes toward Children and Adolescents with Severe Burns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Color photographs of burned and nonburned children were used to study the attitudes of 218 practice teachers, nursing students, and counselors-in-training. Findings revealed that children with severe burns and facial scarring were regarded less favorably. Stresses that professionals should be well-trained and empathic in order to assist burned

Holaday, Margot; McPhearson, Ruth

1996-01-01

44

Relationships between ericaceous vegetation and soil nutrient status in a post-fire Kalmia angustifolia -black spruce chronosequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-fire nutrient flushes are an important precursor to secondary succession in fire-driven boreal forest. We studied the magnitude of changes in post-fire soil nutrient status across a chronosequence of ericaceous shrub-dominated boreal forest stands in eastern Newfoundland, Canada. The chronosequence comprised nine stands burned between 1 and 38 years prior to the study. These sites have resisted tree reestablishment following forest

Robin G. Bloom; Azim U. Mallik

2006-01-01

45

Stem demography and post-fire recruitment of a resprouting serotinous conifer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The contribution of resprouts and seedling recruitment to post-fire regeneration of the South African fynbos conifer Widdringtonia nodiflora was compared eight months after wildfires in 1990. Stems on all trees were killed by fire but resprouting success was > 90 % at all but one site. A demographic study of burned skeletons revealed that prior to these fires, nearly all plants were multi-stemmed (4 - 9 stems/plant) and multi-aged, indicating continuous sprout production between fires. All stems were killed by these 1990 fires and at most sites > 90 % of the stems were burned to ground level. All diameter stems were susceptible to such incineration as, at most sites, there was no difference in average diameter of stems burned to ground level and those left standing. Individual genets usually had all ramets incinerated to ground level or all ramets charred, but intact, suggesting certain micro-sites burned hotter, whereas other sites were somewhat protected. Although not true of the 1990 fires, there was evidence that occasionally Widdringtonia stems may survive fire. At one site, four of the 16 plants sampled had a burned stem twice as old as the oldest burned stem on the other 12 plants at the site, suggesting some stems had survived the previous fire (ca. 1970) and this conclusion was supported by fire-scars on these four stems that dated to ca. 1970. Based on the highly significant correlation between stem diameter and cone density left standing after the 1990 fries, we calculated that for most sites > 80 % of the initial cone crop was incinerated by fire. This is important because we observed a strong relationship between size of the canopy cone crop surviving fire and post-fire seedling recruitment. Under these conditions we hypothesize that sprouting confers a selective advantage to genets when fires cause heavy losses of seed. The infrequent occurrence of sprouting in the Cupressaceae suggests the hypothesis that resprouting is an apomorphic or derived trait in Widdringtonia. Data from this study suggests resprouting provides a selective advantage under severe fynbos fires, which are not only 'stand-replacing fires,' but also are intense enough to incinerate cone-bearing stems.

Keeley, J. E.; Keeley, M. B.; Bond, W. J.

1999-01-01

46

Analysis of Alaskan burn severity patterns using remotely sensed data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wildland fire is the dominant large-scale disturbance mechanism in the Alaskan boreal forest, and it strongly influences forest structure and function. In this research, patterns of burn severity in the Alaskan boreal forest are characterised using 24 fires. First, the relationship between burn severity and area burned is quantified using a linear regression. Second, the spatial correlation of burn severity as a function of topography is modelled using a variogram analysis. Finally, the relationship between vegetation type and spatial patterns of burn severity is quantified using linear models where variograms account for spatial correlation. These results show that: 1) average burn severity increases with the natural logarithm of the area of the wildfire, 2) burn severity is more variable in topographically complex landscapes than in flat landscapes, and 3) there is a significant relationship between burn severity and vegetation type in flat landscapes but not in topographically complex landscapes. These results strengthen the argument that differential flammability of vegetation exists in some boreal landscapes of Alaska. Additionally, these results suggest that through feedbacks between vegetation and burn severity, the distribution of forest vegetation through time is likely more stable in flat terrain than it is in areas with more complex topography. ?? IAWF 2007.

Duffy, P. A.; Epting, J.; Graham, J. M.; Rupp, T. S.; McGuire, A. D.

2007-01-01

47

Burn severity influences postfire CO2 exchange in arctic tundra.  

PubMed

Burned landscapes present several challenges to quantifying landscape carbon balance. Fire scars are composed of a mosaic of patches that differ in burn severity, which may influence postfire carbon budgets through damage to vegetation and carbon stocks. We deployed three eddy covariance towers along a burn severity gradient (i.e., severely burned, moderately burned, and unburned tundra) to monitor postfire net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) within the large 2007 Anaktuvuk River fire scar in Alaska, USA, during the summer of 2008. Remote sensing data from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to assess the spatial representativeness of the tower sites and parameterize a NEE model that was used to scale tower measurements to the landscape. The tower sites had similar vegetation and reflectance properties prior to the Anaktuvuk River fire and represented the range of surface conditions observed within the fire scar during the 2008 summer. Burn severity influenced a variety of surface properties, including residual organic matter, plant mortality, and vegetation recovery, which in turn determined postfire NEE. Carbon sequestration decreased with increased burn severity and was largely controlled by decreases in canopy photosynthesis. The MODIS two-band enhanced vegetation index (EVI2) monitored the seasonal course of surface greenness and explained 86% of the variability in NEE across the burn severity gradient. We demonstrate that understanding the relationship between burn severity, surface reflectance, and NEE is critical for estimating the overall postfire carbon balance of the Anaktuvuk River fire scar. PMID:21563578

Rocha, Adrian V; Shaver, Gaius R

2011-03-01

48

Psychiatric study of patients with severe burn injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

About two-thirds of a consecutive series of patients severely injured with burns followed up one year after discharge were found to have psychological sequelae. Duration of hospital stay and the presence of certain mental illnesses were related to the incidence and severity of psychological symptoms. This relation did not apply to the site of the burn and the existence of

A C White

1982-01-01

49

Index for characterizing post-fire soil environments in temperate coniferous forests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many scientists and managers have an interest in describing the environment following a fire to understand the effects on soil productivity, vegetation growth, and wildlife habitat, but little research has focused on the scientific rationale for classifying the post-fire environment. We developed an empirically-grounded soil post-fire index (PFI) based on available science and ecological thresholds. Using over 50 literature sources, we identified a minimum of five broad categories of post-fire outcomes: (a) unburned, (b) abundant surface organic matter ( > 85% surface organic matter), (c) moderate amount of surface organic matter ( ? 40 through 85%), (d) small amounts of surface organic matter ( < 40%), and (e) absence of surface organic matter (no organic matter left). We then subdivided each broad category on the basis of post-fire mineral soil colors providing a more fine-tuned post-fire soil index. We related each PFI category to characteristics such as soil temperature and duration of heating during fire, and physical, chemical, and biological responses. Classifying or describing post-fire soil conditions consistently will improve interpretations of fire effects research and facilitate communication of potential responses or outcomes (e.g., erosion potential) from fires of varying severities.

Jain, Theresa B.; Pilliod, David S.; Graham, Russell T.; Lentile, Leigh B.; Sandquist, Jonathan E.

2012-01-01

50

Spatial frequency domain imaging of burn wounds in a preclinical model of graded burn severity  

PubMed Central

Abstract. Frequent monitoring of early-stage burns is necessary for deciding optimal treatment and management. Both superficial and full thickness burns are relatively easy to diagnose based on clinical observation. In between these two extremes are superficial-partial thickness and deep-partial thickness burns. These burns, while visually similar, differ dramatically in terms of clinical treatment and are known to progress in severity over time. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) for noninvasively mapping quantitative changes in chromophore and optical properties that may be an indicative of burn wound severity. A controlled protocol of graded burn severity was developed and applied to 17 rats. SFDI data was acquired at multiple near-infrared wavelengths over a course of 3 h. Burn severity was verified using hematoxylin and eosin histology. From this study, we found that changes in water concentration (edema), deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration, and optical scattering (tissue denaturation) to be statistically significant at differentiating superficial partial-thickness burns from deep-partial thickness burns.

Nguyen, John Quan; Crouzet, Christian; Mai, Tuan; Riola, Kathleen; Uchitel, Daniel; Liaw, Lih-Huei; Bernal, Nicole; Ponticorvo, Adrien; Choi, Bernard; Durkin, Anthony J.

2013-01-01

51

Procalcitonin—a sepsis parameter in severe burn injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Procalcitonin (PCT) levels increase in patients with systemic infections; the highest levels have been found in sepsis. This study tested whether plasma procalcitonin level was related to sepsis, CRP, burn size, inhalation injury or mortality in severely burned patients over the entire clinical course.In 27 patients with 51 (20–91)% TBSA, PCT was measured three times weekly from admission over the

D von Heimburg; W Stieghorst; R Khorram-Sefat; N Pallua

1998-01-01

52

Post-fire Gully Rejuvenation - Evidence of Process Thresholds Controlled by Vegetation Disturbance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High intensity rainfall may trigger gully rejuvenation on hillslopes recently disturbed by wildfire, leading to debris-laden flows which generally contribute the majority of sediment transported in post-fire erosion events. We investigated the extent to which the occurrence of gully rejuvenation can be predicted based upon burn severity, rainfall data and basin morphometric variables. Field surveys were conducted at six Northern Rockies sites to identify occurrence of gully rejuvenation in first order catchments and to map and characterize the location of gully heads. NEXRAD and rain gage data analysis coupled with field observations characterized rainfall intensity and extent. Building on previous work we quantified burn severity using the Vegetation Disturbance Index (VDI), a continuous metric based upon Burned Area Reflectance Classification (BARC) maps derived from satellite imagery using the dNBR algorithm. GIS analysis combined the VDI with morphometric factors expected to influence hillslope stability. Gully heads marked abrupt transition in channel form. Above gully heads, channels were shallow and U-shaped with gentle transition to the hillslope and fine root hairs intact. Angular edges marked deep gully head incisions which down-cut channel floors from 0.2-0.3 to 1.0 meter or more. Any remaining roots were coarse and the hillslope transition was sharp. Gully heads were located at variable distances below the master rill head of the catchment hollow. Distances were obviously greater where live canopy remained upslope. Gully head morphology strongly suggests flow force transition and exceedance of an erosion process threshold. The variable distance of the gully head below the hollow suggest upslope controls influencing initiation point, possibly degree and spatial pattern of burn severity. Binary logistic regression revealed stronger correlation between gully rejuvenation and VDI than morphometric variables. The statistical strength using the continuous BARC metric was greater than that obtained in prior work using standard classified BARC maps. Where gully rejuvenation occurred and the VDI predictor variable was low, higher burn severity was often concentrated in the catchment hollow further reinforcing the significance of upslope influences of vegetation disturbance on the occurrence of gully rejuvenation. These results confirm the overriding importance of burn severity as a predictor of gully rejuvenation in burned areas. Further, by incorporating measures of the spatial distribution of burn severity, it may be possible to further improve on existing predictive models.

Hyde, K.; Woods, S.

2011-12-01

53

Post-fire geomorphic response in steep, forested landscapes: Oregon Coast Range, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of fire in shaping steep, forested landscapes depends on a suite of hydrologic, biologic, and geological characteristics, including the propensity for hydrophobic soil layers to promote runoff erosion during subsequent rainfall events. In the Oregon Coast Range, several studies postulate that fire primarily modulates sediment production via root reinforcement and shallow landslide susceptibility, although few studies have documented post-fire geomorphic response. Here, we describe field observations and topographic analyses for three sites in the central Oregon Coast Range that burned in 1999, 2002, and 2003. The fires generated strongly hydrophobic soil layers that did not promote runoff erosion because the continuity of the layers was interrupted by pervasive discontinuities that facilitated rapid infiltration. At each of our sites, fire generated significant colluvial transport via dry ravel, consistent with other field-based studies in the western United States. Fire-driven dry ravel accumulation in low-order valleys of our Sulphur Creek site equated to a slope-averaged landscape lowering of 2.5 mm. Given Holocene estimates of fire frequency, these results suggest that fire may contribute 10-20% of total denudation across steep, dissected portions of the Oregon Coast Range. In addition, we documented more rapid decline of root strength at our sites than has been observed after timber harvest, suggesting that root strength was compromised prior to fire or that intense heat damaged roots in the shallow subsurface. Given that fire frequencies in the Pacific Northwest are predicted to increase with continued climate change, our findings highlight the importance of fire-induced dry ravel and post-fire debris flow activity in controlling sediment delivery to channels.

Jackson, Molly; Roering, Joshua J.

2009-06-01

54

Burns  

MedlinePLUS

... In severe cases, such fluid loss can cause shock . Burns often lead to infection, due to damage ... trauma teams that care exclusively for patients with traumatic injuries that may accompany burns. How has basic ...

55

Post-fire resilience in the Alpine region estimated from MODIS satellite multispectral data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a methodology based on the analysis of MODIS (MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) time series was developed to estimate post-fire resilience of Alpine vegetation. To this end, satellite images of two vegetation indices (VIs), the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) were used. The analysis was conducted on wildfire affected areas in the Lombardy region (Italy) between 2003 and 2007. Some land surface (LS) descriptors (i.e. mean and maximum VI, growing season start, end and length) were extracted to characterize the time evolution of the vegetation. The descriptors from a burned area were compared to those from an undisturbed adjacent control site by means of analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA). Post-fire resilience was estimated on the basis of the number of subsequent years exhibiting a statistical difference between burned area and control site. The same methodologies were also applied to events aggregated by main land cover (broadleaf forest, prairies and mixed forest). The averaged resilience of broadleaf forest was 5-6 years, whereas prairie ecosystems exhibited a faster response of 0-2 years. Phenological analysis revealed that fire induces a shift of the start and end of growing season in forest ecosystems but has no effect on prairies. The method provides a useful and quantitative insight into complex post-fire vegetation dynamics in the Alps from a remote sensing perspective; results can apply to post-fire forest management and to multi-risk analysis. to compare the performance of NDVI and EVI for inferring post fire resilience.; to evaluate different LS descriptors (i.e. mean and maximum VI, start, end and length of the growing season) for resilience estimations; to compare the resilience to fire of different land covers (LCs) (i.e. broadleaf forest, mixed forest and prairies) affected by fire in Alpine areas.

Di Mauro, B.; Fava, F.; Busetto, L.; Crosta, G. F.; Colombo, R.

2014-10-01

56

Pre- and post-fire pollutant loads in an urban fringe watershed in Southern California.  

PubMed

Post-fire runoff has the potential to be a large source of contaminants to downstream areas. However, the magnitude of this effect in urban fringe watersheds adjacent to large sources of airborne contaminants is not well documented. The current study investigates the impacts of wildfire on stormwater contaminant loading from the upper Arroyo Seco watershed, burned in 2009. This watershed is adjacent to the Greater Los Angeles, CA, USA area and has not burned in over 60 years. Consequently, it acts as a sink for regional urban pollutants and presents an opportunity to study the impacts of wildfire. Pre- and post-fire storm samples were collected and analyzed for basic cations, trace metals, and total suspended solids. The loss of vegetation and changes in soil properties from the fire greatly increased the magnitude of storm runoff, resulting in sediment-laden floods carrying high concentrations of particulate-bound constituents. Post-fire concentrations and loads were up to three orders of magnitude greater than pre-fire values for many trace metals, including lead and cadmium. A shift was also observed in the timing of chemical delivery, where maximum suspended sediment, trace metal, and cation concentrations coincided with, rather than preceded, peak discharge in the post-fire runoff, amplifying the fire's impacts on mass loading. The results emphasize the importance of sediment delivery as a primary mechanism for post-fire contaminant transport and suggest that traditional management practices that focus on treating only the early portion of storm runoff may be less effective following wildfire. We also advocate that watersheds impacted by regional urban pollutants have the potential to pose significant risk for downstream communities and ecosystems after fire. PMID:23912423

Burke, M P; Hogue, T S; Kinoshita, A M; Barco, J; Wessel, C; Stein, E D

2013-12-01

57

Transpulmonary thermodilution for hemodynamic measurements in severely burned children  

PubMed Central

Introduction Monitoring of hemodynamic and volumetric parameters after severe burns is of critical importance. Pulmonary artery catheters, however, have been associated with many risks. Our aim was to show the feasibility of continuous monitoring with minimally invasive transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD) in severely burned pediatric patients. Methods This prospective cohort study was conducted in patients with severe burns over 40% of the total body surface area (TBSA) who were admitted to the hospital within 96 hours after sustaining the injury. TPTD measurements were performed using the PiCCO system (Pulsion Medical Systems, Munich, Germany). Cardiac Index (CI), Intrathoracic Blood Volume Index (ITBVI) (Stewart-Hamilton equation), Extravascular Lung Water Index (EVLWI) and Systemic Vascular Resistance Index (SVRI) measurements were recorded twice daily. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way repeated measures analysis of variance with the post hoc Bonferroni test for intra- and intergroup comparisons. Results Seventy-nine patients with a mean age (±SD) of 9 ± 5 years and a mean TBSA burn (±SD) of 64% ± 20% were studied. CI significantly increased compared to level at admission and was highest 3 weeks postburn. ITBVI increased significantly starting at 8 days postburn. SVRI continuously decreased early in the perioperative burn period. EVLWI increased significantly starting at 9 days postburn. Young children (0 to 5 years old) had a significantly increased EVLWI and decreased ITBVI compared to older children (12 to 18 years old). EVLWI was significantly higher in patients who did not survive burn injury. Conclusions Continuous PiCCO measurements were performed for the first time in a large cohort of severely burned pediatric patients. The results suggest that hyperdynamic circulation begins within the first week after burn injury and continues throughout the entire intensive care unit stay.

2011-01-01

58

Vancomycin pharmacokinetics in patients with severe burn injuries.  

PubMed

Vancomycin is used in patients with severe burns and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. This study investigated vancomycin pharmacokinetics in people with burns in comparison to people without burns and examined the factors contributing to pharmacokinetic variability. This was a retrospective, case-control study of hospitalised burns patients compared with a control patient cohort administered vancomycin without burn injury. Vancomycin pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using therapeutic drug monitoring data and a population pharmacokinetic modelling approach employing a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model. The impact of patient characteristics on vancomycin clearance was explored. Vancomycin clearance was significantly higher (p<0.001) in burns patients (5.9+/-3.1L/h, n=37) when compared to control patients (3.4+/-1.8 L/h, n=33), as was estimated creatinine clearance, which was correlated to drug clearance in burns patients (r(2)=0.64). There was no significant change in volume of distribution between patient groups. The majority of patients received a dosing regimen of 1g twice daily, resulting in significantly (p=0.004) lower serum trough concentrations in patients with burns (median, 6.4 mg/L; range, 0.2-22.3mg/L) than control (median, 9.2mg/L; range, 4.0-29.8 mg/L). Higher clearance and lower serum vancomycin concentrations in people with severe burn may increase the risk of suboptimal bactericidal action and the development of resistance highlighting the need for dosage individualization. PMID:19875238

Dolton, Michael; Xu, Hongmei; Cheong, Elaine; Maitz, Peter; Kennedy, Peter; Gottlieb, Thomas; Buono, Evette; McLachlan, Andrew J

2010-06-01

59

Linking runoff response to burn severity after a wildfire  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Extreme floods often follow wildfire in mountainous watersheds. However, a quantitative relation between the runoff response and burn severity at the watershed scale has not been established. Runoff response was measured as the runoff coefficient C, which is equal to the peak discharge per unit drainage area divided by the average maximum 30 min rainfall intensity during each rain storm. The magnitude of the bum severity was expressed as the change in the normalized burn ratio. A new burn severity variable, hydraulic functional connectivity ?? was developed and incorporates both the magnitude of the burn severity and the spatial sequence of the bum severity along hillslope flow paths. The runoff response and the burn severity were measured in seven subwatersheds (0.24 to 0.85 km2) in the upper part of Rendija Canyon burned by the 2000 Cerro Grande Fire Dear Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA. A rainfall-discharge relation was determined for four of the subwatersheds with nearly the same bum severity. The peak discharge per unit drainage area Qupeak was a linear function of the maximum 30 min rainfall intensity I30. This function predicted a rainfall intensity threshold of 8.5 mm h-1 below which no runoff was generated. The runoff coefficient C = Qupeak/I30 was a linear function of the mean hydraulic functional connectivity of the subwatersheds. Moreover, the variability of the mean hydraulic functional connectivity was related to the variability of the mean runoff coefficient, and this relation provides physical insight into why the runoff response from the same subwatershed can vary for different rainstorms with the same rainfall intensity. Published in 2007 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Moody, J. A.; Martin, D. A.; Haire, S. L.; Kinner, D. A.

2008-01-01

60

Post-Fire Sediment Flux of the Day Fire, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hillslope transport rates in steeplands often increase dramatically following wildfires. Hillslope material transported by post-fire ravel processes is the primary source for sediment entrained in hazardous debris flows, which tend to initiate during intense rainfall. We used sediment traps to assess post-fire hillslope transport rates in steeplands burned by the 2006 Day fire in the Transverse Ranges of southern California. We installed seven sediment traps flush with the ground surface on relatively planar hillslopes ranging in gradient from 0.3 to 0.76 within two geologic parent materials: Mesozoic plutonic rocks and Miocene conglomerate and sandstone. Traps were installed within 2 to 4 weeks of fire containment while ravel was on-going. In the first month following fire containment, we observed widespread dry ravel and grain flows of cohesionless granular material occurring in response to localized turbulent wind bursts and solar-driven thermal variations. We collected sediment at <1 month intervals between October 2006 and July 2007, air dried samples, and then manually sieved and weighed them for particle size determination. The sediment mass acquired from each trap emptying interval was converted to a sediment flux per unit contour width. A nearby anemometer provided estimates of wind direction and speed. Particle size distribution of sediment accumulated in the traps remained relatively uniform throughout the monitoring period with no apparent immediate spike in post-fire, fine-grained ashy material. Ravel from the Miocene sediment is largely gravelly sand, while that derived from Mesozoic plutonic rocks is a sandy gravel grus. Sediment flux from all seven traps ranges over 2 orders of magnitude from 0.002 to 0.5 m3m-1yr- 1, lower on gentle slopes and higher on steeper slopes, independent of parent material. Plots show an exponential relation between cumulative sediment flux and local hillslope gradient, consistent with a non-linear relation between flux and gradient found by others. The departure from a flux law that is linear with slope occurs at ~0.8. Four of seven sediment traps recorded the highest sediment fluxes per trap-emptying interval prior to the onset of rain, with 6 to 32% of their total mass for the entire monitoring period accumulating during dry conditions. Sediment accumulation at these four traps correlates closely with both average wind speed and time- integrated wind speed. The remaining three traps record their highest fluxes in response to the first post-fire storms, despite their minimal precipitation, representing only 11% of seasonal precipitation. For all the sediment traps, these relatively small early-season rainstorms generated between 20 and 55% of the total accumulated sediment mass. In contrast, the largest rainfall event, producing 50% of the total seasonal rainfall, generated only moderate sediment fluxes, and late-season rain and wind events, albeit larger, did not have commensurately high sediment fluxes. These observations indicate that large volumes of sediment were transported under dry conditions and in response to the first rain storms. As a result, many slopes >0.65-0.7 were stripped to bedrock during the course of monitoring. Soil pits downslope in valley bottoms indicate aggradation of 0.25 m with a maximum fill exceeding 0.5 m. The combination of observed bedrock emergence and decreases in sediment flux recorded by the traps through the high rain and wind events indicates that these hillslopes converted from transport-limited to supply-limited conditions within months following the fire. Much of the sediment transported off the steep hillslopes aggraded the low-order channel network, which provides ample material for potential entrainment in future debris flows or floods.

Schmidt, K. M.; Stock, J. D.; Hanshaw, M. N.

2007-12-01

61

Penetration of micafungin into the burn eschar in patients with severe burns.  

PubMed

Micafungin (MCFG) concentrations in the plasma and in burn eschar were investigated after daily intravenous infusion (1 h) of MCFG (200 mg) in three patients with severe burns. MCFG treatment was initiated more than 72 h after the burn injuries. The MCFG concentrations in the plasma were determined at the end of the first administration of MCFG, immediately before the second dosing, at the end of the MCFG infusion after at least 4 days from the initial treatment, and immediately before the subsequent dosing using high-performance liquid chromatography. In addition, the trough levels in burn eschar after both the initial administration and repeated administration were measured. The peak and trough levels in the plasma were comparable to or slightly lower than the reported values in healthy volunteers. The mean (range) MCFG concentrations in the burn eschar after initial administration and repeated administration were 1.41 ?g/mL (<0.1-3.98 ?g/mL) and 6.65 ?g/mL (1.10-14.81 ?g/mL), respectively. In most cases, the MCFG concentrations in the burn eschar, especially after repeated administration, were higher than the reported MIC90 of MCFG against the clinically important pathogenic species of Candida and Aspergillus. These results suggest that MCFG is capable of penetrating burn eschar. PMID:23771854

Sasaki, Junichi; Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Sato, Yukio; Abe, Shinya; Shinozawa, Yotaro; Kishino, Satoshi; Aikawa, Naoki; Hori, Shingo

2014-06-01

62

Two cases of jugular vein thrombosis in severely burned patients  

PubMed Central

Here we present two cases of jugular vein thrombosis in burn patients, with diagnosis, risk factor analysis, and treatment approaches. Severely burned patients have high risk of deep vein thrombosis occurrence due to multiple surgeries. The deep vein catheter should be carefully performed. Once deep vein thrombosis is detected, a wide ultrasonography helps to find other thrombosis sites. During the acute phase, low molecular weight heparin can be used. Upon long-term anti-thrombosis treatment, combined use of herbal medicine during rehabilitation is helpful.

Cen, Hanghui; He, Xiaojie

2013-01-01

63

A data-driven approach for modeling post-fire debris-flow volumes and their uncertainty  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study demonstrates the novel application of genetic programming to evolve nonlinear post-fire debris-flow volume equations from variables associated with a data-driven conceptual model of the western United States. The search space is constrained using a multi-component objective function that simultaneously minimizes root-mean squared and unit errors for the evolution of fittest equations. An optimization technique is then used to estimate the limits of nonlinear prediction uncertainty associated with the debris-flow equations. In contrast to a published multiple linear regression three-variable equation, linking basin area with slopes greater or equal to 30 percent, burn severity characterized as area burned moderate plus high, and total storm rainfall, the data-driven approach discovers many nonlinear and several dimensionally consistent equations that are unbiased and have less prediction uncertainty. Of the nonlinear equations, the best performance (lowest prediction uncertainty) is achieved when using three variables: average basin slope, total burned area, and total storm rainfall. Further reduction in uncertainty is possible for the nonlinear equations when dimensional consistency is not a priority and by subsequently applying a gradient solver to the fittest solutions. The data-driven modeling approach can be applied to nonlinear multivariate problems in all fields of study. ?? 2011.

Friedel, M. J.

2011-01-01

64

Size-dependent enhancement of water relations during post-fire resprouting.  

PubMed

In resprouting species, fire-induced topkill causes a reduction in height and leaf area without a comparable reduction in the size of the root system, which should lead to an increase in the efficiency of water transport after fire. However, large plants undergo a greater relative reduction in size, compared with small plants, so we hypothesized that this enhancement in hydraulic efficiency would be greatest among large growth forms. In the ecotone between long-leaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) savannas and wetlands, we measured stomatal conductance (gs), mid-day leaf water potential (?leaf), leaf-specific whole-plant hydraulic conductance (KL.p), leaf area and height of 10 species covering a range of growth forms in burned and unburned sites. As predicted, KL.p was higher in post-fire resprouts than in unburned plants, and the post-fire increase in KL.p was positively related to plant size. Specifically, large-statured species tended to undergo the greatest relative reductions in leaf area and height, and correspondingly experienced the greatest increases in KL.p. The post-fire increase in KL.p was smaller than expected, however, due to a decrease in absolute root hydraulic conductance (i.e., not scaled to leaf area). The higher KL.p in burned sites was manifested as an increase in gs rather than an increase in ?leaf. Post-fire increases in gs should promote high rates of photosynthesis for recovery of carbohydrate reserves and aboveground biomass, which is particularly important for large-statured species that require more time to recover their pre-fire size. PMID:24682534

Schafer, Jennifer L; Breslow, Bradley P; Hollingsworth, Stephanie N; Hohmann, Matthew G; Hoffmann, William A

2014-04-01

65

Biogeochemistry and plant physiological traits interact to reinforce patterns of post-fire dominance in boreal forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increases in the frequency, extent, and severity of fire in the North American boreal region are projected to continue under a warming climate and are likely to be associated with changes in future vegetation composition. In interior Alaska, fire severity is linked to the relative dominance of deciduous versus coniferous canopy species. Severely burned areas have high levels of deciduous recruitment and subsequent stand dominance, while lightly burned areas exhibit black spruce self-replacement. To elucidate potential mechanisms by which differential fire severity results in differential post-fire vegetation development, we examined changes in soil nitrogen (N) supply (NO3- and NH4+) and in situ 15N uptake by young aspen (Populus tremuloides) and black spruce (Picea mariana) trees growing in lightly and severely burned areas. We hypothesized that (a) soil nitrate supply would be higher in severely burned sites and (b) since conifers have been shown to have a reduced physiological capacity for NO3- uptake, aspen would display greater rates of NO3- uptake than spruce in severely burned sites. Our results suggested that the composition and magnitude of inorganic N supply 14 years after the fire was nearly identical in high-severity and low-severity sites, and nitrate represented nearly 50% of the supply. However, both aspen and spruce took up substantially more NH4+-N than NO3- -N regardless of fire severity. Surprisingly, spruce exhibited only a moderately lower rate of NO3- uptake (?g N/g root-1h-1) than aspen. At the stand level, aspen took up nearly an order-of-magnitude more N per hectare in severely burned sites compared to lightly burned sites, while spruce exhibited the opposite pattern of N uptake with respect to fire severity. Whereas ammonium appeared to be preferred by both species, nitrate represented a larger component of N uptake (based on the NO3-:NH4+ uptake ratio) in aspen (0.7) than in spruce (0.4). We suggest that these species-specific differences in N preference coupled with their respective physiological response to fire severity represent a positive feedback loop that reinforce the opposing stand dominance patterns that have developed at the two ends of the fire severity spectrum. Shifts in forest composition from the current dominance by conifers to a future landscape dominated by deciduous forest are of concern due to impacts on climate-albedo feedbacks, forest productivity, ecosystem carbon storage, and wildlife habitat use.

Shenoy, A.; Kielland, K.; Johnstone, J. F.

2011-12-01

66

Assessing post-fire combustion of polyurethane  

SciTech Connect

In defining hypothetical accident condition thermal test requirements, 10 CFR 71.73(c)(3) states that ``any combustion of materials of construction must be allowed to proceed until it terminates naturally.`` Two examples of extended burning of packages following the regulatory fire are documented. This paper addresses extended burning after cessation of the 30-min, 1475{degrees}F regulatory fire from an analytical perspective with specific application to a package containing polyurethane insulation. Issues include identifying conditions under which materials of construction bum, estimating burn rate, and establishing criteria for cessation of burning. These data and criteria are then applied to determine package temperature profiles using a finite element model. Development of the illustrative problem demonstrates a number of difficulties that are faced when using analytical models to simulate hypothetical thermal accident conditions.

Williams, W.R.; Anderson, J.C.

1994-05-01

67

Microvascular regeneration in meshed skin transplants after severe burns.  

PubMed

Function of the skin lymphatics as well as blood perfusion of a meshed transplant is crucial for the healing. The lymphatic regeneration and arterial perfusion of skin transplants after severe burns of the extremities had been studied in eight patients by microlymphography, laser doppler perfusion imaging and transcutaneous oxygen pressure measurements 1, 6 and 18 months after transplantation. One month after transplantation, only fragmented as well as many giant lymphatic skin vessels were present in the transplant. After 6 months a normal lymphatic network had developed in all grafts. The extension of the dye in the lymphatics decreased from 4.5 (0-16) at 1 month to 3.0 (1-6) mm after 18 months, indicating improved lymph drainage capacity. The permeability of the lymphatics in the graft was normal. After 1 month, median laser flux in the transplant was 155.6% (105-246%) of the normal skin but it normalised within 18 months. By contrast, transcutaneous oxygen measurement (TcPO(2)) increased from 44 (21-47) to 55 (50-76) mmHg. In meshed transplants used to cover severely burned skin morphological and functional normal lymphatics develop within 6 months and the initially increased laser flux due to inflammatory reaction normalises. Our results provide important insights into the healing process of skin transplants after burn. PMID:21470779

Meier, T O; Guggenheim, M; Vetter, S T; Husmann, M; Haile, S R; Amann-Vesti, B R

2011-09-01

68

The Use of Osseointegrated Epistheses in Severe Face Burn Sequelae  

PubMed Central

Summary Four cases are presented of severe face burn sequelae with mutilation of one or both pinnae, treated using osseointegrated epistheses. In the light of over 10 years’ use of this technique, applied in other forms of anatomical deficits in the head such as congenital malformations, demolition owing to extensive neoplasias, and serious traumatic sequelae, it is recommended that burn patients should be carefully considered from both the psychological and the technical point of view. It is suggested that such patients should be analysed by a specific team consisting of a plastic surgeon, a psychologist, and a prosthetist who assess their expectations, analyse their actual reactions, and above all judge their degree of acceptance of an episthesis. A description is provided of the advantages of the technique, which is mainly indicated when the mutilated area presents a deficit of tissues capable of being reconstructed using traditional surgical techniques.

Ferrara, M.M.; Cervelli, V.; Bottini, D.J.; Colicchia, G.; Masellis, A.

2005-01-01

69

Self-inflicted orodental injury in a severely burned child.  

PubMed

The purpose of this report was to describe the case of a self-inflicted oral injury in a 1 1/2-year-old child that may be related to chronic pain caused by a severely burned body. In the present case, the patient lost his mandibular primary incisors due to continuous teeth clenching. He further traumatized the socket, resulting in severe ulceration. Extraction of the maxillary central and lateral incisors under local anaesthesia was performed to prevent further injury and additional medical problems. PMID:18477434

Cehreli, S Burcak; Bayram, Burak

2007-01-01

70

Burns  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... the inner layer of the skin, contains • Blood vessels • nerves • lymph vessels • hair follicles • glands This document is for informational ... are destroyed. Burns cause severe damage to blood vessels. This type of damage causes fluid to seep ...

71

Comparison of post-fire seedling establishment between scrub communities in mediterranean and non-mediterranean climate ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

I Both fire regimes and the conditions under which fires occur vary widely. Abiotic conditions (such as climate) in combination with fire season, frequency and intensity could influence vegetation responses to fire. A variety of adaptations facilitate post-fire recruitment in mediterranean climate ecosystems, but responses of other communities are less well known. We evaluated the importance of climate by comparing sites with mediterranean and subtropical climates. 2 We used paired burned and mature sites in chamise chaparral, mixed chaparral and coastal sage scrub (California), and rosemary scrub, sand pine scrub and sand-hill (Florida), to test whether (i) patterns of pre-fire and post-fire seedling recruitment are more similar between communities within a region than between regions, and (ii) post-fire stimulation of seedling establishment is greater in regions with marked fire-induced contrasts in abiotic site characteristics. 3 Post-fire seedling densities were more similar among sites within climatic regions than between regions. Both seedling densities and proportions of species represented by seedlings after fires were generally higher in California. 4 The only site characteristic showing a pre-fire-post-fire contrast was percentage open canopy, and the effect was greater in California than in Florida. Soil properties were unaffected by fire. 5 Mediterranean climate ecosystems in other regions have nutrient-poor soils similar to our subtropical Florida sites, but show post-fire seedling recruitment patterns more similar to the nutrient-rich sites in California. Climate therefore appears to play a more major role than soil characteristics.

Carrington, M. E.; Keeley, J. E.

1999-01-01

72

Post-fire vegetation succession in Mediterranean gorse shrublands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Western Mediterranean areas, forest fires are frequent in forests established on old croplands where post-fire regeneration is limited to obligate-seeder species. This has resulted in the spread of Mediterranean gorse ( Ulex parviflorus) increasing the risk and severity of fires. The aim of this paper is to test the autosuccessional hypothesis on a Mediterranean gorse shrubland dominated by seeders species. Particular objectives are: a) to analyze the effect of fire on seedling emergence, survival and growth on the main species involved on plant regeneration process. b) to identify changes in the relative abundance of species as consequence of fire by using a before-after experiment. Then, after experimental fires, seedling emergence, survival and growth rates were analyzed for the main species present in the vegetation regeneration process. Our results show that Mediterranean gorse communities are dominated by Fabaceae species (64% of individuals, mainly of Ulex parviflorus). However, our study demonstrates that vegetation regeneration after fire does not display an autosuccessional pattern and is produced a change on dominance from Fabaceae (mainly U. parviflorus) to Cistaceae (mainly C. albidus) species. Cistaceae seedlings (mainly Cistus albidus and Helianthemum marifolium) were the most abundant post-fire (63% of total germination) while species of Fabaceae (including U. parviflorus and Ononis fruticosa) represented 25%, and Lamiaceae (restricted to Rosmarinus officinalis) comprised only 3% of total emergences. Seedling survival did not differ significantly from one species to another (25-30% of initial individuals over 3 years) but seedling growth rates were also higher for Cistaceae than for Fabaceae individuals. Then, after fire, in terms of biomass, Fabaceae presence decreased from 78.7% to 13.1% while Cistaceae increase from 8% to 83.4%. Given that fire frequency, intensity or severity is partially controlled by the composition and structure of the plant community population changes in the main species, could affect the future fire regime and in turn, affect the hydrological, ecological and economic role of a large stretch of forest and woodland areas in western Mediterranean ecosystems.

De Luis, Martin; Raventós, José; González-Hidalgo, José Carlos

2006-07-01

73

Preliminary assessment of the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity burned area accuracy for shrub-steppe wildfires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire is a common disturbance in shrub-steppe, but unlike other ecosystems, few studies have specifically tested burned area mapping methods in these semi-arid to arid environments. The Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) project is an initiative by the United States Forest Service (USFS) and United States Geological Survey (USGS) aimed at mapping burned area perimeters and burn severity for the entire territory of the United States. We conducted a preliminary assessment of the accuracy of the MTBS burned area perimeters on wildfires that exhibited varying degrees of within-fire patch heterogeneity. We cross-compared the MTBS perimeters with a classification produced using both the Relativised differenced Normalized Burn Index (RdNBR) and the mid-infrared burn index (MIRBI). Overall, MIRBI provided the most consistent accuracies, with only small commission errors. The MTBS-based fire perimeters had high burned area commission errors, primarily due to inclusion of unburned islands and fingers within the fire perimeter. The RdNBR burned area maps exhibited very high commission errors, however, when constrained by the MTBS perimeter provided accuracies comparable to MIRBI. Studies seeking to use MTBS data for assessing trends in burned area should use spectral indices able to discriminate burned versus unburned pixels and constrain them by the MTBS perimeters.

Argona, A. K.; Sparks, A. M.; Tinkham, W.; Smith, A. M.; Boschetti, L.; Newingham, B. A.; Lannom, K. O.

2013-12-01

74

Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy Improves Survival in Severely Burned Military Casualties With Acute Kidney Injury.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Background: Acute kidney injury in severely burned patients is associated with high mortality. We wondered whether early use of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) changes outcomes in severely burned military casualties with predetermined criteria...

E. E. Mann E. M. Renz K. K. Chung L. Juncos S. E. Wolf

2007-01-01

75

POST-FIRE REVEGETATION AT HANFORD  

SciTech Connect

Range fires on the Hanford Site can have a long lasting effect on native plant communities. Wind erosion following removal of protective vegetation from fragile soils compound the damaging effect of fires. Dust storms caused by erosion create health and safety hazards to personnel, and damage facilities and equipment. The Integrated Biological Control Program (IBC) revegetates burned areas to control erosion and consequent dust. Use of native, perennial vegetation in revegetation moves the resulting plant community away from fire-prone annual weeds, and toward the native shrub-steppe that is much less likely to burn in the future. Over the past 10 years, IBC has revegetated major fire areas with good success. IBC staff is monitoring the success of these efforts, and using lessons learned to improve future efforts.

ROOS RC; JOHNSON AR; CAUDILL JG; RODRIGUEZ JM; WILDE JW

2010-01-05

76

Cajander larch (Larix cajanderi) biomass distribution, fire regime and post-fire recovery in northeastern Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change and land-use activities are increasing fire activity across much of the Siberian boreal forest, yet the climate feedbacks from forest disturbances remain difficult to quantify due to limited information on forest biomass distribution, disturbance regimes and post-disturbance ecosystem recovery. Our primary objective here was to analyse post-fire accumulation of Cajander larch (Larix cajanderi Mayr.) aboveground biomass for a 100 000 km2 area of open forest in far northeastern Siberia. In addition to examining effects of fire size and topography on post-fire larch aboveground biomass, we assessed regional fire rotation and density, as well as performance of burned area maps generated from MODIS satellite imagery. Using Landsat imagery, we mapped 116 fire scar perimeters that dated c. 1966-2007. We then mapped larch aboveground biomass by linking field biomass measurements to tree shadows mapped synergistically from WorldView-1 and Landsat 5 satellite imagery. Larch aboveground biomass tended to be low during early succession (? 25 yr, 271 ± 26 g m-2, n = 66 [mean ± SE]) and decreased with increasing elevation and northwardly aspect. Larch aboveground biomass tended to be higher during mid-succession (33-38 yr, 746 ± 100 g m-2, n = 32), though was highly variable. The high variability was not associated with topography and potentially reflected differences in post-fire density of tree regrowth. Neither fire size nor latitude were significant predictors of post-fire larch aboveground biomass. Fire activity was considerably higher in the Kolyma Mountains (fire rotation = 110 yr, fire density = 1.0 ± 1.0 fires yr-1 × 104 km-2) than along the forest-tundra border (fire rotation = 792 yr, fire density = 0.3 ± 0.3 fires yr-1 × 104 km-2). The MODIS burned area maps underestimated the total area burned in this region from 2000-2007 by 40%. Tree shadows mapped jointly using high and medium resolution satellite imagery were strongly associated (r2 ? 0.9) with field measurements of forest structure, which permitted spatial extrapolation of aboveground biomass to a regional extent. Better understanding of forest biomass distribution, disturbances and post-disturbance recovery is needed to improve predictions of the net climatic feedbacks associated with landscape-scale forest disturbances in northern Eurasia.

Berner, L. T.; Beck, P. S. A.; Loranty, M. M.; Alexander, H. D.; Mack, M. C.; Goetz, S. J.

2012-10-01

77

Cajander larch (Larix cajanderi) biomass distribution, fire regime and post-fire recovery in northeastern Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change and land-use activities are increasing fire activity across much of the Siberian boreal forest, yet the climate feedbacks from forest disturbances remain difficult to quantify due to limited information on forest biomass distribution, disturbance regimes, and post-disturbance ecosystem recovery. Our primary objective here was to analyze post-fire accumulation of Cajander larch (Larix cajanderi Mayr.) aboveground biomass for a 100 000 km2 area of open forest in far northeastern Siberia. In addition to examining effects of fire size and topography on post-fire larch aboveground biomass, we assessed regional fire rotation and density, as well as performance of burned area maps generated from MODIS satellite imagery. Using Landsat imagery, we mapped 116 fire scar perimeters that dated ca. 1969-2007. We then mapped larch aboveground biomass by linking field biomass measurements to tree shadows mapped synergistically from WorldView-1 and Landsat 5 satellite imagery. Larch aboveground biomass tended to be low during early succession (? 25 yr, 271 ± 26 g m-2, n=66 [mean ± SE]) and decreased with increasing elevation and northwardly aspect. Larch aboveground biomass tended to be higher during mid-succession (33-38 yr, 746 ± 100 g m-2, n=32), though was highly variable. The high variability was not associated with topography and potentially reflected differences in post-fire density of tree regrowth. Neither fire size nor latitude were significant predictors of post-fire larch aboveground biomass. Fire activity was considerably higher in the Kolyma Mountains (fire rotation = 110 yr, fire density = 1.0 ± 1.0 fires yr-1 × 104 km-2 than along the forest-tundra border (fire rotation = 792 yr, fire density = 0.3 ± 0.3 fires yr-1 × 104 km-2. The MODIS burned area maps underestimated the total area burned in this region from 2000-2007 by 40%. Tree shadows mapped jointly using high and medium resolution satellite imagery were strongly associated (r2?0.9) with field measurements of forest structure, which permitted spatial extrapolation of aboveground biomass to a regional extent. Better understanding of forest biomass distribution, disturbances, and post-disturbance recovery is needed to improve predictions of the net climatic feedbacks associated with landscape-scale forest disturbances in northern Eurasia.

Berner, L. T.; Beck, P. S. A.; Loranty, M. M.; Alexander, H. D.; Mack, M. C.; Goetz, S. J.

2012-06-01

78

Post-fire water quality in forest catchments: a review with implications for potable water supply  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many locations fire-prone forest catchments are utilised for the supply of potable water to small communities up to large cities. For example, in south-eastern Australia, wildfires have burned part or all of forest catchments supplying drinking water to Sydney (2001 wildfire), Canberra (2003), Adelaide (2007), Melbourne (2009), as well as various regional towns. Generally, undisturbed forest catchments are a source of high quality water. However, increases in erosion and sediment flux, runoff generation, and changes to the supply of key constituents after wildfire may result in contamination of water supplies. In this review, we present key physical and chemical constituents from a drinking water perspective that may be generated in burned forest catchments and examine post-fire changes to concentrations of these constituents in streams and reservoirs. The World Health Organisation (WHO) drinking water guideline values were used to assess reported post-fire constituent concentrations. Constituents examined include suspended sediment, ash, nutrients, trace metals, anions (Cl-, SO42-), cyanides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Constituent concentrations in streams and reservoirs vary substantially following wildfire. In streams, maximum reported total suspended solid concentrations (SSC) in the first year after fire ranged from 11 to 143,000 mg L-1. SSC is often measured in studies of post-fire stream water quality, whereas turbidity is used in drinking water guidelines and more commonly monitored in water supply reservoirs. For burned catchment reservoirs in south-eastern Australia, peak turbidities increased over pre-fire conditions, as did the frequency of exceedance of the turbidity guideline. NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ may increase after wildfire but maximum recorded concentrations have not exceeded WHO guideline values. Large post-fire increases in total N and total P concentrations in streams and reservoirs have been observed, although there are no guideline values for total N or P. Studies of post-fire concentrations of dissolved organic carbon are mostly from North America and report generally minor increases after fire, with elevated concentrations reflecting background conditions. The few observations of trace metal concentrations in streams after wildfire found high concentrations that exceeded guideline values for Fe, Mn, As, Cr, Al, Ba, and Pb, which were associated with highly elevated sediment concentrations. In contrast, Cu, Zn, and Hg were below or only slightly above (?1.2 times) guideline values. Reports of Cl- and SO42- concentrations after wildfire are mostly confined to coniferous forest areas, where maximum sampled values were well below WHO guidelines. Total cyanide concentrations have been observed to exceed guidelines values, although increases are likely to be short-lived. Post-fire stream concentrations of PAHs have been found to increase but were below levels of concern. In assessing the risk to water supply from wildfires, constituents of concern may be identified according to both the reason for concern (health or aesthetic) and treatability. Determining the risk to human health from short duration exposure to elevated concentrations of many contaminants (such as toxic metals, PAHs) is problematic, given that the guideline values are based on a life-time of exposure. Other constituents may have more rapid health effects from consumption of contaminated water (e.g. cyanides, Cu, NO2-) or aesthetic concerns (e.g. Fe, Mn, SO42-, Zn). The increased flux of suspended sediment and sediment-associated constituents (particularly metals, nutrients and organic carbon) that can occur after wildfire may necessitate water treatment by coagulation and filtration. At very high sediment concentrations treatment problems may be encountered that reduce or delay the rate of water processing, potentially causing disruptions in supply. For other constituents, such as NO3-, NO2-, Cl-, SO42-, amenable cyanides, and PAHs, it appears the likelihood that concentrations of concern will occur in water suppl

Smith, Hugh; Sheridan, Gary; Lane, Patrick; Nyman, Petter; Haydon, Shane

2010-05-01

79

Serum CD14 levels in polytraumatized and severely burned patients.  

