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Sample records for post-suicide attempt case

  1. A very unusual case of attempted suicide.

    PubMed

    Misiak, Piotr; Jabłoński, Sławomir; Dziwińska, Katarzyna; Terlecki, Artur

    2016-06-01

    We would like to present a case report of a very unusual suicide attempt. A 48-year-old female patient tried to commit suicide by stabbing herself with a kitchen knife into her neck. Suicide by self-stabbing is uncommon, constituting only 1-3% of suicide attempts. Patients with self-inflicted stab wounds may have a higher incidence of surgical interventions based on the stab location. Surprisingly, the mortality associated with this kind of wound is low. Most medical centers have very limited experience with this infrequent injury. There are only a few case reports and small series published in the literature of the subject. PMID:27516789

  2. A very unusual case of attempted suicide

    PubMed Central

    Jabłoński, Sławomir; Dziwińska, Katarzyna; Terlecki, Artur

    2016-01-01

    We would like to present a case report of a very unusual suicide attempt. A 48-year-old female patient tried to commit suicide by stabbing herself with a kitchen knife into her neck. Suicide by self-stabbing is uncommon, constituting only 1-3% of suicide attempts. Patients with self-inflicted stab wounds may have a higher incidence of surgical interventions based on the stab location. Surprisingly, the mortality associated with this kind of wound is low. Most medical centers have very limited experience with this infrequent injury. There are only a few case reports and small series published in the literature of the subject. PMID:27516789

  3. [Attempted suicide by snake bite. Case report and literature survey].

    PubMed

    Strubel, T; Birkhofer, A; Eyer, F; Werber, K D; Förstl, H

    2008-05-01

    Unusual suicide attempts often remain undetected, and bizarre methods can be a clue to psychotic origin. We report a suicide attempt by proxy--the bite of a puff adder--and provide a brief literature survey about further archaic self-injurious behaviour. Due to the easy availability of venomous snakes and the close networking of suicidal patients via the Internet, an increase in similar cases can be anticipated. A failed suicide attempt should always be considered in patients surviving bizarre accidents. PMID:18365165

  4. Zolpidem-induced suicide attempt: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Zolpidem is a popular drug indicated for the short-term treatment of insomnia. Side effects are not uncommon with zolpidem. Herein we describe an Iranian 27-year-old man with no known mood disorder or neuropsychological disease who attempted suicide upon taking zolpidem. There are two interesting facts about this case: Firstly, the patient had not history of suicide attempt or thinking. Secondly, this case had experienced suicide ideation after taking 20 mg of zolpidem, suggesting a possible correlation between zolpidem psychological effects and dangerous psychological behaviors. PMID:24359886

  5. Inverted Takotsubo cardiomyopathy after attempted suicidal hanging--two cases.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Shantanu; Mungulmare, Kunda; Wadaskar, Nitin; Pande, Abhishek

    2016-04-01

    We report two cases of "Inverted Takotsubo cardiomyopathy" following attempted suicidal hanging. Both the patients presented with heart failure and had desaturation 8-12h after the suicidal attempt. Electrocardiography (ECG) showed ischemic changes. On echocardiography, the left ventricle (LV) showed ballooning and hypokinesia of the basal segments with apical sparing. Both patients underwent coronary angiograms considering the possibility of acute coronary syndrome. However, their coronary angiograms were normal. After 3-4 days of hospitalization, both recovered; their ECG had reversed and the LV contractility was normal on echocardiography. PMID:27056654

  6. [Suicide attempt by an interstitial cystitis patient : a case report].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takahisa; Otsuka, Atsushi; Kato, Taiki; Furuse, Hiroshi; Ozono, Seiichiro

    2014-11-01

    We report a suicide attempt by an interstitial cystitis patient. A 68-year-old woman consulted several clinics with complaints of urinary frequency and bladder pain, but her symptoms did not improve. She was admitted to our hospital and diagnosed with interstitial cystitis. Hydrodistention was performed, and the urethral catheter removed one day after surgery. The next day, the patient was afraid that her symptoms had not improved and, due to this physical and mental distress, cut her wrist with a razor. Vascular anastomosis and neuroanastomosis were performed accordingly. Eighteen months after hydrodistention, the patient's symptoms of interstitial cystitis have much improved. PMID:25511944

  7. Alcohol Abuse and Suicide Attempt in Iran: A Case-Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Behrooz; Malakouti, Seyed Kazem; Nojomi, Marzieh; Leo, Diego De; Saeed, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use and its disorders are associated with increased risk of suicidal behaviors Research has shown that 6-8% of those who use alcohol have a history of suicide attempt. Given the prohibition of alcohol use legally, the increased alcohol consumption, and the lack of strong evidence in favor of its use associated with suicide in Iran, this study was conducted to determine the link between suicide attempt and alcohol abuse. The case-crossover method was used in this research. Out of 305 referrals to the emergency room due to a suicide attempt, 100 reported drinking alcohol up to six hours before their attempt. Paired Matching and Usual Frequency were employed to analyze the data with STATA 12.0. The probability of attempting suicide up to six hours after drinking alcohol appeared increased by 27 times (95% CI: 8.1-60.4). Separate analysis for each of these hours from the first to the sixth hour after alcohol use was also performed. Fifty percent of attempted suicides happened one hour after alcohol use. Relative risk for the first and second hour was 10% and 5% respectively. Alcohol use is a strong proximal risk factor for attempted suicide among Iranian subjects. Prevention of alcohol use should be considered in setting up of the national Suicide attempt prevention program. PMID:26925903

  8. How Parental Reactions Change in Response to Adolescent Suicide Attempt.

    PubMed

    Greene-Palmer, Farrah N; Wagner, Barry M; Neely, Laura L; Cox, Daniel W; Kochanski, Kristen M; Perera, Kanchana U; Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined parental reactions to adolescents' suicide attempts and the association of reactions with future suicidal self-directed violence. Participants were 81 mothers and 49 fathers of 85 psychiatric inpatient adolescents. Maternal hostility and paternal anger and arguing predicted future suicide attempts. From pre- to post-attempt, mothers reported feeling increased sadness, caring, anxiety, guilt, fear, and being overwhelmed; fathers reported increased sadness, anxiety, and fear. Findings have clinical implications; improving parent-child relationships post-suicide attempt may serve as a protective factor for suicide. PMID:26452767

  9. Suicide attempt and melancholic depression in a male with erotomania: case report.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Attila; Vörös, Viktor; Fekete, Sándor

    2005-01-01

    Erotomania is a delusional disorder, which is more common among women. A case of erotomania in a 34-year-old male associated with depression and suicidal behavior is presented. At the time he attempted suicide his erotomania fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of "pure" erotomania, described by de Clérambault. A depressive picture with melancholic features emerged four months later. Antidepressant medication was given and two months later he became euthymic. The erotomanic delusion disappeared in the third month of the euthymic state. In this case primary erotomania was associated with a depressive illness, presumably unipolar depression. The patient developed delusional guilt and suicidal ideation before the unequivocal change in his mood. To the authors' knowledge this is the first reported case where the erotomanic symptomatology led to suicidal attempt. PMID:16179333

  10. Attempted Serial Neonaticides: Case Report and a Brief Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Barros, Alcina Juliana Soares; Rosa, Regis Goulart; Telles, Lisieux Elaine de Borba; Taborda, José Geraldo Vernet

    2016-01-01

    Neonaticide is an infant murder occurring on the day of birth. The case reports found in the literature are often focused on the mother as the agent in the context of pregnancy denial, dissociative symptoms, or psychosis. However, this report describes a rare case of attempted serial neonaticides, in which the acts were committed by a nurse at the nursery of a referral hospital in Brazil. The authors describe a forensic psychiatric evaluation for criminal responsibility and correlate the information from this particular case with relevant forensic themes, namely neonaticide, Munchausen by proxy syndrome, and serial healthcare killers. PMID:26259153

  11. [Chronic pain and suicide attempt in the elderly through a case narration].

    PubMed

    Gaillardou, Denise; Matusevich, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We sought to reconstruct the case of an elderly patient who made a suicide attempt. We have isolated and identified certain risk factors which could have determined the patient's final decision, such as chronic pain, social isolation, narcissistic personality traits, depression and family suicidality. We analyze the difficulties and limitations found in the current treatment of these patients, with an aim to raise greater interest in the research and treatment of them. PMID:25546546

  12. A STUDY OF HOPELESSNESS, SUICIDAL INTENT AND DEPESSION IN CASES OF ATTEMPTED SUICIDE

    PubMed Central

    Jain, V.; Singh, H.; Gupta, S.C.; Kumar, S.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the severity and relationship of depression, hopelessness & sucide intent in individuals attempting suicides. Individuals admitted to a northern India hospital emergency services between 1st Jan. ′94 to 31st Dec. ′94 with suicide attempt were taken up for study and assessed with the help of different tools. 79 patients were screened for the study and 56 patients were included (33 male & 23 female). Majority of the sample was below 30 years of age (82.1%). Organophosphorus consumption and drug overdose was most common (75%) psychiatric illness was present in 57% cases, depression being most common 37.5% (p< 0.001) 22 subjects showed mild to moderate suicide intent (39.28%) & 16% subjects showed hopelessness score above 9. Variables taken up for the study have a highly significan correlation with each other i.e. suicidal intent, hopelessness and depression. PMID:21455374

  13. A study of hopelessness, suicidal intent and depession in cases of attempted suicide.

    PubMed

    Jain, V; Singh, H; Gupta, S C; Kumar, S

    1999-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the severity and relationship of depression, hopelessness & sucide intent in individuals attempting suicides. Individuals admitted to a northern India hospital emergency services between 1st Jan. '94 to 31st Dec. '94 with suicide attempt were taken up for study and assessed with the help of different tools. 79 patients were screened for the study and 56 patients were included (33 male & 23 female). Majority of the sample was below 30 years of age (82.1%). Organophosphorus consumption and drug overdose was most common (75%) psychiatric illness was present in 57% cases, depression being most common 37.5% (p< 0.001) 22 subjects showed mild to moderate suicide intent (39.28%) & 16% subjects showed hopelessness score above 9. Variables taken up for the study have a highly significan correlation with each other i.e. suicidal intent, hopelessness and depression. PMID:21455374

  14. A Case of Attempted Suicide in Huntington's Disease: Ethical and Moral Considerations.

    PubMed

    Furfari, Kristin; Zehnder, Nichole; Abbott, Jean

    2016-01-01

    A 62-year-old female with Huntington's disease presented after a suicide attempt. Her advance directive stated that she did not want intubation or resuscitation, which her family acknowledged and supported. Despite these directives, she was resuscitated in the emergency department and continued to state that she would attempt suicide again. Her suicidality in the face of a chronic and advancing illness, and her prolonged consistency in her desire to take her own life, left careproviders wondering how to provide ethical, respectful care to this patient. Tension between the ethical principles of autonomy and beneficence is central in this case. The patient's narrative demonstrated that her suicide was an autonomous decision, free from coercion or disordered thinking from mental illness. Beneficence then would seem to necessitate care aligned with the patient's desire to end her life, which created ethical uneasiness for her family and careproviders. The case highlights several end-of-life ethical considerations that have received much recent attention. With ongoing discussions about the legalization of aid in dying across the country, caregivers are challenged to understand what beneficence means in people with terminal illnesses who want a say in their death. This case also highlights the profound moral distress of families and careproviders that arises in such ethically challenging scenarios. PMID:27045303

  15. A case of family dysfunction and teenage suicide attempt: applicability of a family systems paradigm.

    PubMed

    Koopmans, M

    1995-01-01

    A large body of research indicates that suicidal behavior in adolescence is related to dysfunctional family processes. The purpose of this paper was to investigate this relationship focusing on the concepts of boundary transgression, double bind interactions, and the demarcation of kinship roles in the family. The possibility is explored that suicidal behavior is a double bind response to contradictions in the way roles and responsibilities are distributed in the family, and that as a response, suicide attempts may contain a simultaneous appeal for help and an assertion of independence from the family. A case vignette is presented to illustrate these processes. PMID:7625266

  16. Penetrating Brain Injury after Suicide Attempt with Speargun: Case Study and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Williams, John R.; Aghion, Daniel M.; Doberstein, Curtis E.; Cosgrove, G. Rees; Asaad, Wael F.

    2014-01-01

    Penetrating cranial injury by mechanisms other than gunshots are exceedingly rare, and so strategies and guidelines for the management of PBI are largely informed by data from higher-velocity penetrating injuries. Here, we present a case of penetrating brain injury by the low-velocity mechanism of a harpoon from an underwater fishing speargun in an attempted suicide by a 56-year-old Caucasian male. The case raised a number of interesting points in management of low-velocity penetrating brain injury (LVPBI), including benefit in delaying foreign body removal to allow for tamponade; the importance of history-taking in establishing the social/legal significance of the events surrounding the injury; the use of cerebral angiogram in all cases of PBI; advantages of using dual-energy CT to reduce artifact when available; and antibiotic prophylaxis in the context of idiosyncratic histories of usage of penetrating objects before coming in contact with the intracranial environment. We present here the management of the case in full along with an extended discussion and review of existing literature regarding key points in management of LVPBI vs. higher-velocity forms of intracranial injury. PMID:25071701

  17. Juvenile perpetrators of homicides and attempted homicides--a case control study.

    PubMed

    Britvić, Dolores; Urlić, Ivan; Definis-Gojanović, Marija

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the influence of certain aspects of family dynamics, as well as some behavior and psychological development disorders on the occurrence of homicides and attempted homicides among juveniles in the Split Dalmatian County over a period of 10 years (1989-1998). A retrospective case-control study was performed to compare juvenile murderers and attempted murderers with minors who committed other offences, i.e. property crimes. The subjects were paired according to demographic and socio-economic background. The data obtained from County Court's files included social anamnesis, specialists' observation and psychiatric expertise results. There was a significant difference between the study group and their controls in the frequency of physical violence and parental rejection during childhood. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological abnormalities were more frequent in the experimental than in the control group. Stealing occurred more often in the control group. No significant differences were found for other studied risk factors. There is no unique type of juvenile murderer. A juvenile homicide is committed under the influence of various developmental characteristics, family milieu, and constitution combined with environmental factors and perpetrator's perception of the victim. PMID:16617589

  18. A Case Report of Prolonged Apnea during ECT in a Patient with Suicidal Attempt by Organophosphorus Poison

    PubMed Central

    Moudi, Sussan; Alijanpour, Ebrahim; Manouchehri, Ali-asghar; Jafarian, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides have been used in some cases for suicidal attempts. Such poison can affect plasma cholinesterase activity. The case was a 47-year-old man hospitalized due to suicide attempt with swallowing agricultural poison. The patient, diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD), underwent treatment with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). At the first ECT session, the patient developed apnea for 45 minutes following receiving 20 mg succinylcholine. The patient was intubated; after restoration of respiration depth and rate, the patient was extubated. Collectively, in cases with history of suicide attempts, taking organophosphorus pesticides should be warn for pre-ECT anesthesia. PMID:24644472

  19. A Case Report of Prolonged Apnea during ECT in a Patient with Suicidal Attempt by Organophosphorus Poison.

    PubMed

    Moudi, Sussan; Alijanpour, Ebrahim; Manouchehri, Ali-Asghar; Jafarian, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides have been used in some cases for suicidal attempts. Such poison can affect plasma cholinesterase activity. The case was a 47-year-old man hospitalized due to suicide attempt with swallowing agricultural poison. The patient, diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD), underwent treatment with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). At the first ECT session, the patient developed apnea for 45 minutes following receiving 20 mg succinylcholine. The patient was intubated; after restoration of respiration depth and rate, the patient was extubated. Collectively, in cases with history of suicide attempts, taking organophosphorus pesticides should be warn for pre-ECT anesthesia. PMID:24644472

  20. Copycat suicidal attempt by a 7 year old boy after watching homicidal behavior in media: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Suicidal behavior in media may promote others towards suicide. No published study was found about suicidal attempt in children less than 10 years old after watching a homicidal behavior. Case presentation This is a report of a 7 year old boy referred because he hanged himself after watching homicidal behavior of hanging in a fictional movie. Discussion To the author's knowledge, there was no published report of copycat suicidal attempt in a 7 year old child after watching a homicidal behavior in media. This report warns about an imitative effect of movie watching of homicidal behavior on suicidal attempt. PMID:19138418

  1. Characteristics of Impulsive Suicide Attempts and Attempters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Thomas R.; Swann, Alan C.; Powell, Kenneth E.; Potter, Lloyd B.; Kresnow, Marcie-jo; O'Carroll, Patrick W.

    2002-01-01

    Examined impulsive suicide attempts within a population-based, case-control study of nearly lethal suicide attempts among adolescents and young adults. Impulsive attempts were more likely among those who had been in a physical fight and less likely among those who were depressed. Findings suggest inadequate control of aggressive impulses as a…

  2. Acute clenbuterol overdose manifestations in a suicide attempt--a case report.

    PubMed

    Nawrocka, Izabela; Kowalczys, Maria H; Abramczyk, Piotr

    2015-12-01

    A 30-year-old man was admitted to the intensive care unit after a suicide attempt with respiratory difficulties, tremor, sinus tachycardia and significant hypokalemia. On examination, the patient was lucid, fully conscious and did not exhibit positive symptoms. Sings were not typical for overdosing olanzapine, alprazolam and alcohol as declared by the patient. Additional anamnesis revealed high doses of ingested clenbuterol, a selective β2-adrenergic agonist. Due to its anabolic and lipolytic properties, clenbuterol has become a commonly abused drug in bodybuilding industry and is not routinely detected by toxicology screens. This is the first known report of suicide attempt by clenbuterol overdosing. PMID:26802692

  3. Mental pain, communication difficulties, and medically serious suicide attempts: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Levi-Belz, Yossi; Gvion, Yari; Horesh, Netta; Fischel, Tsvi; Treves, Ilan; Or, Evgenia; Stein-Reisner, Orit; Weiser, Mark; David, Haim Shem; Apter, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Medical severe suicide attempts (MSSA) are epidemiologically very similar to individuals who complete suicide. Thus the investigation of individuals who have made MSSAs may add to our understanding of the risk factors for completed suicide. The aim of this study was to assess the role of mental pain and communication difficulties in MSSA. A total of 336 subjects were divided into 4 groups: 78 meeting criteria for MSSA compared with116 subjects who made a medically non-serious suicide attempt (MNSSA), 47 psychiatric controls with no history of suicidal behavior, and 95 healthy controls. Mental pain variants (e.g., hopelessness), facets of communication difficulties (e.g., self-disclosure), as well as socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were assessed. The MSSA had significantly higher communication difficulties than the other 3 groups. Moreover, the interaction between mental pain and communication difficulties explained some of the variance in suicide lethality, above and beyond the contribution of each component alone. This report underlines the importance of mental pain for suicide attempts in general while difficulties in communication abilities play a critical role in differentiating MSSA from MNSSA. The co-existence of unbearable mental pain with difficulties in communication significantly enhances the risk for more lethal forms of suicidal behavior. PMID:24350568

  4. Sleep disturbance and attempted suicide in rural China: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Jia, Cun-Xian; Zhang, Wen-Chao; Wei, Li; Zhang, Ji-Yu; Liu, Xian-Chen

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between sleep disturbance and attempted suicide in rural China. The study group included 409 suicide attempters from six rural counties in Shandong Province, China and an equal number of controls matched on age, sex, and residency. Sleep disturbance was assessed by the item "sleep restless" in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Sleep disturbance was reported more frequently in suicide attempters than in controls (1-2 days/week, 9.0% vs. 4.4%; 3-4 days/week, 11.5% vs. 2.4%; ≥5 days/week, 30.3% vs. 7.5%, χ 2= 128.72, p < 0.001). Suicide risk was significantly associated with increased frequency of sleep disturbance (OR = 3.98, 95% CI = 1.62-9.74 for 1-2 days/week; OR = 3.28, 95% CI = 1.21-8.84 for 3-4 days/week; OR = 2.41, 95% CI = 1.26-4.60 for ≥5 days/week) even after adjusting for potential psychosocial confounding factors and mental disorders. This finding may have important implications for early intervention and prevention of suicide. PMID:25974056

  5. An Unusual Case of Suicide Attempt Using Intravenous Injection of Kerosene.

    PubMed

    Hasan, M N; Sutradhar, S R; Ahmed, S M; Chowdhury, I H

    2016-07-01

    Kerosene belongs to the hydrocarbon group of compounds, used as a fuel for lamps, as well as heating and cooking in developing countries. Accidental kerosene poisoning and intoxication usually occur by inhalation or by occupational percutaneous absorption. Adults usually ingest kerosene for the purpose of self-harm, and children may ingest accidentally. Suicidal attempt using intravenous kerosene is an extra ordinary and very rare occurrence. A very few data are available regarding effects of intravenous administration of kerosene and its management. PMID:27612910

  6. Cervical Mass Following Carotid Attempt at Interventional Repair of Aortic Coarctation: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Dabbagh, Ali; Hekmat, Manuchehr; Ghanavati, Arash; Ghasemi, Abdolrahim

    2010-01-01

    A 4-month-old boy was admitted to our hospital following an unsuccessful attempt at interventional repair of aortic coarctation via the right carotid artery, which seemed to have given rise to the formation and growth of a cervical mass overlying the entry site. Despite the initial anticipation of difficulty during intubation due to the pressure effect of the mass, anesthesia progressed uneventfully, the mass, which was a hematoma, was evacuated, and the coarctation was repaired. The patient was discharged after the operation. At three weeks’ follow-up, there was no significant lesion in the neck and transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated no residual coarctation. PMID:23074567

  7. Clinical Characteristics of the Suicide Attempters Who Refused to Participate in a Suicide Prevention Case Management Program.

    PubMed

    Park, Soyoung; Choi, Kyoung Ho; Oh, Youngmin; Lee, Hae-Kook; Kweon, Yong-Sil; Lee, Chung Tai; Lee, Kyoung-Uk

    2015-10-01

    Case management interventions for suicide attempters aimed at helping adjust their social life to prevent reattempts have high nonparticipation and dropout rates. We analyzed the clinical characteristics of the group who refused to participate in the suicide prevention program in Korea. A total of 489 patients with a suicide attempt who visited Uijeongbu St. Mary's Hospital, the Catholic University of Korea, from December 2009 to December 2013 were analyzed. All patients were divided into the participation group (n = 262) and the refusal group (n = 227) according to their participation in the case management program. Demographic and clinical characteristics of each group were examined. Results showed that the refusal group had low risks for suicide in terms of risk factors related with psychopathologies and presenting suicide behavior. That is, the refusal group had less patients with co-morbid medical illnesses and more patients with mild severity of depression compared to the participation group. However, the refusal group had more interpersonal conflict, more isolation of social integrity, and more impaired insight about suicide attempt. The results suggest that nonparticipation in the case management program may depend upon the patient's impaired insight about the riskiness of suicide and lack of social support. PMID:26425048

  8. Double fracture and wedging of a sewing needle interdentally in an attempt at self-treatment: a case report.

    PubMed

    Harper, Kenneth A

    2002-03-01

    Dental pain occurring whilst abroad may present the patient with a difficult decision: to try and bear it with self-medication until he/she returns home or to seek professional help. This case report outlines a Korean girl's attempt at self-treatment, which resulted in not one but two fragments of a sewing needle wedging between her teeth, the second fracturing as she tried to dislodge the first. Her self-treatment exacerbated her problem and resulted in the need for surgical access to the site to retrieve the broken fragments. The case also illustrates the use of parallax radiography in determining the position of the fragments. PMID:11928345

  9. Analysis of hydrogen cyanide in air in a case of attempted cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, R; Nyholm, S; Åstot, C

    2012-10-10

    A 32-year-old man attempted to poison his ex-girlfriend with hydrogen cyanide by hiding the pesticide Uragan D2 in her car. During the police investigation, chemical analysis of the air inside the car was performed. Hydrogen cyanide was detected through on-site air analysis using a portable Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy gas analyzer and colorimetric gas detection tubes. Furthermore, impinger air-sampling was performed for off-site sample preparation and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All three independent techniques demonstrated the presence of hydrogen cyanide, at concentrations of 14-20 ppm. Owing to the high volatility of hydrogen cyanide, the temperature and the time since exposure have a substantial effect on the likelihood of detecting hydrogen cyanide at a crime scene. The prevailing conditions (closed space, low temperature) must have supported the preservation of HCN in the car thus enabling the identification even though the analysis was performed several days after the hydrogen cyanide source was removed. This paper demonstrates the applicability of combining on-site FTIR measurements and off-site GC-MS analysis of a crime scene in order to ensure fast detection as well as unambiguous identification for forensic purposes of hydrogen cyanide in air. PMID:22704552

  10. The human face behind an ethical dilemma: reflecting on attempted suicide and outcomes of a case study.

    PubMed

    Sneesby, Ludmilla

    2009-09-01

    This paper presents a challenging case study that reflects on the ethical and legal obligations of health-care workers. The case raised issues about the rights of terminally ill patients to refuse or reject treatment, and changed practice with the formulation of procedures and guidelines about self-harm, the wider issue of euthanasia, and the responsibilities of health-care workers in such cases. This case study is the story of Bernie (pseudonym), an 84-year-old man, from his admission to the palliative care outreach service, to his death. At the time of his attempted suicide, he was a patient of a palliative care outreach team at an Austalian hospital. The right of a person to take their own life, respect for autonomy and the actions of health-care workers are the basis of discussion. PMID:19957456

