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1

Field Guide for Mapping Post-Fire Soil Burn Severity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Following wildfires in the United States, the U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of the Interior mobilize Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams to assess immediate post-fire watershed conditions. BAER teams must determine threats fro...

A. Parsons C. Napper J. T. Clark P. R. Robichaud S. A. Lewis

2010-01-01

2

Burn severity influences post fire surface energy and mass exchange in arctic tundra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of burn severity in influencing post fire surface exchanges of mass and energy has received little attention. The 2007 Anaktuvuk River (A.R.) fire on the North Slope of Alaska was the largest fire ever reported in arctic tundra, and created a mosaic of patches that differed in burn severity. We employed eddy covariance towers, MODIS data, and measurements of surface reflectance and thaw depth across three sites that differed in burn severity (i.e. unburned, moderately burned, and severely burned) to determine the effect of the A.R. fire on carbon, water and energy exchanges during the 2008 growing season. We demonstrate that burn severity influences a variety of surface properties including albedo, soil temperature, active layer depth and vegetation recovery, which in turn, affected exchanges of energy and mass. Eddy covariance and meteorological data are combined with surface reflectance data from MODIS in order to scale measurements to the region. Results indicate that knowledge of burn severity is critical in attempting to scale up post fire affects on regional exchanges of mass and energy.

Rocha, A. V.; Scott, G.; Peters, J.; Shaver, G.

2008-12-01

3

The Effect of Burn Severity on Short-Term Post-Fire Boreal Vegetation Recovery in Interior Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire is the dominant disturbance in the interior boreal region of Alaska and is predicted to increase with climate warming. This variation in the boreal fire regime could play a critical role in climate feedbacks by altering forest productivity and succession and, consequently, biogeochemical cycling, carbon sequestration, and surface energy fluxes. Due to limited fine-scale studies, however, it is not known how increased burn severity (i.e.-amount of organic material consumed) alters post-fire recovery of vegetation productivity, nor how the relationship between severity and post-fire recovery varies across heterogeneous landscapes. In examining fires from the 2004 Alaska fire season (n=72), the objective of this research was to determine how between and within fire variation in burn severity and related variables (pre-fire vegetation, elevation, insolation, etc.) mediates short-term post-fire recovery at the regional scale (i.e.-interior Alaska) and at the landscape scale (i.e.-a single fire complex).The Normalized Burn Ratio was used to measure burn severity and MODIS NDVI was used as a proxy for vegetation recovery. For the between fire analysis, remotely sensed data was overlaid on the fire perimeters in a GIS to create a multivariate dataset with variables aggregated by fire. The dependent variables for each fire were percent NDVI growing season change from 2003 to 2005 (i.e.-productivity drop) and from 2005 to 2007 (i.e.-productivity recovery), while the independent variables included mean dNBR, elevation, and insolation, and percentages of pre-fire land cover types. This dataset was explored in a geovisualization application (GeoViz Toolkit) to help interpret a more detailed adjusted R-square multivariate regression.The top 3 models (R-square ~ 0.60) for the productivity drop per fire showed that fires in higher elevations and containing higher percentages of pre-fire conifer forest were correlated with larger drops in NDVI. In contrast, the models for productivity recovery were not as strong (R-square ~ 0.30), but elevation and conifer land cover still accounted for the most variation. This supports the observation that upland areas with south-facing slopes are some of the most productive in Alaska and that conifer areas with larger NDVI drops will likely show a greater magnitude of post-fire recovery response. These results and further insights to be provided by a spatial analysis of within fire recovery patterns are important for understanding how increased burn severity alters boreal vegetation recovery-a critical climate feedback.

Oyler, J. W.; Smithwick, E.; Mack, M. C.

2008-12-01

4

Effects of Soil Burn Severity on Post-Fire Tree Recruitment in Boreal Forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire, which is the dominant disturbance in the boreal forest, creates substantial heterogeneity in soil burn severity at patch\\u000a and landscape scales. We present results from five field experiments in Yukon Territory, Canada, and Alaska, USA that document\\u000a the effects of soil burn severity on the germination and establishment of four common boreal trees: Picea glauca, Picea mariana, Pinus contorta

Jill F. Johnstone; F. Stuart Chapin

2006-01-01

5

The influence of burn severity on post-fire vegetation recovery and albedo change during early succession in North American boreal forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Severity of burning can influence multiple aspects of forest composition, carbon cycling, and climate forcing. We quantified how burn severity affected vegetation recovery and albedo change during early succession in Canadian boreal regions by combining satellite observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Canadian Large Fire Data Base (LFDB). We used the difference Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) and changes in spring albedo derived from MODIS 500m albedo product as measures of burn severity. We found that the most severe burns had the greatest reduction in summer EVI in first year after fire, indicating greater loss of vegetation cover immediately following fire. By 5-7 years after fire, summer EVI for all severity classes had recovered to within 90-110% of pre-fire levels. Burn severity had a positive effect on the increase of post-fire spring albedo during the first 7 years after fire, and a shift from low to moderate or moderate to severe fires led to amplification of the post-fire albedo increase by approximately 30%. Fire-induced increases in both spring and summer albedo became progressively larger with stand age from years 1-7, with the trend in spring albedo likely driven by continued losses of needles and branches from trees killed by the fire (and concurrent losses of black carbon coatings on remaining debris), and the summer trend associated with increases in leaf area of short-stature herbs and shrubs. Our results suggest that increases in burn severity and carbon losses observed in some areas of boreal forests (e.g., Turetsky et al., 2011) may be at least partly offset by increases in negative forcing associated with changes in surface albedo.

Jin, Y.; Randerson, J. T.; Goetz, S. J.; Beck, P. S.; Loranty, M. M.; Goulden, M.

2011-12-01

6

Post-Fire Burn Severity and Vegetation Response Following Eight Large Wildfires Across the Western United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetation response and burn severity were examined following eight large wildfi res that burned in 2003 and 2004: two wildfi res in California chaparral, two each in dry and moist mixed-conifer forests in Montana, and two in boreal forests in interior Alaska. Our research objectives were: 1) to characterize one year post-fi re vegetation recovery relative to initial fi re

Leigh B. Lentile; Penelope Morgan; Andrew T. Hudak; Michael J. Bobbitt; Sarah A. Lewis; Alistair M. S. Smith; Peter R. Robichaud

2007-01-01

7

Post-fire vegetation phenology in Siberian burn scars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boreal forests comprise one third of global forested area and are the largest terrestrial carbon store. Forest fires are the regions most dynamic disturbance factor, occurring mainly in Siberia, Russian Far East, Canada and Alaska, and these fires represent a globally important release of terrestrial carbon to the atmosphere, via the burning of vegetation and organic soils. Currently the boreal

Heiko Balzter; M. C. Gonzalez; F. Gerard; David Riaño

2007-01-01

8

Post-Fire Burn Assessment--Remote Sensing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Module uses real-world data from the 2003 "Old Fire" which occurred in Southern California. Students will use this data to analyze the burned area using ITTVIS ENVI software & the ESRI ArcGIS Spatial Analyst tool. The activity is appropriate for introductory or intermediate GIS students. The learning unit includes a general summary of the activity, instructor and student guides, supporting documentation and data. The materials are available for download in PDF and RAR format. A quick, free login is required to view or download the materials.

2012-12-03

9

Factors associated with crown damage following recurring mixed-severity wildfires and post-fire management in southwestern Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildfires and post-fire logging and planting have a lasting influence on the quantity and arrangement of live and dead vegetation,\\u000a which can, in turn, affect the behavior of future fires. In 2002, the Biscuit Fire re-burned 38,000 ha of mixed-conifer\\/evergreen\\u000a hardwood forest in southwestern Oregon that had burned heterogeneously during the 1987 Silver Fire and then was subject, in\\u000a part, to

Jonathan R. Thompson; Thomas A. Spies

2010-01-01

10

Post-fire Vegetation Recovery--Remote Sensing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Module uses real-world data from the October 2003 Paradise Fire in San Diego County, California to (1) determine vegetation loss and burn severity due to wildfire through generating pre- and post-fire Normalized Burn Ratios (NBRs) and an approximated dNBR for study area; (2) monitor post-fire vegetation regeneration through landscape-scale remotely sensed imagery performing a multi-temporal Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) analysis; and (3) import the derived datasets into a GIS and, using a DEM for the study area, derive slope and aspect. Analysis of pre- and post-fire recovery of vegetation will be completed using products from derived datasets and Map Algebra in GIS. The materials are available for download in PDF and RAR format.

2012-11-21

11

Remote sensing for assessing post-fire effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires play an important role in many ecosystems by modifying the earth's carbon balance and post-fire landscape composition. Remote sensing can fulfill an important role for monitoring post-fire landscapes as it allows timely and cost-effective assessments. Most of the current applications rely on the visible and near infrared (VNIR) to short-wave infrared (SWIR) spectral region (0.4 to 2.5 ?m). In this spectral range many burn indices have been applied to assess post-fire effects, e.g. the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) or Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Few studies have assessed the potential of the mid infrared (MIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) data. In this paper MODIS/ASTER (MASTER) airborne simulator data acquired over several burn scars is used to evaluate spectral indices in the 0.4-13 ?m range. A first application focuses on the spectral separability of several burn indices for burned area mapping applied over three 2007 southern California scars. In a second application, a novel SWIR-MIR index (SMI) is proposed for assessing fire severity of the large 2011 Wallow wildfire in Arizona. Compared to the traditionally used differenced NBR (dNBR), the SMI has two major advantages: (i) the index is not impeded by smoke and (ii) the approach is based on a single date image. Findings can have important implications for the next generation spaceborne sensor, e.g. the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI).

Veraverbeke, S.; Hulley, G. C.; Harris, S. L.; Hook, S.

2011-12-01

12

Does fire severity influence shrub resprouting after spring prescribed burning?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prescribed burning is commonly used to reduce the risk of severe wildfire. However, further information about the associated environmental effects is required to help forest managers select the most appropriate treatment. To address this question, we evaluated if fire severity during spring prescribed burning significantly affects the resprouting ability of two common shrub species in shrubland under a Mediterranean climate in NW Spain. Fire behaviour and temperatures were recorded in tagged individuals of Erica australis and Pterospartum tridentatum during prescribed burning. The number and length of resprouted shoots were measured three times (6, 12 and 18 months) after the prescribed burning. The influence of a series of fire severity indicators on some plant resprouting vigour parameters was tested by canonical correlation analysis. Six months and one year after prescribed burning, soil burn severity (measured by the absolute reduction in depth of the organic soil layer, maximum temperatures in the organic soil layer and the mineral soil surface during burning and the post-fire depth of the organic soil layer) reduced the resprouting vigour of E. australis and P. tridentatum. In contrast, direct measurements of fire effects on plants (minimum branch diameter, duration of temperatures above 300 °C in the shrub crown and fireline intensity) did not affect the post-fire plant vigour.Soil burn severity during spring prescribed burning significantly affected the short-term resprouting vigour in a mixed heathland in Galicia. The lack of effects eighteen months after prescribed burning indicates the high resilience of these species and illustrates the need to conciliate fire prevention and conservation goals.

Fernández, Cristina; Vega, José A.; Fonturbel, Teresa

2013-04-01

13

Short-term assessment of burn severity using the inversion of PROSPECT and GeoSail models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate estimations of burn severity and its distribution in post fire scenarios are critical for short-term mitigation and rehabilitation treatments. The use of remote sensing techniques, coupled with radiative transfer models (RTMs) can improve the accuracy, precision (in terms of number of classes) and cost-effectiveness of burn severity assessment. In this paper, an improved simulation model that combines PROSPECT and

Angela De Santis; Emilio Chuvieco; Patrick J. Vaughan

2009-01-01

14

Decades-old silvicultural treatments influence surface wildfire severity and post-fire nitrogen availability in a ponderosa pine forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildfire severity and subsequent ecological effects may be influenced by prior land management, via modification of forest structure and lingering changes in fuels. In 2002, the Hayman wildfire burned as a low to moderate-severity surface fire through a 21-year pine regeneration experiment with two overstory harvest cuttings (shelterwood, seed-tree) and two site preparations (scarified, unscarified) that had been applied in

Ann L. Lezberg; Michael A. Battaglia; Wayne D. Shepperd; Anna W. Schoettle

2008-01-01

15

Abdominal Complications after Severe Burns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Abdominal catastrophe in the severely burned patient without abdominal injury has been described. We perceived an alarming recent incidence of this complication in our burn center, both during acute resuscitation and later in the hospital course. We sough...

C. E. White E. M. Renz K. W. Markell L. H. Blackbourne M. E. Albrecht

2009-01-01

16

Effects of forest fires and post-fire rehabilitation: a Colorado, USA ...  

Treesearch

Source: Cerdá, Artemi and Peter R. Robichaud (editors), Fire effects on soils and ... high-burn severity wildfires in the lower and mid-elevation coniferous forests in ... of vegetative regrowth and therefore did not reduce post-fire sediment yields.

17

Large Scale Predictions of Potential Post-fire Erosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-severity wildfires are of increasing concern because of their potential for initiating flash floods and surface erosion, degrading water quality, and reducing reservoir capacity. In many areas fire suppression has increased fuel accumulations and hence the potential for high-severity wildfires. Land management agencies are undertaking programs to reduce fuel loadings and the associated risk of high-severity wildfires, but the areas needing treatment greatly exceed the available funding. It is therefore necessary to determine which areas should have a higher priority for such treatments. Similarly, when wildfires do occur there is an immediate need to determine which areas should have the highest priority for post-fire rehabilitation treatments. One criterion for allocating treatments is the potential risk of post-fire erosion, but to be effective this assessment needs to be carried out at a broad scale. This paper presents a procedure and initial results for predicting spatially-explicit, post-fire erosion risks at the hillslope scale for forest and shrub lands across the western U.S. Our approach utilizes existing physical models and datasets in a GIS framework. The model for predicting erosion is GeoWEPP, the Geographical interface for the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP). The primary inputs for GeoWEPP include climate, topography, soils, and land cover/land use. Daily climate inputs were generated with Cligen, which is a stochastic weather generator distributed with WEPP. A 30-m digital elevation model, STATSGO-derived soils data, and vegetation cover were obtained from the U.S. Forest Service's LANDFIRE project. Since recent research has shown that percent ground cover is a dominant control on post-fire erosion rates, we generated a spatially-explicit map of post-fire ground cover by first using historic weather data to determine the 1000-hr fuel moisture values when fuel conditions were at 98-100% ERC (Energy Released Component). These fuel moisture values were fed into FOFEM (First Order Fire Effects Model) to obtain spatially-explicit predictions of percent ground cover, and this provided the additional land cover/land use information needed by GeoWEPP. The predicted erosion rates are comparable to measured values in the Colorado Front Range, but are much too high for the higher rainfall areas along the Pacific Coast. This pattern indicates that precipitation is having a pre-dominant effect on predicted post-fire erosion rates, especially in areas that are projected to burn at low severity. Hence the predicted erosion rates will be most useful in relative terms at the local and possibly regional scale, while comparisons between regions may be of more limited validity.

Miller, M. E.; MacDonald, L. H.

2005-12-01

18

Factors affecting plant diversity during post-fire recovery and succession of mediterranean-climate shrublands in California, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Plant community diversity, measured as species richness, is typically highest in the early post-fire years in California shrublands. However, this generalization is overly simplistic and the present study demonstrates that diversity is determined by a complex of temporal and spatial effects. Ninety sites distributed across southern California were studied for 5 years after a series of fires. Characteristics of the disturbance event, in this case fire severity, can alter post-fire diversity, both decreasing and increasing diversity, depending on life form. Spatial variability in resource availability is an important factor explaining patterns of diversity, and there is a complex interaction between landscape features and life form. Temporal variability in resource availability affects diversity, and the diversity peak in the immediate post-fire year (or two) appears to be driven by factors different from subsequent diversity peaks. Early post-fire diversity is influenced by life-history specialization, illustrated by species that spend the bulk of their life cycle as a dormant seed bank, which is then triggered to germinate by fire. Resource fluctuations, precipitation in particular, may be associated with subsequent post-fire diversity peaks. These later peaks in diversity comprise a flora that is compositionally different from the immediate post-fire flora, and their presence may be due to mass effects from population expansion of local populations in adjacent burned areas. ?? 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Keeley, J. E.; Fotheringham, C. J.; Baer-Keeley, M.

2005-01-01

19

Hazard Analysis for Post-Fire Debris-Flow Potential in Arizona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several large, devastating wildfires occurred in Arizona during the past 2 years, after a 4-year period without any large wildfires. In June, 2010, the human-caused Schultz Fire near Flagstaff burned 6,100 ha of mostly steep terrain. Subsequent rains from the 4th wettest monsoon on record produced numerous debris flows, significant erosion, and substantial flooding of the downslope residential areas. In May and June of 2011, 3 very large human-caused wildfires (Wallow, Horseshoe 2, and Monument Fires) burned over 320,000 ha, posing serious threats to communities below burned slopes. The Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams, in need of a rapid method to assess the potential for post-fire debris flows, turned to models developed by the USGS for this purpose [Cannon and others, 2010, GSA Bull, 122(1-2), 127-144]. These models, while providing quick results, have not been evaluated for use in Arizona's varied physiographic provinces. Here we use data from the Schultz Fire to compare basin responses with those predicted by the USGS post-fire debris-flow models. Data from the Schultz Fire includes detailed field documentation of debris-flow occurrence and runout distances, 1:12,000 stereo aerial photographs, high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) and tipping-bucket rainfall data. These data document debris-flow producing storms, basin response, and the extent of debris-flow runout, and provide estimates of debris-flow volumes. The hydrologic responses from 30 small, steep, upper basins burned by the Schultz Fire were assessed for debris or flood flow occurrences. Nineteen basins produced debris flows during a July 20th storm that had a peak 10-minute intensity of 24 mm. A second storm on August 16th, with a peak 10-minute intensity of 15 mm, produced additional debris flows in several of the same basins. Of the 30 basins assessed, 19 were completely burned; four at high severity and 12 at moderate to high severity. The basin with the smallest burned area (57%) produced debris flows while a completely (100%) burned basin produced only flood flows. One of the problems encountered while modeling with the USGS models was the poor-quality of the available 10 m USGS DEMs. Even in steep areas, drainage networks were inaccurate and did not reflect on-the-ground channel locations. Detailed data from Schultz Fire, along with documented debris-flow occurrences following the 2011 fires, provides an opportunity to compare post-fire basin responses in Arizona with predicted responses from the USGS post-fire debris-flow models.

Youberg, A.; Koestner, K. A.; Schiefer, E.; Neary, D. G.

2011-12-01

20

Persistence of muscle catabolism after severe burn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The hypermetabolic response to severe burn is characterized by muscle protein catabolism. Current opinion states that the hypermetabolic state resolves soon after complete wound closure. Clinically, we have witnessed that burned children appear to be hypermetabolic and catabolic long after full healing of their wounds. Our goal in this study was to determine scientifically if burn-associated hypermetabolism persists after

D. W. Hart; S. E. Wolf; R. Mlcak; D. L. Chinkes; P. I. Ramzy; M. K. Obeng; A. A. Ferrando; R. R. Wolfe; D. N. Herndon

2000-01-01

21

Musculoskeletal management of the severely burned child.  

PubMed Central

Aggressive management of severe burns minimizes contractures and helps to maintain muscle tone, joint function and psychological well-being. The positioning, activity and exercise programs, splinting and bandaging, and skin care of burned children carried out by the burns team at the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto is outlined.

Birch, J. R.; Eakins, B.; Gosen, J.; Green, S.; Morton, M.

1976-01-01

22

Effects of fire and post-fire salvage logging on avian communities in conifer-dominated forests of the western United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Historically, fire was one of the most widespread natural disturbances in the western United States. More recently, however, significant anthropogenic activities, especially fire suppression and silvicultural practices, have altered fire regimes; as a result, landscapes and associated communities have changed as well. Herein, we review current knowledge of how fire and post-fire salvaging practices affect avian communities in conifer-dominated forests of the western United States. Specifically, we contrast avian communities in (1) burned vs. unburned forest, and (2) unsalvaged vs. salvage-logged burns. We also examine how variation in burn characteristics (e.g., severity, age, size) and salvage logging can alter avian communities in burns. Of the 41 avian species observed in three or more studies comparing early post-fire and adjacent unburned forests, 22% are consistently more abundant in burned forests, 34% are usually more abundant in unburned forests, and 44% are equally abundant in burned and unburned forests or have varied responses. In general, woodpeckers and aerial foragers are more abundant in burned forest, whereas most foliage-gleaning species are more abundant in unburned forests. Bird species that are frequently observed in stand-replacement burns are less common in understory burns; similarly, species commonly observed in unburned forests often decrease in abundance with increasing burn severity. Granivores and species common in open-canopy forests exhibit less consistency among studies. For all species, responses to fire may be influenced by a number of factors including burn severity, fire size and shape, proximity to unburned forests, pre- and post-fire cover types, and time since fire. In addition, post-fire management can alter species' responses to burns. Most cavity-nesting species do not use severely salvaged burns, whereas some cavity-nesters persist in partially salvaged burns. Early post-fire specialists, in particular, appear to prefer unsalvaged burns. We discuss several alternatives to severe salvage-logging that will help provide habitat for cavity nesters. We provide an overview of critical research questions and design considerations crucial for evaluating the effects of prescribed fire and other anthropogenic disturbances, such as forest fragmentation. Management of native avifaunas may be most successful if natural disturbance regimes, including fire, are permitted to occur when possible. Natural fires could be augmented with practices, such as prescribed fire (including high-severity fire), that mimic inherent disturbance regimes.

Kotliar, N. B.; Hejl, S. J.; Hutto, R. L.; Saab, V. A.; Melcher, C. P.; McFadzen, M. E.

2002-01-01

23

Determining Relative Contributions of Vegetation and Topography to Burn Severity from LANDSAT Imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire is a dominant process in boreal forest landscapes and creates a spatial patch mosaic with different burn severities and age classes. Quantifying effects of vegetation and topography on burn severity provides a scientific basis on which forest fire management plans are developed to reduce catastrophic fires. However, the relative contribution of vegetation and topography to burn severity is highly debated especially under extreme weather conditions. In this study, we hypothesized that relationships of vegetation and topography to burn severity vary with fire size. We examined this hypothesis in a boreal forest landscape of northeastern China by computing the burn severity of 24 fire patches as the difference between the pre- and post-fire Normalized Difference Vegetation Index obtained from two Landsat TM images. The vegetation and topography to burn severity relationships were evaluated at three fire-size levels of small (<100 ha, n = 12), moderate (100-1,000 ha, n = 9), and large (>1,000 ha, n = 3). Our results showed that vegetation and topography to burn severity relationships were fire-size-dependent. The burn severity of small fires was primary controlled by vegetation conditions (e.g., understory cover), and the burn severity of large fires was strongly influenced by topographic conditions (e.g., elevation). For moderate fires, the relationships were complex and indistinguishable. Our results also indicated that the pattern trends of relative importance for both vegetation and topography factors were not dependent on fire size. Our study can help managers to design fire management plans according to vegetation characteristics that are found important in controlling burn severity and prioritize management locations based on the relative importance of vegetation and topography.

Wu, Zhiwei; He, Hong S.; Liang, Yu; Cai, Longyan; Lewis, Bernard J.

2013-10-01

24

Determining Relative Contributions of Vegetation and Topography to Burn Severity from LANDSAT Imagery.  

PubMed

Fire is a dominant process in boreal forest landscapes and creates a spatial patch mosaic with different burn severities and age classes. Quantifying effects of vegetation and topography on burn severity provides a scientific basis on which forest fire management plans are developed to reduce catastrophic fires. However, the relative contribution of vegetation and topography to burn severity is highly debated especially under extreme weather conditions. In this study, we hypothesized that relationships of vegetation and topography to burn severity vary with fire size. We examined this hypothesis in a boreal forest landscape of northeastern China by computing the burn severity of 24 fire patches as the difference between the pre- and post-fire Normalized Difference Vegetation Index obtained from two Landsat TM images. The vegetation and topography to burn severity relationships were evaluated at three fire-size levels of small (<100 ha, n = 12), moderate (100-1,000 ha, n = 9), and large (>1,000 ha, n = 3). Our results showed that vegetation and topography to burn severity relationships were fire-size-dependent. The burn severity of small fires was primary controlled by vegetation conditions (e.g., understory cover), and the burn severity of large fires was strongly influenced by topographic conditions (e.g., elevation). For moderate fires, the relationships were complex and indistinguishable. Our results also indicated that the pattern trends of relative importance for both vegetation and topography factors were not dependent on fire size. Our study can help managers to design fire management plans according to vegetation characteristics that are found important in controlling burn severity and prioritize management locations based on the relative importance of vegetation and topography. PMID:23887487

Wu, Zhiwei; He, Hong S; Liang, Yu; Cai, Longyan; Lewis, Bernard J

2013-07-26

25

Post-fire Wind Erosion in a Semiarid Shrub Steppe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this project is to determine and describe the effects of fire on the potential for soil erosion by wind in a semiarid shrub steppe in southeastern Idaho. We apply a previously developed method for determining the threshold wind speed (critical threshold) required to initiate saltation of soil particles at several sampling locations within wildfires that burned in summers 2006 and 2007. Sampling locations have data collection stations with anemometers, a piezoelectric sensor mounted at 5 cm above the ground surface that records impacts from saltating soil particles, temperature and relative humidity sensors mounted at ground level, soil moisture sensors, and soil erosion bridges. Analysis is intended to identify key controlling variables of post- wildfire eolian transport with the intention of continued monitoring over longer time periods with the incorporation of LiDAR data for surface characterization. Initial field results indicate substantial differences in wind erosion potential between burned and unburned sites. Saltation activity is greater and more frequently detected at the burned sites in comparison to the unburned sites. Comparison between the burned sites indicates periods of similar saltation activity and threshold wind speeds. Comparison also shows periods when saltation is detected at one burned site but not the other, and periods when greater wind speeds are required at one burned site to initiate saltation. This suggests that within-burn variability exists in wind erosion potential and requires more complete characterization to accurately model and predict post-fire eolian transport. In parallel to the field-based research, we are developing remote sensing techniques to characterize the soil surface and vegetation communities at a scale appropriate for wind erosion modeling. These techniques include hyperspectral and LiDAR analysis of the soil surface and structural information of the vegetation. Soil and vegetation surface roughness information from LiDAR will be used to compare wind speed thresholds in the field areas. This work has important implications for land rehabilitation, soil conservation efforts, and human health.

Glenn, N.; Sankey, J.; Germino, M.

2007-12-01

26

Post-fire succession of ground vegetation of central Siberia in Scots pine forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extensive wildfires have affected the Russian region in the last decade. Scots pine forests (Pinus sylvestris L.) are widespread in central Siberia and fire occurrence is high in these forests, whose dominant fire regime is one of frequent surface fires. We studied post- fire succession of ground vegetation has been studied on nine experimental fires of varying severity (from 620 to 5220 kW/m) in middle taiga Scots pine forests of central Siberia (Russia). It proved from our study that all species of the succession process are present from initial stages. We did not find any trend of ground vegetation diversity with the time during 8 years after the fire. Our investigation showed that post- fire recovery of the ground vegetation is determined by initial forest type, fire severity and litter burning depth. Fire severity had a clear effect in initial succession in study area and it clearly had an impact on percentage cover, biomass and structure of ground vegetation. In a lesser degree the small shrubs are damaged during ground fires. The dominating species (Vaccinium vitis-idaea and V. myrtillus) regained the cover values above or close to 6—8 years. The post- fire biomass of ground vegetation 93—100% consists of species (Vaccinium vitis-idaea and V. myrtillus) that survived after the fire and increased in the cover with the time. In pine forests mosses and lichens suffer to a greater degree after ground fires. Lichen layer was completely lost after the fires of any severity. Decrease of mosses species diversity takes place after ground fires. The post- fire cover and species diversity of the green mosses were progressively lower with increasing the fire severity during the observation period. Maximum changes are discovered in the post- fire structure of plant microgroups after the high- severity fire which resulted in intensive invasion by the post- fire mosses (Polytrichum strictum and P. commune). There is a positive trend of green moss microgroups recovery after fires of moderate- and low- severity.

Kovaleva, N.; Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.

2012-04-01

27

RAPID POST-FIRE HYDROLOGIC WATERSHED ASSESSMENT USING THE AGWA GIS-BASED HYDROLOGIC MODELING TOOL  

EPA Science Inventory

Rapid post-fire watershed assessment to identify potential trouble spots for erosion and flooding can potentially aid land managers and Burned Area Emergency Rehabilitation (BAER) teams in deploying mitigation and rehabilitation resources. These decisions are inherently co...

28

Quantifying the Influence of Hillslope Form, Aspect and Burn Severity on Post-Wildfire Hillslope Erosion Rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires can profoundly affect hillslope erosion rates by altering the physical and chemical attributes of the soil and denuding stabilizing vegetation. Increased hillslope erosion can raise stream channel sediment loads, which can change the channel morphology and impact aquatic habitat structure and downstream dam sedimentation. Current climate change predictions for the intermountain West forecast more frequent and severe droughts, and correspondingly more severe fire events, increasing the potential for post-fire erosion. Despite the widespread impacts of such erosion events, hillslope erosion processes remain poorly understood. Thus, to better understand these processes, we measure hillslope erosion rates in the mountainous terrain of central Idaho following a large, severe 2007 forest fire. Specifically, we use radionuclide (Lead-210, Cesium-137) inventories to quantify hillslope erosion rates in several watersheds with different burn severity (severe, moderate and unburned), on different aspects (north vs. south facing slopes), and on different hillslope forms (concave vs. convex profiles). In mid-latitude areas of high relief, aspect strongly influences the amount of solar radiation received and thus impacts local moisture conditions, vegetation and soil development, all of which can affect soil erosion rates. Hillslope form may influence the dominant erosion process, with convex profiles characterized by diffusive erosion, and concave profiles potentially enabling more overland flow, rill and gully formation. These variables, in addition to burn severity, are therefore likely to affect erosion rates. Our study quantifies the effect of burn severity, hillslope form, and aspect on the rates and processes of post-fire hillslope erosion. In addition, our study offers insight into the relatively novel use of radionuclide inventories to measure post-wildfire erosion rates. An improved quantitative understanding of hillslope erosion processes would enable us to validate or improve existing hillslope erosion models. Such models may be used to predict and potentially mitigate the effects of severe forest fires by indicating priority areas for post-fire rehabilitation.

Perreault, L. M.; Yager, E. M.; Aalto, R. E.

2010-12-01

29

Muscle Contractile Properties in Severely Burned Rats  

PubMed Central

Burn induces a sustained catabolic response which causes massive loss of muscle mass after injury. A better understanding of the dynamics of muscle wasting and its impact on muscle function is necessary for the development of effective treatments. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent either a 40% total body surface area (TBSA) scald burn or sham burn, and were further assigned to subgroups at four time points after injury (days 3, 7, 14 and 21). In situ isometric contractile properties were measured including twitch tension (Pt), tetanic tension (Po) and fatigue properties. Body weight decreased in burn and sham groups through day 3, however, body weight in the sham groups recovered and increased over time compared to burned groups, which progressively decreased until day 21 after injury. Significant differences in muscle wet weight and protein weight were found between sham and burn. Significant differences in muscle contractile properties were found at day 14 with lower absolute Po as well as specific Po in burned rats compared to sham. After burn, the muscle twitch tension was significantly higher than the sham at day 21. No significant difference in fatigue properties was found between the groups. This study demonstrates dynamics of muscle atrophy and muscle contractile properties after severe burn; this understanding will aid in the development of approaches designed to reduce the rate and extent of burn induced muscle loss and function.

Wu, Xiaowu; Wolf, Steven E.; Walters, Thomas J.

2010-01-01

30

Post-Fire Overland Flow Frequency, Volume and Quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results that assess the importance of post-fire hydrophobicity on runoff generation and the evolution of water quality following a stand-replacing chaparral fire. In September of 2002 85% of Southern California's San Dimas Experimental Forest (SDEF) was burned during the Williams' fire. Following this event, 58 overland flow collectors were installed at discrete locations within a chaparral catchment at SDEF in order to quantify the spatial and temporal frequency as well as the water quality of overland flow during and immediately following precipitation events. Results show that precipitation events that occurred one right after the other, with little drying time in between, led to more frequent and higher volumes of overland flow than those events with dry spells preceding them. This suggests that soil antecedent conditions had an impact on soil infiltration capacity and thus on overland flow generation. These results indicate that soil hydrophobicity was not the most important post-fire hydrologic process as we would have expected more runoff in the first storm of the year and in those following drying periods if it were an important mechanism. The reestablishment of vegetation also influenced runoff processes. As the rainy season proceeded and vegetation recovered, collected overland flow volumes decreased. Interception of precipitation by these plants may have shielded the ground from immediate impact, and lowered the overall intensity of the storm in relation to the soil surface, thus increasing the amount of water that could infiltrate into the ground. Increased evapotranspiration may also be significant, although it was not specifically studied. Spatially, the frequency and quantity of runoff accumulated at each site was a function of the specific contributing slope and the characteristics of that slope. These characteristics include the composition of the soil within the samplers' contributing area, i.e. areas of bedrock yielded more water than areas of sand. The water captured in these collectors has also been analyzed for several chemical constituents. Testing yielded high concentrations of nitrate, ammonium and phosphate immediately following the fire, with declining concentrations as the rainy season continued and vegetation was reestablished. The same was found of mineral nutrients, suggesting that the system was being flushed of post-fire by-products as the season progressed.

Valeron, B. H.; Meixner, T.

2003-12-01

31

Myocardial Autophagy after Severe Burn in Rats  

PubMed Central

Background Autophagy plays a major role in myocardial ischemia and hypoxia injury. The present study investigated the effects of autophagy on cardiac dysfunction in rats after severe burn. Methods Protein expression of the autophagy markers LC3 and Beclin 1 were determined at 0, 1, 3, 6, and 12 h post-burn in Sprague Dawley rats subjected to 30% total body surface area 3rd degree burns. Autophagic, apoptotic, and oncotic cell death were evaluated in the myocardium at each time point by immunofluorescence. Changes of cardiac function were measured in a Langendorff model of isolated heart at 6 h post-burn, and the autophagic response was measured following activation by Rapamycin and inhibition by 3-methyladenine (3-MA). The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor enalaprilat, the angiotensin receptor I blocker losartan, and the reactive oxygen species inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI) were also applied to the ex vivo heart model to examine the roles of these factors in post-burn cardiac function. Results Autophagic cell death was first observed in the myocardium at 3 h post-burn, occurring in 0.008 ± 0.001% of total cardiomyocytes, and continued to increase to a level of 0.022 ± 0.005% by 12 h post-burn. No autophagic cell death was observed in control hearts. Compared with apoptosis, autophagic cell death occurred earlier and in larger quantities. Rapamycin enhanced autophagy and decreased cardiac function in isolated hearts 6 h post-burn, while 3-MA exerted the opposite response. Enalaprilat, losartan, and DPI all inhibited autophagy and enhanced heart function. Conclusion Myocardial autophagy is enhanced in severe burns and autophagic cell death occurred early at 3 h post-burn, which may contribute to post-burn cardiac dysfunction. Angiotensin II and reactive oxygen species may play important roles in this process by regulating cell signaling transduction.

Zhang, Qiong; Shi, Xiao-hua; Huang, Yue-sheng

2012-01-01

32

Evaluating spectral indices and spectral mixture analysis for assessing fire severity and adjusting burning efficiency using Landsat data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire severity data are of paramount importance to (i) organize post-fire rehabilitation plans and (ii) reduce uncertainties in wildfire emission estimates by allowing spatio-temporal variability in burning efficiency values. We have used a Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) image to assess fire severity of the large 2011 Wallow fire in Arizona, USA. The Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR), differenced NBR (dNBR), Relative dNBR (RdNBR) and the char fraction estimated by Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA) were evaluated. Geo Composite Burn Index (GeoCBI) and vegetation mortality data were used as ground truth. Of all remotely sensed measures tested the dNBR had the highest performance (GeoCBI-dNBR R2 = 0.84 and % black trees-dNBR R2 = 0.91), which supports the operational use of the dNBR for post-fire management. Without initial calibration with field data, however, dNBR values lack biophysical meaning. The SMA-derived char fraction also had moderate-high correlations with the field data (GeoCBI-char fraction R2 = 0.66 and % black trees-char fraction R2 = 0.82). The char fractions provide a direct mechanistic link with the fire processes that occurred on the ground. Such data have big potential to adjust burning efficiency values. This is of great importance to reduce uncertainties in wildfire emission estimates.

Veraverbeke, S.; Hook, S.

2012-04-01

33

Initial Results Comparing Spectral Signatures of Post-fire Materials, Western Montana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current algorithms for estimating fire severity from remotely sensed imagery are based on pre-fire to post-fire changes in reflectance values within the sensor's bands, rather than on an understanding of how spectral signatures of burned areas differ from unburned areas. However, spectral signatures for materials commonly found in burned areas of the landscape, including ash, charcoal, and burned pine needles have not been published. With a fundamental understanding of how fire alters the spectral signatures of a landscape, fire severity algorithms could readily be derived for any sensor. Spectral signatures of charcoal, soil and other materials were collected for this project in several burned areas in western Montana during the summer of 2006. An ASD FieldSpec3 spectroradiometer (350-2500 nm) was used for collection. Time since burn ranged from one week to one year. Spectral signatures were also collected for vegetation and other common materials outside the burn perimeter and for areas 26 inches in diameter with a mix of vegetation and burned materials. We present characteristic spectra for these types of materials associated with wildland fire, and regions of the electromagnetic spectrum that experience the most change due to wildfire. These results aid interpretation of the environmental effects of wildfire in remotely sensed imagery of burned areas.

Klene, A.; Riley, K. L.; Kamp, U.

2006-12-01

34

SELECTION OF PARAMETER VALUES TO MODEL POST-FIRE RUNOFF AND SEDIMENT TRANSPORT AT THE WATERSHED SCALE IN SOUTHWESTERN FORESTS 1734  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Erosion and runoff have been observed to increase following fire. Land managers and Burned Area Emergency Rehabilitation (BAER) teams must be able to estimate these post-fire changes. Studies of post-fire erosion on burned watersheds show that the concentrations of sediment eroded from burned rangel...

35

Measuring and Modeling the Effects of Alternate Post-Fire Successional Trajectories on Boreal Forest Carbon Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High latitude ecosystems are experiencing amplified climate warming, and recent evidence suggests concurrent intensification of fire disturbance regimes. In central Alaskan boreal forests, severe burns consume more of the soil organic layer, resulting in increased establishment of deciduous seedlings and altered post-fire stand composition with increased deciduous dominance. Quantifying differences in ecosystem carbon (C) dynamics between forest successional trajectories in response to burn severity is essential for understanding potential changes in regional or global feedbacks between boreal forests and climate. We used the Biome BioGeochemical Cycling model (Biome-BGC) to quantify differences in C stocks and fluxes associated with alternate post-fire successional trajectories related to fire severity. A version of Biome-BGC that allows alternate competing vegetation types was calibrated against a series of aboveground biomass observations from chronosequences of stands with differing post-fire successional trajectories characterized by the proportion of deciduous biomass. The model was able to reproduce observed patterns of biomass accumulation after fire, with stands dominated by deciduous species sequestering more C at a faster rate than stands dominated by conifers. Modeled C fluxes suggest that stands dominated by deciduous species are a stronger sink of atmospheric C soon after disturbance than coniferous stands. These results agree with the few available C flux observations. We use a historic database in conjunction with a map of deciduous canopy cover to explore the consequences of ongoing and potential future changes in the fire regime on central Alaskan C balance.

Loranty, M. M.; Goetz, S. J.; Mack, M. C.; Alexander, H. D.; Beck, P. S.

2011-12-01

36

Joint Theater Trauma System Implementation of Burn Resuscitation Guidelines Improves Outcomes in Severely Burned Military Casualties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Between March 2003-June 2007, our burn center received 594 casualties from Iraq and Afghanistan. Ongoing acute burn resuscitation as severely burned casualties are evacuated is very challenging. To help standardize care, burn resuscitation guidelines (BRG...

D. J. Barillo E. M. Renz J. L. Ennis K. K. Chung M. C. Albrecht

2007-01-01

37

A man with severe leg burns.  

PubMed

Abstract A 52-year-old Hispanic male was transported to the emergency department after sustaining severe bilateral lower extremity burns in an electroplating factory. His examination revealed circumferential burns to the lower extremities with spotting in the perineum. The epidermis was stained green and sloughed off with gentle pressure. The underlying dermis was white and non-blanching, consistent with a full thickness burn. His feet were partially protected by his work boots where he had small areas of pink, blanchable, partial thickness burns ( Fig. 1 ). Pertinent initial studies included a lactic acid level of 3.1 mmol/L and a creatinine of 1.02 mg/dL. [Figure: see text]. PMID:23992444

Chapman, A J; Deschler, D; Judge, B S

2013-08-30

38

Mapping wildfire burn severity in the Arctic Tundra from downsampled MODIS data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wildfires are historically infrequent in the arctic tundra, but are projected to increase with climate warming. Fire effects on tundra ecosystems are poorly understood and difficult to quantify in a remote region where a short growing season severely limits ground data collection. Remote sensing has been widely utilized to characterize wildfire regimes, but primarily from the Landsat sensor, which has limited data acquisition in the Arctic. Here, coarse-resolution remotely sensed data are assessed as a means to quantify wildfire burn severity of the 2007 Anaktuvuk River Fire in Alaska, the largest tundra wildfire ever recorded on Alaska's North Slope. Data from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and downsampled Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were processed to spectral indices and correlated to observed metrics of surface, subsurface, and comprehensive burn severity. Spectral indices were strongly correlated to surface severity (maximum R2 = 0.88) and slightly less strongly correlated to substrate severity. Downsampled MODIS data showed a decrease in severity one year post-fire, corroborating rapid vegetation regeneration observed on the burned site. These results indicate that widely-used spectral indices and downsampled coarse-resolution data provide a reasonable supplement to often-limited ground data collection for analysis and long-term monitoring of wildfire effects in arctic ecosystems.

Kolden, Crystal A.; Rogan, John

2013-01-01

39

Predicting Post-fire Flooding and Sediment Delivery at the Watershed Scale: An Urgent Need for Upscaling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past 10-15 years tremendous advances have been made in understanding the effects of fires on runoff and erosion processes, the effectiveness of various post-fire rehabilitation treatments, and the prediction of these changes. The problem is that nearly all of this work has been done at the plot and hillslope scale, while it is the larger-scale issues of flooding, water quality, and sedimentation that are of primary concern to resource managers and the public. In most cases these larger-scale changes are predicted either by simple lumped models, such as the curve number technique, or by summing up the hillslope-scale responses. These approaches can greatly overestimate the downstream effects because they do not account for the spatial variability of rainfall or the complexities of routing and storage. While post-fire stormflows may be efficiently routed downstream, our observations from fires across the western US indicate very large differences in the amount of sediment delivered to downstream areas. As one example, a large storm after the 2012 High Park fire near Fort Collins generated huge amounts of sediment, but relatively little of this was delivered to the Cache la Poudre River; in the case of the 2002 Hayman fire near Denver even moderate-sized storms delivered enough sand and fine gravel to temporarily dam up the South Platte River and over time around 750,000 m3 of sediment was deposited into Strontia Springs Reservoir. In this paper we hypothesize that relatively simple set of tools can greatly improve our ability to predict post-fire runoff and sediment delivery at the watershed scale (5-100 km2). In areas dominated by convective storms post-fire flood risks should be modified according to the size of those storms relative to the upslope contributing area and extent of high or moderate burn severity. The potential delivery of post-fire sediment can be improved by combining the predicted flood risk with empirical adjustments based on valley confinement, valley slope, and the density of the residual riparian vegetation. Particle size is hypothesized to be a lesser control because most of the deposited post-fire sediment is easily transported. Valley slope can be estimated from existing DEMs, while the accurate characterization of valley confinement and riparian vegetation requires higher-resolution imagery such as lidar and Quickbird or SPOT. The development of such tools should greatly improve our ability to predict the larger-scale risks of flooding and sedimentation, and more efficiently allocate post-fire treatments to watersheds that have the highest sediment delivery potential.

MacDonald, Lee; Wagenbrenner, Joe; Nelson, Peter; Brogan, Dan

2013-04-01

40

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy caused by severe burn injury.  

PubMed

The purpose of this report is to describe the clinical course of a 12% TBSA burn injury with takotsubo cardiomyopathy and to discuss this lesser known diagnosis. The authors performed a case study with retrospective chart review and conducted a literature search. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is characterized by severe left ventricular dysfunction that is incited by severe psychological or physical stress. The patient's treatment course was complicated by the underlying cardiomyopathy requiring intubation, volume expansion, and vasoactive medications. After treatment for her burn injuries, her cardiac myopathy resolved, and she was discharged home. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy may be precipitated by burn injury. Treatment is supportive, but it should be instituted quickly to avoid complications. PMID:22878496

Fagin, Alice; Sen, Soman; Palmieri, Tina; Greenhalgh, David

41

Spatial Patterns of Post-Fire Soil Water Repellency in Rangelands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water repellent soils are naturally occurring but can be created or enhanced by wildfires. Post-fire runoff and the occurrence of fire-related floods and debris flows are related to the extent and continuity of water repellent soils. While many studies have positively correlated post-fire soil water repellency with burn severity and ash thickness in forested and chaparral environments, few studies have examined fire-related water repellency in sage-bitterbrush rangelands (but see Pierson et al., 2001). Rangelands, which comprise 40% of the landmass of the United States and nearly 80% of the lands of the western U.S., burn frequently during the summer with burn areas that often exceed 200 km2. The most commonly used method to measure the extent and severity of post-fire soil water repellency is the water drop penetration test (WDPT): other tests include the molarity of ethanol test, infiltration measured with a minidisk infiltrometer, and patterns of water infiltration measured with blue dye. Unlike tests that measure time until infiltration, the blue dye test provides a means of measuring the spatial extent of water repellent soils as well as area quantification of water saturation and locations of subsurface flowpaths. In early July, 2006, fires burned approximately 1.6 km2 of sagebrush and bitterbrush-dominated rangelands in foothills near Boise, Idaho. Initial studies in August 2006 using both water drop penetration time and the blue dye test show that soil water repellency is highly variable in both extent and severity, and that repellency varies with proximity to burned sage or bitterbrush coppice sites. Out of sixty sample sites, slight soil water repellency occurred outside of coppice boundaries on three occasions, each time in an area with grass and within 1 m of a coppice. Not all coppices exhibited soil water repellency, and only 23% of sites within coppice boundaries exhibited moderate to strong water repellency, as measured by WDPT. Use of the blue dye test in a severely burned site along a trench extending from the center of a large, burned bitterbrush, through a smaller burned out sagebrush, and continuing into grass dominated interspace showed a likely relationship between the size of a coppice or coppice group to the distribution of post fire soil water repellency. The water repellent soil layer beneath the larger coppice was between 1 cm and 2 cm thick, sharply defined, and very continuous within the coppice boundaries. Beneath the smaller coppice the water repellent soil layer was discontinuous and no water repellency was observed outside the coppice boundaries. Future work will quantify saturated vs. unsaturated areas using blue dye, and will investigate relationships between patterns of infiltration measured with blue dye and WDPT. Initial observations suggest preferential bioturbation under burned coppice sites may enhance infiltration through the creation of macropores: future studies using blue dye tests will examine this relationship.

Nelson, N. A.; Pierce, J. L.

2006-12-01

42

Respiratory disorders in severely burned patients.  

PubMed

The authors reported their own experiences with prevention and treatment of pulmonary complications developing in burn disease. In burn shock the most important problem is maintenance of a sufficient volume of circulating blood and cardiac output, and effective control of pain resulting from thermal injury. Later, the most important becomes prevention of infections and early mobilization of patients. It was demonstrated that physiotherapy, air humidification, lung expansion and inhalations of broncholytic and mucolytic drugs prevented effectively pulmonary complications. When severe respiratory disturbances developed, controlled respiration was successfully applied in 9 cases. PMID:826894

Jastrzebski, J; Nasi?owski, W; Meissner, A J

43

Severe burns in children, 1964-1974.  

PubMed Central

580 children were admitted to the paediatric burns unit of Guy's Hospital between 1964 and 1974, of which 97 had burns exceeding 20% of the surface area, and 33 died (34% mortality). 80% of those with burns exceeding 50% of the surface area died. Young children died after less extensive burns. Respiratory failure, sepsis, and malnutrition were the most lethal complications. The prompt use and careful control of intravenous fluids had reduced the immediate complications associated with shock, and acute renal failure is now uncommon. Respiratory failure resulted in many deaths during the first week after injury. The need for intensive respiratory care involving paediatric, anaesthetic, and surgical staff is stressed. Sepsis and malnutrition remain major threats to survival. Improved methods of bacteriological control by laminar air flow units and topical antibacterial agents may help to reduce infection in the future. Reduction of energy expenditure by temporary skin coverings and a high environmental temperature, combined with a high calorie intake by oral and intravenous routes, may improve the outlook for severly burned children in the next decade.

Cogswell, J J; Chu, A C

1976-01-01

44

ERMiT: Estimating Post-Fire Erosion in Probabilistic Terms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mitigating the impact of post-wildfire runoff and erosion on life, property, and natural resources have cost the United States government tens of millions of dollars over the past decade. The decision of where, when, and how to apply the most effective mitigation treatments requires land managers to assess the risk of damaging runoff and erosion events occurring after a fire. The Erosion Risk Management Tool (ERMiT) is a web-based application that estimates erosion in probabilistic terms on burned and recovering forest, range, and chaparral lands. Unlike most erosion prediction models, ERMiT does not provide `average annual erosion rates;' rather, it provides a distribution of erosion rates with the likelihood of their occurrence. ERMiT combines rain event variability with spatial and temporal variabilities of hillslope burn severity, soil properties, and ground cover to estimate Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model input parameter values. Based on 20 to 40 individual WEPP runs, ERMiT produces a distribution of rain event erosion rates with a probability of occurrence for each of five post-fire years. Over the 5 years of modeled recovery, the occurrence probability of the less erodible soil parameters is increased and the occurrence probability of the more erodible soil parameters is decreased. In addition, the occurrence probabilities and the four spatial arrangements of burn severity (arrangements of overland flow elements (OFE's)), are shifted toward lower burn severity with each year of recovery. These yearly adjustments are based on field measurements made through post-fire recovery periods. ERMiT also provides rain event erosion rate distributions for hillslopes that have been treated with seeding, straw mulch, straw wattles and contour-felled log erosion barriers. Such output can help managers make erosion mitigation treatment decisions based on the probability of high sediment yields occurring, the value of resources at risk for damage, cost, and other management considerations.

Pierson, F. B.; Robichaud, P. R.; Elliot, W. J.; Hall, D. E.; Moffet, C. A.

2006-12-01

45

Is timing of prescribed fire critical for limiting post-fire erosion? Lessons from Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid increase in fire activity in parts of the Mediterranean from the 1960s onwards led to a rise in interest in the application of prescribed fire as a method of reducing fuel loads and thereby limiting the likelihood of the occurrence of severe wildfires and the size of the areas affected. The ‘windows of opportunity' for carrying out controlled burning are restricted to comparatively brief periods during the autumn through to late spring when wind direction and strength, air temperature and humidity, and fuel load moisture contents are judged to be appropriate. Given that the most erosive rainfall events are often in the autumn to early winter, delaying prescribed fire until later in the winter might be seen as having advantages in reducing post-fire erosional losses of ash, sediment and nutrients, particularly in wetter regions, as on the Atlantic fringe of the Mediterranean. Burning in late winter or spring might be expected to limit the chances of early post-fire heavy and erosive rainfall events. This would allow good vegetation recovery throughout spring and summer before the intense rainfall events likely to occur from the autumn onwards. As part of the EU-funded DESIRE project investigating ways of mitigating the detrimental effects of wildfire on land degradation, a small (9 ha), steep catchment comprising mainly scrub vegetation with encroaching pines in central Portugal was subjected to experimental fire. Although scheduled for autumn-early winter, delay of burning until February 20th 2009 proved necessary because of persistent rainfall and ground conditions too wet for burning. Sediment losses were monitored before and after the burn at the hillslope scale using a series of sediment fences. These comprise geotextile material supported against a frame made of steel bars forming a trap for sediment eroded from upslope. Knowing the contributing areas for eroded material reaching the fences enables erosion rates to be determined. Early results before summer 2009 indicated soil losses generally lower than those collected from similar terrain affected by wildfire. However, rainfall events during the 2009-10 autumn - winter period have been large and have included some intense storms sufficiently erosive to increase erosion rates relative to those recorded in the early post-fire months of spring and early summer 2009. Despite a relatively moist post-fire spring and the rapid appearance of new shoots from resprouting vegetation in particular, the thin degraded nature of the soil has been in large part responsible for the slow establishment of a vegetation cover sufficiently dense to be very effective at protecting the soil. Pre-fire and post-fire erosion and indicative nutrient content of soil collected from the sediment fences are considered and compared with results from the wildfire site and from the literature to assess whether timing of prescribed fire within the window of opportunity matters to any great extent.