PubMed Central

Recently it has been demonstrated that the CD14 molecule which is expressed on monocytes and macrophages serves as a receptor for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) bound to LPS-binding protein (LBP) and thus mediates LPS-induced tumour necrosis factor (TNF) production. Here we report that CD14 is found as a soluble (s) molecule in serum. In healthy volunteers sCD14 levels (mean +/- s.e.m.) were 3.7 +/- 0.05 micrograms/ml (n = 30, 25-50 years of age) as determined by ELISA (detection limit 20 ng/ml serum) using two monoclonal antibodies in a sandwich technique. In polytraumatized patients (n = 16) significantly decreased levels (1.7 +/- 0.3) were detected immediately after the trauma, which increased to 4.9 +/- 0.3 micrograms/ml within the first 6 days post trauma. sCD14 remained elevated during the first 14 days post trauma in patients with the most severe injuries (injury severity score greater than 45 points), whereas a return to normal levels was observed in patients with an injury score of less than 45 points. In addition, the levels of the high-density lipoproteins that partially inactivate free endotoxin are significantly decreased post trauma. No correlation between parameters of inflammation (C3a and neopterin levels, leucocyte counts, amount of band cells), liver function and sCD14 levels was established. Comparable to polytraumatized patients, increased sCD14 serum levels were observed in five patients with burn trauma (burned area greater than 35%) within the second week post trauma when clinical signs of septicaemia were evident.

Kruger, C; Schutt, C; Obertacke, U; Joka, T; Muller, F E; Knoller, J; Koller, M; Konig, W; Schonfeld, W

1991-01-01

80

Remote sensing and hydrological modeling of burn scars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the potential usefulness of combining remote sensing data with hydrologic models and mapping tools available from Geographic Information Systems (GIS), to evaluate the effects of wildfire. Four subprojects addressed this issue: (1) validation of burn scar maps derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) with the National Fire Occurrence Database; (2) testing the potential of thermal MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data for near-real time burn scar and fire severity mapping; (3) evaluation of Landsat derived burn severity maps within WEPP through the Geo-spatial interface for the Water Erosion Prediction Project (GeoWEPP), and (4) predicting potential post-fire erosion for western U.S. forests utilizing existing datasets and models. Wildfire poses incredibly complex management problems in all of its stages. Today's land managers have the option of trying to mitigate the effects of a severe fire before it occurs by fuel management practices. This process is expensive especially considering the uncertainty of when and where the next fire in a given region will occur. When a wildfire does occur, deciding when to let it burn and when to suppress it may lead to controversial decisions. In addition to the threat to life and property from the fire itself, smoke emissions from large fires can cause air quality problems in distant airsheds. Even after the fire is extinguished, erosion and water quality problems may pose difficult management questions. Contributions stemming from these studies include improved burn scar maps for studying historical fire extent and demonstration of the feasibility of using thermal satellite data to predict burn scar extent when clouds and smoke obscure visible bands. The incorporation of Landsat derived burn severity maps was shown to improve post-fire erosion modeling results. Finally the potential post-fire burn severity and erosion risk maps generated for western US forests will be used for planning pre-fire fuel reduction treatments.

Miller, Mary Ellen

81

Targeted Prevention or Treatment of Bacterial Biofilm Infections of Severe Burns and Wounds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Persistent infection of severe wounds, and burns in particular, represents a significant cause of deployment-related morbidity and mortality. Inability to successfully treat wound and burn infections relates to the capacity of the bacteria to form a biofi...

J. Nick

2011-01-01

82

Plasma oxidative parameters and mortality in patients with severe burn injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo determine xanthine oxidase and superoxide dismutase activities, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, and total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter in survivors and nonsurvivors patients with severe burn injury.Design and settingProspective, comparative observational study in an intensive care unit, burn division, in a trauma hospital.PatientsTwenty-five consecutive patients who met the established criteria for severe burn injury (total burn surface area of more than

Cristiane Ritter; Michael Andrades; Márcio Guerreiro; Leonardo Zavaschi; Daniel Pens Gelain; Luis Fernando Souza; Cyntia A. Ribeiro; Nadine Clausell; Sérgio Menna-Barreto; José Cláudio F. Moreira; Felipe Dal-Pizzol

2003-01-01

83

Influence of wildfires on atmospheric composition and carbon uptake of forest ecosystems in Central Siberia: the establishing of a long-term post-fire monitoring system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calculations of direct emissions of greenhouse gases from boreal wildfires remain uncertain due to problems with emission factors, available carbon, and imprecise estimates of burned areas. Even more varied and sparse are accurate in situ calculations of temporal changes in boreal forest carbon dynamics following fire. Linking simultaneous instrumental atmospheric observations, GIS-based estimates of burned areas, and ecosystem carbon uptake calculations is vital to fill this knowledge gap. Since 2006 the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO; www.zottoproject.org) a research platform for large-scale climatic observations is operational in Central Siberia (60°48'N, 89°21'E). The data of ongoing greenhouse gases measurements at the tower are used in atmospheric inversions studies to infer the distribution of carbon sinks and sources over central Northern Eurasia. We present our contribution to reducing uncertainties in estimates of fire influence on atmospheric composition and post-fire ecosystem carbon uptake deduced from the large-scale fires that happened in 2012 in the tall tower footprint area. The burned areas were estimated from Landsat ETM 5,8 satellite images, while fires were detected from Terra/Aqua MODIS satellite data. The magnitude of ecological change caused by fires ("burn severity") was measured and mapped with a Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) index and further calibrated by a complementary field based Composite Burn Index (CBI). Measures of fire radiative power (FRP) index provided information on fire heat release intensity and on the amount and completeness of biomass combustion. Based on the analyzed GIS data, the system of study plots was established in the 5 dominating ecosystem types for a long-term post-fire monitoring. On the plots the comprehensive estimation of ecosystem parameters and carbon pools and their mapping was organized with a laser-based field instrumentation system. The work was supported financially by ISTC Project # 2757p, project of RFBR # 13-05-98053, and grant of president of RF for young scientists MK-1691.2014.5.

Panov, Alexey; Chi, Xuguang; Winderlich, Jan; Prokushkin, Anatoly; Bryukhanov, Alexander; Korets, Mikhail; Ponomarev, Evgenii; Timokhina, Anastasya; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Heimann, Martin

2014-05-01

84

Modeling hydrologic and geomorphic hazards across post-fire landscapes using a self-organizing map approach  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Few studies attempt to model the range of possible post-fire hydrologic and geomorphic hazards because of the sparseness of data and the coupled, nonlinear, spatial, and temporal relationships among landscape variables. In this study, a type of unsupervised artificial neural network, called a self-organized map (SOM), is trained using data from 540 burned basins in the western United States. The sparsely populated data set includes variables from independent numerical landscape categories (climate, land surface form, geologic texture, and post-fire condition), independent landscape classes (bedrock geology and state), and dependent initiation processes (runoff, landslide, and runoff and landslide combination) and responses (debris flows, floods, and no events). Pattern analysis of the SOM-based component planes is used to identify and interpret relations among the variables. Application of the Davies-Bouldin criteria following k-means clustering of the SOM neurons identified eight conceptual regional models for focusing future research and empirical model development. A split-sample validation on 60 independent basins (not included in the training) indicates that simultaneous predictions of initiation process and response types are at least 78% accurate. As climate shifts from wet to dry conditions, forecasts across the burned landscape reveal a decreasing trend in the total number of debris flow, flood, and runoff events with considerable variability among individual basins. These findings suggest the SOM may be useful in forecasting real-time post-fire hazards, and long-term post-recovery processes and effects of climate change scenarios. ?? 2011.

Friedel, M. J.

2011-01-01

85

Post-fire surface water quality: comparison of fire retardant versus wildfire-related effects.  

PubMed

An understanding of the environmental effects of the use of wildland fire retardant is needed to provide informed decision-making regarding forest management. We compiled data from all post-fire surface water monitoring programs where the fire retardant constituents ammonia, phosphorus, and cyanide were measured, and data were available in the public domain. For streams near four major wildfires, we evaluated whether these chemicals originated primarily from fire or from retardant use. We compared measured concentrations in streams where chemical wildland fire retardant was applied with concentrations in streams draining areas where retardant was not used. Correlations with calcium provided an additional line of evidence, because calcium concentrations in ash are much higher than in retardant. Ammonia, phosphorus, and total cyanide were found in streams in burned areas where retardant was not used, at concentrations similar to those found in areas where retardant was applied. Concentrations of weak acid dissociable cyanide were generally non-detected or very low, whether or not wildland fire retardant was used in the watershed. These results indicate that the application of wildland fire retardant had minimal effects on proximate surface water quality. Cyanide concentrations in post-fire stormwater runoff were not affected by the presence of ferrocyanide in the retardant formulas and were due to pyrogenic sources. PMID:16023176

Crouch, Robert L; Timmenga, Hubert J; Barber, Timothy R; Fuchsman, Phyllis C

2006-02-01

86

Persistent Effects of Fire Severity on Early Successional Forests in Interior Alaska  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There has been a recent increase in the frequency and extent of wildfires in interior Alaska, and this trend is predicted to continue under a warming climate. Although less well documented, corresponding increases in fire severity are expected. Previous research from boreal forests in Alaska and western Canada indicate that severe fire promotes the recruitment of deciduous tree species and decreases the relative abundance of black spruce (Picea mariana) immediately after fire. Here we extend these observations by (1) examining changes in patterns of aspen and spruce density and biomass that occurred during the first two decades of post-fire succession, and (2) comparing patterns of tree composition in relation to variations in post-fire organic layer depth in four burned black spruce forests in interior Alaska after 10-20 years of succession.Wefound that initial effects of fire severity on recruitment and establishment of aspen and black spruce were maintained by subsequent effects of organic layer depth and initial plant biomass on plant growth during post-fire succession. The proportional contribution of aspen (Populus tremuloides) to total stand biomass remained above 90% during the first and second decades of succession in severely burned sites, while in lightly burned sites the proportional contribution of aspen was reduced due to a 40- fold increase in spruce biomass in these sites. Relationships between organic layer depth and stem density and biomass were consistently negative for aspen, and positive or neutral for black spruce in all four burns. Our results suggest that initial effects of post-fire organic layer depths on deciduous recruitment are likely to translate into a prolonged phase of deciduous dominance during post-fire succession in severely burned stands. This shift in vegetation distribution has important implications for climate-albedo feedbacks, future fire regime, wildlife habitat quality and natural resources for indigenous subsistence activities in interior Alaska.

Shenoy, Aditi; Johnstone, Jill F.; Kasischke, Eric S.; Kielland, Knut

2011-01-01

87

Use of a radiative transfer model to simulate the postfire spectral response to burn severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burn severity is related to fire intensity and fire duration and provides a quantitative measure related to fire impact and biomass consumption. Traditional field-based methods to estimate burn severity are time consuming, labor intensive, and normally limited in spatial extent. Remotely sensed data may provide a means to estimate severity levels across large areas, but it is critical to understand

E. Chuvieco; D. Riaño; F. M. Danson; P. Martin

2006-01-01

88

Effect of vegetation type on post-fire enhancement of wind erosion in semi-arid landscapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aeolian processes redistribute sediments and nutrients within arid landscapes with important implications on the composition and structure of vegetation. Aeolian processes, on the other hand, are affected by vegetation cover and disturbances. For example, it has been reported that wind erosion is enhanced by fire occurrences, though it is still unclear how this post-fire erosion activity is affected by the vegetation type. In this study we monitored wind erosion activity in a managed grassland (CRP) and in a shrub encroached grassland within the Cimarron National Grasslands (KS). Measurements started after a naturally occurring wildfire and included both field observations - BSNE dust samplers, SENSIT particle impact sensors - and laboratory wind tunnel experiments. The results indicate that, by decreasing the threshold shear velocity (due to vegetation removal and soil water repellency), fires enhance the soil erodibility both in the CRP grassland and in the shrub-encroached grassland. The initial post-fire horizontal dust fluxes in grasslands and adjacent shrub encroached grasslands were comparable. However, the post fire recovery (decline in erosion activity) was rapid in the case of grasslands, while erosion activity remained high in the shrub encroached grasslands for several months after the wild fire. Our results support the hypothesis that woody plant encroachment decreases the resilience of semi arid grasslands - the capacity of these systems to recover from disturbances. This higher post-fire loss and redistribution of soil resources from shrub encroached grasslands further inhibits grass recovery, thereby favoring the shrub encroachment process.

Ravi, S.; Zobeck, T. M.; D'Odorico, P.; Baddock, M.

2010-12-01

89

Pressure ulcers and risk assessment in severe burns.  

PubMed

Risk and incidence of pressure ulcers (PUs) in the burn population remain poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the timing and incidence of PUs at our regional burn center and to identify early risk factors for PU development in burn patients. A retrospective review of 40 charts was performed from among the 1489 patients admitted to our regional burn center between January 2008 and December 2009. Twenty patients acquired PUs during their admission and were identified on the basis of International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision, designation, hospital stay >7 days, and thermal injury (excluding toxic epidermal necrolysis and purpura fulminans). The remaining 20 patients were matched controls based on ±5 years in age and ±8% TBSA. Patient, injury, and outcome characteristics were compared among patient groups using ? for categorical variables and Mann-Whitney for continuous variables. The incidence of PU was 1.3% of all admissions. PU most commonly occurred at the sacrum/coccyx (eight), lower extremity (seven), and occiput (six). A majority of PU presented at stage 2 (33%), stage 3 (26%), and unstageable (30%). Thirteen were splint or device related and reportable. Ninety percent of patients with PUs presented with a Braden score of 16 or less (P = .03), although 60% of controls also had admission Braden scores less than 16. On an average, PUs were acquired within 17 days of admission. Data suggest burn patients are particularly at risk of developing PU based on admission Braden scores. However, low Braden scores do not necessarily correlate with eventual development of PU. Therefore, early and aggressive PU prevention and risk assessment tools must be used to diagnose PUs at an early and reversible stage. PMID:22964549

Lewis, Giavonni M; Pham, Tam N; Robinson, Ellen; Otto, Andrew; Honari, Shari; Heimbach, David M; Klein, Matthew B; Gibran, Nicole S

2012-01-01

90

Dynamic modelling of post-fire transient hydrological behavior of the permafrost basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wilfire have profound effect on landscape properties and consequently on hydrological processes. In permafrost zone fire affects vegetation structure, soil moisture and ground thermal regime, active layer depth dynamics, talik formation and snow accumulation that drive flow generation mechanisms. The goal of the study was to develop a modelling approach that is able to explicitly account for rapid environmental changes after fire event to describe and potentially forecast the hydrological response to fire disturbance. The process-based Hydrograph model is the core of the developed dynamic modelling approach. The Hydrograph model uses observable landscape properties as the parameters. This ability is of high importance in presented study because it allows direct linking of flow formation conditions and mechanisms. The case study is the Vitimkan River basin, Eastern Siberia. It has an area of 969 km2. The basin is located in high-elevated permafrost zone and is covered by mountainous tundra and larch forest. In May-June 2003 78 % of the watershed was burned according to the MODIS Burned area date product. The pair-watershed approach was employed for preliminary investigation of fire impact on hydrological regime. For deeper insight into the processes the Hydrograph model was applied with conventional static parameters. The results of both pair-watershed and model detection methods suggest profound effect of the fire on the Vitimkan River runoff in 2003 and 2004. Post-fire soil and vegetation properties of the watershed were estimated in dynamic mode in each hydrological response unit according to remote sensing data and literature review and used as the model parameters for disturbed period. The ability of the dynamic modelling approach to present hydrological response in non-stationary post-fire conditions will be discussed.

Lebedeva, Liudmila; Semenova, Olga; Volkova, Nina; Forkel, Matthias; Eberle, Jonas; Urban, Marcel

2014-05-01

91

Estrogen treatment following severe burn injury reduces brain inflammation and apoptotic signaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Patients with severe burn injury experience a rapid elevation in multiple circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, with the levels correlating with both injury severity and outcome. Accumulations of these cytokines in animal models have been observed in remote organs, however data are lacking regarding early brain cytokine levels following burn injury, and the effects of estradiol on these levels. Using an

Joshua W. Gatson; David L. Maass; James W. Simpkins; Ahamed H. Idris; Joseph P. Minei; Jane G. Wigginton

2009-01-01

92

Burn Severity Assessment in the Okanogan-Wenatchee Forest Using NASA Satellite Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire severity is an increasingly critical issue for forest managers. A long history of fire suppression has led to millions of acres of dry western forests and a buildup of hazardous fuels. Satellite imagery offers a cost- effective and feasible tool for fire severity assessment and can provide near real-time data for mitigation measures. This study focused on the Tripod Complex Fire that burned more than 175,000 acres of the Okanogan-Wenatchee Forest in Washington in 2006. Field data were collected in order to calculate the Composite Burn Index (CBI), a ground-based measurement of burn severity which can directly correlate with satellite measurements. These in-situ data were used to calibrate the satellite data from the Landsat TM5 sensor and the MODIS sensor on the NASA TERRA satellite. The satellite data were used to calculate the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) and the relative rNBR. These algorithms use the relationship between the near infrared and the shortwave infrared pixel values to quantify burn severity. After comparing these two algorithms, it was determined that there was no significant difference between dNBR and rNBR. Using the burn severity map created with the dNBR data, an analysis was performed to examine the relationship between burn severity and variables such as slope, aspect, and vegetation type. The results showed that there was no relationship between burn severity and any of the variables in the Tripod Complex Fire.

Schiffman, B.; Newcomer, M.; Delgado, D.; Gantenbein, C.; Wang, T.; Prichard, S.; Schmidt, C.; Skiles, J.

2008-12-01

93

Cryoamputation as a temporizing measure in severe burn injury.  

PubMed

Cryoamputation, or physiologic amputation, is a well-described procedure typically used to amputate gangrenous lower extremities. In such cases the patient is too unstable for transport to the operating room, so cryoamputation using dry ice or other refrigerant allows for immediate bedside intervention and later operative amputation when the patient is more stable. In this study the authors describe the use of cryoamputation to stabilize a burn patient with a nonviable upper extremity considered to be contributing significantly to his metabolic acidosis. This experience suggests that cryoamputation may be a reasonable technique to consider when a burn patient presents with a nonviable extremity but is too unstable for immediate operative amputation. PMID:24978024

Pennington, J Daniel; Wall, Anji E; Schlesinger, Joseph J; Higdon, Kent K; Weavind, Liza

2014-01-01

94

Applying Spatial Statistics to Isolate the Effects of Fuels, Topography, and Weather on Burn Severity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire severity datasets derived from satellite remote sensing data are now being used extensively in wildfire research and land management. Maps of burn severity based on the differenced normalized burn ratio (dNBR) are being produced and disseminated by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) project for all major wildfires in the United States from 1984 to present. This abundance of data presents unprecedented new opportunities for understanding how weather, terrain, and fuels interact to determine fire severity patterns, and for testing the effectiveness of fuel-reduction strategies for mitigating wildfire impacts. However, these datasets present challenges for statistical analysis because of their large sizes and the non-independence of spatially autocorrelated pixels. To explore the importance of spatial autocorrelation, we analyzed the spatial patterns of burn severity in two recent wildfires - the 2004 School Fire in the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington and the 2005 Warm Fire on the Kaibab Plateau in northern Arizona. Conditional autoregressive (CAR) models were fitted with dNBR as the dependent variable and topography, fuels, and locations of recent fuel treatments as the independent variables. In both fires, elevation, slope, and aspect had strong effects on burn severity. Fuels had stronger effects on burn severity for the School fire than for the Warm Fire. In both fires, fuel treatments that combined thinning and prescribed burning resulted in statistically significant reductions in fire severity. The CAR models were then decomposed to isolate the spatial signal, which reflected spatially structured variability in dNBR that was not related to the independent variables. The spatial signals were correlated with the burn progression maps, reflecting spatial and temporal variability in weather and fire behavior (e.g. wind versus plume driven) over the course of the fire. These results suggest that spatial autocorrelation in the analysis of remotely- sensed burn severity datasets is not simply a nuisance, but in fact captures substantive and interpretable effects of weather and fire behavior on burn severity.

Wimberly, M. C.; Cochrane, M. A.; Baer, A. D.; Zhu, Z.

2007-12-01

95

Fuel treatments and landform modify landscape patterns of burn severity in an extreme fire event.  

PubMed

Under a rapidly warming climate, a critical management issue in semiarid forests of western North America is how to increase forest resilience to wildfire. We evaluated relationships between fuel reduction treatments and burn severity in the 2006 Tripod Complex fires, which burned over 70,000 ha of mixed-conifer forests in the North Cascades range of Washington State and involved 387 past harvest and fuel treatment units. A secondary objective was to investigate other drivers of burn severity including landform, weather, vegetation characteristics, and a recent mountain pine beetle outbreak. We used sequential autoregression (SAR) to evaluate drivers of burn severity, represented by the relative differenced Normalized Burn Ratio index, in two study areas that are centered on early progressions of the wildfire complex. Significant predictor variables include treatment type, landform (elevation), fire weather (minimum relative humidity and maximum temperature), and vegetation characteristics, including canopy closure, cover type, and mountain pine beetle attack. Recent mountain pine beetle damage was a statistically significant predictor variable with red and mixed classes of beetle attack associated with higher burn severity. Treatment age and size were only weakly correlated with burn severity and may be partly explained by the lack of treatments older than 30 years and the low rates of fuel succession in these semiarid forests. Even during extreme weather, fuel conditions and landform strongly influenced patterns of burn severity. Fuel treatments that included recent prescribed burning of surface fuels were particularly effective at mitigating burn severity. Although surface and canopy fuel treatments are unlikely to substantially reduce the area burned in regional fire years, recent research, including this study, suggests that they can be an effective management strategy for increasing forest landscape resilience to wildfires. PMID:24834742

Prichard, Susan J; Kennedy, Maureen C

2014-04-01

96

Mapping burned areas and burn severity patterns across the Mediterranean region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mediterranean region is highly susceptible to wildfires. On average, about 60,000 fires take place in this region every year, burning on average half a million hectares of forests and natural vegetation. Wildfires cause environmental degradation and affect the lives of thousands of people in the region. In order to minimize the consequences of these catastrophic events, fire managers and

Christos Kalogeropoulos; Giuseppe Amatulli; Pieter Kempeneers; Fernando Sedano; Jesus San Miguel-Ayanz; Andrea Camia

2010-01-01

97

Outcome of acute kidney injury in severe burns: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The main objective of this review was to analyse the prevalence and outcome of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with\\u000a severe burn injury. AKI is a common complication in patients with severe burn injury and one of the major causes of death\\u000a (often combined with other organ dysfunctions). Several definitions of AKI have been used, but the RIFLE ‘consensus’

Nele Brusselaers; Stan Monstrey; Kirsten Colpaert; Johan Decruyenaere; Stijn I. Blot; Eric A. J. Hoste

2010-01-01

98

Assessing burn severity and comparing soil water repellency, Hayman Fire, Colorado  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important element of evaluating a large wildfire is to assess its effects on the soil in order to predict the potential watershed response. After the 55 000 ha Hayman Fire on the Colorado Front Range, 24 soil and vegetation variables were measured to determine the key variables that could be used for a rapid field assessment of burn severity. The percentage of exposed mineral soil and litter cover proved to be the best predictors of burn severity in this environment. Two burn severity classifications, one from a statistical classification tree and the other a Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) burn severity map, were compared with measured ground truth burn severity at 183 plots and were 56% and 69% accurate, respectively.This study also compared water repellency measurements made with the water drop penetration time (WDPT) test and a mini-disk infiltrometer (MDI) test. At the soil surface, the moderate and highly burned sites had the strongest water repellency, yet were not significantly different from each other. Areas burned at moderate severity had 1.5 times more plots that were strongly water repellent at the surface than the areas burned at high severity. However, the high severity plots most likely had a deeper water repellent layer that was not detected with our surface tests. The WDPT and MDI values had an overall correlation of r = -0.64(p < 0.0001) and appeared to be compatible methods for assessing soil water repellency in the field. Both tests represent point measurements of a soil characteristic that has large spatial variability; hence, results from both tests reflect that variability, accounting for much of the remaining variance. The MDI is easier to use, takes about 1 min to assess a strongly water repellent soil and provides two indicators of water repellency: the time to start of infiltration and a relative infiltration rate.

Lewis, Sarah A.; Wu, Joan Q.; Robichaud, Peter R.

2006-01-01

99

Post-Fire Erosion Control Research on the San Dimas Experimental Forest: Past and Present  

Microsoft Academic Search

The San Dimas Experimental Forest (SDEF) was established in the early 1930s to document and quantify wildland hydrology in the semiarid chaparral-covered steeplands of southern California. Concomitantly, the nearly seventy years of accumulated watershed research in this fire-prone ecosystem has produced invaluable information on post-fire erosion and the effectiveness and consequences of post-fire erosion control treatments. On average, first-year post-fire

Peter M. Wohlgemuth

100

Sodium Butyrate Protects against Severe Burn-Induced Remote Acute Lung Injury in Rats  

PubMed Central

High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), a ubiquitous nuclear protein, drives proinflammatory responses when released extracellularly. It plays a key role as a distal mediator in the development of acute lung injury (ALI). Sodium butyrate, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, has been demonstrated to inhibit HMGB1 expression. This study investigates the effect of sodium butyrate on burn-induced lung injury. Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into three groups: 1) sham group, sham burn treatment; 2) burn group, third-degree burns over 30% total body surface area (TBSA) with lactated Ringer’s solution for resuscitation; 3) burn plus sodium butyrate group, third-degree burns over 30% TBSA with lactated Ringer’s solution containing sodium butyrate for resuscitation. The burned animals were sacrificed at 12, 24, and 48 h after burn injury. Lung injury was assessed in terms of histologic changes and wet weight to dry weight (W/D) ratio. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-8 protein concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and HMGB1 expression in the lung was determined by Western blot analysis. Pulmonary myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration were measured to reflect neutrophil infiltration and oxidative stress in the lung, respectively. As a result, sodium butyrate significantly inhibited the HMGB1 expressions in the lungs, reduced the lung W/D ratio, and improved the pulmonary histologic changes induced by burn trauma. Furthermore, sodium butyrate administration decreased the TNF-? and IL-8 concentrations in BALF and serum, suppressed MPO activity, and reduced the MDA content in the lungs after severe burn. These results suggest that sodium butyrate attenuates inflammatory responses, neutrophil infiltration, and oxidative stress in the lungs, and protects against remote ALI induced by severe burn, which is associated with inhibiting HMGB1 expression.

Liu, Sheng; Guo, Feng; Sun, Li; Wang, Yong-Jie; Sun, Ye-Xiang; Chen, Xu-Lin

2013-01-01

101

Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy Suppresses the Early Proinflammatory Immune Response to a Severe Cutaneous Burn Injury.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Following severe burn injury, persistent inflammation perpetuated by surface eschar, bacterial colonisation and neutrophil proteolytic activity can impede normal healing and result in further tissue damage. Extracorporeal shock wave treatment (ESWT) has b...

A. Stojadinovic K. Anam M. Amare S. Naik T. A. Davis

2009-01-01

102

Targeted Prevention or Treatment of Bacterial Biofilm Infections of Severe Burns and Wounds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Findings to date support the hypothesis that a dual therapeutic approach of targeted anti-inflammation and a biofilm specific antibiotic will significantly limit severe Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection associated with serious burns and wounds. A 12-mer N2...

J. A. Nick

2010-01-01

103

Metabolic Implications of Severe Burn Injuries and Their Management: A Systematic Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Severe burn patients are some of the most challenging critically ill patients, with an extreme state of physiologic stress\\u000a and an overwhelming systemic metabolic response. A major component of severe burn injury is a hypermetabolic state associated\\u000a with protein losses and a significant reduction of lean body mass. The second prominent component is hyperglycemia. Reversal\\u000a of the hypermetabolic response by

Bishara S. Atiyeh; S. William A. Gunn; Saad A. Dibo

2008-01-01

104

Severe complications after negative pressure wound therapy in burned wounds: two case reports  

PubMed Central

We present two typical cases of severe complications (sepsis and hemorrhage) after negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) in burned patients. Necrotic tissues in some deep burn wounds are difficult to judge correctly and remove thoroughly. An electrically burned blood vessel looks “intact” but can easily break. Necrotic tissue or injured blood vessels when using NPWT are dangerous, both for causing sepsis and hemorrhage. This is the first article that reports the severe complications of NPWT in burned patients. It is imperative to heed indications and avoid contraindications. Proper preparation of wound beds, close observation, and sufficient irrigation are also crucial to avoid these severe complications, and there is an urgent need to substitute the central vacuum system with the low-pressure system.

Ren, Haitao; Li, Yuan

2014-01-01

105

Whole body protein kinetics measured with a non-invasive method in severely burned children  

PubMed Central

Persistent and extensive skeletal muscle catabolism is characteristic of severe burns. Whole body protein metabolism, an important component of this process, has not been measured in burned children during the long-term convalescent period. The aim of this study was to measure whole body protein turnover in burned children at discharge (95% healed) and in healthy controls by a non-invasive stable isotope method. Nine burned children (7 boys, 2 girls; 54 ± 14 (SD)% total body area burned; 13 ± 4 yrs; 45 ± 20 kg; 154 ± 14 cm) and 12 healthy children (8 boys, 4 girls; 12 ± 3 yrs; 54 ± 16 kg;150 ± 22 cm) were studied. A single oral dose of 15N-alanine (16 mg/kg) was given, and thereafter urine was collected for 34 hours. Whole body protein flux was calculated from labeling of urinary urea nitrogen. Then, protein synthesis was calculated as protein flux minus excretion, and protein breakdown as flux minus intake. At discharge, total protein turnover was 4.53 ± 0.65 (SE) g kg bodyweight?1 day?1 in the burned children compared to 3.20 ± 0.22 g kg?1 day?1 in controls (P = 0.02). Expressed relative to lean body mass (LBM), the rates were 6.12 ± 0.94 vs. 4.60 ± 0.36 g kg LBM?1 day?1 in burn vs. healthy (P = 0.06). Total protein synthesis was also elevated in burned vs. healthy children, and a tendency for elevated protein breakdown was observed. Conclusion: Total protein turnover is elevated in burned children at discharge compared to age-matched controls, possibly reflecting the continued stress response to severe burn. The oral 15N-alanine bolus method is a convenient, non-invasive, and no-risk method for measurement of total body protein turnover.

B?rsheim, Elisabet; Chinkes, David L.; McEntire, Serina J.; Rodriguez, Nancy R.; Herndon, David N.; Suman, Oscar E.

2010-01-01

106

Spatial and Temporal Evolution of Mercury in Post-fire Soils in Southern California Watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires are well known sources of mercury (Hg) to the atmosphere, but there is a paucity of data characterizing how fire impacts the transport of Hg to surface waters where methylation can occur. Because post-fire storm events have the potential to carry large sediment loads to a stream system, it is important to understand the effects of wildfire on Hg binding and relative variability in terrestrial soils in order to assess its transport potential in burned watersheds. It has been widely reported that Hg stored in surface soils is lost to the atmosphere due to volatilization during wildfire and that higher metal concentrations are associated with fine-grained particle fractions due to higher surface area/volume ratios, and consequently, available binding sites. Following southern California's September 2006 Day Fire, seasonal terrestrial sampling was undertaken at burned and unburned soils over a 1.5 year period to assess both immediate and long term impacts of the fire on Hg binding in the soils of Piru Creek watershed. Freshly burned soils exhibited the loss of Hg at the surface that would be expected due to volatilization during the fire, but this was followed by a sharp increase in [Hg] in surface soils over the subsequent recovery period that was not seen in the unburned soils. Soils were also size-fractionated and Hg was measured on each grain size. Mercury in the fine grained soil fraction (<250 um) was not significantly higher than that measured in the coarser grain size fractions. This is contrary to the behavior observed in the unburned soils and has implications for modeling Hg transport to surface waters as a function of hill slope erosional processes and sediment re- distribution in burned watersheds.

Burke, M. P.; Ferreira, M.; Mendez, C. B.; Navarro, B. I.; Jay, J. A.; Hogue, T. S.

2008-12-01

107

[Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: report of four cases in severely burned patients].  

PubMed

Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a dangerous complication of heparin therapy caused by an antibody against heparin/Platelet Factor 4 (PF4) complex. HIT complicates about 2% of treatment with unfractionated heparin (UFH). The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of HIT in a burn center and to report four cases in severely burned patients. HIT was documented in 2.8% of burns treated with UFH administered for antithrombotic prophylaxis and in none of burns receiving low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). All HIT cases occurred after extensive deep burns (mean total body surface area or TBSA was 60+/-21%) and three cases had above 75% of burn. We suggest that systemic platelet activation after thermal injury and local production of PF4 in the burn wound could participate to development of HIT. The risk is a late diagnosis since thrombosis clinical detection under burned skin is difficult. HIT appears during the first week of UHF treatment at the same time as a unstable period of fluctuating platelets. PMID:17034986

Bargues, L; Foissaud, V; Jault, P; Samson, T; Carsin, H

2006-01-01

108

An Analysis of Post-Fire Debris Flow Occurrence at Two Temporal Scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seasonal climate, rugged topography and high relief of the Peninsular and Transverse Ranges of southern California contribute to a particularly high susceptibility to wildfire during the dry season and debris flows during the wet season. Debris flows generated in recently burned areas have repeatedly caused casualties and damaged infrastructure. With a goal of reducing the hazard to local populations, the U.S. Geological Survey has been intensively monitoring the meteorological conditions that contribute to the initiation of post-fire debris flows since 2003. Data collected in these monitoring efforts have been used to derive rainfall intensity-duration thresholds to predict the timing of debris flows. A perceived limitation of the existing thresholds is that they are temporally static, because they do not account for the influence of within-storm dynamics, seasonal rainfall, and changes in soil moisture content. Here, we attempt to develop relations between meteorological, climatic and hydrologic variables and the occurrence of debris flows with the long-term goal of developing a temporally dynamic rainfall intensity-duration threshold. We investigate the variability of debris-flow occurrence on two temporal scales. First, we compare the within-storm variability of recorded debris flow times with measures of cumulative rainfall, rainfall intensity and soil moisture content. Short-duration (? 30-minutes), high-intensity bursts of rainfall are tightly correlated with the recorded times of debris flows, regardless of soil moisture content or cumulative storm rainfall. Preliminary evidence suggests that debris-flow magnitude may correlate with temporally coincident local peaks of both short duration (? 30-minute) and longer duration (? 360-minute) peaks of rainfall intensity. Second, we investigate the influence of total rainfall accumulation, changes in soil moisture content, and number and average intensity of rainstorms on debris-flow occurrence during the first year following wildfire. Preliminary results suggest little correlation between these factors and the conditions which contribute to the initiation of debris flows in recently burned watersheds. Our results highlight the need for highly accurate forecasting and monitoring of incoming rainfall for successful early-warning of post-fire debris flows. Short-duration bursts of high-intensity rainfall proved to be most effective for predicting debris-flow initiation regardless of within-storm or seasonal cumulative rainfall and soil moisture content. However, real-time monitoring of rainfall intensities measured over short durations within the burned watersheds provides little or no lead time for warning or evacuation. Monitoring upwind conditions may provide additional lead time, though considerable spatial variability of rainfall rates may exist in complex topography. Furthermore, focusing future research upon the direct measurement of changes in soil properties, vegetation growth and slope morphology should improve our ability to predict the within-storm and seasonal occurrence of post-fire debris flows, as indirect measures of meteorological and climatological factors do not provide adequate levels of prediction.

Staley, D. M.; Kean, J. W.; Gartner, J. E.

2011-12-01

109

Wildfire Impacts on Stream Sedimentation and Channel Morphology: Revisiting the Boulder Creek Burn in Little Granite Creek  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnitude of hydrologic and sedimentologic changes observed in watersheds following wildfire depend largely on the severity of the burn, landscape susceptibility to erosion, and the timing and magnitude of storms following the fire. In this study of a burned watershed in NW Wyoming (Boulder Creek burn in Little Granite Creek watershed), sedimentation impacts following a moderately sized fire (burned in 2000) were evaluated against known sediment loads measured prior to burning and against a comparable control watershed. Pre-burn data on rates of sediment transport provide useful information on the inherent variability of stream processes and were used to assess degree of departure due to disturbance from wildfire. Early observations of sediment yield showed substantially elevated rates (5x) the first year post-fire (2001), followed by less elevated rates in 2002 and 2003, signaling a return to baseline values by 3 years post-fire. More recent work, 8 years post-fire, has shown elevated suspended sediment concentrations relative to pre-burn values. We tentatively attribute this increase to destabilization of channels in the burned area due to the introduction of large wood (LW). Surveys indicated that the number of pieces of instream LW were doubled and tripled in some reaches as burned trees began to decay and fall in to the channel. Observed channel changes associated with the introduction of new wood include: 1) increase in the size and number of LW jams; 2) deposition of sediment within LW jams; 3) channel avulsions; 4) erosion of banks and terraces where wood re-directed flow into the bank; and 5) new sources of sediment due to channel instability. These results provide insight into longer-term geomorphic impacts of wildland fire that are associated with LW dynamics and changes to channel and bank stability in the burned riparian environment.

Ryan, S. E.; Dwire, K. A.; Air, Water,; Aquatic Ecosystems Program

2011-12-01

110

Integrating Satellite Imagery with Simulation Modeling to Improve Burn Severity Mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both satellite imagery and spatial fire effects models are valuable tools for generating burn severity maps that are useful to fire scientists and resource managers. The purpose of this study was to test a new mapping approach that integrates imagery and modeling to create more accurate burn severity maps. We developed and assessed a statistical model that combines the Relative differenced Normalized Burn Ratio, a satellite image-based change detection procedure commonly used to map burn severity, with output from the Fire Hazard and Risk Model, a simulation model that estimates fire effects at a landscape scale. Using 285 Composite Burn Index (CBI) plots in Washington and Montana as ground reference, we found that an integrated model explained more variability in CBI ( R 2 = 0.47) and had lower mean squared error (MSE = 0.28) than image ( R 2 = 0.42 and MSE = 0.30) or simulation-based models ( R 2 = 0.07 and MSE = 0.49) alone. Overall map accuracy was also highest for maps created with the Integrated Model (63 %). We suspect that Simulation Model performance would greatly improve with higher quality and more accurate spatial input data. Results of this study indicate the potential benefit of combining satellite image-based methods with a fire effects simulation model to create improved burn severity maps.

Karau, Eva C.; Sikkink, Pamela G.; Keane, Robert E.; Dillon, Gregory K.

2014-07-01

111

Integrating satellite imagery with simulation modeling to improve burn severity mapping.  

PubMed

Both satellite imagery and spatial fire effects models are valuable tools for generating burn severity maps that are useful to fire scientists and resource managers. The purpose of this study was to test a new mapping approach that integrates imagery and modeling to create more accurate burn severity maps. We developed and assessed a statistical model that combines the Relative differenced Normalized Burn Ratio, a satellite image-based change detection procedure commonly used to map burn severity, with output from the Fire Hazard and Risk Model, a simulation model that estimates fire effects at a landscape scale. Using 285 Composite Burn Index (CBI) plots in Washington and Montana as ground reference, we found that an integrated model explained more variability in CBI (R (2) = 0.47) and had lower mean squared error (MSE = 0.28) than image (R (2) = 0.42 and MSE = 0.30) or simulation-based models (R (2) = 0.07 and MSE = 0.49) alone. Overall map accuracy was also highest for maps created with the Integrated Model (63 %). We suspect that Simulation Model performance would greatly improve with higher quality and more accurate spatial input data. Results of this study indicate the potential benefit of combining satellite image-based methods with a fire effects simulation model to create improved burn severity maps. PMID:24817334

Karau, Eva C; Sikkink, Pamela G; Keane, Robert E; Dillon, Gregory K

2014-07-01

112

Scale effects on post-fire runoff and soil erosion and their mitigation with forest residue mulching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires can have striking direct and indirect impacts on soils, including extreme runoff-erosion responses with serious negative consequences for land-use sustainability and downstream values-at-risk. Arguably, the best manner to reduce post-fire soil erosion consists of rapid application of a protective layer of "mulch", comprising straw, needles or wood-based materials. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of forest residue mulching for reducing runoff and soil erosion across two spatial scales, i.e. micro-plots of approximately 0.25 m2 vs. slope-scale plots of roughly 100 m2. We did so for a eucalypt plantation in north-central Portugal during the first two years following a moderate severity fire. We also tried to analyse which were the key factors underlying the erosive observed at untreated plots, with a special focus on soil moisture content and soil water repellencyf requency. . Forest residue mulch reduced post-fire runoff by around 50% and post-fire soil losses by about 90% at both plot scales. However, runoff was 10 times higher at the scale of the micro- than slope-scale plots. By contrast, soil erosion was "only" two times higher at the micro- than slope-scale plots. The main factor explaining runoff was rainfall intensity, while the main factor accounting for soil erosion was ground cover. Both soil moisture and soil water repellency played a secondary role in explaining the post-fire hydrologic response. This reflected the fact that neither of both factors differed markedly between the mulched and control conditions. Our results indicated that forest residue mulch was first and foremost an effective method due to the fact that it substantially increased ground cover.

Prats, Sergio A.; Wagenbrenner, Joseph W.; Martins, Martinho M. A.; Keizer, Jan Jacob

2014-05-01

113

Treatment of patients with severe burn injuries: the impact of schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four patients treated in one ward of a psychiatric clinic were admitted to our burn unit within 2 months due to severe burn injuries. The patients showed signs of a self-mutilation epidemic. All four patients were female and the mean age was 28 years. The psychiatric diagnosis was schizophrenia in all patients (ICD 10: F20.9). The ignition of flammable liquid

L.-P Kamolz; H Andel; A Schmidtke; D Valentini; G Meissl; M Frey

2003-01-01

114

Sediment-driven mercury transport in post-fire storm runoff  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfire alters terrestrial stores of mercury (Hg) within a watershed, releasing Hg to the atmosphere and creating conditions that can be conducive to Hg export in streamwater. Hg transport to terrestrial waters is often associated with suspended sediments and organic matter, and particulate-bound Hg delivery to downstream water bodies may be enhanced following wildfire. Burned watersheds experience increased overland flow, soil erosion, sediment transport, and, consequently, transport of sediment bound contaminants during early post-fire storm events. Southern California’s September 2006 Day Fire consumed 660km2 and almost 50% of the 512km2 Piru Creek watershed. Piru Creek drains into Pyramid Lake, a storage reservoir for the California State Water Project, which provides drinking water for Los Angeles. Streamwater was collected from Piru Creek watershed over a 1.5 year period following the Day Fire, on a monthly basis during low flow periods, and every two hours during storm events using an automated sampler. Samples were analyzed for both dissolved and total Hg, total suspended solids, and basic anions and cations. Low Hg concentrations (> 1ng Hg/ L dissolved and > 5ng Hg/L total) were measured in inter-storm samples. The first winter (2006-07) following the Day Fire was one of the driest on record, with precipitation totals (130mm) less than one third of normal. The only significant storm measured total Hg concentrations just slightly higher than the inter-storm samples, while no change was observed in the dissolved Hg concentrations. However, these total Hg concentrations were well correlated to TSS measurements (r2 = 0.91) and followed the storm hydrograph. The following winter (2007-08) brought higher precipitation totals (370mm) and more intense storms. Elevated, turbid stream flow was observed in Piru Creek during many of the 2007-08 storms. Little change was observed in the dissolved Hg concentrations of the storm samples; however, a two-order magnitude increase was measured in both the total Hg and TSS concentrations. Though the total Hg and TSS concentrations were not as well correlated in the 2007-08 storms, it is clear that the sediment flux controls the Hg delivery to terrestrial waters in this burned, semi-arid watershed. The ultimate goal of this study is to elucidate the total Hg /TSS relationship in the post-fire runoff of Piru Creek and to model Hg delivery as a function of soil erosion and sediment transport.

Burke, M. P.; Ferreira, M.; Hogue, T. S.; Jay, J.; Rademacher, L. K.

2009-12-01

115

Fire behavior, weather, and burn severity of the 2007 anaktuvuk river tundra fire, North Slope, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2007, the Anaktuvuk River Fire (ARF) became the largest recorded tundra fire on the North Slope of Alaska. The ARF burned for nearly three months, consuming more than 100,000 ha. At its peak in early September, the ARF burned at a rate of 7000 ha d-1. The conditions potentially responsible for this large tundra fire include modeled record high summer temperature and record low summer precipitation, a late-season high-pressure system located over the Beaufort Sea, extremely dry soil conditions throughout the summer, and sustained southerly winds during the period of vegetation senescence. Burn severity mapping revealed that more than 80% of the ARF burned at moderate to extreme severity, while the nearby Kuparuk River Fire remained small and burned at predominantly (80%) low severity. While this study provides information that may aid in the prediction of future large tundra fires in northern Alaska, the fact that three other tundra fires that occurred in 2007 combined to burn less than 1000 ha suggests site specific complexities associated with tundra fires on the North Slope, which may hamper the development of tundra fire forecasting models.

Jones, B.; Kolden, C.; Jandt, R.; Abatzoglou, J.; Urban, F.; Arp, C.

2009-01-01

116

Influences of forest roads and their edge effects on the spatial pattern of burn severity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous research has shown that forest roads are an important feature in many landscapes and have significant effects on wildfire ignition and cessation. However, forest road effects on burn severity have not been studied at the landscape level. Therefore, the overarching goal of our study is to identify the influences of road edge effects on the spatial patterns of burn severity. We analyzed six fires within the Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forest on the eastern slope of the Cascades mountain range of central Washington. We generated two categories for assessing road variables: (1) Primary Road Effect Zone (area within 150 m of the nearest road) and (2) Secondary Road Effect Zone (area from 150 m to 300 m to the nearest road). A regular sampling grid including one out of every 9 cells was created for each fire. These grids were intersected with burn severity data in the form of the Relative Differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (RdNBR), road distance category, stream distance, elevation, slope, terrain shape index, heat load index, canopy cover, and fuel type. We fit spatial regression models with RdNBR as the dependent variable. We found that high burn severity is less likely to occur in the Primary Road Effect Zone for most fires, although one fire exhibited the opposite relationship. Forest road edge effects were hypothesized to be an important determinant of burn severity because fragmentation created by roads alters the roadside fuel profile and environment and because road corridors create barriers to fire spread. Recognizing roadside effects on burn severity patterns highlights the need for further study of the range of effects that roads have on fuels and the fire environment and the potential for incorporating road effects into landscape-level assessments of fire risk.

Narayanaraj, Ganapathy; Wimberly, Michael C.

