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Sample records for post-mortem examination tests

  1. [Post-mortem examination prior to cremation--an instrument to verify the quality of medical post-mortems and uncover non-natural deaths?].

    PubMed

    Germerott, Tanja; Todt, Melanie; Bode-Jänisch, Stefanie; Albrecht, Knut; Breitmeier, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    The external post-mortem examination, its deficient quality and possible causes have been the subject of numerous political and professional discussions. The external post-mortem examination is the basis for the decision whether further criminal investigations are required to clarify the cause of death. It is thus an essential instrument to ensure legal certainty. Before cremation, a second external post-mortem examination is performed by a public medical officer to make sure that errors of the first post-mortem are corrected. In the present study, cases were retrospectively analyzed in which a forensic autopsy had been ordered on the basis of the results of the post-mortem examination performed before cremation. The entries on the death certificate regarding the manner and cause of death were compared with the autopsy results. Between 1998 and 2007, 387 autopsies were ordered after external examination before cremation. In 55 cases (14.2%), the autopsy revealed a non-natural death, although a natural death had been attested on the death certificate. In descending order, a wrong manner of death was attested by clinicians, general practitioners and emergency physicians. With regard to the place where the first external post-mortem had been performed the lowest error rate was seen in nursing homes. Concerning the cause of death, discrepancies between the first post-mortem and autopsy were found in 59.4% of the cases. In this respect, general practitioners and clinicians were ranking first, whereas in nursing homes the cause of death was wrongly assessed in over 70% of cases. At present, the medical post-mortem does not meet the required quality standards, especially with regard to legal certainty. Determination of the cause of death on the basis of the external post-mortem examination is a challenging task even for the experienced medical examiner. As to the categorization of the manner of death it has to be stated that non-natural deaths are often not recognized or

  2. The social life of the dead: The role of post-mortem examinations in medical student socialisation.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Dawn; Machin, Laura; Taylor, Adam

    2016-07-01

    Dissection has held a privileged position in medical education although the professional values it inculcates have been subject to intense debate. Claims vary from it generating a dehumanising level of emotional detachment, to promotion of rational and dispassionate decision-making, even to being a positive vehicle for ethical education. Social scientists have positioned dissection as a critical experience in the emotional socialisation of medical students. However, curricular revision has provoked debate about the style and quantity of anatomy teaching thus threatening this 'rite of passage' of medical students. Consequently, some UK medical schools do not employ dissection at all. In its place, observation of post-mortem examinations - a long established, if underutilised, practice - has re-emerged in an attempt to recoup aspects of anatomical knowledge that are arguably lost when dissection is omitted. Bodies for post-mortem examinations and bodies for dissection, however, have striking differences, meaning that post-mortem examinations and dissection cannot be considered comparable opportunities to learn anatomy. In this article, we explore the distinctions between dissection and post-mortem examinations. In particular, we focus on the absence of a discourse of consent, concerns about bodily integrity, how the body's shifting ontology, between object and person, disrupts students' attempts to distance themselves, and how the observation of post-mortem examinations features in the emotional socialisation of medical students. PMID:27261534

  3. Causes of Stillbirth and Time of Death in Swedish Holstein Calves Examined Post Mortem

    PubMed Central

    Berglund, B; Steinbock, L; Elvander, M

    2003-01-01

    This study was initiated due to the observation of increasing and rather high levels of stillbirths, especially in first-calving Swedish Holstein cows (10.3%, 2002). Seventy-six Swedish Holstein calves born to heifers at 41 different farms were post mortem examined in order to investigate possible reasons for stillbirth and at what time in relation to full-term gestation they had occurred. The definition of a stillborn calf was dead at birth or within 24 h after birth after at least 260 days of gestation. Eight calves were considered as having died already in uterus. Slightly less than half of the examined calves (46.1%) were classified as having died due to a difficult calving. Four calves (5.3%) had different kinds of malformations (heart defects, enlarged thymus, urine bladder defect). Approximately one third of the calves (31.6%) were clinically normal at full-term with no signs of malformation and born with no indication of difficulties at parturition or any other reason that could explain the stillbirth. The numbers of male and female calves were rather equally distributed within the groups. A wide variation in post mortem weights was seen in all groups, although a number of the calves in the group of clinically normal calves with unexplained reason of death were rather small and, compared with e.g. those calves categorised as having died due to a difficult calving, their average birth weight was 6 kg lower (39.9 ± 1.7 kg vs. 45.9 ± 1.5 kg, p ≤ 0.01). It was concluded that the cause of stillbirth with a non-infectious aetiology is likely to be multifactorial and difficult calving may explain only about half of the stillbirths. As much as one third of the calves seemed clinically normal with no obvious reason for death. This is a target group of calves that warrants a more thorough investigation in further studies. PMID:15074624

  4. Next-Generation Sequencing in Post-mortem Genetic Testing of Young Sudden Cardiac Death Cases

    PubMed Central

    Lahrouchi, Najim; Behr, Elijah R.; Bezzina, Connie R.

    2016-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) in the young (<40 years) occurs in the setting of a variety of rare inherited cardiac disorders and is a disastrous event for family members. Establishing the cause of SCD is important as it permits the pre-symptomatic identification of relatives at risk of SCD. Sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS) is defined as SCD in the setting of negative autopsy findings and toxicological analysis. In such cases, reaching a diagnosis is even more challenging and post-mortem genetic testing can crucially contribute to the identification of the underlying cause of death. In this review, we will discuss the current achievements of “the molecular autopsy” in young SADS cases and provide an overview of key challenges in assessing pathogenicity (i.e., causality) of genetic variants identified through next-generation sequencing. PMID:27303672

  5. Oblique Loading in Post Mortem Human Surrogates from Vehicle Lateral Impact Tests using Chestbands.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Humm, John R; Pintar, Frank A; Arun, Mike W J; Rhule, Heather; Rudd, Rodney; Craig, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    While numerous studies have been conducted to determine side impact responses of Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) using sled and other equipment, experiments using the biological surrogate in modern full-scale vehicles are not available. The present study investigated the presence of oblique loading in moving deformable barrier and pole tests. Threepoint belt restrained PMHS were positioned in the left front and left rear seats in the former and left front seat in the latter condition and tested according to consumer testing protocols. Three chestbands were used in each specimen (upper, middle and lower thorax). Accelerometers were secured to the skull, shoulder, upper, middle and lower thoracic vertebrae, sternum, and sacrum. Chestband signals were processed to determine magnitudes and angulations of peak deflections. The magnitude and timing of various signal peaks are given. Vehicle accelerations, door velocities, and seat belt loads are also given. Analysis of deformation contours, peak deflections, and angulations indicated that the left rear seated specimen were exposed to anterior oblique loading while left front specimens in both tests sustained essentially pure lateral loading to the torso. These data can be used to validate human body computational models. The occurrence of oblique loading in full-scale testing, hitherto unrecognized, may serve to stimulate the exploration of its role in injuries to the thorax and lower extremities in modern vehicles. It may be important to continue research in this area because injury metrics have a lower threshold for angled loading. PMID:26660738

  6. Post-mortem clinical pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Ferner, R E

    2008-01-01

    Clinical pharmacology assumes that deductions can be made about the concentrations of drugs from a knowledge of the pharmacokinetic parameters in an individual; and that the effects are related to the measured concentration. Post-mortem changes render the assumptions of clinical pharmacology largely invalid, and make the interpretation of concentrations measured in post-mortem samples difficult or impossible. Qualitative tests can show the presence of substances that were not present in life, and can fail to detect substances that led to death. Quantitative analysis is subject to error in itself, and because post-mortem concentrations vary in largely unpredictable ways with the site and time of sampling, as a result of the phenomenon of post-mortem redistribution. Consequently, compilations of ‘lethal concentrations’ are misleading. There is a lack of adequate studies of the true relationship between fatal events and the concentrations that can be measured subsequently, but without such studies, clinical pharmacologists and others should be wary of interpreting post-mortem measurements. PMID:18637886

  7. Involvement of neuroleptic drugs in selenium deficiency and sudden death of cardiac origin: study and human post-mortem examination.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Lamia; Bost, Muriel; Chazot, Guy; Bui-Xuan, Bernard; Vaillant, Fanny; Dehina, Leila; Descotes, Jacques; Tabib, Alain; Mamou, Zahida; Timour, Quadiri

    2012-06-01

    The involvement of psychotropic drugs in sudden deaths has been highlighted. The objective of this work was to establish a link between selenium levels in heart tissue, psychotropic treatment and sudden death. Selenium levels were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy post-mortem in heart, brain and liver. Histological examination evidenced dilated cardiomyopathy in 45% of cases, left ventricular hypertrophy in 36%, and ischemic coronaropathy in 18%. A significant reduction of myocardial selenium levels compared to controls was seen in patients treated with neuroleptic drugs or meprobamate. No changes in brain or liver selenium levels were seen. These results suggest that selenium deficiency can facilitate sudden death in patients on psychotropic drugs. The reduced activity of glutathione peroxidase due to selenium deficiency can result in augmented oxidative stress in myocardial cells and myocardiopathy leading to sudden death. PMID:22664334

  8. Optimized lower leg injury probability curves from post-mortem human subject tests under axial impacts

    PubMed Central

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Arun, Mike W.J.; Pintar, Frank A.; Szabo, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Objective Derive optimum injury probability curves to describe human tolerance of the lower leg using parametric survival analysis. Methods The study re-examined lower leg PMHS data from a large group of specimens. Briefly, axial loading experiments were conducted by impacting the plantar surface of the foot. Both injury and non-injury tests were included in the testing process. They were identified by pre- and posttest radiographic images and detailed dissection following the impact test. Fractures included injuries to the calcaneus and distal tibia-fibula complex (including pylon), representing severities at the Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS) level 2+. For the statistical analysis, peak force was chosen as the main explanatory variable and the age was chosen as the co-variable. Censoring statuses depended on experimental outcomes. Parameters from the parametric survival analysis were estimated using the maximum likelihood approach and the dfbetas statistic was used to identify overly influential samples. The best fit from the Weibull, log-normal and log-logistic distributions was based on the Akaike Information Criterion. Plus and minus 95% confidence intervals were obtained for the optimum injury probability distribution. The relative sizes of the interval were determined at predetermined risk levels. Quality indices were described at each of the selected probability levels. Results The mean age, stature and weight: 58.2 ± 15.1 years, 1.74 ± 0.08 m and 74.9 ± 13.8 kg. Excluding all overly influential tests resulted in the tightest confidence intervals. The Weibull distribution was the most optimum function compared to the other two distributions. A majority of quality indices were in the good category for this optimum distribution when results were extracted for 25-, 45- and 65-year-old at five, 25 and 50% risk levels age groups for lower leg fracture. For 25, 45 and 65 years, peak forces were 8.1, 6.5, and 5.1 kN at 5% risk; 9.6, 7.7, and 6.1 kN at 25% risk

  9. Investigation on occupant ejection in high severity rear impact based on post mortem human subject sled tests.

    PubMed

    Petit, Philippe; Luet, Carole; Potier, Pascal; Vallancien, Guy

    2011-11-01

    Occupant protection in rear impact involves two competing challenges. On one hand, allowing a deformation of the seat would act as an energy absorber in low severity impacts and would consequently decrease the risk of neck injuries. However, on the other hand, large deformations of the seat may increase the likelihood of occupant ejection in high severity cases. Green et al. 1987 analyzed a total of 919 accidents in Great Britain. They found that occupant ejection resulted in a risk of severe injuries and fatalities between 3.6 and 4.5 times higher than those cases where no ejection was observed. The sample included single front, side and rear impacts as well as multiple impacts and rollover. The rate of belt use in the sample was 50%. While this analysis included all forms of impact scenarios, nevertheless, it highlights the relative injury severity of occupant ejection. Extensive literature search has found no full-scale rear impact tests involving Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) conducted in a laboratory environment and resulting in ejection. This paper describes a total of 10 sled tests conducted on 3 belted PMHS using a simplified seat design composed of rigid plates assembled such that the angular and linear stiffness of the seatback (including the foam) was modeled. The initial angular position and the range of motion of the seatback, the size of the PMHS, the slack length of the seatbelt, the angular stiffness of the seatback, and the use of headrest were varied in the test matrix while the pulse was kept constant (triangular acceleration with a peak of 17 G at 30 ms and a duration of 95 ms). In the test series, the tests were not run randomly but the likelihood of occupant ejection was increased systematically until ejection occurred. PMHS seat ejection was observed only for the 95th percentile, initially positioned with a seatback angle relative to the vertical equal to 22°, a range of seatback angular motion equal to 44° and no headrest. Repeating

  10. Comparative proteomic profiling of cerebrospinal fluid between living and post mortem ALS and control subjects

    PubMed Central

    RANGANATHAN, SRIKANTH; NICHOLL, GEORGINA C.B.; HENRY, SARAH; LUTKA, FRAN; SATHANOORI, RAMASRI; LACOMIS, DAVID; BOWSER, ROBERT

    2010-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), lack definitive diagnostic tests or biomarkers of disease progression. Most studies that investigate protein abnormalities in ALS have used biofluids such as blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), while some have used post mortem tissue or CSF samples. Since ALS disease progression and post mortem effects probably induce significant alterations to protein modifications or proteolysis, we directly examined the CSF proteome from ALS subjects at various lengths of time from symptom onset and at autopsy by mass spectrometry based proteomics. CSF was also obtained from both healthy age-matched control subjects and at autopsy from healthy and Alzheimer's disease (AD) controls. We identified significant differences in the CSF proteome between living and post mortem ALS subjects, as well as living and post mortem control subjects. We also noted differences in the CSF proteome of ALS subjects that have exhibited symptoms for varying lengths of time and between ALS and AD subjects at end-stage of disease. This is the first study describing differences in the CSF proteome from post mortem and living ALS subjects using a mass spectrometric approach. These differences highlight the importance of utilizing CSF from living ALS subjects near the time of symptom onset for the identification of early protein biomarkers, although some protein alterations that occur early in the disease process are maintained throughout the course of disease and in post mortem samples. PMID:17852009

  11. [Post-mortem microbiology analysis].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Amparo; Alberola, Juan; Cohen, Marta Cecilia

    2013-12-01

    Post-mortem microbiology is useful in both clinical and forensic autopsies, and allows a suspected infection to be confirmed. Indeed, it is routinely applied to donor studies in the clinical setting, as well as in sudden and unexpected death in the forensic field. Implementation of specific sampling techniques in autopsy can minimize the possibility of contamination, making interpretation of the results easier. Specific interpretation criteria for post-mortem cultures, the use of molecular diagnosis, and its fusion with molecular biology and histopathology have led to post-mortem microbiology playing a major role in autopsy. Multidisciplinary work involving microbiologists, pathologists, and forensic physicians will help to improve the achievements of post-mortem microbiology, prevent infectious diseases, and contribute to a healthier population. PMID:23195835

  12. Epidemiological study of non-systemic parasitism in dogs in southeast Mediterranean Spain assessed by coprological and post-mortem examination.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Carrasco, C; Berriatua, E; Garijo, M; Martínez, J; Alonso, F D; de Ybáñez, R Ruiz

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence and risk factors of non-systemic canine ecto- and endoparasitism and anthelminthic use in Murcia located at the centre of the Spanish Mediterranean coastal arch, was investigated by coprology and necropsy in up to 275 pet, city shelter and stray dogs in 2001-2004. Faecal parasite stages were detected in 25% of dogs. Species frequency was 6-10% for Toxocara canis, Ancylostomatidae spp., Toxascaris leonina and Isospora canis, and 0.4-1% for Trichuris vulpis, Giardia lamblia, and Dipylidium caninum. Logistic regression indicated that the risk of intestinal parasitism was highest for dogs post-mortem and coprological examination for intestinal parasites was generally poor. Necropsy revealed 10%G. lamblia, 12%Taenia spp. 38%D. caninum infections. Fleas, ticks and lice were also found in 38%, 6% and 2% of necropsied stray dogs. These results demonstrate the need for an urgent parasite control programme at the city dog shelter and the need to improve the owner's education on zoonotic risks, the proper use of anthelminthics, and other parasite control practices. PMID:17542962

  13. Identification of Arcanobacterium pyogenes isolated by post mortem examinations of a bearded dragon and a gecko by phenotypic and genotypic properties

    PubMed Central

    Ülbegi-Mohyla, H.; Hijazin, M.; Alber, J.; Hassan, A. A.; Abdulmawjood, A.; Prenger-Berninghoff, E.; Weiß, R.; Zschöck, M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study was designed to identify phenotypically and genotypically two Arcanobacterium (A.) pyogenes strains isolated by post mortem examinations of a bearded dragon and a gecko. The A. pyogenes strains showed the typical biochemical properties and displayed CAMP-like synergistic hemolytic activities with various indicator strains. The species identity could be confirmed genotypically by amplification and sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene and, as novel target gene, by sequencing of the beta subunit of RNA polymerase encoding gene rpoB, of both strains and of reference strains representing nine species of the genus Arcanobacterium. The species identity of the two A. pyogenes strains could additionally be confirmed by PCR mediated amplification of species specific parts of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region, the pyolysin encoding gene plo and by amplification of the collagen-binding protein encoding gene cbpA. All these molecular targets might help to improve the future identification and further characterization of A. pyogenes which, as demonstrated in the present study, could also be isolated from reptile specimens. PMID:20706035

  14. Identification of Arcanobacterium pyogenes isolated by post mortem examinations of a bearded dragon and a gecko by phenotypic and genotypic properties.

    PubMed

    Ulbegi-Mohyla, H; Hijazin, M; Alber, J; Lämmler, C; Hassan, A A; Abdulmawjood, A; Prenger-Berninghoff, E; Weiss, R; Zschöck, M

    2010-09-01

    The present study was designed to identify phenotypically and genotypically two Arcanobacterium (A.) pyogenes strains isolated by post mortem examinations of a bearded dragon and a gecko. The A. pyogenes strains showed the typical biochemical properties and displayed CAMP-like synergistic hemolytic activities with various indicator strains. The species identity could be confirmed genotypically by amplification and sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene and, as novel target gene, by sequencing of the beta subunit of RNA polymerase encoding gene rpoB, of both strains and of reference strains representing nine species of the genus Arcanobacterium. The species identity of the two A. pyogenes strains could additionally be confirmed by PCR mediated amplification of species specific parts of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region, the pyolysin encoding gene plo and by amplification of the collagen-binding protein encoding gene cbpA. All these molecular targets might help to improve the future identification and further characterization of A. pyogenes which, as demonstrated in the present study, could also be isolated from reptile specimens. PMID:20706035

  15. [Corpse disposal by concealment in transport containers or packaging materials: Examination by post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) before forensic autopsy].

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Iwao; Heinemann, Axel; Jahnke, Philipp; Wilke, Nadine; Kammal, Michael; Püschel, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The presented case reports illustrate the value of post-mortem computed tomography in cases of homicide in which the body was hidden in a container or packaging material and could not be inspected directly from outside. In Case 1, the body was forced into a suitcase, which was then thrown into a flood basin. Post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) visualized the compressed and extremely flexed body inside the suitcase as well as fractures of the left temporal bone, the left ulna and the left side of the mandible. After recovery of the body, the consequences of long-term immersion in fresh water became visible. At autopsy, a laceration in the left temporal region and a temporal bone fracture were observed. The fractures of the left ulna and the left jaw were associated with moderate hematoma. In Case 2, the body of an 11-year-old girl was retrieved from a plastic bag concealed in a garden shed. The cause of death was ligature strangulation. In the presented cases, PMCT was performed as part of the police investigations for reliable primary documentation of the contents of the containers without further manipulation. Thus the human body, its position inside the container and the presence of bone injuries could be demonstrated before opening the container. In such cases, post-mortem imaging provides reliable and rapid information to the investigating authorities before autopsy already. PMID:26548018

  16. Comparison of the Thorax Dynamic Responses of Small Female and Midsize Male Post Mortem Human Subjects in Side and Forward Oblique Impact Tests.

    PubMed

    Baudrit, Pascal; Petitjean, Audrey; Potier, Pascal; Trosseille, Xavier; Vallencien, Guy

    2014-11-01

    Despite the increasing knowledge of the thorax mechanics in impact loadings, the effects of inter-individual differences on the mechanical response are difficult to take into account. For example, the biofidelity corridors for the small female or large male are extrapolated from the midsize male corridors. The present study reports on the results of new tests performed on small female Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS), and compares them with test results on midsize male PMHS. Three tests in pure side impact and three tests in forward oblique impact were performed on the thorax of small female specimens. The average weight and stature were 43 kg and 1.58 m for the small female specimens. The initial speed of the impactor was 4.3 m/s. The mass and the diameter of the impactor face were respectively 23.4 kg and 130 mm. The instrumentation and methodology was the same as for the tests published in 2008 by Trosseille et al. on midsize male specimens. The rib cages were instrumented with accelerometers on the T1, T4 and T12 vertebrae, upper and lower sternum, and the ribs were instrumented with up to 110 strain gauges. A force transducer and an accelerometer were mounted on the impactor in order to record the force applied onto the thorax. Targets fixed on vertebrae were tracked using high speed cameras in order to estimate the thoracic deflection. For the six midsize males, the test conditions were exactly the same as for the small female specimens, except for the diameter of the impactor face which was 152 mm. The average weight and stature were 70.3 kg and 1.70 m for the midsize male specimens. The force and thoracic deflection time-histories and the injury assessments are given for each specimen. The thorax force magnitude varied from 1.05 to 1.45 kN and from 1.63 to 2.34 kN, respectively for the small female and midsize male groups. The maximum deflection varied from 51 to 117 mm and from 59 to 81 mm, respectively for the small female and midsize male groups. The

  17. 42 CFR 35.16 - Autopsies and other post-mortem operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Autopsies and other post-mortem operations. 35.16 Section 35.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT General § 35.16 Autopsies and other post-mortem operations. Autopsies, or other...

  18. Advances in post-mortem CT-angiography

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, J; Dominguez, A; Vanhaebost, J; Mangin, P

    2014-01-01

    Performing a post-mortem multidetector CT (MDCT) scan has already become routine in some institutes of forensic medicine. To better visualize the vascular system, different techniques of post-mortem CT-angiography have been explored, which can essentially be divided into partial- and whole-body angiography techniques. Probably the most frequently applied technique today is the so-called multiphase post-mortem CT-angiography (MPMCTA) a standardized method for investigating the vessels of the head, thorax and abdomen. Different studies exist, describing its use for medicolegal investigations, and its advantages as well as its artefacts and pitfalls. With the aim to investigate the performance of PMCTA and to develop and validate techniques, an international working group was created in 2012 called the “Technical Working Group Post-mortem Angiography Methods” (TWGPAM). Beyond its primary perspective, the goals of this group include creating recommendations for the indication of the investigation and for the interpretation of the images and to distribute knowledge about PMCTA. This article provides an overview about the different approaches that have been developed and tested in recent years and an update about ongoing research in this field. It will explain the technique of MPMCTA in detail and give an outline of its indications, application, advantages and limitations. PMID:24234582

  19. Post-mortem testing; germline BRCA1/2 variant detection using archival FFPE non-tumor tissue. A new paradigm in genetic counseling.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Annabeth Høgh; Aagaard, Mads Malik; Nielsen, Henriette Roed; Steffensen, Karina Dahl; Waldstrøm, Marianne; Bojesen, Anders

    2016-08-01

    Accurate estimation of cancer risk in HBOC families often requires BRCA1/2 testing, but this may be impossible in deceased family members. Previous, testing archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue for germline BRCA1/2 variants was unsuccessful, except for the Jewish founder mutations. A high-throughput method to systematically test for variants in all coding regions of BRCA1/2 in archival FFPE samples of non-tumor tissue is described, using HaloPlex target enrichment and next-generation sequencing. In a validation study, correct identification of variants or wild-type was possible in 25 out of 30 (83%) FFPE samples (age range 1-14 years), with a known variant status in BRCA1/2. No false positive was found. Unsuccessful identification was due to highly degraded DNA or presence of large intragenic deletions. In clinical use, a total of 201 FFPE samples (aged 0-43 years) were processed. Thirty-six samples were rejected because of highly degraded DNA or failed library preparation. Fifteen samples were investigated to search for a known variant. In the remaining 150 samples (aged 0-38 years), three variants known to affect function and one variant likely to affect function in BRCA1, six variants known to affect function and one variant likely to affect function in BRCA2, as well as four variants of unknown significance (VUS) in BRCA1 and three VUS in BRCA2 were discovered. It is now possible to test for germline BRCA1/2 variants in deceased persons, using archival FFPE samples from non-tumor tissue. Accurate genetic counseling is achievable in families where variant testing would otherwise be impossible. PMID:26733283

  20. Kinetic and kinematic responses of post mortem human surrogates and the Hybrid III ATD in high-speed frontal sled tests.

    PubMed

    Beeman, Stephanie M; Kemper, Andrew R; Madigan, Michael L; Duma, Stefan M

    2013-06-01

    Despite improvements in vehicle design and safety technologies, frontal automotive collisions continue to result in a substantial number of injuries and fatalities each year. Although a considerable amount of research has been performed on PMHSs and ATDs, matched dynamic whole-body frontal testing with PMHSs and the current ATD aimed at quantifying both kinetic and kinematic data in a single controlled study is lacking in the literature. Therefore, a total of 4 dynamic matched frontal sled tests were performed with three male PMHSs and a Hybrid III 50th percentile male ATD (28.6g, Δv=40 kph). Each subject was restrained using a 4 kN load limiting, driver-side, 3-point seatbelt. Belt force was measured for the lap belt and shoulder belt. Reaction forces were measured at the seat pan, seat back, independent foot plates, and steering column. Linear head acceleration, angular head acceleration, and pelvic acceleration were measured for all subjects. Acceleration of C7, T7, T12, both femurs, and both tibias were also measured for the PMHSs. A Vicon motion analysis system, consisting of 12 MX-T20 2 megapixel cameras, was used to quantify subject 3D motion (±1 mm) at a rate of 1 kHz. Excursions of select anatomical regions were normalized to their respective initial positions and compared by test condition and between subject types. Notable discrepancies were observed in the responses of the PMHSs and the ATD. The reaction forces and belt loading for the ATD, particularly foot plate, seat back, steering column, and lap belt forces, were not in agreement with those of the PMHSs. The forward excursions of the ATD were consistently within those of the PMHSs with the exception of the left upper extremity. This could potentially be due to the known limitations of the Hybrid III ATD shoulder and chest. The results presented herein demonstrate that there are some limitations to the current Hybrid III ATD under the loading conditions evaluated in the current study. Overall

  1. The cardiothoracic ratio on post-mortem computer tomography.

    PubMed

    Jotterand, M; Doenz, F; Grabherr, S; Faouzi, M; Boone, S; Mangin, P; Michaud, K

    2016-09-01

    In clinical practice, the cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) was first utilized on plain chest radiography, and subsequently with computed tomography (CT) to diagnose cardiomegaly with a threshold of 0.5. Using CTR in forensic practice could help to detect cardiomegaly on post-mortem CT (PMCT) prior to the autopsy. However, an adaption of the threshold could be necessary because of post-mortem changes. Our retrospective study aimed to measure the CTR on PMCT and test the possible influence of variables. We selected 109 autopsy cases in which the heart weight was within normal limits. A forensic pathologist and a radiologist measured separately the CTR on axial and scout views on PMCT. We tested the statistical concordance between the two readers and between the axial and scout view and identified factors that could be associated with a modification of the CTR. The CTR measurements revealed an overestimation of the measurements made on scout compared to axial view. The inter-reader correlation was very high for both views. Among the different variables statistically tested, heart dilatation and body mass index (BMI) were the only two factors statistically associated with an augmentation of the CTR. The CTR can be useful in the diagnosis of cardiomegaly on PMCT. However, dilatation of the cardiac chambers caused by acute heart failure may be misinterpreted radiographically as cardiomegaly. Inter-observer reliability in our study was very high. CTR may be overestimated when measured on the scout view. Further investigations with larger cohorts, including cases with cardiac hypertrophy, are necessary to better understand the relationship between radiological CTR and the morphology of the heart. PMID:26886107

  2. 9 CFR 352.11 - Post-mortem inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-mortem inspection. (a) Post-mortem inspection of reindeer, elk, deer, antelope, bison and water buffalo shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions contained in 9 CFR part 310 or as determined by...

  3. 9 CFR 352.11 - Post-mortem inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-mortem inspection. (a) Post-mortem inspection of reindeer, elk, deer, antelope, bison and water buffalo shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions contained in 9 CFR part 310 or as determined by...

  4. 9 CFR 352.11 - Post-mortem inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-mortem inspection. (a) Post-mortem inspection of reindeer, elk, deer, antelope, bison and water buffalo shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions contained in 9 CFR part 310 or as determined by...

  5. 9 CFR 352.11 - Post-mortem inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-mortem inspection. (a) Post-mortem inspection of reindeer, elk, deer, antelope, bison and water buffalo shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions contained in 9 CFR part 310 or as determined by...

  6. 9 CFR 352.11 - Post-mortem inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-mortem inspection. (a) Post-mortem inspection of reindeer, elk, deer, antelope, bison and water buffalo shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions contained in 9 CFR part 310 or as determined by...

  7. Evaluation of post-mortem lateral cerebral ventricle changes using sequential scans during post-mortem computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Iwao; Shimizu, Akinobu; Saito, Atsushi; Suzuki, Hideto; Vogel, Hermann; Püschel, Klaus; Heinemann, Axel

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, we evaluated post-mortem lateral cerebral ventricle (LCV) changes using computed tomography (CT). Subsequent periodical CT scans termed "sequential scans" were obtained for three cadavers. The first scan was performed immediately after the body was transferred from the emergency room to the institute of legal medicine. Sequential scans were obtained and evaluated for 24 h at maximum. The time of death had been determined in the emergency room. The sequential scans enabled us to observe periodical post-mortem changes in CT images. The series of continuous LCV images obtained up to 24 h (two cases)/16 h (1 case) after death was evaluated. The average Hounsfield units (HU) within the LCVs progressively increased, and LCV volume progressively decreased over time. The HU in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) increased at an individual rate proportional to the post-mortem interval (PMI). Thus, an early longitudinal radiodensity change in the CSF could be potential indicator of post-mortem interval (PMI). Sequential imaging scans reveal post-mortem changes in the CSF space which may reflect post-mortem brain alterations. Further studies are needed to evaluate the proposed CSF change markers in correlation with other validated PMI indicators. PMID:27048214

  8. Post-mortem CT and MRI: appropriate post-mortem imaging appearances and changes related to cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Offiah, Curtis E; Dean, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Post-mortem cross-sectional imaging in the form of CT and, less frequently, MRI is an emerging facility in the evaluation of cause-of-death and human identification for the coronial service as well as in assisting the forensic investigation of suspicious deaths and homicide. There are marked differences between the radiological evaluation and interpretation of the CT and MRI features of the live patient (i.e. antemortem imaging) and the evaluation and interpretation of post-mortem CT and MRI appearances. In addition to the absence of frequently utilized tissue enhancement following intravenous contrast administration in antemortem imaging, there are a number of variable changes which occur in the tissues and organs of the body as a normal process following death, some of which are, in addition, affected significantly by environmental factors. Many patients and victims will also have undergone aggressive attempts at cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the perimortem period which will also significantly alter post-mortem CT and MRI appearances. It is paramount that the radiologist and pathologist engaged in the interpretation of such post-mortem imaging are familiar with the appropriate non-pathological imaging changes germane to death, the post-mortem interval and cardiopulmonary resuscitation in order to avoid erroneously attributing such changes to trauma or pathology. Some of the more frequently encountered radiological imaging considerations of this nature will be reviewed. PMID:26562099

  9. [Detection of dengue virus antigen in post-mortem tissues].

    PubMed

    Rivera, Jorge; Neira, Marcela; Parra, Edgar; Méndez, Jairo; Sarmiento, Ladys; Caldas, María Leonor

    2014-01-01

    The epidemiological situation of dengue has worsened over the last decade. The difficulties in preventing its transmission and the absence of a vaccine or specific treatment have made dengue a serious risk to public health, health centers and research systems at different levels. Currently, most studies on the pathogenesis of dengue infection focus on the T-cell immune response almost exclusively in secondary infections and are aimed at identifying the mechanisms involved in the development of vascular permeability and bleeding events that accompany the infection. This report describes the case of a baby girl less than 45 days of age with clinical signs of severe dengue, whose diagnosis was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in post-mortem tissue samples and by the ancillary diagnostic use of immunohistochemistry, which detected viral antigens in all organs obtained at autopsy. This case highlights the importance of studying primary infections associated with severe dengue, particularly in children, who are more likely to develop the severe form of the disease without previous infection, and it further stresses the importance of a diagnosis that should not be based solely on the examination of liver tissue samples when studying the pathogenesis of the viral infection. PMID:25504239

  10. Isolation of Cardiomyocyte Nuclei from Post-mortem Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Olaf; Jovinge, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Identification of cardiomyocyte nuclei has been challenging in tissue sections as most strategies rely only on cytoplasmic marker proteins1. Rare events in cardiac myocytes such as proliferation and apoptosis require an accurate identification of cardiac myocyte nuclei to analyze cellular renewal in homeostasis and in pathological conditions2. Here, we provide a method to isolate cardiomyocyte nuclei from post mortem tissue by density sedimentation and immunolabeling with antibodies against pericentriolar material 1 (PCM-1) and subsequent flow cytometry sorting. This strategy allows a high throughput analysis and isolation with the advantage of working equally well on fresh tissue and frozen archival material. This makes it possible to study material already collected in biobanks. This technique is applicable and tested in a wide range of species and suitable for multiple downstream applications such as carbon-14 dating3, cell-cycle analysis4, visualization of thymidine analogues (e.g. BrdU and IdU)4, transcriptome and epigenetic analysis. PMID:22805241

  11. Isolation of cardiomyocyte nuclei from post-mortem tissue.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Olaf; Jovinge, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Identification of cardiomyocyte nuclei has been challenging in tissue sections as most strategies rely only on cytoplasmic marker proteins(1). Rare events in cardiac myocytes such as proliferation and apoptosis require an accurate identification of cardiac myocyte nuclei to analyze cellular renewal in homeostasis and in pathological conditions(2). Here, we provide a method to isolate cardiomyocyte nuclei from post mortem tissue by density sedimentation and immunolabeling with antibodies against pericentriolar material 1 (PCM-1) and subsequent flow cytometry sorting. This strategy allows a high throughput analysis and isolation with the advantage of working equally well on fresh tissue and frozen archival material. This makes it possible to study material already collected in biobanks. This technique is applicable and tested in a wide range of species and suitable for multiple downstream applications such as carbon-14 dating(3), cell-cycle analysis(4), visualization of thymidine analogues (e.g. BrdU and IdU)(4), transcriptome and epigenetic analysis. PMID:22805241

  12. Post-mortems in recreational scuba diver deaths: the utility of radiology.

    PubMed

    Wheen, Lyndsae Clair; Williams, Michael Philip

    2009-07-01

    Post-mortem radiology and autopsy findings in a series of six diving-related deaths are presented. The cases had different causes of death but essentially similar radiological findings. We propose that the so-called classical radiological features of cerebral arterial gas embolism more likely represent "off-gassing" (gas coming out of solution into intra-vascular spaces due to pressure changes). As such, we suggest that post-mortem radiology, when accompanying a competent autopsy examination, be limited to the chest, whereby it may be useful in the demonstration of pneumothoraces which might not be demonstrated at autopsy, thereby providing supporting evidence for barotrauma in the context of appropriate clinical and autopsy findings. PMID:19481710

  13. Olanzapine-induced hyperglycemic ketoacidosis and corresponding acetone concentrations post-mortem: a forensic interpretation.

    PubMed

    House, Chris J

    2007-08-24

    Olanzapine has been shown to cause or have a contributory role in the development of hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus. Without careful monitoring for the development of these conditions and control of the resulting adverse effects, patients receiving olanzapine may be at risk of developing fatal ketoacidosis. A review of post-mortem toxicological reports has revealed an increase in the incidence of post-mortem findings of acetone in decedents who were taking olanzapine over the past decade. A review of the current literature and a comprehensive review of case histories and toxicological findings were conducted at the Centre of Forensic Sciences (Toronto, Ontario). Olanzapine concentrations ranging from <62.5 to 858 ng/mL and acetone concentrations as high as 95 mg/dL were detected concurrently. Due to the unstable nature of olanzapine, in several instances quantitation was not possible despite elevated responses during qualitative screening procedures. Five cases suggesting olanzapine-induced ketoacidosis were identified based on the case history and toxicological findings. These data have been compiled and examined with respect to acetone concentrations following olanzapine use and the forensic relevance of post-mortem olanzapine and acetone concentrations are discussed. PMID:17084052

  14. DNA methylation results depend on DNA integrity—role of post mortem interval

    PubMed Central

    Rhein, Mathias; Hagemeier, Lars; Klintschar, Michael; Muschler, Marc; Bleich, Stefan; Frieling, Helge

    2015-01-01

    Major questions of neurological and psychiatric mechanisms involve the brain functions on a molecular level and cannot be easily addressed due to limitations in access to tissue samples. Post mortem studies are able to partly bridge the gap between brain tissue research retrieved from animal trials and the information derived from peripheral analysis (e.g., measurements in blood cells) in patients. Here, we wanted to know how fast DNA degradation is progressing under controlled conditions in order to define thresholds for tissue quality to be used in respective trials. Our focus was on the applicability of partly degraded samples for bisulfite sequencing and the determination of simple means to define cut-off values. After opening the brain cavity, we kept two consecutive pig skulls at ambient temperature (19–21°C) and removed cortex tissue up to a post mortem interval (PMI) of 120 h. We calculated the percentage of degradation on DNA gel electrophoresis of brain DNA to estimate quality and relate this estimation spectrum to the quality of human post mortem control samples. Functional DNA quality was investigated by bisulfite sequencing of two functionally relevant genes for either the serotonin receptor 5 (SLC6A4) or aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2). Testing our approach in a heterogeneous collective of human blood and brain samples, we demonstrate integrity of measurement quality below the threshold of 72 h PMI. While sequencing technically worked for all timepoints irrespective of conceivable DNA degradation, there is a good correlation between variance of methylation to degradation levels documented in the gel (R2 = 0.4311, p = 0.0392) for advancing post mortem intervals (PMI). This otherwise elusive phenomenon is an important prerequisite for the interpretation and evaluation of samples prior to in-depth processing via an affordable and easy assay to estimate identical sample quality and thereby comparable methylation measurements. PMID:26042147

  15. Post-mortem findings and piglet mortality in relation to strategic use of straw at farrowing.

    PubMed

    Westin, Rebecka; Holmgren, Nils; Hultgren, Jan; Ortman, Kerstin; Linder, Anders; Algers, Bo

    2015-05-01

    Piglet survival is the outcome of complex interactions between the sow, the piglet and their environment. In order to facilitate nest-building and to provide a suitable environment for the newborn piglets, a strategic method to supply loose housed sows with large quantities of straw at farrowing has been developed by Swedish piglet-producing farmers. The objectives of this cohort study were to use post-mortem findings to assess the causes of death and to quantify the effect of a large quantity of straw provided before farrowing compared to limited small daily amounts on stillbirths, post-mortem findings in piglets dying within 5 days after birth and the pre-weaning mortality. On each of four commercial piglet-producing farms in South-West Sweden, one batch of sows was studied during two consecutive lactations. At inclusion, sows were randomly assigned to two treatment groups, and sows remaining in the batch during the next lactation switched treatment group. In the STRAW group (n=181 litters) sows were provided with 15-20 kg of chopped straw 2 days prior to the calculated date of farrowing. Sows in the CONTROL group (n=182 litters) received 0.5-1 kg of chopped straw on a daily basis plus about 2 kg for nest-building when the stockperson judged the sow to be about to farrow. After onset of farrowing, additionally 1-2 kg was given. Post-mortem examination was performed in all piglets that died within 5 days after birth (n=798). The three major post-mortem findings were starvation (34%) crushing by the sow (28%), and enteritis (24%). In conclusion, strategic use of large quantities of straw reduced the number of stillborn piglets per litter by 27% (p=0.007). Under the conditions studied, the pre-weaning mortality of liveborn piglets was not affected by treatment; however, the distribution of post-mortem findings differed with fewer piglets dying due to starvation and more due to crushing and enteritis in STRAW litters. PMID:25792335

  16. Imaging maculopathy in post-mortem human eyes.

    PubMed

    Curcio, Christine A

    2005-12-01

    Age-related maculopathy (ARM) remains a poorly understood degeneration. To discover new pathways using contemporary genomics, proteomics, and immunohistochemistry, validate emerging animal models, and validate new imaging modalities, human tissues obtained from donor eyes will be essential to ARM research for the foreseeable future. Because fundus appearance is the clinical diagnostic lingua franca, laboratory investigators adapted these standards to the distinctive appearance of post-mortem tissues in order to identify and stage ARM in donor eyes. Post-mortem tissues offer unique advantages and limitations relative to pre-mortem tissues for imaging studies. One fellow eye can be used for imaging and the other for correlative laboratory studies, if some degree of disease stage asymmetry between eyes is acceptable. Histological verification is a necessary, albeit challenging, step in validating a grading system. PMID:16171840

  17. Haemorrhoids leading to post-mortem bleeding artefact.

    PubMed

    Kanchan, Tanuj; Menezes, Ritesh G; Manipady, Shahnavaz

    2006-07-01

    We present a case where a 54-year-old man suffering from haemorrhoids, committed suicide by hanging. Gravitational forces due to the upright position of the body facilitated post-mortem per-rectal bleeding from the ulcerated haemorrhoids. The bleeding stained his under garment and wrap around cloth. Frank blood was also seen on the floor beneath the hanging body. The blood at the crime scene was wrongly interpreted by the investigating police as that due to self-inflicted injury or possibly case of homicide followed by post-mortem suspension of the body. Observation of the crime scene by forensic medicine experts and subsequent autopsy findings revealed that the bleeding was from the haemorrhoids. This case is reported for its rarity, for the awareness of the possible post-mortem haemorrhoidal bleeding artefact, to explain the circumstances of such a possibility, and to emphasize the importance of involving forensic medicine experts as a part of the crime scene investigation team. PMID:16442833

  18. Changes of microbial spoilage, lipid-protein oxidation and physicochemical properties during post mortem refrigerated storage of goat meat.

    PubMed

    Sabow, Azad Behnan; Sazili, Awis Qurni; Aghwan, Zeiad Amjad; Zulkifli, Idrus; Goh, Yong Meng; Ab Kadir, Mohd Zainal Abidin; Nakyinsige, Khadijah; Kaka, Ubedullah; Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda

    2016-06-01

    Examined was the effect of post mortem refrigerated storage on microbial spoilage, lipid-protein oxidation and physicochemical traits of goat meat. Seven Boer bucks were slaughtered, eviscerated and aged for 24 h. The Longissimus lumborum (LL) and Semitendinosus (ST) muscles were excised and subjected to 13 days post mortem refrigerated storage. The pH, lipid and protein oxidation, tenderness, color and drip loss were determined in LL while microbiological analysis was performed on ST. Bacterial counts generally increased with increasing aging time and the limit for fresh meat was reached at day 14 post mortem. Significant differences were observed in malondialdehyde (MDA) content at day 7 of storage. The thiol concentration significantly reduced as aging time increased. The band intensities of myosin heavy chain (MHC) and troponin-T significantly decreased as storage progressed, while actin remained relatively stable. After 14 days of aging, tenderness showed significant improvement while muscle pH and drip loss reduced with increase in storage time. Samples aged for 14 days had higher lightness (P < 0.05) and lower (P < 0.05) yellowness and redness. Post mortem refrigerated storage influenced oxidative and microbial stability and physico-chemical properties of goat meat. PMID:26890722

  19. Possibilities of using the European bison (Bison bonasus) epididymal spermatozoa collected post-mortem for cryopreservation and artificial insemination: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background European bison is the largest mammal in Europe with the population of approximately 4000 individuals. However, there is no report of post-mortem spermatozoa collection and cryopreservation from this species and the aim of this study was to test if the epididymal spermatozoa collected post-mortem from European bison are suitable for cryopreservation and artificial insemination (AI). Methods Epididymides were collected post-mortem from two European bison bulls at age of 8 (bull 1) and 11 year (bull 2). Epididymal sperm was harvested by making multiple incisions in caudae epididymidis, which were then rinsed with extender. The left epididymis of bull 1 was rinsed with BioXcell (IMV, France), whereas the right epididymis of bull 1 and the right and left epididymides of bull 2 were rinsed with the extender based on Tris, citric acid, glucose, egg yolk, glycerol, antibiotics and distilled water (extender II). The diluted semen was cooled to 5 degrees C, and frozen in liquid nitrogen vapour. Then, properties of the frozen/thawed semen were examined with the use of computer-assisted semen analysis system, and thirty cows and nine heifers of domestic cattle were artificially inseminated. Results Motility of fresh spermatozoa collected from the right epididymis of bull 1 was 70% (spermatozoa diluted with extender II), and from the left one was 60% (spermatozoa diluted with BioXcell), whereas motility of fresh spermatozoa collected from bull 2 was 90% (spermatozoa diluted with extender II). Spermatozoa motility just after thawing were 11 and 13% in bull 1, respectively for spermatozoa collected from the left and right epididymis and 48% in bull 2. As a result of AI of domestic cows and heifers with the frozen/thawed European bison spermatozoa, two pregnancies were obtained in heifers. One pregnancy finished with a premature labour after 253 days of pregnancy, and the second one after 264 days of pregnancy. Conclusions This is the first report showing pregnancy in

  20. Post-mortem 1.5T MR quantification of regular anatomical brain structures.

    PubMed

    Zech, Wolf-Dieter; Hottinger, Anna-Lena; Schwendener, Nicole; Schuster, Frederick; Persson, Anders; Warntjes, Marcel J; Jackowski, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Recently, post-mortem MR quantification has been introduced to the field of post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging. By usage of a particular MR quantification sequence, T1 and T2 relaxation times and proton density (PD) of tissues and organs can be quantified simultaneously. The aim of the present basic research study was to assess the quantitative T1, T2, and PD values of regular anatomical brain structures for a 1.5T application and to correlate the assessed values with corpse temperatures. In a prospective study, 30 forensic cases were MR-scanned with a quantification sequence prior to autopsy. Body temperature was assessed during MR scans. In synthetically calculated T1, T2, and PD-weighted images, quantitative T1, T2 (both in ms) and PD (in %) values of anatomical structures of cerebrum (Group 1: frontal gray matter, frontal white matter, thalamus, internal capsule, caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus) and brainstem/cerebellum (Group 2: cerebral crus, substantia nigra, red nucleus, pons, cerebellar hemisphere, and superior cerebellar peduncle) were assessed. The investigated brain structures of cerebrum and brainstem/cerebellum could be characterized and differentiated based on a combination of their quantitative T1, T2, and PD values. MANOVA testing verified significant differences between the investigated anatomical brain structures among each other in Group 1 and Group 2 based on their quantitative values. Temperature dependence was observed mainly for T1 values, which were slightly increasing with rising temperature in the investigated brain structures in both groups. The results provide a base for future computer-aided diagnosis of brain pathologies and lesions in post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:26872469

  1. Longitudinal assessment of short-term memory deterioration in a logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia with post-mortem confirmed Alzheimer's Disease pathology.

    PubMed

    Tree, Jeremy; Kay, Janice

    2015-09-01

    In the field of dementia research, there are reports of neurodegenerative cases with a focal loss of language, termed primary progressive aphasia (PPA). Currently, this condition has been further sub-classified, with the most recent sub-type dubbed logopenic variant (PPA-LV). As yet, there remains somewhat limited evaluation of the characteristics of this condition, with no studies providing longitudinal assessment accompanied by post-mortem examination. Moreover, a key characteristic of the PPA-LV case is a deterioration of phonological short-term memory, but again little work has scrutinized the nature of this impairment over time. The current study seeks to redress these oversights and presents detailed longitudinal examination of language and memory function in a case of PPA-LV, with special focus on tests linked to components of phonological short-term memory function. Our findings are then considered with reference to a contemporary model of the neuropsychology of phonological short-term memory. Additionally, post-mortem examinations indicated Alzheimer's disease type pathology, providing further evidence that the PPA-LV presentation may reflect an atypical presentation of this condition. PMID:24751373

  2. Preservation of Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) pupae for use in post-mortem interval estimation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Katherine; Thorne, Alan; Harvey, Michelle

    2012-11-30

    Post-mortem interval (PMI) is frequently calculated using immature stages of carrion frequenting Calliphoridae (Diptera). This is based on identification to species level, followed by age estimation of the samples. These two processes depend on suitable preservation of insects for subsequent analyses, yet preservation methods for the pupal stage are poorly defined and inappropriate methods may result in discolouration or nucleic acid degradation. This study examined the effects of 21 common preservation methods on Calliphora vicina pupae of 4 and 7d old, assessing consequences of the various methods for DNA-based species identification, age estimation using morphological analyses, and differential gene expression (DGE) studies. Pupae were examined within two weeks of preservation and again after 6-8 months. Of the methods tested, hot-water-killing (HWK) followed by storage in 80% ethanol at -20°C or 4°C was the best treatment for external morphology and histological analyses respectively. DNA based species identification was possible following all methods. RNA integrity and amplification were best when pupae were stored at -80°C or in RNAlater (-20°C), however HWK and storage in 80% ethanol at -20°C was also acceptable, and thus the latter is proposed as a universal preservative method for pupae. This study proposes a preservation method for pupae that enables DNA-based species identification, internal and external morphological analysis for age estimation, and DGE study to be carried out on a single specimen, enabling a multidisciplinary approach to age estimation from a single pupa. PMID:23000139

  3. Experimental taphonomy: post-mortem microstructural modifications in Sus scrofa domesticus bone.

    PubMed

    Kontopoulos, Ioannis; Nystrom, Pia; White, Lorraine

    2016-09-01

    Bone is a highly specialised form of hard and rigid connective tissue whose histological structure undergoes post-mortem modifications. In taphonomic research, histological examination of bone thin sections is used to investigate these post-mortem microstructural changes in skeletal tissues. In this study, diagenetic modifications in pig skeletal remains (Sus scrofa domesticus) which were exposed to different taphonomic conditions as part of a long-term, real-time experiment were examined under light microscope (i.e. plain and cross polarized light). This experiment demonstrated that macroscopic appearance and microscopic preservation of bone may significantly differ. Early microbial attack was identified as enlarged osteocyte lacunae that later coalesce to constitute larger foci. Additionally, microscopic preservation of different skeletal elements varied intra-individually, while within bone differential preservation (i.e. proximal versus distal ends) was also observed. However, no specific patterns of early histological attack (e.g. endosteal and periosteal destruction) and no clear relationship between histological preservation and proximity to the abdominal area were detected. Lastly, the presence and composition of protective textiles had a clear effect on bone preservation. This research project, therefore, provided important evidence for the better understanding of the diagenetic processes that occur within bones whilst buried or exposed on the ground surface. PMID:27368073

  4. Field Documentation of Unusual Post-Mortem Arthropod Activity on Human Remains.

    PubMed

    Pechal, Jennifer L; Benbow, M Eric; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Crippen, Tawni L; Tarone, Aaron M; Singh, Baneshwar; Lenhart, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    During a forensic investigation, the presence of physical marks on human remains can influence the interpretation of events related to the death of an individual. Some tissue injury on human remains can be misinterpreted as ante- or peri-mortem wounds by an investigator when in reality the markings resulted from post-mortem arthropod activity. Unusual entomological data were collected during a study examining the decomposition of a set of human remains in San Marcos, Texas. An adult female Pediodectes haldemani (Girard) (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) and an Armadillidium cf. vulgare (Isopoda: Armadilidiidae) were documented feeding on the remains. Both arthropods produced physical marks or artifacts on the remains that could be misinterpreted as attack, abuse, neglect, or torture. Additionally, red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), were observed constructing structures in the mark produced by the P. haldemani feeding. These observations provide insight into the potential of post-mortem arthropod damage to human remains, which previously had not been described for these taxa, and therefore, physical artifacts on any remains found in similar circumstances may result from arthropod activity and not ante- or peri-mortem wounds. PMID:26336287

  5. The Elusive Universal Post-Mortem Interval Formula

    SciTech Connect

    Vass, Arpad Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The following manuscript details our initial attempt at developing universal post-mortem interval formulas describing human decomposition. These formulas are empirically derived from data collected over the last 20 years from the University of Tennessee's Anthropology Research Facility, in Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. Two formulas were developed (surface decomposition and burial decomposition) based on temperature, moisture, and the partial pressure of oxygen, as being three of the four primary drivers for human decomposition. It is hoped that worldwide application of these formulas to environments and situations not readily studied in Tennessee will result in interdisciplinary cooperation between scientists and law enforcement personnel that will allow for future refinements of these models leading to increased accuracy.

  6. Understanding fast macroscale fracture from microcrack post mortem patterns.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Claudia; Scheibert, Julien; Bonamy, Daniel; Dalmas, Davy

    2012-01-10

    Dynamic crack propagation drives catastrophic solid failures. In many amorphous brittle materials, sufficiently fast crack growth involves small-scale, high-frequency microcracking damage localized near the crack tip. The ultrafast dynamics of microcrack nucleation, growth, and coalescence is inaccessible experimentally and fast crack propagation was therefore studied only as a macroscale average. Here, we overcome this limitation in polymethylmethacrylate, the archetype of brittle amorphous materials: We reconstruct the complete spatiotemporal microcracking dynamics, with micrometer/nanosecond resolution, through post mortem analysis of the fracture surfaces. We find that all individual microcracks propagate at the same low, load-independent velocity. Collectively, the main effect of microcracks is not to slow down fracture by increasing the energy required for crack propagation, as commonly believed, but on the contrary to boost the macroscale velocity through an acceleration factor selected on geometric grounds. Our results emphasize the key role of damage-related internal variables in the selection of macroscale fracture dynamics. PMID:22203962

  7. Outdoor post-mortem depredation by local fauna.

    PubMed

    Feola, Alessandro; Campilongo, Sara; Pietra, Bruno Della

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of complete post-mortem decapitation of a 43 years old man killed by gunshots discharged from a distance of 40 - 50 cm. The corpse was left in the courtyard of his isolated carpentry and a mongrel dog lived in that courtyard, maybe attracted by the blood gushed from the wound, got a depredation of the corpse till the complete decapitation and the removal of all intrathoracic organs. The action of the dog was completed by the rats and mice that lived in the place. The case is not rare and sometimes the alteration of the features of the corpse makes it impossible for the investigators, to objectify any other signs of criminal nature. PMID:24625020

  8. Understanding fast macroscale fracture from microcrack post mortem patterns

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Claudia; Scheibert, Julien; Bonamy, Daniel; Dalmas, Davy

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic crack propagation drives catastrophic solid failures. In many amorphous brittle materials, sufficiently fast crack growth involves small-scale, high-frequency microcracking damage localized near the crack tip. The ultrafast dynamics of microcrack nucleation, growth, and coalescence is inaccessible experimentally and fast crack propagation was therefore studied only as a macroscale average. Here, we overcome this limitation in polymethylmethacrylate, the archetype of brittle amorphous materials: We reconstruct the complete spatiotemporal microcracking dynamics, with micrometer/nanosecond resolution, through post mortem analysis of the fracture surfaces. We find that all individual microcracks propagate at the same low, load-independent velocity. Collectively, the main effect of microcracks is not to slow down fracture by increasing the energy required for crack propagation, as commonly believed, but on the contrary to boost the macroscale velocity through an acceleration factor selected on geometric grounds. Our results emphasize the key role of damage-related internal variables in the selection of macroscale fracture dynamics. PMID:22203962

  9. Essentials of forensic post-mortem MR imaging in adults

    PubMed Central

    Ruder, T D; Thali, M J; Hatch, G M

    2014-01-01

    Post-mortem MR (PMMR) imaging is a powerful diagnostic tool with a wide scope in forensic radiology. In the past 20 years, PMMR has been used as both an adjunct and an alternative to autopsy. The role of PMMR in forensic death investigations largely depends on the rules and habits of local jurisdictions, availability of experts, financial resources, and individual case circumstances. PMMR images are affected by post-mortem changes, including position-dependent sedimentation, variable body temperature and decomposition. Investigators must be familiar with the appearance of normal findings on PMMR to distinguish them from disease or injury. Coronal whole-body images provide a comprehensive overview. Notably, short tau inversion–recovery (STIR) images enable investigators to screen for pathological fluid accumulation, to which we refer as “forensic sentinel sign”. If scan time is short, subsequent PMMR imaging may be focussed on regions with a positive forensic sentinel sign. PMMR offers excellent anatomical detail and is especially useful to visualize pathologies of the brain, heart, subcutaneous fat tissue and abdominal organs. PMMR may also be used to document skeletal injury. Cardiovascular imaging is a core area of PMMR imaging and growing evidence indicates that PMMR is able to detect ischaemic injury at an earlier stage than traditional autopsy and routine histology. The aim of this review is to present an overview of normal findings on forensic PMMR, provide general advice on the application of PMMR and summarise the current literature on PMMR imaging of the head and neck, cardiovascular system, abdomen and musculoskeletal system. PMID:24191122

  10. 42 CFR 35.16 - Autopsies and other post-mortem operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 35.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE... located to permit an autopsy or such other post-mortem operation under the circumstances of the particular... the autopsy or other post-mortem operation shall be observed. Documents embodying consent shall...

  11. 42 CFR 35.16 - Autopsies and other post-mortem operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Section 35.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE... located to permit an autopsy or such other post-mortem operation under the circumstances of the particular... the autopsy or other post-mortem operation shall be observed. Documents embodying consent shall...

  12. 42 CFR 35.16 - Autopsies and other post-mortem operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Section 35.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE... located to permit an autopsy or such other post-mortem operation under the circumstances of the particular... the autopsy or other post-mortem operation shall be observed. Documents embodying consent shall...

  13. 42 CFR 35.16 - Autopsies and other post-mortem operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Section 35.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE... located to permit an autopsy or such other post-mortem operation under the circumstances of the particular... the autopsy or other post-mortem operation shall be observed. Documents embodying consent shall...

  14. Demonstrating the origin of cardiac air embolism using post-mortem computed tomography; an illustrated case.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Sarah; Kotecha, Deepjay; Morgan, Bruno; Raj, Vimal; Rutty, Guy

    2011-03-01

    An 83 year old female was found dead in her home. The deceased had been struck repeatedly to the head with at least one weapon, one of which was a hammer. The deceased had suffered both penetrating and non-penetrating blunt trauma to the head as a result of the assault. A multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) scan was undertaken approximately 12h after death prior to the autopsy examination. This demonstrated the presence of a cardiac air embolus and continuity between the air embolus and the penetrating head injury. Air within the heart is a recognised post-mortem artefact frequently seen on MDCT scans and a common pitfall for inexperienced cadaveric MDCT reporters. This case builds upon a previous report by Kauczor, illustrating how MDCT can be used to demonstrate the origin and route of ingress of a genuine air embolism to the heart. PMID:21131225

  15. Signature Based Detection of User Events for Post-mortem Forensic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Joshua Isaac; Gladyshev, Pavel; Zhu, Yuandong

    This paper introduces a novel approach to user event reconstruction by showing the practicality of generating and implementing signature-based analysis methods to reconstruct high-level user actions from a collection of low-level traces found during a post-mortem forensic analysis of a system. Traditional forensic analysis and the inferences an investigator normally makes when given digital evidence, are examined. It is then demonstrated that this natural process of inferring high-level events from low-level traces may be encoded using signature-matching techniques. Simple signatures using the defined method are created and applied for three popular Windows-based programs as a proof of concept.

  16. Understanding fast macroscale fracture from microcrack post mortem patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheibert, J.; Guerra, C.; Bonamy, D.; Dalmas, D.