Shakesby, Richard A.; Ferreira, Carla S. S.; Walsh, Rory P. D.; Ferreira, António J. D.; Urbanek, Emilia; Stoof, Cathelijne R.

2010-05-01

46

Severe gastrointestinal burn with hydrochloric acid  

PubMed Central

Inadvertantly or purposely, an oral intake of corrosive substances may cause life-threatening problems. Early admission to the hospital, clinical and endoscopic evaluation, and early surgery when required, may reduce morbidity and mortality. We report the case of a 49-year-old male patient, who had attempted suicide, by drinking about 800 mL of 25% hydrochloric acid, and who had severe intra-abdominal damage. The aim of this report is to state the fact that a good outcome is possible in severe burns caused by oral intake of corrosive substances, when fast, multidisciplinary, and appropriate management is provided on time.

Araz, Coskun; Cekmen, Nedim; Erdemli, Ozcan; Soylu, Lutfu; Atalay, Fuat; Demirbas, Tevfik Ali; Demirbag, Ali; Celep, Bahadir

2013-01-01

47

Post-fire Erosion: Long-term Recovery and Effectiveness of Rehabilitation Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Millions of dollars are spent each year to reduce runoff and erosion rates after high-severity wildfires, but there are relatively few data evaluating their effectiveness over longer time periods relative to natural recovery. In this study we summarize six years of hillslope erosion data from 18 untreated plots and five replicated post-fire rehabilitation treatments applied after the 2002 Hayman and Schoonover wildfires in the ponderosa pine zone in the central Colorado Front Range. The rate of recovery and effectiveness of these treatments are compared to the results from the 2000 Bobcat fire 130 km to the north (Wagenbrenner et al., 2006). On the Hayman fire straw mulching reduced hillslope-scale sediment yields by more than 90% in the first two summers after burning and by 77% in the third summer after burning. By the fourth summer the straw mulch had no significant effect on the amount of ground cover or sediment yields relative to the untreated controls. Aerial hydromulching had a similar effectiveness and longevity, but a ground-based hydromulch treatment was poorly formulated and did not significantly reduce sediment yields. Scarification and seeding did not increase the amount of surface cover or reduce sediment yields. The initial wet application of a polyacylamide appeared to reduce sediment yields, but subsequent applications did not have any significant effect. None of the treatments was effective for more than three summers after burning. The results confirm the fundamental importance of ground cover and are consistent with the mulching and seeding results from the Bobcat fire. The primary difference is the slower vegetative recovery rates for the coarser-textured soils in the Hayman and Schoonover fires, and this has caused post-fire sediment yields to remain elevated for six summers after burning as compared to a maximum of four summers for the Bobcat fire. Land managers must evaluate the duration of treatment effectiveness and post-fire erosion as well as the shorter-term efficacy of their proposed treatments, and these evaluations must be done on a site-specific basis.

MacDonald, L. H.; Rough, D. T.; Schaffrath, K.

2007-12-01

48

Effectiveness of three post-fire rehabilitation treatments in the Colorado Front Range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Post-fire rehabilitation treatments are commonly implemented after high-severity wildfires, but few data are available about the efficacy of these treatments. This study assessed post-fire erosion rates and the effectiveness of seeding, straw mulching, and contour felling in reducing erosion after a June 2000 wildfire northwest of Loveland, Colorado. Site characteristics and sediment yields were measured on 12 burned and untreated control plots and 22 burned and treated plots from 2000 to 2003. The size of the hillslope plots ranged from 0.015 to 0.86 ha.Sediment yields varied significantly by treatment and were most closely correlated with the amount of ground cover. On the control plots the mean sediment yield declined from 6-10 Mg ha-1 in the first two years after burning to 1.2 Mg ha-1 in 2002 and 0.7 Mg ha-1 in 2003. Natural regrowth caused the amount of ground cover on the control plots to increase progressively from 33% in fall 2000 to 88% in fall 2003. Seeding had no effect on either the amount of ground cover or sediment yields. Mulching reduced sediment yields by at least 95% relative to the control plots in 2001, 2002, and 2003, and the lower sediment yields are attributed to an immediate increase in the amount of ground cover in the mulched plots. The contour-felling treatments varied considerably in the quality of installation, and sediment storage capacities ranged from 7 to 32 m3 ha-1. The initial contour-felling treatment did not reduce sediment yields when subjected to a very large storm event, but sediment yields were significantly reduced by a contour-felling treatment installed after this large storm. The results indicate that contour felling may be able to store much of the sediment generated in an average year, but will not reduce sediment yields from larger storms.

Wagenbrenner, J. W.; MacDonald, L. H.; Rough, D.

2006-09-01

49

Stem demography and post-fire recruitment of a resprouting serotinous conifer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The contribution of resprouts and seedling recruitment to post-fire regeneration of the South African fynbos conifer Widdringtonia nodiflora was compared eight months after wildfires in 1990. Stems on all trees were killed by fire but resprouting success was > 90 % at all but one site. A demographic study of burned skeletons revealed that prior to these fires, nearly all plants were multi-stemmed (4 - 9 stems/plant) and multi-aged, indicating continuous sprout production between fires. All stems were killed by these 1990 fires and at most sites > 90 % of the stems were burned to ground level. All diameter stems were susceptible to such incineration as, at most sites, there was no difference in average diameter of stems burned to ground level and those left standing. Individual genets usually had all ramets incinerated to ground level or all ramets charred, but intact, suggesting certain micro-sites burned hotter, whereas other sites were somewhat protected. Although not true of the 1990 fires, there was evidence that occasionally Widdringtonia stems may survive fire. At one site, four of the 16 plants sampled had a burned stem twice as old as the oldest burned stem on the other 12 plants at the site, suggesting some stems had survived the previous fire (ca. 1970) and this conclusion was supported by fire-scars on these four stems that dated to ca. 1970. Based on the highly significant correlation between stem diameter and cone density left standing after the 1990 fries, we calculated that for most sites > 80 % of the initial cone crop was incinerated by fire. This is important because we observed a strong relationship between size of the canopy cone crop surviving fire and post-fire seedling recruitment. Under these conditions we hypothesize that sprouting confers a selective advantage to genets when fires cause heavy losses of seed. The infrequent occurrence of sprouting in the Cupressaceae suggests the hypothesis that resprouting is an apomorphic or derived trait in Widdringtonia. Data from this study suggests resprouting provides a selective advantage under severe fynbos fires, which are not only 'stand-replacing fires,' but also are intense enough to incinerate cone-bearing stems.

Keeley, J. E.; Keeley, M. B.; Bond, W. J.

1999-01-01

50

Index for characterizing post-fire soil environments in temperate ...  

Treesearch

... post-fire mineral soil colors providing a more fine-tuned post-fire soil index. We related each PFI category to characteristics such as soil temperature and duration ... post-fire soil conditions consistently will improve interpretations of fire effects ...

51

Analysis of Alaskan burn severity patterns using remotely sensed data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wildland fire is the dominant large-scale disturbance mechanism in the Alaskan boreal forest, and it strongly influences forest structure and function. In this research, patterns of burn severity in the Alaskan boreal forest are characterised using 24 fires. First, the relationship between burn severity and area burned is quantified using a linear regression. Second, the spatial correlation of burn severity as a function of topography is modelled using a variogram analysis. Finally, the relationship between vegetation type and spatial patterns of burn severity is quantified using linear models where variograms account for spatial correlation. These results show that: 1) average burn severity increases with the natural logarithm of the area of the wildfire, 2) burn severity is more variable in topographically complex landscapes than in flat landscapes, and 3) there is a significant relationship between burn severity and vegetation type in flat landscapes but not in topographically complex landscapes. These results strengthen the argument that differential flammability of vegetation exists in some boreal landscapes of Alaska. Additionally, these results suggest that through feedbacks between vegetation and burn severity, the distribution of forest vegetation through time is likely more stable in flat terrain than it is in areas with more complex topography. ?? IAWF 2007.

Duffy, P. A.; Epting, J.; Graham, J. M.; Rupp, T. S.; McGuire, A. D.

2007-01-01

52

Do burns increase the severity of terror injuries?  

PubMed

The use of explosives and suicide bombings has become more frequent since October 2000. This change in the nature of terror attacks has marked a new era in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. We previously reported that the incidence of thermal injuries has since risen. However, the rise in the incidence of burns among victims of terror was proportionate to the rise in the incidence of burns among all trauma victims. This paper presents data from the Israeli National Trauma Registry during the years 1997--2003, to compare the severity of injuries and outcome (mortality rates) in terror victims with and without burn injuries. We also compare the severity of injuries and outcome (mortality rates) for patients with terror-attack related burns to non terror-attack related burns during the same period. Data was obtained from the Israeli National Trauma Registry for all patients admitted to 8 to 10 hospitals in Israel between 1997 and 2003. We analyzed and compared demographic and clinical characteristics of 219 terror-related burn patients (terror/burn), 2228 terror patients with no associated burns (Terror/no-burn) and 6546 non terror related burn patients (burn/no-terror). Severity of injuries was measured using the injury severity score, and burn severity by total body surface percentage indices. Admission rates to Intensive Care Units (ICU) and total length of hospitalization were also used to measure severity of injuries. In-hospital mortality rates were used to indicate outcome. Of burn/terror patients, 87.2% suffered other accompanying injuries, compared with 10.4% of burn/no-terror patients. Of burn/terror patients, 49.8% were admitted to ICU compared with only 11.9% of burn/no-terror patients and 23.8% of no-burn/terror patients. Mean length of hospital stay was 18.5 days for the terror/burn group compared with 11.1 days for the burn/no-terror group and 9.5 days for the terror/no-burn group. Burn/terror patients had a significantly higher injury severity score compared with the other groups. In-hospital mortality rate for the burn/no-terror group was 3.4%. The burn/terror group had a mortality rate of 6.4% which was similar to the no-burn/terror group (6.6%). Terror-attack injuries with accompanying burns have a more complex presentation, are of higher severity, and are associated with increased length of hospital stay and a higher ICU admissions rate, compared with terror-attack injuries without burns and non terror-attack related burns. However, mortality rates in terror-attack injuries are not affected by burns. PMID:19065714

Peleg, Kobi; Liran, Alon; Tessone, Ariel; Givon, Adi; Orenstein, Arie; Haik, Josef

53

[Criteria for burn severity. Epidemiology. prevention, organization of management].  

PubMed

Total body surface area burned and deep of the skin injury are the main determinants of the burn severity. Other factors like age of the patient, pathological conditions, pulmonary injury by smoke inhalation, wound localizations play also a major role. 500,000 cases of burn injuries occurred each year in France. Ten hundred are hospitalized among witch 3,000 are hospitalized in burn units. Burns by flames are the most common in adult severely burned patients. In children, for all type of injuries, and in adult patients suffering of light or medium injuries, hot liquids are the most frequent encountered agents. Obviously, prevention programs should markedly decrease the occurrence of burn injuries. Regulation modifications are probably more potent than information campaigns. There is 25 burn units in France. Unfortunately, these units take care of less than one third of all the burned hospitalized patients. The organization of a national network binding regional burn centers and local specialized units would probably improve the efficiency of burn therapy in our country. PMID:11933836

Wassermann, D

2002-03-01

54

Modelling post-fire vegetation recovery in Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires in Mediterranean Europe have been increasing in number and extension over the last decades and constitute one of the major disturbances of these ecosystems. Portugal is the country with more burnt area in the last decade and the years of 2003 and 2005 were particularly devastating, the total burned areas of 425 000 and 338 000 ha being several times higher than the corresponding average. The year of 2005 further coincided with one of the most severe droughts since early 20th century. Due to different responses of vegetation to diverse fire regimes and to the complexity of landscape structures, fires have complex effects on vegetation recovery. Remote sensing has revealed to be a powerful tool in studying vegetation dynamics and in monitoring post-fire vegetation recovery, which is crucial to land-management and to prevent erosion. The main goals of the present work are (i) to assess the accuracy of a vegetation recovery model previously developed by the authors; (ii) to assess the model's performance, namely its sensitivity to initial conditions, to the temporal length of the input dataset and to missing data; (iii) to study vegetation recovery over two selected areas that were affected by two large wildfire events in the fire seasons of 2003 and 2005, respectively. The study relies on monthly values of NDVI over 11 years (1998-2009), at 1 km × 1 km spatial resolution, as obtained by the VEGETATION instrument. According to results from sensitivity analysis, the model is robust and able to provide good estimations of recovery times of vegetation when the regeneration process is regular, even when missing data is present. In respect to the two selected burnt scars, results indicate that fire damage is a determinant factor of regeneration, as less damaged vegetation recovers more rapidly, which is mainly justified by the high coverage of Pinus pinaster over the area, and by the fact that coniferous forests tend to recover slower than transitional woodland-shrub, which tend to dominate the areas following the fire event.

Bastos, A.; Gouveia, C. M.; Dacamara, C. C.; Trigo, R. M.

2011-12-01

55

Modelling post-fire vegetation recovery in Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires in Mediterranean Europe have been increasing in number and extension over the last decades and constitute one of the major disturbances of these ecosystems. Portugal is the country with more burnt area in the last decade and the years of 2003 and 2005 were particularly devastating, the total burned areas of 425 000 and 338 000 ha being several times higher than the corresponding average. The year of 2005 further coincided with one of the most severe droughts since early 20th century. Due to different responses of vegetation to diverse fire regimes and to the complexity of landscape structures, fires have complex effects on vegetation recovery. Remote sensing has revealed to be a powerful tool in studying vegetation dynamics and in monitoring post-fire vegetation recovery, which is crucial to land-management and to prevent erosion. The main goals of the present work are (i) to assess the accuracy of a vegetation recovery model previously developed by the authors; (ii) to assess the model's performance, namely its sensitivity to initial conditions, to the temporal length of the input dataset and to missing data; (iii) to study vegetation recovery over two selected areas that were affected by two large wildfire events in the fire seasons of 2003 and 2005, respectively. The study relies on monthly values of NDVI over 11 yr (1998-2009), at 1 × 1 km spatial resolution, as obtained by the VEGETATION instrument. According to results from sensitivity analysis, the model is robust and able to provide good estimations of recovery times of vegetation when the regeneration process is regular, even when missing data is present. In what respect to the two selected burnt scars, results indicate that fire damage is a determinant factor of regeneration, as less damaged vegetation recovers more rapidly, which is mainly justified by the high coverage of Pinus Pinaster over the area, and by the fact that coniferous forests tend to recover slower than transitional woodland-shrub, which tend to dominate the areas following the fire event.

Bastos, A.; Gouveia, C.; Dacamara, C. C.; Trigo, R. M.

2011-05-01

56

Do burns increase the severity of terror injuries?  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThe rise in the incidence of burns among victims of terror was proportionate to the rise in the incidence of burns among all trauma victims. The aim was to compare the severity of injuries and outcome in terror victims with and without burns injuries.MethodsData were obtained from the Israeli Trauma Registry for all patients admitted to 8–10 hospitals in Israel

K Peleg; L Alon; G Adi; J Haik

2010-01-01

57

Spatial frequency domain imaging of burn wounds in a preclinical model of graded burn severity.  

PubMed

Frequent monitoring of early-stage burns is necessary for deciding optimal treatment and management. Both superficial and full thickness burns are relatively easy to diagnose based on clinical observation. In between these two extremes are superficial-partial thickness and deep-partial thickness burns. These burns, while visually similar, differ dramatically in terms of clinical treatment and are known to progress in severity over time. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) for noninvasively mapping quantitative changes in chromophore and optical properties that may be an indicative of burn wound severity. A controlled protocol of graded burn severity was developed and applied to 17 rats. SFDI data was acquired at multiple near-infrared wavelengths over a course of 3 h. Burn severity was verified using hematoxylin and eosin histology. From this study, we found that changes in water concentration (edema), deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration, and optical scattering (tissue denaturation) to be statistically significant at differentiating superficial partial-thickness burns from deep-partial thickness burns. PMID:23764696

Nguyen, John Quan; Crouzet, Christian; Mai, Tuan; Riola, Kathleen; Uchitel, Daniel; Liaw, Lih-Huei; Bernal, Nicole; Ponticorvo, Adrien; Choi, Bernard; Durkin, Anthony J

2013-06-01

58

Spatial frequency domain imaging of burn wounds in a preclinical model of graded burn severity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frequent monitoring of early-stage burns is necessary for deciding optimal treatment and management. Both superficial and full thickness burns are relatively easy to diagnose based on clinical observation. In between these two extremes are superficial-partial thickness and deep-partial thickness burns. These burns, while visually similar, differ dramatically in terms of clinical treatment and are known to progress in severity over time. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) for noninvasively mapping quantitative changes in chromophore and optical properties that may be an indicative of burn wound severity. A controlled protocol of graded burn severity was developed and applied to 17 rats. SFDI data was acquired at multiple near-infrared wavelengths over a course of 3 h. Burn severity was verified using hematoxylin and eosin histology. From this study, we found that changes in water concentration (edema), deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration, and optical scattering (tissue denaturation) to be statistically significant at differentiating superficial partial-thickness burns from deep-partial thickness burns.

Nguyen, John Quan; Crouzet, Christian; Mai, Tuan; Riola, Kathleen; Uchitel, Daniel; Liaw, Lih-Huei; Bernal, Nicole; Ponticorvo, Adrien; Choi, Bernard; Durkin, Anthony J.

2013-06-01

59

Pre- and post-fire pollutant loads in an urban fringe watershed in Southern California.  

PubMed

Post-fire runoff has the potential to be a large source of contaminants to downstream areas. However, the magnitude of this effect in urban fringe watersheds adjacent to large sources of airborne contaminants is not well documented. The current study investigates the impacts of wildfire on stormwater contaminant loading from the upper Arroyo Seco watershed, burned in 2009. This watershed is adjacent to the Greater Los Angeles, CA, USA area and has not burned in over 60 years. Consequently, it acts as a sink for regional urban pollutants and presents an opportunity to study the impacts of wildfire. Pre- and post-fire storm samples were collected and analyzed for basic cations, trace metals, and total suspended solids. The loss of vegetation and changes in soil properties from the fire greatly increased the magnitude of storm runoff, resulting in sediment-laden floods carrying high concentrations of particulate-bound constituents. Post-fire concentrations and loads were up to three orders of magnitude greater than pre-fire values for many trace metals, including lead and cadmium. A shift was also observed in the timing of chemical delivery, where maximum suspended sediment, trace metal, and cation concentrations coincided with, rather than preceded, peak discharge in the post-fire runoff, amplifying the fire's impacts on mass loading. The results emphasize the importance of sediment delivery as a primary mechanism for post-fire contaminant transport and suggest that traditional management practices that focus on treating only the early portion of storm runoff may be less effective following wildfire. We also advocate that watersheds impacted by regional urban pollutants have the potential to pose significant risk for downstream communities and ecosystems after fire. PMID:23912423

Burke, M P; Hogue, T S; Kinoshita, A M; Barco, J; Wessel, C; Stein, E D

2013-08-04

60

Burns.  

PubMed

Burns are a leading cause of accidental injury and death. The American Burn Association statistics from 2001 to 2010 show that 68% of burns happen at home, 44% are from fires/flames, and 60% to 70% happen to white men. Smoke inhalation is the leading cause of adult death caused by fires. A patient with a 78% total body surface area burn has a 50% chance of survival. Burn injuries are described in terms of causative agents, depth, and severity. Crucial treatments for people with burns include assessment, stabilization, transfer to a burn unit, and fluid resuscitation. PMID:23692944

Ellison, Deborah L

2013-03-01

61

A database on post-fire erosion rates and debris flows in Mediterranean-Basin watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires can affect many Mediterranean countries on a yearly bases, producing damage and economic losses, both as direct effect of the fires and as consequent events, including erosion and sedimentation in the recently burned areas. Even though most of the wildfires occur in Spain, Portugal, southern France, Italy and Greece, it can be stated that no one of the Mediterranean countries is completely immune by such hazards. In addition to destruction of the vegetation, and in addition to direct losses to the built-up environment, further effects may also be registered as a consequence of the fire, even weeks or months after its occurrence. Wildfire can have, in fact, profound effects on the hydrologic response of watersheds, and debris-flow activity is among the most destructive consequences of these effects, often causing extensive damage to human infrastructure. Wildfires are today continuously monitored by several European institutions, and forecasting of the conditions (weather, temperature, wind, etc.) more likely conducive to their occurrence is often available in real time. On the other hand, not much is known about the processes that occur as a consequence of the fire, including erosion and debris flows. These are often underestimated, and become object of study only after some catastrophic event has occurred. This is in strong contrast with all the established techniques of risk mitigation; as a result, no prevention action is generally considered, and the society relies only on the emergency phase following a disaster. Aimed at contributing to gather information about the occurrence of erosional and debris-flow activity in recently burned Mediterranean areas, and at making available these information to land planners and scientists, a specific database has been compiled and presented in this contribution. To date, scientific literature on the topic in Europe has never been catalogued, and was dispersed in a number of different journals and in conference proceedings. The database derives from critical analysis of the existing literature, integrated by case studies directly studied by the authors. Studies on recently burned areas in the Mediterranean basin are most frequently carried out on small experimental plots, often with simulated rainfall A problem of scale therefore exists when trying to extrapolate the erosion rates (also reported as sediment yields or as sediment losses) from these studies to a watershed scale. Very few articles, on the other hand, were found that document the watershed-scale response of basins to rainfall-induced erosion and debris flows following wildfires. The few reported cases of debris flows in the Mediterranean Basin describe erosion of sediment from the hillslopes and the channels (sometimes down to bedrock), and, for a limited number of sites, failure of discrete landslides. This information indicates that debris-flow generation from recently burned areas in the Mediterranean basin appears to occur primarily through sediment bulking processes. Nevertheless, the database so far compiled shows a distribution of post-fire erosion and debris flows in the western Mediterranean basin (Spain, essentially, but also Portugal), followed by the eastern Mediterranean area (Israel), and then by France, Italy and Greece. Even though still in a preliminary version, that needs to be integrated and updated from further sources, our data compilation allows for the unique opportunity to examine issues related to the generation of post-wildfire debris flows across a variety of environments and under a variety of conditions, and to move from a qualitative conception of the controls on post-fire debris-flow generation to the definition of specific conditions that result in their occurrence. Future activities of the project will include: i) updating and integration of the preliminary version of the database; ii) development of models that can be used to identify the probability of debris-flow occurrence and the magnitude of the event for pre- and post-fire hazard assessment in Mediterranean climates;

Parise, M.; Cannon, S. H.

2009-04-01

62

Post-fire mechanical properties of glass-reinforced polyester composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation into changes in the mechanical properties of glass-reinforced polyester composites after exposure to intense radiant heat is presented. The tension, compression, flexure and interlaminar shear properties fell rapidly with increasing heat flux and heat-exposure time owing, mainly, to charring and delamination cracking caused by burning of the composite. Substantially higher post-fire mechanical properties were attained when the composite

A. P. Mouritz; Z. Mathys

2001-01-01

63

Psychiatric study of patients with severe burn injuries.  

PubMed Central

About two-thirds of a consecutive series of patients severely injured with burns followed up one year after discharge were found to have psychological sequelae. Duration of hospital stay and the presence of certain mental illnesses were related to the incidence and severity of psychological symptoms. This relation did not apply to the site of the burn and the existence of a claim for compensation. The incidence of post-traumatic neurosis in patients with burn injuries could be reduced by identifying and treating, soon after the accident, those who need psychiatric help.

White, A C

1982-01-01

64

Post-fire runoff and erosion from rainfall simulation: contrasting forests with shrublands and grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rainfall simulations allow for controlled comparisons of runoff and erosion among ecosystems and land cover conditions. Runoff and erosion can increase greatly following fire, yet there are few rainfall simulation studies for post-fire plots, particularly after severe fire in semiarid forest. We conducted rainfall simulations shortly after a severe fire (Cerro Grande) in ponderosa pine forest near Los Alamos, New

Mathew P. Johansen; Thomas E. Hakonson; David D. Breshears

2001-01-01

65

Incorporating multi-platform remote sensing products for prediction of post-fire hydrologic recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires are increasing in intensity and size across the western US, and more than half of the 20 largest fires in California have occurred within the last decade. Development in southern California has increased and as a result many homes at the wildland-urban interface (WUI) are affected by fire events themselves and post-fire processes. Current management efforts are mostly concentrated around immediate post-fire effects (first storm season); however, burned systems are often altered for prolonged periods of time, creating long-term concerns for downstream communities at the WUI. Previous work in two southern Californian watersheds, City Creek and Devil Canyon, shows lack of vegetation recovery and significant changes in annual and seasonal discharge for the post-fire study period (seven years). Applying remotely sensed data streams enhances monitoring of large and ungauged burned areas at high spatial and temporal resolutions. The goal of the current study is to integrate remote sensing data from multiple satellite platforms to improve prediction of the spatial and temporal variability of key hydrological variables controlling post-fire response. Remote sensing data streams from Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat are used to derive a range of land surface parameters and evaluate ecosystem and hydrologic recovery for the Arroyo Seco, an urban-fringe watershed in southern California burned by the 2009 Station Fire. A UCLA remotely-sensed evapotranspiration (ET) product is used to provide insight on vegetation growth and plant water availability. A UCLA MODIS-AMSR-E soil moisture product is used to evaluate the spatial variability of post-fire surface soil moisture and coupled storm runoff response. A range of other parameters, surface temperature, albedo and vegetation indices, are also evaluated to provide insight on the spatial variability of watershed recovery. Predicting the short and long-term risks of post-fire floods, debris flows and water quality degradation is critical in order to guide cost effective and efficient fire management policies at the WUI.

Kinoshita, A. M.; Hogue, T. S.; Kim, J.

2011-12-01

66

Evaluation of linear spectral unmixing and ?NBR for predicting post?fire recovery in a North American ponderosa pine forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (?NBR) is widely used to map post?fire effects in North America from multispectral satellite imagery, but has not been rigorously validated across the great diversity in vegetation types. The importance of these maps to fire rehabilitation crews highlights the need for continued assessment of alternative remote sensing approaches. To meet this need, this study presents

ALISTAIR M. S. SMITH; LEIGH B. LENTILE; ANDREW T. HUDAK; PENELOPE MORGAN

2007-01-01

67

Effects of post-fire salvage logging on boreal mixed-wood ground beetle assemblages (Coleoptera, Carabidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency and intensity of salvage logging has recently increased in burned forests of the Canadian boreal so that post-fire areas make up a significant annual share of all harvested forest land in some years. However, little is known about how this practice affects re-establishment of animal and plant communities that already have been strongly altered by the fire. We

Matti Koivula; John R. Spence

2006-01-01

68

RAPID POST-FIRE HYDROLOGIC WATERSHED ASSESSMENT USING THE AGWA GIS-BASED HYDROLOGIC MODELING TOOL 1807  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rapid post-fire watershed assessment to identify potential trouble spots for erosion and flooding can potentially aid land managers and Burned Area Emergency Rehabilitation (BAER) teams in deploying mitigation and rehabilitation resources. These decisions are inherently complex and spatial in natur...

69

Linking runoff response to burn severity after a wildfire  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Extreme floods often follow wildfire in mountainous watersheds. However, a quantitative relation between the runoff response and burn severity at the watershed scale has not been established. Runoff response was measured as the runoff coefficient C, which is equal to the peak discharge per unit drainage area divided by the average maximum 30 min rainfall intensity during each rain storm. The magnitude of the bum severity was expressed as the change in the normalized burn ratio. A new burn severity variable, hydraulic functional connectivity ?? was developed and incorporates both the magnitude of the burn severity and the spatial sequence of the bum severity along hillslope flow paths. The runoff response and the burn severity were measured in seven subwatersheds (0.24 to 0.85 km2) in the upper part of Rendija Canyon burned by the 2000 Cerro Grande Fire Dear Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA. A rainfall-discharge relation was determined for four of the subwatersheds with nearly the same bum severity. The peak discharge per unit drainage area Qupeak was a linear function of the maximum 30 min rainfall intensity I30. This function predicted a rainfall intensity threshold of 8.5 mm h-1 below which no runoff was generated. The runoff coefficient C = Qupeak/I30 was a linear function of the mean hydraulic functional connectivity of the subwatersheds. Moreover, the variability of the mean hydraulic functional connectivity was related to the variability of the mean runoff coefficient, and this relation provides physical insight into why the runoff response from the same subwatershed can vary for different rainstorms with the same rainfall intensity. Published in 2007 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Moody, J. A.; Martin, D. A.; Haire, S. L.; Kinner, D. A.

2008-01-01

70

Post-fire land treatments and wind erosion - Lessons from the Milford Flat Fire, UT, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We monitored sediment flux at 25 plots located at the northern end of the 2007 Milford Flat Fire (Lake Bonneville Basin, west-central Utah) to examine the effectiveness of post-fire rehabilitation treatments in mitigating risks of wind erosion during the first 3 years post fire. Maximum values were recorded during Mar-Jul 2009 when horizontal sediment fluxes measured with BSNE samplers ranged from 16.3 to 1251.0 g m-2 d-1 in unburned plots (n = 8; data represent averages of three sampler heights per plot), 35.2-555.3 g m-2 d-1 in burned plots that were not treated (n = 5), and 21.0-44,010.7 g m-2 d-1 in burned plots that received one or more rehabilitation treatments that disturbed the soil surface (n = 12). Fluxes during this period exhibited extreme spatial variability and were contingent on upwind landscape characteristics and surficial soil properties, with maximum fluxes recorded in settings downwind of treated areas with long treatment length and unstable fine sand. Nonlinear patterns of wind erosion attributable to soil and fetch effects highlight the profound importance of landscape setting and soil properties as spatial factors to be considered in evaluating risks of alternative post-fire rehabilitation strategies. By Mar-Jul 2010, average flux for all plots declined by 73.6% relative to the comparable 2009 period primarily due to the establishment and growth of exotic annual plants rather than seeded perennial plants. Results suggest that treatments in sensitive erosion-prone settings generally exacerbated rather than mitigated wind erosion during the first 3 years post fire, although long-term effects remain uncertain.

Miller, Mark E.; Bowker, Matthew A.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Goldstein, Harland L.

2012-12-01

71

[Burn shock, diagnostics, monitoring and fluid therapy of severe burns--new look].  

PubMed

Pathomechanism of burn shock is associated with an important endocrine disorder and cytokines storm. As a result of the burns are released to bloodstream kinins such as: histamine, serotonin and bradykinin and also inflammatory mediators such as: tromboxans, prostacyclins, prostaglandins and leukotrienes. Arises temporary endothelial failure. Comes to the escape of liquid blood to the tissues and a sudden decrease in the quantity of the fluid in the vessels and appear symptoms of burn shock. Offset of fluids by vascular wall to the extravascular space described mathematically with Landis-Starling law. Treatment of burn shock relies on intensive fluid therapy to fill vessels. Fluid rules are based on infusion crystalloids, colloids, hypersaline or plasma. Effect of fluid resuscitation after severe burn are edemas of whole body. Severe burn receives up to 25 000 ml of fluids intravenous in the first 48 hours after injury. The quantity of water defaulting tissue after 48 hours is even 13 000-18 500 ml which is 300-400% of the volume of blood flow. From 3rd day after burn this may produce symptoms of acute circulatory insufficiency or polycompartment syndrom. Enforces this restrictive fluid treatment and removing significant quantities of water from the bloodstream. In East Poland Burn Center and Reconstructive Surgery we remove even 300-350 ml fluid/h by ultrafiltration during CVVHD CiCa. Additional application hemodynamic monitoring such Vigileo-Flotrac has considerably reduce the amount of complications such as: intra-abdominal hypertension IAH, acute heart syndrome, cerebral edema and pulmonary edema. PMID:22533154

Drozdz, ?ukasz; Madry, Ryszard; Struzyna, Jerzy

2011-01-01

72

Psychological aspects of severe burn injuries in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses 4 phases of the traumatic process associated with severe burn injuries in children. Predisposing factors (i.e., emotional disturbances) in the preinjury phase are discussed. The acute phase centers on treatment directed toward physiological stabilization. The intermediate phase, in which skin grafts and other painful medical procedures are performed, is characterized by dependency on adults and regression, behavior problems, and

Dale W. Wisely; Frank T. Masur; Sam B. Morgan

1983-01-01

73

[Positioning, care and physical therapy in severely burned patients].  

PubMed

Positioning, medical care, and physiotherapy for severely burned patients represent essential parts of the treatment in the complete plan of full rehabilitation and resocialization. From the beginning an individual programme for each patient must be organized in joint planning with the physio- and ergo-therapists and be carefully controlled. PMID:6503525

Berger, A

1984-01-01

74

Inconsistencies in psychosocial assessment of children after severe burns.  

PubMed

Health care providers usually except children with severe burns to have psychosocial problems due to the severity of the injuries and resulting deformities. To test the validity of that expectation, 72 children (43 boys, 29 girls) who had suffered severe burns were assessed at least 1 year after burn injury for behavior problems and competence, by use of the 1991 Achenbach questionnaires: Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Youth Self-Report, and Teacher Report Form. The scores on each questionnaire then were compared by use of paired t tests. Also, the scores of the patient population were compared with those of the nonreferred reference populations provided by Achenbach. Compared with the Teacher Report Form and Youth Self-Report, the CBCL revealed a statistically significant (p < 0.05) greater number of behavior problems and lower level of competence for all age groups and both sexes. Item analysis revealed in most instances excess endorsement of specific items on all scales for the patient population compared with their respective reference populations, but more items were endorsed on the CBCL. These results could be explained by increased parental sensitivity to problem behavior or decreased competence of their children after severe burns. Further studies are needed to understand the discrepancies between the CBCL and the other scales. PMID:8537431

Meyer, W J; Blakeney, P E; Holzer, C E; Moore, P; Murphy, L; Robson, M C; Herndon, D N

75

Two cases of jugular vein thrombosis in severely burned patients  

PubMed Central

Here we present two cases of jugular vein thrombosis in burn patients, with diagnosis, risk factor analysis, and treatment approaches. Severely burned patients have high risk of deep vein thrombosis occurrence due to multiple surgeries. The deep vein catheter should be carefully performed. Once deep vein thrombosis is detected, a wide ultrasonography helps to find other thrombosis sites. During the acute phase, low molecular weight heparin can be used. Upon long-term anti-thrombosis treatment, combined use of herbal medicine during rehabilitation is helpful.

Cen, Hanghui; He, Xiaojie

2013-01-01

76

Rapid Response Tools and Datasets for Post-fire Erosion Modeling: Lessons Learned from the Rock House and High Park Fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Once the danger posed by an active wildfire has passed, land managers must rapidly assess the threat from post-fire runoff and erosion due to the loss of surface cover and fire-induced changes in soil properties. Increased runoff and sediment delivery are of great concern to both the pubic and resource managers. Post-fire assessments and proposals to mitigate these threats are typically undertaken by interdisciplinary Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams. These teams are under very tight deadlines, so they often begin their analysis while the fire is still burning and typically must complete their plans within a couple of weeks. Many modeling tools and datasets have been developed over the years to assist BAER teams, but process-based, spatially explicit models are currently under-utilized relative to simpler, lumped models because they are more difficult to set up and require the preparation of spatially-explicit data layers such as digital elevation models, soils, and land cover. The difficulty of acquiring and utilizing these data layers in spatially-explicit models increases with increasing fire size. Spatially-explicit post-fire erosion modeling was attempted for a small watershed in the 1270 km2 Rock House fire in Texas, but the erosion modeling work could not be completed in time. The biggest limitation was the time required to extract the spatially explicit soils data needed to run the preferred post-fire erosion model (GeoWEPP with Disturbed WEPP parameters). The solution is to have the spatial soil, land cover, and DEM data layers prepared ahead of time, and to have a clear methodology for the BAER teams to incorporate these layers in spatially-explicit modeling interfaces like GeoWEPP. After a fire occurs the data layers can quickly be clipped to the fire perimeter. The soil and land cover parameters can then be adjusted according to the burn severity map, which is one of the first products generated for the BAER teams. Under a previous project for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency this preparatory work was done for much of Colorado, and in June 2012 the High Park wildfire in north central Colorado burned over 340 km2. The data layers for the entire burn area were quickly assembled and the spatially explicit runoff and erosion modeling was completed in less than three days. The resulting predictions were then used by the BAER team to quantify downstream risks and delineate priority areas for different post-fire treatments. These two contrasting case studies demonstrate the feasibility and the value of preparing datasets and modeling tools ahead of time. In recognition of this, the U.S. National Aeronautic and Space Administration has agreed to fund a pilot project to demonstrate the utility of acquiring and preparing the necessary data layers for fire-prone wildlands across the western U.S. A similar modeling and data acquisition approach could be followed

Miller, Mary Ellen; Elliot, William E.; MacDonald, Lee H.

2013-04-01

77

Assessing post-fire combustion of polyurethane  

Microsoft Academic Search

In defining hypothetical accident condition thermal test requirements, 10 CFR 71.73(c)(3) states that ``any combustion of materials of construction must be allowed to proceed until it terminates naturally.`` Two examples of extended burning of packages following the regulatory fire are documented. This paper addresses extended burning after cessation of the 30-min, 1475°F regulatory fire from an analytical perspective with specific

W. R. Williams; J. C. Anderson

1994-01-01

78

Watershed-Scale Post-Fire Treatment Effects on Runoff and Erosion After the Hayman Fire, Colorado  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires can cause large increases in runoff and erosion. Although post-fire treatments are used to mitigate these effects, their effectiveness is not well documented. A study was initiated after the 2002 Hayman Fire to determine natural post-fire recovery rates, measure the effectiveness of contour-felled logs, straw mulch, and hydromulch, and determine effects of post-fire salvage logging. Sediment traps and weirs were installed in six severely burned small watersheds (3-5 ha) at 2 sites in the Hayman Fire. The above treatments were applied to four watersheds while one watershed at each site was left untreated as a control. Precipitation, runoff, and sediment yields were measured through 2007. Between 2002 and 2006, 11 rain events produced runoff in the contour-felled log site and 12 events produced runoff in the mulch site. The minimum rainfall required to produce runoff was 4.3 mm, while the 10-minute maximum intensity that produced runoff ranged from 9.1 to 72 mm hr-1. Snow melt did not produce runoff in any of the watersheds. Runoff from all six watersheds was flashy and heavily sediment-laden. Event runoff in the control watersheds was between 0 and 8.6 mm in the first year after the fire and between 0 and 0.6 mm 5 years later. The maximum peak flow rate in a control watershed occurred two years after the fire and was 7.1 m3 s-1 km-2. The mean annual sediment yields in the control watersheds were 23 Mg ha-1 yr-1 in 2003 and 22 Mg ha- 1 yr-1 in 2004. Only one site produced sediment from one event each in 2005 and 2006; the sediment yields from the controls for these events were 5.1 and 2.1 Mg ha-1, respectively. The contour-felled log and straw mulch watersheds produced less runoff, lower peak flows, and less sediment than their controls. The hydromulch watershed responses were closer to, if not greater than, those in its control. Salvage logging did not produce any measurable increases in runoff or sediment yields relative to its control. With large hydrologic responses occurring in these watersheds 5 years after the fire, it is clear these sites have not yet recovered to their pre-fire condition.

Wagenbrenner, J. W.; Robichaud, P. R.; Brown, R. E.

2007-12-01

79

Post-fire vegetation succession in Mediterranean gorse shrublands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Western Mediterranean areas, forest fires are frequent in forests established on old croplands where post-fire regeneration is limited to obligate-seeder species. This has resulted in the spread of Mediterranean gorse ( Ulex parviflorus) increasing the risk and severity of fires. The aim of this paper is to test the autosuccessional hypothesis on a Mediterranean gorse shrubland dominated by seeders species. Particular objectives are: a) to analyze the effect of fire on seedling emergence, survival and growth on the main species involved on plant regeneration process. b) to identify changes in the relative abundance of species as consequence of fire by using a before-after experiment. Then, after experimental fires, seedling emergence, survival and growth rates were analyzed for the main species present in the vegetation regeneration process. Our results show that Mediterranean gorse communities are dominated by Fabaceae species (64% of individuals, mainly of Ulex parviflorus). However, our study demonstrates that vegetation regeneration after fire does not display an autosuccessional pattern and is produced a change on dominance from Fabaceae (mainly U. parviflorus) to Cistaceae (mainly C. albidus) species. Cistaceae seedlings (mainly Cistus albidus and Helianthemum marifolium) were the most abundant post-fire (63% of total germination) while species of Fabaceae (including U. parviflorus and Ononis fruticosa) represented 25%, and Lamiaceae (restricted to Rosmarinus officinalis) comprised only 3% of total emergences. Seedling survival did not differ significantly from one species to another (25-30% of initial individuals over 3 years) but seedling growth rates were also higher for Cistaceae than for Fabaceae individuals. Then, after fire, in terms of biomass, Fabaceae presence decreased from 78.7% to 13.1% while Cistaceae increase from 8% to 83.4%. Given that fire frequency, intensity or severity is partially controlled by the composition and structure of the plant community population changes in the main species, could affect the future fire regime and in turn, affect the hydrological, ecological and economic role of a large stretch of forest and woodland areas in western Mediterranean ecosystems.

De Luis, Martin; Raventós, José; González-Hidalgo, José Carlos

2006-07-01

80

Artificial skin reduces nutritional requirements in a severely burned child  

Microsoft Academic Search

An 11 year old boy had 60% BSA burns excised and artificial skin (Integra®) applied. None of the burn wound was grafted. At 3 weeks post burn his serum biochemistry was normal, except for a low serum albumin. Mean energy intake for the first 3 weeks was half his non-burned requirement and mean protein intake was close to his non-burned

P. King

2000-01-01

81

POST-FIRE REVEGETATION AT HANFORD  

SciTech Connect

Range fires on the Hanford Site can have a long lasting effect on native plant communities. Wind erosion following removal of protective vegetation from fragile soils compound the damaging effect of fires. Dust storms caused by erosion create health and safety hazards to personnel, and damage facilities and equipment. The Integrated Biological Control Program (IBC) revegetates burned areas to control erosion and consequent dust. Use of native, perennial vegetation in revegetation moves the resulting plant community away from fire-prone annual weeds, and toward the native shrub-steppe that is much less likely to burn in the future. Over the past 10 years, IBC has revegetated major fire areas with good success. IBC staff is monitoring the success of these efforts, and using lessons learned to improve future efforts.

ROOS RC; JOHNSON AR; CAUDILL JG; RODRIGUEZ JM; WILDE JW

2010-01-05

82

Cajander larch (Larix cajanderi) biomass distribution, fire regime and post-fire recovery in northeastern Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change and land-use activities are increasing fire activity across much of the Siberian boreal forest, yet the climate feedbacks from forest disturbances remain difficult to quantify due to limited information on forest biomass distribution, disturbance regimes and post-disturbance ecosystem recovery. Our primary objective here was to analyse post-fire accumulation of Cajander larch (Larix cajanderi Mayr.) aboveground biomass for a 100 000 km2 area of open forest in far northeastern Siberia. In addition to examining effects of fire size and topography on post-fire larch aboveground biomass, we assessed regional fire rotation and density, as well as performance of burned area maps generated from MODIS satellite imagery. Using Landsat imagery, we mapped 116 fire scar perimeters that dated c. 1966-2007. We then mapped larch aboveground biomass by linking field biomass measurements to tree shadows mapped synergistically from WorldView-1 and Landsat 5 satellite imagery. Larch aboveground biomass tended to be low during early succession (? 25 yr, 271 ± 26 g m-2, n = 66 [mean ± SE]) and decreased with increasing elevation and northwardly aspect. Larch aboveground biomass tended to be higher during mid-succession (33-38 yr, 746 ± 100 g m-2, n = 32), though was highly variable. The high variability was not associated with topography and potentially reflected differences in post-fire density of tree regrowth. Neither fire size nor latitude were significant predictors of post-fire larch aboveground biomass. Fire activity was considerably higher in the Kolyma Mountains (fire rotation = 110 yr, fire density = 1.0 ± 1.0 fires yr-1 × 104 km-2) than along the forest-tundra border (fire rotation = 792 yr, fire density = 0.3 ± 0.3 fires yr-1 × 104 km-2). The MODIS burned area maps underestimated the total area burned in this region from 2000-2007 by 40%. Tree shadows mapped jointly using high and medium resolution satellite imagery were strongly associated (r2 ? 0.9) with field measurements of forest structure, which permitted spatial extrapolation of aboveground biomass to a regional extent. Better understanding of forest biomass distribution, disturbances and post-disturbance recovery is needed to improve predictions of the net climatic feedbacks associated with landscape-scale forest disturbances in northern Eurasia.

Berner, L. T.; Beck, P. S. A.; Loranty, M. M.; Alexander, H. D.; Mack, M. C.; Goetz, S. J.

2012-10-01

83

Significant or negligible sediment and nutrient losses after fire? Pre- and post-fire comparisons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prescribed fire (or a controlled burn) is a management tool used in wildfire-prone areas to reduce the fuel load of living and dead biomass, while attempting to keep disturbance of the ground surface and soil to a minimum. We know that wildfire, particularly of moderate or extreme severity, can cause important changes to the chemical and physical properties of soil, typically leading to a reduction in aggregate stability, surface roughness and water storage capacity, and an increase in overland flow. It has also been shown that wildfire disturbance can cause major loss of soil, particularly at plot and hillslope scales. There is less information on soil losses at catchment scales, but it is known that losses particularly of organic-rich fine sediment and nutrients can undergo hillslope to channel transfer, where they can affect water quality. Far less research has been carried out into the effects of prescribed fire on soil and nutrient losses at all scales, but particularly at catchment scales. This paper considers the impact of an experimental fire (equivalent to a severe prescribed fire) on soil and nutrient losses. These losses have been monitored at a range of scales (small rainfall simulation plots, long-term erosion plot, erosion plot, hillslope sediment traps (sediment fences) and catchment) before and after the fire in a 10-ha catchment near Góis, central Portugal, which forms part of the 5-year DESIRE research programme concerning desertification and its mitigation at a range of study sites worldwide. The catchment has steep slopes covered mainly with scrub vegetation ranging from c. 0.15 to 2m in height. The soil is thin, stony and highly water repellent. Long-term pre-burn erosion rates are known from a c. 10-year record of soil losses from a small erosion plot (8 x 2m in size) and sediment accumulation in the weir pool of a subcatchment gauging station. Rainfall simulations carried out under dry and wet antecedent conditions before and after the fire, eroded soil collected in sediment fences installed in strategic locations on the catchment slopes and suspended sediment and bedload determinations at the catchment gauging station provide the evidence for pre- and post-fire erosional losses. Comparison with wildfire effects is provided by instrumented scrub-covered hillslopes burnt in early summer 2008 in the same area. In addition to monitoring soil losses in the small catchment, losses of selected nutrients in eroded soil and runoff together with determinations of pre- and post-fire vegetation cover, fuel loads and soil water repellency have been determined. The soil degradational implications are discussed and placed in the context of the literature on prescribed fire and wildfire impacts from elsewhere in the Mediterranean and from further afield.

Shakesby, R. A.; Ferreira, A. J. D.; Ferreira, C. S. S.; Stoof, C. R.; Urbanek, E.; Walsh, R. P. D.

2009-04-01

84

Post-fire water quality in forest catchments: a review with implications for potable water supply  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many locations fire-prone forest catchments are utilised for the supply of potable water to small communities up to large cities. For example, in south-eastern Australia, wildfires have burned part or all of forest catchments supplying drinking water to Sydney (2001 wildfire), Canberra (2003), Adelaide (2007), Melbourne (2009), as well as various regional towns. Generally, undisturbed forest catchments are a source of high quality water. However, increases in erosion and sediment flux, runoff generation, and changes to the supply of key constituents after wildfire may result in contamination of water supplies. In this review, we present key physical and chemical constituents from a drinking water perspective that may be generated in burned forest catchments and examine post-fire changes to concentrations of these constituents in streams and reservoirs. The World Health Organisation (WHO) drinking water guideline values were used to assess reported post-fire constituent concentrations. Constituents examined include suspended sediment, ash, nutrients, trace metals, anions (Cl-, SO42-), cyanides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Constituent concentrations in streams and reservoirs vary substantially following wildfire. In streams, maximum reported total suspended solid concentrations (SSC) in the first year after fire ranged from 11 to 143,000 mg L-1. SSC is often measured in studies of post-fire stream water quality, whereas turbidity is used in drinking water guidelines and more commonly monitored in water supply reservoirs. For burned catchment reservoirs in south-eastern Australia, peak turbidities increased over pre-fire conditions, as did the frequency of exceedance of the turbidity guideline. NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ may increase after wildfire but maximum recorded concentrations have not exceeded WHO guideline values. Large post-fire increases in total N and total P concentrations in streams and reservoirs have been observed, although there are no guideline values for total N or P. Studies of post-fire concentrations of dissolved organic carbon are mostly from North America and report generally minor increases after fire, with elevated concentrations reflecting background conditions. The few observations of trace metal concentrations in streams after wildfire found high concentrations that exceeded guideline values for Fe, Mn, As, Cr, Al, Ba, and Pb, which were associated with highly elevated sediment concentrations. In contrast, Cu, Zn, and Hg were below or only slightly above (?1.2 times) guideline values. Reports of Cl- and SO42- concentrations after wildfire are mostly confined to coniferous forest areas, where maximum sampled values were well below WHO guidelines. Total cyanide concentrations have been observed to exceed guidelines values, although increases are likely to be short-lived. Post-fire stream concentrations of PAHs have been found to increase but were below levels of concern. In assessing the risk to water supply from wildfires, constituents of concern may be identified according to both the reason for concern (health or aesthetic) and treatability. Determining the risk to human health from short duration exposure to elevated concentrations of many contaminants (such as toxic metals, PAHs) is problematic, given that the guideline values are based on a life-time of exposure. Other constituents may have more rapid health effects from consumption of contaminated water (e.g. cyanides, Cu, NO2-) or aesthetic concerns (e.g. Fe, Mn, SO42-, Zn). The increased flux of suspended sediment and sediment-associated constituents (particularly metals, nutrients and organic carbon) that can occur after wildfire may necessitate water treatment by coagulation and filtration. At very high sediment concentrations treatment problems may be encountered that reduce or delay the rate of water processing, potentially causing disruptions in supply. For other constituents, such as NO3-, NO2-, Cl-, SO42-, amenable cyanides, and PAHs, it appears the likelihood that concentrations of concern will occur in water suppl

Smith, Hugh; Sheridan, Gary; Lane, Patrick; Nyman, Petter; Haydon, Shane

2010-05-01

85

Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy Improves Survival in Severely Burned Military Casualties With Acute Kidney Injury.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Background: Acute kidney injury in severely burned patients is associated with high mortality. We wondered whether early use of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) changes outcomes in severely burned military casualties with predetermined criteria...

E. E. Mann E. M. Renz K. K. Chung L. Juncos S. E. Wolf

2007-01-01

86

Stand-level effects of soil burn severity on postfire regeneration in a recently burned black spruce  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested whether variations in soil burn severity (soil organic layer consumption) influenced patterns of early postfire plant regeneration in a black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) forest in interior Alaska. Variations in burn severity were related to measurements of postfire tree seedling establishment and cover of plant growth forms observed 7-8 years after fire. Black spruce and trembling

Jill F. Johnstone; Eric S. Kasischke

2005-01-01

87

The use of exenatide in severely burned pediatric patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction Intensive insulin treatment (IIT) has been shown to improve outcomes post-burn in severely burnt patients. However, it increases the incidence of hypoglycemia and is associated with risks and complications. We hypothesized that exenatide would decrease plasma glucose levels post-burn to levels similar to those achieved with IIT, and reduce the amount of exogenous insulin administered. Methods This open-label study included 24 severely burned pediatric patients. Six were randomized to receive exenatide, and 18 received IIT during acute hospitalization (block randomization). Exenatide and insulin were administered to maintain glucose levels between 80 and 140 mg/dl. We determined 6 AM, daily average, maximum and minimum glucose levels. Variability was determined using mean amplitude of glucose excursions (MAGE) and percentage of coefficient of variability. The amount of administered insulin was compared in both groups. Results Glucose values and variability were similar in both groups: Daily average was 130 ± 28 mg/dl in the intervention group and 138 ± 25 mg/dl in the control group (P = 0.31), MAGE 41 ± 6 vs. 45 ± 12 (respectively). However, administered insulin was significantly lower in the exenatide group than in the IIT group: 22 ± 14 IU patients/day in the intervention group and 76 ± 11 IU patients/day in the control group (P = 0.01). The incidence rate of hypoglycemia was similar in both groups (0.38 events/patient-month). Conclusions Patients receiving exenatide received significantly lower amounts of exogenous insulin to control plasma glucose levels. Exenatide was well tolerated and potentially represents a novel agent to attenuate hyperglycemia in the critical care setting. Trial registration NCT00673309.