2013-08-01

117

Environmental and climatic variables as potential drivers of post-fire cover of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) in seeded and unseeded semiarid ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cheatgrass, a non-native annual grass, dominates millions of hectares in semiarid ecosystems of the Intermountain West (USA). Post-fire invasions can reduce native species diversity and alter ecological processes. To curb cheatgrass invasion, land managers often seed recently burned areas with perennial competitor species. We sampled vegetation within burned (19 years post-fire) and nearby unburned (representing pre-fire) pionjuniper (Pinus edulisJuniperus osteosperma) woodland and sagebrush (Artemisia sp.) in western Colorado to analyze variables that might explain cheatgrass cover after fire. A multiple regression model suggests higher cheatgrass cover after fire with: (1) sagebrush v. pionjuniper; (2) higher pre-fire cover of annual forbs; (3) increased time since fire; (4) lower pre-fire cover of biological soil crust; and (5) lower precipitation the year before fire. Time since fire, which coincided with higher precipitation, accounts for most of the variability in cheatgrass cover. No significant difference was found in mean cheatgrass cover between seeded and unseeded plots over time. However, negative relationships with pre-fire biological soil crust cover and native species richness suggest livestock-degraded areas are more susceptible to post-fire invasion. Proactive strategies for combating cheatgrass should include finding effective native competitors and restoring livestock-degraded areas. ?? 2009 IAWF.

Shinneman, D. J.; Baker, W. L.

2009-01-01

118

Analysis of intra-abdominal hypertension in severe burned patients: the Vall d'Hebron experience.  

PubMed

Although severely burned patients are at a high risk of developing intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH: IAP>12 mmHg) and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome (ACS) (IAP ? 20 mmHg), few data about its incidence and prevalence is available. Our aim was to determine the incidence and prevalence of IAH and ACS in patients with severe burns in our geographical setting. A pilot prospective, observational study was performed at the Burns Unit of the Plastic Surgery Department in Vall d'Hebron University Hospital (Barcelona), during a 12-month period. All patients with age ? 18 years old and burns >20% of the total body surface area (TBSA) were considered for inclusion. Patients who did not require urinary catheterization via the urethra were excluded. All patients included were followed during the first five days from their admission. Results are expressed as median (interquartile range) or frequency (percentage). During the study period, 303 patients were admitted to the Burns Unit. Twenty-five patients were included in the study (21 [84%] male, 4 [16%] female; age 42 [30-69 years]; TBSA burned 33 [25-58]%; all patients presented deep second-degree and/or third-degree burns). Eighteen (72%) patients met criteria for IAH, but only one (4%) developed ACS. The incidence of IAH and ACS was 0.56 and 0.04 cases/patient-day, respectively. Patients with IAH presented higher number of organs failure (2 [0-2.2] vs 0 [0-0]; p = 0.03). Patients with >20% TBSA burned presented a very high prevalence of IAH. Development of organ failure occurred even at moderately increased values of IAP. In this scenario, monitoring of IAP is the first step for establishing the importance of IAH/ACS in this patient population. PMID:24199890

Ruiz-Castilla, M; Barret, J P; Sanz, D; Aguilera, J; Serracanta, J; García, V; Collado, J M

2014-06-01

119

Burns  

MedlinePLUS

... 2nd Degree: partial thickness skin damage—blisters present 3rd Degree: full thickness skin damage—skin is white ... excision of damaged skin followed by skin grafting. 3rd Degree (Full Thickness Burns): The dead skin will ...

120

Post-fire recovery of acorn production by four oak species in southern ridge sandhill association in south-central Florida.  

PubMed

We examined post-fire recovery of two components of acorn production (percentage of bearing ramets [stems] and number of acorns per bearing ramet) for four species of oaks in southern ridge sandhill vegetation in south-central peninsular Florida. Annual counts of acorns on two white oaks (Quercus chapmanii and Q. geminata) and two red oaks (Q. laevis and Q. myrtifolia) were conducted annually (except in 1991) on two 2.7-ha grids from 1969 to 1998. A prescribed burn was conducted on one of the grids in May 1993. Newly sprouted ramets of both white oaks produced acorns during the first year following the fire, whereas red oaks required 3 yr (Q. myrtifolia) or 4 yr (Q. laevis) to produce acorns. The difference in the timing of post-fire acorn production between the white and red oak species reflected the difference in the number of years from flower bud initiation to mature acorns in the two groups, with the additional year-long lag in Q. laevis probably attributable to the fact that it is typically a tree rather than a shrub species. The data suggested that percentage of bearing ramets in the smallest size class of the two white oak species was markedly lower in the burned than unburned grid in the first year of post-fire acorn production and higher in the fifth year, but these trends were not evident for the red oaks. Among all four species, differences between mean number of acorns in burned and unburned grids were significant in only two cases (the largest size class of both white oak species in the fifth year). There was no evidence of recruitment from acorns on the burned grid, possibly due to the rapid redevelopment of the shrub layer because of low mortality of the extensive clonal root systems. Rapid post-fire recovery of acorn production in xeric fire-prone habitats is presumably the result of selection to increase the probability of recovery and persistence following sufficiently intense fires that result in high oak mortality. The timing and magnitude of post-fire acorn production in sandhill and other xeric Florida associations has a potential impact on a wide variety of insects, birds, and mammals that feed on acorns, as well as on the species with which they interact. PMID:21669719

Abrahamson, Warren G; Layne, James N

2002-01-01

121

Thrombocytopenia induces multiple intracranial hemorrhages in patients with severe burns: A review of 16 cases  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to explore the etiology and diagnosis of multiple intracranial hemorrhages (ICHs) following severe burns, with a retrospective review of 16 cases of severe burns further complicated by multiple ICHs. Using cranial CT scans of the brains, we identified that all patients presented with low platelet counts and coagulation abnormalities prior to intracranial hemorrhaging. Following conventional treatment and various supporting treatments, five cases succumbed following a progressive reduction in blood platelet levels and the ICHs were cured in 11 cases following the restoration of normal platelet levels. We conclude that low platelet counts and coagulation abnormalities may cause multiple ICHs following severe burns and early diagnosis and treatment is the key to successful treatment.

ZHOU, JIANDA; LIU, JINYAN; LUO, CHENGQUN; HU, FENG; LIU, RUI; CHEN, ZIZI; CHEN, YAO; XIONG, WU; XIE, JIANFEI; HE, QUANYONG; YIN, CHAOQI; WANG, SHAOHUA; ZHANG, YANWEN; ZENG, SAINAN

2013-01-01

122

Influence of spatial patterns of fire severity on gully erosion thresholds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial configurations of burned and unburned vegetation patches influence post-fire overland flow response and erosion thresholds. However, the broad-scale relationships between fire severity, the patterns and structural connectivity of burn mosaics, and post-fire erosion response remain largely unexamined. We mapped 227 primarily first order catchments across four burned watersheds in the northern Rocky Mountains and identified 90 cases of channel incision that led to gully rejuvenation. We applied landscape pattern indices to remotely sensed satellite data to quantify the relationships between the spatial structure of burn mosaics and the probability of gully rejuvenation following wildfire. As the mean fire severity of a catchment increased, the percent of the landscape in high severity fire classes increased non-linearly, and large, connected, and more severely burned patches increasingly dominated the catchment area. Concomitantly, the probability of gully rejuvenation was positively correlated (R2=0.93) with catchment areas severely burned. Statistical analysis revealed a threshold for erosion whereby a transition zone of high patch fragmentation preceded the threshold and after which progressively larger contiguous patches of severely burned areas and gully rejuvenation were observed. These observations suggest that progressive loss of vegetation due to wildfire leads to critical thresholds of structural connectivity that may enhance the hydrologic connectivity of overland flow pathways that lead to gully rejuvenation.

Hyde, Kevin; Jencso, Kelsey; Riley, Karin

2014-05-01

123

Long-Term Propranolol Use in Severely Burned Pediatric Patients: A Randomized Controlled Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the safety and efficacy of propranolol given for 1 year on cardiac function, resting energy expenditure, and body composition in a prospective randomized single-center controlled study in pediatric patients with large burns. Summary Background Data Severe burns trigger a hypermetabolic response that persists for up to 2 years after burn. Propranolol given for 1 month post burn blunts this response. Whether propranolol administration for 1 year after injury provides a continued benefit is currently unclear. Methods One-hundred seventy nine pediatric patients with >30% total body surface area burns were randomized to receive control (n = 89) or 4 mg/kg/d propranolol (n = 90) for 12 months after burn. Changes in resting energy expenditure, cardiac function, and body composition were measured acutely at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postburn. Statistical analyses included techniques that adjust for non-normality, repeated measures, and regression analyses. P <0.05 was considered significant. Results Long-term propranolol treatment significantly reduced the percent of the predicted heart rate and percent of the predicted resting energy expenditure, decreased accumulation of central mass and central fat, prevented bone loss, and improved lean body mass accretion. There were very few adverse effects from the dose of propranolol used. Conclusions Propranolol treatment for 12 months, following thermal injury, ameliorates the hyperdynamic, hypermetabolic, hypercatabolic, and osteopenic responses in pediatric patients. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00675714.

Herndon, David N.; Rodriguez, Noe A.; Diaz, Eva C.; Hegde, Sachin; Jennings, Kristofer; Mlcak, Ronald P.; Suri, Jaipreet S.; Lee, Jong O.; Williams, Felicia N.; Meyer, Walter; Suman, Oscar E.; Barrow, Robert E.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Finnerty, Celeste C.

2012-01-01

124

Modeling the effects of fire severity on soil organic horizons and forest composition in Interior Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fire regime in the boreal region of interior Alaska has been intensifying in terms of both area burned and severity over the last three decades. Based on projections of climate change, this trend is expected to continue throughout the 21st century. Fire causes abrupt changes in energy, nutrient and water balances influencing habitat and vegetation composition. An important factor influencing these changes is the reduction of the soil organic horizon because of differential regeneration capabilities of conifer and evergreen shrubs vs. deciduous and herbaceous vegetation on organic vs. mineral soils. The goal of this study is to develop a prognostic model to simulate the effects of fire severity on soil organic horizons and to evaluate its long-term consequences on forest composition in interior Alaska. Existing field observations were analyzed to build a predictive model of the depth of burning of soil organic horizon after a fire. The model is driven by data sets of fire occurrence, climate, and topography. Post-fire vegetation succession was simulated as a function of post-fire organic horizon depth. The fire severity and post-fire vegetation succession models were then implemented within a biogeochemistry model, the process-based Terrestrial Ecosystem Model. Simulations for 21st century climate scenarios at a 1 by 1km resolution for the Alaska Yukon River Basin were conducted to evaluate the effects of considering vs. ignoring post-fire vegetation succession on carbon dynamics. The results of these simulations indicate that it is important for ecosystem models to represent the influence of fire severity on post-fire vegetation succession in order to fully understand the consequences of changes in climate and disturbance regimes on boreal ecosystems.

Genet, H.; Barrett, K. M.; Johnstone, J. F.; McGuire, A. D.; Yuan, F.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Kasischke, E. S.; Rupp, S. T.; Turetsky, M. R.

2012-12-01

125

Constraining Diffusivity and Critical Slope from Post-Fire Sediment Flux of the Day, Canyon, and Corral Fires, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the primary effects of wildfire on steep hillslope processes is a dramatic acceleration of sediment transport rates by dry ravel, grainflow and overland flow. These processes deliver sediment to valley bottoms where they become source material for debris flows initiated during subsequent intense rainfall. We used sediment traps to study the variation in post-fire transport rates in steeplands burned by the 2006 Day fire in the western Transverse Ranges and the 2007 Canyon and Corral fires of the Santa Monica Mountains of southern California. Within 2 to 4 weeks following fire containment, we installed 15 sediment traps on relatively planar hillslopes with gradients of 0.30 to 0.91. Mesozoic plutonic rocks and Miocene sediments produced a range of material with a median grain size of 40 to 60% sand. We observed active dry ravel and grain flows of cohesionless granular material occurring in response to localized turbulent wind bursts and solar-driven thermal variations. We visited these sites following storms that generated overland flow transport during high-intensity precipitation. Tipping-bucket rain gages provided precipitation data and nearby anemometers provided wind direction and speed.To estimate unit sediment flux, we air dried the samples and divided the total mass accumulated per time interval by the trap width. Flux ranged over 3 orders of magnitude, from 0.001 to 1.3 m3m-1yr-1, lower on gentle slopes and higher on steeper slopes, independent of parent material. Flux rates decline monotonically with time since fire. A plot of flux versus hillslope gradient can be fit with a non-linear exponential relation used by other researchers to model steep hillslope transport rates. At Day fire sites, values of critical hillslope gradient (Sc), where the flux becomes infinite in a non-linear transport law, remained constant at 0.77 throughout the 18-month observation period. The diffusivity (K) declined from 0.03 (2 months post-installation) to 0.008 (18 months post-installation) m2day-1. Five traps in the Canyon and Corral fire sites were fit with a 0.72 critical slope and a 0.03 m2day-1 diffusivity for the time-frame of 2 months post installation, values similar to the Day fire sites. Three sites at the Canyon and Corral fires showed signs of sediment supply or process effects on their flux rates. These steepest sites (0.79-0.91 slope) were located several meters downslope from rock outcrops and had flux rates characteristic of lower slope sites in less supply-limited reaches. These low rates may represent reduced flux rates from small source lengths and close proximity to bedrock outcrops where rockfall, not grain flow, is the dominant transport process.At all sites, the largest amount of hillslope transport occurred prior to the arrival of the greatest amount of precipitation. Reductions in post-fire sediment flux and diffusivity values are consistent with field observations documenting that initially soil- mantled hillslopes were gradually stripped to bedrock and converted from transport-limited to supply-limited conditions. Furthermore, a time-series of terrestrial LiDAR surveys documented the gradual infilling of low- order valleys by as much as 1 m of sediment and that small frictional dams formed by the regrowth of vegetation provided effective traps and a mechanism to rapidly decrease diffusivity. Hence, high rates of transport in landscapes disturbed by fire can be quickly modulated through decreased sediment availability and the progressive trapping efficiency of densely spaced chaparral vegetation regrowth.

Schmidt, K. M.; Stock, J. D.; Hanshaw, M. N.; Bawden, G. W.

2008-12-01

126

Comparison of oxidative stress & leukocyte activation in patients with severe sepsis & burn injury  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: We evaluated pro- and anti-oxidant disturbances in sepsis and non-sepsis burn patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Adhesion molecules and inflammation markers on leukocytes were also analyzed. We hypothesized that oxidative stress and leukocyte activation markers can lead to the severity of sepsis. Methods: In 28 severe sepsis and 27 acute burn injury patients blood samples were collected at admission and 4 days consecutively. Oxidative stress markers: production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), myeloperoxidase, malondialdehyde and endogenous antioxidants: plasma protein sulphydryl groups, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase were measured. Flow cytometry was used to determine CD11a, CD14, CD18, CD49d and CD97 adhesion molecules on leukocytes. Procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, platelet count and lactate were also analyzed. Results: Pro-oxidant parameters were significantly elevated in sepsis patients at admission, ROS intensity increased in burn patients until the 5th day. Endogenous antioxidant levels except catalase showed increased levels after burn trauma compared to sepsis. Elevated granulocyte activation and suppressed lymphocyte function were found at admission and early activation of granulocytes caused by increasing activation/migration markers in sepsis. Leukocyte adhesion molecule expression confirmed the suppressed lymphocyte and monocyte function in sepsis. Interpretation & conclusions: Severe sepsis is accompanied by oxidative stress and pathological leukocyte endothelial cell interactions. The laboratory parameters used for the evaluation of sepsis and several markers of pro- and antioxidant status were different between sepsis and non-sepsis burn patients. The tendency of changes in these parameters may refer to major oxidative stress in sepsis and developing SIRS in burns.

Muhl, Diana; Woth, Gabor; Drenkovics, Livia; Varga, Adrienn; Ghosh, Subhamay; Csontos, Csaba; Bogar, Lajos; Weber, Gyorgy; Lantos, Janos

2011-01-01

127

Genetically Modified Porcine Skin Grafts for Treatment of Severe Burn Injuries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The most significant research findings in this time period include the fact that we have demonstrated that our genetically-modified pigskin grafts will perform as well human cadaveric allogeneic skin grafts as a temporary biologic cover for severe burn in...

D. H. Sachs J. C. Cetrulo

2010-01-01

128

Early fluid resuscitation with hyperoncotic hydroxyethyl starch 200\\/0.5 (10%) in severe burn injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Despite large experience in the management of severe burn injury, there are still controversies regarding the best type of fluid resuscitation, especially during the first 24 hours after the trauma. Therefore, our study addressed the question whether hyperoncotic hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 200\\/0.5 (10%) administered in combination with crystalloids within the first 24 hours after injury is as effective

Markus Béchir; Milo A Puhan; Simona B Neff; Merlin Guggenheim; Volker Wedler; John F Stover; Reto Stocker; Thomas A Neff

2010-01-01

129

Early Acute Kidney Injury Predicts Progressive Renal Dysfunction and Higher Mortality in Severely Burned Adults  

PubMed Central

The incidence and prognosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) developing during acute resuscitation have not been well characterized in burn patients. The recently developed Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage (RIFLE) classification provides a stringent stratification of AKI severity and can allow for the study of AKI after burn injury. We hypothesized that AKI frequently develops early during resuscitation and is associated with poor outcomes in severely burned patients. We conducted a retrospective review of patients enrolled in the prospective observational multicenter study “Inflammation and the Host Response to Injury.” A RIFLE score was calculated for all patients at 24 hours and throughout hospitalization. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to distinguish the impact of early AKI on progressive renal dysfunction, need for renal replacement therapy, and hospital mortality. A total of 221 adult burn patients were included, with a mean TBSA burn of 42%. Crystalloid resuscitation averaged 5.2 ml/kg/%TBSA, with urine output of 1.0 ± 0.6 ml/kg/hr at 24 hours. Sixty-two patients met criteria for AKI at 24 hours: 23 patients (10%) classified as risk, 32 patients (15%) as injury, and 7 (3%) as failure. After adjusting for age, TBSA, inhalation injury, and nonrenal Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II ?20, early AKI was associated with an adjusted odds ratio 2.9 for death (95% CI 1.1–7.5, P = .03). In this cohort of severely burned patients, 28% of patients developed AKI during acute resuscitation. AKI was not always transient, with 29% developing progressive renal deterioration by RIFLE criteria. Early AKI was associated with early multiple organ dysfunction and higher mortality risk. Better understanding of how early AKI develops and which patients are at risk for progressive renal dysfunction may lead to improved outcomes.

Mosier, Michael J.; Pham, Tam N.; Klein, Matthew B.; Gibran, Nicole S.; Arnoldo, Brett D.; Gamelli, Richard L.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Herndon, David N.

2011-01-01

130

Effects of glutamine treatment on myocardial damage and cardiac function in rats after severe burn injury  

PubMed Central

Treatment with glutamine has been shown to reduce myocardial damage associated with ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, the cardioprotective effect of glutamine specifically after burn injury remains unclear. The present study explores the ability of glutamine to protect against myocardial damage in rats that have been severely burned. Seventy-two Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal controls (C), burned controls (B) and a glutamine-treated group (G). Groups B and G were subjected to full thickness burns comprising 30% of total body surface area. Group G was administered 1.5 g/ (kg•d) glutamine and group B was given the same dose of alanine via intragastric administration for 3 days. Levels of serum creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate transaminase (AST) and blood lactic acid were measured, as well as myocardial ATP and glutathione (GSH) contents. Cardiac function indices and histopathological changes were analyzed at 12, 24, 48 and 72 post-burn hours. In both burned groups, levels of serum CK, LDH, AST and blood lactic acid increased significantly, while myocardial ATP and GSH contents decreased. Compared with group B, CK, LDH, and AST levels were lower and blood lactic acid, myocardial ATP and GSH levels were higher in group G. Moreover, cardiac contractile function inhibition and myocardial histopathological damage were significantly reduced in group G compared to B. Taken together, these results show that glutamine supplementation protects myocardial structure and function after burn injury by improving energy metabolism and by promotedthe synthesis of ATP and GSH in cardiac myocytes.

Yan, Hong; Zhang, Yong; Lv, Shang-jun; Wang, Lin; Liang, Guang-ping; Wan, Qian-xue; Peng, Xi

2012-01-01

131

The rehabilitation/school matrix: a model for accommodating the noncompliant child with severe burns.  

PubMed

Some children with severe burns may have difficulty following therapeutic recommendations after discharge from a burn center. Noncompliance may result in complications that affect function, surgical management, community reintegration, and successful reentry into school. We present a case study in which a child with significant compliance issues was managed in a coordinated interdisciplinary model. This model extended from acute recovery through reintegration into the classroom. A behavior-modification program was implemented across different levels of care. Educational reentry was facilitated by including a transitional period in a special-needs classroom in a freestanding special-needs school. Requirements for using educational resources to which some children are legally entitled are reviewed. Rehabilitation services that interface with the educational system for children with burns may improve outcomes as these children reintegrate into the community. PMID:14501408

Pidcock, F S; Fauerbach, J A; Ober, M; Carney, J

2003-01-01

132

Emotional distress and psychosocial resources in patients recovering from severe burn injury.  

PubMed

Emotional distress as well as psychosocial resources in 55 patients with burn injuries was assessed during acute and follow-up treatment. Results showed significantly greater values of emotional distress among patients when compared with norms of the general population. As well as higher levels of general psychopathology, particularly prevalent were anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic symptoms. However, patients also reported high levels of resources such as general optimism, self-efficacy, and perceived social support. Within the sample, no significant correlation between severity of emotional distress and severity of burn injury was found. By psychological assessments a subgroup of highly distressed patients was identified. These patients were highly emotionally distressed while having objective injury severity comparable with the other patients in the sample. Reactions to burn accidents vary individually. The results demonstrate the importance of routine screenings of psychological symptoms. An early identification of patients at-risk allows for tailored psychotherapeutic interventions and can thus help to improve quality of life and general well-being of burn patients on a long-term basis. PMID:16998408

Wallis, Hanna; Renneberg, Babette; Ripper, Sabine; Germann, Günter; Wind, Gerhard; Jester, Andrea

2006-01-01

133

Plasma and skeletal muscle amino acids following severe burn injury in patients and experimental animals.  

PubMed Central

This study describes and analyzes sequential changes in plasma and skeletal muscle free amino acids following severe burn injury. Plasma free amino acids were determined in children (n = 9) with burns averaging 60% total body surface area and were compared with laboratory beagles (n = 44) which received a flame burn totaling 30% of their body surface area. In addition, needle biopsy specimens were obtained from the semitendonosus muscle in the animals to determine free intracellular amino acids. In both patients and animals the amount of total free amino acids in plasma fell following burn, suggesting relative protein deficiency. This drop was primarily due to a 47% drop in nonessential amino acids. However, plasma phenylalanine was consistently higher than normal following burn, and was strongly associated with death and weight loss in both animals and patients, especially when analyzed as a ratio with tyrosine. This finding suggested excessive catabolism, hepatic dysfunction, or both. Plasma levels of several amino acids correlated significantly with weight loss. Alterations in muscle free amino acids generally were similar to plasma amino acids. Exceptions were muscle alanine and glycine which strongly correlated with weight loss. However, the determination of muscle free amino acid profiles did not yield clinically useful information not available from plasma profiles. Plasma levels of liver enzymes suggested progressive hepatic dysfunction. These studies show that the laboratory beagle is a good model for studying the metabolic alterations of amino acids that accompany burn injury, since they mimic humans in many parameters which appear to be most useful with respect to clinical evaluation.

Stinnett, J D; Alexander, J W; Watanabe, C; MacMillan, B G; Fischer, J E; Morris, M J; Trocki, O; Miskell, P; Edwards, L; James, H

1982-01-01

134

Strength and durability recovery of fire-damaged concrete after post-fire-curing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of post-fire-curing on the strength and durability recovery of fire-damaged concrete was investigated. Twenty normal- (NSC) and high-strength concrete (HSC) mixes incorporating different pozzolans were prepared and exposed to elevated temperatures till 800°C. After natural cooling, the specimens were subjected to post-fire-curing in water and in a controlled environment for a total duration of 56 days. Unstressed compressive

Chi-Sun Poon; Salman Azhar; Mike Anson; Yuk-Lung Wong

2001-01-01

135

Quantifying Post-Fire Forest Biomass Recovery in Northeastern Siberia using Hierarchical Multi-Sensor Satellite Imagery and Field Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Russian forests are the largest vegetation carbon pool outside of the tropics, with larch dominating northeastern Siberia where extreme temperatures, permafrost and wildfire currently limit persistence of other tree species. These ecosystems have experienced rapid climate warming over the past century and model simulations suggest that they will undergo profound changes by the end of the century if warming continues. Understanding the responses of these unique deciduous-conifer ecosystems to current and future climate is important given the potential changes in disturbance regimes and other climate feedbacks. The climate implications of changes in fire severity and return interval, as predicted under a warmer and drier climate, are not well understood given the trade-off between storage of C in forest biomass and post-fire surface albedo. We examined forest biomass recovery across a burn chronosequence near Cherskii, Sakha Republic, in far northeastern Siberia. We used high-quality Landsat imagery to date and map fires that occurred between 1972 and 2009, then complemented this data set using tree ring measurements to map older fires. A three stage approach was taken to map current biomass distribution. First, tree shadows were mapped from 50 cm panchromatic WorldView 1 imagery covering a portion of the region. Secondly, the tree shadow map was aggregated to 30 m resolution and used to train a regression-tree model that ingested mosaiced Landsat data. The model output correlated with allometry-based field estimates of biomass, allowing us to transform the model output to a map of regional aboveground biomass using a regression model. When combined with the fire history data, the new biomass map revealed a chronosequence of forest regrowth and carbon sequestration in aboveground biomass after fire. We discuss the potential for future carbon emissions from fires in northeastern Siberia, as well as carbon sequestration during recovery based on the observed biomass distribution and regrowth patterns. These results provide a basis for assessing regrowth trajectories in the region using a combination of field measurements and multi-sensor imagery, with the ultimate objective of better capturing forest carbon sequestration under changing fire disturbance regime.

Berner, L.; Beck, P. S.; Loranty, M. M.; Alexander, H. D.; Mack, M. C.; Goetz, S. J.

2011-12-01

136

A soil burn severity index for understanding soil-fire relations in tropical forests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Methods for evaluating the impact of fires within tropical forests are needed as fires become more frequent and human populations and demands on forests increase. Short- and long-term fire effects on soils are determined by the prefire, fire, and postfire environments. We placed these components within a fire-disturbance continuum to guide our literature synthesis and develop an integrated soil burn severity index. The soil burn severity index provides a set of indicators that reflect the range of conditions present after a fire. The index consists of seven levels, an unburned level and six other levels that describe a range of postfire soil conditions. We view this index as a tool for understanding the effects of fires on the forest floor, with the realization that as new information is gained, the index may be modified as warranted. ?? Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2008.

Jain, T. B.; Gould, W. A.; Graham, R. T.; Pilliod, D. S.; Lentile, L. B.; Gonzalez, G.

2008-01-01

137

Effects of Propranolol and Exercise Training in Children with Severe Burns  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate whether propranolol administration blocks the benefits induced by exercise training in severely burned children. Study design Children aged 7–18 years (n=58) with burns covering ?30% of the total body surface area (TBSA) were enrolled in this randomized trial during their acute hospital admission. Twenty-seven patients were randomized to receive propranolol, whilst 31 served as untreated controls. Both groups participated in 12 weeks of in-hospital resistance and aerobic exercise training. Muscle strength, lean body mass, and peak aerobic capacity (VO2 peak) were measured before and after exercise training. Paired and unpaired Student T-tests were used for within and between group comparisons, and Chi-squared tests for nominal data. Results Age, length of hospitalization, and TBSA burned were similar between groups. In both groups, muscle strength, lean body mass, and VO2 peak were significantly greater after exercise training than at baseline. The percent change in VO2 peak was significantly greater in the propranolol group than in the control group (P< 0.05). Conclusions Exercise-induced enhancements in muscle mass, strength, and VO2 peak are not impaired by propranolol. Moreover, propranolol improves the aerobic response to exercise in massively burned children.

Porro, Laura J.; Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M.; Williams, Felicia; Herndon, David N.; Mlcak, Ronald P.; Suman, Oscar E.

2012-01-01

138

Aeromedical transfer to Belgium of severely burned patients during the initial days following the Volendam fire.  

PubMed

Nineteen critical burn patients were transferred to burn centers in Belgium soon after an indoor fire in The Netherlands. This evacuation was done by helicopter and by ambulance. The first arterial blood gases and pH measurements of the patients on arrival in the burn centers were analyzed and compared. All patients were in metabolic acidosis, but the respiratory component to the pH and the resulting pH was variable. Although an efficient fluid resuscitation to maintain an adequate urine output and arterial pressure is essential, the arterial blood gases and pH should also be monitored during the early evacuation of severe burn patients. Because hyperkaliemia is associated with a low pH value, we suggest that during the evacuation of these patients the ventilation setting should maintain the pH between 7.35 and 7.45. The comparison of the measurements between the group of patients transferred by air and the group transferred by road showed here differences in favor of a road transfer. PMID:12775169

Pirson, Jean; Degrave, Etienne

2003-05-01

139

Post-fire Restoration of Soil Hydrology and Wildland Vegetation using Surfactant Seed Coating Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In semi-arid environments, soil water repellency can contribute to reseeding failure by reducing soil moisture availability. Non-ionic soil surfactants (wetting agents) have been shown to be effective in enhancing infiltration and improving root-zone water reserves in water repellent soils. However, the application of soil surfactants in wildland ecosystems can be logistically and economically prohibitive. In this study we evaluated a potential solution for applying soil surfactants using seed coating technology. Through this technology the seed is used as a carrier for the soil surfactant. After planting, water transfers the surfactant from the seed into soil where it ameliorates the water repellency within the seed's microsite. The objectives of this research were to 1) establish the efficacy of a surfactant seed coating (SSC) in ameliorating soil water repellency, and 2) determine the influence of SSC on seedling emergence and plant survival. To accomplish the first objective, detailed soil column experiments were conducted in the laboratory on water repellent soil obtained from a burned pinyon-juniper woodland. The second objective was met through greenhouse testing of SSC applied to crested wheatgrass and bluebunch wheatgrass seed, using the same soil as used in objective 1. Results indicate that SSC increased soil water infiltration, percolation, and retention. This technology had no influence on seedling emergence for crested wheatgrass, but SSC improved bluebunch wheatgrass emergence threefold. Plant survival was dramatically improved by the SSC. Only 0.75 % of the seedlings that grew from non-coated seed survived to the end of the study, while 37 % of the plants survived in the SSC treatment. Overall, these results indicate that it may be plausible for SSC(s) to improve post-fire restoration efforts by restoring soil hydrologic function and increasing seedling emergence and early seedling development.

Madsen, M.; Kostka, S.; Inouye, A.; Zvirzdin, D.

2012-04-01

140

[Psychiatric sequelae of severe burn injuries: emotional distress and resources of occupationally versus non occupationally insured patients 1 year after burn injury].  

PubMed

Severe burn injuries are traumatic events and can have serious impact on all areas of life frequently causing high emotional distress. In a multicentre study resources and emotional distress of patients with serious burn injuries were assessed during the first hospitalization and at 6 and 12 months follow-up. Patients with severe burn injuries after accidents in a private environment (NBG patients) and patients after occupational accidents covered by the German Social Accident Insurance (BG patients) were compared. All patients reported marked emotional impairment, particularly during the hospitalization. At follow-up a reduction of emotional distress was detected. Nearly half of the patients received a diagnosis of one or more mental disorders according to DSM-IV criteria. When treating patients with burns, special attention should be given to their mental health. They should be offered psychological support to cope with the aftermath of the accident, especially after discharge from hospital when returning to their normal surroundings. PMID:20703444

Ripper, S; Stolle, A; Seehausen, A; Klinkenberg, M; Germann, G; Hartmann, B; Renneberg, B

2010-11-01

141

Evaluation of vegetation post-fire resilience in the Alpine region using descriptors derived from MODIS spectral index time series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study a method based on the analysis of MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) time series is proposed to estimate the post-fire resilience of mountain vegetation (broadleaf forest and prairies) in the Italian Alps. Resilience is defined herewith as the ability of a dynamical system to counteract disturbances. It can be quantified by the amount of time the disturbed system takes to resume, in statistical terms, an ecological functionality comparable with its undisturbed behavior. Satellite images of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and of the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) with spatial resolution of 250m and temporal resolution of 16 days in the 2000-2012 time period were used. Wildfire affected areas in the Lombardy region between the years 2000 and 2010 were analysed. Only large fires (affected area >40ha) were selected. For each burned area, an undisturbed adjacent control site was located. Data pre-processing consisted in the smoothing of MODIS time series for noise removal and then a double logistic function was fitted. Land surface phenology descriptors (proxies for growing season start/end/length and green biomass) were extracted in order to characterize the time evolution of the vegetation. Descriptors from a burned area were compared to those extracted from the respective control site by means of the one-way analysis of variance. According to the number of subsequent years which exhibit statistically meaningful difference between burned and control site, five classes of resilience were identified and a set of thematic maps was created for each descriptor. The same method was applied to all 84 aggregated events and to events aggregated by main land cover. EVI index results more sensitive to fire impact than NDVI index. Analysis shows that fire causes both a reduction of the biomass and a variation in the phenology of the Alpine vegetation. Results suggest an average ecosystem resilience of 6-7 years. Moreover, broadleaf forest and prairies show different post-fire behavior in terms of land surface phenology descriptors. In addition to the above analysis, another method is proposed, which derives from the qualitative theory of dynamical systems. The (time dependent) spectral index of a burned area over the period of one year was plotted against its counterpart from the control site. Yearly plots (or scattergrams) before and after the fire were obtained. Each plot is a sequence of points on the plane, which are the vertices of a generally self-intersecting polygonal chain. Some geometrical descriptors were obtained from the yearly chains of each fire. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of geometrical descriptors was applied to a set of case studies and the obtained results provide a system dynamics interpretation of the natural process.

Di Mauro, Biagio; Fava, Francesco; Busetto, Lorenzo; Crosta, Giovanni Franco; Colombo, Roberto

2013-04-01

142

Using small-scale rainfall simulation to assess temporal changes in pre- and post-fire soil hydrology and erosion: the value of fixed-position plots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent decades, wildfire has become both frequent and severe in southern Europe leading to widespread research into its impacts on soil erosion, soil and water quality. Rainfall simulation has become established as a popular technique to assess these impacts, as it can be conducted under controlled conditions (notably, with respect to rainfall) and is a very cost-effective and rapid way to compare overland flow and suspended sediment generation within burned and unburned sites. Particular advantages are that: (1) results can be obtained before the first post-fire rainfall events; and (2) experiments can reproduce controlled storm events, with similar characteristics to natural rain. Although plot sizes vary (0.09-30m2), most researchers have used < 1m2 plots because of logistical difficulties of setting up larger plots especially in burned areas that may lack good access and local water supplies. Disadvantages with using small plots, however, particularly on burned terrain, include: (1) the difficulty of installing the plots without disturbing the soil; (2) the strong influence of plot boundaries on overland flow and sediment production. Significant replication is generally considered necessary to take account of high variability in results that are due in part to these effects. One response to these problems is a 'fixed plot' approach in which bounded plots are left in place for re-use throughout the study. A problem here, however, would be progressive sediment exhaustion due to the 'island' effect of the plots caused by their isolation from upslope sediment transfer. This paper assesses the usefulness of a repeat-simulation plot approach in assessing temporal change in overland flow and erosion in post-fire situations that minimizes the island effect by partial removal of plot boundaries between surveys. This approach was tested over a 2.5-year period in a small (9 ha) catchment in central Portugal subjected to an experimental fire in 2009. Five rainfall simulation plots 0.25m2 in size were installed close to sediment traps (contributing areas: 498-4238m2) collecting sediment eroded by overland flow caused by natural rainfall. The plots were installed pre-fire and experiments carried out under 'dry' and 'wet' antecedent conditions on six occasions from pre-fire to two years after the fire. The lateral boundaries of each plot were left in place, but the upslope boundary and central (outlet) section of the downslope boundary were removed between surveys and re-installed and sealed each time measurements were carried out. Having fixed positions of plots minimised soil disturbance on each monitoring occasion and meant that, for any given plot, results were directly comparable and gave a more reliable picture of change through time. Removing the upper and lower boundaries of the plots between measurements allowed the soil to undergo processes similar to those on the surrounding slope and reduced the 'island' effect associated with continuously bounded plots. Results from the adjacent sediment traps, which provided a parallel temporal record of hillslope-scale overland flow and sediment redistribution patterns under natural rainfall, are used to judge the usefulness of the in situ simulation plots approach.

Ferreira, Carla S. S.; Shakesby, Rick A.; Bento, Célia P. M.; Walsh, Rory P. D.; Ferreira, António J. D.

2013-04-01

143

Predicting the delivery of sediment and associated nutrients from post-fire debris flows in small upland catchments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Post-fire debris flows are extreme erosion events that can dominate the long term supply of sediment from headwaters to streams in upland catchments. Predicting the location, frequency and magnitude of debris flows is therefore important for understanding sediment dynamics in upland catchments and providing a basis on which to manage hydro-geomorphic risk in burned areas. In this study we survey 10 post-fire debris flow events in southeast Australia with aims to i) identify rainfall conditions underlying the debris flow response, ii) quantify erosion rates in hillslope and channel source areas, and iii) estimate the delivery of sediment and water quality constituents to receiving waterways. Rainfall events that triggered debris flows had an annual exceedance probability ranging from 0.1 to 0.6, and 30-minute intensities, I30, ranging from 17-60 mm h-1. Sediment delivery by debris flows (100-200 t ha-1) is similar to that which has been reported for similar events in the western US and Spain. In terms of eroded volume, there was on average an equal contribution from hillslopes and channels to debris flows, which is in agreement with the calculations of surface and subsurface source contributions obtained from radionuclide concentrations. In terms of the potential water quality impacts from post-fire debris flows, the hillslopes had much higher concentration of constituents such as fine clay and silt, plant available phosphorous and total carbon. The data on debris flow magnitude was used to evaluate two different approaches for predicting sediment delivery from debris flows. A statistical debris flow model developed by the US Geological Surveys and parameterized for catchments in western US performed well (R2 = 0.92) in terms of predicting the overall volume of material delivered at the catchment outlet. An alternative modeling approach, using local slope and contributing area as predictors of erosion, also produced good results, and could be used to obtain more detailed predictions of sediment entrainment, deposition, the overall source contribution and the associated constituents. Future work will aim to link models of debris flow magnitude with models of initiation and debris flow frequency after fire.

Nyman, Petter; Sheridan, Gary; Smith, Hugh; Lane, Patrick

2014-05-01

144

Severe Bullous Skin Diseases: Analysis of Seven Children Managed in a Burns Unit  

PubMed Central

Summary Patients suffering from considerable cutaneous loss must be treated under strict aseptic conditions and with positive pressure ventilation, which is available in burns units. The differentiation of severe bullous skin diseases remains a challenge for the clinician. We report seven cases of severe bullous skin diseases in a paediatric age group treated in a burns unit with the cooperation of a paediatric intensive care unit (King Saud Hospital, Unizah, Kingdom of Saudia Arabia) between 2001 and 2005. Toxic epidermal necrolysis (Lyell's syndrome) was encountered in five cases, staphylococcal scalded-skin syndrome in one, and generalized drug eruption in one. The mortality rate was 14% (one of the seven patients). Most of the children presented with about 35% desquamation and 45% intact bullous formation (70-80% total body surface area involvement). The majority presented after the sudden onset of high fever, signs of systemic toxicity, and intense mucocutaneous exfoliation. The diagnosis was confirmed by skin biopsy and culture swabs. All the patients were managed as for mixed second-degree burns with regard to fluid calculation and hydrotherapy. We used the closed technique for dressing. The results are presented, and the literature was searched for similar cases reported in other parts of the world. The importance of diagnosis and appropriate treatment of the condition is emphasized.

Elkharaz, S.; Abdel-Razek, E.M.; Eldin, A.; Abdel-Razek, A.M.

2006-01-01

145

Treatment of severe burn with DermACELL(®), an acellular dermal matrix.  

PubMed

For treatment of skin burn injuries, there exist several methods of treatment related to tissue regeneration, including the use of autograft skin and cryopreserved skin. However, each method has drawbacks. An alternative method for tissue regeneration is allograft acellular dermal matrix, with potential as a biocompatible scaffold for new tissue growth. One recently produced material of this type is DermACELL(®), which was used in this case presentation for treating a scar resulting from second- and third-degree burns in a 33-year-old female patient. The patient presented with significant hypertrophic scarring from the elbow to the hand and with limited wrist and elbow motion. The scarring was removed, and the patient was treated with a 1:3 mesh of DermACELL. The wound was resurfaced with a split thickness skin graft, and postoperative care included application of pressure garment and silicone sheet, as well as range of motion exercise and massage. At 30 days after DermACELL application, the wound appeared well-healed with little scar formation. At 180 days post-application, the wound continued to appear healed well without significant scar formation. Additionally, the wound was supple, and the patient experienced significant improvement in range of motion. In the case presented, DermACELL appears to have been a successful method of treatment for scarring due to severe burns by preventing further scar formation and improving range of motion. PMID:23071908

Chen, Shyi-Gen; Tzeng, Yuan-Sheng; Wang, Chih-Hsin

2012-01-01

146

Severe burn and disuse in the rat independently adversely impact body composition and adipokines  

PubMed Central

Introduction Severe trauma is accompanied by a period of hypermetabolism and disuse. In this study, a rat model was used to determine the effects of burn and disuse independently and in combination on body composition, food intake and adipokines. Methods Male rats were assigned to four groups 1) sham ambulatory (SA), 2) sham hindlimb unloaded (SH), 3) 40% total body surface area full thickness scald burn ambulatory (BA) and 4) burn and hindlimb unloaded (BH). Animals designated to the SH and BH groups were placed in a tail traction system and their hindlimbs unloaded. Animals were followed for 14 days. Plasma, urine, fecal and tissue samples were analyzed. Results SA had a progressive increase in body mass (BM), SH and BA no change and BH a reduction. Compared to SA, BM was reduced by 10% in both SH and BA and by 17% when combined in BH. Compared to SA, all groups had reductions in lean and fat body mass with BH being greater. The decrease in lean mass was associated with the rate of urinary corticosterone excretion. The loss in fat mass was associated with decreases in plasma leptin and adiponectin and an increase in ghrelin. Following the acute response to injury, BH had a greater food intake per 100 g BM. Food intake was associated with the levels of leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin. Conclusions The effects of the combination of burn and disuse in this animal model were additive, therefore in assessing metabolic changes with severe trauma both injury and disuse should be considered. Furthermore, the observed changes in adipokines, corticosterone and ghrelin provide insights for interventions to attenuate the hypermetabolic state following injury, possibly reducing catabolism and muscle loss and subsequent adverse effects on recovery and function.

2013-01-01

147

Watershed-Scale Post-Fire Treatment Effects on Runoff and Erosion After the Hayman Fire, Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildfires can cause large increases in runoff and erosion. Although post-fire treatments are used to mitigate these effects, their effectiveness is not well documented. A study was initiated after the 2002 Hayman Fire to determine natural post-fire recovery rates, measure the effectiveness of contour-felled logs, straw mulch, and hydromulch, and determine effects of post-fire salvage logging. Sediment traps and weirs

J. W. Wagenbrenner; P. R. Robichaud; R. E. Brown

2007-01-01

148

Oxandrolone induced lean mass gain during recovery from severe burns is maintained after discontinuation of the anabolic steroid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weight loss and lean mass loss from burn induced catabolism can be more rapidly restored when the anabolic steroid oxandrolone is added to optimum nutrition compared to nutrition alone. Our purpose in this study was to determine whether the regained lean body mass (LBM) is retained 6 months after stopping oxandrolone.Forty-five severe burn patients, entering the recovery phase were randomized

Robert H Demling; Leslie DeSanti

2003-01-01

149

Development of Metabolic Indicators of Burn Injury: Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) and Acetoacetate Are Highly Correlated to Severity of Burn Injury in Rats  

PubMed Central

Hypermetabolism is a significant sequela to severe trauma such as burns, as well as critical illnesses such as cancer. It persists in parallel to, or beyond, the original pathology for many months as an often-fatal comorbidity. Currently, diagnosis is based solely on clinical observations of increased energy expenditure, severe muscle wasting and progressive organ dysfunction. In order to identify the minimum number of necessary variables, and to develop a rat model of burn injury-induced hypermetabolism, we utilized data mining approaches to identify the metabolic variables that strongly correlate to the severity of injury. A clustering-based algorithm was introduced into a regression model of the extent of burn injury. As a result, a neural network model which employs VLDL and acetoacetate levels was demonstrated to predict the extent of burn injury with 88% accuracy in the rat model. The physiological importance of the identified variables in the context of hypermetabolism, and necessary steps in extension of this preliminary model to a clinically utilizable index of severity of burn injury are outlined.

Izamis, Maria-Louisa; Uygun, Korkut; Sharma, Nripen S.; Uygun, Basak; Yarmush, Martin L.; Berthiaume, Francois

2012-01-01

150

Influence of topography and forest structure on patterns of mixed severity fire in ponderosa pine forests of the South Dakota Black Hills, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. We examined,the influence of topography and stand structure on fire effects within the perimeter of the ?34 000 ha Jasper fire of 2000 in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) forests of the South Dakota Black Hills, USA. We used a remotely sensed and field-verified map of post-fire burn severity (accuracy 69%, kappa statistic 0.54), the Digital Elevation Model, and

Leigh B. Lentile; Frederick W. Smith; Wayne D. Shepperd

2006-01-01

151

Modeling Fire Severity in Black Spruce Stands in the Alaskan Boreal Forest Using Spectral and Non-Spectral Geospatial Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biomass burning in the Alaskan interior is already a major disturbance and source of carbon emissions, and is likely to increase in response to the warming and drying predicted for the future climate. In addition to quantifying changes to the spatial and temporal patterns of burned areas, observing variations in severity is the key to studying the impact of changes to the fire regime on carbon cycling, energy budgets, and post-fire succession. Remote sensing indices of fire severity have not consistently been well-correlated with in situ observations of important severity characteristics in Alaskan black spruce stands, including depth of burning of the surface organic layer. The incorporation of ancillary data such as in situ observations and GIS layers with spectral data from Landsat TM/ETM+ greatly improved efforts to map the reduction of the organic layer in burned black spruce stands. Using a regression tree approach, the R2 of the organic layer depth reduction models was 0.60 and 0.55 (pb0.01) for relative and absolute depth reduction, respectively. All of the independent variables used by the regression tree to estimate burn depth can be obtained independently of field observations. Implementation of a gradient boosting algorithm improved the R2 to 0.80 and 0.79 (pb0.01) for absolute and relative organic layer depth reduction, respectively. Independent variables used in the regression tree model of burn depth included topographic position, remote sensing indices related to soil and vegetation characteristics, timing of the fire event, and meteorological data. Post-fire organic layer depth characteristics are determined for a large (N200,000 ha) fire to identify areas that are potentially vulnerable to a shift in post-fire succession. This application showed that 12% of this fire event experienced fire severe enough to support a change in post-fire succession. We conclude that non-parametric models and ancillary data are useful in the modeling of the surface organic layer fire depth. Because quantitative differences in post-fire surface characteristics do not directly influence spectral properties, these modeling techniques provide better information than the use of remote sensing data alone.

Barrett, K.; Kasischke, E. S.; McGuire, A. D.; Turetsky, M. R.; Kane, E. S.