  11. Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy as a Delayed Complication with a Herbicide Containing Glufosinate Ammonium in a Suicide Attempt: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Tominaga, Keiichiro; Izumi, Manabu; Suzukawa, Masayuki; Shinjo, Takafumi; Izawa, Yoshimitsu; Yonekawa, Chikara; Ano, Masaki; Yamashita, Keisuke; Muronoi, Tomohiro; Mochiduki, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    Background. Glufosinate ammonium has a famous delayed complication as respiratory failure, however, delayed cardiogenic complication is not well known. Objectives. The aim of this study is to report a takotsubo cardiomyopathy as a delayed complication of glufosinate ammonium for suicide attempt. Case Report. A 75-year-old woman ingested about 90 mL of Basta, herbicide for suicide attempt at arousal during sleep. She came to our hospital at twelve hours after ingesting. She was admitted to our hospital for fear of delayed respiratory failure. Actually, she felt down to respiratory failure, needing a ventilator with intubation at 20 hours after ingesting. Procedure around respiratory management had smoothly done with no delay. Her vital status had been stable, however, she felt down to circulatory failure and diagnosed as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy at about 41 hours after ingestion. There was no trigger activities or events to evoke mental and physical stresses. Conclusion. We could successfully manage takotsubo cardiomyopathy resulted in circulatory failure in a patient with glufosinate poisoning for suicide attempt. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy should be taken into consideration if circulatory failure is observed for unexplained reasons. PMID:23319956

  12. Retaining a Legacy while Avoiding Trademark Infringement: A Case Study of One University's Attempt to Develop a Consistent Athletic Brand Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alessandri, Sue Westcott

    2007-01-01

    This case study chronicles Syracuse University's athletic department's attempt to achieve consistency in its identity program by changing its identity during 2004, and then again in 2005. The changes were owing to high-level personnel changes on both the academic and athletic sides of the university. This case details the many issues arising from…

  13. Relationship between Personality Profiles and Suicide Attempt via Medicine Poisoning among Hospitalized Patients: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Shafiee-Kandjani, Ali Reza; Amiri, Shahrokh; Arfaie, Asghar; Ahmadi, Azadeh; Farvareshi, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Inflexible personality traits play an important role in the development of maladaptive behaviors among patients who attempt suicide. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between personality profiles and suicide attempt via medicine poisoning among the patients hospitalized in a public hospital. Materials and Methods. Fifty-nine patients who attempted suicide for the first time and hospitalized in the poisoning ward were selected as the experimental group. Sixty-three patients hospitalized in the other wards for a variety of reasons were selected as the adjusted control group. Millon Clinical Multiaxial Personality Inventory, 3rd version (MCMI-III) was used to assess the personality profiles. Results. The majority of the suicide attempters were low-level graduates (67.8% versus 47.1%, OR = 2.36). 79.7% of the suicide attempters were suffering from at least one maladaptive personality profile. The most common maladaptive personality profiles among the suicide attempters were depressive personality disorder (40.7%) and histrionic personality disorder (32.2%). Among the syndromes the most common ones were anxiety clinical syndrome (23.7%) and major depression (23.7%). Conclusion. Major depression clinical syndrome, histrionic personality disorder, anxiety clinical syndrome, and depressive personality disorder are among the predicators of first suicide attempts for the patients hospitalized in the public hospital due to the medicine poisoning. PMID:27433491

  14. Pre-Service Teachers' Attempts at Debating Contemporary Issues in Science Education: A Case Study from Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koosimile, Anthony T.; Suping, Shanah M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper constitutes an attempt to explore trends, issues and challenges that emerge when three different cohorts of pre-service teachers debate contemporary issues in science education at the University of Botswana. Apart from the author's experience of teaching the course, the impetus for this study also comes from a growing interest in the…

  15. Considering Patients' Mental Capacity When Giving Them Bad News May Help Their Well-Being: A Case of Suicide Attempt after Being Informed of Lung Cancer Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Satoshi; Takeuchi, Mitsuo

    2014-01-01

    Mental capacity is a central determinant of patients' ability to make autonomous decisions about their care and deal with bad news. Physicians should be cognizant of this when giving patients bad news in efforts to help them to cope with the illness and to avoid a deterioration of their mental well-being. To show the importance of this concept, a case of suicide attempt with lung cancer is exemplified. A 76-year-old woman attempted suicide after receiving a diagnosis of lung cancer. Her recent life had been emotionally turbulent and she did not have sufficient mental capacity to accept and cope with this truth. She developed depression before attempting suicide. PMID:24963431

  16. Rapid improvement of depressive symptoms in suicide attempters following treatment with milnacipran and tricyclic antidepressants - a case series.

    PubMed

    Kirino, Eiji; Gitoh, Masao

    2011-01-01

    Suicide is a serious social problem in many countries, including Japan. The majority of people who commit suicide suffer from depression. Suicide attempt patients suffering from serious physical injuries are initially treated in hospital emergency departments. The present post hoc analysis examined data from patients admitted to an emergency hospital for treatment of physical injuries, resulting from a suicide attempt, and initial psychiatric treatment for depression and prevention of future suicide attempts. The effects on depressive symptoms were studied in two groups of patients using the 17-item Hamilton depression scale (HAMD). One group (n = 6) had received intravenous tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) (amitriptyline or clomipramine) while the other group (n = 7) had been treated orally with milnacipran, a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor antidepressant. Prior to treatment the four highest scoring items on the HAMD scale were the same in both groups namely, item 1 (depressed mood), item 3 (suicidality), item 7 (interest in work and activities), and item 10 (psychic anxiety). After 1 week of treatment, mean global HAMD scores were significantly reduced in both groups. Treatment resulted in a significant reduction of five HAMD items in the TCA group, whereas in the milnacipran group 12 HAMD items were significantly reduced. Suicidality (item 3) was significantly improved by 1 week treatment with milnacipran, but not by TCAs. Milnacipran rapidly improved a wide range of depressive symptoms, including suicidality within the first week. The improvement with milnacipran would appear to be, at least, equivalent to that achieved with TCAs, possibly affecting a wider range of symptoms. Since milnacipran has been shown in comparative studies to be better tolerated than TCAs, this antidepressant offers an interesting option for the treatment of suicidal patients in an emergency setting. PMID:22247614

  17. Suicide Attempt Characteristics, Diagnoses, and Future Attempts: Comparing Multiple Attempters to Single Attempters and Ideators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Regina; Scott, Michelle; Hicks, Roger; Wilcox, Holly C.; Munfakh, Jimmie Lou Harris; Shaffer, David

    2008-01-01

    The study compares psychiatric diagnoses and future suicide attempt outcomes of multiple attempters (MAs), single attempters (SAs) and ideators. The results conclude that MAs strongly predict later suicide attempts and diagnosis than SAs and ideators.

  18. RESULTS OF A DATING ATTEMPT -CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL MEASUREMENTS RELEVANT TO THE CASE OF THE CRETACEOUS TERTIARY EXTINCTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Asaro, Frank; Michel, Helen V.; Alvarez, Luis W.; Alvarez, Walter

    1980-09-01

    In Gubbio, Italy, a l em layer of clay between extensive limestone formations marks the boundary between the Cretaceous and Tertiary Periods. This clay layer was known to have been deposited about 65 million years ago when many life forms became extinct, but the length of time associated with the deposition was not known. In an attempt to measure this time with normally deposited meteoritic material as a clock, extensive measurements of iridium abundances (and those of many other elements) were made on the Gubbio rocks. Neutron activation analysis was the principal tool used in these studies. About 50 elements are searched for in materials like the earth's crust, about 40 are detected and about 30 are measured with useful precision. We were not able to determine exactly how long the clay deposition took. Instead the laboratory studies on the chemical and physical nature of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary led to the theory that an asteroid collision with the earth was responsible for the extinction of many forms of life including the dinosaurs.

  19. Prolonged Apnea During Modified Electroconvulsive Therapy in a Patient of Suicidal Attempt by Organophosphorus Poisoning: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Dhakne, Rajesh; Mishra, Kshirod K; Kumar, Vinay; Khairkar, Praveen

    2016-06-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticides are commonly used in agricultural fields to control pests in India. However, exposure to it can cause poisoning in humans and animals, or it can be taken intentionally as poison to commit suicide. We present a case of a 35-year-old suicidal man who developed prolonged apnea for almost 4 hours on day 13 of OP poisoning after brief general anesthesia induced by propofol and 1 mg/kg of suxamethonium, during the first session of the third cycle of modified electroconvulsive therapy, despite all due precautions. Such prolonged apnea secondary to complex interactions has been reported very rarely in literature. This case therefore, highlights the importance of careful evaluation and monitoring while giving anesthesia to OP-poisoning patients. PMID:26595234

  20. [An attempt at developing coherent recommendations for jurisdiction in the case of psychoorganic syndrome in which intellectual deficit is revealed].

    PubMed

    Zyss, Tomasz; Hese, Robert T; Zieba, Andrzej; Boroń, Joanna

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, we distinguish three forms of psychoorganic syndrome: 1) oligophrenic, 2) characteropathic, and 3) dementive. According to ICD-10 classification, these disorders should be defined by more modern terms: 1) mental impairment (F7x), 2) personality disorders and behaviors caused by brain injury or brain malfunction (F07), and 3) various forms of dementia (from F00 to F04), respectively. To assess the level of intellectual aptitude, i.e., to confirm the existence of possible intellectual deficits, we can use various neuro-psychological instruments. The most important instrument here is the Wechsler scale, whose results allow for distinguishing six intellectual levels below mental norms. To assess the judicial importance of particular intellectual deficits, the experts should refer to the former Government Ordinance on the rights to earlier retirement benefits of employees having children who require constant care, of May 15, 1989. According to the above mentioned Ordinance, it is only at least moderate mental impairment that may be the sole basis for deciding about the former second disability group (now: complete inability to work). In the case of slight impairment - such a decision may be issued only if the impairment occurs together with other serious disorders severely impairing organism functioning. In other words, slight mental impairment can justify the certification of mere partial inability to work. Following this line of thought, we must say that lesser intellectual deficits, such as borderline cases or intelligence below average, should not be formally the premises of judicial value. It seems sensible to issue similar guidelines also in the case of dementive syndromes, that is, secondary intellectual deficits occurring at mature or old age. PMID:17571522

  1. Self-injection of household cleaning detergents into a ventriculoperitoneal shunt reservoir during a suicide attempt: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Signorelli, Jason W; Osbun, Joshua W; Arias, Eric J; Reynolds, Lauren C; Chyatte, Douglas; Reynolds, Matthew R

    2016-09-01

    Self-injection of household cleaning detergents (more specifically, commercial toilet bowl cleaner) into the reservoir of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) has never been reported in the neurosurgical literature. A right-handed 41-year-old female with a past medical history significant for bipolar depression (with multiple prior hospital admissions for suicide attempts) and pseudotumor cerebri (status-post VPS placement from a right frontal approach) successfully injected ∼5 ml of toilet bowl cleaner into her ventricular shunt reservoir during a suicide attempt. She was found unresponsive by a family member 48 h after this event and presented to our hospital in moribund neurological condition (bilaterally fixed and dilated pupils with decerebrate posturing). Head computed tomography (CT) demonstrated marked ventriculomegaly. She was taken emergently to the operating room for placement of a left frontal ventriculostomy. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sampled intraoperatively showed numerous Gram-positive cocci (later determined to be Staphylococcus epidermidis). For this reason, her right-sided shunt system was also removed in its entirety. She was treated with broad-spectrum intravenous and intraventricular antibiotics for her bacterial ventriculitis and her CSF was aggressively drained to treat her hydrocephalus. Once her infection had resolved, the shunt was replaced (using a right parietal approach) and she went on to make an excellent neurological recovery. Here, the authors present the case of a patient who self-injected household cleaning detergents into her VPS reservoir-and, likely, the ventricular system-during a suicide attempt and subsequently developed hydrocephalus and ventriculitis. Following this infrequent clinical scenario, consideration should be given to temporary ventriculostomy placement and shunt removal. Moreover, in patients with a known history of psychiatric co-morbidities-and particularly those patients with prior suicide attempts

  2. Increased deep sleep in a medication-free, detoxified female offender with schizophrenia, alcoholism and a history of attempted homicide: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Nina; Tani, Pekka; Takala, Pirjo; Sailas, Eila; Putkonen, Hanna; Eronen, Markku; Virkkunen, Matti

    2004-01-01

    Background Psychiatric sleep research has attempted to identify diagnostically sensitive and specific sleep patterns associated with particular disorders. Both schizophrenia and alcoholism are typically characterized by a severe sleep disturbance associated with decreased amounts of slow wave sleep, the physiologically significant, refreshing part of the sleep. Antisocial behaviour with severe aggression, on the contrary, has been reported to associate with increased deep sleep reflecting either specific brain pathology or a delay in the normal development of sleep patterns. The authors are not aware of previous sleep studies in patients with both schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder. Case presentation The aim of the present case-study was to characterize the sleep architecture of a violent, medication-free and detoxified female offender with schizophrenia, alcoholism and features of antisocial personality disorder using polysomnography. The controls consisted of three healthy, age-matched women with no history of physical violence. The offender's sleep architecture was otherwise very typical for patients with schizophrenia and/or alcoholism, but an extremely high amount of deep sleep was observed in her sleep recording. Conclusions The finding strengthens the view that severe aggression is related to an abnormal sleep pattern with increased deep sleep. The authors were able to observe this phenomenon in an antisocially behaving, violent female offender with schizophrenia and alcohol dependence, the latter disorders previously reported to be associated with low levels of slow wave sleep. New studies are, however, needed to confirm and explain this preliminary finding. PMID:15507139

  3. Attempted homicide by electrocution.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, H; Karger, B

    1998-01-01

    Attempted homicide by the application of a high-voltage, low-amperage current is reported in an elderly male. An electrician constructed an apparatus and applied the current to wet towels placed on the abdomen of the victim sleeping next door. The attempt was unsuccessful and resulted in burns only. The victim was hospitalised and died 3 weeks later. A causal connection could not be established between the attempted electrocution and the demise of the victim. PMID:9826095

  4. Intelsat VI Capture Attempt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The first single crewmember EVA capture attempt of the Intelsat VI as seen from Endeavour's aft flight deck windows. EVA Mission Specialist Pierre Thuot standing on the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) end effector platform, with the satellite capture bar attempting to attach it to the free floating communications satellite.

  5. Young People's Risk of Suicide Attempts after Contact with a Psychiatric Department--A Nested Case-Control Design Using Danish Register Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiansen, Erik; Larsen, Kim Juul

    2012-01-01

    Background: There seems to be an increased risk of children and adolescents committing or attempting suicide after contact with a psychiatric department. Children and adolescents living in families with low socio-economic status (SES) might have an especially increased suicide attempt risk. Methods: A complete extraction of Danish register data…

  6. Socio-Demographic, Clinical and Behavioral Characteristics Associated with a History of Suicide Attempts among Psychiatric Outpatients: A Case Control Study in a Northern Mexican City

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Arnaud-Gil, Carlos Alberto; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Molina-Espinoza, Luis Fernando; Rábago-Sánchez, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the epidemiology of suicide attempts among psychiatric outpatients in Mexico. This study was aimed to determine the socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics associated with suicide attempts in psychiatric outpatients in two public hospitals in Durango, Mexico. Methods: Two hundred seventy six psychiatric outpatients (154 suicide attempters and 122 patients without suicide attempt history) attended the two public hospitals in Durango City, Mexico were included in this study. Socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics were obtained retrospectively from all outpatients and compared in relation to the presence or absence of suicide attempt history. Results: Increased prevalence of suicide attempts was associated with mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use (F10-19) (P=0.01), schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders (F20-29) (P=0.02), mood (affective) disorders (F30-39) (P<0.001), and disorders of adult personality and behavior (F60-69) (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that suicide attempts were associated with young age (OR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.06-1.39; P=0.003), female gender (OR=2.98, 95% CI: 1.55-5.73; P=0.001), urban residence (OR=2.31, 95% CI: 1.17-4.57; P=0.01), memory impairment (OR=1.91, 95% CI: 1.07-3.40; P=0.02), alcohol consumption (OR=2.39, 95% CI: 1.21-4.70; P=0.01), and sexual promiscuity (OR=3.90, 95% CI: 1.74-8.77; P<0.001). Conclusions: We report the association of suicide attempts with socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics in psychiatric outpatients in Mexico. Results may be useful for an optimal planning of preventive measures against suicide attempts in psychiatric outpatients. PMID:24711751

  7. Repeated suicide attempts.

    PubMed

    Mynatt, S

    2000-12-01

    Attempted suicide is an act associated with childhood sexual abuse, depression, bipolar illness, substance abuse, and other diagnoses, as documented in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1994). Three women, who attended a group to decrease their depression and increase their self-esteem and who had histories of multiple suicide attempts, agreed to participate in interviews designed to determine the common factors associated with their suicide attempts and to examine the assertion that their suicide attempts were an addiction, similar to their addictions to alcohol and drugs. The common factors found were depression, substance use disorders with early abuse and risky behaviors, history of sexual abuse, faulty relationships, alteration of mood with a suicide plan, and distorted and illogical thinking and motivation. The similarities to addiction also were described. Based on the complexity of factors that emerged and the addictive nature of the suicide attempts, treatment for similar patients needs to be multidimensional and ongoing to allow sufficient time to monitor progress and address the numerous factors involved. PMID:11131404

  8. [Attempted suicide and depression].

    PubMed

    Stenager, E N; Christensen, L L; Jepsen, I M; Krarup, G; Petersen, P; Rasmussen, G T; Benjaminsen, S

    1991-03-18

    The frequency of depressive illness was investigated in 195 patients who had been referred consecutively after attempted suicide during the period 15. February 1989-15, October 1989. A total of 130 of these patients were admitted to hospital while the remainder were treated in the psychiatric emergency room or admission department. Registration of depressive symptoms on admission revealed that 85% had depressed mood and other depressive symptoms. According to the criteria established by Feighner et al. 51% suffered from definite depressive disease on admission. According to Zung's Depression Scale, 60% were depressed. On the basis of observations during hospitalization, 25% suffered from depressive disease according to the criteria established by Feighner et al. 19% of these patients suffered from endogenic depression according to the Newcastle I scale which corresponds to 5% of all the hospitalized patients with attempted suicide. Approximately 10% were treated with antidepressives. Only 8% were discharged with the diagnoses of endogenic or reactive psychoses (ICD-8). It is concluded that depressive symptoms occur in the majority of patients with attempted suicide but that slight non-endogenic depressive states are most commonly concerned and that many of these improve rapidly during hospitalization without medicinal treatment. Restraint should be observed in prescription of antidepressive medicine to patients with attempted suicide until the diagnosis of depressive disease is verified. PMID:2014567

  9. Alcohol Consumption and Nearly Lethal Suicide Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Kenneth E.; Kresnow, Marcie-jo; Mercy, James A.; Potter, Lloyd B.; Swann, Alan C.; Frankowski, Ralph F.; Lee, Roberta K.; Bayer, Timothy L.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a case-control study of the association between nearly lethal suicide attempts and facets of alcohol consumption; namely, drinking frequency, drinking quantity, binge drinking, alcoholism, drinking within 3 hours of suicide attempt, and age began drinking. In bivariate analyses, all measures were associated with nearly lethal suicide…

  10. Our Attempts in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanichai, Yupa

    During the last decade of twentieth century astronomical articles in Thai scientific magazines were out of date. Interacting galaxies blackholes and other celestial objects beyond solar system were hardly found. While a pocket book for deep space was purposefully written by a lecturer a website of astronomy for Thais was planned by the cooperation of two computer programmers. An obseravatory with 600-mm reflector was the first attempt by a Thai engineer. The product of the first 150-mm reflector Dosonian made in Thailand is sold in low price. Future optical programs are now being planned to be made by Thais. These people have recently worked together to develope astronomy in Thailand.

  11. An attempt to extend the Habitat Harshness Hypothesis to tidal flats: A case study of Anomalocardia brasiliana (Bivalvia: Veneridae) reproductive biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corte, Guilherme Nascimento; Yokoyama, Leonardo Querobim; Amaral, A. Cecília Z.

    2014-10-01

    The Habitat Harshness Hypothesis (HHH) predicts that populations inhabiting the intertidal area of a dissipative beach should produce more gametes and have a longer reproductive cycle than those inhabiting an intermediate or reflective beach. This hypothesis was proposed for the exposed morphodynamic continuum between the reflective and dissipative states; however, no attempt has been made thus far to verify whether the HHH is valid for tidal flats. In this study, we analysed the reproductive cycle of Anomalocardia brasiliana in an intermediate beach and in a tidal flat and compared the results to determine whether the reproductive cycles of A. brasiliana were in agreement with the predictions of the HHH and to examine the possibility of extending this hypothesis to tidal flats. A continuous spawning season and synchrony between sexes were observed at both sites, although the reproductive effort was higher in the intermediate beach. The results of this first attempt did not support the extension of the HHH to tidal flats. It is possible that hypotheses that take into account only physical variables may not be the most adequate for describing environments with such a high species richness and high abundance as tidal flats. Nevertheless, other studies are necessary to confidently expand or refute the HHH with regard to tidal flats, and this topic should be considered as a priority in future investigations in sandy beach ecology.

  12. Dacryomeniscometry: an early attempt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Arthur; Papas, Eric B.; Keshavarzi, Kaykhosrow; Lum, Edward; Ehrmann, Klaus

    2000-06-01

    The pre-corneal tear layer provides an important optical as well as physiological function. Hence, the ability to assess the quality and behavior of tears, especially in dry-eye, marginal dry-eye and contact lens patients is important. While a large range of clinical tests exists for assessing tear quality, many are subjective and show poor repeatability. Since the tear meniscus is dependent on factors such as volume, viscosity and 'wettability,' we attempted to develop an optical system for imaging the tear meniscus. A basic prototype to test feasibility has been constructed. An algorithm for computing the profile of the meniscus was also developed. The methodology is described together with some examples of tear menisci imaged and analyzed.

  13. Myocardial Injury without Electrocardiographic Changes after a Suicide Attempt by an Overdose of Glimepiride and Zolpidem: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Chou, Shengpu; Ayabe, Seiji; Sekine, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    A 40-year-old diabetic man was admitted to our hospital for poor glycemic control. During hospitalization, he took 42 mg glimepiride and 50 mg zolpidem as a suicide attempt. The following day, the creatine kinase-MB fraction and troponin I levels were elevated to 112 IU/L and 8.77 ng/mL, respectively, without any electrocardiographic abnormalities. The patient recovered completely without any complications. Four weeks later, coronary computed tomography angiography and myocardial perfusion scintigraphy revealed moderate one-vessel coronary disease without the evidence of myocardial ischemia or old infarction. Cardiac-specific markers must be considered in sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycemic patients, particularly when the patient is unconscious and does not exhibit any clinical manifestations. PMID:26521901

  14. Surviving a Suicide Attempt

    PubMed Central

    Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al Maqbali, Mandhar; Al-Sinawi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a global phenomenon in all regions of the world affecting people of all age groups. It has detrimental consequences on patients, their families, and the community as a whole. There have been numerous risk factors described for suicide including mental illness, stressful life situations, loss of social support, and general despair. The association of suicide with Islam has not been extensively studied. The common impression from clinical practice is that being a practicing Muslim reduces the risk of suicide. Another factor associated with suicide is starting a patient on antidepressants. However, this has been questioned recently. This report describes a middle-aged man with depression and multiple social stressors who survived a serious suicide attempt. The discussion will focus on the factors that lead him to want to end his life and the impact of the assumed protective factors such as religious belief and family support on this act of self-harm. Such patients can be on the edge when there is an imbalance between risk factors (such as depression, insomnia, and psychosocial stressors) and protective factors (like religious affiliation and family support). All physicians are advised to assess the suicide risk thoroughly in patients with depression regardless of any presumed protective factor. PMID:27602193

  15. Surviving a Suicide Attempt.

    PubMed

    Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al Maqbali, Mandhar; Al-Sinawi, Hamed

    2016-09-01

    Suicide is a global phenomenon in all regions of the world affecting people of all age groups. It has detrimental consequences on patients, their families, and the community as a whole. There have been numerous risk factors described for suicide including mental illness, stressful life situations, loss of social support, and general despair. The association of suicide with Islam has not been extensively studied. The common impression from clinical practice is that being a practicing Muslim reduces the risk of suicide. Another factor associated with suicide is starting a patient on antidepressants. However, this has been questioned recently. This report describes a middle-aged man with depression and multiple social stressors who survived a serious suicide attempt. The discussion will focus on the factors that lead him to want to end his life and the impact of the assumed protective factors such as religious belief and family support on this act of self-harm. Such patients can be on the edge when there is an imbalance between risk factors (such as depression, insomnia, and psychosocial stressors) and protective factors (like religious affiliation and family support). All physicians are advised to assess the suicide risk thoroughly in patients with depression regardless of any presumed protective factor. PMID:27602193

  16. Psychopathology Associated with Suicide Attempts among Rural Adolescents of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xianchen; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.; Zhao, Zhongtang

    2005-01-01

    This case control study examined the relationship between psychopathological profiles and self reported suicide attempts among rural adolescents of China. Cases consisted of 142 adolescents who reported a suicide attempt in the past 6 months in a questionnaire survey (n = 1,365). An equal number of adolescents without reporting a suicide attempt,…

  17. Attempted Suicide among Iranian Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheikholeslami, Homayoun; Kani, Camellia; Ziaee, Amir

    2008-01-01

    Predictors of suicide attempts in Iran, to distinguish any similarities and differences of these predictors between suicide attempts in Iran and other developed and developing countries and to investigate the relation between general psychiatric symptoms and repetition of suicidal attempts were assessed. The validated Farsi version of the General…

  18. Forest Planning in an Oregon Case Study: Defining the Problem and Attempting to Meet Goals with a Spatial-Analysis Technique

    PubMed

    Bettinger; Johnson; Sessions

    1996-07-01

    Five major management goals were identified for the upper Grande Ronde River Basin on the Wallowa-Whitman National Forest in northeastern Oregon: to produce high-quality fish habitat, to maintain elk habitat, to restore and maintain forest conditions within the natural range of viability, and to contribute to community economic stability. From the broad goals, specific goals for stream temperature, habitat effectiveness index (HEI), habitat corridors, maintenance of land in late or old seral stages, and a nondeclining even flow of timber were selected. A case study was undertaken in a small watershed that is under typical societal constraints to determine whether one decision-support tool, SNAP II+, could evaluate the selected goals in a single planning exercise. Three riparian management strategies and two forest road scenarios were used. The exclusion of harvest and road-building from riparian zones in order to increase habitat protection decreased harvest levels and net present value but maintained preactivity stream temperatures. Other resources were generally maintained within prescribed management levels. Although the technique has limitations (e.g., it does not account for riparian zones in calculations of forage and cover for HEI, and it can use the maximum but not minimum acreage goal for some resources), it shows promise for evaluating management tradeoffs in watershed analysis. PMID:8661622

  19. Forest planning in an Oregon case study: Defining the problem and attempting to meet goals with a spatial-analysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettinger, Pete; Johnson, K. Norman; Sessions, John

    1996-07-01

    Five major management goals were identified for the upper Grande Ronde River Basin on the Wallowa-Whitman National Forest in northeastern Oregon: to produce high-quality fish habitat, to maintain elk habitat, to restore and maintain forest conditions within the natural range of viability, and to contribute to community economic stability. From the broad goals, specific goals for stream temperature, habitat effectiveness index (HEI), habitat corridors, maintenance of land in late or old seral stages, and a nondeclining even flow of timber were selected. A case study was undertaken in a small watershed that is under typical societal constraints to determine whether one decisionsupport tool, SNAP II+, could evaluate the selected goals in a single planning exercise. Three riparian management strategies and two forest road scenarios were used. The exclusion of harvest and road-building from riparian zones in order to increase habitat protection decreased harvest levels and net present value but maintained preactivity stream temperatures. Other resources were generally maintained within prescribed management levels. Although the technique has limitations (e.g., it does not account for riparian zones in calculations of forage and cover for HEI, and it can use the maximum but not minimum acreage goal for some resources), it shows promise for evaluating management tradeoffs in watershed analysis.