    2012-04-01

    Dynamic crack propagation drives catastrophic solid failures. In many amorphous brittle materials, sufficiently fast crack growth involves small-scale, high-frequency microcracking damage localized near the crack tip [1]. The ultra-fast dynamics of microcrack nucleation, growth and coalescence is inaccessible experimentally and fast crack propagation was therefore studied only as a macroscale average. We will see how to overcome this limitation in polymethylmethacrylate, the archetype of brittle amorphous materials: We reconstructed the complete spatio-temporal microcracking dynamics, with micrometer / nanosecond resolution, through post mortem analysis of the fracture surfaces [2]. We found that all individual microcracks propagate at the same low, load-independent, velocity. Collectively, the main effect of microcracks is not to slow down fracture by increasing the energy required for crack propagation, as commonly believed, but on the contrary to boost the macroscale velocity through an acceleration factor selected on geometric grounds. Our results emphasize the key role of damage-related internal variables in the selection of macroscale fracture dynamics. [1] J. Scheibert, C. Guerra, F. Célarié, D. Dalmas, D. Bonamy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 045501 (2010) [2] C. Guerra, J. Scheibert, D. Bonamy, D. Dalmas, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 390 (2012)

  17. Post-mortem cytogenomic investigations in patients with congenital malformations.

    PubMed

    Dias, Alexandre Torchio; Zanardo, Évelin Aline; Dutra, Roberta Lelis; Piazzon, Flavia Balbo; Novo-Filho, Gil Monteiro; Montenegro, Marilia Moreira; Nascimento, Amom Mendes; Rocha, Mariana; Madia, Fabricia Andreia Rosa; Costa, Thais Virgínia Moura Machado; Milani, Cintia; Schultz, Regina; Gonçalves, Fernanda Toledo; Fridman, Cintia; Yamamoto, Guilherme Lopes; Bertola, Débora Romeo; Kim, Chong Ae; Kulikowski, Leslie Domenici

    2016-08-01

    Congenital anomalies are the second highest cause of infant deaths, and, in most cases, diagnosis is a challenge. In this study, we characterize patterns of DNA copy number aberrations in different samples of post-mortem tissues from patients with congenital malformations. Twenty-eight patients undergoing autopsy were cytogenomically evaluated using several methods, specifically, Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA), microsatellite marker analysis with a MiniFiler kit, FISH, a cytogenomic array technique and bidirectional Sanger sequencing, which were performed on samples of different tissues (brain, heart, liver, skin and diaphragm) preserved in RNAlater, in formaldehyde or by paraffin-embedding. The results identified 13 patients with pathogenic copy number variations (CNVs). Of these, eight presented aneuploidies involving chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y (two presented inter- and intra-tissue mosaicism). In addition, other abnormalities were found, including duplication of the TYMS gene (18p11.32); deletion of the CHL1 gene (3p26.3); deletion of the HIC1 gene (17p13.3); and deletion of the TOM1L2 gene (17p11.2). One patient had a pathogenic missense mutation of g.8535C>G (c.746C>G) in exon 7 of the FGFR3 gene consistent with Thanatophoric Dysplasia type I. Cytogenomic techniques were reliable for the analysis of autopsy material and allowed the identification of inter- and intra-tissue mosaicism and a better understanding of the pathogenesis of congenital malformations. PMID:27450648

  18. Fluorescently labeled bacteria provide insight on post-mortem microbial transmigration.

    PubMed

    Burcham, Z M; Hood, J A; Pechal, J L; Krausz, K L; Bose, J L; Schmidt, C J; Benbow, M E; Jordan, H R

    2016-07-01

    Microbially mediated mechanisms of human decomposition begin immediately after death, and are a driving force for the conversion of a once living organism to a resource of energy and nutrients. Little is known about post-mortem microbiology in cadavers, particularly the community structure of microflora residing within the cadaver and the dynamics of these communities during decomposition. Recent work suggests these bacterial communities undergo taxa turnover and shifts in community composition throughout the post-mortem interval. In this paper we describe how the microbiome of a living host changes and transmigrates within the body after death thus linking the microbiome of a living individual to post-mortem microbiome changes. These differences in the human post-mortem from the ante-mortem microbiome have demonstrated promise as evidence in death investigations. We investigated the post-mortem structure and function dynamics of Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium perfringens after intranasal inoculation in the animal model Mus musculus L. (mouse) to identify how transmigration of bacterial species can potentially aid in post-mortem interval estimations. S. aureus was tracked using in vivo and in vitro imaging to determine colonization routes associated with different physiological events of host decomposition, while C. perfringens was tracked using culture-based techniques. Samples were collected at discrete time intervals associated with various physiological events and host decomposition beginning at 1h and ending at 60 days post-mortem. Results suggest that S. aureus reaches its highest concentration at 5-7 days post-mortem then begins to rapidly decrease and is undetectable by culture on day 30. The ability to track these organisms as they move in to once considered sterile space may be useful for sampling during autopsy to aid in determining post-mortem interval range estimations, cause of death, and origins associated with the geographic location of human

  19. Adverse events, toxicity and post-mortem data on duloxetine: case reports and literature survey.

    PubMed

    Vey, Eric L; Kovelman, Inna

    2010-05-01

    Duloxetine, a dual acting norepinephrine serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is a relatively new pharmacologic agent utilized in the treatment of depression, as well as diabetic neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, and female stress urinary incontinence. This expanding scope of usage will inevitably lead to its eventual appearance during routine post-mortem toxicologic assays. Currently there is a paucity of post-mortem toxicologic data concerning duloxetine. The current report provides six additional case reports of post-mortem duloxetine levels, along with a review of duloxetine's pharmacokinetics, and the toxicologic manifestations which have been reported in the literature. The post-mortem levels reported, including the highest level recorded to date, are integrated with previously published reports to generate a foundation for a nascent guide to the interpretation of post-mortem duloxetine levels that could be encountered during routine post-mortem toxicologic analyses, and establish a basis upon which the establishment of toxic and lethal thresholds for this compound can be further elucidated with greater clarity. PMID:20382351

  20. Differential Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA Preservation in Post-Mortem Teeth with Implications for Forensic and Ancient DNA Studies

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Denice; Rohrlach, Adam B.; Kaidonis, John; Townsend, Grant; Austin, Jeremy J.

    2015-01-01

    Major advances in genetic analysis of skeletal remains have been made over the last decade, primarily due to improvements in post-DNA-extraction techniques. Despite this, a key challenge for DNA analysis of skeletal remains is the limited yield of DNA recovered from these poorly preserved samples. Enhanced DNA recovery by improved sampling and extraction techniques would allow further advancements. However, little is known about the post-mortem kinetics of DNA degradation and whether the rate of degradation varies between nuclear and mitochondrial DNA or across different skeletal tissues. This knowledge, along with information regarding ante-mortem DNA distribution within skeletal elements, would inform sampling protocols facilitating development of improved extraction processes. Here we present a combined genetic and histological examination of DNA content and rates of DNA degradation in the different tooth tissues of 150 human molars over short-medium post-mortem intervals. DNA was extracted from coronal dentine, root dentine, cementum and pulp of 114 teeth via a silica column method and the remaining 36 teeth were examined histologically. Real time quantification assays based on two nuclear DNA fragments (67 bp and 156 bp) and one mitochondrial DNA fragment (77 bp) showed nuclear and mitochondrial DNA degraded exponentially, but at different rates, depending on post-mortem interval and soil temperature. In contrast to previous studies, we identified differential survival of nuclear and mtDNA in different tooth tissues. Futhermore histological examination showed pulp and dentine were rapidly affected by loss of structural integrity, and pulp was completely destroyed in a relatively short time period. Conversely, cementum showed little structural change over the same time period. Finally, we confirm that targeted sampling of cementum from teeth buried for up to 16 months can provide a reliable source of nuclear DNA for STR-based genotyping using standard

  1. Differential nuclear and mitochondrial DNA preservation in post-mortem teeth with implications for forensic and ancient DNA studies.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Denice; Rohrlach, Adam B; Kaidonis, John; Townsend, Grant; Austin, Jeremy J

    2015-01-01

    Major advances in genetic analysis of skeletal remains have been made over the last decade, primarily due to improvements in post-DNA-extraction techniques. Despite this, a key challenge for DNA analysis of skeletal remains is the limited yield of DNA recovered from these poorly preserved samples. Enhanced DNA recovery by improved sampling and extraction techniques would allow further advancements. However, little is known about the post-mortem kinetics of DNA degradation and whether the rate of degradation varies between nuclear and mitochondrial DNA or across different skeletal tissues. This knowledge, along with information regarding ante-mortem DNA distribution within skeletal elements, would inform sampling protocols facilitating development of improved extraction processes. Here we present a combined genetic and histological examination of DNA content and rates of DNA degradation in the different tooth tissues of 150 human molars over short-medium post-mortem intervals. DNA was extracted from coronal dentine, root dentine, cementum and pulp of 114 teeth via a silica column method and the remaining 36 teeth were examined histologically. Real time quantification assays based on two nuclear DNA fragments (67 bp and 156 bp) and one mitochondrial DNA fragment (77 bp) showed nuclear and mitochondrial DNA degraded exponentially, but at different rates, depending on post-mortem interval and soil temperature. In contrast to previous studies, we identified differential survival of nuclear and mtDNA in different tooth tissues. Furthermore histological examination showed pulp and dentine were rapidly affected by loss of structural integrity, and pulp was completely destroyed in a relatively short time period. Conversely, cementum showed little structural change over the same time period. Finally, we confirm that targeted sampling of cementum from teeth buried for up to 16 months can provide a reliable source of nuclear DNA for STR-based genotyping using standard

  2. Post-mortem findings in southern right whales Eubalaena australis at Península Valdés, Argentina, 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    McAloose, Denise; Rago, M Virginia; Di Martino, Matías; Chirife, Andrea; Olson, Sarah H; Beltramino, Lucas; Pozzi, Luciana M; Musmeci, Luciana; La Sala, Luciano; Mohamed, Nadia; Sala, Juan Emilio; Bandieri, Lucas; Andrejuk, Julian; Tomaszewicz, Ania; Seimon, Tracie; Sironi, Mariano; Samartino, Luis E; Rowntree, Victoria; Uhart, Marcela M

    2016-04-12

    Between 2003 and 2012, 605 southern right whales (SRW; Eubalaena australis) were found dead along the shores of Península Valdés (PV), Argentina. These deaths included alarmingly high annual losses between 2007 and 2012, a peak number of deaths (116) in 2012, and a significant number of deaths across years in calves-of-the-year (544 of 605 [89.9%]; average = 60.4 yr(-1)). Post-mortem examination and pathogen testing were performed on 212 whales; 208 (98.1%) were calves-of-the-year and 48.0% of these were newborns or neonates. A known or probable cause of death was established in only a small number (6.6%) of cases. These included ship strike in a juvenile and blunt trauma or lacerations (n = 5), pneumonia (n = 4), myocarditis (n = 2), meningitis (n = 1), or myocarditis and meningitis (n = 1) in calves. Ante-mortem gull parasitism was the most common gross finding. It was associated with systemic disease in a single 1-2 mo old calf. Immunohistochemical labeling for canine distemper virus, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella spp., and PCR for cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV), influenza A, and apicomplexan protozoa were negative on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung and brain samples from a subset of whales; PCR for Brucella spp. was positive in a newborn/neonate with pneumonia. Skin samples from whales with gull parasitism were PCR negative for CeMV, poxvirus, and papillomavirus. This is the first long-term study to investigate and summarize notable post-mortem findings in the PV SRW population. Consistent, significant findings within or between years to explain the majority of deaths and those in high-mortality years remain to be identified. PMID:27068500

  3. Prevalence of Atherosclerotic Coronary Stenosis in Asymptomatic North Indian Population: A Post-mortem Coronary Angiography Study

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Shatrugan Prasad; Kumar, Senthil; Setia, Puneet

    2015-01-01

    Aim A preliminary study of coronaries using post-mortem angiography was undertaken to see the prevalence of atherosclerotic coronary stenosis in non-cardiac unnatural deaths. Materials and Methods This study was conducted in a tertiary care centre located in Chandigarh. A total of 128 medico-legal cases were studied comprising 88 males and 40 females. Post-mortem examinations of these MLC cases were conducted in the Department of Forensic Medicine, PGIMER, Chandigarh. All hearts were visually screened by post-mortem coronary angiography first and then grossly examined using serial transverse incision technique in positive screening cases to find the degree of narrowing. Results Of the study group, 34% males and 20% females showed evidence of narrowing on angiography. Of the males showing coronary stenosis, 83% had single vessel disease and 13% had double vessel disease, while only one individual had triple vessel disease. In cases of female, all the cases of coronary stenosis were single vessel disease. Left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) was the most common vessel involved, followed by right coronary artery (RCA) & Left circumflex artery (LCX) and in cases of double vessel disease, LAD in combination with LCX was responsible for 75% of the cases. Remarkably 23.6% of study population in the age group of less than 40 years showed appreciable narrowing in at least one of the coronaries. Conclusion In general, the prevalence of CAD is on the rise, particularly in younger population owing to the changes in their lifestyle and food habits. This preliminary study revealed evidence of narrowing of at least one coronary in 34% male and 20% female population and 23.6% subjects were less than 40 years old. Further detailed studies are needed especially in younger age group and to support the need for preventive cardiology in the early years of life. PMID:26500922

  4. Deuterium inventory in Tore Supra: reconciling particle balance and post-mortem analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsitrone, E.; Brosset, C.; Pégourié, B.; Gauthier, E.; Bouvet, J.; Bucalossi, J.; Carpentier, S.; Corre, Y.; Delchambre, E.; Desgranges, L.; Dittmar, T.; Douai, D.; Ekedahl, A.; Escarguel, A.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Grisolia, C.; Grosman, A.; Gunn, J.; Hong, S. H.; Jacob, W.; Kazarian, F.; Kocan, M.; Khodja, H.; Linez, F.; Loarer, T.; Marandet, Y.; Martinez, A.; Mayer, M.; Meyer, O.; Monier Garbet, P.; Moreau, P.; Pascal, J. Y.; Pasquet, B.; Rimini, F.; Roche, H.; Roure, I.; Rosanvallon, S.; Roubin, P.; Roth, J.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Samaille, F.; Vartanian, S.

    2009-07-01

    Fuel retention, a crucial issue for next step devices, is assessed in present-day tokamaks using two methods: particle balance performed during shots and post-mortem analysis carried out during shutdowns between experimental campaigns. Post-mortem analysis generally gives lower estimates of fuel retention than integrated particle balance. In order to understand the discrepancy between these two methods, a dedicated experimental campaign has been performed in Tore Supra to load the vessel walls with deuterium (D) and monitor the trapped D inventory through particle balance. The campaign was followed by an extensive post-mortem analysis phase of the Tore Supra limiter. This paper presents the status of the analysis phase, including the assessment of the D content in the castellated tile structure of the limiter. Indeed, using combined surface analysis techniques, it was possible to derive the relative contributions of different zones of interest on the limiter (erosion, thick deposits, thin deposits), showing that the post-mortem inventory is mainly due to codeposition (90% of the total), in particular due to gap deposits. However, deuterium was also evidenced deep into the material in erosion zones (10% of the total). At the present stage of the analysis, 50% of the inventory deduced from particle balance has been found through post-mortem analysis, a significant progress with respect to previous studies (factor 8-10 discrepancy). This shows that post-mortem analysis can be consistent with particle balance provided specific procedures are implemented (dedicated campaign followed by extensive post-mortem analysis). Both techniques are needed for a reliable assessment of fuel retention in tokamaks, giving complementary information on how much and where fuel is retained in the vessel walls.

  5. Post Mortem Human Surrogate Injury Response of the Pelvis and Lower Extremities to Simulated Underbody Blast.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Ann M; Christopher, John J; Brozoski, Frederick; Salzar, Robert S

    2015-08-01

    Military vehicle underbody blast (UBB) is the cause of many serious injuries in theatre today; however, the effects of these chaotic events on the human body are not well understood. The purpose of this research was to replicate both UBB loading conditions and investigate occupant response in a controlled laboratory setting. In addition to better understanding the response of the human to high rate vertical loading, this test series also aimed to identify high rate injury thresholds. Ten whole body post mortem human surrogate (PMHS) tests were completed using the University of Virginia's ODYSSEY simulated blast rig under a range of loading conditions. Seat pan accelerations ranged from 291 to 738 g's over 3 ms of positive phase duration, and foot pan accelerations from 234 to 858 g's over 3 ms of positive phase duration. Post-test computed tomography (CT) scans and necropsies were performed to determine injuries, and revealed a combination of pelvic, lumbar, thoracic, and lower extremity injuries. The research in this paper discusses pelvis and lower extremity injuries under high rate vertical loads. PMID:25503737

  6. Amount and distribution of fume contaminants in the lungs of an arc welder post mortem.

    PubMed Central

    Kalliomäki, P L; Sutinen, S; Kelhä, V; Lakomaa, E; Sortti, V; Sutinen, S

    1979-01-01

    This study describes various post-mortem examinations of the lungs of a shipyard arc welder. These investigations comprised morphological methods, including gross pathology and radiography, histological and ultrastructural examinations, chemical analysis of lung tissue, and sensitive magnetic measurements, which can now be used to detect magnetic contaminants, such as welding fume, in human tissue. Such methods can also show the distribution of contaminants. The amount of welding-fume contaminants was low, only 110 mg. The contaminant iron seemed to represent only 10% of the total iron chemically analysed in lung tissue. The concentration of the total iron was 4-10 times higher than that in control tissue. Contaminants tended to collect in the central areas of the lungs. Two concentration centres could be observed in each lung, one anterior and one posterior. There was slight fibrosis around pigmented areas. Histological findings were similar to those of previous studies. Transmission electron micrographs showed that enlarged lysosomes of macrophages contained electron-dense granules, 450 nm to less than 5 nm in diameter, which formed aggregates and short chains, and resembled welding-fume particles in the breathing zone. Our results show the value of studying the same material by a number of inter-related methods. Images PMID:500782

  7. Post mortem computed tomography: useful or unnecessary in gunshot wounds deaths? Two case reports.

    PubMed

    Maiese, Aniello; Gitto, Lorenzo; De Matteis, Alessandra; Panebianco, Valeria; Bolino, Giorgio

    2014-11-01

    Post-mortem computer tomography (PMCT) is currently an useful procedure that can elucidate patterns of injuries, providing strong medical evidence that is very useful during litigation and at trial. This technique is especially useful in gunshot wounds cases, allowing an easier location and retrieval of the bullet and/or its fragments inside the body. In such cases, the use of 3D rendering can be very useful in order to obtain essential information, such as: accurate depict of the wound track, discerning between entrance and exit wounds, show bone's fracture and its fragments course inside the body. The authors performed analysis on two cases of death by gunshot wounds, and a PMCT before the postmortem examination was made. The obtained CT scans were evaluated using the open-source software OsiriX on a Mac OS X computer, performing 3D rendering of the DICOM images. The crime scene reconstruction was performed using the software Poser Debut® on a Mac OS X computer. In both cases, PMCT showed multiple advantages: objectivity, reproducibility, ease visualization of the wound paths, easy localization of bullet and their fragments, allowing us to clarify the cause of death before the traditional autopsy. PMCT should became a standard in forensic practice as an aid to the tradition postmortem examination to obtain as much information as possible in order to clarify the cause and manner of death. PMID:25001050

  8. Material properties of the post-mortem colon in high-rate equibiaxial elongation.

    PubMed

    Howes, Meghan K; Hardy, Warren N

    2012-01-01

    Crash-induced injuries of the colon that occur in motor vehicle collisions include perforations, serosal tears, and ischemic colon injuries. To characterize the biomechanical response of the colon associated with these failure modes, high-rate equibiaxial stretch was applied to cruciate tissue samples harvested from four post-mortem human surrogates. Sample arms were gripped in four low-mass tissue clamps and simultaneous motion of four carriages applied equibiaxial stretch in four orthogonal directions. Tests were conducted to failure at a target strain rate of 100s-1 to investigate failure at rates expected to be experienced in motor vehicle collisions. Overhead high-speed video captured at 2500fps provided optical marker displacement data in a central region of interest. Marker positions were tracked using motion analysis software. Displacement data were input into LS-DYNA and average Green-Lagrange strain was calculated at 0.05ms time intervals. All data were truncated at tear initiation determined from high-speed video analysis. This manuscript presents the results of 26 colon tests conducted at an average strain rate of 67.1±17.9s-1. Average failure strain was 0.164±0.046 and 0.139±0.042 in the circumferential and longitudinal directions. Average maximum principal failure strain was 0.211±0.064. Material property data acquired in this study contribute to the biomechanical dataset useful for human body finite element model validation. PMID:22846280

  9. Physical changes of significance for early post mortem water distribution in porcine M. longissimus.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Hanne Christine; Schäfer, Annette; Rosenvold, Katja; Andersen, Henrik Jørgen

    2004-04-01

    The post mortem changes in water mobility and distribution were followed in porcine muscle (M. longissimus dorsi) samples using continuous low-field NMR relaxation measurements and simultaneous measurement of changes in muscle impedance as an indirect measure of membrane integrity as well as muscle contraction measurements using a rigormeter instrument. Distributed exponential fitting analysis of NMR T(2) relaxation data revealed the presence of three distinct water populations (T(20), T(21), T(22)) within the muscle during its conversion to meat. Comparison of T(2) relaxation patterns and contraction data indicates that rigor development affects the attributes of the T(21) water population and thereby contributes to myofibrillar water characteristics post mortem, as the T(21) water population is believed to reflect inter/intra-myofibrillar water. The volume of the water population believed to reflect extra-cellular water (T(22)) in the living muscle. Early post mortem T(22) decreased slightly within the first 2-3 h post mortem followed by an increase and a change in its characteristic time constant. This was ascribed to an initial muscle cell swelling followed by water being expelled from the cellular space into the extra-myofibrillar space. Comparison of changes in the T(22) water population and impedance characteristics within the muscle during its conversion to meat revealed close relationship between progresses in the two attributes. Obtained data strongly support that the post mortem reorganization of water is closely associated with membrane properties, which moreover was found to affect the final water-holding capacity of the meat. Finally, a model for early post mortem events leading to changes in the distribution of water within muscles is proposed. PMID:22061025

  10. Altered post-mortem metabolism identified in very fast chilled lamb M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum using metabolomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Warner, Robyn D; Jacob, Robin H; Rosenvold, Katja; Rochfort, Simone; Trenerry, Craige; Plozza, Tim; McDonagh, Matthew B

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this experiment was to use metabolomic techniques to investigate the energy metabolism in lamb M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum subjected to very fast chilling (VFC) post-mortem. The tissue was prepared by 2 different operators and subjected to very fast chilling (less than 0°C within 1.5h of slaughter) or typical chilling regimes (Control; 0°C within 22h of slaughter). Non-targeted metabolomic analysis ((1)H NMR) and targeted analysis ((31)P NMR, HPLC-PDA and HPLC-MS/MS) were used to examine the change in muscle metabolites post-mortem. One VFC treatment, which resulted in a colder core temperature and more tender meat, had higher levels of glycolytic intermediate metabolites pre-rigor as well as more of the end-products of adenosine and nicotine nucleotide metabolism pre-rigor, relative to conventionally chilled treatments. In conclusion, VFC to less than 0°C within 1.5h of slaughter causes considerable changes in metabolism and rigor onset, which are associated with tender meat. PMID:26163181

  11. The post mortem temperature plateau and its role in the estimation of time of death. A review.

    PubMed

    Smart, Jimmy L; Kaliszan, Michał

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine evidence to seek an explanation of the possible cause(s) or contributing factors to the temperature plateau phenomenon and its influence on time of death (TOD) estimation. The concept of the temperature plateau effect (TPE) is reviewed, and investigation is conducted into its possible prediction under post mortem conditions. The conclusion of this paper is that the appearance of a TPE in postmortem body core temperature decay curves is currently random and cannot be predicted. This unpredictability is based upon the interindividual differences in states (core body temperature, hyperthermia, use of drugs, trauma, etc.) and biomarker concentrations (electrolytes, thyroxine, etc.) at antemortem times, which will ultimately affect the shape of the postmortem temperature decay curve. However, studies indicated that the TPE is diminished or even absent in the head tissues, including eye and ear. The possibility of precise estimation of the TOD in the early post mortem period based on eye temperature measurements is also commented. PMID:22285645

  12. Post mortem sampling of the bladder for the identification of victims of fire related deaths.

    PubMed

    Owen, Rebecca; Bedford, Paul; Leditschke, Jodie; Schlenker, Andrew; Hartman, Dadna

    2013-12-10

    In a coronial setting a deceased person must be formally identified. It is difficult to identify a deceased person when their physical features are disrupted and identification by visual means cannot occur. In the absence of visual identification, the confirmation of identity of a deceased person relies on the scientific comparison of information obtained post mortem with ante mortem information. The ante mortem information may include dental and medical records, fingerprints, and DNA profiling. For cases involving incinerated remains, this traditionally requires the collection of blood, muscle or bone samples from the deceased (depending on the severity of the burns) for DNA analysis and subsequent comparison to a reference sample for kinship determination. Following on from work conducted during the DVI response to a plane crash in Papua New Guinea in 2011, a study has been performed examining the viability of utilising material obtained from bladder swabs in deaths associated with fires. Twenty-eight cases were analysed during 2012 with deaths occurring in motor vehicle and aviation accidents, as well as house fires, homicides and from self-immolation. Bladder and conventional (blood, muscle or bone) samples were subjected to DNA analysis and compared. Our findings demonstrate that the bladder samples all gave DNA of sufficient quality for DNA profiling. This easily obtained sample (when available) can be now recommended in the scientific identification process of fire affected deceased persons. PMID:24314496

  13. Analysis of RNA from Alzheimer's Disease Post-mortem Brain Tissues.

    PubMed

    Clement, Christian; Hill, James M; Dua, Prerna; Culicchia, Frank; Lukiw, Walter J

    2016-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a uniquely human, age-related central nervous system (CNS) disorder for which there is no adequate experimental model. While well over 100 transgenic murine models of AD (TgAD) have been developed that recapitulate many of the neuropathological features of AD, key pathological features of AD such as progressive neuronal atrophy, neuron cell loss, and neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) formation have not been observed in any TgAD model to date. To more completely analyze and understand the neuropathology, altered neuro-inflammatory and innate-immune signaling pathways, and the complex molecular-genetics and epigenetics of AD, it is therefore necessary to rigorously examine short post-mortem interval (PMI) human brain tissues to gain a deeper and more thorough insight into the neuropathological mechanisms that characterize the AD process. This perspective-methods paper will highlight some important recent findings on the utilization of short PMI tissues in sporadic (idiopathic; of unknown origin) AD research with focus on the extraction and quantification of RNA, and in particular microRNA (miRNA) and messenger RNA (mRNA) and analytical strategies, drawing on the authors' combined 125 years of laboratory experience into this investigative research area. We sincerely hope that new investigators in the field of "gene expression analysis in neurological disease" will benefit from the observations presented here and incorporate these recent findings and observations into their future experimental planning and design. PMID:25631714

  14. Dynamic Responses of Intact Post Mortem Human Surrogates from Inferior-to-Superior Loading at the Pelvis.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Moore, Jason; Arun, Mike W J; Pintar, Frank A

    2014-11-01

    During certain events such as underbody blasts due to improvised explosive devices, occupants in military vehicles are exposed to inferior-to-superior loading from the pelvis. Injuries to the pelvis-sacrum-lumbar spine complex have been reported from these events. The mechanism of load transmission and potential variables defining the migration of injuries between pelvis and or spinal structures are not defined. This study applied inferior-to-superior impacts to the tuberosities of the ischium of supine-positioned five post mortem human subjects (PMHS) using different acceleration profiles, defined using shape, magnitude and duration parameters. Seventeen tests were conducted. Overlay temporal plots were presented for normalized (impulse momentum approach) forces and accelerations of the sacrum and spine. Scatter plots showing injury and non-injury data as a function of peak normalized forces, pulse characteristics, impulse and power, loading rate and sacrum and spine accelerations were evaluated as potential metrics related to pathological outcomes with the focus of examining the role of the pulse characteristics from inferior-to-superior loading of the pelvis-sacrum-lumbar spine complex. Interrelationships were explored between non-fracture and fracture outcomes, and fracture patterns with a focus on migration of injuries from the hip-only to hip and spine to spine-only regions. Observations indicate that injury to the pelvis and or spine from inferior-to-superior loading is associated with pulse and not just peak velocity. The role of the effect of mass recruitment and injury migration parallel knee-thigh-hip complex studies, suggest a wider application of the recruitment concept and the role of the pulse characteristics. PMID:26192952

  15. Characterisation of the metabolome of ocular tissues and post-mortem changes in the rat retina.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shi Z; Mullard, Graham; Hollywood, Katherine A; Dunn, Warwick B; Bishop, Paul N

    2016-08-01

    Time-dependent post-mortem biochemical changes have been demonstrated in donor cornea and vitreous, but there have been no published studies to date that objectively measure post-mortem changes in the retinal metabolome over time. The aim of the study was firstly, to investigate post-mortem, time-dependent changes in the rat retinal metabolome and secondly, to compare the metabolite composition of healthy rat ocular tissues. To study post-mortem changes in the rat retinal metabolome, globes were enucleated and stored at 4 °C and sampled at 0, 2, 4, 8, 24 and 48 h post-mortem. To study the metabolite composition of rat ocular tissues, eyes were dissected immediately after culling to isolate the cornea, lens, vitreous and retina, prior to storing at -80 °C. Tissue extracts were subjected to Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-MS). Generally, the metabolic composition of the retina was stable for 8 h post-mortem when eyes were stored at 4 °C, but showed increasing changes thereafter. However, some more rapid changes were observed such as increases in TCA cycle metabolites after 2 h post-mortem, whereas some metabolites such as fatty acids only showed decreases in concentration from 24 h. A total of 42 metabolites were identified across the ocular tissues by GC-MS (MSI level 1) and 2782 metabolites were annotated by UHPLC-MS (MSI level 2) according to MSI reporting standards. Many of the metabolites detected were common to all of the tissues but some metabolites showed partitioning between different ocular structures with 655, 297, 93 and 13 metabolites being uniquely detected in the retina, lens, cornea and vitreous respectively. Only a small percentage (1.6%) of metabolites found in the vitreous were only detected in the retina and not other tissues. In conclusion, mass spectrometry-based techniques have been used for the first time to compare the metabolic composition of

  16. Investigation of Post-mortem Tissue Effects Using Long-time Decorrelation Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csány, Gergely; Balogh, Lajos; Gyöngy, Miklós

    Decorrelation ultrasound is being increasingly used to investigate long-term biological phenomena. In the current work, ultrasound image sequences of mice who did not survive anesthesia (in a separate investigation) were analyzed and post-mortem tissue effects were observed via decorrelation calculation. A method was developed to obtain a quantitative parameter characterizing the rate of decorrelation. The results show that ultrasound decorrelation imaging is an effective method of observing post-mortem tissue effects and point to further studies elucidating the mechanism behind these effects.

  17. [Post-mortem study of laryngotracheal lesions produced by prolonged intubation and/or tracheotomy].

    PubMed

    Esteller Moré, E; Ibáñez-Nolla, J; García-Hernández, F; Carrasco-García, M A; León-Regidor, M A; Díaz-Boladeras, R M; Orus-Dotu, C; Ademà-Alcover, J M; Nolla-Salas, M

    1997-10-01

    Injuries of the laryngotracheal axis caused by prolonged intubation in critically ill patients raise the issue of the timing of tracheotomy in intubated patients. In 1992 a prospective study was begun in intensive care patients with intubation lasting more than 48 hours. Eight months later, post-mortem data on the laryngotracheal axis of deceased patients was added to our prospective study protocol. The study was closed with 125 cases (52 deceased). The clinical data of 73 surviving patients was compared with that of 18 post-mortem cases. The macroscopic results of the post-mortem study are summarized by grading the lesions according to a personal modification of the Lindholm classification. All cases had laryngotracheal injuries. Only 15% of the lesions were located in the tracheal region. Five cases were classified as grade 2, with an average orotracheal intubation of 9 days, 9 cases as grade 3 with 15 days intubation, and 4 cases as grade 4 with 21 days intubation. We concluded that the severity of laryngotracheal injuries in the early post-mortem exploration was related with the duration of intubation. PMID:9489156

  18. Effect of chilling method and post-mortem aging time on broiler breast fillet quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of chilling method and post-mortem aging time on broiler breast fillet quality. One hundred-fifty eviscerated broiler carcasses were removed from a commercial processing line prior to chilling and transported to the laboratory. Half of the carcasses we...

  19. Generalized arterial calcification of infancy--Findings at post-mortem computed tomography and autopsy.

    PubMed

    Bolster, Ferdia; Ali, Zabiullah; Southall, Pamela; Fowler, David

    2015-09-01

    Generalized arterial calcification in infancy is a rare genetic disorder characterized by abnormal calcification of large and medium sized arteries and marked myointimal proliferation resulting in arterial stenosis. The condition is often fatal secondary to complications of cardiac ischemia, hypertension and cardiac failure. In this report we describe the findings at post mortem computed tomography, histology and autopsy. PMID:26165490

  20. The Design and Development of a Post-Mortem Room Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, A. D.

    1977-01-01

    The design of a post-mortem room complex to serve the needs of three separate organizations on the campus of the University of Bristol's Veterinary Field Station is described. Comments are made on disadvantages that have become apparent during eight years of use. (Author/LBH)

  1. Effect of Chilling Method and Post-Mortem Aging Time on Broiler Breast Fillet Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of chilling method (dry air or immersion) and post-mortem aging time on broiler breast fillet quality (raw fillet color, raw fillet pH, cook yield and Allo-Kramer shear). One hundred fifty eviscerated broiler carcasses were removed from a commercial p...

  2. Injuries to Post Mortem Human Surrogates in Oblique Aircraft Seat Environment.

    PubMed

    Humm, John; Peterson, Brian; Pintar, Frank; Yoganandan, Narayan; Moorcroft, David; Taylor, Amanda; DeWeese, Rick

    2015-01-01

    Increased interest in the airline industry to enhance occupant comfort and maximize seating density has prompted the design and installation of obliquely mounted seats in aircraft. The potential for injury and their mechanism in this seating environment is unknown. Epidemiology-based field injury data do not exist for airplane crashes, however, typical impact scenarios have been determined and safety standards addressing fore, aft, and side-facing seats have been levied by the FAA. The impact scenarios defined in these standards can be used to study likely injuries and injury mechanisms using Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) in a controlled laboratory environment. Four PMHS were seated upright with Frankfurt plane horizontal in a custom designed seat configured to simulate potential aircraft environments and candidate restraint geometries. A scaled Part 25.562 Emergency Landing condition for horizontal impact was used as the dynamic test input. High speed video recorded occupant kinematics. Pre and posttest x-rays and CT’s were obtained and autopsies were conducted. Severe injuries to the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine were observed in three of the four specimens and attributed to torso flail. Pelvis injuries likely caused by the seat belt were found in two tests. Multiple rib fractures were also seen, caused by contact with arm rest or other body regions. The fourth test was run at a lower severity and did not produce injury. This suggests a conservative threshold for human tolerance to this loading environment. Although the study is of a limited sample size, it suggests the need for further testing to develop standards that provide similar levels of safety for obliquely mounted seats as forward/aft facing seats in aircraft. PMID:25996749

  3. LC-MS/MS method development and validation for quantitative analyses of 2-aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid - a new cyanide exposure marker in post mortem blood.

    PubMed

    Giebułtowicz, Joanna; Rużycka, Monika; Fudalej, Marcin; Krajewski, Paweł; Wroczyński, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    2-aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA) is a hydrogen cyanide metabolite that has been found to be a reliable biomarker of cyanide poisoning, because of its long-term stability in biological material. There are several methods of ATCA determination; however, they are restricted to extraction on mixed mode cation exchange sorbents. To date, there has been no reliable method of ATCA determination in whole blood, the most frequently used material in forensic analysis. This novel method for ATCA determination in post mortem specimen includes protein precipitation, and derivatization of interfering compounds and their later extraction with ethyl acetate. ATCA was quantitatively analyzed via high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with positive electrospray ionization detection using a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column. The method satisfied all validation criteria and was tested on the real samples with satisfactory results. Therefore, this analytical approach has been proven to be a tool for measuring endogenous levels of ATCA in post mortem specimens. To conclude, a novel, accurate and sensitive method of ATCA determination in post mortem blood was developed. The establishment of the method provides new possibilities in the field of forensic science. PMID:26838446

  4. Altered expression of synapse and glutamate related genes in post-mortem hippocampus of depressed subjects

    PubMed Central

    Duric, Vanja; Banasr, Mounira; Stockmeier, Craig A.; Simen, Arthur A.; Newton, Samuel S.; Overholser, James C.; Jurjus, George J.; Dieter, Lesa; Duman, Ronald S.

    2012-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been linked to changes in function and activity of the hippocampus, one of the central limbic regions involved in regulation of emotions and mood. The exact cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying hippocampal plasticity in response to stress are yet to be fully characterized. In this study, we examined the genetic profile of micro-dissected subfields of post-mortem hippocampus from subjects diagnosed with MDD and comparison subjects matched for sex, race and age. Gene expression profiles of the dentate gyrus and CA1 were assessed by 48K human HEEBO whole genome microarrays and a subgroup of identified genes was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Pathway analysis revealed altered expression of several gene families, including cytoskeletal proteins involved in rearrangement of neuronal processes. Based on this and evidence of hippocampal neuronal atrophy in MDD, we focused on the expression of cytoskeletal, synaptic and glutamate receptor genes. Our findings demonstrate significant dysregulation of synaptic function/structure related genes SNAP25, DLG2 (SAP93), and MAP1A, and 2-amino-3-(5-methyl-3-oxo-1,2-oxazol-4-yl)propanoic acid receptor subunit genes GLUR1 and GLUR3. Several of these human target genes were similarly dysregulated in a rat model of chronic unpredictable stress and the effects reversed by antidepressant treatment. Together, these studies provide new evidence that disruption of synaptic and glutamatergic signalling pathways contribute to the pathophysiology underlying MDD and provide interesting targets for novel therapeutic interventions. PMID:22339950

  5. Characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum from slowly glycolysing and from rapidly glycolysing pig skeletal muscle post mortem

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, David B.; Berman, Mervyn C.; Kench, James E.

    1977-01-01

    The composition and function of fragmented sarcoplasmic reticulum from pig skeletal muscle was examined in the period immediately post mortem. Muscle was defined as being either slowly glycolysing or rapidly glycolysing on the basis of colour, pH and concentrations of glycogen and lactate. The microsomal fraction was separated on a discontinuous gradient of 35, 40 and 45% (w/v) sucrose into heavy and intermediate fractions which sedimented to the interfaces, and a light fraction which remained on the surface of the 35%-sucrose layer. The sarcoplasmic reticulum from rapidly glycolysing muscle had a lower buoyant density than had that from slowly glycolysing muscle. This was reflected in the consistent lack of material in the heavy fraction and a greater proportion in the light fraction. The latter material had significantly lower ratios (w/w) of protein to phospholipid (2.3:1 versus 3.8:1) and of protein to cholesterol (10.4:1 versus 15.6:1). There were no gross differences in phospholipid content or in fatty acid composition of individual phospholipid classes in the membranes from the two types of muscle. Analysis of membrane proteins by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis showed that ATPase (adenosine triphosphatase) was a major component of each fraction and that its contribution to the total protein content of the membrane was greater in rapidly glycolysing muscle, suggesting a loss of non-ATPase proteins. The two fractions of sarcoplasmic reticulum prepared from rapidly glycolysing muscle had approximately one-third the normal activities of Ca2+ binding and Ca2+ uptake in the presence of ATP and one-half the passive Ca2+-binding capacity in the absence of ATP of the fractions from slowly glycolysing muscle. However, the (Ca2++Mg2+)-stimulated ATPase activities were similar. Efflux from actively loaded vesicles, after the addition of EDTA, consisted of a rapid and a slow phase. Vesicles from rapidly glycolysing muscle lost 60% of

  6. Characterization and short-term storage of Tasmanian devil sperm collected post-mortem.

    PubMed

    Keeley, T; McGreevy, P D; O'Brien, J K

    2011-09-01

    The Tasmanian devil is suffering from a severe population decline due to the fatal Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD). The development of assisted reproductive technologies such as AI and long-term sperm storage could facilitate genetic management of captive insurance populations. The aim of this study was to characterise semen samples collected post-mortem, and to develop a suitable diluent for short-term preservation of devil sperm. Low numbers of sperm (1.33 ± 0.85 × 10(6) sperm per male) were extracted from the epididymides of 17 males. Devil sperm sample characteristics such as concentration and morphology were similar to other dasyurids. The most commonly observed morphological abnormalities were midpiece separation, tail curling, and tail twisting (on the axial plane). Changes in motility occurred throughout the regions of the epididymis with (mean ± SD) 29.4 ± 16.8, 46.8 ± 13.6 and 29.4 ± 18.1% of sperm exhibiting motility, and 88.9 ± 11.4, 32.0 ± 24.3 and 0.1 ± 0.2% of motile sperm exhibiting forward progressive motility in the cauda, corpus and caput, respectively. Sperm from the cauda and corpus epididymis maintained 31.7 ± 26.6 and 80.6 ± 85.9%, respectively, of initial motility after 12 h at 15 °C in a TEST yolk buffer diluent. These findings provided new information regarding devil sperm biology and short-term sperm storage; such information is necessary for future development of long-term sperm preservation methods in the Tasmanian devil. PMID:21652060

  7. Temperature dependent ageing mechanisms in Lithium-ion batteries - A Post-Mortem study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldmann, Thomas; Wilka, Marcel; Kasper, Michael; Fleischhammer, Meike; Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, Margret

    2014-09-01

    The effects of temperatures in the range of -20 °C to 70 °C on the ageing behaviour of cycled Lithium-ion batteries are investigated quantitatively by electrochemical methods and Post-Mortem analysis. Commercial 18650-type high-power cells with a LixNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2/LiyMn2O4 blend cathode and graphite/carbon anode were used as test system. The cells were cycled at a rate of 1 C until the discharge capacity falls below 80% of the initial capacity. Interestingly, an Arrhenius plot indicates two different ageing mechanisms for the ranges of -20 °C to 25 °C and 25 °C to 70 °C. Below 25 °C, the ageing rates increase with decreasing temperature, while above 25 °C ageing is accelerated with increasing temperature. The aged 18650 cells are inspected via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), inductively coupled plasma (ICP), measurements of electrode thickness and X-ray diffraction (XRD) after disassembly to learn more about the chemical reasons of the degradation. The effect of different temperatures on the electrode polarizations are evaluated by assembling electrodes in pouch cells with reference electrode as a model system. We find that the dominating ageing mechanism for T < 25 °C is Lithium plating, while for T > 25 °C the cathodes show degeneration and the anodes will be increasingly covered by SEI layers.

  8. Drug concentrations in post-mortem femoral blood compared with therapeutic concentrations in plasma

    PubMed Central

    Launiainen, Terhi; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic drug concentrations measured in plasma are of limited value as reference intervals for interpretation in post-mortem (PM) toxicology. In this study, drug concentration distributions were studied in PM femoral venous blood from 57 903 Finnish autopsy cases representing all causes of death during an 11-year period. Cause-of-death information was obtained from death certificates issued by forensic pathologists. Median, mean, and upper percentile (90th, 95th, 97.5th) concentrations were calculated for 129 drugs. To illustrate how PM median concentrations relate to established therapeutic ranges in plasma, a PM blood/plasma relationship was calculated for each drug. Males represented 75% of the subjects and showed a lower median age (55 yrs) than females (59 yrs). In 43% of these cases, blood alcohol concentration was higher than 0.2‰, and the median was 1.8‰. Sixty-one (47%) of the 129 drugs showed a PM blood/plasma relationship of 1. For 22 drugs (17%), the relationship was <1, and for 46 drugs (35%), the relationship was >1. No marked correlation was found between the PM blood/plasma relationship and the volume of distribution (Vd). For 36 drugs, more than 10% of cases were fatal poisonings attributed to this drug as the main finding. These drug concentration distributions based on a large database provide a helpful reference not only to forensic toxicologists and pathologists but also to clinical pharmacologists in charge of interpreting drug concentrations in PM cases. © 2013 The Authors. Drug Testing and Analysis published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23881890

  9. Coronary optical coherence tomography: minimally invasive virtual histology as part of targeted post-mortem computed tomography angiography.

    PubMed

    Adlam, David; Joseph, Shiju; Robinson, Claire; Rousseau, Clement; Barber, Jade; Biggs, Mike; Morgan, Bruno; Rutty, Guy

    2013-09-01

    Social, cultural and practical barriers to conventional invasive autopsy have led to considerable interest in the development of minimally invasive radiological techniques as an alternative to the invasive autopsy for determining the cause of death. Critical to accurate diagnosis in this context is detailed examination of coronary anatomy and pathology. Current computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging approaches have significantly advanced minimally invasive autopsy practice but have limited spatial resolution. This prohibits assessment at a microscopic level, meaning that histological assessment is still required for detailed analysis of, for example, coronary plaque rupture or dissection. Coronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) is used in the living during percutaneous coronary interventions to provide high-resolution coronary imaging, but this technique for obtaining virtual histology has not, to date, been translated into minimally invasive autopsy practice. We present a first description of minimally invasive post-mortem coronary OCT and discuss the potential for this technique to advance current practice. PMID:23455719

  10. Brain banks: benefits, limitations and cautions concerning the use of post-mortem brain tissue for molecular studies.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Isidre; Martinez, Anna; Boluda, Susana; Parchi, Piero; Barrachina, Marta

    2008-09-01

    Brain banks are facilities providing an interface between generous donation of nervous tissues and research laboratories devoted to increase our understanding of the diseases of the nervous system, discover new diagnostic targets, and develop new strategies. Considering this crucial role, it is important to learn about the suitabilities, limitations and proper handling of individual brain samples for particular studies. Several factors may interfere with preservation of DNA, RNA, proteins and lipids, and, therefore, special care must be taken first to detect sub-optimally preserved tissues and second to provide adequate material for each specific purpose. Basic aspects related with DNA, RNA and protein preservation include agonal state, post-mortem delay, temperature of storage and procedures of tissue preservation. Examination of DNA and RNA preservation is best done by using bioanalyzer technologies instead of less sensitive methods such as agarose gels. Adequate RNA preservation is mandatory in RNA microarray studies and adequate controls are necessary for proper PCR validation. Like for RNA, the preservation of proteins is not homogeneous since some molecules are more vulnerable than others. This aspect is crucial in the study of proteins including expression levels and possible post-translational modifications. Similarly, the reliability of functional and enzymatic studies in human post-mortem brain largely depends on protein preservation. Much less is known about other aspects, such as the effects of putative deleterious factors on epigenetic events such as methylation of CpGs in gene promoters, nucleosome preservation, histone modifications, and conservation of microRNA species. Most brains are appropriate for morphological approaches but not all brains are useful for certain biochemical and molecular studies. PMID:18543077

  11. Viability and infectivity of Ichthyophonus sp. in post-mortem Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, Richard M.; Hart, Lucas M.; Lewandowski, Naomi; Hershberger, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Ichthyophonus-infected Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii, were allowed to decompose in ambient seawater then serially sampled for 29 days to evaluate parasite viability and infectivity for Pacific staghorn sculpin, Leptocottus armatus. Ichthyophonus sp. was viable in decomposing herring tissues for at least 29 days post-mortem and could be transmitted via ingestion to sculpin for up to 5 days. The parasite underwent morphologic changes during the first 48 hr following death of the host that were similar to those previously reported, but as host tissue decomposition progressed, several previously un-described forms of the parasite were observed. The significance of long-term survival and continued morphologic transformation in the post-mortem host is unknown, but it could represent a saprozoic phase of the parasite life cycle that has survival value for Ichthyophonus sp.

  12. Early post-mortem changes and stages of decomposition in exposed cadavers.

    PubMed

    Lee Goff, M

    2009-10-01

    Decomposition of an exposed cadaver is a continuous process, beginning at the moment of death and ending when the body is reduced to a dried skeleton. Traditional estimates of the period of time since death or post-mortem interval have been based on a series of grossly observable changes to the body, including livor mortis, algor mortis, rigor mortis and similar phenomena. These changes will be described briefly and their relative significance discussed. More recently, insects, mites and other arthropods have been increasingly used by law enforcement to provide an estimate of the post-mortem interval. Although the process of decomposition is continuous, it is useful to divide this into a series of five stages: Fresh, Bloated, Decay, Postdecay and Skeletal. Here these stages are characterized by physical parameters and related assemblages of arthropods, to provide a framework for consideration of the decomposition process and acarine relationships to the body. PMID:19554461

  13. Procedures to recover DNA from pre-molar and molar teeth of decomposed cadavers with different post-mortem intervals.

    PubMed

    Raimann, Paulo E; Picanço, Juliane B; Silva, Deborah S B S; Albuquerque, Trícia C K; Paludo, Francis Jackson O; Alho, Clarice S

    2012-11-01

    A task-force to resolve 26 pending forensic caseworks was carried out. We tested four different protocols to extract DNA from molar and pre-molar teeth from 26 cadavers with post-mortem intervals from 2 months to 12 years. We compared the amount of DNA and DNA profiles with the time elapsed between death and laboratory procedures. Molar or pre-molar teeth were removed from the corpses, cleaned, and DNA was extracted using 2 or 12h of incubation on lysis buffer and filtered using concentration column or precipitated with isopropanol. DNA profiles were obtained using PowerPlex16™ System PCR Amplification Kit, AmpFlSTR(®) Yfiler™ and/or mtDNA sequencing. Complete DNA profiles comparison and statistical evaluation allowed unambiguous identification of the 26 victims. No significant differences were observed in the amount of DNA obtained with the distinct incubation times. The use of concentration column resulted in an increased amount of DNA when compared to isopropanol. However, the lower concentration of DNA obtained with isopropanol seemed to have been compensated by the higher purity. No significant differences in the number of amplified loci were found. A non-significant tendency was found between the amount of total DNA recovered and the time elapsed between death and laboratory procedures. The increase of post-mortem time did not interfere in the analysed autosomal loci. In conclusion, molar and pre-molar teeth were shown to be good candidates to obtain satisfactory DNA profiles, suggesting the high potential of tooth samples as source for DNA typing independently of the decomposed corpse's time or laboratory procedures. PMID:23040740

  14. Post-Mortem Corneal Thickness Measurements with a Portable Optical Coherence Tomography System: a Reliability Study

    PubMed Central

    Napoli, Pietro Emanuele; Nioi, Matteo; d’Aloja, Ernesto; Fossarello, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the repeatability and reproducibility of post-mortem central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements by using a real-time, portable optical coherence tomography (OCT) system on an animal model, and to prospectively evaluate the time-course of post-mortem changes in CCT. Forty-six ocular globes of sheep (Ovis aries) were analyzed with a portable spectral-domain OCT device by two operators at different postmortem intervals (PMIs) as follows: immediately (i.e. within 10 minutes), at the 30th minute, at the 1st, 6th, 12th, 24th and 48th hour, and later (up to the 96th hour). The coefficient of repeatability ranged from 0.3% to 3.5%, and coefficients of reproducibility ranged from 0.2% to 3.7% in the central region of the cornea. The intraclass correlation coefficients were particularly high at different PMIs, thus confirming good measurement reliability with the portable OCT. The average CCT decreased immediately and then increased thereafter, with two peaks at 6 and 24 hours after death. Our results suggest that portable OCT is a reliable tool for monitoring CCT variations after death and may be useful in characterizing corneas before explantation, detecting quantitative variations during post-mortem corneal degeneration or assessing changes in CCT for forensic implications. PMID:27457021

  15. Estimation of post mortem interval by tomographic images of intra-cardiac hypostasis.

    PubMed

    Zerbini, Talita; da Silva, Luiz Fernando Ferraz; Lobato Baptista, Pedro Artur; Ikari, Eduardo Seigo; Rodrigues de Araujo, Marina; de André, Carmen Diva Saldiva; da Motta Singer, Julio; da Rocha, Francisco Marcelo Monteiro; Junior, Edson Amaro; Pasqualucci, Carlos Augusto Gonçalves; Saldiva, Paulo Hilario Nascimento

    2016-02-01

    The determination of the post mortem interval (PMI) is important in many instances, especially in criminal investigations. So, we consider post mortem tomographic evaluation of intra-cardiac hypostasis as an additional method for such purpose. Tomographic images of the thoraces of the corpses of 23 patients who died in a hospital were obtained sequentially at one hour intervals to allow the analysis of changes in density due to hypostasis over time. The right and left atria, which appear in the mediastinal window, were selected for measurements of the average organ density. An exponential model was used to relate the difference between the attenuation coefficients of the anterior segment of the right atrium and the posterior segment of the left atrium to the PMI. In spite of the large variability of the data from this observational study, PMI estimates during the first 12 h after death can be estimated with a margin of error smaller than two hours. The results suggest that the difference between the attenuation coefficients stabilizes around 12 h post mortem and may be used as an additional method to estimate the PMI. PMID:26802976

  16. Post-Mortem Corneal Thickness Measurements with a Portable Optical Coherence Tomography System: a Reliability Study.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Pietro Emanuele; Nioi, Matteo; d'Aloja, Ernesto; Fossarello, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the repeatability and reproducibility of post-mortem central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements by using a real-time, portable optical coherence tomography (OCT) system on an animal model, and to prospectively evaluate the time-course of post-mortem changes in CCT. Forty-six ocular globes of sheep (Ovis aries) were analyzed with a portable spectral-domain OCT device by two operators at different postmortem intervals (PMIs) as follows: immediately (i.e. within 10 minutes), at the 30(th) minute, at the 1(st), 6(th), 12(th), 24(th) and 48(th) hour, and later (up to the 96(th) hour). The coefficient of repeatability ranged from 0.3% to 3.5%, and coefficients of reproducibility ranged from 0.2% to 3.7% in the central region of the cornea. The intraclass correlation coefficients were particularly high at different PMIs, thus confirming good measurement reliability with the portable OCT. The average CCT decreased immediately and then increased thereafter, with two peaks at 6 and 24 hours after death. Our results suggest that portable OCT is a reliable tool for monitoring CCT variations after death and may be useful in characterizing corneas before explantation, detecting quantitative variations during post-mortem corneal degeneration or assessing changes in CCT for forensic implications. PMID:27457021

  17. Human decomposition and the reliability of a 'Universal' model for post mortem interval estimations.

    PubMed

    Cockle, Diane L; Bell, Lynne S

    2015-08-01

    Human decomposition is a complex biological process driven by an array of variables which are not clearly understood. The medico-legal community have long been searching for a reliable method to establish the post-mortem interval (PMI) for those whose deaths have either been hidden, or gone un-noticed. To date, attempts to develop a PMI estimation method based on the state of the body either at the scene or at autopsy have been unsuccessful. One recent study has proposed that two simple formulae, based on the level of decomposition humidity and temperature, could be used to accurately calculate the PMI for bodies outside, on or under the surface worldwide. This study attempted to validate 'Formula I' [1] (for bodies on the surface) using 42 Canadian cases with known PMIs. The results indicated that bodies exposed to warm temperatures consistently overestimated the known PMI by a large and inconsistent margin for Formula I estimations. And for bodies exposed to cold and freezing temperatures (less than 4°C), then the PMI was dramatically under estimated. The ability of 'Formulae II' to estimate the PMI for buried bodies was also examined using a set of 22 known Canadian burial cases. As these cases used in this study are retrospective, some of the data needed for Formula II was not available. The 4.6 value used in Formula II to represent the standard ratio of time that burial decelerates the rate of decomposition was examined. The average time taken to achieve each stage of decomposition both on, and under the surface was compared for the 118 known cases. It was found that the rate of decomposition was not consistent throughout all stages of decomposition. The rates of autolysis above and below the ground were equivalent with the buried cases staying in a state of putrefaction for a prolonged period of time. It is suggested that differences in temperature extremes and humidity levels between geographic regions may make it impractical to apply formulas developed in

  18. Wear of polyethylene cups in total hip arthroplasty. A study of specimens retrieved post mortem.

    PubMed

    Sychterz, C J; Moon, K H; Hashimoto, Y; Terefenko, K M; Engh, C A; Bauer, T W

    1996-08-01

    The wear of polyethylene components of total hip replacements has previously been studied radiographically and by analysis of retrieved components. The extent of wear, however, has largely been determined from components retrieved at reoperation and has therefore been based on a subset of patients in whom the prosthesis is more likely to show excessive wear. The study of cups retrieved post mortem provides a better indication of the extent of wear of well functioning components. Twenty-six polyethylene liners were retrieved at autopsy from nineteen patients, after a mean of ninety-one months (range, thirty-three to 206 months) in situ. Each component had articulated with a thirty-two-millimeter-diameter femoral head. The components were evaluated visually for evidence of polyethylene wear such as pitting, scratching, and burnishing. Additionally; a shadowgraph technique was used to examine molds of the inner surface of the liner to determine the direction and extent of wear. The mean extent of linear wear of the retrieved liners was 0.45 millimeter (range, 0.17 to 1.07 millimeters), and the mean rate of wear was 0.07 millimeter (range, 0.02 to 0.18 millimeter) per year. The mean volumetric wear was 245.3 cubic millimeters (range, 13.0 to 779.1 cubic millimeters), and the mean rate of volumetric wear was 39.8 cubic millimeters (range, 1.0 to 131.3 cubic millimeters) per year. The mean rate of wear for the twenty-six liners was 45 to 69 per cent less than the rates reported in the literature for polyethylene liners retrieved at reoperation. Examination of the articulating surface did not reveal gross evidence of surface failure such as delamination or fatigue cracks. In general, the surfaces were merely burnished and scratched. The rates of wear of press-fit, metal-backed liners were significantly higher than those of all-polyethylene cemented components (p < 0.05). Additionally, statistical analysis revealed no correlation between wear and the patient's age, weight

  19. Monitoring post mortem changes in porcine muscle through 2-D DIGE proteome analysis of Longissimus muscle exudate

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Meat quality is a complex trait influenced by a range of factors with post mortem biochemical processes highly influential in defining ultimate quality. High resolution two-dimensional DIfference Gel Electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and Western blot were applied to study the influence of post mortem meat ageing on the proteome of pork muscle. Exudate collected from the muscle following centrifugation was analysed at three timepoints representing a seven day meat ageing period. Results The intensity of 136 spots varied significantly (p < 0.05) across this post mortem period and 40 spots were identified using mass spectrometry. The main functional categories represented were metabolic proteins, stress-related proteins, transport and structural proteins. Metabolic and structural proteins were generally observed to increase in abundance post mortem and many likely represent the accumulation of the degradation products of proteolytic enzyme activity. In contrast, stress-related proteins broadly decreased in abundance across the ageing period. Stress response proteins have protective roles in maintaining cellular integrity and a decline in their abundance over time may correlate with a reduction in cellular integrity and the onset of meat ageing. Since cellular conditions alter with muscle ageing, changes in solubility may also contribute to observed abundance profiles. Conclusions Muscle exudate provided valuable information about the pathways and processes underlying the post mortem ageing period, highlighting the importance of post mortem modification of proteins and their interaction for the development of meat quality traits. PMID:23514628

  20. Global and Site-Specific Changes in 5-Methylcytosine and 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine after Extended Post-mortem Interval

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Jeffrey A.; Nagy, Corina; Lin, Li; Bonneil, Éric; Maheu, Marissa; Thibault, Pierre; Mechawar, Naguib; Jin, Peng; Turecki, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in the study of epigenetic mechanisms to elucidate the molecular bases of human brain-related diseases and disorders. Frequently, researchers utilize post-mortem tissue with the assumption that post-mortem tissue decay has little or no effect on epigenetic marks. Although previous studies show no effect of post-mortem interval on certain epigenetic marks, no such research has been performed on cytosine modifications. In this study, we use DNA from the brains of adult Sprague Dawley rats subjected to post-mortem intervals at room temperature, ranging from 0 to 96 h, to assess the stability of cytosine modifications, namely 5-methycytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. Our results indicate that neither global nor site-specific levels of 5-methycytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine are affected by the post-mortem intervals we studied. As such, the use of post-mortem tissue to study cytosine modifications in the context of neurological or neuropsychiatric disorders is appropriate. PMID:27446202

  1. Comparing different post-mortem human samples as DNA sources for downstream genotyping and identification.

    PubMed

    Calacal, Gayvelline C; Apaga, Dame Loveliness T; Salvador, Jazelyn M; Jimenez, Joseph Andrew D; Lagat, Ludivino J; Villacorta, Renato Pio F; Lim, Maria Cecilia F; Fortun, Raquel D R; Datar, Francisco A; De Ungria, Maria Corazon A

    2015-11-01

    The capability of DNA laboratories to perform genotyping procedures from post-mortem remains, including those that had undergone putrefaction, continues to be a challenge in the Philippines, a country characterized by very humid and warm conditions all year round. These environmental conditions accelerate the decomposition of human remains that were recovered after a disaster and those that were left abandoned after a crime. When considerable tissue decomposition of human remains has taken place, there is no other option but to extract DNA from bone and/or teeth samples. Routinely, femur shafts are obtained from recovered bodies for human identification because the calcium matrix protects the DNA contained in the osteocytes. In the Philippines, there is difficulty in collecting femur samples after natural disasters or even human-made disasters, because these events are usually characterized by a large number of fatalities. Identification of casualties is further delayed by limitation in human and material resources. Hence, it is imperative to test other types of biological samples that are easier to collect, transport, process and store. We analyzed DNA that were obtained from body fluid, bone marrow, muscle tissue, clavicle, femur, metatarsal, patella, rib and vertebral samples from five recently deceased untreated male cadavers and seven male human remains that were embalmed, buried for ∼ 1 month and then exhumed. The bodies had undergone different environmental conditions and were in various stages of putrefaction. A DNA extraction method utilizing a detergent-washing step followed by an organic procedure was used. The utility of bone marrow and vitreous fluid including bone marrow and vitreous fluid that was transferred on FTA(®) cards and subjected to autosomal STR and Y-STR DNA typing were also evaluated. DNA yield was measured and the presence or absence of PCR inhibitors in DNA extracts was assessed using Plexor(®)HY. All samples were amplified using

  2. Factors impacting the success of post-mortem sperm rescue in the rhinoceros.

    PubMed

    Roth, T L; Stoops, M A; Robeck, T R; O'Brien, J K

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this study was to identify factors that influenced the ability to successfully rescue sperm post-mortem from rhinoceroses maintained in North American zoos. Factors considered included procedural technicalities, individual rhinoceros characteristics and timing. Gross testicular pathology was noted in 17.4% of males (4/23) but did not impact sperm recovery except in one case of azoospermia (4.3%). Of the males in which sperm recovery was attempted (n=21), 62% yielded quality samples considered adequate for cryopreservation (≥ 30% motility with ≥ 2.0 forward progressive status). A high percentage of males (70.6%; 12/17) from which reproductive tissue was removed an d cooled ≤ 4 h after death yielded quality sperm samples, whereas only 25% (1/4) of males from which tissue was removed>4h after death yielded quality samples. Quality samples were recovered 1-51 h post-mortem from rhinoceroses 8 to 36 years old. Neither type of illness (prolonged or acute), or method of death (euthanasia or natural) affected the ability to harvest quality samples (P > 0.05). The Indian rhinoceros yielded significantly more sperm on average (40 × 10(9)) than the African black rhinoceros (3.6 × 10(9); P < 0.01) and the African white rhinoceros (3.2 × 10(9); P < 0.05). Across all species and samples assessed (n = 11), mean post-thaw sperm motility (41%), was only 15% less than pre-freeze motility (56%) and only decreased to 22% during the 6h post-thaw assessment period. Rhinoceros sperm rescue post-mortem is relatively successful across a wide range of variables, especially when tissues are removed and cooled promptly after death, and should be considered standard practice among zoos. PMID:26879096

  3. A combined post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging and quantitative histological study of multiple sclerosis pathology

    PubMed Central

    Kolasinski, James; Chance, Steven A.; DeLuca, Gabriele C.; Esiri, Margaret M.; Chang, Eun-Hyuk; Palace, Jacqueline A.; McNab, Jennifer A.; Jenkinson, Mark; Miller, Karla L.; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory neurological condition characterized by focal and diffuse neurodegeneration and demyelination throughout the central nervous system. Factors influencing the progression of pathology are poorly understood. One hypothesis is that anatomical connectivity influences the spread of neurodegeneration. This predicts that measures of neurodegeneration will correlate most strongly between interconnected structures. However, such patterns have been difficult to quantify through post-mortem neuropathology or in vivo scanning alone. In this study, we used the complementary approaches of whole brain post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging and quantitative histology to assess patterns of multiple sclerosis pathology. Two thalamo-cortical projection systems were considered based on their distinct neuroanatomy and their documented involvement in multiple sclerosis: lateral geniculate nucleus to primary visual cortex and mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus to prefrontal cortex. Within the anatomically distinct thalamo-cortical projection systems, magnetic resonance imaging derived cortical thickness was correlated significantly with both a measure of myelination in the connected tract and a measure of connected thalamic nucleus cell density. Such correlations did not exist between these markers of neurodegeneration across different thalamo-cortical systems. Magnetic resonance imaging lesion analysis depicted clearly demarcated subcortical lesions impinging on the white matter tracts of interest; however, quantitation of the extent of lesion-tract overlap failed to demonstrate any appreciable association with the severity of markers of diffuse pathology within each thalamo-cortical projection system. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging metrics in both white matter tracts were correlated significantly with a histologically derived measure of tract myelination. These data demonstrate for the first time the relevance of functional

  4. Antipsychotic drugs attenuate aberrant DNA methylation of DTNBP1 (dysbindin) promoter in saliva and post-mortem brain of patients with schizophrenia and Psychotic bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Abdolmaleky, Hamid M; Pajouhanfar, Sara; Faghankhani, Masoomeh; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Mostafavi, Ashraf; Thiagalingam, Sam

    2015-12-01

    Due to the lack of genetic association between individual genes and schizophrenia (SCZ) pathogenesis, the current consensus is to consider both genetic and epigenetic alterations. Here, we report the examination of DNA methylation status of DTNBP1 promoter region, one of the most credible candidate genes affected in SCZ, assayed in saliva and post-mortem brain samples. The Illumina DNA methylation profiling and bisulfite sequencing of representative samples were used to identify methylation status of the DTNBP1 promoter region. Quantitative methylation specific PCR (qMSP) was employed to assess methylation of DTNBP1 promoter CpGs flanking a SP1 binding site in the saliva of SCZ patients, their first-degree relatives and control subjects (30, 15, and 30/group, respectively) as well as in post-mortem brains of patients with SCZ and bipolar disorder (BD) versus controls (35/group). qRT-PCR was used to assess DTNBP1 expression. We found DNA hypermethylation of DTNBP1 promoter in the saliva of SCZ patients (∼12.5%, P = 0.036), particularly in drug-naïve patients (∼20%, P = 0.011), and a trend toward hypermethylation in their first-degree relatives (P = 0.085) versus controls. Analysis of post-mortem brain samples revealed an inverse correlation between DTNBP1 methylation and expression, and normalization of this epigenetic change by classic antipsychotic drugs. Additionally, BD patients with psychotic depression exhibited higher degree of methylation versus other BD patients (∼80%, P = 0.025). DTNBP1 promoter DNA methylation may become a key element in a panel of biomarkers for diagnosis, prevention, or therapy in SCZ and at risk individuals pending confirmatory studies with larger sample sizes to attain a higher degree of significance. PMID:26285059

  5. Post-mortem re-cloning of a transgenic red fluorescent protein dog

    PubMed Central

    Hong, So Gun; Koo, Ok Jae; Oh, Hyun Ju; Park, Jung Eun; Kim, Minjung; Kim, Geon-A; Park, Eun Jung; Jang, Goo

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the world's first transgenic dogs were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer. However, cellular senescence is a major limiting factor for producing more advanced transgenic dogs. To overcome this obstacle, we rejuvenated transgenic cells using a re-cloning technique. Fibroblasts from post-mortem red fluorescent protein (RFP) dog were reconstructed with in vivo matured oocytes and transferred into 10 surrogate dogs. One puppy was produced and confirmed as a re-cloned dog. Although the puppy was lost during birth, we successfully established a rejuvenated fibroblast cell line from this animal. The cell line was found to stably express RFP and is ready for additional genetic modification. PMID:22122908

  6. Increased concentration of. cap alpha. - and. gamma. -endorphin in post mortem hypothalamic tissue of schizophrenic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Wiegant, V.M.; Verhoef, C.J.; Burbach, J.P.H.; de Wied, D.