2010-01-01

152

Modeling fire severity in black spruce stands in the Alaskan boreal forest using spectral and non-spectral geospatial data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Biomass burning in the Alaskan interior is already a major disturbance and source of carbon emissions, and is likely to increase in response to the warming and drying predicted for the future climate. In addition to quantifying changes to the spatial and temporal patterns of burned areas, observing variations in severity is the key to studying the impact of changes to the fire regime on carbon cycling, energy budgets, and post-fire succession. Remote sensing indices of fire severity have not consistently been well-correlated with in situ observations of important severity characteristics in Alaskan black spruce stands, including depth of burning of the surface organic layer. The incorporation of ancillary data such as in situ observations and GIS layers with spectral data from Landsat TM/ETM+ greatly improved efforts to map the reduction of the organic layer in burned black spruce stands. Using a regression tree approach, the R2 of the organic layer depth reduction models was 0.60 and 0.55 (p < 0.01) for relative and absolute depth reduction, respectively. All of the independent variables used by the regression tree to estimate burn depth can be obtained independently of field observations. Implementation of a gradient boosting algorithm improved the R2 to 0.80 and 0.79 (p < 0.01) for absolute and relative organic layer depth reduction, respectively. Independent variables used in the regression tree model of burn depth included topographic position, remote sensing indices related to soil and vegetation characteristics, timing of the fire event, and meteorological data. Post-fire organic layer depth characteristics are determined for a large (> 200,000 ha) fire to identify areas that are potentially vulnerable to a shift in post-fire succession. This application showed that 12% of this fire event experienced fire severe enough to support a change in post-fire succession. We conclude that non-parametric models and ancillary data are useful in the modeling of the surface organic layer fire depth. Because quantitative differences in post-fire surface characteristics do not directly influence spectral properties, these modeling techniques provide better information than the use of remote sensing data alone.

Barrett, K.; Kasischke, E. S.; McGuire, A. D.; Turetsky, M. R.; Kane, E. S.

2010-01-01

153

Estimating fire severity using satellite ASTER data and local Spatial autocorrelation statistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What are the ecological effects of fires? The evaluation of fire-affected areas and fire severity is of primary importance to answer this question, because fire strongly affects the ecological processes, such as, productivity level, creation of altered patches, modification in vegetation structure and shifts in vegetation cover composition, as well as land surface processes (such as surface energy, water balance, carbon cycle). Traditional methods of recording fire burned areas and fire severity involve expensive and time -consuming field survey. The available remote sensing technologies may allow us to develop standardized burn-severity maps for evaluating fire effects and addressing post fire management activities. This paper is focused on preliminary results we obtained from ongoing research focused on the evaluation of spatial variability of fire effects on vegetation. For the purposes of this study satellite ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) data have been used. Both single (post-fire) and multi-date (pre and post fire) ASTER images were processed for some test areas in Southern Italy. Spatial autocorrelation statistics, such as Moran's I, Geary's C, and Getis-Ord Local Gi index (see Anselin 1995; Getis and Ord 1992), were used to measure and analyze the degree of dependency among spectral features of burned areas. The preliminary results pointed out that spatial autocorrelation statistics applied to ASTER data allow us to discriminate fire severity and to improve the monitoring of fire effects over time. Such information are effective data source for evaluating erosion/runoff, biomass and carbon issues, and other issues using mapped burn severity. Keywords: satellite; fire, burned area, Spatial autocorrelation statistics,

Coluzzi, Rosa; Lanorte, Antonio; Lasaponara, Rosa; de Santis, Fortunato

2010-05-01

154

Association between severity of prescribed burns and subsequent activity of conifer-infesting beetles in stands of longleaf pine  

SciTech Connect

A randomized complete block experiment was performed to measure the effect of prescribed, dormant-season burns of three different levels of severity (measured as fuel consumption and soil surface heating) on subsequent insect infestation and mortality of mature longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.). Multiple-funnel traps baited with a low release rate of turpentine and ethanol were used to monitor activity of certain coniferophagous beetles. Non-aggressive species, including the root beetles Hylastes salebrosus Eichhoff and H. tenuis Eichhoff, the ambrosia beetle Xyleborus pubescens Zimmermann, the reproduction weevil Pachylobius picivorus (Germar), and buprestid borers, were attracted to burned plots in numbers that correlated positively with burn severity. Beetle attraction to burned sites was greatest in the first weeks post-burn and disappeared by the second year. Two potential tree-killing bark beetles, Dendroctonus terebrans (Olivier) and Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff), were trapped in significant numbers but exhibited no attraction to burned plots. Tree mortality correlated significantly with the severity of the burns and amounted to 5% of stems in the hottest burn treatment after 3 years. The majority of the mortality was observed in the second and third years post-burn. Attacks of Ips and Dendroctonus bark beetles were apparent on nearly all dead or dying trees, and evidence suggested that root pathogens may have contributed to tree susceptibility to beetle attack and mortality. Our data indicate that selection of burn regimes that reduce or eliminate consumption of duff (e.g., favoring heading fires over backing fires) could significantly reduce mortality of longleaf pine managed for long rotations Published by Elsevier B.V.

Sullivan, Brian, T; Fettig, C. J.; Otrosina, William, J.; Dalusky, Mark, J.; Berrisford, C.W.

2003-05-05

155

[The correction of metabolic disorders in severely burned patients by enteral hyperalimentation].  

PubMed

An investigation was carried out of the metabolic processes, and some procedures for standardizing them, for patients with severe burns receiving uniformly distributed dosified high-calorie catheter alimentation, i.e. enteral hyperalimentation, in addition to the hospital's daily diet. Fifteen types of mixtures of Combustal were used, made and preserved ad hoc, and two commercial probe alimentation liquid products--Biosorbin-MCT (Pfrimmer-Kabi) and Fresubin (Fresenius AG). The average period taken to normalize the nitrogen balance was sixteen days counted from commencement of hyperalimentation. While it shifted the nitrogen balance figures from negative to positive, it was also seen to reduce A and C phospholipase activities in serum, while the level of excretion of nitrogenated amino acids and creatine remained high. During this time, pseudocholinesterase activity dropped, with the concentration of fibronectine in serum, which indicates low levels of biosynthetic processes and insufficiency in the reticuloendothelial system. The average value for the determination of lipids in general remained normal throughout the catheter feeding period. To ensure complete normalization of the metabolic process in patients suffering severe burns, enteral hyperalimentation must be extended for at least one month. PMID:1477152

Zaets, T L; Tarasov, A V

1992-01-01

156

Effectiveness of post-fire seeding at the Fitzner-Eberhardt Arid Land Ecology Reserve, Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In August 2007, the Milepost 17 and Wautoma fires burned a combined total of 77,349 acres (31,302 hectares) of the Fitzner-Eberhardt Arid Land Ecology Reserve (ALE), part of the Hanford Reach National Monument administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Mid-Columbia National Wildlife Refuge. In 2009, the USFWS implemented a series of seeding and herbicide treatments to mitigate potential negative consequences of these fires, including mortality of native vegetation, invasion of Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass), and soil erosion. Treatments included combinations of seeding (drill and aerial), herbicides, and one of six different mixtures of species. Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Wyoming big sagebrush) also was planted by hand in a small area in the southern end of the fire perimeter. Due to differences in plant communities prior to the fire and the multiple treatments applied, treatments were grouped into five treatment associations including mid-elevation aerial seedings, low-elevation aerial seedings, low-elevation drill seedings, high-elevation drill seeding, and no seeding treatments. Data collected at the mid-elevation aerial seedings indicate that the seeding did not appear to increase the density of seedlings compared to the non-seeded area in 2010. At the low-elevation aerial seedings, there were significantly more seedlings at seeded areas as compared to non-seeded areas. Low densities of existing perennial plants probably fostered a low-competition environment enabling seeds to germinate and emerge in 2010 during adequate moisture. Low-elevation drill seedings resulted in significant emergence of seeded grasses in 2009 and 2010 and forbs in 2010. This was likely due to adequate precipitation and that the drill seeding assured soil-to-seed contact. At the high-elevation drill seeding, which was implemented in 2009, there were a high number of seedlings in 2010. Transplanting of A. tridentata following the fires resulted in variable survival rates that warrant further testing; however, transplants located closer to washes tended to have the highest survival rates. Overall, the low-elevation aerial and drill seedings, and the high-elevation drill seedings resulted in significant numbers of seedlings. Further research is needed on methods that provide land managers with critical information about whether or not to seed post-fire areas including status of pre-fire vegetation and estimates of plant mortality due to fire.

Wirth, Troy A.; Pyke, David A.

2011-01-01

157

Blocking TRAIL-DR5 signaling with soluble DR5 alleviates acute kidney injury in a severely burned mouse model  

PubMed Central

Acute kidney injury (AKI) predicts high mortality in severely burned patients. Apoptosis plays a significant role during AKI; however, the apoptotic mechanisms underlying AKI induced by burn injury are not clear. Here, we report a critical role for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-Death receptor 5 (DR5) signaling in the pathogenesis of AKI. C57BL/6 male mice were subjected to full thickness scald burn. Apoptosis was significantly up-regulated in mouse kidney 24 h after the burn. Meanwhile, the TRAIL and DR5 expression levels were significantly increased in the kidney 24 h after the burn. Soluble DR5 treatment reduced apoptotic cell death and alleviated kidney injury induced by the burn through blocking the interaction of endogenous TRAIL with DR5. These results demonstrated that TRAIL plays a deleterious role in AKI pathogenesis induced by scald burns. Inhibition of TRAIL function in the kidney may represent a novel protective strategy to treat AKI in patients with burns.

Leng, Xiangfeng; Zhang, Qiu; Chen, Zhenyu; Wang, Dechang

2014-01-01

158

New Procedure for Sampling Infiltration to Assess Post-fire Soil Water Repellency.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Mini-disk Infiltrometer has been adapted for use as a field test of post-fire infiltration and soil water repellency. Although the Water Drop Penetration Time (WDPT) test is the common field test for soil water repellency, the Mini-disk Infiltrometer ...

L. E. Ashmum P. R. Robichaud S. A. Lewis

2008-01-01

159

Early post-fire succession in California chaparral: Changes in diversity, density, cover and biomass  

USGS Publications Warehouse

For four consecutive years, following the fires in November 1993, temporal variations in species richness, cover and biomass of component plant groups in early post-fire chaparral succession were monitored on different aspects at the Stunt Ranch Santa Monica Mountains Reserve, southern California. Plant groups were categorized based on growth form, life form, ability to fix nitrogen, geographic origin and regeneration strategies. North-facing slopes exhibited higher species richness, higher species turnover rate over time and faster vegetation recovery in terms of biomass accumulation and return to pre-fire species composition. This was probably due to higher species richness and biomass of nitrogen-fixing species found on north-facing slopes in comparison to south-facing slopes. On both north- and south-facing slopes, annuals had the highest species turnover rate, followed by herbaceous perennials and shrubs. In the first four post-fire years, annual species were the largest floristic group, but herbaceous perennials and shrubs were the major contributors to community biomass. Nitrogen-fixing species and exotics contributed significantly to early post-fire community structure. Although the general trends in post-fire succession are clear in terms of temporal changes in the relative proportions of different plant groups, environmental variation and the nature of plant life histories of component species, especially dominant species, could alter such trends significantly.

Guo, Q.

2001-01-01

160

Early post-fire succession in California chaparral: changes in diversity, density, cover, and biomass  

USGS Publications Warehouse

For four consecutive years, following the fires in November 1993, temporal variations in species richness, cover and biomass of component plant groups in early post-fire chaparral succession were monitored on different aspects at the Stunt Ranch Santa Monica Mountains Reserve, southern California. Plant groups were categorized based on growth form, life form, ability to fix nitrogen, geographic origin and regeneration strategies. North-facing slopes exhibited higher species richness, higher species turnover rate over time and faster vegetation recovery in terms of biomass accumulation and return to pre-fire species composition. This was probably due to higher species richness and biomass of nitrogen-fixing species found on north-facing slopes in comparison to south-facing slopes. On both north- and south-facing slopes, annuals had the highest species turnover rate, followed by herbaceous perennials and shrubs. In the first four post-fire years, annual species were the largest floristic group, but herbaceous perennials and shrubs were the major contributors to community biomass. Nitrogen-fixing species and exotics contributed significantly to early post-fire community structure. Although the general trends in post-fire succession are clear in terms of temporal changes in the relative proportions of different plant groups, environmental variation and the nature of plant life histories of component species, especially dominant species, could alter such trends significantly.

Guo, Q.

2001-01-01

161

Utilizing Remote Sensing Information to Improve Post-fire Rainfall-runoff Predictions after the 2010 Bull Fire in the Sequoia National Forest, CA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Post-fire management decisions are guided by rainfall-runoff predictions, which ultimately influence downstream treatment and mitigation costs. The current study investigates evolving rainfall-runoff partitioning at the watershed scale over a two-year period after the 2010 Bull Fire which occurred in the southern Sequoia National Forest in California. Stage height was measured at five-minute intervals using pressure transducers, tipping buckets were installed for rainfall duration and intensity, and channel cross-sections were measured approximately every two months to detail sediment deposition or scour. We also utilize remotely sensed vegetation data to evaluate vegetation recovery in the studied watersheds and the corresponding relationship to storm runoff. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), a measure of vegetation greenness, is evaluated for its potential use as a key recovery indicator. Preliminary results focus on alterations in annual and seasonal precipitation and discharge relationships using in-situ data and Landsat NDVI values for the period of study. NDVI values are consistent with a comprehensive burn, with an acute decrease observed in the initial post-fire period. However, vegetation recovery is highly variable in the studied systems and influenced by shorter-term biomass pulses (grasses) while longer-term recovery of other species (chaparral and pine) is ongoing. Runoff ratios are elevated during early storms and show some recovery in the later part of the study period. The ability to accurately and confidently predict post-fire runoff and longer-term recovery is critical for monitoring values-at-risk, reducing mitigation costs, and improving warnings to downstream public communities.

Kinoshita, A. M.; Hale, B.; Hogue, T. S.

2012-12-01

162

A low-cost method to measure the timing of post-fire flash floods and debris flows relative to rainfall  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data on the specific timing of post-fire flash floods and debris flows are very limited. We describe a method to measure the response times of small burned watersheds to rainfall using a low-cost pressure transducer, which can be installed quickly after a fire. Although the pressure transducer is not designed for sustained sampling at the fast rates ({less than or equal to}2 sec) used at more advanced debris-flow monitoring sites, comparisons with high-data rate stage data show that measured spikes in pressure sampled at 1-min intervals are sufficient to detect the passage of most debris flows and floods. Post-event site visits are used to measure the peak stage and identify flow type based on deposit characteristics. The basin response timescale (tb) to generate flow at each site was determined from an analysis of the cross correlation between time series of flow pressure and 5-min rainfall intensity. This timescale was found to be less than 30 minutes for 40 post-fire floods and 11 post-fire debris flows recorded in 15 southern California watersheds ({less than or equal to} 1.4 km2). Including data from 24 other debris flows recorded at 5 more instrumentally advanced monitoring stations, we find there is not a substantial difference in the median tb for floods and debris flows (11 and 9 minutes, respectively); however, there are slight, statistically significant differences in the trends of flood and debris-flow tb with basin area, which are presumably related to differences in flow speed between floods and debris flows.

Kean, Jason W.; Staley, Dennis M.; Leeper, Robert J.; Schmidt, Kevin Michael; Gartner, Joseph E.

2012-01-01

163

Late outcomes after grafting of the severely burned face: a quality improvement initiative.  

PubMed

Many approaches to surgical management of the severely burned face are described, but there are few objective outcome studies. The purpose of this study was to perform a detailed evaluation of the late outcomes in adult patients who have undergone grafting using a standardized surgical and rehabilitation approach for full-thickness (FT) facial burns to identify areas for improvement in the treatment strategy of authors. This was a prospective observational study in which patients who had undergone grafting for FT facial burns by the senior investigator at a regional burn centre between 1999 and 2010 were examined by a single evaluator. The surgical approach included tangential excision based on the facial aesthetic units, temporary cover with allograft then autografting with scalp skin preferentially, split grafts for the upper eyelid, and FT grafts for the lower eyelid. Rehabilitation included compression (uvex and or soft cloth), scar massage, and silicone gel sheeting. Of 35 patients with facial grafts, 14 subjects (age 43 ± 16 years with 22 ± 21% TBSA burns) returned for late follow-up at 40 ± 33 months (range, 5-91 months). A mean of four facial aesthetic units per patient were grafted (range, 1-9 units), with six full facial grafts performed. Scalp was used as donor in 10 of 14 cases. Scalp donor sites were well tolerated with minor alopecia visible in only one case although the donor site visibly extended slightly past the hairline in two cases. Color match with native skin was rated at 8.8 ± 0.8 of 10 when scalp skin was used compared with 7.5 ± 1.6 with other donor sites (P = .06). On the lip and chin, hypertrophic scars were significantly worse compared with the rest of the facial grafts (Vancouver scar scale 8 ± 2 vs 3 ± 1, P < .01). Sensory recovery was poor with overall moving two-point discrimination at 11 ± 3 mm (range, 4-15 mm), and monofilament light touch was 3.8 ± 0.6. Graft borders were significantly more elevated than graft seams. On the forehead, the most notable problem was a gap between the graft and hairlines of the frontal scalp and eyebrows (range, 0-40 mm). Grafted eyelids required one or more subsequent ectropion releases in the majority of cases. The most common problem for the nose was asymmetry of the nostril apertures. The most problematic late outcomes that the authors identified after facial grafting for FT facial burns included relatively poor sensory return, elevation of graft edges, eyelid ectropion, gaps between grafts and hairline, and marked hypertrophic scarring around the mouth and chin. The results indicate that possible areas for quality improvement include greater attention to the limits of scalp harvest, more attention to pressure application to graft borders and the lip and chin during rehabilitation, greater accuracy in excision and graft placement on the forehead to avoid gaps with the hairlines, and counseling of the patient regarding the high probability of diminished facial sensation. PMID:22002207

Philp, Lauren; Umraw, Nisha; Cartotto, Robert

2012-01-01

164

In situ measurements of post-fire debris flows in southern California: Comparisons of the timing and magnitude of 24 debris-flow events with rainfall and soil moisture conditions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Debris flows often occur in burned steeplands of southern California, sometimes causing property damage and loss of life. In an effort to better understand the hydrologic controls on post-fire debris-flow initiation, timing and magnitude, we measured the flow stage, rainfall, channel bed pore fluid pressure and hillslope soil-moisture accompanying 24 debris flows recorded in five different watersheds burned in the 2009 Station and Jesusita Fires (San Gabriel and Santa Ynez Mountains). The measurements show substantial differences in debris-flow dynamics between sites and between sequential events at the same site. Despite these differences, the timing and magnitude of all events were consistently associated with local peaks in short duration (< = 30 min) rainfall intensity. Overall, debris-flow stage was best cross-correlated with time series of 5-min rainfall intensity, and lagged the rainfall by an average of just 5 min. An index of debris-flow volume was also best correlated with short-duration rainfall intensity, but found to be poorly correlated with storm cumulative rainfall and hillslope soil water content. Post-event observations of erosion and slope stability modeling suggest that the debris flows initiated primarily by processes related to surface water runoff, rather than shallow landslides. By identifying the storm characteristics most closely associated with post-fire debris flows, these measurements provide valuable guidance for warning operations and important constraints for developing and testing models of post-fire debris flows. copyright. 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

Kean, J. W.; Staley, D. M.; Cannon, S. H.

2011-01-01

165

Characterizing demographics, injury severity, and intubation status for patients transported by air or ground ambulance to a rural burn center.  

PubMed

Our study was designed to characterize intubation status among patients transported by air or ground ambulance to a rural burn center. A retrospective chart review of patients arriving at our burn center from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2009 was completed. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were performed. During the study period, 259 air and 590 ground ambulance patients met inclusion criteria. Air ambulance patients were older and had higher total body surface area burned, lower Glasgow Coma scores, longer lengths of stay, and more frequent inhalation injuries. Approximately 10% of patients arriving by air were intubated after burn center admission, and 49% of intubated patients were extubated within 24 hours of admission. These values were 2% and 40%, respectively, for patients transported by ground. Increasing age and air ambulance transport increased the overall likelihood of change in intubation status. The likelihood of intubation by burn center providers increased with age, with suspicion of inhalation injury, and for patients transported by air. The likelihood of extubation within 24 hours of burn center admission increased with age, decreased with suspected inhalation injury, and was independent of transport mode. Among our patient population, more severely injured patients were being transported by air ambulance. However, age, suspicion of inhalation injury, and mode of transport showed a complex pattern of associations with changes in intubation status, and illustrate the need to develop better prehospital guidelines for intubation in burn patients. PMID:23877143

Ahmed, Azeemuddin; Van Heukelom, Paul; Harland, Karisa; Denning, Gerene; Liao, Junlin; Born, Janelle; Latenser, Barbara

2014-01-01

166

Role of Central American biomass burning smoke in increasing tornado severity in the US  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Violent tornadoes in the Southeast and Central US during spring are often accompanied by smoke from biomass burning in Central America. We analyzed the effect of smoke on a historic severe weather outbreak that occurred 27 April 2011 using a coupled aerosol, chemistry and weather model (WRF-Chem) and a suite of satellite and ground-based observations. Smoke from Central American biomass burning was present in the boundary layer and lower free troposphere before and during the storm outbreak. Simulations show that adding smoke to the environment already conducive to severe thunderstorm development increases the likelihood of significant tornado occurrence, which is assessed by analyzing effects of smoke on meteorological conditions (tornado parameters) used by prediction centers to forecast tornado occurrence and severity. Smoke effects generate slightly lower rain rates and cloud top heights, indicating no evidence of storm invigoration for these storms and instead pointing towards convection inhibition. Further analysis shows that there are two mechanisms responsible for the parameter intensification: First, through indirect effects, stratiform clouds present during and before the outbreak became optically thicker, which reduced the amount of solar radiation reaching the ground and produced more stable conditions and higher low-level shear in the mixed layer. Second, through semi-direct effects, soot contained in the smoke heated the aerosol layer stabilizing the atmosphere and enhancing cloud cover below the aerosol layer, producing a more stable boundary layer and conditions leading to higher probability of violent tornadoes. The inclusion of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in weather forecasts may help improve the predictability of these extreme events, which can improve the timeliness and accuracy of severe weather alerts within future operational forecast systems. Left panel: Back trajectories from the beginning of violent tornado tracks, with circles marking 24 hours, observed AOD over ocean on 27 April and fire locations for the day before. Right panels: Maps of mean differences between simulations with and without fire emissions for the Significant Tornado Parameter (STP) and 0-1 km layer wind shear during the period of the outbreak.

Saide, P. E.; Spak, S.; Pierce, R.; Otkin, J.; Rabin, R.; Schaack, T.; Heidinger, A. K.; da Silva, A.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Redemann, J.; Carmichael, G. R.

2013-12-01

167

Gastric Emptying and Intestinal Transit of Various Enteral Feedings Following Severe Burn Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Burn-induced delayed gastric emptying and intestinal transit limits enteral feeding\\/resuscitation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aims  To study (1) the effects of burn injury on gastric emptying and intestinal transit at different time points following enteral\\u000a feeding\\/fluids, and (2) the effects of enteral resuscitative fluids on gastric emptying, intestinal transit, and plasma volume\\u000a expansion.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Rats were randomized into sham-burn and burn groups. They were either enterally

Hanaa S. Sallam; George C. Kramer; Jiande D. Z. Chen

168

Plasma Proteome Response to Severe Burn Injury Revealed by 18O-Labeled "Universal" Reference-based Quantitative Proteomics  

PubMed Central

A burn injury represents one of the most severe forms of human trauma and is responsible for significant mortality worldwide. Here, we present the first quantitative proteomics investigation of the blood plasma proteome response to severe burn injury by comparing the plasma protein concentrations of 10 healthy control subjects with those of 15 severe burn patients at two time-points following the injury. The overall analytical strategy for this work integrated immunoaffinity depletion of the 12 most abundant plasma proteins with cysteinyl-peptide enrichment-based fractionation prior to LC-MS analyses of individual patient samples. Incorporation of an 18O-labeled “universal” reference among the sample sets enabled precise relative quantification across samples. In total, 313 plasma proteins confidently identified with two or more unique peptides were quantified. Following statistical analysis, 110 proteins exhibited significant abundance changes in response to the burn injury. The observed changes in protein concentrations suggest significant inflammatory and hypermetabolic response to the injury, which is supported by the fact that many of the identified proteins are associated with acute phase response signaling, the complement system, and coagulation system pathways. The regulation of ~35 proteins observed in this study is in agreement with previous results reported for inflammatory or burn response, but approximately 50 potentially novel proteins previously not known to be associated with burn response or inflammation are also found. Elucidating proteins involved in the response to severe burn injury may reveal novel targets for therapeutic interventions, as well as potential predictive biomarkers for patient outcomes such as multiple organ failure.

Qian, Wei-Jun; Petritis, Brianne O.; Kaushal, Amit; Finnerty, Celeste C; Jeschke, Marc G; Monroe, Matthew E.; Moore, Ronald J.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Xiao, Wenzhong; Moldawer, Lyle L.; Davis, Ronald W.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Herndon, David N.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.

2010-01-01

169

Severe childhood burns in the Czech Republic: risk factors and prevention  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To assess risk factors for paediatric burn injuries in the Czech Republic and to suggest preventive measures. Methods This study included all children aged 0–16 years hospitalized during 1993–2000 at the Prague Burn Centre and data from the Czech Ministry of Health on national paediatric burn hospitalizations during 1996–2006. Personal, equipment and environmental risk factors were identified from hospital records. Findings The incidence of burn admissions among 0–14 year-olds increased from 85 to 96 per 100 000 between 1996 and 2006, mainly due to a 13% increase among 1–4 year-olds. Between 1993–2000 and 2006, the proportion of burn victims in the country hospitalized at the Prague Burn Centre increased from 9% to 21%. Detailed data were available on 1064 children (64% boys). Around 31% of all burn hospitalizations were in 1 year-olds. Some 79% of burns occurred at home: 70% in the kitchen, 14% in the living room or bedroom and 11% in the bathroom. Of the 18% occurring outdoors, 80% involved boys. Scalds from hot liquids accounted for 70% of all burns. The mean hospital stay was 22 days for boys and 18 days for girls. Conclusion Most burns involved scalds from hot liquids at home: beverages in kitchens and water in bathrooms. There is a need for passive preventive measures, such as redesigned domestic cooking and eating areas, safer electrical kettles and temperature control devices for bathrooms. Educational programmes should be developed for parents and caregivers. A national plan for child burn prevention with specific targets would be helpful.

Celko, Alexander Martin; Danova, Jana; Barss, Peter

2009-01-01

170

Modelling threats to water quality from fire suppression chemicals and post-fire erosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Misapplication of fire retardant chemicals into streams and rivers may threaten aquatic life. The possible threat depends on the contaminant concentration that, in part, is controlled by dispersion within flowing water. In the event of a misapplication, methods are needed to rapidly estimate the chemical mass entering the waterway and the dispersion and transport within the system. Here we demonstrate a new tool that calculates the chemical mass based on aircraft delivery system, fire chemical type, and stream and intersect geometry. The estimated mass is intended to be transferred into a GIS module that uses real-time stream data to map and simulate the dispersion and transport downstream. This system currently accounts only for aqueous transport. We envision that the GIS module can be modified to incorporate sediment transport, specifically to model movement of sediments from post-fire erosion. This modification could support assessment of threats of post-fire erosion to water quality and water supply systems.

Hyde, Kevin; Ziemniak, Chris; Elliot, William; Samuels, William

2014-05-01

171

Significant or negligible sediment and nutrient losses after fire? Pre and post-fire comparisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prescribed fire (or a controlled burn) is a management tool used in wildfire-prone areas to reduce the fuel load of living and dead biomass, while attempting to keep disturbance of the ground surface and soil to a minimum. We know that wildfire, particularly of moderate or extreme severity, can cause important changes to the chemical and physical properties of soil,

R. A. Shakesby; A. J. D. Ferreira; C. S. S. Ferreira; C. R. Stoof; E. Urbanek; R. P. D. Walsh

2009-01-01

172

Effect of polyacrylamide as a post-fire erosion mitigation treatment during consecutive rainstorms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) has been proven to be an effective chemical soil amendment for reducing erosion in arable lands and infrastructure projects, but few attempts have been made to use it as a post-fire mitigation measure. Moreover, the mechanisms by which PAM reduces soil erosion are not fully understood. In this study, we tested the use of 50 kg/ha granular PAM as a post-fire amendment on infiltration rate (IR), runoff and soil loss both in laboratory and field experiments involving multiple rainstorms. In the laboratory experiments, three consecutive storms separated by drying periods were applied by means of a rainfall simulator to two contrasting soils affected by fire (Humic Cambisol and Calcic Regosol). During the 1st rainstorm, PAM decreased IR and increased runoff in both soils due to an increase in viscosity of the runoff and soil solution. At the same time, a reduction in soil loss was observed in both PAM-treated soils compared to the untreated controls. During the first drying period, PAM was irreversibly adsorbed to soil particles, and in the following storms PAM-induced soil loss reduction persisted while the effect of the polymer on IR and runoff was reversed. Differences in the effect of PAM on soil erosion between soils were attributed to changes in the electrolyte concentration of runoff and soil solution. The positive effect of PAM on post-fire soil loss was confirmed in field experiments with erosion plots constructed in the burnt Calcic Regosol. The application of 25 and 50 kg/ha of granular PAM reduced soil erosion by 23 and 57%, respectively, compared to the untreated control. Runoff was reduced only in the 50 kg/ha treatment. It is suggested that the application of PAM could be a good alternative to current post-fire erosion mitigation measures.

Inbar, Assaf; Ben-Hur, Meni; Sternberg, Marcelo; Liñares, Marcos

2014-05-01

173

Post-fire runoff and erosion from simulated rainfall on small plots, Colorado Front Range  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Erratum has been published for this article in Hydrological Processes 16(5) 2002, 1131-1133.Wildfires in the Colorado Front Range can trigger dramatic increases in runoff and erosion. A better understanding of the causes of these increases is needed to predict the effects of future wildfires, estimate runoff and erosion risks from prescribed fires, and design effective post-fire rehabilitation treatments. The

Juan Benavides-Solorio; Lee H. MacDonald

2001-01-01

174

Analysis of Climate and Topographic Controls on Burn Severity in the Western United States (1984-2005)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire activity in the western US is likely to increase with climate warming. However, relationships between climate and the magnitude of vegetation change (severity) associated with recent fires have not been quantified. The magnitude of change associated with fires is a critical component of understanding fire- induced emissions carbon loss and ecosystem change. We present statistical analyses of 22-year climate- burn severity relationships for more than 1200 major wildfires in the Pacific Northwest region of the western U.S. Using stream gage, soil moisture, temperature, precipitation data and North American Regional Reanalysis data, we examine the relative influences of climate (precipitation and temperature) and fire weather (wind, relative humidity) on burn severity of individual fires, and regional analyses of area burned severely. Our results show statistically significant relationships between temperature, precipitation and the proportion of each fire classified as high-severity. Using Fragstats metrics for each fire, we show increasingly large patch sizes and homogenous patch distributions associated with warmer, drier conditions. Using topographic variables and the random forest machine learning algorithm, we analyze the occurrence of severely burned areas relative to 12 topographic variables. Classification accuracy results are high (greater than 70 percent) suggesting that there is some predictability in where fires are likely to occur.

Holden, Z. A.; Crimmins, M.; Luce, C.; Heyerdahl, E. K.; Morgan, P.

2008-12-01

175

Taxonomic and Functional Responses to Fire and Post-Fire Management of a Mediterranean Hymenoptera Community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire is one of the commonest disturbances worldwide, transforming habitat structure and affecting ecosystem functioning. Understanding how species respond to such environmental disturbances is a major conservation goal that should be monitored using functionally and taxonomically diverse groups such as Hymenoptera. In this respect, we have analyzed the taxonomic and functional response to fire and post-fire management of a Hymenoptera community from a Mediterranean protected area. Thus, Hymenoptera were sampled at fifteen sites located in three burnt areas submitted to different post-fire practices, as well as at five sites located in peripheral unburnt pine forest. A total of 4882 specimens belonging to 33 families, which were classified into six feeding groups according to their dietary preferences, were collected. ANOVA and Redundancy Analyses showed a taxonomic and functional response to fire as all burnt areas had more Hymenoptera families, different community composition and higher numbers of parasitoids than the unburnt area. Taxonomic differences were also found between burnt areas in terms of the response of Hymenoptera to post-fire management. In general the number of parasitoids was positively correlated to the number of potential host arthropods. Parasitoids are recognized to be sensitive to habitat changes, thus highlighting their value for monitoring the functional responses of organisms to habitat disturbance. The taxonomic and functional responses of Hymenoptera suggest that some pine-forest fires can enhance habitat heterogeneity and arthropod diversity, hence increasing interspecific interactions such as those established by parasitoids and their hosts.

Mateos, Eduardo; Santos, Xavier; Pujade-Villar, Juli

2011-11-01

176

Long-term post-fire effects on spatial ecology and reproductive output of female Agassiz’s desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) at a wind energy facility near Palm Springs, California, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied the long-term response of a cohort of eight female Agassiz’s desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) during the first 15 years following a large fire at a wind energy generation facility near Palm Springs, California, USA. The fire burned a significant portion of the study site in 1995. Tortoise activity areas were mapped using minimum convex polygons for a proximate post-fire interval from 1997 to 2000, and a long-term post-fire interval from 2009 to 2010. In addition, we measured the annual reproductive output of eggs each year and monitored the body condition of tortoises over time. One adult female tortoise was killed by the fire and five tortoises bore exposure scars that were not fatal. Despite predictions that tortoises would make the short-distance movements from burned to nearby unburned habitats, most activity areas and their centroids remained in burned areas for the duration of the study. The percentage of activity area burned did not differ significantly between the two monitoring periods. Annual reproductive output and measures of body condition remained statistically similar throughout the monitoring period. Despite changes in plant composition, conditions at this site appeared to be suitable for survival of tortoises following a major fire. High productivity at the site may have buffered tortoises from the adverse impacts of fire if they were not killed outright. Tortoise populations at less productive desert sites may not have adequate resources to sustain normal activity areas, reproductive output, and body conditions following fire.

Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Ennen, Joshua R.; Madrak, Sheila V.; Loughran, Caleb L.; Meyer, Katherin P.; Arundel, Terence R.; Bjurlin, Curtis D.

2011-01-01

177

Ecohydrological Response to Severe Disturbance by Wildfire and Salvage Logging in Oligotrophic Rocky Mountain Watersheds: Nutrient Loading, Plant Productivity, and Benthic Macroinvertebrate Community Response.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the initial magnitude and post-disturbance recovery of watershed hydrology and ecology after the 2003 Lost Creek wildfire in Southern Alberta's Rocky Mountains. Ecohydrological linkages between phosphorus (P) production and response of stream algal and benthic macroinvertebrate communities were studied for four years after this severe wildfire (2004-2007) to describe the early trajectory of post-disturbance recovery. Wildfire and salvage logging resulted in 3- to 12-times greater total phosphorus (TP) production with higher concentrations evident in salvage logged watersheds (p<0.001). Phosphorus recovery has been slow with strong differences in relationships between P and stream discharge still evident four years after the fire (p<0.001). Because particulate P comprised the dominant form of TP, coupled P and sediment interactions are likely implicated in the slow recovery of P production (particularly in salvage logged watersheds). Post-fire P loading was associated with strong ecological responses in stream biota in both burned and salvage logged watersheds. Large increases in algal productivity were observed in both burned and post-fire salvage logged streams immediately after the fire with 7- to 60-times greater biomass production and chlorophyll-a concentration than in reference streams (p<0.001). Algal productivity co-varied strongly with slow recovery in P production as high algal productivity persisted for four years. Elevated algal production was, in turn, associated with strong differences in benthic macroinvertebrate community structure four years after the fire, including higher invertebrate densities, shifts in species composition, and increased species diversity in the burned and post-fire salvage logged watersheds. Contrary to expectations based on River Continuum Theory, carbon and nitrogen isotopes indicated increased utilization of allochthonous (terrestrial) food sources by invertebrate communities after the fire, suggesting potentially complex ecohydrologic interactions between post-fire biogeochemical pathways and biological responses regulating the structure of aquatic food webs.

Silins, U.; Bladon, K. D.; Esch, E.; Spence, J. R.; Stone, M.; Emelko, M. B.; Wagner, M. J.; Williams, C.; Tichkowsky, I.; Boon, S.; Devito, K. J.; Mendoza, C. A.

2008-12-01

178

Blood stream infections (BSI) in severe burn patients--early and late BSI: a 9-year study.  

PubMed

Bloodstream infections (BSI) and sepsis are among the most common complications occurring in severe burn patients. This study was designed to evaluate changes in BSI pathogens over almost a decade in severe burn patients at Rambam Healthcare Campus, and BSI occurrence during early and late hospitalization periods. Retrospective computerized data was retrieved from all severe burn patients hospitalized in our institution during the years 2001-2009. BSI in the first week was defined as early BSI, and in the second week and beyond, late BSI. Of 159 severe burns patients, 74 had at least one BSI episode. Most first BSI episodes were diagnosed during the first week of hospitalization. In late BSI, an increased prevalence of resistant bacteria (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA], carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae [CRKP], imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa [PSE-IMP]) and Candida spp. were observed. However, over the 9-year study period, only CRKP increased significantly. In summary, except for the sudden appearance and increase in CRKP (8% increase; p=0.045), we did not observe a significant change in the BSI pathogen profile over the 9-year period. Nevertheless, over the hospitalization period, there is a clear change in the BSI bacteria profile, especially after 4 weeks of hospitalization. PMID:23159703

Raz-Pasteur, Ayelet; Hussein, Khetam; Finkelstein, Renato; Ullmann, Yehuda; Egozi, Dana

2013-06-01

179

Primary triage of mass burn casualties with associated severe traumatic injuries  

PubMed Central

Summary A key aim in any mass disaster event is to avoid diverting resources by overwhelming specialized tertiary centers with minor casualties. The most crucial aspect of an effective disaster response is pre-hospital triage at the scene. Unfortunately, many triage systems have serious shortcomings in their methodologies and no existing triage system has enough scientific evidence to justify its universal adoption. Moreover, it is observed that the optimal approach to planning is by no means clear-cut and that each new incident involving burns appears to produce its own unique problems not all of which were predictable. In most major burns disasters, victims mostly have combined trauma burn injuries and form a heterogeneous group with a broad range of devastating injuries. Are these victims primarily burn patients or trauma patients? Should they be taken care of in a burn center or in a trauma center or only in a combined burns-trauma center? Who makes the decision? The present review is aimed at answering some of these questions.

Atiyeh, B.; Gunn, S. William A.; Dibo, S.

2013-01-01

180

Perspectives on Disconnects Between Scientific Information and Management Decisions on Post-fire Recovery in Western US  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental regulations frequently mandate the use of "best available" science, but ensuring that it is used in decisions around the use and protection of natural resources is often challenging. In the Western US, this relationship between science and management is at the forefront of post-fire land management decisions. Recent fires, post-fire threats (e.g. flooding, erosion), and the role of fire in ecosystem health combine to make post-fire management highly visible and often controversial. This paper uses post-fire management to present a framework for understanding why disconnects between science and management decisions may occur. We argue that attributes of agencies, such as their political or financial incentives, can limit how effectively science is incorporated into decision-making. At the other end of the spectrum, the lack of synthesis or limited data in science can result in disconnects between science-based analysis of post-fire effects and agency policy and decisions. Disconnects also occur because of the interaction between the attributes of agencies and the attributes of science, such as their different spatial and temporal scales of interest. After offering examples of these disconnects in post-fire treatment, the paper concludes with recommendations to reduce disconnects by improving monitoring, increasing synthesis of scientific findings, and directing social-science research toward identifying and deepening understanding of these disconnects.

Chen, Xiaoli; Emery, Nathan; Garcia, Elizabeth S.; Hanan, Erin J.; Hodges, Heather E.; Martin, Tyronne; Meyers, Matthew A.; Peavey, Lindsey E.; Peng, Hui; Santamaria, Jaime Sainz; Uyeda, Kellie A.; Anderson, Sarah E.; Tague, Christina

2013-12-01

181

Short and Long-term Effects of High-severity Fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forests are subject to a wide variety of natural and anthropogenic disturbances, including extreme rainstorms, beetle kill, forest harvest, windthrow, and fires. Here we show that: (1) erosion and sedimentation following high-severity fires is more important and persistent than commonly believed; (2) these post-fire effects have feedbacks that that can alter the rates of other key processes; and (3) the post-fire erosion and feedback effects need to be accounted for in landscape-scale modeling. Hillslope-scale surface erosion measurements were initiated in unmanaged and managed mid-elevation forests in the Colorado Front Range in summer 2001, and half of these sites burned in the 2002 Hayman and Schoonover wildfires. Similarly, cross-sections and a flume were installed in a 2.3 and a 6.0 km2 watershed in 2001-02, and about 60% of these watersheds were subsequently burned in June 2002. Continued monitoring of these and other sites through summer 2006 has resulted in a unique pre- and post-fire dataset. For the unburned managed and unmanaged hillslopes, measurable erosion occurred for only three of the 222 hillslope-years of data, even when rainfall intensities exceeded 60 mm/hr. In contrast, sediment was produced from each of the severely-burned hillslopes for each of the first three years after burning, and the cumulative mean six-year sediment yield was 32 Mg/ha. Severe armoring has developed on the burned hillslopes while there is no comparable armor layer on the unburned hillslopes. The numerous rills and gullies developed after the fire are expected to slowly fill in, but the downstream deposition of coarse post-fire sediment in the smaller watershed has changed the runoff from surface to subsurface flow. The loss of forest cover, hillslope armoring, and change to subsurface flow are projected to cause long-term changes in hillslope erosion and downstream sediment transport rates. These fire-induced changes in processes and boundary conditions can have important feedbacks to future erosion and sediment transport rates, and hence to landscape evolution.

MacDonald, L. H.; Larsen, I. J.; Schaffrath, K. R.; Eccleston, D.; Welsh, M. J.

2010-12-01

182

Five-Year Outcomes after Oxandrolone Administration in Severely Burned Children: A Randomized Clinical Trial of Safety and Efficacy  

PubMed Central

Background Oxandrolone, an anabolic agent, has been administered for 1 year post burn with beneficial effects in pediatric patients. However, the long-lasting effects of this treatment have not been studied. This single-center prospective trial determined the long-term effects of 1 year of oxandrolone administration in severely burned children; assessments were continued for up to 4 years post-therapy. Study Design Patients 0–18 years old with burns covering >30% of the total body surface area were randomized to receive placebo (n=152) or oxandrolone, 0.1 mg/kg twice daily for 12 months (n=70). At hospital discharge, patients were randomized to a 12 week exercise program or to standard of care. Resting energy expenditure (REE), standing height, weight, lean body mass, muscle strength, bone mineral content (BMC), cardiac work, rate pressure product (RPP), sexual maturation, and concentrations of serum inflammatory cytokines, hormones, and liver enzymes were monitored. Results Oxandrolone significantly decreased REE, RPP, and increased IGF-1 secretion during the first year after burn injury, and in combination with exercise significantly increased lean body mass and muscle strength. Oxandrolone-treated children exhibited improved height percentile and BMC content compared to controls. The maximal effect of oxandrolone was found in children aged 7–18 years. No deleterious side effects were attributed to long-term administration. Conclusions Administration of oxandrolone improves the long-term recovery of severely burned children in height, BMC, cardiac work and muscle strength; the increase in BMC is likely to occur by means of IGF 1. These benefits persist for up to 5 years post burn.

Porro, Laura J; Herndon, David N; Rodriguez, Noe A; Jennings, Kristofer; Klein, Gordon L; Mlcak, Ronald P; Meyer, Walter; Lee, Jong; Suman, Oscar E; Finnerty, Celeste C

2012-01-01

183

First experiences with the collagen-elastin matrix Matriderm as a dermal substitute in severe burn injuries of the hand.  

PubMed

Restoring function after hand burns plays a major role in the restitution of a quality of life. Thereby the reconstructed pliability of the grafted areas is of utmost importance for good hand function. The collagen elastin matrix Matriderm was evaluated as a dermal substitute for the treatment of severe hand burns. In a series of 10 patients, mean age 43 years, TBSA 22.8%, an early debridement and immediate grafting with the matrix and unmeshed skin graft was carried out in a one-stage procedure. In the early postoperative follow up an overall take rate of 97% was observed. In contrast to conventional skin grafts, the color of the skin grafts over the matrix appeared pale in the first few days, but after 2 weeks no difference was observed. After three months, pliability of the grafted area was excellent, (mean VSS 3.2+/-1.2). Full range of motion was achieved in all hands, no blisters and no unstable or hypertrophic scars occurred. Matriderm has proved to be a dermal substitute suitable for the treatment of hand burns. We therefore consider Matriderm as a promising dermal substitute for the treatment of severe hand burns. PMID:17240532

Haslik, W; Kamolz, L-P; Nathschläger, G; Andel, H; Meissl, G; Frey, M

2007-05-01

184

A predictive model of burn severity based on 20-year satellite-inferred burn severity data in a large southwestern US wilderness area  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe and then model satellite-inferred severe (stand-replacing) fire occurrence relative to topography (elevation, aspect, slope, solar radiation, Heat Load Index, wetness and measures of topographic ruggedness) using data from 114 fires>40ha in area that occurred between 1984 and 2004 in the Gila Wilderness and surrounding Gila National Forest. Severe fire occurred more frequently at higher elevations and on north-facing,

Zachary A. Holden; Penelope Morgan; Jeffrey S. Evans

2009-01-01

185

An eddy covariance network to investigate post-fire carbon and energy dynamics in remote regions of Alaskan arctic tundra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Alaskan arctic is experiencing pronounced changes such as fires, increased shrub cover, and permafrost thaw that are the result of increased air temperatures. Quantifying the effect of these changes on arctic carbon and energy fluxes is difficult because the Arctic is remote and difficult to access throughout the year. Here we report on an experimental design that uses a roving eddy covariance network, remote sensing, and model data fusion to determine post-fire effects on carbon and energy exchange over hours to decadal timescales in Alaskan arctic tundra. We describe the approach, challenges and goals of this project, and present some preliminary data. Our approach incorporated a number of sites along an Alaskan tundra fire chronosequence, and paired fire scars of different age with an unburned control. Challenges included; limited site access and power, communication and data acquisition, spatial variability, and missing data. We approached these challenges in a variety of ways, including; assessing spatial variability with MODIS data and roving towers, comparing burned to nearby unburned sites, harvesting biomass to understand decadal carbon recovery, and developing models that incorporate remotely sensed, eddy covariance, and biomass data. Our experimental design provides a test-bed for assessing large-scale variability across time and space, which is critical for understanding the role of disturbance on regional carbon and energy fluxes. Conceptual framework for our study. Field measurements will encompass both fast [top of hatched line] to slow [bottom of hatched line] ecosystem processes and states along a fire chronosequence [1] that will be assimilated into a fast and slow response model framework through model-data fusion [2], and used to scale up to the North Slope with MODIS data [3].

Rocha, A. V.; Shaver, G. R.; Rastetter, E.; Jiang, Y.