2010-01-01

88

Applying Spatial Statistics to Isolate the Effects of Fuels, Topography, and Weather on Burn Severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire severity datasets derived from satellite remote sensing data are now being used extensively in wildfire research and land management. Maps of burn severity based on the differenced normalized burn ratio (dNBR) are being produced and disseminated by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) project for all major wildfires in the United States from 1984 to present. This abundance

M. C. Wimberly; M. A. Cochrane; A. D. Baer; Z. Zhu

2007-01-01

89

Remote sensing and hydrological modeling of burn scars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the potential usefulness of combining remote sensing data with hydrologic models and mapping tools available from Geographic Information Systems (GIS), to evaluate the effects of wildfire. Four subprojects addressed this issue: (1) validation of burn scar maps derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) with the National Fire Occurrence Database; (2) testing the potential of thermal MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data for near-real time burn scar and fire severity mapping; (3) evaluation of Landsat derived burn severity maps within WEPP through the Geo-spatial interface for the Water Erosion Prediction Project (GeoWEPP), and (4) predicting potential post-fire erosion for western U.S. forests utilizing existing datasets and models. Wildfire poses incredibly complex management problems in all of its stages. Today's land managers have the option of trying to mitigate the effects of a severe fire before it occurs by fuel management practices. This process is expensive especially considering the uncertainty of when and where the next fire in a given region will occur. When a wildfire does occur, deciding when to let it burn and when to suppress it may lead to controversial decisions. In addition to the threat to life and property from the fire itself, smoke emissions from large fires can cause air quality problems in distant airsheds. Even after the fire is extinguished, erosion and water quality problems may pose difficult management questions. Contributions stemming from these studies include improved burn scar maps for studying historical fire extent and demonstration of the feasibility of using thermal satellite data to predict burn scar extent when clouds and smoke obscure visible bands. The incorporation of Landsat derived burn severity maps was shown to improve post-fire erosion modeling results. Finally the potential post-fire burn severity and erosion risk maps generated for western US forests will be used for planning pre-fire fuel reduction treatments.

Miller, Mary Ellen

90

Fire intensity, fire severity and burn severity: A brief review and suggested usage  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Several recent papers have suggested replacing the terminology of fire intensity and fire severity. Part of the problem with fire intensity is that it is sometimes used incorrectly to describe fire effects, when in fact it is justifiably restricted to measures of energy output. Increasingly, the term has created confusion because some authors have restricted its usage to a single measure of energy output referred to as fireline intensity. This metric is most useful in understanding fire behavior in forests, but is too narrow to fully capture the multitude of ways fire energy affects ecosystems. Fire intensity represents the energy released during various phases of a fire, and different metrics such as reaction intensity, fireline intensity, temperature, heating duration and radiant energy are useful for different purposes. Fire severity, and the related term burn severity, have created considerable confusion because of recent changes in their usage. Some authors have justified this by contending that fire severity is defined broadly as ecosystem impacts from fire and thus is open to individual interpretation. However, empirical studies have defined fire severity operationally as the loss of or change in organic matter aboveground and belowground, although the precise metric varies with management needs. Confusion arises because fire or burn severity is sometimes defined so that it also includes ecosystem responses. Ecosystem responses include soil erosion, vegetation regeneration, restoration of community structure, faunal recolonization, and a plethora of related response variables. Although some ecosystem responses are correlated with measures of fire or burn severity, many important ecosystem processes have either not been demonstrated to be predicted by severity indices or have been shown in some vegetation types to be unrelated to severity. This is a critical issue because fire or burn severity are readily measurable parameters, both on the ground and with remote sensing, yet ecosystem responses are of most interest to resource managers.

Keeley, J. E.

2009-01-01

91

Predicting post-fire erosion and sedimentation risk on a landscape scale: A case study from Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Historic fire suppression efforts have increased the likelihood of large wildfires in much of the western U.S. Post-fire soil erosion and sedimentation risks are important concerns to resource managers. In this paper we develop and apply procedures to predict post-fire erosion and sedimentation risks on a pixel-, catchment-, and landscape-scale in central and western Colorado. Our model for predicting post-fire surface erosion risk is conceptually similar to the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). One key addition is the incorporation of a hydrophobicity risk index (HY-RISK) based on vegetation type, predicted fire severity, and soil texture. Post-fire surface erosion risk was assessed for each 90-m pixel by combining HYRISK, slope, soil erodibility, and a factor representing the likely increase in soil wetness due to removal of the vegetation. Sedimentation risk was a simple function of stream gradient. Composite surface erosion and sedimentation risk indices were calculated and compared across the 72 catchments in the study area. When evaluated on a catchment scale, two-thirds of the catchments had relatively little post-fire erosion risk. Steeper catchments with higher fuel loadings typically had the highest post-fire surface erosion risk. These were generally located along the major north-south mountain chains and, to a lesser extent, in west-central Colorado. Sedimentation risks were usually highest in the eastern part of the study area where a higher proportion of streams had lower gradients. While data to validate the predicted erosion and sedimentation risks are lacking, the results appear reasonable and are consistent with our limited field observations. The models and analytic procedures can be readily adapted to other locations and should provide useful tools for planning and management at both the catchment and landscape scale.

MacDonald, L. H.; Sampson, R.; Brady, D.; Juarros, L.; Martin, D.

2000-01-01

92

Left ventricular failure complicating severe pediatric burn injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Despite improvements in the overall survival rates for critically burned children, failed resuscitation may account for 54% of deaths following burn injuries. Clinical and experimental studies have implicated failure of the right side of the heart in adults, biventricular failure in elderly patients, and inadequate resuscitation as causes of refractory burn shock. This retrospective study of resuscitation at a

Ellen M Reynolds; Daniel P Ryan; Robert L Sheridan; Daniel P Doody

1995-01-01

93

The effects of log erosion barriers on post-fire hydrologic response and sediment yield in small forested watersheds, southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfire usually promotes flooding and accelerated erosion in upland watersheds. In the summer of 1999, a high-severity wildfire burned a series of mixed pine/oak headwater catchments in the San Jacinto Mountains of southern California. Log erosion barriers (LEBs) were constructed across much of the burned area as an erosion control measure. We built debris basins in two watersheds, each about 1 ha in area, one with LEBs, the other without, to measure post-fire hydrologic response and sediment yield and to evaluate the effectiveness of the LEBs. The watersheds are underlain by granitic bedrock, producing a loamy sand soil above large extents of weathered bedrock and exposed core stones (tors) on the surface. Measured soil water-repellency was similar over the two catchments. Rain gauges measured 348 mm of precipitation in the first post-fire year. The ephemeral stream channels experienced surface flow after major rainstorms, and the source of the water was throughflow exfiltration at the slope/channel interface. Post-fire overland flow produced some rilling, but hillslope erosion measured in silt fences away from any LEBs was minor, as was sediment accumulation behind the LEBs. Stream channels in the catchments exhibited minor net scour. Water yield was much greater in the LEB-treated watershed. This resulted in 14 times more sediment yield by weight than the untreated watershed. Average soil depths determined by augering were nearly double in the catchment without the LEBs compared with the treated watershed. This suggests that differences in water and sediment yield between the two catchments are due to the twofold difference in the estimated soil water-holding capacity in the untreated watershed. It appears that the deeper soils in the untreated watershed were able to retain most of the precipitation, releasing less water to the channels and thereby reducing erosion and sediment yield. Thus, the test of LEB effectiveness was inconclusive in this study, because soil depth and soil water-holding capacity may have masked their performance. Published in 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Wohlgemuth, Peter M.; Hubbert, Ken R.; Robichaud, Peter R.

2001-10-01

94

[Experimental study on early multiple organ failure after severe burns].  

PubMed

Forty-three male mongrel dogs (12.5 +/- 2.5 kg) were divided into normal control (n = 7), immediate infusion (n = 8), non-infusion (n = 13) and delayed infusion (n = 15) groups. A 50% TBSA third degree surface burn was produced by igniting 3% napalm for 30 seconds on the shaved back. Cardiac, pulmonary, hepatic, renal and gastrointestinal functions were monitored following the thermal injury. The findings of these studies showed that mean arterial pressure, cardiac index, left ventricular work, right ventricular work, ADP/O ratio and ATP were all significantly decreased (P less than 0.05). However pulmonary artery wedge pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance, systemic vascular resistance, P(A-a)O2, Beef, Cr, UN, ALT, LDH, TB, DB, and MDA were markedly increased (P less than 0.05). Severe shock occurred soon after burns. Thirteen dogs died within 12 hours in the non-infusion group. All the dogs were resuscitated when immediate infusion of lactic acid Ringers solution was given according to Parkland formula, and all of them tide over shock stage smoothly without obvious changes in visceral functions. However, dogs were not resuscitated when infusion was delayed 6 hours postburn. The changes in visceral were even more severe in this group than those in non-infusion group. These results demonstrated that delayed resuscitation was an important factor of MOF in the early postburn stage. The marked increase in MDA in the myocardiac, lung, liver, renal and gastrointestinal tissues indicated that lipoperoxidation by free oxygen radicals was closely related with visceral damages.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1596785

Chen, F M

1992-03-01

95

Post-fire Changes in Air Permeability and Hydraulic Conductivity of Soils Following 2003 Aspen Fire in Sabino Canyon, AZ  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of a project to study the hydrologic effects of fire on the Sabino Canyon Watershed, the Soil Corer Air Permeameter (SCAP) was developed to rapidly measure in-situ air permeability (k_a) of unburned and burned desert soils while providing a standard soil sample for additional laboratory analysis. Twenty-two unburned and burned plots were selected in woodland-chaparral and coniferous zones with low and high slopes, and low, medium, and high fuel loads or burn severities. Air permeability was measured on a 25-point square grid on each 100 m2 plot (n=445). Hydraulic conductivity (Ksat), water permeability (k_w), soil physical properties, and hydrophobicity measurements were made on extracted soil samples in the laboratory. There was a slight decrease in the median k_a from 95 to 80 ?m2 for the woodland- chaparral zone as a result of the wildfire. There was a greater decrease for the coniferous zone where the median decreased from 152 to 110 ?m2 following the fire. The k_w of woodland-chaparral soils increased from 192 to 425 ?m2; but the median k_w decreased for the coniferous zone from 862 to 444 ?m2 after the fire. In addition, hydrophobic measurements show that there was a significant increase in hydrophobicity for post-fire woodland-chaparral soils but not for coniferous soils. The log k_a and log Ksat measurements were highly correlated for the unburned woodland-chaparral soils, but this correlation decreased for burned woodland-chaparral soils. The unburned coniferous data set had the least k_a and Ksat correlation, but was reasonable for burned coniferous soils. The decrease in correlation may be due to increases of hydrophobicity, uneven wetting and preferential flow in Ksat measurements, or extremely rocky terrain. However, the overall, log k_a-log Ksat correlation for all unburned and burned soils including previous measurements on agricultural and alluvial soils follow the trend of the Iversen et al. (2001) log k_a-log Ksat correlation.

Chief, K.; Ferre, T. P.; Nijssen, B.

2006-12-01

96

Effectiveness of Emergency Rehabilitation Treatments in Reducing Post-fire Erosion, Colorado Front Range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daniella T.M. Rough Department of Forest, Rangeland, and Watershed Stewardship, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Lee H. MacDonald Department of Forest, Rangeland, and Watershed Stewardship, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Burned area emergency rehabilitation (BAER) treatments are often applied to reduce post-fire flooding and erosion, but few studies have quantified their efficacy. The effectiveness of different BAER treatments in reducing post-fire erosion rates is being studied for three different wildfires in the Colorado Front Range. The treatments being monitored include seeding, contour felling, mulching, scarification with seeding, and a polyacrylamide (PAM). Sediment production rates are being measured at the hillslope scale using sediment fences installed immediately after the June 2000 Bobcat fire and the 2002 Hayman and Schoonover fires. Neither aerial- nor ground-based seeding significantly reduced erosion rates in the first three years after the Bobcat fire. In contrast, 4.5 t ha-1 of straw mulch consistently reduced sediment yields by more than 90%. Contour felling initially reduced erosion rates for small and moderate storms, but was less effective following the largest storms, presumably due to overwhelmed sediment storage capacity. A paired\\-swale design is being used for the 2002 Hayman and Schoonover fires, as this provides a more sensitive evaluation of BAER treatment effectiveness. The ground-based application of straw mulch and the aerial application of hydromulch each reduced sediment yields by more than 95% in both 2002 and 2003. However, the ground-based application of hydromulch in fall 2002 did not significantly reduce sediment yields in 2003. In 2002 the application of 11 kg ha-1 of PAM in an ammonium sulfate solution reduced sediment yields by 66%. In 2003 neither these sites nor three newly treated sites showed a significant reduction in sediment yields. A dry application of 5.6 kg ha-1 PAM had no detectable effect on sediment yields, nor did scarification and seeding in 2002 or 2003. These data suggest that treatment effectiveness varies with time since application, storm intensity, and amount of ground cover. Studies on these and other fires indicate that percent ground cover is the primary control on post-fire erosion rates because this reduces rainsplash, sheetwash, and rill erosion. Mulching has been the most effective BAER treatment because this immediately provides ground cover. Treatments that do not immediately increase ground cover (e.g., seeding, contour felling, and PAM) have shown more limited effectiveness in reducing post-fire erosion rates.

Rough, D. T.; MacDonald, L. H.

2003-12-01

97

Post-fire surface water quality: comparison of fire retardant versus wildfire-related effects.  

PubMed

An understanding of the environmental effects of the use of wildland fire retardant is needed to provide informed decision-making regarding forest management. We compiled data from all post-fire surface water monitoring programs where the fire retardant constituents ammonia, phosphorus, and cyanide were measured, and data were available in the public domain. For streams near four major wildfires, we evaluated whether these chemicals originated primarily from fire or from retardant use. We compared measured concentrations in streams where chemical wildland fire retardant was applied with concentrations in streams draining areas where retardant was not used. Correlations with calcium provided an additional line of evidence, because calcium concentrations in ash are much higher than in retardant. Ammonia, phosphorus, and total cyanide were found in streams in burned areas where retardant was not used, at concentrations similar to those found in areas where retardant was applied. Concentrations of weak acid dissociable cyanide were generally non-detected or very low, whether or not wildland fire retardant was used in the watershed. These results indicate that the application of wildland fire retardant had minimal effects on proximate surface water quality. Cyanide concentrations in post-fire stormwater runoff were not affected by the presence of ferrocyanide in the retardant formulas and were due to pyrogenic sources. PMID:16023176

Crouch, Robert L; Timmenga, Hubert J; Barber, Timothy R; Fuchsman, Phyllis C

2005-07-14

98

Iatrogenic radiant heat burns in severely asphyxic newborns.  

PubMed

We report two cases of newborns who developed second-degree burns following resuscitation under infra-red heating lamps. Both infants were asphyxic and suffered from insufficient peripheral circulation which, combined with the long duration of the exposure to the light, contributed to the development of the lesions. Both infants died shortly after birth for reasons other than the burns. PMID:8645968

Simonsen, K; Graem, N; Rothman, L P; Degn, H

1995-12-01

99

Changes in some membrane properties and structure of erythrocytes in severe experimental burns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generalized damage to cellular and intracellular membranes in thermal burns is the universal mechanism of development of the cascade of pathological processes in the severely burned individual [3]. During the first minutes after an extensive deep burn, at least two mechanisms of injury to the lipid layer of the biological membranes interact in the blood: highly active phospholipases are liberated

T. L. Zaets; V. A. Lavrov; A. I. Marchuk; I. M. Nosova

1990-01-01

100

Effect of vegetation type on post-fire enhancement of wind erosion in semi-arid landscapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aeolian processes redistribute sediments and nutrients within arid landscapes with important implications on the composition and structure of vegetation. Aeolian processes, on the other hand, are affected by vegetation cover and disturbances. For example, it has been reported that wind erosion is enhanced by fire occurrences, though it is still unclear how this post-fire erosion activity is affected by the vegetation type. In this study we monitored wind erosion activity in a managed grassland (CRP) and in a shrub encroached grassland within the Cimarron National Grasslands (KS). Measurements started after a naturally occurring wildfire and included both field observations - BSNE dust samplers, SENSIT particle impact sensors - and laboratory wind tunnel experiments. The results indicate that, by decreasing the threshold shear velocity (due to vegetation removal and soil water repellency), fires enhance the soil erodibility both in the CRP grassland and in the shrub-encroached grassland. The initial post-fire horizontal dust fluxes in grasslands and adjacent shrub encroached grasslands were comparable. However, the post fire recovery (decline in erosion activity) was rapid in the case of grasslands, while erosion activity remained high in the shrub encroached grasslands for several months after the wild fire. Our results support the hypothesis that woody plant encroachment decreases the resilience of semi arid grasslands - the capacity of these systems to recover from disturbances. This higher post-fire loss and redistribution of soil resources from shrub encroached grasslands further inhibits grass recovery, thereby favoring the shrub encroachment process.

Ravi, S.; Zobeck, T. M.; D'Odorico, P.; Baddock, M.

2010-12-01

101

Post-fire seeding on Wyoming big sagebrush ecological sites: regression analyses of seeded nonnative and native species densities.  

PubMed

Since the mid-1980s, sagebrush rangelands in the Great Basin of the United States have experienced more frequent and larger wildfires. These fires affect livestock forage, the sagebrush/grasses/forbs mosaic that is important for many wildlife species (e.g., the greater sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus)), post-fire flammability and fire frequency. When a sagebrush, especially a Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young)), dominated area largely devoid of herbaceous perennials burns, it often transitions to an annual dominated and highly flammable plant community that thereafter excludes sagebrush and native perennials. Considerable effort is devoted to revegetating rangeland following fire, but to date there has been very little analysis of the factors that lead to the success of this revegetation. This paper utilizes a revegetation monitoring dataset to examine the densities of three key types of vegetation, specifically nonnative seeded grasses, nonnative seeded forbs, and native Wyoming big sagebrush, at several points in time following seeding. We find that unlike forbs, increasing the seeding rates for grasses does not appear to increase their density (at least for the sites and seeding rates we examined). Also, seeding Wyoming big sagebrush increases its density with time since fire. Seeding of grasses and forbs is less successful at locations that were dominated primarily by annual grasses (cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.)), and devoid of shrubs, prior to wildfire. This supports the hypothesis of a "closing window of opportunity" for seeding at locations that burned sagebrush for the first time in recent history. PMID:18790557

Eiswerth, Mark E; Krauter, Karl; Swanson, Sherman R; Zielinski, Mike

2008-09-14

102

Post-Fire Soil Respiration in Relation to the Burnt Wood Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires are the main cause of forests and understory destruction in Mediterranean areas. One of the most dramatic consequences is the perturbation of carbon fluxes. A high percentage of the CO2 emitted by the ecosystem after a wildfire is due to soil respiration, which represents the most important uncertainty in the global carbon cycle. In this study we have quantified the soil respiration and its seasonal variability in reforested pine forests in the National and Natural Park of Sierra Nevada which were burned in September of 2005. Measurement campaigns were carried out along two years in two experimental plots at different altitudinal levels (1500 and 2200 m a.s.l.), in which three post-fire silvicultural treatments of burned wood were established: 1) "Non-Intervention" (NI), leaving all of the burnt trees standing. 2) "Cut plus Lopping" (CL), a treatment where most of the trees were cut and felled, with the main branches also lopped off, but leaving all the cut biomass in situ covering partially the ground surface 3) "Salvage Logging" (SL), all trees were cut and the trunks and branches were removed. Soil respiration was highly determined by the effects derived of the altitudinal level, with the highest values at the lowest altitude. The seasonal precipitation regime had also a key role. Soil respiration kept a basal level during the summer drought, during this period the response to the altitudinal level and post-fire treatments were reduced. On the other hand, soil respiration boosted after rain events, when the differences between treatments became more pronounced. In general, especially under these conditions of absence of water limitation, the post-fire burnt wood treatment with the highest CO2 fluxes was that in which all the burnt wood biomass remained covering partially the soil surface ("Cut plus Lopping") while the lowest values were registered in the treatment in which the soil was bared ("Salvage Logging"). Results of this study are especially important for the management of forest areas affected by wildfires, now that they offer key information about the influence of the forest intervention related to the burnt wood after fires in the carbon cycle and about the soil capacity of CO2 sequestration.

Marañón Jiménez, Sara; Castro, J.; Kowalski, A.; Serrano-Ortiz, P.; Ruiz, B.; Sancez-Canete, Ep; Zamora, R.

2010-05-01

103

Post-Fire Spatial Patterns of Soil Nitrogen Mineralization and Microbial Abundance  

PubMed Central

Stand-replacing fires influence soil nitrogen availability and microbial community composition, which may in turn mediate post-fire successional dynamics and nutrient cycling. However, fires create patchiness at both local and landscape scales and do not result in consistent patterns of ecological dynamics. The objectives of this study were to (1) quantify the spatial structure of microbial communities in forest stands recently affected by stand-replacing fire and (2) determine whether microbial variables aid predictions of in situ net nitrogen mineralization rates in recently burned stands. The study was conducted in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and Engelmann spruce/subalpine fir (Picea engelmannii/Abies lasiocarpa) forest stands that burned during summer 2000 in Greater Yellowstone (Wyoming, USA). Using a fully probabilistic spatial process model and Bayesian kriging, the spatial structure of microbial lipid abundance and fungi-to-bacteria ratios were found to be spatially structured within plots two years following fire (for most plots, autocorrelation range varied from 1.5 to 10.5 m). Congruence of spatial patterns among microbial variables, in situ net N mineralization, and cover variables was evident. Stepwise regression resulted in significant models of in situ net N mineralization and included variables describing fungal and bacterial abundance, although explained variance was low (R2<0.29). Unraveling complex spatial patterns of nutrient cycling and the biotic factors that regulate it remains challenging but is critical for explaining post-fire ecosystem function, especially in Greater Yellowstone, which is projected to experience increased fire frequencies by mid 21st Century.

Smithwick, Erica A. H.; Naithani, Kusum J.; Balser, Teri C.; Romme, William H.; Turner, Monica G.

2012-01-01

104

Post-fire spatial patterns of soil nitrogen mineralization and microbial abundance.  

PubMed

Stand-replacing fires influence soil nitrogen availability and microbial community composition, which may in turn mediate post-fire successional dynamics and nutrient cycling. However, fires create patchiness at both local and landscape scales and do not result in consistent patterns of ecological dynamics. The objectives of this study were to (1) quantify the spatial structure of microbial communities in forest stands recently affected by stand-replacing fire and (2) determine whether microbial variables aid predictions of in situ net nitrogen mineralization rates in recently burned stands. The study was conducted in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and Engelmann spruce/subalpine fir (Picea engelmannii/Abies lasiocarpa) forest stands that burned during summer 2000 in Greater Yellowstone (Wyoming, USA). Using a fully probabilistic spatial process model and Bayesian kriging, the spatial structure of microbial lipid abundance and fungi-to-bacteria ratios were found to be spatially structured within plots two years following fire (for most plots, autocorrelation range varied from 1.5 to 10.5 m). Congruence of spatial patterns among microbial variables, in situ net N mineralization, and cover variables was evident. Stepwise regression resulted in significant models of in situ net N mineralization and included variables describing fungal and bacterial abundance, although explained variance was low (R²<0.29). Unraveling complex spatial patterns of nutrient cycling and the biotic factors that regulate it remains challenging but is critical for explaining post-fire ecosystem function, especially in Greater Yellowstone, which is projected to experience increased fire frequencies by mid 21(st) Century. PMID:23226324

Smithwick, Erica A H; Naithani, Kusum J; Balser, Teri C; Romme, William H; Turner, Monica G

2012-11-30

105

Use of a radiative transfer model to simulate the postfire spectral response to burn severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burn severity is related to fire intensity and fire duration and provides a quantitative measure related to fire impact and biomass consumption. Traditional field-based methods to estimate burn severity are time consuming, labor intensive, and normally limited in spatial extent. Remotely sensed data may provide a means to estimate severity levels across large areas, but it is critical to understand

E. Chuvieco; D. Riaño; F. M. Danson; P. Martin

2006-01-01

106

An Experimental Study of the Effects of Litter and Duff Consumption and Ash Formation on Post-Fire Runoff.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consumption of the litter and duff layers in forest wildfires can lead to substantial increases in the frequency and magnitude of overland flow. These increases result from the loss of storage in the organic surface layer, reduced surface roughness, and from sealing of the exposed mineral soil surface. The presence of an ash layer may accentuate surface sealing by providing an additional source of fine material, or it may reduce runoff by storing rainfall and by protecting the soil surface from raindrop impacts. We used simulated rainfall experiments to assess the effects of litter and duff consumption and the presence of ash layers of varying thickness on post fire runoff at two forested sites in western Montana, one with sandy loam soils formed out of granodiorite and the other with gravelly silt loam soils formed out of argillite. At each site we measured the runoff from simulated rainfall in replicated 0.5 m2 plots before and after application of the following treatments: 1) burning with a fuel load of 90 Mg ha-1, 2) manual removal of the litter and duff layers, 3) addition of 0.5, 2.5 and 5 cm of ash to plots from which the litter and duff had previously been removed, and 4) addition of the same depths of ash to burned plots at the sandy loam site. In the burned plots the surface litter and duff layers were completely consumed and a <1cm layer of black and gray ash and char was formed, indicating a moderate severity burn. The mean soil temperature in the upper 1 cm of the mineral soil was 70° C, and there was no detectable increase in water repellency. The mean final infiltration capacity of the burned sandy loam plots was 35 mm hr-1 compared to a pre-fire mean of 87 mm hr-1, while in the gravelly silt loam plots the pre- and post burn infiltration capacities (27 and 31 mm hr- 1) were not significantly different. Manual removal of the litter and duff layers reduced the mean final infiltration capacity in the sandy loam plots from 64 mm hr-1 to 40 mm hr-1 and in the gravelly silt loam plots from 23 mm hr-1 to 16 mm hr-1. We attribute decreases in infiltration due to the burning and duff removal treatments primarily to surface sealing. In the sandy loam plots, burning may have had a greater effect on infiltration than duff removal because the thin ash layer in the burned plots provided an additional source of fine material. In the gravelly silt loam plots, macropores located around rock fragments helped to minimize sealing effects. The addition of 0.5 cm of ash to the burned granitic plots resulted in a 20 mm hr-1 decrease in the final infiltration rate, and this was also probably due to surface sealing. However, the overall effect of ash addition was to increase the cumulative infiltration in proportion to the ash thickness and to maintain a higher average infiltration rate, indicating that while thin (<1 cm) ash layers may promote sealing, thicker ash layers help to reduce the runoff rate by providing additional storage for rainfall and by protecting the soil surface from raindrop impacts.

Woods, S. W.; Balfour, V.

2007-12-01

107

Influence of patch size and shape on post-fire succession on the Yellowstone plateau  

SciTech Connect

The 1988 Yellowstone fires provided a unique opportunity to examine how the geometry of fire-created patches affects plant reestablishment. We initiated studies in 1990 in small (1 ha), moderated (74-200 ha), and large (480-3698 ha) crown-fire patches in each of 3 areas. Lodgepole pine forest is reestablishing in most burned areas, but seedling density varies by two orders of magnitude. At spatial scales <100 m, lodgepole seedling density declines with distance from the patch edge. Resprouting of herbaceous vegetation led to prompt revegetation in burned patches of all sizes, suggesting within-patch survival is a dominant recovery mechanism for grasses, forbs, and shrubs. Some annuals (e.g., Gayophytum diffusum) achieved greater densities in large vs. small crown-fire patches and colonized large patches more rapidly. Post-fire plant reestablishment in Yellowstone appears rapid and autogenic even in large burns, and the relative importance of factors controlling early postfire succession varies with spatial scale.

Turner, M.G.; Gardner, R.H.; Hargrove, W.W. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)); Romme, W.H. (Fort Lewis College, Durango, CO (United States))

1994-06-01

108

On the use of satellite VEGETATION time series for monitoring post fire vegetation recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire is one of the most critical factors of disturbance in worldwide ecosystems. The effects of fires on soil, plants, landscape and ecosystems depend on many factors, among them fire frequency, fire severity and plant resistance. The characterization of vegetation post-fire behaviour is a fundamental issue to model and evaluate the fire resilience, which the ability of vegetation to recover after fire. Recent changes in fire regime, due to abandonment of local land use practice and climate change, can induce significant variations in vegetation fire resilience. In the Mediterranean-type communities, post fire vegetation trends have been analysed in a wide range of habitats, although pre- and post-fire investigation has been widely performed at stand level. But, factors controlling regeneration at the landscape scale are less well known. In this study, a time series of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data derived from SPOT-VEGETATION was used to examine the recovery characteristics of fire affected vegetation in some test areas of the Mediterranean ecosystems of Southern Italy. The vegetation indices operate by contrasting intense chlorophyll pigment absorption in the red against the high reflectance of leaf mesophyll in the near infrared. SPOT-VEGETATION Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from 1998 to 2005 were analyzed in order to evaluate the resilient effects in a some significant test sites of southern Italy. In particular, we considered: (i) one stable area site, one site affected by one fire during the investigated time window, (iii) one site affected by two consecutive fires during the investigated time window. In order to eliminate the phenological fluctuations, for each decadal composition of each pixel, we focused on the departure NDVId = [NDVI - ]/?, where is the decadal mean and ? is the decadal standard deviation. The decadal mean and the standard deviation were calculated for each decade, e.g. 1st decade of January, by averaging over all years in the record. We analyzed both: 1) Time variation of NDVI from 1998 to 2005 of pixels for the fire affected and fire unaffected areas. 2) Post-fire NDVI spatial patterns on each image date were compared to the pre-fire pattern to determine the extent to which the pre-fire pattern was re-established, and the rate of this recovery. Results show the ability of vegetation to recovery after a single fire. Nevertheless, such ability can be strongly reduced by successive fires. The recursive fire occurrence can significantly diminish the green biomass especially when disturbances occur at short intervals of time.

de Santis, F.; Didonna, I.

2009-04-01

109

Can we use C-reactive protein levels to predict severe infection or sepsis in severely burned patients?  

PubMed Central

This is a large cohort analysis in severely burned pediatric children to determine whether C-reactive protein (CRP) can be used as a predictor for severe infection or sepsis. Nine-hundred eighteen pediatric burn patients were enrolled in this study. CRP values were measured throughout acute hospitalization and for up to 6 months postburn. Demographic data, incidence of infection, surgical interventions and other relevant clinical information was compiled from medical records. We performed an extensive literature search to identify models that other groups have developed to determine the effects of CRP levels postburn to assess the value of these parameters as predictors of sepsis or severe infection. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and regression analysis where appropriate. Three-hundred fifteen female and 603 male pediatric patients were enrolled in this study. Average total body surface area (TBSA) burn was 45±23%, with full thickness burn over 32±27% TBSA, and patients were 7±6 years old. CRP values significantly correlated with burn size, survival and gender. Significantly higher levels of CRP were found in large burns, in non-survivors, and in females, p<0.05. Using various described models to determine whether CRP levels change before and after an event can predict sepsis or severe infection, we found that CRP cannot predict severe infection or sepsis. Although CRP is a marker of the inflammatory response postburn, CRP fails to predict infection or sepsis in severely burn patients.

Jeschke, Marc G; Finnerty, Celeste C; Kulp, Gabriela A; Kraft, Robert; Herndon, David N

2013-01-01

110

Pressure ulcers and risk assessment in severe burns.  

PubMed

Risk and incidence of pressure ulcers (PUs) in the burn population remain poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the timing and incidence of PUs at our regional burn center and to identify early risk factors for PU development in burn patients. A retrospective review of 40 charts was performed from among the 1489 patients admitted to our regional burn center between January 2008 and December 2009. Twenty patients acquired PUs during their admission and were identified on the basis of International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision, designation, hospital stay >7 days, and thermal injury (excluding toxic epidermal necrolysis and purpura fulminans). The remaining 20 patients were matched controls based on ±5 years in age and ±8% TBSA. Patient, injury, and outcome characteristics were compared among patient groups using ? for categorical variables and Mann-Whitney for continuous variables. The incidence of PU was 1.3% of all admissions. PU most commonly occurred at the sacrum/coccyx (eight), lower extremity (seven), and occiput (six). A majority of PU presented at stage 2 (33%), stage 3 (26%), and unstageable (30%). Thirteen were splint or device related and reportable. Ninety percent of patients with PUs presented with a Braden score of 16 or less (P = .03), although 60% of controls also had admission Braden scores less than 16. On an average, PUs were acquired within 17 days of admission. Data suggest burn patients are particularly at risk of developing PU based on admission Braden scores. However, low Braden scores do not necessarily correlate with eventual development of PU. Therefore, early and aggressive PU prevention and risk assessment tools must be used to diagnose PUs at an early and reversible stage. PMID:22964549

Lewis, Giavonni M; Pham, Tam N; Robinson, Ellen; Otto, Andrew; Honari, Shari; Heimbach, David M; Klein, Matthew B; Gibran, Nicole S

111

Applying Spatial Statistics to Isolate the Effects of Fuels, Topography, and Weather on Burn Severity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire severity datasets derived from satellite remote sensing data are now being used extensively in wildfire research and land management. Maps of burn severity based on the differenced normalized burn ratio (dNBR) are being produced and disseminated by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) project for all major wildfires in the United States from 1984 to present. This abundance of data presents unprecedented new opportunities for understanding how weather, terrain, and fuels interact to determine fire severity patterns, and for testing the effectiveness of fuel-reduction strategies for mitigating wildfire impacts. However, these datasets present challenges for statistical analysis because of their large sizes and the non-independence of spatially autocorrelated pixels. To explore the importance of spatial autocorrelation, we analyzed the spatial patterns of burn severity in two recent wildfires - the 2004 School Fire in the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington and the 2005 Warm Fire on the Kaibab Plateau in northern Arizona. Conditional autoregressive (CAR) models were fitted with dNBR as the dependent variable and topography, fuels, and locations of recent fuel treatments as the independent variables. In both fires, elevation, slope, and aspect had strong effects on burn severity. Fuels had stronger effects on burn severity for the School fire than for the Warm Fire. In both fires, fuel treatments that combined thinning and prescribed burning resulted in statistically significant reductions in fire severity. The CAR models were then decomposed to isolate the spatial signal, which reflected spatially structured variability in dNBR that was not related to the independent variables. The spatial signals were correlated with the burn progression maps, reflecting spatial and temporal variability in weather and fire behavior (e.g. wind versus plume driven) over the course of the fire. These results suggest that spatial autocorrelation in the analysis of remotely- sensed burn severity datasets is not simply a nuisance, but in fact captures substantive and interpretable effects of weather and fire behavior on burn severity.

Wimberly, M. C.; Cochrane, M. A.; Baer, A. D.; Zhu, Z.

2007-12-01

112

Examination of event magnitude, contributing drainage basin area, channel gradient, and rainfall influences on channel yield rates of post-fire debris flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of methods for estimating volumes of post-fire debris-flow material along drainage networks requires a better understanding of the factors that control channel erosion and deposition within recently-burned drainage basins. The amount of material eroded and deposited by debris flows at locations along a channel can be quantified using the channel yield rate; the change in debris-flow volume per unit length of channel caused by passage of a debris flow. Here, we use channel yield rates measured in basins recently burned the 2009 Station fire in the San Gabriel Mountains of southern California to examine relationships between these rates and event magnitude, contributing drainage basin area, channel gradient, and rainfall characteristics. Following the Station fire and prior to any significant rainstorms, two to nine cross section surveys were established along the entire lengths of the main channels of three steep, rugged drainage basins. Surveys of the channel cross sections were made both before and after two distinct debris-flow triggering storms. These data were used to calculate post-fire debris-flow channel yield rates at 40 locations. Tipping-bucket rain gages installed near the surveyed channels provide rainfall amounts and intensities. Measurements of the amount of material removed from debris-retention basins located at the drainage basin outlets provide information on debris-flow volumes deposited at drainage basin outlets. High-resolution LiDAR data (1 meter) provide accurate elevation data for defining contributing drainage basin areas and channel gradients. The measured channel yield rates varied from 1 to 19 m3/m, with a mean of 4 m3/m and standard deviation of 5 m3/m. The greatest yield rates coincide with locations immediately downstream of field-mapped bedrock steps or channel junctions. The coincidence with bedrock steps suggests that in-channel "fire-hose" entrainment is a major contributor to debris-flow volume. High channel yield rates measured below channel junctions indicate the influence of increasing volume from tributary flow on entrainment rates, suggesting the influence of channel network densities on debris-flow volumes. Channel yield rates were greatest for the largest-volume debris flows and triggering storm rainfall amounts and occurred at the same locations for both debris-flow events. The lowest channel yield rates were measured along field-mapped bedrock-lined channels or channels with little stored material available for erosion. A correlation between channel yield rates normalized by contributing drainage basin area and channel slope indicates that debris-flow entrainment rates will be greatest at locations with large contributing areas and steep slopes. This preliminary work highlights the importance of considering sediment availability, drainage network form, contributing drainage basin area, and channel slope when developing models for predicting post-fire debris-flows volumes along drainage networks. Future investigations will examine the influence of burn severity on channel yield rates and work towards developing a predictive model for channel yield rates within recently burned drainage basins.

Gartner, J. E.; Cannon, S. H.; Santi, P.

2011-12-01

113

Completeness of Combustion for Laminar Wall Fires Using Several Alcohols Burning in Air  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steady, fully-burning wall fires were studied for several alcohols burning in air. Methanol, 1-propanol. and 1-butanol were burned using a vertically-oriented porous ceramic wick. Completeness of combustion was evaluated and accounting for its effect in numerical modeling, on characteristics of laminar wall fires was examined. Measurements of the concentration profiles in the free-convection boundary layers formed revealed that for each

STEVEN F. MALARY; JEAN K. AWAD; RAJENDER THAPAR

1989-01-01

114

Effect of forest fire on number, viability and post-fire re-establishment of arbuscular mycorrhizae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest fire can affect arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi by changing the soil conditions and by directly altering AM proliferation.\\u000a We studied the effects of a severe forest fire at Margalla Hills near Islamabad on the number and viability of AM fungal propagules\\u000a in the burnt soil and their role in the re-establishment of post-fire infection in colonized plants. Compared with

A. Rashid; T. Ahmed; N. Ayub; A. G. Khan

1997-01-01

115

Predicting the post-fire responses of animal assemblages: testing a trait-based approach using spiders.  

PubMed

1. Developing a predictive understanding of how species assemblages respond to fire is a key conservation goal. In moving from solely describing patterns following fire to predicting changes, plant ecologists have successfully elucidated generalizations based on functional traits. Using species traits might also allow better predictions for fauna, but there are few empirical tests of this approach. 2. We examined whether species traits changed with post-fire age for spiders in 27 sites, representing a chronosequence of 0-20 years post-fire. We predicted a priori whether spiders with ten traits associated with survival, dispersal, reproduction, resource-utilization and microhabitat occupation would increase or decrease with post-fire age. We then tested these predictions using a direct (fourth-corner on individual traits and composite traits) and an indirect (emergent groups) approach, comparing the benefits of each and also examining the degree to which traits were intercorrelated. 3. For the seven individual traits that were significant, three followed predictions (body size, abundance of burrow ambushers and burrowers was greater in recently burnt sites); two were opposite (species with heavy sclerotisation of the cephalothorax and longer time to maturity were in greater abundance in long unburnt and recently burnt sites respectively); and two displayed response patterns more complex than predicted (abdominal scutes displayed a U-shaped response and dispersal ability a hump shaped curve). However, within a given trait, there were few significant differences among post-fire ages. 4. Several traits were intercorrelated and scores based on composite traits used in a fourth-corner analysis found significant patterns, but slightly different to those using individual traits. Changes in abundance with post-fire age were significant for three of the five emergent groups. The fourth-corner analysis yielded more detailed results, but overall we consider the two approaches complementary. 5. While we found significant differences in traits with post-fire age, our results suggest that a trait-based approach may not increase predictive power, at least for the assemblages of spiders we studied. That said, there are many refinements to faunal traits that could increase predictive power. PMID:21198590

Langlands, Peter R; Brennan, Karl E C; Framenau, Volker W; Main, Barbara Y

2010-12-30

116

Contributions of severe burn and disuse to bone structure and strength in rats.  

PubMed

Burn and disuse results in metabolic and bone changes associated with substantial and sustained bone loss. Such loss can lead to an increased fracture incidence and osteopenia. We studied the independent effects of burn and disuse on bone morphology, composition and strength, and microstructure of the bone alterations 14days after injury. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups: Sham/Ambulatory (SA), Burn/Ambulatory (BA), Sham/Hindlimb Unloaded (SH) and Burn/Hindlimb Unloaded (BH). Burn groups received a 40% total body surface area full-thickness scald burn. Disuse by hindlimb unloading was initiated immediately following injury. Bone turnover was determined in plasma and urine. Femur biomechanical parameters were measured by three-point bending tests and bone microarchitecture was determined by micro-computed tomography (uCT). On day 14, a significant reduction in body mass was observed as a result of burn, disuse and a combination of both. In terms of bone health, disuse alone and in combination affected femur weight, length and bone mineral content. Bending failure energy, an index of femur strength, was significantly reduced in all groups and maximum bending stress was lower when burn and disuse were combined. Osteocalcin was reduced in BA compared to the other groups, indicating influence of burn. The reductions observed in femur weight, BMC, biomechanical parameters and indices of bone formation are primarily responses to the combination of burn and disuse. These results offer insight into bone degradation following severe injury and disuse. PMID:23142361

Baer, L A; Wu, X; Tou, J C; Johnson, E; Wolf, S E; Wade, C E

2012-11-07

117

An evaluation of functional improvement following surgical corrections of severe burn scar contracture in the axilla  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report present an evaluation 13 consecutive cases of severe burn scar contracture of the axilla and investigates the factors that influence functional improvement. The operation was performed at various times during the period from 3 months to 63 years after the initial burn wound healed. The active range of shoulder abduction before the operation in these patients was restricted

Aya Tanaka; Mitsuo Hatoko; Hideyuki Tada; Masamitsu Kuwahara

2003-01-01

118

Assessing burn severity and comparing soil water repellency, Hayman Fire, Colorado  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important element of evaluating a large wildfire is to assess its effects on the soil in order to predict the potential watershed response. After the 55 000 ha Hayman Fire on the Colorado Front Range, 24 soil and vegetation variables were measured to determine the key variables that could be used for a rapid field assessment of burn severity. The percentage of exposed mineral soil and litter cover proved to be the best predictors of burn severity in this environment. Two burn severity classifications, one from a statistical classification tree and the other a Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) burn severity map, were compared with measured ground truth burn severity at 183 plots and were 56% and 69% accurate, respectively.This study also compared water repellency measurements made with the water drop penetration time (WDPT) test and a mini-disk infiltrometer (MDI) test. At the soil surface, the moderate and highly burned sites had the strongest water repellency, yet were not significantly different from each other. Areas burned at moderate severity had 1.5 times more plots that were strongly water repellent at the surface than the areas burned at high severity. However, the high severity plots most likely had a deeper water repellent layer that was not detected with our surface tests. The WDPT and MDI values had an overall correlation of r = -0.64(p < 0.0001) and appeared to be compatible methods for assessing soil water repellency in the field. Both tests represent point measurements of a soil characteristic that has large spatial variability; hence, results from both tests reflect that variability, accounting for much of the remaining variance. The MDI is easier to use, takes about 1 min to assess a strongly water repellent soil and provides two indicators of water repellency: the time to start of infiltration and a relative infiltration rate.

Lewis, Sarah A.; Wu, Joan Q.; Robichaud, Peter R.

2006-01-01

119

An Analysis of Post-Fire Debris Flow Occurrence at Two Temporal Scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seasonal climate, rugged topography and high relief of the Peninsular and Transverse Ranges of southern California contribute to a particularly high susceptibility to wildfire during the dry season and debris flows during the wet season. Debris flows generated in recently burned areas have repeatedly caused casualties and damaged infrastructure. With a goal of reducing the hazard to local populations, the U.S. Geological Survey has been intensively monitoring the meteorological conditions that contribute to the initiation of post-fire debris flows since 2003. Data collected in these monitoring efforts have been used to derive rainfall intensity-duration thresholds to predict the timing of debris flows. A perceived limitation of the existing thresholds is that they are temporally static, because they do not account for the influence of within-storm dynamics, seasonal rainfall, and changes in soil moisture content. Here, we attempt to develop relations between meteorological, climatic and hydrologic variables and the occurrence of debris flows with the long-term goal of developing a temporally dynamic rainfall intensity-duration threshold. We investigate the variability of debris-flow occurrence on two temporal scales. First, we compare the within-storm variability of recorded debris flow times with measures of cumulative rainfall, rainfall intensity and soil moisture content. Short-duration (? 30-minutes), high-intensity bursts of rainfall are tightly correlated with the recorded times of debris flows, regardless of soil moisture content or cumulative storm rainfall. Preliminary evidence suggests that debris-flow magnitude may correlate with temporally coincident local peaks of both short duration (? 30-minute) and longer duration (? 360-minute) peaks of rainfall intensity. Second, we investigate the influence of total rainfall accumulation, changes in soil moisture content, and number and average intensity of rainstorms on debris-flow occurrence during the first year following wildfire. Preliminary results suggest little correlation between these factors and the conditions which contribute to the initiation of debris flows in recently burned watersheds. Our results highlight the need for highly accurate forecasting and monitoring of incoming rainfall for successful early-warning of post-fire debris flows. Short-duration bursts of high-intensity rainfall proved to be most effective for predicting debris-flow initiation regardless of within-storm or seasonal cumulative rainfall and soil moisture content. However, real-time monitoring of rainfall intensities measured over short durations within the burned watersheds provides little or no lead time for warning or evacuation. Monitoring upwind conditions may provide additional lead time, though considerable spatial variability of rainfall rates may exist in complex topography. Furthermore, focusing future research upon the direct measurement of changes in soil properties, vegetation growth and slope morphology should improve our ability to predict the within-storm and seasonal occurrence of post-fire debris flows, as indirect measures of meteorological and climatological factors do not provide adequate levels of prediction.

Staley, D. M.; Kean, J. W.; Gartner, J. E.

2011-12-01

120

Wildfire Impacts on Stream Sedimentation and Channel Morphology: Revisiting the Boulder Creek Burn in Little Granite Creek  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnitude of hydrologic and sedimentologic changes observed in watersheds following wildfire depend largely on the severity of the burn, landscape susceptibility to erosion, and the timing and magnitude of storms following the fire. In this study of a burned watershed in NW Wyoming (Boulder Creek burn in Little Granite Creek watershed), sedimentation impacts following a moderately sized fire (burned in 2000) were evaluated against known sediment loads measured prior to burning and against a comparable control watershed. Pre-burn data on rates of sediment transport provide useful information on the inherent variability of stream processes and were used to assess degree of departure due to disturbance from wildfire. Early observations of sediment yield showed substantially elevated rates (5x) the first year post-fire (2001), followed by less elevated rates in 2002 and 2003, signaling a return to baseline values by 3 years post-fire. More recent work, 8 years post-fire, has shown elevated suspended sediment concentrations relative to pre-burn values. We tentatively attribute this increase to destabilization of channels in the burned area due to the introduction of large wood (LW). Surveys indicated that the number of pieces of instream LW were doubled and tripled in some reaches as burned trees began to decay and fall in to the channel. Observed channel changes associated with the introduction of new wood include: 1) increase in the size and number of LW jams; 2) deposition of sediment within LW jams; 3) channel avulsions; 4) erosion of banks and terraces where wood re-directed flow into the bank; and 5) new sources of sediment due to channel instability. These results provide insight into longer-term geomorphic impacts of wildland fire that are associated with LW dynamics and changes to channel and bank stability in the burned riparian environment.

Ryan, S. E.; Dwire, K. A.; Air, Water,; Aquatic Ecosystems Program

2011-12-01

121

A soil burn severity index for understanding soil-fire relations in ...  

Treesearch

International Institute of Tropical Forestry ... Title: A soil burn severity index for understanding soil-fire relations in tropical forests [Chinese version] ... Short- and long-term fire effects on soils are determined by the prefire, fire, and postfire ...

122

Metabolic Implications of Severe Burn Injuries and Their Management: A Systematic Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Severe burn patients are some of the most challenging critically ill patients, with an extreme state of physiologic stress\\u000a and an overwhelming systemic metabolic response. A major component of severe burn injury is a hypermetabolic state associated\\u000a with protein losses and a significant reduction of lean body mass. The second prominent component is hyperglycemia. Reversal\\u000a of the hypermetabolic response by

Bishara S. Atiyeh; S. William A. Gunn; Saad A. Dibo

2008-01-01

123

Management of severe burn injuries with topical heparin: the first evidence-based study in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Conventional therapy for burns has always produced a nightmarish illness for patients. The lack of the ability to prevent contractures often produces dysfunctional limbs and the ugly scars resulting from severe burns are an ongoing reminder of this lengthy painful illness. This study is to determine the effectiveness of topical heparin in burns management among some patients at the Burns Intensive Care Unit (BICU) of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Kumasi, Ghana. Patients for this prospective study were burns victims who were transported to the Accident and Emergency Center of KATH. Complete clerking of the patients and related information were taken. Six patients with ages ranging from 5-35 years, TBSA 5-42% and a combination of 2° and 3° burns were enrolled in the case study. Anatomical locations of the burns included: face, neck, trunk and limbs. Using topical heparin produced smooth skin in two patients: Patients 3 and 5 who reported on Post-burn Day 85 and 116 at the BICU. Five out of the six patients assessed the degree of pain; before treatment with heparin, all five patients stated they were experiencing severe pains, however, three (60.0%) of the patients stated they experienced no pain at all while two (40.0%) were experiencing mild pain after topical heparin application. Heparin was observed to be very effective in the management of burn injuries in the patients studied. It was effective in reduction of pain and prevention of scars and contractures. However, due to the small number of patients and lack of control for the wound healing, a firm recommendation for the use of heparin therapy in burns cannot be made and further studies would be required to establish its use especially in the African population.

Agbenorku, Pius; Fugar, Setri; Akpaloo, Joseph; Hoyte-Williams, Paa E; Alhassan, Zainab; Agyei, Fareeda

2013-01-01

124

Management of severe burn injuries with topical heparin: the first evidence-based study in Ghana.  

PubMed

Conventional therapy for burns has always produced a nightmarish illness for patients. The lack of the ability to prevent contractures often produces dysfunctional limbs and the ugly scars resulting from severe burns are an ongoing reminder of this lengthy painful illness. This study is to determine the effectiveness of topical heparin in burns management among some patients at the Burns Intensive Care Unit (BICU) of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Kumasi, Ghana. Patients for this prospective study were burns victims who were transported to the Accident and Emergency Center of KATH. Complete clerking of the patients and related information were taken. Six patients with ages ranging from 5-35 years, TBSA 5-42% and a combination of 2° and 3° burns were enrolled in the case study. Anatomical locations of the burns included: face, neck, trunk and limbs. Using topical heparin produced smooth skin in two patients: Patients 3 and 5 who reported on Post-burn Day 85 and 116 at the BICU. Five out of the six patients assessed the degree of pain; before treatment with heparin, all five patients stated they were experiencing severe pains, however, three (60.0%) of the patients stated they experienced no pain at all while two (40.0%) were experiencing mild pain after topical heparin application. Heparin was observed to be very effective in the management of burn injuries in the patients studied. It was effective in reduction of pain and prevention of scars and contractures. However, due to the small number of patients and lack of control for the wound healing, a firm recommendation for the use of heparin therapy in burns cannot be made and further studies would be required to establish its use especially in the African population. PMID:23386983

Agbenorku, Pius; Fugar, Setri; Akpaloo, Joseph; Hoyte-Williams, Paa E; Alhassan, Zainab; Agyei, Fareeda

2013-01-24

125

Fire behavior, weather, and burn severity of the 2007 anaktuvuk river tundra fire, North Slope, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2007, the Anaktuvuk River Fire (ARF) became the largest recorded tundra fire on the North Slope of Alaska. The ARF burned for nearly three months, consuming more than 100,000 ha. At its peak in early September, the ARF burned at a rate of 7000 ha d-1. The conditions potentially responsible for this large tundra fire include modeled record high summer temperature and record low summer precipitation, a late-season high-pressure system located over the Beaufort Sea, extremely dry soil conditions throughout the summer, and sustained southerly winds during the period of vegetation senescence. Burn severity mapping revealed that more than 80% of the ARF burned at moderate to extreme severity, while the nearby Kuparuk River Fire remained small and burned at predominantly (80%) low severity. While this study provides information that may aid in the prediction of future large tundra fires in northern Alaska, the fact that three other tundra fires that occurred in 2007 combined to burn less than 1000 ha suggests site specific complexities associated with tundra fires on the North Slope, which may hamper the development of tundra fire forecasting models.

Jones, B.; Kolden, C.; Jandt, R.; Abatzoglou, J.; Urban, F.; Arp, C.