    1988-01-01

    The concentrations of ..cap alpha..-, ..beta..- and ..gamma..-endorphin were determined by radioimmunoassay in HPLC fractionated extracts of post mortem hypothalamic tissue obtained from schizophrenic patients and controls. The hypothalamic concentration of ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-endorphin was significantly higher in patients than in controls. No difference was found in the concentration of ..beta..-endorphin, the putative precursor of ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-endorphins. These results suggest a deviant metabolism of ..beta..-endorphin in the brain of schizophrenic patients. Whether this phenomenon is related to the psychopathology, or is a consequence of ante mortem farmacotherapy, remains to be established.

  7. Perinatal and paediatric post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (PMMR): sequences and technique.

    PubMed

    Norman, Wendy; Jawad, Noorulhuda; Jones, Rod; Taylor, Andrew M; Arthurs, Owen J

    2016-06-01

    As post-mortem MRI (PMMR) becomes more widely used for investigation following perinatal and paediatric deaths, the best possible images should be acquired. In this article, we review the most widely used published PMMR sequences, together with outlining our acquisition protocol and sequence parameters for foetal, perinatal and paediatric PMMR. We give examples of both normal and abnormal appearances, so that the reader can understand the logic behind each acquisition step before interpretation, as a useful day-to-day reference guide to performing PMMR. PMID:26916282

  8. What can post-mortem studies tell us about the pathoetiology of suicide?

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Ghanshyam N; Dwivedi, Yogesh

    2011-01-01

    Suicide is a major public health concern; however, its neurobiology is unclear. Post-mortem brain tissue obtained from suicide victims and normal controls offers a useful method for studying the neurobiology of suicide. Despite several limitations, these studies have offered important leads in the neurobiology of suicide. In this article, we discuss some important findings resulting from these studies, focusing on serotonergic mechanisms, signal transduction systems, neuroendocrine studies and immune function abnormalities in suicide. These studies suggest that abnormalities of certain receptor subtypes, components of signaling systems such as protein kinase C and protein kinase A, transcription factors such as cyclic AMP response element-binding protein and neurotrophins may play an important role in the pathophysiology of suicide. These studies also suggest abnormalities of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis system components, feedback mechanisms and cytokines, which are chemical mediators of the immune functions. Post-mortem brain tissue offers an opportunity for future studies, such as genetic and epigenetic studies. PMID:21436961

  9. The rate of RNA degradation in human dental pulp reveals post-mortem interval.

    PubMed

    Poór, Viktor S; Lukács, Dénes; Nagy, Tamás; Rácz, Evelin; Sipos, Katalin

    2016-05-01

    Post-mortem interval (PMI) is the amount of time elapsed since the time of death. Over the years, many methods were developed to assess PMI, but their precision and time frame of applicability are often limited. Our present pilot study aimed to prove if RNA degradation of human dental pulp can be used for PMI estimation. RNA was isolated from the pulps of healthy wisdom teeth and premolars. RNA degradation was determined as RNA integrity number (RIN) with Agilent Bioanalyzer and subsequently by amplification of different length products by PCR after reverse transcription. The RNA integrity analysis allowed us to determine the time of post-mortem interval with high confidence level in the first 21 days. With the PCR-based method, we were able to perform a crude estimation of incubation time of teeth between 20 and 42 days post extraction. These results show that this method might be a promising new tool for PMI estimation despite the limitations. PMID:26608472

  10. Adult post-mortem imaging in traumatic and cardiorespiratory death and its relation to clinical radiological imaging

    PubMed Central

    Adlam, D; Robinson, C; Pakkal, M; Rutty, G N

    2014-01-01

    The use of post-mortem imaging is expanding throughout the world with increasing use of advanced imaging techniques, such as contrast-enhanced CT and MRI. The questions asked of post-mortem imaging are complex and can be very different, for example for natural sudden death investigation will focus on the cause, whereas for trauma the cause of death is often clear, but injury patterns may be very revealing in investigating the background to the incident. Post-mortem imaging is different to clinical imaging regarding both the appearance of pathology and the information required, but there is much to learn from many years of clinical research in the use of these techniques. Furthermore, it is possible that post-mortem imaging research could be used not only for investigating the cause of death but also as a model to conduct clinically relevant research. This article reviews challenges to the development of post-mortem imaging for trauma, identification and cardiorespiratory death, and how they may be influenced by current clinical thinking and practice. PMID:24338941

  11. Freshwater drowning in a child: A case study demonstrating the role of post-mortem computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Filograna, Laura; Tartaglione, Tommaso; Vetrugno, Giuseppe; Guerra, Claudio; Fileni, Adriano; Bonomo, Lorenzo

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, modern imaging techniques have gained ground in forensics. A crucial question is whether virtual autopsy is capable of replacing traditional autopsy. Forensic diagnosis of freshwater drowning (FWD) is based on the evidence of findings from external inspection (e.g. frothy fluid exuding from the mouth and nostrils), internal examination (e.g. pulmonary congestion, enlargement of heart chambers) and biochemical analysis (haemodilution), findings which are non-specific. The detection of diatoms in organs of the systemic circulation may be of some assistance, but this analysis is rarely performed and is of debatable validity. An 18-month-old child was found dead at home in a swimming pool. Considering the family's wishes to avoid autopsy, the district attorney authorised a whole-body post-mortem computed tomography scan (PMCT). The main imaging findings were frothy fluid in the upper airways, fluid in the trachea and main bronchi, many pulmonary nodular ground glass opacities (GGO) in non-dependent regions and haemodilution. CT imaging did not show any other forensically relevant abnormality.A high concordance was found between the CT findings reported in the literature in cases of FWD and the imaging results. Thus, after the exclusion of other causes of death, advised by the forensic pathologist, the district attorney closed the case and the death was attributed to FWD. This case report demonstrates that PMCT imaging in cases of suspected FWD can provide some important findings for the diagnosis of FWD as the cause of death. PMID:25628338

  12. Original implementation of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) in symmetric cells: Evaluation of post-mortem protocols applied to characterize electrode materials for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Isabel Jiménez; Genies, Sylvie; Si Larbi, Gregory; Boulineau, Adrien; Daniel, Lise; Alias, Mélanie

    2016-03-01

    Understanding ageing mechanisms of Li-ion batteries is essential for further optimizations. To determine performance loss causes, post-mortem analyses are commonly applied. For each type of post-mortem test, different sample preparation protocols are adopted. However, reports on the reliability of these protocols are rare. Herein, Li-ion pouch cells with LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 - polyvinylidene fluoride positive electrode, graphite-carboxymethyl cellulose-styrene rubber negative electrode and LiPF6 - carbonate solvents mixture electrolyte, are opened and electrodes are recovered following a specified protocol. Negative and positive symmetric cells are assembled and their impedances are recorded. A signal analysis is applied to reconstruct the Li-ion pouch cell impedance from the symmetric cells, then comparison against the pouch cell true impedance allows the evaluation of the sample preparation protocols. The results are endorsed by Transmission Electronic Microscopy (TEM) and Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. Carbonate solvents used to remove the salt impacts slightly the surface properties of both electrodes. Drying electrodes under vacuum at 25 °C produces an impedance increase, particularly very marked for the positive electrode. Drying at 50 °C under vacuum or/and exposition to the anhydrous room atmosphere is very detrimental.

  13. Ablation of fast-spiking interneurons in the dorsal striatum, recapitulating abnormalities seen post-mortem in Tourette syndrome, produces anxiety and elevated grooming.

    PubMed

    Xu, M; Li, L; Pittenger, C

    2016-06-01

    Tic disorders, including Tourette syndrome (TS), are thought to involve pathology of cortico-basal ganglia loops, but their pathology is not well understood. Post-mortem studies have shown a reduced number of several populations of striatal interneurons, including the parvalbumin-expressing fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs), in individuals with severe, refractory TS. We tested the causal role of this interneuronal deficit by recapitulating it in an otherwise normal adult mouse using a combination transgenic-viral cell ablation approach. FSIs were reduced bilaterally by ∼40%, paralleling the deficit found post-mortem. This did not produce spontaneous stereotypies or tic-like movements, but there was increased stereotypic grooming after acute stress in two validated paradigms. Stereotypy after amphetamine, in contrast, was not elevated. FSI ablation also led to increased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze, but not to alterations in motor learning on the rotorod or to alterations in prepulse inhibition, a measure of sensorimotor gating. These findings indicate that a striatal FSI deficit can produce stress-triggered repetitive movements and anxiety. These repetitive movements may recapitulate aspects of the pathophysiology of tic disorders. PMID:26968763

  14. Degradation of Kidney and Psoas Muscle Proteins as Indicators of Post-Mortem Interval in a Rat Model, with Use of Lateral Flow Technology

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Gi; Yang, Kyeong Eun; Hwang, Jeong Won; Kang, Hwan-Soo; Lee, Seung-Yeul; Choi, Seoyeon; Shin, Joonchul; Jang, Ik-Soon; An, Hyun Joo; Chung, Heesun; Jung, Hyo-Il; Choi, Jong-Soon

    2016-01-01

    We investigated potential protein markers of post-mortem interval (PMI) using rat kidney and psoas muscle. Tissue samples were taken at 12 h intervals for up to 96 h after death by suffocation. Expression levels of eight soluble proteins were analyzed by Western blotting. Degradation patterns of selected proteins were clearly divided into three groups: short-term, mid-term, and long-term PMI markers based on the half maximum intensity of intact protein expression. In kidney, glycogen synthase (GS) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β were degraded completely within 48 h making them short-term PMI markers. AMP-activated protein kinase α, caspase 3 and GS were short-term PMI markers in psoas muscle. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was a mid-term PMI marker in both tissues. Expression levels of the typical long-term PMI markers, p53 and β-catenin, were constant for at least 96 h post-mortem in both tissues. The degradation patterns of GS and caspase-3 were verified by immunohistochemistry in both tissues. GAPDH was chosen as a test PMI protein to perform a lateral flow assay (LFA). The presence of recombinant GAPDH was clearly detected in LFA and quantified in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that LFA might be used to estimate PMI at a crime scene. PMID:27552165

  15. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid endogenous production and post-mortem behaviour - the importance of different biological matrices, cut-off reference values, sample collection and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Castro, André L; Dias, Mário; Reis, Flávio; Teixeira, Helena M

    2014-10-01

    Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) is an endogenous compound with a story of clinical use, since the 1960's. However, due to its secondary effects, it has become a controlled substance, entering the illicit market for recreational and "dance club scene" use, muscle enhancement purposes and drug-facilitated sexual assaults. Its endogenous context can bring some difficulties when interpreting, in a forensic context, the analytical values achieved in biological samples. This manuscript reviewed several crucial aspects related to GHB forensic toxicology evaluation, such as its post-mortem behaviour in biological samples; endogenous production values, whether in in vivo and in post-mortem samples; sampling and storage conditions (including stability tests); and cut-off reference values evaluation for different biological samples, such as whole blood, plasma, serum, urine, saliva, bile, vitreous humour and hair. This revision highlights the need of specific sampling care, storage conditions, and cut-off reference values interpretation in different biological samples, essential for proper practical application in forensic toxicology. PMID:25287794

  16. Degradation of Kidney and Psoas Muscle Proteins as Indicators of Post-Mortem Interval in a Rat Model, with Use of Lateral Flow Technology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Gi; Yang, Kyeong Eun; Hwang, Jeong Won; Kang, Hwan-Soo; Lee, Seung-Yeul; Choi, Seoyeon; Shin, Joonchul; Jang, Ik-Soon; An, Hyun Joo; Chung, Heesun; Jung, Hyo-Il; Choi, Jong-Soon

    2016-01-01

    We investigated potential protein markers of post-mortem interval (PMI) using rat kidney and psoas muscle. Tissue samples were taken at 12 h intervals for up to 96 h after death by suffocation. Expression levels of eight soluble proteins were analyzed by Western blotting. Degradation patterns of selected proteins were clearly divided into three groups: short-term, mid-term, and long-term PMI markers based on the half maximum intensity of intact protein expression. In kidney, glycogen synthase (GS) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β were degraded completely within 48 h making them short-term PMI markers. AMP-activated protein kinase α, caspase 3 and GS were short-term PMI markers in psoas muscle. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was a mid-term PMI marker in both tissues. Expression levels of the typical long-term PMI markers, p53 and β-catenin, were constant for at least 96 h post-mortem in both tissues. The degradation patterns of GS and caspase-3 were verified by immunohistochemistry in both tissues. GAPDH was chosen as a test PMI protein to perform a lateral flow assay (LFA). The presence of recombinant GAPDH was clearly detected in LFA and quantified in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that LFA might be used to estimate PMI at a crime scene. PMID:27552165

  17. [Post-mortem partial skeletization of the face and neck by an Appenzell mountain dog].

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Sandra; Lardi, Christelle; La Harpe, Romano

    2009-01-01

    An 81-year-old man died unexpectedly from a cardiac cause. His wife, who lived in the same house and suffered from Alzheimer's disease, did not realize his death. When the body was found at the foot of the stairs 2-3 days afterwards, extensive soft tissue defects with notched wound edges, but no signs of vitality, were observed on the head and neck. The site where the body was found showed almost no traces of blood. In view of the injuries and their obviously post-mortem origin it was assumed that they had been caused by the man's Appenzell mountain dog which also lived in the house. By means of DNA typing, swabs from the wound edges of the soft-tissue defects could be assigned to the deceased's dog. PMID:19432090

  18. Increased steroid hormone dehydroepiandrosterone and pregnenolone levels in post-mortem brain samples of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Kärkkäinen, Olli; Häkkinen, Merja R; Auriola, Seppo; Kautiainen, Hannu; Tiihonen, Jari; Storvik, Markus

    2016-05-01

    Intra-tissue levels of steroid hormones (e.g., dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA], pregnenolone [PREGN], and testosterone [T]) may influence the pathological changes seen in neurotransmitter systems of alcoholic brains. Our aim was to compare levels of these steroid hormones between the post-mortem brain samples of alcoholics and non-alcoholic controls. We studied steroid levels with quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in post-mortem brain samples of alcoholics (N = 14) and non-alcoholic controls (N = 10). Significant differences were observed between study groups in DHEA and PREGN levels (p values 0.0056 and 0.019, respectively), but not in T levels. Differences between the study groups were most prominent in the nucleus accumbens (NAC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and anterior insula (AINS). DHEA levels were increased in most alcoholic subjects compared to controls. However, only a subgroup of alcoholics showed increased PREGN levels. Negative Spearman correlations between tissue levels of PREGN and previous reports of [(3)H]naloxone binding to μ-opioid receptors were observed in the AINS, ACC, NAC, and frontal cortex (R values between -0.6 and -0.8; p values ≤ 0.002), suggesting an association between the opioid system and brain PREGN levels. Although preliminary, and from relatively small diagnostic groups, these results show significantly increased levels of DHEA and PREGN in the brains of alcoholics, and could be associated with the pathology of alcoholism. PMID:27139239

  19. Sequencing CYP2D6 for the detection of poor-metabolizers in post-mortem blood samples with tramadol.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Suzana; Amorim, António; Costa, Heloísa Afonso; Franco, João; Porto, Maria João; Santos, Jorge Costa; Dias, Mário

    2016-08-01

    Tramadol concentrations and analgesic effect are dependent on the CYP2D6 enzymatic activity. It is well known that some genetic polymorphisms are responsible for the variability in the expression of this enzyme and in the individual drug response. The detection of allelic variants described as non-functional can be useful to explain some circumstances of death in the study of post-mortem cases with tramadol. A Sanger sequencing methodology was developed for the detection of genetic variants that cause absent or reduced CYP2D6 activity, such as *3, *4, *6, *8, *10 and *12 alleles. This methodology, as well as the GC/MS method for the detection and quantification of tramadol and its main metabolites in blood samples was fully validated in accordance with international guidelines. Both methodologies were successfully applied to 100 post-mortem blood samples and the relation between toxicological and genetic results evaluated. Tramadol metabolism, expressed as its metabolites concentration ratio (N-desmethyltramadol/O-desmethyltramadol), has been shown to be correlated with the poor-metabolizer phenotype based on genetic characterization. It was also demonstrated the importance of enzyme inhibitors identification in toxicological analysis. According to our knowledge, this is the first study where a CYP2D6 sequencing methodology is validated and applied to post-mortem samples, in Portugal. The developed methodology allows the data collection of post-mortem cases, which is of primordial importance to enhance the application of these genetic tools to forensic toxicology and pathology. PMID:26926096

  20. Can we infer post mortem interval on the basis of decomposition rate? A case from a Portuguese cemetery.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, M Teresa; Cunha, Eugénia

    2013-03-10

    Post mortem interval estimation is crucial in forensic sciences for both positive identification and reconstruction of perimortem events. However, reliable dating of skeletonized remains poses a scientific challenge since human remains decomposition involves a set of complex and highly variable processes. Many of the difficulties in determining post mortem interval and/or the permanence of a body in a specific environment relates with the lack of systematic observations and research in human body decomposition modalities in different environments. In March 2006, in order to solve a problem of misidentification, a team of the South Branch of Portuguese National Institute of Legal Medicine carried out the exhumation of 25 identified individuals buried for almost five years in the same cemetery plot. Even though all individuals shared similar post mortem intervals, they presented different stages of decomposition. In order to analyze the post mortem factors associated with the different stages of decomposition displayed by the 25 exhumed individuals, the stages of decomposition were scored. Information regarding age at death and sex of the individuals were gathered and recorded as well as data in the cause of death and grave and coffin characteristics. Although the observed distinct decay stages may be explained by the burial conditions, namely by the micro taphonomic environments, individual endogenous factors also play an important role on differential decomposition as witnessed by the present case. PMID:23357229

  1. 9 CFR 381.76 - Post-mortem inspection, when required; extent; traditional, Streamlined Inspection System (SIS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Post-mortem inspection, when required; extent; traditional, Streamlined Inspection System (SIS), New Line Speed (NELS) Inspection System and the New Turkey Inspection (NTI) System; rate of inspection. 381.76 Section 381.76 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...

  2. Early and 24 h post-mortem changes in breast muscle quality traits of two turkey genotypes and their reciprocal crosses raised under semi-confined conditions.

    PubMed

    Damaziak, K; Pietrzak, D; Michalczuk, M; Adamczak, L; Chmiel, M; Florowski, T; Gozdowski, D; Niemiec, J

    2016-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of reciprocal crossing of turkeys on early and 24 h post-mortem changes in quality traits of their breast muscles. The turkeys of slow-growing (SG) and fast-growing (FG) lines as well as SF (SG × FG) and FS crosses (FG × SG) were reared with access to free range. After slaughter turkey breast muscles were examined in the following terms: 5 min, 45 min, 2 h and 24 h post-mortem, for: temperature, pH, glycogen content (G), lactate content (L) and electrical conductivity (EC). Quality attributes of the breast meat were evaluated based on chemical composition, water holding capacity (WHC), cooking loss (%), shear force (N) and colour (L*, a*, b*). Despite differences in the rate of post-mortem changes, the genotype of turkeys had no significant effect upon many quality traits assessed 24 h post-mortem. Meat of lighter birds (SG and SF) was characterised by a lower fat content but a similar protein content compared to meat of FS and FG turkeys. In addition, meat of males from these groups was darker. Meat from the breast muscles of heavier birds (FS and FG) was harder. Significant negative maternal effects were determined for temperature of meat of both male and female turkeys, for pH2 and EC24 of males as well as for L2, L24 and cooking loss of female meat. Positive heterosis was confirmed only for pH2 of female meat and for G2 of male meat. In summary, the direction of fast- and slow-growing turkey crossing may affect the quality of their meat. However, meat of both types of hybrids reared under semi-confined conditions (with the possibility of using free range) was characterised by appropriate quality parameters. PMID:26927475

  3. Evaluation of the efficiency of nested q-PCR in the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex directly from tuberculosis-suspected lesions in post-mortem macroscopic inspections of bovine carcasses slaughtered in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ricardo César Tavares; Furlanetto, Leone Vinícius; Maruyama, Fernanda Harumy; Araújo, Cristina Pires de; Barros, Sílvia Letícia Bomfim; Ramos, Carlos Alberto do Nascimento; Dutra, Valéria; Araújo, Flábio Ribeiro de; Paschoalin, Vânia Margaret Flosi; Nakazato, Luciano; Figueiredo, Eduardo Eustáquio de Souza

    2015-08-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a zoonotic disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis, a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). The quick and specific detection of this species is of extreme importance, since BTB may cause economic impacts, in addition to presenting imminent risks to human health. In the present study a nested real-time PCR test (nested q-PCR) was used in post-mortem evaluations to assess cattle carcasses with BTB-suspected lesions. A total of 41,193 cattle slaughtered in slaughterhouses located in the state of Mato Grosso, were examined. Of the examined animals, 198 (0.48%) showed BTB-suspected lesions. M. bovis was isolated in 1.5% (3/198) of the samples. Multiplex-PCR detected MTC in 7% (14/198) of the samples. The nested q-PCR test detected MTC in 28% (56/198) of the BTB-suspected lesions, demonstrating higher efficiency when compared to the multiplex-PCR and conventional microbiology. Nested q-PCR can therefore be used as a complementary test in the national program for control and eradication of bovine tuberculosis. PMID:25863190

  4. A novel approach to determine post mortem interval using neutron radiography.

    PubMed

    Bilheux, Hassina Z; Cekanova, Maria; Vass, Arpad A; Nichols, Trent L; Bilheux, Jean C; Donnell, Robert L; Finochiarro, Vincenzo

    2015-06-01

    One of the most difficult challenges in forensic research is to objectively determine the post-mortem interval (PMI). The accuracy of PMI is critical for determining the timeline of events surrounding a death. Most PMI techniques rely on gross morphological changes of cadavers that are highly sensitive to taphonomic factors. Recent studies have demonstrated that even exhumed individuals exposed to the same environmental conditions with similar PMIs can present different stages of decomposition. After death, tissue undergoes sequential changes consisting of organic and inorganic phase variations, as well as a gradual reduction of tissue water content. Hydrogen (H) is the primary contributor to neutron radiography (NR) contrast in biological specimens because (1) it is the most abundant element in biological tissues and (2) its nucleus scatters thermal and cold neutrons more strongly than any other atomic nucleus. These contrast differences can be advantageous in a forensic context to determine small changes in hydrogen concentrations. Neutron radiography of decaying canine tissues was performed to evaluate the PMI by measuring the changes in H content. In this study, dog cadavers were used as a model for human cadavers. Canine tissues and cadavers were exposed to controlled (laboratory settings, at the University of Tennessee, College of Veterinary Medicine) and uncontrolled (University of Tennessee Anthropology Research Facility) environmental conditions, respectively. Neutron radiographs were supplemented with photographs and histology data to assess the decompositional stages of cadavers. Results demonstrated that the increase in neutron transmission likely corresponded to a decrease in hydrogen content in the tissue, which was correlated with the decay time of the tissue. Tissues depleted in hydrogen were brighter in the neutron transmission radiographs of skeletal muscles, lung, and bone, under controlled conditions. Over a period of 10 days, changes in neutron

  5. Effect of post-mortem handling conditions on the quality of spent hen meat curry.

    PubMed

    Mendiratta, S K; Sharma, B D; Majhi, M; Kumar, R R

    2012-04-01

    Study was performed to determine the effect of post-mortem handling conditions on the physico-chemical and sensory attributes of spent hen meat curry. Breast cuts of spent hens were subjected to different postmortem handling conditions before cooking viz; made into small cuts and cooked within 1-2 h of slaughter (condition 1), made into small cuts and cooked after 4-5 h of slaughter (condition 2), made into small cuts immediately after slaughter, stored at 4 ± 1 °C for 12 h and then cooked (condition 3), stored at 4 ± 1 °C for 12 h, made into small cuts and cooked (condition 4). The pH of meat just before cooking due to different stages of rigor development under various conditions differed accordingly. Observed differences in temperature of meat just before cooking were because of different postmortem handling condition variations viz:1,2,3,&4. The associated post mortem changes under different postmortem handling conditions before cooking led to significant variation in Water holding capacity, Water Soluble Protein, Salt Soluble Protein, cooking yield, moisture percentage before cooking and after cooking and also WB shear force value. In general, sensory scores were higher for conditions 4 and 1 as compared to conditions 2 and 3. Results revealed that quality attributes of spent hen meat curry can be improved by following proper post-slaughter handling and processing conditions. To get meat curry of good sensory quality, meat should be cooked preferably within 1-2 h of slaughter or after 10-12 h of storage of intact carcass at 4 ± 1 °C. Cuts should be made just before cooking but cooking after 4-5 h of slaughter should be avoided. PMID:23572849

  6. Increased acetyl and total histone levels in post-mortem Alzheimer's disease brain.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Pritika J; Lill, Claire; Faull, Richard; Curtis, Maurice A; Dragunow, Mike

    2015-02-01

    Histone acetylation is an epigenetic modification that plays a critical role in chromatin remodelling and transcriptional regulation. There is increasing evidence that epigenetic modifications may become compromised in aging and increase susceptibility to the development of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Immunohistochemical labelling of free-floating sections from the inferior temporal gyrus (Alzheimer's disease, n=14; control, n=17) and paraffin-embedded tissue microarrays containing tissue from the middle temporal gyrus (Alzheimer's disease, n=29; control, n=28) demonstrated that acetyl histone H3 and acetyl histone H4 levels, as well as total histone H3 and total histone H4 protein levels, were significantly increased in post-mortem Alzheimer's disease brain tissue compared to age- and sex-matched neurologically normal control brain tissue. Changes in acetyl histone levels were proportional to changes in total histone levels. The increase in acetyl histone H3 and H4 was observed in Neuronal N immunopositive pyramidal neurons in Alzheimer's disease brain. Using immunolabelling, histone markers correlated significantly with the level of glial fibrillary acidic protein and HLA-DP, -DQ and -DR immunopositive cells and with the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (hyperphosphorylated tau load and β-amyloid plaques). Given that histone acetylation changes were correlated with changes in total histone protein, it was important to evaluate if protein degradation pathways may be compromised in Alzheimer's disease. Consequently, significant positive correlations were also found between ubiquitin load and histone modifications. The relationship between histone acetylation and ubiquitin levels was further investigated in an in vitro model of SK-N-SH cells treated with the proteasome inhibitor Mg132 and the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid. In this model, compromised protein degradation caused by Mg132 lead to elevated histone

  7. Elevated formic acid concentrations in putrefied post-mortem blood and urine samples.

    PubMed

    Viinamäki, Jenni; Rasanen, Ilpo; Vuori, Erkki; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2011-05-20

    Formic acid (FA) concentration was measured in post-mortem blood and urine samples as methyl formate using a headspace in-tube extraction gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry method. A total of 113 cases were analyzed, each including a blood and urine sample fortified with 1% sodium fluoride. The cases were divided into three groups: regular (n=59), putrefied (n=30), and methanol-positive (n=22) cases. There was no evidence of ante-mortem methanol consumption in the regular and putrefied cases. In regular cases, the mean (and median) FA concentrations were 0.04 g/l (0.04 g/l) and 0.06 g/l (0.04 g/l) in blood and urine, respectively. In putrefied cases, the mean (and median) FA concentrations were substantially higher, 0.24 g/l (0.22 g/l) and 0.25 g/l (0.15 g/l) in blood and urine, respectively. In three putrefied cases, FA concentration in blood exceeded 0.5 g/l, a level associated with fatal methanol poisoning. Ten putrefied cases were reanalyzed after 3-4 months storage, and no significant changes in FA concentrations were seen. These observations suggest that FA was formed by putrefaction during the post-mortem period, not during sample storage when sodium fluoride was added as a preservative. In methanol-positive cases, the mean (and median) FA concentrations were 0.80 g/l (0.88 g/l) and 3.4 g/l (3.3 g/l) in blood and urine, respectively, and the concentrations ranged from 0.19 to 1.0 g/l in blood and from 1.7 to 5.6 g/l in urine. The mean (and median) methanol concentrations in methanol-positive cases were 3.0 g/l (3.0 g/l) and 4.4 g/l (4.7 g/l) in blood and in urine, respectively. The highest methanol concentrations were 6.0 g/l and 8.7 g/l in blood and urine, respectively. No ethyl alcohol was found in the methanol-positive blood samples. Poor correlation was shown between blood and urine concentrations of FA. Poor correlations were also shown, in both blood and urine, between methanol and FA concentrations. PMID:21112705

  8. Utility of urinary ethyl glucuronide analysis in post-mortem toxicology when investigating alcohol-related deaths.

    PubMed

    Sundström, M; Jones, A W; Ojanperä, I

    2014-08-01

    Use and abuse of alcohol are common findings when unnatural deaths are investigated as evidenced by high blood- and urine- alcohol concentrations (BAC and UAC) at autopsy. Because ethanol is metabolized in the liver until the time of death, the autopsy BAC or UAC might be negative even though the deceased had consumed alcohol in the immediate ante-mortem period. Analysis of the non-oxidative metabolite of ethanol [ethyl glucuronide (EtG)] offers a more sensitive test of recent drinking. In this paper, we determined the concentrations of ethanol and EtG in urine samples from 972 consecutive forensic autopsies. In 425 cases (44%) both EtG and ethanol were positive, which supports ante-mortem drinking. In 342 cases (35%), both EtG and ethanol was negative, which speaks against any consumption of alcohol just before death. In 181 cases, ethanol was negative in urine (<0.2 g/kg), whereas EtG was positive (>0.5 mg/L), which points towards ingestion of alcohol some time before death. In these cases, mean and median concentrations of EtG were 53.2 mg/L and 23.7 mg/L, respectively, although there was no mention of alcohol on 131 of the death certificates. Alcohol was mentioned on death certificates as an underlying or immediate cause of death or a contributing factor in 435 (45%) cases, which rose to 566 (58%) cases when positive EtG results were included. This article demonstrates the usefulness of EtG analysis in routine post-mortem toxicology when ante-mortem drinking and alcohol-related deaths are investigated. PMID:24954799

  9. [Post-mortem cesarean sections in Puerto Rico, 1805-1807].

    PubMed

    Rigau-Pérez, J G; Villaizán, M

    1991-03-01

    The idea of saving an infant by incising the abdomen of the recently deceased mother was first put into practice in ancient times, and the Catholic Church endorsed its use to provide baptism for the infant's soul. The practice received official support in Madrid in 1804 with a Real Cédula (royal order) of Charles IV to the civilian and ecclesiastic officials of the Indies and the Philippines. This operation was used, before the cédula, in Spain, Mexico, Venezuela and Peru, but in Puerto Rico this order seems to have provoked the practice of post-mortem caesarean section. In a review of burial records of the San Juan cathedral for 1797 to 1814, one such operation is mentioned (1807), but the records of Cayey (a town in the mountains) from 1801 to 1812 show three cases (1805-6). We transcribe here (with modern spelling) the cédula and burial certificates, and we then comment on their significance. PMID:1854384

  10. A forensic toxicological dilemma: the interpretation of post-mortem concentrations of central acting analgesics.

    PubMed

    Daldrup, Th

    2004-06-10

    Dora V., a 88-year-old pensioner suffering from a hiatus hernia, died at the home of an orthopaedist and his wife, an anaesthetist, immediately after she had received a dose of 300 mg pethidine via intravenous infusion in a timeframe of about 90 min. One day before her death a befriended notary of the couple visited Dora V. and obtained a blank signature. After her death, a will was forged using this signature, rendering the couple sole heirs of Dora V.'s estate with a value of several million euros. Post-mortem toxicology was performed in three different institutes of legal medicine. The concentrations of pethidine in peripheral venous blood were between 6.1 and 6.5mg/l and 9.5 and 17.2mg/kg in brain. Pharmacokinetic calculation confirms the given dose. There was no doubt that the cause of death was acute pethidine intoxication. The accused couple claimed that this dose of pethidine was indicated to relief pain, and as the pathologists said in their expert opinions that the hiatus hernia could explain her death, the court had to acquit the accused. This very special case demonstrates that preconceived murder of a sick person with suitable analgesics cannot be proven--at least not with the methods available to forensic toxicology and pathology. This has to be taken into consideration if euthanasia will be legalised under special circumstances. PMID:15172078

  11. The cholesterol levels in median nerve and post-mortem interval evaluation.

    PubMed

    Vacchiano, G; Maldonado, A Luna; Ros, M Matas; Di Lorenzo, P; Pieri, M

    2016-08-01

    Cholesterol levels in the median nerve were studied at various post-mortem intervals (PMIs). Single median nerve samples were collected from the wrists of 36 subjects during forensic autopsies of subjects with known circumstances and times of death. Although the absolute values varied, increments in cholesterol concentration were recorded. Subsequently, 16 subjects who did not suffer of any neurological and/or metabolic diseases with known times and circumstances of death were enrolled. For each enrolled subject, two samples were collected from the wrist at an interval of approximately two hours (t1 and t2). The obtained results revealed a gradual increase in cholesterol level with increasing time since death. The cholesterol concentration data obtained for each subject at t1 and t2 were correlated with the time since death, a linear interpolation was applied, and the PMI was back-calculated. Similar trends were obtained for the samples collected at similar PMIs; thus, three groups were considered: PMI<48h, 4878h. Good correlation coefficients were obtained, especially for the first group (R(2)=0.9362) for which the PMI could be calculated with an error that ranged from -4 to 5.9h. Although it requires further confirmation via analyses of larger numbers of samples, the method proposed here can currently be applied to PMI determinations. PMID:26826850

  12. Cochlear neuropathy in human presbycusis: Confocal analysis of hidden hearing loss in post-mortem tissue.

    PubMed

    Viana, Lucas M; O'Malley, Jennifer T; Burgess, Barbara J; Jones, Dianne D; Oliveira, Carlos A C P; Santos, Felipe; Merchant, Saumil N; Liberman, Leslie D; Liberman, M Charles

    2015-09-01

    Recent animal work has suggested that cochlear synapses are more vulnerable than hair cells in both noise-induced and age-related hearing loss. This synaptopathy is invisible in conventional histopathological analysis, because cochlear nerve cell bodies in the spiral ganglion survive for years, and synaptic analysis requires special immunostaining or serial-section electron microscopy. Here, we show that the same quadruple-immunostaining protocols that allow synaptic counts, hair cell counts, neuronal counts and differentiation of afferent and efferent fibers in mouse can be applied to human temporal bones, when harvested within 9 h post-mortem and prepared as dissected whole mounts of the sensory epithelium and osseous spiral lamina. Quantitative analysis of five "normal" ears, aged 54-89 yrs, without any history of otologic disease, suggests that cochlear synaptopathy and the degeneration of cochlear nerve peripheral axons, despite a near-normal hair cell population, may be an important component of human presbycusis. Although primary cochlear nerve degeneration is not expected to affect audiometric thresholds, it may be key to problems with hearing in noise that are characteristic of declining hearing abilities in the aging ear. PMID:26002688

  13. Effect of preservative solutions on preservation of Calliphora augur and Lucilia cuprina larvae (Diptera: Calliphoridae) with implications for post-mortem interval estimates.

    PubMed

    Day, Donnah M; Wallman, James F

    2008-07-18

    A major role of forensic entomology is to estimate the post-mortem interval. An entomologist's estimate of post-mortem interval is based on a series of generally valid assumptions, error in any of which can alter the accuracy of an estimate. The initial process of collecting and preserving maggots can itself lead to error, as can the method of killing and preservation. Since circumstances exist where it is not possible to rear maggots, methods of killing and preservation can be vital to preserving the integrity of entomological evidence. In this study, a number of preservation techniques used at crime scenes and in mortuaries were examined, and their effect on feeding third-instar larvae of Calliphora augur and Lucilia cuprina evaluated. The preservatives used were 70, 75, 80, 90 and 100% EtOH, Kahle's solution and 10% formalin. Each treatment was replicated three times. The effect of handling on first- and second-instar, feeding and post-feeding third-instar larvae of C. augur was also examined and compared to unhandled controls. Finally, the effects of preservatives were noted when larvae of C. augur and L. cuprina were placed into preservatives alive. It was found that continued handling is detrimental to specimens because preservative evaporates from both the vial and the specimens. No single preservative type was found to be entirely suitable for both species if DNA retrieval is desired. Specimens placed into most preservatives alive exhibited adverse colour changes, desiccation, sunkeness and agglomeration. It is concluded that the reaction to preservative type might be species specific and that different instars of the same species might also react differently. PMID:18514451

  14. Cyclic AMP response element-binding protein in post-mortem brain of teenage suicide victims: specific decrease in the prefrontal cortex but not the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ghanshyam N; Dwivedi, Yogesh; Ren, Xinguo; Rizavi, Hooriyah S; Roberts, Rosalinda C; Conley, Robert R

    2007-10-01

    Abnormalities in both adenylyl cyclase (AC) and phosphoinositide (PI) signalling systems have been observed in the post-mortem brain of suicide victims. Cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) is a transcription factor that is activated by phosphorylating enzymes such as protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC), which suggests that both AC and PI signalling systems converge at the level of CREB. CREB is involved in the transcription of many neuronally expressed genes that have been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression and suicide. Since we observed abnormalities of both PKA and PKC in the post-mortem brain of teenage suicide victims, we examined if these abnormalities are also associated with abnormalities of CREB, which is activated by these phosphorylating enzymes. We determined CRE-DNA binding using the gel shift assay, as well as protein expression of CREB using the Western blot technique, and the mRNA expression of CREB using a quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), and hippocampus obtained from 17 teenage suicide victims and 17 matched normal control subjects. We observed that the CRE-DNA binding and the protein expression of CREB were significantly decreased in the PFC of teenage suicide victims compared with controls. There was also a significant decrease in mRNA expression of CREB in the PFC of teenage suicide victims compared with control subjects. However, there were no significant differences in CRE-DNA binding or the protein and mRNA expression of CREB in the hippocampus of teenage suicide victims compared with control subjects. These results suggest that the abnormalities of PKA, and of PKC, observed in teenage suicide victims are also associated with abnormalities of the transcription factor CREB, and that this may also cause alterations of important neuronally expressed genes, and provide further support of the signal transduction of abnormalities

  15. Volumetric analysis of the diagonal band of Broca in patients with schizophrenia and affective disorders: A post-mortem study.

    PubMed

    Brisch, Ralf; Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Dobrowolny, Henrik; Krzyżanowska, Marta; Jankowski, Zbigniew; Bogerts, Bernhard; Gos, Tomasz

    2016-05-01

    The human diagonal band of Broca is connected to other parts of the limbic system, such as the hippocampus, that are involved in the pathology of schizophrenia. This study aimed to characterize the volume and anterior-to-posterior distance of the human diagonal band of Broca (vertical limb) from post-mortem brains obtained from three groups: healthy control subjects (N = 17), patients with schizophrenia (N = 26), and patients with affective disorders (N = 12). There were no significant differences in the volume or anterior-to-posterior distance in the patients with schizophrenia or affective disorders compared with the healthy control subjects. To date, this is the first post-mortem investigation measuring the volume and the anterior-to-posterior distance of the diagonal band of Broca (vertical limb) in patients with schizophrenia or affective disorders compared with healthy control subjects. Clin. Anat. 29:466-472, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26457806

  16. Guanidino compound levels in blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and post-mortem brain material of patients with argininemia.

    PubMed

    Deignan, Joshua L; De Deyn, Peter P; Cederbaum, Stephen D; Fuchshuber, Arno; Roth, Bernhard; Gsell, Wieland; Marescau, Bart

    2010-01-01

    The paucity of hyperammonemic crises together with spasticity, only seen in human arginase I deficient patients and not in patients with other urea cycle disorders, forces a search for candidates other than ammonia to associate with the pathophysiology and symptomatology. Therefore, we determined arginine together with some catabolites of arginine in blood and cerebrospinal fluid of these patients as well as in extremely rare post-mortem brain material of two patients with argininemia. The levels of alpha-keto-delta-guanidinovaleric acid, argininic acid and alpha-N-acetylarginine correlate with the arginine levels in blood and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with imposed or spontaneous protein restriction. The levels in blood are higher than the upper limit of normal in all studied patients. In addition to the highly increased levels of these same compounds in blood of a child with argininemia, the increase of guanidinoacetic acid, 24h before death, is remarkable. However, the manifest increases of these studied catabolites of arginine are not seen in post-mortem brain material of the same pediatric patient. Otherwise a clear increase of guanidinoacetic acid in post-mortem brain material of an adult patient was shown. A similar, comparable increase of homoarginine in both studied post-mortem brain materials is observed. Therefore the study of the pathobiochemistry of arginine in argininemia must be completed in the future by the determination of the end catabolites of the nitric oxide and agmatine biosynthesis pathways in the knockouts as well as in the patients to evaluate their role, together with the here studied catabolites, as candidates for association with pathophysiology and symptomatology. PMID:20176499

  17. Quantifying the relative contribution of ante- and post-mortem factors to the variability in beef texture.

    PubMed

    Juárez, M; Basarab, J A; Baron, V S; Valera, M; Larsen, I L; Aalhus, J L

    2012-11-01

    This study aims to investigate the relative contribution of ante- and post-mortem factors to the final quality of beef. In all, 112 steers (four breed-crosses) were arranged in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial experimental including production system, growth implant and β-adrenergic agonist strategies. Carcasses were suspended by the Achilles tendon or the aitch bone and meat was aged for 2/6/13/21/27 days (longissimus muscle) or 2/27 days (semimembranosus muscle). Meat quality traits related to beef texture were measured. Statistical analyses were developed including ante- and post-mortem factors and their relative contribution to the variability observed for each measured trait was calculated. The main factor responsible for the variability in sarcomere length was the suspension method (91.1%), which also influenced drip-loss (44.3%). Increasing the percentage of British breeds increased (P < 0.05) the intramuscular fat content in longissimus muscle, but only when implants were not used. Thus, the breed-cross, implant strategy and their interaction were responsible for >58% of the variability in this trait. The variability in instrumental and sensory tenderness was mainly affected by post-mortem factors (carcass suspension, ageing time and their interaction), explaining generally ∼70% of the variability in these traits. Breed-cross was the second most important effect (∼15%) when carcass suspension was not considered in the model, but still ageing time was responsible for a much larger proportion of the variability in tenderness (>45%). In conclusion, post-mortem handling of the carcasses may be much more effective in controlling beef tenderness than pre-mortem strategies. PMID:23031348

  18. Influence of Post-Mortem Sperm Recovery Method and Extender on Unstored and Refrigerated Rooster Sperm Variables.

    PubMed

    Villaverde-Morcillo, S; Esteso, M C; Castaño, C; Santiago-Moreno, J

    2016-02-01

    Many post-mortem sperm collection techniques have been described for mammalian species, but their use in birds is scarce. This paper compares the efficacy of two post-mortem sperm retrieval techniques - the flushing and float-out methods - in the collection of rooster sperm, in conjunction with the use of two extenders, i.e., L&R-84 medium and Lake 7.1 medium. To determine whether the protective effects of these extenders against refrigeration are different for post-mortem and ejaculated sperm, pooled ejaculated samples (procured via the massage technique) were also diluted in the above extenders. Post-mortem and ejaculated sperm variables were assessed immediately at room temperature (0 h), and after refrigeration at 5°C for 24 and 48 h. The flushing method retrieved more sperm than the float-out method (596.5 ± 75.4 million sperm vs 341.0 ± 87.6 million sperm; p < 0.05); indeed, the number retrieved by the former method was similar to that obtained by massage-induced ejaculation (630.3 ± 78.2 million sperm). For sperm collected by all methods, the L&R-84 medium provided an advantage in terms of sperm motility variables at 0 h. In the refrigerated sperm samples, however, the Lake 7.1 medium was associated with higher percentages of viable sperm, and had a greater protective effect (p < 0.05) with respect to most motility variables. In conclusion, the flushing method is recommended for collecting sperm from dead birds. If this sperm needs to be refrigerated at 5°C until analysis, Lake 7.1 medium is recommended as an extender. PMID:26602054

  19. Studies on drug metabolism by fungi colonizing decomposing human cadavers. Part II: biotransformation of five model drugs by fungi isolated from post-mortem material.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ramírez, Jorge A; Walther, Grit; Peters, Frank T

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigated the in vitro metabolic capacity of 28 fungal strains isolated from post-mortem material towards five model drugs: amitriptyline, metoprolol, mirtazapine, promethazine, and zolpidem. Each fungal strain was incubated at 25 °C for up to 120 h with each of the five models drugs. Cunninghamella elegans was used as positive control. Aliquots of the incubation mixture were centrifuged and 50 μL of the supernatants were diluted and directly analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with product ion scanning. The remaining mixture was analyzed by full scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after liquid-liquid extraction and acetylation. The metabolic activity was evaluated through the total number of detected metabolites (NDM) produced in each model and fungal strains and the percentage of parent drug remaining (%RPD) after up to five days of incubation. All the tested fungal strains were capable of forming mammalian phase I metabolites. Fungi from the normal fungal flora of the human body such as Candida sp., Geotrichum candidum, and Trichosporon asahii) formed up to seven metabolites at %RPD values greater than 52% but no new fungal metabolites (NFM). In contrast, some airborne fungal strains like Bjerkandera adusta, Chaetomium sp, Coriolopsis sp., Fusarium solani and Mucor plumbeus showed NDM values exceeding those of the positive control, complete metabolism of the parent drug in some models and formation of NFM. NFM (numbers in brackets) were detected in four of the five model drugs: amitriptyline (18), metoprolol (4), mirtazapine (8), and zolpidem (2). The latter NFM are potential candidates for marker substances indicating post-mortem fungal metabolism. PMID:24898183

  20. Towards muscle-specific meat color stability of Chinese Luxi yellow cattle: A proteomic insight into post-mortem storage.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Yu, Qian-Qian; Fu, Yu; Tian, Xiao-Jing; Jia, Fei; Li, Xing-Min; Dai, Rui-Tong

    2016-09-16

    Searching for potential predictors of meat color is a challenging task for the meat industry. In this study, the relationship between meat color parameters and the sarcoplasmic proteome of M. longissimuss lumborum (LL) and M. psoas major (PM) from Chinese Luxi yellow cattle during post-mortem storage (0, 5, 10 and 15days) were explored with the aid of the integrated proteomics and bioinformatics approaches. Meat color attributes revealed that LL displayed better color stability than PM during storage. Furthermore, sarcoplasmic proteins of these two muscles were compared between days 5, 10, 15 and day 0. Several proteins were closely correlated with meat color attributes and they were muscle-specific and responsible for the meat color stability at different storage periods. Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A isoform, glycogen phosphorylase, peroxiredoxin-2, phosphoglucomutase-1, superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn], heat shock cognate protein (71kDa) might serve as the candidate predictors of meat color stability during post-mortem storage. In addition, bioinformatics analyses indicated that more proteins were involved in glycolytic metabolism of LL, which contributed to better meat color stability of LL than PM. The present results could provide a proteomic insight into muscle-specific meat color stability of Chinese Luxi yellow cattle during post-mortem storage. PMID:26546560

  1. A New Insight into the Role of Calpains in Post-mortem Meat Tenderization in Domestic Animals: A review

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Ting; Wang, Linjie; Liu, Yiping

    2013-01-01

    Tenderness is the most important meat quality trait, which is determined by intracellular environment and extracellular matrix. Particularly, specific protein degradation and protein modification can disrupt the architecture and integrity of muscle cells so that improves the meat tenderness. Endogenous proteolytic systems are responsible for modifying proteinases as well as the meat tenderization. Abundant evidence has testified that calpains (CAPNs) including calpain I (CAPN1) and calpastatin (CAST) have the closest relationship with tenderness in livestock. They are involved in a wide range of physiological processes including muscle growth and differentiation, pathological conditions and post-mortem meat aging. Whereas, Calpain3 (CAPN3) has been established as an important activating enzyme specifically expressed in livestock’s skeletal muscle, but its role in domestic animals meat tenderization remains controversial. In this review, we summarize the role of CAPN1, calpain II (CAPN2) and CAST in post-mortem meat tenderization, and analyse the relationship between CAPN3 and tenderness in domestic animals. Besides, the possible mechanism affecting post-mortem meat aging and improving meat tenderization, and current possible causes responsible for divergence (whether CAPN3 contributes to animal meat tenderization or not) are inferred. Only the possible mechanism of CAPN3 in meat tenderization has been confirmed, while its exact role still needs to be studied further. PMID:25049808

  2. A New Insight into the Role of Calpains in Post-mortem Meat Tenderization in Domestic Animals: A review.

    PubMed

    Lian, Ting; Wang, Linjie; Liu, Yiping

    2013-03-01

    Tenderness is the most important meat quality trait, which is determined by intracellular environment and extracellular matrix. Particularly, specific protein degradation and protein modification can disrupt the architecture and integrity of muscle cells so that improves the meat tenderness. Endogenous proteolytic systems are responsible for modifying proteinases as well as the meat tenderization. Abundant evidence has testified that calpains (CAPNs) including calpain I (CAPN1) and calpastatin (CAST) have the closest relationship with tenderness in livestock. They are involved in a wide range of physiological processes including muscle growth and differentiation, pathological conditions and post-mortem meat aging. Whereas, Calpain3 (CAPN3) has been established as an important activating enzyme specifically expressed in livestock's skeletal muscle, but its role in domestic animals meat tenderization remains controversial. In this review, we summarize the role of CAPN1, calpain II (CAPN2) and CAST in post-mortem meat tenderization, and analyse the relationship between CAPN3 and tenderness in domestic animals. Besides, the possible mechanism affecting post-mortem meat aging and improving meat tenderization, and current possible causes responsible for divergence (whether CAPN3 contributes to animal meat tenderization or not) are inferred. Only the possible mechanism of CAPN3 in meat tenderization has been confirmed, while its exact role still needs to be studied further. PMID:25049808

  3. Effect of South African beef production systems on post-mortem muscle energy status and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Frylinck, L; Strydom, P E; Webb, E C; du Toit, E

    2013-04-01

    Post-slaughter muscle energy metabolism meat colour of South African production systems were compared; steers (n=182) of Nguni, Simmental Brahman crossbreds were reared on pasture until A-, AB-, or B-age, in feedlot until A-AB-age. After exsanguination carcasses were electrically stimulated (400 V for 15 s). M. longissimus dorsi muscle energy samples were taken at 1, 2, 4 and 20 h. Post-mortem samples for meat quality studies were taken at 1, 7 and 14 days post-mortem. Production systems affected muscle glycogen, glucose, glucose-6-P, lactic acid, ATP, creatine-P glycolytic potential (P<0.05), with the muscles of feedlot carcasses having a faster glycolysis rate than pasture carcasses. Energy metabolites correlated (0.40.5) water holding capacity, drip loss, and Warner Bratzler shear force. Muscle energy only affected muscle contraction of the A-age-pasture system (shortest sarcomere length of 1.66 μm vs 1.75 μm highest WBS of 6 kg vs 5 kg 7 days post-mortem). PMID:23305833

  4. Comparison of endogenous GHB concentrations in blood and hair in death cases with emphasis on the post mortem interval.