  20. An Attempt to Describe Frequency-Correlations among kHz QPOs and HBOs by Two-Armed Vertical p-Mode Oscillations: Case of No Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Shoji

    2012-12-01

    The trapping of two-armed (m = 2) vertical p-mode oscillations in relativistic disks is examined. The disks are assumed to be isothermal in the vertical direction, but are truncated at a certain height by the presence of corona. The same issues were examined in a previous paper (Kato 2012a). In this paper, unlike the previous paper, however, we do not use the approximation that the oscillations are nearly vertical, but limit to a simpler case of no magnetic field. As in the previous paper, the results suggest that the two basic oscillation modes [both are the fundamental (n =1) in the vertical direction, but in the horizontal direction one is the fundamental (nr = 0) and the other the first overtone (nr =1)] correspond to the twin kHz QPOs. Second, the oscillation mode, which is the first overtone (n =2) in the vertical direction and the fundamental in the horizontal direction (nr =0), will correspond to the horizontal branch oscillation (HBO) of Z-sources. The latter suggests that the horizontal branch of Z-sources is a sequence of temperature change in disks whose vertical thickness is strongly terminated. The temperature increases leftward along the sequence from the apex between the normal and horizontal branches.

  1. MMP3 and TIMP2 gene variants as predisposing factors for Achilles tendon pathologies: Attempted replication study in a British case-control cohort.

    PubMed

    El Khoury, Louis; Ribbans, William J; Raleigh, Stuart M

    2016-09-01

    Variants within the MMP3 (rs679620) and TIMP2 (rs4789932) genes have been associated with the risk of Achilles tendon pathology (ATP) in populations from South Africa and Australia. This study aimed to determine whether these variants were associated with the risk of ATP in British Caucasians. We recruited 118 cases with ATP, including a subset of 25 individuals with Achilles tendon rupture (RUP) and 131 controls. DNA samples were isolated from saliva and genotyped using qPCR. For the TIMP2 rs4789932 variant we found a significant (p = 0.038) difference in the genotype distribution frequency between males with ATP (CC, 39.4%; CT, 43.7%; TT, 16.9%) compared to male controls (CC, 20.7%; CT, 59.8%; TT, 19.5%). We also observed a difference in the TIMP2 rs4789932 genotype distribution between males with rupture compared to male controls (p = 0.038). The MMP3 rs679620 GG genotype was found to be overrepresented in the Achilles tendon rupture (RUP) group (AA, 24.0%; AG, 32.0%; GG, 44.0%) compared to controls (AA, 26.7%; AG, 54.2%; GG, 19.1%). In conclusion, the CT genotype of the TIMP2 rs4789932 variant was associated with lower risk of ATP in males. Furthermore, while we revealed differences for both variants in genotype distribution between the RUP and control groups, the sample size of the RUP group was small and confirmation would be required in additional cohorts. Finally, although both the TIMP2 rs4789932 and MMP3 rs679620 variants tentatively associated with ATP, there were differences in the direction of association compared to earlier work. PMID:27222816

  2. Factors associated with adolescent suicidal attempts in Greece.

    PubMed

    Beratis, S

    1990-01-01

    The cultural characteristics of a population may affect the relevant importance of the various factors involved in suicidal attempts. This study investigated the factors which led Greek adolescents to such attempts. Family disruption was significantly greater in the attempters than in the control subjects. However, parental restriction of the youngsters' personal freedom emerged as the major factor resulting in suicidal attempts. It was reported by 55% of the attempters and only by 17% of the control subjects. In 48% of the attempters, restriction of freedom was the reason for quarrels and strained relationship between them and their parents. Psychiatric disorders were significantly more frequent in the attempters (57%) than in the control subjects (3%). Youngsters with multiple attempts (41% of the cases) were more frequently associated with psychiatric disorders than youngsters with one attempt. The findings indicate that suppression of personal freedom by the parents is a major risk factor for suicidal attempts in Greek adolescent girls. PMID:2277824

  3. Cognitive Distortions and Suicide Attempts.

    PubMed

    Jager-Hyman, Shari; Cunningham, Amy; Wenzel, Amy; Mattei, Stephanie; Brown, Gregory K; Beck, Aaron T

    2014-08-01

    Although theorists have posited that suicidal individuals are more likely than non-suicidal individuals to experience cognitive distortions, little empirical work has examined whether those who recently attempted suicide are more likely to engage in cognitive distortions than those who have not recently attempted suicide. In the present study, 111 participants who attempted suicide in the 30 days prior to participation and 57 psychiatric control participants completed measures of cognitive distortions, depression, and hopelessness. Findings support the hypothesis that individuals who recently attempted suicide are more likely than psychiatric controls to experience cognitive distortions, even when controlling for depression and hopelessness. Fortune telling was the only cognitive distortion uniquely associated with suicide attempt status. However, fortune telling was no longer significantly associated with suicide attempt status when controlling for hopelessness. Findings underscore the importance of directly targeting cognitive distortions when treating individuals at risk for suicide. PMID:25294949

  4. Cardiovascular collapse with attempted pericardial drain withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Molly B; Spitznagel, Rachel A; Kugler, Jane A

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac tamponade is a rare but serious emergency condition in the pediatric population. As treatment, a pericardial drain is often placed to evacuate the fluid. We present a case of a 4-year-old girl with cardiac tamponade secondary to renal failure. After the tamponade resolved, she suffered cardiovascular collapse upon attempted drain withdrawal. This case highlights an unusual cause for cardiovascular collapse, which occurred on blind removal of a pericardial drain. PMID:27625522

  5. Temperament Characteristics of Suicide Attempters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrabian, Albert; Weinstein, Lisa

    1985-01-01

    In a preliminary study of a single group of suicide attempters, male and female subjects did not differ in temperament characteristics. Data from both sexes indicated that suicide-prone individuals have unpleasant, arousable, and submissive temperaments, with arousability a strong discriminator of suicide attempters relative to the general…

  6. Suicide attempts in a emergency hospital.

    PubMed

    Alves, Verônica de Medeiros; Silva, Amanda Mirlla Santos da; Magalhães, Ana Paula Nogueira de; Andrade, Tiago Gomes de; Faro, Ana Cristina Mancussi e; Nardi, Antonio E

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to characterize the profiles of suicide attempts that were attended to in the Hospital of Alagoas in the year 2010. Four hundred sixty-one charts and service bulletins were analyzed. Patients attempting suicide were predominately female. There were significant difference for suicide attempts (SAs) among men and women in the age of 10 to 19 years and 60 to 69 years. Women have tried more suicide aged between 10 and 19 years and men between 60 and 69 years. The ingestion of drugs was the most frequent method for women; and poisoning, use of sharp objects and hanging for men. The results of this study may contribute to elaboration, planning and implementation of preventive measures to reduce cases of SAs. PMID:24604366

  7. [Fluctuations and seasonality in suicidal attempts].

    PubMed

    Polewka, Andrzej; Szkolnicka, Beata; Targosz, Dorota; Groszek, Barbara; Kroch, Stanisław; Chrostek Maj, Jan; Zieba, Andrzej

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze seasonality and temporal fluctuations in suicide attempts by persons living in Krakow and hospitalized in the Department of Clinical Toxicology CMUJ in the years 2000-2002. The research focussed on the frequency of suicide attempts in relation to the time of the day, day of the week, and month of the year. Temporal fluctuations in the frequency of suicide attempts have been assessed on the basis of the data from medical documentation concerning 2757 suicide attempts by individuals ranging in age from 14 to 90 years. The group consisted of 1607 females and 1150 males. According to the results of the research, seasonality and temporal fluctuations in the frequency of suicide attempts is different for males and females. In the case of the males examined, no dependence between the frequency of suicide attempts and a particular month or season has been observed. In the case of females, on the contrary, the data indicate the existence of a seasonal pattern with the peak in the spring (or early part of the summer), and in the autumn--in October and November. In males, the peak day for attempted suicide was Monday, whereas in females--Sunday and Monday. As regards the time of the day, both the results of the present research and data collected by WHO/EURO indicate that suicide attempts occurred most frequently in the evening, late in the evening or in the early part the night. In conclusion, it has been emphasized that the majority of suicide attempts, especially by females, occurs late in the evening or early in the night. This finding seems to be of particular importance for suicide prevention--it can contribute to the increase in the effectiveness of the organization of work in the Crisis Intervention Centres and make therapists and patients' families aware of the existence of periods of an increased suicide risk. The research has been conducted owing to the cooperation between the department of Clinical Toxicology, CMUJ and the

  8. Prosecuting attempted suicides in London: 1891-1913.

    PubMed

    Lester, David

    2009-12-01

    A study of 30 cases of attempted suicide tried at the Old Bailey criminal court in London (England) from 1891 to 1913 indicated that having made prior attempts was the only predictor of the severity of the sentence. 22 individuals were tried for murdering or attempting to murder their child and also attempting suicide. None of the murderers but half of the attempted murderers were found not guilty, or guilty then released. Mothers used drowning more than did fathers and were more likely to be found not guilty. PMID:20099544

  9. Suicide attempt with a mix of synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones: Case report of non-fatal intoxication with AB-CHMINACA, AB-FUBINACA, alpha-PHP, alpha-PVP and 4-CMC.

    PubMed

    Klavž, Janez; Gorenjak, Maksimiljan; Marinšek, Martin

    2016-08-01

    We report on a case of intoxication with a mix of new psychoactive substances. A 38-year-old male was brought to the emergency department (ED) following the ingestion of an unknown drug in a suicide attempt. During the transport, he became progressively more somnolent and unresponsive to painful stimuli. Urine and stomach content were collected on admission to be screened for drugs of abuse and medicinal drugs. After admission, the patient's next of kin presented five small grip seal plastic bags containing different powders/crystals, and they were sent for analysis along with urine and stomach content to the toxicology laboratory. An easy and rapid sample preparation technique was applied for the extraction of urine and stomach content. Samples were extracted with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) technique and analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A small amount of powder material from the bags was diluted in methanol and injected directly into the GC-MS instrument. Obtained spectra (EI) were evaluated against SWGDRUG library. Five different designer drugs were identified in the powder material, including synthetic cannabinoids (AB-CHMINACA, AB-FUBINACA) and synthetic cathinones (alpha-PHP, alpha-PVP and 4-CMC). With the exception of 4-CMC, all of these substances were also detected in the stomach content along with the prescription drugs. This is the first time that a positive identification of these five drugs has been made by a clinical laboratory in Slovenia. PMID:26890319

  10. Negative Life Events and Attempted Suicide in Rural China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen-Chao; Jia, Cun-Xian; Zhang, Ji-Yu; Wang, Lin-Lin; Liu, Xian-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to examine the association between negative life events (NLEs) and attempted suicide in rural China. Methods Six rural counties were selected from disease surveillance points in Shandong province, China. A total of 409 suicide attempters in rural areas between October 1, 2009, and March 31, 2011, and an equal number of matched controls were interviewed. We compared negative life events experienced within 1 month, 1–3 months, 3–6months, and 6–2 months prior to attempted suicide for cases and prior to interview for controls. We used multivariate logistic regression to examine the association between NLEs and attempted suicide. Results Suicide attempters experienced more NLEs within the last year prior to suicide attempt than controls prior to interview (83.1% vs. 33.5%). There was a significant dose-response relationship between NLEs experienced within the last year and increased risk of attempted suicide. Timing of NLEs analysis showed that NLEs experienced in the last month and 6–12 months prior to suicide attempt were significantly associated with elevated risk of attempted suicide, even after adjusting for mental disorders and demographic factors. Of NLEs, quarrelling with spouse, quarrelling with other family members, conflicting with friends or neighbors, family financial difficulty, and serious illness were independently related to attempted suicide. Conclusion NLEs are significantly associated with increased risk for attempted suicide in rural China. Stress management and intervention may be important to prevent suicidal behavior in rural China. PMID:25611854

  11. Filicide, attempted filicide, and psychotic disorders.

    PubMed

    Valença, Alexandre M; Mendlowicz, Mauro V; Nascimento, Isabella; Nardi, Antonio E

    2011-03-01

    The objective of the study was to describe and discuss the cases of two women who faced criminal charges, one for attempting to murder her three children and the other for killing her 1-year-old boy. After a forensic psychiatric assessment of their level of criminal responsibility, these patients were considered not guilty by reason of insanity and were committed to forensic mental hospitals. These two patients received a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia, according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria. In both cases, psychotic symptoms were present before the manifestation of violent behavior, in the form of persecutory delusions, auditory hallucinations, and pathological impulsivity. The investigation into cases of filicide may contribute powerfully to expand our understanding of motivational factors underlying this phenomenon and enhance the odds for effective prevention. PMID:21210804

  12. [Suicide attempt: encounter, evaluation, orientation].

    PubMed

    Edan, Anne; Pigois, Eva; Stephan, Philippe; Barbe, Rémy

    2013-02-20

    Suicide and suicide attempts of adolescents are major public health issues. Based on a model of care developed in Geneva, we describe the conditions necessary to evaluate and guide a teenager trapped in a suicidal behavior. First of all, there must be some time dedicated to pediatric assessement followed by a psychiatric evaluation and finally, the adolescent can be oriented toward specific treatment. Depending on the clinical characteristics of the young adolescent and according to his willingness to engage himself in intensive follow-up (impulsivity, anxious?--depressive symptomatology...), cares will be given either as outpatient with close monitoring or inpatient. PMID:23477225

  13. Exploring the Association between Serum BDNF and Attempted Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Eisen, Rebecca B.; Perera, Stefan; Bawor, Monica; Dennis, Brittany B.; El-Sheikh, Wala; DeJesus, Jane; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Vair, Judith; Sholer, Heather; Hutchinson, Nicole; Iordan, Elizabeth; Mackie, Pam; Islam, Shofiqul; Dehghan, Mahshid; Brasch, Jennifer; Anglin, Rebecca; Minuzzi, Luciano; Thabane, Lehana; Samaan, Zainab

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death and a significant public health concern. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein important to nervous system function, has been implicated in psychiatric disorders and suicidal behaviour. We investigated the association between serum levels of BDNF and attempted suicide in a sample of 281 participants using a case-control study design. Participants were recruited from clinical and community settings between March 2011 and November 2014. Cases (individuals who had attempted suicide) (n = 84) were matched on sex and age (within five years) to both psychiatric controls (n = 104) and community controls (n = 93) with no history of suicide attempts. We collected fasting blood samples, socio-demographic information, physical measurements, and detailed descriptions of suicide attempts. We used linear regression analysis to determine the association between BDNF level (dependent variable) and attempted suicide (key exposure variable), adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, current smoking status, and antidepressant use. 250 participants were included in this analysis. In the linear regression model, attempted suicide was not significantly associated with BDNF level (β = 0.28, SE = 1.20, P = 0.82). Our findings suggest that no significant association exists between attempted suicide and BDNF level. However, the findings need to be replicated in a larger cohort study. PMID:27121496

  14. Homicide attempt with a Japanese samurai sword.

    PubMed

    Raul, Jean-Sébastien; Berthelon, Laurent; Geraut, Annie; Tracqui, Antoine; Ludes, Bertrand

    2003-07-01

    The use of Japanese swords for homicidal attempts is rare. A Japanese samurai sword is a sharp and cutting object. When faced with the use of this weapon, one must distinguish between stabs and incised wounds. Incised wounds can rarely lead to death, but because of the size of the weapon, stabs usually cause much more serious injuries. Stabs also imply a penetrating movement, whereas incised wounds can be the consequence of protective circular blows. Therefore, it is important to distinguish clinically between these two kinds of wounds. We report a case where the perpetrator argued he had given a circular blow, unfortunately hitting the victim. The pieces of evidence are discussed. PMID:12877304

  15. When attempts at robbing prey turn fatal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejean, Alain; Corbara, Bruno; Azémar, Frédéric; Carpenter, James M.

    2012-07-01

    Because group-hunting arboreal ants spread-eagle insect prey for a long time before retrieving them, these prey can be coveted by predatory flying insects. Yet, attempting to rob these prey is risky if the ant species is also an effective predator. Here, we show that trying to rob prey from Azteca andreae workers is a fatal error as 268 out of 276 potential cleptobionts (97.1 %) were captured in turn. The ant workers hunt in a group and use the "Velcro®" principle to cling firmly to the leaves of their host tree, permitting them to capture very large prey. Exceptions were one social wasp, plus some Trigona spp. workers and flies that landed directly on the prey and were able to take off immediately when attacked. We conclude that in this situation, previously captured prey attract potential cleptobionts that are captured in turn in most of the cases.

  16. 50 CFR 38.15 - Attempt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.15 Attempt. No person on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge will attempt to commit any offense prohibited by this part....

  17. 50 CFR 38.15 - Attempt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.15 Attempt. No person on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge will attempt to commit any offense prohibited by this part....

  18. 50 CFR 38.15 - Attempt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.15 Attempt. No person on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge will attempt to commit any offense prohibited by this part....

  19. 50 CFR 38.15 - Attempt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.15 Attempt. No person on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge will attempt to commit any offense prohibited by this part....

  20. 50 CFR 38.15 - Attempt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.15 Attempt. No person on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge will attempt to commit any offense prohibited by this part....

  1. Predeployment Riskiest Time for Military Suicide Attempts

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159029.html Predeployment Riskiest Time for Military Suicide Attempts Two months into service is a pivotal ... 25, 2016 WEDNESDAY, May 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Suicide attempts in the military aren't necessarily combat- ...

  2. Adolescent suicide attempts and adult adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Brière, Frédéric N.; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Klein, Daniel; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescent suicide attempts are disproportionally prevalent and frequently of low severity, raising questions regarding their long-term prognostic implications. In this study, we examined whether adolescent attempts were associated with impairments related to suicidality, psychopathology, and psychosocial functioning in adulthood (objective 1) and whether these impairments were better accounted for by concurrent adolescent confounders (objective 2). Method 816 adolescents were assessed using interviews and questionnaires at four time points from adolescence to adulthood. We examined whether lifetime suicide attempts in adolescence (by T2, mean age 17) predicted adult outcomes (by T4, mean age 30) using linear and logistic regressions in unadjusted models (objective 1) and adjusting for sociodemographic background, adolescent psychopathology, and family risk factors (objective 2). Results In unadjusted analyses, adolescent suicide attempts predicted poorer adjustment on all outcomes, except those related to social role status. After adjustment, adolescent attempts remained predictive of axis I and II psychopathology (anxiety disorder, antisocial and borderline personality disorder symptoms), global and social adjustment, risky sex, and psychiatric treatment utilization. However, adolescent attempts no longer predicted most adult outcomes, notably suicide attempts and major depressive disorder. Secondary analyses indicated that associations did not differ by sex and attempt characteristics (intent, lethality, recurrence). Conclusions Adolescent suicide attempters are at high risk of protracted and wide-ranging impairments, regardless of the characteristics of their attempt. Although attempts specifically predict (and possibly influence) several outcomes, results suggest that most impairments reflect the confounding contributions of other individual and family problems or vulnerabilites in adolescent attempters. PMID:25421360

  3. Risk Factors for Attempting Suicide in Prisoners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarchiapone, Marco; Carli, Vladimir; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Roy, Alec

    2009-01-01

    We wished to examine determinants of suicidal behavior in prisoners. 903 male prisoners had a psychiatric interview which included various psychometric tests. Suicide attempters were compared with prisoners who had never attempted suicide. Significantly more of the attempters had a history of psychiatric disorder, substance abuse, a family history…

  4. Attempted Suicide Triggers in Thai Adolescent Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sukhawaha, Supattra; Arunpongpaisal, Suwanna; Rungreangkulkij, Somporn

    2016-06-01

    The study goal was to describe attempted suicide triggers in Thai adolescents. A descriptive exploratory qualitative study approach was used utilizing in-depth interviews with twelve adolescents who had attempted suicide and six of their parents. Content analysis was conducted. Attempted suicide triggers were (1) severe verbal criticisms and expulsion to die by a significant family member, (2) disappointed and unwanted by boyfriend in first serious relationship, (3) unwanted pregnancy, and (4) mental illness leading to intense emotions and irresistible impulses. These attempted suicide triggers should be of concern and brought into suicide prevention management programs such as emotional management, effective communication for adolescents and family. PMID:27256938

  5. The Teacher Leadership Process: Attempting Change within Embedded Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Kristy S.; Stanulis, Randi N.; Brondyk, Susan K.; Hamilton, Erica R.; Macaluso, Michael; Meier, Jessica A.

    2016-01-01

    This embedded case study examines the leadership practices of eleven teacher leaders in three urban schools to identify how these teacher leaders attempt to change the teaching practice of their colleagues while working as professional learning community leaders and as mentors for new teachers. Using a theoretical framework integrating complex…

  6. Suicide Attempters within a Delinquent Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Contrasted 30 delinquent adolescents who had attempted suicide with 120 delinquent controls. Suicidal ideation, depression, gender, a tendency to act out, conflict with parents, childhood hyperactivity, and the interactions of gender with depression and with acting out accounted for 49 percent of the variance in suicide attempts. (Author)

  7. Unsuccessful Retrieval Attempts Enhance Subsequent Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornell, Nate; Hays, Matthew Jensen; Bjork, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Taking tests enhances learning. But what happens when one cannot answer a test question--does an unsuccessful retrieval attempt impede future learning or enhance it? The authors examined this question using materials that ensured that retrieval attempts would be unsuccessful. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants were asked fictional…

  8. Selected Risk Factors in Adolescent Suicide Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adcock, Anthony G.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined stress, depression, attempted suicide, and knowledge of common signs of potential suicide among 3,803 eighth and tenth graders. Found females at greater risk of suicide attempts than males. Both males and females who engaged in sexual intercourse and alcohol consumption were at greater risk than abstainers; such differences were more…

  9. Attempted suicide of an adolescent with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Katsunaka; Onishi, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    Although the suicide risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been suggested to be higher than previously recognized, there are few case reports focusing on the process for preventing suicide reattempts. We reported that a 17-year-old male who had attempted suicide by jumping was admitted to our emergency department and hospitalized for lumbar spine fracture. In addition to the diagnosis of adjustment disorder, he was diagnosed as ASD according to his life history. This article presents the characteristics of the suicidal behaviors and the process for preventing a suicide reattempt associated with an adolescent with ASD who attempted suicide. PMID:25084822

  10. [Abnormal daytime drowsiness--attempt at typology].