2009-01-01

126

Constraining Diffusivity and Critical Slope from Post-Fire Sediment Flux of the Day, Canyon, and Corral Fires, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the primary effects of wildfire on steep hillslope processes is a dramatic acceleration of sediment transport rates by dry ravel, grainflow and overland flow. These processes deliver sediment to valley bottoms where they become source material for debris flows initiated during subsequent intense rainfall. We used sediment traps to study the variation in post-fire transport rates in steeplands burned by the 2006 Day fire in the western Transverse Ranges and the 2007 Canyon and Corral fires of the Santa Monica Mountains of southern California. Within 2 to 4 weeks following fire containment, we installed 15 sediment traps on relatively planar hillslopes with gradients of 0.30 to 0.91. Mesozoic plutonic rocks and Miocene sediments produced a range of material with a median grain size of 40 to 60% sand. We observed active dry ravel and grain flows of cohesionless granular material occurring in response to localized turbulent wind bursts and solar-driven thermal variations. We visited these sites following storms that generated overland flow transport during high-intensity precipitation. Tipping-bucket rain gages provided precipitation data and nearby anemometers provided wind direction and speed.To estimate unit sediment flux, we air dried the samples and divided the total mass accumulated per time interval by the trap width. Flux ranged over 3 orders of magnitude, from 0.001 to 1.3 m3m-1yr-1, lower on gentle slopes and higher on steeper slopes, independent of parent material. Flux rates decline monotonically with time since fire. A plot of flux versus hillslope gradient can be fit with a non-linear exponential relation used by other researchers to model steep hillslope transport rates. At Day fire sites, values of critical hillslope gradient (Sc), where the flux becomes infinite in a non-linear transport law, remained constant at 0.77 throughout the 18-month observation period. The diffusivity (K) declined from 0.03 (2 months post-installation) to 0.008 (18 months post-installation) m2day-1. Five traps in the Canyon and Corral fire sites were fit with a 0.72 critical slope and a 0.03 m2day-1 diffusivity for the time-frame of 2 months post installation, values similar to the Day fire sites. Three sites at the Canyon and Corral fires showed signs of sediment supply or process effects on their flux rates. These steepest sites (0.79-0.91 slope) were located several meters downslope from rock outcrops and had flux rates characteristic of lower slope sites in less supply-limited reaches. These low rates may represent reduced flux rates from small source lengths and close proximity to bedrock outcrops where rockfall, not grain flow, is the dominant transport process.At all sites, the largest amount of hillslope transport occurred prior to the arrival of the greatest amount of precipitation. Reductions in post-fire sediment flux and diffusivity values are consistent with field observations documenting that initially soil- mantled hillslopes were gradually stripped to bedrock and converted from transport-limited to supply-limited conditions. Furthermore, a time-series of terrestrial LiDAR surveys documented the gradual infilling of low- order valleys by as much as 1 m of sediment and that small frictional dams formed by the regrowth of vegetation provided effective traps and a mechanism to rapidly decrease diffusivity. Hence, high rates of transport in landscapes disturbed by fire can be quickly modulated through decreased sediment availability and the progressive trapping efficiency of densely spaced chaparral vegetation regrowth.

Schmidt, K. M.; Stock, J. D.; Hanshaw, M. N.; Bawden, G. W.

2008-12-01

127

Influences of forest roads and their edge effects on the spatial pattern of burn severity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous research has shown that forest roads are an important feature in many landscapes and have significant effects on wildfire ignition and cessation. However, forest road effects on burn severity have not been studied at the landscape level. Therefore, the overarching goal of our study is to identify the influences of road edge effects on the spatial patterns of burn severity. We analyzed six fires within the Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forest on the eastern slope of the Cascades mountain range of central Washington. We generated two categories for assessing road variables: (1) Primary Road Effect Zone (area within 150 m of the nearest road) and (2) Secondary Road Effect Zone (area from 150 m to 300 m to the nearest road). A regular sampling grid including one out of every 9 cells was created for each fire. These grids were intersected with burn severity data in the form of the Relative Differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (RdNBR), road distance category, stream distance, elevation, slope, terrain shape index, heat load index, canopy cover, and fuel type. We fit spatial regression models with RdNBR as the dependent variable. We found that high burn severity is less likely to occur in the Primary Road Effect Zone for most fires, although one fire exhibited the opposite relationship. Forest road edge effects were hypothesized to be an important determinant of burn severity because fragmentation created by roads alters the roadside fuel profile and environment and because road corridors create barriers to fire spread. Recognizing roadside effects on burn severity patterns highlights the need for further study of the range of effects that roads have on fuels and the fire environment and the potential for incorporating road effects into landscape-level assessments of fire risk.

Narayanaraj, Ganapathy; Wimberly, Michael C.

2013-08-01

128

The Impact of Muscle Disuse on Muscle Atrophy in Severely Burned Rats  

PubMed Central

Background Severe burn induces a sustained hypermetabolic response, which causes long-term loss of muscle mass and decrease in muscle strength. In this study, we sought to determine whether muscle disuse has additional impact on muscle atrophy after severe burn using a rat model combining severe cutaneous burn and hindlimb unloading. Methods Forty Sprague-Dawley rats (?300g) were randomly assigned to sham ambulatory (S/A), sham hindlimb unloading (S/HLU), burn ambulatory (B/A) or burn hindlimb unloading (B/HLU) groups. Rats received a 40% total body surface (TBSA) full thickness scald burn, and rats with hindlimb unloading were placed in a tail traction system. At day 14, lean body mass (LBM) was determined using DEXA scan, followed by measurement of the isometric mechanical properties in the predominantly fast-twitch plantaris muscle (PL) and the predominantly slow-twitch soleus muscle (SL). Muscle weight (wt), protein wt, and wet/dry wt were determined. Results At day 14, body weight had decreased significantly in all treatment groups; B/HLU resulted in significantly greater loss compared to the B/A, S/HLU and S/A. The losses could be attributed to loss of LBM. PL muscle wt and Po were lowest in the B/HLU group (<0.05 vs. S/A, S/HLU or B/A). SL muscle wt and Po were significantly less in both S/HLU and B/HLU compared that of S/A and B/A; no significant difference was found between S/HLU and B/HLU. Conclusions Cutaneous burn and hindlimb unloading have an additive effect on muscle atrophy, characterized by loss of muscle mass and decrease in muscle strength in both fast (PL) and slow (SL) twitch muscles. Of the two, disuse appeared to be the dominant factor for continuous muscle wasting after acute burn in this model.

Wu, Xiaowu; Baer, Lisa A; Wolf, Steven E.; Wade, Charles E; Walters, Thomas J.

2010-01-01

129

Severe burn injuries caused by bioethanol-design fireplaces-an overview on recreational fire threats.  

PubMed

Commercially available bioethanol-fueled fireplaces have become increasingly popular additions for interior home decoration in Europe and more recently in the United States. These fireplaces are advertised as smokeless, ecologically friendly, and do not require professional installation, formal gas lines, or venting. Although manufacturers and businesses promote their safety, recent presentations of injuries have alerted the authors to the relevant danger bioethanol fireplaces can pose for the incautious user. Are bioethanol fireplaces going to become the future threat in domestic burn accidents beside common barbeque burns? A Medline literature search on barbeque and domestic fireplace accidents was performed to compare and stratify the injury patterns reported and to identify a risk profile for contemporary bioethanol-fueled fireplaces. To exemplify, two representative clinical cases of severe burn accidents caused by bioethanol-fueled fireplaces, both treated in the burn unit of the authors, are being presented. Design fireplaces are being recognized as an increasing source of fuel and fire-related danger in the home. This risk may be underestimated by the uninformed customer, resulting in severe burn injuries. Because bioethanol-fueled fireplaces have become more commonplace, they may overtake barbecue-related injury as the most common domestic burn injury. PMID:21233730

Kraemer, Robert; Knobloch, Karsten; Lorenzen, Johan; Breuing, Karl H; Koennecker, Soeren; Rennekampff, Hans-Oliver; Vogt, Peter M

130

Burns  

MedlinePLUS

... staples the skin graft over the burned area. Artificial skin can also be used. Autografts are permanent. ... 21 days by the person's immune system, and artificial skin is removed. Although allografts and xenografts provide ...

131

Thrombocytopenia induces multiple intracranial hemorrhages in patients with severe burns: A review of 16 cases  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to explore the etiology and diagnosis of multiple intracranial hemorrhages (ICHs) following severe burns, with a retrospective review of 16 cases of severe burns further complicated by multiple ICHs. Using cranial CT scans of the brains, we identified that all patients presented with low platelet counts and coagulation abnormalities prior to intracranial hemorrhaging. Following conventional treatment and various supporting treatments, five cases succumbed following a progressive reduction in blood platelet levels and the ICHs were cured in 11 cases following the restoration of normal platelet levels. We conclude that low platelet counts and coagulation abnormalities may cause multiple ICHs following severe burns and early diagnosis and treatment is the key to successful treatment.

ZHOU, JIANDA; LIU, JINYAN; LUO, CHENGQUN; HU, FENG; LIU, RUI; CHEN, ZIZI; CHEN, YAO; XIONG, WU; XIE, JIANFEI; HE, QUANYONG; YIN, CHAOQI; WANG, SHAOHUA; ZHANG, YANWEN; ZENG, SAINAN

2013-01-01

132

Extensive thrombosis of the caval venous system after central venous catheters in severely burned patients.  

PubMed

Central venous thrombosis is a rare but extremely dangerous complication following central venous catheter placement. Two cases of massive central venous thrombosis in severely burned patients are reported. The clinical course, diagnostic problems and treatment options are described and discussed. From these cases we conclude that central venous catheter thrombosis should be included early in the differential diagnosis of trunk and extremity oedema in patients with indwelling central venous catheters and that thrombolytic therapy is safe and effective even in the severely burned patient. PMID:7546266

Germann, G; Kania, N M

1995-08-01

133

Severe burn injury in europe: a systematic review of the incidence, etiology, morbidity, and mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Burn injury is a serious pathology, potentially leading to severe morbidity and significant mortality, but it also has a considerable\\u000a health-economic impact. The aim of this study was to describe the European hospitalized population with severe burn injury,\\u000a including the incidence, etiology, risk factors, mortality, and causes of death.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The systematic literature search (1985 to 2009) involved PubMed, the Web

Nele Brusselaers; Stan Monstrey; Dirk Vogelaers; Eric Hoste; Stijn Blot

2010-01-01

134

Long-Term Propranolol Use in Severely Burned Pediatric Patients: A Randomized Controlled Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the safety and efficacy of propranolol given for 1 year on cardiac function, resting energy expenditure, and body composition in a prospective randomized single-center controlled study in pediatric patients with large burns. Summary Background Data Severe burns trigger a hypermetabolic response that persists for up to 2 years after burn. Propranolol given for 1 month post burn blunts this response. Whether propranolol administration for 1 year after injury provides a continued benefit is currently unclear. Methods One-hundred seventy nine pediatric patients with >30% total body surface area burns were randomized to receive control (n = 89) or 4 mg/kg/d propranolol (n = 90) for 12 months after burn. Changes in resting energy expenditure, cardiac function, and body composition were measured acutely at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postburn. Statistical analyses included techniques that adjust for non-normality, repeated measures, and regression analyses. P <0.05 was considered significant. Results Long-term propranolol treatment significantly reduced the percent of the predicted heart rate and percent of the predicted resting energy expenditure, decreased accumulation of central mass and central fat, prevented bone loss, and improved lean body mass accretion. There were very few adverse effects from the dose of propranolol used. Conclusions Propranolol treatment for 12 months, following thermal injury, ameliorates the hyperdynamic, hypermetabolic, hypercatabolic, and osteopenic responses in pediatric patients. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00675714.

Herndon, David N.; Rodriguez, Noe A.; Diaz, Eva C.; Hegde, Sachin; Jennings, Kristofer; Mlcak, Ronald P.; Suri, Jaipreet S.; Lee, Jong O.; Williams, Felicia N.; Meyer, Walter; Suman, Oscar E.; Barrow, Robert E.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Finnerty, Celeste C.

2012-01-01

135

Difficult airway management following severe gasoline burn injury: a case report.  

PubMed

Airway management following severe gasoline burn injury can be difficult. Because patients with severe burns may be treated at a variety of hospitals that provide emergent care, it is valuable for Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists who work in such facilities to have an understanding of the care of these patients. Airway management is an extremely important consideration in the care of burn victims. If not done in a timely manner, lethal complications may result. This article reports the experience of caring for a female who was involved in an altercation, doused with gasoline, and set on fire. Consequently, airway obstruction developed and progressively worsened. Airway management interventions began with bag-valve-mask-assisted ventilation and progressed through orotracheal intubation attempts, attempts to insert a laryngeal mask airway, cricothyrotomy, emergency tracheostomy, and surgical tracheostomy. PMID:23251995

Greathouse, Jeffrey S; Stuart, Jamie L; White, William A

2012-08-01

136

Physiological Performance in Full-Sun Vs. Shaded Post-Fire Malosma laurina Seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-fire Malosma laurina regenerates both by resprouting and by disseminating seeds. The objective of this study is to assess seedling performance either in full-sunlight or in artificially shaded treatments. By identifying under which conditions Malosma laurina seedlings grow more effectively, one can predict where post-fire M. laurina seedling communities will thrive. The methodology employed throughout this experiment began by covering

Lindsey A Murphy; David C Valencia; Catherine D Drummond

2008-01-01

137

Impacts of Boreal Forest Fires and Post-Fire Succession on Energy Budgets and Climate in the Community Earth System Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation compositions of boreal forests are determined largely by recovery patterns after large-scale disturbances, the most notable of which is wildfire. Forest compositions exert large controls on regional energy and greenhouse gas budgets by affecting surface albedo, net radiation, turbulent energy fluxes, and carbon stocks. Impacts of boreal forest fires on climate are therefore products of direct fire effects, including charred surfaces and emitted aerosols and greenhouse gasses, and post-fire vegetation succession, which affects carbon and energy exchange for many decades after the initial disturbance. Climate changes are expected to be greatest at high latitudes, leading many to project increases in boreal forest fires. While numerous studies have documented the effects of post-fire landscape on energy and gas budgets in boreal forests, to date no continental analysis using a coupled model has been performed. In this study we quantified the effects of boreal forest fires and post-fire succession on regional and global climate using model experiments in the Community Earth System Model. We used 20th century climate data and MODIS vegetation continuous fields and land cover classes to identify boreal forests across North America and Eurasia. Historical fire return intervals were derived from a regression approach utilizing the Canadian and Alaskan Large Fire Databases, the Global Fire Emissions Database v3, and land cover and climate data. Succession trajectories were derived from the literature and MODIS land cover over known fire scars. Major improvements in model-data comparisons of long-term energy budgets were observed by prescribing post-fire vegetation succession. Global simulations using historical and future burn area scenarios highlight the potential impacts on climate from changing fire regimes and provide motivation for including vegetation succession in coupled simulations.

Rogers, B. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Bonan, G. B.

2011-12-01

138

Cascading consequences of climate change and expanding population on the threat of wildfire and post fire debris-flow hazards, Western U.S. (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate-change projections indicate the potential for continuing increases in the number of wildfires and their extents, as well as the length of wildfire seasons throughout the western U.S. (Westerling and others, 2006). The magnitude of these changes is expected to vary with ecosystem (Littell and others, 2008). Wildfire is a distinct natural hazard that, in addition to destroying homes and infrastructure, can result in profound changes in the hydrological response of a watershed. These changes can be particularly dramatic when rain falls on the steep, tightly confined watersheds that are likely to generate debris flows. The increased threat of frequent and larger wildfires, when combined with continued population expansion into the wildland-urban interface, carries with it an increased threat of post fire debris flows that can pose significant risks to life and property. Climatic setting has a strong influence post fire debris-flow potential. For example, rainfall intensity-duration thresholds defined for burned areas in the intermountain west differ from those defined for southern California; most post fire debris flows in the intermountain west are triggered by short-duration, high-intensity rainfall, while those in southern California can also be triggered by longer-duration, lower-intensity storms. In addition, statistical analyses indicate that the variables that most strongly impact debris-flow probability and volume vary between the two regions. Just as the magnitude of fire-regime changes will vary with ecosystem, so will the hazards posed by debris flows, suggesting the necessity of developing hazard-assessment tools that are specific to climatic settings. Ecosystem-specific information is necessary to make effective pre fire land-management decisions, to develop appropriate post fire hazard-mitigation strategies, and to educate the public about hazards associated with both wildfires and potential subsequent debris flows.

Cannon, S.; Degraff, J. V.

2009-12-01

139

The Effects of Oxandrolone and Exercise on Muscle Mass and Function in Children With Severe Burns  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES Severe burns are associated with a significant loss of muscle and strength. Studies have reported that oxandrolone improves lean body mass in muscle-wasting conditions. Also shown previously in burned children is that an exercise program increases lean body mass and muscle strength. We hypothesized that oxandrolone, in combination with exercise, would increase lean body mass and muscle strength in severely burned children more than oxandrolone alone or exercise alone. METHODS AND PATIENTS Fifty-one burned children (?40% total body surface area burned) were randomly assigned to receive oxandrolone alone (0.1 mg/kg per day orally; n = 9), oxandrolone and exercise (n = 14), placebo and no exercise (n = 11), or placebo and exercise (n = 17). Administration of oxandrolone was started at discharge and continued until 1 year after burn. The 12-week exercise training program was started 6 months after burn. Serum hormones, lean body mass, muscle strength, and peak cardiopulmonary capacity were assessed at 6 (baseline) and 9 months after burn. Data were analyzed using a 1-way analysis of variance, and significance was set at P < .05. RESULTS The mean percentage of change or increase in weight and lean body mass in the oxandrolone and exercise group was significant compared with placebo and exercise, as well as with the oxandrolone alone group or placebo and no exercise group. Furthermore, lean body mass was significantly improved in the oxandrolone and exercise, oxandrolone alone, and placebo and exercise group compared with the group only receiving placebo. Muscle strength significantly increased in oxandrolone and exercise, placebo and exercise, and the oxandrolone alone group when compared with the placebo and no exercise group. The peak cardiopulmonary capacity was significantly higher in both exercise groups. Insulin-like growth factor 1 was significantly increased in the oxandrolone alone group compared with placebo and exercise and placebo and no exercise. Both exercise groups showed significant changes in insulin-like binding-protein-3 when compared with groups without exercise. CONCLUSIONS Oxandrolone, in combination with exercise, is beneficial in severely burned children, thus improving their rehabilitation.

Przkora, Rene; Herndon, David N.; Suman, Oscar E.

2008-01-01

140

Burns  

MedlinePLUS

... fluids are needed to maintain blood pressure. Grafting with natural or artificial materials speeds the post-burn healing process. What is skin grafting? There are two types of skin grafts. An autologous skin graft transfers skin from one part of the body to another while an allograft ...

141

Management of severe burned-hand deformities at Huê Central Hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the years 1998–2002 there was collaboration between surgeons at Huê Central Hospital and Belgian plastic surgeons coming each year to teach at the Huê Medical School and to work at the Hospital. Of 150 hands deformed after burns admitted to Huê Central Hospital from 1998 to 2003, 52 patients presented with severe hand deformities. The classification of deformities was

Pham Dang Nhat; Christian Charle Dupuis; Paul Wylock

2005-01-01

142

Genetically Modified Porcine Skin Grafts for Treatment of Severe Burn Injuries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The most significant research findings in this time period include the fact that we have demonstrated that our genetically-modified pigskin grafts will perform as well human cadaveric allogeneic skin grafts as a temporary biologic cover for severe burn in...

D. H. Sachs J. C. Cetrulo

2010-01-01

143

[Severe burns of lower limb due to association of hot water and citrullus colocynthis].  

PubMed

The case is reported of a patient suffering from severe burns through having used Citrullus colocynthis as a medicinal plant together with hot water. This led to carbonization of the foot and to its amputation. A description of the plant and its toxicity is given. PMID:22262968

Fejjal, N; Gharib, N E; El Mazouz, S; Abbassi, A; Belmahi, A

2011-06-30

144

Muscle Protein Catabolism After Severe Burn: Effects of IGF-1/IGFBP-3 Treatment  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the effects of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) complexed with its principal binding protein, IGFBP-3, on skeletal muscle metabolism in severely burned children. Summary Background Data Severe burns are associated with a persistent hypermetabolic response characterized by hyperdynamic circulation and severe muscle catabolism and wasting. Previous studies showed that nutritional support and pharmacologic intervention with anabolic agents such as growth hormone and insulin abrogated muscle wasting and improved net protein synthesis in the severely burned. The use of these agents, however, has several adverse side effects. A new combination of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 is now available for clinical study. Methods Twenty-nine severely burned children were prospectively studied before and after treatment with 0.5, 1, 2, or 4 mg/kg/day IGF-1/IGFBP-3 to determine net balance of protein across the leg, muscle protein fractional synthetic rates, and glucose metabolism. Another group was studied in a similar fashion without IGF-1/IGFBP-3 treatment as time controls. Results Seventeen of 29 children were catabolic before starting treatment. The infusion of 1.0 mg/kg/day IGF-1/IGFBP-3 increased serum IGF-1, which did not further increase with 2.0 and 4.0 mg/kg/day. IGF-1/IGFBP-3 treatment at 1 to 4 mg/kg/day improved net protein balance and increased muscle protein fractional synthetic rates. This effect was more pronounced in catabolic children. IGF-1/IGFBP-3 did not affect glucose uptake across the leg or change substrate utilization. Conclusions IGF-1/IGFBP-3 at doses of 1 to 4 mg/kg/day attenuates catabolism in catabolic burned children with negligible clinical side effects.

Herndon, David N.; Ramzy, Peter I.; DebRoy, Meelie A.; Zheng, Ming; Ferrando, Arny A.; Chinkes, David L.; Barret, Juan P.; Wolfe, Robert R.; Wolf, Steven E.

1999-01-01

145

Fire severity and seed source influence lodgepole pine ( Pinus contorta var. murrayana ) regeneration in the southern cascades, Lassen volcanic National Park, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine, (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) regenerates quickly after high severity fire because seeds from serotinous cones are released immediately post-fire. Sierra\\u000a lodgepole pine (P. contorta var. murrayana) forests burn with variable intensity resulting in different levels of severity and because this variety of lodgepole pine\\u000a does not have serotinous cones, little is known about what factors influence

Andrew D. PierceAlan; Alan H. Taylor

2011-01-01

146

Post-fire Restoration of Soil Hydrology and Wildland Vegetation using Surfactant Seed Coating Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In semi-arid environments, soil water repellency can contribute to reseeding failure by reducing soil moisture availability. Non-ionic soil surfactants (wetting agents) have been shown to be effective in enhancing infiltration and improving root-zone water reserves in water repellent soils. However, the application of soil surfactants in wildland ecosystems can be logistically and economically prohibitive. In this study we evaluated a potential solution for applying soil surfactants using seed coating technology. Through this technology the seed is used as a carrier for the soil surfactant. After planting, water transfers the surfactant from the seed into soil where it ameliorates the water repellency within the seed's microsite. The objectives of this research were to 1) establish the efficacy of a surfactant seed coating (SSC) in ameliorating soil water repellency, and 2) determine the influence of SSC on seedling emergence and plant survival. To accomplish the first objective, detailed soil column experiments were conducted in the laboratory on water repellent soil obtained from a burned pinyon-juniper woodland. The second objective was met through greenhouse testing of SSC applied to crested wheatgrass and bluebunch wheatgrass seed, using the same soil as used in objective 1. Results indicate that SSC increased soil water infiltration, percolation, and retention. This technology had no influence on seedling emergence for crested wheatgrass, but SSC improved bluebunch wheatgrass emergence threefold. Plant survival was dramatically improved by the SSC. Only 0.75 % of the seedlings that grew from non-coated seed survived to the end of the study, while 37 % of the plants survived in the SSC treatment. Overall, these results indicate that it may be plausible for SSC(s) to improve post-fire restoration efforts by restoring soil hydrologic function and increasing seedling emergence and early seedling development.

Madsen, M.; Kostka, S.; Inouye, A.; Zvirzdin, D.

2012-04-01

147

[Correction of metabolic hypoxia in patients with severe burn injury and septic toxemia].  

PubMed

The clinical efficacy of the preparation reamberin in correction of metabolic hypoxia in patients with severe thermal burn injury under septicotoxemia was studied. It was established high efficacy of the preparation in the correction of the antioxidant defense system, its considerable antitoxic activity. Established role of reamberin in maintaining the functioning of the humoral detoxication systems, and antimicrobial resistance in patients with severe thermal injury. PMID:23610818

Kozinets, G P; Osadchaia, O I; Tsygankov, V P; Isaenko, N P; Zhernov, A A; Boiarskaia, A M

2012-12-01

148

SHRUB MICROSITE INFLUENCE POST-FIRE PERENNIAL GRASS ESTABLISHMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many arid and semi-arid systems benefit from restoration of perennial grasses following wildfire. Woody plants can cause localized increases in resources (i.e. resource islands) that can persist after fire and create a heterogeneous environment for restoration. We tested the hypothesis that burned...

149

Evaluation of vegetation post-fire resilience in the Alpine region using descriptors derived from MODIS spectral index time series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study a method based on the analysis of MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) time series is proposed to estimate the post-fire resilience of mountain vegetation (broadleaf forest and prairies) in the Italian Alps. Resilience is defined herewith as the ability of a dynamical system to counteract disturbances. It can be quantified by the amount of time the disturbed system takes to resume, in statistical terms, an ecological functionality comparable with its undisturbed behavior. Satellite images of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and of the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) with spatial resolution of 250m and temporal resolution of 16 days in the 2000-2012 time period were used. Wildfire affected areas in the Lombardy region between the years 2000 and 2010 were analysed. Only large fires (affected area >40ha) were selected. For each burned area, an undisturbed adjacent control site was located. Data pre-processing consisted in the smoothing of MODIS time series for noise removal and then a double logistic function was fitted. Land surface phenology descriptors (proxies for growing season start/end/length and green biomass) were extracted in order to characterize the time evolution of the vegetation. Descriptors from a burned area were compared to those extracted from the respective control site by means of the one-way analysis of variance. According to the number of subsequent years which exhibit statistically meaningful difference between burned and control site, five classes of resilience were identified and a set of thematic maps was created for each descriptor. The same method was applied to all 84 aggregated events and to events aggregated by main land cover. EVI index results more sensitive to fire impact than NDVI index. Analysis shows that fire causes both a reduction of the biomass and a variation in the phenology of the Alpine vegetation. Results suggest an average ecosystem resilience of 6-7 years. Moreover, broadleaf forest and prairies show different post-fire behavior in terms of land surface phenology descriptors. In addition to the above analysis, another method is proposed, which derives from the qualitative theory of dynamical systems. The (time dependent) spectral index of a burned area over the period of one year was plotted against its counterpart from the control site. Yearly plots (or scattergrams) before and after the fire were obtained. Each plot is a sequence of points on the plane, which are the vertices of a generally self-intersecting polygonal chain. Some geometrical descriptors were obtained from the yearly chains of each fire. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of geometrical descriptors was applied to a set of case studies and the obtained results provide a system dynamics interpretation of the natural process.

Di Mauro, Biagio; Fava, Francesco; Busetto, Lorenzo; Crosta, Giovanni Franco; Colombo, Roberto

2013-04-01

150

Using small-scale rainfall simulation to assess temporal changes in pre- and post-fire soil hydrology and erosion: the value of fixed-position plots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent decades, wildfire has become both frequent and severe in southern Europe leading to widespread research into its impacts on soil erosion, soil and water quality. Rainfall simulation has become established as a popular technique to assess these impacts, as it can be conducted under controlled conditions (notably, with respect to rainfall) and is a very cost-effective and rapid way to compare overland flow and suspended sediment generation within burned and unburned sites. Particular advantages are that: (1) results can be obtained before the first post-fire rainfall events; and (2) experiments can reproduce controlled storm events, with similar characteristics to natural rain. Although plot sizes vary (0.09-30m2), most researchers have used < 1m2 plots because of logistical difficulties of setting up larger plots especially in burned areas that may lack good access and local water supplies. Disadvantages with using small plots, however, particularly on burned terrain, include: (1) the difficulty of installing the plots without disturbing the soil; (2) the strong influence of plot boundaries on overland flow and sediment production. Significant replication is generally considered necessary to take account of high variability in results that are due in part to these effects. One response to these problems is a 'fixed plot' approach in which bounded plots are left in place for re-use throughout the study. A problem here, however, would be progressive sediment exhaustion due to the 'island' effect of the plots caused by their isolation from upslope sediment transfer. This paper assesses the usefulness of a repeat-simulation plot approach in assessing temporal change in overland flow and erosion in post-fire situations that minimizes the island effect by partial removal of plot boundaries between surveys. This approach was tested over a 2.5-year period in a small (9 ha) catchment in central Portugal subjected to an experimental fire in 2009. Five rainfall simulation plots 0.25m2 in size were installed close to sediment traps (contributing areas: 498-4238m2) collecting sediment eroded by overland flow caused by natural rainfall. The plots were installed pre-fire and experiments carried out under 'dry' and 'wet' antecedent conditions on six occasions from pre-fire to two years after the fire. The lateral boundaries of each plot were left in place, but the upslope boundary and central (outlet) section of the downslope boundary were removed between surveys and re-installed and sealed each time measurements were carried out. Having fixed positions of plots minimised soil disturbance on each monitoring occasion and meant that, for any given plot, results were directly comparable and gave a more reliable picture of change through time. Removing the upper and lower boundaries of the plots between measurements allowed the soil to undergo processes similar to those on the surrounding slope and reduced the 'island' effect associated with continuously bounded plots. Results from the adjacent sediment traps, which provided a parallel temporal record of hillslope-scale overland flow and sediment redistribution patterns under natural rainfall, are used to judge the usefulness of the in situ simulation plots approach.

Ferreira, Carla S. S.; Shakesby, Rick A.; Bento, Célia P. M.; Walsh, Rory P. D.; Ferreira, António J. D.

2013-04-01

151

Airway management of recovered pediatric patients with severe head and neck burns: a review.  

PubMed

There are approximately 10,000 pediatric burn survivors in the United States each year, many of whom will present for reconstructive surgery after severe burns in the head and neck (1). These recovered burn victims, who are beyond the acute phase of injury, often have significant scarring and contractures in the face, mouth, nares, neck, and chest, which can make airway management challenging and potentially lead to a 'cannot intubate, cannot ventilate' scenario (2). Although numerous cases have been presented in the literature on this topic (3-17), there are no comprehensive review articles on the unique challenges of airway management in the recovered pediatric burn patient with distorted airway anatomy. This article aims to provide a comprehensive review of airway management in such patients, focusing on challenges encountered during mask ventilation and tracheal intubation, as well as the role of surgical release of neck contractures to facilitate tracheal intubation. Lessons learned from all reported cases identified in a thorough literature search are incorporated into this review. PMID:22260458

Caruso, Thomas J; Janik, Luke S; Fuzaylov, Gennadiy

2012-01-19

152

Alterations of acute phase reaction and cytokine production in patients following severe burn injury.  

PubMed

To determine the acute immunologic reaction, mediated by cytokines, interleukines (ILs) and growth factors and the susceptibility to infections and sepsis after severe burn injury a prospective, single unit, longitudinal study of acute phase reactants and mediators who performed. After approval by the ethics committee of our hospital, we investigated the plasma concentrations of IL-2, -6, -8, -10, and -13, the soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R), and the acute phase proteins procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) at admission and every 3 days in 24 patients over a time course of 28 days after thermal injury and categorized by percent burn: < or =30% (group 1; n=12) and >30% (group 2; n=12). Shortly after burn injury we found higher concentrations of IL-2, -6, -10 and PCT in those patients >30% TBSA. During the study period, we found significant higher levels of acute phase proteins, IL-6 and -8 in patients >30% TBSA. The incidence of SIRS and MODS was three times increased in patients >30% TBSA. Our results show different patterns of cytokines and acute phase proteins in patients with different burned surface areas over a long time and continuous monitoring of a more distinct inflammatory response in these patients. PMID:12220910

Dehne, Marius G; Sablotzki, Armin; Hoffmann, Andreas; Mühling, Jörg; Dietrich, Friedrich E; Hempelmann, Gunter

2002-09-01

153

A soil burn severity index for understanding soil-fire relations in tropical forests.  

PubMed

Methods for evaluating the impact of fires within tropical forests are needed as fires become more frequent and human populations and demands on forests increase. Short- and long-term fire effects on soils are determined by the prefire, fire, and postfire environments. We placed these components within a fire-disturbance continuum to guide our literature synthesis and develop an integrated soil burn severity index. The soil burn severity index provides a set of indicators that reflect the range of conditions present after a fire. The index consists of seven levels, an unburned level and six other levels that describe a range of postfire soil conditions. We view this index as a tool for understanding the effects of fires on the forest floor, with the realization that as new information is gained, the index may be modified as warranted. PMID:19205179

Jain, Theresa B; Gould, William A; Graham, Russell T; Pilliod, David S; Lentile, Leigh B; González, Grizelle

2008-12-01

154

A submaximal dose of insulin promotes net skeletal muscle protein synthesis in patients with severe burns.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the hypothesis that a submaximal insulin dose reverses the net muscle catabolism associated with severe burns, and to determine its effects on amino acid kinetics. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The authors previously showed that a maximal dose of insulin administered to patients with severe burns promoted skeletal muscle glucose uptake and net protein synthesis. However, this treatment was associated with caloric overload resulting from the large quantities of exogenous glucose required to maintain euglycemia, and hypoglycemia was a potential problem. METHODS: Thirteen patients were studied after severe burn injury (>60% total body surface area). Patients were randomly treated by standard care (n = 5) or with exogenous insulin (n = 8). Data were derived from an arteriovenous model with primed-continuous infusions of stable isotopes and biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle. RESULTS: Net amino acid balance was significantly improved with insulin treatment. Skeletal muscle protein synthesis was significantly greater in the group receiving insulin, whereas muscle protein breakdown was not different between the groups. This submaximal dose of insulin did not affect glucose or amino acid uptake or require a greater caloric intake to avoid hypoglycemia. CONCLUSIONS: Submaximal insulin can promote muscle anabolism without eliciting a hypoglycemic response.

Ferrando, A A; Chinkes, D L; Wolf, S E; Matin, S; Herndon, D N; Wolfe, R R

1999-01-01

155

Insulin resistance, secretion and breakdown are increased 9 months following severe burn injury.  

PubMed

Insulin resistance in the acute burn period has been well described, however, it is unknown if alterations in glucose metabolism persist beyond discharge from the acute injury. To measure the duration of insulin resistance following recovery from the acute burn injury, we performed a prospective cross-sectional study with a standard 2-h oral glucose tolerance test in 46 severely burned children at 6, 9 or 12 months following initial injury. Glucose uptake and insulin secretion were assessed following the glucose load. Results were compared to those previously published in healthy children. At 6 months after burn, the 2-h glucose concentration was significantly (P<0.001) greater than controls, and the area under the curve (AUC) of glucose was significantly higher compared to 12 months and to healthy children (P=0.027 and P<0.001, respectively). The 9-month AUC glucose was higher than controls (P<0.01). The 6-month 2-h insulin was significantly higher than controls, as was the AUC of insulin in all time points post-burn. The AUC of C-peptide was significantly greater at 6 months after injury compared to 9 and 12 months (P<0.01 for both). Increased 2h and AUC glucose and insulin indicate that glucose metabolism is still affected at 6 and 9 months after injury, and coincides with previously documented defects in bone and muscle metabolism at these time points. Insulin breakdown is also still increased in this population. Further study of this population is warranted to determine if specific treatment is needed. PMID:18672331

Cree, Melanie G; Fram, Ricki Y; Barr, David; Chinkes, David; Wolfe, Robert R; Herndon, David N

2008-07-30

156

Application of a Four-dimensional Mathematical Model in the Establishment of an Early Post-burn Cerebral Oedema Model in Severely Burned Dogs  

PubMed Central

Summary The aim of this study was to explore the spatiotemporal development of cerebral oedema in the early stage of severe burn (50% TBSA, third degree), using a four-dimensional (4D) mathematical model. Twenty-six male mongrel dogs were randomly divided into control and 6, 12, 18, and 24 post-burn hour (PBH) groups. The manifestation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histopathology, changes of brain water content, and intracranial pressure were observed in each group respectively. A 4D mathematical model was established on the basis of the results of MRI scanning. Two turning points (6 and 18 PBH) and three phases of pathological change were displayed by the 4D mathematical model of cerebral oedema in the early stage of severe burn. The first phase was in the subclinical period, and effective treatment should therefore be performed as quickly as possible in order to prevent deterioration of post-burn cerebral oedema. The second phase (6-18 PBH), with pathological characteristics of cytotoxic cerebral oedema, was in the apoptosis period. The third stage (18-24 PBH) was the danger period of cerebral oedema. Intracranial pressure increased rapidly owing to the limitation of the cranial cavity. As a result, cerebral hernia could easily occur. An S-shape curve in the pathological process of cerebral oedema occurred in the early post-burn stage following severe burn.

Haitao, L.; Dajun, Y.; Kaifa, W.; Xiuwu, B.; Jiansen, S.; Zongchen, Y.

2005-01-01

157

Titanium tetrachloride: an unusual agent with the potential to create severe burns.  

PubMed

Titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4), an intermediate compound in the production of white pigment, can cause severe burns. Two cases are reported in which TiCl4 created 18% to 20% total body surface area burns. These full-thickness injuries were the combined consequence of hydrochloric acid and the heat that was generated in areas where this otherwise stable compound was mixed with perspiration. TiCl4 combined with water is extremely dangerous, and its immediate treatment--towel drying before irrigation--makes it unique among chemicals. Our experience suggests that in most cases grafting will be required. These chemical burns were self-limited and had no notable systemic sequelae. Wound biopsy specimens taken on postburn days 3 and 6 were subjected to immunostaining that showed that TiCl4 did not retard wound healing. Exposure time to TiCl4 vapor will determine the pulmonary and ophthalmologic involvement in each case. Clinical awareness of the propensity of TiCl4 to react with water--even when that water is in the form of perspiration--is vital because prompt management can limit the extent of injury. PMID:9789169

Paulsen, S M; Nanney, L B; Lynch, J B

158

Role of the PPAR-? agonist fenofibrate in severe pediatric burn injury  

PubMed Central

Fenofibrate is a peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha agonist that contains both pro and anti-inflammatory properties, and has been used in the treatment of dyslipidemia and diabetes for decades. Its receptors are expressed in the liver, skeletal muscle, cardiac, enteric, and renal cells, which allow it to provide systemic regulation of lipoprotein metabolism, fatty acid oxidation, and fatty acid transport. Hyperglycemia is a common complication found in the burn population because hepatic glucose production and catecholamine-mediated hepatic glycogenolysis are augmented. Insulin resistance occurs often in these patients and is associated with poor outcomes. In the pediatric burn population, fenofibrate has been found to ameliorate or decrease the number of hypoglycemic episodes when compared to management with insulin alone. Its mechanism of action is thought to involve an improvement in insulin signaling in skeletal muscle, as well as improvements in mitochondrial function, glucose oxidation, and insulin sensitivity. The long term use of fenofibrate in severely burned patients may improve hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, as well as improve wound healing, and reduce apoptosis, and oxidative stress.

Elijah, Itoro E.; B?rsheim, Elisabet; Maybauer, Dirk M.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Herndon, David N.; Maybauer, Marc O.

2013-01-01

159

Initial release of severe post-burn contracture scar of the neck for intubation under ketamine.  

PubMed

Background. Severe anterior post-burn contracture (PBC) of the neck poses the anaesthesiologist some difficult problems and results in difficult intubation when extension of the atlanto-occipital joint is impaired. Such patients must therefore have the PBC scar released before other procedures are performed, in order to ensure airway control. Objectives. To show our experience with quick surgical neck release of patients with severe anterior PBC of the neck to facilitate direct laryngoscopy and orotracheal intubation (OTI). Material and methods. A prospective study of patients with severe anterior PBC of the neck was carried out from January 2003 to December 2007 in the Burns Unit of Mosul Teaching Hospital in Mosul, Iraq. The patients were given ketamine, after which a release incision was made over the anterior PBC of the neck scar. OTI was then performed successfully. Results. Twelve patients with severe neck PBC (3 males, 9 females; age range, 7-37 yr; mean age, 20 yr) all had successful OTI after PBC release under intravenous ketamine. None showed any complications attributed to the anaesthesia. PMID:21991181

Al-Zacko, S M; Al-Kazzaz, D A

2009-12-31

160

Initial Release of Severe Post-Burn Contracture Scar of the Neck for Intubation Under Ketamine  

PubMed Central

Summary Background. Severe anterior post-burn contracture (PBC) of the neck poses the anaesthesiologist some difficult problems and results in difficult intubation when extension of the atlanto-occipital joint is impaired. Such patients must therefore have the PBC scar released before other procedures are performed, in order to ensure airway control. Objectives. To show our experience with quick surgical neck release of patients with severe anterior PBC of the neck to facilitate direct laryngoscopy and orotracheal intubation (OTI). Material and methods. A prospective study of patients with severe anterior PBC of the neck was carried out from January 2003 to December 2007 in the Burns Unit of Mosul Teaching Hospital in Mosul, Iraq. The patients were given ketamine, after which a release incision was made over the anterior PBC of the neck scar. OTI was then performed successfully. Results. Twelve patients with severe neck PBC (3 males, 9 females; age range, 7-37 yr; mean age, 20 yr) all had successful OTI after PBC release under intravenous ketamine. None showed any complications attributed to the anaesthesia.

Al-Zacko, S.M.; Al-Kazzaz, D.A.

2009-01-01

161

SHORT-TERM EFFECTS OF SUMMER FIRE AND POST-FIRE GRAZING IN THE NORTHERN GREAT PLAINS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Summer wildfire is common in the northern Great Plains. However, little research has been conducted to evaluate summer fire and post-fire grazing effects on plant communities. The objective of this study was to determine short-term effects of summer fire and post-fire grazing on standing crop, cur...

162

Drought impacts on vegetation in the pre- and post-fire events over Iberian Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work aims to study the combined effect of drought and large wildfires in the Iberian Peninsula relying on remotely sensed data of vegetation dynamics and leaf moisture content, in particular monthly NDVI, NDWI and NDDI time series from 1999-2009, derived from VEGETATION dataset. The impact of the exceptional 2004/2005 drought on vegetation was assessed for vegetation recovering from the extraordinary fire season of 2003 and on the conditions that contributed to the onsetting of the fire season of 2005. Drought severity was estimated by the cumulative negative effect on photosynthetic activity (NDVI) and vegetation dryness (NDDI), with about 2/3 of Iberian Peninsula presenting vegetative stress and low water availability conditions, in spring and early summer of 2005. Furthermore, NDDI has shown to be very useful to assess drought, since it combines information on vegetation and water conditions. Moreover, we show that besides looking at the inter-annual variability of NDVI and NDDI, it is useful to evaluate intra-annual changes (?NDVI and ?NDDI), as indicators of change in vegetation greenness, allowing a detailed picture of the ability of the different land-cover types to resist to short-term dry conditions. In order to assess drought impact on post-fire regeneration, recovery times were evaluated by a mono-parametric model based on NDVI data and values corresponding to drought months were set to no value. Drought has shown to delay recovery times for several months in all the selected scars from 2003. The analysis of vegetation dynamics and fire selectivity in 2005 suggests that fires tended to occur in pixels presenting lower vegetative and water stress conditions during spring and early summer months. Additionally, pre-fire vegetation dynamics, in particular vegetation density and water availability during spring and early summer, has shown to influence significantly the levels of fire damage. These results stress the role of fuel availability in fire occurrence and impact on the Iberian Peninsula.

Gouveia, C. M.; Bastos, A.; Trigo, R. M.; DaCamara, C. C.

2012-10-01

163

Causes of Variability in the Effects of Vegetative Ash on Post-Fire Runoff and Erosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetative ash formed during forest wildfires has varying effects on post-fire runoff and erosion. In some cases the ash layer reduces runoff and erosion by storing rainfall and by protecting the soil surface from surface sealing and rainsplash detachment. In other cases, the ash layer increases runoff and erosion by forming a surface crust, clogging soil pores, and providing a

V. Balfour; S. Woods

2008-01-01

164

Rapid Post Fire Hydrologic Watershed Assessment using the AGWA GIS -based Hydrologic Modeling Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid post -fire watershed assessment to identify potential trouble spots for erosion and flooding can potentially aid land managers and Bu rned Area Emergency Rehabilitation (BAER) teams in deploying mitigation and rehabilitation resources. These decisions are inherently complex and spatial in nature and require a distributed hydrological modeling approach. The extensive data requirements an d the task of building input

D. C. Goodrich; H. Evan Canfield; I. Shea Burns; D. J. Semmens; S. N. Miller; M. Hernandez; L. R. Levick; D. P. Guertin; W. G. Kepner

165

Early post-fire regeneration in Pinus hrutia forest ecosystems of Samos island ( Greece)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recovery of the burnt pine (Pinus brutia) forests of Samos island was followed during the first three post-fire years. Samos is characterised by a Mediterranean-type climate with a mild, subhumid winter and a long xerothermic period. The natural regeneration of P. brutia is realised exclusively by seeds and is enhanced by a number of adaptations to fire: (i) the

A. Thanos; S. Marcou; D. Christodoulakis; A. Yannitsaros

166

FIRST YEAR RICHNESS AND FREQUENCY RESPONSE TO SUMMER FIRE AND POST-FIRE GRAZING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the Northern Great Plains of eastern Montana, it is generally accepted that two or more years are required for plants to recover following summer wildfire. However, support for this theory is limited. Research conducted in Miles City, MT examined the effects summer fire and post-fire stocking r...

167

Early post-fire succession in California chaparral: Changes in diversity, density, cover and biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

For four consecutive years, following the fires in November 1993, temporal variations in species richness, cover and biomass of component plant groups in early post-fire chaparral succession were monitored on different aspects at the Stunt Ranch Santa Monica Mountains Reserve, southern California. Plant groups were categorized based on growth form, life form, ability to fix nitrogen, geographic origin and regeneration

Qinfeng Guo

2001-01-01

168

Moderate Livestock Grazing Protects Sagebrush Plant Communities From Post-fire Cheatgrass Invasion.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Livestock grazing and fire are common disturbances on sagebrush rangelands. However, little is known about the influence of pre-fire grazing on post-fire plant community recovery. We evaluated the impacts of long-term grazing compared to not grazing prior to fire on sagebrush rangeland. We found ...

169

Assessing Post-Fire Douglas-Fir Beetle Attacks in the Northern Rocky Mountains.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Douglas-fir has life history traits that greatly enhance resistance to injury from fire, thereby increasing post-fire survival rates. Tools for predicting the probability of tree mortality following fire are important components of both pre-fire planning ...

B. Bentz G. DeNitto K. Gibson K. Ryan S. Hood

2007-01-01

170

Continuous venovenous hemofiltration in severely burned patients with acute kidney injury: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and devastating complication in critically ill burn patients with mortality reported to be between 80 and 100%. We aimed to determine the effect on mortality of early application of continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) in severely burned patients with AKI admitted to our burn intensive care unit (BICU). Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study comparing a population of patients managed with early and aggressive CVVH compared with historical controls managed conservatively before the availability of CVVH. Patients with total body surface area (TBSA) burns of more than 40% and AKI were treated with early CVVH and their outcomes compared with a group of historical controls. Results Overall, the 28-day mortality was significantly lower in the CVVH arm (n = 29) compared with controls (n = 28) (38% vs. 71%, P = 0.011) as was the in-hospital mortality (62% vs. 86%, P = 0.04). In a subgroup of patients in shock, a dramatic reduction in the pressor requirement was seen after 24 and 48 hours of treatment. Compared with controls (n = 19), significantly fewer patients in the CVVH group (n = 21) required vasopressors at 24 hours (100% vs 43%, P < 0.0001) and at 48 hours (94% vs 24%, P < 0.0001). In those with acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), there was a significant increase from baseline in the partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) to fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ratio at 24 hours in the CVVH group (n = 16, 174 ± 78 to 327 ± 122, P = 0.003) but not the control group (n = 20, 186 ± 64 to 207 ± 131, P = 0.98). Conclusions The application of CVVH in adult patients with severe burns and AKI was associated with a decrease in 28-day and hospital mortality when compared with a historical control group, which largely did not receive any form of renal replacement. Clinical improvements were realized in the subgroups of patients with shock and ALI/ARDS. A randomized controlled trial comparing early CVVH to standard care in this high-risk population is planned.

Chung, Kevin K; Lundy, Jonathan B; Matson, James R; Renz, Evan M; White, Christopher E; King, Booker T; Barillo, David J; Jones, John A; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Blackbourne, Lorne H; Wolf, Steven E

2009-01-01

171

Epidemiology and outcome analysis of severe extensive burns: a 12-year summary of 103 cases in a burn center in China.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to improve the treatment of severe extensive burns (SEB) patients by summarizing treatment experience in recent 12 years in China and analyzing the follow-up quality of life (QOL) in these patients. Clinical data and rescue measures of 103 SEB patients (?70% TBSA) admitted in a burn center in Shanghai between 1997 and 2009 were reviewed, and QOL and hand function of those who survived more than 2 years were assessed by Brief Version of Burn Specific Health scale-B and Michigan Hand Outcome Questionnaire. Of these, 76.7% were caused by flames and 15.5% caused by scald. The median burn area was 87.5% (interquartile range, 77.0-95.0%) TBSA, of which third-degree burns accounted for 56.5% (interquartile range, 25.8-80.0%) TBSA; 71.8% were complicated by inhalation injury. The occurrence of in-hospital complications was 75.7%, with the respiratory system complications predominating (49.5%). The fatality rate was 28.2%, mainly due to sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Work, body image, and heat sensitivity got the lowest Brief Version of Burn Specific Health scale-B scores in all nine domains, and Michigan Hand Outcome Questionnaire scores were also relatively poor. Flame burns remain to be the main cause of SEB in China in recent 12 years. Treatment is still challenged because of the depth and extensive burn area and high occurrence of multiple system complications. How to ameliorate QOL of SEB patients, intensify the functional rehabilitation, and improve their physical appearance in particular remain to be a crux. PMID:22210058

Xie, Bing; Xiao, Shi-Chu; Peng, Xu-Dong; Zhu, Shi-Hui; Lv, Kai-Yang; Li, Heng-Yu; Xia, Zhao-Fan

172

Assessing forest roads and their edge effects on burn severity patterns using satellite data and geospatial analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfire increases the heterogeneity of landscape mosaics, shaped by varying levels of burn severity patterns. Previous research has shown that forest roads are a predominant feature across many landscapes and play a significant role in wildfire ignition, spread and cessation. However, the contribution of forest road effects on burn severity has been under-studied at the landscape level. Therefore, the overarching goal of our study is to identify the influences of road and road edge effects on the spatial patterns of burn severity. We analyzed six fires within the Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forest in the eastern Cascade mountain range of central Washington. Data on fire perimeters and burn severity (30 m raster data in the form of the Relative Differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (RdNBR)) were obtained from the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity mapping project (MTBS). Data on terrain and canopy cover were obtained from LANDFIRE, and data on road, streams and fuel types were obtained from the Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forest. We generated two categories for road variables: (1) Primary Road Effect Zone (the area within 150m of the nearest road zone) and (2) Secondary Road Effect Zone (adjacent to nearest road zone(>150m - 300m)) to identify road effects. A point layer for one out of every 9 cell distances on a regular grid were created for all fires based on these two road categories. These point layers were intersected with RdNBR, road distance, stream distance, elevation, slope, terrain shape index, heat load index, canopy cover, and fuel type data and extracted values. We performed geo-statistical analysis using PROC MIXED procedure with a spherical spatial covariance structure in a spatial regression model with the landscape covariate of continuous burn severity data (RdNBR) for statistical significance. We found that high burn severity is less likely to occur in the Primary Road Effect Zone. Road and road edge effects were hypothesized to be an important determinant of burn severity because fragmentation created by roads alters the roadside fuel profiles. Consequently, the primary road edge effect zone provides a point where a flame cannot be sustained because of fragmented fuel types that are less volatile and burn with less heat. A similar situation (i.e. fragmented fuel) can occur when fire spots cross over roads and reignite fuel on the opposite side of the primary road edge effect zone, reducing burn severity. Recognizing roadside burn severity patterns is important not only for wildfire management activities that enhance the effective fuel treatments, but also to emphasize the effects of fragmentation and to conserve habitat for edge species

Narayanaraj, G.; Wimberly, M. C.

2011-12-01

173

A low-cost method to measure the timing of post-fire flash floods and debris flows relative to rainfall  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data on the specific timing of post-fire flash floods and debris flows are very limited. We describe a method to measure the response times of small burned watersheds to rainfall using a low-cost pressure transducer, which can be installed quickly after a fire. Although the pressure transducer is not designed for sustained sampling at the fast rates ({less than or equal to}2 sec) used at more advanced debris-flow monitoring sites, comparisons with high-data rate stage data show that measured spikes in pressure sampled at 1-min intervals are sufficient to detect the passage of most debris flows and floods. Post-event site visits are used to measure the peak stage and identify flow type based on deposit characteristics. The basin response timescale (tb) to generate flow at each site was determined from an analysis of the cross correlation between time series of flow pressure and 5-min rainfall intensity. This timescale was found to be less than 30 minutes for 40 post-fire floods and 11 post-fire debris flows recorded in 15 southern California watersheds ({less than or equal to} 1.4 km2). Including data from 24 other debris flows recorded at 5 more instrumentally advanced monitoring stations, we find there is not a substantial difference in the median tb for floods and debris flows (11 and 9 minutes, respectively); however, there are slight, statistically significant differences in the trends of flood and debris-flow tb with basin area, which are presumably related to differences in flow speed between floods and debris flows.