    PubMed

    Castro, André L; Tarelho, Sónia; Dias, Mário; Reis, Flávio; Teixeira, Helena M

    2016-07-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an endogenous compound which has a story of clinical use and illicit abuse since the 1960's. The possibility to use a multi-sample approach for GHB evaluation, including whole blood and hair, to better characterize a forensic toxicology case and evaluate a possible causal association with the death is an exciting up-to-date issue. In addition, its post-mortem behaviour, namely regarding degradation and metabolism, has been increasingly investigated as a putative biomarker for post-mortem interval (PMI) estimation. Thus, in order to contribute to clarification of this specific aspect, whole blood and hair post-mortem GHB levels were evaluated in 32 real cases with previous information on death and autopsy data. The results obtained suggest that the PMI (until 5 days between death and sampling) influences GHB whole blood concentration, but not GHB levels in hair samples. No differences were encountered for the other parameters evaluated, including age, gender, cause of death and presence or absence of substances. This study brings new insights regarding the usefulness of GHB levels in forensic toxicology, which might be further strengthened with larger, but comparable, studies from other laboratories and institutions in the context of legal medicine. PMID:26846768

  5. A novel approach to determine post mortem interval using neutron radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Cekanova, Maria; Vass, Arpad Alexander; Nichols, Trent L.; Bilheux, Jean -Christophe; Donnell, Robert; Finocchiaro, Vincenzo

    2015-03-06

    In this study, neutron radiography (NR) is used non-destructively to measure changes in hydrogen (H) content in decaying tissues as a mean to estimate post-mortem invertal (PMI). After death, tissue undergoes sequential changes consisting of organic and inorganic phase variations, as well as a gradual reduction of tissue water content. H is the primary contributor to NR contrast in biological specimens because (1) it is the most abundant element in biological tissues and (2) its nucleus scatter thermal and cold neutrons more strongly than any other atomic nucleus. These contrast differences can be advantageous in a forensic context to determine small changes in hydrogen concentrations. Dog cadavers were used as a model for human cadavers. Canine tissues and cadavers were exposed to controlled (laboratory settings) and uncontrolled (University of Tennessee Anthropology Research Facility) environmental conditions during putefraction, respectively. Neutron radiographs were supplemented with photographs and histology data to assess the decomposition stage of cadavers. Results demonstrated that the increase in neutron transmission likely corresponded to a decrease in hydrogen content in the tissue, which was correlated with the time of decay of the tissue. Tissues depleted in hydrogen are brighter in the neutron transmission radiographs of skeletal muscles, lung, and bone, under controlled conditions. Over a period of 10 days, changes in neutron transmission through lung and muscle were found to be higher than bone by 8.3%, 7.0 %, and 2.0 %, respectively. Estimation of the PMI was calculated from a natural logarithmic fitting of the NR data. Under controlled conditions, estimation of the PMI was 70% and 63.9 % accurate for bone and lung tissues, while being 1.4% accurate for muscle tissue. All results underestimated the true PMI. In conclusion, neutron radiography can be used for detection of hydrogen changes in decaying tissues to estimate PMI.

  6. A novel approach to determine post mortem interval using neutron radiography

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Cekanova, Maria; Vass, Arpad Alexander; Nichols, Trent L.; Bilheux, Jean -Christophe; Donnell, Robert; Finocchiaro, Vincenzo

    2015-03-06

    In this study, neutron radiography (NR) is used non-destructively to measure changes in hydrogen (H) content in decaying tissues as a mean to estimate post-mortem invertal (PMI). After death, tissue undergoes sequential changes consisting of organic and inorganic phase variations, as well as a gradual reduction of tissue water content. H is the primary contributor to NR contrast in biological specimens because (1) it is the most abundant element in biological tissues and (2) its nucleus scatter thermal and cold neutrons more strongly than any other atomic nucleus. These contrast differences can be advantageous in a forensic context to determinemore » small changes in hydrogen concentrations. Dog cadavers were used as a model for human cadavers. Canine tissues and cadavers were exposed to controlled (laboratory settings) and uncontrolled (University of Tennessee Anthropology Research Facility) environmental conditions during putefraction, respectively. Neutron radiographs were supplemented with photographs and histology data to assess the decomposition stage of cadavers. Results demonstrated that the increase in neutron transmission likely corresponded to a decrease in hydrogen content in the tissue, which was correlated with the time of decay of the tissue. Tissues depleted in hydrogen are brighter in the neutron transmission radiographs of skeletal muscles, lung, and bone, under controlled conditions. Over a period of 10 days, changes in neutron transmission through lung and muscle were found to be higher than bone by 8.3%, 7.0 %, and 2.0 %, respectively. Estimation of the PMI was calculated from a natural logarithmic fitting of the NR data. Under controlled conditions, estimation of the PMI was 70% and 63.9 % accurate for bone and lung tissues, while being 1.4% accurate for muscle tissue. All results underestimated the true PMI. In conclusion, neutron radiography can be used for detection of hydrogen changes in decaying tissues to estimate PMI.« less

  7. The endocannabinoid system is altered in the post-mortem prefrontal cortex of alcoholic subjects.

    PubMed

    Erdozain, Amaia M; Rubio, Marina; Valdizan, Elsa M; Pazos, Angel; Meana, J Javier; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Alexander, Stephen P H; Callado, Luis F

    2015-07-01

    There is strong biochemical, pharmacological and genetic evidence for the involvement of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in alcohol dependence. However, the majority of studies have been performed in animal models. The aim of the present study was to assess the state of the CB1 receptor, the enzymes fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in the post-mortem prefrontal cortex of alcoholic subjects. Experiments were performed in samples from 44 subjects classified in four experimental groups: (1) non-suicidal alcoholic subjects (n = 11); (2) suicidal alcoholic subjects (n = 11); (3) non-alcoholic suicide victims (n = 11); and (4) control subjects (n = 11). We did not observe statistically significant differences in CB1 mRNA relative expression among the four experimental groups. Conversely, our results showed an increase in CB1 receptor protein expression in the prefrontal cortex of the suicidal alcoholic group (127.2 ± 7.3%), with no changes in functionality with regard to either G protein activation or the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. In parallel, alcoholic subjects presented lower levels of MAGL activity, regardless of the cause of death. A significant decrease in the active form of ERK and CREB levels was also observed in both alcoholic groups. Taken together, our data are consistent with a role for the ECS in the neurobiological mechanisms underlying alcoholism. Moreover, the alterations reported here should be of great interest for the therapeutic treatment of this chronic psychiatric disease. PMID:25041461

  8. Causes of mortality and pathological lesions observed post-mortem in red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) in Great Britain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The red squirrel population in Great Britain has declined dramatically in recent decades, principally due to squirrelpox. Concern exists that red squirrels may become extinct nationally and, as there has been limited research in to diseases other than squirrelpox, this study aimed to identify additional causes of mortality. Results Post-mortem examinations on 163 red squirrels found dead on Isle of Wight (IoW) England, in Scotland and at other locations in Great Britain showed that 41.7% (n = 68) were killed by road traffic and 9.2% (n = 15) by predators, principally domestic cats and dogs. The overall male/female ratio was 1.08/1. Fleas were recorded on 34.9% of IoW squirrels and on 43.8% of Scottish squirrels but sucking lice and ixodid ticks were only seen on Scottish squirrels. Bacterial infections were significant, particularly in association with respiratory disease (n = 16); two squirrels died of Bordetella bronchiseptica bronchopneumonia. Cases of fatal exudative dermatitis (n = 5) associated with a lukM-positive clone of Staphylococcus aureus occurred only on the IoW. Toxoplasmosis (n = 12) was also confined to IoW where it was responsible for almost one tenth (9.5%) of all deaths. Hepatozoonosis was common, especially in IoW squirrels, but was not considered a primary cause of mortality. Hepatic capillariasis affected four IoW squirrels and one from Scotland. Fungal infections included oral candidiasis, adiaspiromycosis and pulmonary phaeohyphomycosis. Neoplastic conditions diagnosed were: pulmonary carcinoma, gastric spindle cell tumour, renal papillary adenoma and trichoepithelioma. Epidermal hyperplasia of unknown aetiology was seen in squirrels showing crusty lesions of the ear pinnae on IoW (n = 3) and Brownsea Island (n = 1), associated in two cases with cutaneous wart-like growths. Miscellaneous diagnoses included chylothorax, electrocution, intussusception, suspected cholecalciferol rodenticide poisoning and

  9. Post-mortem assessment of hypoperfusion of cerebral cortex in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Taya; Miners, Scott; Love, Seth

    2015-04-01

    Perfusion is reduced in the cerebral neocortex in Alzheimer's disease. We have explored some of the mechanisms, by measurement of perfusion-sensitive and disease-related proteins in post-mortem tissue from Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and age-matched control brains. To distinguish physiological from pathological reduction in perfusion (i.e. reduction exceeding the decline in metabolic demand), we measured the concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a protein induced under conditions of tissue hypoxia through the actions of hypoxia-inducible factors, and the myelin associated glycoprotein to proteolipid protein 1 (MAG:PLP1) ratio, which declines in chronically hypoperfused brain tissue. To evaluate possible mechanisms of hypoperfusion, we also measured the levels of amyloid-β40, amyloid-β42, von Willebrand factor (VWF; a measure of microvascular density) and the potent vasoconstrictor endothelin 1 (EDN1); we assayed the activity of angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE), which catalyses the production of another potent vasoconstrictor, angiotensin II; and we scored the severity of arteriolosclerotic small vessel disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and determined the Braak tangle stage. VEGF was markedly increased in frontal and parahippocampal cortex in Alzheimer's disease but only slightly and not significantly in vascular dementia. In frontal cortex the MAG:PLP1 ratio was significantly reduced in Alzheimer's disease and even more so in vascular dementia. VEGF but not MAG:PLP1 increased with Alzheimer's disease severity, as measured by Braak tangle stage, and correlated with amyloid-β42 and amyloid-β42: amyloid-β40 but not amyloid-β40. Although MAG:PLP1 tended to be lowest in cortex from patients with severe small vessel disease or cerebral amyloid angiopathy, neither VEGF nor MAG:PLP1 correlated significantly with the severity of structural vascular pathology (small vessel disease, cerebral amyloid angiopathy or VWF

  10. The degradation of proteins in pinniped skeletal muscle: viability of post-mortem tissue in physiological research

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Colby D.; Fahlman, Andreas; Crocker, Daniel E.; Robbins, Kathleen A.; Trumble, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    As marine divers, pinnipeds have a high capacity for exercise at depth while holding their breath. With finite access to oxygen, these species need to be capable of extended aerobic exercise and conservation of energy. Pinnipeds must deal with common physiological hurdles, such as hypoxia, exhaustion and acidosis, that are common to all exercising mammals. The physiological mechanisms in marine mammals used for managing oxygen and carbon dioxide have sparked much research, but access to animals and tissues is difficult and requires permits. Deceased animals that are either bycaught or stranded provide one potential source for tissues, but the validity of biochemical data from post-mortem samples has not been rigorously assessed. Tissues collected from stranded diving mammals may be a crucial source to add to our limited knowledge on the physiology of some of these animals and important to the conservation and management of these species. We aim to determine the reliability of biochemical assays derived from post-mortem tissue and to promote the immediate sampling of stranded animals for the purpose of physiological research. In this study, we mapped the temporal degradation of muscle enzymes from biopsied Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) and highlight recommendations for storage protocols for the best preservation of tissue. We also compared the enzymatic activity of different muscle groups (pectoral and latissimus dorsi) in relation to locomotion and measured the effects of four freeze–thaw cycles on muscle tissue enzyme function. Results indicate that enzymatic activity fluctuates greatly, especially with varying storage temperature, storage time, species and muscle group being assayed. In contrast, proteins, such as myoglobin, remain relatively continuous in their increase at 4°C for 48 h. Stranded animals can be a valuable source of biochemical data, but enzyme assays should be used only with great caution in post-mortem tissues. PMID

  11. Tissue microscopic changes and artifacts in multi-phase post-mortem computed tomography angiography in a hospital setting: a fatal case of systemic vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Capuani, Caroline; Guilbeau-Frugier, Céline; Mokrane, Fatima-Zohra; Delisle, Marie-Bernadette; Marcheix, Bertrand; Rousseau, Hervé; Telmon, Norbert; Rougé, Daniel; Dedouit, Fabrice

    2014-09-01

    A 27-year-old man suddenly died in hospital of acute respiratory distress syndrome secondary to severe systemic vasculitis. Multi-phase post-mortem computed tomography angiography followed by scientific autopsy of the thoracic and abdominal cavity and histology was performed, illustrating the advantages and drawbacks of such techniques. Imaging enabled us to examine the cranium, as the family refused cerebral dissection. MPMCTA revealed absence of opacification of the left middle cerebral artery. But parenchymal findings of thoracic and abdominal organs were still difficult to interpret after both imaging and macroscopic examination during the autopsy. Microscopic examination provided the definitive diagnosis of cause of death. Analysis revealed systemic vasculitis of the lung complicated by diffuse alveolar, mediastinal, splenic and retroperitoneal lesions. We were unable to determine the type of vasculitis, whether polyarteritis nodosa or microscopic polyangiitis, because of artifactual glomerular collapse. We observed some structural changes in tissue secondary to contrast agent injection, affecting the vascular system and renal parenchyma in particular. Such artifacts must be known in order to avoid misinterpreting them as pathological findings. MPMCTA and conventional autopsy are two complementary techniques showing both their specific advantages and limits which have to be known in order to choose the appropriate technique. One limit of both techniques is the detection of microscopic findings which can only be obtained by additional histological examination. This case report underlines this fact and demonstrates that caution is required in some cases if microscopic analyses are carried out after contrast agent injection. PMID:25085763

  12. Effects of inhibitors on the synergistic interaction between calpain and caspase-3 during post-mortem aging of chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Feng, Xian Chao; Zhang, Wan Gang; Xu, Xing Lian; Zhou, Guang Hong

    2012-08-29

    Calpain has been considered to be the most important protease involved in tenderization during the conversion of muscle into meat. However, recent evidence suggests the possible involvement of the key apoptosis protease, caspase, on post-mortem tenderization. This study used inhibitors of calpain and caspase-3 to treat chicken muscle immediately after slaughter and followed the changes in caspase-3 and calpain activities together with their expression during 5 days of aging. Addition of calpain inhibitors to the system resulted in significantly higher caspase-3 activities (p < 0.01) during storage. Western blot analysis of pro-caspase-3 and α-spectrin cleavage of the 120 kDa peptide (SBDP 120) showed that the addition of calpain inhibitors resulted in the formation of higher amounts of the active form of caspase-3 compared with the control (p < 0.01). Inclusion of inhibitors of caspase-3 led to lower calpain activities (p < 0.01) and dramatically reduced the expression of calpain-1 and calpain-2 (p < 0.01). Concomitantly, this inhibition resulted in greater calpastatin expression compared with the control (p < 0.01). The findings of this investigation show that calpain prevented the activation of caspase-3, whereas caspase-3 appeared to enhance the calpain activity during post-mortem aging through inhibition of calpastatin. It is therefore suggested that there is a relationship between caspase-3 and calpain which contributes to the tenderizing process during the conversion of muscle tissue into meat. PMID:22720745

  13. Comparative Proteomic Profiling of Divergent Phenotypes for Water Holding Capacity across the Post Mortem Ageing Period in Porcine Muscle Exudate

    PubMed Central

    Di Luca, Alessio; Hamill, Ruth M.; Mullen, Anne Maria; Slavov, Nikolai; Elia, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Two dimensional Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and mass spectrometry were applied to investigate the changes in metabolic proteins that occur over a seven day (day 1, 3 and 7) post mortem ageing period in porcine centrifugal exudate from divergent meat quality phenotypes. The objectives of the research were to enhance our understanding of the phenotype (water holding capacity) and search for biomarkers of this economically significant pork quality attribute. Major changes in protein abundance across nine phenotype-by-time conditions were observed. Proteomic patterns were dominated by post mortem ageing timepoint. Using a machine learning algorithm (l1-regularized logistic regression), a model was derived with the ability to discriminate between high drip and low drip phenotypes using a subset of 25 proteins with an accuracy of 63%. Models discriminating between divergent phenotypes with accuracy of 72% and 73% were also derived comparing respectively, high drip plus intermediate phenotype (considered as one phenotype) versus low drip and comparing low drip plus intermediate phenotype (considered as one phenotype) versus high drip. In all comparisons, the general classes of discriminatory proteins identified include metabolic enzymes, stress response, transport and structural proteins. In this research we have enhanced our understanding of the protein related processes underpinning this phenotype and provided strong data to work toward development of protein biomarkers for water holding capacity. PMID:26950297

  14. Characterization of post mortem arterial tissue using time-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy at 436, 461 and 532 nm.

    PubMed

    Beard, P C; Mills, T N

    1997-01-01

    Time-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy has been used to characterize post mortem arterial tissue for the purpose of discriminating between normal and atheromatous areas of tissue. Ultrasonic thermoelastic waves were generated in post mortem human aorta by the absorption of nanosecond laser pulses at 436, 461 and 532 nm produced by a frequency doubled Q-switched Nd:YAG laser in conjunction with a gas filled Raman cell. A PVDF membrane hydrophone was used to detect the thermoelastic waves. At 436 nm, differences in the photoacoustic signatures of normal tissue and atherorma were found to be highly variable. At 461 nm, there was a clear and reproducible difference between the photacoustic response of atheroma and normal tissue as a result of increased optical attenuation in atheroma. At 532 nm, the generation of subsurface thermoelastic waves provided a means of determining the structure and thickness of the tissue sample. It is suggested that pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy at 461 and 532 nm may find application in characterizing arterial tissue in situ by providing information about both the composition and thickness of the vessel wall. PMID:9015817

  15. Quality Characteristics of PSE-Like Turkey Pectoralis major Muscles Generated by High Post-Mortem Temperature in a Local Turkish Slaughterhouse

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of high post-mortem temperature application on development of pale, soft, exudative (PSE) turkey meat characteristics in terms of local slaughter conditions. Within this scope, it was targeted to obtain PSE-like muscles benefiting from different post-mortem temperature applications. Immediately after slaughter, turkey Pectoralis major (n=15) muscles were kept at various post-mortem temperatures (0, 10, 20, 30, and 40℃) for 5 h. pH values of 40℃ treatment were lower than four other treatments (p<0.05). L* values, drip loss, cook loss, and thawing loss of 40℃ group were higher than the other groups (p< 0.05). Napole yield of 40℃ treatment indicated that high post-mortem temperature decreases brine uptake. Protein solubility of 40℃ group was lower than 0℃ group (p<0.05). Expressible moisture did not differ between 0 and 40℃ treatments. Hardness, gumminess and chewiness of 40℃ treatment were higher than 0℃ treatment. The results of this research showed that high post-mortem temperature treatment induced development of PSE-like turkey meat, with lower pH, paler color, higher technological and storage losses, and reduced protein solubility and texture. PMID:26761875

  16. Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance study of post mortem catabolism and intracellular pH in intact excised rabbit muscle.

    PubMed

    Renou, J P; Canioni, P; Gatelier, P; Valin, C; Cozzone, P J

    1986-04-01

    Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance has been used to study the post mortem catabolism of high-energy phosphate compounds and the associated intracellular pH variation in pure fast- and slow-twitch rabbit muscles and in rabbit muscle with mixed fiber types. Comparative results from pure fiber types are reported for the first time. Large amounts of glycerophosphorylcholine (14.1 mumol/g fresh tissue) are found in the internal conoidal bundle (ICB), a pure oxidative slow twitch muscle, whereas the m. psoas major (PM), a pure glycolytic fast twitch muscle and the m. gastrocnemius caput medialis (GCM), with mixed fiber types, are devoid of the same metabolite. The total content of phosphorylated metabolites is constant among the three muscle types. The time-dependent post mortem changes in phosphorylated metabolites display the expected rapid drop in phosphocreatine and a simultaneous increase in intracellular inorganic phosphate. However, the ATP level remains constant during more than 2 h. Rate constants for metabolite breakdown and apparent ATPase activity have been determined. The comparative kinetics of intracellular acidosis at 25 degrees C yield rates of 3.3 X 10(-3) pH unit/min for PM, 2.7 X 10(-3) pH unit/min for GCM and 3.0 X 10(-3) pH unit/min for ICB. Initial intracellular pH values are 7.07, 7.20 and 7.02, respectively. Upon aging, the heterogeneity of the Pi signal reflects the existence of cellular compartments with different internal pH. The results suggest that the more intense low-pH Pi signal arises from the sarcoplasmic reticulum while the less intense resonance would reflect the sarcoplasmic higher pH. The temperature effect on post mortem catabolism in the 15-25 degrees C range has been documented. As expected, phosphocreatine and ATP breakdown increase with temperature but at a higher rate for slow-twitch ICB than for fast-twitch PM. PMID:3091088

  17. Post-mortem whole-exome sequencing (WES) with a focus on cardiac disease-associated genes in five young sudden unexplained death (SUD) cases.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Jacqueline; Haas, Cordula; Bartsch, Christine; Medeiros-Domingo, Argelia; Berger, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    Sudden death of healthy young adults in the absence of any medical reason is generally categorised as autopsy-negative sudden unexplained death (SUD). Approximately 30 % of all SUD cases can be explained by lethal sequence variants in cardiac genes causing disturbed ion channel functions (channelopathies) or minimal structural heart abnormalities (cardiomyopathies). The aim of this study was to perform whole-exome sequencing (WES) in five young SUD cases in order to identify potentially disease-causing mutations with a focus on 184 genes associated with cardiac diseases or sudden death. WES analysis enabled the identification of damaging-predicted cardiac sequence alterations in three out of five SUD cases. Two SUD victims carried disease-causing variants in long QT syndrome (LQTS)-associated genes (KCNH2, SCN5A). In a third case, WES identified variants in two genes involved in mitral valve prolapse and thoracic aortic aneurism (DCHS1, TGFβ2). The genome of a fourth case carried several minor variants involved in arrhythmia pointing to a multigene influence that might have contributed to sudden death. Our results confirm that post-mortem genetic testing in SUD cases in addition to the conventional autopsy can help to identify familial cardiac diseases and can contribute to the identification of genetic risk factors for sudden death. PMID:26846766

  18. Effects of post-mortem aging time and type of aging on palatability of low marbled beef loins.

    PubMed

    Lepper-Blilie, A N; Berg, E P; Buchanan, D S; Berg, P T

    2016-02-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the effect of post-mortem aging period (14 to 49days), dry vs. wet (D vs W) type of aging on the palatability of bone-in (BI) beef short loins (n=96) and boneless (BL) strip loins (n=96) possessing United States Department of Agriculture marbling scores between Slight and Small. Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) scores decreased linearly over time (P=0.0001). WBSF was not influenced by aging method or loin type. Aged flavor was higher for DBL than for DBI with WBL and WBI intermediate. Dry aging strip loins increase aged flavor yet did not improve beefy flavor compared to wet aging. Based on objective data and panelist's scores for tenderness, juiciness and aged flavor, a boneless, 28days wet aged strip steak, cooked to 71°C would provide the best combination of eating satisfaction and value. PMID:26551359

  19. Re-oxygenation of post-mortem lividity by passive diffusion through the skin at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Watchman, Hannah; Walker, G Stewart; Randeberg, Lise L; Langlois, Neil E I

    2011-12-01

    Post-mortem hypostasis develops due to passive settling of the blood under the effect of gravity after death. Due to consumption of oxygen in the tissues by residual cellular activity after the circulation has stopped, lividity is composed of deoxygenated blood. It has been previously shown that cooling of a body causes lividity to oxygenate, changing from a dark red/blue to a pink/red color, due to hemoglobin's increased affinity for oxygen at low temperature. This study has confirmed that this occurs by passive diffusion through the skin, but that this can only occur within a limited time frame. The reasons for this process and its potential forensic application require further investigation. PMID:21590457

  20. Post-mortem findings in a patient with avian influenza A (H5N6) virus infection.

    PubMed

    Gao, R; Pan, M; Li, X; Zou, X; Zhao, X; Li, T; Yang, H; Zou, S; Bo, H; Xu, J; Li, S; Zhang, M; Li, Z; Wang, D; Zaki, S R; Shu, Y

    2016-06-01

    Avian influenza A (H5N6) has been found to infect humans, and has resulted in ten cases with six deaths in China since 2014. Here, we describe the systematic post-mortem pathology of a patient fatally infected with H5N6 virus and evaluate the associated pathogenesis compared with H1N1 pdm09 fatal cases. The most prominent histopathological features were diffuse alveolar damage and pulmonary vasculitis in the lungs of the patient. The virus disseminated to extrapulmonary organs, including the brain. Compared with H1N1 pdm09 fatal infection, H5N6 infection induced a more exacerbated immune response involving overt pulmonary inflammation, which led to alveolar damage and respiratory failure. PMID:27040806

  1. A comparison of direct fluorescent antibody and Giemsa staining for the post-mortem diagnosis of anaplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Johnston, L A; Trueman, K F; Leatch, G; Wilson, A J

    1980-03-01

    Direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) and Giemsa staining of Anaplasma marginale were compared in smears collected serially at post-mortem (PM) from 11 experimentally infected calves. Once smears had been prepared and air-dried they could be held for at least 5 days before staining with either technique with no noticeable change in staining quality. DFA staining was more sensitive in detecting anaplasms in smears than Giemsa staining. Anaplasma spp could be differentiated from Babesia bovis and B. bigemina by DFA staining but there were cross reactions between A. marginale and A. centrale. Blood smears prepared from subcutaneous vessels in the legs provided better diagnostic material than kidney, heart and lung smears. Brain smears were not suitable for PM diagnosis using either staining technique. PMID:7002139

  2. A study to model the post-mortem stability of 4-MMC, MDMA and BZP in putrefying remains.

    PubMed

    Wenholz, Daniel S; Luong, Susan; Philp, Morgan; Forbes, Shari L; Stuart, Barbara H; Drummer, Olaf H; Fu, Shanlin

    2016-08-01

    There is currently limited data available on the stabilities of the three stimulants 4-methylmethcathinone (4-MMC), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and N-benzylpiperazine (BZP) in a putrefying matrix. A Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) method to determine the concentration of the three drugs in putrefying porcine liver over a three month period was developed and validated. Both 4-MMC and BZP were found to be unstable, becoming undetectable and having an average recovery of 52% respectively after one month at ambient room temperature (20°C). MDMA was found to be moderately stable, with an average recovery of 74% after three months at room temperature. This study indicated that the putrefaction process could have a significant impact on concentrations of 4-MMC and BZP in post-mortem cases involving putrefied remains. PMID:26829335

  3. Don't take your EHR to heaven, donate it to science: legal and research policies for EHR post mortem

    PubMed Central

    Huser, Vojtech; Cimino, James J

    2014-01-01

    Recently, an important public debate emerged about the digital afterlife of any personal data stored in the cloud. Such debate brings also to attention the importance of transparent management of electronic health record (EHR) data of deceased patients. In this perspective paper, we look at legal and regulatory policies for EHR data post mortem. We analyze observational research situations using EHR data that do not require institutional review board approval. We propose creation of a deceased subject integrated data repository (dsIDR) as an effective tool for piloting certain types of research projects. We highlight several dsIDR challenges in proving death status, informed consent, obtaining data from payers and healthcare providers and the involvement of next of kin. PMID:23966483

  4. Ultra-High Field MRI Post Mortem Structural Connectivity of the Human Subthalamic Nucleus, Substantia Nigra, and Globus Pallidus

    PubMed Central

    Plantinga, Birgit R.; Roebroeck, Alard; Kemper, Valentin G.; Uludağ, Kâmil; Melse, Maartje; Mai, Jürgen; Kuijf, Mark L.; Herrler, Andreas; Jahanshahi, Ali; ter Haar Romeny, Bart M.; Temel, Yasin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra, and globus pallidus, three nuclei of the human basal ganglia, play an important role in motor, associative, and limbic processing. The network of the basal ganglia is generally characterized by a direct, indirect, and hyperdirect pathway. This study aims to investigate the mesoscopic nature of these connections between the subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra, and globus pallidus and their surrounding structures. Methods: A human post mortem brain specimen including the substantia nigra, subthalamic nucleus, and globus pallidus was scanned on a 7 T MRI scanner. High resolution diffusion weighted images were used to reconstruct the fibers intersecting the substantia nigra, subthalamic nucleus, and globus pallidus. The course and density of these tracks was analyzed. Results: Most of the commonly established projections of the subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra, and globus pallidus were successfully reconstructed. However, some of the reconstructed fiber tracks such as the connections of the substantia nigra pars compacta to the other included nuclei and the connections with the anterior commissure have not been shown previously. In addition, the quantitative tractography approach showed a typical degree of connectivity previously not documented. An example is the relatively larger projections of the subthalamic nucleus to the substantia nigra pars reticulata when compared to the projections to the globus pallidus internus. Discussion: This study shows that ultra-high field post mortem tractography allows for detailed 3D reconstruction of the projections of deep brain structures in humans. Although the results should be interpreted carefully, the newly identified connections contribute to our understanding of the basal ganglia. PMID:27378864

  5. Mass spectrometric measurement of [beta]-endorphin and methionine enkephalin in human pituitaries. Tumors and post-mortem controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusmierz, Jozef J.; Dass, Chhabil; Robertson, James T.; Desiderio, Dominic M.

    1991-12-01

    Two opioid neuropeptides, [beta]-endorphin (BE), which derives from the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) precursor, and methionine enkephalin (DE), which derives from proenkephalin A, were quantified with fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS) in individual human pituitaries (post-mortem) and in tumor pituitaries (post-surgery) in a study to clarify the molecular processes that occur in tumor formation. FAB-MS in the multiple reaction monitoring mode linked the precursor ion (the MH+ ion) of the peptide with a fragment ion that was unique to each neuropeptide to increase significantly the molecular specificity of these quantitative analytical measurements. The ME was quantified as the intact pentapeptide, whereas BE1-31 was quantified via its tryptic fragment BE20-24 (NAIIK). Two corresponding stable isotope-incorporated peptides, [2H5-4Phe]-ME and [2H4-22Ile]-BE1-31,human respectively, were used as the internal standards. The amount of each neuropeptide quantified in control post-mortem pituitaries (n = 8) was 75.2 ± 29.6(s.e.m.) pmol ME mg-1 protein, and in the pituitary tumor samples (n = 5), 25.0 ± 7.6 pmol ME mg-1 protein and 36.0 ± 14.8 pmol BE mg-1 protein. The difference in the BE content between the control and tumor pituitaries was significant (p = 0.004), and reflected an aberrant metabolism of the POMC system in those human pituitary tumor tissues.

  6. The Effect of Upper Body Mass and Initial Knee Flexion on the Injury Outcome of Post Mortem Human Subject Pedestrian Isolated Legs.

    PubMed

    Petit, Philippe; Trosseille, Xavier; Dufaure, Nicolas; Dubois, Denis; Potier, Pascal; Vallancien, Guy

    2014-11-01

    In the ECE 127 Regulation on pedestrian leg protection, as well as in the Euro NCAP test protocol, a legform impactor hits the vehicle at the speed of 40 kph. In these tests, the knee is fully extended and the leg is not coupled to the upper body. However, the typical configuration of a pedestrian impact differs since the knee is flexed during most of the gait cycle and the hip joint applies an unknown force to the femur. This study aimed at investigating the influence of the inertia of the upper body (modelled using an upper body mass fixed at the proximal end of the femur) and the initial knee flexion angle on the lower limb injury outcome. In total, 18 tests were conducted on 18 legs from 9 Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS). The principle of these tests was to impact the leg at 40 kph using a sled equipped with 3 crushing steel tubes, the stiffness of which were representative of the front face of a European sedan (bonnet leading edge, bumper and spoiler). The mass of the equipped sled was 74.5 kg. The test matrix was designed to perform 4 tests in 4 configurations combining two upper body masses (either 0 or 3 kg) and two knee angles (0 or 20 degrees) at 40 kph (11 m/s) plus 2 tests at 9 m/s. Autopsies were performed on the lower limbs and an injury assessment was established. The findings of this study were first that the increase of the upper body mass resulted in more severe injuries, second that an initial flexion of the knee, corresponding to its natural position during the gait cycle, decreased the severity of the injuries, and third that based on the injury outcome, a test conducted with no upper body mass and the knee fully extended was as severe as a test conducted with a 3 kg upper body mass and an initial knee flexion of 20°. PMID:26192955

  7. Effects of water-misting sprays with forced ventilation on post mortem glycolysis, AMP-activated protein kinase and meat quality of broilers after transport during summer.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nannan; Xing, Tong; Han, Minyi; Deng, Shaolin; Xu, Xinglian

    2016-05-01

    Effects of water-misting sprays with forced ventilation on post mortem glycolysis, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and meat quality of broilers after transport during summer were investigated in the present paper. A total of 105 mixed-sex Arbor Acres broilers were divided into three treatment groups: (i) 45 min transport without rest (T); (ii) 45 min transport with 1 h rest (TR); and (iii) 45 min transport with 15 min water-misting sprays with forced ventilation and 45 min rest (TWFR). Each treatment consisted of five replicates with seven birds each. The results indicated that the water-misting sprays with forced ventilation could mitigate the stress caused by transport under high temperature conditions during summer, which reduced the energy depletion in post mortem Pectoralis major (PM) muscle. This resulted in a higher energy status compared to the T group, which would decrease the expression of phosphorylation of AMPK (p-AMPK). Furthermore, decreased the expression of p-AMPK then slowed down the rate of glycolysis in post mortem PM muscle during the early post mortem period, which in turn lessened the negative effects caused by transport on meat quality. In conclusion, water-misting sprays with forced ventilation may be a better method to control the incidence of the pale, soft and exudative meat in broilers. PMID:26712455

  8. Using bacterial and necrophagous insect dynamics for post-mortem interval estimation during cold season: Novel case study in Romania.

    PubMed

    Iancu, Lavinia; Carter, David O; Junkins, Emily N; Purcarea, Cristina

    2015-09-01

    Considering the biogeographical characteristics of forensic entomology, and the recent development of forensic microbiology as a complementary approach for post-mortem interval estimation, the current study focused on characterizing the succession of necrophagous insect species and bacterial communities inhabiting the rectum and mouth cavities of swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) carcasses during a cold season outdoor experiment in an urban natural environment of Bucharest, Romania. We monitored the decomposition process of three swine carcasses during a 7 month period (November 2012-May 2013) corresponding to winter and spring periods of a temperate climate region. The carcasses, protected by wire cages, were placed on the ground in a park type environment, while the meteorological parameters were constantly recorded. The succession of necrophagous Diptera and Coleoptera taxa was monitored weekly, both the adult and larval stages, and the species were identified both by morphological and genetic characterization. The structure of bacterial communities from swine rectum and mouth tissues was characterized during the same time intervals by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. We observed a shift in the structure of both insect and bacterial communities, primarily due to seasonal effects and the depletion of the carcass. A total of 14 Diptera and 6 Coleoptera species were recorded on the swine carcasses, from which Calliphora vomitoria and C. vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Necrobia violacea (Coleoptera: Cleridae) and Thanatophilus rugosus (Coleoptera: Silphidae) were observed as predominant species. The first colonizing wave, primarily Calliphoridae, was observed after 15 weeks when the temperature increased to 13°C. This was followed by Muscidae, Fanniidae, Anthomyiidae, Sepsidae and Piophilidae. Families belonging to Coleoptera Order were observed at week 18 when temperatures raised above 18°C, starting with

  9. Identification of extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptors in post mortem human brain with [125I]epidepride.

    PubMed

    Kessler, R M; Whetsell, W O; Ansari, M S; Votaw, J R; de Paulis, T; Clanton, J A; Schmidt, D E; Mason, N S; Manning, R G

    1993-04-23

    The regional distribution of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptors in human brain was studied in vitro with (S)-N-[(1-ethyl-2- pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-5-[125I]iodo-2,3-dimethoxybenzamide, [125I]epidepride, using post mortem brain specimens from six subjects. Scatchard analysis of the saturation equilibrium binding in twenty-three regions of post mortem brain revealed highest levels of binding in the caudate (16.5 pmol/g tissue) and putamen (16.6 pmol/g tissue) with lower levels seen in the globus pallidus (7.0 pmol/g tissue), nucleus accumbens (7.2 pmol/g tissue), hypothalamus (1.8 pmol/g tissue), pituitary (1.3 pmol/g tissue), substantia innominata (1.0 pmol/g tissue), and amygdala (0.87 pmol/g tissue). Of note was the presence of dopamine D2 receptors in the four thalamic nuclei studied, i.e. anterior nucleus (1.0 pmol/g tissue), dorsomedial nucleus (0.96 pmol/g tissue), ventral nuclei (0.72 pmol/g tissue), and pulvinar (0.86 pmol/g tissue), at levels comparable to the amygdala (0.87 pmol/g tissue) and considerably higher than levels seen in anterior cingulate (0.26 pmol/g tissue) or anterior hippocampus (0.36 pmol/g tissue). The frontal cortex had very low levels of dopamine D2 receptors (0.17-0.20 pmol/g tissue) while the inferior and medial temporal cortex had relatively higher levels (0.31-0.46 pmol/g tissue). Inhibition of [125I]epidepride binding by a variety of neurotransmitter ligands to striatal, ventral thalamic and inferior temporal cortical homogenates demonstrated that [125I]epidepride binding was potently inhibited only by dopamine D2 ligands. The present study demonstrates that dopamine D2 receptors are present in basal ganglia, many limbic regions, cortex and in the thalamus. The density of thalamic D2 receptors is comparable to many limbic regions and is considerably higher than in cortex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8099521

  10. DNA quality and quantity from up to 16 years old post-mortem blood stored on FTA cards.

    PubMed

    Rahikainen, Anna-Liina; Palo, Jukka U; de Leeuw, Wiljo; Budowle, Bruce; Sajantila, Antti

    2016-04-01

    Blood samples preserved on FTA cards offer unique opportunities for genetic research. DNA recovered from these cards should be stable for long periods of time. However, it is not well established as how well the DNA stored on FTA card for substantial time periods meets the demands of forensic or genomic DNA analyses and especially so for from post-mortem (PM) samples in which the quality can vary upon initial collection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the time-dependent degradation on DNA quality and quantity extracted from up to 16 years old post-mortem bloodstained FTA cards. Four random FTA samples from eight time points spanning 1998 to 2013 (n=32) were collected and extracted in triplicate. The quantity and quality of the extracted DNA samples were determined with Quantifiler(®) Human Plus (HP) Quantification kit. Internal sample and sample-to-sample variation were evaluated by comparing recovered DNA yields. The DNA from the triplicate samplings were subsequently combined and normalized for further analysis. The practical effect of degradation on DNA quality was evaluated from normalized samples both with forensic and pharmacogenetic target markers. Our results suggest that (1) a PM change, e.g. blood clotting prior to sampling, affects the recovered DNA yield, creating both internal and sample-to-sample variation; (2) a negative correlation between the FTA card storage time and DNA quantity (r=-0.836 at the 0.01 level) was observed; (3) a positive correlation (r=0.738 at the level 0.01) was found between FTA card storage time and degradation levels. However, no inhibition was observed with the method used. The effect of degradation was manifested clearly with functional applications. Although complete STR-profiles were obtained for all samples, there was evidence of degradation manifested as decreased peak heights in the larger-sized amplicons. Lower amplification success was notable with the large 5.1kb CYP2D6 gene fragment which strongly supports

  11. A comparison of post-mortem findings in broilers dead-on-farm and broilers dead-on-arrival at the abattoir.

    PubMed

    Kittelsen, K E; Granquist, E G; Kolbjørnsen, Ø; Nafstad, O; Moe, R O

    2015-11-01

    Broiler mortality during transport to abattoirs (dead-on-arrival/DOA) evokes concern due to compromised animal welfare and associated economic losses. The general aim of this study was to characterize pathological lesions associated with mortality in broilers close to slaughter. The specific aim was to investigate whether disease at the end of the growth period may be a predisposing factor for DOA by describing and comparing the pathological findings in broilers dead-on-farm (DOF) in the final days of the production cycle and in broilers DOA from the same flocks. Gross post-mortem examinations were performed on 607 broilers from 32 flocks, either DOF (371) or DOA (236). In DOF broilers, the most common pathological lesions were lung congestion (37.7%), endocarditis (29.4%), and ascites (24.0%), whereas the most common findings in broilers DOA were lung congestion (57.2%) and trauma (24.6%). Lung congestion was more prevalent among DOA broilers compared to DOF broilers (P-value of > 0.001). A possible cause behind the pathological finding lung congestion is sudden death syndrome (SDS). The study indicates that steps in the transportation process per se cause the majority of pathological lesions such as lung congestion and trauma that may have led to the mortalities registered. Pre-existing diseases such as ascites and osteomyelitis may also predispose for DOA. Thus, factors relating to on-farm health, catching, and transportation are all areas of future investigation in order to reduce transport mortalities and to enhance welfare in broilers. PMID:26500266

  12. Development, appraisal, validation and implementation of a consensus protocol for the assessment of cerebral amyloid angiopathy in post-mortem brain tissue

    PubMed Central

    Love, Seth; Chalmers, Katy; Ince, Paul; Esiri, Margaret; Attems, Johannes; Kalaria, Raj; Jellinger, Kurt; Yamada, Masahito; McCarron, Mark; Minett, Thais; Matthews, Fiona; Greenberg, Steven; Mann, David; Kehoe, Patrick Gavin

    2015-01-01

    In a collaboration involving 11 groups with research interests in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), we used a two-stage process to develop and in turn validate a new consensus protocol and scoring scheme for the assessment of CAA and associated vasculopathic abnormalities in post-mortem brain tissue. Stage one used an iterative Delphi-style survey to develop the consensus protocol. The resultant scoring scheme was tested on a series of digital images and paraffin sections that were circulated blind to a number of scorers. The scoring scheme and choice of staining methods were refined by open-forum discussion. The agreed protocol scored parenchymal and meningeal CAA on a 0-3 scale, capillary CAA as present/absent and vasculopathy on 0-2 scale, in the 4 cortical lobes that were scored separately. A further assessment involving three centres was then undertaken. Neuropathologists in three centres (Bristol, Oxford and Sheffield) independently scored sections from 75 cases (25 from each centre) and high inter-rater reliability was demonstrated. Stage two used the results of the three-centre assessment to validate the protocol by investigating previously described associations between APOE genotype (previously determined), and both CAA and vasculopathy. Association of capillary CAA with or without arteriolar CAA with APOE ε4 was confirmed. However APOE ε2 was also found to be a strong risk factor for the development of CAA, not only in AD but also in elderly non-demented controls. Further validation of this protocol and scoring scheme is encouraged, to aid its wider adoption to facilitate collaborative and replication studies of CAA. PMID:26807344

  13. Comparison of molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) with classical solid-phase extraction (SPE) for the detection of benzodiazepines in post-mortem hair samples.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robert A; Ariffin, Marinah M; Cormack, Peter A G; Miller, Eleanor I

    2008-01-15

    This preliminary study compares the benzodiazepine results for 10 post-mortem scalp hair samples using a classical solid-phase extraction (SPE) and a molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) system. The hair samples selected for testing were from drug-related deaths where a positive benzodiazepine blood result was obtained. Samples were decontaminated with 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate, distilled water and dichloromethane, incubated overnight in methanol/25% aqueous ammonium hydroxide (20:1), extracted by SPE or MISPE and subsequently analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Both extraction methods detected diazepam, nordiazepam, oxazepam, temazepam and nitrazepam in the samples. Diazepam was detected in a greater number of samples using MISPE due to both its lower limit of detection (LOD) and higher extraction recovery as a result of excellent molecular recognition of the template (diazepam) imparted by the imprinting process. The selective recognition of two diazepam analogues, nordiazepam and oxazepam, was demonstrated using MISPE since they were also detected in a greater number of samples. In contrast, another diazepam analogue, temazepam, was detected in a greater number of samples using SPE since the LOD using this extraction was lower than with MISPE. Nitrazepam was detected in one sample using both extraction methods. Overall the MISPE and SPE hair results were in good qualitative agreement. For the samples, where both extraction methods detected nordiazepam, temazepam and oxazepam, the concentrations were always higher for SPE. This is probably due to the MIP procedure producing extracts with fewer matrix interferences than the extracts produced using the classical SPE method. MISPE could be used as a complementary method to classical SPE for the analysis of benzodiazepine positive hair samples collected from chronic users. PMID:17467213

  14. A highly selective molecularly imprinted sorbent for extraction of 2-aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid--Synthesis, characterization and application in post-mortem whole blood analysis.

    PubMed

    Luliński, Piotr; Giebułtowicz, Joanna; Wroczyński, Piotr; Maciejewska, Dorota

    2015-11-13

    In this paper, the optimized synthesis and detailed characterization of novel imprinted material for selective extraction of 2-aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA) were described. The prepolymeric system contained 1-allyl-2-thiourea and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate in methanol, tetrahydrofuran and dimethyl sulfoxide porogenic mixture and 2-aminothiazole-4-carboxylic acid which was used as the template for ATCA. This structural analog of the target analyte was found to provide the imprinted polymer with sufficient binding capacity (60.7 ± 0.9 μg g(-1)) and high selectivity (imprinting factor equal to 18.4) toward ATCA. The adsorption of ATCA was analyzed by the Langmuir model. The heterogeneous population of binding sites on the imprinted polymer was characterized by dissociation constants equal to 3.72 μg L(-1) and 435 μg L(-1) for high and low affinity binding sites, respectively. The morphology of the polymer was studied employing SEM and BET analyses and the composition was confirmed by EDS and (13)C CP/MAS NMR analyses. Adsorption of amino acids on the imprinted material was tested to analyze the impact of the sample components. The superiority of the imprinted sorbent was proved in a novel dispersive solid phase extraction procedure of ATCA from post-mortem whole blood with respect to the extraction efficacy on the commercial ion-exchange sorbents. The limit of quantification and limit of detection of ATCA in the new analytical method were 12 μg L(-1) and 3.5 μg L(-1), respectively. The recovery of ATCA was in the range of 81-89% and the precision of the method ranged from 1.5 to 2.7%. PMID:26463428

  15. NMR approach for monitoring post-mortem changes in Atlantic salmon fillets stored at 0 and 4°C.

    PubMed

    Shumilina, Elena; Ciampa, Alessandra; Capozzi, Francesco; Rustad, Turid; Dikiy, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    High resolution NMR technique has been used to monitor post-mortem changes in salmon (Salmo salar) fillets upon storage at 4 and 0°C. Thirty-one different fish metabolites influencing freshness and taste properties have been unequivocally assigned by NMR using either available standard compounds or ad hoc acquired 2D (1)H-(1)H TOCSY and (1)H-(13)С HSQC spectra. The monitored fish metabolites include amino acids, dipeptides, sugars, vitamins, biogenic amines, as well as different products of the ATP degradation. The detection and monitoring of biogenic amines by NMR, upon fish storage, is information of interest for consumers, since some of these compounds are toxic. The data from this study shows that NMR spectroscopy also provides the amount of all metabolites necessary for the calculation of the K-index used to express fish freshness. A good correlation was found between the K-index increase and the formation of the undesired biogenic amines. The metabolite concentrations and the K-index found in this work were compared and found coherent with literature data. The performed study reveals the strengths and the suitability of the NMR approach to monitor different biochemical processes occurring during fish storage and qualitatively and quantitatively characterise fish metabolites determining fish quality. PMID:25872421

  16. Post-mortem prediction of primal and selected retail cut weights of New Zealand lamb from carcass and animal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ngo, L; Ho, H; Hunter, P; Quinn, K; Thomson, A; Pearson, G

    2016-02-01

    Post-mortem measurements (cold weight, grade and external carcass linear dimensions) as well as live animal data (age, breed, sex) were used to predict ovine primal and retail cut weights for 792 lamb carcases. Significant levels of variance could be explained using these predictors. The predictive power of those measurements on primal and retail cut weights was studied by using the results from principal component analysis and the absolute value of the t-statistics of the linear regression model. High prediction accuracy for primal cut weight was achieved (adjusted R(2) up to 0.95), as well as moderate accuracy for key retail cut weight: tenderloins (adj-R(2)=0.60), loin (adj-R(2)=0.62), French rack (adj-R(2)=0.76) and rump (adj-R(2)=0.75). The carcass cold weight had the best predictive power, with the accuracy increasing by around 10% after including the next three most significant variables. PMID:26519607

  17. A combined in-situ and post-mortem investigation on local permanent degradation in a direct methanol fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresciani, F.; Rabissi, C.; Zago, M.; Gazdzicki, P.; Schulze, M.; Guétaz, L.; Escribano, S.; Bonde, J. L.; Marchesi, R.; Casalegno, A.

    2016-02-01

    Performance degradation is one of the key issues hindering direct methanol fuel cell commercialization, caused by different mechanisms interplaying locally and resulting in both temporary and permanent contributions. This work proposes a systematic experimental investigation, coupling in-situ diagnostics (electrochemical and mass transport investigation) with ex-situ analyses of pristine, activated and aged components (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy), with an in-plane and through-plane local resolution. Such a combined approach allows to identify on one hand the degradation mechanisms, the affected components and the presence of heterogeneities; on the other hand, it allows to quantify the effect of the major mechanisms on performance decay. Thanks to a novel procedure, temporary (21 μV h-1) and permanent degradation (59 μV h-1) are separated, distinguishing the latter in different contributions: the effects of active area loss at both at anode (9 μV h-1) and cathode (31 μV h-1), mass transport issue (15 μV h-1) and membrane decay (4 μV h-1). The post-mortem analysis highlights the effect of degradation mechanisms consistent with the in-situ analysis and reveals the presence of considerable in plane and through plane heterogeneities in: particle size growth in catalyst layers, Pt/Ru and polymer content in catalyst and diffusion layers, Pt/Ru precipitates in the membrane.

  18. Is It Health or the Burial Environment: Differentiating between Hypomineralised and Post-Mortem Stained Enamel in an Archaeological Context

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Samantha; Farah, Rami; Broadbent, Jonathan M.; Tayles, Nancy; Halcrow, Sian E.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental enamel defects are often used as indicators of general health in past archaeological populations. However, it can be difficult to macroscopically distinguish subtle hypomineralised opacities from post-mortem staining, unrelated to developmental defects. To overcome this difficulty, we have used non-destructive x-ray microtomography to estimate the mineral density of enamel. Using a sample of deciduous teeth from a prehistoric burial site in Northeast Thailand, we demonstrate that it is possible to determine whether observed enamel discolourations were more likely to be true hypomineralised lesions or artefacts occurring as the result of taphonomic effects. The analyses of our sample showed no evidence of hypomineralised areas in teeth with macroscopic discolouration, which had previously been thought, on the basis of macroscopic observation, to be hypomineralisations indicative of growth disruption. Our results demonstrate that x-ray microtomography can be a powerful, non-destructive method for the investigation of the presence and severity of hypomineralisation, and that diagnosis of enamel hypomineralisation based on macroscopic observation of buried teeth should be made with caution. This method makes it possible to identify true dental defects that are indicative of growth disruptions. PMID:23734206

  19. Potential use of bacterial community succession for estimating post-mortem interval as revealed by high-throughput sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Juanjuan; Fu, Xiaoliang; Liao, Huidan; Hu, Zhenyu; Long, Lingling; Yan, Weitao; Ding, Yanjun; Zha, Lagabaiyila; Guo, Yadong; Yan, Jie; Chang, Yunfeng; Cai, Jifeng

    2016-01-01

    Decomposition is a complex process involving the interaction of both biotic and abiotic factors. Microbes play a critical role in the process of carrion decomposition. In this study, we analysed bacterial communities from live rats and rat remains decomposed under natural conditions, or excluding sarcosaphagous insect interference, in China using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. A total of 1,394,842 high-quality sequences and 1,938 singleton operational taxonomic units were obtained. Bacterial communities showed notable variation in relative abundance and became more similar to each other across body sites during the decomposition process. As decomposition progressed, Proteobacteria (mostly Gammaproteobacteria) became the predominant phylum in both the buccal cavity and rectum, while Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the mouth and rectum, respectively, gradually decreased. In particular, the arrival and oviposition of sarcosaphagous insects had no obvious influence on bacterial taxa composition, but accelerated the loss of biomass. In contrast to the rectum, the microbial community structure in the buccal cavity of live rats differed considerably from that of rats immediately after death. Although this research indicates that bacterial communities can be used as a “microbial clock” for the estimation of post-mortem interval, further work is required to better understand this concept. PMID:27052375

  20. Post-mortem glycolysis in ox skeletal muscle. Effect of pre-rigor freezing and thawing on the intermediary metabolism.

    PubMed

    Scopes, R K; Newbold, R P

    1968-09-01

    1. Ox sternomandibularis muscle was ;slow-frozen' by placing it in air at -22 degrees or ;fast-frozen' by immersion in liquid air or acetone-solid carbon dioxide. In all cases muscles were frozen pre-rigor. Changes in length, pH and the concentrations of P(i), creatine phosphate, hexose monophosphate (glucose 1-phosphate+glucose 6-phosphate+fructose 6-phosphate), fructose diphosphate (fructose 1,6-diphosphate+(1/2) triose phosphate), lactate, ATP, ADP, AMP and NAD(+) during freezing and during subsequent thawing were determined. In addition some measurements were made of the changes in alpha-glycerophosphate, 3-phosphoglycerate, 2-phosphoglycerate, phosphoenolpyruvate and pyruvate concentrations during slow freezing. 2. Appreciable shortening and marked changes in chemical composition took place during slow freezing but not during fast freezing. 3. During slow freezing the hexose monophosphate concentration fell and fructose 1,6-diphosphate and triose phosphate increased substantially. Increases also took place in 3-phosphoglycerate, 2-phosphoglycerate and phosphoenolpyruvate, but not in pyruvate. 4. On thawing, most of the chemical changes were similar to those in unfrozen muscle post mortem, but took place much more rapidly; loss of NAD(+) was particularly rapid. Fast-frozen muscle metabolized at a faster rate on thawing than did slow-frozen muscle. 5. The overall changes in length during freezing and thawing were about the same in slow-frozen as in fast-frozen muscle. PMID:4300508

  1. Long live the stem cell: the use of stem cells isolated from post mortem tissues for translational strategies.

    PubMed

    Hodgetts, Stuart I; Stagg, Kelda; Sturm, Marian; Edel, Michael; Blancafort, Pilar

    2014-11-01

    The "stem cell" has become arguably one of the most important biological tools in the arsenal of translational research directed at regeneration and repair. It remains to be seen whether every tissue has its own stem cell niche, although relatively recently a large amount of research has focused on isolating and characterizing tissue-specific stem cell populations, as well as those that are able to be directed to transdifferentiate into a variety of different lineages. Traditionally, stem cells are isolated from the viable tissue of embryonic, fetal, or adult living hosts; from "fresh" donated tissues that have been surgically or otherwise removed (biopsies), or obtained directly from tissues within minutes to several hours post mortem (PM). These human progenitor/stem cell sources remain potentially highly controversial, since they are accompanied by various still-unresolved ethical, social, moral and legal challenges. Due to the limited number of "live" donors, the small amount of material obtained from biopsies and difficulties during purification processes, harvesting from cadaveric material presents itself as an alternative strategy that could provide a hitherto untapped source of stem cells. However, PM stem cells are not without their own unique set of limitations including difficulty of obtaining samples, limited supply of material, variations in delay between death and sample collection, possible lack of medication history and suboptimal retrospective assignment of diagnostic and demographic data. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Regenerative Medicine: The challenge of translation. PMID:25300917

  2. Potential use of bacterial community succession for estimating post-mortem interval as revealed by high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Guo, Juanjuan; Fu, Xiaoliang; Liao, Huidan; Hu, Zhenyu; Long, Lingling; Yan, Weitao; Ding, Yanjun; Zha, Lagabaiyila; Guo, Yadong; Yan, Jie; Chang, Yunfeng; Cai, Jifeng

    2016-01-01

    Decomposition is a complex process involving the interaction of both biotic and abiotic factors. Microbes play a critical role in the process of carrion decomposition. In this study, we analysed bacterial communities from live rats and rat remains decomposed under natural conditions, or excluding sarcosaphagous insect interference, in China using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. A total of 1,394,842 high-quality sequences and 1,938 singleton operational taxonomic units were obtained. Bacterial communities showed notable variation in relative abundance and became more similar to each other across body sites during the decomposition process. As decomposition progressed, Proteobacteria (mostly Gammaproteobacteria) became the predominant phylum in both the buccal cavity and rectum, while Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the mouth and rectum, respectively, gradually decreased. In particular, the arrival and oviposition of sarcosaphagous insects had no obvious influence on bacterial taxa composition, but accelerated the loss of biomass. In contrast to the rectum, the microbial community structure in the buccal cavity of live rats differed considerably from that of rats immediately after death. Although this research indicates that bacterial communities can be used as a "microbial clock" for the estimation of post-mortem interval, further work is required to better understand this concept. PMID:27052375

  3. Zip Test: Examiner's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Norval C., Jr.

    Purpose of the Zip Test is to locate the instructional level at which a child can effectively use a mathematics book and a reader and to indicate his ability to conceptualize verbally in English. Designed to determine quickly and with reasonable accuracy the grade placement of a migrant child in reading and math and to assess his English language…

  4. A comparative autoradiography study in post mortem whole hemisphere human brain slices taken from Alzheimer patients and age-matched controls using two radiolabelled DAA1106 analogues with high affinity to the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) system.