2012-12-01

186

Seedling establishment along post-fire succession in Mediterranean shrublands dominated by obligate seeders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seedlings are expected to be particularly sensitive to the environmental conditions at the time of establishment. Within succession, environmental conditions vary over time and a species will have a better chance to regenerate on a particular place depending on the intrinsic traits that determine its regeneration niche. We examined the regeneration niche and the pattern of seedling establishment along succession of the main species present in a Mediterranean shrubland. The establishment of Cistus albidus, Rosmarinus officinalis and Ulex parviflorus was monitored for three years using seasonal cohorts in three different stages along a successional gradient (post-fire, building and mature). There was a flush of establishment immediately after fire in all species. After this event, there was a decline in establishment as succession progressed, until practically no seedling establishment was found at mature stages. The presence of a thick litter layer probably precluded seedling establishment at this stage. The establishment of Cistus was very closely tied to the post-fire environment, while recruitment of Rosmarinus and Ulex also occurred in the building stage. In contrast to what has been reported in other Mediterranean shrublands, recruitment in our study area was not restricted solely to post-fire stages, and shrubs also recruited opportunistically when open gaps in the canopy were available along succession. The differences in preferred micro-sites for the establishment suggest a differentiation in regeneration niches and a particular set of environmental conditions where the different species would be particularly competitive through succession. Thus, Cistus regenerates mostly in highly perturbed environments, whereas Ulex and Rosmarinus benefit from environments with longer inter-fire periods.

Santana, Victor M.; Baeza, M. Jaime; Maestre, Fernando T.

2012-02-01

187

Predicting high severity fire occurrence and area burned in a changing climate for three regions in the Western US  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A long history of fire suppression in the western United States has interrupted the fire regimes of many forest types. This interruption has significantly changed forest structure and ecological function and led to increasingly uncharacteristic fires in terms of size and severity. Research has shown that climate variability drives the occurrence of large fires and is important to predicting fire severity. We found that Western US area burned in high severity fire can be accurately predicted using a generalized Pareto distribution model with covariates of climate, weather, topography, and vegetation. Our model was robust in all but the most extreme fire years, e.g. 1988, 2000, 2002, and 2003, where area burned in high severity was significantly greater than in other years. We modeled the Northern Rocky Mountains, the Sierra Nevada Mountains, and the Southwestern US to determine if regional differences in controls on severity were at play in extreme years. The regional analysis improved model performance by capturing extreme fire years and identified regionally unique covariates. For the Northern Rocky Mountains the addition of elevation and fire regime condition class improved the prediction in extreme years. In the Southwest relative humidity and moisture deficit in the month of fire and total fire size were critical to capturing extreme fire years. The Sierra Nevada model had the most complex set of covariates that included: vegetation, moisture deficit, evapotranspiration, precipitation, and fire regime condition class. By incorporating regionally specific variables, our models were robust in prediction of high severity area burned in all years. For this work, we will apply high and low CO2 emission scenarios from three general circulation models to our regional statistical models to predict probability of high severity fire occurrence as well as area burned in high severity for the period 1950-2099. We used the downscaled climate as an input into the VIC hydrologic model to generate independent variable sets for each future scenario. The modeling output will allow us to identify potential changes in the annual area burned with high severity fire under future climate as well as areas where the probable occurrence of high severity fires might increase.

Keyser, A.; Westerling, A. L.; Milostan, J.

2013-12-01

188

Human intervened post-fire forest restoration in the Northern Great Hing’an Mountains: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The devastating fire in May 1987 in the northern Great Hing’an Mountains created a mosaic of burned severity. Subsequent log harvesting and tree planting complicated the restoration process. Based on intensive field work and GIS analysis for the burned area, we studied the landscape pattern change in relation with its influencing factors, the restoration of some ecosystem functions and the

Xiuzhen Li; Fuju Xie; Xugao Wang; Fanhua Kong

2006-01-01

189

Absence of the right internal carotid artery found during autopsy of a severe burn case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since absence and hypoplasia of the internal carotid arteries are known to be rare anomalies but often presents no symptoms, most such cases are accidentally revealed by a carotid angiogram performed for patients with cerebrovascular disease. We herein report the autopsy findings for a 65-year-old man who burned to death in an apartment fire. Medicolegal autopsy revealed absence of the

Masakazu Hanagama; Hiromasa Inoue; Kotaro Shinone; Masakatsu Tanaka; Masayuki Nata

2007-01-01

190

Severe post-burn neck contracture release and skin graft harvest using tumescent local anaesthesia as the sole anesthetic technique.  

PubMed

Severe post-burn contractures in the neck often cause anatomical distortion and restriction of neck movements, resulting in varying degrees of difficulty in airway management. Any mode of anesthesia that may obviate the need for imperative airway control may be desirable in such situations in which a difficult airway may be anticipated. Here we present one such situation where tumescent local anesthesia was employed to manage a case of severe post-burn neck contractures posted for contracture release and split-skin grafting. The other benefits of this method were minimal blood loss and excellent postoperative analgesia. In conclusion, it can be emphasized that the application of tumescent anesthesia is an important anesthetic tool in patients with predicted difficult airway management. PMID:21986719

Prasad, Mukesh Kumar; Puneet, Pulak; Rani, Kanchan; Shree, Divya

2012-02-01

191

Role of the Duff Layer in Post-fire Soil Hydrology and Erosion: Field and Modelling Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires are generally thought to result in increased propensity for overland flow and soil erosion in the immediate years following the disturbance. Despite documentation of significant post-fire soil erosion in certain well-studied regional settings, the relevance of such findings to other regions remains questionable. In studies with notable post-fire soil erosion, the duff layer may be removed and hydrophobicity may develop, thus increasing the likelihood of soil erosion. Unfortunately, scenarios of negligible post-fire erosion most often go unreported by land managers and researchers, making it difficult to evaluate the pervasiveness of post-fire soil erosion and the environmental conditions under which notable post-fire soil erosion does and does not occur. A field study was designed to measure post-fire soil erosion in response to a high-intensity crown fire that occurred in the summer of 2003 within a closed canopy, boreal forest in Kootenay National Park, British Columbia, Canada. Measured soil erosion was very low in 2004 and 2005, although significant rainfall events did occur. We put forth the suggestion that a likely cause of our low erosion rates is the existence of notable post-fire duff coverage (duff includes both fermentation and humus soil organic layers) at our field site. The role of duff in soil hydrology is often ignored, perhaps because it is most often not seen as a limiting factor in soil infiltration. However, the duff layer provides a zone of detention storage for precipitation, thus enhancing infiltration into the underlying mineral soil. Furthermore, the duff layer presents a physical barrier to soil entrainment. Duff may thus help to effectively buffer the soil against the effects of high rainfall intensities. Few studies have explicitly highlighted the role of post-fire duff coverage in influencing soil erosional response. A widely held perception is that high-intensity crown fires remove most or all of the duff layer. In fact, this is not the case for all ecosystems. For example, earlier research in the boreal forest of Canada has shown that duff consumption during high-intensity crown fires results in patchy yet notable post-fire duff coverage, similar to the post-fire duff coverage found at our field site. To assess how the duff layer might affect soil hydrology in post-fire environments, we undertake a numerical modelling exercise. Model runs are undertaken for a series of different soil types (sandy loam etc.), some with an overlying duff layer and some without an overlying duff layer. Model results suggest that the presence of a duff layer does affect the soil infiltration process and the time required for ponding to occur. It is recommended that researchers and land managers consider the extent of post-fire duff coverage in different regional settings to allow for better assessment of the potential for notable, post-fire soil erosion.

Martin, Y. E.; Johnson, E. A.; Gallaway, J.

2010-12-01

192

Can post-fire erosion rates be estimated using a novel plastic optical fibre turbidity sensor?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well-established that wildfires can play an important role in the hydrological and erosion response of forested catchments, substantially increasing overland as well as stream flow and associated sediment yield during the earlier stages of the window-of-disturbance. Even so, it continues a major challenge to quantify post-fire erosion rates and their evolution with time-since-fire, both for plot and catchment outlets. This constraint could to some extent be overcome by low-cost turbidity sensors, placed in runoff collection tanks and at multiple points across stream flow sections. Plastic optical fibre turbidity sensors (POF) have, in that respect, much potential, due to their reduced costs, suitability for multiplexing and robustness under adverse monitoring conditions. The present study explores this potential for recently burnt areas, where the characteristics of the transported sediments can be expected to change markedly over time due to exhaustion of ashes. To this end, a large number of plot- and catchment-scale runoff samples were studied that had been collected in the course of 1- to 2-weekly field monitoring of a recently burnt study area in north-central Portugal. Comparison of the sediment and organic matter contents of these samples with turbidity readings obtained with a novel POF sensor suggested that the POF sensor would greatly facilitate obtaining rough estimates of post-fire erosion rates but would not dispense of regular calibration under changing sediment load characteristics.

Keizer, Jan Jacob; Bilro, Lúcia; Martins, Martinho M. A.; Machado, Ana Isabel; Karine Boulet, Anne; Vieira, Diana C. S.; Sequeira, Filipa; Prats, Sergio A.; Nogueira, Rogério

2014-05-01

193

Parameterizing fire effects on the carbon balance of western United States (U.S.) forests: Accounting for variation across forest types, fire severity, and carbon pools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fires are known to alter the carbon balance of forests by direct/consumptive or indirect/non-consumptive effects, but detailed representation of fire-induced combustion and mortality is generally lacking in carbon cycle models. Existing approaches fail to incorporate details on the direct and indirect consumption of carbon in individual pools (e.g. foliage, stem, and roots), and ignore severity-dependence of these effects. The few studies that do incorporate detailed parameterization have focused only on localized areas or single fires. Still other studies lack representation of fire associated inter-pool carbon transfer processes needed to characterize post-fire carbon dynamics through time. This study reviews the existing literature (e.g. restoration ecology and post-fire mortality studies) on fires across the whole of western U.S. forests to derive a comprehensive and detailed parameterization of fire effects suitable for incorporation in the Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach (CASA) carbon cycle model. This study relies on a comprehensive integration of remote sensing, field observations and biogeochemical modeling based analysis. Post-fire carbon fluxes are derived as a function of forest type, productivity and fire severity using a technique based on merging Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data, CASA carbon cycle modeling, 30 m spatial resolution Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) fire severity observations, and additional remotely sensed observations (e.g. temperature, precipitation and Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR)). As such, we obtain characteristic carbon trajectories and regional carbon flux estimates specific to forest types and fire severity levels in the western U.S. forests. This research elucidates new insights on carbon fluxes by performing an intensive and detailed literature survey of post-fire vegetation mortality studies in order to parameterize forest type and fire severity associated effects and processes in the CASA carbon cycle model at a regional landscape level scale.

Ghimire, B.; Williams, C. A.; Collatz, G. J.

2010-12-01

194

Severe cast burn after bunionectomy in a patient who received peripheral nerve blocks for postoperative analgesia  

PubMed Central

Although regional anesthesia offers advantages for intraoperative and postoperative pain relief, it is not possible without complications. A case of a significant burn injury after splint placement is described after a peripheral nerve block was performed for postoperative pain management. It is our hope that this case alerts physicians and others involved in the management of postoperative patients to the challenges of managing a blocked extremity after thermal cast placement and offers solutions that can be standardized.

Boyle, Patrick K; Badal, John J; Boeve, Joelle W

2011-01-01

195

Severe cast burn after bunionectomy in a patient who received peripheral nerve blocks for postoperative analgesia.  

PubMed

Although regional anesthesia offers advantages for intraoperative and postoperative pain relief, it is not possible without complications. A case of a significant burn injury after splint placement is described after a peripheral nerve block was performed for postoperative pain management. It is our hope that this case alerts physicians and others involved in the management of postoperative patients to the challenges of managing a blocked extremity after thermal cast placement and offers solutions that can be standardized. PMID:22915886

Boyle, Patrick K; Badal, John J; Boeve, Joelle W

2011-01-01

196

A single date SWIR-MIR index (SMI) for rapid fire severity assessments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid fire severity assessments are essential for timely post-fire rehabilitation responses. The Landsat differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) has become the standard spectral index for assessing fire severity. The dNBR is generally calculated using the first available cloud-free post-fire image and a pre-fire image. This bi-temporal image differencing can be problematic due to image-to-image differences in illumination and phenology for example. We have developed an alternative index based on single date short-wave infrared (SWIR) and mid infrared (MIR) reflectance. In contrast with the (d)NBR, the SWIR-MIR index (SMI) is robust against scattering caused by smoke plumes over active fires allowing fire severity assessments to be generated when the area is still obscured by smoke. The SMI was generated using MODIS/ASTER (MASTER) airborne simulator data acquired over the recent 2011 Wallow fire in Arizona, USA. Simulation experiments showed that the SMI is more sensitive to char fractional cover than the NBR. In addition, the SMI had a stronger correlation with Geo Composite Burn Index (GeoCBI) field data of severity than the NBR (GeoCBI-SMI R2 = 0.67 and GeoCBI-NBR R2 = 0.61). The dNBR trended slightly better with the GeoCBI field data than the SMI (GeoCBI-dNBR R2 = 0.69). Although no spaceborne sensors with pixel sizes smaller than 100 m currently offer the possibility of a SWIR-MIR band combination, the airborne results illustrate the potential of this band combination for the remote sensing of post-fire effects. Such data will become available with the advent of the next generation satellite sensors, such as the planned spaceborne Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI).

Veraverbeke, S.; Hook, S.; Hulley, G.

2012-04-01

197

Using NASA EOS to Assess Burn Severity and Perform Fire Risk Mapping of the 2011 North Carolina Wildfire Season  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the beginning of 2011 North Carolina has experienced dry conditions and high winds, which has increased the fuel load on the ground. This extreme weather led to several periods of severe wildfires which burned nearly 100,000 acres, caused significant damage to the Coastal Plains region's ecosystem, and greatly affected the livelihoods of many North Carolinians. Utilizing NASA's Earth Observing Systems (EOS), burn severity, real-time drought severity, and fire- risk mapping were conducted on the two largest fires in North Carolina during the 2011 wildfire season, the Pains Bay Fire in Dare County and the Juniper Road Fire in Pender County. In order to show the impact of fires on the ecosystem and the extent of ecological change the fires caused, burn severity maps were created using Landsat 5 TM and the Relative difference Normalized Burn Ratio (RdNBR). To assess drought conditions, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI) were derived from Landsat 5TM data to show changes in vegetation cover and moisture. In addition, MODIS Daily Surface Reflectance product (MOD09GA/MYD09GA) with the Normalized Multi-band Drought Index (NMDI) was utilized to estimate real-time drought severity of vegetation and soil moisture. Finally, Landsat 5 TM and various ancillary sources were used to create a fire risk map utilizing a Multi-criteria Evaluation (MCE) method with the new Fuzzification method in ArcGIS. Multiple variables were inserted into the MCE including soil survey data, Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI), slope data obtained from ASTER Global DEM, land cover/fuel data, and proximity to roads. Methodologies using NASA EOS to acquire all end products were provided to project partners, the Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge (ARNWR) and the North Carolina Forest Service (NCFS), in the form of a user tutorial to allow for a better understanding of how remote sensing can be applied to analyze wildfires. These methodologies, together with ground-truth data, will assist project partners in determining the best use of their resources for monitoring and responding to wildfires, as well as mitigating their effects.

Gleason, J. L.; Ehlen, A.

2012-12-01

198

Biomass burning in boreal forests and peatlands: Effects on ecosystem carbon losses and soil carbon stabilization as black carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change has increased both annual area burned and the severity of biomass combustion in some boreal regions. For example, there has been a four-fold increase in late season fires in boreal Alaska over the last decade relative to the previous 50 years. Such changes in the fire regime are expected to stimulate ecosystem carbon losses through fuel combustion, reduced primary production, and increased decomposition. However, biomass burning also will influence the accumulation of black carbon in soils, which could promote long-term soil carbon sequestration. Variations in slope and aspect regulate soil temperatures and drainage conditions, and affect the development of permafrost and thick peat layers. Wet soil conditions in peatlands and permafrost forests often inhibit combustion during wildfires, leading to strong positive correlations between pre- and post- fire organic soil thickness that persist through multiple fire cycles. However, burning can occur in poorly drained ecosystems through smouldering combustion, which has implications for emission ratios of CO2:CH4:CO as well as black carbon formation. Our studies of combustion severity and black carbon concentrations in boreal soils show a negative relationship between concentrations of black carbon and organic carbon in soils post-fire. Relative to well drained stands, poorly drained sites with thick peat layers (such as north-facing stands) had less severe burning and low concentrations of black carbon in mineral soils post-fire. Conversely, drier forests lost a greater proportion of their organic soils during combustion but retained larger black carbon stocks following burning. Overall, we have quantified greater black carbon concentrations in surface mineral soil horizons than in organic soil horizons. This is surprising given that wildfires typically do not consume the entire organic soil layer in boreal forests, and could be indicative of the vulnerability of black carbon formed in organic horizons to burning during subsequent fire events. We also observed no correlations between black carbon stocks in soils and fire frequency, again suggesting that pyrogenic C is susceptible to re-burning, or decay in the post-burn environment. The majority of pyrogenic carbon in boreal soils appears to be derived from recent wildfire activity, as the age of the black carbon pool often is equivalent to stand age. Together these results show that landscape characteristics that control decomposition and the accumulation of peat also have strong controls on combustion processes and post-fire soil chemistry. Warmer temperatures and drier or more variable precipitation patterns are likely to result in more intense burning of organic soils in the future. Research linking the conditions of char formation with its stabilization mechanisms (either consumption in wildfire or microbial attack) will shed light on spatial patterns of black carbon formation and preservation in high latitude soils.

Turetsky, M. R.; Kane, E. S.; Benscoter, B.

2011-12-01

199

Sustained Oxidative Stress Causes Late Acute Renal Failure via Duplex Regulation on p38 MAPK and Akt Phosphorylation in Severely Burned Rats  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical evidence indicates that late acute renal failure (ARF) predicts high mortality in severely burned patients but the pathophysiology of late ARF remains undefined. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that sustained reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced late ARF in a severely burned rat model and to investigate the signaling mechanisms involved. Materials and Methods Rats were exposed to 100°C bath for 15 s to induce severe burn injury (40% of total body surface area). Renal function, ROS generation, tubular necrosis and apoptosis, and phosphorylation of MAPK and Akt were measured during 72 hours after burn. Results Renal function as assessed by serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen deteriorated significantly at 3 h after burn, alleviated at 6 h but worsened at 48 h and 72 h, indicating a late ARF was induced. Apoptotic cells and cleavage caspase-3 in the kidney went up slowly and turned into significant at 48 h and 72 h. Tubular cell ROS production shot up at 6 h and continuously rose during the 72-h experiment. Scavenging ROS with tempol markedly attenuated tubular apoptosis and renal dysfunction at 72 h after burn. Interestingly, renal p38 MAPK phosphorylation elevated in a time dependent manner whereas Akt phosphorylation increased during the first 24 h but decreased at 48 h after burn. The p38 MAPK specific inhibitor SB203580 alleviated whereas Akt inhibitor exacerbated burn-induced tubular apoptosis and renal dysfunction. Furthermore, tempol treatment exerted a duplex regulation through inhibiting p38 MAPK phosphorylation but further increasing Akt phosphorylation at 72 h postburn. Conclusions These results demonstrate that sustained renal ROS overproduction induces continuous tubular cell apoptosis and thus a late ARF at 72 h after burn in severely burned rats, which may result from ROS-mediated activation of p38 MAPK but a late inhibition of Akt phosphorylation.

Cai, Xiaoqing; Wang, Dexin; Wu, Kaimin; Chen, Hongli; Li, Jia; Lei, Wei

2013-01-01

200

Effects of Surface Sealing, Soil Moisture Evolution, and Rainfall Intensity on Runoff From Hillslope Plots Burned by Wildfire  

Microsoft Academic Search

The High Meadow Fire burned 43 square kilometers of mountainous semi-arid terrain southwest of Denver, CO during June of 2000. Burned areas like Hi Meadow are prone to extreme post-fire geomorphic responses including rill, sheet and channel erosion if the fire is followed by a significant rain event. As all of these processes are related to runoff development, it is

D. A. Kinner; J. A. Moody; D. A. Martin

2003-01-01

201

Cork extraction as a key factor determining post-fire cork oak survival in a mountain region of southern Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bark thickness, a key variable determining post-fire tree survival, usually increases with tree diameter. The cork oak (Quercus suber) is an exception to this, as it is the only European tree where the commercial exploitation of bark (cork) occurs. Human management thus becomes the most influential factor determining bark thickness. In this paper, we describe the survival rates and variables

Francisco Moreira; Inês Duarte; Filipe Catry; Vanda Acácio

2007-01-01

202

Work-related burns.  

PubMed

Work-related upper extremity burns often occur. The cause directs the course of action. Thermal burns should be assessed for system alterations, and depth of burn should be determined. Deep partial-thickness burns and more severe burns require a specialist evaluation. Chemical burns must be irrigated and the agent identified. Some chemical burns, such as those that involve phenols and metal fragments, require specific topical applications before water lavage. Hydrofluoric acid burns can cause life-threatening electrolyte abnormalities with a small, highly concentrated acid burn. The goal with any extremity burn is to provide the patient with a multidisciplinary team approach to achieve a functional, usable extremity. PMID:16647659

Pruitt, Valerie M

2006-01-01

203

Evaluation of burn severity of an interior Alaskan black spruce forest with ALOS AVNIR-2 and PALSAR remote sensors.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boreal forest fire influences on forest dynamics and according carbon budgets. Burn severity is one of the key factors that determine the forest recovery. We evaluated burn severity of an interior Alaskan black spruce forest with ALOS AVNIR-2 and PALSAR remote sensors. A black spruce (Picea mariana) forest (Poker Flat site) in interior Alaska was burnt in the end of June 2004. Almost the entire forest floor was once covered with a moss (Sphagnum spp.) seat, and burnt into patches of mosses, damaged mosses, and burnt scars in 10-1 - 10 m scales. From the interpretation of the aerial photos taken from an airplane ('Asuka' of Asahi Shimbun, 27 July 2006), area ratios of mosses, damaged mosses, and burnt scars were obtained for sixteen 10m ~ 10 m plots in Poker Flat site. We overlaid the aerial photos on ALOS AVNIR-2 (24 July 2006) and PALSAR (26 July 2006) images, and obtained the relationships between the area ratios of the three forest-floor types and the digital numbers of ALOS AVNIR-2 and PALSAR. Spectral reflectances in 350 - 2500 nm measured one year after the fire at 80 points around the plots explained the relationship between the area ratios and the ALOS AVNIR-2 digital numbers. By combining with CO2 fluxes on the mosses and burnt scars, we evaluated the geographical distribution of CO2 flux in two years after the interior Alaskan black spruce forest fire by ALOS AVNIR-2 and PALSAR.

Kushida, K.; Tsuyuzaki, S.; Kim, Y.; Narita, K.; Kodama, Y.; Ishii, Y.; Harada, K.; Sawada, Y.; Kadosaki, G.; Fukuda, M.

2006-12-01

204

Carbon and water vapour exchange in a recently burned east boreal jack pine stand, Quebec, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The circumpolar boreal forest is an extensive carbon (C) reservoir, storing an estimated 88 petagrams (Pg) of C in vegetation biomass with an additional 471 PgC residing within the soil itself. In the North American boreal, fire disturbance acts as the main stand-renewing agent along an approximate 100-year return interval. However, recent studies suggest that fire intensity and severity are increasing, driven by disproportionate climate warming of the northern latitudes. While estimates of direct C emissions from combustion are becoming more accurate, indirect loss due to post-fire effects on decomposition and regeneration has only recently become a focus of research. Paradoxically, it has been estimated that post-fire C releases are in the order of three times the amount directly released during initial combustion. In this study, we examine carbon and water exchange in a 6-year old, post-burn, jack pine stand located in the eastern James Bay region of the Canadian boreal; an area currently under-represented in fire studies. Over 1.5 years, covering two growing seasons and the spring and fall transitions, we measured net CO2 and energy exchange at the ecosystem level using an eddy covariance tower, and supplemented this with chamber measurements of soil respiration. At this stage of recovery, while demonstrating diurnal and seasonal patterns of exchange, overall the site was a net source of C and water to the atmosphere with brief periods of C sink.

Nugent, K.; Strachan, I. B.

2013-12-01

205

Impacts of the post-fire erosion processes compared with the agricultural erosion rates for a mountain catchment in NW Iberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mediterranean ecosystems are very vulnerable to soil erosion by water due to particular characteristics of climate, lithology and land use history. Moreover, the foreseen climate changes might worsen land degradation and desertification, in which soil erosion has been classified as one of the most important driving forces. In this context, the frequent forest fires seen in some Mediterranean regions can case disturbances to vegetation cover and enhance soil erosion processes. This work addresses this issue for the Caramulo mountain range, NW Iberia. In the past century, large land use changes occurred due to massive afforestation. Changes from mixed natural forest cover and shrublands to Pine, the introduction of Eucalyptus plantations and, more recently, a trend for the substitution of pines by eucalypts, are the evidence of a large and rapid land use change in the last decades. Forest fires started to occur as afforestation proceeded, as a consequence of the disappearance of pasturage and accumulation of highly inflammable material; they became more frequent after the 1960's and became a determinant factor for land use changes in this region. Data collection focused on the Macieira de Alcoba catchment, a headwater agro-forested catchment (94 ha) located in this region. It has a wet Mediterranean climate, with an average annual rainfall of about 1300 mm (2002-2012), concentrated in autumn and winter, while spring and summer are dryer seasons. The mean annual temperature is 14°C and in summer it can reach 35°C. The land use is mixed, with forest and agriculture lands covering respectively 60 and 35% of the catchment area, 5% being built-up areas in the village of Macieira de Alcoba. In the last decades, this catchment suffered several forest fires (in 1969, 1986, 1991, and 2011). Erosion processes are related with periods of low vegetation cover in autumn in fields with a pasture-corn rotation, but also with forest plantations after clear-cutting and especially after forest fires. The last forest fire in August 2011 burned 10% of the total area in the north-west part of the catchment. Post-fire management operations 9 month after the fire (clear-cutting and deep plowing operations) and after plantation of "Quercus robur" left the soil exposed, and relatively mild rainstorms led to large amounts of soil loss, including a large amount of rills and other erosion features. This constituted an opportunity to compare these erosion rates with the ones observed in agricultural fields for similar edapho-climatic conditions, and also observe distinct timing of erosion occurrence which was linked with different periods when soils are exposed. This communication presents the assessment of the impact of this fire on soil erosion rates, where results indicate that soil losses after soil preparation for forest replanting might be equivalent, in long-term, to soil losses in agricultural fields.

Marisa Santos, Juliana; Nunes, João Pedro; Bernard-Jannin, Léonard; Gonzalez Pelayo, Oscar; Keizer, Jan Jacob

2014-05-01

206

Influence of vegetation spatial heterogeneity on soil enzyme activity in burned Mediterranean areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mediterranean ecosystems are commonly considered resilient to wildfires. However, depending on fire severity and recurrence, post-fire climatic conditions and plant community type, the recovery rate of the vegetation can greatly vary. Often, the post-fire vegetation cover remains low and sparsely distributed many years after the wildfire, which could have profound impacts on ecosystem functioning. In this work, we studied the influence of vegetation patchiness on soil enzyme activity (acid phosphatase, ?-glucosidase and urease), at the patch and landscape scales, in degraded dry Mediterranean shrublands affected by wildfires. At the patch scale, we assessed the variation in soil enzyme between bare soils and vegetation patches. At the landscape scale, we studied the relationships between soil enzyme activity and various landscape metrics (total patch cover, average interpatch length, average patch width, and patch density). The study was conducted in 19 sites in the Valencia Region (eastern Spain), which had been affected by large wildfires in 1991. Site selection aimed at capturing a wide range of the variability of post-fire plant recovery rates in Mediterranean areas. The activities of the three enzymes were significantly higher in soils under the vegetation canopies than in adjacent bare areas, which we attributed to the effect of plants on the soil amount of both enzyme substrates and enzymes. The differences between bare and plant microsites were larger in the case of the acid phosphatase and less marked for urease. The activity of acid phosphatase was also higher under patches of resprouter species than under patches of seeder species, probably due to the faster post-fire recovery and older age of resprouter patches in fire-prone ecosystems. Soil enzyme activities of ?-glucosidase and urease in both bare soils and vegetation patches showed no relationships with any of the landscape metrics analysed. However, the activity of acid phosphatase increased linearly with the total cover of vegetation patches, which is consistent with the strong effect of plant patches on the activity of this enzyme. According to our results, variations in the cover and composition of vegetation patches may have profound impacts on the soil enzyme activity and associated nutrient cycling processes in burned Mediterranean areas, particularly in the case of phosphorus. Keywords: wildfires, landscape metrics, Mediterranean shrublands, soil enzyme activity, resprouter species.

Mayor, Á. G.; Goirán, S.; Bautista, S.

2009-04-01

207

Seed colour and post-fire bird predation in a Mediterranean pine forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a Pinus halepensis Mill. forest, a field experiment was designed to evaluate post-fire seed predation as affected by combinations of seed colour and soil substrates: light grey and black seeds combined with light grey ash, dark grey ash and pale brown sand. A survey of bird species inhabiting the area was also carried out and polyphenolic content of seed coat was assessed in seed lots of different colour. Light grey seeds were observed to be less predated on light grey ash, suggesting eucrypsis as a protective strategy against bird predation. On the contrary, no clear pattern was observed for the predation of black seeds on different substrates. In the study area both bird species breaking the seed coat and eating the endosperm and bird species swallowing the whole seed were monitored. We have estimated that more seeds were swallowed than broken, in all colour categories. Light grey seeds, which were found to have a higher content of polyphenols, were predated more than black seeds when exposed on the same substrate. Thus, no evidence was produced that the amount of polyphenols in seed coat could protect seeds from predation.

Saracino, Antonio; D'Alessandro, Carmela Miriam; Borghetti, Marco

2004-12-01

208

Development of a Test Protocol for Spacecraft Post-Fire Atmospheric Cleanup and Monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detecting and extinguishing fires, along with post-fire atmospheric cleaning and monitoring, are vital components of a spacecraft fire response system. Preliminary efforts focused on the technology evaluation of these systems under realistic conditions are described in this paper. While the primary objective of testing is to determine a smoke mitigation filter s performance, supplemental evaluations measuring the smoke-filled chamber handheld commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) atmospheric monitoring devices (combustion product monitors) are also conducted. The test chamber consists of a 1.4 cubic meter (50 cu. ft.) volume containing a smoke generator. The fuel used to generate the smoke is a mixture of polymers in quantities representative of materials involved in a circuit board fire as a typical spacecraft fire. Two fire conditions were examined: no flame and flame. No flame events are produced by pyrolyzing the fuel mixture in a quartz tube furnace with forced ventilation to produce a white, lingering-type smoke. Flame events ignite the smoke at the outlet of the tube furnace producing combustion characterized by a less opaque smoke with black soot. Electrochemical sensor measurements showed carbon monoxide is a major indicator of each fire. Acid gas measurements were recorded, but cross interferents are currently uncharacterized. Electrochemical sensor measurements and sample acquisition techniques from photoacoustic sensors are being improved. Overall, this research shows fire characterization using traditional analytical chemistry techniques is required to verify measurements recorded using COTS atmospheric monitoring devices.

Zuniga, David; Hornung, Steven D.; Haas, Jon P.; Graf, John C.

2009-01-01

209

Topical application of docosanol- or stearic acid-containing creams reduces severity of phenol burn wounds in mice.  

PubMed

Because of their reported antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities, cream formulations containing n-docosanol (docosanol) or stearic acid were tested for effects on chemically-induced burns in mice. In this model, injury was induced by painting the abdomens of mice with a chloroform solution of phenol. This was followed by the topical application of test substances 0.5, 3, and 6 h later. Progression of the wounds was assessed by a single evaluator after 8 h, using a numerical score of gross morphology. Docosanol- and stearic acid-containing creams substantially and reproducibly lessened the severity and progression of skin lesions compared to untreated sites with a 76% and 57% reduction in mean lesion scores, respectively. Untreated wounds appeared red and ulcerated; docosanol cream-treated wounds showed only slight erythema. PMID:10945745

Khalil, M H; Marcelletti, J F; Katz, L R; Katz, D H; Pope, L E

2000-08-01

210

Burned and unburned peat water repellency: Implications for peatland evaporation following wildfire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water repellency alters soil hydrology after periods of wildfire, potentially modifying the ecosystem recovery to such disturbance. Despite this potential importance, the extent and severity of water repellency within burned peatlands and its importance in regulating peatland recovery to wildfire disturbance remains poorly understood. We characterised the water repellency of peat in a burned (one year post-fire) and unburned peatland in the Western Boreal Plain utilising the water drop penetration time and ethanol droplet molarity tests. Burned Sphagnum moss and feather moss sites had a more severe degree of water repellency than unburned sites, with differences being more pronounced between burned and unburned feather moss sites. Burned feather moss exhibited the most extreme water repellency, followed by unburned feather moss, and burned Sphagnum. The severity of water repellency varied with depth through the near surface of the moss/peat profile. This was most evident within the burned feathermoss where more extreme water repellency was observed at the near-surface compared to the surface, with the most extreme water repellency found at 1 and 5 cm depths. Unburned Sphagnum was completely hydrophilic at all depths. We suggest that the extreme water repellency in near-surface feather moss peat acts as a barrier that impedes the supply of water to the surface that replaces that lost via evaporation. This leads to drying of the near-surface vadose zone within feather moss areas and a concomitantly large decrease in peatland evaporation within feather moss dominated peatlands. This negative feedback mechanism likely enhances the resilience of such peatland to wildfire disturbance, maintaining a high water table position, thereby limiting peat decomposition. In comparison, such a feedback is not observed strongly within Sphagnum, leaving Sphagnum dominated peatlands potentially vulnerable to low water table positions post disturbance.

Kettridge, N.; Humphrey, R. E.; Smith, J. E.; Lukenbach, M. C.; Devito, K. J.; Petrone, R. M.; Waddington, J. M.

2014-05-01

211

Common environmental factors explain both ectomycorrhizal species diversity and pine regeneration variability in a post-fire Mediterranean forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural seedling regeneration and establishment after stand replacing wildfires is influenced by a series of environmental\\u000a and biological constraints. In this study, we characterized the diversity and structure of the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal\\u000a community associated with post-fire naturally regenerated maritime pine saplings, and individuate the environmental factors\\u000a responsible for fungal species distribution. We also identify the main environmental factors responsible

Erika Buscardo; Helena Freitas; João Santos Pereira; Paolo De Angelis

2011-01-01

212

Experimental testing of relationships between post-fire surface reflectance and fire characteristics and emissions in Southern African savannas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel, fire and visible-infrared spectral reflectance measurements were carried out in nine experimental fire plots in semi-arid woodland savanna within the Chobe National Park (Botswana) during October 2001. Pre- and post-fire fuel component loads and nitrogen\\/carbon contents were measured, along with measures of fire line intensity (FLI), integrated fire temperature with time (Tdt) and maximum fire temperature (MaxT) that are

A. Smith; M. Wooster; N. Drake

2003-01-01

213

Effect of gamma-hydroxybutyrate on keratinocytes proliferation: A preliminary prospective controlled study in severe burn patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Hypermetabolism and hyposomatotropism related to severe burns lead to impaired wound healing. Growth hormone (GH) boosts wound healing notably following stimulation of the production of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1), a mitogen factor for keratinocytes. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) stimulates endogenous GH secretion. Aim: To assess effects of GHB sedation on keratinocytes proliferation (based on immunohistochemical techniques). Design: Monocentric, prospective, controlled trial. Materials and Methods: Patients (aging 18-65 years, burn surface area >30%, expected to be sedated for at least one month) were alternately allocated, at the 5th day following injury, in three groups according to the intravenous GHB dose administered for 21 days: Evening bolus of 50 mg/kg (Group B), continuous infusion at the rate of 10 mg/kg/h (Group C), or absence of GHB (Group P). They all received local standard cares. Immunohistochemistry (Ki67/MIB-1, Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 and Mac 387 antibodies) was performed at D21 on adjacent unburned skin sample for assessing any keratinocyte activation. Serum IGF1 levels were measured at initiation and completion of the protocol. Statistical Analysis: Categorical variables were compared with Chi-square test. Comparisons of medians were made using Kruskal-Wallis test. Post hoc analyses were performed using Mann-Whitney test with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. A P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: A total of 14 patients completed the study (Group B: n = 5, Group C: n = 5, Group P: n = 4). Continuous administration of GHB was associated with a significant higher Ki67 immunolabeling at D21 (P = 0.049) and with a significant higher increase in the IGF1 concentrations at D21 (P = 0.024). No adverse effects were disclosed. Conclusions: Our preliminary data support a positive effect of GHB on keratinocyte proliferation and are encouraging enough to warrant large prospective studies.

Rousseau, Anne-Francoise; Bargues, Laurent; Bever, Herve Le; Vest, Philippe; Cavalier, Etienne; Ledoux, Didier; Pierard, Gerald E.; Damas, Pierre

2014-01-01

214

Post-fire hydrologic response in Central Portugal. A four years study at microplot scale.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires are a natural phenomenon in regions with a Mediterranean-type climate. However, their present-day widespread occurrence in southern Europe is unprecedented and strongly reflects human activity such as ignition, land-use changes, land abandonment and introduction of highly flammable plantations. Besides wildfires, post-fire management practices such as plowing, terracing, clearcutting and logging should also be considered, since their occurrence is getting increasingly common. And, in a long-term period these practices seem to be executed intercalated with repeated fire occurrences in the same site, sharing the impacts together with fire in an escalated degradational effect. In this sense, the work presented here concerns four years of runoff and erosion data at microplot scale after the wildfire, comparing different land management practices that occurred before the fire. Preliminary results indicate that in four years of monitoring, runoff is constantly higher in plowed sites than in the unplowed ones, with the exception of the first year. Regarding soil losses the plowed plots present always higher sediment rates than the unplowed ones. The comparison between two unplowed sites with different land uses, indicate higher runoff and erosion risk for pine comparatively to the eucalypt ones, however the reduced soil depth in the first can have an important role in these differences. Following these facts, the aim of the present work is to answer the following research questions: i) Do these four years of observations fit with the window of disturbance model presented by Prosser and Williams (1998). or the alternative version by Wittenberg and Inbar (2009)?; ii) Does pre-fire disturbances (wildfire, land use changes and land management practices) still have repercussions after wildfire?; In what sense does four years of intensive monitoring provides that one year couldn't provide?

Vieira, Diana; Malvar, Maruxa; Martins, Martinho; Machado, Ana; Nunes, João; Keizer, Jacob

2014-05-01

215

Post-fire changes in net shortwave radiation along a latitudinal gradient in boreal North America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding how a changing boreal fire regime is likely to influence regional climate requires detailed information about fire effects on the surface radiation budget. We used time series of satellite observations of surface albedo from 2000-2011 and fire perimeters since 1970 to study post-fire changes in surface net shortwave radiation along a latitudinal transect in central Canada. Fire-induced surface shortwave forcing (SSF) integrated over an annual cycle for the first 30 years after fire was similar (-4.1 W m-2 with a 95% confidence interval of -4.5 to -3.7 W m-2) between southern and northern boreal regions. The lack of a latitudinal difference in SSF was caused by counteracting latitudinal trends in seasonal contributions. Spring (March, April, and May) SSF increased with latitude, from -7.2 W m-2 in the south to -10.1 W m-2 in the north, primarily because of delayed snow melt, which amplified albedo differences between unburned forests and recovering stands. In contrast, winter incoming solar radiation and summer albedo change decreased from south to north, resulting in a decreasing latitudinal trend in winter and summer SSF. Vegetation recovery was slower in the north, leading to smaller increases in summer albedo during the first decade after fire, and a prolonged phase of elevated spring albedo during the second decade. Our results indicate that fires reduce surface net shortwave radiation considerably for many boreal forest ecosystems in North America, providing further evidence that disturbance-mediated shifts in surface energy exchange need to be considered in efforts to manage these forests for climate change mitigation.

Jin, Yufang; Randerson, James T.; Goulden, Michael L.; Goetz, Scott J.

2012-07-01

216

Atmospheric effects on the performance and threshold extrapolation of multi-temporal Landsat derived dNBR for burn severity assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Landsat derived differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) is widely used for burn severity assessments. Studies of regional wildfire trends in response to climate change require consistency in dNBR mapping across multiple image dates, which may vary in atmospheric condition. Conversion of continuous dNBR images into categorical burn severity maps often requires extrapolation of dNBR thresholds from present fires for which field severity measurements such as Composite Burn Index (CBI) data are available, to historical fires for which CBI data are typically unavailable. Although differential atmospheric effects between image collection dates could lead to biased estimates of historical burn severity patterns, little is known concerning the influence of atmospheric effects on dNBR performance and threshold extrapolation. In this study, we compared the performance of dNBR calculated from six atmospheric correction methods using an optimality approach. The six correction methods included one partial (Top of atmosphere reflectance, TOA), two absolute, and three relative methods. We assessed how the correction methods affected the CBI-dNBR correlation and burn severity mapping in a Chinese boreal forest fire which occurred in 2010. The dNBR thresholds of the 2010 fire for each of the correction methods were then extrapolated to classify a historical fire from 2000. Classification accuracies of threshold extrapolations were assessed based on Cohen's Kappa analysis with 73 field-based validation plots. Our study found most correction methods improved mean dNBR optimality of the two fires. The relative correction methods generated 32% higher optimality than both TOA and absolute correction methods. All the correction methods yielded high CBI-dNBR correlations (mean R2 = 0.847) but distinctly different dNBR thresholds for severity classification of 2010 fire. Absolute correction methods could substantially increase optimality score, but were insufficient to provide a consistent scale of radiometric condition between multi-temporal Landsat images, which resulted in lower severity classification accuracies (Kappa = 0.53) than those relative correction methods (Kappa = 0.72) for the 2000 fire. Consistent radiometric response in remote sensing datasets proved essential for accuracy in regional burn severity trends monitoring. Extrapolation of empirical dNBR thresholds to historical conditions without relative normalization will likely lead to biased burn severity classifications.

Fang, Lei; Yang, Jian

2014-12-01

217

Using Rare Earth Element (REE) tracers to identify preferential micro-sites of post-fire aeolian erosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant communities in desert environments are spatially anisotropic. Nutrient islands develop below shrub canopies and in the bases of bunch grasses that enhance plant growth and reinforce the spatial anisotropy. Catastrophic disturbance that removes the vegetation such as fire or drought can result in the release of the trapped sediment which becomes redistributed over the landscape by wind and water. We applied Rare Earth Element (REE) tracers to different landscape positions of an anisotropic Northern Chihuahua Desert ecosystem at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge in central New Mexico in an effort to study this process. We delineated three 0.5 m by 6 m plots of desert grassland and three plots of desert grassland-shrubland ecotone. Nitric acid was used to dissolve the REE oxides (Eu2O3, Dy2O3, and Pr6O11) which were then diluted in distilled water to a target concentration of 1 g REE l-1 and applied to the surface at a rate of 4 l m-2. From laboratory column studies using soil collected at the site, we estimated that this would penetrate the surface to a depth of 2.5 cm resulting in a sediment REE concentration of approximately 100 mg kg-1. Eu was applied to bare surfaces between vegetation characterized as sand with a surface covering of gravel, Pr was applied under grass clumps, and Dy was applied under Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata (DC.). Two replicate 0.25 m2 areas of each surface type were also tagged to obtain a sample of tagged surface sediment for analysis. The area containing the plots was burned by U.S. Fish and Wildlife personnel on April 14, 2010. During the next two days, two grassland plots and two grassland-shrubland ecotone plots were tested by placing a portable boundary layer field wind tunnel over the plots and blowing them with 12 m s-1 wind for 10 minutes during which time a paired set of entrained sediment samples were captured at the outlet of the wind tunnel. This period was followed by a 30 minute test in which clean quartz sand abrader was added to the wind tunnel flow and a second test of 10 minutes with abrader added to the flow. At the end of the first four tests, the wind tunnel cooling system broke and due to the extent of necessary repairs, the last two plots were tested two weeks later. Three paired aeolian sediment samples were collected for each plot tested. The results indicated that in desert grassland, a disproportionate amount of the post-fire sediment is entrained from areas under grass clumps and in grassland-shrubland ecotones, the soil under shrubs is the primary source of entrained sediment followed by areas under grass clumps. The bare surfaces between vegetation produced the least sediment. REEs appear to be a powerful tool for investigating spatial patterns of aeolian processes.

Van Pelt, R.; Zobeck, T. M.; Barnes, M. A.; Baddock, M.; D'Odorico, P.

2011-12-01

218

Comparing the use of glycerol preserved and cryopreserved allogenic skin for the treatment of severe burns: differences in clinical outcomes and in vitro tissue viability.  

PubMed

Cryopreserved (CryoPA) and Glycerol-preserved (GPA) skin allografts are commonly used in the treatment of severe burn injuries. However, comparable data on their differences in clinical outcome is scarce. This retrospective review aims to study the effect of allograft viability on clinical outcomes. The records of 48 severe burn patients who either received CryoPA or GPA were reviewed. Key burn mortality determinants were used to match the 2 groups. Clinical outcomes such as mortality rate (MR) and the length of hospital stay (LOS) were obtained. A separate in vitro comparison included histological assessments and the use of tetrazolium reductase activity to compare tissue viability. Both groups showed a comparable profile in burn mortality determinants. Patients who received CryoPA had a lower MR of 25% compared to 34.8% (P=0.250) in the GPA group and a lower LOS of 39.2-45.9 days (P=0.730), respectively. The histological structural integrity was found to be well preserved with both methods although CryoPA was confirmed to be the more viable product (P<0.05). The lower MR associated with CryoPA cannot be totally ignored. However, the mechanism through which viable skin allografts improves MR of severe burns patients remains to be elucidated. PMID:21484230

Kua, E H J; Goh, C Q; Ting, Y; Chua, A; Song, C

2012-06-01

219

Does direct transport to provincial burn centres improve outcomes? A spatial epidemiology of severe burn injury in British Columbia, 2001-2006  

PubMed Central

Background In Canada and the United States, research has shown that injured patients initially treated at smaller emergency departments before transfer to larger regional facilities are more likely to require longer stays in hospital or suffer greater mortality. It remains unknown whether transport status is an independent predictor of adverse health events among persons requiring care from provincial burn centres. Methods We obtained case records from the British Columbia Trauma Registry for adult patients (age ? 18 yr) referred or transported directly to the Vancouver General Hospital and Royal Jubilee Hospital burn centres between Jan. 1, 2001, and Mar. 31, 2006. Prehospital and in-transit deaths and deaths in other facilities were identified using the provincial Coroner Service database. Place of injury was identified through data linkage with census records. We performed bivariate analysis for continuous and discrete variables. Relative risk (RR) of prehospital and in-hospital mortality and hospital stay by transport status were analyzed using a Poisson regression model. Results After controlling for patient and injury characteristics, indirect referral did not influence RR of in-facility death (RR 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54–3.22) or hospital stay (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.65–1.42). Rural populations experienced an increased risk of total mortality (RR 1.22, 95% CI 1.00–1.48). Conclusion Transfer status is not a significant indicator of RR of death or hospital stay among patients who received care at primary care facilities before transport to regional burn centres. However, significant differences in prehospital mortality show that improvements in rural mortality can still be made.

Bell, Nathaniel; Simons, Richard; Hameed, S. Morad; Schuurman, Nadine; Wheeler, Stephen

2012-01-01

220

Calibration and validation of the relative differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (RdNBR) to three measures of fire severity in the Sierra Nevada and Klamath Mountains, California, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multispectral satellite data have become a common tool used in the mapping of wildland fire effects. Fire severity, defined as the degree to which a site has been altered, is often the variable mapped. The Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) used in an absolute difference change detection protocol (dNBR), has become the remote sensing method of choice for US Federal land

Jay D. Miller; Eric E. Knapp; Carl H. Key; Carl N. Skinner; Clint J. Isbell; R. Max Creasy; Joseph W. Sherlock

2009-01-01

221

Predicting severity of pathological scarring due to burn injuries: a clinical decision making tool using Bayesian networks.  