Kean, Jason W.; Staley, Dennis M.; Leeper, Robert J.; Schmidt, Kevin Michael; Gartner, Joseph E.

2012-01-01

174

Early fluid resuscitation with hyperoncotic hydroxyethyl starch 200/0.5 (10%) in severe burn injury  

PubMed Central

Introduction Despite large experience in the management of severe burn injury, there are still controversies regarding the best type of fluid resuscitation, especially during the first 24 hours after the trauma. Therefore, our study addressed the question whether hyperoncotic hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 200/0.5 (10%) administered in combination with crystalloids within the first 24 hours after injury is as effective as 'crystalloids only' in severe burn injury patients. Methods 30 consecutive patients were enrolled to this prospective interventional open label study and assigned either to a traditional 'crystalloids only' or to a 'HES 200/0.5 (10%)' volume resuscitation protocol. Total amount of fluid administration, complications such as pulmonary failure, abdominal compartment syndrome, sepsis, renal failure and overall mortality were assessed. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was performed for binary outcomes and adjustment for potential confounders was done in the multivariate regression models. For continuous outcome parameters multiple linear regression analysis was used. Results Group differences between patients receiving crystalloids only or HES 200/0.5 (10%) were not statistically significant. However, a large effect towards increased overall mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 7.12; P = 0.16) in the HES 200/0.5 (10%) group as compared to the crystalloids only group (43.8% versus 14.3%) was present. Similarly, the incidence of renal failure was 25.0% in the HES 200/0.5 (10%) group versus 7.1% in the crystalloid only group (adjusted hazard ratio 6.16; P = 0.42). Conclusions This small study indicates that the application of hyperoncotic HES 200/0.5 (10%) within the first 24 hours after severe burn injury may be associated with fatal outcome and should therefore be used with caution. Trial registration NCT01120730.

2010-01-01

175

In situ measurements of post-fire debris flows in southern California: Comparisons of the timing and magnitude of 24 debris-flow events with rainfall and soil moisture conditions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Debris flows often occur in burned steeplands of southern California, sometimes causing property damage and loss of life. In an effort to better understand the hydrologic controls on post-fire debris-flow initiation, timing and magnitude, we measured the flow stage, rainfall, channel bed pore fluid pressure and hillslope soil-moisture accompanying 24 debris flows recorded in five different watersheds burned in the 2009 Station and Jesusita Fires (San Gabriel and Santa Ynez Mountains). The measurements show substantial differences in debris-flow dynamics between sites and between sequential events at the same site. Despite these differences, the timing and magnitude of all events were consistently associated with local peaks in short duration (< = 30 min) rainfall intensity. Overall, debris-flow stage was best cross-correlated with time series of 5-min rainfall intensity, and lagged the rainfall by an average of just 5 min. An index of debris-flow volume was also best correlated with short-duration rainfall intensity, but found to be poorly correlated with storm cumulative rainfall and hillslope soil water content. Post-event observations of erosion and slope stability modeling suggest that the debris flows initiated primarily by processes related to surface water runoff, rather than shallow landslides. By identifying the storm characteristics most closely associated with post-fire debris flows, these measurements provide valuable guidance for warning operations and important constraints for developing and testing models of post-fire debris flows. copyright. 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

Kean, J. W.; Staley, D. M.; Cannon, S. H.

2011-01-01

176

Heterogeneity in fire severity within early season and late season prescribed burns in a mixed-conifer forest  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Structural heterogeneity in forests of the Sierra Nevada was historically produced through variation in fire regimes and local environmental factors. The amount of heterogeneity that prescription burning can achieve might now be more limited owing to high fuel loads and increased fuel continuity. Topography, woody fuel loading, and vegetative composition were quantified in plots within replicated early and late season burn units. Two indices of fire severity were evaluated in the same plots after the burns. Scorch height ranged from 2.8 to 25.4 m in early season plots and 3.1 to 38.5 m in late season plots, whereas percentage of ground surface burned ranged from 24 to 96% in early season plots and from 47 to 100% in late season plots. Scorch height was greatest in areas with steeper slopes, higher basal area of live trees, high percentage of basal area composed of pine, and more small woody fuel. Percentage of area burned was greatest in areas with less bare ground and rock cover (more fuel continuity), steeper slopes, and units burned in the fall (lower fuel moisture). Thus topographic and biotic factors still contribute to the abundant heterogeneity in fire severity with prescribed burning, even under the current high fuel loading conditions. Burning areas with high fuel loads in early season when fuels are moister may lead to patterns of heterogeneity in fire effects that more closely approximate the expected patchiness of historical fires.

Knapp, E. E.; Keeley, J. E.

2006-01-01

177

Association between severity of prescribed burns and subsequent activity of conifer-infesting beetles in stands of longleaf pine  

SciTech Connect

A randomized complete block experiment was performed to measure the effect of prescribed, dormant-season burns of three different levels of severity (measured as fuel consumption and soil surface heating) on subsequent insect infestation and mortality of mature longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.). Multiple-funnel traps baited with a low release rate of turpentine and ethanol were used to monitor activity of certain coniferophagous beetles. Non-aggressive species, including the root beetles Hylastes salebrosus Eichhoff and H. tenuis Eichhoff, the ambrosia beetle Xyleborus pubescens Zimmermann, the reproduction weevil Pachylobius picivorus (Germar), and buprestid borers, were attracted to burned plots in numbers that correlated positively with burn severity. Beetle attraction to burned sites was greatest in the first weeks post-burn and disappeared by the second year. Two potential tree-killing bark beetles, Dendroctonus terebrans (Olivier) and Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff), were trapped in significant numbers but exhibited no attraction to burned plots. Tree mortality correlated significantly with the severity of the burns and amounted to 5% of stems in the hottest burn treatment after 3 years. The majority of the mortality was observed in the second and third years post-burn. Attacks of Ips and Dendroctonus bark beetles were apparent on nearly all dead or dying trees, and evidence suggested that root pathogens may have contributed to tree susceptibility to beetle attack and mortality. Our data indicate that selection of burn regimes that reduce or eliminate consumption of duff (e.g., favoring heading fires over backing fires) could significantly reduce mortality of longleaf pine managed for long rotations Published by Elsevier B.V.

Sullivan, Brian, T; Fettig, C. J.; Otrosina, William, J.; Dalusky, Mark, J.; Berrisford, C.W.

2003-05-05

178

Emergency assessment of post-fire debris-flow hazards for the 2013 Powerhouse fire, southern California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wildfire dramatically alters the hydrologic response of a watershed such that even modest rainstorms can produce dangerous flash floods and debris flows. Existing empirical models were used to predict the probability and magnitude of debris-flow occurrence in response to a 10-year recurrence interval rainstorm for the 2013 Powerhouse fire near Lancaster, California. Overall, the models predict a relatively low probability for debris-flow occurrence in response to the design storm. However, volumetric predictions suggest that debris flows that occur may entrain a significant volume of material, with 44 of the 73 basins identified as having potential debris-flow volumes between 10,000 and 100,000 cubic meters. These results suggest that even though the likelihood of debris flow is relatively low, the consequences of post-fire debris-flow initiation within the burn area may be significant for downstream populations, infrastructure, and wildlife and water resources. Given these findings, we recommend that residents, emergency managers, and public works departments pay close attention to weather forecasts and National-Weather-Service-issued Debris Flow and Flash Flood Outlooks, Watches, and Warnings and that residents adhere to any evacuation orders.

Staley, Dennis M.; Smoczyk, Gregory M.; Reeves, Ryan R.

2013-01-01

179

Wind erosion from a sagebrush steppe burned by wildfire: Measurements of PM10 and total horizontal sediment flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind erosion and aeolian transport processes are under studied compared to rainfall-induced erosion and sediment transport on burned landscapes. Post-fire wind erosion studies have predominantly focused on near-surface sediment transport and associated impacts such as on-site soil loss and site fertility. Downwind impacts, including air quality degradation and deposition of dust or contaminants, are also likely post-fire effects; however, quantitative field measurements of post-fire dust emissions are needed for assessment of these downwind risks. A wind erosion monitoring system was installed immediately following a desert sagebrush and grass wildfire in southeastern Idaho, USA to measure wind erosion from the burned landscape. This paper presents measurements of horizontal sediment flux and PM10 vertical flux from the burned area. We determined threshold wind speeds and corresponding threshold friction velocities to be 6.0 and 0.20 m s-1, respectively, for the 4 months immediately following the fire and 10 and 0.55 m s-1 for the following spring months. Several major wind erosion events were measured in the months following the July 2010 Jefferson Fire. The largest wind erosion event occurred in early September 2010 and produced 1495 kg m-1 of horizontal sediment transport within the first 2 m above the soil surface, had a maximum PM10 vertical flux of 100 mg m-2 s-1, and generated a large dust plume that was visible in satellite imagery. The peak PM10 concentration measured on-site at a height of 2 m in the downwind portion of the burned area was 690 mg m-3. Our results indicate that wildfire can convert a relatively stable landscape into one that is a major dust source.

Wagenbrenner, Natalie S.; Germino, Matthew J.; Lamb, Brian K.; Robichaud, Peter R.; Foltz, Randy B.

2013-09-01

180

Body Mass Index (BMI) and mortality in patients with severe burns: Is there a “tilt point” at which obesity influences outcome?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundObesity is a serious health hazard. Despite advances in burn care severely obese patients with large burns have higher mortality compared with normal-weight patients. The Body Mass Index is the universal measure to define and classify obesity. This study aims to evaluate the effect of Body Mass Index (BMI) on mortality of severe burn patients.

Ali M. Ghanem; Sankhya Sen; Bruce Philp; Peter Dziewulski; Odhran P. Shelley

2011-01-01

181

Can compost improve Quercus pubescens Willd establishment in a Mediterranean post-fire shrubland?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of sewage sludge compost (control, 20kgm?2, 40kgm?2) supplied to Quercus pubescens Willd seedlings planted in a post-fire calcareous site in Provence (France). Changes in soil properties, seedling survival, growth and nutrition were monitored 7 months, 1.5 years and 2.5 years after amendment, and possible trace metal contamination of soil and

Marie Larchevêque; Nicolas Montès; Virginie Baldy; Christine Ballini

2008-01-01

182

Effects of glycyl-glutamine dipeptide supplementation on myocardial damage and cardiac function in rats after severe burn injury  

PubMed Central

Glutamine decreases myocardial damage in ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, the cardioprotective effect of glutamine after burn injury remains unclear. Present study was to explore the protective effect of glycyl-glutamine dipeptide on myocardial damage in severe burn rats. Seventy-two Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal control (C), burned control (B) and glycyl-glutamine dipeptide-treated (GG) groups. B and GG groups were inflicted with 30% total body surface area of full thickness burn. The GG group was given 1.5 g/kg glycyl-glutamine dipeptide per day and the B group was given the same dose of alanine via intraperitoneal injection for 3 days. The serum CK, LDH, AST, and, blood lactic acid levels, as well as the myocardium ATP and GSH contents, were measured. The indices of cardiac contractile function and histopathological change were analyzed at 12, 24, 48, and 72 post-burn hours (PBH). The serum CK, LDH, AST and blood lactic acid levels increased, and the myocardium ATP and GSH content decreased in both burned groups. Compared with B group, the CK, LDH, AST and blood lactic acid levels reduced, myocardium ATP and GSH content increased in GG group. Moreover, the inhibition of cardiac contractile function and myocardial histopathological damage were reduced significantly in GG group. We conclude that myocardial histological structure and function were damaged significantly after burn injury, glycyl-glutamine dipeptide supplementation is beneficial to myocardial preservation by improving cardiocyte energy metabolism, increasing ATP and glutathione synthesis.

Zhang, Yong; Yan, Hong; Lv, Shang-Gun; Wang, Lin; Liang, Guang-Ping; Wan, Qian-Xue; Peng, Xi

2013-01-01

183

The increasing wildfire and post-fire debris-flow threat in western USA, and implications for consequences of climate change  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In southern California and the intermountain west of the USA, debris flows generated from recently-burned basins pose significant hazards. Increases in the frequency and size of wildfires throughout the western USA can be attributed to increases in the number of fire ignitions, fire suppression practices, and climatic influences. Increased urbanization throughout the western USA, combined with the increased wildfire magnitude and frequency, carries with it the increased threat of subsequent debris-flow occurrence. Differences between rainfall thresholds and empirical debris-flow susceptibility models for southern California and the intermountain west indicate a strong influence of climatic and geologic settings on post-fire debris-flow potential. The linkages between wildfires, debris-flow occurrence, and global warming suggests that the experiences in the western United States are highly likely to be duplicated in many other parts of the world, and necessitate hazard assessment tools that are specific to local climates and physiographies.

Cannon, Susan H.; DeGraff, Jerry

2009-01-01

184

Post-fire response of shrubs in the tablelands of eastern Australia: do existing models explain habitat differences?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire is an important ecological factor that influences the distribution and abundance of plant populations of shrub species in fire-prone habitats. Comprehensive information about the fire-response syndromes and post-fire recruitment of seedlings in tableland habitats of eastern Australia is poorly known. In particular, data on shrubs occurring in grassy habitats are lacking for temperate regions of Australia. The post-fire response

Peter J. ClarkeA; Kirsten J. E. Knox

2002-01-01

185

Ecohydrological Response to Severe Disturbance by Wildfire and Salvage Logging in Oligotrophic Rocky Mountain Watersheds: Nutrient Loading, Plant Productivity, and Benthic Macroinvertebrate Community Response.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the initial magnitude and post-disturbance recovery of watershed hydrology and ecology after the 2003 Lost Creek wildfire in Southern Alberta's Rocky Mountains. Ecohydrological linkages between phosphorus (P) production and response of stream algal and benthic macroinvertebrate communities were studied for four years after this severe wildfire (2004-2007) to describe the early trajectory of post-disturbance recovery. Wildfire and salvage logging resulted in 3- to 12-times greater total phosphorus (TP) production with higher concentrations evident in salvage logged watersheds (p<0.001). Phosphorus recovery has been slow with strong differences in relationships between P and stream discharge still evident four years after the fire (p<0.001). Because particulate P comprised the dominant form of TP, coupled P and sediment interactions are likely implicated in the slow recovery of P production (particularly in salvage logged watersheds). Post-fire P loading was associated with strong ecological responses in stream biota in both burned and salvage logged watersheds. Large increases in algal productivity were observed in both burned and post-fire salvage logged streams immediately after the fire with 7- to 60-times greater biomass production and chlorophyll-a concentration than in reference streams (p<0.001). Algal productivity co-varied strongly with slow recovery in P production as high algal productivity persisted for four years. Elevated algal production was, in turn, associated with strong differences in benthic macroinvertebrate community structure four years after the fire, including higher invertebrate densities, shifts in species composition, and increased species diversity in the burned and post-fire salvage logged watersheds. Contrary to expectations based on River Continuum Theory, carbon and nitrogen isotopes indicated increased utilization of allochthonous (terrestrial) food sources by invertebrate communities after the fire, suggesting potentially complex ecohydrologic interactions between post-fire biogeochemical pathways and biological responses regulating the structure of aquatic food webs.

Silins, U.; Bladon, K. D.; Esch, E.; Spence, J. R.; Stone, M.; Emelko, M. B.; Wagner, M. J.; Williams, C.; Tichkowsky, I.; Boon, S.; Devito, K. J.; Mendoza, C. A.

2008-12-01

186

Severe childhood burns in the Czech Republic: risk factors and prevention  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To assess risk factors for paediatric burn injuries in the Czech Republic and to suggest preventive measures. Methods This study included all children aged 0–16 years hospitalized during 1993–2000 at the Prague Burn Centre and data from the Czech Ministry of Health on national paediatric burn hospitalizations during 1996–2006. Personal, equipment and environmental risk factors were identified from hospital records. Findings The incidence of burn admissions among 0–14 year-olds increased from 85 to 96 per 100 000 between 1996 and 2006, mainly due to a 13% increase among 1–4 year-olds. Between 1993–2000 and 2006, the proportion of burn victims in the country hospitalized at the Prague Burn Centre increased from 9% to 21%. Detailed data were available on 1064 children (64% boys). Around 31% of all burn hospitalizations were in 1 year-olds. Some 79% of burns occurred at home: 70% in the kitchen, 14% in the living room or bedroom and 11% in the bathroom. Of the 18% occurring outdoors, 80% involved boys. Scalds from hot liquids accounted for 70% of all burns. The mean hospital stay was 22 days for boys and 18 days for girls. Conclusion Most burns involved scalds from hot liquids at home: beverages in kitchens and water in bathrooms. There is a need for passive preventive measures, such as redesigned domestic cooking and eating areas, safer electrical kettles and temperature control devices for bathrooms. Educational programmes should be developed for parents and caregivers. A national plan for child burn prevention with specific targets would be helpful.

Celko, Alexander Martin; Danova, Jana; Barss, Peter

2009-01-01

187

An Examination of the Relation between Burn Severity and Forest Height Change in the Taylor Complex Fire using LIDAR data from ICESat\\/GLAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of wildfires is crucial in understanding the global carbon cycle. Wildfires consume above ground biomass, releasing carbon in the atmosphere, contributing to global warming. Current remote sensing metrics such as, the normalized burn ratio, NBR, and the delta normalized burn ration, dNBR, work well to determine the temporal and spatial properties of a wildfire, classify burn severity areas

A. Maher; Q. Zhang; B. H. Braswell; E. M. Middleton; A. T. Hudak

2008-01-01

188

Rainfall influence on plot-scale runoff and soil loss from repeated burning in a Mediterranean-shrub ecosystem, Valencia, Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of a repeated burning on soil hydrology and erosive parameters was studied on a Mediterranean forest soil (Rendzic leptosol) with the aim of identifying the effects of the fire and climatic parameters related to the post-fire runoff and soil loss. The study was carried out in an Experimental Permanent Field Station (La Concordia), close to Valencia (Spain). This field station is located on a calcareous hillside facing SSE, and is composed of nine erosion plots (20 × 4 m). Firstly, experimental fires were performed in June 1995 with two fire treatments (T1 or high severity fire and T2 or moderate severity fire) and a control one (unburnt, T3). The repeated fire (low severity) was carried out in July 2003. The studied period was focused from 18 months before the repeated fire (July 2003) until 18 months after it. Rainfall characteristics of each single event were recorded, which allowed us to statistically distinguish four time periods according to the rainfall intensity and duration: periods I (March 2002 to May 2003) and III (December 2003 to early May 2004) with low intensity and long duration rainfalls, and periods II (June 2003 to November 2003) and IV (late May 2004 to December 2004) with high intensity and short duration rainfalls. Before the 2003 fire, the partial recovery of soil and vegetation from the previous burning in 1995 led to a diminution in the runoff rates (6.5 L m - 2 in burned plots and 1.8 L m - 2 in unburnt ones). Six months later (period II), runoff increased in one order of magnitude (23.9 L m - 2 in burnt plots and 1.1 L m - 2 in the unburnt ones) due, in part, to the short time elapsed from fire until high intensity rainfalls. These differences in runoff production were maintained during the whole post-fire period. Fire effects were reflected in the erosion rates. Soil losses prior to the 2003 fire, in both fire treatments and in the control one, were scant relative to post-fire levels. However, six months after the repeated fire (period II) and almost one year later (period IV), soil losses increased into two orders of magnitude coinciding with the post-fire bare soil augment. The repeated fire impact and rainfall intensity magnified runoff and soil loss. Significant linear relationships between rainfall intensity, runoff and soil loss, were obtained for the burned plots. In the burned areas, rain intensities increased to 20 mm h - 1 augmenting the runoff and soil loss in one and two orders of magnitude, respectively.

González-Pelayo, O.; Andreu, V.; Gimeno-García, E.; Campo, J.; Rubio, J. L.

2010-06-01

189

Burn Institute  

MedlinePLUS

... of 8 experienced a horrific accident. He awoke one night to a house engulfed in flames... Read More Jerry Davee In 1978, Jerry Davee suffered severe burns while trying to ... severe burns. One year later, Jerry received the Burn Institute’s Spirit ...

190

A small single-nozzle rainfall simulator to measure erosion response on different burn severities in southern British Columbia, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study the effects of wildfire burn severity on runoff generation and soil erosion from high intensity rainfall, we constructed an effective yet simple rainfall simulator that was inexpensive, portable and easily operated by two people on steep, forested slopes in southern British Columbia, Canada. The entire apparatus, including simulator, pumps, hoses, collapsible water bladders and sample bottles, was designed to fit into a single full-sized pick-up truck. The three-legged simulator extended to approximately 3.3 metres above ground on steep slopes and used a single Spraying Systems 1/2HH-30WSQ nozzle which can easily be interchanged for other sized nozzles. Rainfall characteristics were measured using a digital camera which took images of the raindrops against a grid. Median drop size and velocity 5 cm above ground were measured and found to be 3/4 of the size of natural rain drops of that diameter class, and fell 7% faster than terminal velocity. The simulator was used for experiments on runoff and erosion on sites burned in 2007 by two wildfires in southern British Columbia. Simulations were repeated one and two years after the fires. Rainfall was simulated at an average rate of 67 mm hr-1 over a 1 m2 plot for 20 minutes. This rainfall rate is similar to the 100 year return period rainfall intensity for this duration at a nearby weather station. Simulations were conducted on five replicate 1 m2 plots in each experimental unit including high burn severity, moderate burn severity, unburned, and unburned with forest floor removed. During the simulation a sample was collected for 30 seconds every minute, with two additional samples until runoff ceased, resulting in 22 samples per simulation. Runoff, overland flow coefficient, infiltration and sediment yield were compared between treatments. Additional simulations were conducted immediately after a 2009 wildfire to test different mulch treatments. Typical results showed that runoff on plots with high burn severity and with forest floor removed was similar, reaching on average a steady rate of about 60% of rainfall rate after about 7 minutes. Runoff on unburned plots with intact forest floor was much lower, typically less than 20% of rainfall rate. Sediment yield was greatest on plots with forest floor removed, followed by severely burned plots. Sediment yield on unburned and moderately burned plots was very low to zero. These results are consistent with qualitative observations made following several extreme rainfall events on recent burns in the region.

Covert, Ashley; Jordan, Peter

2010-05-01

191

Clinical study of cultured epithelial autografts in liquid suspension in severe burn patients.  

PubMed

We address the clinical application of the suspension type cultured epithelial autografts (CEAs), Keraheal™ (MCTT, Seoul, Korea), along with the effects, application method, merits and demerits thereof. From February 2007 to June 2010, 29 burn patients with extensive burns, participated in the suspension type of CEA clinical test. A widely meshed autograft (1:4-6 ratio) was applied to the wound bed and the suspension type CEA was sprayed with a Tissomat cell sprayer, followed by a Tissucol spray, a fibrin sealant. The patients' (men/women=26/3) median (interquartile ranges) age was 42 (30-49) years old, the burned TBSA was 55 (44-60) %, and the full thickness burn area was 40 (30-46.5) %. The area of Keraheal™ applied was 800 (400-1200) cm(2). The take rate was 96 (90.5-99) % and 100 (98.5-100) % at 2 and 4 weeks after treatment with Keraheal™, respectively. The Vancouver burn scar scale was 5 (4-6.5), 4 (3-6), and 3 (2-4) at 8, 12 and 24 weeks after the Keraheal™ application. Widely meshed autograft must be applied in massive burns but it's take rate is greatly reduced. The CEAs enhance the take rate of a wide meshed autograft in massive burns and allow for grafting wide meshed autograft together with acellular dermal matrix in some cases. PMID:21531079

Yim, Haejun; Yang, Hyeong Tae; Cho, Yong Suk; Seo, Cheong Hoon; Lee, Boung Chul; Ko, Jang Hyu; Kwak, In Suk; Kim, Dohern; Hur, Jun; Kim, Jong Hyun; Chun, Wook

2011-04-29

192

Seedling establishment along post-fire succession in Mediterranean shrublands dominated by obligate seeders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seedlings are expected to be particularly sensitive to the environmental conditions at the time of establishment. Within succession, environmental conditions vary over time and a species will have a better chance to regenerate on a particular place depending on the intrinsic traits that determine its regeneration niche. We examined the regeneration niche and the pattern of seedling establishment along succession of the main species present in a Mediterranean shrubland. The establishment of Cistus albidus, Rosmarinus officinalis and Ulex parviflorus was monitored for three years using seasonal cohorts in three different stages along a successional gradient (post-fire, building and mature). There was a flush of establishment immediately after fire in all species. After this event, there was a decline in establishment as succession progressed, until practically no seedling establishment was found at mature stages. The presence of a thick litter layer probably precluded seedling establishment at this stage. The establishment of Cistus was very closely tied to the post-fire environment, while recruitment of Rosmarinus and Ulex also occurred in the building stage. In contrast to what has been reported in other Mediterranean shrublands, recruitment in our study area was not restricted solely to post-fire stages, and shrubs also recruited opportunistically when open gaps in the canopy were available along succession. The differences in preferred micro-sites for the establishment suggest a differentiation in regeneration niches and a particular set of environmental conditions where the different species would be particularly competitive through succession. Thus, Cistus regenerates mostly in highly perturbed environments, whereas Ulex and Rosmarinus benefit from environments with longer inter-fire periods.

Santana, Victor M.; Baeza, M. Jaime; Maestre, Fernando T.

2012-02-01

193

Blood stream infections (BSI) in severe burn patients--early and late BSI: a 9-year study.  

PubMed

Bloodstream infections (BSI) and sepsis are among the most common complications occurring in severe burn patients. This study was designed to evaluate changes in BSI pathogens over almost a decade in severe burn patients at Rambam Healthcare Campus, and BSI occurrence during early and late hospitalization periods. Retrospective computerized data was retrieved from all severe burn patients hospitalized in our institution during the years 2001-2009. BSI in the first week was defined as early BSI, and in the second week and beyond, late BSI. Of 159 severe burns patients, 74 had at least one BSI episode. Most first BSI episodes were diagnosed during the first week of hospitalization. In late BSI, an increased prevalence of resistant bacteria (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA], carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae [CRKP], imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa [PSE-IMP]) and Candida spp. were observed. However, over the 9-year study period, only CRKP increased significantly. In summary, except for the sudden appearance and increase in CRKP (8% increase; p=0.045), we did not observe a significant change in the BSI pathogen profile over the 9-year period. Nevertheless, over the hospitalization period, there is a clear change in the BSI bacteria profile, especially after 4 weeks of hospitalization. PMID:23159703

Raz-Pasteur, Ayelet; Hussein, Khetam; Finkelstein, Renato; Ullmann, Yehuda; Egozi, Dana

2012-11-16

194

Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Report for Minnesota: Farmer Dies From Severe Burn Injuries, FACE-93-MN-075.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An 82-year-old male farmer (victim) died from severe burn injuries after he caught on fire as he was removing the sediment bowl housing from a tractor. It was approximately 4:30 p.m., and he was alone at the time of the incident. The gasoline powered trac...

1994-01-01

195

Primary triage of mass burn casualties with associated severe traumatic injuries  

PubMed Central

Summary A key aim in any mass disaster event is to avoid diverting resources by overwhelming specialized tertiary centers with minor casualties. The most crucial aspect of an effective disaster response is pre-hospital triage at the scene. Unfortunately, many triage systems have serious shortcomings in their methodologies and no existing triage system has enough scientific evidence to justify its universal adoption. Moreover, it is observed that the optimal approach to planning is by no means clear-cut and that each new incident involving burns appears to produce its own unique problems not all of which were predictable. In most major burns disasters, victims mostly have combined trauma burn injuries and form a heterogeneous group with a broad range of devastating injuries. Are these victims primarily burn patients or trauma patients? Should they be taken care of in a burn center or in a trauma center or only in a combined burns-trauma center? Who makes the decision? The present review is aimed at answering some of these questions.

Atiyeh, B.; Gunn, S. William A.; Dibo, S.

2013-01-01

196

Paradoxical Effect of IL-18 Therapy on the Severe and Mild Escherichia coli Infections in Burn-Injured Mice  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate the effects of IL-18 therapy on severe and mild bacterial infection after burn injury. Summary Background Data: IL-18 therapy restores IFN-? production in immunosuppressive mice following burn injury and up-regulate host response to LPS and experimental bacterial peritonitis. On the other hand, the overproduction of IFN-? could induce an exaggerated inflammation. Therefore, in this study, we focus on the beneficial and deleterious effects of IL-18-induced IFN-? and investigate the behavior of IL-18 in infections. Methods: Burn injury was induced in C57BL/6 mice and then they were i.p. injected with IL-18 (0.2 ?g) on alternate days. After 1 week, severe and mild infections were made in mice by an Escherichia coli challenge (5 × 108 CFU and 1 × 108 CFU i.v., respectively). Results: IL-18 therapy decreased the mortality of burn-injured mice followed by a severe infection, whereas it unexpectedly increased the mortality of burned mice with a mild infection. The IL-18 therapy increased the number of liver mononuclear cells (MNCs), especially NK cells, and greatly up-regulated the impaired IFN-? production from the liver and spleen MNCs in mice with severe infection. Both the serum IFN-? concentrations recovered while the bacterial count in the liver decreased. In contrast, the serum IFN-? concentrations of the burned mice with mild infection did not decrease in comparison to the unburned mice, whereas IL-18 therapy greatly up-regulated the serum IFN-? levels in burned mice. However, IL-18 therapy significantly elevated the serum ALT and creatinine levels, thus suggesting that the mortality was induced by an exaggerated form of shock/multiorgan failure. These beneficial and deleterious effects of IL-18 therapy in mice with severe and mild infections, respectively, were all inhibited by anti-IFN-? Ab pretreatment. Conclusion: IL-18 therapy can be a potent therapeutic tool against severe bacterial infection in immunocompromised hosts, but careful attention should also be paid to its adverse effects.

Kinoshita, Manabu; Seki, Shuhji; Ono, Satoshi; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi; Hiraide, Hoshio

2004-01-01

197

Five-Year Outcomes after Oxandrolone Administration in Severely Burned Children: A Randomized Clinical Trial of Safety and Efficacy  

PubMed Central

Background Oxandrolone, an anabolic agent, has been administered for 1 year post burn with beneficial effects in pediatric patients. However, the long-lasting effects of this treatment have not been studied. This single-center prospective trial determined the long-term effects of 1 year of oxandrolone administration in severely burned children; assessments were continued for up to 4 years post-therapy. Study Design Patients 0–18 years old with burns covering >30% of the total body surface area were randomized to receive placebo (n=152) or oxandrolone, 0.1 mg/kg twice daily for 12 months (n=70). At hospital discharge, patients were randomized to a 12 week exercise program or to standard of care. Resting energy expenditure (REE), standing height, weight, lean body mass, muscle strength, bone mineral content (BMC), cardiac work, rate pressure product (RPP), sexual maturation, and concentrations of serum inflammatory cytokines, hormones, and liver enzymes were monitored. Results Oxandrolone significantly decreased REE, RPP, and increased IGF-1 secretion during the first year after burn injury, and in combination with exercise significantly increased lean body mass and muscle strength. Oxandrolone-treated children exhibited improved height percentile and BMC content compared to controls. The maximal effect of oxandrolone was found in children aged 7–18 years. No deleterious side effects were attributed to long-term administration. Conclusions Administration of oxandrolone improves the long-term recovery of severely burned children in height, BMC, cardiac work and muscle strength; the increase in BMC is likely to occur by means of IGF 1. These benefits persist for up to 5 years post burn.

Porro, Laura J; Herndon, David N; Rodriguez, Noe A; Jennings, Kristofer; Klein, Gordon L; Mlcak, Ronald P; Meyer, Walter; Lee, Jong; Suman, Oscar E; Finnerty, Celeste C

2012-01-01

198

Facing drought in a Mediterranean post-fire community: tissue water relations in species with different life traits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bulk shoot water potential, the osmotic component and the bulk modulus of elasticity were measured throughout one growing season in four species co-occurring in a post-fire Mediterranean community in southern Italy: Pinus halepensis, Phillyrea latifolia, Cistus salvifolius and Rosmarinus officinalis. A severe drought occurred throughout the measurement period. Large seasonal fluctuations have been observed for both predawn and afternoon water potential in all species. Although minimum values down to -4 MPa have been measured, plant water potential always recovered to less negative values after drought. Daily amplitude of water potential decreased with increasing plant water stress in all species. In Cistus and Rosmarinus less ability for short-term control of plant water status has been assessed. Osmotic potential at full turgor did not display clear seasonal patterns, with no consistent ranking of species by their osmotic values. In most cases, no osmotic adjustment (lowering of osmotic potentials) and no change in tissue elastic properties were observed in response to increasing summer drought and intensity of water stress.

Borghetti, Marco; Magnani, F.; Fabrizio, A.; Saracino, A.

2004-03-01

199

The effect of prolonged euglycemic hyperinsulinemia on lean body mass after severe burn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The hypermetabolic response to burn increases protein catabolism. Euglycemic hyperinsu-linemia with exogenous insulin maintains muscle protein by continued stimulation of net protein synthesis. Our aim was to determine the effect of euglycemic hyperinsulinemia over the entire hospitalization on muscle anabolism by investigating lean body mass (LBM) as the primary endpoint. Methods. Eighteen subjects between the ages of 2 and

S. J Thomas; K Morimoto; D. N Herndon; A. A Ferrando; R. R Wolfe; G. L Klein; S. E Wolf

2002-01-01

200

Alkali Burns of the Eye: Effect of Immediate Copious Irrigation with Tap Water on Their Severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To examine the effect of immediate irrigation on ocular alkali burn. Methods: Information on the injury, immediate irrigation, and ocular findings was retrospectively obtained from each patient’s record. Results: 36 patients (49 eyes) irrigated their eyes with tap water (the irrigation group) and 17 patients (29 eyes) did not (no irrigation group). The mean age of patients in the

N. Ikeda; Seiji Hayasaka; Yoriko Hayasaka; Konomi Watanabe

2006-01-01

201

Self-perceptions of young adults who survived severe childhood burn injury.  

PubMed

The transition of pediatric burn survivors into adulthood is accompanied by a reformulation of their self-concept. To anticipate the need for and guide development of appropriate psychosocial interventions, this study examines how young adults who were burned as children perceive themselves and how this perception might affect their self-esteem. Eighty-two young adult burn survivors (45 male, 37 female) were assessed using the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale, 2nd edition (TSCS2) to determine how the participants perceive themselves and their interaction with society. To gain insight into the possible effects of these self-concept scores, relationships were analyzed between self-concept, a behavioral assessment (Young Adult Self-Report [YASR]), and a psychiatric symptom assessment (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders [SCID I]). This group of burn survivors scored significantly lower in self-concepts, reflected in TSCS2 subscale scores of physical function, appearance, and sexuality, moral conduct, personal values, academics and work, and identity, than did the reference population. Pearson correlation coefficients showed that as moral, personal, family, and social aspects of self-concept decreased, clinical problems endorsed on the YASR subscales increased, including anxiety, somatic, attention, intrusive, and aggressive. Persons with lower self-concept scores on the TSCS2 personal, family, and social scales were more withdrawn on the YASR. Similarly, those with lower TSCS2 scores on the personal and family scales endorsed significantly more thought problems on the YASR. TSCS2 total self-concept, personal, and all of the supplementary scale scores were significantly lower for the group with an affective disorder. Those whose SCID I scores were consistent with a current anxiety disorder had significantly lower scores for the TSCS2 total self-concept and personal. Lower self-concept was associated with endorsement of SCID symptoms. In summary, the significantly lower self-concept scores on the TSCS2 physical scale are consistent with the physical disfigurement and handicaps common with major burn injuries, and a strong indication of this group's perception of the first impression made when interacting with others. The survivors seem to feel worthwhile within the contexts of family and friends. Although the major limitation of this study using the TSCS2 is the lack of a matched reference population to compare the burn survivors, the TSCS2 does help in gaining insight into the self-esteem issues of the burn survivor population. PMID:23202876

Russell, William; Robert, Rhonda S; Thomas, Christopher R; Holzer, Charles E; Blakeney, Patricia; Meyer, Walter J

202

A comparison of dexmedetomidine and midazolam for sedation in severe pediatric burn injury.  

PubMed

Dexmedetomidine (DEX) is an ?-adrenergic agonist that has been used for sedation during invasive procedures and endotracheal intubation. In pediatric burn injury, DEX has been shown to be safe as a long-term sedative in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, comparison of DEX with traditional sedatives, such as midazolam, for sedation in pediatric burn injury has not been performed. The purpose of this study was to compare DEX with midazolam in terms of sedation, efficacy, and side effects in children with burn injury. A retrospective review of all children with a TBSA burn injury ?20% admitted from December 2008 to September 2010 was performed. Children who received a continuous DEX infusion were compared with children receiving a continuous midazolam infusion. Data collected included: age, TBSA burn, ventilator days, ICU days, hypotensive episodes, bradycardic episodes, and Richmond Agitation Score (RAS). A total of 21 patients who received DEX infusions were compared with 21 age-matched and burn size-matched patients who received midazolam infusions. Of the 21 DEX patients, nine also received midazolam infusions, eight prior to DEX and one after. These patients did not receive DEX and midazolam simultaneously. There was no difference in age (6.9 vs 6.4 years), TBSA (45.5 vs 49.2%), ICU days (45.3 vs 55.4), and ventilator days (38.5 vs 45.5) between the DEX and midazolam patients, respectively. The mean duration of infusion was 22.5 ± 24.9 days for DEX and 20.1 ± 24.8 days for midazolam. DEX patients had a mean RAS of -0.91 ± 0.8. Midazolam patients were more sedated with a mean RAS of -1.33 ± 0.7. Only one episode of bradycardia was noted in the DEX group. The DEX group had fewer hypotensive episodes (mean arterial pressure <60 mm Hg) while on infusion compared with the midazolam group (15.8 vs 29.7 episodes). Thus, it can be surmised that DEX is a safe and effective sedative for pediatric burn patients. Compared to midazolam, DEX may provide more effective sedation and less sedation-related hypotension. PMID:23147214

Fagin, Alice; Palmieri, Tina; Greenhalgh, David; Sen, Soman

203

A single date SWIR-MIR index (SMI) for rapid fire severity assessments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid fire severity assessments are essential for timely post-fire rehabilitation responses. The Landsat differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) has become the standard spectral index for assessing fire severity. The dNBR is generally calculated using the first available cloud-free post-fire image and a pre-fire image. This bi-temporal image differencing can be problematic due to image-to-image differences in illumination and phenology for example. We have developed an alternative index based on single date short-wave infrared (SWIR) and mid infrared (MIR) reflectance. In contrast with the (d)NBR, the SWIR-MIR index (SMI) is robust against scattering caused by smoke plumes over active fires allowing fire severity assessments to be generated when the area is still obscured by smoke. The SMI was generated using MODIS/ASTER (MASTER) airborne simulator data acquired over the recent 2011 Wallow fire in Arizona, USA. Simulation experiments showed that the SMI is more sensitive to char fractional cover than the NBR. In addition, the SMI had a stronger correlation with Geo Composite Burn Index (GeoCBI) field data of severity than the NBR (GeoCBI-SMI R2 = 0.67 and GeoCBI-NBR R2 = 0.61). The dNBR trended slightly better with the GeoCBI field data than the SMI (GeoCBI-dNBR R2 = 0.69). Although no spaceborne sensors with pixel sizes smaller than 100 m currently offer the possibility of a SWIR-MIR band combination, the airborne results illustrate the potential of this band combination for the remote sensing of post-fire effects. Such data will become available with the advent of the next generation satellite sensors, such as the planned spaceborne Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI).

Veraverbeke, S.; Hook, S.; Hulley, G.

2012-04-01

204

Biomass burning in boreal forests and peatlands: Effects on ecosystem carbon losses and soil carbon stabilization as black carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change has increased both annual area burned and the severity of biomass combustion in some boreal regions. For example, there has been a four-fold increase in late season fires in boreal Alaska over the last decade relative to the previous 50 years. Such changes in the fire regime are expected to stimulate ecosystem carbon losses through fuel combustion, reduced primary production, and increased decomposition. However, biomass burning also will influence the accumulation of black carbon in soils, which could promote long-term soil carbon sequestration. Variations in slope and aspect regulate soil temperatures and drainage conditions, and affect the development of permafrost and thick peat layers. Wet soil conditions in peatlands and permafrost forests often inhibit combustion during wildfires, leading to strong positive correlations between pre- and post- fire organic soil thickness that persist through multiple fire cycles. However, burning can occur in poorly drained ecosystems through smouldering combustion, which has implications for emission ratios of CO2:CH4:CO as well as black carbon formation. Our studies of combustion severity and black carbon concentrations in boreal soils show a negative relationship between concentrations of black carbon and organic carbon in soils post-fire. Relative to well drained stands, poorly drained sites with thick peat layers (such as north-facing stands) had less severe burning and low concentrations of black carbon in mineral soils post-fire. Conversely, drier forests lost a greater proportion of their organic soils during combustion but retained larger black carbon stocks following burning. Overall, we have quantified greater black carbon concentrations in surface mineral soil horizons than in organic soil horizons. This is surprising given that wildfires typically do not consume the entire organic soil layer in boreal forests, and could be indicative of the vulnerability of black carbon formed in organic horizons to burning during subsequent fire events. We also observed no correlations between black carbon stocks in soils and fire frequency, again suggesting that pyrogenic C is susceptible to re-burning, or decay in the post-burn environment. The majority of pyrogenic carbon in boreal soils appears to be derived from recent wildfire activity, as the age of the black carbon pool often is equivalent to stand age. Together these results show that landscape characteristics that control decomposition and the accumulation of peat also have strong controls on combustion processes and post-fire soil chemistry. Warmer temperatures and drier or more variable precipitation patterns are likely to result in more intense burning of organic soils in the future. Research linking the conditions of char formation with its stabilization mechanisms (either consumption in wildfire or microbial attack) will shed light on spatial patterns of black carbon formation and preservation in high latitude soils.

Turetsky, M. R.; Kane, E. S.; Benscoter, B.

2011-12-01

205

Severe cast burn after bunionectomy in a patient who received peripheral nerve blocks for postoperative analgesia.  

PubMed

Although regional anesthesia offers advantages for intraoperative and postoperative pain relief, it is not possible without complications. A case of a significant burn injury after splint placement is described after a peripheral nerve block was performed for postoperative pain management. It is our hope that this case alerts physicians and others involved in the management of postoperative patients to the challenges of managing a blocked extremity after thermal cast placement and offers solutions that can be standardized. PMID:22915886

Boyle, Patrick K; Badal, John J; Boeve, Joelle W

2011-03-11

206

Severe cast burn after bunionectomy in a patient who received peripheral nerve blocks for postoperative analgesia  

PubMed Central

Although regional anesthesia offers advantages for intraoperative and postoperative pain relief, it is not possible without complications. A case of a significant burn injury after splint placement is described after a peripheral nerve block was performed for postoperative pain management. It is our hope that this case alerts physicians and others involved in the management of postoperative patients to the challenges of managing a blocked extremity after thermal cast placement and offers solutions that can be standardized.

Boyle, Patrick K; Badal, John J; Boeve, Joelle W

2011-01-01

207

Quantifying sources of fine sediment supplied to post-fire debris flows using fallout radionuclide tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The supply of fine sediment and ash has been identified as an important factor contributing to the initiation of runoff-generated debris flows after fire. However, despite the significance of fines for post-fire debris flow generation, no investigations have sought to quantify sources of this material in debris flow affected catchments. In this study, we employ fallout radionuclides (Cs-137, excess Pb-210 and Pu-239,240) as tracers to measure proportional contributions of fine sediment (<10 ?m) from hillslope surface and channel bank sources to levee and terminal fan deposits formed by post-fire debris flows in two forest catchments in southeastern Australia. While Cs-137 and excess Pb-210 have been widely used in sediment tracing studies, application of Pu as a tracer represents a recent development and was limited to only one catchment. The estimated range in hillslope surface contributions of fine sediment to individual debris flow deposits in each catchment was 22-69% and 32-74%, respectively. No systematic change in the source contributions to debris flow deposits was observed with distance downstream from channel initiation points. Instead, spatial variability in source contributions was largely influenced by the pattern of debris flow surges forming the deposits. Linking the sediment tracing with interpretation of depositional evidence allowed reconstruction of temporal sequences in sediment source contributions to debris flow surges. Hillslope source inputs dominated most elevated channel deposits such as marginal levees that were formed under peak flow conditions. This indicated the importance of hillslope runoff and sediment supply for debris flow generation in both catchments. In contrast, material stored within channels that was deposited during subsequent surges was predominantly channel-derived. The results demonstrate that fallout radionuclide tracers may provide unique information on the changing source contributions of fine sediment during debris flow events.

Smith, Hugh; Sheridan, Gary; Nyman, Petter; Child, David; Lane, Patrick; Hotchkis, Michael

2013-04-01

208

Regional constraints to biological nitrogen fixation in post-fire forest communities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is a key ecological process that can restore nitrogen (N) lost in wildfire and shape the pace and pattern of post-fire forest recovery. To date, there is limited information on how climate and soil fertility interact to influence different pathways of BNF in early forest succession. We studied asymbiotic (forest floor and soil) and symbiotic (the shrub Ceanothus integerrimus) BNF rates across six sites in the Klamath National Forest, California, USA. We used combined gradient and experimental phosphorus (P) fertilization studies to explore cross-site variation in BNF rates and then related these rates to abiotic and biotic variables. We estimate that our measured BNF rates 22 years after wildfire (6.1–12.1 kg N·ha-1·yr-1) are unlikely to fully replace wildfire N losses. We found that asymbiotic BNF is P limited, although this is not the case for symbiotic BNF in Ceanothus. In contrast, Ceanothus BNF is largely driven by competition from other vegetation: in high-productivity sites with high potential evapotranspiration (Et), shrub biomass is suppressed as tree biomass increases. Because shrub biomass governed cross-site variation in Ceanothus BNF, this competitive interaction led to lower BNF in sites with high productivity and Et. Overall, these results suggest that the effects of nutrients play a larger role in driving asymbiotic than symbiotic fixation across our post-fire sites. However, because symbiotic BNF is 8–90x greater than asymbiotic BNF, it is interspecific plant competition that governs overall BNF inputs in these forests.

Yelenik, Stephanie; Perakis, Steven; Hibbs, David

2013-01-01

209

Regional constraints to biological nitrogen fixation in post-fire forest communities.  

PubMed

Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is a key ecological process that can restore nitrogen (N) lost in wildfire and shape the pace and pattern of post-fire forest recovery. To date, there is limited information on how climate and soil fertility interact to influence different pathways of BNF in early forest succession. We studied asymbiotic (forest floor and soil) and symbiotic (the shrub Ceanothus integerrimus) BNF rates across six sites in the Klamath National Forest, California, USA. We used combined gradient and experimental phosphorus (P) fertilization studies to explore cross-site variation in BNF rates and then related these rates to abiotic and biotic variables. We estimate that our measured BNF rates 22 years after wildfire (6.1-12.1 kg N x ha(-1) x yr(-1)) are unlikely to fully replace wildfire N losses. We found that asymbiotic BNF is P limited, although this is not the case for symbiotic BNF in Ceanothus. In contrast, Ceanothus BNF is largely driven by competition from other vegetation: in high-productivity sites with high potential evapotranspiration (Et), shrub biomass is suppressed as tree biomass increases. Because shrub biomass governed cross-site variation in Ceanothus BNF, this competitive interaction led to lower BNF in sites with high productivity and Et. Overall, these results suggest that the effects of nutrients play a larger role in driving asymbiotic than symbiotic fixation across our post-fire sites. However, because symbiotic BNF is 8-90x greater than asymbiotic BNF, it is interspecific plant competition that governs overall BNF inputs in these forests. PMID:23687899

Yelenik, Stephanie; Perakis, Steven; Hibbs, David

2013-03-01

210

Quantifying sources of fine sediment supplied to post-fire debris flows using fallout radionuclide tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fine sediment supply has been identified as an important factor contributing to the initiation of runoff-generated debris flows after fire. However, despite the significance of fines for post-fire debris flow generation, no investigations have sought to quantify sources of this material in debris flow affected catchments. In this study, we employ fallout radionuclides (137Cs, 210Pbex and 239,240Pu) as tracers to measure proportional contributions of fine sediment (< 10 ?m) from hillslope surface and channel bank sources to levee and terminal fan deposits formed by post-fire debris flows in two forest catchments in southeastern Australia. While 137Cs and 210Pbex have been widely used in sediment tracing studies, application of Pu as a tracer represents a recent development and was limited to only one catchment. The ranges in estimated proportional hillslope surface contributions of fine sediment to individual debris flow deposits in each catchment were 22-69% and 32-74%. The greater susceptibility of 210Pbex to apparent reductions in the ash content of channel deposits relative to hillslope sources resulted in its exclusion from the final analysis. No systematic change in the proportional source contributions to debris flow deposits was observed with distance downstream from channel initiation points. Instead, spatial variability in source contributions was largely influenced by the pattern of debris flow surges forming the deposits. Linking the tracing analysis with interpretation of depositional evidence allowed reconstruction of temporal sequences in sediment source contributions to debris flow surges. Hillslope source inputs dominated most elevated channel deposits such as marginal levees that were formed under peak flow conditions. This indicated the importance of hillslope runoff and fine sediment supply for debris flow generation in both catchments. In contrast, material stored within channels that was deposited during subsequent surges was predominantly channel-derived. The results demonstrate that fallout radionuclide tracers may provide unique information on changing source contributions of fine sediment during debris flow events.

Smith, Hugh G.; Sheridan, Gary J.; Nyman, Petter; Child, David P.; Lane, Patrick N. J.; Hotchkis, Michael A. C.; Jacobsen, Geraldine E.

2012-02-01

211

Quantifying sources of fine sediment supplied to post-fire debris flows using fallout radionuclide tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The supply of fine sediment and ash has been identified as an important factor contributing to the initiation of runoff-generated debris flows after fire. However, despite the significance of fines for post-fire debris flow generation, no investigations have sought to quantify sources of this material in debris flow affected catchments. In this study, we employ fallout radionuclides (Cs-137, excess Pb-210 and Pu-239,240) as tracers to measure proportional contributions of fine sediment (<10 ?m) from hillslope surface and channel bank sources to levee and terminal fan deposits formed by post-fire debris flows in two forest catchments in southeastern Australia. While Cs-137 and excess Pb-210 have been widely used in sediment tracing studies, application of Pu as a tracer represents a recent development and was limited to only one catchment. The estimated range in proportional hillslope surface contributions of fine sediment to individual debris flow deposits in each catchment was 22-69% and 32-74%. No systematic change in the proportional source contributions to debris flow deposits was observed with distance downstream from channel initiation points. Instead, spatial variability in source contributions was largely influenced by the pattern of debris flow surges forming the deposits. Linking the tracing analysis with interpretation of depositional evidence allowed reconstruction of temporal sequences in sediment source contributions to debris flow surges. Hillslope source inputs dominated most elevated channel deposits such as marginal levees that were formed under peak flow conditions. This indicated the importance of hillslope runoff and fine sediment supply for debris flow generation in both catchments. In contrast, material stored within channels that was deposited during subsequent surges was predominantly channel-derived. The results demonstrate that fallout radionuclide tracers may provide unique information on the changing source contributions of fine sediment during debris flow events.

Smith, H. G.; Sheridan, G. J.; Nyman, P.; Child, D.; Lane, P. N.; Hotchkis, M.

2011-12-01

212

Towards evidence based emergency medicine: Best BETs from the Manchester Royal Infirmary. BET 3: Vitamin C in severe burns.  

PubMed

A short-cut systematic review was carried out to establish whether high-dose vitamin C can lead to lower fluid requirements, faster recovery and lower mortality in adult patients with burns of over 15% total body surface area (TBSA). Four studies were directly relevant to the question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of these papers are tabulated. The clinical bottom line is that preliminary evidence suggests vitamin C can reduce the volume required for fluid resuscitation, improve wound healing and reduce ventilation requirements in patients with severe burns. Further evidence from large trials is required to confirm this promising early evidence. PMID:23180299

Ghanayem, Hisham

2012-12-01

213

Post-fire recovery of sagebrush communities: Assessment using SPOT5 and very large-scale aerial imagery  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Much interest lies in the long-term recovery rates of sagebrush communities after fire in the western USA as sagebrush communities comprise millions of hectares of rangelands and important wildlife habitat. Little is known about post-fire changes in sagebrush canopy cover over time, especially at a...