    PubMed

    Gulyás, Balázs; Makkai, Boglárka; Kása, Péter; Gulya, Károly; Bakota, Lidia; Várszegi, Szilvia; Beliczai, Zsuzsa; Andersson, Jan; Csiba, László; Thiele, Andrea; Dyrks, Thomas; Suhara, Tetsua; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Higuchi, Makato; Halldin, Christer

    2009-01-01

    The binding of two radiolabelled analogues (N-(5-[125I]Iodo-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2,5-dimethoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desfluoro-DAA1106) and N-(5-[125I]Fluoro-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2-[125I]Iodo-5-methoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desmethoxy-DAA1106) of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) (or TSPO, 18kDa translocator protein) ligand DAA1106 was examined by in vitro autoradiography on human post mortem whole hemisphere brain slices obtained from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and age-matched controls. Both [(125)I]desfluoro-IDAA1106 and [(125)I]desmethoxy-IDAA1106 were effectively binding to various brain structures. The binding could be blocked by the unlabelled ligand as well as by other PBR specific ligands. With both radiolabelled compounds, the binding showed regional inhomogeneity and the specific binding values proved to be the highest in the hippocampus, temporal and parietal cortex, the basal ganglia and thalamus in the AD brains. Compared with age-matched control brains, specific binding in several brain structures (temporal and parietal lobes, thalamus and white matter) in Alzheimer brains was significantly higher, indicating that the radioligands can effectively label-activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in AD. Complementary immunohistochemical studies demonstrated reactive microglia activation in the AD brain tissue and indicated that increased ligand binding coincides with increased regional microglia activation due to neuroinflammation. These investigations yield further support to the PBR/TSPO binding capacity of DAA1106 in human brain tissue, demonstrate the effective usefulness of its radio-iodinated analogues as imaging biomarkers in post mortem human studies, and indicate that its radiolabelled analogues, labelled with short half-time bioisotopes, can serve as prospective in vivo imaging biomarkers of activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in the human brain. PMID:18984021

  5. Effect of muscle and post-mortem rate of pH and temperature fall on antioxidant enzyme activities in beef.

    PubMed

    Pastsart, Umaporn; De Boever, Maarten; Claeys, Erik; De Smet, Stefaan

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of muscle, inner and outer Musculus biceps femoris (IBF and OBF respectively) and Musculus longissimus dorsi (LD), on the post-mortem rate of pH and temperature fall, and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) during simulated retail display. At day 0 of display (2 days post-mortem), the CAT and GSH-Px activities were lower in IBF than in OBF and LD (P<0.001), and the SOD activity was lower in OBF compared to IBF and LD (P<0.001). At day 10 of display, SOD and CAT activities had decreased in all three muscles compared to day 0 (P<0.001), whereas the GSH-Px activity did increase with time of display. Across muscles, there were significant relationships between temperature fall, colour, lipid and colour stability and antioxidant enzyme activities. PMID:23273481

  6. Post-mortem stability of RNA in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue and the tissue-specific expression of myostatin, perilipin and associated factors in the horse.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Philippa K; Bing, Chen; Harris, Patricia A; Maltin, Charlotte A; Grove-White, Dai; Argo, Caroline McG

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, a major concern for equine welfare, is highly prevalent in the leisure horse population. Skeletal-muscle and adipose tissues are important determinants of maintenance energy requirements. The myostatin and perilipin pathways play key roles in the regulation of muscle mass and lipolysis respectively and have both been associated with obesity predisposition in other mammalian species. High quality samples, suitable for molecular biology, are an essential prerequisite for detailed investigations of gene and protein expression. Hence, this study has evaluated a) the post-mortem stability of RNA extracted from skeletal-muscle and adipose-tissues collected under commercial conditions and b) the tissue-specific presence of myostatin, the moystatin receptor (activin receptor IIB, ActRIIB), follistatin and perilipin, genes and proteins across a range of equine tissues. Objectives were addressed using tissues from 7 Thoroughbred horses presented for slaughter at a commercial abattoir; a) samples were collected at 7 time-points from Masseter muscle and perirenal adipose from 5 minutes to 6 hours post-mortem. Extracted RN was appraised by Optical Density analysis and agarose-gel electrophoresis. b) Quantitative real time PCR and Western Blotting were used to evaluate gene and protein expression in anatomically-defined samples collected from 17 tissues (6 organs, 4 skeletal muscles and 7 discrete adipose depots). The results indicate that, under the present collection conditions, intact, good quality RNA could be extracted from skeletal-muscle for up to 2 hours post-mortem. However, RNA from adipose tissue may be more susceptible to degradation/contamination and samples should be collected no later than 30 minutes post-mortem. The data also show that myostatin and ActRIIB genes and proteins were almost exclusively expressed in skeletal muscle. The follistatin gene showed a more diverse gene expression profile, with expression evident in several organs, adipose tissue

  7. Post-Mortem Stability of RNA in Skeletal Muscle and Adipose Tissue and the Tissue-Specific Expression of Myostatin, Perilipin and Associated Factors in the Horse

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Philippa K.; Bing, Chen; Harris, Patricia A.; Maltin, Charlotte A.; Grove-White, Dai; Argo, Caroline McG.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, a major concern for equine welfare, is highly prevalent in the leisure horse population. Skeletal-muscle and adipose tissues are important determinants of maintenance energy requirements. The myostatin and perilipin pathways play key roles in the regulation of muscle mass and lipolysis respectively and have both been associated with obesity predisposition in other mammalian species. High quality samples, suitable for molecular biology, are an essential prerequisite for detailed investigations of gene and protein expression. Hence, this study has evaluated a) the post-mortem stability of RNA extracted from skeletal-muscle and adipose-tissues collected under commercial conditions and b) the tissue-specific presence of myostatin, the moystatin receptor (activin receptor IIB, ActRIIB), follistatin and perilipin, genes and proteins across a range of equine tissues. Objectives were addressed using tissues from 7 Thoroughbred horses presented for slaughter at a commercial abattoir; a) samples were collected at 7 time-points from Masseter muscle and perirenal adipose from 5 minutes to 6 hours post-mortem. Extracted RN was appraised by Optical Density analysis and agarose-gel electrophoresis. b) Quantitative real time PCR and Western Blotting were used to evaluate gene and protein expression in anatomically-defined samples collected from 17 tissues (6 organs, 4 skeletal muscles and 7 discrete adipose depots). The results indicate that, under the present collection conditions, intact, good quality RNA could be extracted from skeletal-muscle for up to 2 hours post-mortem. However, RNA from adipose tissue may be more susceptible to degradation/contamination and samples should be collected no later than 30 minutes post-mortem. The data also show that myostatin and ActRIIB genes and proteins were almost exclusively expressed in skeletal muscle. The follistatin gene showed a more diverse gene expression profile, with expression evident in several organs, adipose tissue

  8. A validated method for the analysis of cannabinoids in post-mortem blood using liquid-liquid extraction and two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Rebecca; Paterson, Sue

    2012-10-10

    A validated method for the identification and quantification of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), 11-hydroxy-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC) and 11-nor-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) in post-mortem blood specimens is described. Liquid-liquid extraction was used to extract the cannabinoids from 1 mL of post-mortem blood. The extracts were derivatized with N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide. The final derivatized extracts were analyzed using two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The limit of detection was 0.25 ng/mL for all analytes and the limit of quantification of the assay was 0.25 ng/mL for THC, CBN, 11-OH-THC and 0.5 ng/mL for CBD and THC-COOH. The assay was linear across the concentration range 0.25-50 ng/mL (determined with a low and a high calibration range) with correlation coefficients ≥0.992 for all analytes. Inter-day and intra-day accuracy was within ±15% of the target concentration for all analytes. The co-efficients of variation (%CV) for inter-day and intra-day precision were ≤12% for all analytes. The extraction efficiency was >73% for all analytes. The method has successfully been applied to 54 post-mortem blood specimens to date. To the authors knowledge this is the first validated 2D GC-MS method for the analysis of THC, CBD, CBN, 11-OH-THC and THC-COOH following LLE and its application to post-mortem specimens. PMID:22717553

  9. Investigation on CAST, CAPN1 and CAPN3 porcine gene polymorphisms and expression in relation to post-mortem calpain activity in muscle and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Gandolfi, G; Pomponio, L; Ertbjerg, P; Karlsson, A H; Nanni Costa, L; Lametsch, R; Russo, V; Davoli, R

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to detect variability in CAST, CAPN1 and CAPN3 porcine genes and to investigate the effect of CAST and CAPN1 polymorphisms on the activity of native and autolyzed μ-calpain and m-calpain, measured from 1 to 72 h post-mortem in Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of 30 pigs. Effects of polymorphisms on meat quality parameter such as pH, color and drip loss were also evaluated. Samples carrying CAST EU137105:g.76,872AA genotype showed higher autolyzed μ-calpain activity 24 and 72 h post-mortem, as well as lower drip loss values. Expression of CAST, CAPN1 and CAPN3 was assessed in LD muscles divergent for shear force. Higher CAST and CAPN3 expression was found in LD with high shear force (P<0.2), confirming a direct role for calpastatin but not for calpain 3 in meat tenderization. In conclusion, CAST gene affected post-mortem activation time of calpain and drip loss. PMID:21450414

  10. Post-mortem oxidative stability of three yak (Bos grunniens) muscles as influenced by animal age.

    PubMed

    Wen, Wenting; Luo, Xiaolin; Xia, Baixue; Guan, Jiuqiang; Nie, Yuanyang; Li, Lu; Duan, Jingyue; Suman, Surendranath P; Sun, Qun

    2015-07-01

    The influence of animal age and muscle source on the oxidative stability of yak steaks was examined. Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscles from yaks of different age groups (0.5, 1.5, 2.5, and 3.5 years), and three muscle sources of LT, Psoas major (PM), and Biceps femoris (BF) from yaks of 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 years, were evaluated for metmyoglobin content, activity of antioxidant enzymes, and antioxidant capacity. Oxidative stability was influenced (P<0.05) by muscle source and animal age. LT steaks from 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 year old yaks exhibited lower (P<0.05) metmyoglobin content than their PM and BF counterparts. Furthermore, LT steaks from 3.5 year old yaks demonstrated lower (P<0.05) metmyoglobin content and greater (P<0.05) activities of antioxidant enzymes than LT steaks from other age groups. These results indicated the necessity to develop muscle- and age-specific processing strategies to improve color and oxidative stability of yak meat. PMID:25839885

  11. Sonar-induced pressure fields in a post-mortem common dolphin.

    PubMed

    Foote, Kenneth G; Hastings, Mardi C; Ketten, Darlene R; Lin, Ying-Tsong; Reidenberg, Joy S; Rye, Kent

    2012-02-01

    Potential physical effects of sonar transmissions on marine mammals were investigated by measuring pressure fields induced in a 119-kg, 211-cm-long, young adult male common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) cadaver. The specimen was instrumented with tourmaline acoustic pressure gauges used as receiving sensors. Gauge implantation near critical tissues was guided by intraoperative, high-resolution, computerized tomography (CT) scanning. Instrumented structures included the melon, nares, ear, thoracic wall, lungs, epaxial muscle, and lower abdomen. The specimen was suspended from a frame equipped with a standard 50.8-mm-diameter spherical transducer used as the acoustic source and additional receiving sensors to monitor the transmitted and external, scattered field. Following immersion, the transducer transmitted pulsed sinusoidal signals at 5, 7, and 10 kHz. Quantitative internal pressure fields are reported for all cases except those in which the gauge failed or no received signal was detected. A full necropsy was performed immediately after the experiment to examine instrumented areas and all major organs. No lesions attributable to acoustic transmissions were found, consistent with the low source level and source-receiver distances. PMID:22352529

  12. Potentially Treatable Disorder Diagnosed Post Mortem by Exome Analysis in a Boy with Respiratory Distress

    PubMed Central

    Imperatore, Valentina; Mencarelli, Maria Antonietta; Fallerini, Chiara; Bianciardi, Laura; Ariani, Francesca; Furini, Simone; Renieri, Alessandra; Mari, Francesca; Frullanti, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    We highlight the importance of exome sequencing in solving a clinical case of a child who died at 14 months after a series of respiratory crises. He was the half-brother of a girl diagnosed at 7 years with the early-onset seizure variant of Rett syndrome due to CDKL5 mutation. We performed a test for CDKL5 in the boy, which came back negative. Driven by the mother’s compelling need for a diagnosis, we moved forward performing whole exome sequencing analysis. Surprisingly, two missense mutations in compound heterozygosity were identified in the RAPSN gene encoding a receptor-associated protein with a key role in clustering and anchoring nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at synaptic sites. This gene is responsible for a congenital form of myasthenic syndrome, a disease potentially treatable with cholinesterase inhibitors. Therefore, an earlier diagnosis in this boy would have led to a better clinical management and prognosis. Our study supports the key role of exome sequencing in achieving a definite diagnosis in severe perinatal diseases, an essential step especially when a specific therapy is available. PMID:26927095

  13. Potentially Treatable Disorder Diagnosed Post Mortem by Exome Analysis in a Boy with Respiratory Distress.

    PubMed

    Imperatore, Valentina; Mencarelli, Maria Antonietta; Fallerini, Chiara; Bianciardi, Laura; Ariani, Francesca; Furini, Simone; Renieri, Alessandra; Mari, Francesca; Frullanti, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    We highlight the importance of exome sequencing in solving a clinical case of a child who died at 14 months after a series of respiratory crises. He was the half-brother of a girl diagnosed at 7 years with the early-onset seizure variant of Rett syndrome due to CDKL5 mutation. We performed a test for CDKL5 in the boy, which came back negative. Driven by the mother's compelling need for a diagnosis, we moved forward performing whole exome sequencing analysis. Surprisingly, two missense mutations in compound heterozygosity were identified in the RAPSN gene encoding a receptor-associated protein with a key role in clustering and anchoring nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at synaptic sites. This gene is responsible for a congenital form of myasthenic syndrome, a disease potentially treatable with cholinesterase inhibitors. Therefore, an earlier diagnosis in this boy would have led to a better clinical management and prognosis. Our study supports the key role of exome sequencing in achieving a definite diagnosis in severe perinatal diseases, an essential step especially when a specific therapy is available. PMID:26927095

  14. Post-mortem sporulation of Ceratomyxa shasta (Myxozoa) after death in adult Chinook salmon.

    PubMed

    Kent, M L; Soderlund, K; Thomann, Estela; Schreck, C B; Sharpton, T J

    2014-10-01

    Ceratomyxa shasta (Myxozoa) is a common gastrointestinal pathogen of salmonid fishes in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. We have been investigating this parasite in adult Chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) in the Willamette River, Oregon. In prior work, we observed differences in the pattern of development of C. shasta in adult salmon compared to juvenile salmon. Adult salmon consistently had large numbers of prespore stages in many of the fish that survived to spawn in the fall. However, myxospores were rarely observed, even though they were exposed and presumably infected for months before spawning. We evaluated the ability of C. shasta to sporulate following fish death because it is reported that myxosores are common in carcasses of Chinook salmon. We collected the intestine from 30 adult salmon immediately after artificial spawning and death (T0). A total of 23 fish were infected with C. shasta based on histology, but only a few myxospores were observed in 1 fish by histology. Intestines of these fish were examined at T0 and T7 (latter held at 17 C for 7 days) using quantified wet mount preparations. An increase in myxospore concentrations was seen in 39% of these fish, ranging between a 1.5- to a 14.5-fold increase. The most heavily infected fish exhibited a 4.6-fold increase from 27,841 to 129,352 myxospores/cm. This indicates, supported by various statistical analyses, that under certain conditions presporogonic forms are viable and continue to sporulate after death in adult salmon. Considering the life cycle of C. shasta and anadromous salmon, the parasite may have evolved 2, non-mutually exclusive developmental strategies. In young fish (parr and smolts), the parasite sporulates shortly after infection and is released into freshwater from either live or dead fish before their migration to seawater, where the alternate host is absent. The second strategy occurs in adult salmon, particularly spring Chinook salmon, which become infected

  15. The NADPH oxidase NOX2 as a novel biomarker for suicidality: evidence from human post mortem brain samples.

    PubMed

    Schiavone, S; Neri, M; Mhillaj, E; Morgese, M G; Cantatore, S; Bove, M; Riezzo, I; Tucci, P; Pomara, C; Turillazzi, E; Cuomo, V; Trabace, L

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence points towards a role of oxidative stress in suicidality. However, few studies were carried out on the sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in subjects with suicidal behaviour. We have previously demonstrated that the NADPH oxidase NOX2-derived oxidative stress has a major role in the development of neuropathological alterations observed in an animal model of psychosis. Here, we investigated the possible increase in NOX2 in post mortem brain samples of subjects who died by asphyctic suicide (AS) compared with controls (CTRL) and subjects who died by non-suicidal asphyxia (NSA). We found that NOX2 expression was significantly higher in the cortex of AS subjects than in the other two experimental groups. NOX2 immunostaining was mainly detected in GABAergic neurons, with a minor presence of NOX2-positive-stained cells in glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurons, as well as astrocytes and microglia. A sustained increase in the expression of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, an indirect marker of oxidative stress, was also detected in the cortex of AS subjects, compared with CTRL and NSA subjects. A significant elevation in cortical interleukin-6 immunoreactivity in AS subjects suggested an involvement of cytokine-associated molecular pathways in NOX2 elevations. Our results suggest that the increase in NOX2-derived oxidative stress in the brain might be involved in the neuropathological pathways leading to suicidal behaviour. These results may open innovative insights in the identification of new pathogenetic and necroscopic biomarkers, predictive for suicidality and potentially useful for suicide prevention. PMID:27187235

  16. Herpes simplex encephalitis is linked with selective mitochondrial damage; a post-mortem and in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Wnęk, Małgorzata; Ressel, Lorenzo; Ricci, Emanuele; Rodriguez-Martinez, Carmen; Guerrero, Julio Cesar Villalvazo; Ismail, Zarini; Smith, Colin; Kipar, Anja; Sodeik, Beate; Chinnery, Patrick F; Solomon, Tom; Griffiths, Michael J

    2016-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE) is the most commonly diagnosed cause of viral encephalitis in western countries. Despite antiviral treatment, HSE remains a devastating disease with high morbidity and mortality. Improved understanding of pathogenesis may lead to more effective therapies. Mitochondrial damage has been reported during HSV infection in vitro. However, whether it occurs in the human brain and whether this contributes to the pathogenesis has not been fully explored. Minocycline, an antibiotic, has been reported to protect mitochondria and limit brain damage. Minocycline has not been studied in HSV infection. In the first genome-wide transcriptomic study of post-mortem human HSE brain tissue, we demonstrated a highly preferential reduction in mitochondrial genome (MtDNA) encoded transcripts in HSE cases (n = 3) compared to controls (n = 5). Brain tissue exhibited a significant inverse correlation for immunostaining between cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), a MtDNA encoded enzyme subunit, and HSV-1; with lower abundance for mitochondrial protein in regions where HSV-1 was abundant. Preferential loss of mitochondrial function, among MtDNA encoded components, was confirmed using an in vitro primary human astrocyte HSV-1 infection model. Dysfunction of cytochrome c oxidase (CO), a mitochondrial enzyme composed predominantly of MtDNA encoded subunits, preceded that of succinate dehydrogenase (composed entirely of nuclear encoded subunits). Minocycline treated astrocytes exhibited higher CO1 transcript abundance, sustained CO activity and cell viability compared to non-treated astrocytes. Based on observations from HSE patient tissue, this study highlights mitochondrial damage as a critical and early event during HSV-1 infection. We demonstrate minocycline preserves mitochondrial function and cell viability during HSV-1 infection. Minocycline, and mitochondrial protection, offers a novel adjunctive therapeutic approach for

  17. Metabolic signatures of Huntington's disease (HD): (1)H NMR analysis of the polar metabolome in post-mortem human brain.

    PubMed

    Graham, Stewart F; Kumar, Praveen K; Bjorndahl, Trent; Han, BeomSoo; Yilmaz, Ali; Sherman, Eric; Bahado-Singh, Ray O; Wishart, David; Mann, David; Green, Brian D

    2016-09-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal neurodegenerative disorder affecting approximately 5-10 persons per 100,000 worldwide. The pathophysiology of HD is not fully understood but the age of onset is known to be highly dependent on the number of CAG triplet repeats in the huntingtin gene. Using (1)H NMR spectroscopy this study biochemically profiled 39 brain metabolites in post-mortem striatum (n=14) and frontal lobe (n=14) from HD sufferers and controls (n=28). Striatum metabolites were more perturbed with 15 significantly affected in HD cases, compared with only 4 in frontal lobe (p<0.05; q<0.3). The metabolite which changed most overall was urea which decreased 3.25-fold in striatum (p<0.01). Four metabolites were consistently affected in both brain regions. These included the neurotransmitter precursors tyrosine and l-phenylalanine which were significantly depleted by 1.55-1.58-fold and 1.48-1.54-fold in striatum and frontal lobe, respectively (p=0.02-0.03). They also included l-leucine which was reduced 1.54-1.69-fold (p=0.04-0.09) and myo-inositol which was increased 1.26-1.37-fold (p<0.01). Logistic regression analyses performed with MetaboAnalyst demonstrated that data obtained from striatum produced models which were profoundly more sensitive and specific than those produced from frontal lobe. The brain metabolite changes uncovered in this first (1)H NMR investigation of human HD offer new insights into the disease pathophysiology. Further investigations of striatal metabolite disturbances are clearly warranted. PMID:27288730

  18. Best-practices approach to determination of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at specific time points: Combination of ante-mortem alcohol pharmacokinetic modeling and post-mortem alcohol generation and transport considerations.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Dallas M; Maskrey, Joshua R; Fung, Ernest S; Woods, Tyler A; Stabryla, Lisa M; Scott, Paul K; Finley, Brent L

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol concentrations in biological matrices offer information regarding an individual's intoxication level at a given time. In forensic cases, the alcohol concentration in the blood (BAC) at the time of death is sometimes used interchangeably with the BAC measured post-mortem, without consideration for alcohol concentration changes in the body after death. However, post-mortem factors must be taken into account for accurate forensic determination of BAC prior to death to avoid incorrect conclusions. The main objective of this work was to describe best practices for relating ante-mortem and post-mortem alcohol concentrations, using a combination of modeling, empirical data and other qualitative considerations. The Widmark modeling approach is a best practices method for superimposing multiple alcohol doses ingested at various times with alcohol elimination rate adjustments based on individual body factors. We combined the selected ante-mortem model with a suggestion for an approach used to roughly estimate changes in BAC post-mortem, and then analyzed the available data on post-mortem alcohol production in human bodies and potential markers for alcohol production through decomposition and putrefaction. Hypothetical cases provide best practice approaches as an example for determining alcohol concentration in biological matrices ante-mortem, as well as potential issues encountered with quantitative post-mortem approaches. This study provides information for standardizing BAC determination in forensic toxicology, while minimizing real world case uncertainties. PMID:27041394

  19. Effects of Dietary Energy Sources on Post Mortem Glycolysis, Meat Quality and Muscle Fibre Type Transformation of Finishing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanjiao; Li, Jiaolong; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Changning; Lin, Meng; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong; Zhang, Yu; Fan, Yuanfang; Nuldnali, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Dietary energy source can influence muscle glycogen storage at slaughter. However, few studies have demonstrated whether the diet-induced change of muscle glycogen is achieved by the transformation of muscle fibre type. This study investigated the effects of dietary energy sources on meat quality, post mortem glycolysis and muscle fibre type transformation of finishing pigs. Seventy-two barrows with an average body weight of 65.0 ± 2.0 kg were selected and were allotted to three iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diets A, B or C, and each treatment consisted of three replicates (pens) of eight pigs each. Diet A contained 44.1% starch, 5.9% crude fat and 12.6% neutral detergent fiber (NDF); diet B contained 37.6% starch, 9.5% crude fat and 15.4% NDF; and diet C contained 30.9% starch, 14.3% crude fat and 17.8% NDF. The duration of the experiment was 28 days. After feed withdrawal 12 h, 24 pigs (eight per treatment) were slaughtered, samples from M. longissimus lumborum (LL) were collected for subsequent analysis. The results showed that pigs fed diet C had lesser average daily gain, average daily feed intake and back fat depth than those fed diet A (P<0.05). Diet C increased pH45min (P<0.05) and decreased drip loss (P<0.05) in LL muscles compared with diet A. Meat from pigs fed diet A showed increased contents of lactate and greater glycolytic potential (GP) compared with those fed diet C (P<0.05). Greater mRNA expression of myosin heavy-chain (MyHC)-I and IIa and lesser expression of MyHC-IIx and IIb (P<0.05) in LL muscles were found in pigs fed diet C, than in pigs fed diet A. In addition, pigs fed diet C resulted in downregulation of miR23a and upregulation of miR409 and miR208b (P<0.05), associated with conserved changes of their corresponding targets. These findings indicated that diets containing low starch and high fibre were beneficial in reducing muscle glycolysis, improving meat quality of finishing pigs. This reduction of GP may be partially associated

  20. MRI visual rating scales in the diagnosis of dementia: evaluation in 184 post-mortem confirmed cases.

    PubMed

    Harper, Lorna; Fumagalli, Giorgio G; Barkhof, Frederik; Scheltens, Philip; O'Brien, John T; Bouwman, Femke; Burton, Emma J; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Fox, Nick C; Ridgway, Gerard R; Schott, Jonathan M

    2016-04-01

    Accurately distinguishing between different degenerative dementias during life is challenging but increasingly important with the prospect of disease-modifying therapies. Molecular biomarkers of dementia pathology are becoming available, but are not widely used in clinical practice. Conversely, structural neuroimaging is recommended in the evaluation of cognitive impairment. Visual assessment remains the primary method of scan interpretation, but in the absence of a structured approach, diagnostically relevant information may be under-utilized. This definitive, multi-centre study uses post-mortem confirmed cases as the gold standard to: (i) assess the reliability of six visual rating scales; (ii) determine their associated pattern of atrophy; (iii) compare their diagnostic value with expert scan assessment; and (iv) assess the accuracy of a machine learning approach based on multiple rating scales to predict underlying pathology. The study includes T1-weighted images acquired in three European centres from 184 individuals with histopathologically confirmed dementia (101 patients with Alzheimer's disease, 28 patients with dementia with Lewy bodies, 55 patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration), and scans from 73 healthy controls. Six visual rating scales (medial temporal, posterior, anterior temporal, orbito-frontal, anterior cingulate and fronto-insula) were applied to 257 scans (two raters), and to a subset of 80 scans (three raters). Six experts also provided a diagnosis based on unstructured assessment of the 80-scan subset. The reliability and time taken to apply each scale was evaluated. Voxel-based morphometry was used to explore the relationship between each rating scale and the pattern of grey matter volume loss. Additionally, the performance of each scale to predict dementia pathology both individually and in combination was evaluated using a support vector classifier, which was compared with expert scan assessment to estimate clinical value

  1. MRI visual rating scales in the diagnosis of dementia: evaluation in 184 post-mortem confirmed cases

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Lorna; Fumagalli, Giorgio G.; Barkhof, Frederik; Scheltens, Philip; O’Brien, John T.; Bouwman, Femke; Burton, Emma J.; Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Fox, Nick C.; Ridgway, Gerard R.

    2016-01-01

    Accurately distinguishing between different degenerative dementias during life is challenging but increasingly important with the prospect of disease-modifying therapies. Molecular biomarkers of dementia pathology are becoming available, but are not widely used in clinical practice. Conversely, structural neuroimaging is recommended in the evaluation of cognitive impairment. Visual assessment remains the primary method of scan interpretation, but in the absence of a structured approach, diagnostically relevant information may be under-utilized. This definitive, multi-centre study uses post-mortem confirmed cases as the gold standard to: (i) assess the reliability of six visual rating scales; (ii) determine their associated pattern of atrophy; (iii) compare their diagnostic value with expert scan assessment; and (iv) assess the accuracy of a machine learning approach based on multiple rating scales to predict underlying pathology. The study includes T1-weighted images acquired in three European centres from 184 individuals with histopathologically confirmed dementia (101 patients with Alzheimer’s disease, 28 patients with dementia with Lewy bodies, 55 patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration), and scans from 73 healthy controls. Six visual rating scales (medial temporal, posterior, anterior temporal, orbito-frontal, anterior cingulate and fronto-insula) were applied to 257 scans (two raters), and to a subset of 80 scans (three raters). Six experts also provided a diagnosis based on unstructured assessment of the 80-scan subset. The reliability and time taken to apply each scale was evaluated. Voxel-based morphometry was used to explore the relationship between each rating scale and the pattern of grey matter volume loss. Additionally, the performance of each scale to predict dementia pathology both individually and in combination was evaluated using a support vector classifier, which was compared with expert scan assessment to estimate clinical value

  2. Post-Mortem Whole Exome Sequencing with Gene-Specific Analysis for Autopsy Negative Sudden Unexplained Death in the Young: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Narula, Nupoor; Tester, David J.; Paulmichl, Anna; Maleszewski, Joseph J.; Ackerman, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Annually, thousands of sudden deaths in individuals under 35 years remain unexplained following comprehensive medico-legal autopsy. Previously, post-mortem genetic analysis by Sanger-sequencing of 4 major cardiac channelopathy genes revealed that approximately one-fourth of these autopsy-negative sudden unexplained death in the young (SUDY) cases harbored an underlying mutation. However, there are now over 100 sudden death predisposing cardiac channelopathy-, cardiomyopathy-, and metabolic disorder-susceptibility genes. Here, we set out to determine whether post-mortem whole exome sequencing (WES) is an efficient strategy to detect ultra-rare, potentially pathogenic variants. Materials and Methods We performed post-mortem WES and gene-specific analysis of 117 sudden death-susceptibility genes for 14 consecutively-referred Caucasian SUDY victims (average age at death 17.4 ± 8.6 years) to identify putative SUDY-associated mutations. Results On average, each SUDY case had 12,758 ± 2016 non-synonymous variants, of which 79 ± 15 localized to these 117 genes. Overall, 8 ultra-rare variants (7 missense, 1 in-frame insertion) absent in 3 publically available exome databases were identified in 6 genes (3 in TTN, and 1 each in CACNA1C, JPH2, MYH7, VCL, RYR2) in 7 of 14 cases (50%). Of the 7 missense alterations, 2 (T171M-CACNA1C, I22160T-TTN) were predicted damaging by 3 independent in-silico tools. Conclusions Although WES and gene-specific surveillance is an efficient means to detect rare genetic variants that might underlie the pathogenic cause of death, accurate interpretation of each variant is challenging. Great restraint and caution must be exercised less families be informed prematurely and incorrectly that the root cause has been found. PMID:25500949

  3. Simulated surgical-type cerebral biopsies from post-mortem brains allows accurate neuropathological diagnoses in the majority of neurodegenerative disease groups

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In theory, cerebral biopsies could provide the diagnosis in a significant proportion of patients with neurodegenerative diseases, however, there are considerable ethical barriers. Previous series of cerebral biopsies have shown variable diagnostic accuracy but have understandably suffered because of lack of post-mortem tissue with which to compare the diagnosis. To determine the accuracy of such biopsies in neurodegenerative disease we took small biopsy-sized samples of predominantly fresh post-mortem brain tissue from frontal and temporal lobes in 62 cases. These were processed as for a biopsy and stained for H&E, p62, tau, Aβ, α-synuclein, and TDP-43. The sections were assessed blind by 3 neuropathologists and the results compared with the final post-mortem diagnosis. Results The agreement and sensitivity in most cases was good especially: controls; Alzheimer’s disease (AD); multiple system atrophy (MSA); frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 positive inclusions and/or motor neurone disease (FTLD-TDP/MND); Huntington’s disease (HD); corticobasal degeneration (CBD) / microtubular associated protein tau mutation cases with CBD-like features (CBD/MAPT); and combined AD- Dementia with Lewy Bodies (AD-DLB) where the sensitivity on assessing both brain regions varied between 75-100%. There was poor sensitivity for progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) (both 0%), but moderate sensitivity for pure DLB (60%). The temporal lobe assessment was marginally more accurate than the frontal lobe but these were only slightly worse than both combined. Conclusions The study shows that with certain caveats the cerebral biopsy in life should be a viable method of accurately diagnosing many neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24252649

  4. Prevalence and blood concentrations of desoxypipradrol (2-DPMP) in drivers suspected of driving under the influence of drugs and in post-mortem cases.

    PubMed

    Kriikku, Pirkko; Wilhelm, Lars; Rintatalo, Janne; Hurme, Jukka; Kramer, Jan; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2013-03-10

    The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of the use of desoxypipradrol (2-DPMP) among drivers apprehended on suspicion of driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) and the prevalence of the drug in post-mortem cases in Finland. Serum samples from drivers apprehended on suspicion of DUID and blood samples from post-mortem cases in Finland between October 2010 and May 2012 were analysed for the presence of desoxypipradrol. All samples were analysed for desoxypipradrol by mass spectrometric methods following comprehensive drug screening. Psychomotor performance of subjects was assessed by a clinician. There were 106 positive desoxypipradrol samples from apprehended drivers (1.7% of all confirmed DUID cases) in the study period. In most cases amphetamine and/or benzodiazepines were also present. The median (range) desoxypipradrol concentration was 0.073 mg/L (0.006-0.890 mg/L). The presence of other psychoactive drugs confounded assessment of the effect of desoxypipradrol on psychomotor performance except for one case in which it was the only drug present at pharmacologically active levels. Desoxypipradrol was found in 5 autopsy cases (0.05% of the investigated cases) and thought to contribute to death in two of these. Even though there are few data available on the pharmacology of desoxypipradrol, based on our findings, and the growing number of users, it is reasonable to assume that desoxypipradrol - a long-acting psychostimulant with dangerous side effects has an increasing detrimental impact on traffic safety in Finland. However, it was only rarely found to be the cause of death in post-mortem cases. PMID:23333504

  5. Determination of medicinal and illicit drugs in post mortem dental hard tissues and comparison with analytical results for body fluids and hair samples.

    PubMed

    Klima, Miriam; Altenburger, Markus J; Kempf, Jürgen; Auwärter, Volker; Neukamm, Merja A

    2016-08-01

    In burnt or skeletonized bodies dental hard tissue sometimes is the only remaining specimen available. Therefore, it could be used as an alternative matrix in post mortem toxicology. Additionally, analysis of dental tissues could provide a unique retrospective window of detection. For forensic interpretation, routes and rates of incorporation of different drugs as well as physicochemical differences between tooth root, tooth crown and carious material have to be taken into account. In a pilot study, one post mortem tooth each from three drug users was analyzed for medicinal and illicit drugs. The pulp was removed in two cases; in one case the tooth was root canal treated. The teeth were separated into root, crown and carious material and drugs were extracted from the powdered material with methanol under ultrasonication. The extracts were screened for drugs by LC-MS(n) (ToxTyper™) and quantitatively analyzed with LC-ESI-MS/MS in MRM mode. The findings were compared to the analytical results for cardiac blood, femoral blood, urine, stomach content and hair. In dental hard tissues, 11 drugs (amphetamine, MDMA, morphine, codeine, norcodeine, methadone, EDDP, fentanyl, tramadol, diazepam, nordazepam, and promethazine) could be detected and concentrations ranged from approximately 0.13pg/mg to 2,400pg/mg. The concentrations declined in the following order: carious material>root>crown. Only the root canal treated tooth showed higher concentrations in the crown than in the root. In post mortem toxicology, dental hard tissue could be a useful alternative matrix facilitating a more differentiated consideration of drug consumption patterns, as the window of detection seems to overlap those for body fluids and hair. PMID:26930453

  6. Identification of different domains of calpain and calpastatin from chicken blood and their role in post-mortem aging of meat during holding at refrigeration temperatures.

    PubMed

    Biswas, A K; Tandon, S; Beura, C K

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a simple, specific and rapid analytical method for accurate identification of calpain and calpastatin from chicken blood and muscle samples. The method is based on liquid-liquid extraction technique followed by casein Zymography detection. The target compounds were extracted from blood and meat samples by tris buffer, and purified and separated on anion exchange chromatography. It has been observed that buffer (pH 6.7) containing 50 mM tris-base appears to be excellent extractant as activity of analytes was maximum for all samples. The concentrations of μ-, m-calpain and calpastatin detected in the extracts of blood, breast and thigh samples were 0.28-0.55, 1.91-2.05 and 1.38-1.52 Unit/g, respectively. For robustness, the analytical method was applied to determine the activity of calpains (μ and m) in eighty postmortem muscle samples. It has been observed that μ-calpain activity in breast and thigh muscles declined very rapidly at 48 h and 24 h, respectively while activity of m-calpain remained stable. Shear force values were also declined with the increase of post-mortem aging showing the presence of ample tenderness of breast and thigh muscles. Finally, it is concluded that the method standardized for the detection of calpain and calpastatin has the potential to be applied to identify post-mortem aging of chicken meat samples. PMID:26830594

  7. A pendulum test as a tool to evaluate viscous friction parameters in the equine fetlock joint.

    PubMed

    Noble, Prisca; Lumay, Geoffroy; Coninx, Marc; Collin, Bernard; Magnée, Adrien; Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline; Denoix, Jean M; Serteyn, Didier

    2011-05-01

    An equine fetlock joint pendulum test was studied and the influence of post mortem time and intra-articular lipid solvent on the viscous frictional response examined. Fresh equine digits (group 1, n=6 controls; group 2, n=6 lipid solvent) were mounted on a pendulum tribometer. Assuming that pendular joint damping could be modelled by a harmonic oscillator fluid damping (HOFD), damping time (τ), viscous damping coefficient (c) and friction coefficient (μ) were monitored for 5h under experimental conditions (400N; 20°C). In all experiments, pendular joint damping was found to follow an exponential decay function (R(2)=0.99714), which confirmed that joint damping was fluid. The evolution of τ, c and μ was found to be significantly (P<0.05) different in the two groups, with a decrease in τ and an increase in c and μ that was faster and more prominent in digits from group 2. It was concluded that pendular joint damping could be modelled by a HOFD model. The influence of post mortem time on results suggested that, ideally, joint mechanical properties should only be tested on fresh cadavers at the same post mortem time. Moreover, the addition of lipid solvent was found to be responsible for upper viscous friction parameters and for a reduced damping time, which suggested that articular lubricating ability was compromised. This equine pendulum test could be used to test the efficacy of various bio-lubricant treatments. PMID:20413334

  8. Distribution and binding of 18F-labeled and 125I-labeled analogues of ACI-80, a prospective molecular imaging biomarker of disease: a whole hemisphere post mortem autoradiography study in human brains obtained from Alzheimer's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Gulyás, Balázs; Spenger, Christian; Beliczai, Zsuzsa; Gulya, Károly; Kása, Péter; Jahan, Mahabuba; Jia, Zhisheng; Weber, Urs; Pfeifer, Andrea; Muhs, Andreas; Willbold, Dieter; Halldin, Christer

    2012-01-01

    One of the major pathological landmarks of Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases is the presence of amyloid deposits in the brain. The early non-invasive visualization of amyloid is a major objective of recent diagnostic neuroimaging approaches, including positron emission tomography (PET), with an eye on follow-up of disease progression and/or therapy efficacy. The development of molecular imaging biomarkers with binding affinity to amyloid in the brain is therefore in the forefront of imaging biomarker and radiochemistry research. Recently, a dodecamer peptide (amino acid sequence=QSHYRHISPAQV; denominated D1 or ACI-80) was identified as a prospective ligand candidate, binding with high ex vivo affinity to L-Aβ-amyloid (K(d): 0.4 μM). In order to assess the ligand's capacity to visualize amyloid in Alzheimer's disease (AD), two (125)I labeled and three (18)F labeled analogues of the peptide were synthesized and tested in post mortem human autoradiography experiments using whole hemisphere brain slices obtained from deceased AD patients and age matched control subjects. The (18)F-labeled radioligands showed more promising visualization capacity of amyloid that the (125)I-labeled radioligands. In the case of each (18)F radioligands the grey matter uptake in the AD brains was significantly higher than that in control brains. Furthermore, the grey matter: white matter uptake ratio was over ~2, the difference being significant for each (18)F-radioligands. The regional distribution of the uptake of the various radioligands systematically shows a congruent pattern between the high uptake regions and spots in the autoradiographic images and the disease specific signals obtained in adjacent or identical brain slices labeled with histological, immunohistochemical or autoradiographic stains for amyloid deposits or activated astrocytes. The present data, using post mortem human brain autoradiography in whole hemisphere human brains obtained from deceased

  9. Role of biogenic amines in the post-mortem migration of Anisakis pegreffii (Nematoda: Anisakidae Dujardin, 1845) larvae into fish fillets.

    PubMed

    Šimat, Vida; Miletić, Jelena; Bogdanović, Tanja; Poljak, Vedran; Mladineo, Ivona

    2015-12-01

    Infective third-stage larvae (L3) of nematode Anisakis spp. have been recognized as one of the major food-borne threats in lightly processed fish products in Europe, particularly in the Mediterranean region. Therefore, the effect of different storage temperatures of fish on larval post-mortem migration from visceral cavity into fillets is an important parameter to take into account when evaluating the risk for consumer safety. The European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) were caught during fishing season, a subsample of fillets was checked for the presence of Anisakis larvae at capture (mean abundance=0.07), and the rest was stored at four different temperatures (-18, 0, 4 and 22°C) in order to count migrating larvae and measure the production of biogenic amines over a period of time. Larvae were identified by morphological features and molecular tools. Post-mortem migration was observed in fillets stored at 0 and 4°C after three and five days, respectively, but not at 22 and -18°C. In case of storage at 22°C for two days, at the onset of putrefaction of the visceral organs, larvae migrated out of the visceral cavity towards the fish surface. Measured pH and biogenic amine profile during storage indicated that certain biochemical conditions trigger larval migration into fillets. Likewise, migration was observed at pH ~6.4 when sensory degradation of the fish was markedly visible. Although larval migration was delayed for approximately four days at a temperature of <4°C the correlation between pH and abundance of A. pegreffii larvae in the fillet was high and statistically significant at both 0 (r=0.998, p<0.01) and 4°C (r=0.946, p<0.05). Out of eight biogenic amines measured, cadaverine and putrescine levels correlated the most with the post-mortem migration at 4°C, while tyramine levels were significant at both temperatures. PMID:26318909

  10. A comparison of mitochondrial DNA isolation methods in frozen post-mortem human brain tissue--applications for studies of mitochondrial genetics in brain disorders.

    PubMed

    Devall, Matthew; Burrage, Joe; Caswell, Richard; Johnson, Matthew; Troakes, Claire; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Jeffries, Aaron R; Mill, Jonathan; Lunnon, Katie

    2015-10-01

    Given that many brain disorders are characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction, there is a growing interest in investigating genetic and epigenetic variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). One major caveat for such studies is the presence of nuclear-mitochondrial pseudogenes (NUMTs), which are regions of the mitochondrial genome that have been inserted into the nuclear genome over evolution and, if not accounted for, can confound genetic studies of mtDNA. Here we provide the first systematic comparison of methods for isolating mtDNA from frozen post-mortem human brain tissue. Our data show that a commercial method from Miltenyi Biotec, which magnetically isolates mitochondria using antibodies raised against the mitochondrial import receptor subunit TOM22, gives significant mtDNA enrichment and should be considered the method of choice for mtDNA studies in frozen brain tissue. PMID:26458552

  11. Diagnostic Tests and Examination Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Dennis

    1988-01-01

    A study of the usefulness of several diagnostic tests for selecting students to enter a civil engineering program found that the tests were not appropriate and that tests should be developed specifically for civil engineering. (MSE)

  12. Diagnosis, management and post-mortem findings of a human case of rabies imported into the United Kingdom from India: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human rabies infection continues to be a significant public health burden globally, and is occasionally imported to high income settings where the Milwaukee Protocol for intensive care management has recently been employed, with limited success in improving survival. Access to molecular diagnostics, pre- and post-mortem, and documentation of pathophysiological responses while using the Milwaukee protocol, can add useful insights for the future of rabies management. Case presentation A 58-year-old British Asian woman was referred to a regional general hospital in the UK with hydrophobia, anxiety and confusion nine weeks after receiving a dog bite in North West India. Nuchal skin biopsy, saliva, and a skin biopsy from the site of the dog bite wound, taken on the day of admission, all demonstrated the presence of rabies virus RNA. Within 48 hours sequence analysis of viral RNA confirmed the diagnosis and demonstrated that the virus was a strain closely related to canine rabies viruses circulating in South Asia. Her condition deteriorated rapidly with increased agitation and autonomic dysfunction. She was heavily sedated and intubated on the day after admission, treated according to a modified Milwaukee protocol, and remained stable until she developed heart block and profound acidosis and died on the eighth day. Analysis of autopsy samples showed a complete absence of rabies neutralizing antibody in cerebrospinal fluid and serum, and corresponding high levels of virus antigen and nucleic acid in brain and cerebrospinal fluid. Quantitative PCR showed virus was also distributed widely in peripheral tissues despite mild or undetectable histopathological changes. Vagus nerve branches in the heart showed neuritis, a probable Negri body but no demonstrable rabies antigen. Conclusion Rapid molecular diagnosis and strain typing is helpful in the management of human rabies infection. Post-mortem findings such as vagal neuritis highlight clinically important effects

  13. Post-mortem levels and tissue distribution of codeine, codeine-6-glucuronide, norcodeine, morphine and morphine glucuronides in a series of codeine-related deaths.

    PubMed

    Frost, Joachim; Løkken, Trine Nordgård; Helland, Arne; Nordrum, Ivar Skjåk; Slørdal, Lars

    2016-05-01

    This article presents levels and tissue distribution of codeine, codeine-6-glucuronide (C6G), norcodeine, morphine and the morphine metabolites morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) in post-mortem blood (peripheral and heart blood), vitreous fluid, muscle, fat and brain tissue in a series of 23 codeine-related fatalities. CYP2D6 genotype is also determined and taken into account. Quantification of codeine, C6G, norcodeine, morphine, M3G and M6G was performed with a validated solid phase extraction LC-MS method. The series comprise 19 deaths (83%) attributed to mixed drug intoxication, 4 deaths (17%) attributed to other causes of death, and no cases of unambiguous monointoxication with codeine. The typical peripheral blood concentration pattern in individual cases was C6G≫codeine≫norcodeine>morphine, and M3G>M6G>morphine. In matrices other than blood, the concentration pattern was similar, although in a less systematic fashion. Measured concentrations were generally lower in matrices other than blood, especially in brain and fat, and in particular for the glucuronides (C6G, M3G and M6G) and, to some extent, morphine. In brain tissue, the presumed active moieties morphine and M6G were both below the LLOQ (0.0080mg/L and 0.058mg/L, respectively) in a majority of cases. In general, there was a large variability in both measured concentrations and calculated blood/tissue concentration ratios. There was also a large variability in calculated ratios of morphine to codeine, C6G to codeine and norcodeine to codeine in all matrices, and CYP2D6 genotype was not a reliable predictor of these ratios. The different blood/tissue concentration ratios showed no systematic relationship with the post-mortem interval. No coherent degradation or formation patterns for codeine, morphine, M3G and M6G were observed upon reanalysis in peripheral blood after storage. PMID:26986973

  14. The norepinephrine transporter (NET) radioligand (S,S)-[18F]FMeNER-D2 shows significant decreases in NET density in the human brain in Alzheimer's disease: a post-mortem autoradiographic study.

    PubMed

    Gulyás, Balázs; Brockschnieder, Damian; Nag, Sangram; Pavlova, Elena; Kása, Péter; Beliczai, Zsuzsa; Légrádi, Adám; Gulya, Károly; Thiele, Andrea; Dyrks, Thomas; Halldin, Christer

    2010-01-01

    Earlier post-mortem histological and autoradiographic studies have indicated a reduction of cell numbers in the locus coeruleus (LC) and a corresponding decrease in norepinephrine transporter (NET) in brains obtained from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients as compared to age-matched healthy controls. In order to test the hypothesis that the regional decrease of NET is a disease specific biomarker in AD and as such, it can be used in PET imaging studies for diagnostic considerations, regional differences in the density of NET in various anatomical structures were measured in whole hemisphere human brain slices obtained from AD patients and age-matched control subjects in a series of autoradiographic experiments using the novel selective PET radioligand for NET (S,S)-[(18)F]FMeNER-D(2). (S,S)-[(18)F]FMeNER-D(2) appears to be a useful imaging biomarker for quantifying the density of NET in various brain structures, including the LC and the thalamus wherein the highest densities are found in physiological conditions. In AD significant decreases of NET densities can be demonstrated with the radioligand in both structures as compared to age-matched controls. The decreases in AD correlate with the progress of the disease as indicated by Braak grades. As the size of the LC is below the spatial resolution of the PET scanners, but the size of the thalamus can be detected with appropriate spatial accuracy in advanced scanners, the present findings confirm our earlier observations with PET that the in vivo imaging of NET with (S,S)-[(18)F]FMeNER-D(2) in the thalamus is viable. Nevertheless, further studies are warranted to assess the usefulness of such an imaging approach for the early detection of changes in thalamic NET densities as a disease-specific biomarker and the possible use of (S,S)-[(18)F]FMeNER-D(2) as a molecular imaging biomarker in AD. PMID:20211213

  15. Post-mortem interval estimation of human skeletal remains by micro-computed tomography, mid-infrared microscopic imaging and energy dispersive X-ray mapping

    PubMed Central

    Hatzer-Grubwieser, P.; Bauer, C.; Parson, W.; Unterberger, S. H.; Kuhn, V.; Pemberger, N.; Pallua, Anton K.; Recheis, W.; Lackner, R.; Stalder, R.; Pallua, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    In this study different state-of-the-art visualization methods such as micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), mid-infrared (MIR) microscopic imaging and energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) mapping were evaluated to study human skeletal remains for the determination of the post-mortem interval (PMI). PMI specific features were identified and visualized by overlaying molecular imaging data and morphological tissue structures generated by radiological techniques and microscopic images gained from confocal microscopy (Infinite Focus (IFM)). In this way, a more distinct picture concerning processes during the PMI as well as a more realistic approximation of the PMI were achieved. It could be demonstrated that the gained result in combination with multivariate data analysis can be used to predict the Ca/C ratio and bone volume (BV) over total volume (TV) for PMI estimation. Statistical limitation of this study is the small sample size, and future work will be based on more specimens to develop a screening tool for PMI based on the outcome of this multidimensional approach. PMID:25878731

  16. Early post mortem expression of genes related to tenderization in two Italian Simmental young bulls' skeletal muscles differing in contractile type.

    PubMed

    Saccà, Elena; Corazzin, Mirco; Pizzutti, Nicoletta; Lippe, Giovanna; Piasentier, Edi

    2015-12-01

    The early post mortem expression of eight genes potentially involved in meat ageing process and the tenderness of two Italian Simmental young bulls' (Bos taurus) skeletal muscles differing in their contractile type were evaluated. Samples of Longissimus lumborum (LL) and Infraspinatus (IS) muscles were collected from 17 bulls. The messenger RNA (mRNA) abundances of calpain-1, calpain-2, calpastatin, caspase 3, caspase 9, heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27), Hsp40 and Hsp70 were detected by quantitative PCR. The myosin heavy chain-slow and -fast isoform content, the pH48h and the lipid content of the muscles were in line with the contractile and metabolic type. In comparison with the fast LL, the slow IS showed a lower calpain-1/calpastatin mRNA content ratio after slaughtering and a higher Warner-Bratzler Initial Yield value after 7 days of ageing. Hsp27 and Hsp70 mRNA abundances were significantly lower in LL than IS, highlighting their potential role in the ageing process of bovine muscles. PMID:26152790

  17. Simultaneous screening and quantification of 25 opioid drugs in post-mortem blood and urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gergov, M; Nokua, P; Vuori, E; Ojanperä, I

    2009-04-15

    A method for simultaneous screening and quantification was developed for the fentanyls alfentanil, fentanyl, p-fluorofentanyl, cis-3-methylfentanyl, trans-3-methylfentanyl, alpha-methylfentanyl, norfentanyl, remifentanil, sufentanil, and the other opioid drugs 6-acetylmorphine, buprenorphine, codeine, dextropropoxyphene, ethylmorphine, heroin, methadone, morphine, naloxone, naltrexone, norbuprenorphine, normethadone, oxycodone, pentazocine, pethidine, and tramadol in post-mortem blood and urine samples by LC-MS/MS. Samples were extracted with butyl acetate at pH 7. The drugs were separated by LC on a Genesis C(18) reversed-phase column, with a gradient consisting of acetonitrile and ammonium acetate at pH 3.2. The mass spectrometric analysis was performed with a quadrupole-linear ion-trap mass spectrometer equipped with a turbo ion spray interface in positive mode using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Quantification was performed based on five isotope-labelled internal standards. Validation included assessment of linearity, limit of quantification, inaccuracy, precision, and matrix effects. The limits of quantification were adequate for screening and quantification of opioid drugs at low therapeutic or abuse concentration levels, with inaccuracy less than 23% and precision better than 24% both in blood and urine samples. When this method was applied to autopsy cases, its results were in agreement with those of reference methods. PMID:19232849

  18. Metabolomic Profiling of Post-Mortem Brain Reveals Changes in Amino Acid and Glucose Metabolism in Mental Illness Compared with Controls.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Tong; Ali, Ali Muhsen; Al Washih, Mohammed; Pickard, Benjamin; Watson, David G

    2016-01-01

    Metabolomic profiling was carried out on 53 post-mortem brain samples from subjects diagnosed with schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder (SDB), diabetes, and controls. Chromatography on a ZICpHILIC column was used with detection by Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Data extraction was carried out with m/z Mine 2.14 with metabolite searching against an in-house database. There was no clear discrimination between the controls and the SDB samples on the basis of a principal components analysis (PCA) model of 755 identified or putatively identified metabolites. Orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis (OPLSDA) produced clear separation between 17 of the controls and 19 of the SDB samples (R2CUM 0.976, Q2 0.671, p-value of the cross-validated ANOVA score 0.0024). The most important metabolites producing discrimination were the lipophilic amino acids leucine/isoleucine, proline, methionine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine; the neurotransmitters GABA and NAAG and sugar metabolites sorbitol, gluconic acid, xylitol, ribitol, arabinotol, and erythritol. Eight samples from diabetic brains were analysed, six of which grouped with the SDB samples without compromising the model (R2 CUM 0.850, Q2 CUM 0.534, p-value for cross-validated ANOVA score 0.00087). There appears on the basis of this small sample set to be some commonality between metabolic perturbations resulting from diabetes and from SDB. PMID:27076878

  19. Metabolomic Profiling of Post-Mortem Brain Reveals Changes in Amino Acid and Glucose Metabolism in Mental Illness Compared with Controls

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Tong; Ali, Ali Muhsen; Al Washih, Mohammed; Pickard, Benjamin; Watson, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolomic profiling was carried out on 53 post-mortem brain samples from subjects diagnosed with schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder (SDB), diabetes, and controls. Chromatography on a ZICpHILIC column was used with detection by Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Data extraction was carried out with m/z Mine 2.14 with metabolite searching against an in-house database. There was no clear discrimination between the controls and the SDB samples on the basis of a principal components analysis (PCA) model of 755 identified or putatively identified metabolites. Orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis (OPLSDA) produced clear separation between 17 of the controls and 19 of the SDB samples (R2CUM 0.976, Q2 0.671, p-value of the cross-validated ANOVA score 0.0024). The most important metabolites producing discrimination were the lipophilic amino acids leucine/isoleucine, proline, methionine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine; the neurotransmitters GABA and NAAG and sugar metabolites sorbitol, gluconic acid, xylitol, ribitol, arabinotol, and erythritol. Eight samples from diabetic brains were analysed, six of which grouped with the SDB samples without compromising the model (R2 CUM 0.850, Q2 CUM 0.534, p-value for cross-validated ANOVA score 0.00087). There appears on the basis of this small sample set to be some commonality between metabolic perturbations resulting from diabetes and from SDB. PMID:27076878

  20. A post mortem 3-D Brain Hemisphere Cortical Tau and Amyloid–β Pathology Mapping and Quantification as a Validation Method of Neuropathology Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Smid, Lojze M.; Kepe, Vladimir; Vinters, Harry V.; Bresjanac, Mara; Toyokuni, Tatsushi; Satyamurthy, N.; Wong, Koon-Pong; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Silverman, Daniel H.S.; Miller, Karen; Small, Gary W.; Barrio, Jorge R.

    2013-01-01

    This work is aimed at correlating pre mortem [F-18]FDDNP PET scan results in a patient with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), with cortical neuropathology distribution determined post mortem in three physical dimensions in whole brain coronal sections. Analysis of total Aβ distribution in frontal cortex and posterior cingulate gyrus confirmed its statistically significant correlation with cortical [F-18]FDDNP PET binding values (distribution volume ratios, DVR) (p<0.001, R=0.97, R2=0.94). Neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) distribution correlated significantly with cortical [F-18]FDDNP PET DVR in the temporal lobe (p<0.001, R=0.87, R2=0.76). Linear combination of Aβ and NFT densities was highly predictive of [F-18]FDDNP-PET DVR through all analyzed regions of interest (p<0.0001, R=0.92, R2=0.85), and both densities contributed significantly to the model. Lewy bodies (LB) were present at a much lower level than either Aβ or NFTs and did not significantly contribute to the in vivo signal. [F-18]FDG PET scan results in this patient were consistent with the distinctive DLB pattern of hypometabolism. This work offers a mapping brain model applicable to all imaging probes for verification of imaging results with Aβ and/or tau neuropathology brain distribution using immunohistochemistry, fluorescence microscopy and autoradiography. PMID:23568102

  1. Glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: region-specific analysis of organic acids and acylcarnitines in post mortem brain predicts vulnerability of the putamen.

    PubMed

    Kölker, S; Hoffmann, G F; Schor, D S M; Feyh, P; Wagner, L; Jeffrey, I; Pourfarzam, M; Okun, J G; Zschocke, J; Baric, I; Bain, M D; Jakobs, C; Chalmers, R A

    2003-06-01

    The neurometabolic disorder glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH) deficiency is biochemically characterised by an accumulation of the marker metabolites 3-hydroxyglutaric acid, glutaric acid, and glutarylcarnitine. If untreated, the disease is complicated by acute encephalopathic crises, resulting in neurodegeneration of vulnerable brain regions, in particular the putamen. 3-hydroxyglutaric acid is considered the major neurotoxin in this disease. There are only preliminary data concerning glutaric acid concentrations in the brains of affected children and the distribution of 3-hydroxyglutaric acid and glutarylcarnitine has not been described. In the present study, we investigated post mortem the distribution of 3-hydroxyglutaric and glutaric acids as well as glutarylcarnitine in 14 different brain regions, internal organs, and body fluids (urine, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid) in a 14-year-old boy. 3-Hydroxyglutaric acid showed the highest concentration (62 nmol/g protein) in the putamen among all brain areas investigated. The glutarylcarnitine concentration was also highest in the putamen (7.1 nmol/g protein). We suggest that the regional-specific differences in the relative concentrations of 3-hydroxyglutaric acid contribute to the pattern of neuronal damage in this disease. These results provide an explanatory basis for the high vulnerability of the putamen in this disease, adding to the strong corticostriatal glutamatergic input into the putamen and the high excitotoxic susceptibility of neostriatal medium spiny neurons. PMID:14598231

  2. 9 CFR 381.76 - Post-mortem inspection, when required; extent; traditional, Streamlined Inspection System (SIS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... eviscerated shall be opened so as to expose the organs and the body cavity for proper examination by the... not needed for inspection purposes and are not intended for human food and are condemned. (b)(1) There...; extent; traditional, Streamlined Inspection System (SIS), New Line Speed (NELS) Inspection System and...

  3. 9 CFR 381.76 - Post-mortem inspection, when required; extent; traditional, Streamlined Inspection System (SIS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... eviscerated shall be opened so as to expose the organs and the body cavity for proper examination by the... not needed for inspection purposes and are not intended for human food and are condemned. (b)(1) There...; extent; traditional, Streamlined Inspection System (SIS), New Line Speed (NELS) Inspection System and...

  4. 9 CFR 381.76 - Post-mortem inspection, when required; extent; traditional, Streamlined Inspection System (SIS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... eviscerated shall be opened so as to expose the organs and the body cavity for proper examination by the... not needed for inspection purposes and are not intended for human food and are condemned. (b)(1) There...; extent; traditional, Streamlined Inspection System (SIS), New Line Speed (NELS) Inspection System and...

  5. Possibilities of post-mortem diagnostics, including immunodiagnostics, in cases of sudden death due to anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions.