PubMed

It is important for clinicians to understand which are the clinical signs, the patient characteristics and the procedures that are related with the occurrence of hypertrophic burn scars in order to carry out a possible prognostic assessment. Providing clinicians with an easy-to- use tool for predicting the risk of pathological scars. A total of 703 patients with 2440 anatomical burn sites who were admitted to the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Burn Center of the Traumatological Hospital in Torino between January 1994 and May 2006 were included in the analysis. A Bayesian network (BN) model was implemented. The probability of developing a hypertrophic scar was evaluated on a number of scenarios. The error rate of the BN model was assessed internally and it was equal to 24·83%. While classical statistical method as logistic models can infer only which variables are related to the final outcome, the BN approach displays a set of relationships between the final outcome (scar type) and the explanatory covariates (patient's age and gender, burn surface area, full-thickness burn surface area, burn anatomical area and wound-healing time; burn treatment options such as advanced dressings, type of surgical approach, number of surgical procedures, type of skin graft, excision and coverage timing). A web-based interface to handle the BN model was developed on the website www.pubchild.org (burns header). Clinicians who registered at the website could submit their data in order to get from the BN model the predicted probability of observing a pathological scar type. PMID:22958613

Berchialla, Paola; Gangemi, Ezio Nicola; Foltran, Francesca; Haxhiaj, Arber; Buja, Alessandra; Lazzarato, Fulvio; Stella, Maurizio; Gregori, Dario

2014-06-01

222

Development and in vivo evaluation of silver sulfadiazine loaded hydrogel consisting polyvinyl alcohol and chitosan for severe burns.  

PubMed

A new Hydrogel containing silver Sulfadiazine (SSD) was developed for enhanced burns wound healing. The hydrogel was prepared by cross-linking of PVA and Chitosan by freeze thawing method. Their gel properties, moisture retaining capacity, fluid uptake capacity, in vitro release study, in vivo burn healing effect were evaluated. Chitosan and PVA cross linking decreased gel fraction upto 70% determined the good gel properties. This cross linked hydrogel increased the Swelling ratio and Water vapour transmission rate (WVTR) which provides the sustained release of drug and moist environment for healing respectively. The hydrogel containing 7.5% of PVA, 0.75% of chitosan found to have increased gel strength, higher water vapour transmission rate and fluid uptake capacity suitable for faster healing of burns. This hydrogel also sustained the release of 1% SSD required for longer antimicrobial activity and found better in vivo burn healing capacity as compared to marketed preparation. Thus hydrogel containing 7.5% of PVA, 0.75% of chitosan and 1% SSD is a potential burns dressing with better gel properties and excellent burns healing capacity. PMID:23066206

Chakavala, S R; Patel, N G; Pate, N Vi; Thakkar, V T; Patel, K V; Gandhi, T R

2012-03-01

223

Development and in vivo evaluation of silver sulfadiazine loaded hydrogel consisting polyvinyl alcohol and chitosan for severe burns  

PubMed Central

A new Hydrogel containing silver Sulfadiazine (SSD) was developed for enhanced burns wound healing. The hydrogel was prepared by cross-linking of PVA and Chitosan by freeze thawing method. Their gel properties, moisture retaining capacity, fluid uptake capacity, in vitro release study, in vivo burn healing effect were evaluated. Chitosan and PVA cross linking decreased gel fraction upto 70% determined the good gel properties. This cross linked hydrogel increased the Swelling ratio and Water vapour transmission rate (WVTR) which provides the sustained release of drug and moist environment for healing respectively. The hydrogel containing 7.5% of PVA, 0.75% of chitosan found to have increased gel strength, higher water vapour transmission rate and fluid uptake capacity suitable for faster healing of burns. This hydrogel also sustained the release of 1% SSD required for longer antimicrobial activity and found better in vivo burn healing capacity as compared to marketed preparation. Thus hydrogel containing 7.5% of PVA, 0.75% of chitosan and 1% SSD is a potential burns dressing with better gel properties and excellent burns healing capacity.

Chakavala, S. R.; Patel, N. G.; Pate, N. VI.; Thakkar, V. T.; Patel, K. V.; Gandhi, T. R.

2012-01-01

224

ISSR and AFLP analysis of the temporal and spatial population structure of the post-fire annual, Nicotiana attenuata, in SW Utah  

PubMed Central

Background The native annual tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata, is found primarily in large ephemeral populations (typically for less than 3 growing seasons) after fires in sagebrush and pinyon-juniper ecosystems and in small persistent populations (for many growing seasons) in isolated washes typically along roadsides throughout the Great Basin Desert of the SW USA. This distribution pattern is due to its unusual germination behavior. Ephemeral populations are produced by the germination of dormant seeds from long-lived seed banks which are stimulated to germinate by a combination of unidentified positive cues found in wood smoke and the removal of inhibitors leached from the unburned litter of the dominant vegetation. Persistent populations may result where these inhibitors do not exist, as in washes or along disturbed roadsides. To determine if this germination behavior has influenced population structure, we conducted an AFLP (244 individuals), ISSR (175 individuals) and ISSR+ AFLP (175 individuals) analysis on plants originating from seed collected from populations growing in 11 wash and burns over 11 years from the SW USA. Results Genetic variance as measured by both ISSR and AFLP markers was low among sites and comparatively higher within populations. Cluster analysis of the Utah samples with samples collected from Arizona, California, and Oregon as out-groups also did not reveal patterns. AMOVA analysis of the combined AFLP and ISSR data sets yielded significantly low genetic differentiation among sites (?ct), moderate among populations within sites (?sc) and higher genetic differentiation within populations (?st). Conclusions We conclude that the seed dormancy of this post-fire annual and its resulting age structure in conjunction with natural selection processes are responsible for significantly low among sites and comparatively high within-population genetic variation observed in this species.

Bahulikar, Rahul A; Stanculescu, Dominic; Preston, Catherine A; Baldwin, Ian T

2004-01-01

225

Frequency-magnitude distribution of debris flows compiled from global data, and comparison with post-fire debris flows in the western U.S.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forecasting debris flow hazard is challenging due to the episodic occurrence of debris flows in response to stochastic precipitation and, in some areas, wildfires. In order to facilitate hazard assessment, we have gathered available records of debris flow volumes into the first comprehensive global catalog of debris flows (n = 988). We also present results of field collection of recent debris flows (n = 77) in the northern Rocky Mountains, where debris flow frequency increases following wildfire. As a first step in parameterizing hazard models, we use frequency-magnitude distributions and empirical cumulative distribution functions (ECDFs) to compare volumes of post-fire debris flows to non-fire-related debris flows. The ECDF of post-fire debris flow volumes is significantly different (at 95% confidence) from that of non-fire-related debris flows, suggesting that the post-fire distribution is composed of a higher proportion of small events than that of non-fire-related debris flows. The slope of the frequency-magnitude distribution of post-fire debris flows is steeper than that of non-fire-related debris flows, corroborating evidence that small post-fire debris flows occur with a higher relative frequency than non-fire-related debris flows. Taken together, the statistical analyses suggest that post-fire debris flows come from a different population than non-fire-related debris flows, and their hazard must be modeled separately. We propose two possible non-exclusive explanations for the fact that the post-fire environment produces a higher proportion of small debris flows: 1) following fires, smaller storms or effective drainage areas can trigger debris flows due to increased runoff and/or decreases in root strength, resulting in smaller volumes and increased probability of failure, and 2) fire increases the probability and frequency of debris flows, causing their distribution to shift toward smaller events due to limitations in sediment supply.

Riley, Karin L.; Bendick, Rebecca; Hyde, Kevin D.; Gabet, Emmanuel J.

2013-06-01

226

Post-fire water quality in forest catchments: a review with implications for potable water supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many locations fire-prone forest catchments are utilised for the supply of potable water to small communities up to large cities. For example, in south-eastern Australia, wildfires have burned part or all of forest catchments supplying drinking water to Sydney (2001 wildfire), Canberra (2003), Adelaide (2007), Melbourne (2009), as well as various regional towns. Generally, undisturbed forest catchments are a

Hugh Smith; Gary Sheridan; Petter Nyman; Shane Haydon

2010-01-01

227

Sediment-driven mercury transport in post-fire storm runoff  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildfire alters terrestrial stores of mercury (Hg) within a watershed, releasing Hg to the atmosphere and creating conditions that can be conducive to Hg export in streamwater. Hg transport to terrestrial waters is often associated with suspended sediments and organic matter, and particulate-bound Hg delivery to downstream water bodies may be enhanced following wildfire. Burned watersheds experience increased overland flow,

M. P. Burke; M. Ferreira; T. S. Hogue; J. Jay; L. K. Rademacher

2009-01-01

228

Burn Institute  

MedlinePLUS

... do each year – a burn injury. Learn more Fire and Burn Prevention Each year, the Burn Institute ... thousands of children and adults each year through fire and burn prevention education, burn survivor support programs ...

229

Interactions between fire weather and biomass burning during Santa Ana events in southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fires occurring during Santa Ana (SA) events in southern California are driven by extreme fire weather characterized by high temperatures, low humidities, and high wind speeds. We studied the controls on fire activity during two intensive SA burning periods in 2003 and 2007. We therefore used remote sensing data from Landsat, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). We characterized fuel types in and nearby fire perimeters using the Fuel Characteristic Classification System. Fire weather severity was estimated using Reanalysis meteorological data downscaled using the Weather and Regional Forecast model. Total carbon emissions were approximately 1800 Gg in 2003 and 900 Gg in 2007. More than half of the fires that occurred during the 2003 and 2007 SA events were limited in their growth since they ran out of fuels when they progressed into developed areas under the prevailing winds. The size of the other fires was directly related to the timing and location of the ignition relative to the spatio-temporal structure of the SA conditions. On a regional scale, relatively strong positive correlations were found between the daily Fosberg fire weather index and burned area/emissions (p < 0.01). Using observations from the GOES Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm we found that the typical daytime peak in fire activity was extended and nighttime fire activity was distinctly high during SA fires. Landsat estimates of fire severity were uniformly high throughout the duration of the fires and we found no discernible control of the fire weather severity on post-fire severity, however, we found that fire intensity estimates from GOES were higher in the wind corridor areas which underwent more severe fire weather. Fire weather severity, as indicated by the Fosberg fire weather index, and burned area (white perimeters) during the peak fire day (Day of the year 295 = October 22) of the 2007 Santa Ana firestorm in southern California. Wind speed and direction are indicated by the black arrows.

Veraverbeke, S.; Capps, S. B.; Randerson, J. T.; Hook, S. J.; Jin, Y.; Hall, A. D.

2013-12-01

230

Field evidence for differences in post-fire aeolian transport related to vegetation type in semi-arid grasslands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disturbances such as wildfires, which cause a temporary reduction in vegetation cover, can greatly accelerate soil erosion by wind and promote dust emissions. Enhanced erosion leads to a reduction in soil fertility and the post-fire mobilisation of soil and associated emissions of dust represent a significant concern for ecosystem management and risk assessment. Here we investigate the temporal change of aeolian activity following a wildfire within both a managed grassland and an adjacent shrub encroached grassland at the Cimarron National Grassland, KS, USA. Our results indicate that, even though the grassland and shrub encroached grassland sites exhibit comparable aeolian activity soon after the fire, the duration of the post-disturbance period of aeolian activity (or "window of disturbance") is shorter in the case of grassland than in the case of shrub encroached grassland. The degree of post-fire aeolian transport and its attenuation with time is strongly affected by the antecedent vegetation type. These findings have implications for management of semi-arid grasslands under both changing vegetation types (shrub encroachment) and disturbance (fire) regimes.

Ravi, Sujith; Baddock, Matthew C.; Zobeck, Ted M.; Hartman, Joe

2012-12-01

231

Post-fire regeneration thinning, cone production, serotiny and regeneration age in Pinus halepensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many pines growing in fire-prone ecosystems exhibit an abundant production of cones and the retention of part of these cones as an aerial seed bank in the canopy (serotiny). The protection of seeds and their prolific release after fire facilitate the re-colonization of the burned area. However, over-stocking in this fire regenerated stands may constraint tree growth, as well as

Iraima Verkaik; Josep M. Espelta

2006-01-01

232

Molecular pathology of brain edema after severe burns in forensic autopsy cases with special regard to the importance of reference gene selection.  

PubMed

Brain edema is believed to be linked to high mortality incidence after severe burns. The present study investigated the molecular pathology of brain damage and responses involving brain edema in forensic autopsy cases of fire fatality (n?=?55) compared with sudden cardiac death (n?=?11), mechanical asphyxia (n?=?13), and non-brain injury cases (n?=?22). Postmortem mRNA and immunohistochemical expressions of aquaporins (AQPs), claudin5 (CLDN5), and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were examined. Prolonged deaths due to severe burns showed an increase in brain water content, but relative mRNA quantification, using different normalization methods, showed inconsistent results: in prolonged deaths due to severe burns, higher expression levels were detected for all markers when three previously validated reference genes, PES1, POLR2A, and IPO8, were used for normalization, higher for AQP1 and MMP9 when GAPDH alone was used for normalization and higher for MMP9, but lower for MMP2 when B2M alone was used for normalization. Additionally, when B2M alone was used for normalization, higher expression of AQP4 was detected in acute fire deaths. Furthermore, the expression stability values of these five reference genes calculated by geNorm demonstrated that B2M was the least stable one, followed by GAPDH. In immunostaining, only AQP1 and MMP9 showed differences among the causes of death: they were evident in most prolonged deaths due to severe burns. These findings suggest that systematic analysis of gene expressions using real-time PCR might be a useful procedure in forensic death investigation, and validation of reference genes is crucial. PMID:23702882

Wang, Qi; Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi; Zhu, Bao-Li; Guan, Da-Wei; Maeda, Hitoshi

2013-09-01

233

Evaluation of post-fire strength of concrete flexural members reinforced with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Owing to their corrosion resistance and superior strength to weight ratio, there has been, over the past two decades, increased interest in the use of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) reinforcing bars in reinforced concrete structural members. The mechanical behavior of FRP reinforcement differs from that of steel reinforcement. For example, FRP reinforcement exhibit a linear stress-strain behavior until the bar ruptures and the strength, stiffness and bond properties of FRP reinforcement are affected more adversely by elevated temperatures. All structures are subject to the risk of damage by fire and fires continue to be a significant cause of damage to structures. Many structures do not collapse after being exposed to fire. The safety of the structure for any future use is dependent on the ability to accurately estimate the post-fire load capacity of the structure. Assuming that the changes, due to fire exposure, in the mechanical behavior of the GFRP reinforcing bar and concrete, and the bond between the reinforcing bar and the concrete are understood, an analytical procedure for estimating the post-fire strength of GFRP reinforced concrete flexural elements can be developed. This thesis investigates the changes in: a) tensile properties and bond of GFRP bars; and b) the flexural behavior of GFRP reinforced concrete beams flexural after being exposed to elevated temperatures up to 400°C and cooled to ambient temperature. To this end, twelve tensile tests, twelve pullout bond tests and ten four-point beam tests were performed. The data from the tests were used to formulate analytical procedures for evaluating the post-fire strength of GFRP reinforced concrete beams. The procedure produced conservative results when compared with the experimental data. In general, the residual tensile strength and modulus of elasticity of GFRP bars decrease as the exposure temperature increases. The loss in properties is however, smaller than that observed by other researchers when similar bars were tested while hot. The residual bond strength was also found to decrease with increase in exposure temperature. Residual bond mechanism and flexural behavior were found to be influenced, in complex ways, by the exposure to elevated temperatures. Additionally, an apparent "yielding plateau" and an apparent increase in bar ductility was observed in the post-heat behavior of some of the tensile specimens. This points to a potential for heat treatment of FRP bars to achieve higher ductility.

Ellis, Devon S.

234

Molecular composition and size distribution of sugars, sugar-alcohols and carboxylic acids in airborne particles during a severe urban haze event caused by wheat straw burning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular compositions and size distributions of water-soluble organic compounds (WSOC, i.e., sugars, sugar-alcohols and carboxylic acids) in particles from urban air of Nanjing, China during a severe haze event caused by field burning of wheat straw were characterized and compared with those in the summer and autumn non-haze periods. During the haze event levoglucosan (4030 ng m -3) was the most abundant compound among the measured WSOC, followed by succinic acid, malic acid, glycerol, arabitol and glucose, being different from those in the non-haze samples, in which sucrose or azelaic acid showed a second highest concentration, although levoglucosan was the highest. The measured WSOC in the haze event were 2-20 times more than those in the non-hazy days. Size distribution results showed that there was no significant change in the compound peaks in coarse mode (>2.1 ?m) with respect to the haze and non-haze samples, but a large difference in the fine fraction (<2.1 ?m) was found with a sharp increase during the hazy days mostly due to the increased emissions of wheat straw burning. Molecular compositions of organic compounds in the fresh smoke particles from wheat straw burning demonstrate that sharply increased concentrations of glycerol and succinic and malic acids in the fine particles during the haze event were mainly derived from the field burning of wheat straw, although the sources of glucose and related sugar-alcohols whose concentrations significantly increased in the fine haze samples are unclear. Compared to that in the fresh smoke particles of wheat straw burning an increase in relative abundance of succinic acid to levoglucosan during the haze event suggests a significant production of secondary organic aerosols during transport of the smoke plumes.

Wang, Gehui; Chen, Chunlei; Li, Jianjun; Zhou, Bianhong; Xie, Mingjie; Hu, Shuyuan; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Chen, Yan

2011-05-01

235

Salvage Logging Versus the Use of Burnt Wood as a Nurse Object to Promote Post-Fire Tree Seedling Establishment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Intense debate surrounds the effects of post-fire salvage logging (SL) versus nonintervention policies on forest regeneration, but scant support is available from experimental studies. We analyze the effect of three post-fire management treatments on the recruitment of a serotinous pine (Pinus pinaster) at a Mediterranean mountain. Treatments were applied 7 months after the fire and differ in the degree of intervention, ranging from "no intervention" (NI, all trees left standing) to "partial cut plus lopping" (PCL, felling most of the trees, cutting the main branches, and leaving all the biomass in situ without mastication), and "SL" (felling and piling the logs, and masticating the woody debris). Seedling survival after 3 years was the highest in PCL (47.3% versus 38.7% in SL). This was associated with the amelioration of microclimatic conditions under the scattered branches, which reduced radiation and soil temperature while increasing soil moisture. Seedling density after 2 years was approximately 5.5 times higher in PCL than in SL, as in SL a large fraction of seedlings was lost as a consequence of mechanized mastication. The NI treatment showed the lowest seedling survival (17.3%). Nevertheless, seedling density was similar to SL. Seedling growth scarcely differed among treatments. Our results show that branches left onsite acted as nurse objects that improved key microclimatic conditions for seedling recruitment. This creates a facilitative interaction ideal for seedling establishment in moisture-deficient ecosystems, as it provides the benefit of a shading overstory but without underground competition. ?? 2010 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

Castro, J.; Allen, C. D.; Molina-Morales, M.; Maranon-Jimenez, S.; Sanchez-Miranda, A.; Zamora, R.

2011-01-01

236

Adaptation to boreal forest wildfire in herbs: Responses to post-fire environmental cues in two Pulsatilla species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although boreal forests are biomes which are characterized by periodical forest wildfires, very little is known about adaptations to fire in forest herbs. We investigated whether a putatively fire-dependent herbaceous species - Pulsatilla patens - demonstrated adaptive responses to environmental cues that reflect differences in pre-fire and post-fire environments (the presence of ericoid litter and charcoal, and light levels). For comparison, we included in the experiment a close congeneric species that is less bound to forest ecosystems ( Pulsatilla pratensis) and a morphologically similar mesic grassland species from the same family ( Ranunculus polyanthemos), as examples of species for which adaptations to fire should be of lower value, or of no value at all, respectively. The addition of ericoid litter to the soil generally enhanced plant growth, suggesting that its negative effect on plant germination and growth is not as widespread as previously thought. In both Pulsatilla species charcoal without forest litter retarded plant growth, but in combination with ericoid litter the negative effect disappeared or was even replaced by a slightly positive effect. Such an interactive effect was absent in the grassland species R. polyanthemos. The response of Pulsatilla species to different post-fire signals may be explained by adaptive down-regulation of growth after high-intensity fire - small plant size can be advantageous in sparse and well illuminated field-layer vegetation - and intense growth in the more competitive situation following weak fire. An additional experiment demonstrated that the effects of fire-related treatments were not mediated by differential AM infection.

Kalamees, Rein; Püssa, Kersti; Tamm, Sirli; Zobel, Kristjan

2012-01-01

237

Calibration and validation of the relative differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (RdNBR) to three measures of fire severity in the Sierra Nevada and Klamath Mountains, California, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Multispectral satellite data have become a common tool used in the mapping of wildland fire effects. Fire severity, defined as the degree to which a site has been altered, is often the variable mapped. The Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) used in an absolute difference change detection protocol (dNBR), has become the remote sensing method of choice for US Federal land management agencies to map fire severity due to wildland fire. However, absolute differenced vegetation indices are correlated to the pre-fire chlorophyll content of the vegetation occurring within the fire perimeter. Normalizing dNBR to produce a relativized dNBR (RdNBR) removes the biasing effect of the pre-fire condition. Employing RdNBR hypothetically allows creating categorical classifications using the same thresholds for fires occurring in similar vegetation types without acquiring additional calibration field data on each fire. In this paper we tested this hypothesis by developing thresholds on random training datasets, and then comparing accuracies for (1) fires that occurred within the same geographic region as the training dataset and in similar vegetation, and (2) fires from a different geographic region that is climatically and floristically similar to the training dataset region but supports more complex vegetation structure. We additionally compared map accuracies for three measures of fire severity: the composite burn index (CBI), percent change in tree canopy cover, and percent change in tree basal area. User's and producer's accuracies were highest for the most severe categories, ranging from 70.7% to 89.1%. Accuracies of the moderate fire severity category for measures describing effects only to trees (percent change in canopy cover and basal area) indicated that the classifications were generally not much better than random. Accuracies of the moderate category for the CBI classifications were somewhat better, averaging in the 50%-60% range. These results underscore the difficulty in isolating fire effects to individual vegetation strata when fire effects are mixed. We conclude that the models presented here and in Miller and Thode ([Miller, J.D. & Thode, A.E., (2007). Quantifying burn severity in a heterogeneous landscape with a relative version of the delta Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR). Remote Sensing of Environment, 109, 66-80.]) can produce fire severity classifications (using either CBI, or percent change in canopy cover or basal area) that are of similar accuracy in fires not used in the original calibration process, at least in conifer dominated vegetation types in Mediterranean-climate California.

Miller, J. D.; Knapp, E. E.; Key, C. H.; Skinner, C. N.; Isbell, C. J.; Creasy, R. M.; Sherlock, J. W.

2009-01-01

238

Faunistic and floristic post-fire succession in southern Switzerland: an integrated analysis with regard to fire frequency and time since the last fire  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of fires on fauna are generally studied in a single or few groups for a short to medium term period. Fire ecological evaluations are rarely supported by different ele- ments representing various trophic levels and spatial scales. In the present study we investigated the post-fire ecological effects on flora and fauna with regard to fire frequency and time

M. Moretti; M. Zanini; M. Conedera

2002-01-01

239

Reduced predation risk for melanistic pygmy grasshoppers in post-fire environments  

PubMed Central

The existence of melanistic (black) color forms in many species represents interesting model systems that have played important roles for our understanding of selective processes, evolution of adaptations, and the maintenance of variation. A recent study reported on rapid evolutionary shifts in frequencies of the melanistic forms in replicated populations of Tetrix subulata pygmy grasshoppers; the incidence of the melanistic form was higher in recently burned areas with backgrounds blackened by fire than in nonburned areas, and it declined over time in postfire environments. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the frequency shifts of the black color variant were driven, at least in part, by changes in the selective regime imposed by visual predators. To study detectability of the melanistic form, we presented human “predators” with images of black grasshoppers and samples of the natural habitat on computer screens. We demonstrate that the protective value of black coloration differs between burnt and nonburnt environments and gradually increases in habitats that have been more blackened by fire. These findings support the notion that a black color pattern provides improved protection from visually oriented predators against blackened backgrounds and implicate camouflage and predation as important drivers of fire melanism in pygmy grasshoppers.

Karpestam, Einat; Merilaita, Sami; Forsman, Anders

2012-01-01

240

Mapping burned area for fragmented landscape using satellite Aster data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Italy, after each fire season (generally summer season for the southern Mediterranean landscapes and winter/spring for the Northern alpine ecosystems) the up to date of burned area mapping is mandatory according to the current national legislation. The mapping of burned areas is generally performed by regional forestry service by using field GPS survey and/or helicopter in the case of large fire extension. The use of remote sensing technologies can be an effective support for mapping fire affected areas. Such areas are characterized by the removal of vegetation, deposits of charcoal and ash, and alteration of the vegetation structure, that can be detected by satellite remote sensed data. Due to the fact that in Italy the extension of fire is generally as small as 10 ha to 50 ha the use of high resolution data is mandatory. In order to set up a low cost technologies to be effectively applied in operational context, we assessed the capability of ASTER data for same test areas in the Basilicata Region. In this paper we present results we obtained from the use of several Vegetation indices based on ASTER VNIR. Among the spectral indices proposed for burnt area mapping we used and compare the Simple Vegetation Index, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, the Transformed Vegetation Index, and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI). The data processing was performed using both a single date and a multidate (pre and post fire) approach. Several test cases selected from the 2007 fire season were investigated. ASTER-based results were compared with field data provided by the Basilicata regional Forestry Service

Vita, A.; Lanorte, A.

2009-04-01

241

Effectiveness of Straw Bale Check Dams for Reducing Post-Fire Ephemeral Channel Erosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increased bed and bank erosion associated with higher flows, together with increased hillslope erosion rates, can lead to substantially increased sediment loads in ephemeral channels in areas recently burned by wildfires. The increased sediment loads can cause damage to roads/structures and impair downstream habitat/water quality. Channel treatments, such as straw bale check dams (SCD's), are designed to capture mobilized sediment in backwater pools upstream of the structures and reduce the total sediment yield at the watershed scale. Anecdotal evidence have found SCD's to be effective at retaining sediment, however they provide a limited perspective because they do not quantify treatment effectiveness as a function of the ratio of sediment retained to watershed-scale sediment yield. A paired watershed study approach was used after the 2010 Twitchell Canyon Fire in southern Utah to analyze SCD effectiveness at the watershed scale and quantify the sediment retention of individual structures. In-channel sediment fences capture the sediment produced in five pairs of control and SCD treated watersheds, approximately 0.4 to 1.6 hectares in size. In July 2011, two sediment producing rain events occurred at the site. The first event had 10-min rainfall intensities from 27 to 59 mm hr-1, and filled all the SCD's in the five treated watersheds to capacity. Treated watersheds produced less sediment than control watersheds; in two cases the difference was greater than 2 to 3 m3. After the second rain event which was significantly smaller than the first, there was little to no difference in sediment yields between treated and control watersheds. These initial results suggest that SCD's are effective at capturing sediment during the first sediment producing rain events after a fire. However, due to their limited storage capacity, sediment produced by subsequent events might not be retained, leading to substantially reduced treatment effectiveness for multiple events.

Storrar, K. A.; Woods, S.; Wagenbrenner, J. W.; Robichaud, P. R.; Brown, R. E.

2011-12-01

242

High Park burn in South Fork Cache la Poudre Basin: Preliminary findings from spring and summer 2013 hydrologic and sedimentation monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The High Park fire burned over 35,000 ha within the Cache la Poudre basin in early summer 2012, including an eastern portion of the Little South Fork Cache la Poudre (SFCLP) watershed. Given the proximity of the burn and the implications for water quality supplied to Fort Collins and Greeley, CO, there is an expressed interest on the part of the cities for improved understanding of sediment loads in SFCLP and main stem Cache la Poudre River over the next few years. Prior to burning, data on sediment transport (suspended sediment and bedload) were collected by researchers from the US Forest Service, providing baseline information on sedimentation comparable to similar measurements taken after the High Park fire. In 2013, bedload was measured during snowmelt runoff using standard pressure-difference samplers identical to those used previously in 1989 and 1997. Turbidity sensors were deployed as a surrogate measure of suspended sediment concentration. This signal was calibrated using both grab samples (from a DH-48) and samples obtained from an automated water sampler triggered to collect during substantial increases in turbidity. Additional sampling stations were later established downstream of this site in conjunction with assessments of channel extension and sedimentation from severely burned hillslopes and gulches, one of which was mulched for erosion control in spring 2013. The primary source of post-fire sediment to the most upstream site is from Monument Gulch, located about 1 km upstream of the sampling location. Debris flows emanated from this gulch within a few weeks post-fire and delivered charcoal, ash, burned trees and inorganic sediment to the main stem SFCLP. Although snowmelt runoff was less than bankfull in 2013, there was a substantial amount of burned organic matter transported and collected in the bedload and suspended sediment samplers. Low intensity storms during summer caused a few sediment rich flows, though not to the extent of those in 2012. In this presentation, we present initial findings on differences in sediment loads attributed to the fire.

Ryan, S. E.; Dixon, M.; Rathburn, S. L.; Shahverdian, S.

2013-12-01

243

High severity fire in forests of the southwest: conservation implications. Progress Report August 2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction: The occurrence of large, severe fires in southwestern ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests has resulted in concern that these forests may not persist under such an extreme disturbance regime. In our research, we are examining the outcomes of high-severity fire in ponderosa pine forests and their neighboring communities across an elevational gradient. One goal of our work is to contribute to understanding the resiliency of these systems, but we also want to investigate the conservation values intrinsic to the diverse communities that represent alternative successional trajectories after severe fire. One assumption of our research is that the spatial pattern of a disturbance becomes increasingly important when the disturbance is large and biological legacies are few and sparse. We ask, therefore, what spectrum of plant communities results from high severity fire, and what is their relationship to spatial patterns of severity mapped in early post fire timeframes? Also, do spatial patterns of older burns (1950-80) differ from recent burns (1998-present) in ways that make us expect successional changes years from now to differ from those we observed at our older burn field sites? Here, we describe the first stages of our work in mapping burn severity at old and new burns as well as the work we have recently completed at our two field sites. The report is organized under our two main objectives with the purpose of summarizing the steps we have taken in working toward these objectives, as well as changes we have made in methodologies since the original study plan. We present some general observations and plans for the next steps in data analysis and product generation. This report, the study plan, a photograph gallery, slide presentations, and our contact information are available on the project Web site http://www.umass.edu/landeco/research/swfire/swfire.html .

Haire, Sandra L.

2006-01-01

244

Patch to landscape patterns in post fire recruitment of a serotinous conifer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Obligate seeding species are highly specialized to fire disturbance and many conifers such as cypress, which are adapted to high intensity stand-replacing fires, have canopy seed banks stored in serotinous cones. Resilience of these trees to fire disturbance is a function of disturbance frequency and one focus of this study was to determine the effect of patch age on postfire recruitment. A second focus was to determine the extent to which fire induced a landscape level change in the location of the forest boundary. Prior to a fire in 1994, a large Cupressus sargentii forest was a mosaic landscape of different aged patches of nearly pure cypress bordered by chaparral. Patches less than 60 years of age were relatively dense with roughly one tree every 1-2 m2 but older patches had thinned to one tree every 3-15 m2. Older trees had substantially greater canopy cone crops but the stand level seed bank size was not significantly correlated with stand age. Fire-dependent obligate seeding species are sensitive to fire return interval because of potential changes in the size of seed banks - facing both a potential 'immaturity risk' and a 'senescence risk'. At our site, C. sargentii regeneration was substantial in stands as young as 20 years, suggesting that fire return interval would need to be shorter than this to pose any significant risk. Reduced seedling recruitment in stands nearly 100 years of age may indicate risk from senescence is greater, however, even the lowest density seedling recruitment was many times greater than the density of mature forests - thus this cypress would appear to be resilient to a wide range of fire return intervals. Changes in landscape patterning of forest and chaparral are unlikely except after fire. Factors that inhibit tree establishment within the shrubland, as well as factors that affect shrub establishment within the forest border likely affect the 'permeability' of this ecotone. After the 1994 fire this boundary appeared to be stable in that cypress recruited best within the shadow of burned canopies and cypress were weak invaders of adjacent shrublands.

Ne'eman, G.; Fotheringham, C. J.; Keeley, J. E.

1999-01-01

245

Facial Burns - Our Experience  

PubMed Central

Facial burns are generally considered severe. This is due to the possibility of respiratory complications. First responders check the nostrils for singed hairs. In severe cases there may be soot around the nose and mouth and coughing may produce phlegm that includes ash. Facial and inhalational burns compromise airways. They pose difficulties in pre-hospital resuscitation and are challenge to clinicians managing surviving burn victims in the intensive care setting. Management problems – resuscitation, airway maintenance and clinical treatment of facial injuries are compounded if the victim is child. Inhalational burns reduce survivability, certainly in adult victim. In our retrospective study we found that facial burns dominated in male gender, liquids and scalds are the most common causes of facial burns in children whereas the flame and electricity were the most common causes of facial burns in adults. We came to the conclusion in our study that surgical treatment minimizes complications and duration of recovery.

Zatriqi, Violeta; Arifi, Hysni; Zatriqi, Skender; Duci, Shkelzen; Rrecaj, Sh.; Martinaj, M.

2013-01-01

246

Lessons learned from an emergency release of a post-fire debris-flow hazard assessment for the 2009 Station fire, San Gabriel Mountains, southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2009 Station fire burned through portions of the steep, rugged terrain of the San Gabriel Mountains in southern California with a known history of producing large magnitude debris flows following fires. In response to the emergency, the U.S. Geological Survey released an assessment of debris-flow hazards as maps showing estimates of the probability and volume of debris-flow production from 678 burned drainage basins, and the areas that may be inundated by debris flows. The assessment was based on statistical-empirical models developed from post-fire hydrologic-response monitoring data throughout southern California steeplands. The intent of the assessment was to provide state-of-the-art information about potential debris-flow impacts to the public, and quantitative data critical for mitigation, resource-deployment and evacuation decisions by land-management, city and county public-works and flood-control, and emergency-response agencies. Here, we describe a research scientist perspective of the hits and misses associated with the release of this information. Release of the assessment was accompanied by an extensive multi-agency public information campaign. Hazards information was provided to the media and presented at numerous well-attended public meetings organized by local politicians, homeowner and religious associations, city councils, and a multi-agency response team. Meetings targeted to specific ethnic and religious groups resulted in increased attendance by members of these groups. Even with the extensive information campaign, the public response to both mandatory and voluntary evacuation orders was low, and decreased with each sequential winter storm. Interviews with local residents indicated that the low compliance could be attributed to: 1) a lack of a personal understanding of just how dangerous and destructive debris flows can be, 2) inconsistent messaging from different agencies regarding potential magnitudes of a debris-flow response, 3) a poor understanding of the uncertainties inherent to both weather and debris-flow predictions, and 4) a desire to protect personal property. Communication on a one-to-one basis throughout the storm season was necessary to avoid this last, all-too-human tendency. These observations also indicate that effective evacuations in response to debris-flow hazards require an increased awareness of the potential magnitudes and impacts by all parties involved, and this awareness must be established well in advance of any emergency. Most public-response agencies were receptive and appreciative of the information provided, although some were not. The information included in the hazard assessment was used as intended by numerous agencies, and many requested the GIS shapefiles so they would have the capability to generate maps for specific areas of responsibility. However, not every agency had the flexibility to adopt new information during the crisis. A state of emergency is not a good time to advocate for acceptance of new approaches or techniques.

Cannon, S. H.; Perry, S. C.; Staley, D. M.

2010-12-01

247

Fire Emissions Estimates in Siberia: Evaluation of Uncertainties in Area Burned, Land Cover, and Fuel Consumption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfire is one of the main disturbance factors in the boreal zone of Russia. Fires in the Russian boreal forest range from low-severity surface fires to high-severity crown fires. Estimates of carbon emissions from fires in Russia vary substantially due to differences in ecosystem classification and mapping, burned area calculations, and estimates of fuel consumption. We examined uncertainties in different parameters used to estimate biomass burning emissions. Several fire datasets (Institute of Forest burned area product, MCD45, MCD64, MOD14/MYD14, official data) were compared to estimate uncertainties in area burned in Siberia. Area burned was found to differ significantly by data source, with satellite data being by an order of magnitude greater than ground-based data. Differences between mapped ecosystems were also compared and contrasted on the basis of five land cover maps (GLC-2000, Globcover-2009, MODIS Collection 4 and 5 Global Land Cover, and the Digitized Ecosystem map of the Former Soviet Union) to evaluate the potential for error resulting from disparate vegetation structure and fuel consumption estimates. The examination of land cover maps showed that estimates of relative proportion of fire by ecosystem type varied substantially for the same year from map to map. Fuel consumption remains one of the main uncertainties in estimates of biomass burning emissions in Siberia. Accurate fuel consumption estimates are obtained in the course of fire experiments with pre- and post-fire biomass measuring. Our large-scale experiments carried out in the course of the FIRE BEAR (Fire Effects in the Boreal Eurasia Region) Project provided quantitative and qualitative data on ecosystem state and carbon emissions due to fires of known behavior in major forest types of Siberia that could be used to verify large-scale carbon emissions estimates. Global climate change is expected to result in increase of fire hazard and area burned, leading to impacts on global air quality and human health. Accurate emission estimates are required by air quality agencies to calculate local emissions and to develop strategies to mitigate negative smoke impacts. This research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program, Fulbright Program, and Russian Academy of Sciences.

Kukavskaya, E.; Soja, A. J.; Ivanova, G. A.; Petkov, A.; Ponomarev, E. I.; Conard, S. G.

2012-12-01

248

Moving beyond the cambium necrosis hypothesis of post-fire tree mortality: cavitation and deformation of xylem in forest fires.  

PubMed

• It is widely assumed that post-fire tree mortality results from necrosis of phloem and vascular cambium in stems, despite strong evidence that reduced xylem conductivity also plays an important role. • In this study, experiments with Populus balsamifera were used to demonstrate two mechanisms by which heat reduces the hydraulic conductivity of xylem: air seed cavitation and conduit wall deformation. Heat effects on air seed cavitation were quantified using air injection experiments that isolate potential temperature-dependent changes in sap surface tension and pit membrane pore diameters. Heat effects on conduit wall structure were demonstrated using air conductivity measurements and light microscopy. • Heating increased vulnerability to cavitation because sap surface tension varies inversely with temperature. Heating did not affect cavitation via changes in pit membrane pore diameters, but did cause significant reductions in xylem air conductivity that were associated with deformation of conduit walls (probably resulting from thermal softening of viscoelastic cell wall polymers). • Additional work is required to understand the relative roles of cavitation and deformation in the reduction of xylem conductivity, and how reduced xylem conductivity in roots, stems, and branches correlates and interacts with foliage and root necroses to cause tree mortality. Future research should also examine how heat necrosis of ray parenchyma cells affects refilling of embolisms that occur during and after the fire event. PMID:22276783

Michaletz, S T; Johnson, E A; Tyree, M T

2012-04-01

249

Burn Wound.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wound care is the central theme of burn patient management after successful resuscitation. Burn wound care has been revolutionized during the past four decades. The development of effective topical chemo-therapy, the timely surgical removal of burned tiss...

B. A. Pruitt

1995-01-01

250

Pediatric cutaneous bleach burns.  

PubMed

Bleach is a common household product which can cause caustic injuries. Its effects on mucosal tissues and the eye have been well-described in the literature. However, there is little information published regarding the appearance and effect of bleach on a child's skin. We report three children who sustained chemical burns after contact with bleach. All three children sustained accidental bleach burns while at home, and each child had a distinct brown discoloration to the skin from the injury. All three children had treatment and follow-up for their burns. Two of the children sustained more severe burns, which were extensive and required more time to heal. There was also long-term scarring associated with the severe burns. Like most burns, pain control is required until the injury heals. PMID:23545350

Lang, Cathleen; Cox, Matthew

2013-07-01

251

Early fluid resuscitation with hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 (6%) in severe burn injury: a randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction There are limited data on the efficacy of early fluid resuscitation with third-generation hydroxyethyl starch (HES 130) in burn injury. Adverse effects of HES on survival and organ function have been reported. Methods In this randomized, controlled, double-blind trial, 48 patients with severe burn injury were assigned to receive either lactated Ringer’s solution plus 6% HES 130/0.4 in a ratio of 2:1 or lactated Ringer’s solution with no colloid supplement for the first 72 hours. Primary outcome parameter was the group difference of administered total fluid from intensive care unit (ICU) admission up to day 3. Secondary outcomes included kidney and lung injury and failure, length of stay, and mortality. Results Three-day totals of administered resuscitation fluid (medians) were 21,190 mL in the lactated Ringer’s group and 19,535 mL in the HES group (HES: ?1,213 mL; P?=?0.39). Creatinine levels from day 1 to 3 (HES: +0.4 ?mol/L; 95% confidence interval (CI) ?18.7 to 19.5; P?=?0.97) and urinary outputs from day 1 to 3 (HES: ?58 mL; 95% CI ?400 to 283; P?=?0.90) were not different. Six patients in each group developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (risk ratio 0.96; 95% CI 0.35 to 2.64; P?=?0.95). Length of ICU stay (HES vs. lactated Ringer’s: 28 vs. 24 days; P?=?0.80) and length of hospital stay (31 vs. 29 days; P?=?0.57) were similar. Twenty-eight-day mortality was 4 patients in each group (risk ratio 0.96; 95% CI 0.27 to 4.45; P?=?0.95), and in-hospital mortality was 8 in the HES group vs. 5 patients in the lactated Ringer’s group (hazard ratio 1.86; 95% CI 0.56 to 6.19; P?=?0.31). Conclusions There was no evidence that early fluid resuscitation with balanced HES 130/0.4 (6%) in addition to lactated Ringer’s solution would lead to a volume-sparing effect in severe burn injury. Together with the findings that early renal function, incidence of ARDS, length of stay, and mortality were not negatively influenced by HES in this setting, balanced HES 130/0.4 (6%) plus lactated Ringer’s solution could not be considered superior to lactated Ringer’s solution alone. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01012648

2013-01-01

252

Common environmental factors explain both ectomycorrhizal species diversity and pine regeneration variability in a post-fire Mediterranean forest.  

PubMed

Natural seedling regeneration and establishment after stand replacing wildfires is influenced by a series of environmental and biological constraints. In this study, we characterized the diversity and structure of the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal community associated with post-fire naturally regenerated maritime pine saplings, and individuate the environmental factors responsible for fungal species distribution. We also identify the main environmental factors responsible for maritime pine regeneration variability and assessed the relation between saplings performance and ECM fungal diversity indices. Fungal species were identified by direct sequencing of internal transcribed spacer regions. Five years after the disturbance event, a total of 30 taxa colonized the pine saplings. The ECM fungal community was dominated by ruderal species of the genus Rhizopogon (present in almost half of the samples). Almost one third of the identified ECM fungal species belonged to the family Thelephoraceae. Typical k-selected species like Amanita pantherina, Boletus aestivalis, Lactarius chrysorrheus, and Russula densifolia were found on pine saplings collected in proximity of unburnt pine trees, in correspondence with low erosion extents. Pine regeneration varied throughout the study areas and was enhanced at higher elevations, in correspondence with moderate slopes, shallower soils, and a reduced cover of ericaceous shrubs and bare ground. These conditions were found in close proximity to patches of pine trees that survived the disturbance event and were previously characterized by a higher pre-fire pine biomass. Even though no correlations were found between saplings performance and ECM fungal diversity indices, common environmental factors (i.e., ericaceous shrub cover, extent of erosion, slope, and soil depth) were responsible for shaping the ECM fungal distribution and for describing most of the explained regeneration variability. PMID:21301892

Buscardo, Erika; Freitas, Helena; Pereira, João Santos; De Angelis, Paolo

2011-08-01

253

By Air and Land: Estimating Post-Fire Debris-Flow Susceptibility through High-Resolution Radar Reflectivity and Tipping-Bucket Gage Rainfall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires often increase the occurrence of post-fire hazardous flash floods and debris flows from steeplands during intense rainfall. Rainfall intensity-duration thresholds have been used to forecast when this hazard increases rapidly; one threshold for Southern California is 15 mm/hr. However, such thresholds are usually developed with point measurements that only capture a small portion of the landscape. In an attempt to limit potential loss of life, the USGS is collaborating with NOAA on a demonstration early-warning system. To address the lack of spatial rainfall coverage, NOAA deployed a small mobile radar truck (SMART-R) to the Day fire in the western Transverse Range during the 2006-07 winter, and to the Canyon and Corral fires in the Santa Monica Mountains near Malibu during the 2007-08 winter. The SMART-R's C-band Doppler radar can be used to estimate rainfall rates over entire burned areas. On topography susceptible to debris flows within these 3 fires, the USGS installed a dense array of ground-based instruments, including 8 tipping- bucket rain gages in the Day fire, and 3 each in the Canyon and Corral fires. After converting hourly time- step grids of SMART-R reflectivity (150 m node spacing) into precipitation estimates, we compared the gage data to its spatially coincident SMART-R cell.Results from the Day fire indicate that SMART-R derived seasonal and event-based rainfall totals were typically greater than gage totals during the 2006-07 winter of record-low rainfall. Both data sets, however, reflected similar spatial patterns of rainfall intensity. In contrast, for the Malibu fires there is no systematic agreement in spatial pattern or rainfall mismatch; the difference between the two data sets. Of the 9 storms recorded during this 2007-08 winter, SMART-R estimates of rainfall totals exceeded the gage totals for only 3, underestimating totals for the remaining 6. The mismatch magnitudes also exceed that of the previous winter recorded at the Day fire, and, for the largest storm of the season, was 129 mm less than a rain gage total.These discrepancies reduce the reliability of a potential SMART-R-advised warning system, assuming truth from ground-based gages. During the 2007-08 winter near Malibu the rain gages recorded that the 15 mm/hr warning threshold was exceeded during only one storm, and only at one gage in the Corral fire. This event transported large amounts of sediment that resulted in road closures, and it produced at least one "firehose" debris flow generated by runoff from steep, exposed bedrock. In contrast, SMART-R derived rainfall intensities exceeded this threshold at all gage locations for 2 of the 3 storms with overestimated rainfall intensities. It underestimated rainfall intensities for the 6 remaining storms; such underestimates could have led to potential false negatives, which are of concern for preserving human life.It is not yet clear which storms are amenable to the use of SMART-R technology for capturing spatial estimates of rainfall intensity, but results from the Day fire showing topographically forced rainfall patterns support validity of the system. Future work needs to address discrepancies arising from comparing spatially continuous atmospheric radar measurements with terrestrial point measurements. One effort to mitigate some interpretation complexities could include the installation of a disdrometer along with the rain gages, to measure rain drop-size distributions to calibrate in near real-time the relation between measured reflectivity and inferred rainfall.

Hanshaw, M. N.; Schmidt, K. M.; Jorgensen, D. P.; Stock, J. D.