    PubMed

    Meier-Ewert, K

    1991-11-01

    Abnormal drowsiness during the day is defined on the basis of three criteria: 1. subjective feeling of increased tiredness, 2. objective observation of attacks of falling asleep, 3. detection of premature falling asleep in the multiple sleep latency test. About 3 to 4% of the population of modern industrial countries complain of this symptom which very quickly leads to inability to work in numerous occupations (driving instructors, lorry drivers, airline pilots). In many cases, the symptoms can be eliminated by effective methods of treatment. Early diagnosis and therapy is hence an important task of physicians. Clinically suitable tools and methods of measurement for appraising the phenomena are at present: 1. the multiple sleep latency test (Richardson et al., 1978), 2. the multiple staying awake test (Mitler et al., 1982), 3. the vigilance test according to Quatember and Maly from the Vienna test system. In neurophysiological terms, an attempt is made to differentiate between: REM drowsiness, non-REM drowsiness, hypofunction of the arousal systems of the reticular formation, and hyperfunction and overstimulation of the arousal systems of the reticular formation (over-aroused tiredness). Approaches to a clinical typology of abnormal drowsiness are available from two points of departure: 1. Forms of permanent somnolence which are not alleviated but intensified by a brief restorative sleep and resemble the 'oversleeping syndrome' of the healthy individual. 2. Attacks of imperative falling asleep in narcoleptic patients. The characteristic of this form of abnormal drowsiness during the day is that in the interval between the attacks of falling asleep patients can take on any healthy person with regard to alertness, reaction capacity and ready wit. After a brief restorative sleep of less than 5 min., they immediately feel fresh, alert and fit again. PMID:1754972

  11. Psychosocial Stressors and Patterns of Coping in Adolescent Suicide Attempters

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Anju; Nanoo, Subha

    2013-01-01

    Context: Different risk factors associated with adolescent suicide attempts have been identified including those of socio-demographic and clinical variables. Relatively, little research has been done in the area of their stressors and coping patterns. Aims: To study the recent psychosocial stressors and patterns of coping associated with adolescent suicide attempts. Settings and Design: Tertiary care hospital, case-control study. Materials and Methods: One hundred consecutive cases of adolescent attempted suicide admitted to the hospital and an equal number of controls, matched individually for age and sex, from the relatives and friends of other patients in the ward, were studied. Assessment included details regarding socio-demographic data, psychiatric and physical morbidity, their recent stressors, and patterns of coping. Stressors were assessed using Presumptive Stressful Life Event Scale and coping strategies by Ways of Coping Questionnaire (revised). Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: The number of stressful life events and mean stress scores in the preceding 1 month and certain coping strategies such as confronting, distancing, and escape-avoidance were found to be significant risk factors associated with adolescent suicide attempts. Strategies such as self-control, seeking social support, accepting responsibilities, problem solving, and positive appraisal act as protective factors. Conclusions: Recent stressors and strategies such as confronting, distancing, and escape-avoidance are significant risk factors associated with adolescent suicide attempts, whereas certain coping strategies act as protective factors. Teaching adolescents these protective coping patterns may be a promising strategy for prevention of adolescent suicide attempts. PMID:23833341

  12. Suicide attempts in women with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Pisetsky, Emily M; Thornton, Laura M; Lichtenstein, Paul; Pedersen, Nancy L; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2013-11-01

    We evaluated whether the prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts/completions was higher in women with a lifetime history of an eating disorder than in women with no eating disorder and assessed whether eating disorder features, comorbid psychopathology, and personality characteristics were associated with suicide attempts in women with anorexia nervosa, restricting subtype (ANR), anorexia nervosa, binge-purge subtype (ANBP), lifetime history of both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa (ANBN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and purging disorder (PD). Participants were part of the Swedish Twin study of Adults: Genes and Environment (N = 13,035) cohort. Lifetime suicide attempts were identified using diagnoses from the Swedish National Patient and Cause of Death Registers. General linear models were applied to evaluate whether eating disorder category (ANR, ANBP, ANBN, BN, BED, PD, or no eating disorder [no ED]) was associated with suicide attempts and to identify factors associated with suicide attempts. Relative to women with no ED, lifetime suicide attempts were significantly more common in women with all types of eating disorder. None of the eating disorder features or personality variables was significantly associated with suicide attempts. In the ANBP and ANBN groups, the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric conditions was higher in individuals with than without a lifetime suicide attempt. The odds of suicide were highest in presentations that included purging behavior (ANBN, ANBN, BN, and PD), but were elevated in all eating disorders. To improve outcomes and decrease mortality, it is critical to be vigilant for suicide and identify indices for those who are at greatest risk. PMID:24364606

  13. Suicidal Attempt and Psychiatric Disorders in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Rahgozart, Mehdi; Noorbala, Ahmad Ali; Malekafzali, Hossein; Davidian, Haratoun; Naghavi, Hamidreza; Soori, Hamid; Yazdi, Seyed Abbas Bagheri

    2005-01-01

    This study is part of broader research aimed to determine the lifetime prevalence and pattern of comorbidity on self-reported suicidal attempts in the general population of Iran. Overall, 25,180 subjects were interviewed, face-to-face, at home; the lifetime prevalence was 1.4% (0.9% males and 2% females). The majority of attempters were 26-55…

  14. Poststroke suicide attempts and completed suicides

    PubMed Central

    Glader, Eva-Lotta; Norrving, Bo; Asplund, Kjell

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We examined attempted and completed suicides after stroke to determine whether they were associated with socioeconomic status, other patient characteristics, or time after stroke. Methods: This nationwide cohort study included stroke patients from Riksstroke (the Swedish Stroke Register) from 2001 to 2012. We used personal identification numbers to link the Riksstroke data with other national registers. Suicide attempts were identified by a record of hospital admission for intentional self-harm (ICD-10: X60-X84), and completed suicides were identified in the national Cause of Death Register. We used multiple Cox regression to analyze time from stroke onset to first suicide attempt. Results: We observed 220,336 stroke patients with a total follow-up time of 860,713 person-years. During follow-up, there were 1,217 suicide attempts, of which 260 were fatal. This was approximately double the rate of the general Swedish population. Patients with lower education or income (hazard ratio [HR] 1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11–1.68) for primary vs university and patients living alone (HR 1.73, 95% CI 1.52–1.97) had an increased risk of attempted suicide, and patients born outside of Europe had a lower risk compared to patients of European origin. Male sex, young age, severe stroke, and poststroke depression were other factors associated with an increased risk of attempted suicide after stroke. The risk was highest during the first 2 years after stroke. Conclusions: Both clinical and socioeconomic factors increase the risk of poststroke suicide attempts. This suggests a need for psychosocial support and suicide preventive interventions in high-risk groups of stroke patients. PMID:25832661

  15. Temperament and character of suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Calati, Raffaella; Giegling, Ina; Rujescu, Dan; Hartmann, Annette M; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; De Ronchi, Diana; Serretti, Alessandro

    2008-09-01

    Temperamental features are strongly associated with suicidal behaviors both in general population and clinical samples. In the present study we considered the association between personality traits, measured by Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), and suicidal behavior. We analyzed five samples: a German control sample of 1148 healthy individuals; 144 German suicide attempters affected by Mood (n=101), Schizophrenia spectrum (n=20) and Borderline Personality (n=23) Disorders; 46 Italian suicide attempters affected by Mood Disorders (UP=15; BP=31); 76 German non-suicide Mood Disorder patients; 147 Italian non-suicide Mood Disorder patients. Suicide attempters showed higher scores in Harm Avoidance (HA) and lower scores in Self-Directedness (SD) and Cooperativeness (C), when compared to controls. Nevertheless, comparing the German and the Italian suicide attempter groups with the non-suicide Mood Disorder patient groups, no differences were detected. This could be due to the effect of Mood Disorder on personality. In conclusion, the present study reveals the difficulty to disentangle the personality profile of suicide attempters from their psychopathology. Those findings may be useful for cautions in further dissecting this complex phenotype. PMID:18054960

  16. Decision-making competence and attempted suicide

    PubMed Central

    Szanto, Katalin; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Parker, Andrew M; Hallquist, Michael N; Vanyukov, Polina M; Dombrovski, Alexandre Y

    2015-01-01

    Objective The propensity of people vulnerable to suicide to make poor life decisions is increasingly well documented. Do they display an extreme degree of decision biases? The present study used a behavioral decision approach to examine the susceptibility of low-lethality and high-lethality suicide attempters to common decision biases, which may ultimately obscure alternative solutions and deterrents to suicide in a crisis. Method We assessed older and middle-aged individuals who made high-lethality (medically serious; N=31) and low-lethality suicide attempts (N=29). Comparison groups included suicide ideators (N=30), non-suicidal depressed (N=53), and psychiatrically healthy participants (N=28). Attempters, ideators, and non-suicidal depressed participants had unipolar non-psychotic major depression. Decision biases included sunk cost (inability to abort an action for which costs are irrecoverable), framing (responding to superficial features of how a problem is presented), under/overconfidence (appropriateness of confidence in knowledge), and inconsistent risk perception. Data were collected between June of 2010 and February of 2014. Results Both high- and low-lethality attempters were more susceptible to framing effects, as compared to the other groups included in this study (p≤ 0.05, ηp2 =.06). In contrast, low-lethality attempters were more susceptible to sunk costs than both the comparison groups and high-lethality attempters (p≤ 0.01, ηp2 =.09). These group differences remained after accounting for age, global cognitive performance, and impulsive traits. Premorbid IQ partially explained group differences in framing effects. Conclusion Suicide attempters’ failure to resist framing may reflect their inability to consider a decision from an objective standpoint in a crisis. Low-lethality attempters’ failure to resist sunk-cost may reflect their tendency to confuse past and future costs of their behavior, lowering their threshold for acting on suicidal

  17. Factors Associated With Suicidal Attempts in Iran: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hakim Shooshtari, Mitra; Malakouti, Seyyed Kazem; Panaghi, Leili; Mohseni, Shohreh; Mansouri, Naghmeh; Rahimi Movaghar, Afarin

    2016-01-01

    Context: Suicide prevention is a health service priority. Some surveys have assessed suicidal behaviors and potential risk factors. Objectives: The current paper aimed to gather information about etiology of suicide attempts in Iran. Data Sources: Pubmed, ISI web of science, PsychInfo, IranPsych, IranMedex, IranDoc as well as gray literature were searched. Study Selection: By electronic and gray literature search, 128 articles were enrolled in this paper. Pubmed, ISI web of science, PsychInfo, IranPsych, IranMedex, IranDoc were searched for electronic search. After reading the abstracts, 84 studies were excluded and full texts of 44 articles were reviewed critically. Data Extraction: Pubmed, ISI web of science, PsychInfo, IranPsych, IranMedex, IranDoc as well as gray literature were searched to find any study about etiologic factors of suicide attempt in Iran. Results: Depressive disorder was the most common diagnosis in suicide attempters that is 45% of the evaluated cases had depression. One study that had used Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI) found that Histrionics in females and Schizophrenia and Paranoia in males were significantly influential. Family conflicts with 50.7% and conflict with parents with 44% were two effective psychosocial factors in suicidal attempts. In around one fourth (28.7%) of the cases, conflict with spouse was the main etiologic factor. Conclusions: According to the methodological limitations, outcomes should be generalized cautiously. Further studies will help to plan preventive strategies for suicidal attempts; therefore, continued researches should be conducted to fill the data gaps. PMID:27284284

  18. Hopelessness and attempted suicide: a reconsideration.

    PubMed

    Pokorny, A D; Kaplan, H B; Tsai, S

    1975-09-01

    The authors administered measures of depression, hopelessness, and strength of suicidal intent to a sample of 112 suicide attempters. The results for the 55 subjects diagnosed as depressive and admitted within 72 hours after their attempt were compared with results obtained by Minkoff and associates using comparable measures. Contrary to the findings of the earlier study, there was a lower correlation between hopelessness and intent than between depression and intent. The authors suggest that demographic differences between the two samples may provide explanations for this descrepancy, in the that they reflect the presence or absence of external societal supports that may influence the suicidogenic potential of hopelessness. PMID:1155633

  19. SERUM LIPID PROFILE IN SUICIDE ATTEMPTERS

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Sandeep; Trivedi, J.K.; Singh, H.; Dalal, P.K.; Asthana, O.P.; Srivastava, J.S.; Mishra, Rakesh; Ramakant; Sinha, P.K.

    1999-01-01

    Practical difficulties associated with assessment of central parameters necessitates the development of peripheral markers of suicidal risk. Recent research suggest that serum lipid profile may be a useful indicator of suicidal behaviour. Serum lipid profiles of forty suicide attempters were compared with forty age, sex and BMI matched controls. Total serum cholesterol, serum Triglyceride, LDL levels and HDL levels were found to be lower in suicide attempters but were not statistically significant. Statistically significant negative con-elation was seen between risk-rescue score and above mentioned parameters. No statitically significant difference was observed when various diagnostic break-up groups of patients were compared. PMID:21430801

  20. First Attempts at Asteroid Shape Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Maurice

    2012-05-01

    Results are presented from initial attempts at asteroid shape-modeling. Three asteroids were chosen in this study: 1708 Polit, 2036 Sheragul and 3015 Candy. Observations used in this study were made by the author, at a variety of locations, most recently at the Preston Gott Observatory at Texas Tech University.

  1. Impaired Decision Making in Adolescent Suicide Attempters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridge, Jeffrey A.; McBee-Strayer, Sandra M.; Cannon, Elizabeth A.; Sheftall, Arielle H.; Reynolds, Brady; Campo, John V.; Pajer, Kathleen A.; Barbe, Remy P.; Brent, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Decision-making deficits have been linked to suicidal behavior in adults. However, it remains unclear whether impaired decision making plays a role in the etiopathogenesis of youth suicidal behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine decision-making processes in adolescent suicide attempters and never-suicidal comparison…

  2. Lethality of Suicide Attempt Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, K.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Presents an 11-point scale for measuring the degree of lethality of suicide attempts. The scale has nine example "anchors" and uses the relative lethality of an extensive table of drugs. The scale can be used reliably by nonmedical personnel with no prior training. (Author/BL)

  3. Association between Terror Attacks and Suicide Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weizman, Tal; Yagil, Yaron; Schreiber, Shaul

    2009-01-01

    Based on Durkheim's "Control theory," we explored the association between frequency of terror attacks in Israel and the frequency of suicide attempts admitted to the Emergency Room of a major general hospital in Tel-Aviv (1999-2004). Analysis of the six-year study period as a whole revealed no significant correlation between the variables, with…

  4. Autobiographical Memory and Suicide Attempts in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettersen, Kenneth; Rydningen, Nora Nord; Christensen, Tore Buer; Walby, Fredrik A.

    2010-01-01

    According to the cry of pain model of suicidal behavior, an over-general autobiographical memory function is often found in suicide attempters. The model has received empirical support in several studies, mainly of depressed patients. The present study investigated whether deficits in autobiographical memory may be associated with an increased…

  5. Suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Kelly, B; Raphael, B; Judd, F; Perdices, M; Kernutt, G; Burnett, P; Dunne, M; Burrows, G

    1998-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the prevalence and predictors of suicidal ideation and past suicide attempt in an Australian sample of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative homosexual and bisexual men. Sixty-five HIV-negative and 164 HIV-positive men participated. A suicidal ideation score was derived from using five items selected from the Beck Depression Inventory and the General Health Questionnaire (28-item version). Lifetime and current prevalence rates of psychiatric disorder were evaluated with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule Version-III-R. The HIV-positive (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] Stage IV) men (n = 85) had significantly higher total suicidal ideation scores than the asymptomatic HIV-positive men (CDC Stage II/III) (n = 79) and the HIV-negative men. High rates of past suicide attempt were detected in the HIV-negative (29%) and HIV-positive men (21%). Factors associated with suicidal ideation included being HIV-positive, the presence of current psychiatric disorder, higher neuroticism scores, external locus of control, and current unemployment. In the HIV-positive group analyzed separately, higher suicidal ideation was discriminated by the adjustment to HIV diagnosis (greater hopelessness and lower fighting spirit), disease factors (greater number of current acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS]-related conditions), and background variables (neuroticism). Significant predictors of a past attempted suicide were a positive lifetime history of psychiatric disorder (particularly depression diagnoses), a lifetime history of infection drug use, and a family history of suicide attempts. The findings indicate increased levels of suicidal ideation in symptomatic HIV-positive men and highlight the role that multiple psychosocial factors associated with suicidal ideation and attempted suicide play in this population. PMID:9775697

  6. Attempting to Balance Wiki-Feminism: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno, Walter

    2013-01-01

    There has been a long culture war over the validity of "Wikipedia" for research. Many university departments banned it as a primary source starting around 2007, but many others still allow it as a heuristic prompt. Certainly, one knows that students are still going to "Wikipedia" and dabbling in it. This reflects a recent gain in "Wikipedia"…

  7. [Transcultural social psychiatric treatment. Case report of a suicide attempt].

    PubMed

    Zinck, H

    1984-01-01

    This article reports on the treatment of a young Moroccan woman in a psychiatric department located near the patient's domicile. This woman suffered under the mental stress imposed by an unwanted pregnancy leading to a severe mental and social conflict with the traditional cultural values and standards upheld by her family and troubling her conscience. The aetiology is discussed on the basis of the hypothesis that the conflict of loyalties of immigrants between traditional cultural standards and those of their present country of residence can develop into a cultural intrafamilial conflict in the minds of the younger, second generation. The article concludes with suggestions to achieve therapeutic orientation aids in the treatment of patients who have their roots in countries with an entirely different pattern of culture. Two suggestions are underlined: on the one hand, to enlist the help of a person from the same country of origin as the patient, who will be able to aid the therapist with relevant information; and, on the other hand, to include the family of the patient in the overall treatment concept. PMID:6709769

  8. Court upholds man's conviction for attempted murder.

    PubMed

    1996-04-01

    A three-judge panel of the Oregon Court of Appeals upheld the jury conviction of [name removed]. Mr. [Name removed] was found guilty of ten counts of attempted murder and attempted assault for engaging in unprotected sex with the knowledge that he is HIV-positive. The Appeals Court panel found that there was ample evidence to show that [name removed] knew about his HIV status, lied about his serostatus, disregarded warnings not to engage in unprotected sex, and threatened to spread the virus to others. [Name removed] engaged in unprotected sex with an underage girl and a series of women, even after signing an agreement not to engage in sex without permission from his probation officer. The appeals court rejected the defense attorney's argument that [name removed] meant to satisfy his sexual urges and did not intend to cause harm or death. PMID:11363273

  9. Drug Addiction as Risk for Suicide Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Dragisic, Tatjana; Dickov, Aleksandra; Dickov, Veselin; Mijatovic, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Suicide is closely linked to the substances use. Therefore it is very important to confirm the factors that affect the possibility of suicidal behavior. Methodology: The survey included 200 respondents; 100 heroin addicts on the substitution program that attempted suicide and 100 opiate addicts who have not attempted suicide. The evaluation included a questionnaire with socio-demographic, hereditary and addiction data, legal problems and then the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–MMPI-2. Results: The results showed a statistically significant difference compared to the personality structure, especially pronounced in hypersensitive structures, in relation to the duration of addictive experience and duration of heroin by intravenous route, as well as in relation to the presence of psychotic disorders, drug abuse and suicidal behavior in the family. Conclusion: As risk factors among opiate addicts are indentified interfered biological and psychological factors and the effects of the substances themselves. PMID:26236166

  10. First Attempts at Antihydrogen Trapping in ALPHA

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, G. B.; Bowe, P. D.; Hangst, J. S.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Charlton, M.; Humphries, A. J.; Jenkins, M. J.; Joergensen, L. V.; Madsen, N.; Werf, D. P. van der; Bray, C. C.; Chapman, S.; Fajans, J.; Povilus, A.; Wurtele, J. S.; Cesar, C. L.; Lambo, R.; Silveira, D. M.; Fujiwara, M. C.

    2008-08-08

    The ALPHA apparatus is designed to produce and trap antihydrogen atoms. The device comprises a multifunction Penning trap and a superconducting, neutral atom trap having a minimum-B configuration. The atom trap features an octupole magnet for transverse confinement and solenoidal mirror coils for longitudinal confinement. The magnetic trap employs a fast shutdown system to maximize the probability of detecting the annihilation of released antihydrogen. In this article we describe the first attempts to observe antihydrogen trapping.

  11. Attempted and completed suicide in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Spirito, Anthony; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne

    2006-01-01

    Suicide is the third leading cause of death in adolescence, and medically serious suicide attempts occur in approximately 3% of adolescents. This review examines a number of risk factors that contribute to suicidal behavior. A prior suicide attempt is one of the best predictors of both a repeat attempt and eventual completed suicide. Depression, disruptive behavior disorders, and substance-use disorders also place adolescents at high risk for suicidal behavior, with comorbidity further increasing risk. Research on families indicates that suicidal behavior is transmitted through families. Groups at high risk for suicidal behavior include gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths, incarcerated adolescents, and homeless/runaway teens. Although abnormalities in the serotonergic system have not been consistently linked to suicidal behavior, genetic and neurobiologic studies suggest that impulsive aggression may be the mechanism through which decreased serotonergic activity is related to suicidal behavior. Findings from prevention and intervention studies are modest and indicate the need for substantially more theory-driven treatment research. PMID:17716070

  12. Social Risk and Protective Factors for Suicide Attempts in Low Income African American Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaslow, Nadine J.; Sherry, Alissa; Bethea, Kafi; Wyckoff, Sarah; Compton, Michael T.; Grall, Marnette Bender; Scholl, Larry; Price, Ann Webb; Kellermann, Arthur; Thompson, Nancy; Parker, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted to examine a broad array of potential social risk and protective factors for suicide attempt among 200 African American men and women receiving care at a large, public, urban hospital. Specifically, we examined the effect of the following potential risk factors for suicide attempt: life hassles, partner abuse,…

  13. Modifiable Risk Factors for Attempted Suicide in Australian Clinical and Community Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Gregory L.; Page, Andrew; Clover, Kerrie; Taylor, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Modifiable risk factors for suicide attempt require identification in clinical and community samples. The aim of this study was to determine if similar social and psychiatric factors are associated with suicide attempts in community and clinical settings and whether the magnitude of effect is greater in clinical populations. Two case-control…

  14. Psychosocial Risk Factors for Future Adolescent Suicide Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewinsohn, Peter M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined psychosocial risk factors for attempting suicide in 1,508 high school students, 26 of whom attempted suicide during year following entry into study. Strongest predictors of future suicide attempt were history of past attempt, current suicidal ideation and depression, recent attempt by friend, low self-esteem, and having been born to…

  15. An attempt to diagnose cancer by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uda, M.; Maeda, K.; Sasa, Y.; Kusuyama, H.; Yokode, Y.

    1987-03-01

    PIXE is suitable especially for trace elemental analysis for atoms with high atomic numbers, which are contained in matrices composed mainly of light elements such as biological materials. An attempt has been made to distinguish elemental concentrations of cancer tissues from those of normal ones. Kidney, testis and urinary bladder cancer tissues were examined by PIXE. Key elements to diagnose these cancers were Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe and Zn. Enrichment of Fe and Ti, and deficiency of Zn could be seen in the kidney cancer. An opposite tendency was observed in the testicular cancer. Imbalance of these elemental concentrations in characteristic organs might give us a possibility for cancer diagnosis.

  16. Intrapersonal Positive Future Thinking Predicts Repeat Suicide Attempts in Hospital-Treated Suicide Attempters

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Although there is clear evidence that low levels of positive future thinking (anticipation of positive experiences in the future) and hopelessness are associated with suicide risk, the relationship between the content of positive future thinking and suicidal behavior has yet to be investigated. This is the first study to determine whether the positive future thinking–suicide attempt relationship varies as a function of the content of the thoughts and whether positive future thinking predicts suicide attempts over time. Method: A total of 388 patients hospitalized following a suicide attempt completed a range of clinical and psychological measures (depression, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, suicidal intent and positive future thinking). Fifteen months later, a nationally linked database was used to determine who had been hospitalized again after a suicide attempt. Results: During follow-up, 25.6% of linked participants were readmitted to hospital following a suicide attempt. In univariate logistic regression analyses, previous suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, hopelessness, and depression—as well as low levels of achievement, low levels of financial positive future thoughts, and high levels of intrapersonal (thoughts about the individual and no one else) positive future thoughts predicted repeat suicide attempts. However, only previous suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, and high levels of intrapersonal positive future thinking were significant predictors in multivariate analyses. Discussion: Positive future thinking has predictive utility over time; however, the content of the thinking affects the direction and strength of the positive future thinking–suicidal behavior relationship. Future research is required to understand the mechanisms that link high levels of intrapersonal positive future thinking to suicide risk and how intrapersonal thinking should be targeted in treatment interventions. PMID:25181026

  17. After Sample-Delivery Attempt, Sol 62

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander collected a soil sample and attempted to deliver some of it to a laboratory oven on the deck during the mission's 62nd Martian day, or sol, (July 28, 2008). The sample came from a hard layer at the bottom of the 'Snow White' trench and might have contained water ice mixed with the soil. This image taken after the attempt to deliver the sample through the open doors to cell number zero on the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer shows that very little of the soil fell onto the screened opening.

    Not enough material reached the oven, through a funnel under the screen, to proceed with analysis of the sample material.

    Phoenix's Robotic Arm Camera took this image at 7:54 a.m. local solar time on Sol 62. The size of the screened opening is about 10 centimeters (4 inches) long by 4 centimeters (1.5 inches) wide.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Suicides and Medically Serious Attempters Are of the Same Population in Chinese Rural Young Adults1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Sun, Long; Conwell, Yeates; Qin, Ping; Jia, Cun-Xian; Xiao, Shuiyuan; Tu, Xin-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background Suicide rates in China are among the highest in the world, although there has been a decreasing trend in the past few years. One practical approach to study the characteristics and risk factors of suicide is to interview the suicide attempters. Aims It was to compare completed suicides with serious attempters that may shed lights on suicide prevention strategies. Method This is a combination of two case control studies for suicide completers and suicide attempters respectively. After a sample of suicides (n=392) and community living controls (n=416) were obtained and studied in rural China, we collected in the same rural areas data of suicide attempt and studied 507 medically serious attempters and 503 community counterparts. Results Characteristics and previously observed risk factors were compared between the suicides and the attempters, and we found that the demographic characteristics and risk factors for the suicides were also for the medically serious attempters but at some lesser degrees for the attempters than for the suicides. It was especially true of suicide intent, deficient coping, negative life events, and impulsivity. While most of the demographic characteristics were not significantly different between the suicides and the attempters, most of the clinical variables could distinguish the two groups. Conclusions The suicide victims and the serious attempters could be of the same group of people who were at the edge of fatal self-injury, and the same clinical risk factors but of different degrees have divided them into the life and death groups. PMID:25723561

  19. Serious Suicide Attempts: Evidence on Variables for Manage and Prevent this Phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Mento, Carmela; Presti, Eleonora Lo; Mucciardi, Massimo; Sinardi, Angelo; Liotta, Marco; Settineri, Salvatore

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the variables shown to be linked to serious suicide attempts. Cases requiring emergency admission to intensive care were collected from medical records of the University Hospital in Messina (Italy) for the years 2006-2010. 107 cases of serious attempted suicide were examined, 39 of which ended in the death of the patient. The results showed the following variables to be linked highly significantly (P < 0.01) and have good nominal association (V > 0.30) with a fatal suicidal attempt: the year of the attempt, deceased father, history of physical illness prior to hospitalization and method used to carry out the suicide attempt. These results confirm the severity and the multidisciplinary importance of this phenomenon. PMID:26399518

  20. Aspirations of Latina adolescent suicide attempters

    PubMed Central

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Gulbas, Lauren; Zayas, Luis H.