    PubMed

    Kobek, M; Jankowski, Z; Chowaniec, C; Chowaniec, M; Jabłoński, C; Skowronek, R

    2014-01-01

    Postmortem diagnostics of anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reaction as the cause of death in cases of sudden deaths without witnesses, as well as those in which circumstances of sudden disease and then death are known, seems to be very difficult. This is caused by the lack of characteristic macro- or microscopic changes to internal organs resulting from a short, or even very short time, that elapses from the action of the etiological factor till death. In the above mentioned cases it is often impossible to establish univocally the cause of death, despite considering information on the cause of disease and its clinical symptoms. On the basis of 2 cases of sudden deaths resulted from the intake of hazel nuts, and the administration of contrast agent before radiological examination, the authors discuss the usefulness of postmortem determinations of tryptase and IgE in blood for diagnostics of deaths resulting from anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reaction, respectively. PMID:25574942

  6. Post-mortem brain pathology is related to declining respiratory function in community-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Buchman, Aron S.; Yu, Lei; Wilson, Robert S.; Dawe, Robert J.; VanderHorst, Veronique; Schneider, Julie A.; Bennett, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Damage to brain structures which constitute the distributed neural network that integrates respiratory muscle and pulmonary functions, can impair adequate ventilation and its volitional control. We tested the hypothesis that the level of brain pathology in older adults is associated with declining respiratory function measured during life. 1,409 older adults had annual testing with spirometry (SPI) and respiratory muscle strength (RMS) based on maximal inspiratory and maximal expiratory pressures (MEPs). Those who died underwent structured brain autopsy. On average, during 5 years of follow-up, SPI and RMS showed progressive decline which was moderately correlated (ρ = 0.57, p < 0.001). Among decedents (N = 447), indices of brain neuropathologies showed differential associations with declining SPI and RMS. Nigral neuronal loss was associated with the person-specific decline in SPI (Estimate, −0.016 unit/year, S.E. 0.006, p = 0.009) and reduction of the slope variance was equal to 4%. By contrast, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology (Estimate, −0.030 unit/year, S.E. 0.009, p < 0.001) and macroscopic infarcts (−0.033 unit/year, S.E., 0.011, p = 0.003) were associated with the person-specific decline in RMS and reduction of the slope variance was equal to 7%. These results suggest that brain pathology is associated with the rate of declining respiratory function in older adults. PMID:26539108

  7. Is educational attainment related to end-of-life decision-making? A large post-mortem survey in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Educational attainment has been shown to influence access to and quality of health care. However, the influence of educational attainment on decision-making at the end of life with possible or certain life-shortening effect (ELDs ie intensified pain and symptom alleviation, non-treatment decisions, euthanasia/physician-assisted suicide, and life-ending acts without explicit request) is scarcely studied. This paper examines differences between educational groups pertaining to prevalence of ELDs, the decision-making process and end-of-life treatment characteristics. Method We performed a retrospective survey among physicians certifying a large representative sample of Belgian deaths in 2007. Differences between educational groups were adjusted for relevant confounders (age, sex, cause of death and marital status). Results Intensified pain and symptom alleviation and non-treatment decisions are more likely to occur in higher educated than in lower educated patients. These decisions were less likely to be discussed with either patient or family, or with colleague physicians, in lower educated patients. A positive association between education and prevalence of euthanasia/assisted suicide (acts as well as requests) disappeared when adjusting for cause of death. No differences between educational groups were found in the treatment goal in the last week, but higher educated patients were more likely to receive opioids in the last day of life. Conclusion There are some important differences and possible inequities between educational groups in end-of-life decision-making in Belgium. Future research should investigate whether the found differences reflect differences in knowledge of and adherence to patient preferences, and indicate a discrepancy in quality of the end of life. PMID:24207110

  8. Paralytic shellfish poisoning: post-mortem analysis of tissue and body fluid samples from human victims in the Patagonia fjords.

    PubMed

    García, Carlos; del Carmen Bravo, María; Lagos, Marcelo; Lagos, Néstor

    2004-02-01

    In July 5, 2002 fishermen working in harvesting sea urchin (Loxechinus albus) in the Patagonia Chilean fjords were intoxicated by consumption of filter-feeder bivalve Aulacomya ater. After the ingestion of 7-9 ribbed mussel, two fishermen died 3-4 h after shellfish consumption. The forensic examination in both victims did not show pathological abnormalities with the exception of the lungs conditions, crackling to the touch, pulmonary congestion and edema. The toxic mussel sample showed a toxicity measured by mouse bioassay of 8575 microg of STX (saxitoxin) equivalent by 100 g of shellfish meat. Using post-column derivatization HPLC method with fluorescent on line detection was possible to measure mass amount of each paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin yielding individual toxin concentrations. These PSP toxins were identified in the gastric content, body fluids (urine, bile and cerebrospinal fluid) and tissue samples (liver, kidney, lung, stomach, spleen, heart, brain, adrenal glands, pancreas and thyroids glands). The toxin profiles of each body fluid and tissue samples and the amount of each PSP toxin detected are reported. The PSP toxins found in the gastric content, were STX and the gonyautoxins (GTX4, GTX1, GTX5, GTX3 and GTX2) which showed to be the major amount of PSP toxins found in the victims biological samples. The PSP toxin composition in urine and bile showed as major PSP toxins neoSaxitoxin (neoSTX) and GTX4/GTX1 epimers, both STX analogues with an hydroxyl group (-OH) in the N(1) of the tetrahydropurine nucleus. The neoSTX was not present in the gastric content sample, indicating that the oxidation of N(1) in the STX tetrahydropurine nucleus resulted neoSTX, in a similar way that GTX3/GTX2 epimers were transformed in GTX4/GTX1 epimers. Beside this metabolic transformation, also the hydrolysis of carbamoyl group from STX to form its decarbomoyl analogue decarbamoylsaxitoxin was detected in liver, kidney and lung. These two findings show that PSP

  9. Serum chemistry, hematologic, and post-mortem findings in free-ranging bobcats (Lynx rufus) with notoedric mange

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serieys, Laurel E.K.; Foley, Janet; Owens, Sean; Woods, Leslie; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Poppenga, Robert H.; Clifford, Deana L.; Stephenson, Nicole; Rudd, Jaime; Riley, Seth P.D.

    2013-01-01

    Notoedric mange was responsible for a population decline of bobcats (Lynx rufus) in 2 Southern California counties from 2002–2006 and is now reported to affect bobcats in Northern and Southern California. With this study we document clinical laboratory and necropsy findings for bobcats with mange. Bobcats in this study included free-ranging bobcats with mange (n = 34), a control group of free-ranging bobcats without mange (n = 11), and a captive control group of bobcats without mange (n = 19). We used 2 control groups to evaluate potential anomalies due to capture stress or diet. Free-ranging healthy and mange-infected bobcats were trapped or salvaged. Animals were tested by serum biochemistry, complete blood count, urine protein and creatinine, body weight, necropsy, and assessment for anticoagulant rodenticide residues in liver tissue. Bobcats with severe mange were emaciated, dehydrated, and anemic with low serum creatinine, hyperphosphatemia, hypoglycemia, hypernatremia, and hyperchloremia, and sometimes septicemic when compared to control groups. Liver enzymes and leukocyte counts were elevated in free-ranging, recently captured bobcats whether or not they were infested with mange, suggesting capture stress. Bobcats with mange had lower levels of serum cholesterol, albumin, globulin, and total protein due to protein loss likely secondary to severe dermatopathy. Renal insufficiency was unlikely in most cases, as urine protein:creatinine ratios were within normal limits. A primary gastrointestinal loss of protein or blood was possible in a few cases, as evidenced by elevated blood urea nitrogen, anemia, intestinal parasitism, colitis, gastric hemorrhage, and melena. The prevalence of exposure to anticoagulant rodenticides was 100% (n = 15) in bobcats with mange. These findings paint a picture of debilitating, multisystemic disease with infectious and toxic contributing factors that can progress to death in individuals and potential decline in populations.

  10. Metabolomics of Neurotransmitters and Related Metabolites in Post-Mortem Tissue from the Dorsal and Ventral Striatum of Alcoholic Human Brain.

    PubMed

    Kashem, Mohammed Abul; Ahmed, Selina; Sultana, Nilufa; Ahmed, Eakhlas U; Pickford, Russell; Rae, Caroline; Šerý, Omar; McGregor, Iain S; Balcar, Vladimir J

    2016-02-01

    We report on changes in neurotransmitter metabolome and protein expression in the striatum of humans exposed to heavy long-term consumption of alcohol. Extracts from post mortem striatal tissue (dorsal striatum; DS comprising caudate nucleus; CN and putamen; P and ventral striatum; VS constituted by nucleus accumbens; NAc) were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Proteomics was studied in CN by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass-spectrometry. Proteomics identified 25 unique molecules expressed differently by the alcohol-affected tissue. Two were dopamine-related proteins and one a GABA-synthesizing enzyme GAD65. Two proteins that are related to apoptosis and/or neuronal loss (BiD and amyloid-β A4 precursor protein-binding family B member 3) were increased. There were no differences in the levels of dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydrophenylacetic acid (DOPAC), serotonin (5HT), homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (HIAA), histamine, L-glutamate (Glu), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), tyrosine (Tyr) and tryptophan (Tryp) between the DS (CN and P) and VS (NAc) in control brains. Choline (Ch) and acetylcholine (Ach) were higher and norepinephrine (NE) lower, in the VS. Alcoholic striata had lower levels of neurotransmitters except for Glu (30 % higher in the alcoholic ventral striatum). Ratios of DOPAC/DA and HIAA/5HT were higher in alcoholic striatum indicating an increase in the DA and 5HT turnover. Glutathione was significantly reduced in all three regions of alcohol-affected striatum. We conclude that neurotransmitter systems in both the DS (CN and P) and the VS (NAc) were significantly influenced by long-term heavy alcohol intake associated with alcoholism . PMID:26801172

  11. Cerebellar Oxidative DNA Damage and Altered DNA Methylation in the BTBR T+tf/J Mouse Model of Autism and Similarities with Human Post Mortem Cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Shpyleva, Svitlana; Ivanovsky, Samuil; de Conti, Aline; Melnyk, Stepan; Tryndyak, Volodymyr; Beland, Frederick A.; James, S. Jill; Pogribny, Igor P.

    2014-01-01

    The molecular pathogenesis of autism is complex and involves numerous genomic, epigenomic, proteomic, metabolic, and physiological alterations. Elucidating and understanding the molecular processes underlying the pathogenesis of autism is critical for effective clinical management and prevention of this disorder. The goal of this study is to investigate key molecular alterations postulated to play a role in autism and their role in the pathophysiology of autism. In this study we demonstrate that DNA isolated from the cerebellum of BTBR T+tf/J mice, a relevant mouse model of autism, and from human post-mortem cerebellum of individuals with autism, are both characterized by an increased levels of 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), 5-methylcytosine (5mC), and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC). The increase in 8-oxodG and 5mC content was associated with a markedly reduced expression of the 8-oxoguanine DNA-glycosylase 1 (Ogg1) and increased expression of de novo DNA methyltransferases 3a and 3b (Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b). Interestingly, a rise in the level of 5hmC occurred without changes in the expression of ten-eleven translocation expression 1 (Tet1) and Tet2 genes, but significantly correlated with the presence of 8-oxodG in DNA. This finding and similar elevation in 8-oxodG in cerebellum of individuals with autism and in the BTBR T+tf/J mouse model warrant future large-scale studies to specifically address the role of OGG1 alterations in pathogenesis of autism. PMID:25423485

  12. Flow cytometry analysis of synaptosomes from post-mortem human brain reveals changes specific to Lewy Body and Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Postupna, Nadia O.; Keene, C. Dirk; Latimer, Caitlin; Sherfield, Emily E.; Van Gelder, Rachel D.; Ojemann, Jeffrey G.; Montine, Thomas J.; Darvas, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Synaptic dysfunction is thought to play an important role in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Lewy body disease (LBD). To improve our understanding of synaptic alterations in health and disease, we investigated synaptosomes prepared from post-mortem human cerebral cortex, putamen, and two regions of the caudate nucleus, dorso-lateral (DL) and ventro-medial (VM), regions commonly affected in AD and LBD. We observed that the fraction of synaptosomal particles with reactivity for dopamine transporter (DAT) was significantly reduced in the putamen and VM caudate of patients with neuropathological diagnosis of LBD. As expected, these differences also were reflected in direct measurements of dopamine (DA) and its metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), in caudate and putamen of LBD patients. The fraction of synaptosomal particles positive for amyloid β (Aβ) was significantly increased in frontal cortical samples of patients with the neuropathological diagnosis of severe AD, and was positively correlated with disease progression. We also prepared synaptosomes from the striatum of mice with severe loss of DA neurons (Slc6a3-DTR mice) and wild-type littermate controls. We observed dramatically reduced levels of DAT-positive synaptosomes in Slc6a3-DTR mice following exposure to diphtheria toxin (DT). Striatal levels of DA and DOPAC in Slc6a3-DTR mice also were reduced significantly following DT exposure. We conclude that flow cytometric analysis of synaptosomes prepared from human or mouse brain provides an opportunity to study expression of pathology-associated proteins and also the specific loss of dopaminergic nerve terminals. Hence, we believe it is a valid method to detect pathological changes at the level of the synapse in LBD as well as AD. PMID:25068655

  13. Validation of adequate endogenous reference genes for reverse transcription-qPCR studies in human post-mortem brain tissue of SIDS cases.

    PubMed

    El-Kashef, Noha; Gomes, Iva; Mercer-Chalmers-Bender, Katja; Schneider, Peter M; Rothschild, Markus A; Juebner, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the main cause of post-neonatal infant death in most developed countries. It is still of ambiguous etiology. Gene expression studies of relevant target genes using reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) in SIDS cases, and comparing them with age-matched controls, could help in understanding the pathogenesis of SIDS. However, selecting inadequate reference genes used for normalization of the RT-qPCR gene expression data can give misleading results. The aim of the present study was to identify reference genes with the most stable expression in post-mortem brainstem samples of SIDS and control cases. Among the five candidate reference genes (GAPDH, GUSB, HMBS, SDHA, UBXN6) studied in both groups, SDHA and UBXN6 were identified as the most stable. To further demonstrate the importance of using validated genes for RT-qPCR data normalization, the expression of a potential gene of interest in SIDS, the RPS27A gene, was evaluated using validated versus non-validated reference genes for normalization. This gene encodes the ubiquitin protein that has been shown in other pathological studies to be induced in SIDS. Using the identified most stable genes for normalization of RPS27A gene expression data revealed, as expected, a statistically significant up-regulation in SIDS as compared to the controls. However, using a single unstable reference gene for normalization resulted in no significant differences in transcript abundance of RPS27A between SIDS and the controls. This emphasizes the need for validation of the suitability of reference genes used in a given tissue type under certain experimental conditions. PMID:26434654

  14. Network Topology Analysis of Post-Mortem Brain Microarrays Identifies More Alzheimer's Related Genes and MicroRNAs and Points to Novel Routes for Fighting with the Disease.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Sreedevi; Bonchev, Danail

    2016-01-01

    Network-based approaches are powerful and beneficial tools to study complex systems in their entirety, elucidating the essential factors that turn the multitude of individual elements into a functional system. In this study we used critical network topology descriptors and guilt-by-association rule to explore and understand the significant molecular players, drug targets and underlying biological mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease. Analyzing two post-mortem brain gene microarrays (GSE4757 and GSE28146) with Pathway Studio software package we constructed and analyzed a set of protein-protein interaction, as well as miRNA-target networks. In a 4-step procedure the expression datasets were normalized using Robust Multi-array Average approach, while the modulation of gene expression by the disease was statistically evaluated by the empirical Bayes method from the limma Bioconductor package. Representative set of 214 seed-genes (p<0.01) common for the three brain sections of the two microarrays was thus created. The Pathway Studio analysis of the networks built identified 15 new potential AD-related genes and 17 novel AD-involved microRNAs. Using KEGG pathways relevant in Alzheimer's disease we built an integrated mechanistic network from the interactions between the overlapping genes in these pathways. Routes of possible disease initiation process were thus revealed through the CD4, DCN, and IL8 extracellular ligands. DAVID and IPA enrichment analysis uncovered a number of deregulated biological processes and pathways including neuron projection/differentiation, aging, oxidative stress, chemokine/ neurotrophin signaling, long-term potentiation and others. The findings in this study offer information of interest for subsequent experimental studies. PMID:26784894

  15. Analysis of the Relationship between Peak Stress and Proteoglycan Loss Following Injurious Compression of Human Post-mortem Knee and Ankle Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Patwari, Parth; Cheng, Debbie M.; Cole, Ada A.; Kuettner, Klaus E.; Grodzinsky, Alan J.

    2009-01-01

    While traumatic joint injuries are known to increase the risk of osteoarthritis (OA), the mechanism is not known. Models for injurious compression of cartilage may identify predictors of injury that suggest a clinical mechanism. We investigated the relationship between peak stress during compression and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) loss after injury for knee and ankle cartilages. Human cartilage explant disks were harvested post-mortem from the knee and ankle of three organ donors with no history of OA and subjected to injurious compression to 65% strain in uniaxial unconfined compression at 2 mm/s (400%/s). The GAG content of the conditioned medium was measured three days after injury. After injury of knee cartilage disks, damage was visible in 18 of 39 disks (46%). Three days after injury, the increase in GAG loss to the medium (GAG loss from injured disks minus GAG loss from location-matched uncompressed controls) was 1.5 ± 0.3 μg/disk (mean ± SEM). With final strain and compression velocity held constant, we observed that increasing peak stress during injury was associated with less GAG loss after injury (p<0.001). In contrast, ankle cartilage appeared damaged after injury in only one of 16 disks (6%), there was no increase in GAG loss (0.0 ± 0.3 μg/disk), and no relationship between peak stress and increase in GAG loss was detected (p=0.51). By itself, increasing peak stress did not appear to be an important cause of GAG loss from human cartilage in our injurious compression model. However, we observed further evidence for differences in the response of knee and ankle cartilages to injury. PMID:16715319

  16. Analysis of the relationship between peak stress and proteoglycan loss following injurious compression of human post-mortem knee and ankle cartilage.

    PubMed

    Patwari, Parth; Cheng, Debbie M; Cole, Ada A; Kuettner, Klaus E; Grodzinsky, Alan J

    2007-01-01

    While traumatic joint injuries are known to increase the risk of osteoarthritis (OA), the mechanism is not known. Models for injurious compression of cartilage may identify predictors of injury that suggest a clinical mechanism. We investigated the relationship between peak stress during compression and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) loss after injury for knee and ankle cartilages. Human cartilage explant disks were harvested post-mortem from the knee and ankle of three organ donors with no history of OA and subjected to injurious compression to 65% strain in uniaxial unconfined compression at 2 mm/s (400%/s). The GAG content of the conditioned medium was measured 3 days after injury. After injury of knee cartilage disks, damage was visible in 18 of 39 disks (36%). Three days after injury, the increase in GAG loss to the medium (GAG loss from injured disks minus GAG loss from location-matched uncompressed controls) was 1.5+/-0.3 microg/disk (mean +/- SEM). With final strain and compression velocity held constant, we observed that increasing peak stress during injury was associated with less GAG loss after injury (P<0.001). In contrast, ankle cartilage appeared damaged after injury in only 1 of 16 disks (6%), there was no increase in GAG loss (0.0+/-0.3 microg/disk), and no relationship between peak stress and increase in GAG loss was detected (P=0.51). By itself, increasing peak stress did not appear to be an important cause of GAG loss from human cartilage in our injurious compression model. However, we observed further evidence for differences in the response of knee and ankle cartilages to injury. PMID:16715319

  17. [Post-mortem organ donation].

    PubMed

    Goroll, T; Gerresheim, G; Schaffartzik, W; Schwemmer, U

    2015-07-01

    In Germany approximately 3000 body organs are transplanted annually. In general, all artificially ventilated patients with diagnosed brain death are potential organ donors. All German hospitals are obliged to report potential organ donors and be actively involved in the organ donation process. These matters lie under the jurisdiction of the German transplantation act. An essential prerequisite for organ donation is the diagnosis of brain death according to the guidelines of the German Medical Association. Brain death is associated with complex pathophysiological changes in cardiopulmonary function as well as fluid, electrolyte and metabolic homeostasis. In the case of diagnosed brain death and with permission for organ donation, a precise organ-protective therapy is initiated, essentially focussing on optimal organ perfusion and oxygenation. The quality of organ protection has a direct influence on the outcome of transplantation. PMID:26174748

  18. Locard's Principle of Exchange, Dental Examination and Fragments of Skin.

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W; James, Helen; Berketa, John; Heath, Karen

    2016-03-01

    The transfer of materials between victim and perpetrator was first reported by Locard in the nineteenth century. While in recent years DNA testing has been very successful in matching biological material from crime scenes to perpetrators, the following cases demonstrate that other more time-honored methods remain useful. Two cases of lethal assault are reported where the victims had bitten their assailants resulting in fragments of the perpetrators' skin being wedged between their teeth which were discovered during post mortem oral examinations. As the fragments were able to be matched to injuries in the perpetrators, identification was established prior to confirmatory DNA testing. In case 1 a criminal conviction for manslaughter resulted, and in case 2 the identity of the assailant was confirmed. Examination of a properly exposed and illuminated oral cavity may provide useful evidence in assault cases. These cases represent an unusual dental variant of Locard's principle. PMID:26477876

  19. Neurofibrillary tangle pathology and Braak staging in chronic epilepsy in relation to traumatic brain injury and hippocampal sclerosis: a post-mortem study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Joan Y.W.; Thompson, Pam; Phadke, Rahul; Narkiewicz, Marta; Martinian, Lillian; Marsdon, Derek; Koepp, Matthias; Caboclo, Luis; Catarino, Claudia B.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.

    2011-01-01

    The long-term pathological effects of chronic epilepsy on normal brain ageing are unknown. Previous clinical and epidemiological studies show progressive cognitive decline in subsets of patients and an increased prevalence of Alzheimer's disease in epilepsy. In a post-mortem series of 138 patients with long-term, mainly drug-resistant epilepsy, we carried out Braak staging for Alzheimer's disease neurofibrillary pathology using tau protein immunohistochemistry. The stages were compared with clinicopathological factors, including seizure history and presence of old traumatic brain injury. Overall, 31% of cases were Braak Stage 0, 36% Stage I/II, 31% Stage III/IV and 2% Stage V/VI. The mean age at death was 56.5 years and correlated with Braak stage (P < 0.001). Analysis of Braak stages within age groups showed a significant increase in mid-Braak stages (III/IV), in middle age (40–65 years) compared with data from an ageing non-epilepsy series (P < 0.01). There was no clear relationship between seizure type (generalized or complex partial), seizure frequency, age of onset and duration of epilepsy with Braak stage although higher Braak stages were noted with focal more than with generalized epilepsy syndromes (P < 0.01). In 30% of patients, there was pathological evidence of traumatic brain injury that was significantly associated with higher Braak stages (P < 0.001). Cerebrovascular disease present in 40.3% and cortical malformations in 11.3% were not significantly associated with Braak stage. Astrocytic-tau protein correlated with the presence of both traumatic brain injury (P < 0.01) and high Braak stage (P < 0.001). Hippocampal sclerosis, identified in 40% (bilateral in 48%), was not associated with higher Braak stages, but asymmetrical patterns of tau protein accumulation within the sclerotic hippocampus were noted. In over half of patients with cognitive decline, the Braak stage was low indicating causes other than Alzheimer's disease

  20. Prevalence of tuberculosis in post-mortem studies of HIV-infected adults and children in resource-limited settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rishi K.; Lucas, Sebastian B.; Fielding, Katherine L.; Lawn, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Tuberculosis (TB) is estimated to be the leading cause of HIV-related deaths globally. However, since HIV-associated TB frequently remains unascertained, we systematically reviewed autopsy studies to determine the true burden of TB at death. Methods: We systematically searched Medline and Embase databases (to end 2013) for literature reporting on health facility-based autopsy studies of HIV-infected adults and/or children in resource-limited settings. Using forest plots and random-effects meta-analysis, we summarized the TB prevalence found at autopsy and used meta-regression to explore variables associated with autopsy TB prevalence. Results: We included 36 eligible studies, reporting on 3237 autopsies. Autopsy TB prevalence was extremely heterogeneous (range 0–64.4%), but was markedly higher in adults [pooled prevalence 39.7%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 32.4–47.0%] compared to children (pooled prevalence 4.5%, 95% CI 1.7–7.4%). Post-mortem TB prevalence varied by world region, with pooled estimates in adults of 63.2% (95% CI 57.7–68.7%) in South Asia (n = 2 studies); 43.2% (95% CI 38.0–48.3) in sub-Saharan Africa (n = 9 studies); and 27.1% (95% CI 16.0–38.1%) in the Americas (n = 5 studies). Autopsy prevalence positively correlated with contemporary estimates of national TB prevalence. TB in adults was disseminated in 87.9% (82.2–93.7%) of cases and was considered the cause of death in 91.4% (95% CI 85.8–97.0%) of TB cases. Overall, TB was the cause of death in 37.2% (95% CI 25.7–48.7%) of adult HIV/AIDS-related deaths. TB remained undiagnosed at death in 45.8% (95% CI 32.6–59.1%) of TB cases. Conclusions: In resource-limited settings, TB accounts for approximately 40% of facility-based HIV/AIDS-related adult deaths. Almost half of this disease remains undiagnosed at the time of death. These findings highlight the critical need to improve the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of HIV-associated TB globally. PMID

  1. Test Anxiety in Written and Oral Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparfeldt, Jorn R.; Rost, Detlef H.; Baumeister, Ulrike M.; Christ, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The distinction of different test anxiety reactions (e.g., worry, emotionality) is well established. Recently, additional relevance has been given to school-subject-specific test anxiety factors. The present study explored a further aspect concerning the structure of test anxiety experiences, specifically oral versus written examination modes. A…

  2. Virginity Testing Beyond a Medical Examination

    PubMed Central

    Robatjazi, Mehri; Simbar, Masoumeh; Nahidi, Fatemeh; Gharehdaghi, Jaber; Emamhadi, Mohammadali; Vedadhir, Abou-Ali; Alavimajd, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Apart from religious values, virginity is important in different communities because of its prominent role in reducing sexually transmitted diseases and teen pregnancies. Even though virginity testing has been proclaimed an example of violence against women by the World Health Organization, it is still conducted in many countries, including Iran. 16 in-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants aged 32 to 60 years to elucidate the perceptions and experiences of Iranian examiners of virginity testing. The perception and experience of examiners were reflected in five main themes. The result of this study indicated that virginity testing is more than a medical examination, considering the cultural factors involved and its overt and covert consequences. In Iran, testing is performed for both formal and informal reasons, and examiners view such testing with ambiguity about the accuracy and certainty of the diagnosis and uncertainty about ethics and reproductive rights. Examiners are affected by the overt and covert consequences of virginity testing, beliefs and cultural values underlying virginity testing, and informal and formal reasons for virginity testing. PMID:26925894

  3. Examining Test Speededness by Native Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talento-Miller, Eileen; Guo, Fanmin; Han, Kyung T.

    2013-01-01

    When power tests include a time limit, it is important to assess the possibility of speededness for examinees. Past research on differential speededness has examined gender and ethnic subgroups in the United States on paper and pencil tests. When considering the needs of a global audience, research regarding different native language speakers is…

  4. [An entomological case report during the winter months: estimation of the post-mortem interval considering the influence of cold temperatures on the development of the forensically important blowfly Calliphora vomitoria].

    PubMed

    Wetzel, Waltraud; Reibe, Saskia; Madea, Burkhard

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe a case report with entomological estimation of the post-mortem interval in the winter months. In early December 2007, the body of a suicide was discovered not far from a lake near Bonn in North Rhine-Westphalia four weeks after the man had disappeared from a hospital. The corpse was very well preserved and did not show any signs of advanced putrefaction. The stage of decomposition did not allow a correct estimation of the time since death. Infestation of insect larvae of the species Calliphora vomitoria was detected in the oral cavity as well as in the self-inflicted deep cut to the throat responsible for death. The age of the larvae was determined by considering the specific minimum threshold of the species (minimum temperature necessary for development). To estimate the time until the blowflies detect the body and start to oviposit, the authors ran an experiment with a pig in a comparable environment with similar temperatures. Altogether, these investigations suggested that the man had committed suicide shortly after disappearing from the hospital. Without the entomological evaluation it would have been very difficult to narrow down the post-mortem interval correctly. PMID:19432091

  5. Post-mortem characterization of fs laser-generated micro-pillars in Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 electrodes by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyrek, P.; Zheng, Y.; Seifert, H. J.; Pfleging, W.

    2016-03-01

    NMC thick films were prepared by tape-casting and subsequent ultrafast laser-structuring. The lithium distribution in electrochemically cycled and unstructured or fs laser-structured NMC cathodes was investigated by using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). The main goal is to develop an optimized three dimensional cell architecture with improved electrochemical properties based on studies of the homogeneity of the local State-of-Charge. LIBS experiments were carried out using a LIBS workstation equipped with a mode-locked diode pumped solid state Nd:YAG laser operating at a wavelength of 1063 nm. The element distribution was investigated using two different techniques: element mapping and element depth-profiling of the unstructured / fs laser-structured electrode surface. Results achieved from post-mortem studies using LIBS will be presented.

  6. A proof of concept study to assess the potential of PCR testing to detect natural Mycobacterium bovis infection in South American camelids

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cases of Mycobacterium bovis infection South American camelids have been increasing in Great Britain. Current antemortem immunological tests have some limitations. Cases at post mortem examination frequently show extensive pathology. The feasibility of detecting Mycobacterium bovis DNA in clinical samples was investigated. Findings A sensitive extraction methodology was developed and used on nasal swabs and faeces taken post-mortem to assess the potential for a PCR test to detect Mycobacterium bovis in clinical samples. The gross pathology of the studied South American camelids was scored and a significantly greater proportion of South American camelids with more severe pathology were positive in both the nasal swab and faecal PCR tests. A combination of the nasal swab and faecal PCR tests detected 63.9% of all the South American camelids with pathology that were tested. Conclusions The results suggest that antemortem diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis in South American camelids may be possible using a PCR test on clinical samples, however more work is required to determine sensitivity and specificity, and the practicalities of applying the test in the field. PMID:24507471

  7. Detection frequency of human herpesviruses-6A, -6B, and -7 genomic sequences in central nervous system DNA samples from post-mortem individuals with unspecified encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Chapenko, Svetlana; Roga, Silvija; Skuja, Sandra; Rasa, Santa; Cistjakovs, Maksims; Svirskis, Simons; Zaserska, Zane; Groma, Valerija; Murovska, Modra

    2016-08-01

    In this autopsy-based study, human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) and -7 (HHV-7) genomic sequence frequency, HHV-6 variants, HHV-6 load and the expression of HHV-6 antigens in brain samples from the individuals, with and without unspecified encephalopathy (controls), using nested and real-time polymerase chain reactions, restriction endonuclease, and immunohistochemical analysis were examined. GraphPad Prism 6.0 Mann-Whitney nonparametric and chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical analysis. The encephalopathy diagnoses were shown by magnetic resonance imaging made during their lifetime and macro- and microscopically studied autopsy tissue materials. Widespread HHV-6 and/or HHV-7 positivity was detected in the brain tissue of various individuals with encephalopathy, as well as in controls (51/57, 89.4 % and 35/51, 68.6 %, respectively; p = 0.009). Significantly higher detection frequency of single HHV-6 and concurrent HHV-6 + HHV-7 DNA was found in pia mater meninges, frontal lobe, temporal lobe, and olfactory tract DNAs in individuals with encephalopathy compared to the control group. HHV-6 load and higher frequency of the viral load >10 copies/10(6) cells significantly differed in samples from individuals with and without encephalopathy. The expression of HHV-6 antigens was revealed in different neural cell types with strong predominance in the encephalopathy group. In all HHV-6-positive autopsy samples of individuals with and without encephalopathy, HHV-6B was revealed. Significantly higher detection frequency of beta-herpesvirus DNA, more often detected HHV-6 load >10 copies/10(6) cells, as well as the expression of HHV-6 antigens in different brain tissue samples from individuals with encephalopathy in comparison with control group indicate on potential involvement of these viruses in encephalopathy development. PMID:26727906

  8. 46 CFR 164.012-13 - Examinations, tests, and inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examinations, tests, and inspections. 164.012-13 Section...-13 Examinations, tests, and inspections. (a) Manufacturer's inspection and tests. Manufacturers of... upon request. (b) Laboratory inspection and tests. Such examinations, inspections and tests as...

  9. Calretinin and parvalbumin in schizophrenia and affective disorders: a mini-review, a perspective on the evolutionary role of calretinin in schizophrenia, and a preliminary post-mortem study of calretinin in the septal nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Brisch, Ralf; Bielau, Hendrik; Saniotis, Arthur; Wolf, Rainer; Bogerts, Bernhard; Krell, Dieter; Steiner, Johann; Braun, Katharina; Krzyżanowska, Marta; Krzyżanowski, Maciej; Jankowski, Zbigniew; Kaliszan, Michał; Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Gos, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The septal nuclei are important limbic regions that are involved in emotional behavior and connect to various brain regions such as the habenular complex. Both the septal nuclei and the habenular complex are involved in the pathology of schizophrenia and affective disorders. Methods: We characterized the number and density of calretinin-immunoreactive neurons in the lateral, medial, and dorsal subregions of the septal nuclei in three groups of subjects: healthy control subjects (N = 6), patients with schizophrenia (N = 10), and patients with affective disorders (N = 6). Results: Our mini-review of the combined role of calretinin and parvalbumin in schizophrenia and affective disorders summarizes 23 studies. We did not observe significant differences in the numbers of calretinin-immunoreactive neurons or neuronal densities in the lateral, medial, and dorsal septal nuclei of patients with schizophrenia or patients with affective disorders compared to healthy control subjects. Conclusions: Most post-mortem investigations of patients with schizophrenia have indicated significant abnormalities of parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons in various brain regions including the hippocampus, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. This study also provides an explanation from an evolutionary perspective for why calretinin is affected in schizophrenia. PMID:26578879

  10. Examining Test Speededness by Native Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talento-Miller, Eileen; Guo, Fanmin; Han, Kyung T.

    2012-01-01

    When power tests include a time limit, it is important to assess the possibility of "speededness" for examinees. Research on differential speededness in the past has included looking at gender and ethnic subgroups in the United States on paper and pencil tests. The needs of a global audience necessitated, and the availability of computer recorded…

  11. Promoted Combustion Test Data Re-Examined

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Michelle; Jeffers, Nathan; Stoltzfus, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Promoted combustion testing of metallic materials has been performed by NASA since the mid-1980s to determine the burn resistance of materials in oxygen-enriched environments. As the technolo gy has advanced, the method of interpreting, presenting, and applying the promoted combustion data has advanced as well. Recently NASA changed the bum criterion from 15 cm (6 in.) to 3 cm (1.2 in.). This new burn criterion was adopted for ASTM G 124, Standard Test Method for Determining the Combustion Behavior- of Metallic Materials in Oxygen-Enriched Atmospheres. Its effect on the test data and the latest method to display the test data will be discussed. Two specific examples that illustrate how this new criterion affects the burn/no-bum thresholds of metal alloys will also be presented.

  12. Controlling tuberculosis in a llama (Lama glama) herd using clinical signs, tuberculin skin testing and serology.

    PubMed

    Twomey, D F; Collins, R; Cranwell, M P; Crawshaw, T R; Higgins, R J; Dean, G S; Vordermeier, H M; Hollingdale, A; de la Rua-Domenech, R

    2012-05-01

    An outbreak of tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, was investigated in a small herd of llamas (Lama glama). Based on three ante-mortem diagnostic methods (clinical signs, tuberculin skin test reactions, and 'Rapid Test' serology), 12 llamas were selected for examination post-mortem. Grossly visible lesions suspicious of TB were observed in eight animals, four of which had exhibited clinical signs, one was a skin test 'reactor', and three had been seropositive. M. bovis was isolated from seven of these eight animals. Clinical signs combined with serology were found to be useful in identifying infected animals, but tuberculin skin testing had limited negative predictive value as four llamas that were subsequently confirmed as infected were not detected using this assay. PMID:21704542

  13. 29 CFR 1919.30 - Examinations subsequent to unit tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Vessels: Tests and Proof Loads; Heat Treatment; Competent Persons § 1919.30 Examinations subsequent to unit tests. (a) After...

  14. 29 CFR 1919.30 - Examinations subsequent to unit tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Vessels: Tests and Proof Loads; Heat Treatment; Competent Persons § 1919.30 Examinations subsequent to unit tests. (a) After...

  15. 29 CFR 1919.30 - Examinations subsequent to unit tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Vessels: Tests and Proof Loads; Heat Treatment; Competent Persons § 1919.30 Examinations subsequent to unit tests. (a) After...

  16. 29 CFR 1919.30 - Examinations subsequent to unit tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Vessels: Tests and Proof Loads; Heat Treatment; Competent Persons § 1919.30 Examinations subsequent to unit tests. (a) After...

  17. Analysis of undiagnosed tuberculosis-related deaths identified at post-mortem among HIV-infected patients in Russia: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis remains a serious public health threat and economic burden in Russia with escalating rates of drug resistance against a background of growing HIV-epidemic. Samara Oblast is one of the regions of the Russian Federation where more than 1% of the population is affected by the HIV-epidemic; almost half of the cases are concentrated in the largely-industrial city of Togliatti with a population of 800 000. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of errors leading to death of HIV-positive patients in general health care hospitals in Togliatti, Russia, in 2008. All (n = 29) cases when tuberculosis was established at autopsy as a cause of death were included. Results Median length of hospital stay was 20 days; in 11 cases the death occurred within the first 24 hours of admission. All cases were known to be HIV-positive prior to admission, however HAART was not initiated for any case, and no relevant tests to assess severity of immunosupression were performed despite their availability. No appropriate diagnostic algorithms were applied to confirm tuberculosis. Major gaps were identified in the work of hospital and consulting physicians including insufficient records keeping. In almost all patients earlier regular HIV-relevant tests were not performed due to poor compliance of patients, many of whom abused alcohol and drugs. Conclusions We conclude that introduction of prompt and accurate diagnostics tests, adequate treatment protocols and intensive training of physicians in management of AIDS and TB is vital. This should include reviewing standards of care for HIV-positive individuals with accompanying social problems. PMID:22008481

  18. Bubbles Quantified In vivo by Ultrasound Relates to Amount of Gas Detected Post-mortem in Rabbits Decompressed from High Pressure.

    PubMed

    Bernaldo de Quirós, Yara; Møllerløkken, Andreas; Havnes, Marianne B; Brubakk, Alf O; González-Díaz, Oscar; Fernández, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The pathophysiological mechanism of decompression sickness is not fully understood but there is evidence that it can be caused by intravascular and autochthonous bubbles. Doppler ultrasound at a given circulatory location is used to detect and quantify the presence of intravascular gas bubbles as an indicator of decompression stress. In this manuscript we studied the relationship between presence and quantity of gas bubbles by echosonography of the pulmonary artery of anesthetized, air-breathing New Zealand White rabbits that were compressed and decompressed. Mortality rate, presence, quantity, and distribution of gas bubbles elsewhere in the body was examined postmortem. We found a strong positive relationship between high ultrasound bubble grades in the pulmonary artery, sudden death, and high amount of intra and extra vascular gas bubbles widespread throughout the entire organism. In contrast, animals with lower bubble grades survived for 1 h after decompression until sacrificed, and showed no gas bubbles during dissection. PMID:27493634

  19. Bubbles Quantified In vivo by Ultrasound Relates to Amount of Gas Detected Post-mortem in Rabbits Decompressed from High Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Bernaldo de Quirós, Yara; Møllerløkken, Andreas; Havnes, Marianne B.; Brubakk, Alf O.; González-Díaz, Oscar; Fernández, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The pathophysiological mechanism of decompression sickness is not fully understood but there is evidence that it can be caused by intravascular and autochthonous bubbles. Doppler ultrasound at a given circulatory location is used to detect and quantify the presence of intravascular gas bubbles as an indicator of decompression stress. In this manuscript we studied the relationship between presence and quantity of gas bubbles by echosonography of the pulmonary artery of anesthetized, air-breathing New Zealand White rabbits that were compressed and decompressed. Mortality rate, presence, quantity, and distribution of gas bubbles elsewhere in the body was examined postmortem. We found a strong positive relationship between high ultrasound bubble grades in the pulmonary artery, sudden death, and high amount of intra and extra vascular gas bubbles widespread throughout the entire organism. In contrast, animals with lower bubble grades survived for 1 h after decompression until sacrificed, and showed no gas bubbles during dissection. PMID:27493634

  20. GC-NPD and GC-MS analysis of preserved tissue of Bhopal gas disaster: evidence of methyl carbamylation in post-mortem blood.

    PubMed

    Sriramachari, S; Rao, G J; Sharma, V K; Jadhav, R K; Saraf, A K; Chandra, H

    1991-10-01

    Twenty-five preserved autopsy blood samples of Bhopal toxic gas exposed victims were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) coupled with either Nitrogen-Phosphorous detector (NPD) or mass spectrometer (MS) for the presence of methyl carbamyl valine in terms of valine methyl hydantoin (VMH). 84% of these samples showed a positive test for VMH on GC-NPD and the identity of the peaks were further confirmed on GC-MS. The concentration of VMH in the gas-affected positive blood samples ranged from 2.56 to 51.28 nanomoles. These results indicate entry of methyl isocyanate (MIC), one of the constituents of the toxic cloud caused by the disaster, into the blood stream of victims who had inhaled gas. PMID:1795610

  1. 49 CFR 390.107 - Medical examiner certification testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Medical examiner certification testing. 390.107... FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS; GENERAL National Registry of Certified Medical Examiners § 390.107 Medical examiner certification testing. An applicant for medical examiner certification...

  2. 49 CFR 390.107 - Medical examiner certification testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Medical examiner certification testing. 390.107... FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS; GENERAL National Registry of Certified Medical Examiners § 390.107 Medical examiner certification testing. An applicant for medical examiner certification...

  3. Anisakis simplex (s.s.) larvae in wild Alaska salmon: no indication of post-mortem migration from viscera into flesh.

    PubMed

    Karl, Horst; Baumann, Florian; Ostermeyer, Ute; Kuhn, Thomas; Klimpel, Sven

    2011-05-01

    The prevalence, mean intensity and distribution of Anisakis nematode third-stage larvae (L3) in the muscle and viscera of wild-caught chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta, pink salmon O. gorbuscha and sockeye salmon O. nerka were compared immediately after catch. Salmon were collected during the fishing season in July 2007 in Bristol Bay and Prince William Sound close to Cordova, Alaska (USA). All fish were infected, and more than 90% of the nematode larvae were found in the edible muscle meat. The isolated anisakid L3 were genetically identified as A. simplex (s.s.). The distribution of nematodes in the muscle meat of fresh-caught salmon was examined in 49 O. keta, 50 O. nerka and 12 O. gorbuscha from Cordova. Most of the larvae were detected in the muscle parts around the body cavity, but nematodes were also found in the tail meat and epaxial muscle (loins). The mean intensity of Anisakis larvae in the edible part was 21 individuals for O. gorbuscha, 62 individuals for O. keta and 63 individuals for O. nerka. No difference in the intensity of Anisakis larvae in the hypaxial muscle was found between fresh-caught and immediately gutted salmon and individuals stored ungutted for 24 h either on ice or in refrigerated sea water. PMID:21790067

  4. Quantitative measurement of intact alpha-synuclein proteoforms from post-mortem control and Parkinson's disease brain tissue by intact protein mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kellie, John F; Higgs, Richard E; Ryder, John W; Major, Anthony; Beach, Thomas G; Adler, Charles H; Merchant, Kalpana; Knierman, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    A robust top down proteomics method is presented for profiling alpha-synuclein species from autopsied human frontal cortex brain tissue from Parkinson's cases and controls. The method was used to test the hypothesis that pathology associated brain tissue will have a different profile of post-translationally modified alpha-synuclein than the control samples. Validation of the sample processing steps, mass spectrometry based measurements, and data processing steps were performed. The intact protein quantitation method features extraction and integration of m/z data from each charge state of a detected alpha-synuclein species and fitting of the data to a simple linear model which accounts for concentration and charge state variability. The quantitation method was validated with serial dilutions of intact protein standards. Using the method on the human brain samples, several previously unreported modifications in alpha-synuclein were identified. Low levels of phosphorylated alpha synuclein were detected in brain tissue fractions enriched for Lewy body pathology and were marginally significant between PD cases and controls (p = 0.03). PMID:25052239

  5. Quantitative Measurement of Intact Alpha-Synuclein Proteoforms from Post-Mortem Control and Parkinson's Disease Brain Tissue by Intact Protein Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Kellie, John F.; Higgs, Richard E.; Ryder, John W.; Major, Anthony; Beach, Thomas G.; Adler, Charles H.; Merchant, Kalpana; Knierman, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    A robust top down proteomics method is presented for profiling alpha-synuclein species from autopsied human frontal cortex brain tissue from Parkinson's cases and controls. The method was used to test the hypothesis that pathology associated brain tissue will have a different profile of post-translationally modified alpha-synuclein than the control samples. Validation of the sample processing steps, mass spectrometry based measurements, and data processing steps were performed. The intact protein quantitation method features extraction and integration of m/z data from each charge state of a detected alpha-synuclein species and fitting of the data to a simple linear model which accounts for concentration and charge state variability. The quantitation method was validated with serial dilutions of intact protein standards. Using the method on the human brain samples, several previously unreported modifications in alpha-synuclein were identified. Low levels of phosphorylated alpha synuclein were detected in brain tissue fractions enriched for Lewy body pathology and were marginally significant between PD cases and controls (p = 0.03). PMID:25052239

  6. Quantitative Measurement of Intact Alpha-Synuclein Proteoforms from Post-Mortem Control and Parkinson's Disease Brain Tissue by Intact Protein Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellie, John F.; Higgs, Richard E.; Ryder, John W.; Major, Anthony; Beach, Thomas G.; Adler, Charles H.; Merchant, Kalpana; Knierman, Michael D.

    2014-07-01

    A robust top down proteomics method is presented for profiling alpha-synuclein species from autopsied human frontal cortex brain tissue from Parkinson's cases and controls. The method was used to test the hypothesis that pathology associated brain tissue will have a different profile of post-translationally modified alpha-synuclein than the control samples. Validation of the sample processing steps, mass spectrometry based measurements, and data processing steps were performed. The intact protein quantitation method features extraction and integration of m/z data from each charge state of a detected alpha-synuclein species and fitting of the data to a simple linear model which accounts for concentration and charge state variability. The quantitation method was validated with serial dilutions of intact protein standards. Using the method on the human brain samples, several previously unreported modifications in alpha-synuclein were identified. Low levels of phosphorylated alpha synuclein were detected in brain tissue fractions enriched for Lewy body pathology and were marginally significant between PD cases and controls (p = 0.03).

  7. Debridement of cartilage lesions before autologous chondrocyte implantation by open or transarthroscopic techniques: a comparative study using post-mortem materials.

    PubMed

    Drobnic, M; Radosavljevic, D; Cör, A; Brittberg, M; Strazar, K

    2010-04-01

    We compared the quality of debridement of chondral lesions performed by four arthroscopic (SH, shaver; CU, curette; SHCU, shaver and curette; BP, bipolar electrodes) and one open technique (OPEN, scalpel and curette) which are used prior to autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI). The ex vivo simulation of all five techniques was carried out on six juvenile equine stifle joints. The OPEN, SH and SHCU techniques were tested on knees harvested from six adult human cadavers. The most vertical walls with the least adjacent damage to cartilage were obtained with the OPEN technique. The CU and SHCU methods gave inferior, but still acceptable results whereas the SH technique alone resulted in a crater-like defect and the BP method undermined the cartilage wall. The subchondral bone was severely violated in all the equine samples which might have been peculiar to this model. The predominant depth of the debridement in the adult human samples was at the level of the calcified cartilage. Some minor penetrations of the subchondral end-plate were induced regardless of the instrumentation used. Our study suggests that not all routine arthroscopic instruments are suitable for the preparation of a defect for ACI. We have shown that the preferred debridement technique is either open or arthroscopically-assisted manual curettage. The use of juvenile equine stifles was not appropriate for the study of the cartilage-subchondral bone interface. PMID:20357342

  8. Network Topology Analysis of Post-Mortem Brain Microarrays Identifies More Alzheimer’s Related Genes and MicroRNAs and Points to Novel Routes for Fighting with the Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, Sreedevi; Bonchev, Danail

    2016-01-01

    Network-based approaches are powerful and beneficial tools to study complex systems in their entirety, elucidating the essential factors that turn the multitude of individual elements into a functional system. In this study we used critical network topology descriptors and guilt-by-association rule to explore and understand the significant molecular players, drug targets and underlying biological mechanisms of Alzheimer’s disease. Analyzing two post-mortem brain gene microarrays (GSE4757 and GSE28146) with Pathway Studio software package we constructed and analyzed a set of protein-protein interaction, as well as miRNA-target networks. In a 4-step procedure the expression datasets were normalized using Robust Multi-array Average approach, while the modulation of gene expression by the disease was statistically evaluated by the empirical Bayes method from the limma Bioconductor package. Representative set of 214 seed-genes (p<0.01) common for the three brain sections of the two microarrays was thus created. The Pathway Studio analysis of the networks built identified 15 new potential AD-related genes and 17 novel AD-involved microRNAs. Using KEGG pathways relevant in Alzheimer’s disease we built an integrated mechanistic network from the interactions between the overlapping genes in these pathways. Routes of possible disease initiation process were thus revealed through the CD4, DCN, and IL8 extracellular ligands. DAVID and IPA enrichment analysis uncovered a number of deregulated biological processes and pathways including neuron projection/differentiation, aging, oxidative stress, chemokine/ neurotrophin signaling, long-term potentiation and others. The findings in this study offer information of interest for subsequent experimental studies. PMID:26784894

  9. Deficit in sustained attention following selective cholinergic lesion of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus in rat, as measured with both post-mortem immunocytochemistry and in vivo PET imaging with [¹⁸F]fluoroethoxybenzovesamicol.

    PubMed

    Cyr, Marilyn; Parent, Maxime J; Mechawar, Naguib; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Clark, Stewart D; Aghourian, Meghmik; Bedard, Marc-Andre

    2015-02-01

    Cholinergic neurons of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) are thought to be involved in cognitive functions such as sustained attention, and lesions of these cells have been documented in patients showing fluctuations of attention such as in Parkinson's disease or dementia with Lewy Body. Animal studies have been conducted to support the role of these cells in attention, but the lesions induced in these animals were not specific to the cholinergic PPTg system, and were assessed by post-mortem methods remotely performed from the in vivo behavioral assessments. Moreover, sustained attention have not been directly assessed in these studies, but rather deduced from indirect measurements. In the present study, rats were assessed on the 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task (5-CSRTT), and a specific measure of variability in response latency was created. Animals were observed both before and after selective lesion of the PPTg cholinergic neurons. Brain cholinergic denervation was assessed both in vivo and ex vivo, using PET imaging with [(18)F]fluoroethoxybenzovesamicol ([(18)F]FEOBV) and immunocytochemistry respectively. Results showed that the number of correct responses and variability in response latency in the 5-CSRTT were the only behavioral measures affected following the lesions. These measures were found to correlate significantly with the number of PPTg cholinergic cells, as measured with both [(18)F]FEOBV and immunocytochemistry. This suggests the primary role of the PPTg cholinergic cells in sustained attention. It also allows to reliably use the PET imaging with [(18)F]FEOBV for the purpose of assessing the relationship between behavior and cholinergic innervation in living animals. PMID:25257103

  10. SU-C-12A-04: Diagnostic Imaging Research Using Decedents as a Proxy for the Living: Are Radiation Dosimetry and Tissue Property Measurements Affected by Post-Mortem Changes?

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, D; Heintz, P; Weber, W; Melo, D; Adolphi, N; Hatch, P

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Radiation dose (RD) from diagnostic imaging is a growing public health concern. Implanting dosimeters is a more accurate way to assess organ dose, relative to commonly used mathematical estimations. However, performing accurate dosimetry using live subjects is hindered by patient motion and safety considerations, which limit the RD and placement of implanted dosimeters. Performing multiple scans on the same subject would be the ideal way to assess the impact of dose reduction on image quality; however, performing multiple non-standard-of-care scans on live subjects for dosimetry and image quality measurements is generally prohibited by IRB committees. Our objective is to assess whether RD and tissue property (TP) measurements in post-mortem (PM) subjects are sufficiently similar to those in live subjects to justify the use of deceased subjects in future dosimetry and image quality studies. Methods: 4 MOSFET radiation dosimeters were placed enterically in each subject (2 sedated Rhesus Macaques) to measure the RD at 4 levels (carina, lung, heart, and liver) during CT scanning. The CT protocol was performed ante-mortem (AM) and 2 and 3 hours PM. For TP analysis, additional scans were taken at 24 hours PM. To compare AM and PM TP, regions-of-interest were drawn on selected organs and the average CT density with standard deviation (in units of HU) were taken; additionally, visual comparisons of images were made at each PM interval. Results: No significant difference was observed in 8 of 9 measurements comparing AM and PM RD. Only one measurement (liver of the first subject) showed a significant difference (7% lower on PM measurement), possibly due to subject re-positioning. Initial TP visual and quantitative analyses show little to no change PM. Conclusion: Our results suggest that realistic radiation dosimetry and image quality measurements based on tissue properties can be performed reliably on recently deceased subjects.

  11. Agonist and antagonist bind differently to 5-HT1A receptors during Alzheimer's disease: A post-mortem study with PET radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Benjamin; Sebti, Johan; Verdurand, Mathieu; Fieux, Sylvain; Billard, Thierry; Streichenberger, Nathalie; Troakes, Claire; Newman-Tancredi, Adrian; Zimmer, Luc

    2016-10-01

    neuropharmacological paradigm supports testing the concept of functional imaging using agonist radiopharmaceuticals in future clinical studies. PMID:27183968

  12. 10 CFR 55.49 - Integrity of examinations and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Integrity of examinations and tests. 55.49 Section 55.49... Tests § 55.49 Integrity of examinations and tests. Applicants, licensees, and facility licensees shall not engage in any activity that compromises the integrity of any application, test, or...

  13. 10 CFR 55.49 - Integrity of examinations and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Integrity of examinations and tests. 55.49 Section 55.49... Tests § 55.49 Integrity of examinations and tests. Applicants, licensees, and facility licensees shall not engage in any activity that compromises the integrity of any application, test, or...

  14. 46 CFR 160.076-31 - Production tests and examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Production tests and examinations. 160.076-31 Section... Flotation Devices § 160.076-31 Production tests and examinations. (a) Samples used in testing must be...) General. On each PFD lot that passes production testing, the manufacturer shall perform a final...

  15. Suicide terrorism and post-mortem benefits.

    PubMed

    Gray, Jacqueline M; Dickins, Thomas E

    2014-08-01

    Lankford claims that suicide terrorists are suicidal, but that their suicidal tendencies are often frustrated by injunctive social norms. Martyrdom represents a solution, and terrorist organizations exploit this. In this commentary, we claim that this argument has not been fully made and that such ideation in itself does not explain a willingness to engage in punitive actions against an enemy. We suggest the psychology of kinship as a possible missing factor. PMID:25162847

  16. 46 CFR 163.003-27 - Production tests and examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Production tests and examination. 163.003-27 Section 163... MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL CONSTRUCTION Pilot Ladder § 163.003-27 Production tests and... be tested. (d) Independent laboratory. Each production test must be conducted or supervised by...

  17. 46 CFR 160.017-27 - Production tests and examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Production tests and examination. 160.017-27 Section 160... MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Chain Ladder § 160.017-27 Production tests and... tested. (d) Independent laboratory. Each production test must be conducted or supervised by...

  18. 46 CFR 162.028-6 - Examinations, tests, and inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Examinations, tests, and inspections. 162.028-6 Section 162.028-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Extinguishers, Fire, Portable, Marine Type § 162.028-6 Examinations, tests,...

  19. 46 CFR 162.039-6 - Examinations, tests, and inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Examinations, tests, and inspections. 162.039-6 Section 162.039-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Extinguishers, Fire, Semiportable, Marine Type § 162.039-6 Examinations, tests,...

  20. Race of Examiner Effects and the Validity of Intelligence Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graziano, William G.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Recent empirical evidence for the influence of examiner's race on examinee's performance on intelligence tests is reviewed. The current literature, 1966 through 1980, offers little support for the hypothesis that examiner's race has a systematic effect on examinee's performance on intelligence tests. Conceptual and methodological issues are…

  1. 20 CFR 725.406 - Medical examinations and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical examinations and tests. 725.406... Medical examinations and tests. (a) The Act requires the Department to provide each miner who applies for... list of medical facilities and physicians in the state of the miner's residence and states...

  2. 20 CFR 725.406 - Medical examinations and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical examinations and tests. 725.406... Medical examinations and tests. (a) The Act requires the Department to provide each miner who applies for... list of medical facilities and physicians in the state of the miner's residence and states...

  3. 20 CFR 725.406 - Medical examinations and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical examinations and tests. 725.406... Medical examinations and tests. (a) The Act requires the Department to provide each miner who applies for... list of medical facilities and physicians in the state of the miner's residence and states...

  4. 20 CFR 725.406 - Medical examinations and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical examinations and tests. 725.406... Medical examinations and tests. (a) The Act requires the Department to provide each miner who applies for... list of medical facilities and physicians in the state of the miner's residence and states...

  5. Creative Test-Taking: An Observation of Test-Taking Behaviors or Examining the Examined.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludewig, Larry M.

    1991-01-01

    Provides humorous look at the classroom from perspective of instructor. Focuses on test-taking behaviors of students, identifying 10 separate categories of test-takers: mysterious mystic, reliable rhythm master, antsy anguished, helpless header, persecuted pantomimer, equivocal eraser, pencil punctuator, conscientious chiropractor, miserable…

  6. A flight test facility design for examining digital information transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on a flight test facility design for examining digital information transfer. Information is given on aircraft/ground exchange, data link research activities, data link display format, a data link flight test, and the flight test setup.

  7. [External and internal post mortem examination according to the german code of criminal procedure (StPO)--review of section 87 StPO with special emphasis on the forensic autopsy].

    PubMed

    Parzeller, Markus; Dettmeyer, Reinhard; Bratzke, Hansjürgen

    2009-01-01

    Section 87 subs. 2 of the German Code of Criminal Procedure stipulates that a forensic or court-ordered autopsy shall be performed by two physicians. One of them must be a "forensic medical officer" (in German "Gerichtsarzt") or the head of a public forensic or pathology institute or a physician of such an institute entrusted with this task and having specialist knowledge of forensic medicine. Recently, it has been suggested to amend Section 87 subs. 2 StPO to the effect that self-employed specialists in forensic medicine can also be entrusted with court-ordered autopsies. The authors object to such privatization of forensic autopsies for legal and factual reasons and recommend to keep the present regulation according to which one of the physicians conducting the autopsy is not only required to have the necessary professional qualification, but must also hold a public position as defined in the law. PMID:19323147

  8. 30 CFR 75.821 - Testing, examination and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... properly maintained to prevent fire, electrical shock, ignition, or operational hazards from existing on... device to open. (c) When examinations or tests of equipment reveal a fire, electrical shock, ignition,...

  9. 30 CFR 75.821 - Testing, examination and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... properly maintained to prevent fire, electrical shock, ignition, or operational hazards from existing on... device to open. (c) When examinations or tests of equipment reveal a fire, electrical shock, ignition,...

  10. 30 CFR 75.821 - Testing, examination and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... properly maintained to prevent fire, electrical shock, ignition, or operational hazards from existing on... device to open. (c) When examinations or tests of equipment reveal a fire, electrical shock, ignition,...

  11. 30 CFR 75.821 - Testing, examination and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... properly maintained to prevent fire, electrical shock, ignition, or operational hazards from existing on... device to open. (c) When examinations or tests of equipment reveal a fire, electrical shock, ignition,...

  12. 30 CFR 75.821 - Testing, examination and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... properly maintained to prevent fire, electrical shock, ignition, or operational hazards from existing on... device to open. (c) When examinations or tests of equipment reveal a fire, electrical shock, ignition,...

  13. Empirically Derived Test Specifications for the Certified Rehabilitation Counselor Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, Michael J.; Chan, Fong; Sung, Connie; Kim, Muwoong

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the major job functions and knowledge domains required for effective rehabilitation counseling practice in today's rapidly changing practice environment to revise and update the test specifications for the Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification examination. This report describes the methodology used in this…

  14. Microstructural examination of the α- ω Two-Phase Shock-Induced Microstructure in Zirconium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, Benjamin M.; Escobedo, J. Pablo; Field, Robert D.; Dickerson, Robert M.; Dickerson, Patricia O.; Trujillo, Carl P.; Cerreta, Ellen K.

    2015-06-01

    Omega phase can be formed in alpha-phase Zr during shock loading. Interestingly, the high pressure phase can be retained upon release allowing for post-mortem study of the omega phase. Currently, the transformation pathway is not well understood. To provide more insight into this pathway during dynamic loading, shocked-induced microstructures of Zr have been studied. Soft recovered, plate impact specimens have been examined via electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to characterize the orientation relationships (OR) and habit planes (HP) between phases. This enables a better understanding of transformation path that is then compared to Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. Based on key microstructural features observed in the post-mortem microstructures, a significant amount of the observed alpha phase appears to have originated from the reverse transformation upon release. Results of microstructural analysis will be discussed, along with implications toward phase transformation pathways.