2008-12-01

254

Burn shock resuscitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of fluid resuscitation in the burn patient is maintenance of vital organ function at the least immediate or delayed physiological cost. To optimize fluid resuscitation in severely burned patients, the amount of fluid should be just enough to maintain vital organ function without producing iatrogenic pathological changes. The composition of the resuscitation fluid in the first 24 hours

Glenn D. Warden

1992-01-01

255

Burn Wound Infections  

PubMed Central

Burns are one of the most common and devastating forms of trauma. Patients with serious thermal injury require immediate specialized care in order to minimize morbidity and mortality. Significant thermal injuries induce a state of immunosuppression that predisposes burn patients to infectious complications. A current summary of the classifications of burn wound infections, including their diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, is given. Early excision of the eschar has substantially decreased the incidence of invasive burn wound infection and secondary sepsis, but most deaths in severely burn-injured patients are still due to burn wound sepsis or complications due to inhalation injury. Burn patients are also at risk for developing sepsis secondary to pneumonia, catheter-related infections, and suppurative thrombophlebitis. The introduction of silver-impregnated devices (e.g., central lines and Foley urinary catheters) may reduce the incidence of nosocomial infections due to prolonged placement of these devices. Improved outcomes for severely burned patients have been attributed to medical advances in fluid resuscitation, nutritional support, pulmonary and burn wound care, and infection control practices.

Church, Deirdre; Elsayed, Sameer; Reid, Owen; Winston, Brent; Lindsay, Robert

2006-01-01

256

Evaluation of changes in post-fire recharge under native woodland using hydrological measurements, modelling and remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThis paper examines the use of a controlled fuel reduction burn in native woodland to increase recharge to a shallow aquifer system for water supply in south-western Australia. Soil moisture trends from neutron probe measurements and watertable dynamics from piezometers under adjacent burned and unburned plots were compared to determine the difference in recharge resulting from the fire. Remotely sensed evapotranspiration (ET) subtracted from rainfall was used to independently estimate groundwater and soil moisture recharge and compare against a physically based model of soil-water fluxes. The use of naturally occurring chemicals (n-alkanes and cycloalkanes) produced in the fire as tracers of the recharge pulse in the winter following the fire was tested. It was found that in the winter following the fire (annual rainfall 701 mm), water storage in the 9 m thick unsaturated zone increased by about 300 mm but recharge to the watertable was only about 60 mm. In the subsequent year (rainfall 630 mm), leaf area index in the burned woodland recovered to be about 10% less than the unburned plot, remotely sensed ET rose above that in the unburned plot and recharge was lower in the burned than unburned plot. This trend continued and, after 3 years, increased ET negated any early recharge gains, and there was a net decrease in recharge resulting from the fire. The combination of water balance measurements, modelling and remote sensing provides a robust method to gain hydrological understanding of recharge mechanisms. Further work is required to refine the use of burn residue chemicals as soil water tracers, particularly in improving instrument design for groundwater sample collection in fine textured soils. As climate continues to change and regions with growing water shortages seek innovative solutions, approaches such as controlled burning may be needed; however, in this example, the approach was unproductive and further the environmental consequences need to be evaluated to make an appropriate assessment of trade-offs and viability of this approach.

Silberstein, Richard P.; Dawes, Warrick R.; Bastow, Trevor P.; Byrne, John; Smart, Natalie F.

2013-05-01

257

Biomass Burning  

Biomass Burning Data and Information This data set represents ... geographical and temporal distribution of total amount of biomass burned. These data may be used in general circulation models (GCMs) and ... models of the atmosphere. Project Title:  Biomass Burning Discipline:  Tropospheric Chemistry ...

2014-04-25

258

Tracking sources of severe haze episodes and their physicochemical and hygroscopic properties under Asian continental outflow: Long-range transport pollution, postharvest biomass burning, and Asian dust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosol physicochemical and hygroscopic properties were measured from 12 October to 21 November 2005 at a downwind area of the Asian continental outflow (Gwangju, Korea) to characterize severe haze episodes. Using optically measured elemental carbon (EC) at 660 nm (Opt.EC) and 880 nm (BC) wavelengths and Mie theory, it was estimated that the higher BC/Opt.EC ratio during the cloudy day of the long-range transport (LTP) period was mainly due to EC particle growth from in-cloud processing with secondary aerosols such as sulfate and organic aerosols. Single scattering albedo (SSA) of biomass burning (BB) aerosol increased sharply from 0.89 to 0.94 under a relative humidity >70%, suggesting that organic aerosols emitted from rice straw burning contained high amounts of hydrophilic compounds. The contribution of aerosol water content to the total light extinction coefficient (bext) was determined as 51.4% and 68.4% during the BB and BB + LTP periods, respectively, indicating that the haze episodes were highly enhanced by an increase in aerosol water content. The Asian dust event was characterized by the highest SSA (0.92 ± 0.02), the lowest mass scattering efficiency of fine particles (2.5 ± 1.0 m2 g-1), and the lowest hygroscopic nature (humidity-dependent light scattering enhancement factor, f(80%), which is defined by the ratio of light scattering coefficient at 80% relative humidity to that at dry condition, = ˜1.37). Based on the Ångström exponent (?) values observed at the source region of the Asian continent and the downwind area of South Korea during the BB + LTP period, it was found that the ? value of urban aerosols decreased ˜11% for 1-2 days of the transport, probably due to the increase in particle size through water uptake. Increasing rates of surface PM10 mass concentrations at western coastal areas of the South Korean peninsula were in the range 2.4-14.4 ?gm-3 h-1 at the beginning of the BB + LTP period (24 October 2005, 0700-2300 LT). Based on in situ and remote measurement techniques, Asian aerosol outflow over the South Korean peninsula is of the order of 388-3789 tons h-1 at the beginning of the LTP event.

Jung, Jinsang; Kim, Young J.

2011-01-01

259

High latitude cooling associated with landscape changes from post-fire succession in North American boreal forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fires in the boreal forests of North America are generally stand-replacing, killing the majority of trees and initiating succession that may last over a century. Functional variation during succession can affect local surface energy budgets and regional climate. Burn area across Alaska and Canada has been increasing during the last few decades and is projected to be substantially higher by the end of the 21st century. If fire regimes do follow such trajectories, we should expect a future landscape with younger stands and modified biogeophysics. Here we simulated the changes in forest composition due to altered burn area using a probabilistic model of fire occurrence, historical fire data from national inventories, and succession trajectories derived from remote sensing. When coupled to an Earth system model, younger vegetation from increased burning cooled the high-latitude atmosphere, primarily in the winter and spring, with noticeable feedbacks from the ocean and sea ice. Results from multiple scenarios suggest that a doubling of burn area would result in surface cooling of approximately 0.23°C and 0.43°C for winter - spring and February - April time periods, respectively. This could provide a negative feedback to high-latitude terrestrial warming during winter on the order of 4 - 6% for a doubling, and 14 - 23% for a quadrupling, of burn area. While the characterization of succession is challenging due to its dynamic nature, time scale, and the lack of long-term data, this study highlights how remote sensing and national inventories can help quantify feedbacks from secondary forests under a changing climate.

Rogers, B. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Bonan, G. B.

2012-12-01

260

Burns Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provide by Burns Country, this full-text, online version of "the definitive Robert Burns reference volume" serves as a useful handbook to Scotland's most famous poet and the intellectual circles in which he turned. The encyclopedia, which is in HTML format, is organized alphabetically. Burns Country offers a number of other related resources, chief among them a songs and poems archive containing 100 of the poet's works. Other features at the site include a discussion area, Burns and Scottish association links, and some commercial content.

Lindsay, Maurice.

261

[Comparative evaluation of therapeutic efficacy of early amnion covering the cornea, temporary blepharorrhaphy and its combination in severe alkali burns of the eye in the experiment].  

PubMed

In four groups of rabbits on model of a heavy alkaline burn of a cornea and a limbus of various extent character and outcomes of healing of an eye surface as a result of early (it is direct after a burn) applications is investigated: only conservative treatment - group I, conservative treatment + time blepharorrhaphy - group II, conservative treatment + covering of a cornea and a limbus of amnionic membrane - group III, and also combinations of conservative treatment, temporary of blepharorrhaphy and coverings of a cornea and a limbus amnionic membrane - group IV. In all groups conservative treatment included: an instillation of maxitrol within 14 days with transition to a mortgaging of Unguentum Tetracyclini of 1% 3 times a day. Depending on width of sector of the burn measured in circular degrees, each group included 4 subgroups: 60° - a subgroup "A", 120° " " - 180° - "B", 270° "?" - (on 4 eyes in a subgroup). Results estimated daily within the first 10 days, and further every 5 days (during 3 months) after a burn with photoregistration at colouring of an eye surface of 1% a solution fluorescein-natrium. On the basis of the received results it is established that the early fortnight time blepharorrhaphy (as addition to conservative treatment) is the most effective and accessible method (from considered) optimisation of healing of an eye surface at heavy burns of eyes with capture to 75% of the area of a cornea and a limbus. PMID:22712247

Bo?ko, É V; Churashov, S V; Chernysh, V F; Rud'ko, A S

2012-04-01

262

Post-fire transformation of the microbial complexes in soils of larch forests in the lower Angara River region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The postfire transformation of the functional activity of the microbial cenoses and the main soil properties under mixed larch forests were studied in the lower reaches of the Angara River. It was shown that the intensity of the postfire changes in the population density, biomass, and activity of the microorganisms in the dark podzolized brown forest soil depended on the degree of burning of the ground cover and the surface litter during the fire. The maximum effects of the fire on the microbial cenoses were observed in the litter and the upper 5-cm-thick layer of the dark-humus horizon in the areas of intense burning. The postfire restoration of the structural-functional activity of the microbial cenoses was determined by the degree of transformation of soil properties and by the postpyrogenic succession in the ground cover. The microbial complexes of the dark podzolized brown forest soils under mixed larch forests in the studied region restored their functional activity after the fires of different intensities quicker than the microbial cenoses of the sandy podzols in the pyrogenic lichen-green-moss pine forests of the same zone.

Bogorodskaya, A. V.; Ivanova, G. A.; Tarasov, P. A.

2011-01-01

263

Emergency assessment of post-fire debris-flow hazards for the 2013 Mountain fire, southern California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wildfire dramatically alters the hydrologic response of a watershed such that even modest rainstorms can produce dangerous flash floods and debris flows. We use empirical models to predict the probability and magnitude of debris flow occurrence in response to a 10-year rainstorm for the 2013 Mountain fire near Palm Springs, California. Overall, the models predict a relatively high probability (60–100 percent) of debris flow for six of the drainage basins in the burn area in response to a 10-year recurrence interval design storm. Volumetric predictions suggest that debris flows that occur may entrain a significant volume of material, with 8 of the 14 basins identified as having potential debris-flow volumes greater than 100,000 cubic meters. These results suggest there is a high likelihood of significant debris-flow hazard within and downstream of the burn area for nearby populations, infrastructure, and wildlife and water resources. Given these findings, we recommend that residents, emergency managers, and public works departments pay close attention to weather forecasts and National Weather Service–issued Debris Flow and Flash Flood Outlooks, Watches and Warnings and that residents adhere to any evacuation orders.

Staley, Dennis M.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Smoczyk, Greg M.; Reeves, Ryan R.

2013-01-01

264

Fire severity analysis using LANDSAT data in an heterogeneus landscape of semiarid NW Patagonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fires at landscape level are result from complex interactions among ignitions, weather and vegetation. Factors related to fire, such as fuel moisture, vegetation structure and topography, can exhibit substantial spatial and temporal variability. Arrangements of patches with different degree of burn severity are found after to fire and this heterogeneity could have major implications for ecosystem processes. For instance, severely burned patches may be more affected by fire returning to pre-fire conditions in a large time period while areas with low burn severity may be seed sources accelerating the plant recovery process. Interactions between fire severity, type vegetation and others environmental factors are poorly known, in particular in large fires. For overcome this lack, the first step is rely on accurate data regarding fire severity at landscape scale. Remote sensing tools are particularly suitable assessment fire effects at landscape scale, where monitoring the entire surface affected by large fires is laborious. In addition, the integration into a GIS of data obtained by remote sensing facilitates to explore causal relationships involved in fire severity and the influence of them in the recovery process. In this context, spectral indices can be used to relate burn severity observed in the surface to values measured by the satellite sensor. One of the most widely used indices is the "Normalized Burn Ratio" (NBR) which enables to infer the degree of post-fire ecological change. Nevertheless, in heterogeneous landscapes, to map fire effects may be required pre-disturbance data in addition to post-disturbance image, because precisely to non-homogeneity conditions. Thus, two NBR derivatives, delta-NBR (dNBR) and Relative delta-NBR (RdNBR), have been developed to remove biasing of the pre-fire vegetation present in the uni-temporal approach. To difference of dNBR, in which it is obtained an absolute change value, RdNBR is a relative measure that allows independence from the pre-fire condition of vegetation. Considering that: 1) the dNBRand RdNBR indexes are proposed to evaluate fire severity by remote sensing in different environments and 2) exist few information about its behavior in communities with low biomass load as the semiarid grasslands. Then, the general objective of work was to analyze and compare the behavior of dNBR and RdNBR in their ability to discriminate the degrees of fire severity in semiarid environments dominated by herbaceous vegetation.

Lanorte, Antonio; Lasaponara, Rosa; Ghermandi, Luciana; Oddi, Facundo

2014-05-01

265

Effects of differing wildfire severities on soil wettability and implications for hydrological response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire-induced or enhanced soil water repellency is often viewed as a key cause of the substantial increases in runoff and erosion following severe wildfires. In this study, the effects of different fire severities on soil water repellency are examined in eucalypt forest catchments in the Sandstone Tablelands near Sydney, burnt in 2001 and 2003. At sites affected by different fire severities and in long-unburnt control sites, repellency persistence was determined in situ and in the laboratory for surface and subsurface soil samples ( n=846) using the Water Drop Penetration Time (WDPT) test. All long-unburnt samples were found to be water repellent, with severe to extreme persistence (>900 s) being dominant for surface (0-2.5 cm) and slight to moderate persistence (10-900 s) for subsurface (2.5-5 cm) soil, indicating naturally very high 'background' levels of repellency. In contrast to the generation or enhancement of repellency usually reported following forest fires of similar severity in previous studies, burning caused widespread destruction of repellency. The mineral soil depth to which repellency was destroyed (0.5-5 cm) was found to increase with burn severity. Below this charred wettable layer, persistence of pre-existing water repellency increased. Two years after the fire, the frequency of extreme repellency persistence was reduced in the surface and subsurface. However, recovery to pre-fire repellency levels had not been achieved. The associated hydrological impacts of these fire effects are more complex than simply the enhancement of overland flow, runoff and soil erosion with increasing fire severity. For forest fires sufficiently severe to remove foliage and ground litter above already repellent soil, a more severe burn, in which there is destruction of surface soil repellency, would result in lower runoff response compared to a burn insufficiently severe to destroy surface repellency. During storms intense enough to saturate the wettable surface rapidly, this layer may, however, be removed by overland flow, with potentially severe implications for soil fertility and seedbed survival, post-fire ecosystem recovery, and downstream sedimentation and water quality. The results demonstrate that existing fire severity classifications are not well suited to predicting fire impacts on soil hydrological responses and highlight the need for a new fire severity evaluation scheme. A scheme encompassing not only foliage and ground cover status, but also changes to surface and subsurface soil hydrological properties, would provide a better prediction of the immediate hydrological effects of wildfires on catchments such as flash flooding and erosion, and also of their time-to-recovery than current classifications allow. Such a scheme could prove invaluable given the future increase in fire frequency and severity predicted for many regions.

Doerr, S. H.; Shakesby, R. A.; Blake, W. H.; Chafer, C. J.; Humphreys, G. S.; Wallbrink, P. J.

2006-03-01

266

Clothing burns in Canadian children  

PubMed Central

A Canadian survey of 11 tertiary care pediatric centres with specialized burn facilities revealed that an estimated 37 children up to 9 years of age are admitted annually to such hospitals because of clothing burns. Sleepwear accounts for an estimated 21 such burns per year. Girls were found to suffer the most severe burns and represented eight of the nine children in the series who died. Loose and flowing garments dominated the girls' styles. The results of multiple-regression analysis confirmed that style of clothing (loose and flowing as opposed to snug) was the most significant predictor of burn severity, length of hospital stay, the need for skin grafting and survival. The ignition situation (avoidance of parental supervision at the time of injury) was the only other important predictor. The success of regulatory actions in other countries in reducing the incidence of severe clothing burns is reviewed, and preventive strategies for Canada are explored. ImagesFig. 2

Stanwick, Richard S.

1985-01-01

267

Burning Issue: Handling Household Burns  

MedlinePLUS

... cooking food unattended on the stove. Set your water heater’s thermostat to 120 °F or lower to prevent scalding burns. And install smoke alarms on every floor of your home. Keep yourself and your family safe from unexpected ... For minor burns: Immerse in fresh, cool water, or apply cool compresses for 10-15 minutes. ...

268

Sediment Disturbance and Transport on Burned Hillslopes in Mountainous Forests of Interior British Columbia, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many western Canadian forests are susceptible to stand-replacing crown fires. Few studies on geomorphic effects of wildfire have considered post-fire erosional processes in western Canada. This project investigates hillslopes subjected to wildfire in eastern British Columbia, examining the integrated effects of biogenic and mechanical sediment disturbance and transport processes in the first two years following a crown fire. Although largely studied in temperate deciduous forests, biogenic sediment disturbance and transport through uprooting is an active hillslope process in mountainous coniferous forests. Upheaval of large amounts of sediment is readily observed on root-plates of uprooted trees. The effects of stand-replacing wildfire on the uprooting process, and the geomorphic contributions of this process to post-fire sediment production and transport, have not previously been investigated. After stand-replacing wildfire, tree topple rates are expected to increase due to the large numbers of fire-killed trees. Disintegration rates of pre-existing and new root-plates may be accelerated due to fire removal of the protective vegetation canopy. Uprooting thus provides an additional sediment source for transport by hillslope transport processes, such as overland flow or rainsplash. Previous studies have found increased rates of sediment movement by overland flow on post-fire hillslopes. The uprooting process, and soil exposure due to burning of the canopy and forest floor duff layer, provide a scenario for amplified downslope movement of sediment during the early post-fire seasons. Results from the study in Kootenay National Park, British Columbia are contrary to most post-fire studies and indicate very low sediment transport rates on the hillslopes. The study shows that uprooting is an important process in these forests, and provides a sediment source for subsequent sediment transport by overland flow. In addition, the land surface has had much of the protective duff layer removed by burning, facilitating rainsplash erosion and sediment transport by overland flow. However, hillslope erosion rates, as well as disintegration rates for root-plates and mounds, are dependent on weather patterns and storm intensities following the fire, and it appears that the threshold values of precipitation at this site have not been reached in the first two years after the fire occurrence.

Gallaway, J. M.; Martin, Y. E.; Johnson, E. A.

2005-12-01

269

Development of life prediction capabilities for liquid propellant rocket engines. Post-fire diagnostic system for the SSME system architecture study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This system architecture task (1) analyzed the current process used to make an assessment of engine and component health after each test or flight firing of an SSME, (2) developed an approach and a specific set of objectives and requirements for automated diagnostics during post fire health assessment, and (3) listed and described the software applications required to implement this system. The diagnostic system described is a distributed system with a database management system to store diagnostic information and test data, a CAE package for visual data analysis and preparation of plots of hot-fire data, a set of procedural applications for routine anomaly detection, and an expert system for the advanced anomaly detection and evaluation.

Gage, Mark; Dehoff, Ronald

1991-01-01

270

Can post-wildfire Burned Area Emergency Response treatments mitigate watershed degradation?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfire is a natural phenomenon that began with the development of terrestrial vegetation in a lightning-filled atmosphere 350 million years ago. As human populations developed in the Pleistocene and Holocene epochs, mankind transformed fire into one of its oldest tools. A negative impact of prime concern in the 21st Century is desertification. This term refers to land degradation, not the immediate creation of classical deserts. It is about the loss of the land's proper hydrologic function and biological productivity as a result of human activities and climate change. It affects 33% of the earth's surface and over a billion people. Fire-related desertification has a number of environmental, social, and economic consequences. The two key environmental consequences are soil erosion and exotic plant invasions. Wildfires typically have exotic plant species abundances ten times that of undisturbed forests (Neary et al. 2003). Seeding has been used for many years in the USA as a prime Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) treatment. Until recently, this seeding contributed to exotic plant invasions since fast-growing, but non native plants seeds were used. The use of native plant seeds and sterile hybrids has reduced this problem somewhat. Erosion after wildfires documented in the USA can be in the range of <1 to 370 Mg/ha, depending on fire severity, degree of water repellency, slope, and post-fire rainfall events. Soil losses in the high end of that range definitely exceed soil loss tolerances and contribute to desertification. Soil disturbance and degradation after wildfires is a function of fire severity, and the impacts can range from the minimal to catastrophic and long-lasting. The most obvious impact is the loss of organic matter from combustion of the forest floor. Changes in soil physical and chemical properties with high-severity wildfire can produce water repellency, aggravating rainfall runoff and erosion. Since soils take long times to form (50 to 75,000 years), degradation as a result of wildfire-related erosion or soil property changes can result in severe and rapid desertification. Soil degradation is a "one-way street" not easily reversed. Although trees can be replanted on burned sites, soil lost in erosion is rarely replaced, just rehabilitated. There are techniques to rehabilitate these degraded soils but they are quite expensive. Disruptions to soil micro-fauna and micro-flora can also reduce post-fire site vegetation productivity. An environmental consequence of wildfire related to soil disturbance, is the loss of hydrologic function. Again, the level of hydrologic function loss is related to fire severity. Although this ecosystem function tends to recover within 5 - 10 years after wildfire as vegetation cover returns, the immediate impacts can be considerable. The removal of the protective layer of the forest floor by combustion, and the development of water repellent layers in the soil combine to aggrevate flood potentials. Flood peak flows after wildfires with high percentages of high severity wildfire (>30%) commonly have increases of 10-fold. Higher increases (20 to 2,000 fold) have been measured as the percentage of high-severity soil damage approaches 100%. The other side of high flood runoff is the reduction in baseflow that sustains stream flow due to the reduction in rainfall infiltration. This has water supply implications for forested watersheds that are sources for municipal water supplies. In addition, post-wildfire ash slurry flows can substantially degrade the quality of municipal water sources. Although this phenomenon is relatively short lived (<2 years), it can have serious supply impacts. This paper examines the capabilities of BAER treatments in dealing with this problem.

Neary, D.; Ffolliott, P.; Bautista, S.; Wittenberg, L.

2009-04-01

271

Mapping post-fire forest regeneration and vegetation recovery using a combination of very high spatial resolution and hyperspectral satellite imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Careful evaluation of forest regeneration and vegetation recovery after a fire event provides vital information useful in land management. The use of remotely sensed data is considered to be especially suitable for monitoring ecosystem dynamics after fire. The aim of this work was to map post-fire forest regeneration and vegetation recovery on the Mediterranean island of Thasos by using a combination of very high spatial (VHS) resolution (QuickBird) and hyperspectral (EO-1 Hyperion) imagery and by employing object-based image analysis. More specifically, the work focused on (1) the separation and mapping of three major post-fire classes (forest regeneration, other vegetation recovery, unburned vegetation) existing within the fire perimeter, and (2) the differentiation and mapping of the two main forest regeneration classes, namely, Pinus brutia regeneration, and Pinus nigra regeneration. The data used in this study consisted of satellite images and field observations of homogeneous regenerated and revegetated areas. The methodology followed two main steps: a three-level image segmentation, and, a classification of the segmented images. The process resulted in the separation of classes related to the aforementioned objectives. The overall accuracy assessment revealed very promising results (approximately 83.7% overall accuracy, with a Kappa Index of Agreement of 0.79). The achieved accuracy was 8% higher when compared to the results reported in a previous work in which only the EO-1 Hyperion image was employed in order to map the same classes. Some classification confusions involving the classes of P. brutia regeneration and P. nigra regeneration were observed. This could be attributed to the absence of large and dense homogeneous areas of regenerated pine trees in the study area.

Mitri, George H.; Gitas, Ioannis Z.

2013-02-01

272

Burns in children: standard and new treatments.  

PubMed

Outcomes of patients with burns have improved substantially over the past two decades. Findings from a 2012 study in The Lancet showed that a burn size of more than 60% total body surface area burned (an increase from 40% a decade ago) is associated with risks and mortality. Similar data have been obtained in adults and elderly people who have been severely burned. We discuss recent and future developments in burn care to improve outcomes of children. PMID:24034453

Jeschke, Marc G; Herndon, David N

2014-03-29

273

Biomass Burning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biomass burning may be the overwhelming regional or continental-scale source of methane (CH4) as in tropical Africa and a significant global source of CH4. Our best estimate of present methane emissions from biomass burning is about 51.9 Tg/yr, or 10% of the annual methane emissions to the atmosphere. Increased frequency of fires that may result as the Earth warms up may result in increases in this source of atmospheric methane.

Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Pinto, Joseph P.

1993-01-01

274

A protocol for resuscitation of severe burn patients guided by transpulmonary thermodilution and lactate levels: a 3-year prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Introduction The use of urinary output and vital signs to guide initial burn resuscitation may lead to suboptimal resuscitation. Invasive hemodynamic monitoring may result in over-resuscitation. This study aimed to evaluate the results of a goal-directed burn resuscitation protocol that used standard measures of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and urine output, plus transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD) and lactate levels to adjust fluid therapy to achieve a minimum level of preload to allow for sufficient vital organ perfusion. Methods We conducted a three-year prospective cohort study of 132 consecutive critically burned patients. These patients underwent resuscitation guided by MAP (>65 mmHg), urinary output (0.5 to 1 ml/kg), TPTD and lactate levels. Fluid therapy was adjusted to achieve a cardiac index (CI) >2.5 L/minute/m2 and an intrathoracic blood volume index (ITBVI) >600 ml/m2, and to optimize lactate levels. Statistical analysis was performed using mixed models. We also used Pearson or Spearman methods and the Mann-Whitney U-test. Results A total of 98 men and 34 women (mean age, 48 ± 18 years) was studied. The mean total body surface area (TBSA) burned was 35% ± 22%. During the early resuscitation phase, lactate levels were elevated (2.58 ± 2.05 mmol/L) and TPTD showed initial hypovolemia by the CI (2.68 ± 1.06 L/minute/m2) and the ITBVI (709 ± 254 mL/m2). At 24 to 32 hours, the CI and lactic levels were normalized, although the ITBVI remained below the normal range (744 ± 276 ml/m2). The mean fluid rate required to achieve protocol targets in the first 8 hours was 4.05 ml/kg/TBSA burned, which slightly increased in the next 16 hours. Patients with a urine output greater than or less than 0.5 ml/kg/hour did not show differences in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, CI, ITBVI or lactate levels. Conclusions Initial hypovolemia may be detected by TPTD monitoring during the early resuscitation phase. This hypovolemia might not be reflected by blood pressure and hourly urine output. An adequate CI and tissue perfusion can be achieved with below-normal levels of preload. Early resuscitation guided by lactate levels and below-normal preload volume targets appears safe and avoids unnecessary fluid input.

2013-01-01

275

Ball lightning burn.  

PubMed

Ball lightning is a rare physical phenomenon, which is not yet completely explained. It is similar to lightning but with different, peculiar characteristics. It can be considered a mix of fire and electricity, concentrated in a fireball with a diameter of 20-cm that most commonly appears suddenly, even in indoor conditions, during a thunderstorm. It moves quickly for several meters, can change direction, and ultimately disappears. During a great storm, a 28-year-old man and his 5-year-old daughter sustained burn wounds after ball lightning came from the outdoors through a chimney. These two patients demonstrated signs of fire and electrical injuries. The father, who lost consciousness, sustained superficial second-degree burn wounds bilaterally on the zygomatic area and deep second-degree burn wounds on his right hand (total body surface area, 4%). His daughter demonstrated superficial second-degree burn wounds on the left part of the face and deep second-degree and third-degree burn wounds (total body surface area, 30%) on the left neck, both upper arms, and the back. In this article, the authors report the first two cases of burn injuries resulting from ball lightning contact indoors. The literature on this rare phenomenon is reviewed to elucidate the nature of ball lightning. Emphasis is placed on the nature of injuries after ball lightning contact, the therapy used, and the long-term complications. PMID:12792547

Selvaggi, Gennaro; Monstrey, Stan; von Heimburg, Dennis; Hamdi, Mustapha; Van Landuyt, Koen; Blondeel, Phillip

2003-05-01

276

Estimating concentrated flow erodibility parameters from pre- and post-fire rangeland field data for physically-based erosion modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In physically based soil erosion models a concentrated flow erodibility parameter is necessary to run the model. This parameter is usually set to a relatively insignificant value when applying models on rangeland ecosystems as soil erosion induced by concentrated flow on these ecosystems tends to be low compared with those on cropland. However, after a fire, concentrated flow is often the dominant source of water erosion especially on steep slopes. Hence, the erodibility parameter becomes a very important factor in estimating the erosion rate after such disturbance. In this study, we estimated the concentrated flow erodibility using field experimental data over diverse rangeland landscapes within the Great Basin Region, United States. The vegetation community ranges from sagebrush steppe to pinyon-juniper woodland. Many of the sites exhibit some degree of wildfire or prescribed fire. The erodibility parameters were measured before and after fire. In some sites erodibility was also measured one, two, and three years after fire. The results showed that in general concentrated flow erodibility increased significantly after fire. In some sites, erodibility continued to increase until the second year after fire where erodibility starts to decline. The results also show that concentrated flow erodibility was not constant within each experimental run where in most cases erodibility has a high value at the beginning and then starts to decline due to reduction of sediment availability. Using the data in this study we developed an empirical equation to predict the change of erodibility as a function of cumulative unit discharge. The empirical function can be used for parameterizing the concentrated flow erosion component of physically based models on burned rangeland.

Al-Hamdan, O. Z.; Pierson, F. B.; Williams, C. J.; Nearing, M.; Stone, J.; Kormos, P. R.; Boll, J.; Weltz, M. A.

2011-12-01

277

Community integration after burn injuries.  

PubMed

Evaluation of community integration is a meaningful outcome criterion after major burn injury. The Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ) was administered to 463 individuals with major burn injuries. The CIQ results in Total, Home Integration, Social Integration, and Productivity scores. The purposes of this study were to determine change in CIQ scores over time and what burn injury and demographic factors predict CIQ scores. The CIQ scores did not change significantly from 6 to 12 to 24 months postburn injury. Home integration scores were best predicted by sex and living situation; Social Integration scores by marital status; and Productivity scores by functional outcome, burn severity, age, and preburn work factors. The data demonstrate that individuals with burn injuries have significant difficulties with community integration due to burn and nonburn related factors. CIQ scores did not improve over time but improvement may have occurred before the initial 6-month postburn injury follow-up in this study. PMID:11403244

Esselman, P C; Ptacek, J T; Kowalske, K; Cromes, G F; deLateur, B J; Engrav, L H

2001-01-01

278

Evaluation of the penetration strength, bactericidal efficacy and spectrum of action of several antimicrobial creams against isolated microorganisms in a burn centre.  

PubMed

The antibacterial activity of eight antiseptic creams: 1 per cent silver sulphadiazine; 0.2 per cent nitrofurazone; 0.1, 0.5 and 1 per cent chlorhexidine; 2.2 per cent cerium nitrate; 10 per cent povidone iodine; and 1 per cent silver sulphadiazine with 2.2 per cent cerium nitrate were evaluated in vitro. The evaluation included the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against 100 microorganisms isolated from burn patients, the chronology of the bacterial activity against Ps. aeruginosa and Staph. aureus and the penetration strength of the creams through a novel in vitro model contaminated with 17 microorganisms of different species isolated from burn patients. The results revealed that 0.5 per cent or 1 per cent chlorhexidine, 2.2 per cent cerium nitrate, and 1 per cent silver sulphadiazine with 2.2 per cent cerium nitrate were the creams which were effective at the highest dilutions. 0.5 per cent chlorhexidine and 10 per cent povidone iodine had the greater bactericidal activity. Finally, 0.2 per cent nitrofurazone showed greater penetration strength within the eschar model in comparison with the weaker penetration of 0.5 per cent and 1 per cent chlorhexidine and the absence of penetration by the rest of the antibacterial creams. PMID:1558672

Herruzo-Cabrera, R; Garcia-Torres, V; Rey-Calero, J; Vizcaino-Alcaide, M J

1992-02-01

279

A one year post-fire biogeochemical cycling record of a sandstone mountain fynbos ecosystem, South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cape Floristic Region (CFR) in southwestern South Africa is a Mediterranean-type ecosystem dominated by highly diverse and endemic fynbos vegetation. In this study, the chemistry of rainwater (total wet and dry deposition), stream water and soil saturated paste extracts of the sandstone fynbos biome of the Kogelberg Biosphere Reserve reveals how the cycling of Cl, Na, SO4,Mg, Ca and K varied over a one year period following a major fire event. Fire is a critical component of fynbos ecology, but the fynbos ecosystem is under threat as the fire return frequency increases as a result of human activities. The underlying bedrock geology of the sandstone fynbos biome is dominated by quartz-rich (>97 wt% SiO2) sandstone providing few nutrients to the overlying thin (2 to 20 cm), acidic soils. Additional sources of nutrients to the ecosystem are derived from windblown marine and dust (consisting of minerals, organic matter and fire ash) aerosols. Rainout of marine aerosols decreases away from the coast. The delivery of marine aerosols (Cl, Na, SO4and Mg) corresponds with summer southerly winds from the ocean and windblown dust (SO4,Mg, Ca and K) is delivered through winter northerly winds from the continental interior. Remineralization of organic matter, dissolution of fire ash and chemical weathering of clay minerals derived from the bedrock and from windblown minerals provide additional sources of nutrients to the vegetation. Salts accumulated within and on top of soil surfaces during the dry summer period are washed into streams during the wet winter months. Afromontane forests occur within deep rocky ravines cut by mountain streams and are protected from fire. The afromontane vegetation did not burn during the fire and benefited from the release of nutrients but regrowth of fynbos on open burnt slopes was slow and most of the released nutrients were lost via streams. Fynbos regrowth largely reflected the hydrology of the study area and corresponded to the pre-fire distribution of biomass with relatively low biomass on mountain ridges and slopes in comparison to lower slopes and valley floors, particularly along stream banks. The removal of above ground plant biomass increased streamflow from the reduction in transpiration and rainfall interception by plants. Hydrophobicity in soils increased following the fire leading to partially burnt organic plant debris being washed down slope to accumulate on the lower slopes and stream valley floors. The geochemical results of this study provide insights on the climate-hydrology-soil interactions of the fynbos ecosystem and its unusually rich biodiversity. The resetting of the ecosystem every 20 to 40 years by fire and the interaction between atmospheric processes and hydrology likely enhances its long term survival.

Bergh, E.; Compton, J. S.

2012-04-01

280

Burn Teams and Burn Centers: The Importance of a Comprehensive Team Approach to Burn Care  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Advances in burn care have been colossal, but while extra work is needed, it is clear that the organized effort of burn teams can continue making improvements in survival rates and quality of life possible for patients. Burn patients are unique, representing the most severe model of trauma,33 and hence this necessitates treatment in the best facilities available for that endeavor. Burn centers have developed to meet these intricate needs but can only function productively and most efficiently through well organized, multifaceted, patient-centered teams in areas of clinical care and research.

Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M.; Mecott-Rivera, Gabriel A.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Herndon, David N.

2009-01-01

281

Low-power laser-based carbon monoxide sensor for fire and post-fire detection using a compact Herriott multipass cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the anticipated retirement of Space Shuttles in the next few years, the re-supplying of short-lifetime sensors on the International Space Station (ISS) will be logistically more difficult. Carbon Monoxide (CO) is a well-known combustion product and its absence in a fire and post-fire environment is a reliable indicator for mission specialists that the air quality is at a safe to breathe level. We report on the development and performance of a prototype compact CO sensor, based on the PHOTONS platform [1], developed for the ISS based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). A CO absorption line at ~4285 cm-1 is targeted using a distributed-feedback (DFB) laser diode operating at room temperature. A custom designed Herriott multipass cell 16cm long, with an effective path length of 3.7 m is employed. Mechanical, optical and electronics systems are integrated into a compact package of dimensions measuring 12.4"x 3.4"x 5". Power consumption is less than 1 W, enabling prolonged battery life. A detection limit of 3 ppm is achieved when performing 40 second long temperature scans. A recent initial test at NASA-JSC was successful. Future improvements include the reduction of the sampling volume, scan time and an improved CO minimum detection limit.

Thomazy, David; So, Stephen; Kosterev, Anatoliy; Lewicki, Rafal; Dong, Lei; Sani, Ardalan A.; Tittel, Frank K.

2010-01-01

282

Burning manifolds and burning lobes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present experimental studies of the propagation of a reaction front in a fluid flow composed of a chain of alternating vortices. We propose that the tools used to describe the transport of a passive impurity in a flow can be expanded to account for the behavior of a reaction front. In particular, we propose that motion of a reaction front from one region to another in the flow is determined by burning manifolds and burning lobes. These ideas are tested experimentally for both the time-independent and time-dependent vortex chain. For a time-independent flow, the time that it takes for a triggered reaction to propagate from one vortex to the next is the minimum time ? for the stable burning manifold BS(?) to envelope the original trigger point. For a time-dependent (oscillatory) vortex chain, we use the burning manifold/lobe framework to explain mode-locking behavior seen in earlier studies.ootnotetextM.S. Paoletti and T.H. Solomon, Europhys. Lett. 69, 819 (2005); Phys. Rev. E 72, 046204 (2005).

Kingsbury, Mark; Solomon, Tom

2010-11-01

283

Mass burning  

SciTech Connect

With only minimal sorting, garbage can be used to fire a boiler. But the design of a refuse-to-energy plant must account for the corrosive and abrasive nature of the fuel and must include means of scrubbing flue gases and removing ash. This paper describes the working of a typical mass-burning plant. Topics are grouped under the following headings: Firing equipment, Boiler Design, Control and operation, Research and Development, Air Pollution Controls, Ash removal.

Adkin, P.

1988-12-01

284

Characterizing the primary material sources and dominant erosional processes for post-fire debris-flow initiation in a headwater basin using multi-temporal terrestrial laser scanning data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfire dramatically alters the hydrologic response of a watershed such that even modest rainstorms can produce hazardous debris flows. Relative to shallow landslides, the primary sources of material and dominant erosional processes that contribute to post-fire debris-flow initiation are poorly constrained. Improving our understanding of how and where material is eroded from a watershed during a post-fire debris-flow requires (1) precise measurements of topographic change to calculate volumetric measurements of erosion and deposition, and (2) the identification of relevant morphometrically defined process domains to spatially constrain these measurements of erosion and deposition. In this study, we combine the morphometric analysis of a steep, small (0.01 km2) headwater drainage basin with measurements of topographic change using high-resolution (2.5 cm) multi-temporal terrestrial laser scanning data made before and after a post-fire debris flow. The results of the morphometric analysis are used to define four process domains: hillslope-divergent, hillslope-convergent, transitional, and channelized incision. We determine that hillslope-divergent and hillslope-convergent process domains represent the primary sources of material over the period of analysis in the study basin. From these results we conclude that raindrop-impact induced erosion, ravel, surface wash, and rilling are the primary erosional processes contributing to post-fire debris-flow initiation in the small, steep headwater basin. Further work is needed to determine (1) how these results vary with increasing drainage basin size, (2) how these data might scale upward for use with coarser resolution measurements of topography, and (3) how these results change with evolving sediment supply conditions and vegetation recovery.

Staley, Dennis M.; Wasklewicz, Thad A.; Kean, Jason W.

2014-06-01

285

Characterizing the primary material sources and dominant erosional processes for post-fire debris-flow initiation in a headwater basin using multi-temporal terrestrial laser scanning data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wildfire dramatically alters the hydrologic response of a watershed such that even modest rainstorms can produce hazardous debris flows. Relative to shallow landslides, the primary sources of material and dominant erosional processes that contribute to post-fire debris-flow initiation are poorly constrained. Improving our understanding of how and where material is eroded from a watershed during a post-fire debris-flow requires (1) precise measurements of topographic change to calculate volumetric measurements of erosion and deposition, and (2) the identification of relevant morphometrically defined process domains to spatially constrain these measurements of erosion and deposition. In this study, we combine the morphometric analysis of a steep, small (0.01 km2) headwater drainage basin with measurements of topographic change using high-resolution (2.5 cm) multi-temporal terrestrial laser scanning data made before and after a post-fire debris flow. The results of the morphometric analysis are used to define four process domains: hillslope-divergent, hillslope-convergent, transitional, and channelized incision. We determine that hillslope-divergent and hillslope-convergent process domains represent the primary sources of material over the period of analysis in the study basin. From these results we conclude that raindrop-impact induced erosion, ravel, surface wash, and rilling are the primary erosional processes contributing to post-fire debris-flow initiation in the small, steep headwater basin. Further work is needed to determine (1) how these results vary with increasing drainage basin size, (2) how these data might scale upward for use with coarser resolution measurements of topography, and (3) how these results change with evolving sediment supply conditions and vegetation recovery.

Staley, Dennis M.; Waslewicz, Thad A; Kean, Jason W.

2014-01-01

286

Global Burned Area and Biomass Burning Emissions from Small Fires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity analyses of key model parameters caused estimates of global burned area increases from small fires to vary between 24% and 54%. Biomass burning carbon emissions increased by 35% at a global scale when small fires were included in GFED3, from 1.9 Pg C/yr to 2.5 Pg C/yr. The contribution of tropical forest fires to year-to-year variability in carbon fluxes increased because small fires amplified emissions from Central America, South America and Southeast Asia-regions where drought stress and burned area varied considerably from year to year in response to El Nino-Southern Oscillation and other climate modes.

Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.

2012-01-01

287

Aztreonam pharmacokinetics in burn patients.  

PubMed Central

The pharmacokinetics of aztreonam in eight adult patients with severe burn injuries (total body surface area burn, 49% +/- 21% [mean +/- standard deviation]) were studied. The time of initiation of study following burn injury was 7.0 +/- 1.4 days. Four patients at first dose and at steady state were studied. Aztreonam concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, and a two-compartment model was used to fit the data. No significant differences in any pharmacokinetic parameters between first dose and steady state were observed. Volume of distribution of the central compartment after first dose (0.14 liters/kg) and volume of distribution at steady state (0.31 liters/kg) were approximately 30% higher than those reported for other patient populations. Total drug clearance and renal drug clearance when normalized to creatinine clearance (CLCR) were similar to those previously reported for other critically ill patients. CLCR was strongly correlated with renal drug clearance (r = 0.94) and total drug clearance (r = 0.95). The extent and degree of burn (percent second or third degree burn) were poorly correlated with all pharmacokinetic parameters with the exception of the volume of distribution at steady state, which was correlated with both total body surface area burn (r = 0.95) and percent second degree burn (r = 0.83). Aztreonam pharmacokinetics are altered as a result of thermal injury; however, CLCR can be used to assess the clearance of aztreonam in burn patients.

Friedrich, L V; White, R L; Kays, M B; Brundage, D M; Yarbrough, D

1991-01-01

288

Testing the potential of multi-spectral remote sensing for retrospectively estimating fire severity in African Savannahs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The remote sensing of fire severity is a noted goal in studies of forest and grassland wildfires. Experiments were conducted to discover and evaluate potential relationships between the characteristics of African savannah fires and post-fire surface spectral reflectance in the visible to shortwave infrared spectral region. Nine instrumented experimental fires were conducted in semi-arid woodland savannah of Chobe National Park

Alistair M. S. Smith; Martin J. Wooster; Nick A. Drake; Frederick M. Dipotso; Michael J. Falkowski; Andrew T. Hudak

2005-01-01

289

Fire severity, residuals and soil legacies affect regeneration of Scots pine in the Southern Alps.  

PubMed

Regeneration of non fire-adapted conifers following crown fires on the European Alps is often delayed or unsuccessful. Fire may limit establishment by eliminating seed trees, altering soil properties, or modifying microsite and soil conditions via disturbance legacies. However, the effect of soil legacies on post-fire establishment has rarely been discussed. We analyzed the abundance of Scots pine regeneration in a 257 ha wildfire in an inner-alpine forest. Our aims were (1) to model fire intensity at the soil surface and topsoil heating along a gradient of increasing fire severities; (2) to assess the differences in soil properties along the fire severity gradient; (3) to model the effect of disturbance and soil legacies on the density of pine seedlings. We reconstructed fire behavior and soil heating with the First Order Fire Effects Model (FOFEM), tested the effect of fire severity on soils by nonparametric distributional tests, and modeled seedling density as a function of site, disturbance and soil legacies by fitting a GLM following a variable selection procedure. Topsoil heating differed markedly between the moderate and high severity fires, reaching temperatures high enough to strongly and permanently alter soil properties only in the latter. High fire severity resulted in decreased soil consistency and wet aggregate stability. Burned soils had lower organic matter and cations than those unburned. Pine seedlings favored low-fertility, eroded, and chemically poor sites. Establishment was facilitated by the presence of coarse woody debris, but hampered by increasing distance from the seed source. These results suggest that in dry, inner-alpine valleys, fire residuals and soil legacies interact in determining the success of Scots pine re-establishment. High severity fire can promote favorable soil conditions, but distance from the seed source and high evaporation rates of bare soils must be mitigated in order to ensure a successful restoration. PMID:24334000

Vacchiano, Giorgio; Stanchi, Silvia; Marinari, Giulia; Ascoli, Davide; Zanini, Ermanno; Motta, Renzo

2014-02-15

290

Tracking sources of severe haze episodes and their physicochemical and hygroscopic properties under Asian continental outflow: Long-range transport pollution, postharvest biomass burning, and Asian dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerosol physicochemical and hygroscopic properties were measured from 12 October to 21 November 2005 at a downwind area of the Asian continental outflow (Gwangju, Korea) to characterize severe haze episodes. Using optically measured elemental carbon (EC) at 660 nm (Opt.EC) and 880 nm (BC) wavelengths and Mie theory, it was estimated that the higher BC\\/Opt.EC ratio during the cloudy day

Jinsang Jung; Young J. Kim

2011-01-01

291

A conceptual model for the link between Central American biomass burning aerosols and severe weather over the south central United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Each spring, smoke particles from fires over the Yucatan Peninsula and south Mexico cross over the Gulf of Mexico into the United States (US) under the control of moist oceanic air flow from the southwestern branch of the subtropical (Bermuda) high. Smoke can be transported deep into the south central US, where dry lines and warm conveyor belts are frequently formed and cause deep convection and severe weather. Lyons et al (1998 Science 282 77-80) and Murray et al (2000 Geophys. Res. Lett. 27 2249-52) noticed a ~50% increase of lightning along the smoke transport path over the south central US during the May 1998 Central American smoke episode. Here we present a conceptual model of coherent microphysical and meteorological mechanisms through which smoke may impact convective clouds and subsequently result in more severe weather over the south central US. The conceptual model depicts a chain of processes in which smoke particles are first activated as cloud condensation nuclei when they are entrained into the warm conveyor belt, a convective zone formed over the south central US as a result of the encounter between the mid-latitude trough and the subtropical Bermuda high. As the convection continues with deepening of the mid-latitude trough, the greater concentration of water cloud condensation nuclei delays the warm rain processes, enhances the development of ice clouds, and invigorates the updrafts, all of which contribute to the formation of severe weather such as hail and lightning. The conceptual model is based on the reasoning of physical mechanisms revealed in previous studies (over the tropical biomass region), and is supported here through the analysis of satellite data, ground observations, aerosol transport model results, and idealized cloud resolving simulations of a day in May 2003 when record tornado events occurred over the south central US. Further assessment of this conceptual model is discussed for future investigations.

Wang, Jun; van den Heever, Susan C.; Reid, Jeffrey S.