214

Sustained Oxidative Stress Causes Late Acute Renal Failure via Duplex Regulation on p38 MAPK and Akt Phosphorylation in Severely Burned Rats  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical evidence indicates that late acute renal failure (ARF) predicts high mortality in severely burned patients but the pathophysiology of late ARF remains undefined. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that sustained reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced late ARF in a severely burned rat model and to investigate the signaling mechanisms involved. Materials and Methods Rats were exposed to 100°C bath for 15 s to induce severe burn injury (40% of total body surface area). Renal function, ROS generation, tubular necrosis and apoptosis, and phosphorylation of MAPK and Akt were measured during 72 hours after burn. Results Renal function as assessed by serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen deteriorated significantly at 3 h after burn, alleviated at 6 h but worsened at 48 h and 72 h, indicating a late ARF was induced. Apoptotic cells and cleavage caspase-3 in the kidney went up slowly and turned into significant at 48 h and 72 h. Tubular cell ROS production shot up at 6 h and continuously rose during the 72-h experiment. Scavenging ROS with tempol markedly attenuated tubular apoptosis and renal dysfunction at 72 h after burn. Interestingly, renal p38 MAPK phosphorylation elevated in a time dependent manner whereas Akt phosphorylation increased during the first 24 h but decreased at 48 h after burn. The p38 MAPK specific inhibitor SB203580 alleviated whereas Akt inhibitor exacerbated burn-induced tubular apoptosis and renal dysfunction. Furthermore, tempol treatment exerted a duplex regulation through inhibiting p38 MAPK phosphorylation but further increasing Akt phosphorylation at 72 h postburn. Conclusions These results demonstrate that sustained renal ROS overproduction induces continuous tubular cell apoptosis and thus a late ARF at 72 h after burn in severely burned rats, which may result from ROS-mediated activation of p38 MAPK but a late inhibition of Akt phosphorylation.

Cai, Xiaoqing; Wang, Dexin; Wu, Kaimin; Chen, Hongli; Li, Jia; Lei, Wei

2013-01-01

215

Preparation and Evaluation of Gene-transfected Cultured Skin as a Novel Drug Delivery System for Severely Burned Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The purpose of this study is to prepare and evaluate gene-transfected cultured skin to establish a dermal patch consisting\\u000a of cultured skin as a new and novel delivery system for severely burned skin.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and Methods  Plasmid DNA encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene was used as a model gene and transfected to rat and human cultured\\u000a dermis models (CDMs)

Nobuko Hada; Hiroaki Todo; Fusao Komada; Kenji Sugibayashi

2007-01-01

216

Classification of burn severity using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS): A case study in the jarrah-marri forest of southwest Western Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southwest of Western Australia is a fire-prone landscape. In this Mediterranean region, prescribed fuel reduction burning is applied as a management tool by the state government's Department of Conservation and Land Management (CALM). Remote sensing data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) with multiple observations per day are investigated for operational monitoring of prescribed burning activities.The Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) is sensitive to the amount of biomass, soil exposure and equivalent water content. The differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (?NBR) shows the greatest response of landscape change due to fire. The ratios, originally applied to 30-m Landsat 7 ETM+ data, have been transferred to 250-500 m MODIS data. The high temporal resolution and direct broadcast capability of MODIS are considered favorable for monitoring prefire and postfire conditions, in particular in near-real time. This study applies the ?NBR to classify burn severity using MODIS data with various levels of preprocessing. On the basis of field studies, four burn severity classes are distinguished with best discrimination for high burn severity where the top layer of the vegetation canopy is altered. As expected, the spatial detail of the classifications from MODIS is reduced when compared to results from Landsat 7 ETM+, but the large-scale spatial patterns are similar. NBR time series of daily data showed that classes of burn severity can be separated for each acquisition date. Large temporal variations of the NBR limit class separation with absolute thresholds, in particular for data uncorrected for effects due to varying viewing geometries. However, MODIS top of atmosphere data allow near-real-time assessment of burn severity, important to fire managers for monitoring postfire conditions.

Walz, Yvonne; Maier, Stefan W.; Dech, Stefan W.; Conrad, Christopher; Colditz, René R.

2007-06-01

217

Influence of vegetation spatial heterogeneity on soil enzyme activity in burned Mediterranean areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mediterranean ecosystems are commonly considered resilient to wildfires. However, depending on fire severity and recurrence, post-fire climatic conditions and plant community type, the recovery rate of the vegetation can greatly vary. Often, the post-fire vegetation cover remains low and sparsely distributed many years after the wildfire, which could have profound impacts on ecosystem functioning. In this work, we studied the influence of vegetation patchiness on soil enzyme activity (acid phosphatase, ?-glucosidase and urease), at the patch and landscape scales, in degraded dry Mediterranean shrublands affected by wildfires. At the patch scale, we assessed the variation in soil enzyme between bare soils and vegetation patches. At the landscape scale, we studied the relationships between soil enzyme activity and various landscape metrics (total patch cover, average interpatch length, average patch width, and patch density). The study was conducted in 19 sites in the Valencia Region (eastern Spain), which had been affected by large wildfires in 1991. Site selection aimed at capturing a wide range of the variability of post-fire plant recovery rates in Mediterranean areas. The activities of the three enzymes were significantly higher in soils under the vegetation canopies than in adjacent bare areas, which we attributed to the effect of plants on the soil amount of both enzyme substrates and enzymes. The differences between bare and plant microsites were larger in the case of the acid phosphatase and less marked for urease. The activity of acid phosphatase was also higher under patches of resprouter species than under patches of seeder species, probably due to the faster post-fire recovery and older age of resprouter patches in fire-prone ecosystems. Soil enzyme activities of ?-glucosidase and urease in both bare soils and vegetation patches showed no relationships with any of the landscape metrics analysed. However, the activity of acid phosphatase increased linearly with the total cover of vegetation patches, which is consistent with the strong effect of plant patches on the activity of this enzyme. According to our results, variations in the cover and composition of vegetation patches may have profound impacts on the soil enzyme activity and associated nutrient cycling processes in burned Mediterranean areas, particularly in the case of phosphorus. Keywords: wildfires, landscape metrics, Mediterranean shrublands, soil enzyme activity, resprouter species.

Mayor, Á. G.; Goirán, S.; Bautista, S.

2009-04-01

218

Seed colour and post-fire bird predation in a Mediterranean pine forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a Pinus halepensis Mill. forest, a field experiment was designed to evaluate post-fire seed predation as affected by combinations of seed colour and soil substrates: light grey and black seeds combined with light grey ash, dark grey ash and pale brown sand. A survey of bird species inhabiting the area was also carried out and polyphenolic content of seed coat was assessed in seed lots of different colour. Light grey seeds were observed to be less predated on light grey ash, suggesting eucrypsis as a protective strategy against bird predation. On the contrary, no clear pattern was observed for the predation of black seeds on different substrates. In the study area both bird species breaking the seed coat and eating the endosperm and bird species swallowing the whole seed were monitored. We have estimated that more seeds were swallowed than broken, in all colour categories. Light grey seeds, which were found to have a higher content of polyphenols, were predated more than black seeds when exposed on the same substrate. Thus, no evidence was produced that the amount of polyphenols in seed coat could protect seeds from predation.

Saracino, Antonio; D'Alessandro, Carmela Miriam; Borghetti, Marco

2004-12-01

219

Effect of thinning and prescribed burning on crown fire severity in ponderosa pine forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire exclusion policies have affected stand structure and wildfire hazard in north American ponderosa pine forests. Wildfires are becoming more severe in stands where trees are densely stocked with shade-tolerant understory trees. Although forest managers have been employing fuel treatment techniques to reduce wildfire hazard for decades, little scientific evidence documents the success of treatments in reducing fire severity. Our

Jolie PolletA; Philip N. OmiB

2002-01-01

220

A data-driven approach for modeling post-fire debris-flow volumes and their uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study demonstrates the novel application of genetic programming to evolve nonlinear post-fire debris-flow volume equations from variables associated with a data-driven conceptual model of the western United States. The search space is constrained using a multi-component objective function that simultaneously minimizes root-mean squared and unit errors for the evolution of fittest equations. An optimization technique is then used to

Michael J. Friedel

221

Post-fire primary production and plant community dynamics in chaparral stands exposed to varying levels of nitrogen deposition  

PubMed Central

High levels of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition to southern California chaparral shrublands may interact with fire to affect biomass production and plant species composition during secondary succession. To determine the potential interactions between post fire recovery and N deposition we compared rates of aboveground net primary production (ANPP), shrub growth, and the relative abundance of Adenostoma fasciculatum, other sub-dominant shrubs, and herbaceous species of three chaparral stands exposed to different levels of atmospheric N deposition over the first 3 years of post-fire succession. Our data suggest that rates of ANPP (gdw m?2 month?1) and aboveground N storage (gN m?2 month?1) for these chaparral stands were not related to N deposition even though sites exposed to high levels of N deposition had significantly higher rates of shrub growth (gdw plant?1 month?1) and N uptake (gN plant?1 month?1). However, high-N stands were composed of larger shrubs with a lower density, and this trade-off between shrub size and density may explain the low correlation between N deposition and post-fire ANPP. Differences in relative plant species abundance between sites were significantly correlated with N deposition exposure, where stands exposed to high N deposition had a lower relative abundance of A. fasciculatum and a higher relative abundance of other shrub and herbaceous species. While many factors can affect rates and patterns of post-fire recovery, these results suggest that chronic exposure to N deposition may significantly alter plant growth and species composition in successional chaparral stands.

Pasquini, Sarah C.; Vourlitis, George L.

2011-01-01

222

Experimental testing of relationships between post-fire surface reflectance and fire characteristics and emissions in Southern African savannas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel, fire and visible-infrared spectral reflectance measurements were carried out in nine experimental fire plots in semi-arid woodland savanna within the Chobe National Park (Botswana) during October 2001. Pre- and post-fire fuel component loads and nitrogen\\/carbon contents were measured, along with measures of fire line intensity (FLI), integrated fire temperature with time (Tdt) and maximum fire temperature (MaxT) that are

A. Smith; M. Wooster; N. Drake

2003-01-01

223

The value of early enteral nutrition in the prophylaxis of stress ulceration in the severely burned patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data was performed to compare the frequency of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) in seriously burned patients treated with either cimetidine and antacids or enteral nutrition for ulcer prophylaxis. Five hundred and twenty-six seriously burned patients admitted to the burn intensive care unit of the BG Trauma Centre Ludwigshafen during a 4-year period were included

T. Raff; G. Germann; B. Hartmann

1997-01-01

224

Modern burn care  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States nearly 2 million people are burned every year; about 100,000 burns are moderate to severe and require hospitalization and about 5,000 deaths occur because of burns. The overall improvement in mortality and outcome of patients with severe burn trauma over the last decades can be attributed to the following: (1) emergency medical treatment with aggressive early

David N. Herndon; Marcus Spies

2001-01-01

225

A comparative study of aboveground biomass of three Mediterranean species in a post-fire succession  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aboveground biomass of three woody species ( Cistus albidus, Quercus coccifera and Pinus halepensis) in two early successional stages (3- and 10-year old) of a post-fire Mediterranean ecosystem was investigated. Among these three species, which belong to the successional series of holm oak ( Quercus ilex), C. albidus and Q. coccifera are two dominant shrub species in the garrigue ecosystem and P. halepensis is a pioneer tree species widely represented in the Mediterranean area. The results obtained showed that in monospecific stands, C. albidus and Q. coccifera had a high recovery potential. In the 3-year-old stands, the cover of P. halepensis was only 19.8% for a total biomass of 0.75 ± 0.21 t ha -1, while the plant cover of C. albidus and Q. coccifera was, respectively, 26% and 85.5% and biomass was 4.72 ± 1.09 and 11.5 ± 0.16 t ha -1. Only 10 years after fire, the plant cover of C. albidus and Q. coccifera was, respectively, 55% and 100% and total biomass 13.2 ± 1.7 and 35.8 ± 4.7 t ha -1. The greatest increase in biomass was noted for P. halepensis (29.7 t ha -1). If mean annual biomass increments are considered, it appears that there was a significant decrease with the stand age for the two shrub species although the tree species showed an increase in productivity. These differing patterns in biomass and productivity of shrub and tree species with stand age provide information on biomass accumulation rates of pioneer species in a Mediterranean succession and their importance in the vegetation dynamics.

Montès, N.; Ballini, C.; Bonin, G.; Faures, J.

2004-03-01

226

Post-fire changes in net shortwave radiation along a latitudinal gradient in boreal North America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding how a changing boreal fire regime is likely to influence regional climate requires detailed information about fire effects on the surface radiation budget. We used time series of satellite observations of surface albedo from 2000-2011 and fire perimeters since 1970 to study post-fire changes in surface net shortwave radiation along a latitudinal transect in central Canada. Fire-induced surface shortwave forcing (SSF) integrated over an annual cycle for the first 30 years after fire was similar (-4.1 W m-2 with a 95% confidence interval of -4.5 to -3.7 W m-2) between southern and northern boreal regions. The lack of a latitudinal difference in SSF was caused by counteracting latitudinal trends in seasonal contributions. Spring (March, April, and May) SSF increased with latitude, from -7.2 W m-2 in the south to -10.1 W m-2 in the north, primarily because of delayed snow melt, which amplified albedo differences between unburned forests and recovering stands. In contrast, winter incoming solar radiation and summer albedo change decreased from south to north, resulting in a decreasing latitudinal trend in winter and summer SSF. Vegetation recovery was slower in the north, leading to smaller increases in summer albedo during the first decade after fire, and a prolonged phase of elevated spring albedo during the second decade. Our results indicate that fires reduce surface net shortwave radiation considerably for many boreal forest ecosystems in North America, providing further evidence that disturbance-mediated shifts in surface energy exchange need to be considered in efforts to manage these forests for climate change mitigation.

Jin, Yufang; Randerson, James T.; Goulden, Michael L.; Goetz, Scott J.

2012-07-01

227

Comparative physiology of burned and unburned Rhus laurina after chaparral wildfire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laurel Sumac (Rhus laurina) is a dominant member of the coastal chaparral community of southern California that survives periodic burning by wildfires by resprouting from a lignotuber (root crown). We investigated the physiological basis for resprouting by comparing shoot elongation, leaf nitrogen content, tissue water status, leaf conductance to water vapor diffusion, and photosynthetic rates of post-fire R. laurina to

J. DeSouza; P. A. Silka; S. D. Davis

1986-01-01

228

Post-fire tree regeneration in lowland Bolivia: implications for fire management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree regeneration was compared in burned and unburned portions of a tropical dry forest (1110mmppt\\/year) and a tropical humid forest (1542mmppt\\/year) in southeastern Bolivia. Both forests burned 5 years prior to our study, and both forests were also lightly selectively logged (intensity<1m3\\/ha)—the dry forest during the 1970 and 1980s and the humid forest just prior to the wildfire. The objective

K. A. Gould; T. S. Fredericksen; F. Morales; D. Kennard; F. E. Putz; B. Mostacedo; M. Toledo

2002-01-01

229

Guanylate cyclase inhibition by methylene blue as an option in the treatment of vasoplegia after a severe burn. A medical hypothesis  

PubMed Central

Summary Today it is known that severe burns can be accompanied by the phenomenon of vasoplegic syndrome (VS), which is manifested by persistent and diffuse vasodilation, hypotension and low vascular resistance, resulting in circulatory and respiratory failure. The decrease in systemic vascular resistance observed in VS is associated with excessive production of nitric oxide (NO). In the last 2 decades, studies have reported promising results from the administration of an NO competitor, methylene blue (MB), which is an inhibitor of the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), in the treatment of refractory cases of vasoplegia. This medical hypothesis rationale is focused on the tripod of burns/vasoplegia catecholamine resistant/methylene blue. This article has 3 main objectives: 1) to study the guanylate cyclase inhibition by MB in burns; 2) to suggest MB as a viable, safe and useful co-adjuvant therapeutic tool of fluid resuscitation, and; 3) to suggest MB as burns hypotensive vasoplegia amine-resistant treatment.

Farina, Jayme A.; Celotto, Andrea Carla; da Silva, Marcelo Felix; Evora, Paulo Roberto B.

2012-01-01

230

Severe cutaneous adverse reactions: emergency approach to non-burn epidermolytic syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Although severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs), such as Stevens–Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis, are\\u000a rare, they are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The current knowledge regarding background, differential diagnoses, critical care and implications for inter-hospital emergency\\u000a medical service (EMS) transport of these patients is discussed.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Conclusion  SCAR patients will substantially benefit from early interdisciplinary care and thorough consideration of

Manuel Florian Struck; Peter Hilbert; Maja Mockenhaupt; Beate Reichelt; Michael Steen

2010-01-01

231

Artificial skin, split-thickness autograft and cultured autologous keratinocytes combined to treat a severe burn injury of 93% of TBSA.  

PubMed

Despite refinements in burn shock resuscitation, improvements in surgical techniques, advances in intensive care medicine and the presence of very expert surgeons, the treatement of patients with severe burns exceeding 60% TBSA remains a big challenge. A major problem in the treatment of severe burn injuries is the lack of autologous skin. In selected cases cultured epidermal autograft (CEA) may be used. However, they are available only 2-3 weeks after biopsy, thus requiring a temporary wound closure after necrosectomy. A new option is Integra(TM), an artificial skin consisting of a bilayer membrane system. The three-dimensional porous matrix from bovine tendon collagen and a glycosaminoglycan layer is covered by a silicon sheet. The latter prevents fluid loss from the wounds and serves as a barrier against germ invasion. After adequate vascularisation of the dermal template, the silicon layer is removed and replaced by a thin autograft. We present a 26-year old male who sustained a 93% TBSA burn injury (60% full-thickness burn, 33% partial-thickness burn). He was treated with artificial skin, split-thickness autograft and CEA in combination. The clinical history and the follow-up of approx. 1 year are presented and the results discussed. We consider the survival of this patient being a result of the therapeutic progress of the recent decades. PMID:10925189

Loss, M; Wedler, V; Künzi, W; Meuli-Simmen, C; Meyer, V E

2000-11-01

232

Biomass burning emissions estimates in the boreal forests of Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfire is the main boreal forest disturbance and can burn 10-30 million hectares annually, thus modifying the global carbon budget through direct fire emissions, postfire biogenic emissions, and by maintaining or altering ecosystems through establishing the beginning and end of successional processes. Fires in the Russian boreal forest range from low-severity surface fires to high-severity crown fires. Estimates of carbon emissions from fires in Russian boreal forests vary substantially due to differences in ecosystems types, burned area calculations, and the amount of fuel consumed. There is an urgent need to obtain more accurate and impartial fire carbon loss estimates in the boreal forests of Siberia due to their considerable contribution to the regional and global carbon balance. We examined uncertainties in estimates of carbon emissions. Area burned in the Siberian region was analyzed and compared using distinct methodologies. Differences between mapped ecosystems were also compared and contrasted to evaluate the potential for error resulting from disparate vegetation structure and fuel consumption estimates. Accurate fuel consumption estimates are obtained in the course of fire experiments with pre- and post-fire biomass measuring. Our large-scale experiments carried out in the course of the FIRE BEAR (Fire Effects in the Boreal Eurasia Region) Project provided quantitative and qualitative data on ecosystem state and carbon emissions due to fires of known behavior in major forest types of Siberia that could be used to verify large-scale carbon emissions estimates. Carbon emissions from fires vary annually and interannually and can increase several times in extreme fire years in comparison to normal fire years. Climate change and increasing drought length have increased the probability of high-severity fire occurrences. This would result in greater carbon losses and efflux to the atmosphere. This research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program, Fulbright Program, and Russian Academy of Sciences.

Kukavskaya, E. A.; Ivanova, G. A.; Soja, A. J.; Conard, S. G.

2012-04-01

233

ISSR and AFLP analysis of the temporal and spatial population structure of the post-fire annual, Nicotiana attenuata, in SW Utah  

PubMed Central

Background The native annual tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata, is found primarily in large ephemeral populations (typically for less than 3 growing seasons) after fires in sagebrush and pinyon-juniper ecosystems and in small persistent populations (for many growing seasons) in isolated washes typically along roadsides throughout the Great Basin Desert of the SW USA. This distribution pattern is due to its unusual germination behavior. Ephemeral populations are produced by the germination of dormant seeds from long-lived seed banks which are stimulated to germinate by a combination of unidentified positive cues found in wood smoke and the removal of inhibitors leached from the unburned litter of the dominant vegetation. Persistent populations may result where these inhibitors do not exist, as in washes or along disturbed roadsides. To determine if this germination behavior has influenced population structure, we conducted an AFLP (244 individuals), ISSR (175 individuals) and ISSR+ AFLP (175 individuals) analysis on plants originating from seed collected from populations growing in 11 wash and burns over 11 years from the SW USA. Results Genetic variance as measured by both ISSR and AFLP markers was low among sites and comparatively higher within populations. Cluster analysis of the Utah samples with samples collected from Arizona, California, and Oregon as out-groups also did not reveal patterns. AMOVA analysis of the combined AFLP and ISSR data sets yielded significantly low genetic differentiation among sites (?ct), moderate among populations within sites (?sc) and higher genetic differentiation within populations (?st). Conclusions We conclude that the seed dormancy of this post-fire annual and its resulting age structure in conjunction with natural selection processes are responsible for significantly low among sites and comparatively high within-population genetic variation observed in this species.

Bahulikar, Rahul A; Stanculescu, Dominic; Preston, Catherine A; Baldwin, Ian T

2004-01-01

234

Integrating a shrub growth model with remote sensing and geographic information system data to predict shrub spatial growth patterns in a post fire environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of complex spatial distribution patterns and the prediction of vegetative biomass is crucial for understanding ecosystems and their reaction to disturbance. In this study, a Landsat TM image, an interpolated biomass predictive model, and a shrub biomass predictive equation are integrated, modeling the potential distribution and biomass of two shrub species, Physocarpus malvaceous (PHMA) and Holodiscus discolor (HODI), commonly found in the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington. A simple multiple regression technique was used to generate a shrub biomass predictive model based on shrub structural and biophysical variables. The predictive coefficients for each species were applied to a raster database of the significant regressor variables generated using a zonal method of Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) interpolation. The two predictive models were cross validated and compared, showing the zonal IDW process linked with the regression equation and resulting in a coefficient of variation (R2) of 0.80 and 0.73 for PHMA and HODI, respectively. In addition to these predictive models, a supervised classification was performed using a Landsat TM image predicting shrub biomass. The resulting biomass prediction's accuracy was validated using an analysis of fit resulting in an R2 of 0.68 for PHMA and 0.53 for HODI. These two biomass predictive models were then added and averaged using a raster calculator. The combined models improved the overall accuracy of the biomass prediction to an R2 of 0.86 for PHMA and 0.81 for HODI. To better understand and predict biomass change in a post-fire landscape, the biomass predictive model was integrated with FARSITE (Fire Area Simulator). A fire was simulated on a small drainage in the research site. The resulting footprint was removed from the original biomass predictive model and the shrub biomass was predicted for the burn area five years after the fire. The new prediction was combined with the original biomass prediction, resulting in a new shrub biomass prediction for the entire research site.

Harris, Gregory Dean

235

Post-fire runoff and soil (fertility) losses in long-unburnt vs. repeatedly-burnt Maritime Pine stands, north-central Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whilst wildfires are a natural phenomenon in Mediterranean climate regions and a key evolutionary and ecological factor in several of its ecosystems, there are widespread concerns about the resilience of even these fire-adapted ecosystems under present-day fire regimes. The role of repeated wildfires in land degradation, however, has not been extensively studied. The EU-funded CASCADE project addresses this research gap in the study case in Portugal, assessing whether repeated wildfires in Maritime Pine stands lead to land degradation through a gradual process or, instead, through tipping-points in plant-water-soil relationships. In the present study, focus is on the indirect effects of (repeated) wildfires, due to fire-enhanced overland flow generation and the associated losses of sediments, organic matter and nutrients (N and P). Following a large wildfire in early September 2013, affecting roughly 3000 ha in the municipality of Viseu, six Maritime Pine stands were selected within the burnt area. According to the available burnt-area maps, covering the period 1975-2011, three of these sites were unburnt for over 35 years, whereas the other three sites had burnt three more times before 2012. At each of these sites, two pairs of micro-plots of approximately 0.25 m2 were installed as soon as possible after the wildfire, albeit not before the first two post-fire rainfall events, whilst a third pair was installed several weeks later. The first two plot pairs were installed halfway the upper and lower halves of the slope, the third pair in between. The paired-plot design was chosen to compare the hydrological and erosion response for two adjacent patches with contrasting post-fire vegetation recovery processes, i.e. through re-sprouting (by the shrub Pterospartum tridentatum) and by germination. Since the installation of the plots, runoff has been measured at 1- to 2-weekly intervals, depending on rainfall, and samples taken for laboratory analysis of sediment and organic matter loads as well as total N and P concentrations. The field and laboratory results are still being analyzed but personal observations suggest that overland flow generation is markedly higher at the repeatedly burnt than long-unburnt sites.

Hosseini, Mohammad; Gonzaléz-Pelayo, Oscar; Buchspies, Ben; Maia, Paula; Martins, Martinho; Varandas, Daniela; Geissen, Violette; Coelho, Celeste; Ritsem, Coen; Keizer, Jan Jacob

2013-04-01

236

Post-fire albedo change and the associated radiative forcing in northern and southern Canadian boreal forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boreal forest occupies %77 of Canada’s forested land, bordered to the north by treeless arctic tundra and to the south by grassland and mixed hardwood trees. Three ecologically and structurally distinct zones can be identified along the gradient: northern woodland with widely spaced coniferous trees carpeted with lichens, main closed crown forest with closely spaced evergreen and deciduous trees beneath which mosses and herbs/shrubs thrive, and southern boreal zone containing occasional temperate trees. Fire disturbance drives the patterns of vegetation structure and composition and carbon dynamics in this region. We examined the differences of fire patterns between the northern and southern zones, and between the protected areas and non-reserved areas within each zone, using the Large Fire Database (LFDB) from 1959 from Canadian Forest Service. Time series of post-fire vegetation indices and structural index from MODIS data during 2000-2009 in both regions and prairie-forest transition zone were analyzed to identify different vegetation recovery trajectories. The post-fire albedo change was found to be associated with vegetation succession. The magnitude of post-fire albedo change increased from northern to southern boreal forest, especially in winter, reflecting the increasing trend of tree density from north to south. Towards the southern boarder, the ratio of deciduous vs. evergreen trees increases, and thus the albedo change decreases. We built fire chronosequences of surface albedo in each zone and calculated the seasonal and annual radiative forcing. The radiative forcing due to fire-induced albedo change is a trade-off between albedo change, snow season length (decrease), and incoimg solar radiation (increase) along the vegetation gradient.

Jin, Y.; Randerson, J. T.; Goulden, M. L.

2009-12-01

237

The effects of log erosion barriers on post-fire hydrologic response and sediment yield in small forested watersheds, southern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildfire usually promotes flooding and accelerated erosion in upland watersheds. In the summer of 1999, a high-severity wildfire burned a series of mixed pine\\/oak headwater catchments in the San Jacinto Mountains of southern California. Log erosion barriers (LEBs) were constructed across much of the burned area as an erosion control measure. We built debris basins in two watersheds, each about

Peter M. Wohlgemuth; Ken R. Hubbert; Peter R. Robichaud

2001-01-01

238

Frequency-magnitude distribution of debris flows compiled from global data, and comparison with post-fire debris flows in the western U.S.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forecasting debris flow hazard is challenging due to the episodic occurrence of debris flows in response to stochastic precipitation and, in some areas, wildfires. In order to facilitate hazard assessment, we have gathered available records of debris flow volumes into the first comprehensive global catalog of debris flows (n = 988). We also present results of field collection of recent debris flows (n = 77) in the northern Rocky Mountains, where debris flow frequency increases following wildfire. As a first step in parameterizing hazard models, we use frequency-magnitude distributions and empirical cumulative distribution functions (ECDFs) to compare volumes of post-fire debris flows to non-fire-related debris flows. The ECDF of post-fire debris flow volumes is significantly different (at 95% confidence) from that of non-fire-related debris flows, suggesting that the post-fire distribution is composed of a higher proportion of small events than that of non-fire-related debris flows. The slope of the frequency-magnitude distribution of post-fire debris flows is steeper than that of non-fire-related debris flows, corroborating evidence that small post-fire debris flows occur with a higher relative frequency than non-fire-related debris flows. Taken together, the statistical analyses suggest that post-fire debris flows come from a different population than non-fire-related debris flows, and their hazard must be modeled separately. We propose two possible non-exclusive explanations for the fact that the post-fire environment produces a higher proportion of small debris flows: 1) following fires, smaller storms or effective drainage areas can trigger debris flows due to increased runoff and/or decreases in root strength, resulting in smaller volumes and increased probability of failure, and 2) fire increases the probability and frequency of debris flows, causing their distribution to shift toward smaller events due to limitations in sediment supply.

Riley, Karin L.; Bendick, Rebecca; Hyde, Kevin D.; Gabet, Emmanuel J.

2013-06-01

239

Does direct transport to provincial burn centres improve outcomes? A spatial epidemiology of severe burn injury in British Columbia, 2001-2006  

PubMed Central

Background In Canada and the United States, research has shown that injured patients initially treated at smaller emergency departments before transfer to larger regional facilities are more likely to require longer stays in hospital or suffer greater mortality. It remains unknown whether transport status is an independent predictor of adverse health events among persons requiring care from provincial burn centres. Methods We obtained case records from the British Columbia Trauma Registry for adult patients (age ? 18 yr) referred or transported directly to the Vancouver General Hospital and Royal Jubilee Hospital burn centres between Jan. 1, 2001, and Mar. 31, 2006. Prehospital and in-transit deaths and deaths in other facilities were identified using the provincial Coroner Service database. Place of injury was identified through data linkage with census records. We performed bivariate analysis for continuous and discrete variables. Relative risk (RR) of prehospital and in-hospital mortality and hospital stay by transport status were analyzed using a Poisson regression model. Results After controlling for patient and injury characteristics, indirect referral did not influence RR of in-facility death (RR 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54–3.22) or hospital stay (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.65–1.42). Rural populations experienced an increased risk of total mortality (RR 1.22, 95% CI 1.00–1.48). Conclusion Transfer status is not a significant indicator of RR of death or hospital stay among patients who received care at primary care facilities before transport to regional burn centres. However, significant differences in prehospital mortality show that improvements in rural mortality can still be made.

Bell, Nathaniel; Simons, Richard; Hameed, S. Morad; Schuurman, Nadine; Wheeler, Stephen

2012-01-01

240

The importance of pharmacokinetic consultation of cefepime treatment for Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia: a case report of severe thermal burn injury.  

PubMed

The patient is a 54-year-old man with severe thermal burn injury involving 45.5% of the total body-surface area, complicated with bacteremia caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa with a cefepime MIC of 8 µg/ml. The plasma concentrations of cefepime 1 g every 6 h measured by validated high performance liquid chromatography were 25.8 µg/ml at 1 h and 6.28 µg/ml at 5 h after infusion, and 3.9 µg/ml before the infusion, when creatinine clearance was increased to 136 ml/min by vigorous fluid replacement. The pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analyses in the one-compartment model with use of the Sawchuk-Zaske method revealed marked increase in the volume of distribution (28.9 l), total clearance (10.7 l/h), and shortening of plasma half- life (1.79 h) of cefepime, with time >MIC and 24-h area under the concentration-time-curve being 58% and 358, respectively. These pharmacokinetic parameters of cefepime quantified in the patient estimated a time >MIC of 87% if administered every 4 h. P. aeruginosa, however, was successfully eradicated without revision of the dosing regimen of cefepime. Decrease in creatinine clearance by correction of the fluid imbalance and wound closure by skin graft surgery likely contributed to the restoration of fluid shift, resulting in normal disposition of cefepime and favorable clinical outcome of the patient. PMID:20922450

Aoki, Yosuke; Urakami, Toshiharu; Magarifuchi, Hiroki; Nagasawa, Zenzo; Nagata, Masaki; Fukuoka, Mami

2010-10-05

241

Calibration and validation of the relative differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (RdNBR) to three measures of fire severity in the Sierra Nevada and Klamath Mountains, California, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multispectral satellite data have become a common tool used in the mapping of wildland fire effects. Fire severity, defined as the degree to which a site has been altered, is often the variable mapped. The Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) used in an absolute difference change detection protocol (dNBR), has become the remote sensing method of choice for US Federal land

Jay D. Miller; Eric E. Knapp; Carl H. Key; Carl N. Skinner; Clint J. Isbell; R. Max Creasy; Joseph W. Sherlock

2009-01-01

242

Factors affecting post-fire crown regeneration in cork oak ( Quercus suber L.) trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cork oak (Quercus suber) forests are acknowledged for their biodiversity and economic (mainly cork production) values. Wildfires are one of the main\\u000a threats contributing to cork oak decline in the Mediterranean Basin, and one major question that managers face after fire\\u000a in cork oak stands is whether the burned trees should be coppiced or not. This decision can be based

Filipe Xavier Catry; Francisco Moreira; Inês Duarte; Vanda Acácio

2009-01-01

243

Influence of patch size and shape on post-fire succession on the Yellowstone plateau  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1988 Yellowstone fires provided a unique opportunity to examine how the geometry of fire-created patches affects plant reestablishment. We initiated studies in 1990 in small (1 ha), moderated (74-200 ha), and large (480-3698 ha) crown-fire patches in each of 3 areas. Lodgepole pine forest is reestablishing in most burned areas, but seedling density varies by two orders of magnitude.

M. G. Turner; R. H. Gardner; W. W. Hargrove; W. H. Romme

1994-01-01

244

Field evidence for differences in post-fire aeolian transport related to vegetation type in semi-arid grasslands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disturbances such as wildfires, which cause a temporary reduction in vegetation cover, can greatly accelerate soil erosion by wind and promote dust emissions. Enhanced erosion leads to a reduction in soil fertility and the post-fire mobilisation of soil and associated emissions of dust represent a significant concern for ecosystem management and risk assessment. Here we investigate the temporal change of aeolian activity following a wildfire within both a managed grassland and an adjacent shrub encroached grassland at the Cimarron National Grassland, KS, USA. Our results indicate that, even though the grassland and shrub encroached grassland sites exhibit comparable aeolian activity soon after the fire, the duration of the post-disturbance period of aeolian activity (or "window of disturbance") is shorter in the case of grassland than in the case of shrub encroached grassland. The degree of post-fire aeolian transport and its attenuation with time is strongly affected by the antecedent vegetation type. These findings have implications for management of semi-arid grasslands under both changing vegetation types (shrub encroachment) and disturbance (fire) regimes.

Ravi, Sujith; Baddock, Matthew C.; Zobeck, Ted M.; Hartman, Joe

2012-12-01

245

Evaluation of post-fire strength of concrete flexural members reinforced with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Owing to their corrosion resistance and superior strength to weight ratio, there has been, over the past two decades, increased interest in the use of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) reinforcing bars in reinforced concrete structural members. The mechanical behavior of FRP reinforcement differs from that of steel reinforcement. For example, FRP reinforcement exhibit a linear stress-strain behavior until the bar ruptures and the strength, stiffness and bond properties of FRP reinforcement are affected more adversely by elevated temperatures. All structures are subject to the risk of damage by fire and fires continue to be a significant cause of damage to structures. Many structures do not collapse after being exposed to fire. The safety of the structure for any future use is dependent on the ability to accurately estimate the post-fire load capacity of the structure. Assuming that the changes, due to fire exposure, in the mechanical behavior of the GFRP reinforcing bar and concrete, and the bond between the reinforcing bar and the concrete are understood, an analytical procedure for estimating the post-fire strength of GFRP reinforced concrete flexural elements can be developed. This thesis investigates the changes in: a) tensile properties and bond of GFRP bars; and b) the flexural behavior of GFRP reinforced concrete beams flexural after being exposed to elevated temperatures up to 400°C and cooled to ambient temperature. To this end, twelve tensile tests, twelve pullout bond tests and ten four-point beam tests were performed. The data from the tests were used to formulate analytical procedures for evaluating the post-fire strength of GFRP reinforced concrete beams. The procedure produced conservative results when compared with the experimental data. In general, the residual tensile strength and modulus of elasticity of GFRP bars decrease as the exposure temperature increases. The loss in properties is however, smaller than that observed by other researchers when similar bars were tested while hot. The residual bond strength was also found to decrease with increase in exposure temperature. Residual bond mechanism and flexural behavior were found to be influenced, in complex ways, by the exposure to elevated temperatures. Additionally, an apparent "yielding plateau" and an apparent increase in bar ductility was observed in the post-heat behavior of some of the tensile specimens. This points to a potential for heat treatment of FRP bars to achieve higher ductility.

Ellis, Devon S.

246

Preliminary Estimation of the Prognostic Value of the Haemodynamic Results of Doppler Examination in Severely Burned Patients  

PubMed Central

Summary It is difficult to define all cardiac risk factors in the course of burn treatment. The adequate function of the circulatory system is the main factor in successful therapy. The aim of this study was to define, using a transoesophageal Doppler system, the cardiac circulatory risk factors of death in burn patients. One hundred and forty-seven burn patients were divided into two groups defined as survivors and non-survivors. In both groups the following haemodynamic parameters were analysed: 1. cardiac output; 2. stroke volume (SV); 3. heart rate (HR); 4. flow time (FT); 5. peak velocity; 6. average acceleration. The differential statistical significance was evidenced by analysis of SV, FT, and HR, using the ANOVA test. All the results showed that the best predictor factors for survival were SV and HR.

Bujok, G.

2006-01-01

247

Adaptation to boreal forest wildfire in herbs: Responses to post-fire environmental cues in two Pulsatilla species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although boreal forests are biomes which are characterized by periodical forest wildfires, very little is known about adaptations to fire in forest herbs. We investigated whether a putatively fire-dependent herbaceous species - Pulsatilla patens - demonstrated adaptive responses to environmental cues that reflect differences in pre-fire and post-fire environments (the presence of ericoid litter and charcoal, and light levels). For comparison, we included in the experiment a close congeneric species that is less bound to forest ecosystems ( Pulsatilla pratensis) and a morphologically similar mesic grassland species from the same family ( Ranunculus polyanthemos), as examples of species for which adaptations to fire should be of lower value, or of no value at all, respectively. The addition of ericoid litter to the soil generally enhanced plant growth, suggesting that its negative effect on plant germination and growth is not as widespread as previously thought. In both Pulsatilla species charcoal without forest litter retarded plant growth, but in combination with ericoid litter the negative effect disappeared or was even replaced by a slightly positive effect. Such an interactive effect was absent in the grassland species R. polyanthemos. The response of Pulsatilla species to different post-fire signals may be explained by adaptive down-regulation of growth after high-intensity fire - small plant size can be advantageous in sparse and well illuminated field-layer vegetation - and intense growth in the more competitive situation following weak fire. An additional experiment demonstrated that the effects of fire-related treatments were not mediated by differential AM infection.

Kalamees, Rein; Püssa, Kersti; Tamm, Sirli; Zobel, Kristjan

2012-01-01

248

Molecular pathology of brain edema after severe burns in forensic autopsy cases with special regard to the importance of reference gene selection.  

PubMed

Brain edema is believed to be linked to high mortality incidence after severe burns. The present study investigated the molecular pathology of brain damage and responses involving brain edema in forensic autopsy cases of fire fatality (n?=?55) compared with sudden cardiac death (n?=?11), mechanical asphyxia (n?=?13), and non-brain injury cases (n?=?22). Postmortem mRNA and immunohistochemical expressions of aquaporins (AQPs), claudin5 (CLDN5), and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were examined. Prolonged deaths due to severe burns showed an increase in brain water content, but relative mRNA quantification, using different normalization methods, showed inconsistent results: in prolonged deaths due to severe burns, higher expression levels were detected for all markers when three previously validated reference genes, PES1, POLR2A, and IPO8, were used for normalization, higher for AQP1 and MMP9 when GAPDH alone was used for normalization and higher for MMP9, but lower for MMP2 when B2M alone was used for normalization. Additionally, when B2M alone was used for normalization, higher expression of AQP4 was detected in acute fire deaths. Furthermore, the expression stability values of these five reference genes calculated by geNorm demonstrated that B2M was the least stable one, followed by GAPDH. In immunostaining, only AQP1 and MMP9 showed differences among the causes of death: they were evident in most prolonged deaths due to severe burns. These findings suggest that systematic analysis of gene expressions using real-time PCR might be a useful procedure in forensic death investigation, and validation of reference genes is crucial. PMID:23702882

Wang, Qi; Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi; Zhu, Bao-Li; Guan, Da-Wei; Maeda, Hitoshi

2013-05-24

249

Molecular composition and size distribution of sugars, sugar-alcohols and carboxylic acids in airborne particles during a severe urban haze event caused by wheat straw burning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular compositions and size distributions of water-soluble organic compounds (WSOC, i.e., sugars, sugar-alcohols and carboxylic acids) in particles from urban air of Nanjing, China during a severe haze event caused by field burning of wheat straw were characterized and compared with those in the summer and autumn non-haze periods. During the haze event levoglucosan (4030 ng m?3) was the most abundant compound

Gehui Wang; Chunlei Chen; Jianjun Li; Bianhong Zhou; Mingjie Xie; Shuyuan Hu; Kimitaka Kawamura; Yan Chen

2011-01-01

250

Leaf and Shoot Water Content and Leaf Dry Matter Content of Mediterranean Woody Species with Different Post-fire Regenerative Strategies  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Post-fire regeneration is a key process in Mediterranean shrubland dynamics, strongly determining the functional properties of the community. In this study, a test is carried out to deteremine whether there is co-variation between species regenerative types and functional attributes related to water use. Methods An analysis was made of the seasonal variations in leaf relative water content (RWC), leaf dry matter content (LDMC), leaf moisture (LM) and live fine fuel moisture (LFFM) in 30 woody species of a coastal shrubland, with different post-fire regenerative strategies (seeding, resprouting or both). Key Results RWC results suggest that the studied resprouters have more efficient mechanisms to reduce water losses and maintain water supply between seasons. In contrast, seeders are more drought tolerant. LDMC is higher in resprouters over the course of the year, suggesting a more efficient conservation of nutrients. The weight of the phylogenetic constraint to understand differences between regenerative strategies tends to be important for LDMC, while it is not the case for variables such as RWC. Conclusions Groups of species with different post-fire regenerative strategies (seeders and resprouters) have different functional traits related to water use. In addition to the role of phylogenetical constraints, these differences are also likely to be related to the respective life history characteristics. Therefore, the presence and abundance of species with different post-fire regenerative responses influence the functional properties of the communities.

Saura-Mas, S.; Lloret, F.

2007-01-01

251

Genetic diversity and genetic structure of adult and buried seed populations of Betula maximowicziana in mixed and post-fire stands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic diversity and genetic structure of plant populations are influenced by processes of regeneration. Assessing the genetic composition of populations regenerated by different modes is important for successful forest management and conservation. In this study, we compared the genetic diversity and genetic structure of six populations in mixed stands with those of four post-fire stands of the noble hardwood

Kentaro Uchiyama; Susumu Goto; Yoshiaki Tsuda; Yasuo Takahashi; Yuji Ide

2006-01-01

252

Post-fire recovery of acorn production by four oak species in southern ridge sandhill association in south-central Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined post-fire recovery of two components of acorn production (percentage of bearing ramets (stems) and number of acorns per bearing ramet) for four species of oaks in southern ridge sandhill vegetation in south-central peninsular Florida. Annual counts of acorns on two white oaks (Quercus chapmanii and Q. geminata) and two red oaks (Q. laevis and Q. myrtifolia) were conducted

Abrahamson Warren G. II; JAMES N. LAYNE

2002-01-01

253

Reduced predation risk for melanistic pygmy grasshoppers in post-fire environments.  

PubMed

The existence of melanistic (black) color forms in many species represents interesting model systems that have played important roles for our understanding of selective processes, evolution of adaptations, and the maintenance of variation. A recent study reported on rapid evolutionary shifts in frequencies of the melanistic forms in replicated populations of Tetrix subulata pygmy grasshoppers; the incidence of the melanistic form was higher in recently burned areas with backgrounds blackened by fire than in nonburned areas, and it declined over time in postfire environments. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the frequency shifts of the black color variant were driven, at least in part, by changes in the selective regime imposed by visual predators. To study detectability of the melanistic form, we presented human "predators" with images of black grasshoppers and samples of the natural habitat on computer screens. We demonstrate that the protective value of black coloration differs between burnt and nonburnt environments and gradually increases in habitats that have been more blackened by fire. These findings support the notion that a black color pattern provides improved protection from visually oriented predators against blackened backgrounds and implicate camouflage and predation as important drivers of fire melanism in pygmy grasshoppers. PMID:23139879

Karpestam, Einat; Merilaita, Sami; Forsman, Anders

2012-08-01

254

Reduced predation risk for melanistic pygmy grasshoppers in post-fire environments  

PubMed Central

The existence of melanistic (black) color forms in many species represents interesting model systems that have played important roles for our understanding of selective processes, evolution of adaptations, and the maintenance of variation. A recent study reported on rapid evolutionary shifts in frequencies of the melanistic forms in replicated populations of Tetrix subulata pygmy grasshoppers; the incidence of the melanistic form was higher in recently burned areas with backgrounds blackened by fire than in nonburned areas, and it declined over time in postfire environments. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the frequency shifts of the black color variant were driven, at least in part, by changes in the selective regime imposed by visual predators. To study detectability of the melanistic form, we presented human “predators” with images of black grasshoppers and samples of the natural habitat on computer screens. We demonstrate that the protective value of black coloration differs between burnt and nonburnt environments and gradually increases in habitats that have been more blackened by fire. These findings support the notion that a black color pattern provides improved protection from visually oriented predators against blackened backgrounds and implicate camouflage and predation as important drivers of fire melanism in pygmy grasshoppers.

Karpestam, Einat; Merilaita, Sami; Forsman, Anders

2012-01-01

255

Mapping burned area for fragmented landscape using satellite Aster data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Italy, after each fire season (generally summer season for the southern Mediterranean landscapes and winter/spring for the Northern alpine ecosystems) the up to date of burned area mapping is mandatory according to the current national legislation. The mapping of burned areas is generally performed by regional forestry service by using field GPS survey and/or helicopter in the case of large fire extension. The use of remote sensing technologies can be an effective support for mapping fire affected areas. Such areas are characterized by the removal of vegetation, deposits of charcoal and ash, and alteration of the vegetation structure, that can be detected by satellite remote sensed data. Due to the fact that in Italy the extension of fire is generally as small as 10 ha to 50 ha the use of high resolution data is mandatory. In order to set up a low cost technologies to be effectively applied in operational context, we assessed the capability of ASTER data for same test areas in the Basilicata Region. In this paper we present results we obtained from the use of several Vegetation indices based on ASTER VNIR. Among the spectral indices proposed for burnt area mapping we used and compare the Simple Vegetation Index, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, the Transformed Vegetation Index, and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI). The data processing was performed using both a single date and a multidate (pre and post fire) approach. Several test cases selected from the 2007 fire season were investigated. ASTER-based results were compared with field data provided by the Basilicata regional Forestry Service

Vita, A.; Lanorte, A.

2009-04-01

256

Bat Response to Differing Fire Severity in Mixed-Conifer Forest California, USA  

PubMed Central

Wildlife response to natural disturbances such as fire is of conservation concern to managers, policy makers, and scientists, yet information is scant beyond a few well-studied groups (e.g., birds, small mammals). We examined the effects of wildfire severity on bats, a taxon of high conservation concern, at both the stand (<1 ha) and landscape scale in response to the 2002 McNally fire in the Sierra Nevada region of California, USA. One year after fire, we conducted surveys of echolocation activity at 14 survey locations, stratified in riparian and upland habitat, in mixed-conifer forest habitats spanning three levels of burn severity: unburned, moderate, and high. Bat activity in burned areas was either equivalent or higher than in unburned stands for all six phonic groups measured, with four groups having significantly greater activity in at least one burn severity level. Evidence of differentiation between fire severities was observed with some Myotis species having higher levels of activity in stands of high-severity burn. Larger-bodied bats, typically adapted to more open habitat, showed no response to fire. We found differential use of riparian and upland habitats among the phonic groups, yet no interaction of habitat type by fire severity was found. Extent of high-severity fire damage in the landscape had no effect on activity of bats in unburned sites suggesting no landscape effect of fire on foraging site selection and emphasizing stand-scale conditions driving bat activity. Results from this fire in mixed-conifer forests of California suggest that bats are resilient to landscape-scale fire and that some species are preferentially selecting burned areas for foraging, perhaps facilitated by reduced clutter and increased post-fire availability of prey and roosts.

Heady, Paul A.; Hayes, John P.; Frick, Winifred F.

2013-01-01

257

Bat response to differing fire severity in mixed-conifer forest California, USA.  

PubMed

Wildlife response to natural disturbances such as fire is of conservation concern to managers, policy makers, and scientists, yet information is scant beyond a few well-studied groups (e.g., birds, small mammals). We examined the effects of wildfire severity on bats, a taxon of high conservation concern, at both the stand (<1 ha) and landscape scale in response to the 2002 McNally fire in the Sierra Nevada region of California, USA. One year after fire, we conducted surveys of echolocation activity at 14 survey locations, stratified in riparian and upland habitat, in mixed-conifer forest habitats spanning three levels of burn severity: unburned, moderate, and high. Bat activity in burned areas was either equivalent or higher than in unburned stands for all six phonic groups measured, with four groups having significantly greater activity in at least one burn severity level. Evidence of differentiation between fire severities was observed with some Myotis species having higher levels of activity in stands of high-severity burn. Larger-bodied bats, typically adapted to more open habitat, showed no response to fire. We found differential use of riparian and upland habitats among the phonic groups, yet no interaction of habitat type by fire severity was found. Extent of high-severity fire damage in the landscape had no effect on activity of bats in unburned sites suggesting no landscape effect of fire on foraging site selection and emphasizing stand-scale conditions driving bat activity. Results from this fire in mixed-conifer forests of California suggest that bats are resilient to landscape-scale fire and that some species are preferentially selecting burned areas for foraging, perhaps facilitated by reduced clutter and increased post-fire availability of prey and roosts. PMID:23483936

Buchalski, Michael R; Fontaine, Joseph B; Heady, Paul A; Hayes, John P; Frick, Winifred F

2013-03-06

258

Patch to landscape patterns in post fire recruitment of a serotinous conifer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Obligate seeding species are highly specialized to fire disturbance and many conifers such as cypress, which are adapted to high intensity stand-replacing fires, have canopy seed banks stored in serotinous cones. Resilience of these trees to fire disturbance is a function of disturbance frequency and one focus of this study was to determine the effect of patch age on postfire recruitment. A second focus was to determine the extent to which fire induced a landscape level change in the location of the forest boundary. Prior to a fire in 1994, a large Cupressus sargentii forest was a mosaic landscape of different aged patches of nearly pure cypress bordered by chaparral. Patches less than 60 years of age were relatively dense with roughly one tree every 1-2 m2 but older patches had thinned to one tree every 3-15 m2. Older trees had substantially greater canopy cone crops but the stand level seed bank size was not significantly correlated with stand age. Fire-dependent obligate seeding species are sensitive to fire return interval because of potential changes in the size of seed banks - facing both a potential 'immaturity risk' and a 'senescence risk'. At our site, C. sargentii regeneration was substantial in stands as young as 20 years, suggesting that fire return interval would need to be shorter than this to pose any significant risk. Reduced seedling recruitment in stands nearly 100 years of age may indicate risk from senescence is greater, however, even the lowest density seedling recruitment was many times greater than the density of mature forests - thus this cypress would appear to be resilient to a wide range of fire return intervals. Changes in landscape patterning of forest and chaparral are unlikely except after fire. Factors that inhibit tree establishment within the shrubland, as well as factors that affect shrub establishment within the forest border likely affect the 'permeability' of this ecotone. After the 1994 fire this boundary appeared to be stable in that cypress recruited best within the shadow of burned canopies and cypress were weak invaders of adjacent shrublands.

Ne'eman, G.; Fotheringham, C. J.; Keeley, J. E.

1999-01-01

259

Lessons learned from an emergency release of a post-fire debris-flow hazard assessment for the 2009 Station fire, San Gabriel Mountains, southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2009 Station fire burned through portions of the steep, rugged terrain of the San Gabriel Mountains in southern California with a known history of producing large magnitude debris flows following fires. In response to the emergency, the U.S. Geological Survey released an assessment of debris-flow hazards as maps showing estimates of the probability and volume of debris-flow production from 678 burned drainage basins, and the areas that may be inundated by debris flows. The assessment was based on statistical-empirical models developed from post-fire hydrologic-response monitoring data throughout southern California steeplands. The intent of the assessment was to provide state-of-the-art information about potential debris-flow impacts to the public, and quantitative data critical for mitigation, resource-deployment and evacuation decisions by land-management, city and county public-works and flood-control, and emergency-response agencies. Here, we describe a research scientist perspective of the hits and misses associated with the release of this information. Release of the assessment was accompanied by an extensive multi-agency public information campaign. Hazards information was provided to the media and presented at numerous well-attended public meetings organized by local politicians, homeowner and religious associations, city councils, and a multi-agency response team. Meetings targeted to specific ethnic and religious groups resulted in increased attendance by members of these groups. Even with the extensive information campaign, the public response to both mandatory and voluntary evacuation orders was low, and decreased with each sequential winter storm. Interviews with local residents indicated that the low compliance could be attributed to: 1) a lack of a personal understanding of just how dangerous and destructive debris flows can be, 2) inconsistent messaging from different agencies regarding potential magnitudes of a debris-flow response, 3) a poor understanding of the uncertainties inherent to both weather and debris-flow predictions, and 4) a desire to protect personal property. Communication on a one-to-one basis throughout the storm season was necessary to avoid this last, all-too-human tendency. These observations also indicate that effective evacuations in response to debris-flow hazards require an increased awareness of the potential magnitudes and impacts by all parties involved, and this awareness must be established well in advance of any emergency. Most public-response agencies were receptive and appreciative of the information provided, although some were not. The information included in the hazard assessment was used as intended by numerous agencies, and many requested the GIS shapefiles so they would have the capability to generate maps for specific areas of responsibility. However, not every agency had the flexibility to adopt new information during the crisis. A state of emergency is not a good time to advocate for acceptance of new approaches or techniques.