    2013-01-01

    Parents’ aspirations and expectations are communicated to their offspring. Children internalize their parents’ aspirations and accept some of the expectations while rejecting others, all part of the developmental process and identity-consolidation. When the aspirations and expectations of youth and parents are incongruent, the outcomes in youths’ behavior can be deleterious, such as when adolescents manifest suicidal behaviors. We examined aspirations expressed by 12 Latina adolescent suicide attempters and their parents and compared them to 12 non-suicidal Latinas and parents. Qualitative analyses revealed that incongruence of aspirations between girls and their parents were greater among suicidal teens. Suicidal and non-suicidal Latinas presented contrasting aspirations: the former on gaining independence and the latter on completing their education and pursuing careers. Findings may inform developmental research and ways in which clinicians and policymakers can help Latinas achieve their own and their parents’ aspirations. PMID:24013464

  1. Predicting the Suicide Attempts of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Augelli, Anthony R.; Grossman, Arnold H.; Salter, Nicholas P.; Vasey, Joseph J.; Starks, Michael T.; Sinclair, Katerina O.

    2006-01-01

    In this study predictors of serious suicide attempts among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth were examined. Three groups were compared: youth who reported no attempts, youth who reported attempts unrelated to their sexual orientation, and youth whose attempts were considered related to their sexual orientation. About one third of respondents…

  2. Further Suicidal Behavior Among Medically Serious Suicide Attempters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beautrais, Annette L.

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of rates of further suicidal behavior among individuals making medically serious suicide attempts may help to predict suicide and suicide attempt from baseline characteristics of the individual and the index suicide attempt. Data are drawn from a 5-year study of 302 individuals making medically serious suicide attempts with information…

  3. Adolescent Suicide Attempters: What Predicts Future Suicidal Acts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groholt, Berit; Ekeberg, Oivind; Haldorsen, Tor

    2006-01-01

    Predictors for repetition of suicide attempts were evaluated among 92 adolescent suicide attempters 9 years after an index suicide attempt (90% females). Five were dead, two by suicide. Thirty-one (42%) of 73 had repeated a suicide attempt. In multiple Cox regression analysis, four factors had an independent predictive effect: comorbid disorders,…

  4. Attempts to detect lycopersene formation in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Scharf, S. S.; Simpson, K. L.

    1968-01-01

    1. β-Ionone vapour has been shown to cause an increase in the more saturated carotenes and a decrease in the less saturated carotenes of Rhodotorula glutinis. Lycopersene (dihydrophytoene) has been proposed as a precursor to phytoene. Attempts were made to isolate lycopersene from β-ionone-treated cultures of R. glutinis. 2. Large samples of β-ionone-treated cultures were examined for the presence of lycopersene. Spots were detected on silicic acid plates that could not be differentiated from synthetic lycopersene on the basis of column and thin-layer chromatographic separations and staining techniques. The lycopersene-like substance could be obtained from non-treated pigmented yeast as well as baker's yeast. 3. An extraction of bacterial-grade yeast extract also yielded a lycopersene-like substance. The extracts of R. glutinis cells cultured on media not containing yeast extract did not contain the lycopersene-like compound. 4. No significant carbon was incorporated into the lycopersene zone from 14C-labelled mevalonate, acetate and glucose by R. glutinis and baker's yeast. 5. These results indicate that compounds may exist with chromatographic properties similar to lycopersene, but that lycopersene could not be detected in either a pigmented or a non-pigmented yeast. PMID:5753091

  5. Psychiatric Genocide: Nazi Attempts to Eradicate Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Torrey, E. Fuller; Yolken, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Although the Nazi genocide of Jews during World War II is well known, the concurrent Nazi genocide of psychiatric patients is much less widely known. An attempt was made to estimate the number of individuals with schizophrenia who were sterilized and murdered by the Nazis and to assess the effect on the subsequent prevalence and incidence of this disease. It is estimated that between 220 000 and 269 500 individuals with schizophrenia were sterilized or killed. This total represents between 73% and 100% of all individuals with schizophrenia living in Germany between 1939 and 1945. Postwar studies of the prevalence of schizophrenia in Germany reported low rates, as expected. However, postwar rates of the incidence of schizophrenia in Germany were unexpectedly high. The Nazi genocide of psychiatric patients was the greatest criminal act in the history of psychiatry. It was also based on what are now known to be erroneous genetic theories and had no apparent long-term effect on the subsequent incidence of schizophrenia. PMID:19759092

  6. [Leg amputation as a result of attempted voluntary abortion].

    PubMed

    Quéreux, C; Soutoul, J H; Ritter, P; Pierre, F

    1991-01-01

    The authors looked at the clinical situation and the possible pathogenicity which in this case was almost certainly traumatic. It would explain the total absence of one leg at the delivery of a baby who had no other psychomotor changes. They used this very exceptional case history of the loss of the lower limb after an attempt at terminating a pregnancy to study the matter from the French and foreign bibliography on the subject, which anyhow is very short. There was an attempt to terminate a pregnancy at an undisclosed duration of amenorrhoea (between 9 and 13 weeks) by suction evacuation followed by curettage. On the medico-legal side the authors analysed the reasons why there was no penal indictment brought at the same time as the civil action was brought prosecution, and also points out that the Conseil d'Etat decided, contrary to the Administrative Tribunal who were petitioned as to the responsibility for the serious handicap this child suffered to be established publically. They analysed the evolution of judicial and administrative jurisprudence on the matter of failure to terminate a pregnancy. The authors list other possibilities for traumatising a fetus in utero when the inside of the uterus is explored either when the pregnancy is a spontaneous pregnancy or an assisted reproductive pregnancy. The cases of pregnancy requiring a reduction in the number of embryos who will be born or the destruction of handicapped children whose legal status seems not only to be recognised at birth, but even in utero by the judges of the supreme administrative court. PMID:1869788

  7. Pediatric Emergency Department Suicidal Patients: Two-Site Evaluation of Suicide Ideators, Single Attempters, and Repeat Attempters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Baraff, Larry J.; Berk, Michele; Grob, Charles; Devich-Navarro, Mona; Suddath, Robert; Piacentini, John; Tang, Lingqi

    2008-01-01

    The study examines ideators, single attempters, and repeats attempters of suicide to clarify optimal strategies for emergency department management and risk assessment to help them in reducing youth suicide and suicide attempts. Depression was found to be a strong predictor of suicide/suicide attempts along with substance use, externalizing…

  8. Attempts to develop radioactive anticancer drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, J.S.; Brown, I.; Chir, B.; Carpenter, R.N.

    1983-01-01

    Since 1953, attempts have been made to develop radioactive drugs. Preparations of tritiated menadiol sodium diphosphate (T-MNDP) of high specific activity showed a definite, though limited, but sometimes useful effect in the treatment of certain patients with advanced tumors, especially adenocarcinoma of the colon and of the pancreas and malignant melanoma of the skin. The next step was to use a much more effective isotope. 6-/sup 125/I-iodo-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinol bis (diammonium phosphate) - abbreviated 6-/sup 125/I-iodo-MNDP - has been synthesized, and in laboratory studies appears more promising. /sup 125/I provides radiations which behave predominately like high LET radiation, despite the accompanying X and gamma radiations. The astatine analogue, 6-/sup 211/At-astato-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinol bis (disodium phosphate) has also been synthesized. Confirming and greatly extending the earlier findings with T-MNDP, in vitro experiments showed that 6-/sup 125/I-iodo-MNDP is concentrated selectively in the cells of some human malignant tumors by a factor of about 15 to 20 or more in relation to the cells of normal origin that were studied. Macrodosimetric considerations and comparison with clinical treatments with T-MNDP suggest practical dosage. A typical treatment for a patient of body weight 70 kg with localized inoperable carcinoma of the colon could be 8 intravenous injections each of approximately 120mCi of 6-/sup 125/I-iodo-MNDP to a toal of 0.97 Ci in 25 days. Risks of late carcinogenesis and leukemogenesis are calculated to be less than 1%. Clinical indications are discussed briefly. Animal experiments are in progress and further preclinical studies are required.

  9. Association Study of Serotonin Pathway Genes in Attempted Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Judy, Jennifer T.; Seifuddin, Fayaz; Mahon, Pamela B.; Huo, Yuqing; Goes, Fernando S.; Jancic, Dubravka; Schweizer, Barbara; Mondimore, Francis M.; MacKinnon, Dean F.; DePaulo, J. Raymond; Gershon, Elliot S.; McMahon, Francis J.; Cutler, David J.; Zandi, Peter P.; Potash, James B.; Willour, Virginia L.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies, such as family, twin, and adoption studies, demonstrate the presence of a heritable component to both attempted and completed suicide. Some of this heritability is accounted for by the presence of comorbid psychiatric disorders, but the evidence also indicates that a portion of this heritability is specific to suicidality. The serotonergic system has been studied extensively in this phenotype, but findings have been inconsistent, possibly due to the presence of multiple susceptibility variants and/or gene-gene interactions. In this study, we genotyped 174 tag and coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 17 genes within the serotonin pathway on 516 subjects with a major mood disorder and a history of a suicide attempt (cases) and 515 healthy controls, with the goal of capturing the common genetic variation across each of these candidate genes. We tested the 174 markers in single-SNP, haplotype, gene-based, and epistasis analyses. While these association analyses identified multiple marginally significant SNPs, haplotypes, genes, and interactions, none of them survived correction for multiple testing. Additional studies, including assessment in larger sample sets and deep resequencing to identify rare causal variants, may be required to fully understand the role that the serotonin pathway plays in suicidal behavior. PMID:22170779

  10. "Impulsive" suicide attempts: What do we really mean?

    PubMed

    May, Alexis M; Klonsky, E David

    2016-07-01

    Suicide attempts are often regarded as impulsive acts. However, there is little consensus regarding the definition or clinical characteristics of an "impulsive" attempt. To clarify this issue, we examined 3 indicators of the impulsivity of an attempt: (a) preparation, (b) time contemplating the attempt, and (c) self-report that impulsivity motivated the attempt. We examined relationships among the indicators and their relationship to trait impulsivity and characteristics of the suicide attempt. Adult participants (N = 205) with a history of suicide attempts were administered validated interviews and questionnaires. In general, the 3 attempt impulsivity indicators correlated only moderately with each other and not at all with trait impulsivity or with important characteristics of the attempt (e.g., lethality, preattempt communication, motivations). However, there were 2 exceptions. First, intent to die was inversely related to the 3 attempt impulsivity indicators (rs ranged from -.17 to .45) such that more impulsive attempts were associated with lower intent. Second, self-report that the attempt was motivated by impulsivity was related to 3 facets of trait impulsivity (rs ranged from .16 to .41). These findings suggest that individuals endorsing trait impulsivity are likely to describe their attempts as motivated by impulsivity, regardless of the presence of preparation or prolonged contemplation. Overall, study results suggest that the common conception of a unidimensional impulsive attempt may be inaccurate and that the emphasis on general impulsivity in prevention guidelines should be tempered. Implications for suicide risk assessment and prevention are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26653582

  11. PEG closure in the second attempt

    PubMed Central

    Schiffmann, Leif; Roth, Marin; Kuehn, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: This case report demonstrates successful endoscopic treatment of a persistent gastrocutaneous fistula after removal of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in a 21-year-old patient with mucoviscidosis after lung transplantation. Because the initial OTSC clip (gastric) did not close the fistula sufficiently, we had to remove it and replace it with a larger OTSC clip (colon) in a second intervention. That clip finally sufficiently closed the fistula. PMID:27556092

  12. Spinal subdural haematoma in a parturient after attempted epidural anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Lao, T T; Halpern, S H; MacDonald, D; Huh, C

    1993-04-01

    We report a case of spinal subdural haematoma with neurological deficit in a 36-yr-old woman following Caesarean section for severe preeclampsia and placental abruption. She had been taking chronic trifluoperazine treatment for depression. Her activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) was 49 sec (normal = 26-36) but all other tests of coagulation were normal. Epidural anaesthesia was attempted but, despite a negative test dose, injection of local anaesthetic resulted in a generalized seizure and general anaesthesia was induced. Seventy-two hours after delivery, she was found to have bilateral leg weakness, urinary incontinence, absent rectal sphincter tone and asymmetrical leg reflexes. The diagnosis of spinal haematoma was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. She underwent emergency laminectomy and made a full neurological recovery. PMID:8485794

  13. Factors influencing attempted and completed suicide in postnatal women: A population-based study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Weng, Shu-Chuan; Chang, Jung-Chen; Yeh, Ming-Kung; Wang, Shun-Mu; Chen, Yi-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The aims of study were to investigate risk factors associated with attempted and completed suicide. This nested case-control study was conducted using the medical and death data of nearly all pregnant women for the period 2002-2012 in Taiwan. A total of 139 cases of attempted suicide and 95 cases of completed suicide were identified; for each case, 10 controls were randomly selected and matched to the cases according to age and year of delivery. A conditional logistic regression model was used. The mean attempted and completed suicide rates were 9.91 and 6.86 per 100,000 women with live births, respectively. Never having married and postpartum depression also increased the risk of attempted suicide (OR = 2.06; 95% CI = 1.09-3.88 and OR = 2.51; 95% CI = 1.10-5.75, respectively) and completed suicide (OR = 20.27; 95% CI = 8.99-45.73 and OR = 21.72; 95% CI = 8.08-58.37, respectively). Other factors for attempted suicide included being widowed or divorced, and having a caesarean delivery or suicide history. Other factors for completed suicide included lower education level, low infant birth weight, and diagnosis of anxiety or mood disorder. These results suggest that people should appropriately assess potential risk factors and provide assistance for postnatal women to reduce the occurrence of suicide events. PMID:27173845

  14. Risk Factors for Suicidal Attempts Among Lower Socioeconomic Rural Population of Telangana Region

    PubMed Central

    Kosaraju, Sandeep Krishna Murthy; Vadlamani, Lakshmi Naresh; Mohammed Bashir, Mohammed Shakeel; Kalasapati, Lokesh Kumar; Rao, G. L. V. Chalapathi; Rao, G. Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Suicide is an act of intentionally causing one's own death. Number of suicidal incidences is proportional to attempted suicide cases hence if attempt cases are reduced, number of suicidal death can also be decreased and for that purpose risk factors should be identified and reduced. Therefore, this study is planned to identify risk factors among lower socioeconomic rural population of surrounding areas of Hyderabad in India. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study in which all the suicide attempt cases reported at Bhaskar Medical College and General Hospital were included. The study period was from January 2013 to July 2013. They were undergone a detailed psychiatric interview, including their demographic details, and complete suicide risk assessment was done using Beck's suicide intent scale. Results: It was found that females in the age group of 20-30 years, uneducated, married and daily laborers by occupation had higher incidence of suicidal attempts. Depressive disorder is the most common associated psychiatric disorder in both the genders, followed by alcohol use related problems. Family disputes are the other major risk factors. Most common mode for attempt was organophosphorous poisoning followed by ingestion of calotropis. Conclusion: Risk of suicide attempt is almost equal in terms of medium and high category of suicide assessment scale in both genders. We suggest that all individuals with alcohol related disorders must be screened for suicidal ideation so that appropriate methods can be adopted to reduce the risk. PMID:25722509

  15. Patterns of Comorbidity of Suicide Attempters: An Update.

    PubMed

    Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; Rodrigo-Yanguas, Maria; Giner, Lucas; Lobato-Rodriguez, Maria Jose; de Leon, Jose

    2016-10-01

    Between 10 and 20 million people attempt suicide every year worldwide, and suicide attempts represent a major economic burden. Suicide attempters suffer from high rates of comorbidity, and comorbidity is the rule in suicide re-attempters. Comorbidity complicates treatment and prognosis and causes a more protracted course. In the present narrative review, we included these patterns of comorbidity: intra-Axis I disorders, intra-Axis II disorders, Axis I with Axis II disorders, and psychiatric with physical illnesses. We also briefly reviewed the patterns of comorbidity in suicide re-attempters. We concluded that comorbidity at different levels appears to be the rule in suicide attempters, particularly in those who re-attempt. However, several issues deserve further research regarding the patterns of comorbidity in suicide attempters. PMID:27595859

  16. Repeat suicide attempts in Hong Kong community adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wong, Joy P S; Stewart, Sunita M; Claassen, Cindy; Lee, Peter W H; Rao, Uma; Lam, T H

    2008-01-01

    It has been well documented that a history of suicide attempts confers risk for subsequent attempts; however, efforts to explain how variables may change after a previous attempt and in turn relate to future suicide attempts are rare in the literature. This study presents longitudinal data on adolescent suicide attempts in Hong Kong, and examines whether the data support the "crescendo" model to explain repeat suicide attempts. One thousand and ninety-nine community adolescents aged 12-18 years were evaluated at two assessment points 12 months apart (T1 and T2). The study assessed (1) risk factors at T1 for a suicide attempt between T1 and T2, (2) whether a suicide attempt during the 12 months prior to T1 predicted an attempt between the two assessment points, and (3) whether the indicators of distress worsened from T1 to T2 if an attempt had taken place in the interim. The results indicated that: (1) depressive symptoms, substance use, and suicidal ideation measured at T1 were independent predictors of a suicide attempt between T1 and T2; (2) suicide attempt in the year prior to T1 predicted suicide attempt between T1 and T2 after controlling for other predictors; and (3) suicide attempt between T1 and T2 was a predictive factor for a negative change from T1 to T2 in substance use, suicidal ideation, family relationships, depression, anxiety, and life stress. These findings are consistent with the "crescendo" model proposing that the risk of repeat attempts is enhanced following a previous suicide attempt. PMID:17919796

  17. CSF 5-HIAA Predicts Suicide Risk after Attempted Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordstrom, Peter; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Studied suicide risk after attempted suicide, as predicted by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) monoamine metabolite concentrations, in 92 psychiatric mood disorder inpatients admitted shortly after attempting suicide. Results revealed that low CSF 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) predicted short-range suicide risk after attempted suicide in mood…

  18. Characteristics of 61 Mexican American Adolescents Who Attempted Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Bernardo

    1996-01-01

    Among 61 Mexican American adolescents admitted to an El Paso inpatient psychiatric unit after a suicide attempt, those with high intent to complete suicide attempts differed from low-intent youth in having prior suicide attempts, having lived in El Paso for a shorter time, and having lived with both biological parents longer. Contains 58…

  19. Suicide risk characteristics among aborted, interrupted, and actual suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Burke, Taylor A; Hamilton, Jessica L; Ammerman, Brooke A; Stange, Jonathan P; Alloy, Lauren B

    2016-08-30

    Few studies have investigated suicide risk characteristics associated with interrupted and aborted suicide attempts. The present study aimed to empirically examine whether assessing a history of interrupted and aborted suicide attempts is valuable when assessing suicide risk, given the relative lack of literature in this area to date. To inform this question, the current study examined differences in risk factors for suicidal behavior among individuals who have carried out a suicide attempt, individuals who report having a history of only interrupted and/or aborted suicide attempts, and non-attempter controls. Approximately 447 undergraduates (M=21.10 years; SD=4.16; 77.6% female) completed measures of carried out suicide attempts, interrupted suicide attempts, aborted suicide attempts, acquired capability for suicide, suicide likelihood, depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and non-suicidal self-injury. Results suggest that a faction of individuals endorse interrupted and/or aborted suicide attempts (8.7%), but do not endorse carried out suicide attempts, even in non-clinical samples. Furthermore, results suggest that there are few clinically meaningful differences between those with a history of carried out suicide attempts and interrupted/aborted suicide attempts, suggesting that individuals with a history of these lesser studied suicidal behaviors are an important group to target for suicide risk intervention. PMID:27344029

  20. Suicide Attempts among Depressed Adolescents in Primary Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fordwood, Samantha R.; Asarnow, Joan R.; Huizar, Diana P.; Reise, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    Although depression is strongly associated with suicide attempts and suicide deaths, most depressed youth do not make an attempt, indicating the need to identify additional risk factors. We examined suicide attempts among 451 depressed primary care patients, 13 to 21 years of age. In bivariate analyses, youth classified as suicide attempters…

  1. 31 CFR 598.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 598... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 598.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Except to the extent provided in... the effect of evading or avoiding, and any endeavor, attempt, or conspiracy to violate any of...

  2. 31 CFR 598.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 598... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 598.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Except to the extent provided in... the effect of evading or avoiding, and any endeavor, attempt, or conspiracy to violate any of...

  3. 31 CFR 537.206 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 537... § 537.206 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Any transaction by a U.S. person or within the United... attempts to violate any of the prohibitions set forth in this part is prohibited. (b) Any conspiracy...

  4. 31 CFR 598.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 598... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 598.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Except to the extent provided in... the effect of evading or avoiding, and any endeavor, attempt, or conspiracy to violate any of...

  5. 31 CFR 537.206 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 537... § 537.206 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Any transaction by a U.S. person or within the United... attempts to violate any of the prohibitions set forth in this part is prohibited. (b) Any conspiracy...

  6. 31 CFR 537.206 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 537... § 537.206 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Any transaction by a U.S. person or within the United... attempts to violate any of the prohibitions set forth in this part is prohibited. (b) Any conspiracy...

  7. 31 CFR 598.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 598... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 598.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Except to the extent provided in... the effect of evading or avoiding, and any endeavor, attempt, or conspiracy to violate any of...

  8. 31 CFR 598.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 598... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 598.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Except to the extent provided in... the effect of evading or avoiding, and any endeavor, attempt, or conspiracy to violate any of...

  9. A diffusion tensor imaging study of suicide attempters

    PubMed Central

    Thapa-Chhetry, Binod; Sublette, M. Elizabeth; Sullivan, Gregory M.; Oquendo, Maria A.; Mann, J. John; Parsey, Ramin V.

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined white matter abnormalities in suicide attempters using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). This study sought to identify white matter regions altered in individuals with a prior suicide attempt. Methods DTI scans were acquired in 13 suicide attempters with major depressive disorder (MDD), 39 non-attempters with MDD, and 46 healthy participants (HP). Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was determined in the brain using two methods: region of interest (ROI) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). ROIs were limited a priori to white matter adjacent to the caudal anterior cingulate cortex, rostral anterior cingulate cortex, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, and medial orbitofrontal cortex. Results Using the ROI approach, suicide attempters had lower FA than MDD non-attempters and HP in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Uncorrected TBSS results confirmed a significant cluster within the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex indicating lower FA in suicide attempters compared to non-attempters. There were no differences in ADC when comparing suicide attempters, non-attempters and HP groups using ROI or TBSS methods. Conclusions Low FA in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex was associated with a suicide attempt history. Converging findings from other imaging modalities support this finding, making this region of potential interest in determining the diathesis for suicidal behavior. PMID:24462041

  10. Various factors of attempted suicide in a selected area of Naogaon district.

    PubMed

    Halim, K S; Khondker, L; Wahab, M A; Nargis, F; Khan, S I

    2010-04-01

    This descriptive type of study was carried out to determine the various factors of attempted suicide in a selected area at Patnitala and Dhamuirhat upazilla health complex of Naogaon district. All reported alive cases of attempted suicide (self poisoning, hanging, self burning or immolation, drowning etc) during the period from March to June 2003 were interviewed purposely. Data were collected by face to face interview and also from hospital records. Of the interviewed cases, the mean age was 21.4 years. Household workers, day labours, students and agricultural workers (42.6%, 23.9%, 15.5% and 11.3% respectively) were the major victims and nearly 60% had nuclear family. The highest number (77.5%) used organophosphorus compound. Highest number (25.4%) mentioned that husband mainly provoked for suicidal attempt, followed by mother and father. It was evident that 71.8% of suicidal attempt was due to their emotional stress, followed by family violence, disturbed family, social deprivation, stressful events and health problems (50.7%, 49.3%, 36.6%, 25.4%, and 8.5% respectively). It was evident that attempted suicide is proportionately higher among adolescents of unmarried, with early age at marriage, with higher income and with nuclear family compared with adult. Emotional stress, disturbed family, social deprivation, health related problems are appeared to be important reasons for attempted suicide among adolescents whereas family violence in adults. PMID:20395920

  11. Attempting to Unravel the Australian Megatsunami Hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, J. R.

    2008-12-01

    some purported Australian megatsunami deposits. There are simpler and arguably more realistic explanations for the evidence. These results start to cast doubt upon the original interpretations for SE Australian megatsunamis. If this is the case and these deposits are not related to megastsunamis, what caused them?

  12. Female attempted suicide patients with low HDL levels are at higher risk of suicide re-attempt within the subsequent year: a clinical cohort study.