  15. 46 CFR 163.002-27 - Production tests and examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Production tests and examination. 163.002-27 Section 163.002-27 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL CONSTRUCTION Pilot Hoist § 163.002-27 Production tests...

  16. 29 CFR 1919.30 - Examinations subsequent to unit tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Examinations subsequent to unit tests. 1919.30 Section 1919.30 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Vessels: Tests and Proof Loads; Heat Treatment; Competent Persons §...

  17. Primary Test of Economic Understanding. Examiner's Manual. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Univ., Iowa City. Bureau of Business and Economic Research.

    This manual for examiners administering the Primary Test of Economic Understanding (PTEU) describes the purpose, development, and validity of the test which is designed to provide a measure of students' growth and a means to assess the effectiveness of existing materials, teaching strategies, and pre-service and in-service economics education…

  18. Aptitude Testing: A Critical Examination of the Differential Aptitude Tests, Alternative Batteries, and Problems in Prediction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toronto Board of Education (Ontario). Research Dept.

    In addition to a review of the Differential Aptitude Tests (DAT), a number of other aptitude tests are examined. They are: (1) Flanagan Aptitude Classification Tests, (2) Holzinger-Crowder Uni-Factor Tests, (3) Employee Aptitude Survey, (4) Revised Minnesota Paper Form Board Test, (5) Minnesota Clerical Test, and (6) Turse Clerical Aptitudes Test.…

  19. Effects of test stress during an objective structured clinical examination

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Niu; Rabatsky, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Objective The existence of test stress has been widely reported among professional students. To our knowledge, no studies exist that explore student stress response to objective structured clinical examinations. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible correlations between stress and objective structured clinical examination performance in a sample of chiropractic students. Methods A total of 116 students completed a 2-part questionnaire to assess test stress and the physiological symptoms and signs of stress. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic were measured during the physical examination laboratory class within the first 3 weeks and then again just prior to their objective structured clinical examination in week 5. Statistical tests were then performed for questionnaire data, heart rate and blood pressure differences, and correlation between the objective structured clinical examination grade and symptoms and signs. Results Questionnaire results showed that 5.1%–22.4% of students sometimes or often felt a certain degree of stress. More than 50% had 1 or more physiological symptoms and signs of stress. The objective structured clinical examination heart rate (75.23 ± 11.20 vs 68.16 ± 8.82, p < .001), systolic blood pressure (120.43 ± 9.59 vs 114.97 ± 11.83, p < .001), and diastolic blood pressure (73.00 ± 7.93 vs 69.32 ± 7.76, p < .001) were significantly higher than baseline. There were also negative linear correlations between objective structured clinical examination grades and physiological symptoms and signs and between objective structured clinical examination grades and feeling statement score. Conclusion The results support our hypothesis that chiropractic students experience stress when performing the objective structured clinical examination and that high levels of stress had a negative impact on performance. PMID:25806413

  20. [Application of computed tomography (CT) examination for forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Urbanik, Andrzej; Chrzan, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is to present a own experiences in usage of post mortem CT examination for forensic medicine. With the help of 16-slice CT scanner 181 corpses were examined. Obtained during acquisition imaging data are later developed with dedicated programmes. Analyzed images were extracted from axial sections, multiplanar reconstructions as well as 3D reconstructions. Gained information helped greatly when classical autopsy was performed by making it more accurate. A CT scan images recorded digitally enable to evaluate corpses at any time, despite processes of putrefaction or cremation. If possible CT examination should precede classical autopsy. PMID:23944089

  1. 19 CFR 115.31 - Examination, inspection, and testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Examination, inspection, and testing. 115.31 Section 115.31 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CARGO CONTAINER AND ROAD VEHICLE CERTIFICATION PURSUANT TO INTERNATIONAL...

  2. New Mexico High School Proficiency Examination. Spring, 1980 Test Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albuquerque Public Schools, NM.

    The New Mexico High School Proficiency Examination covers five general content areas: (1) Community Resources; (2) Occupational Knowledge; (3) Consumer Economics; (4) Mental and Physical Health; and (5) Government and Law. Skills measured by the test are: Identification of Facts and Terms; Reading; Writing; Computation and Problem Solving. These…

  3. Inter-examiner reproducibility of tests for lumbar motor control

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many studies show a relation between reduced lumbar motor control (LMC) and low back pain (LBP). However, test circumstances vary and during test performance, subjects may change position. In other words, the reliability - i.e. reproducibility and validity - of tests for LMC should be based on quantitative data. This has not been considered before. The aim was to analyse the reproducibility of five different quantitative tests for LMC commonly used in daily clinical practice. Methods The five tests for LMC were: repositioning (RPS), sitting forward lean (SFL), sitting knee extension (SKE), and bent knee fall out (BKFO), all measured in cm, and leg lowering (LL), measured in mm Hg. A total of 40 subjects (14 males, 26 females) 25 with and 15 without LBP, with a mean age of 46.5 years (SD 14.8), were examined independently and in random order by two examiners on the same day. LBP subjects were recruited from three physiotherapy clinics with a connection to the clinic's gym or back-school. Non-LBP subjects were recruited from the clinic's staff acquaintances, and from patients without LBP. Results The means and standard deviations for each of the tests were 0.36 (0.27) cm for RPS, 1.01 (0.62) cm for SFL, 0.40 (0.29) cm for SKE, 1.07 (0.52) cm for BKFO, and 32.9 (7.1) mm Hg for LL. All five tests for LMC had reproducibility with the following ICCs: 0.90 for RPS, 0.96 for SFL, 0.96 for SKE, 0.94 for BKFO, and 0.98 for LL. Bland and Altman plots showed that most of the differences between examiners A and B were less than 0.20 cm. Conclusion These five tests for LMC displayed excellent reproducibility. However, the diagnostic accuracy of these tests needs to be addressed in larger cohorts of subjects, establishing values for the normal population. Also cut-points between subjects with and without LBP must be determined, taking into account age, level of activity, degree of impairment and participation in sports. Whether reproducibility of these tests is as good

  4. [Eosin Y-water test for sperm function examination].

    PubMed

    Zha, Shu-wei; Lü, Nian-qing; Xu, Hao-qin

    2015-06-01

    Based on the principles of the in vitro staining technique, hypotonic swelling test, and water test, the Eosin Y-water test method was developed to simultaneously detect the integrity of the sperm head and tail and sperm membrane structure and function. As a widely used method in clinical laboratories in China, the Eosin Y-water test is methodologically characterized by three advantages. Firstly, both the sperm head and tail can be detected at the same time, which allows easy and comprehensive assessment of membrane damage in different parts of sperm. Secondly, distilled water is used instead of the usual formula solution to simplify and standardize the test by eliminating any potential effects on the water molecules through the sperm membrane due to different osmotic pressure or different sugar proportions and electrolyte solutions. Thirdly, the test takes less time and thus can be repeated before and after treatment. This article focuses on the fundamental principles and modification of the Eosin Y-water test and its application in sperm function examination and routine semen analysis for male infertility, assessment of the quality of sperm retrieved by testicular fine needle aspiration, semen cryopreservation program development, and evaluation of sperm membrane integrity after microwave radiation. PMID:26242051

  5. Banning live patients as test subjects on licensing examinations.

    PubMed

    Formicola, Allan J; Shub, Judith L; Murphy, Francis J

    2002-05-01

    The use of live patients on the licensing examinations was a part of dentistry for almost the entire twentieth century and continues up until today. Considerable new debate about the appropriateness of using live patients as test subjects began in the mid-1990s and culminated in the passage of a resolution in the American Dental Association's year 2000 House of Delegates calling for an end to this practice by the year 2005. The live patient examination tests a narrow range of clinical skills, creates ethical dilemmas for candidates, for the host institution, and for the profession, and is unable to distinguish between those ready to assume independent practice from those who are not yet at that level of competence. There are other ways to test for such readiness including proposals in New York State to substitute a postdoctoral year or mannequins in place of live subjects. The public and the dental profession will be better off by developing alternative licensing tests to the use of live subjects. PMID:12056765

  6. A laboratory test for the examination of alactic running performance.

    PubMed

    Kibele, Armin; Behm, David

    2005-12-01

    A new testing procedure is introduced to evaluate the alactic running performance in a 10s sprint task with near-maximal movement velocity. The test is performed on a motor-equipped treadmill with inverted polarity that increases mechanical resistance instead of driving the treadmill belt. As a result, a horizontal force has to be exerted against the treadmill surface in order to overcome the resistant force of the engine and to move the surface in a backward direction. For this task, subjects lean with their hands towards the front safety barrier of the treadmill railing with a slightly inclined body posture. The required skill resembles the pushing movement of bobsleigh pilots at the start of a race. Subjects are asked to overcome this mechanical resistance and to cover as much distance as possible within a time period of 10 seconds. Fifteen male students (age: 27.7 ± 4.1 years, body height: 1.82 ± 0.46 m, body mass: 78.3 ± 6.7 kg) participated in a study. As the resistance force was set to 134 N, subjects ran 35.4 ± 2.6 m on the average corresponding to a mean running velocity of 3.52 ± 0.25 m·s(-1). The validity of the new test was examined by statistical inference with various measures related to alactic performance including a metabolic equivalent to estimate alactic capacity (2892 ± 525 mL O2), an estimate for the oxygen debt (2662 ± 315 ml), the step test by Margaria to estimate alactic energy flow (1691 ± 171 W), and a test to measure the maximal strength in the leg extensor muscles (2304 ± 351 N). The statistical evaluation showed that the new test is in good agreement with the theoretical assumptions for alactic performance. Significant correlation coefficients were found between the test criteria and the measures for alactic capacity (r = 0.79, p < 0.01) as well as alactic power (r = 0.77, p < 0.01). The testing procedure is easy to administer and it is best suited to evaluate the alactic capacity for bobsleigh pilots as well as for any other

  7. An Empirical Examination of the Relationship Between Test Factor Structure and Test Hierarchical Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bart, William M.; Airasian, Peter W.

    The question of whether test factor structure is indicative of the test item hierarchy was examined. Data from 1,000 subjects on two sets of five bivalued Law School Admission Test items, which were analyzed with latent trait methods of Bock and Lieberman and of Christoffersson in Psychometrika, were analyzed with an ordering-theoretic method to…

  8. Post-Service Examination of PWR Baffle Bolts, Part I. Examination and Test Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, Keith J.; Sokolov, Mikhail A.; Gussev, Maxim N.

    2015-04-30

    In support of extended service and current operations of the US nuclear reactor plants, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), through the Department of Energy (DOE), Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, is coordinating with Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, The Westinghouse Electric Company, LLC, and ATI Consulting, the selective procurement of baffle bolts that were withdrawn from service in 2011 and currently stored on site at Ginna. The goal of this program is to perform detailed microstructural and mechanical property characterization of baffle former bolts following in-service exposures. This report outlines the selection criteria of the bolts and the techniques to be used in this study. The bolts available are the original alloy 347 steel fasteners used in holding the baffle plates to the baffle former structures within the lower portion of the pressurized water reactor vessel. Of the eleven possible bolts made available for this work, none were identified to have specific damage. The bolts, however, did show varying levels of breakaway torque required in their removal. The bolts available for this study varied in peak fluence (highest dose within the head of the bolt) between 9.9 and 27.8x1021 n/cm2 (E>1MeV). As no evidence for crack initiation was determined for the available bolts from preliminary visual examination, two bolts with the higher fluence values were selected for further post-irradiation examination. The two bolts showed different breakaway torque levels necessary in their removal. The information from these bolts will be integral to the LWRS program initiatives in evaluating end of life microstructure and properties. Furthermore, valuable data will be obtained that can be incorporated into model predictions of long-term irradiation behavior and compared to results obtained in high flux experimental reactor conditions. The two bolts selected for the ORNL study will be shipped to Westinghouse with bolts of

  9. 46 CFR 163.003-27 - Production tests and examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... be tested. (d) Independent laboratory. Each production test must be conducted or supervised by an independent laboratory. However, if a test is performed more than 4 different times per year, laboratory... approved. (b) Test No. 1: Steps. Steps must be separated into lots of 100 steps or less. Steps of...

  10. 46 CFR 160.017-27 - Production tests and examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... tested. (d) Independent laboratory. Each production test must be conducted or supervised by an independent laboratory. However, if a test is performed more than 4 different times per year, laboratory... Guard approved. (b) Test #1: Steps. Steps must be separated into lots of 100 steps or less. One...

  11. 46 CFR 160.017-27 - Production tests and examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... tested. (d) Independent laboratory. Each production test must be conducted or supervised by an independent laboratory. However, if a test is performed more than 4 different times per year, laboratory... Guard approved. (b) Test #1: Steps. Steps must be separated into lots of 100 steps or less. One...

  12. 46 CFR 163.003-27 - Production tests and examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... be tested. (d) Independent laboratory. Each production test must be conducted or supervised by an independent laboratory. However, if a test is performed more than 4 different times per year, laboratory... approved. (b) Test No. 1: Steps. Steps must be separated into lots of 100 steps or less. Steps of...

  13. 46 CFR 160.017-27 - Production tests and examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... tested. (d) Independent laboratory. Each production test must be conducted or supervised by an independent laboratory. However, if a test is performed more than 4 different times per year, laboratory... Guard approved. (b) Test #1: Steps. Steps must be separated into lots of 100 steps or less. One...

  14. 46 CFR 163.003-27 - Production tests and examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... be tested. (d) Independent laboratory. Each production test must be conducted or supervised by an independent laboratory. However, if a test is performed more than 4 different times per year, laboratory... approved. (b) Test No. 1: Steps. Steps must be separated into lots of 100 steps or less. Steps of...

  15. 46 CFR 163.003-27 - Production tests and examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... be tested. (d) Independent laboratory. Each production test must be conducted or supervised by an independent laboratory. However, if a test is performed more than 4 different times per year, laboratory... approved. (b) Test No. 1: Steps. Steps must be separated into lots of 100 steps or less. Steps of...

  16. 46 CFR 160.017-27 - Production tests and examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... tested. (d) Independent laboratory. Each production test must be conducted or supervised by an independent laboratory. However, if a test is performed more than 4 different times per year, laboratory... Guard approved. (b) Test #1: Steps. Steps must be separated into lots of 100 steps or less. One...

  17. 46 CFR 160.076-31 - Production tests and examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... addition to meeting the requirements of this section, each test result must meet the requirements, if any... (incorporated by reference, see § 160.076-11) section 41. Prior to initiating the test at the specified values, samples may be prestressed by inflating them to a greater pressure than the required test pressure....

  18. 46 CFR 160.076-31 - Production tests and examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... addition to meeting the requirements of this section, each test result must meet the requirements, if any... (incorporated by reference, see § 160.076-11) section 41. Prior to initiating the test at the specified values, samples may be prestressed by inflating them to a greater pressure than the required test pressure....

  19. 46 CFR 160.076-31 - Production tests and examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... addition to meeting the requirements of this section, each test result must meet the requirements, if any... (incorporated by reference, see § 160.076-11) section 41. Prior to initiating the test at the specified values, samples may be prestressed by inflating them to a greater pressure than the required test pressure....

  20. 46 CFR 160.076-31 - Production tests and examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... addition to meeting the requirements of this section, each test result must meet the requirements, if any... meet UL 1180 section 7.15. Prior to initiating the test at the specified values, samples may be prestressed by inflating them to a greater pressure than the required test pressure. (4) Air retention....

  1. Examining the clinical use of hemochromatosis genetic testing

    PubMed Central

    Lanktree, Matthew B; Lanktree, Bruce B; Paré, Guillaume; Waye, John S; Sadikovic, Bekim; Crowther, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hereditary hemochromatosis leads to an increased lifetime risk for end-organ damage due to excess iron deposition. Guidelines recommend that genetic testing be performed in patients with clinical suspicion of iron overload accompanied by elevated serum ferritin and transferrin saturation levels. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate guideline adherence and the clinical and economic impact of HFE genetic testing. METHODS: The electronic charts of patients submitted for HFE testing in 2012 were reviewed for genetic testing results, biochemical markers of iron overload and clinical history of phlebotomy. RESULTS: A total of 664 samples were sent for testing, with clinical, biochemical and phlebotomy data available for 160 patients. A positive C282Y homozygote or C282Y/H63D compound heterozygote test result was observed in 18% of patients. Patients with an at-risk HFE genotype had significantly higher iron saturation, serum iron and hemoglobin (P<0.001), without higher ferritin or liver enzyme levels. Fifty percent of patients referred for testing did not have biochemical evidence of iron overload (transferrin saturation >45% and ferritin level >300 μg/L). Patients were four times more likely to undergo phlebotomy if they were gene test positive (RR 4.29 [95% CI 2.35 to 7.83]; P<0.00001). DISCUSSION: One-half of patients referred for testing did not exhibit biochemical evidence of iron overload. Many patients with biochemical evidence of iron overload, but with negative genetic test results, did not undergo phlebotomy. A requisition to determine clinical indication for testing may reduce the use of the HFE genetic test. Finally, improvement of current genetic test characteristics would improve rationale for the test. CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of hemochromatosis genetic testing does not adhere to current guidelines and would not alter patient management. PMID:25706573

  2. Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant Steam Generator Few Tube Test model post-test examination

    SciTech Connect

    Impellezzeri, J.R.; Camaret, T.L.; Friske, W.H.

    1981-03-11

    The Steam Generator Few Tube Test (FTT) was part of an extensive testing program carried out in support of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) steam generator design. The testing of full-length seven-tube evaporator and three-tube superheater models of the CRBRP design was conducted to provide steady-state thermal/hydraulic performance data to full power per tube and to verify the absence of multi-year endurance problems. This paper describes the problems encountered with the mechanical features of the FTT model design which led to premature test termination, and the results of the post-test examination. Conditions of tube bowing and significant tube and tube support gouging was observed. An interpretation of the visual and metallurgical observations is also presented. The CRBRP steam generator has undergone design evaluations to resolve observed deficiences found in the FFTM.

  3. When No Bilingual Examiner Is Available: Exploring the Use of Ancillary Examiners as a Viable Testing Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noland, Ramona M.

    2009-01-01

    Reliable and valid assessment of individuals who are English language learners (ELL) has presented a dilemma to psychologists, and school psychologists in particular, as it is complicated by the small number of professionals qualified to serve as bilingual examiners. Some psychologists use ancillary examiners during testing when no bilingual…

  4. 29 CFR 1919.15 - Periodic tests, examinations and inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... inspection, all derricks shall be lowered. (c) All hoisting machines (e.g., cranes, winches, blocks, shackles... derrick or crane, or uncontrolled free surface may be a factor, each annual inspection or examination, as required, shall include such inspection as is necessary for the purpose of determining the integrity of...

  5. 29 CFR 1919.15 - Periodic tests, examinations and inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... inspection, all derricks shall be lowered. (c) All hoisting machines (e.g., cranes, winches, blocks, shackles... derrick or crane, or uncontrolled free surface may be a factor, each annual inspection or examination, as required, shall include such inspection as is necessary for the purpose of determining the integrity of...

  6. [Diagnosis and examination for COPD. Pulmonary function tests].

    PubMed

    Kubota, Masaru

    2016-05-01

    Pulmonary function tests are essential for the diagnosis and management of COPD. It is important to understand the inspection method of tests and the interpretation of test results. The presence of a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC<0.70 confirms the presence of persistent airflow limitation and the diagnosis of COPD. On the other hand, the classification of severity of airflow limitation in COPD is based on %FEV1. In COPD patients, as airflow limitation worsens gas trapping and static hyperinflation occurs. These changes can be documented by lung volume measurement as increases in functional residual capacity, residual volume and total lung capacity. Measurement of diffusing capacity (DLco) provides information on the functional impact of emphysema in COPD. PMID:27254943

  7. 46 CFR 160.064-6 - Examinations, tests and inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... labeled water safety buoyant devices shall maintain quality control of the materials used, manufacturing... inspections and tests of representative samples and components produced to maintain the quality of the... is being done on listed and labeled products, and either or both inspectors may take samples of...

  8. 46 CFR 160.064-6 - Examinations, tests and inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... labeled water safety buoyant devices shall maintain quality control of the materials used, manufacturing... inspections and tests of representative samples and components produced to maintain the quality of the... is being done on listed and labeled products, and either or both inspectors may take samples of...

  9. 46 CFR 160.064-6 - Examinations, tests and inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... labeled water safety buoyant devices shall maintain quality control of the materials used, manufacturing... inspections and tests of representative samples and components produced to maintain the quality of the... is being done on listed and labeled products, and either or both inspectors may take samples of...

  10. Academic Examinations and Anxiety: The Interaction Model Empirically Tested.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, J. Bryan; Endler, Norman S.

    1982-01-01

    Tested the person-by-situation interaction model of anxiety. Male (N=28) and female (N=79) university students served as subjects. Results were interpreted as providing support for the multidimensionality of A-Trait and further validation of the interaction model of anxiety. (Author)

  11. [Cardiopulmonary exercise testing in occupational medical fitness examination and assessment].

    PubMed

    Preisser, A M; Ochmann, U

    2011-11-01

    Medical expert opinion by occupational physicians and pneumologists has two main objectives: making a diagnosis with probability bordering on certainty and clarifying a causal relationship to a present or former occupational exposure to irritant toxic, allergenic or fibrosing dusts, gases, welding fumes or mineral fibres. Especially for conditions that are associated with exertional dyspnea, the diagnosis at rest using spirometry, body plethysmography, pulmonary function test, blood gas analysis, electrocardiogram and echocardiography is of limited use. This paper identifies the indications for cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in occupational medicine, explains the related measurements and their differential diagnostic value with special consideration of the flow-volume curve under exercise as well as the alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient. Diagnostic statements on the relevance of oxygen uptake measured at continuous and peak load compared to the wattage ascertained on the bicycle ergometer are presented. Characteristic CPET findings are explained in terms of their differential diagnostic significance. Furthermore, the importance of CPET for the assessment of occupational disease-related functional loss (clinical proportions in the reduction of working capacity) is shown. PMID:22083292

  12. Comparative testing of nondestructive examination techniques for concrete structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Dwight A.; Smith, Cyrus M.

    2014-03-01

    A multitude of concrete-based structures are typically part of a light water reactor (LWR) plant to provide foundation, support, shielding, and containment functions. Concrete has been used in the construction of nuclear power plants (NPPs) because of three primary properties, its inexpensiveness, its structural strength, and its ability to shield radiation. Examples of concrete structures important to the safety of LWR plants include containment building, spent fuel pool, and cooling towers. Comparative testing of the various NDE concrete measurement techniques requires concrete samples with known material properties, voids, internal microstructure flaws, and reinforcement locations. These samples can be artificially created under laboratory conditions where the various properties can be controlled. Other than NPPs, there are not many applications where critical concrete structures are as thick and reinforced. Therefore, there are not many industries other than the nuclear power plant or power plant industry that are interested in performing NDE on thick and reinforced concrete structures. This leads to the lack of readily available samples of thick and heavily reinforced concrete for performing NDE evaluations, research, and training. The industry that typically performs the most NDE on concrete structures is the bridge and roadway industry. While bridge and roadway structures are thinner and less reinforced, they have a good base of NDE research to support their field NDE programs to detect, identify, and repair concrete failures. This paper will summarize the initial comparative testing of two concrete samples with an emphasis on how these techniques could perform on NPP concrete structures.

  13. Examining the Effects of Stereotype Threat on Test-Taking Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherbaum, Charles A.; Blanshetyn, Victoria; Marshall-Wolp, Elizabeth; McCue, Elizabeth; Strauss, Ross

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between stereotype threat and individual test-taking behaviors. Previous research has examined the impact of stereotype threat on test scores, but little research has examined the impact of stereotype threat on the test-taking behaviors impacting those scores. Using a pre-post experimental design, stereotype…

  14. Post-test examination of a pool boiler receiver

    SciTech Connect

    Dreshfield, R.L.; Moore, T.J.; Bartolotta, P.A.

    1992-04-01

    A subscale pool boiler test apparatus to evaluate boiling stability developed a leak after being operated with boiling NaK for 791.4 hr at temperatures from 700 to 750 {degrees}C. The boiler was constructed using Inconel 625 with a type 304L stainless steel wick for the boiler and type 316 stainless steel for the condenser. The boiler assembly was metallurgically evaluated to determine the cause of the leak and to assess the effects of the NaK on the materials. It was found that the leak was caused by insufficient (about 30 percent) joint penetration in a butt joint. There was no general corrosion of the construction materials, but the room temperature ductility of the Inconel 625 was only about 6.5 percent. A crack in the heat affected zone of the Inconel 625 near the Inconel 625 to type 316 stainless steel butt joint was probably caused by excessive heat input. The crack was observed to have a zone depleted of iron at the crack surface and porosity below that zone. The mechanism of the iron depletion was not conclusively determined. 3 refs.

  15. Post-test examination of a pool boiler receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreshfield, Robert L.; Moore, Thomas J.; Bartolotta, Paul A.

    1992-01-01

    A subscale pool boiler test apparatus to evaluate boiling stability developed a leak after being operated with boiling NaK for 791.4 hr at temperatures from 700 to 750 C. The boiler was constructed using Inconel 625 with a type 304L stainless steel wick for the boiler and type 316 stainless steel for the condenser. The boiler assembly was metallurgically evaluated to determine the cause of the leak and to assess the effects of the NaK on the materials. It was found that the leak was caused by insufficient (about 30 pct.) joint penetration in a butt joint. There was no general corrosion of the construction materials, but the room temperature ductility of the Inconel 625 was only about 6.5 pct. A crack in the heat affected zone of the Inconel 625 near the Inconel 625 to type 316 stainless steel butt joint was probably caused by excessive heat input. The crack was observed to have a zone depleted of iron at the crack surface and porosity below that zone. The mechanism of the iron depletion was not conclusively determined.

  16. Post mortem analysis of fatigue mechanisms in LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 - LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 - LiMn2O4/graphite lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Michael; Darma, Mariyam Susana Dewi; Kleiner, Karin; Riekehr, Lars; Mereacre, Liuda; Ávila Pérez, Marta; Liebau, Verena; Ehrenberg, Helmut

    2016-09-01

    The fatigue of commercial lithium ion batteries after long-term cycling at two different temperatures and cycling rates is investigated. The cells are opened after cycling and post-mortem analysis are conducted. Two main contributions to the capacity loss of the batteries are revealed. The loss of active lithium leads to a relative shift between anodes and cathodes potentials. A growth of the solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on the anode is determined as well as the formation of lithium fluoride species as an electrolyte decomposition product. Those effects are reinforced by increasing cycling rates from 1C/2C (charge/discharge) to 2C/3C as well as by increasing cycling temperatures from 25 °C to 40 °C. The other contribution to the capacity loss originates from a fatigue of the blended cathodes consisting of LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 (NCM), LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) and LiMn2O4 (LMO). Phase-specific capacity losses and fatigue mechanisms are identified. The layered oxides tend to form microcracks and reveal changes of the surface structure leading to a worsening of the lithium kinetics. The cathode exhibits a loss of manganese at 40 °C cycling temperature. Cycling at 40 °C instead of 25 °C has the major impact on cathodes capacity loss, while cycling at 2C/3C rates barely influences it.

  17. The New Zealand Hacker Case: A Post Mortem

    SciTech Connect

    Popovsky, Barbara; Ryan, Daniel J.; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2005-10-01

    A typical incident response pits technicians against networks that aren't prepared forensically. [1, 2] If practitioners do consider collecting network forensic data, they face a choice between expending extraordinary effort (time and money) collecting forensically sound data, or simply restoring the network as quickly as possible. In this context, the concept of organizational network forensic readiness has emerged. The following is a discussion of selected computer crime cases, using publically available information, spanning a period of time of several years, that together demonstrate the need for a preventive and proactive response to malicious intrusion over a reactive one. It concludes with recommendations for how to "operationalize" organizational network forensic readiness.

  18. Le post mortem d'une evaluation conjecturelle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurteau, Marthe; Nadeau, Marc-Andre

    1987-01-01

    A responsive model of evaluation was used for program evaluation in a French-speaking university. Two objectives were addressed: determining the local utility of the program being assessed and identifying the advantages and limits of the model and comparing them to those reported in the literature. (RB)

  19. Post-mortem measurements of fuel retention at JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koivuranta, S.; Likonen, J.; Hakola, A.; Coad, J. P.; Widdowson, A.; Hole, D. E.; Rubel, M.; contributors, JET-EFDA

    2014-04-01

    The deuterium inventory at Joint European Torus in co-deposits and bulk material in inner, outer and upper wall components of the vacuum vessel exposed in 2007-2009 has been determined using nuclear reaction analysis and secondary ion mass spectrometry and optical microscopy. Approximately 1.8 g of the deuterium is retained in these areas, which corresponds to ˜0.07% of the retained deuterium.

  20. FairTest Examiner, Volumes 1-5, 1987-1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FairTest Examiner, 1991

    1991-01-01

    The FairTest Examiner is a quarterly newsletter that discusses the appropriate use of tests and test results. Many of the features address recent events in the field of educational testing reform. The bulletin's regular features include: current news items, a list of recommended reading material, a listing of FairTest personnel, announcements of…

  1. 34 CFR 98.4 - Protection of students' privacy in examination, testing, or treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protection of students' privacy in examination, testing, or treatment. 98.4 Section 98.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STUDENT RIGHTS IN RESEARCH, EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMS, AND TESTING § 98.4 Protection of students' privacy in examination, testing, or treatment. (a) No...

  2. 34 CFR 98.4 - Protection of students' privacy in examination, testing, or treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Protection of students' privacy in examination, testing, or treatment. 98.4 Section 98.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STUDENT RIGHTS IN RESEARCH, EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMS, AND TESTING § 98.4 Protection of students' privacy in examination, testing, or treatment. (a) No...

  3. 34 CFR 98.4 - Protection of students' privacy in examination, testing, or treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Protection of students' privacy in examination, testing, or treatment. 98.4 Section 98.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STUDENT RIGHTS IN RESEARCH, EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMS, AND TESTING § 98.4 Protection of students' privacy in examination, testing, or treatment. (a) No...

  4. 34 CFR 98.4 - Protection of students' privacy in examination, testing, or treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protection of students' privacy in examination, testing, or treatment. 98.4 Section 98.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STUDENT RIGHTS IN RESEARCH, EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMS, AND TESTING § 98.4 Protection of students' privacy in examination, testing, or treatment. (a) No...

  5. 9 CFR 310.1 - Extent and time of post-mortem inspection; post-mortem inspection staffing standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... accompanying rules. (i) Inspection Using the Viscera Truck. Steers and Heifers Maximum slaughter rates (head...) Inspection Using Viscera Table, Tongue-In Presentation of Heads. Steers and Heifers Maximum slaughter rates..., Tongue-Out Presentation of Heads. Steers and Heifers Maximum slaughter rates (head per hour) Number...

  6. 9 CFR 310.1 - Extent and time of post-mortem inspection; post-mortem inspection staffing standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... accompanying rules. (i) Inspection Using the Viscera Truck. Steers and Heifers Maximum slaughter rates (head...) Inspection Using Viscera Table, Tongue-In Presentation of Heads. Steers and Heifers Maximum slaughter rates..., Tongue-Out Presentation of Heads. Steers and Heifers Maximum slaughter rates (head per hour) Number...

  7. 9 CFR 310.1 - Extent and time of post-mortem inspection; post-mortem inspection staffing standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... accompanying rules. (i) Inspection Using the Viscera Truck. Steers and Heifers Maximum slaughter rates (head...-In Presentation of Heads. Steers and Heifers Maximum slaughter rates (head per hour) Number of.... Steers and Heifers Maximum slaughter rates (head per hour) Number of inspectors by stations Head...

  8. 9 CFR 310.1 - Extent and time of post-mortem inspection; post-mortem inspection staffing standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... accompanying rules. (i) Inspection Using the Viscera Truck. Steers and Heifers Maximum slaughter rates (head...-In Presentation of Heads. Steers and Heifers Maximum slaughter rates (head per hour) Number of.... Steers and Heifers Maximum slaughter rates (head per hour) Number of inspectors by stations Head...

  9. 9 CFR 310.1 - Extent and time of post-mortem inspection; post-mortem inspection staffing standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... accompanying rules. (i) Inspection Using the Viscera Truck. Steers and Heifers Maximum slaughter rates (head...) Inspection Using Viscera Table, Tongue-In Presentation of Heads. Steers and Heifers Maximum slaughter rates..., Tongue-Out Presentation of Heads. Steers and Heifers Maximum slaughter rates (head per hour) Number...

  10. Book Review. Testing Testing: Social Consequences of the Examined Life, by F. Allan Hanson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinha, Birendra K.

    1994-01-01

    The reviewed book analyzes many facets of the testing enterprise from a sociocultural perspective, emphasizing the power motive of test givers. Part I on Authenticity Tests discusses the practice of using tests to determine innocence, guilt, and honesty with regard to culturally important behaviors. Part II addresses the use of ability tests for…

  11. Test Anxiety and Test Performance: Comparing Paper-based and Computer-Adaptive Versions of the Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) General Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Donald E.

    2001-01-01

    Tests the hypothesis that the introduction of computer-adaptive testing may help to alleviate test anxiety and diminish the relationship between test anxiety and test performance. Compares a sample of Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) General Test takers who took the computer-adaptive version of the test with another sample who took the…

  12. Vision Test Validation Study for the Health Examination Survey Among Youths 12-17 years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jean

    A validation study of the vision test battery used in the Health Examination Survey of 1966-1970 was conducted among 210 youths 12-17 years-old who had been part of the larger survey. The study was designed to discover the degree of correspondence between survey test results and clinical examination by an opthalmologist in determining the…

  13. 49 CFR 384.229 - Skills test examiner auditing and monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Skills test examiner auditing and monitoring. 384.229 Section 384.229 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL... Compliance by States § 384.229 Skills test examiner auditing and monitoring. To ensure the integrity of...

  14. 49 CFR 384.229 - Skills test examiner auditing and monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Skills test examiner auditing and monitoring. 384.229 Section 384.229 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL... Compliance by States § 384.229 Skills test examiner auditing and monitoring. To ensure the integrity of...

  15. 46 CFR 167.45-20 - Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing...) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-20 Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing equipment. The inspectors will...

  16. Cue-Free Computerized Interactive Tests--Computer Emulation of Oral Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anbar, Michael

    This discussion of the use of microcomputer software in a medical school class for the purposes of emulating oral examinations begins by stating the three major goals of testing in medical school. The limitations of multiple choice tests and oral examinations are then discussed, and the use and suitability of computers to administer and to avoid…

  17. Practice in Computer-Based Testing and Performance on the National Certification Examination for Nurse Anesthetists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dosch, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    The general aim of the present retrospective study was to examine the test mode effect, that is, the difference in performance when tests are taken on computer (CBT), or by paper and pencil (PnP). The specific purpose was to examine the degree to which extensive practice in CBT in graduate students in nurse anesthesia would raise scores on a…

  18. Teacher Education Students: A Look at Basic Skills Admission Tests and National Teacher Examination Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clawson, Kenneth

    This study examined the relationship between teacher education students' scores on basic skills admission tests and graduating seniors' scores on the National Teacher Examinations (NTE) at Eastern Kentucky University. The 1981-82 basic skills test scores for 262 teacher education students were compared with their NTE scores taken in 1984-85 during…

  19. Predicting Examination Performance Using an Expanded Integrated Hierarchical Model of Test Emotions and Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, Dave; Deveney, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine an expanded integrative hierarchical model of test emotions and achievement goal orientations in predicting the examination performance of undergraduate students. Achievement goals were theorised as mediating the relationship between test emotions and performance. 120 undergraduate students completed…

  20. Evaluation of Computer Based Testing in lieu of Regular Examinations in Computer Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murayama, Koichi

    Because computer based testing (CBT) has many advantages compared with the conventional paper and pencil testing (PPT) examination method, CBT has begun to be used in various situations in Japan, such as in qualifying examinations and in the TOEFL. This paper describes the usefulness and the problems of CBT applied to a regular college examination. The regular computer literacy examinations for first year students were held using CBT, and the results were analyzed. Responses to a questionnaire indicated many students accepted CBT with no unpleasantness and considered CBT a positive factor, improving their motivation to study. CBT also decreased the work of faculty in terms of marking tests and reducing data.

  1. Trends in Examination Performance and Exposure to Standardised Tests in England and Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Harvey; Leckie, George

    2016-01-01

    Schools in England and Wales since the late 1980s have been compared in terms of their performances in public examinations and standardised test scores in the form of "school league tables", with Wales ceasing to produce these after 2001. One of the factors related to performance in examinations is the choice of the examination board,…

  2. 75 FR 48997 - NUREG-1946, “Inservice Testing of Pumps and Valves, and Inservice Examination and Testing of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... COMMISSION NUREG-1946, ``Inservice Testing of Pumps and Valves, and Inservice Examination and Testing of... Nuclear Regulatory Commission has issued for public comment a document entitled: NUREG-1946, ``Inservice...-4209, 301-415-4737, or by e-mail to pdr.resource@nrc.gov . The NUREG-1946, ``Inservice Testing of...

  3. Empirical Analysis of the Relationship between Student Examiners' Learning with Deliberate Test Practice and Examinees' Intelligence Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Oliver W.; Rottman, Amy

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the implications of deliberate practice when teaching test administration skills, novice, but trained, graduate student examiners administered intelligence tests to a convenience sample of volunteer school-age examinees assigned to a first test session. A second, different convenience sample of volunteer school-age examinees were…

  4. The Fear Factor: Students' Experiences of Test Anxiety when Taking A-Level Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Suzanne; Daly, Anthony Leslie; Spalding, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a pilot study that explored students' experiences of test anxiety when taking A-level examinations. Four focus groups were convened with a sample of 19 participants in the south of England to explore the triggers of test anxiety and the perceived need for interventions to assist high test-anxious students cope…

  5. Nuclear Technology. Course 26: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I. Module 26-2, Leak Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groseclose, Richard

    This second in a series of seven modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I describes the predominantly used leak test methods in nuclear power plants. More specifically, the module describes these test methods, the testing techniques, and the associated quality assurance requirements. The module follows a typical…

  6. The Effects of Test Difficulty Level on Undergraduates' Perception of Examination Difficulties and Their State Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Head, L. Quinn; Lindsey, Jimmy D.

    The effects of test difficulty on the perception of examination difficulties and state anxiety are investigated. Thirty undergraduate students were administered the Educational Psychology Recognition Test and Test Perception Inventory to assess task difficulty and perception of exam difficultness. A modified version of the State-Trait Anxiety…

  7. Testing Like William the Conqueror: Cultural and Instrumental Uses of Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorn, Sherman

    2014-01-01

    The spread of academic testing for accountability purposes in multiple countries has obscured at least two historical purposes of academic testing: community ritual and management of the social structure. Testing for accountability is very different from the purpose of academic challenges one can identify in community "examinations" in…

  8. High-Stakes Standardized Testing & Marginalized Youth: An Examination of the Impact on Those Who Fail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Laura-Lee

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of high-stakes, large-scale, standardized literacy testing on youth who have failed the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test. Interviews with youth indicate that the unintended impact of high-stakes testing is more problematic than policy makers and educators may realize. In contrast to literacy policy's aims to…

  9. An Examination of the Flynn Effect in the National Intelligence Test in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiu, William

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the Flynn Effect (FE; i.e., the rise in IQ scores over time) in Estonia from Scale B of the National Intelligence Test using both classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT) methods. Secondary data from two cohorts (1934, n = 890 and 2006, n = 913) of students were analyzed, using both classical test theory (CTT)…

  10. Test Length and Cognitive Fatigue: An Empirical Examination of Effects on Performance and Test-Taker Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Phillip L.; Kanfer, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    Person and situational determinants of cognitive ability test performance and subjective reactions were examined in the context of tests with different time-on-task requirements. Two hundred thirty-nine first-year university students participated in a within-participant experiment, with completely counterbalanced treatment conditions and test…

  11. Do Standardized Tests Penalize Deep-Thinking, Creative, or Conscientious Students?: Some Personality Correlates of Graduate Record Examinations Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Donald E.; Kaufman, James C.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the study reported here was to explore the relationship of Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) General Test scores to selected personality traits--conscientiousness, rationality, ingenuity, quickness, creativity, and depth. A sample of 342 GRE test takers completed short personality inventory scales for each trait. Analyses…

  12. Examining the Effectiveness of Test Accommodation Using DIF and a Mixture IRT Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Lee, Jaehoon; Kingston, Neal

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the validity of test accommodation in third-eighth graders using differential item functioning (DIF) and mixture IRT models. Two data sets were used for these analyses. With the first data set (N = 51,591) we examined whether item type (i.e., story, explanation, straightforward) or item features were associated with item…

  13. Results of metallographical diagnostic examination of Navy half-watt thermoelectric converters degraded by accelerated tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosell, F. E., Jr.; Rouklove, P. G.

    1977-01-01

    To verify the 15-year reliability of the Navy half-watt radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG), bismuth-telluride thermoelectric converters were submitted to testing at high temperatures which accelerated the degradation and caused failure of the converters. Metallographic diagnostic examination of failed units verified failure mechanisms. Results of diagnostic examinations are presented.

  14. Detecting Answer Copying Using Alternate Test Forms and Seat Locations in Small-Scale Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Ark, L. Andries; Emons, Wilco H. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2008-01-01

    Two types of answer-copying statistics for detecting copiers in small-scale examinations are proposed. One statistic identifies the "copier-source" pair, and the other in addition suggests who is copier and who is source. Both types of statistics can be used when the examination has alternate test forms. A simulation study shows that the…

  15. Physical examination tests for screening and diagnosis of cervicogenic headache: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Ochoa, J; Benítez-Martínez, J; Lluch, E; Santacruz-Zaragozá, S; Gómez-Contreras, P; Cook, C E

    2016-02-01

    It has been suggested that differential diagnosis of headaches should consist of a robust subjective examination and a detailed physical examination of the cervical spine. Cervicogenic headache (CGH) is a form of headache that involves referred pain from the neck. To our knowledge, no studies have summarized the reliability and diagnostic accuracy of physical examination tests for CGH. The aim of this study was to summarize the reliability and diagnostic accuracy of physical examination tests used to diagnose CGH. A systematic review following PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines was performed in four electronic databases (MEDLINE, Web of Science, Embase and Scopus). Full text reports concerning physical tests for the diagnosis of CGH which reported the clinometric properties for assessment of CGH, were included and screened for methodological quality. Quality Appraisal for Reliability Studies (QAREL) and Quality Assessment of Studies of Diagnostic Accuracy (QUADAS-2) scores were completed to assess article quality. Eight articles were retrieved for quality assessment and data extraction. Studies investigating diagnostic reliability of physical examination tests for CGH scored poorer on methodological quality (higher risk of bias) than those of diagnostic accuracy. There is sufficient evidence showing high levels of reliability and diagnostic accuracy of the selected physical examination tests for the diagnosis of CGH. The cervical flexion-rotation test (CFRT) exhibited both the highest reliability and the strongest diagnostic accuracy for the diagnosis of CGH. PMID:26423982

  16. Test anxiety and classroom examination performance: a reply to Daniels and Hewitt (1978).

    PubMed

    Boor, M

    1980-01-01

    Daniels and Hewitt (1978) reported "an extremely strong relationship" between test-anxiety scores and college course examination scores, whereas earlier investigators found smaller relationships between these variables (and one study reported no significant relationship when intelligence was partialed out). Daniels and Hewitt administered the test-anxiety measure immediately after a course examination, whereas the other investigators administered the test-anxiety measures at a different time than the course examinations. In the present study the Sarason Test Anxiety Scale was administered to 40 students immediately after a course examination and to 50 other students after a regular class period. A significant relationship between test-anxiety and examination scores was obtained only for the former group, and no significant relationship was found for either group when intelligence was partialed out. Thus, the high relationship obtained by Daniels and Hewitt may have resulted at least in part from their students' test-anxiety levels being altered due to their having just completed a course examination and from their response to demand characteristics inherent in the experimental procedure. PMID:7391233

  17. Predicting Stereotype Threat, Test Anxiety, and Cognitive Ability Test Performance: An Examination of Three Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Jr., Thomas P.; Hollis-Sawyer, Lisa A.

    2005-01-01

    As the classroom and workplace, among other contexts, become more diverse in their population characteristics, the need to be aware of specific factors impacting testing outcome issues correspondingly increases. The focus in this study, among other purposes, was to identify possible interactions between examinee's individual-difference…

  18. The Importance of Test Validity: An Examination of Measurement Invariance across Subgroups on a Reading Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Anita Michelle Wilson

    2009-01-01

    The study discussed the importance of test validity, often established when making decisions that may affect a student's future. The decisions made by policymakers and educators must not adversely affect any particular subgroups of students (i.e., year of administration, gender, ethnicity, level English proficiency, socioeconomic status, and…

  19. Diagnostic performance characteristics of a rapid field test for anthrax in cattle.

    PubMed

    Muller, Janine; Gwozdz, Jacek; Hodgeman, Rachel; Ainsworth, Catherine; Kluver, Patrick; Czarnecki, Jill; Warner, Simone; Fegan, Mark

    2015-07-01

    Although diagnosis of anthrax can be made in the field with a peripheral blood smear, and in the laboratory with bacterial culture or molecular based tests, these tests require either considerable experience or specialised equipment. Here we report on the evaluation of the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of a simple and rapid in-field diagnostic test for anthrax, the anthrax immunochromatographic test (AICT). The AICT detects the protective antigen (PA) component of the anthrax toxin present within the blood of an animal that has died from anthrax. The test provides a result in 15min and offers the advantage of avoiding the necessity for on-site necropsy and subsequent occupational risks and environmental contamination. The specificity of the test was determined by testing samples taken from 622 animals, not infected with Bacillus anthracis. Diagnostic sensitivity was estimated on samples taken from 58 animals, naturally infected with B. anthracis collected over a 10-year period. All samples used to estimate the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the AICT were also tested using the gold standard of bacterial culture. The diagnostic specificity of the test was estimated to be 100% (99.4-100%; 95% CI) and the diagnostic sensitivity was estimated to be 93.1% (83.3-98.1%; 95% CI) (Clopper-Pearson method). Four samples produced false negative AICT results. These were among 9 samples, all of which tested positive for B. anthracis by culture, where there was a time delay between collection and testing of >48h and/or the samples were collected from animals that were >48h post-mortem. A statistically significant difference (P<0.001; Fishers exact test) was found between the ability of the AICT to detect PA in samples from culture positive animals <48h post-mortem, 49 of 49, Se=100% (92.8-100%; 95% CI) compared with samples tested >48h post-mortem 5 of 9 Se=56% (21-86.3%; 95% CI) (Clopper-Pearson method). Based upon these results a post hoc cut-off for use of

  20. Examining the Accessibility of a Computerized Adapted Test Using Assistive Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamei-Hannan, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the accessibility barriers of a computerized adapted test called the Measure of Academic Performance. The results showed that as magnification increased, time on the test increased and students required visual efficiency skills. Students who used refreshable braille displays were faced with several obstacles. (Contains 4…

  1. Examining the Missing Completely at Random Mechanism in Incomplete Data Sets: A Multiple Testing Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Lichtenberg, Peter A.; Paulson, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    A multiple testing procedure for examining implications of the missing completely at random (MCAR) mechanism in incomplete data sets is discussed. The approach uses the false discovery rate concept and is concerned with testing group differences on a set of variables. The method can be used for ascertaining violations of MCAR and disproving this…

  2. Examining Teacher-Assigned Math Grades as Predictors for High-Stakes Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denson, Bettina Coley

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether a relationship existed between teacher-assigned classroom grades and high-stakes test scores. The study examined teacher-assigned math grades in correlation to the student scores on the Florida Comprehensive Assessment test (FCAT) in a selected Florida high school. It also sought to determine the relationship…

  3. Do Cognitive Distortions Mediate the Test Anxiety-Examination Performance Relationship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, David William; Connors, Liz; Symes, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to follow up exploratory research suggesting that the inverse relationship between test anxiety and examination performance was mediated by cognitive distortions such as catastrophising. Self-report data for measures of test anxiety and cognitive distortions were collected from students in their final year of compulsory…

  4. The Effect of Race of Examiner on the Mental Test Scores of White and Black Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Arthur R.

    An entire elementary school system with 60 percent white and 40 percent black children was given several ability tests administered by 12 white and eight black examiners. The tests measured verbal and nonverbal IQ, perceptual-motor cognitive development, "speed and persistence" under neutral and motivating instructions, listening attention, and…

  5. 34 CFR 98.4 - Protection of students' privacy in examination, testing, or treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of students' privacy in examination, testing, or treatment. 98.4 Section 98.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STUDENT RIGHTS IN RESEARCH, EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMS, AND TESTING § 98.4 Protection of students' privacy...

  6. Application of Computerized Adaptive Testing to Entrance Examination for Graduate Studies in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulut, Okan; Kan, Adnan

    2012-01-01

    Problem Statement: Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is a sophisticated and efficient way of delivering examinations. In CAT, items for each examinee are selected from an item bank based on the examinee's responses to the items. In this way, the difficulty level of the test is adjusted based on the examinee's ability level. Instead of…

  7. 29 CFR 1919.71 - Unit proof test and examination of cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unit proof test and examination of cranes. 1919.71 Section 1919.71 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.71 Unit proof test and...

  8. 76 FR 9374 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Examinations and Testing of Electrical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... information collection for 30 CFR 75.351 Atmospheric monitoring systems; 75.512 Electric equipment; examination, testing and maintenance; 75.703 Grounding offtrack direct-current machines and enclosures of... overcurrent protection; testing and calibration requirements; records; 77.502 Electric equipment;...

  9. Examining Equivalency of the Driver Risk Inventory Test Versions: Does It Matter Which Version I Use?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degiorgio, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Equivalency of test versions is often assumed by counselors and evaluators. This study examined two versions, paper-pencil and computer based, of the Driver Risk Inventory, a DUI/DWI (driving under the influence/driving while intoxicated) risk assessment. An overview of computer-based testing and standards for equivalency is also provided. Results…

  10. Effects of Item Exposure for Conventional Examinations in a Continuous Testing Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertz, Norman R.; Chinn, Roberta N.

    This study explored the effect of item exposure on two conventional examinations administered as computer-based tests. A principal hypothesis was that item exposure would have little or no effect on average difficulty of the items over the course of an administrative cycle. This hypothesis was tested by exploring conventional item statistics and…

  11. Results of Uranium Dioxide-Tungsten Irradiation Test and Post-Test Examination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, J. F.; Debogdan, C. E.; Diianni, D. C.

    1973-01-01

    A uranium dioxide (UO2) fueled capsule was fabricated and irradiated in the NASA Plum Brook Reactor Facility. The capsule consisted of two bulk UO2 specimens clad with chemically vapor deposited tungsten (CVD W) 0.762 and 0.1016 cm (0.030-and 0.040-in.) thick, respectively. The second specimen with 0.1016-cm (0.040-in.) thick cladding was irradiated at temperature for 2607 hours, corresponding to an average burnup of 1.516 x 10 to the 20th power fissions/cu cm. Postirradiation examination showed distortion in the bottom end cap, failure of the weld joint, and fracture of the central vent tube. Diametral growth was 1.3 percent. No evidence of gross interaction between CVD tungsten or arc-cast tungsten cladding and the UO2 fuel was observed. Some of the fission gases passed from the fuel cavity to the gas surrounding the fuel specimen via the vent tube and possibly the end-cap weld failure. Whether the UO2 loss rates through the vent tube were within acceptable limits could not be determined in view of the end-cap weld failure.

  12. Ultrasonic examination of the heavy section test blocks for hydroprocessing reactors used by the petroleum industry

    SciTech Connect

    Dodd, F.J.; Zhang, Y.; Imgram, A.

    1995-12-01

    An 18-inch (457 mm) thick Cr-Mo steel test block with an austenitic stainless steel ID cladding was designed and fabricated at the direction of the Material Properties Council in cooperation with the Pressure Vessel Research Committee (PVRC) Committee on Nondestructive Examination of Components. The test block contains several embedded flaws located near both ID and OD surfaces. Chevron Research and Technology Company and WesDyne International conducted the initial UT Examinations on this block at Chevron. In addition, a 10-inch (254 mm) thick block with embedded flaws was also examined. All the flaws m the two blocks were either cracks or lack of fusion. The examination results demonstrate the feasibility of UT to detect and size flaws in hydroprocessing reactor vessels and provide a basis to compare the relative capabilities of UT with the radiographic (RT) inspections currently required by the fabrication code.

  13. Post-test examinations of Li-Al/FeS/sub x/ secondary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Battles, J E; Mrazek, F C; Otto, N C

    1980-12-01

    Post-test examinations were conducted to determine failure mechanisms, electrode morphologies, and in-cell corrosion of cell components, and to recommend appropriate design changes for improved cell performance and reliability. The reactive electrode materials required the design and construction of a special metallographic glovebox facility. Combinations of macro- and microscopic examinations determined that electrical short circuits were the predominant causes of cell failure. The major short circuit mechanism was extrusion of active material from one electrode and its subsequent contact with the opposing electrode (opposite polarity). Other mechanisms for short circuits included metallic deposits across separators, metallic deposits across the feedthrough insulator (electrolyte leakage and corrosion), equipment malfunctions, cell assembly difficulties, etc. Post-test examinations confirmed that the short circuits were of mechanical origin; appropriate design changes were, therefore, recommended. Extensive microscopic examinations were conducted on both negative and positive electrodes to determine the morphology. Agglomeration of Li-Al was observed in the negative electrodes of most multiplate cells. Examinations showed that the sulfides in the positive electrode remained as discrete particles in an electrolyte matrix. Also discussed are the results of post-test examinations to determine the following: lithium gradients in the negative electrodes, electrode expansion, materials distribution, copper deposition within electrode separators of FeS cells, Li/sub 2/S deposits within electrode separators of FeS/sub 2/ cells, and the in-cell corrosion of current collector materials in positive and negative electrodes. 50 figures, 7 tables.

  14. Introduction to an open source internet-based testing program for medical student examinations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoon-Hwan

    2009-01-01

    The author developed a freely available open source internet-based testing program for medical examination. PHP and Java script were used as the programming language and postgreSQL as the database management system on an Apache web server and Linux operating system. The system approach was that a super user inputs the items, each school administrator inputs the examinees' information, and examinees access the system. The examinee's score is displayed immediately after examination with item analysis. The set-up of the system beginning with installation is described. This may help medical professors to easily adopt an internet-based testing system for medical education. PMID:20046457

  15. The Dental Hygiene Aptitude Tests and the American College Testing Program Tests as Predictors of Scores on the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longenbecker, Sueann; Wood, Peter H.

    1984-01-01

    Scores from the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination (NBDHE) served as the criterion variable in a comparison of the predictive validity of the Dental Hygiene Aptitude Tests (DHAT) and the ACT Assessment tests. The DHAT-Science and Verbal tests combined to produce the highest multiple correlation with NBDHE scores. (Author/DWH)

  16. 20 CFR 404.1519k - Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory tests, and other services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory tests, and other services. 404.1519k Section 404.1519k Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Standards for the Type of Referral and...

  17. 20 CFR 416.919k - Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory tests, and other services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory tests, and other services. 416.919k Section 416.919k Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Standards for the Type of Referral and...

  18. 46 CFR 167.45-20 - Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... all pumps, hose, and other fire apparatus and will see that the hose is subjected to a pressure of 100... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing...) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements §...

  19. 46 CFR 167.45-20 - Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... all pumps, hose, and other fire apparatus and will see that the hose is subjected to a pressure of 100... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing...) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements §...

  20. 46 CFR 167.45-20 - Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... all pumps, hose, and other fire apparatus and will see that the hose is subjected to a pressure of 100... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing...) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements §...

  1. 46 CFR 167.45-20 - Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... all pumps, hose, and other fire apparatus and will see that the hose is subjected to a pressure of 100... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing...) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements §...

  2. Examination of Relationships between Participation in School Music Programs of Differing Quality and Standardized Test Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Christopher M.; Memmott, Jenny E.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship between participation in contrasting school music programs and standardized test scores. Relationships between elementary (third- or fourth-grade) students' academic achievement at comparable schools, but with contrasting music programs as to instructional quality, were…

  3. Examining Mathematics Teacher Content Knowledge Using Policy, State Certification Tests and Transcripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, Pamela Esprivalo; Eddy, Colleen McLean

    2011-01-01

    This study examined mathematics teacher content knowledge in terms of policy maker recommendations, college coursework and teacher certification mathematics test scores. Transcript analysis indicated poor alignment of national policy maker recommendations for mathematics teachers and college degrees in mathematics. Teacher certification test…

  4. The Reliability of Results from National Tests, Public Examinations, and Vocational Qualifications in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Qingping; Opposs, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    National tests, public examinations, and vocational qualifications in England are used for a variety of purposes, including the certification of individual learners in different subject areas and the accountability of individual professionals and institutions. However, there has been ongoing debate about the reliability and validity of their…

  5. 29 CFR 1919.73 - Unit proof test and examination of derricks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unit proof test and examination of derricks. 1919.73 Section 1919.73 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Shore-Based Material...

  6. Nuclear Technology. Course 26: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I. Module 26-3, Hydrostatic Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelton, Rick; Espy, John

    This third in a series of seven modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I describes the principles and practices associated with hydrostatic testing. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to instructor/student,…

  7. 42 CFR 84.20 - Examination, inspection, and testing of complete respirator assemblies; fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... respirator assemblies; fees. 84.20 Section 84.20 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... assemblies; fees. Except as provided in § 84.22, the following fees shall be charged by the Institute for the examination, inspection and testing of complete respirator assemblies: Self-contained breathing...

  8. Assessing Intervention Effects on Repeated Standardized Test Performance: Examining Raw Percentage Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frierson, Henry T., Jr.

    Effects of test-taking instruction for University of North Carolina medical students who failed end-of-year examinations were studied. The exam is compensatory and includes a number of subtests, including National Board (NB) Part I standardized subtests in pathology, pharmacology, and physiology. Students who had to repeat NB Part I subtests were…

  9. 20 CFR 725.405 - Development of medical evidence; scheduling of medical examinations and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Development of medical evidence; scheduling of medical examinations and tests. 725.405 Section 725.405 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS... Claims by the District Director § 725.405 Development of medical evidence; scheduling of...

  10. Examining the Predictive Validity of a Screening Test for Court Interpreters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.; Hewitt, William E.

    2005-01-01

    The United States Court Interpreters Act (US Congress, 1978) requires that interpreters in US federal courts be certified through a criterion-referenced performance test. The Federal Court Interpreter Certification Examination (FCICE) is a two-phase certification battery for federal court interpreters. Phase I is a multiple-choice Written…

  11. THE COUNCIL ON COLLEGE-LEVEL EXAMINATIONS AND THE COMPREHENSIVE COLLEGE TESTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BURNS, RICHARD L.

    THE TESTS ARE MEANS AVAILABLE TO THE INDIVIDUAL TO SEEK RECOGNITION FOR LEARNING OBTAINED FROM A CORRESPONDENCE COURSE, PRIVATE INSTRUCTION, TV COURSES, ON-THE-JOB TRAINING, GROUP DISCUSSIONS, AND PRIVATE LECTURES. THE COUNCIL BELIEVES THAT ACADEMIC CREDIT BY EXAMINATION FOR THESE UNAFFILIATED STUDENTS IS THE KEY TO THE FLEXIBILITY, INNOVATION,…

  12. Schooling, Testing, and Jobs: A Re-examination of Griggs, et al. v. Duke Power Company

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Anne M.