Cannon, S. H.; Perry, S. C.; Staley, D. M.

2010-12-01

260

Increased B-type natriuretic peptide and decreased proteinuria might reflect decreased capillary leakage and is associated with a better outcome in patients with severe burns  

PubMed Central

Introduction It is difficult to adjust fluid balance adequately in patients with severe burns due to various physical changes. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is emerging as a potential marker of hydration state. Proteinuria is used as a predictor of outcome in severe illness and might correlate to systemic capillary leakage. This study investigates whether combining BNP and proteinuria can be used as a guide for individualized resuscitation and as a predictor of outcome in patients with severe burns. Methods From 2006 to 2009, 38 consecutive patients (age 47 ± 15 years, 74% male) with severe burns were included and followed for 20 days. All had normal kidney function at admission. BNP and proteinuria were routinely measured. Ordered and actually administered fluid resuscitation volumes were recorded. The Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score was used as the measure of outcome. Results BNP increased during follow-up, reaching a plateau level at Day 3. Based on median BNP levels at Day 3, patients were divided into those with low BNP and those with high BNP levels. Both groups had comparable initial SOFA scores. Patients with high BNP received less fluid from Days 3 to 10. Furthermore, patients with a high BNP at Day 3 had less morbidity, reflected by lower SOFA scores on the following days. To minimize effects of biological variability, proteinuria on Days 1 and 2 was averaged. By dividing the patients based on median BNP at Day 3 and median proteinuria, patients with high BNP and low proteinuria had significantly lower SOFA scores during the entire follow-up period compared to those patients with low BNP and high proteinuria. Conclusions Patients with higher BNP levels received less fluid. This might be explained by a lower capillary leakage in these patients, resulting in more intravascular fluid and consequently an increase in BNP. In combination with low proteinuria, possibly reflecting minimal systemic capillary leakage, a high BNP level was associated with a better outcome. BNP and proteinuria have prognostic potential in severely burned patients and may be used to adjust individual resuscitation.

2011-01-01

261

Foraging-Habitat Selection of Black-backed Woodpeckers in Forest Burns of Southwestern Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined foraging-habitat selection of Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) in burned forests of southwestern Idaho during 2000 and 2002 (6 and 8 years following wildfire). This woodpecker responds positively to large-scale fire disturbances and may be at risk from logging and post-fire management. With 100 radio-locations of four adult males, we used resource-selection probability functions in logistic form in an

Jonathan G. Dudley; Victoria A. Saab; Jeffrey P. Hollenbeck

2012-01-01

262

[Burning mouth].  

PubMed

Various conditions of the oral mucosa can give rise to a burning sensation. Candidosis, geographic tongue (erythema migrans), mucocutaneous conditions and stomatitis can all cause mouth burns with visible changes to the oral mucosa. The so-called 'burning-mouth syndrome' (BMS) is a fairly rare but extremely unpleasant condition characterised by a bilateral burning sensation of the oral mucosa in the absence of clinically visible mucosal changes. Frequently-associated symptoms include dry mouth and loss or change of taste. The aetiology is unknown, even though most of the literature focuses on the role of a possible underlying psychogenic disorder. Several mucosal disorders can cause symptoms similar to BMS. Therefore, careful oral examination is required before establishing the diagnosis of BMS. Additional laboratory tests or a specialist examination rarely yield abnormal findings of relevance. Reassurance and understanding are important keywords in the management of patients suffering from BMS. Unless clearly indicated dental or medical treatment should be avoided, even if the patient insists on it, since such treatment is rarely effective. PMID:15932134

van der Waal, I

2005-05-14

263

Land use planning and wildfire risk mitigation: an analysis of wildfire-burned subdivisions using high-resolution remote sensing imagery and GIS data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates risk factors that influence the probability that a house will burn from wildfire. A logistic regression is used to analyse data processed from pre-fire and post-fire IKONOS images and other geo-referenced data. The dependent variable is the probability that a given house will burn. A total of 12 independent variables are evaluated: vegetation density; area of defensible

Uddhab Bhandary; Brian Muller

2009-01-01

264

Predicting and mitigating weed invasions to restore natural post-fire succession in Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six large wildfires have burned in Mesa Verde National Park during the last 15 years, and extensive portions of burns were invaded by non-native plant species. The most threatening weed species include Carduus nutans, Cirsium arvense, and Bromus tectorum, and if untreated, they persist at least 13 years. We investigated patterns of weed distribution to identify plant communities most vulnerable

M. Lisa FloydA; David HannaA; William H. RommeB; Timothy E. CrewsA

2006-01-01

265

Factors Affecting the Abundance of Leaf-Litter Arthropods in Unburned and Thrice-Burned Seasonally-Dry Amazonian Forests  

PubMed Central

Fire is frequently used as a land management tool for cattle ranching and annual crops in the Amazon. However, these maintenance fires often escape into surrounding forests, with potentially severe impacts for forest biodiversity. We examined the effect of experimental fires on leaf-litter arthropod abundance in a seasonally-dry forest in the Brazilian Amazon. The study plots (50 ha each) included a thrice-burned forest and an unburned control forest. Pitfall-trap samples were collected at 160 randomly selected points in both plots, with sampling stratified across four intra-annual replicates across the dry and wet seasons, corresponding to 6, 8, 10 and 12 months after the most recent fire. Arthropods were identified to the level of order (separating Formicidae). In order to better understand the processes that determine arthropod abundance in thrice-burned forests, we measured canopy openness, understory density and litter depth. All arthropod taxa were significantly affected by fire and season. In addition, the interactions between burn treatment and season were highly significant for all taxa but Isoptera. The burned plot was characterized by a more open canopy, lower understory density and shallower litter depth. Hierarchical partitioning revealed that canopy openness was the most important factor explaining arthropod order abundances in the thrice-burned plot, whereas all three environmental variables were significant in the unburned control plot. These results reveal the marked impact of recurrent wildfires and seasonality on litter arthropods in this transitional forest, and demonstrate the overwhelming importance of canopy-openness in driving post-fire arthropod abundance.

Silveira, Juliana M.; Barlow, Jos; Louzada, Julio; Moutinho, Paulo

2010-01-01

266

Feedbacks between climate, fire severity, and differential permafrost degradation in Alaskan black spruce forests - implications for carbon cycling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black spruce forests are the dominant forest cover type in the boreal region of Alaska and Canada In the northern portion of its range, permafrost is common to sites occupied by black spruce forest, which in turn, leads topromotes the accumulation of large reservoirs of organic carbon in mineral and organic soils. Another important trait of black spruce forests is the high occurrence of fire which is enhanced by the presence of flammable foliage, surface litter (duff), dead stems, aboreal lichens, and understory vegetation that is highly flammable during the dry conditions found during the summer fire season. In turn, fire plays an important role in carbon cycling in black spruce forests through direct burning of vegetation and organic soils, initiation of secondary succession, and alteration of the ambient environmental conditions, in particular, the permafrost and the soil thermal regimes, including permafrost stability. The spatial and temporal characteristics of permafrost (e.g. ice content and, seasonal deepening thawing of the active layer) not only control fire severity in terms of depth of burning of the active layer, but also the level of permafrost degradation that occurs in the post-fire environment. Fire severity, in combination with soil thermal properties (e.g. temperature, moisture, permafrost state), moisture and temperature conditions controlled by rates of permafrost warming and drying then controls the biological processes (plant succession and growth and heterotrophic respiration), thus regulating post-fire re-accumulation of carbon in biomass. In this paper, we will review research that investigates the interactions between fire and permafrost regimes that influence and how they influence carbon cycling in black spruce forests in interior Alaska.

Kasischke, E. S.; Kane, E. S.; O'Donnell, J. A.; Christensen, N. L.; Mitchell, S. R.; Turetsky, M. R.; Hayes, D. J.; Hoy, E.; Barrett, K. M.; McGuire, A. D.; Yuan, F.

2011-12-01

267

Low-power laser-based carbon monoxide sensor for fire and post-fire detection using a compact Herriott multipass cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the anticipated retirement of Space Shuttles in the next few years, the re-supplying of short-lifetime sensors on the International Space Station (ISS) will be logistically more difficult. Carbon Monoxide (CO) is a well-known combustion product and its absence in a fire and post-fire environment is a reliable indicator for mission specialists that the air quality is at a safe

David Thomazy; Stephen So; Anatoliy Kosterev; Rafal Lewicki; Lei Dong; Ardalan A. Sani; Frank K. Tittel

2010-01-01

268

The media glorifying burns: a hindrance to burn prevention.  

PubMed

The media have a profound influence on the actions of children and adults. Burns and burn prevention tend to be ignored or even mocked. The purpose of this presentation is to reveal the callousness of the media in its dealings with burns and burn prevention. Printed materials with a relationship to burns, risk of burning, or disrespect for the consequences of burns were collected. The materials were tabulated into four categories: comics, advertisements (ads), articles that made light of burns, and television shows that portrayed behavior that would risk burn injury. Most burn-related materials were found in comics or advertisements. Several comics made light of high-risk behavior with flames, scald injury, contact injury, or burns. In addition, several advertisements showed people on fire or actions that could easily lead to burns. Several articles and televisions shows portrayed high-risk behavior that, in some instances, led to copycat injuries. Flames are frequently used to sell items that target adolescent boys or young men. The high incidence injuries that frequent this population parallel the high-risk behaviors portrayed by the media. The media portrays flames and high-risk behavior for burn injury as being cool, funny, and without consequence. The use of flames on clothing and recreational equipment (skateboards, hot rods) particularly targets the high-risk adolescent male. The burn community should make the media aware of the harm it causes with its callous depiction and glorification of burns. PMID:12792237

Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

269

Burns in Nigeria: a Review  

PubMed Central

Summary Burn injuries continue to be a major source of mortality and morbidity in low- and middle-income countries of the world, of which Nigeria is a part. Overview data on burn care in Nigeria are sparse but the available literature on burns and burn care in Nigeria was retrieved through Internet-based search engines, collated, and reviewed. Peculiarities of epidemiology, types of burn, pattern of injuries, complications, and outcome of burn care were reviewed. There were no broad-based overview statistical data on burns in Nigeria in all the articles reviewed. There was no documentation on the regionalization of care and there were no national databases. All reports on epidemiology were hospital-based. Flame is emerging as the predominant cause of burns, and burn injury is occurring increasingly away from the domestic setting. The severity of the injuries is also increasing. Deliberate burn injury remains a practice and a wide range of complications occur as burns sequelae in Nigeria. Several challenges militate against optimal care for burn victims. Burn injuries continue to contribute significantly to the burden of disease in Nigeria. There is a need for broad-based data collection systems. Avoidable complications are common and mortality remains high. Pooling of resources by regionalization of care could increase focus on burn prevention and improve the care of burn victims. Nongovernmental and governmental support to reduce the burden of burns is advocated.

Oladele, A.O.; Olabanji, J.K.

2010-01-01

270

Common environmental factors explain both ectomycorrhizal species diversity and pine regeneration variability in a post-fire Mediterranean forest.  

PubMed

Natural seedling regeneration and establishment after stand replacing wildfires is influenced by a series of environmental and biological constraints. In this study, we characterized the diversity and structure of the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal community associated with post-fire naturally regenerated maritime pine saplings, and individuate the environmental factors responsible for fungal species distribution. We also identify the main environmental factors responsible for maritime pine regeneration variability and assessed the relation between saplings performance and ECM fungal diversity indices. Fungal species were identified by direct sequencing of internal transcribed spacer regions. Five years after the disturbance event, a total of 30 taxa colonized the pine saplings. The ECM fungal community was dominated by ruderal species of the genus Rhizopogon (present in almost half of the samples). Almost one third of the identified ECM fungal species belonged to the family Thelephoraceae. Typical k-selected species like Amanita pantherina, Boletus aestivalis, Lactarius chrysorrheus, and Russula densifolia were found on pine saplings collected in proximity of unburnt pine trees, in correspondence with low erosion extents. Pine regeneration varied throughout the study areas and was enhanced at higher elevations, in correspondence with moderate slopes, shallower soils, and a reduced cover of ericaceous shrubs and bare ground. These conditions were found in close proximity to patches of pine trees that survived the disturbance event and were previously characterized by a higher pre-fire pine biomass. Even though no correlations were found between saplings performance and ECM fungal diversity indices, common environmental factors (i.e., ericaceous shrub cover, extent of erosion, slope, and soil depth) were responsible for shaping the ECM fungal distribution and for describing most of the explained regeneration variability. PMID:21301892

Buscardo, Erika; Freitas, Helena; Pereira, João Santos; De Angelis, Paolo

2011-02-08

271

Post-fire soil erosion on vineyards and canary pine-stands on the subtropical island of La Palma: scope of application of TLS?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land use is considered as a main factor regarding post-fire soil erosion. Especially in the subtropical climate with extreme rainfall events in winter and drought periods during summer times, soil erosion can clearly exceed the soil reproduction rate. On the Canary Island of La Palma frequent wildfires and steep slopes contribute to a high likelihood of post-fire soil erosion. For a quantitative measurement of the erosion rate a terrestrial Laser Scanner with high resolution in combination with a dGPS is used. The main target of this study is to quantify the post-fire soil erosion rates on study sites with a different land use on the island of La Palma (Canary Islands). The investigation focuses on two land use forms; both are very common and widespread on the island: canary pine stands and vineyard areas. The study sites are characterized by a varying steepness, a different fire history (wildfires in 2000, 2009 and 2012) and different stages of soil development. Both denudation and gully erosion processes are spread over the sites. Intense precipitation events can trigger debris flows and extensive soil erosion on post-fire sites, like in the year 2009 in the south or in 2012 on the west and east side of La Palma. Regarding that, erosion is not just a problem for agriculture, but for the infrastructure. For our project we assume, that different topography, different land use and different forest fire history can result in a different soil erosion rate and type (gully incision, denudation processes). To calculate the post-fire erosion rates of the two land use forms, 24 study sites - 10 sites in vineyard areas, 14 in canary pines stands - were selected. By means of a 3D terrestrial Laser Scanner (Riegl LMS Z420i), high resolution digital terrain models of the study sites were compiled. The data acquisition was carried out in October 2011, May 2012 and December 2012 and subsequently the terrain models were compared. With this method not only erosion rates can be detected, but areas with erosion and areas with accumulation can be identified. As additional information precipitation data of the measured time periods were acquired. For a better differentiation of the soil properties, soil profiles and soil samples of each study site were analyzed. Supplementary the occurrence of considerable erosion forms shall be detected by the comparison of aerial images of former years and analyzed in consideration of possible fire events. One target of our investigation shall be the answer of the question if the chosen methods can model the erosion rate and the distribution of erosion and accumulation in a satisfactory manner.

Umstaedter, Kathrin; Haas, Florian; Becht, Michael

2013-04-01

272

By Air and Land: Estimating Post-Fire Debris-Flow Susceptibility through High-Resolution Radar Reflectivity and Tipping-Bucket Gage Rainfall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires often increase the occurrence of post-fire hazardous flash floods and debris flows from steeplands during intense rainfall. Rainfall intensity-duration thresholds have been used to forecast when this hazard increases rapidly; one threshold for Southern California is 15 mm/hr. However, such thresholds are usually developed with point measurements that only capture a small portion of the landscape. In an attempt to limit potential loss of life, the USGS is collaborating with NOAA on a demonstration early-warning system. To address the lack of spatial rainfall coverage, NOAA deployed a small mobile radar truck (SMART-R) to the Day fire in the western Transverse Range during the 2006-07 winter, and to the Canyon and Corral fires in the Santa Monica Mountains near Malibu during the 2007-08 winter. The SMART-R's C-band Doppler radar can be used to estimate rainfall rates over entire burned areas. On topography susceptible to debris flows within these 3 fires, the USGS installed a dense array of ground-based instruments, including 8 tipping- bucket rain gages in the Day fire, and 3 each in the Canyon and Corral fires. After converting hourly time- step grids of SMART-R reflectivity (150 m node spacing) into precipitation estimates, we compared the gage data to its spatially coincident SMART-R cell.Results from the Day fire indicate that SMART-R derived seasonal and event-based rainfall totals were typically greater than gage totals during the 2006-07 winter of record-low rainfall. Both data sets, however, reflected similar spatial patterns of rainfall intensity. In contrast, for the Malibu fires there is no systematic agreement in spatial pattern or rainfall mismatch; the difference between the two data sets. Of the 9 storms recorded during this 2007-08 winter, SMART-R estimates of rainfall totals exceeded the gage totals for only 3, underestimating totals for the remaining 6. The mismatch magnitudes also exceed that of the previous winter recorded at the Day fire, and, for the largest storm of the season, was 129 mm less than a rain gage total.These discrepancies reduce the reliability of a potential SMART-R-advised warning system, assuming truth from ground-based gages. During the 2007-08 winter near Malibu the rain gages recorded that the 15 mm/hr warning threshold was exceeded during only one storm, and only at one gage in the Corral fire. This event transported large amounts of sediment that resulted in road closures, and it produced at least one "firehose" debris flow generated by runoff from steep, exposed bedrock. In contrast, SMART-R derived rainfall intensities exceeded this threshold at all gage locations for 2 of the 3 storms with overestimated rainfall intensities. It underestimated rainfall intensities for the 6 remaining storms; such underestimates could have led to potential false negatives, which are of concern for preserving human life.It is not yet clear which storms are amenable to the use of SMART-R technology for capturing spatial estimates of rainfall intensity, but results from the Day fire showing topographically forced rainfall patterns support validity of the system. Future work needs to address discrepancies arising from comparing spatially continuous atmospheric radar measurements with terrestrial point measurements. One effort to mitigate some interpretation complexities could include the installation of a disdrometer along with the rain gages, to measure rain drop-size distributions to calibrate in near real-time the relation between measured reflectivity and inferred rainfall.

Hanshaw, M. N.; Schmidt, K. M.; Jorgensen, D. P.; Stock, J. D.

2008-12-01

273

Pediatric cutaneous bleach burns.  

PubMed

Bleach is a common household product which can cause caustic injuries. Its effects on mucosal tissues and the eye have been well-described in the literature. However, there is little information published regarding the appearance and effect of bleach on a child's skin. We report three children who sustained chemical burns after contact with bleach. All three children sustained accidental bleach burns while at home, and each child had a distinct brown discoloration to the skin from the injury. All three children had treatment and follow-up for their burns. Two of the children sustained more severe burns, which were extensive and required more time to heal. There was also long-term scarring associated with the severe burns. Like most burns, pain control is required until the injury heals. PMID:23545350

Lang, Cathleen; Cox, Matthew

2013-03-29

274

Post-fire Changes in Air Permeability and Hydraulic Conductivity of Soils Following 2003 Aspen Fire in Sabino Canyon, AZ  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a project to study the hydrologic effects of fire on the Sabino Canyon Watershed, the Soil Corer Air Permeameter (SCAP) was developed to rapidly measure in-situ air permeability (k_a) of unburned and burned desert soils while providing a standard soil sample for additional laboratory analysis. Twenty-two unburned and burned plots were selected in woodland-chaparral and coniferous zones

K. Chief; T. P. Ferre; B. Nijssen

2006-01-01

275

Post-Fire Rehabilitation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Colorado State Forest Service (CSFS) web page provides a collection of fact sheets to assist landowners in rehabilitating their property after wildfire. These include information on vegetative recovery, and soil erosion prevention strategies.

276

Empirical models to predict the volumes of debris flows generated by recently burned basins in the western U.S.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently burned basins frequently produce debris flows in response to moderate-to-severe rainfall. Post-fire hazard assessments of debris flows are most useful when they predict the volume of material that may flow out of a burned basin. This study develops a set of empirically-based models that predict potential volumes of wildfire-related debris flows in different regions and geologic settings. The models were developed using data from 53 recently burned basins in Colorado, Utah and California. The volumes of debris flows in these basins were determined by either measuring the volume of material eroded from the channels, or by estimating the amount of material removed from debris retention basins. For each basin, independent variables thought to affect the volume of the debris flow were determined. These variables include measures of basin morphology, basin areas burned at different severities, soil material properties, rock type, and rainfall amounts and intensities for storms triggering debris flows. Using these data, multiple regression analyses were used to create separate predictive models for volumes of debris flows generated by burned basins in six separate regions or settings, including the western U.S., southern California, the Rocky Mountain region, and basins underlain by sedimentary, metamorphic and granitic rocks. An evaluation of these models indicated that the best model (the Western U.S. model) explains 83% of the variability in the volumes of the debris flows, and includes variables that describe the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30%, the basin area burned at moderate and high severity, and total storm rainfall. This model was independently validated by comparing volumes of debris flows reported in the literature, to volumes estimated using the model. Eighty-seven percent of the reported volumes were within two residual standard errors of the volumes predicted using the model. This model is an improvement over previous models in that it includes a measure of burn severity and an estimate of modeling errors. The application of this model, in conjunction with models for the probability of debris flows, will enable more complete and rapid assessments of debris flow hazards following wildfire.

Gartner, Joseph E.; Cannon, Susan H.; Santi, Paul M.; Dewolfe, Victor G.

2008-04-01

277

A Standard Animal Burn.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U. S. Army Surgical Research Unit uses a standard scald burn of rats for several kinds of studies. This injury is inflicted in anesthetized rats by immersion of the area to be burned in boiling water while the animal is held in a protective template w...

L. Harrel M. S. Walker A. D. Mason

1968-01-01

278

[Fire severity of burnt area in Huzhong forest region of Great Xing' an Mountains, Northeast China based on normalized burn ratio analysis].  

PubMed

Based on the TM images and 3S technology, and by using normalized burn ratio (NBR) , this paper quantitatively evaluated the fire severity of burnt area in Huzhong forest region of the Great Xing' an Mountains from 1986 to 2010, and analyzed the relationships of the fire severity with environmental factors such as vegetation type, elevation, slope, and aspect. In Huzhong forest region, the fire occurrence frequency and total burnt area had an obvious inter-annual change. High incidence of forest fire was from June to August, and heavily burnt area occupied 84. 2% of the total burnt area. In the burnt area, larch forest accounted for 89. 9%. 68. 8% of burnt area located at the elevations from 1000 m to 1500 m, and 62. 5% located in eastern, southern, western, and northern slopes. There was no obvious difference in the burnt area between sunny and shady slopes. The burnt area at the slope degrees 15 degree-25 degrees occupied 38.4% of the total. High severity burnt area was the largest (70% of the total), followed by moderate severity burnt area (about 10%), and low severity burnt area and un-burnt area (<5% ). The majority of the forest fires in Huzhong forest region were of high severity fire, which caused great damages to the forest resources. It was suggested that in the forest fire management in Great Xing' an Mountains forest region, it would be urgent to implement forest fuel treatments to reduce fire severity to guarantee the forest ecosystem security. PMID:23898653

Wang, Xiao-li; Wang, Wen-juan; Chang, Yu; Feng, Yu-ting; Chen, Hong-wei; Hu, Yuan-man; Chi, Jian-guo

2013-04-01

279

Burning mouth syndrome and secondary oral burning.  

PubMed

Burning mouth syndrome is a complex disorder of unclear etiology that is most prevalent in perimenopausal women. It is often accompanied by dysguesia and subjective xerostomia. Recent evidence implicates both central and peripheral neuropathies, possibly representing a phantom pain syndrome in some patients. Ensuring that the patient's oral burning is not secondary to some other local or systemic factor is central to appropriate management. Current standard therapies include clonazepam, paroxetine, and cognitive behavioral therapy, and several promising new alternatives are described. PMID:21093630

Minor, Jacob S; Epstein, Joel B

2011-02-01

280

Curbing Inflammation in Burn Patients  

PubMed Central

Patients who suffer from severe burns develop metabolic imbalances and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) which can result in multiple organ failure and death. Research aimed at reducing the inflammatory process has yielded new insight into burn injury therapies. In this review, we discuss strategies used to curb inflammation in burn injuries and note that further studies with high quality evidence are necessary.

Farina, Jayme A.; Rosique, Marina Junqueira; Rosique, Rodrigo G.

2013-01-01

281

Burn Safety Knowledge in Adult Nigerians  

PubMed Central

Summary Burn injuries remain a global problem even though they are largely preventable. Adequate knowledge is essential to good burn safety practices. This aids prevention and minimizes severity when burn injuries occur. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of burn safety knowledge among literate adult Nigerians in Ile-Ife and Ilesa, South-western Nigeria. We elicited a paucity of burn safety knowledge in the population studied, but a high level of formal education corresponded to a higher degree of burn safety knowledge. There is a need to introduce burn safety education into the school curriculum at all levels of education in order to increase burn safety awareness.

Olabanji, J.K.; Oladele, A.O.; Oginni, F.O.; Oseni, O.G.

2007-01-01

282

Effects of Post-fire Succession and Edaphic Conditions on Tree Transpiration in a Boreal Black Spruce Forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boreal forest ecosystems play an integral role in global climate change because of their large land area and ability to store large quantities of carbon. Quantifying and explaining tree water use in both well- and poorly- drained soils and across successional development is critical in understanding the influence of physiological processes on carbon, water, and energy cycling. Four black spruce stands burned in 1850, 1930, 1964, and 1989 were chosen for this research because they had been shown in previous studies to represent critical stages of forest development that capture the successional impacts of both leaf area and species composition change. We hypothesized that tree transpiration will differ between well- and poorly-drained areas and with age due to 1) tree size and age and edaphic-related hydraulic adjustments and 2) tree size will be explained by species specific growth differences from edaphic conditions. Sap flux, leaf water potential (\\PsiL), site specific allometric relationships between sapwood area and leaf area and soil properties such as texture and organic matter depth in each of the four burn ages were utilized to test these hypotheses. Results show that sap flux for Picea mariana at the 1964 burn age differed between well- and poorly-drained soils when scaled per unit xylem area with trees located on poorly-drained soils experiencing higher sap flux rates than trees in well- drained areas (101.79 & 83.02 g cm-2 day-1 respectively). However, when scaled to transpiration on a per tree basis, taking tree size into account, trees on well-drained soils had higher rates than those in poorly- drained locations (366.96 & 216.82 g tree-1 day-1 respectively). The presence of Pinus banksiana and Populus tremuloides in the well-drained areas increased stand transpiration rates for these areas considerably as compared to the poorly-drained areas. Midday \\PsiL for all four burns show no significant difference between well- and poorly-drained (average midday \\PsiL = -1.23 & -1.29 MPa respectively) sites for Picea mariana (t-value = -0.591, df = 6, p-value = 0.576). This indicates that tree size, which is constrained by growth and anaerobic conditions, drives differences in tree transpiration for well- and poorly-drained soils.

Angstmann, J. L.; Ewers, B. E.; Kwon, H.; Bond-Lamberty, B.; Amiro, B.; Gower, S. T.

2007-12-01

283

Light and nitrate effects on seed germination of Mediterranean plant species of several functional groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-fire conditions are characterized by enhanced light and the availability of nitrogenous compounds in the soil. It is\\u000a not known, however, to what extent light or nitrogenous compounds control the germination response of species growing in burned\\u000a areas and, in particular, whether functional groups of plants differ in their response. The germination response to light\\u000a and nitrate was tested for

B. Luna; J. M. Moreno

2009-01-01

284

Burns Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provide by Burns Country, this full-text, online version of "the definitive Robert Burns reference volume" serves as a useful handbook to Scotland's most famous poet and the intellectual circles in which he turned. The encyclopedia, which is in HTML format, is organized alphabetically. Burns Country offers a number of other related resources, chief among them a songs and poems archive containing 100 of the poet's works. Other features at the site include a discussion area, Burns and Scottish association links, and some commercial content.

Lindsay, Maurice.

285

Soil Erosion in a Burned Mountainous Watershed, Kootenay National Park, British Columbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In late July 2003, lightning ignited wildfires in Kootenay National Park, southeastern British Columbia. Following the wildfires, a study was initiated to investigate post-fire soil erosion in Hawk Creek watershed, located with the National Park. Hillslope gradients are moderate (generally less than 30 degrees) in the lower third of the basin and become steeper with increasing elevation. Summer rainfall is delivered by convectional thunderstorms, and average annual rainfall is about 340 mm. The mean fire return interval in this region is about 165 years and fire frequency has changed over time in response to climate. Silt fences were installed to measure soil erosion in the summers of 2004 and 2005. Results indicate a threshold rainfall intensity of 1.6 mm in 15 minutes is required to mobilize sediment and based on this value, a rain day herein refers to days when the maximum 15-minute rainfall intensity exceeds 1.5 mm. Sediment transport data show many rain days producing no sediment, while relatively small amounts of soil erosion occurred during several rain events in 2004 and 2005. An important finding is that post-fire soil erosion rates are very small, and considerably lower than many other results reported in the literature. The sandy soils exhibited no signs of soil hydrophobicity, but rather displayed high infiltration capacities that precluded the development of overland flow. No evidence of hydrophobic soils or rilling was evident in the hillslope plots during sediment collection after the rain events and it is probable that the majority of soil erosion occurred by rainsplash. The increased soil erosion measured on steeper plots would be in accordance with the increased rates in downslope rainsplash erosion expected on higher gradient slopes. Grain sizes trapped by the silt fence relative to the soil profile are based on soil samples collected from silt fences and nearby hillslopes. Most of the sediment collected in the silt fence traps fell in the size range less than 2 mm, indicating stresses associated with rainsplash were generally not sufficient to entrain larger particles.The less than 2 mm fractions for silt fence and hillslope samples were extracted for comparison, with the hillslope samples containing 45-58 percent of particles less than 354 microns, and silt fence percentages ranging from 72-90 percent. The higher percentage of fines in the silt fence samples suggests that fines less than 354 microns are being selectively entrained, transported and deposited in the silt fence. Selective transport of particles less than 0.5 mm occurred, with minimal mobilization of coarse sand. Soil erosion data collected herein provides the necessary data to derive gradient-driven transport equations, which can be combined with a stochastic algorithm for wildfire return interval and precipitation events (such as storm duration, interstorm duration, and average storm rainfall intensity) to explore implications of rainsplash erosion on burned hillslopes in this region over longer time scales. A brief window of opportunity exists after a fire for effective rainsplash or overland flow transport, and high energy storms are required in these same post-fire years to enable such an occurrence.

Martin, Y. E.; Gallaway, J. M.; Johnson, E. A.

2007-12-01

286

Management of burn wounds.  

PubMed

Small and moderate scalds in toddlers are still the most frequent thermal injuries the pediatric surgeons have to face today. Over the last years, surgical treatment of these patients has changed in many aspects. Due to new dressing materials and new surgical treatment strategies that are particularly suitable for children, today, far better functional and aesthetic long-term results are possible. While small and moderate thermal injuries can be treated in most European pediatric surgical departments, the severely burned child must be transferred to a specialized, ideally pediatric, burn center, where a well-trained multidisciplinary team under the leadership of a (ideally pediatric) burn surgeon cares for these highly demanding patients. In future, tissue engineered full thickness skin analogues will most likely play an important role, in pediatric burn as well as postburn reconstructive surgery. PMID:24026780

Schiestl, Clemens; Meuli, Martin; Trop, Marija; Neuhaus, Kathrin

2013-09-11

287

Use of previously burned skin as random cutaneous local flaps in pediatric burn reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reconstruction after post-burn scarring remains a challenge. It is especially true in the severely burned patient, who normally presents with a paucity of donor sites. Healed skin from areas that had been burned and skin from grafted areas (termed as previously burned skin) have been occasionally used as flaps, but their safety is still in debate. We studied all patients

J. P Barret; D. N Herndon; R. L McCauley

2002-01-01

288

First Aid: Burns  

MedlinePLUS

... Return to Web version First Aid: Burns First Aid: Burns What causes burns? You can get burned by heat, fire, radiation, sunlight, electricity, chemicals or hot or boiling water. There are 3 degrees of burns: First-degree ...

289

Estimating concentrated flow erodibility parameters from pre- and post-fire rangeland field data for physically-based erosion modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In physically based soil erosion models a concentrated flow erodibility parameter is necessary to run the model. This parameter is usually set to a relatively insignificant value when applying models on rangeland ecosystems as soil erosion induced by concentrated flow on these ecosystems tends to be low compared with those on cropland. However, after a fire, concentrated flow is often the dominant source of water erosion especially on steep slopes. Hence, the erodibility parameter becomes a very important factor in estimating the erosion rate after such disturbance. In this study, we estimated the concentrated flow erodibility using field experimental data over diverse rangeland landscapes within the Great Basin Region, United States. The vegetation community ranges from sagebrush steppe to pinyon-juniper woodland. Many of the sites exhibit some degree of wildfire or prescribed fire. The erodibility parameters were measured before and after fire. In some sites erodibility was also measured one, two, and three years after fire. The results showed that in general concentrated flow erodibility increased significantly after fire. In some sites, erodibility continued to increase until the second year after fire where erodibility starts to decline. The results also show that concentrated flow erodibility was not constant within each experimental run where in most cases erodibility has a high value at the beginning and then starts to decline due to reduction of sediment availability. Using the data in this study we developed an empirical equation to predict the change of erodibility as a function of cumulative unit discharge. The empirical function can be used for parameterizing the concentrated flow erosion component of physically based models on burned rangeland.

Al-Hamdan, O. Z.; Pierson, F. B.; Williams, C. J.; Nearing, M.; Stone, J.; Kormos, P. R.; Boll, J.; Weltz, M. A.

2011-12-01

290

Acute Dorsal Hand Burns in Children  

PubMed Central

Summary Hand burns in children, whether isolated or part of massive burns, require special attention. A crucial element in this respect is the preservation and full restoration of hand function. Most cases of severe sequelae after burns are associated with hand burns. From January 2002 to November 2004, 125 children with hand burns and other body burns were treated at the Centre of Burns and Plastic Surgery in Sofia, Bulgaria. This review presents our experience with 71 children with 89 burned hands in the region of the dorsal surface of the hand. Forty-nine hands had isolated dorsal surface burns, and 40 had combined burns, i.e. both dorsal and volar. Of all the hands treated, 69 had superficial burns, which epithelialized spontaneously. Twenty hands with deep dermal and full-thickness burns were subjected to sheet autografting. The review includes many details of the systematic approach to this type of burns. Optimal recovery of hand function can be achieved by accurate planning of treatment. Tracking of long-term results is also included in the general plan of behaviour in this type of burn. Our approach is conservative for superficial burns and active - with early excision and prompt closure with sheet autograft or, in extensive burns, allografting followed by covering with an autograft.

Argirova, M.; Hadzhiyski, O.

2006-01-01

291

Burning issues  

SciTech Connect

The idea of burning oil slicks at sea has intrigued oil-cleanup managers for more than a decade, but it wasn't until the advent of fireproof booms in the mid-1980's and a major spill opportunity (the March 1989 Exxon Valdez) that in-situ burning got a real sea trial. The results of this and other burning experiments indicate that, when conditions allow it, nothing can compete with fire's ability to remove oil from water. Burns have the potential to remove as much oil in one day as mechanical devices can in one month, along with minimal equipment, labor and cost. Reluctance to burn in appropriate situations comes primarily from the formation of oily, black smoke. Analysis of the potentially toxic gases have been done, indicating that burning will not increase the levels of polluting aldehydes, ketones, dioxins, furans, and PAHs above those that normally evaporate from spilled oil. This article contains descriptions of planned oil fires and the discussion on the advantages and concerns of such a policy.

Raloff, J.

1993-10-02

292

Ball lightning burn.  

PubMed

Ball lightning is a rare physical phenomenon, which is not yet completely explained. It is similar to lightning but with different, peculiar characteristics. It can be considered a mix of fire and electricity, concentrated in a fireball with a diameter of 20-cm that most commonly appears suddenly, even in indoor conditions, during a thunderstorm. It moves quickly for several meters, can change direction, and ultimately disappears. During a great storm, a 28-year-old man and his 5-year-old daughter sustained burn wounds after ball lightning came from the outdoors through a chimney. These two patients demonstrated signs of fire and electrical injuries. The father, who lost consciousness, sustained superficial second-degree burn wounds bilaterally on the zygomatic area and deep second-degree burn wounds on his right hand (total body surface area, 4%). His daughter demonstrated superficial second-degree burn wounds on the left part of the face and deep second-degree and third-degree burn wounds (total body surface area, 30%) on the left neck, both upper arms, and the back. In this article, the authors report the first two cases of burn injuries resulting from ball lightning contact indoors. The literature on this rare phenomenon is reviewed to elucidate the nature of ball lightning. Emphasis is placed on the nature of injuries after ball lightning contact, the therapy used, and the long-term complications. PMID:12792547

Selvaggi, Gennaro; Monstrey, Stan; von Heimburg, Dennis; Hamdi, Mustapha; Van Landuyt, Koen; Blondeel, Phillip

2003-05-01

293

A one year post-fire biogeochemical cycling record of a sandstone mountain fynbos ecosystem, South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cape Floristic Region (CFR) in southwestern South Africa is a Mediterranean-type ecosystem dominated by highly diverse and endemic fynbos vegetation. In this study, the chemistry of rainwater (total wet and dry deposition), stream water and soil saturated paste extracts of the sandstone fynbos biome of the Kogelberg Biosphere Reserve reveals how the cycling of Cl, Na, SO4,Mg, Ca and K varied over a one year period following a major fire event. Fire is a critical component of fynbos ecology, but the fynbos ecosystem is under threat as the fire return frequency increases as a result of human activities. The underlying bedrock geology of the sandstone fynbos biome is dominated by quartz-rich (>97 wt% SiO2) sandstone providing few nutrients to the overlying thin (2 to 20 cm), acidic soils. Additional sources of nutrients to the ecosystem are derived from windblown marine and dust (consisting of minerals, organic matter and fire ash) aerosols. Rainout of marine aerosols decreases away from the coast. The delivery of marine aerosols (Cl, Na, SO4and Mg) corresponds with summer southerly winds from the ocean and windblown dust (SO4,Mg, Ca and K) is delivered through winter northerly winds from the continental interior. Remineralization of organic matter, dissolution of fire ash and chemical weathering of clay minerals derived from the bedrock and from windblown minerals provide additional sources of nutrients to the vegetation. Salts accumulated within and on top of soil surfaces during the dry summer period are washed into streams during the wet winter months. Afromontane forests occur within deep rocky ravines cut by mountain streams and are protected from fire. The afromontane vegetation did not burn during the fire and benefited from the release of nutrients but regrowth of fynbos on open burnt slopes was slow and most of the released nutrients were lost via streams. Fynbos regrowth largely reflected the hydrology of the study area and corresponded to the pre-fire distribution of biomass with relatively low biomass on mountain ridges and slopes in comparison to lower slopes and valley floors, particularly along stream banks. The removal of above ground plant biomass increased streamflow from the reduction in transpiration and rainfall interception by plants. Hydrophobicity in soils increased following the fire leading to partially burnt organic plant debris being washed down slope to accumulate on the lower slopes and stream valley floors. The geochemical results of this study provide insights on the climate-hydrology-soil interactions of the fynbos ecosystem and its unusually rich biodiversity. The resetting of the ecosystem every 20 to 40 years by fire and the interaction between atmospheric processes and hydrology likely enhances its long term survival.

Bergh, E.; Compton, J. S.

2012-04-01

294

Impact of Burn Size and Initial Serum Albumin Level on Acute Renal Failure Occurring in Major Burn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Acute renal failure (ARF) is not a rare occurrence in severe burns and is an important complication leading to an increase in mortality. The severity of the burn is largely determined by the burn size, and severe burns are likely to cause enough loss of extracellular fluid and albumin from plasma volume to produce shock and hypoalbuminemia. Hypothesis: We

Gheun-Ho Kim; Kook Hwan Oh; Jong Woo Yoon; Ja-Ryong Koo; Hyung Jik Kim; Dong-Wan Chae; Jung Woo Noh; Jong Hyun Kim; Yoon Kyu Park

2003-01-01

295

Examining national burn care policies--is the Israeli burn care alignment based on national data?  

PubMed

The treatment of burn victims constitutes a considerable challenge both to the clinician in regard to mundane treatment and to health systems in regard to structural organization. The state of Israel is in dire need of competent burn care capabilities for political, geographical, and demographic reasons. Israel currently has five designated burn units but no burn center. A review of the recent literature suggests that larger burn centers can convey lower mortality rates and better functional outcomes for severe burn patients in comparison to smaller burn units. The objective of this study is to assess Israel's burn care alignment needs and capabilities based on Israel's burn patient and burn unit data. In addition, the authors aim to compare the burn care alignment capabilities with those of the country's European and American counterparts. Data of all the burn patients hospitalized in Israel's level 1 trauma centers' burn units between the years 1998 and 2005 according to the Israeli Trauma Registry were analyzed. Simultaneously, data regarding the setup and arrangement of each burn unit were obtained from each burn unit director via phone. Between the years 1998 and 2005, 974 adult patients with burns of the second degree or higher spanning 20% TBSA and more were hospitalized in the five hospitals that operate a functional specialized burn unit. The average hospitalization period was 32.4 days while the mortality rate was 21.1%. Currently, Israel's five burn units report possessing 27 burn beds and 14 burn intensive care unit beds. Due to the continuous risk for terror attacks and military campaigns and due to Israel's inability to refer excess burn patients to neighboring countries, Israel desperately needs efficient burn care capabilities. Israel currently trails both the United States and Europe in regard to burn beds and burn centers per population. The annual quantity and severity of burn patients in Israel largely exceeds the amount needed to justify an establishment of a burn center by the current American Burn Association guidelines, while the literature provides vast amount of evidence proving burn centers' efficacy in improving outcome, shortening hospitalization periods, and reducing costs. Taking all these elements into consideration, it might be prudent to establish a national burn center in Israel to promote burn care standards and disaster planning up to international standards. PMID:22337322

Haik, Josef; Weissman, Oren; Givon, Adi; Liran, Alon; Tessone, Ariel; Stavrou, Demetris; Orenstein, Arie; Peleg, Kobi

296

Snag and woody debris dynamics following severe wildfires in northern Arizona ponderosa pine forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following severe wildfires in southwestern ponderosa pine forests, dead trees remain on the landscape and eventually fall, but relatively little is known about the quantity and quality of post-wildfire coarse woody debris (CWD). To describe post-fire conditions, we measured snags, CWD, and fine woody debris and forest floor depth on seven fires in a chronosequence from 3 to 27 years

M. David Passovoy; Peter Z. Fule ´

2006-01-01

297

Mulching effects on vegetation recovery following high severity wildfire in north-central Washington State, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Straw mulch application after high severity wildfire has gained favor in recent years due to its efficacy in reducing soil erosion hazards. However, possible collateral effects of mulching on post-fire vegetation recovery have received relatively little study. We assessed mulching effects on plant cover and species richness, tree seedling establishment, and exotic species densities in the second year following the

Erich K. Dodson; David W. Peterson

2010-01-01

298

Effects of Fire Severity and Climate on Ring-Width Growth of Giant Sequoia After Fire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although fire has been recognized for several decades as a significant ecological force in giant sequoia ( Sequoiadendron giganteum)-mixed conifer forests (Hartesveldt 1964, Biswell 1967, Hartesveldt and Harvey 1967, Kilgore and Biswell 1971, Kilgore 1973, Harvey and others 1980), little is known about the growth response of giant sequoia to different types of fire and post-fire climate conditions. As early

Linda S. Mutch; Thomas W. Swetnam

299

Low-power laser-based carbon monoxide sensor for fire and post-fire detection using a compact Herriott multipass cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the anticipated retirement of Space Shuttles in the next few years, the re-supplying of short-lifetime sensors on the International Space Station (ISS) will be logistically more difficult. Carbon Monoxide (CO) is a well-known combustion product and its absence in a fire and post-fire environment is a reliable indicator for mission specialists that the air quality is at a safe to breathe level. We report on the development and performance of a prototype compact CO sensor, based on the PHOTONS platform [1], developed for the ISS based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). A CO absorption line at ~4285 cm-1 is targeted using a distributed-feedback (DFB) laser diode operating at room temperature. A custom designed Herriott multipass cell 16cm long, with an effective path length of 3.7 m is employed. Mechanical, optical and electronics systems are integrated into a compact package of dimensions measuring 12.4"x 3.4"x 5". Power consumption is less than 1 W, enabling prolonged battery life. A detection limit of 3 ppm is achieved when performing 40 second long temperature scans. A recent initial test at NASA-JSC was successful. Future improvements include the reduction of the sampling volume, scan time and an improved CO minimum detection limit.

Thomazy, David; So, Stephen; Kosterev, Anatoliy; Lewicki, Rafal; Dong, Lei; Sani, Ardalan A.; Tittel, Frank K.

2010-01-01

300

The Earth Could Burn.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Environmental educators are worried about the ultimate ecological threat--nuclear war, which could burn thousands of square miles, sterilize the soil, destroy 70 percent of the ozone layer letting in lethal ultraviolet rays, and cause severe radiation sickness. Educators must inform themselves, teach others, contact government representatives,…

Yarrow, Ruth

1982-01-01

301

Burning rubber  

SciTech Connect

Mario Andretti, look out You are about to be surpassed in the burning rubber category by a joint venture between Oxford Energy Company and General Electric. The two companies are building the first whole tire-to-energy facility in the US in Modesto, California. This $41 million facility does not require tires to be shredded prior to incineration; it has the capacity to burn 700 tires per minute. The electricity generated will be provided to a utility company. Oxford says there are two billion waste tires on the ground and this number is increasing by 220 million a year. Of that amount, only 18 million a year are recycled.

Not Available

1987-09-01

302

Baxter's Burns  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has never been any doubt about the importance of Robert Burns for James K. Baxter: the Scottish poet's ancestral, poetic, political and sexual inspirations and provocations appear everywhere across the range of Baxter's writing and it is a critical commonplace to note affinity and identification. At the same time it is curious to note how this debt is so

Dougal McNeill

303

Corneal Protection for Burn Patients.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall goal of this research is to preserve vision of patients recovering from severe facial burns by providing an improved method to reduce development of corneal defects, inflammation, infection and opacification. Scope: To further improve and unde...

I. E. Kochevar

2011-01-01

304

Corneal Protection for Burn Patients.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall goal of this research is to preserve vision of patients recovering from severe facial burns by providing an improved method to reduce development of corneal defects, inflammation, infection and opacification. Scope: To further improve and unde...

A. J. Johnson

2012-01-01

305

Corneal Protection for Burn Patients.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Purpose: The overall goal of this research is to preserve vision of patients recovering from severe facial burns by providing an improved method to reduce development of corneal defects, inflammation, infection and opacification. Scope: In this reporting ...

I. E. Kochevar

2010-01-01

306

Burning manifolds and burning lobes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present experimental studies of the propagation of a reaction front in a fluid flow composed of a chain of alternating vortices. We propose that the tools used to describe the transport of a passive impurity in a flow can be expanded to account for the behavior of a reaction front. In particular, we propose that motion of a reaction front from one region to another in the flow is determined by burning manifolds and burning lobes. These ideas are tested experimentally for both the time-independent and time-dependent vortex chain. For a time-independent flow, the time that it takes for a triggered reaction to propagate from one vortex to the next is the minimum time ? for the stable burning manifold BS(?) to envelope the original trigger point. For a time-dependent (oscillatory) vortex chain, we use the burning manifold/lobe framework to explain mode-locking behavior seen in earlier studies.ootnotetextM.S. Paoletti and T.H. Solomon, Europhys. Lett. 69, 819 (2005); Phys. Rev. E 72, 046204 (2005).

Kingsbury, Mark; Solomon, Tom

2010-11-01

307

The biology of burn injury.  

PubMed

Burn injury is a complex traumatic event with various local and systemic effects, affecting several organ systems beyond the skin. The pathophysiology of the burn patient shows the full spectrum of the complexity of inflammatory response reactions. In the acute phase, inflammation mechanism may have negative effects because of capillary leak, the propagation of inhalation injury and the development of multiple organ failure. Attempts to mediate these processes remain a central subject of burn care research. Conversely, inflammation is a necessary prologue and component in the later-stage processes of wound healing. In this review, we are attempting to present the current science of burn wound pathophysiology and wound healing. We also describe the evolution of innovative strategies for burn management. PMID:20629737

Evers, Lars H; Bhavsar, Dhaval; Mailänder, Peter

2010-07-14

308

Burns and pregnancy.  

PubMed

Pregnancy does not predispose to thermal injuries. Most burns are minor, and erythema usually subsides within 24 hours during the outpatient therapy. Severe burns during pregnancy are rare but alarming events. Care should be provided at a regional facility with expert burn care and fetal monitoring. Attempts should be undertaken during maternal transport to avoid hypovolemia, hypotension, and hypoxia. The wound should be covered with sterile dressings to prevent further contamination. Maternal and fetal survival is directly related to the extent of the body surface injury. When maternal injury is lethal, fetal survival is very unlikely because of sudden in-utero death or complications from prematurity following spontaneous labor. Complications to be considered during the emergent and acute phases of recovery include fluid and electrolyte imbalance, respiratory difficulties, systemic and wound infection, inadequate nutrition, and emotional disturbances. Therapy should be directed to saving the mother. Whether fetal well being is compromised by the burn and resultant therapy is difficult to determine from prior published reports. Periodic ultrasonic examination and biophysical testing of the fetus are recommended. If conditions are considered unfavorable to meet fetal circulatory and oxygen demands, prompt delivery during the late second and third trimesters has been advocated if the mother's burn covers 50 per cent or more of the surface area. If the patient has instead recovered satisfactorily and there has been no evidence of fetal jeopardy or premature labor within the first week following the burn injury, the eventual delivery of a healthy-appearing, term-sized fetus is quite likely. PMID:6352144

Smith, B K; Rayburn, W F; Feller, I

1983-06-01

309

Chemical debridement of burns.  

PubMed

The development of effective, non-toxic (local and systemic) methods for the rapid chemical (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) debridement of third degree burns would dramatically reduce the morbidity and mortality of severely burned patients. Sepsis is still the major cause of death of patients with extensive deep burns. The removal of the devitalized tissue, without damage to unburned skin or skin only partially injured by burning, and in ways which would permit immediate (or very prompt) skin grafting, would lessen substantially the problems of sepsis, speed convalescence and the return of these individuals to society as effective human beings, and would decrease deaths. The usefulness and limitations of surgical excision for patients with extensive third degree burns are discussed. Chemical debridement lends itself to complementary use with surgical excision and has the potential advantage over surgical excision in not requiring anesthesia or a formal surgical operation. The authors' work with the chemical debridement of burns, in particular the use of Bromelain, indicates that this approach will likely achieve clinical usefulness. The experimental studies indicate that rapid controlled debridement, with minimal local and systemic toxicity, is possible, and that effective chemotherapeutic agents may be combined with the Bromelain without either interfering with the actions of the other. The authors believe that rapid (hours) debridement accomplished by the combined use of chemical debriding and chemotherapeutic agents will obviate the possibility of any increase in infection, caused by the use of chemical agents for debridement, as reported for Paraenzyme(21) and Travase.(39,48) It is possible that the short term use of systemic antibiotics begun just before and continued during, and for a short time after, the rapid chemical debridement may prove useful for the prevention of infection, as appears to be the case for abdominal operations of the clean-contaminated and contaminated types. PMID:4606330

Levenson, S M; Kan, D; Gruber, C; Crowley, L V; Lent, R; Watford, A; Seifter, E

1974-10-01

310

Ultrasonic technique for characterizing skin burns  

DOEpatents

This invention, a method for ultrasonically determining the depth of a skin burn, is based on the finding that the acoustical impedance of burned tissue differs sufficiently from that of live tissue to permit ultrasonic detection of the interface between the burn and the underlying unburned tissue. The method is simple, rapid, and accurate. As compared with conventional practice, it provides the important advantage of permitting much earlier determination of whether a burn is of the first, second, or third degree. In the case of severe burns, the usual two - to three-week delay before surgery may be reduced to about 3 days or less.

Goans, Ronald E. (Knoxville, TN); Cantrell, Jr., John H. (Knoxville, TN); Meyers, F. Bradford (East Alton, IL); Stambaugh, Harry D. (Louisville, KY)

1978-01-01

311

Pediatric genital burns: a 15-year retrospective analysis of outcomes at a level 1 burn center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/PurposeBurns involving the genitalia and perineum are commonly seen in the context of extensive total body surface area (TBSA) burns and rarely as isolated injuries because of protection provided by the thighs and the abdomen. Genital burns usually result in extended hospital stays and are accompanied by severe morbidity and increased mortality.