    PubMed

    Emet, Mucahit; Yucel, Atakan; Ozcan, Halil; Akgol Gur, Sultan Tuna; Saritemur, Murat; Bulut, Nevzat; Gumusdere, Musa

    2015-01-30

    Our aims were, to clarify the blood lipid differences [Total serum cholesterol (TC), High-density lipoprotein (HDL), Low density lipoprotein (LDL), Triglyceride (TG)] between female patients who had attempted suicide and controls and to determine whether we could use the patients׳ initial lipid profiles to predict suicide re-attempt within the subsequent year. A total of 284 participants (110 cases and 174 controls) were recruited, with no differences in body mass index, age, blood sampling time and gender. Blood samples were collected from all participants for serum lipid profiles and assayed in an auto-analyzer. We divided the suicide re-attempter group into suicide attempters in the subsequent year (SSY) and suicide attempters after the subsequent year (SASY). The TC, LDL, and TG levels were significantly lower in the suicidal group than in the control group. HDL was significantly higher in the suicidal group than in the control group. Low TG (<70mg/dL) (OR (odds ratio)=12.8; 95% CI (confidence interval)=5.4-30.5; p<0.0001)and low LDL/HDL (<1.8) (OR=4.1; 95% CI=1.8-9.3; p=0.001) were significantly associated with a current suicide attempt. HDL levels in the SSY (41.5±4.5mg/dL) were lower than in the non-suicide attempters group (NSA) (50.9±10.3mg/dL) and SASY (58.7±12.8mg/dL)(d.f.=2, F=5.2, p=0.007). Serum HDL level may be a potential candidate predictor for the future risk of suicidality. PMID:25482392

  13. Investigating the co-occurrence of self-mutilation and suicide attempts among opioid-dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Maloney, Elizabeth; Degenhardt, Louisa; Darke, Shane; Nelson, Elliot C

    2010-02-01

    The prevalence and risk factors associated with self-mutilation among opioid dependent cases and controls were determined, and the co-occurrence of self-mutilation and attempted suicide was examined. The prevalence of self-mutilation among cases and controls did not differ significantly (25% vs. 23%, respectively), with gender differences identified among cases only. A number of risk factors were found to be associated with self-mutilation, including borderline personality disorder, alcohol dependence, childhood sexual abuse, and multiple suicide attempts. Not only is self-mutilation a clinically significant problem, but when combined with a history of attempted suicide, the psychological dysfunction observed is markedly high. PMID:20170261

  14. Intact alternation performance in high lethality suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Keilp, John G; Wyatt, Gwinne; Gorlyn, Marianne; Oquendo, Maria A; Burke, Ainsley K; John Mann, J

    2014-09-30

    Suicide attempters often perform poorly on tasks linked to ventral prefrontal cortical (VPFC) function. Object Alternation (OA) - a VPFC probe - has not been used in these studies. In this study, currently depressed medication-free past suicide attempters whose most severe attempt was of high (n=31) vs. low (n=64) lethality, 114 medication-free depressed non-attempters, and 86 non-patients completed a computerized OA task. Participants also completed comparison tasks assessing the discriminant validity of OA (Wisconsin Card Sort), its concurrent validity relative to tasks associated with past attempt status (computerized Stroop task, Buschke Selective Reminding Test), and its construct validity as a VPFC measure (Go-No Go and Iowa Gambling Task). Against expectations, high lethality suicide attempters - the majority of whom used non-violent methods in their attempts with some planning - outperformed other depressed groups on OA, with no group differences observed on Wisconsin Card Sort. Despite intact performance on OA, past attempters exhibited deficits on the Stroop and Buschke. OA performance was associated with performance on Go-No Go and Iowa Gambling, confirming that OA measures a similar construct. VPFC dysfunction may not be a characteristic of all suicide attempters, especially those who make more carefully planned, non-violent - though potentially lethal - attempts. PMID:24878299

  15. Profile of risk factors associated with suicide attempts: A study from Orissa, India

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Nilamadhab

    2010-01-01

    Context: Periodic systematic profiling of suicidal risk factors in developing countries is an established need. Aims: It was intended to study the risk factors associated with suicide attempts in Orissa, one of the most economically compromised states of India. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study in a general hospital. Materials and Methods: Consecutive 149 suicide attempters were evaluated for psychosocial, situational, and clinical risk factors using the Risk Rescue Rating scale, Suicide Prevention Center scale, Lethality of Suicide Rating scale, and Presumptive Stressful Life Event scale. They were compared with healthy and psychiatric controls who had never attempted suicide. Statistical analysis: Chi-square for comparison of categorical variables, t-tests for comparison of means. Results: The male-to-female ratio was closer to one in adults and around 1:3 in adolescents. Younger age, lower-middle economic group, rural background, unemployed, school educated were more represented in this study. Compared to the controls, significantly more number of attempters had a family history of psychiatric illness and suicide, childhood trauma, medical consultation within one month, had experienced stressful life events and had expressed suicidal ideas. In a considerable proportion of attempts, risk was high and rescuability least; 59.1% had more than 50% chance of death. Suicide potential was high in almost half the cases. More than 80% of all attempters had psychiatric disorder; however, only 31.5% had had treatment. Factors like middle age, family history of psychiatric disorders, past psychiatric history, current psychiatric illness, communication of suicidal ideas, the use of physical methods, and high potential attempts, differentiated repeaters significantly from the first-timers. Major physical illness, family and marital conflicts, financial problems, and failure in examinations were more frequent life events. Childhood trauma, noted in around 40% of the

  16. Suicide attempts in Malaysia from the year 1969 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Sinniah, Aishvarya; Maniam, T; Oei, Tian Po; Subramaniam, Ponnusamy

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the literature on suicide attempts in Malaysia. PsycINFO, PubMed, and Medline databases from 1845 to 2012 and detailed manual search of local official reports from the Ministry of Health and the Malaysian Psychiatric Association and unpublished dissertations from 3 local universities providing postgraduate psychiatric training were included in the current review. A total of 38 studies on suicide attempts in Malaysia were found and reviewed. Twenty-seven (76%) of the studies on suicide attempts were descriptive studies looking at sociodemographic data, psychiatric illnesses, and methods and reasons for suicide attempts. No study has been conducted on treatment and interventions for suicide attempts and the impact of culture was rarely considered. The review showed that in order for researchers, clinicians, and public health policy makers to obtain a better understanding of suicide attempts in Malaysia, more systematic and empirically stringent methodologies and research frameworks need to be used. PMID:24672358

  17. Suicide Attempts in Malaysia from the Year 1969 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Maniam, T.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the literature on suicide attempts in Malaysia. PsycINFO, PubMed, and Medline databases from 1845 to 2012 and detailed manual search of local official reports from the Ministry of Health and the Malaysian Psychiatric Association and unpublished dissertations from 3 local universities providing postgraduate psychiatric training were included in the current review. A total of 38 studies on suicide attempts in Malaysia were found and reviewed. Twenty-seven (76%) of the studies on suicide attempts were descriptive studies looking at sociodemographic data, psychiatric illnesses, and methods and reasons for suicide attempts. No study has been conducted on treatment and interventions for suicide attempts and the impact of culture was rarely considered. The review showed that in order for researchers, clinicians, and public health policy makers to obtain a better understanding of suicide attempts in Malaysia, more systematic and empirically stringent methodologies and research frameworks need to be used. PMID:24672358

  18. [Relationships between social factors and suicidal attempts of adolescent girls].

    PubMed

    Ribakoviene, Virginija; Pūras, Dainius

    2002-01-01

    This study presents a comparative analysis of family and school situation among adolescent girls, who attempted a suicide and those who did not. The control group was represented by normative sample of school girls of Lithuania. The results indicate that most of the attempters live in incomplete families, with step-father, step-sisters and step-brothers. The results showed that there were more conflicts within families of the attempters than within the other groups of the study. The girls, who completed a suicide attempt more often reported about arguing with their parents. They also appeared to brake the law more frequently and also they experienced abuse more often than girls in the control group. The attempters more frequently reported about financial difficulties of their families. Those girls also reported more problems at school such as truancy. The attempters also evaluated their academic achievements much lower than girls in the control group. PMID:12474785

  19. Suicide attempts and ideation: adolescents evaluated on a pediatric ward.

    PubMed

    Paluszny, M; Davenport, C; Kim, W J

    1991-01-01

    This study compared psychological, familial, and demographic data for 42 suicidal, 16 suicide ideation, and 42 control pediatric patients. Chaotic families and behavior problems, as well as depression, constriction, and lack of insight, differentiated the suicide attempt group from the control group. The suicide ideation group was similar to both the control and suicide attempt groups and seen as "intermediate" between these two. In assessing lethality of the attempt, constriction was the only predictor differentiating the serious from less serious suicide attempt. PMID:2048475

  20. [Externalizing and internalizing problems of adolescent suicide attempters].

    PubMed

    Ribakoviene, Virginija

    2002-01-01

    This study aims at comparative analysis between externalized and internalized behavior of adolescents. The girls were grouped into a group of suicide attempters and non-attempters. The group of attempters was patients taken to child departments of Psychiatry clinics after attempting a suicide. Lithuanian students formed the control group of the study. The groups were similar in respect of age, gender and place of living. Suicide attempters demonstrated more evident problems of internalized behavior. Their depressiveness was found to be at the higher levels, also they presented more somatic complaints. There was a statistically important difference on scales of depressiveness (p < or = 0.001) and somatic complaints (p < or = 0.001). The suicide attempters also reported a bigger number of other problems than girls of control group did. The values of subscales of aggression and delinquency were much higher than ones in the control group (p < or = 0.001). The research shows that the attempters often have not only emotional problems, but also are more aggressive and demonstrate more behavioral problems than the rest of children. Disobedience in relationships with adults and breaking of existing rules are those symptoms of conduct disorder, which have the strongest relationship with suicidal attempts among adolescent girls. Depression symptoms of sad mood and suicidal thinking had the strongest relation to suicidal attempts of the adolescents. PMID:12474788

  1. Characteristics and outcomes of self inflicted pediatric injuries: the role of method of suicide attempt.

    PubMed Central

    Li, G.; Ling, J.; DiScala, C.; Nordenholz, K.; Sterling, S.; Baker, S. P.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the epidemiologic characteristics and clinical outcomes of self inflicted pediatric injuries in relation to the method of suicide attempt. METHODS: Using data from the National Pediatric Trauma Registry Phase II, a comparative analysis was conducted for children under 15 years of age who were admitted from 1 October 1988 through 30 April 1996 because of self inflicted injury by firearm (n = 28), hanging (n = 38), or jumping from heights (n = 21). RESULTS: Of the 87 cases under study, 90% occurred at home, and 86% occurred between noon and midnight, with a peak in early evening (between 6 pm and 7 pm)-More than one quarter (29%) had preexisting mental disorders, such as disturbance of conduct and depression. Toxicological tests were conducted on admission on 40 (46%) of the patients; 20% tested positive for alcohol or other illicit drugs. The method of suicide attempt was associated with gender and age of the patients: 75% of the firearm cases and 82% of the hanging cases were boys compared with 29% of the jumping cases (p < 0.01); 79% of the hanging cases were aged 13 years or younger compared with 39% of the firearm cases and 48% of the jumping cases (p < 0.01). The mean injury severity score was 18.6 for the firearm cases and 16.3 for the hanging cases, significantly greater than 8.5 for the jumping cases (p < 0.02). Reflecting the differences in injury severity, firearm cases and hanging cases were more likely than jumping cases to be sent to intensive care units or operating rooms from emergency departments, and to develop complications during hospitalization. The case fatality rate was 50% for the firearm cases, 32% for the hanging cases, and 5% for the jumping cases (p < 0.01). On average, these patients stayed in hospitals for 11 days and 52% of those who were alive at discharge had at least one impairment in communication, cognition, or self care functions. CONCLUSION: Boys and older children tend to use more lethal methods in suicide

  2. Contradiction and Paradox: Attempting to Change the Culture of Sexual Orientation at a Small Catholic College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Patrick G.

    1997-01-01

    A case study explored attempts to change the culture related to sexual orientation at a small, Catholic college. Focus was on the perceptions and experiences of gay, lesbian, and bisexual students, staff, faculty, and their allies. These participants experienced a culture filled with contradictions and paradoxes. The report delineates and…

  3. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Traumatic Brain Injury, and Suicide Attempt History among Veterans Receiving Mental Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, Lisa A.; Betthauser, Lisa M.; Homaifar, Beeta Y.; Villarreal, Edgar; Harwood, Jeri E. F.; Staves, Pamela J.; Huggins, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    History of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been found to increase risk of suicidal behavior. The association between suicide attempt history among veterans with PTSD and/or TBI was explored. Cases (N = 81) and 2:1 matched controls (N = 160) were randomly selected from a Veterans Affairs Medical Center…

  4. Airplane strength calculations and static tests in Russia : an attempt at standardization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1928-01-01

    We are here giving a summary of the rules established by the Theoretical Section of the Central Aerodynamic Institute of Moscow for the different calculation cases of an airplane. It appears the engineers of the Aerodynamic Institute considered only thick or medium profiles. For these profiles they have attempted to increase the safety when the center of pressure moves appreciably toward the trailing edge.

  5. The Association between Bankruptcy and Hospital-Presenting Attempted Suicide: A Record Linkage Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidger, Judi; Gunnell, David; Jarvik, Jeffrey G.; Overstreet, Karen A.; Hollingworth, William

    2011-01-01

    The associations between admissions to an emergency department following attempted suicide and personal bankruptcy in the preceding and subsequent 2 years were evaluated. Records from a level 1 trauma center (June 1993-December 2002) in Seattle, WA, were linked with case files from the local U.S. District Bankruptcy Court (June 1991 onward).…

  6. A woman's attempt at a perverse solution and its failure.

    PubMed

    Chasseguet-Smirgel, J

    1988-01-01

    The Programme Committee of the Montreal Congress asked the author to present a case of perversion connected with traumas. Rather than speak about erotization of the effects of the trauma (death or castration anxiety transformed into a source of pleasure) the author relates the first 18 months of analysis of a young woman whose important narcissistic trauma, the result of an inadequate early relationship with her mother, is camouflaged by an avidity for sexual excitations. The aim is to transform narcissistic pain which cannot be worked through into sexuality for which release is possible. Sexuality becomes a means of expressing feelings of hate, revenge and triumph over the primary object. The ensuing perverse solution--an attempt to slip into the primal scene by identification with the sadistic penis--does not succeed. The author advances certain hypotheses concerning the mother-daughter relationship which seem to explain this failure and to explain too the absence of a stable perverse organization in women. There follows a longing to return to the womb, in the shape of the fantasied destruction of the contents of the mother's belly, expressed as the fantasy of the end of the world, and which the author labels as 'the archaic matrix of the Oedipus complex'. PMID:3403157

  7. Familial Pathways to Early-Onset Suicide Attempt

    PubMed Central

    Brent, David A.; Melhem, Nadine M.; Oquendo, Maria; Burke, Ainsley; Birmaher, Boris; Stanley, Barbara; Biernesser, Candice; Keilp, John; Kolko, David; Ellis, Steve; Porta, Giovanna; Zelazny, Jamie; Iyengar, Satish; Mann, J. John

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Suicide attempts are strong predictors of suicide, a leading cause of adolescent mortality. Suicide attempts are highly familial, although the mechanisms of familial transmission are not understood. Better delineation of these mechanisms could help frame potential targets for prevention. OBJECTIVE To examine the mechanisms and pathways by which suicidal behavior is transmitted from parent to child. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In this prospective study conducted from July 15, 1997, through June 21, 2012, a total of 701 offspring aged 10 to 50 years (mean age, 17.7 years) of 334 clinically referred probands with mood disorders, 191 (57.2%) of whom had also made a suicide attempt, were followed up for a mean of 5.6 years. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was a suicide attempt. Variables were examined at baseline, intermediate time points, and the time point proximal to the attempt. Participants were assessed by structured psychiatric assessments and self-report and by interview measures of domains hypothesized to be related to familial transmission (eg, mood disorder and impulsive aggression). RESULTS Among the 701 offspring, 44 (6.3%) had made a suicide attempt before participating in the study, and 29 (4.1%) made an attempt during study follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that proband suicide attempt was a predictor of offspring suicide attempt (odds ratio [OR], 4.79; 95% CI, 1.75–13.07), even controlling for other salient offspring variables: baseline history of mood disorder (OR, 4.20; 95% CI, 1.37–12.86), baseline history of suicide attempt (OR, 5.69; 95% CI, 1.94–16.74), and mood disorder at the time point before the attempt (OR, 11.32; 95% CI, 2.29–56.00). Path analyses were consistent with these findings, revealing a direct effect of proband attempt on offspring suicide attempt, a strong effect of offspring mood disorder at each time point, and impulsive aggression as a precursor of mood disorder

  8. The association between bankruptcy and hospital-presenting attempted suicide: a record linkage study.

    PubMed

    Kidger, Judi; Gunnell, David; Jarvik, Jeffrey G; Overstreet, Karen A; Hollingworth, William

    2011-12-01

    The associations between admissions to an emergency department following attempted suicide and personal bankruptcy in the preceding and subsequent 2 years were evaluated. Records from a level 1 trauma center (June 1993-December 2002) in Seattle, WA, were linked with case files from the local U.S. District Bankruptcy Court (June 1991 onward). Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the risk of bankruptcy in (i) the 2 years after and (ii) the 2 years before a suicide attempt using a violent method, compared to patients admitted for any other reason. After adjusting for several confounders, patients who had attempted suicide were more likely than other patients to experience bankruptcy in the following 2 years (OR = 2.10, 95% CIs: 1.29, 3.42). A somewhat weaker association was seen with bankruptcy in the preceding 2 years (OR = 1.68, 95% CIs 1.06; 2.67). Attempted suicide is therefore associated with bankruptcy in the preceding and following 2 years. Changes to legislation, improved mental health counselling for those in financial difficulty, and provision of financial advice to those admitted to hospital following a suicide attempt may reduce future cases of serious self-harm and completed suicide. PMID:22145826

  9. Psychological Distress Increases Perceived Stigma Toward Attempted Suicide Among Those With a History of Past Attempted Suicide.

    PubMed

    Scocco, Paolo; Toffol, Elena; Preti, Antonio

    2016-03-01

    People who suffer from mental illness have high self-stigmatizing attitudes. This study aims to test the effect of psychopathological distress on stigma toward attempted suicide in a population of suicide attempters. Data were collected through an interview and 2 questionnaires (90-item Symptom Checklist; Stigma of Suicide Attempt scale) administered to 67 patients hospitalized after an attempted suicide. Participants with a history of past attempted suicide had higher scores on the Stigma of Suicide Attempt scale (t58.9 = -2.51, p = 0.014). Higher levels of psychological distress were related to greater perceived stigma only in individuals with a history of past attempted suicide (standardized coefficient = 0.37; t = 2.36; p = 0.024; R2 = 14%; adjusted R2 = 11.5%). A previous experience of attempted suicide is related to greater self-stigmatizing attitudes toward suicidal behavior. Among those who have previously attempted suicide in particular, psychopathological distress may significantly contribute to increase the perception of stigma. PMID:26751731

  10. Psychosocial intervention following suicide attempt: a systematic review of treatment interventions.

    PubMed

    van der Sande, R; Buskens, E; Allart, E; van der Graaf, Y; van Engeland, H

    1997-07-01

    Repeated suicide attempts are a common problem. However, few randomized controlled studies on the treatment of suicide attempters have been described. Although some of these studies showed beneficial effects on measures of well-being, none of them demonstrated lasting positive effects on repeated suicidal behaviour. In an attempt to analyse the results obtained, a systematic review of randomized controlled trials of interventions for suicide attempters is presented. The literature was gathered by means of a CD-ROM literature reference search (MEDLINE/PSYCLIT). Subsequently, information on study design and treatment efficacy was abstracted. Studies that were homogeneous with regard to therapeutic principles were reviewed accordingly, and pooled analyses were performed. Meta-analyses accounted for inter-study variance (random-effects model) to estimate a common-effect measure (relative risk). Systematic review of the data showed considerable differences in both study design and therapeutic protocols. In view of these differences, a single pooled analysis of all studies appeared to be unfeasible. A pooled analysis of studies that focus on psychiatric management of poor compliance showed no significant effect on the repetition of suicide attempts. Similarly, studies of psychosocial crisis intervention, as well as studies of guaranteed in-patient shelter in cases of emergency, did not show a significant reduction in repeated suicide attempts. However, the pooled results of four studies on cognitive-behavioural therapies showed a significant preventive effect on repeated suicide attempts. At present, only the cognitive-behavioural approach appears to have a beneficial effect on repeated suicide attempts. However, because of methodological variability, the results obtained may be too optimistic. Additional research is required to establish the merits of this type of intervention. PMID:9259223

  11. Childhood Diagnoses and Later Risk for Multiple Suicide Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudd, M. David; Joiner, Thomas E.; Rumzek, Harold

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between childhood diagnosis, personality psychopathology and suicidal behavior in young adulthood was explored in a sample of 327 suicide ideators, single attempters, and multiple attempters. Of the total sample, 174 received at least one childhood diagnosis; the 153 without a diagnosis provided a comparison group. Results suggest…

  12. Familism, Family Environment, and Suicide Attempts among Latina Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pena, Juan B.; Kuhlberg, Jill A.; Zayas, Luis H.; Baumann, Ana A.; Gulbas, Lauren; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Nolle, Allyson P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between familism and family environment type as well as the relationship between family environment type and suicide attempts among Latina youth. Latina teen attempters (n = 109) and nonattempters (n = 107) were recruited from the New York City area. Latent class analysis revealed three family…

  13. Predictors of Multiple Suicide Attempts among Suicidal Black Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, Christopher; Kramer, Anne; Joe, Sean; Venkataraman, Sanjeev; King, Cheryl A.

    2009-01-01

    Psychopathology, social support, and interpersonal orientation were studied in relation to suicide attempt status in acutely suicidal, psychiatrically hospitalized Black adolescents and a matched sample of White adolescents. In the total sample, multiple attempters were differentiated by lower perceived support. Within the Black youth subsample,…

  14. The Meaning of Suicide Attempts by Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everall, Robin D.

    2000-01-01

    Describes study identifying themes that characterize experiences of young adults who made one suicide attempt between the ages of 20 and 24. Six major themes identified include: family experiences, adolescent interactions, emotional experiences, self-destructive behaviors, depression, and perception of control. Views suicide attempts as a…

  15. Characteristics of Chinese Suicide Attempters: An Emergency Room Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jie; Jia, Shuhua; Jiang, Chao; Sun, Jie

    2006-01-01

    Studying the characteristics of attempted suicide is helpful in knowing the background of some completed suicides and improving prevention or intervention strategies. This current study analyzed data of 74 suicide attempters and 92 accident injured patients admitted to 6 hospital emergency rooms in an area of Northeastern China and found both…

  16. The Prevalence, Lethality and Intent of Suicide Attempts among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Judy A.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    Although suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents in the United States, little is known about the prevalence or characteristics of suicide attempts among adolescents. Data from 1,710 adolescents attending 9 high schools in 5 communities were examined to determine the prevalence of suicide attempts and the lethality and intent…

  17. Suicide attempts and clinical features of bipolar patients

    PubMed Central

    Berkol, Tonguç D.; İslam, Serkan; Kırlı, Ebru; Pınarbaşı, Rasim; Özyıldırım, İlker

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To identify clinical predictors of suicide attempts in patients with bipolar disorder. Methods: This study included bipolar patients who were treated in the Psychiatry Department, Haseki Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, between 2013 and 2014; an informed consent was obtained from the participants. Two hundred and eighteen bipolar patients were assessed by using the structured clinical interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) Axis-I (SCID-I) in order to detect all possible psychiatric comorbid diagnoses. Clinical predictors of suicide attempts were examined in attempters and non-attempters. The study design was retrospective. Results: The lifetime suicide attempt rate for the entire sample was 19.2%. Suicide attempters with bipolar disorder had more lifetime comorbidity of eating disorder. Female gender and family history of mood disorder were significant predictors for suicide attempts. There was no difference between groups in terms of bipolar disorder subtype, onset age of bipolar disorder, total number of episodes, first and predominant episode type, suicide history in first degree relatives, severity of episodes, and hospitalization and being psychotic. Conclusion: Our study revealed that female gender, family history of mood disorder, and eating disorder are more frequent in bipolar patients with at least one suicide attempt. PMID:27279513

  18. Suicide Ideation and Attempts in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Gorman, Angela A.; Hillwig-Garcia, Jolene; Syed, Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    Frequency of suicide ideation and attempts in 791 children with autism (1-16 years), 35 nonautistic depressed children, and 186 typical children and risk factors in autism were determined. Percent of children with autism for whom suicide ideation or attempts was rated as sometimes to very often a problem by mothers (14%) was 28 times greater than…

  19. Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hun Soo; Kim, Hyun Sil

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the rate of suicide attempts and relevant variables and identified risk factors for suicide attempts among Korean adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed using an anonymous, self-report questionnaire. A total of 2,100 Korean adolescents, including 1,321 student adolescents and 779 delinquent adolescents, were…

  20. 20 CFR 366.3 - Reasonable attempt to notify.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Reasonable attempt to notify. 366.3 Section 366.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES COLLECTION OF DEBTS BY FEDERAL TAX REFUND OFFSET § 366.3 Reasonable attempt to notify. In order to...

  1. Atmospheric pressure and suicide attempts in Helsinki, Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltunen, Laura; Ruuhela, Reija; Ostamo, Aini; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Suominen, Kirsi; Partonen, Timo

    2012-11-01

    The influence of weather on mood and mental health is commonly debated. Furthermore, studies concerning weather and suicidal behavior have given inconsistent results. Our aim was to see if daily weather changes associate with the number of suicide attempts in Finland. All suicide attempts treated in the hospitals in Helsinki, Finland, during two separate periods, 8 years apart, were included. Altogether, 3,945 suicide attempts were compared with daily weather parameters and analyzed with a Poisson regression. We found that daily atmospheric pressure correlated statistically significantly with the number of suicide attempts, and for men the correlation was negative. Taking into account the seasonal normal value during the period 1971-2000, daily temperature, global solar radiation and precipitation did not associate with the number of suicide attempts on a statistically significant level in our study. We concluded that daily atmospheric pressure may have an impact on suicidal behavior, especially on suicide attempts of men by violent methods ( P < 0.001), and may explain the clustering of suicide attempts. Men seem to be more vulnerable to attempt suicide under low atmospheric pressure and women under high atmospheric pressure. We show only statistical correlations, which leaves the exact mechanisms of interaction between weather and suicidal behavior open. However, suicidal behavior should be assessed from the point of view of weather in addition to psychiatric and social aspects.

  2. 31 CFR 541.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 541... § 541.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  3. 31 CFR 539.203 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 539... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 539.203 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction by any United States... prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in a transaction prohibited by this part...