2009-01-01

292

Rehabilitation of the burn patient  

PubMed Central

Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of burn treatment. It is not something which takes place following healing of skin grafts or discharge from hospital; instead it is a process that starts from day one of admission and continues for months and sometimes years after the initial event. Burns rehabilitation is not something which is completed by one or two individuals but should be a team approach, incorporating the patient and when appropriate, their family. The term ‘Burns Rehabilitation’ incorporates the physical, psychological and social aspects of care and it is common for burn patients to experience difficulties in one or all of these areas following a burn injury. Burns can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. The aims of burn rehabilitation are to minimise the adverse effects caused by the injury in terms of maintaining range of movement, minimising contracture development and impact of scarring, maximising functional ability, maximising psychological wellbeing, maximising social integration

Procter, Fiona

2010-01-01

293

[Burning mouth syndrome (glossalgia)].  

PubMed

Burning mouth syndrome (glossalgia) is manifested by oral pin and tingling sensations, numbness and even burning and severe pains, more frequently in the tongue. Unpleasant sensations may involve the anterior two thirds of the tongue or be extended to the front part of the hard palate and the mucous membrane of the lower lip. This condition is characterized by "mirror" and "food dominant" symptoms, disordered salivation, dysgeusia, or psychological disorders. The disease shows a chronic course. Its etiology may be multifactorial. There are no universally accepted diagnostic criteria; the diagnosis of glossalgia is made to rule out all other causes. A thorough examination should be conducted to establish a differential diagnosis. Glossalgia occurs primarily in middle-aged and elderly people. Women get sick much more frequently than men of the same age. Glossalgia remains difficult to treat. Continuous symptomatic treatment and follow-up help relieve its symptoms. PMID:24757710

2014-01-01

294

Burns and beauty nails.  

PubMed

A case involving a five-month-old girl brought to the emergency department with burns over her abdomen is described. The child was reported to have spilled two small bottles of beauty nail adhesive on her clothes while her mother was preparing dinner. After undressing the infant, the mother discovered several lesions on the child's abdomen and quickly sought medical attention. Given the unusual circumstances of the presentation, the child was hospitalized for both treatment and supervision. The beauty nail adhesive contained cyanoacrylate. In addition to its well-appreciated adhesive capacity, cyanoacrylate, in the presence of cotton or other tissues, is known to produce an exothermic reaction that may cause burns. Cyanoacrylate-based products, due to their possible adverse effects, should be kept away from children as advised. Odd injuries should always raise concerns about the possibility of inflicted injury. PMID:24421671

Bélanger, Richard E; Marcotte, Marie-Eve; Bégin, François

2013-03-01

295

Burns and beauty nails  

PubMed Central

A case involving a five-month-old girl brought to the emergency department with burns over her abdomen is described. The child was reported to have spilled two small bottles of beauty nail adhesive on her clothes while her mother was preparing dinner. After undressing the infant, the mother discovered several lesions on the child’s abdomen and quickly sought medical attention. Given the unusual circumstances of the presentation, the child was hospitalized for both treatment and supervision. The beauty nail adhesive contained cyanoacrylate. In addition to its well-appreciated adhesive capacity, cyanoacrylate, in the presence of cotton or other tissues, is known to produce an exothermic reaction that may cause burns. Cyanoacrylate-based products, due to their possible adverse effects, should be kept away from children as advised. Odd injuries should always raise concerns about the possibility of inflicted injury.

Belanger, Richard E; Marcotte, Marie-Eve; Begin, Francois

2013-01-01

296

[Primary care and assessment of extended burn].  

PubMed

Extended burn is a severe trauma makes patients easily critical status without appropriate cure and assessment. In order to ride out hypovolemic shock, it is necessary to manage the internal water, the state of respiration and wound treatment and assess the depth of burn wound. Initialy we assess the burned area and it's depth, then we calculate the amount of water which will be necessary on acute phase for the patient We will resect the part of deep dermal burn immediately to reduce the causes of infection. The patient will need a graft operation as soon as we can to avoid the severe infection. PMID:16869125

Shimamoto, Minoru; Kawai, Makoto; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro

2005-12-01

297

Chemical Debridement of Burns  

PubMed Central

The development of effective, non-toxic (local and systemic) methods for the rapid chemical (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) debridement of third degree burns would dramatically reduce the morbidity and mortality of severely burned patients. Sepsis is still the major cause of death of patients with extensive deep burns. The removal of the devitalized tissue, without damage to unburned skin or skin only partially injured by burning, and in ways which would permit immediate (or very prompt) skin grafting, would lessen substantially the problems of sepsis, speed convalescence and the return of these individuals to society as effective human beings, and would decrease deaths. The usefulness and limitations of surgical excision for patients with extensive third degree burns are discussed. Chemical debridement lends itself to complementary use with surgical excision and has the potential advantage over surgical excision in not requiring anesthesia or a formal surgical operation. The authors' work with the chemical debridement of burns, in particular the use of Bromelain, indicates that this approach will likely achieve clinical usefulness. The experimental studies indicate that rapid controlled debridement, with minimal local and systemic toxicity, is possible, and that effective chemotherapeutic agents may be combined with the Bromelain without either interfering with the actions of the other. The authors believe that rapid (hours) debridement accomplished by the combined use of chemical debriding and chemotherapeutic agents will obviate the possibility of any increase in infection, caused by the use of chemical agents for debridement, as reported for Paraenzyme21 and Travase.39,48 It is possible that the short term use of systemic antibiotics begun just before and continued during, and for a short time after, the rapid chemical debridement may prove useful for the prevention of infection, as appears to be the case for abdominal operations of the clean-contaminated and contaminated types. ImagesFigs. 1a-c.Fig. 1b.Fig. 1c.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9a.Fig. 9B.Fig. 10.Fig. 11.Figs. 12a-c.Fig. 12b.Fig. 12c.Figs. 14a-c.Fig. 14b.Fig. 14c.Figs. 15a-c.Fig. 15b.Fig. 15c.

Levenson, Stanley M.; Kan, Dorinne; Gruber, Charles; Crowley, Leo V.; Lent, Richard; Watford, Alvin; Seifter, Eli

1974-01-01

298

Direct and indirect responses of tallgrass prairie butterflies to prescribed burning  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fire is an important tool in the conservation and restoration of tallgrass prairie ecosystems. We investigated how both the vegetation composition and butterfly community of tallgrass prairie remnants changed in relation to the elapsed time (in months) since prescribed fire. Butterfly richness and butterfly abundance were positively correlated with the time since burn. Habitat-specialist butterfly richness recovery time was greater than 70 months post-fire and habitat-specialist butterfly abundance recovery time was approximately 50 months post-fire. Thus, recovery times for butterfly populations after prescribed fires in our study were potentially longer than those previously reported. We used Path Analysis to evaluate the relative contributions of the direct effect of time since fire and the indirect effects of time since fire through changes in vegetation composition on butterfly abundance. Path models highlighted the importance of the indirect effects of fire on habitat features, such as increases in the cover of bare ground. Because fire return intervals on managed prairie remnants are often less than 5 years, information on recovery times for habitat-specialist insect species are of great importance. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Vogel, J. A.; Koford, R. R.; Debinski, D. M.

2010-01-01

299

Burns in diabetic patients  

PubMed Central

CONTEXT AND AIMS: Diabetic burn patients comprise a significant population in burn centers. The purpose of this study was to determine the demographic characteristics of diabetic burn patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective data were collected on 94 diabetic burn patients between March 20, 2000 and March 20, 2006. Of 3062 burns patients, 94 (3.1%) had diabetes; these patients were compared with 2968 nondiabetic patients with burns. Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical analysis software SPSS 10.05. Differences between the two groups were evaluated using Student's t-test and the chi square test. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. RESULTS: The major mechanism of injury for the diabetic patients was scalding and flame burns, as was also the case in the nondiabetic burn patients. The diabetic burn patients were significantly older, with a lower percentage of total burn surface area (TBSA) than the nondiabetic burn population. There was significant difference between the diabetic and nondiabetic patients in terms of frequency of infection. No difference in mortality rate between diabetic and nondiabetic burn patients was observed. The most common organism in diabetic and nondiabetic burn patients was methicillin-resistant staphylococcus. Increasing %TBSA burn and the presence of inhalation injury are significantly associated with increased mortality following burn injury. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetics have a higher propensity for infection. Education for diabetic patients must include caution about potential burn mishaps and the complications that may ensue from burns.

Maghsoudi, Hemmat; Aghamohammadzadeh, Naser; Khalili, Nasim

2008-01-01

300

Burns: an update on current pharmacotherapy  

PubMed Central

Introduction The world-wide occurrence of burn injuries remains high despite efforts to reduce injury incidence through public awareness campaigns and improvements in living conditions. In 2004, almost 11 million people experienced burns severe enough to warrant medical treatment. Advances over the past several decades in aggressive resuscitation, nutrition, excision, and grafting have reduced morbidity and mortality. Incorporation of pharmacotherapeutics into treatment regimens may further reduce complications of severe burn injuries. Areas covered Severe burn injuries, as well as other forms of stress and trauma, trigger a hypermetabolic response that, if left untreated, impedes recovery. In the past two decades, use of anabolic agents, beta adrenergic receptor antagonists, and anti-hyperglycemic agents has successfully counteracted post-burn morbidities including catabolism, the catecholamine-mediated response, and insulin resistance. Here we review the most up-to-date information on currently used pharmacotherapies in the treatment of these sequelae of severe burns and the insights that have expanded our understanding of the pathophysiology of severe burns. Expert opinion Existing drugs offer promising advances in the care of burn injuries. Continued gains in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving the hypermetabolic response will enable the application of additional existing drugs to be broadened to further attenuate the hypermetabolic response.

Rojas, Yesinia; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Radhakrishnan, Ravi S.; Herndon, David N.

2013-01-01

301

Fluid management in major burn injuries  

PubMed Central

It is a widely accepted fact that severe fluid loss is the greatest problem faced following major burn injuries. Therefore, effective fluid resuscitation is one of the cornerstones of modern burn treatment. The aim of this article is to review the current approaches available for modern trends in fluid management for major burn patients. As these current approaches are based on various experiences all over the world, the knowledge is essential to improve the status of this patient group.

Haberal, Mehmet; Sakallioglu Abali, A. Ebru; Karakayali, Hamdi

2010-01-01

302

Burning mouth syndrome.  

PubMed

Pain in the tongue or oral tissues described as "burning" has been referred to by many terms including burning mouth syndrome. When a burning sensation in the mouth is caused by local or systemic factors, it is called secondary burning mouth syndrome and when these factors are treated the pain will resolve. When burning mouth syndrome occurs in the absence of identified risk indicators, the term primary burning mouth syndrome is utilized. This article focuses on descriptions, etiologic theories, and management of primary burning mouth syndrome, a condition for which underlying causative agents have been ruled out. PMID:23201368

Crow, Heidi C; Gonzalez, Yoly

2013-02-01

303

Nutrition in Burns: Galveston Contributions  

PubMed Central

Aggressive nutrition support is recommended following severe burn injury. Initially, such injury results in a prolonged and persistent hypermetabolic response mediated by a 10- to 20-fold elevation in plasma catecholamines, cortisol, and inflammatory mediators. This response leads to twice-normal metabolic rates, whole-body catabolism, muscle wasting, and severe cachexia. Thus, it is relevant to review the literature on nutrition in burns to adjust/update treatment. Failure to meet the increased substrate requirements may result in impaired wound healing, multiorgan dysfunction, increased susceptibility to infection, and death. Therefore, aggressive nutrition support is essential to ensure adequate burn care, attenuate the hypermetabolic response, optimize wound healing, minimize devastating catabolism, and reduce morbidity and mortality. Here, the authors provide nutrition recommendations gained from prospective trials, retrospective analyses, and expert opinions based on the authors' practices in Galveston, Texas, and Vienna, Austria.

Rodriguez, Noe A.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Williams, Felicia N.; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Herndon, David N.

2013-01-01

304

Lessons learned from an emergency release of a post-fire debris-flow hazard assessment for the 2009 Station fire, San Gabriel Mountains, southern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2009 Station fire burned through portions of the steep, rugged terrain of the San Gabriel Mountains in southern California with a known history of producing large magnitude debris flows following fires. In response to the emergency, the U.S. Geological Survey released an assessment of debris-flow hazards as maps showing estimates of the probability and volume of debris-flow production from

S. H. Cannon; S. C. Perry; D. M. Staley

2010-01-01

305

Trial burns for hazardous waste incinerators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This guide concentrates on those aspects of a trial burn that are the most important and those that are potentially troublesome. It contains practical explanations based on experience of Midwest Research Institute (MRI) and others in conducting trial burns and related tests for EPA. Comments of several industrial plant owners and operators are included in the Guide. It is directed

P. Gorman; R. Hathaway; D. Wallace; A. Trenholm

1987-01-01

306

Parenteral nutrition providing a restricted amount of linoleic acid in severely burned patients: a randomised double-blind study of an olive oil-based lipid emulsion v. medium/long-chain triacylglycerols.  

PubMed

It has been claimed that lipid emulsions with a restricted linoleic acid content can improve the safety of total parenteral nutrition (TPN). The tolerability of TPN and its effects on the metabolism of fatty acids were assessed in this prospective, double-blind, randomised study comparing an olive/soyabean oil long-chain triacylglycerol (LCT) with a medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT)/LCT; 50:50 (w) based lipid emulsion in two groups (O and M, respectively; eleven per group) of severely burned patients. After resuscitation (48-72 h), patients received TPN providing 147 kJ/kg per d (35 kcal/kg per d) with fat (1.3 g/kg per d) for 6 d Plasma fatty acids, laboratory parameters including liver function tests, and plasma cytokines were assessed before and after TPN. Adverse events encountered during TPN and the clinical outcomes of patients within the subsequent 6 months were recorded. With both lipid emulsions, the conversion of linoleic acid in its higher derivatives (di-homo-gamma-linolenic acid) improved and essential fatty acid deficiency did not appear. Abnormalities of liver function tests occurred more frequently in the M (nine) than in the O (three) group (P = 0.04, Suissa-Shuster test). Seven patients (four from group O and three from group M) died as a consequence of severe sepsis 3-37 d after completion of the 6 d TPN period. When compared with the surviving patients, those who died were older (P = 0.01) and hyperglycaemic at baseline (P < 0.001), and their plasma IL-6 levels continued to increase (P < 0.04). Although fatty acid metabolism and TPN tolerability were similar with both lipid emulsions, the preservation of liver function noted with the use of the olive oil-based lipid emulsions deserves confirmation. PMID:16115356

García-de-Lorenzo, A; Denia, R; Atlan, P; Martinez-Ratero, S; Le Brun, A; Evard, D; Bereziat, G

2005-08-01

307

40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

2013-07-01

308

40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

2013-07-01

309

Burning Rate Emulator  

NASA Video Gallery

The Burning Rate Emulator is a gas fuel investigation attempting to emulate the burning of solids to improve our understanding of materials''flammability over a wide range of conditions. The approa...

310

Minor burns - aftercare  

MedlinePLUS

... all clothes that have the chemical on them. Cool the burn. Use cool water, not ice. If possible, especially if the ... caused by chemicals, hold the burned skin under cool running water for 10 to 15 minutes until ...

311

High burn rate solid composite propellants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High burn rate propellants help maintain high levels of thrust without requiring complex, high surface area grain geometries. Utilizing high burn rate propellants allows for simplified grain geometries that not only make production of the grains easier, but the simplified grains tend to have better mechanical strength, which is important in missiles undergoing high-g accelerations. Additionally, high burn rate propellants allow for a higher volumetric loading which reduces the overall missile's size and weight. The purpose of this study is to present methods of achieving a high burn rate propellant and to develop a composite propellant formulation that burns at 1.5 inches per second at 1000 psia. In this study, several means of achieving a high burn rate propellant were presented. In addition, several candidate approaches were evaluated using the Kepner-Tregoe method with hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB)-based propellants using burn rate modifiers and dicyclopentadiene (DCPD)-based propellants being selected for further evaluation. Propellants with varying levels of nano-aluminum, nano-iron oxide, FeBTA, and overall solids loading were produced using the HTPB binder and evaluated in order to determine the effect the various ingredients have on the burn rate and to find a formulation that provides the burn rate desired. Experiments were conducted to compare the burn rates of propellants using the binders HTPB and DCPD. The DCPD formulation matched that of the baseline HTPB mix. Finally, GAP-plasticized DCPD gumstock dogbones were attempted to be made for mechanical evaluation. Results from the study show that nano-additives have a substantial effect on propellant burn rate with nano-iron oxide having the largest influence. Of the formulations tested, the highest burn rate was a 84% solids loading mix using nano-aluminum nano-iron oxide, and ammonium perchlorate in a 3:1(20 micron: 200 micron) ratio which achieved a burn rate of 1.2 inches per second at 1000 psia. In addition, DCPD propellant was shown to burn at twice the rate of HTPB propellant, most likely a result of its lower decomposition temperature. A high burn rate DCPD propellant was developed, but due to poor wetting, the resulting propellant was brittle and fragmented during strand burn testing. Lastly, GAP-plasticized DCPD gumstocks were not able to be produced most likely due to an interaction between GAP and the cure catalyst for DCPD.

Manship, Timothy D.

312

78 FR 41499 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status for the Northern Mexican...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...decreased dissolved oxygen in suitable...velocity.'' High-Intensity...corresponding ash flows resulted in...p. 4). High severity burns...Post-fire ash flows, flooding...the dissolved oxygen content where...and higher high-flows), and...

2013-07-10

313

Workplace-related burns.  

PubMed

Introduction. The key element of a safe workplace for employees is the maintenance of fire safety. Thermal, chemical, and electrical burns are common types of burns at the workplace. This study assessed the epidemiology of work-related burn injuries on the basis of the workers treated in a regional burn centre. Methods. Two years' retrospective data (2005-2006) from the Trauma Registry of the American College of Surgeons of the Joseph M. Still Burn Center at Doctors Hospital in Augusta, Georgia, were collected and analysed. Results. During the time period studied, 2510 adult patients with acute burns were admitted; 384 cases (15%) were work-related. The average age of the patients was 37 yr (range, 15-72 yr). Males constituted the majority (90%) of workrelated burn injury admissions. The racial distribution was in accordance with the Centre's admission census. Industrial plant explosions accounted for the highest number of work-related burns and, relatively, a significant number of patients had chemical burns. The average length of hospital stay was 5.54 days. Only three patients did not have health insurance and four patients (1%) died. Conclusion. Burn injuries at the workplace predominantly occur among young male workers, and the study has shown that chemical burns are relatively frequent. This study functions as the basis for the evaluation of work-related burns and identification of the causes of these injuries to formulate adequate safety measures, especially for young, male employees working with chemicals. PMID:22262966

Mian, M A H; Mullins, R F; Alam, B; Brandigi, C; Friedman, B C; Shaver, J R; Hassan, Z

2011-06-30

314

Prescribed Burn Apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Interagency Fire Center (NIFC) is the support center for wild land firefighting in the US located in Boise, ID. One of the many activities that the NIFC coordinates is prescribed burns. Prescribed burns are one of NIFC’smanagement tools to help prevent major forest fires by burning undergrowth and they also help with maintaining and improving habitat. Recently, NIFC

Brett Alspach; Xander Harmon; Kyle Vogel; Matt Murdock

2009-01-01

315

Burns and Fire Safety  

MedlinePLUS

1 Burns and Fire Safety Fact Sheet (2013) Fatalities ? 365 children ages 19 and under died from fires or burns in 2010. 88% ( ... 50% from 1999 to 2010. 1 1999?2010 Fire/Burn Fatalities and Death Rate Among Children Ages ...

316

Burns and Fire Safety  

MedlinePLUS

1 Burns and Fire Safety Fact Sheet (2014) Fatalities ? 325 children ages 19 and under died from fires or burns in 2011. 85% ( ... 55% from 1999 to 2011. 1 1999?2011 Fire/Burn Fatalities and Death Rate Among Children Ages ...

317

Succinylcholine Danger in the Burned Patient.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Interest continues in cardiac arrest during anesthesia in the severely burned patient. Previously reported cases, and the present case have many things in common; debilitation, anxiety, multiple uneventful anesthetic administrations followed by one or mor...

J. D. Tolmie T. H. Joyce G. D. Mitchell

1967-01-01

318

The use of skin substitutes in hand burns.  

PubMed

Several skin substitutes are available that can be used in the management of hand burns; some are intended as temporary covers to expedite healing of shallow burns and others are intended to be used in the surgical management of deep burns. An understanding of skin biology and the relative benefits of each product are needed to determine the optimal role of these products in hand burn management. PMID:19801123

Lou, Richard Benjamin; Hickerson, William L

2009-11-01

319

Early management of the burned pediatric hand.  

PubMed

Unique anatomic and pathophysiologic features of the thermally burned pediatric hand are reviewed, with a focus on direct management of the injured tissue in the early phases of the treatment process. A nonoperative approach to most pediatric hand burns is advocated, and principles of early wound care, including antimicrobial therapy, and escharotomy are described. Specific emphasis is placed on distinctive characteristics of the fifth digit which make it prone to contracture patterns resembling a boutonniere-type deformity and on newer wound care technologies that simplify the application process without loss of antimicrobial and barrier function. The technical principles of full-thickness burn excision, as well as considerations in selecting suitable graft for burn closure, are also discussed. Finally, basic techniques for splinting, positioning, and exercising the burned pediatric hand are described. When properly applied, the principles discussed herein have rendered the severely scarred, functionless hand a rarity after thermal injury. PMID:18650716

Feldmann, Mark E; Evans, Jill; O, Seung-Jun

2008-07-01

320

Burn injury: rehabilitation management in 1982.  

PubMed

Coincident with the recent development of more effective acute care of burn injured patients, has been the growth of dynamic, integrated rehabilitative efforts. The physical, emotional, and social problems that face the thermally injured patient must be solved in a constructive, coordinated manner within the matrix of total patient care. Most burns are minor burns, which may be optimally treated on an outpatient basis in a physical medicine department. Hospitalized patients, with more extensive and severe burns, should have the benefit of rehabilitative team efforts immediately after injury. We describe a comprehensive approach to the rehabilitative care of the thermally injured, including the techniques of wound management, positioning, splinting, and exercise at all chronologic phases of care. The psychosocial component of patient care is also discussed and the importance of counseling and relaxation methods addressed. Specialized problems and therapeutic techniques associated with hand burns are explained and appropriate splinting methods are illustrated. PMID:7034671

Helm, P A; Kevorkian, C G; Lushbaugh, M; Pullium, G; Head, M D; Cromes, G F

1982-01-01

321

Burns associated with fondues.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To describe the causes of burns associated with fondues. DESIGN: Descriptive case series. PATIENTS: All 17 patients admitted to a burn centre between Apr. 1, 1985, and Mar. 31, 1990, whose burns were associated with fondue. Eleven agreed to complete a telephone interview. RESULTS: The age of the 17 patients varied from 2 to 56 (mean 27) years. Two causes were identified: spilling of the contents of the fondue pot and explosion of the fondue fuel when added to the burner during a meal. The telephone interview revealed that eight people other than the respondents were burned during the same accidents. CONCLUSION: Although we identified only badly burned patients the problem may be more extensive. The knowledge of specific causes of burns from handling fondue equipment indicates that preventive action should be undertaken. More epidemiologic information is needed to obtain a precise estimate of the magnitude of this public health problem.

Laliberte, D; Beaucage, C; Watts, N

1992-01-01

322

Are serum cytokines early predictors for the outcome of burn patients with inhalation injuries who do not survive?  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Severely burned patients suffering from inhalation injury have a significantly increased risk for mortality compared with burned patients without inhalation injury. Severe burn is associated with a distinct serum cytokine profile and alterations in cytokines that contribute to morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine whether severely burned pediatric patients with concomitant inhalation

Gerd G Gauglitz; Celeste C Finnerty; David N Herndon; Ronald P Mlcak; Marc G Jeschke

2008-01-01

323

Burning and detonation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of confined burning explosive abutting nonburning explosive in a variety of one-dimensional geometries has been studied by numerical simulation, demonstrating the effects of confinement, burning rate, and shock sensitivity. The model includes porous bed burning, compressible solids and gases, shock-induced decomposition with possible transition to detonation, and constant velocity ignition waves. Two-phase flow, gas relative to solid, is

Charles A. Forest

1981-01-01

324

Fluconazole Pharmacokinetics in Burn Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pharmacokinetics of fluconazole in nine adult patients with severe (30 to 95% total body surface area) burns were studied. There was no significant difference in half-life (t1\\/2), clearance (CL), or volume of distribution (V) over time in five patients on days 3 and 8 of the study (P > 0.05). Combined parameter estimates (means 6 standard deviations) for all

BRADLEY A. BOUCHER; STEPHEN R. KING; HEIDI L. WANDSCHNEIDER; WILLIAM L. HICKERSON; SCOTT D. HANES; VANESSA L. HERRING; MARY M. HESS

1998-01-01

325

Terahertz reflectometry of burn wounds in a rat model  

PubMed Central

We present sub-millimeter wave reflectometry of an experimental rat skin burn model obtained by the Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy (THz-TDS) technique. Full thickness burns, as confirmed by histology, were created on rats (n = 4) euthanized immediately prior to the experiments. Statistical analysis shows that the burned tissue exhibits higher reflectivity compared to normal skin over a frequency range between 0.5 and 0.7 THz (p < 0.05), likely due to post-burn formation of interstitial edema. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a double Debye dielectric relaxation model can be used to explain the terahertz response of both normal and less severely burned rat skin. Finally, our data suggest that the degree of conformation between the experimental burn measurements and the model for normal skin can potentially be used to infer the extent of burn severity.

Arbab, M. Hassan; Dickey, Trevor C.; Winebrenner, Dale P.; Chen, Antao; Klein, Mathew B.; Mourad, Pierre D.

2011-01-01

326

"Xenograft" dressing in the treatment of burns.  

PubMed

Biologic dressings (xenografts and allografts) are an integral part of modern burns care. They provide; reduction of pain and adherence without need for additional fixation; antibacterial action that is a function of its adherence; protection against physical trauma; appropriate heat and moisture retention. Allografts are more effective but supply may be severely restricted. Porcine skin is our standard dressing for partial-thickness burns; it also has a role in providing temporary coverage of full-thickness defects and for debriding burns/ulcers. PMID:16023938

Chiu, Tor; Burd, Andrew

2005-01-01

327

WHAT, HOW, AND HOW MUCH SHOULD BURN PATIENTS BE FED?  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS The hypermetabolic response to severe burn injury is characterized by hyperdynamic circulation, profound metabolic, physiologic, catabolic and immune system derangements. Failure to satisfy overwhelming energy and protein requirements after, and during severe burn injury, results in multi-organ dysfunction, increased susceptibility to infection, and death. Attenuation of the hypermetabolic response by various pharmacologic modalities is emerging as an essential component of the management of severe burn patients. This review focuses on the more recent advances in therapeutic strategies to attenuate the hypermetabolic response and its post-burn associated insulin resistance. Modulation of the response by early excision and grafting of burn wounds, environmental thermoregulation, early and continuous enteral feeding with high protein-high carbohydrate feedings and pharmacologic treatments that stimulate anabolism and oppose catabolism have markedly decreased morbidity in the acute phase post severe burn injury.

Williams, Felicia N.; Branski, Ludwik K.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Herndon, David N.

2011-01-01

328

Burns and military clothing.  

PubMed

Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under high heat loads in the laboratory, combat clothing can ignite, but there is little evidence that clothing ignition is a common occurrence in military burn casualties. Thermoplastic materials have many benefits in civil and military clothing. There is little objective evidence that they exacerbate burns, or complicate burn management. Their use in military clothing must be based on objective evidence, not hearsay. PMID:11307683

McLean, A D

2001-02-01

329

Tourniquet associated chemical burn  

PubMed Central

Chemical burn under pneumatic tourniquet is an iatrogenic preventable injury and is rarely reported in the literature. The two important mechanisms are maceration (friction) and wetness underneath the tourniquent. In this report, our experience with two illustrative patients who presented with iatrogenic tourniquet associated burn is described.

Yang, Jae-Hyuk; Lim, Hyungtae; Yoon, Jung-Ro; Jeong, Hyeon-Il

2012-01-01

330

Determination of burning area and port volume in complex burning regions of a solid rocket motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of the geometry of the burning in both star-cylindrical port interface regions and regions of partially inhibited slots is presented. Some characteristics parameters are defined and illustrated. Methods are proposed for calculating burning areas which functionally depend only on the total distance burned. According to this method, several points are defined where abrupt changes in geometry occur, and these are tracked throughout the burn. Equations are developed for computing port perimeter and port area at pre-established longitudinal positions. Some common formulas and some newly developed formulas are then used to compute burning surface area and port volume. Some specific results are presented for the solid rocket motor committed to the space shuttle project.

Kingsbury, J. A.

1977-01-01

331

"Fishing for Burn Prevention": a novel approach to burn and fire safety.  

PubMed

"Fishing for Burn Prevention" is an interactive educational burn and fire safety program designed to stimulate family involvement at health fairs, and it provides an alternative to handing out safety information. The program attracts preschoolers through preteens and is staffed by burn center personnel. The design consists of a small pool, a wooden fishing rod, several cutout fish, and hook-and-loop fasteners. Words that will stimulate interaction between the presenter and the participant are written on the fish; these can include "smoke detector," "cool the burn," "fire escape plan," "matches," "grease fire," and "120 degrees F." Providing an interactive, hands-on activity at health fairs can increase burn and fire safety awareness for the entire family. PMID:10613693

Albrecht, R C; Hansen, S L; Voigt, D W; Paul, C N

1999-01-01

332

Contact with wet cement: an unrecognized cause of chemical burn.  

PubMed

Chemical burns account for a small percentage of admissions to burn units. Wet cement is a poorly recognized cause of chemical burn. As the construction industry is growing, individuals will likely have more contact with this material and be more prone to its harmful effects. Wet cement can cause severe full-thickness burns with prolonged contact, but this property is not well known among professional users. The lack of information about the potential hazards of wet cement makes it an important problem that must be considered more seriously as a risk factor for chemical burn. Increasing public knowledge of the necessary preventive measures is crucial for avoiding this type of chemical burn injury. Here, we report a case with full-thickness burn that occurred while working with wet cement without proper protection. PMID:22792830

Seyhan, Nevra; Keskin, Mustafa; Savaci, Nedim

2012-03-01

333

Tap water scald burns in children  

PubMed Central

Tap water scald burns account for 7% to 17% of all childhood scald burns that require hospitalization. Often the burns are severe and disabling. Toddlers and preschool children are the most frequent victims. In 45% of the injuries, the unsupervised victim or a peer turned on the tap water; in 28% the cause was abuse. Eighty per cent of the homes tested had unsafe bathtub water temperatures of 54°C (130°F) or greater, exposing the occupants to the risk of full thickness scalds with 30 second exposure to hot water. Such burns may be prevented passively by limiting household water temperatures to less than 52°C (125°F). New water heaters could be preset at this temperature and families could be taught to turn down the temperature on existing units.

Feldman, K.; Schaller, R.; Feldman, J.; McMillon, M.

1998-01-01

334

Burning mouth syndrome: an enigmatic disorder.  

PubMed

Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic oral pain or burning sensation affecting the oral mucosa, often unaccompanied by mucosal lesions or other evident clinical signs. It is observed principally in middle-aged patients and postmenopausal women and may be accompanied by xerostomia and altered taste. Burning mouth syndrome is characterized by an intense burning or stinging sensation, preferably on the tongue or in other areas of mouth. This disorder is one of the most common, encountered in the clinical practice. This condition is probably of multifactorial origin; however the exact underlying etiology remains uncertain. This article discusses several aspects of BMS, updates current knowledge about the etiopathogenesis and describes the clinical features as well as the diagnosis and management of BMS patients. PMID:24096230

Javali, M A

2013-01-01

335

Surface-burn model for shock initiation  

SciTech Connect

An investigation of a surface-burn of the shock-induced decomposition initiation and detonation of heterogeneous explosives is described. The model assumes a microscale process with hot spots ignited by viscoplastic heating at the boundaries of collapsing pores. A relatively thin reaction zone, or burn surface, is driven by the conduction of the heat of reaction, and has a surface-burn velocity with an Arrhenius dependence on the temperature of the unreacted solid component. Global reaction rates are derived from the microscale model with an empirical burning topology function and a macroscopic reactant-product mixture defined by pressure equilibrium, ideal mixing of specific volume and internal energy,and isentropic response of the unreacted constituents. With simplifying assumptions, the model is extended to treat multi-component explosives. The model is implemented into a method of characteristics hydrocode and shown to be effective in simulating several examples of initiation experiments on TATB explosives. 10 refs., 9 figs.

Partom, Y.; Wackerle, J.

1989-01-01

336

[Compression treatment after burns].  

PubMed

After healing up of the injury wounds, hypertrophic scars and keloids often develop, which are histologically characterised by irregulary arranged collagen fibre bundles and a strong vascularisation. Approximately 20 years ago, the so-called compression clothing, as for example suits, masks, gloves, stockings, were first employed for the prevention and therapy of these complications. These means of compressions are crosswise and lengthwise elastical and consist predominantly of elasthan and viscose. The pressure acting on the skin lies between 25 and 32 mmHg: thereby the values are above the average capillary pressure of 20 mmHg. The efficiency of the compression clothing after a burn injury is well proved by several studies, and one knows today that, for example in the case of children as from the 5th year of life, the results are better than in the case of adults from the 35th year of life. The compression effected at least during a period of 15 months slows down the blood circulation, reduces the number of capillaries and makes the scar become more pale. Furthermore, the orthologically parallel arranged collagen fibres maintain their arrangement due to the compression pressure and do not get irregularily arranged. PMID:10666821

Wienert, V

1999-01-01

337

Self-esteem measurement before and after summer burn camp in pediatric burn patients.  

PubMed

Pediatric burn injury results in significant mortality and morbidity, from which some children will experience prolonged psychological and social difficulty. As early as 1967, it was noted that participation in a group was important in the resolution of problems caused by severe disability and stressful experiences. Since 1982, there have been summer burn camps for children and adolescent burn survivors. The primary focus of camp is to have "fun" at the various daily activities. The principal goal, however, is psychosocial readjustment. Fifty-three burn survivors attended the 1-week duration annual summer camp. Campers were invited to complete a Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale on the first day of summer burn camp and shortly after the camp ended. Younger children were assisted with the survey tool by their parents. Of the 53 campers, 45 completed both pre- and postcamp surveys. The age of the campers ranged from 6 to 18 years (mean, 12.8 years). Burn size ranged from 1% to 90% TBSA (mean, 30.4% TBSA). The interval from date of injury to camp attendance was 2 months to 15.5 years. Nine campers had never attended burn camp before this year. Twenty- nine percent of the campers had an increase in self-esteem score. Fifty-eight percent had no change, and 13% demonstrated a decrease. The burn camp experience though an enriching summer activity, did not necessarily increase self-esteem in the majority of campers as measured by the survey tool employed. PMID:17091072

Arnoldo, Brett D; Crump, Donna; Burris, Agnes M; Hunt, John L; Purdue, Gary F

2006-01-01

338

Do Large Fire Runs Result in More Severe Fires?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Do large fire runs consistently result in high severity fires, and how do climate, weather topography and fuels influence where they burn severely? We analyzed burn severity on 11,938 polygons representing daily area growth (0.09 - 5559 ha, median 0.75 ha) from 410 days of fire progression totaling more than 141,363 ha from 43 large forest fires from Idaho and Montana that burned 2007-2011. We used burn severity classes interpreted using differenced Normalized Burn Ratio from 30-m Landsat satellite imagery by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity project, along with infrared perimeter maps provided by the USDA Forest Service National Infrared Operations. Proportion burned with high severity, likely indicating tree mortality >70%, was not correlated with the daily area growth (Kendall Tau=0.288, p=<0.0001), and no burn severity class was correlated to the size of individual daily areas of growth. Burn severity proportions were variable even when extensive areas burned in a day, with proportion burned moderately commonly about 20%, proportion burned with low severity commonly about 23%, and proportion in high severity or other class more variable. On days of large fire growth, fires burn across areas of varying topography and fuels and under different weather conditions. We use the Random Forest Machine Learning algorithm to analyze burn severity relative to 31 fuel, topography, and weather factors, with weather factors such as temperature and relative humidity based on the 24-hour burn period, all at randomly located points within polygons. Results support our hypothesis that local, bottom-up fuels and topography influences where fires burn severely, while top-down climate and weather more strongly influence area burned, even when large areas burn within a single 24-hour period.

Morgan, P.; Birch, D.; Kolden, C.; Smith, A. M.

2013-12-01

339

New Fashioned Book Burning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on results of a teacher's experiment in book burning as a lesson accompanying the teaching of Ray Bradbury's "Fahrenheit 451." Discusses student reactions and the purpose of or justification for the experimental lesson. (TB)

Gardner, Robert

1997-01-01

340

Burning Mouth Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... infection in the mouth acid reflux poorly-fitting dentures or allergies to denture materials anxiety and depression. In some people, burning ... to check for oral candidiasis allergy testing for denture materials, certain foods, or other substances that may ...

341

Burns and Traumatic Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... than $100 billion in medical treatment and lost productivity. Burns: In the mid-1970s, about 9,000 ... exceeded $99 billion in medical expenses and lost productivity. The World Health Organization projects that by 2020, ...

342

Lava Flow Burning Vegetation  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Lava flow activity continues to burn vegetation in the kipuka adjacent to the trail, causing the viewing trail to be closed beyond the trailhead. The new viewing area is still very close to the active flows. ...

2010-06-18

343

Books2burn  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by Professor Matthew Weinstein of Kent State University, Books2burn translates text files into a series of audio files, which may then subsequently be converted to mp3's or other formats. This program will be a great boon to scholars and the general public alike, as the application allows for the easy transfer and replication of potentially large and problematic files into a number of audio formats. Books2burn is compatible with all systems running Mac OS X.

Weinstein, Matthew

344

Atmospheric Effects of Biomass Burning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biomass fires are both natural and anthropogenic in origin. The natural trigger is lightning, which leads to mid- and high-latitude fires and episodes of smoke and pollution associated with them. Lightning is also prominent in tropical regions when the dry season gives way to the wet season and lightning in convective systems ignites dry vegetation. Atmospheric consequences of biomass fires are complex. When considering the impacts of fires for a given ecosystem, inputs of fires must be compared to other process that emit trace gases and particles into the atmosphere. Other processes include industrial activity, fires for household purposes and biogenic sources which may themselves interact with fires. That is, fires may promote or restrict biogenic processes. Several books have presented various aspects of fire interactions with atmospheric chemistry and a cross-disciplinary review of a 1992 fire-oriented experiment appears in SAFARI: The Role of southern African Fires in Atmospheric and Ecological Environments. The IGAC/BIBEX core activity (see acronyms at end of Chapter) has sponsored field campaigns that integrate multiple aspects of fires ground-based measurements with an ecological perspective, atmospheric measurements with chemical and meteorological components, and remote sensing. This Chapter presents two aspects of biomass fires and the environment. Namely, the relationship between biomass burning and ozone is described, starting with a brief description of the chemical reactions involved and illustrative measurements and interpretation. Second, because of the need to observe biomass burning and its consequences globally, a summary of remote sensing approaches to the study of fires and trace gases is given. Examples in this Chapter are restricted to tropical burning for matters of brevity and because most burning activity globally is within this zone.

Thompson, Anne M.

2000-01-01

345

[Unusual haemostasis disorder in a seriously burned patient].  

PubMed

We report the case of a woman severely burned during a gas explosion with an unusual disorder of haemostasis. The prothrombin time was very elevated, essentially by a drop in factor II. This abnormality persisted for a long time after the correction of the dilutional and consumption coagulopathy which followed immediately the burn. Blood analysis found fluindione and benzodiazepine derivatives. Such a disorder during a potentially suicidal burn must evoke a toxic aetiology. PMID:17005353

Arnould, J-F; Le Floch, R; Naux, E; Pilorget, A; Pinaud, M

2006-10-01

346

Combining Landsat TM multispectral satellite imagery and different modelling approaches for mapping post-fire erosion changes in a Mediterranean site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

South European countries are naturally vulnerable to wildfires. Their natural resources such as soil, vegetation and water may be severely affected by wildfires, causing an imminent environmental deterioration due to the complex interdependence among biophysical components. Soil surface water erosion is a natural process essential for soil formation that is affected by such interdependences. Accelerated erosion due to wildfires, constitutes a major restrictive factor for ecosystem sustainability. In 2007, South European countries were severely affected by wildfires, with more than 500,000 hectares of land burnt in that year alone, well above the average of the last 30 years. The present work examines the changes in spatial variability of soil erosion rates as a result of a wildfire event that took place in Greece in 2007, one of the most devastating years in terms of wildfire hazards. Regional estimates of soil erosion rates before and after the fire outbreak were derived from the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE, Renard et al. 1991) and the Pan-European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment model (PESERA, Kirkby, 1999; Kirkby et al., 2000). Inputs for both models included climatic, land-use, soil type, topography and land use management data. Where appropriate, both models were also fed with input data derived from the analysis of LANDSAT TM satellite imagery available in our study area, acquired before and shortly after the fire suppression. Our study was compiled and performed in a GIS environment. In overall, the loss of vegetation from the fire outbreak caused a substantial increase of soil erosion rates in the affected area, particularly towards the steep slopes. Both tested models were compared to each other and noticeable differences were observed in the soil erosion predictions before and after the fire event. These are attributed to the different parameterization requirements of the 2 models. This quantification of sediment supply through the river network provides also important insights regarding both the present-day sedimentation processes in the study area as well as the potential flooding hazard. Our work underpins that valuable contribution of remote sensing technology, combined with modeling approaches for depicting the spatial distribution of changes in erosion rates after the wildfire. KEYWORDS: erosion risk, RUSLE, PESERA, wildland fires, LANDSAT TM, remote sensing, Geographical Information Systems, Greece.

Petropoulos, George P.; Kairis, Orestis; Karamesouti, Mina; Papanikolaou, Ioannis D.; Kosmas, Constantinos

2013-04-01

347

Biomass Burning Particles as Potential Ice Nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass burning emissions account for massive amounts of gaseous and particulate matter in the atmosphere. Assessing these emissions and their climatic effects has been the focus of several major field campaigns. It has been shown that smoke particles act as efficient cloud condensation nuclei, which can affect precipitation and indirect radiative forcing. However, to date there have been no measurements aimed at characterizing ice-forming nuclei derived from biomass burning. Such measurements are critical for understanding cloud formation and precipitation processes throughout the troposphere. Measurements to determine the activity of biomass burning particles as ice nuclei are currently being conducted in our laboratory using the Colorado State University continuous flow thermal gradient diffusion chamber (CFDC). This instrument allows for continuous freezing measurements for free-floating particles at controlled temperatures, pressures, and humidities, relevant to both cumulus and cirrus clouds. Further, the CSU laboratory is equipped with a 50 m3 containment vessel to allow for burning of vegetation and sampling of the resulting particles. Size-selective ice nucleation measurements have been conducted at temperatures relevant for homogeneous and heterogeneous ice nucleation. Preliminary results will be presented for smoke particles generated from a variety of biomass fuel sources. This work seeks to address the dearth of data needed to better understand and model the potential effects of biomass burning particulate matter on cold clouds and climate. Future work will also include pure compounds known to be abundant in biomass burning aerosol and covering a range of solubilities.

Prenni, A. J.; Demott, P. J.; Kreidenweis, S. M.

2003-12-01

348

Energy Expenditure and Caloric Balance After Burn  

PubMed Central

Objective Resting energy expenditure (REE) is commonly measured in critical illness to determine caloric “demands” and thus nutritive needs. Summary Background Data The purpose of this study was to 1) determine whether REE is associated with clinical outcomes and 2) determine whether an optimal caloric delivery rate based on REE exists to offset erosion of lean mass after burn. Methods From 1995 to 2001, REE was measured by indirect calorimetry in 250 survivors of 10 to 99%TBSA burns. Caloric intake and REE were correlated with muscle protein catabolism, length of stay, ventilator dependence, sepsis, and mortality. From 1998 to 2000, 42 patients (>60%TBSA burns) received continuous enteral nutrition at a spectrum of caloric balance between 1.0x REE kcal/d –1.8x REE kcal/d. Serial body composition was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Lean mass, fat mass, morbidity, and mortality were determined. Results REE/predicted basal metabolic rate correlated directly with burn size, sepsis, ventilator dependence, and muscle protein catabolism (P < .05). Declining REE correlated with mortality (P < .05). 2) Erosion of lean body mass was not attenuated by increased caloric balance, however, fat mass increased with caloric supply (P < .05). Conclusion In surviving burned patients, caloric delivery beyond 1.2 × REE results in increased fat mass without changes in lean body mass. Declining energy expenditure appears to be a harbinger of mortality in severely burned patients.

Hart, David W.; Wolf, Steven E.; Herndon, David N.; Chinkes, David L.; Lal, Sophia O.; Obeng, Michael K.; Beauford, Robert B.; Mlcak RT, Ronald P.

2002-01-01

349

Management of a Thermal Burn with Amputation and Reconstruction of the Penis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The principles of treatment of avulsions and burns of the penis were reviewed, the management of a severe burn of the male genitalia necessitating penectomy was presented and the method of phalloplasty was described. (Author)

R. Julian M. H. Klein H. Hubbard

1968-01-01

350

Ethnicity and etiology in burn trauma.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to retrieve data from the British Columbia Professional Firefighters Burn Unit registry, with a focus on ethnicity and how it is involved in burn trauma. It is hypothesized that mechanism, severity, and other patient characteristics are significantly different among different ethnic groups. Furthermore, it is believed that these data can be used to augment burn prevention strategies. Data for burn patients admitted from 1979 to 2009 were reviewed from the burn registry. The main focus was with differences seen among the four main ethnicities throughout the analysis, Caucasian, Aboriginal, Asian, and Indoasian, reflecting the population distribution of the region. Age and sex were also considered when looking at burn mechanism, severity, contributing and copresenting factors. Caucasians were the largest group (79.1%) and included the largest male:female ratio (3.3:1), with high numbers of flame injury (53.9%). Caucasians presented with the highest mortality (6.6% compared with 4.1% for all other ethnicities; P < .006). Asian patients (8.1%) showed significantly higher occurrences of urban (64%) and workplace (28.9%) injuries with a larger proportion of scald injury (38.9%). Indoasian patients included larger numbers of women (36.4%) and household scald injuries (33.9%) whereas Aboriginals suffered the most flame injuries (60.1%) in rural areas with more frequent contributing factors such as alcohol. The study found multiple significant differences in the burn injury population when segmented by ethnicity. Though the exact reasons for these differences are difficult to say with certainty, it allows a unique opportunity to focus communication and prevention efforts to specific communities. PMID:24503965

Papp, Anthony; Haythornthwaite, Jordan

2014-01-01

351

Nitrated Secondary Organic Tracer Compounds in Biomass Burning Smoke  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural and human-initiated biomass burning releases large amounts of gases and particles into the atmosphere, impacting climate, environment and affecting public health. Several hundreds of compounds are emitted from biomass burning and these compounds largely originate from the pyrolysis of biopolymers such as lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose. Some of compounds are known to be specific to biomass burning and widely recognized as tracer compounds that can be used to identify the presence of biomass burning PM. Detailed chemical analysis of biomass burning influenced PM samples often reveals the presence compounds that correlated well with levoglucosan, a known biomass burning tracer compound. In particular, nitrated aromatic compounds correlated very well with levoglucosan, indicating that biomass burning as a source for this class of compounds. In the present study, we present evidence for the presence of biomass burning orig