    1975-01-01

    Examines legal concepts embodied in the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in Griggs v. Duke Power Company and argues that the Griggs decision raises questions about the traditional use by schools and colleges of grades and test scores as criteria for the hiring, admissions, certification, and promotion of instructors and students. (JG)

  13. Evidence-Based Decision about Test Scoring Rules in Clinical Anatomy Multiple-Choice Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Severo, Milton; Gaio, A. Rita; Povo, Ana; Silva-Pereira, Fernanda; Ferreira, Maria Amélia

    2015-01-01

    In theory the formula scoring methods increase the reliability of multiple-choice tests in comparison with number-right scoring. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the formula scoring method in clinical anatomy multiple-choice examinations, and to compare it with that from the number-right scoring method, hoping to achieve an…

  14. The transition of the national certification examination from paper and pencil to computer adaptive testing.

    PubMed

    Zaglaniczny, K L

    1996-02-01

    The Council on Certification of Nurse Anesthetists (CCNA) has been exploring computerized adaptive testing (CAT) for the national certification examination (NCE) over the past several years. CCNA representatives have consulted with experts in testing and with individuals from professional associations who use CAT for certification or licensure testing. This article will provide an overview of CAT and discuss how the CCNA plans to implement CAT for the NCE beginning April 8, 1996. A future article that explains the theoretical concepts of CAT will be published in the April 1996 AANA Journal. It is important to note that the NCE will not be a new test, the current content outline and item bank will remain the same. It is only the method of test administration that is changed--from paper and pencil to CAT. Each candidate will answer questions and take a test that is individualized to his or her ability or competence level and meets the specifications of the test outline. All candidates must achieve the same passing score. The implementation of CAT for the NCE will be advantageous for the candidates and provide a more efficient competency assessment. The last paper and pencil examination was administered on December 9, 1995. The transition is a significant event in nurse anesthesia history, just as nurse anesthesia was the first advanced practice nursing specialty to implement the certification credential, the CCNA will be the first to introduce CAT. PMID:8928607

  15. Unified Instrumentation: Examining the Simultaneous Application of Advanced Measurement Techniques for Increased Wind Tunnel Testing Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Gary A. (Editor); Bartram, Scott M.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Jordan, Jeffrey D.; Lee, Joseph W.; Leighty, Bradley D.; Meyers, James F.; South, Bruce W.; Cavone, Angelo A.; Ingram, JoAnne L.

    2002-01-01

    A Unified Instrumentation Test examining the combined application of Pressure Sensitive Paint, Projection Moire Interferometry, Digital Particle Image Velocimetry, Doppler Global Velocimetry, and Acoustic Microphone Array has been conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center. The fundamental purposes of conducting the test were to: (a) identify and solve compatibility issues among the techniques that would inhibit their simultaneous application in a wind tunnel, and (b) demonstrate that simultaneous use of advanced instrumentation techniques is feasible for increasing tunnel efficiency and identifying control surface actuation / aerodynamic reaction phenomena. This paper provides summary descriptions of each measurement technique used during the Unified Instrumentation Test, their implementation for testing in a unified fashion, and example results identifying areas of instrument compatibility and incompatibility. Conclusions are drawn regarding the conditions under which the measurement techniques can be operated simultaneously on a non-interference basis. Finally, areas requiring improvement for successfully applying unified instrumentation in future wind tunnel tests are addressed.

  16. Ensuring reliability in UK written tests of general practice: the MRCGP examination 1998-2003.

    PubMed

    Munro, Neil; Denney, Mei Ling; Rughani, Amar; Foulkes, John; Wilson, Andrew; Tate, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Reliability in written examinations is taken very seriously by examination boards and candidates alike. Within general education many factors influence reliability including variations between markers, within markers, within candidates and within teachers. Mechanisms designed to overcome, or at least minimize, the impact of such variables are detailed. Methods of establishing reliability are also explored in the context of a range of assessment situations. In written tests of general practice within the Membership of the Royal College of General Practitioner (MRCGP) examination considerable effort has put been put into achieving acceptable levels of reliability. Current mechanisms designed to ensure high reliability are described and related to the evolution of the written component of the examination. In addition to description of marker selection and training, question development including construct a detailed example of specific and generic marking schedules is provided. Examination results for the Written Paper of the MRCGP from 1998 to 2003 are reported including Cronbach's alpha coefficients and standard error of measurements, mean scores (and SD) and pass rates. In addition individual discrimination scores for each question in the October 2002 paper are shown. Consistent high reliability of the written component of the MRCGP examination provides valuable lessons in terms of selection, training and monitoring of markers as well as practical methods of moderating factors affecting candidate variability. The challenge for examination developers is to carry these important lessons forward into a modernized assessment structure of UK general practice. PMID:16147769

  17. DIAGNOSTIC ACCURACY OF PHYSICAL EXAMINATION TESTS OF THE ANKLE/FOOT COMPLEX: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Schwieterman, Braun; Haas, Deniele; Columber, Kirby; Knupp, Darren

    2013-01-01

    Background: Orthopedic special tests of the ankle/foot complex are routinely used during the physical examination process in order to help diagnose ankle/lower leg pathologies. Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of ankle/lower leg special tests. Methods: A search of the current literature was conducted using PubMed, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, ProQuest Nursing and Allied Health Sources, Scopus, and Cochrane Library. Studies were eligible if they included the following: 1) a diagnostic clinical test of musculoskeletal pathology in the ankle/foot complex, 2) description of the clinical test or tests, 3) a report of the diagnostic accuracy of the clinical test (e.g. sensitivity and specificity), and 4) an acceptable reference standard for comparison. The quality of included studies was determined by two independent reviewers using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 (QUADAS-2) tool. Results: Nine diagnostic accuracy studies met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review; analyzing a total of 16 special tests of the ankle/foot complex. After assessment using the QUADAS-2, only one study had low risk of bias and low concerns regarding applicability. Conclusion: Most ankle/lower leg orthopedic special tests are confirmatory in nature and are best utilized at the end of the physical examination. Most of the studies included in this systematic review demonstrate notable biases, which suggest that results and recommendations in this review should be taken as a guide rather than an outright standard. There is need for future research with more stringent study design criteria so that more accurate diagnostic power of ankle/lower leg special tests can be determined. Level of Evidence: 3a PMID:24175128

  18. Remote handling equipment and techniques used in the postirradiation examination of the severe fuel damage tests

    SciTech Connect

    Van Deusen, L.C.; Cook, B.A.

    1984-01-01

    Two, 32-rod, experimental fuel bundles from a pressurized water reactor have been subjected to severe reactor operation conditions in the Power Burst Facility. After testing, the fuel bundles were examined in a shielded, remotely handling facility to determine the condition of the bundles after a severe reactor transient. Special handling equipment and techniques were developed for unique application in the postirradiation examination of these large irradiated fuel bundles. This equipment was required to remotely handle the heavy, highly radioactive fuel bundles without disruption of the bundle geometry.

  19. Correlation of Simulation Examination to Written Test Scores for Advanced Cardiac Life Support Testing: Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Strom, Suzanne L.; Anderson, Craig L.; Yang, Luanna; Canales, Cecilia; Amin, Alpesh; Lotfipour, Shahram; McCoy, C. Eric; Langdorf, Mark I.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Traditional Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) courses are evaluated using written multiple-choice tests. High-fidelity simulation is a widely used adjunct to didactic content, and has been used in many specialties as a training resource as well as an evaluative tool. There are no data to our knowledge that compare simulation examination scores with written test scores for ACLS courses. Objective To compare and correlate a novel high-fidelity simulation-based evaluation with traditional written testing for senior medical students in an ACLS course. Methods We performed a prospective cohort study to determine the correlation between simulation-based evaluation and traditional written testing in a medical school simulation center. Students were tested on a standard acute coronary syndrome/ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest scenario. Our primary outcome measure was correlation of exam results for 19 volunteer fourth-year medical students after a 32-hour ACLS-based Resuscitation Boot Camp course. Our secondary outcome was comparison of simulation-based vs. written outcome scores. Results The composite average score on the written evaluation was substantially higher (93.6%) than the simulation performance score (81.3%, absolute difference 12.3%, 95% CI [10.6–14.0%], p<0.00005). We found a statistically significant moderate correlation between simulation scenario test performance and traditional written testing (Pearson r=0.48, p=0.04), validating the new evaluation method. Conclusion Simulation-based ACLS evaluation methods correlate with traditional written testing and demonstrate resuscitation knowledge and skills. Simulation may be a more discriminating and challenging testing method, as students scored higher on written evaluation methods compared to simulation. PMID:26594288

  20. The Control Question Test in polygraphic examinations with actual controls for truth.

    PubMed

    Bradley, M T; MacLaren, V V; Black, M E

    1996-12-01

    Subjects who were guilty of a mock crime, innocent and informed of the details of the crime or innocent, and uninformed of the details were examined on the polygraph with a modified version of a Control Question Test, which normally contains questions which are incriminating, ambiguous, and likely to be answered with a lie. We challenged the necessity of using incriminating, ambiguous control questions which may demand a lie as an answer. Instead, we created and tested control questions that were unambiguous and answered truthfully. The results, with the modified questions, showed correct identification of 86% of the guilty subjects and 83 to 89% of the innocent subjects. PMID:8961312

  1. Examination of the Diurnal Assumptions of the Test of Variables of Attention for Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurford, David P.; Lasater, Kara A.; Erickson, Sara E.; Kiesling, Nicole E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the diurnal assumptions of the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA). Method: The present study assessed 122 elementary students aged 5.5 to 10.0 years who were randomly assigned to one of four different groups based on time of administration (M-M: Morning-Morning, M-A: Morning-Afternoon, A-M: Afternoon-Morning, and A-A:…

  2. The Advanced Placement Physics Examinations: Test Development and Free-Response Section Readings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMurray, Terri; Cain, L. S.

    2003-11-01

    The Advanced Placement Physics B and C Examinations are developed by a Test Development Committee consisting of both high school and college teachers appointed by The College Board. We will discuss the creation of the tests from their conception to their administration to more than 60,000 high school students each year. We will also discuss the reading of the free response sections for each exam. A group of readers, consisting of interested and motivated high school AP physics teachers and college instructors who teach comparable courses, is appointed to read the free response sections during June of each year. Two experienced readers, one of whom is a member of the Test Development Committee, will share information in this talk on becoming involved with the AP program as a reader.

  3. Analysts examine implications of U.S. Senate defeat of Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    The U.S. Senate's October 14 vote against the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) came in the wake of the October 12 military coup in Pakistan—the first-ever coup in a nuclear state. Shortly beforehand, representatives from 92 nations attending an October 6-8 conference in Vienna, Austria, had urged laggards to speed their ratification of the CTBT On October 6, AGU and the Seismological Society of America (SSA) issued a joint position statement expressing confidence that the combined worldwide nuclear test monitoring resources, when implemented, would meet the verification goals of the CTBT.In the aftermath of the Senate vote, politicians and analysts are examining the potential fallout from that action, including the international reaction, the possibility of achieving the accord's goal of halting the proliferation and testing of nuclear weapons, and the future of the treaty itself.

  4. Normalizing and scaling of data to derive human response corridors from impact tests.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Arun, Mike W J; Pintar, Frank A

    2014-06-01

    It is well known that variability is inherent in any biological experiment. Human cadavers (Post-Mortem Human Subjects, PMHS) are routinely used to determine responses to impact loading for crashworthiness applications including civilian (motor vehicle) and military environments. It is important to transform measured variables from PMHS tests (accelerations, forces and deflections) to a standard or reference population, termed normalization. The transformation process should account for inter-specimen variations with some underlying assumptions used during normalization. Scaling is a process by which normalized responses are converted from one standard to another (example, mid-size adult male to large-male and small-size female adults, and to pediatric populations). These responses are used to derive corridors to assess the biofidelity of anthropomorphic test devices (crash dummies) used to predict injury in impact environments and design injury mitigating devices. This survey examines the pros and cons of different approaches for obtaining normalized and scaled responses and corridors used in biomechanical studies for over four decades. Specifically, the equal-stress equal-velocity and impulse-momentum methods along with their variations are discussed in this review. Methods ranging from subjective to quasi-static loading to different approaches are discussed for deriving temporal mean and plus minus one standard deviation human corridors of time-varying fundamental responses and cross variables (e.g., force-deflection). The survey offers some insights into the potential efficacy of these approaches with examples from recent impact tests and concludes with recommendations for future studies. The importance of considering various parameters during the experimental design of human impact tests is stressed. PMID:24726322

  5. Challenges in the testing of non-heart-beating cadavers for viral markers: implications for the safety of tissue donors.

    PubMed

    Padley, David; Ferguson, Morag; Warwick, Ruth M; Womack, Christopher; Lucas, Sebastian B; Saldanha, John

    2005-01-01

    Natural changes that occur in blood and tissue after death may result in false positive results in antigen and antibody detection tests performed to identify markers of viral infection in potential tissue donors. Such tissue, which might otherwise be acceptable for therapeutic purposes, would not meet current standards for safe tissue banking. This is especially important in the context of insufficiency in the tissue supply. In this study, a series of blood samples collected during routine post-mortem examination was assayed using a range of commercially available kits for the detection of HBsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV 1 + 2 antibody/antigen. Results of tests on 104 samples collected from 97 individuals indicate that some kits result in a higher number of initial reactive samples than others. Approximately 40% of samples were reactive in one or more HBsAg assay, less than 10% in at least one anti-HIV kit and only 1 sample at low level on an anti-HCV kit. Liver or lymph node samples from individuals whose serum sample gave reactive results in antigen/antibody assays were tested for viral nucleic acid in the corresponding nucleic acid amplification test. Only one individual's sample was confirmed to test positive for HBsAg in a confirmatory neutralisation test and by nucleic acid amplification technology, and a second individual whose serum was scored reactive for anti-HCV, but negative for HBsAg, had a liver sample which was HBV DNA positive and HCV RNA negative. The results of the study indicate that antibody/antigen assays are not as specific as NAT using state of the art DNA extraction techniques. Both types of assay complement each other and used together will help assure the safety of tissues for transplantation. PMID:16151957

  6. TFTR D&D Project: Final Examination and Testing of the TFTR TF-Coils

    SciTech Connect

    Irving J. Zatz

    2003-01-31

    In operation for nearly 15 years, TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) was not only a fusion science milestone, but a milestone of achievement in engineering as well. The TFTR D&D (Decommissioning and Decontamination) program provided a rare opportunity to examine machine components that had been exposed to a unique performance environment of greater than 100,000 mechanical and thermal load cycles. In particular, the possible examination of the TFTR toroidal-field (TF) coils, which met, then exceeded, the 5.2 Tesla magnetic field machine specification, could supply the answers to many questions that have been asked and debated since the coils were originally designed and built. A test program conducted in parallel with the D&D effort was the chance to look inside and examine, in detail, the TFTR TF coils for the first time since they were delivered encased to PPPL (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory). The results from such a program would provide data and insight that would not only be nefit PPPL and the fusion community, but the broader scientific community as well.

  7. Fatal diving accidents: two case reports and an overview of the role of forensic examinations.

    PubMed

    Lüderwald, Sybille; Zinka, Bettina

    2008-09-18

    During the years 2004-2006, seven divers, who had deadly accidents, underwent post-mortem examination at the Institute of Legal Medicine of the University of Munich. The cause of death in all divers was drowning with typical pathomorphological findings. This should be regarded as separated to the triggering reason for drowning. The trigger for accident was established in four of seven cases by technical analysis and police investigation. High risk-taking, lack of technical service, and deficiency of dive equipment care were main reasons for death. We present two of these cases which showed several problems occurring concurrently. Autopsy always is necessary to look for indices for application of force or to exclude competitive reasons for death. PMID:18706775

  8. Examination of a size-change test for photovoltaic encapsulation materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, David C.; Gu, Xiaohong; Ji, Liang; Kelly, George; Nickel, Nichole; Norum, Paul; Shioda, Tsuyoshi; Tamizhmani, Govindasamy; Wohlgemuth, John H.

    2012-10-01

    We examine a proposed test standard that can be used to evaluate the maximum representative change in linear dimensions of sheet encapsulation products for photovoltaic modules (resulting from their thermal processing). The proposed protocol is part of a series of material-level tests being developed within Working Group 2 of the Technical Committee 82 of the International Electrotechnical Commission. The characterization tests are being developed to aid module design (by identifying the essential characteristics that should be communicated on a datasheet), quality control (via internal material acceptance and process control), and failure analysis. Discovery and interlaboratory experiments were used to select particular parameters for the size-change test. The choice of a sand substrate and aluminum carrier is explored relative to other options. The temperature uniformity of +/-5°C for the substrate was confirmed using thermography. Considerations related to the heating device (hot-plate or oven) are explored. The time duration of 5 minutes was identified from the time-series photographic characterization of material specimens (EVA, ionomer, PVB, TPO, and TPU). The test procedure was revised to account for observed effects of size and edges. The interlaboratory study identified typical size-change characteristics, and also verified the absolute reproducibility of +/-5% between laboratories.

  9. Examination of a Size-Change Test for Photovoltaic Encapsulation Materials (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D. C.; Ji, L.; Kelly, G.; Gu, X.; Nickel, N.; Norum, P.; Shioda, T.; Tamizhmani, G.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2012-08-01

    We examine a proposed test standard that can be used to evaluate the maximum representative change in linear dimensions of sheet encapsulation products for photovoltaic modules (resulting from their thermal processing). The proposed protocol is part of a series of material-level tests being developed within Working Group 2 of the Technical Committee 82 of the International Electrotechnical Commission. The characterization tests are being developed to aid module design (by identifying the essential characteristics that should be communicated on a datasheet), quality control (via internal material acceptance and process control), and failure analysis. Discovery and interlaboratory experiments were used to select particular parameters for the size-change test. The choice of a sand substrate and aluminum carrier is explored relative to other options. The temperature uniformity of +/- 5C for the substrate was confirmed using thermography. Considerations related to the heating device (hot-plate or oven) are explored. The time duration of 5 minutes was identified from the time-series photographic characterization of material specimens (EVA, ionomer, PVB, TPO, and TPU). The test procedure was revised to account for observed effects of size and edges. The interlaboratory study identified typical size-change characteristics, and also verified the absolute reproducibility of +/- 5% between laboratories.

  10. Examination of a Size-Change Test for Photovoltaic Encapsulation Materials: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D. C.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Gu, X.; Ji, L.; Kelly, G.; Gu, X.; Nickel, N.; Norum, P.; Shioda, T.; Tamizhmani, G.

    2012-08-01

    We examine a proposed test standard that can be used to evaluate the maximum representative change in linear dimensions of sheet encapsulation products for photovoltaic modules (resulting from their thermal processing). The proposed protocol is part of a series of material-level tests being developed within Working Group 2 of the Technical Committee 82 of the International Electrotechnical Commission. The characterization tests are being developed to aid module design (by identifying the essential characteristics that should be communicated on a datasheet), quality control (via internal material acceptance and process control), and failure analysis. Discovery and interlaboratory experiments were used to select particular parameters for the size-change test. The choice of a sand substrate and aluminum carrier is explored relative to other options. The temperature uniformity of +/- 5C for the substrate was confirmed using thermography. Considerations related to the heating device (hot-plate or oven) are explored. The time duration of 5 minutes was identified from the time-series photographic characterization of material specimens (EVA, ionomer, PVB, TPO, and TPU). The test procedure was revised to account for observed effects of size and edges. The interlaboratory study identified typical size-change characteristics, and also verified the absolute reproducibility of +/- 5% between laboratories.

  11. Scaled Composites' Doug Shane examines the screen of his ground control station during tests in New

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Scaled Composites' Doug Shane examines the screen of his ground control station during tests in New Mexico. Shane used this configuration as the ground control station to remotely pilot the Proteus aircraft during a NASA sponsored series of test flights. The unique Proteus aircraft served as a test bed for NASA-sponsored flight tests designed to validate collision-avoidance technologies proposed for uninhabited aircraft. The tests, flown over southern New Mexico in March, 2002, used the Proteus as a surrogate uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) while three other aircraft flew toward the Proteus from various angles on simulated collision courses. Radio-based 'detect, see and avoid' equipment on the Proteus successfully detected the other aircraft and relayed that information to a remote pilot on the ground at Las Cruces Airport. The pilot then transmitted commands to the Proteus to maneuver it away from the potential collisions. The flight demonstration, sponsored by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, New Mexico State University, Scaled Composites, the U.S. Navy and Modern Technology Solutions, Inc., were intended to demonstrate that UAVs can be flown safely and compatibly in the same skies as piloted aircraft.

  12. Examination of loop-operator-initiated events for the advanced test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Durney, J.L.; Majumdar, D.

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is a unique high-flux test reactor having nine major test positions for irradiation of reactor materials. These test positions contain inpile tubes (IPT) that are connected to external piping and equipment (loops) to provide the high-temperature, high-pressure environment for the testing. The design of the core has intimately integrated the IPTs into the fuel region by means of a serpentine fuel arrangement resulting in a close reactivity coupling between the loop thermal hydraulics and the core. Consequently, operator actions potentially have an impact on the reactor power transients resulting from off-normal conditions in these facilities. This paper examines these operator-initiated events and their consequences. The analysis of loop-operator-initiated events indicates there is no damage to the reactor core even when assuming no operator intervention for mitigation. However, analysis does assume a scram occurs when required by the reactor protection systems.

  13. Examination of Substance Use, Risk Factors, and Protective Factors on Student Academic Test Score Performance

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, Michael W.; Brown, Eric C.; Briney, John S.; Hawkins, J. David; Abbott, Robert D.; Catalano, Richard F.; Becker, Linda; Langer, Michael; Mueller, Martin T.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND School administrators and teachers face difficult decisions about how best to use school resources in order to meet academic achievement goals. Many are hesitant to adopt prevention curricula that are not focused directly on academic achievement. Yet, some have hypothesized that prevention curricula can remove barriers to learning and, thus, promote achievement. This study examined relationships between school levels of student substance use and risk and protective factors that predict adolescent problem behaviors and achievement test performance in Washington State. METHODS Hierarchical Generalized Linear Models were used to examine predictive associations between school-averaged levels of substance use and risk and protective factors and Washington State students’ likelihood of meeting achievement test standards on the Washington Assessment of Student Learning, statistically controlling for demographic and economic factors known to be associated with achievement. RESULTS Results indicate that levels of substance use and risk/protective factors predicted the academic test score performance of students. Many of these effects remained significant even after controlling for model covariates. CONCLUSIONS The findings suggest that implementing prevention programs that target empirically identified risk and protective factors have the potential to positively affect students’ academic achievement. PMID:26149305

  14. An Examination of the Word Memory Test as a Measure of Memory.

    PubMed

    Armistead-Jehle, Patrick; Green, Paul; Gervais, Roger O; Hungerford, Lars D

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the utility of the Word Memory Test (WMT) as a measure of verbal episodic memory by comparing select WMT subtests to the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) First and Second Editions (CVLT-II) across two samples. Correlations between the WMT and CVLT/CVLT-II subtests were statistically significant in the expected direction. Effect sizes were examined to assess the degree to which the WMT memory subtests and the CVLT First Edition subtests discriminated between groups of people who would be expected to differ from each other in verbal memory abilities. Comparison groups included cases of mild, moderate, and severe traumatic brain injury, mixed neurological patients, healthy adult controls, and patients with possible early dementia. Once invalid data were removed by studying only those who passed performance validity testing, it was found that the effect sizes between these groups were comparable. The WMT, CVLT, and CVLT-II were found to discriminate to about the same degree between people differing from each other in age, intelligence levels, and gender. Based on these data from a total sample of more than 3,000 cases, it is concluded that select WMT subtests are commensurate with the CVLT subtests as measures of memory within primarily disability-seeking samples. PMID:25874848

  15. Examination of the Chayes-Kruskal procedure for testing correlations between proportions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kork, J.O.

    1977-01-01

    The Chayes-Kruskal procedure for testing correlations between proportions uses a linear approximation to the actual closure transformation to provide a null value, pij, against which an observed closed correlation coefficient, rij, can be tested. It has been suggested that a significant difference between pij and rij would indicate a nonzero covariance relationship between the ith and jth open variables. In this paper, the linear approximation to the closure transformation is described in terms of a matrix equation. Examination of the solution set of this equation shows that estimation of, or even the identification of, significant nonzero open correlations is essentially impossible even if the number of variables and the sample size are large. The method of solving the matrix equation is described in the appendix. ?? 1977 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

  16. Relevance of the test content of the Korean Nursing Licensing Examination to nursing job

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed at identifying if there is a relevance of content of the Korean Nursing Licensing Examination (KNLE) revised in 2014 to nursing job. It will be able to provide the validity of revised content of the KNLE. Methods: From October 13 to November 13, 2015, print version of 8 duties with 49-tasks, 155-job item questionnaires were distributed to 1,305 hospital nurses and 202 nursing faculties in Korea. Results were treated by descriptive statistics and comparison analysis. There were responses from 946 nurses or professors (72.5%). Results: The relevance of test content of KNLE to nursing job was shown to be valid with over 3 points out of 4 point Likert scale in all items: from 3.23 at lowest to 3.64 at top. Conclusion: Above results showed that the revised version of KNLE in 2014 was valid to test the nursing students’ knowledge for job performance. PMID:27270986

  17. Results of mechanical tests and supplementary microstructural examinations of the TMI-2 lower head samples

    SciTech Connect

    Diercks, D.R.; Neimark, L.A.

    1994-04-01

    Metallographic examinations and mechanical tests have been completed on specimens from 15 prism-shaped samples cut from the lower head of the TMI-2 pressure vessel as a part of the TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project (VIP). The results of these examinations and tests are summarized here. Four samples were found to have attained temperatures as high as 1,100 C during the accident, with an estimated cooling rate of 10--100 C/min from the maximum temperature. Tensile tests were conducted on the lower head material at room temperature and at temperatures of 600--1,200 C. A strong dependence of yield and tensile strengths on temperature was observed, and the data generally matched well with literature data on A533, Grade B steel. However, the observed strengths of material from the hot spot in the as-received condition lay well above the remaining data, reflecting the heat treatment received during the accident. Creep tests were conducted on the lower head material over the temperature range of 600--1,200 C at stress levels resulting in failure times of 1--100 h. The data from the lower head material compared well with similar data obtained earlier on archive material from the Midland reactor 600 C. However, at higher temperatures, the TMI-2 lower head data fell increasingly above data from the Midland material. The TMI-2 data were fit using both Larson-Miller and Manson-Haferd time-temperature parameters. Cracks were found in the stainless steel cladding of boat samples from the hot spot. The cracks appeared to be the result of hot-tearing, probably assisted by intergranular penetration of liquid Ag-Cd. Materials in the cracks suggest the presence of control-assembly debris on the lower head before the massive fuel flow arrived.

  18. Examining Method Effect of Synonym and Antonym Test in Verbal Abilities Measure

    PubMed Central

    Widhiarso, Wahyu; Haryanta

    2015-01-01

    Many researchers have assumed that different methods could be substituted to measure the same attributes in assessment. Various models have been developed to accommodate the amount of variance attributable to the methods but these models application in empirical research is rare. The present study applied one of those models to examine whether method effects were presents in synonym and antonym tests. Study participants were 3,469 applicants to graduate school. The instrument used was the Graduate Academic Potential Test (PAPS), which includes synonym and antonym questions to measure verbal abilities. Our analysis showed that measurement models that using correlated trait–correlated methods minus one, CT-C(M–1), that separated trait and method effect into distinct latent constructs yielded slightly better values for multiple goodness-of-fit indices than one factor model. However, either for the synonym or antonym items, the proportion of variance accounted for by the method is smaller than trait variance. The correlation between factor scores of both methods is high (r = 0.994). These findings confirm that synonym and antonym tests represent the same attribute so that both tests cannot be treated as two unique methods for measuring verbal ability. PMID:27247667

  19. Examining Method Effect of Synonym and Antonym Test in Verbal Abilities Measure.

    PubMed

    Widhiarso, Wahyu; Haryanta

    2015-08-01

    Many researchers have assumed that different methods could be substituted to measure the same attributes in assessment. Various models have been developed to accommodate the amount of variance attributable to the methods but these models application in empirical research is rare. The present study applied one of those models to examine whether method effects were presents in synonym and antonym tests. Study participants were 3,469 applicants to graduate school. The instrument used was the Graduate Academic Potential Test (PAPS), which includes synonym and antonym questions to measure verbal abilities. Our analysis showed that measurement models that using correlated trait-correlated methods minus one, CT-C(M-1), that separated trait and method effect into distinct latent constructs yielded slightly better values for multiple goodness-of-fit indices than one factor model. However, either for the synonym or antonym items, the proportion of variance accounted for by the method is smaller than trait variance. The correlation between factor scores of both methods is high (r = 0.994). These findings confirm that synonym and antonym tests represent the same attribute so that both tests cannot be treated as two unique methods for measuring verbal ability. PMID:27247667

  20. Examination of cadmium safety rod thermal test specimens and failure mechanism evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.K.; Peacock, H.B.; Iyer, N.C.

    1992-01-01

    The reactor safety rods may be subjected to high temperatures due to gamma heating after the core coolant level has dropped during the ECS phase of a hypothetical LOCA event. Accordingly, an experimental cadmium safety rod testing subtask was established as part of a task to address the response of reactor core components to this accident. Companion reports describe the experiments and a structural evaluation (finite element analysis) of the safety rod. This report deals primarily with the examination of the test specimens, evaluation of possible failure mechanisms, and confirmatory separate effects experiments. It is concluded that the failures observed in the cadmium safety rod thermal tests which occurred at low temperature (T < 600{degrees}C) with slow thermal ramp rates (slow cladding strain rates) resulted from localized dissolution of the stainless steel cladding by the cadmium/aluminum solution and subsequent ductility exhaustion and rupture. The slow thermal ramp rate is believed to be the root cause for the failures; specifically, the slow ramp rate led to localized cladding shear deformation which ruptured the protective oxide film on the cladding inner surface and allowed dissolution to initiate. The test results and proposed failure mechanism support the conclusion that the rods would not fail below 500{degrees}C even at slow ramp rates. The safety rod thermal test specimen failures which occurred at high temperature (T > 800{degrees}C) with fast thermal ramp rates are concluded to be mechanical in nature without significant environmental degradation. Based on these tests, tasks were initiated to design and manufacture B{sub 4}C safety rods to replace the cadmium safety rods. The B{sub 4}C safety rods have been manufactured at this time and it is currently planned to charge them to the reactor in the near future. 60 refs.

  1. Cross-Cultural Examination of Test Anxiety among US and Singapore Students on the Test Anxiety Scale for Elementary Students (TAS-E)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Patricia A.; Ang, Rebecca P.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the similarity of the factor structure of the Test Anxiety Scale for Elementary Students (TAS-E) and cultural and gender differences in test anxiety were examined in a sample of 1322 US and Singapore elementary students. The similarity of the factor structure of the TAS-E, a measure of test anxiety, was examined to determine…

  2. Examination of a junction-box adhesion test for use in photovoltaic module qualification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, David C.; Wohlgemuth, John H.

    2012-10-01

    Engineering robust adhesion of the junction-box (j-box) is a hurdle typically encountered by photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturers during product development. There are historical incidences of adverse effects (e.g., fires) caused when the j-box/adhesive/module system has failed in the field. The addition of a weight to the j-box during the "damp heat" IEC qualification test is proposed to verify the basic robustness of its adhesion system. The details of the proposed test will be described, in addition to the preliminary results obtained using representative materials and components. The described discovery experiments examine moisture-cured silicone, foam tape, and hot-melt adhesives used in conjunction with PET or glass module "substrates." To be able to interpret the results, a set of material-level characterizations was performed, including thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and dynamic mechanical analysis. PV j-boxes were adhered to a substrate, loaded with a prescribed weight, and then placed inside an environmental chamber (at 85°C, 85% relative humidity). Some systems did not remain attached through the discovery experiments. Observed failure modes include delamination (at the j-box/adhesive or adhesive/substrate interface) and phase change/creep. The results are discussed in the context of the application requirements, in addition to the plan for the formal experiment supporting the proposed modification to the qualification test.

  3. Examination of a Junction-Box Adhesion Test for Use in Photovoltaic Module Qualification: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D. C.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2012-08-01

    Engineering robust adhesion of the junction-box (j-box) is a hurdle typically encountered by photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturers during product development. There are historical incidences of adverse effects (e.g., fires) caused when the j-box/adhesive/module system has failed in the field. The addition of a weight to the j-box during the 'damp heat' IEC qualification test is proposed to verify the basic robustness of its adhesion system. The details of the proposed test will be described, in addition to the preliminary results obtained using representative materials and components. The described discovery experiments examine moisture-cured silicone, foam tape, and hot-melt adhesives used in conjunction with PET or glass module 'substrates.' To be able to interpret the results, a set of material-level characterizations was performed, including thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and dynamic mechanical analysis. PV j-boxes were adhered to a substrate, loaded with a prescribed weight, and then placed inside an environmental chamber (at 85C, 85% relative humidity). Some systems did not remain attached through the discovery experiments. Observed failure modes include delamination (at the j-box/adhesive or adhesive/substrate interface) and phase change/creep. The results are discussed in the context of the application requirements, in addition to the plan for the formal experiment supporting the proposed modification to the qualification test.

  4. Examination of a Junction-Box Adhesion Test for Use in Photovoltaic Module Qualification (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D. C.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2012-08-01

    Engineering robust adhesion of the junction-box (j-box) is a hurdle typically encountered by photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturers during product development. There are historical incidences of adverse effects (e.g., fires) caused when the j-box/adhesive/module system has failed in the field. The addition of a weight to the j-box during the 'damp heat' IEC qualification test is proposed to verify the basic robustness of its adhesion system. The details of the proposed test will be described, in addition to the preliminary results obtained using representative materials and components. The described discovery experiments examine moisture-cured silicone, foam tape, and hot-melt adhesives used in conjunction with PET or glass module 'substrates.' To be able to interpret the results, a set of material-level characterizations was performed, including thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and dynamic mechanical analysis. PV j-boxes were adhered to a substrate, loaded with a prescribed weight, and then placed inside an environmental chamber (at 85C, 85% relative humidity). Some systems did not remain attached through the discovery experiments. Observed failure modes include delamination (at the j-box/adhesive or adhesive/substrate interface) and phase change/creep. The results are discussed in the context of the application requirements, in addition to the plan for the formal experiment supporting the proposed modification to the qualification test.

  5. Score Distributions, General Examinations, College-Level Examination Program; Candidates Tested Through the United States Armed Forces Institute, July 1965-December 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, New York, NY.

    Score distributions were obtained for 43,877 candidates tested through the United States Armed Forces Institute (USAFI) on all five College-Level Entrance Program (CLEP) General Examinations. Findings included the following: (1) the majority of candidates were between ages 19 and 22; (2) 69.3% had completed high school but only 20.7% had attended…

  6. An examination of the aerodynamic moment on rotor blade tips using flight test data and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maier, Thomas H.; Bousman, William G.

    1993-01-01

    The analysis CAMRAD/JA is used to model two aircraft, a Puma with a swept-tip blade and a UH-60A Black Hawk. The accuracy of the analysis in predicting the torsion loads is assessed by comparing the predicted loads with measurements from flight tests. The influence of assumptions in the analytical model is examined by varying model parameters and comparing the predicted results to baseline values for the torsion loads. Flight test data from a research Puma are used to identify the source of torsion loads. These data indicate that the aerodynamic section moment in the region of the blade tip dominates torsion loading in high-speed flight. Both the aerodynamic section moment at the blade tip and the pitch-link loads are characterized by large positive (nose-up) moments in the first quadrant with rapid reversal of load so that the moment is negative in the second quadrant. Both the character and magnitude of this loading are missed by the CAMRAD/JA analysis.

  7. The dominant foot affects the postural control mechanism: examination by body tracking test

    PubMed Central

    Ikemiyagi, Fuyuko; Ikemiyagi, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Tositake; Yamamoto, Masahiko; Suzuki, Mitsuya

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion The antero-posterior (AP) body tracking test (BTT) showed that the dominant foot could affect the tilt angle of the sway movement, delineated by primary component analysis. Differences associated with the dominant foot could represent the difference in space perception of each person. Objectives To examine whether the dominant foot could affect the postural control mechanism using the BTT. Methods Ninety-seven healthy participants enrolled in the study were classified into right-foot and left-foot dominance groups, and their performances were compared. For the BTT, each participant stood on a stabilometer and caught the movement of a visual target moving vertically (anterior-posterior) or horizontally by the center of pressure movement, displayed on a 14-inch screen monitor at 100 cm in front of the subject. The mean displacement angle of the obtained stabilogram was evaluated by principal component analysis. Results The AP BTT in the right-foot dominance group showed a clockwise tilt with a mean displacement angle of 3.022 ± 3.761°, whereas the group with left-foot dominance had a modest counter-clockwise tilt with a mean displacement angle of –0.694 ± 4.497°. This difference was found to be significant by the independent t test (p < 0.0001). In the lateral BTT, the mean displacement angles were not significant. PMID:25252704

  8. An Examination of the Factor Structure of Four of the Cognitive Abilities Included in the Educational Testing Service Kit of Factor-Referenced Cognitive Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babcock, Renee L.; Laguna, Kerrie

    1997-01-01

    The Educational Testing Service Kit of Factor-Referenced Cognitive Tests contains 72 tests that are supposed to be markers of 23 latent cognitive constructs. Examination of the factor structure of four of these tests with 165 undergraduates suggests caution in using the measures as markers of distinct factors. (SLD)

  9. Developing an estimate of daily cumulative loading for the knee: examining test-retest reliability.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Shawn M K; Birmingham, Trevor B; Jones, Gareth R; Callaghan, Jack P; Maly, Monica R

    2009-11-01

    Although the knee adduction moment during gait is a valid and reliable proxy for the dynamic load on the medial compartment of the knee, it represents exposure to loading during one stride only. In contrast, a measure that incorporates both the nature and frequency of loading throughout daily activities might provide additional insight into the effects of cumulative knee loading. The purpose of this study was to introduce a new representation of daily cumulative knee loading and examine its test-retest reliability. Thirty healthy adults participated. Cumulative knee loading was calculated on two testing periods from the mean external knee adduction moment stance phase impulse, measured with a three-dimensional motion capture system over five walking trials, and mean steps/day, measured with a unidimensional accelerometer over one week. Analysis for test-retest reliability included Bland-Altman graphs, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC 2,1) and standard errors of measurements (SEM). The ICC values for cumulative knee loading, adduction impulse and steps/day ranged from 0.84 to 0.89. Bland-Altman plots suggested daily cumulative knee loading and steps/day measures were less reliable at higher values. The SEM values were 9.67 kNm s, 1.45 Nm s and 1043 steps/day for cumulative knee loading, adduction impulse and steps/day, respectively. Daily cumulative knee loading is reliable and provides a stable measure of the total exposure to knee loading. These findings support further study of cumulative knee loading to determine its potential clinical importance. PMID:19692246

  10. Fatal heat stroke in a child entrapped in a confined space.

    PubMed

    Alunni, Veronique; Crenesse, Dominique; Pierccechi-Marti, Marie-Dominique; Gaillard, Yvan; Quatrehomme, Gérald

    2015-08-01

    We report the case of a child succumbing to heatstroke caused by confinement in an icebox. The post mortem examination found cyanosis and hematomas indicating that the child had tried to get out of the container. The temperature of the body was higher than it should have been considering the rigor and delay before post mortem examination. The autopsy showed no significant injury and toxicological tests were negative. A physiological study etablished that death resulted from heatstroke, not a lack of oxygen or CO2 poisoning. We conclude that heat stroke should be considered as a possible mechanism of death even in the absence of context of environmental hyperthermia. We recommend that in these situations involving confinement, establishing the mechanism of death should be done not only on the basis of a detailed post-mortem examination to rule out other causes of death, but also based on complete physiological investigations. PMID:26165673

  11. Nuclear Technology. Course 32: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) II. Module 32-3, Fundamentals of Magnetic Particle Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groseclose, Richard

    This third in a series of six modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II explains the principles of magnets and magnetic fields and how they are applied in magnetic particle testing, describes the theory and methods of magnetizing test specimens, describes the test equipment used, discusses the principles and…

  12. A Note on the Probability of Errors in Decisions Based on Tests of the College Level Examination Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Lee L.

    College Level Examination Program (CLEP) Tests were normed on a national basis, administering the test to nationwide samples of subjects. Norms appear in the booklet, CLEP Scores: Interpretation and Use, and consist of the test score means for groups of students receiving grades of A, B, C, D, and F in the relevant course, the proportion of…

  13. Impact of Test Design, Item Quality, and Item Bank Size on the Psychometric Properties of Computer-Based Credentialing Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xing, Dehui; Hambleton, Ronald K.

    2004-01-01

    Computer-based testing by credentialing agencies has become common; however, selecting a test design is difficult because several good ones are available - parallel forms, computer adaptive (CAT), and multistage (MST). In this study, three computer-based test designs under some common examination conditions were investigated. Item bank size and…

  14. Test Security and Item Exposure Control for Computer-Based Examinations: Performance of a Computerized Classification Test for Professional Certification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalohn, John C.; Spray, Judith A.

    A client of American College Testing, Inc. (ACT) decided to implement a computer-based testing program to replace their paper-pencil format for professional certification. This paper reports on the results of the developed test after 1 year's use, especially as the results relate to test security issues. ACT research shows that a variable length…

  15. Automatic Analysis for the Chemical Testing of Urine Examination Using Digital Image Processing Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilardy, Juan M.; Peña, Jose C.; Daza, Miller F.; Torres, Cesar O.; Mattos, Lorenzo

    2008-04-01

    For to make the chemical testing of urine examination a dipstick is used, which contains pads that have incorporated within them the reagents for chemical reactions for the detection of a number from substances in the urine. Urine is added to the pads for reaction by dipping the dipstick into the urine and then slowly withdrawing it. The subsequent colorimetric reactions are timed to an endpoint; the extent of colors formation is directly related to the level of the urine constituent. The colors can be read manually by comparison with color charts or with the use of automated reflectance meters. The aim of the System described in this paper is to analyze and to determine automatically the changes of the colors in the dipstick when this is retired of the urine sample and to compare the results with color charts for the diagnosis of many common diseases such as diabetes. The system consists of: (a) a USB camera. (b) Computer. (c) Software Matlab v7.4. Image analysis begins with a digital capturing of the image as data. Once the image is acquired in digital format, the data can be manipulated through digital image processing. Our objective was to develop a computerised image processing system and an interactive software package for the backing of clinicians, medical research and medical students.

  16. Quality assurance of the Applied Knowledge Test (AKT) of the MRCGP examination - an immediate post-test questionnaire evaluation of the candidates' views.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Hilton; Blow, Carol; Milne, Paul; Siriwardena, Niroshan; Milne, Heather; Elfes, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    The Applied Knowledge Test (AKT) of the Membership of the Royal College of General Practitioners (MRCGP) examination is a computer-based assessment delivered three times a year. A computerised questionnaire, administered immediately after the test, sought candidates' views as part of the test evaluation. Of 1681 candidates taking the test 1418 (84%) responded. Most candidates believed that the test assessed their knowledge of problems relevant to general practice. Their feedback highlighted areas where improvements could be made. Candidates' views of postgraduate specialty medical examinations in the UK are rarely sought or published. We are not aware of other published evidence. The use of computer-based testing enables immediate candidate feedback and can be used routinely to evaluate the test validity and formats. The views of candidates are an important component of quality assurance in reviewing the content, format and educational experience of a high-stakes examination. PMID:26253057

  17. 49 CFR 384.229 - Skills test examiner auditing and monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... overt monitoring must be performed at least once every year; (c) Establish and maintain a database to...; (d) Establish and maintain a database of all third party testers and examiners, which at a minimum... examiner; (e) Establish and maintain a database of all State CDL skills examiners, which at a...

  18. Review of National Teachers Examination by the Oregon State System of Higher Education. 23 Specialty Area Tests from October Review. 2 Specialty Area Tests from May Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State System of Higher Education, Eugene.

    This report summarizes findings on 26 National Teacher Examination specialty area tests provided by faculty reviewers from five Oregon institutions of higher education. Reviewers were asked to judge tests on the basis of: (1) whether students at the reviewer's institution would have the opportunity to acquire the knowledge measured in test items;…

  19. Examining the Test of Memory Malingering Trial 1 and Word Memory Test Immediate Recognition as Screening Tools for Insufficient Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Lyndsey; O'Bryant, Sid E.; Lynch, Julie K.; McCaffrey, Robert J.; Fisher, Jerid M.

    2007-01-01

    Assessing effort level during neuropsychological evaluations is critical to support the accuracy of cognitive test scores. Many instruments are designed to measure effort, yet they are not routinely administered in neuropsychological assessments. The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) and the Word Memory Test (WMT) are commonly administered symptom…

  20. Does the Repetitive Use of the Same Test in Consecutive Examination Sessions Facilitate Cheating?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kun, András István

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces an empirical study testing three kinds of bias in higher education student assessment. All of them are connected to the repetitive use of the same test questions which may facilitate academic cheating. The "same tests effect" may appear if two or more groups of students are writing the same test one after the other…

  1. The Examination of Reliability According to Classical Test and Generalizability on a Job Performance Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yelboga, Atilla; Tavsancil, Ezel

    2010-01-01

    In this research, the classical test theory and generalizability theory analyses were carried out with the data obtained by a job performance scale for the years 2005 and 2006. The reliability coefficients obtained (estimated) from the classical test theory and generalizability theory analyses were compared. In classical test theory, test retest…

  2. Using Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis to Test Measurement Invariance in Raters: A Clinical Skills Examination Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahraman, Nilufer; Brown, Crystal B.

    2015-01-01

    Psychometric models based on structural equation modeling framework are commonly used in many multiple-choice test settings to assess measurement invariance of test items across examinee subpopulations. The premise of the current article is that they may also be useful in the context of performance assessment tests to test measurement invariance…

  3. Using Testlet Response Theory to Examine Local Dependence in C-Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckes, Thomas; Baghaei, Purya

    2015-01-01

    C-tests are gap-filling tests widely used to assess general language proficiency for purposes of placement, screening, or provision of feedback to language learners. C-tests consist of several short texts in which parts of words are missing. We addressed the issue of local dependence in C-tests using an explicit modeling approach based on testlet…

  4. Validation of the Graduate Record Examinations and the Miller Analogies Test in a Doctoral Program in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furst, Edward J.; Roelfs, Pamela J.

    1979-01-01

    The predictive validity of the Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) and the Miller Analogies Test (MAT) in a doctoral program in education was investigated. Results supported the use of the GRE but not the MAT. (Author/JKS)

  5. University Examinations and Standardized Testing: Principles, Experience, and Policy Options. World Bank Technical Paper Number 78. Proceedings of a Seminar on the Uses of Standardized Tests and Selection Examinations (Beijing, China, April 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyneman, Stephen P., Ed.; Fagerlind, Ingemar, Ed.

    In September 1984, the Chinese government asked the Economic Development Institute of the World Bank to assist the officials of the Chinese Ministry of Education in thinking through some policy options for examinations and standardized testing. This document summarizes the descriptions of testing programs and advice provided to these Chinese…

  6. 30 CFR 75.1103-8 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; examination and test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-8 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; examination and test requirements. (a) Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems shall be examined...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1103-8 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; examination and test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-8 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; examination and test requirements. (a) Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems shall be examined...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1103-8 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; examination and test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-8 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; examination and test requirements. (a) Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems shall be examined...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1103-8 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; examination and test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-8 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; examination and test requirements. (a) Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems shall be examined...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1103-8 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; examination and test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-8 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; examination and test requirements. (a) Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems shall be examined...

  11. Results of Scoping Tests Examining the Effects of Gilsulate, Aluminum Silicate and Defoamers on the Operation of Conductivity Level Probes

    SciTech Connect

    Swingle, R.F.

    1999-02-17

    Scoping tests have been completed examining the effects of Gilsulate, sodium aluminum silicate, and some organic materials on the operation of tank level conductivity probes. This report documents the results of scoping studies completed to examine the effect of those materials on conductivity probes.

  12. 21 CFR 800.20 - Patient examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample plans and test method for leakage defects...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and its risk of transmission... examination and by a water leak test method, using 1,000 milliliters (ml) of water. (i) Units examined. Each... appearance of water on the outside of the glove. This emergence of water from the glove constitutes...

  13. Long-term evaluation of solid oxide fuel cell candidate materials in a 3-cell generic short stack fixture, part I: Test fixture, sealing, and electrochemical performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Yeong-Shyung; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Choi, Jung-Pyung

    2014-06-01

    A generic solid oxide fuel cell stack test fixture was developed to evaluate candidate materials and processing under realistic conditions. A NiO-YSZ anode-supported YSZ electrolyte cell with a composite cathode was used to evaluate the long-term stability of a sealing system, alumina coating, Ce-modified (Mn,Co)-spinel coating, ferritic stainles steel AISI441 interconnect metal, and current collectors. A 3-cell short stack was assembled and tested in constant current mode for 6000 h at 800 °C. Part I of the work addresses the stack fixture design, cell components, sealing system, cell performance, and post-mortem analysis. Parts II and III will discuss microstructure evolution, interfacial reactions, and degradation mechanisms. During 6000 h of testing, the top cell showed very low degradation (∼1.4% kh-1), while the middle and bottom cells exhibited much higher degradation after ∼2000 h. The rapid cell degradation was correlated to the open circuit voltage measurements and was attributed to glass seal failure, probably due to unbalanced stress conditions. Post-mortem analysis showed a characteristic yellowish color around the glass seal, suggesting formation of SrCrO4. Overall the developed stack test fixture was demonstrated as a simple and useful tool for evaluation of SOFC candidate materials in realistic conditions.

  14. 20 CFR 416.919k - Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory tests, and other services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... physician's services, includes a charge for a laboratory test for which payment may be made under this part, the amount payable with respect to the test shall be determined as follows: (1) If the bill or request for payment indicates that the test was personally performed or supervised by the physician...

  15. 20 CFR 404.1519k - Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory tests, and other services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...'s services includes a charge for a laboratory test for which payment may be made under this part, the amount payable with respect to the test shall be determined as follows: (1) If the bill or request for payment indicates that the test was personally performed or supervised by the physician...

  16. 20 CFR 416.919k - Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory tests, and other services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... bill, or a request for payment for a physician's services, includes a charge for a laboratory test for which payment may be made under this part, the amount payable with respect to the test shall be determined as follows: (1) If the bill or request for payment indicates that the test was...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1519k - Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory tests, and other services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... bill or a request for payment for a physician's services includes a charge for a laboratory test for which payment may be made under this part, the amount payable with respect to the test shall be determined as follows: (1) If the bill or request for payment indicates that the test was...

  18. 20 CFR 404.1519k - Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory tests, and other services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... bill or a request for payment for a physician's services includes a charge for a laboratory test for which payment may be made under this part, the amount payable with respect to the test shall be determined as follows: (1) If the bill or request for payment indicates that the test was...

  19. 20 CFR 404.1519k - Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory tests, and other services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...'s services includes a charge for a laboratory test for which payment may be made under this part, the amount payable with respect to the test shall be determined as follows: (1) If the bill or request for payment indicates that the test was personally performed or supervised by the physician...

  20. 20 CFR 416.919k - Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory tests, and other services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... bill, or a request for payment for a physician's services, includes a charge for a laboratory test for which payment may be made under this part, the amount payable with respect to the test shall be determined as follows: (1) If the bill or request for payment indicates that the test was...

  1. 20 CFR 416.919k - Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory tests, and other services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... physician's services, includes a charge for a laboratory test for which payment may be made under this part, the amount payable with respect to the test shall be determined as follows: (1) If the bill or request for payment indicates that the test was personally performed or supervised by the physician...

  2. 49 CFR 384.229 - Skills test examiner auditing and monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... must be performed at least once every year; (c) Establish and maintain a database to track pass/fail... maintain a database of all third party testers and examiners, which at a minimum tracks the dates and... and maintain a database of all State CDL skills examiners, which at a minimum tracks the dates...

  3. Breast Self-Examination and the Older Woman: Field Testing an Educational Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Judith A.

    1989-01-01

    Compared effectiveness of theoretically based educational strategy with standard breast self-examination educational strategy. Found that women in experimental group (N=68) were significantly more likely to perform breast self-examination appropriately three months following instruction than were women in standard treatment group (N=66) after…

  4. Nuclear Technology. Course 32: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II. Module 32-1, Fundamentals of Ultrasonic Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Bruce

    This first in a series of six modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II introduces the student/trainee to the basic behavior of ultrasound, describes ultrasonic test equipment, and outlines the principal methods of ultrasonic testing. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1)…

  5. PISA Test Items and School-Based Examinations in Greece: Exploring the Relationship between Global and Local Assessment Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anagnostopoulou, Kyriaki; Hatzinikita, Vassilia; Christidou, Vasilia; Dimopoulos, Kostas

    2013-01-01

    The paper explores the relationship of the global and the local assessment discourses as expressed by Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) test items and school-based examinations, respectively. To this end, the paper compares PISA test items related to living systems and the context of life, health, and environment, with Greek…

  6. 21 CFR 800.20 - Patient examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample plans and test method for leakage defects...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...; sample plans and test method for leakage defects; adulteration. 800.20 Section 800.20 Food and Drugs FOOD... Requirements for Specific Medical Devices § 800.20 Patient examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample... from the test method and sample plans in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section. (2) For a...

  7. 21 CFR 800.20 - Patient examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample plans and test method for leakage defects...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...; sample plans and test method for leakage defects; adulteration. 800.20 Section 800.20 Food and Drugs FOOD... Requirements for Specific Medical Devices § 800.20 Patient examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample... from the test method and sample plans in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section. (2) For a...

  8. 21 CFR 800.20 - Patient examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample plans and test method for leakage defects...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...; sample plans and test method for leakage defects; adulteration. 800.20 Section 800.20 Food and Drugs FOOD... Requirements for Specific Medical Devices § 800.20 Patient examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample... from the test method and sample plans in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section. (2) For a...

  9. On Further Examination: Report of the Advisory Panel on the Scholastic Aptitude Test Score Decline and Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, New York, NY.

    After two years of investigation, a panel appointed to advise the College Entrance Examination Board and Educational Testing Service on the recent change in Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores concluded that the 14-year score decline is a complex phenomenon, yielding neither simple explanations nor easy solutions. As a result of looking at the…

  10. The End of Testing and Future Possibilities: An Examination of the Demise of SATs in England and Possible Alternative Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Bethan

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at the controversial starting of testing, its boycott, the subsequent years of protest and, in October 2008, the apparent end of key stage examining in England. It considers a possible alternative to the tests based on a project carried out at King's College London based on portfolio assessment.

  11. Weighting Tasks from Job Analysis Data To Derive Test Specifications for Licensure Examinations: Some Methodological and Statistical Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Leslie; Kalohn, John C.

    Test specifications dictate the kind of content that should be included on each form of an examination, and the relative weight that each content domain should contribute to the determination of examinees' test scores by specifying the proportion of items to be included in each content area. This paper addresses a step in the development of…

  12. Test-retest reliability of an active range of motion test for the shoulder and hip joints by unskilled examiners using a manual goniometer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong-Gil; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze test-retest reliability of an active range of motion test using a manual goniometer by unskilled examiners. [Subjects and Methods] Active range of motion was measured in 30 students attending U university (4 males, 26 females). Range of motion during flexion and extension of the shoulder and hip joints were measured using a manual goniometer. [Results] Flexion and extension of the shoulder joint (ICC=0.906 and ICC=0.808) and (ICC=0.946 and ICC=0. 955) of the hip joint showed excellent reliabilities. [Conclusion] The active range of motion test using a manual goniometer showed very high test-retest reliability in unskilled examiners. When examiners are aware of the method of the test, an objective assessment can be conducted. PMID:27134347

  13. Testing of actively cooled high heat flux mock-ups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rödig, M.; Duwe, R.; Kühnlein, W.; Linke, J.; Scheerer, M.; Smid, I.; Wiechers, B.

    1998-10-01

    Several un-irradiated CFC monoblock mock-ups have been loaded in thermal fatigue tests up to 1000 cycles at power densities <25 MW/m 2. No indication of failure was observed for these loading conditions. Two of the mock-ups were inspected by ultra-sonic methods before thermal cycling. It could be proved that the voids found in the post-mortem metallography existed before and had no effect on the integrity of the mock-up. For the first time, neutron-irradiated CFC monoblock mock-ups have been tested in the electron beam facility JUDITH. These mock-ups had been irradiated before in the High Flux Reactor at Petten up to 0.3 dpa at 320°C and 770°C. All samples showed a significant increase of surface temperature, due to the irradiation induced decrease in thermal conductivity of the CFC materials.

  14. Different Tests, Same Flaws: Examining the SAT I, SAT II, and ACT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Christina

    2002-01-01

    Spurred in part by University of California (UC) President Richard Atkinson's February 2001 proposal to drop the SAT I for UC applicants, more attention is being paid to other tests such as the SAT II and ACT. Proponents of these alternative exams argue that the SAT I is primarily an aptitude test measuring some vague concept of "inherent…

  15. Communicative Language Testing (CLT): Reflections on the "Issues Revisited" from the Perspective of an Examinations Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Dianne; Taylor, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    In this article we first summarise the main points raised by Morrow (1979) in the publication that formed the core of the Communicative Language Testing discussions at the original Language Testing Forum (1980). We take into consideration issues raised by the 1980 Forum participants when appropriate. We apply Morrow's ideas and issues…

  16. Design and results of an exploratory double blind testing program in firearms examination.

    PubMed

    Kerkhoff, W; Stoel, R D; Berger, C E H; Mattijssen, E J A T; Hermsen, R; Smits, N; Hardy, H J J

    2015-12-01

    In 2010, the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI) and the University of Amsterdam (UvA) started a series of tests for the NFI's Firearms Section. Ten cartridge case and bullet comparison tests were submitted by various external parties as regular cases and mixed in the flow of real cases. The results of the tests were evaluated with the VU University Amsterdam (VUA). A total of twenty-nine conclusions were drawn in the ten tests. For nineteen conclusions the submitted cartridge cases or bullets were either fired from the questioned firearm or from one and the same firearm, in tests where no firearm was submitted. For ten conclusions the submitted cartridge cases or bullets were either fired from another firearm than the submitted one or from several firearms, in tests where no firearm was submitted. In none of the conclusions misleading evidence was reported, in the sense that all conclusions supported the true hypothesis. This article discusses the design considerations of the program, contains details of the tests, and describes the various ways the test results were and could be analyzed. PMID:26654088

  17. The Need for a Principled Approach for Examining Indirect Effects of Test Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    In Shepard's (1997) discussion on the importance of test use and consequences in a validity argument for educational assessments, she reflected on Cronbach and Meehl's (1955) perspective on the role of test developers in providing consequential evidence. In the following year, a special issue in "Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice"…

  18. A CRITICAL EXAMINATION OF THE SODIUM DODECYL SULFATE (SDS) SEDIMENTATION TEST FOR WHEAT MEALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sedimentation tests have long been used to characterize wheat flours and meals with the aim of predicting processing and end-product qualities. However, the use of the sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) sedimentation test AACC International Approved Method 56-70 for durum wheat has not been characterized...

  19. Mobile Phones for Spain's University Entrance Examination Language Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García Laborda, Jesús; Magal Royo, Teresa; Litzler, Mary Frances; Giménez López, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Few tests were delivered using mobile phones a few years ago, but the flexibility and capability of these devices make them valuable tools even for high stakes testing. This paper addresses research done through the PAULEX (2007-2010) and OPENPAU (2012-2014) research projects at the Universidad Politécnica de Valencia and Universidad de Alcalá…

  20. Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache and the Oral Proficiency Interview: A Comparison of Test Scores and Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalande, John F.; Schweckendiek, Jurgen

    1986-01-01

    Investigates what correlations might exist between an individual's score on the Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache and on the Oral Proficiency Interview. The tests themselves are briefly described. Results indicate that the two tests appear to correlate well in their evaluation of speaking skills. (SED)