  4. 31 CFR 549.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 549... § 549.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate the prohibitions...

  5. 31 CFR 544.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 544... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 544.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise... contract entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy...

  6. 31 CFR 595.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 595... § 595.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction for the purpose of, or which has the effect... this part is hereby prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in a...

  7. 31 CFR 545.206 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 545... Prohibitions § 545.206 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed for...

  8. 31 CFR 594.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 594... Prohibitions § 594.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed for...

  9. 31 CFR 576.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 576... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 576.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed...

  10. 31 CFR 547.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 547... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 547.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  11. 31 CFR 546.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 546... § 546.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate the prohibitions...

  12. 31 CFR 539.203 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 539... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 539.203 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction by any United States... prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in a transaction prohibited by this part...

  13. 31 CFR 541.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 541... § 541.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  14. 31 CFR 593.206 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 593... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 593.206 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise... contract entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy...

  15. 31 CFR 595.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 595... § 595.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction for the purpose of, or which has the effect... this part is hereby prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in a...

  16. 31 CFR 597.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 597... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 597.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction for the purpose of, or... set forth in this part is hereby prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in...

  17. 31 CFR 547.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 547... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 547.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  18. 31 CFR 596.202 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 596... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 596.202 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction for the purpose of, or... set forth in this part is hereby prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in...

  19. 31 CFR 587.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 587... MONTENEGRO) MILOSEVIC SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 587.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a... date, any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in a transaction prohibited by this part...

  20. 31 CFR 593.206 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 593... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 593.206 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise... contract entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy...

  1. 31 CFR 595.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 595... § 595.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction for the purpose of, or which has the effect... this part is hereby prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in a...

  2. 31 CFR 596.202 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 596... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 596.202 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction for the purpose of, or... set forth in this part is hereby prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in...

  3. 31 CFR 538.211 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 538... § 538.211 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction by any United States person or within the..., any of the prohibitions set forth in this part is prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose...

  4. 31 CFR 594.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 594... Prohibitions § 594.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed for...

  5. 31 CFR 596.202 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 596... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 596.202 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction for the purpose of, or... set forth in this part is hereby prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in...

  6. 31 CFR 594.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 594... Prohibitions § 594.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed for...

  7. 31 CFR 544.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 544... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 544.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise... contract entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy...

  8. 31 CFR 542.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 542... § 542.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed for the...

  9. 31 CFR 544.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 544... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 544.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise... contract entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy...

  10. 31 CFR 592.202 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 592... Prohibitions § 592.202 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Notwithstanding the existence of any rights or... contract entered into or any license or permit granted prior to July 30, 2003, any conspiracy formed...

  11. 31 CFR 575.211 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 575... § 575.211 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction for the purpose of, or which has the effect... this part is hereby prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in a...

  12. 31 CFR 541.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 541... § 541.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  13. 31 CFR 548.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 548... § 548.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate the prohibitions...

  14. 31 CFR 539.203 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 539... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 539.203 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction by any United States... prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in a transaction prohibited by this part...

  15. 31 CFR 596.202 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 596... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 596.202 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction for the purpose of, or... set forth in this part is hereby prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in...

  16. 31 CFR 595.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 595... § 595.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction for the purpose of, or which has the effect... this part is hereby prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in a...

  17. 31 CFR 586.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 586... & MONTENEGRO) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 586.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any... prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in a transaction prohibited by this part...

  18. 31 CFR 597.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 597... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 597.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction for the purpose of, or... set forth in this part is hereby prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in...

  19. 31 CFR 588.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 588... Prohibitions § 588.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  20. 31 CFR 549.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 549... § 549.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate the prohibitions...

  1. 31 CFR 585.214 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 585... Prohibitions § 585.214 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction for the purpose of, or which has the... this part is hereby prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in a...

  2. 31 CFR 595.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 595... § 595.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction for the purpose of, or which has the effect... this part is hereby prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in a...

  3. 31 CFR 548.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 548... § 548.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate the prohibitions...

  4. 31 CFR 597.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 597... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 597.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction for the purpose of, or... set forth in this part is hereby prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in...

  5. 31 CFR 593.206 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 593... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 593.206 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise... contract entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy...

  6. 31 CFR 576.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 576... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 576.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed...

  7. 31 CFR 542.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 542... § 542.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed for the...

  8. 31 CFR 544.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 544... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 544.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise... contract entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy...

  9. 31 CFR 592.202 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 592... Prohibitions § 592.202 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Notwithstanding the existence of any rights or... contract entered into or any license or permit granted prior to July 30, 2003, any conspiracy formed...

  10. 31 CFR 547.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 547... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 547.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  11. 31 CFR 548.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 548... § 548.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate the prohibitions...

  12. 31 CFR 543.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 543... Prohibitions § 543.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  13. 31 CFR 588.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 588... Prohibitions § 588.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed for...

  14. 31 CFR 547.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 547... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 547.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  15. 31 CFR 538.211 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 538... § 538.211 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction by any United States person or within the..., any of the prohibitions set forth in this part is prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose...

  16. 31 CFR 593.206 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 593... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 593.206 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise... contract entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy...

  17. 31 CFR 542.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 542... § 542.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed for the...

  18. 31 CFR 592.202 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 592... Prohibitions § 592.202 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Notwithstanding the existence of any rights or... contract entered into or any license or permit granted prior to July 30, 2003, any conspiracy formed...

  19. 31 CFR 547.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 547... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 547.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  20. 31 CFR 544.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 544... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 544.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise... contract entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy...

  1. 31 CFR 594.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 594... Prohibitions § 594.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed for...

  2. 31 CFR 539.203 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 539... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 539.203 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction by any United States... prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in a transaction prohibited by this part...

  3. 31 CFR 538.211 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 538... § 538.211 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction by any United States person or within the..., any of the prohibitions set forth in this part is prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose...

  4. 31 CFR 546.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 546... § 546.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate the prohibitions...

  5. 31 CFR 543.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 543... Prohibitions § 543.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  6. 31 CFR 594.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 594... Prohibitions § 594.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed for...

  7. 31 CFR 549.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 549... § 549.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate the prohibitions...

  8. 31 CFR 593.206 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 593... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 593.206 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise... contract entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy...

  9. 31 CFR 596.202 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 596... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 596.202 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction for the purpose of, or... set forth in this part is hereby prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in...

  10. 31 CFR 548.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 548... § 548.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate the prohibitions...

  11. 31 CFR 546.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 546... § 546.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate the prohibitions...

  12. 31 CFR 542.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 542... § 542.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed for the...

  13. 31 CFR 588.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 588... Prohibitions § 588.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  14. 31 CFR 539.203 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 539... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 539.203 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction by any United States... prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in a transaction prohibited by this part...

  15. 31 CFR 541.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 541... § 541.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  16. 31 CFR 548.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 548... § 548.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate the prohibitions...

  17. 31 CFR 597.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 597... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 597.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction for the purpose of, or... set forth in this part is hereby prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in...

  18. 31 CFR 576.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 576... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 576.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed...

  19. 31 CFR 543.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 543... Prohibitions § 543.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  20. 31 CFR 549.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 549... § 549.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate the prohibitions...

  1. 31 CFR 588.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 588... Prohibitions § 588.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  2. 31 CFR 592.202 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 592... Prohibitions § 592.202 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Notwithstanding the existence of any rights or... contract entered into or any license or permit granted prior to July 30, 2003, any conspiracy formed...

  3. 31 CFR 592.202 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 592... Prohibitions § 592.202 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Notwithstanding the existence of any rights or... contract entered into or any license or permit granted prior to July 30, 2003, any conspiracy formed...

  4. 31 CFR 543.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 543... Prohibitions § 543.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  5. 31 CFR 546.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 546... § 546.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate the prohibitions...

  6. 31 CFR 543.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 543... Prohibitions § 543.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  7. 31 CFR 588.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 588... Prohibitions § 588.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  8. 31 CFR 546.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 546... § 546.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate the prohibitions...

  9. 31 CFR 538.211 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 538... § 538.211 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction by any United States person or within the..., any of the prohibitions set forth in this part is prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose...

  10. 31 CFR 597.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 597... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 597.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction for the purpose of, or... set forth in this part is hereby prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in...

  11. 31 CFR 576.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 576... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 576.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed...

  12. Assessing African American Adolescents' Risk for Suicide Attempts: Attachment Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Maureen E.; Benoit, Marilyn; O'Donnell, Regina M.; Getson, Pamela R.; Silber, Tomas; Walsh, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates risk factors in African American adolescent suicide attempters (n=51) and nonsuicidal (n=124) adolescents. Results show that threat of separation from a parental figure, insomnia, neglect, substance abuse, suicidal ideation, and failing grades were the strongest predictors of suicide attempt. Unexpected findings include high levels of…

  13. Interpersonal Precipitants and Suicide Attempts in Borderline Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodsky, Beth S.; Groves, Shelly A.; Oquendo, Maria A.; Mann, J. John; Stanley, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is often characterized by multiple low lethality suicide attempts triggered by seemingly minor incidents, and less commonly by high lethality attempts that are attributed to impulsiveness or comorbid major depression. The relationships among life events, impulsiveness, and type of suicidal behavior has hardly…

  14. Risk of Suicide Attempt in Adopted and Nonadopted Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Stephen M.; Sharma, Anu; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We asked whether adoption status represented a risk of suicide attempt for adopted and nonadopted offspring living in the United States. We also examined whether factors known to be associated with suicidal behavior would mediate the relationship between adoption status and suicide attempt. METHODS: Participants were drawn from the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study, which included 692 adopted and 540 nonadopted offspring and was conducted at the University of Minnesota from 1998 to 2008. Adoptees were systematically ascertained from records of 3 large Minnesota adoption agencies; nonadoptees were ascertained from Minnesota birth records. Outcome measures were attempted suicide, reported by parent or offspring, and factors known to be associated with suicidal behavior including psychiatric disorder symptoms, personality traits, family environment, and academic disengagement. RESULTS: The odds of a reported suicide attempt were ∼4 times greater in adoptees compared with nonadoptees (odds ratio: 4.23). After adjustment for factors associated with suicidal behavior, the odds of reporting a suicide attempt were reduced but remained significantly elevated (odds ratio: 3.70). CONCLUSIONS: The odds for reported suicide attempt are elevated in individuals who are adopted relative to those who are not adopted. The relationship between adoption status and suicide attempt is partially mediated by factors known to be associated with suicidal behavior. Continued study of the risk of suicide attempt in adopted offspring may inform the larger investigation of suicidality in all adolescents and young adults. PMID:24019414

  15. Risk Factors for Attempting Suicide in Heroin Addicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Alec

    2010-01-01

    In order to examine risk factors for attempting suicide in heroin dependent patients, a group of 527 abstinent opiate dependent patients had a psychiatric interview and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Patients who had or had never attempted suicide were compared on putative suicide risk factors. It was found that 207 of the 527…

  16. Reported Childhood Trauma and Suicide Attempts in Schizophrenic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Alec

    2005-01-01

    Childhood traumas are associated with suicidal behavior but this aspect has not been examined in relation to schizophrenia. In this study, 50 chronic schizophrenic patients who had attempted suicide were compared with 50 chronic schizophrenic patients who had never attempted suicide for their scores on the 34-item Childhood Trauma Questionnaire…

  17. Erroneous Memories Arising from Repeated Attempts to Remember

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henkel, Linda A.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of repeated and prolonged attempts at remembering on false memory rates was assessed in three experiments. Participants saw and imagined pictures and then made repeated recall attempts before taking a source memory test. Although the number of items recalled increased with repeated tests, the net gains were associated with more source…

  18. (De-) criminalization of attempted suicide in India: A review

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Rajeev; Kumar, Saurabh; Pattanayak, Raman Deep; Dhawan, Anju; Sagar, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Attempted suicide is a serious problem requiring mental health interventions, but it continues to be treated as a criminal offence under the section 309 of Indian Penal Code. The article reviews the international legal perspective across various regions of the world, discusses the unintended consequences of section 309 IPC and highlights the need for decriminalization of attempted suicide in India. The Mental Health Care Bill, 2013, still under consideration in the Rajya Sabha (upper house), has proposed that attempted suicide should not be criminally prosecuted. Decriminalization of suicidal attempt will serve to cut down the undue stigma and avoid punishment in the aftermath of incident, and lead to a more accurate collection of suicide-related statistics. From a policy perspective, it will further emphasize the urgent need to develop a framework to deliver mental health services to all those who attempt suicide. PMID:25535437

  19. Risk factors for suicide attempts among Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hun Soo; Kim, Hyun Sil

    2008-09-01

    This study examined the rate of suicide attempts and relevant variables and identified risk factors for suicide attempts among Korean adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed using an anonymous, self-report questionnaire. A total of 2,100 Korean adolescents, including 1,321 student adolescents and 779 delinquent adolescents, were selected using a proportional stratified random sampling method for this study. The results showed the rate of suicide attempts to be 11.6%, with delinquent adolescents reporting a higher rate of suicide attempts than student adolescents. Adolescent suicide attempts indicated higher levels of dysfunctional family dynamics and maladaptive personalities. In addition, adolescents who attempted suicide expressed a significantly lower level of life satisfaction and less effective coping strategies compared with those adolescents who had not attempted suicide. Logistic regression analysis revealed that five predictive risk factors appeared to be statistically significant: coping strategy, parental child-rearing pattern, depression, parent-child relationship, and psychosomatic symptoms, in this order at p < 0.05. PMID:17952588

  20. Pattern mixture models for the analysis of repeated attempt designs.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Michael J; Jackson, Dan; Feng, Wei; White, Ian R

    2015-12-01

    It is not uncommon in follow-up studies to make multiple attempts to collect a measurement after baseline. Recording whether these attempts are successful or not provides useful information for the purposes of assessing the missing at random (MAR) assumption and facilitating missing not at random (MNAR) modeling. This is because measurements from subjects who provide this data after multiple failed attempts may differ from those who provide the measurement after fewer attempts. This type of "continuum of resistance" to providing a measurement has hitherto been modeled in a selection model framework, where the outcome data is modeled jointly with the success or failure of the attempts given these outcomes. Here, we present a pattern mixture approach to model this type of data. We re-analyze the repeated attempt data from a trial that was previously analyzed using a selection model approach. Our pattern mixture model is more flexible and is more transparent in terms of parameter identifiability than the models that have previously been used to model repeated attempt data and allows for sensitivity analysis. We conclude that our approach to modeling this type of data provides a fully viable alternative to the more established selection model. PMID:26149119

  1. Repetition of Attempted Suicide Among Immigrants in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Lipsicas, Cendrine Bursztein; Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik; Wasserman, Danuta; Apter, Alan; Kerkhof, Ad; Michel, Konrad; Renberg, Ellinor Salander; van Heeringen, Kees; Värnik, Airi; Schmidtke, Armin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare frequencies of suicide attempt repetition in immigrants and local European populations, and the timing of repetition in these groups. Method: Data from 7 European countries, comprising 10 574 local and 3032 immigrant subjects, were taken from the World Health Organization European Multicentre Study on Suicidal Behaviour and the ensuing Monitoring Suicidal Behaviour in Europe (commonly referred to as MONSUE) project. The relation between immigrant status and repetition of suicide attempt within 12-months following first registered attempt was analyzed with binary logistic regression, controlling for sex, age, and method of attempt. Timing of repetition was controlled for sex, age, and the recommended type of aftercare. Results: Lower odds of repeating a suicide attempt were found in Eastern European (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.41 to 0.61, P < 0.001) and non-European immigrants (OR 0.68; 95% CI 0.51 to 0.90, P < 0.05), compared with the locals. Similar patterns were identified in the sex-specific analysis. Eastern European immigrants tended to repeat their attempt much later than locals (OR 0.58; 95% CI 0.35 to 0.93, P < 0.05). In general, 32% of all repetition occurred within 30 days. Repetition tended to decrease with age and was more likely in females using harder methods in their index attempt (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.54, P < 0.01). Large variations in the general repetition frequency were identified between the collecting centres, thus influencing the results. Conclusions: The lower repetition frequencies in non-Western immigrants, compared with locals, in Europe stands in contrast to their markedly higher tendency to attempt suicide in general, possibly pointing to situational stress factors related to their suicidal crisis that are less persistent over time. Our findings also raise the possibility that suicide attempters and repeaters constitute only partially overlapping populations. PMID:25565687

  2. Factors influencing attempted and completed suicide in postnatal women: A population-based study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Shu-Chuan; Chang, Jung-Chen; Yeh, Ming-Kung; Wang, Shun-Mu; Chen, Yi-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The aims of study were to investigate risk factors associated with attempted and completed suicide. This nested case–control study was conducted using the medical and death data of nearly all pregnant women for the period 2002–2012 in Taiwan. A total of 139 cases of attempted suicide and 95 cases of completed suicide were identified; for each case, 10 controls were randomly selected and matched to the cases according to age and year of delivery. A conditional logistic regression model was used. The mean attempted and completed suicide rates were 9.91 and 6.86 per 100,000 women with live births, respectively. Never having married and postpartum depression also increased the risk of attempted suicide (OR = 2.06; 95% CI = 1.09–3.88 and OR = 2.51; 95% CI = 1.10–5.75, respectively) and completed suicide (OR = 20.27; 95% CI = 8.99–45.73 and OR = 21.72; 95% CI = 8.08–58.37, respectively). Other factors for attempted suicide included being widowed or divorced, and having a caesarean delivery or suicide history. Other factors for completed suicide included lower education level, low infant birth weight, and diagnosis of anxiety or mood disorder. These results suggest that people should appropriately assess potential risk factors and provide assistance for postnatal women to reduce the occurrence of suicide events. PMID:27173845

  3. Should Health Care Providers Uphold the DNR of a Terminally Ill Patient Who Attempts Suicide?

    PubMed

    Campo-Engelstein, Lisa; Jankowski, Jane; Mullen, Marcy

    2016-06-01

    An individual's right to refuse life-sustaining treatment is a fundamental expression of patient autonomy; however, supporting this right poses ethical dilemmas for healthcare providers when the patient has attempted suicide. Emergency physicians encounter patients who have attempted suicide and are likely among the first medical providers to face the dilemma of honoring the patient's DNR or intervening to reverse the effects of potentially fatal actions. We illustrate this issue by introducing a case example in which the DNR of a terminally ill woman was not honored because the cause of her cardiac arrest was suicide. We argue that although a terminal diagnosis should change the way health care providers respond to a suicide attempt, many of the theoretical underpinnings for how one should treat suicide attempts-especially the criterion of external reasonability, that is the action to withhold or withdraw life-sustaining measures is reasonable independent of the precipitating event-are common to all situations (Brown et al. in Am J Bioeth 13(3):3-12, 2013). The presumption that patients who attempt suicide lack capacity due to acute mental illness is flawed because it fails to account for a competent individual's reasonable preference to not be forced to live in an unbearable, terminal condition. In states without legislation allowing physician aid in dying, patients and providers must grapple with these limitations on a case-by-case basis. In cases where the patient has a limited life expectancy and there is not concern for psychiatric illness as the primary cause of the suicidal action, we argue that the negative right to refuse life-sustaining treatment should prevail. PMID:26223360

  4. Temperament, hopelessness, and attempted suicide: direct and indirect effects.

    PubMed

    Rosellini, Anthony J; Bagge, Courtney L

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated whether hopelessness mediated the relations between temperament and recent suicide attempter status in a psychiatric sample. Negative temperament and positive temperament (particularly the positive emotionality subscale) uniquely predicted levels of hopelessness. Although these temperament constructs also demonstrated significant indirect effects on recent suicide attempter status, the effects were partially (for the broad temperament scales) or fully (for the positive emotionality subscale) mediated by the levels of hopelessness. These findings indicate that a tendency to experience excessive negative emotions as well as a paucity of positive emotions may lead individuals to experience hopelessness. Although temperament may also indirectly influence suicide attempter status, hopelessness mediates these relations. PMID:24494785

  5. Psychiatric diagnoses in minority female adolescent suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Trautman, P D; Rotheram-Borus, M J; Dopkins, S; Lewin, N

    1991-07-01

    Psychiatric diagnoses were examined using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children semistructured interview among three groups of minority adolescent females aged 12 to 17:61 suicide attempters, 31 psychiatrically disturbed nonattempters, and 23 nonattempting, nondisturbed girls. Major or minor depressive disorder was found in 42% of the suicide attempters; conduct disorder in 46%; multiple diagnoses in 38%, no diagnosis in 13%. These rates were very similar to those found in disturbed nonattempters. Only one symptom, suicidal ideation, distinguished attempters from disturbed nonattempters, while many symptoms distinguished these two groups from nondisturbed nonattempters. PMID:1890096

  6. Grief and loss among Eskimos attempting suicide in western Alaska.

    PubMed

    Gregory, R J

    1994-12-01

    Data were collected prospectively from psychiatric evaluations performed on 53 consecutive Eskimos in the Bering Strait region who attempted suicide. Depressive diagnoses were common (N = 49). Thirty-seven (70%) of the attempts were preceded by a recent interpersonal loss. Sixty percent of the patients had lost a parent during childhood. Poor affective relatedness, especially around issues of loss, was noted in most of the patients. Thus, both multiple losses and limited grieving mechanisms may be important risk factors for attempted suicide in this population. PMID:7977892

  7. An Attempt to Validate a Measure of Structure in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabassol, David J.

    1975-01-01

    Eighty male adolescents were given a structure inventory (CASI) devised by the author, and also the Locus Of Control (I-E) instrument, and the Adjective Check List (ACL), in an attempt to validate the first-named inventory. (Editor)

  8. Factors That Affect Adolescent Drug Users' Suicide Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hokwang

    2016-01-01

    Drug abuse has been widely linked to suicide risk. We examined the factors that affect adolescent drug users' suicide attempts in South Korea. This study analyzed the data of 311 adolescents who had used drugs such as inhalants, psychotropic drugs, and marijuana (195 males and 116 females). Among 311 subjects, 109 (35.0%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. After adjusting for other variables, depressive mood (OR=19.79) and poly-drug use (OR=2.79), and low/middle levels of academic achievement compared with a high level (OR=3.72 and 4.38) were independently associated with increased odds of a suicide attempt, while better perceived health (OR=0.32) was independently associated with reduced odds of a suicide attempt. For adolescent drug users, preventive work should be directed toward the active treatment of drug use, depression, and physical health and reinforcing proper coping strategies for academic and other stress. PMID:27247604

  9. Factors That Affect Adolescent Drug Users' Suicide Attempts.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin; Song, Hokwang

    2016-05-01

    Drug abuse has been widely linked to suicide risk. We examined the factors that affect adolescent drug users' suicide attempts in South Korea. This study analyzed the data of 311 adolescents who had used drugs such as inhalants, psychotropic drugs, and marijuana (195 males and 116 females). Among 311 subjects, 109 (35.0%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. After adjusting for other variables, depressive mood (OR=19.79) and poly-drug use (OR=2.79), and low/middle levels of academic achievement compared with a high level (OR=3.72 and 4.38) were independently associated with increased odds of a suicide attempt, while better perceived health (OR=0.32) was independently associated with reduced odds of a suicide attempt. For adolescent drug users, preventive work should be directed toward the active treatment of drug use, depression, and physical health and reinforcing proper coping strategies for academic and other stress. PMID:27247604

  10. [Attempted suicide during the financial crisis in Athens].

    PubMed

    Stavrianakos, K; Kontaxakis, V; Moussas, G; Paplos, K; Papaslanis, T; Havaki-Kontaxaki, B; Papadimitriou, Gn

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is considered as the result of complex cognitive and emotional processes and it is a timeless, global and multifactorial phenomenon. Periods of financial crises in the past, such as the Great Depression in the USA in 1929 and the economic crises of Asia, Russia and Argentina in the late 1990s, have been associated with impairment of mental health of the economically affected. Unemployment, job insecurity, debts, poverty and social exclusion seems to lead to higher incidence of anxiety and depressive symptoms and increased suicidality. Alcohol and substance use and the reduction of the state budget for health services reinforce the negative effects of the economic recession on mental health. The financial crisis which currently affects many European countries began in 2008 and its impact on the mental health of European citizens is in progress. Greece is probably the most affected country by the European financial crisis. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential impact of the crisis' consequences on the attempted suicide rates in the Athens population and the differentiation of suicide attempters on social, demographic and clinical-psychopathological parameters during the crisis. A retrospective study was conducted. The semi-structured records of 165 attempters who were hospitalized in the Internal Medicine Clinics of the "Sotiria" General Hospital in Athens, after attempted suicide in the years 2007 and 2011, before and during the financial crisis respectively, were studied. Among suicide attempters 95(57.6%) were suffering from mental disorders. Most often diagnoses were these of mood disorders (n=60, 63.2%). Demographic data, current psychiatric disorder, previous suicide attempt and severity of psychopathology at the time of suicide attempt were recorded for each patient. Furthermore, the severity of each suicide attempt was estimated. Suicide attempts were 70 in 2007, before the financial crisis (mean age 36.9 years, 71% women

  11. 7 CFR 400.122 - Attempts to locate debtor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Debt Management-Regulations for the 1986 and Succeeding Crop Years § 400.122 Attempts to locate debtor. Before disclosing delinquent debt information to...