Zachary Klaassen; Pauline H. Go; E. Hani Mansour; Michael A. Marano; Sylvia J. Petrone; Abraham P. Houng; Ronald S. Chamberlain

2011-01-01

312

Mcm Burn-In Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-chip module burn-in has been utilized at IBM for several years. The current module bum-in tool stresses 121 chip multi-chip modules used in the IBM ES\\/9000 mainframes. MCM level burn-in has been performed on alumina and glass-ceramic substrates with bipolar and CMOS chip technologies resulting in various challenges to tool design and process development. This paper will focus on the

Thomas Bardsley; Joseph Lisowski; Steven Wilson; Steve Vanaernam

1994-01-01

313

Rehabilitation of the burn patient  

PubMed Central

Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of burn treatment. It is not something which takes place following healing of skin grafts or discharge from hospital; instead it is a process that starts from day one of admission and continues for months and sometimes years after the initial event. Burns rehabilitation is not something which is completed by one or two individuals but should be a team approach, incorporating the patient and when appropriate, their family. The term ‘Burns Rehabilitation’ incorporates the physical, psychological and social aspects of care and it is common for burn patients to experience difficulties in one or all of these areas following a burn injury. Burns can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. The aims of burn rehabilitation are to minimise the adverse effects caused by the injury in terms of maintaining range of movement, minimising contracture development and impact of scarring, maximising functional ability, maximising psychological wellbeing, maximising social integration

Procter, Fiona

2010-01-01

314

Burn-In  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burn-In is used to screen weak parts from a population of completely processed chips to assist in meeting reliability requirements. This tutorial provides a general introduction to burn-in. It is shown how burn-in improves the failure rate. Typical burn-in conditions, the burn-in models and an example of failure mechanisms are given. The impact of burn-in on technology reliability (hot carriers,

R.-P. Vollertsen

1999-01-01

315

Burns, hypertrophic scar and galactorrhea  

PubMed Central

Abstract: An 18-year old woman was admitted to Motahari Burn Center suffering from 30% burns. Treatment modalities were carried out for the patient and she was discharged after 20 days. Three to four months later she developed hypertrophic scar on her chest and upper limbs. At the same time she developed galactorrhea in both breasts and had a disturbed menstrual cycle four months post-burn. On investigation, we found hyperprolactinemia and no other reasons for the high level of prolactin were detected. She received treatment for both the hypertrophic scar and the severe itching she was experiencing. After seven months, her prolactin level had decreased but had not returned to the normal level. It seems that refractory hypertrophic scar is related to the high level of prolactin in burns patients.

Karimi, Hamid; Nourizad, Samad; Momeni, Mahnoush; Rahbar, Hosein; Momeni, Mazdak; Farhadi, Khosro

2013-01-01

316

Tracking sources of severe haze episodes and their physicochemical and hygroscopic properties under Asian continental outflow: Long-range transport pollution, postharvest biomass burning, and Asian dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerosol physicochemical and hygroscopic properties were measured from 12 October to 21 November 2005 at a downwind area of the Asian continental outflow (Gwangju, Korea) to characterize severe haze episodes. Using optically measured elemental carbon (EC) at 660 nm (Opt.EC) and 880 nm (BC) wavelengths and Mie theory, it was estimated that the higher BC\\/Opt.EC ratio during the cloudy day

Jinsang Jung; Young J. Kim

2011-01-01

317

Can salvage logging affect seed dispersal by birds into burned forests?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recovery of vegetation in Mediterranean ecosystems after wildfire is mostly a result of direct regeneration, since the same species existing before the fire regenerate on-site by seeding or resprouting. However, the possibility of plant colonization by dispersal of seeds from unburned areas remains poorly studied. We addressed the role of the frugivorous, bird-dependent seed dispersal (seed rain) of fleshy-fruited plants in a burned and managed forest in the second winter after a fire, before on-site fruit production had begun. We also assessed the effect on seed rain of different microhabitats resulting from salvage logging (erosion barriers, standing snags, open areas), as well as the microhabitats of unlogged patches and an unburned control forest, taking account of the importance of perches as seed rain sites. We found considerable seed rain by birds in the burned area. Seeds, mostly from Olive trees Olea europaea and Evergreen pistaches Pistacia lentiscus, belonged to plants fruiting only in surrounding unburned areas. Seed rain was heterogeneous, and depended on microhabitat, with the highest seed density in the unburned control forest but closely followed by the wood piles of erosion barriers. In contrast, very low densities were found under perches of standing snags. Furthermore, frugivorous bird richness seemed to be higher in the erosion barriers than elsewhere. Our results highlight the importance of this specific post-fire management in bird-dependent seed rain and also may suggest a consequent heterogeneous distribution of fleshy-fruited plants in burned and managed areas. However, there needs to be more study of the establishment success of dispersed seeds before an accurate assessment can be made of the role of bird-mediated seed dispersal in post-fire regeneration.

Rost, J.; Pons, P.; Bas, J. M.

2009-09-01

318

A conceptual model for the link between Central American biomass burning aerosols and severe weather over the south central United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Each spring, smoke particles from fires over the Yucatan Peninsula and south Mexico cross over the Gulf of Mexico into the United States (US) under the control of moist oceanic air flow from the southwestern branch of the subtropical (Bermuda) high. Smoke can be transported deep into the south central US, where dry lines and warm conveyor belts are frequently formed and cause deep convection and severe weather. Lyons et al (1998 Science 282 77-80) and Murray et al (2000 Geophys. Res. Lett. 27 2249-52) noticed a ~50% increase of lightning along the smoke transport path over the south central US during the May 1998 Central American smoke episode. Here we present a conceptual model of coherent microphysical and meteorological mechanisms through which smoke may impact convective clouds and subsequently result in more severe weather over the south central US. The conceptual model depicts a chain of processes in which smoke particles are first activated as cloud condensation nuclei when they are entrained into the warm conveyor belt, a convective zone formed over the south central US as a result of the encounter between the mid-latitude trough and the subtropical Bermuda high. As the convection continues with deepening of the mid-latitude trough, the greater concentration of water cloud condensation nuclei delays the warm rain processes, enhances the development of ice clouds, and invigorates the updrafts, all of which contribute to the formation of severe weather such as hail and lightning. The conceptual model is based on the reasoning of physical mechanisms revealed in previous studies (over the tropical biomass region), and is supported here through the analysis of satellite data, ground observations, aerosol transport model results, and idealized cloud resolving simulations of a day in May 2003 when record tornado events occurred over the south central US. Further assessment of this conceptual model is discussed for future investigations.

Wang, Jun; van den Heever, Susan C.; Reid, Jeffrey S.

2009-01-01

319

Burns: an update on current pharmacotherapy  

PubMed Central

Introduction The world-wide occurrence of burn injuries remains high despite efforts to reduce injury incidence through public awareness campaigns and improvements in living conditions. In 2004, almost 11 million people experienced burns severe enough to warrant medical treatment. Advances over the past several decades in aggressive resuscitation, nutrition, excision, and grafting have reduced morbidity and mortality. Incorporation of pharmacotherapeutics into treatment regimens may further reduce complications of severe burn injuries. Areas covered Severe burn injuries, as well as other forms of stress and trauma, trigger a hypermetabolic response that, if left untreated, impedes recovery. In the past two decades, use of anabolic agents, beta adrenergic receptor antagonists, and anti-hyperglycemic agents has successfully counteracted post-burn morbidities including catabolism, the catecholamine-mediated response, and insulin resistance. Here we review the most up-to-date information on currently used pharmacotherapies in the treatment of these sequelae of severe burns and the insights that have expanded our understanding of the pathophysiology of severe burns. Expert opinion Existing drugs offer promising advances in the care of burn injuries. Continued gains in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving the hypermetabolic response will enable the application of additional existing drugs to be broadened to further attenuate the hypermetabolic response.

Rojas, Yesinia; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Radhakrishnan, Ravi S.; Herndon, David N.

2013-01-01

320

Comparison of tokamak burn cycle options  

SciTech Connect

Experimental confirmation of noninductive current drive has spawned a number of suggestions as to how this technique can be used to extend the fusion burn period and improve the reactor prospects of tokamaks. Several distinct burn cycles, which employ various combinations of Ohmic and noninductive current generation, are possible, and we will study their relative costs and benefits for both a commerical reactor as well as an INTOR-class device. We begin with a review of the burn cycle options.

Ehst, D.A.; Brooks, J.N.; Cha, Y.; Evans, K. Jr.; Hassanein, A.M.; Kim, S.; Majumdar, S.; Misra, B.; Stevens, H.C.

1985-01-01

321

Effects of partial post-fire salvage harvesting on vegetation communities in the boreal mixedwood forest region of northeastern Alberta, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined forest structure and understory vascular plant communities of aspen (Populus tremuloides)-dominated mixedwood boreal forest in Alberta, Canada that had been burned by wildfire and then subjected to one of three treatments (salvage harvested with single-tree retention, salvage harvested with patch-retention, unsalvaged control). Both salvage harvesting treatments resulted in greater cover of regenerating aspen saplings, as compared to unsalvaged

S. Ellen Macdonald

2007-01-01

322

Lessons learned from an emergency release of a post-fire debris-flow hazard assessment for the 2009 Station fire, San Gabriel Mountains, southern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2009 Station fire burned through portions of the steep, rugged terrain of the San Gabriel Mountains in southern California with a known history of producing large magnitude debris flows following fires. In response to the emergency, the U.S. Geological Survey released an assessment of debris-flow hazards as maps showing estimates of the probability and volume of debris-flow production from

S. H. Cannon; S. C. Perry; D. M. Staley

2010-01-01

323

Burn depth: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the plethora of technologic advances, the most common technique for diagnosing burn depth remains the clinical assessment of an experienced burn surgeon. It is clear that this assessment is accurate for very deep and very shallow burns. But since clinical judgment is not precise in telling whether a dermal burn will heal in 3 weeks, efforts to develop a

David Heimbach; Loren Engrav; Baiba Grube; Janet Marvin

1992-01-01

324

[General principles of burn reconstruction].  

PubMed

The aims of burn reconstruction should be to preserve, restore, and maintain function and appearance so the patient can recover a social life. Reconstruction surgery is delayed until the scar tissue has fully matured; it occurs generally by 9 to 12 months or more (merits of vitro-pressure test). Exception in presence of severe contracture (growth disturbance, unstable scars, corneal exposure with ectropion, severe microstomia) Occupational and physical therapy, scar management, compressive techniques, psychotherapy are all integral components of burn rehabilitation, but the place of plastic surgeon is fundamental all along the process. PMID:21924538

Costagliola, M

2011-09-15

325

Nutrition in Burns: Galveston Contributions  

PubMed Central

Aggressive nutrition support is recommended following severe burn injury. Initially, such injury results in a prolonged and persistent hypermetabolic response mediated by a 10- to 20-fold elevation in plasma catecholamines, cortisol, and inflammatory mediators. This response leads to twice-normal metabolic rates, whole-body catabolism, muscle wasting, and severe cachexia. Thus, it is relevant to review the literature on nutrition in burns to adjust/update treatment. Failure to meet the increased substrate requirements may result in impaired wound healing, multiorgan dysfunction, increased susceptibility to infection, and death. Therefore, aggressive nutrition support is essential to ensure adequate burn care, attenuate the hypermetabolic response, optimize wound healing, minimize devastating catabolism, and reduce morbidity and mortality. Here, the authors provide nutrition recommendations gained from prospective trials, retrospective analyses, and expert opinions based on the authors' practices in Galveston, Texas, and Vienna, Austria.

Rodriguez, Noe A.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Williams, Felicia N.; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Herndon, David N.

2013-01-01

326

Training and burn care in rural India  

PubMed Central

Burn care is a huge challenge in India, having the highest female mortality globally due to flame burns. Burns can happen anywhere, but are more common in the rural region, affecting the poor. Most common cause is flame burns, the culprit being kerosene and flammable flowing garments worn by the women. The infrastructure of healthcare network is good but there is a severe resource crunch. In order to bring a positive change, there will have to be more trained personnel willing to work in the rural areas. Strategies for prevention and training of burn team are discussed along with suggestions on making the career package attractive and satisfying. This will positively translate into improved outcomes in the burns managed in the rural region and quick transfer to appropriate facility for those requiring specialised attention.

Chamania, Shobha

2010-01-01

327

Cimetidine kinetics during resuscitation from burn shock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severely burned patients suffer from rapidly changing metabolic and hemodynamic abnormalities that could alter drug kinetics. The kinetics of cimetidine, commonly used in the prophylaxis of acute stress erosions, were studied during fluid resuscitation of 11 patients with mean burn sizes of 45% total body surface area. Six patients were studied after the completion of fluid resuscitation. Total clearance, steady-state

John A Ziemniak; William A Watson; Jeffrey R Saffle; Ian L Smith; John Russo; Glenn D Warden; Jerome J Schentag; Jerome J Schentag PharmD

1984-01-01

328

Alcohol and drug abuse in burn injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies are described in this paper. In the first study 225 acutely, severely burned patients were retrospectively investigated as to admission blood alcohol level and history of chronic alcohol abuse. The influence of further risk factors, circumstances and therapeutic data was studied, in particular the influence of gender, full-thickness burns, smoke inhalation injury, smoking, length of total and ICU

A. Haum; W. Perbix; H. J. Häck; G. B. Stark; G. Spilker; M. Doehn

1995-01-01

329

An Interactive Simulation Framework for Burning Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a simulation framework to integrate several aspects of the combustion and burning process in a unified and modular manner. A simple three gas flame model is used to simulate a combustion process, while air motion is simulated as a single moving fluid. Solid objects inside the simulation domain can catch fire and start burning. Heat information is transferred

Zeki Melek; John Keyser

330

An interactive simulation framework for burning objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a simulation framework to integrate several aspects of the combustion and burning process in a unified and modular manner. A simple three gas flame model is used to simulate a combustion process, while air motion is simulated as a single moving fluid. Solid objects inside the simulation domain can catch fire and start burning. Heat information is transferred

Z. Melek; J. Keyser

2005-01-01

331

Clinical forensic evidence in burns: rescuer burns.  

PubMed

In the literature no systematic study is available on rescuer burn for victims of burn injury. This is a retrospective study of nine patients (five admitted and four outpatients) were treated in this hospital as rescuer burns in 3.5 years. All nine patients were males. Average age of the patient treated on outpatient basis was 47 years (ranging between 44 and 52) and total burn area ranged for 1-4%. Average age of the five patients treated on inpatient basis was 32.6 years (ranging between 30 and 34). The total burn area ranged from 14.5 to 38%. During the period of study, in addition to nine rescuer burns, one patient sustained burn before the rescue attempt due to the victim hugging the rescuer. Based on the study of patterns of burn, these patients were found to have three grades of burn injury: Grade 1--upper extremity involvement only. (A) only one upper extremity involvement, (B) both upper extremities involvement, Grade 2--upper extremity/extremities and face involvement, Grade 3--upper extremity/extremities, face-neck, adjacent chest and lower extremity involvement. PMID:17011132

Kumar, Pramod; Gopal, Kirun; Ramnani, Sunil

2006-09-29

332

Post-wildland fire desertification: Can rehabilitation treatments make ...  

Treesearch

Fire-related desertification has a number of environmental, social, and economic ... on fire severity, degree of water repellency, slope, and post-fire rainfall events. ... Seeding has been used for many years as a prime Burned Area Emergency ...

333

Electrode burns during local hyperthermia.  

PubMed

A patient presenting with carcinoma of the breast was treated with local hyperthermia by short wave diathermy. During the procedure she suffered severe burns at the site of the ECG electrodes as a result of concentration of the induced current. PMID:8471386

Stott, D G; Wallbank, W A

1993-03-01

334

Cutaneous herpetic infections complicating burns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many people harbor herpes simplex virus, often with a known history of “cold sores”. During the relatively immunosuppressed state associated with a serious burn, recrudescence of such infections can occur. We report four adults and two children who developed severe herpetic ulceration, over the face and neck in five patients and in a partial thickness wound in one patient. Herpetic

Robert L Sheridan; John T Schulz; Joan M Weber; Colleen M Ryan; Mark S Pasternack; Ronald G Tompkins

2000-01-01

335

Exercise behaviors after burn injury.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate exercise behaviors in adult burn survivors and to identify barriers to exercise in this population. A two-page questionnaire developed by the authors was administered on a single occasion to adults attending the ambulatory burns clinic at a metropolitan hospital. Data from 68 adult burn survivors were analyzed. Within this cohort, 59% of subjects reported exercising several times per week or more and the remaining 41% exercised once per week or less. There was no correlation among exercise frequency and age, TBSA, or hospital length of stay. Walking was the most common type of exercise, and subjects reported lower compliance with stretching and strengthening exercises. Physical condition and motivation were identified as the main barriers to exercise. Although this preliminary study reveals that a higher proportion of burn survivors engage in exercise compared with their healthy counterparts, a substantial number are exercising just once per week or less, below the recommended guidelines to improve physical fitness. Physical and occupational therapists play an important role in providing exercise prescription and education, as well as addressing barriers to exercise in burn survivors. The potential for further research into physical activity across all domains of life using a validated questionnaire is identified. PMID:23816997

Baldwin, Jennifer; Li, Frank

336

Spectroscopy of Burn Wounds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research seeks to develop non-invasive burn depth evaluation from non-contacting visible and near-infrared spectroscopic measurements. In previous years, we demonstrated that features of the optical reflection spectra of burn wounds can be correlated...

M. A. Afromowitz J. D. Callis

1990-01-01

337

Soil Water Repellency and Groundcover Effects on Infiltration in Response to Prescribed Burning of Steeply-Sloped Sagebrush Hillslopes. Weigel, Pierson, Kormos, Williams, Pierce  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rangeland managers and scientists are in need of predictive tools to accurately simulate post-fire hydrologic responses and provide hydrologic risk assessment. Rangeland hydrologic modeling has advanced in recent years; however, model advancements have largely been associated with data from gently-sloping sites and have not included the effects of soil water repellency on runoff generation. This study seeks to enhance current understanding of post-fire hydrologic responses on steeply-sloped sagebrush rangelands, emphasizing the influences of soil water repellency and ground cover. The Northwest Watershed Research Center conducted small plot rainfall simulations on a sagebrush-dominated mountainous site in the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed, Idaho, USA. This site is characterized by steep slopes, fine grained volcanic soils and a northeasterly aspect which affords it more moisture than the majority of the surrounding hill slopes due to drifting snow. Soil water repellency was assessed using the water drop penetration procedure and ground cover was measured using point frame methodologies. Experiments were conducted immediately before and one year following prescribed burning of the site (2007 and 2008 respectively). The study results explain the collective interaction of soil water repellency and ground cover effects on infiltration and runoff under burned and unburned conditions and provide insights for expanding and improving process- based rangeland hillslope hydrologic models.

Weigel, A. B.; Pierson, F. B.; Kormos, P. R.; Williams, C. J.; Pierce, J. L.

2008-12-01

338

Burning Rate Emulator  

NASA Video Gallery

The Burning Rate Emulator is a gas fuel investigation attempting to emulate the burning of solids to improve our understanding of materials''flammability over a wide range of conditions. The approach relies on the fact that all burning solids are first converted into a gas. By understanding the rate of gasification and other physical properties of a given solid material, the experiments will emulate the burning process by carefully controlling a gas flame

Kristine Rainey

2013-01-11

339

Serum immunoglobulin levels in pediatric burn patients.  

PubMed

Infections remain the leading cause of death in burn patients. Immune responses play an important role in patient's defense mechanism against infection and decreasing morbidity and mortality associated with burn. Our goal was to determine serum immunoglobulin levels in pediatric burn patients in order to understand role of humoral immune defense in these patients. During this analytic cross sectional study from January 2011 to February 2012, all patients with burn and younger than 6 years old that were referred to Shahid Motahari burn and reconstruction center were enrolled. Patients had no inhalation injury or sepsis. Immunoglobulin levels were measured once on 3-5 days after burn. The burn size in 12 patients (24%) was less than 30%, in 30 patients (60%) were between 30% and 50% and in the remained 8 patients (16%) were more than 50%. In 45 patients (90%) depth and severity of burn were 2nd degree (superficial and deep) and in the remaining 5 patients (10%), it was 3rd or 4th degree. In 28 (56%), 1 (2%), 3 (6%), 35 (70%), 48 (96%), 19 (38%) and 6 (12%) patients IgG, IgM, IgA, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 were lower than normal values, respectively. No significant correlation was seen between burn size (TBSA) and value of immunoglobulin (P>0.05). Although the drop in the serum concentration of immunoglobulins is irrespective to the burn size, more severe burn is associated with more decrease in the serum levels of IgA, IgM, IgG and its subclasses. However, further studies are needed to provide complementary data on this issue. PMID:23000373

Sobouti, Behnam; Fallah, Shahrzad; Ghavami, Yaser; Moradi, Masoud

2012-09-20

340

Burns following petrol sniffing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two patients with burns following petrol sniffing are presented. They sustained an 8 per cent and a 70 per cent total body surface area burn. The majority of the burned areas of both patients were full thickness and were treated by early excision and autografting, and in one patient with cultured epidermal autografts also. Both patients came from disorganized families,

T. F. Janeži?

1997-01-01

341

Fluid replacement in burns  

PubMed Central

The successful treatment of major burns depends upon accurate and early fluid replacement in the first 36 h. A burns calculator has been designed, based upon the Muir and Barclay formula, which should facilitate the estimation of fluid requirements in burned patients and therefore improve their immediate management in accident and emergency departments. ImagesFIG. 2

Jenkinson, Lloyd R

1982-01-01

342

Succinylcholine Danger in the Burned Patient.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Interest continues in cardiac arrest during anesthesia in the severely burned patient. Previously reported cases, and the present case have many things in common; debilitation, anxiety, multiple uneventful anesthetic administrations followed by one or mor...

J. D. Tolmie T. H. Joyce G. D. Mitchell

1967-01-01

343

Pediatric burn injuries  

PubMed Central

Pediatric burns comprise a major mechanism of injury, affecting millions of children worldwide, with causes including scald injury, fire injury, and child abuse. Burn injuries tend to be classified based on the total body surface area involved and the depth of injury. Large burn injuries have multisystemic manifestations, including injuries to all major organ systems, requiring close supportive and therapeutic measures. Management of burn injuries requires intensive medical therapy for multi-organ dysfunction/failure, and aggressive surgical therapy to prevent sepsis and secondary complications. In addition, pain management throughout this period is vital. Specialized burn centers, which care for these patients with multidisciplinary teams, may be the best places to treat children with major thermal injuries. This review highlights the major components of burn care, stressing the pathophysiologic consequences of burn injury, circulatory and respiratory care, surgical management, and pain management of these often critically ill patients.

Krishnamoorthy, Vijay; Ramaiah, Ramesh; Bhananker, Sanjay M

2012-01-01

344

Modeling thermal burns due to airbag deployment.  

PubMed

Automotive airbags are now a widely accepted safety measure designed to reduce morbidity associated with motor vehicle accidents. Their usage is increasing with multiple airbags (driver, passenger and side curtain) being fitted to many vehicles. However the deployment of airbags has been identified as causing injuries in some instances including minor burns. There are three mechanisms for thermal burns due to an airbag; contact with the hot expelled gases from the airbag, contact with the hot airbag itself and melting of clothing from either of these contacts. A mathematical model is used here to predict the likelihood and severity of the first two types of burns. It is shown that direct contact with high temperature exhaust gases venting from the airbag can indeed lead to burns and that burns from contacting the hot airbag material are possible but far less likely to occur. PMID:16274929

Mercer, G N; Sidhu, H S

2005-11-07

345

Sandal burns and their treatment in children.  

PubMed

Sandal is an ancient, primitive heating device that is still in use by both poor and rich people in mountain areas of Middle Asia. Sandal burn injuries are a serious health problem. Characteristics of sandal burns include not only skin injuries of various depths but also injuries to underlying tissues: subcutaneous fat, fasciae, muscles, and even bones. Sandal burns are characterized by such severe deep injuries because of a close contact of the body with live coals or woods. The main goal of this work was to present the most complete information about sandal burns and discuss the most effective methods of treatment for sandal burns. This treatment is used to accelerate the rejection of necrotic tissue, to prepare the wound for early autodermoplastic surgery, to decrease the postburn contractures/deformities, and also to shorten hospital stay for the patients. PMID:15534459

Shakirov, Babur M

346

The leading causes of death after burn injury in a single pediatric burn center  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Severe thermal injury is characterized by profound morbidity and mortality. Advances in burn and critical care, including early excision and grafting, aggressive resuscitation and advances in antimicrobial therapy have made substantial contributions to decrease morbidity and mortality. Despite these advances, death still occurs. Our aim was to determine the predominant causes of death in burned pediatric patients in order

Felicia N Williams; David N Herndon; Hal K Hawkins; Jong O Lee; Robert A Cox; Gabriela A Kulp; Celeste C Finnerty; David L Chinkes; Marc G Jeschke

2009-01-01

347

Project Burn Prevention: outcome and implications.  

PubMed Central

Project Burn Prevention was designed and implemented to determine the ability of a public education program to increase awareness about burn hazards and reduce the incidence and severity of burn injuries. Media messages were transmitted to residents of a large metropolitan area; separate school and community interventions were implemented in two demographically similar communities within the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA). A second metropolitan area and two of its communities served as control sites. Messages for specific, high-risk age groups emphasized flame burns because of their severity and scalds because of their frequency. Knowledge gains were demonstrable only as a result of the school program. Neither the school program nor the media campaign reduced burn incidence or severity; the community intervention may have brought about a moderate, temporary reduction in injuries. Multiplicity of messages, brevity of the campaign, and separation of the interventions are among possible reasons for the program's failure to significantly reduce burn injuries. Education for personal responsibility is not sufficient. Product modification and environmental redesign must be instituted through education and legislation for successful control of burn injuries.

McLoughlin, E; Vince, C J; Lee, A M; Crawford, J D

1982-01-01

348

Anhydrous ammonia burns: case presentation and literature review.  

PubMed

Anhydrous ammonia, a caustic compound commonly used in industry, can cause severe burns, even with brief contact. As with other alkali burns, early irrigation to remove the ammonia from burned areas is crucial to limit tissue damage. Two cases of identical exposure to industrial strength ammonia are presented. Each patient was exposed to ammonia liquid and vapors simultaneously when a tank containing this compound exploded. One patient showered at the scene immediately after exposure, whereas the other deferred irrigation until he arrived at the hospital. The first patient suffered minor burns with a 2-day, uncomplicated hospital stay. The second patient suffered 14% total body surface area burns and a significant inhalation injury. He required intubation, mechanical ventilation, and skin grafting during his 13-day hospitalization. Although much is written about the management of chemical burns, few articles address ammonia burns. Aggressive initial management significantly reduces morbidity of ammonia burns. PMID:10661537

Latenser, B A; Lucktong, T A

349

Feasibility analysis of minor actinide burning  

SciTech Connect

The most important actinide is plutonium because it has the greatest ({approximately}94%) mass of the actinides. It is convenient to divide the actinide burning problem into two classes: plutonium burning and minor actinide burning. In this paper, only the analysis of minor actinide burning is discussed. In this work, environmental impact was measured using several indexes: Actinide mass, radioactive ingestion hazard versus decay time, actinide radioactive ingestion hazard ratio between the value at reactor discharge and the one at reactor charge; actinide radioactive ingestion hazard ratio between the value at 5,000 years and the one at reactor charge; and {sup 99}Tc radioactivity. Two main problems were faced in this work. The first was to determine the physical parameter that is more effective in the actinide burning. The second problem was to determine the critical parameter value, or value range, that can reduce the actinide risk to lower than that for natural uranium. The system for burning minor actinides and long-lived fission products must have a thermal flux value of {approximately}1.0 {times} 10{sup 16} n/cm{sup 2} {center dot} s, a low atomic weight matrix, and should handle the annual discharge of ten light water reactors. The Los Alamos National Laboratory spallation system seems to come closest to performing both minor actinide and long-lived fission product burning. The integral fast reactor project could burn the actinides but not the long-lived fission products.

Buccafurni, A.; Landeyro, P.A.

1991-11-01

350

Burn Injury and Explosions: An Australian Perspective  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Increasingly (but not exclusively), terrorist activity and the use of explosive devices have enjoyed the focus of the global media. This paper aims to bring a range of issues to attention, to highlight how burn injuries are sustained in such incidents and why burn injuries (and thus burn disasters) are so complicated to manage. Materials and Methods: The author's experience with burn injury caused during explosions and his involvement in burn disaster situations has been summarized to form the basis of the article. This has been expanded upon with discussion points which provide a strategy for planning for such events and by a broad sample of the literature. Results: Several strategies are suggested to facilitate planning for burn disasters and to illustrate to those not directly involved why forward planning is pivotal to success when these incidents occur. Conclusions: Disasters generating large numbers of burn-injured are relatively frequent. Explosive devices are widespread in their use both in military and increasingly in civilian fields. Encompassing a large range of aetiologies, geographical sites, populations, and resources; burn disaster management is difficult and planning essential.

Greenwood, John E.

2009-01-01

351

[Evaluation and first aid of burned patients].  

PubMed

First cares of burned patients depend of an accurate evaluation of the injury severity. Total body surface area burned can be estimated taking into account the fact that the area of one hand face is equivalent to 1% of the total body surface (TBS) of the individual. Second-degree burns are characterized by the occurrence of phlyctena, third-degree burns appear like adhering necrosis without any sensibility. Smoke inhalation injuries are frequent and can be recognized on the presence of tare deposits inside the mouse and on the respiratory conducts. Taking care of the patient begins with making the victim safe from the thermal aggression. Then, cooling the burn is to be performed. The emergency medical care consists in securing respiratory function, and, as early as possible, in beginning perfusions of Ringer Lactate Lavoisier exceeding 20 mL/kg during the first post-burn hours for patient suffering of burns exceeding 10% of the total body area. Pain must be controlled using preferentially morphine or related products. Transport to the specialized unit, in case of severe injury, will be performed assuring thermal comfort, wound protection and vital function monitoring. PMID:12621940

Wassermann, Daniel

2002-12-15

352

Burns and epilepsy.  

PubMed

This is a report of the first descriptive analytic study of a group of 183 burn patients, treated in the Burn Unit at the University Hospital of Cartagena, Colombia during the period since January 1985 until December 1990. There is presented experience with the selected group of 24 patients in whom the diagnosis of burn was associated with epilepsy. There is also analysed and described the gravity of the scars sequels, neurological disorders, the complication of the burn and an impact of this problem on the patient, his (her) family and the community. It is very important to report that there was found Neurocisticercosis in 66.6% of the group of burn patients with epilepsy, and it is probably the first risk factor of burn in this group. PMID:9212488

Berrocal, M

1997-01-01

353

[Burns of the hand in children].  

PubMed

Hand burn is a frequent accident in young children. Burn care must take into account child growth and healing should be obtained before the 15th day to prevent any retraction. There is no consensus about treatment but one should consider several criteria, such as burn depth, etiology, localization and hand growth. It is mandatory to position the hand in skin maximal capacity position as soon as cleansing to limit sequelae. Regular visits are necessary up to the end of growth, to allow operating on the child in case functional sequelae appear. PMID:23830494

Conti, E

2013-06-20

354

Care of burns victims in Europe.  

PubMed

There is no detailed information about the care of burns victims, in Europe, in the case of a fire disaster. Several countries have discussed how to treat burn victims, but only a little is known of their capacity to offer space to other countries in the event of a fire disaster outside the country in question. In Europe, most countries are dependent on England, France and Germany in such cases. Since "Los Alfaques", "Ramstein" and other examples of such disasters, we know how important it is to focus more on burn victims in Europe with respect to national and international cooperation. PMID:10208391

Wedler, V; Künzi, W; Bürgi, U; Meyer, V E

1999-03-01

355

Liposome delivery of aminoglycosides in burn wounds.  

PubMed

The current study evaluated the pharmacodynamics of topically applied antimicrobials incorporated into radiolabeled liposomes. Radiolabeled 125I-phenyldecanoic acid was used in the formulation of small unilamellar liposomes. Sephadex (cross-linked dextran beads) G-50 columns were run to determine the per cent of radioactivity incorporated into liposomes and persistence of radioactive tag on the liposome after two weeks (greater than 95 per cent) remained incorporated. On the day of the experiment, 31 adult Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to a 10 per cent total body surface area full thickness burn (Walker burn model). All rats were treated with topical application of 0.3 milliliters of tobramycin entrapped in 125I-liposomes, and burn wounds were covered with Opsite (Winfield Laboratories). This formulation resulted in each rat receiving 14 milligrams per kilogram of tobramycin with a specific activity of 10.41 microcuries. Rats were sacrificed at several time periods after burn injury (nine after 24 hours, 12 after 48 hours, 11 after 72 hours). At these time intervals, serum and tissue tobramycin levels were measured, burn dressing, burn tissue and splanchnic organs were harvested and radioactivity was assessed with a gamma scintillation counter to determine tissue concentration of 125I-liposome tobramycin. Concentration of tobramycin in the serum was negligible at 24, 48 and 72 hours postburn, but was significant in the burn tissues at these times. The radioactive recovery data demonstrated that the majority (greater than 90 per cent) of the recovered liposomes remained at the site of application (the burn wound). No splanchnic organs had greater than 2 per cent of the recovered 125I-liposomes at any time period. These data suggest that, in burn wounds, tobramycin incorporated into liposomes remain at the site of initial application, resulting in high local concentrations with little systemic absorption and confirm that liposomes provide an effective vehicle for delivery of antimicrobials at the site of the burn injury. PMID:1570621

Price, C I; Horton, J W; Baxter, C R

1992-05-01

356

Impacts of Prescribed Burning in Upland Meadows on Understory Evapotranspiration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The frequency and extent of prescribed burning is increasing in Southwestern forest and meadow ecosystems. This management action has the potential to impact groundwater recharge. We are studying the impacts of prescribed burning on evapotranspiration of the herbaceous understory in an upland wet meadow at Hart Prairie, Arizona. Three treatments (non-burned control, burned during the early-summer pre-monsoon season, burned during the late-summer monsoon season) were randomly applied to replicated circular plots (2 m radius) in each of two herbaceous communities (grass dominated, fern dominated) in 2001. Treatment effects on herbaceous evapotranspiration were assessed by soil-water budgets based on repeated soil-moisture measurements with time-domain reflectometry. In 2001, the pre-monsoon burn increased soil-water content in the grass-dominated community, and to a lesser degree in the fern-dominated community, compared with the control. In 2002, one summer after treatment, both pre- and post-monsoon burns decreased soil-water content compared with the control, with a larger decrease occurring in the fern-dominated community. These trends in soil-water content continued in 2003, two summers after burning. Reduction of evapotranspiration caused by the pre-monsoon burn increased soil water available for groundwater recharge for several weeks following treatment. However, the beneficial effect of burning on groundwater recharge was short-lived as herbaceous evapotranspiration was higher in burned compared with non-burned plots one and two years after treatment.

Mullen, R. M.; Springer, A. E.; Kolb, T. E.

2003-12-01

357

Influence of climate, fire severity and forest mortality on predictions of long term streamflow: Potential effect of the 2009 wildfire on Melbourne's water supply catchments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long term effect of wildfire on streamflow was simulated using forest type and fire severity data. Streamflow was reduced by 1.4-2.8%, mainly because a low proportion of forest was severely burnt. The relative influence of climate and forest factors changes as rainfall becomes more limiting. With high rainfall, streamflow change is largely explained by changes in average forest age. With low rainfall, annual rainfall is the best predictor of post-fire change in streamflow.

Feikema, Paul M.; Sherwin, Christopher B.; Lane, Patrick N. J.

2013-04-01

358

Burns and military clothing.  

PubMed

Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under high heat loads in the laboratory, combat clothing can ignite, but there is little evidence that clothing ignition is a common occurrence in military burn casualties. Thermoplastic materials have many benefits in civil and military clothing. There is little objective evidence that they exacerbate burns, or complicate burn management. Their use in military clothing must be based on objective evidence, not hearsay. PMID:11307683

McLean, A D

2001-02-01

359

[Burn rehabilitation and community reintegration-new challenge to burn surgery in China].  

PubMed

Burn patients often have severe disfigurement, dysfunction, and psychological disorder after discharge, which may last for a long time, even for a whole life. These problems may prevent patients from returning to normal life and re-entering society. Because of demographic and socioeconomic reasons, the number of burn patients in China is huge. The rising cure rate further increases the number of patients that need rehabilitation treatment. However, the level of burn rehabilitation in China is relatively low as compared with that in the developed countries. Along with the social and economical development, it is no longer satisfied to just save the life of patient. Improving the quality of wound healing, avoiding or decreasing disfigurement, dysfunction, and psychological disorder, and finally helping patients re-enter society is the ultimate goal of burn treatment. Modern concept of rehabilitation is to restore health or normal life for patients by medical, psychosocial, educational and occupational methods. Although increasing attention has been paid to burn rehabilitation in China recently, so far it is mainly focused on the fields of improving patients' appearance and body function, whereas the importance of psychosocial, educational, occupational, and social rehabilitation has still not been realized. Some fields of burn rehabilitation have not been well established and many are not carried out by professionals. The model of multidisciplinary team in burn centers of developed countries including surgeons and nurses, as well as allied professionals such as psychologists, physical and occupational therapists, dietitians, anesthesiologists and social workers has seldom been introduced into China. In most burn centers in China, psychological support is mainly given by nurses in their spare time of nursing. Burn treatment used to be divided into the early stage of life saving and wound repair, and the late stage of rehabilitation. It has not been realized until recent years that rehabilitation measurements should be carried out through the whole process of burn treatment. Organizations of burn survivors and summer camps for burnt children proved to be helpful for the patients' self-confidence and community integration have hardly been established in China. Lack of funding is one of the main reasons for the lagging behind in burn rehabilitation in China. According the experiences of other countries, raising money from donation through burn foundation may be a useful way to support burn rehabilitation. Solving the above problems and improving the burn rehabilitation will be a new challenge to burn surgery in China. PMID:21223648

Xie, Wei-Guo

2010-12-01

360

Molten metal burns: early treatment improves outcome.  

PubMed

Molten metal burns have received relatively little attention in the surgical literature. We performed a retrospective chart review of 150 patients who sustained molten metal burns between 1972 and 1997. The injuries all occurred in male foundry workers, most commonly from molten aluminum (60%). The typical accident was that of a splatter spill, creating a full-thickness burn. The mean burn size was 2.3 per cent of the body surface area (range, 0.25-25%). The lower extremities were the most commonly injured areas (85%), yet 37 per cent of patients had multiple sites burned. Patients were often initially treated nonoperatively and then referred to a surgeon when the wound failed to heal. Hospitalization was necessary in 89 patients at a mean of 16 days after the injury, and 92 patients required an operation, most commonly excision of the wound with skin grafting. The mean length of hospital stay was 11.2 days, and mean absence from work was 72.6 days. Fifty-one patients treated by the burn surgeon within 2 weeks of injury had a mean length of disability significantly shorter than those referred late (53.5 vs. 83.4 days; P < 0.05). We believe that an underestimation of the severity of these burns often leads to a delay in correct therapy and extends disability. PMID:9764698

Margulies, D R; Navarro, R A; Kahn, A M

1998-10-01

361

Spectroscopy of Burn Wounds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research seeks to develop non-invasive burn depth evaluation methods from non-contacting visible and near-infrared spectroscopic measurements. In previous years, we demonstrated that features of the optical reflection spectra of burn wounds can be co...

M. A. Afromowitz J. D. Callis

1992-01-01

362

Pediatric burn care  

Microsoft Academic Search

One third of patients with significant burn injuries are children who are injured in what are nearly always preventable incidents. These extremely painful and often scarring bunts are enormous stressors to patients and their families. Children are easily devastated by the burst injury and are often less able to respond to it than au adult. Pediatric burn injury provides multiple

Gary F. Purdue; John L. Hunt; Agnes M. Burris

2002-01-01

363

Tourniquet associated chemical burn  

PubMed Central

Chemical burn under pneumatic tourniquet is an iatrogenic preventable injury and is rarely reported in the literature. The two important mechanisms are maceration (friction) and wetness underneath the tourniquent. In this report, our experience with two illustrative patients who presented with iatrogenic tourniquet associated burn is described.

Yang, Jae-Hyuk; Lim, Hyungtae; Yoon, Jung-Ro; Jeong, Hyeon-Il

2012-01-01

364

Gram-Negative Bacterial Infection in Thigh Abscess Can Migrate to Distant Burn Depending on Burn Depth  

PubMed Central

Sepsis remains the major cause of death in patients with major burn injuries. In the present investigation we evaluated the interaction between burn injuries of varying severity and preexisting distant infection. We used Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis) that were genetically engineered to be bioluminescent, which allowed for noninvasive, sequential optical imaging of the extent and severity of the infection. The bioluminescent bacteria migrated from subcutaneous abscesses in the leg to distant burn wounds on the back depending on the severity of the burn injury, and this migration led to increased mortality of the mice. Treatment with ciprofloxacin, injected either in the leg with the bacterial infection or into the burn eschar, prevented this colonization of the wound and decreased mortality. The present data suggest that burn wounds can readily become colonized by infections distant from the wound itself.

Hamrahi, Victoria; Hamblin, Michael R.; Jung, Walter; Benjamin, John B.; Paul, Kasie W.; Fischman, Alan J.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Carter, Edward A.

2012-01-01

365

Gram-negative bacterial infection in thigh abscess can migrate to distant burn depending on burn depth.  

PubMed

Sepsis remains the major cause of death in patients with major burn injuries. In the present investigation we evaluated the interaction between burn injuries of varying severity and preexisting distant infection. We used Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis) that were genetically engineered to be bioluminescent, which allowed for noninvasive, sequential optical imaging of the extent and severity of the infection. The bioluminescent bacteria migrated from subcutaneous abscesses in the leg to distant burn wounds on the back depending on the severity of the burn injury, and this migration led to increased mortality of the mice. Treatment with ciprofloxacin, injected either in the leg with the bacterial infection or into the burn eschar, prevented this colonization of the wound and decreased mortality. The present data suggest that burn wounds can readily become colonized by infections distant from the wound itself. PMID:22899912

Hamrahi, Victoria; Hamblin, Michael R; Jung, Walter; Benjamin, John B; Paul, Kasie W; Fischman, Alan J; Tompkins, Ronald G; Carter, Edward A

2012-07-26

366

Fluconazole Pharmacokinetics in Burn Patients  

PubMed Central

The pharmacokinetics of fluconazole in nine adult patients with severe (30 to 95% total body surface area) burns were studied. There was no significant difference in half-life (t1/2), clearance (CL), or volume of distribution (V) over time in five patients on days 3 and 8 of the study (P > 0.05). Combined parameter estimates (means ± standard deviations) for all nine patients for the two study periods were as follows: t1/2, 24.4 ± 5.8 h; CL, 0.36 ± 0.09 ml/min/kg; and V, 0.72 ± 0.12 liters/kg. These estimates of t1/2 and CL in burn patients were approximately 13% shorter and 30% more rapid, respectively, than the most extreme estimates reported for other populations.

Boucher, Bradley A.; King, Stephen R.; Wandschneider, Heidi L.; Hickerson, William L.; Hanes, Scott D.; Herring, Vanessa L.; Canada, Todd W.; Hess, Mary M.

1998-01-01

367

Southeast U.S. burns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human beings were responsible for most of 12,000 forest fires in the southeastern United States that burned for 10 days in late October and early November 1987. 910 km2, mostly hardwood forest, were destroyed in the fires, with arson and carelessness as the primary causes, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service.Measured in monetary terms, the toll was more than $40 million in resource and property damage. While the amount of forest burned did not rival the 3390 km2 lost to fires in the western United States last summer, the human impact was severe in the southeast and all along the East Coast. Favorable winds blew smoke from the southern and central Appalachians as far north as New England and as far east as Delaware, and cool fall air close to the ground prevented the smoke from rising, thickening the air in many northeastern cities on November 8 and 9.

Maggs, William Ward

368

Wildfire impacts on the processes that generate debris flows in burned watersheds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Every year, and in many countries worldwide, wildfires cause significant damage and economic losses due to both the direct effects of the fires and the subsequent accelerated runoff, erosion, and debris flow. Wildfires can have profound effects on the hydrologic response of watersheds by changing the infiltration characteristics and erodibility of the soil, which leads to decreased rainfall infiltration, significantly increased overland flow and runoff in channels, and movement of soil. Debris-flow activity is among the most destructive consequences of these changes, often causing extensive damage to human infrastructure. Data from the Mediterranean area and Western United States of America help identify the primary processes that result in debris flows in recently burned areas. Two primary processes for the initiation of fire-related debris flows have been so far identified: (1) runoff-dominated erosion by surface overland flow; and (2) infiltration-triggered failure and mobilization of a discrete landslide mass. The first process is frequently documented immediately post-fire and leads to the generation of debris flows through progressive bulking of storm runoff with sediment eroded from the hillslopes and channels. As sediment is incorporated into water, runoff can convert to debris flow. The conversion to debris flow may be observed at a position within a drainage network that appears to be controlled by threshold values of upslope contributing area and its gradient. At these locations, sufficient eroded material has been incorporated, relative to the volume of contributing surface runoff, to generate debris flows. Debris flows have also been generated from burned basins in response to increased runoff by water cascading over a steep, bedrock cliff, and incorporating material from readily erodible colluvium or channel bed. Post-fire debris flows have also been generated by infiltration-triggered landslide failures which then mobilize into debris flows. However, only 12% of documented cases exhibited this process. When they do occur, the landslide failures range in thickness from a few tens of centimeters to more than 6 m, and generally involve the soil and colluvium-mantled hillslopes. Surficial landslide failures in burned areas most frequently occur in response to prolonged periods of storm rainfall, or prolonged rainfall in combination with rapid snowmelt or rain-on-snow events. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Parise, M.; Cannon, S. H.

2012-01-01

369

Surface-burn model for shock initiation  

SciTech Connect

An investigation of a surface-burn of the shock-induced decomposition initiation and detonation of heterogeneous explosives is described. The model assumes a microscale process with hot spots ignited by viscoplastic heating at the boundaries of collapsing pores. A relatively thin reaction zone, or burn surface, is driven by the conduction of the heat of reaction, and has a surface-burn velocity with an Arrhenius dependence on the temperature of the unreacted solid component. Global reaction rates are derived from the microscale model with an empirical burning topology function and a macroscopic reactant-product mixture defined by pressure equilibrium, ideal mixing of specific volume and internal energy,and isentropic response of the unreacted constituents. With simplifying assumptions, the model is extended to treat multi-component explosives. The model is implemented into a method of characteristics hydrocode and shown to be effective in simulating several examples of initiation experiments on TATB explosives. 10 refs., 9 figs.

Partom, Y.; Wackerle, J.

1989-01-01

370

Self-esteem measurement before and after summer burn camp in pediatric burn patients.  

PubMed

Pediatric burn injury results in significant mortality and morbidity, from which some children will experience prolonged psychological and social difficulty. As early as 1967, it was noted that participation in a group was important in the resolution of problems caused by severe disability and stressful experiences. Since 1982, there have been summer burn camps for children and adolescent burn survivors. The primary focus of camp is to have "fun" at the various daily activities. The principal goal, however, is psychosocial readjustment. Fifty-three burn survivors attended the 1-week duration annual summer camp. Campers were invited to complete a Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale on the first day of summer burn camp and shortly after the camp ended. Younger children were assisted with the survey tool by their parents. Of the 53 campers, 45 completed both pre- and postcamp surveys. The age of the campers ranged from 6 to 18 years (mean, 12.8 years). Burn size ranged from 1% to 90% TBSA (mean, 30.4% TBSA). The interval from date of injury to camp attendance was 2 months to 15.5 years. Nine campers had never attended burn camp before this year. Twenty- nine percent of the campers had an increase in self-esteem score. Fifty-eight percent had no change, and 13% demonstrated a decrease. The burn camp experience though an enriching summer activity, did not necessarily increase self-esteem in the majority of campers as measured by the survey tool employed. PMID:17091072

Arnoldo, Brett D; Crump, Donna; Burris, Agnes M; Hunt, John L; Purdue, Gary F

371

Burning coal's waste  

SciTech Connect

In an old Pennsylvania coal valley, growing fresh produce and eliminating ancient waste piles both depend on a fluidized bed boiler cogeneration plant. The builders of a complex now nearing completion at Archbald, however, will soon begin to turn two of the waste piles, called culm banks, into economic assets. Culm will burn although it has a low, variable heat content. The project combines several recently developed technologies to use culm as fuel for a fluidized bed boiler cogeneration plant that will heat a hydroponic greenhouse. What makes the venture economically viable are the products that will be sold: 23 mw of electricity to the local utility and fresh produce to meet burgeoning demands in East Coast supermarkets. For instance, if the ''salad plant'' were completely devoted to growing lettuce, 3 million heads could be harvested in 11 hydroponic seasons a year. The owners, Archbald Power Corp., chose a 271 acre stie that had been mined for anthracite by both open pit and deep shaft methods.

Daly, J.M.; Duffy, T.J.

1988-07-01

372

Combining Landsat TM multispectral satellite imagery and different modelling approaches for mapping post-fire erosion changes in a Mediterranean site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

South European countries are naturally vulnerable to wildfires. Their natural resources such as soil, vegetation and water may be severely affected by wildfires, causing an imminent environmental deterioration due to the complex interdependence among biophysical components. Soil surface water erosion is a natural process essential for soil formation that is affected by such interdependences. Accelerated erosion due to wildfires, constitutes a major restrictive factor for ecosystem sustainability. In 2007, South European countries were severely affected by wildfires, with more than 500,000 hectares of land burnt in that year alone, well above the average of the last 30 years. The present work examines the changes in spatial variability of soil erosion rates as a result of a wildfire event that took place in Greece in 2007, one of the most devastating years in terms of wildfire hazards. Regional estimates of soil erosion rates before and after the fire outbreak were derived from the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE, Renard et al. 1991) and the Pan-European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment model (PESERA, Kirkby, 1999; Kirkby et al., 2000). Inputs for both models included climatic, land-use, soil type, topography and land use management data. Where appropriate, both models were also fed with input data derived from the analysis of LANDSAT TM satellite imagery available in our study area, acquired before and shortly after the fire suppression. Our study was compiled and performed in a GIS environment. In overall, the loss of vegetation from the fire outbreak caused a substantial increase of soil erosion rates in the affected area, particularly towards the steep slopes. Both tested models were compared to each other and noticeable differences were observed in the soil erosion predictions before and after the fire event. These are attributed to the different parameterization requirements of the 2 models. This quantification of sediment supply through the river network provides also important insights regarding both the present-day sedimentation processes in the study area as well as the potential flooding hazard. Our work underpins that valuable contribution of remote sensing technology, combined with modeling approaches for depicting the spatial distribution of changes in erosion rates after the wildfire. KEYWORDS: erosion risk, RUSLE, PESERA, wildland fires, LANDSAT TM, remote sensing, Geographical Information Systems, Greece.

Petropoulos, George P.; Kairis, Orestis; Karamesouti, Mina; Papanikolaou, Ioannis D.; Kosmas, Constantinos

2013-04-01

373

Burns in young children: a study of the mechanism of burns in children aged 5 years and under in the Hamilton, Ontario Burn Unit.  

PubMed

This paper explores the burn agents involved among children admitted to the Hamilton General Hospital Burn Trauma Unit (BTU), and the severity of their burns. Charts were retrospectively reviewed for all burn cases aged 5 years and under admitted to the BTU between January 1986 and mid-November 1990. Descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance were employed. Of the 52 patients aged 5 years and under, two were excluded from the study. The majority (35, 70 per cent) were aged 2 years and under. The mean burn depth for all patients was equivalent to a deep partial thickness burn. Approximately two-thirds of cases resulted from either the preparation or consumption of food or hot liquids, while the remainder suffered from either flame burns or bath-tub scalds. Children burned during food preparation or consumption were younger (mean age 1.8 years) than those sustaining flame burns (mean age 2.7 years) (P = 0.02). Of those burns sustained from either the preparation or consumption of food, 44 per cent were scalds from a cup of hot beverage at the table, 19 per cent were scalds from an electric kettle, and an equal number from a coffee or tea pot sitting at the table. There was a significant difference in both the mean total body surface area of the burn, and the number of days spent in the BTU, according to the agent involved (P = 0.01 and P = 0.004, respectively). Flame and contact injuries were often the most severe. A disproportionate number of burn victims admitted to hospital are infants and toddlers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8554691

Ray, J G

1995-09-01

374

Spectroscopy of Burn Wounds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research seeks to develop non-invasive techniques for evaluating burn depth based upon non-contacting visible and near-infrared spectroscopic measurement of the wounds. In previous years, we demonstrated that features of the optical reflection spectr...

J. B. Callis M. A. Afromowitz

1990-01-01

375

Carborane Burning Rate Catalysts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

New carborane burning rate accelerators designed for use in solid propellants, without the problems associated with current accelerators, have been prepared. High molecular weight, non-volatile derivatives of bis(1-carboranylmethyl) and bis-(1-carboranyle...

R. Fitzgerald L. J. Rosen R. L. Lou

1973-01-01

376

Burns (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... arrives. Back Continue What to Do (continued) For Flame Burns: Extinguish the flames by having your child roll on the ground. ... a hot-steam one. Choose sleepwear that's labeled flame retardant (either polyester or treated cotton). Cotton sweatshirts ...

377

Modern Treatment of Burns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This monograph summarizes the experiences of treating persons suffering from burns which have been accumulated by the collective of the hospital surgical clinic of the Samarkand Medical Institute, and also uses the