  12. Can Better Mother-Daughter Relations Reduce the Chance of a Suicide Attempt among Latinas?

    PubMed Central

    Zayas, Luis H.; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Kuhlberg, Jill

    2011-01-01

    National surveys and other research on adolescent Latinas show that adolescent females have higher rates of suicidal ideation, planning, and attempts than other ethnic and racial minority youth. Internalizing behaviors and family conflicts are commonly associated with suicidality in research on adolescents. In the case of Latinas, we explore the connection between adolescent Hispanic cultural involvement, mother-adolescent mutuality, internalizing behaviors, and suicidality. This paper presents data from a study of 232 Latinas, some with a recent history of suicide attempts (n = 122). The results show that higher adolescent Hispanic cultural involvement was associated with greater mother-daughter mutuality and thus led to reduction in the likelihood of suicide attempts. The relationship between mother-daughter mutuality and suicide attempts among Latinas is mediated by specific internalizing behaviors (withdrawn depressive). Our findings highlight the positive effect that Latino cultural values have in the relationship between Latina adolescent and their mothers and confirm the importance that internalizing behaviors and the mother-daughter relationship have for suicide attempters. PMID:21822487

  13. Iowa gambling task performance in currently depressed suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Gorlyn, Marianne; Keilp, John G; Oquendo, Maria A; Burke, Ainsley K; John Mann, J

    2013-05-30

    Deficits in decision-making using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) have been found in past suicide attempters, but primarily euthymic and/or medicated patients. This study compared IGT performance among medication-free, currently depressed patients (unipolar and bipolar) with (n=26) and without (n=46) a past history of suicide attempt, and healthy volunteers (n=42). Attempter status, in a sample whose attempts were predominantly non-violent, was not associated with impaired IGT performance even when accounting for sex, mood disorder type, and comorbid Borderline Personality Disorder. A non-significant trend towards poorer performance was found in a small subgroup of past attempters who had used a violent method, consistent with prior studies. Suicide intent and ideation were unrelated to IGT scores. There were no consistent associations between IGT performance and ratings of impulsiveness (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS)), hostility (Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI)) or aggression (Brown-Goodwin Aggression Inventory (BGAI)). Results suggest that decision-making impairment is related to specific subtypes of suicidal behavior, but may not be universally sensitive to suicide risk in all types of attempters, especially those using non-violent means. Psychometric and conceptual issues surrounding the IGT also appear to affect its utility as a general marker of suicidal behavior risk. PMID:23489594

  14. Characteristic Risk Factors Associated with Planned versus Impulsive Suicide Attempters

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaeha; Lee, Kang-Sook; Kim, Dai Jin; Hong, Seung-Chul; Choi, Kyoung Ho; Oh, Youngmin; Wang, Sheng-Min; Lee, Hae-Kook; Kweon, Yong-Sil; Lee, Chung Tai; Lee, Kyoung-Uk

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to investigate predictors for planned suicide attempters. Methods This study included 1,003 patients who attempted suicide and visited emergency department. They were divided into two groups, planned suicide attempters (SAs; n=133 [13.3%]) and impulsive SAs (n=870, [86.7%]), and the demographic variables, clinical characteristics, factors related to suicide, and psychiatric resources of the groups were compared. Results Major depressive disorder and substance use disorders were more common among planned SAs than among impulsive SAs. Additionally, the planned SAs were older, more likely to be divorced, separated or widowed, and more likely to have comorbid medical illnesses, severe depression, higher suicidality, and self-blaming tendencies than the impulsive SAs. Financial problems and physical illnesses were more common in planned SAs but interpersonal conflicts were more frequent in impulsive SAs. Planned SAs had fewer previous suicide attempts but these were more serious suicide attempts. The presence of the hope to die, a written will, and suicidal ideation of a repetitive, intense, and continuous nature were predictive of planned SAs. Conclusion The present findings demonstrated that planned SAs had more severe psychopathology and medical illnesses than impulsive SAs. Therefore, screening for depression, substance use disorders, and suicidal plans among old and medically ill patients may be important for preventing suicide attempts. PMID:26598591

  15. Differentiating suicide ideators from attempters: violence--a research note.

    PubMed

    Stack, Steven

    2014-02-01

    Which factors distinguish suicide attempters from suicide ideators is a relatively neglected question in suicidology. Data from the 2001 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, encompassing 1,439 youth suicide ideators and 1,097 attempters, was used to explore which factors best differentiate suicide attempters from ideators, with a focus on violence involvement. Measures of violence include the contexts of fights, dating, and weapons carrying. Controls were incorporated for psychiatric disorders, risky sexual behavior, school integration, and demographics. Controlling for the other variables, violence differentiated attempts from ideation: fighting (OR = 2.18) and weapon carrying (OR = 1.13). Psychiatric factors that predicted attempts over ideation included major depression (OR = 1.86), use of cocaine (OR = 2.34), and having a suicide plan (OR = 2.69), while demographic factors included gender, age, residence in the Midwest, and Hispanic, African American, or Asian ethnicity. A supplementary analysis (N = 11,546) determined that violence also helped to differentiate suicide ideators from nonsuicidal youth. Four factors (including violence involvement, eating disorders, and gender consistently) differentiated both between suicide attempts and ideation, and also between suicide ideators and nonsuicidal youth. The link between violence involvement and suicidality is interpreted in terms of the capability for suicide from the interpersonal theory of suicide. PMID:24033552

  16. Non-psychotropic medication and risk of suicide or attempted suicide: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Gorton, Hayley C; Webb, Roger T; Kapur, Navneet; Ashcroft, Darren M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To establish which non-psychotropic medications have been assessed in relation to risk of suicide or attempted suicide in observational studies, document reported associations and consider study strengths and limitations. Design Systematic review. Methods Four databases (Embase, Medline, PsycINFO and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts) were searched from 1990 to June 2014, and reference lists of included articles were hand-searched. Case–control, cohort and case only studies which reported suicide or attempted suicide in association with any non-psychotropic medication were included. Outcome measures The outcomes eligible for inclusion were suicide and attempted suicide, as defined by the authors of the included study. Results Of 11 792 retrieved articles, 19 were eligible for inclusion. Five studies considered cardiovascular medication and antiepileptics; two considered leukotriene receptor antagonists, isotretinoin and corticosteroids; one assessed antibiotics and another assessed varenicline. An additional study compared multiple medications prescribed to suicide cases versus controls. There was marked heterogeneity in study design, outcome and exposure classification, and control for confounding factors; particularly comorbid mental and physical illness. No increased risk was associated with cardiovascular medications, but associations with other medications remained inconclusive and meta-analysis was inappropriate due to study heterogeneity. Conclusions Whether non-psychotropic medications are associated with increased risk of suicide or attempted suicide remains largely unknown. Robust identification of suicide outcomes and control of comorbidities could improve quantification of risk associated with non-psychotropic medication, beyond that conferred by underlying physical and mental illnesses. PMID:26769782

  17. Investigating the Co-Occurrence of Self-Mutilation and Suicide Attempts among Opioid-Dependent Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Elizabeth; Degenhardt, Louisa; Darke, Shane; Nelson, Elliot C.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence and risk factors associated with self-mutilation among opioid dependent cases and controls were determined, and the co-occurrence of self-mutilation and attempted suicide was examined. The prevalence of self-mutilation among cases and controls did not differ significantly (25% vs. 23%, respectively), with gender differences…

  18. Suicidal ideation and attempts among chemically dependent adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Deykin, E Y; Buka, S L

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Suicidal ideation and attempts were examined in a population of chemically dependent adolescents, a group at high risk of self-destructive behavior. METHODS. The prevalence and correlates of suicidality and of major depressive disorder were assessed by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule and a structured family and social history interview with 300 addicts aged 15 through 19 years. RESULTS. Suicidal ideation was reported by 31% to 75% of the subjects and suicide attempts were reported by 28% to 61%, with females predominating. Thoughts of suicide combined with prolonged thoughts of death in general and a desire to be dead were highly associated with suicide attempts. Exposure to physical or sexual abuse was associated with a significantly increased risk of suicide attempts for males but not for females. CONCLUSIONS. The probability of a suicide attempt increases when thoughts of suicide coincide with morbid ideation of extended duration, suggesting that risk assessment should be based on duration as well as presence of morbid thoughts. Substance abuse treatment requires an assessment of suicidal potential and counseling for those whose potential is high, with special attention to males exposed to abuse. PMID:8154569

  19. Abnormality of EEG alpha asymmetry in female adolescent suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Graae, F; Tenke, C; Bruder, G; Rotheram, M J; Piacentini, J; Castro-Blanco, D; Leite, P; Towey, J

    1996-10-15

    Abnormal electroencephalographic (EEG) activity has been associated with various psychiatric disorders and behaviors, including depression, suicide, and aggression. We examined quantitative resting EEG in Hispanic female adolescent suicide attempters and matched normal controls. Computerized EEG measures were recorded at 11 scalp sites during eyes open and eyes closed periods from 16 suicide attempters and 22 normal controls. Suicide attempters differed from normal controls in alpha asymmetry. Normal adolescents had greater alpha (less activation) over right than left hemisphere, whereas suicidal adolescents had a nonsignificant asymmetry in the opposite direction. Nondepressed attempters were distinguished from depressed attempters in that they accounted for the preponderance of abnormal asymmetry, particularly in posterior regions. Alpha asymmetry over posterior regions was related to ratings of suicidal intent, but not depression severity. The alpha asymmetry in suicidal adolescents resembled that seen for depressed adults in its abnormal direction, but not in its regional distribution. Findings for suicidal adolescents are discussed in terms of a hypothesis of reduced left posterior activation, which is not related to depression but to suicidal or aggressive behavior. PMID:8894062

  20. Adolescent Attachment Security, Family Functioning, and Suicide Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Sheftall, Arielle H.; Mathias, Charles W.; Furr, R. Michael; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2013-01-01

    Theories of suicidal behavior suggest that the desire to die can arise from disruption of interpersonal relationships. Suicide research has typically studied this from the individual's perspective of the quality/frequency of their social interactions; however, the field of attachment may offer another perspective on understanding an individual’s social patterns and suicide risk. This study examined attachment along with broader family functioning (family adaptability and cohesion) among 236 adolescent psychiatric inpatients with (n = 111) and without (n = 125) histories of suicide attempts. On average, adolescents were 14 years of age and Hispanic (69%). Compared to those without suicide attempts, adolescent attempters had lower self-reported maternal and paternal attachment and lower familial adaptability and cohesion. When comparing all 3 types of attachment simultaneously in the logistic regression model predicting suicide attempt status, paternal attachment was the only significant predictor. Suicide attempt group was also significantly predicted by self-rated Cohesion and Adaptability; neither of the parent ratings of family functioning were significant predictors. These findings are consistent with the predictions of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide about social functioning and support the efforts to develop attachment-based interventions as a novel route towards suicide prevention. PMID:23560608

  1. Social, toxicological and meteorological data on suicide attempts.

    PubMed

    Breuer, H W; Breuer, J; Fischbach-Breuer, B R

    1986-01-01

    A sample of 151 patients, admitted to an Intensive Care Unit after attempted suicide by poisoning was analysed with regard to age, drugs consumed, possible causal factors and influence of weather. The German Weather Service provided the meteorological data. Mean age of the patients was 37.6 years. The patients had taken barbiturates, aggressive chemicals, tranquillizers or a combination of drugs (47%). Alcohol had been taken in addition to the drugs in 24%, which might indicate a trigger function. The main provoking causes for the suicide attempts were conflicts in partnerships and occupational problems. Some 15% of the patients had previously diagnosed psychiatric disorders. There was a significant positive correlation between the time of attempted suicide and the weather parameters "stable upslide, labile upslide, fog, thunderstorm, warm air, upslide and weather drier than on the 2 preceding days". Significantly fewer attempts than expected occurred with "low pressure and trough situation, labile ground layer-upslide above, subsidence or downslide motion". Apart from individual provoking factors, such as the reaction to conflicts and the spectrum of reactions, exogenous factors like weather must be considered as important for the timing of suicide attempts. These results may be of relevance for suicide prevention. PMID:3743576

  2. Cultural Concepts and Themes of Suicidal Attempt Among Iranian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bazrafshan, Mohammad Rafi; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Molazem, Zahra; Mani, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Background: Suicide attempts are more common among adolescents than other age groups. Although suicide is considered a worldwide problem, but the related factors, to suicidal behavior are different in various cultures. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to identify themes that explain suicide attempt process among adolescents in Iran. Patients and Methods: This is a qualitative study carried out based on grounded theory. Key informants were 16 adolescents referred to two hospitals in Shiraz after suicide attempts. Also, 4 family members, a nurse, a psychologist, and a psychiatrist participated in this study. Sampling started with purposive sampling method and continued with theoretical sampling. Data were collected using semi-structured in-depth interviews. Data analysis was carried out using Strauss and Corbin approach and constant comparative method until the point of data saturation. Results: Five main categories, including personal factors and life experiences; family factors, social and educational factors, psychological-emotional problems, and stress control strategies were extracted from the data. The central concept in the data was to escape the painful psychological condition, which was in connection with other concepts describing the process of suicide attempts in adolescents. Conclusions: This study identified 5 categories of concepts as main themes that can be used to explain suicidal attempt process among Iranian adolescents. PMID:25883919

  3. An Exploratory Analysis of Personality Factors Contributed to Suicide Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, P. N. Suresh; Rajmohan, V.; Sushil, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: People who attempt suicide have certain individual predispositions, part of which is contributed by personality traits. Aims: The present study was conducted to identify the psycho-sociodemographic and personality related factors contributing to suicide attempts. Materials and Methods: 104 suicide attempters admitted in various departments and referred to the department of psychiatry of IQRAA Hospital formed the study sample. They were evaluated with a self designed socio-demographic proforma, Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire Revised, Albert Einstein College of Medicine-Impulsivity Coping Scale, and Past Feelings and Acts of Violence Scale. Statistics Analysis: The data was initially analyzed by percentage of frequencies. Association between socio-demographic and selected psychological factors was analyzed using t-test and Chi-square test. Intercorrelation among psychological factors was calculated by Pearson's correlation coefficient “r”. Results and Conclusion: Factors such as young age, being married, nuclear family, feeling lonely and burden to family, inability to solve the problems of day to day life, and presence of psychiatric diagnosis and personality traits such as neuroticism, impulsivity, and violence were contributed to suicide attempt. A significant positive relationship between these factors was also identified. Findings of the present study call the attention of mental health professionals to identify these high risk factors in susceptible individuals and to modify these factors to prevent them from attempting suicide. PMID:24379499

  4. Discerning reported suicide attempts within a youthful offender population.

    PubMed

    Mallett, Christopher; De Rigne, Lea A; Quinn, Linda; Stoddard-Dare, Patricia

    2012-02-01

    With suicide being the third leading cause of death among young people, early identification of risk is critical, particularly for those involved with the juvenile courts. In this study of court-involved youth (N = 433) in two Midwest counties, logistic regression analysis identified some expected and unexpected findings of important demographic, educational, mental health, child welfare, and juvenile court-related variables that were linked to reported suicide attempts. Some of the expected suicide attempt risk factors for these youth included prior psychiatric hospitalization and related mental health services, residential placement, and diagnoses of depression and alcohol dependence. However, the most unexpected finding was that a court disposition to shelter care (group home) was related to a nearly tenfold increased risk in reported suicide attempt. These findings are of importance to families, mental health professionals, and juvenile court personnel to identify those youth who are most at risk and subsequently provide appropriate interventions to prevent such outcomes. PMID:22276846

  5. The sociocultural contexts of attempting suicide among women in Iran.

    PubMed

    Keyvanara, Mahmoud; Haghshenas, Abbas

    2010-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the sociocultural contexts of suicide attempts among women in Iran. Fifty women who attempted suicide and were admitted to the two main hospitals in Isfahan in 2006 were interviewed. The main themes identified were family problems, marriage and love, social stigma, pressure of high expectations, and poverty. We observed significant sociocultural influence on attempting suicide among the Iranian women in this study. Based on our findings we conclude that the women in the study were affected by social changes and the interplay between traditional and modern values and attitudes. Understanding sociocultural aspects of suicide in Iran is critical in providing effective and culturally sensitive suicide prevention and care programs. PMID:20677036

  6. Characteristics of Drug Overdose in Young Suicide Attempters

    PubMed Central

    Kweon, Yong-Sil; Hwang, Sunyoung; Yeon, Bora; Choi, Kyoung Ho; Oh, Youngmin; Lee, Hae-Kook; Lee, Chung Tai

    2012-01-01

    Objective Few studies have focused on the characteristic features of drug overdose in children and adolescents who have attempted suicide in Korea. The present study examined the characteristics of drug overdose in children and adolescents who visited the emergency room following drug ingestion for a suicide attempt. Methods The medical records of 28 patients who were treated in the emergency room following a drug overdose from January 2008 to March 2011 were analyzed. Demographic and clinical variables related to the suicide attempts were examined. Results The mean age of the patients was 16.6±1.7 years (range 11-19 years), and 20 of the patients (71.4%) were female. Most of the patients (n=23, 82.1%) overdosed on a single drug; acetaminophen-containing analgesics were the most common (n=12, 42.9%). Depression was the most common psychiatric disorder (n=22, 78.6%), and interpersonal conflict was the most common precipitating factor of the suicide attempts (n=11, 39.3%). This was the first suicide attempt for approximately 80% of the patients. About one fourth of the patients (n=7, 25%) had follow-up visits at the psychiatric outpatient clinic. Conclusion Early screening and psychiatric intervention for depression may be an important factor in preventing childhood and adolescent suicide attempts. Developing coping strategies to manage interpersonal conflicts may also be helpful. Moreover, policies restricting the amount and kind of drugs purchased by teenagers may be necessary to prevent drug overdose in this age group. PMID:23430317

  7. Indirect (chronic) self-destructiveness and modes of suicide attempts

    PubMed Central

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos; Gruszczynski, Wojciech; Tsirigotis-Wołoszczak, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Suicides and suicide attempts may be considered as manifestations not only of direct self-destructiveness, but also of indirect (chronic) self-destructiveness. The aim of this work is to assess the relation between intensity of indirect self-destructiveness and suicide attempt modes. Material and methods The research was conducted among 147 persons after suicide attempts (114 women and 33 men) aged 14-33 years. The Polish version of the “Chronic Self-Destructiveness Scale” by Kelley (CS-DS) in Suchańska's adaptation was used. Results Examined persons applied several modes of committing suicide: pharmacological drugs, exsanguination, hanging, jumping from a height, asphyxia, poisoning, and throwing oneself under a moving car. The most frequent are pharmacological drugs (42.31%) and exsanguination (25.60%); the rarest is throwing oneself under a car (1.28%). Relations between indirect self-destructiveness and the following suicide attempt modes were found: pharmacological drugs (0.366, p = 0.00001), poisoning (0.667, p = 0.01), and throwing oneself under a car (0.542, p = 0.04). There were found three clusters regarding the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness (low, medium and high). The largest differences concerned hanging, jumping from a height (medium CS-DS), poisoning and throwing oneself under a car (high CS-DS). There is a relation between indirect self-destructiveness and recurrence of suicide attempts (Kendall Tau = 0.217, p = 0.007); the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates the risk of consecutive suicide attempts (F = 2.871, p = 0.05). Conclusions The implications of the findings are mainly of preventive and therapeutic nature. In the preventative aspect, the subject of interest should be not only persons with a tendency to the active form of indirect self-destructiveness, but also persons exhibiting its passive form. PMID:22371730

  8. Factors influencing quit attempts among male daily smokers in China✩

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Luhua; Song, Yang; Xiao, Lin; Palipudi, Krishna; Asma, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Background China has the largest population of smokers in the world, yet the quit rate is low. We used data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey China to identify factors influencing quit attempts among male Chinese daily smokers. Methods The study sample included 3303 male daily smokers. To determine the factors that were significantly associated with making a quit attempt, we conducted logistic regression analyses. In addition, mediation anal yses were carried out to investigate how the intermediate association among demographics (age, education, urbanicity) and smoking related variables affected making a quit attempt. Results An estimated 11.0% of male daily smokers tried to quit smoking in the 12 months prior to the survey. Logistic regression analysis indicated that younger age (15–24 years), being advised to quit by a health care provider (HCP) in the past 12 months, lower cigarette cost per pack, monthly or less frequent exposure to smoking at home, and awareness of the harms of tobacco use were significantly associated with making a quit attempt. Additional mediation analyses showed that having knowledge of the harm of tobacco, exposure to smoking at home, and having been advised to quit by an HCP were mediators of making a quit attempt for other independent variables. Conclusion Evidence-based tobacco control measures such as conducting educational campaigns on the harms of tobacco use, establishing smoke-free policies at home, and integrating tobacco cessation advice into primary health care services can increase quit attempts and reduce smoking among male Chinese daily smokers. PMID:26441296

  9. [Medical intervention for attempted suicide patients in emergency room].

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kenjiro; Takahashi, Takeshi

    2016-02-01

    Emergency department is an important location for suicide prevention activities. Past history of attempted suicides or deliberate self-harms is a predictable risk factor for future suicide completion. In Japan, most of the attempted suicide patients (ASP) are transported to the emergency hospitals. Therefore, the more improvement of intervention skills for ASP are needed. Emergency medical staffs are expected to communicate patients with warm and calm attitudes. To confirm the presence or absence of suicidal ideation, risk factors are important. If patients are suicidal, emergency physicians should not hesitate to consult to the psychiatrist. PMID:26915259

  10. Lifetime autism spectrum features in a patient with a psychotic mixed episode who attempted suicide.

    PubMed

    Simoncini, Marly; Miniati, Mario; Vanelli, Federica; Callari, Antonio; Vannucchi, Giulia; Mauri, Mauro; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2014-01-01

    We present a case report of a young man who attempted suicide during a mixed episode with psychotic symptoms. The patient's history revealed the lifetime presence of signs and features belonging to the autism spectrum realm that had been completely overlooked. We believe that this case is representative of an important and barely researched topic: what happens to children with nondiagnosed and nontreated subthreshold forms of autism when they grow old. The issue of early recognition of autism spectrum signs and symptoms is discussed, raising questions on the diagnostic boundaries between autism and childhood onset psychotic spectrums among patients who subsequently develop a full-blown psychotic disorder. PMID:25349762

  11. Lifetime Autism Spectrum Features in a Patient with a Psychotic Mixed Episode Who Attempted Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Vanelli, Federica; Vannucchi, Giulia; Mauri, Mauro; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2014-01-01

    We present a case report of a young man who attempted suicide during a mixed episode with psychotic symptoms. The patient's history revealed the lifetime presence of signs and features belonging to the autism spectrum realm that had been completely overlooked. We believe that this case is representative of an important and barely researched topic: what happens to children with nondiagnosed and nontreated subthreshold forms of autism when they grow old. The issue of early recognition of autism spectrum signs and symptoms is discussed, raising questions on the diagnostic boundaries between autism and childhood onset psychotic spectrums among patients who subsequently develop a full-blown psychotic disorder. PMID:25349762

  12. Characteristics of Hospitalized Patients Following Suicide Attempt in Hamadan District, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ghaleiha, Ali; Afzali, Saeed; Bazyar, Maryam; Khorsand, Faeze; Torabian, Saadat

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Limited research has been undertaken on suicide in developing countries. This paper aims to investigate characteristics of suicide attempts in Hamadan district of Iran. Methods A prospective study was conducted in all university hospitals in the Hamadan district of Iran and patients admitted for attempted suicides were included. All cases were assessed by psychiatrists and visited by two trained interns of Medicine. Results The incidence rate per 100,000 persons of attempted suicides was 228.6 for males and 263.1 for females; moreover, 344.9 for rural areas and 222.7 for urban areas. The suicide attempt was the highest in the 15 to 24 age category for both sexes and regions. Conclusions Suicide is a complex, long-term outcome that requires multifaceted theoretical constructs for the appropriate study of its antecedents. Findings of this study along with other studies in Iran revealed that unemployed men, housewives, and rural women, high-school students, and those with a low level of education were at higher risk of suicidal behaviors. PMID:23071883

  13. ATTEMPTS TO ESTABLISH EXPERIMENTAL CYCLOSPORA CAYETANENSIS INFECTION IN LABORATORY ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Attempts were made to develop an animal model for Cyclospora cayetanensis to identify a practical laboratory host for studying human cyclosporiasis. Oocysts collected from stool of infected humans in the United States, Haiti, Guatemala, Peru and Nepal were held in potassium dich...

  14. Testosterone levels in suicide attempters with bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sher, Leo; Grunebaum, Michael F.; Sullivan, Gregory M.; Burke, Ainsley K.; Cooper, Thomas B.; Mann, J. John; Oquendo, Maria A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The best known neurobehavioral effects of testosterone are on sexual function and aggression. However, testosterone and other androgens may be involved in the pathophysiology of mood disorders and suicidal behavior. This is the first study to examine whether there is a relation between testosterone levels and clinical parameters in bipolar suicide attempters. Methods Patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of a bipolar disorder (16 males and 51 females), in a depressive or mixed episode with at least one past suicide attempt were enrolled. Demographic and clinical parameters, including lifetime suicidal behavior, were assessed and recorded. Plasma testosterone was assayed using a double antibody radioimmunoassay procedure. Results The number of major depressive episodes, the maximum lethality of suicide attempts, and the testosterone levels were higher in men compared to women. Current suicidal ideation scores were higher in women compared to men. Controlling for sex, we found that testosterone levels positively correlated with the number of manic episodes and the number of suicide attempts. Conclusion Our findings are consistent with previous observations of the association between testosterone levels and parameters of mood and behavior. This study suggests that testosterone levels may be related to the course of bipolar disorder and suicidal behavior. Further studies of the role of testosterone in the neurobiology of mood disorders and suicidal behavior are merited. PMID:22858352

  15. Criminal prosecution of suicide attempt survivors in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adinkrah, Mensah

    2013-12-01

    Recently, there have been calls for the decriminalization (or depenalization) of nonfatal suicidal behavior (attempted suicide) in Ghana, India, Uganda, and other societies that currently criminalize nonfatal suicidal behavior. Despite this, there is a dearth of systematic studies that examine the extent, nature, and characteristics of attempted suicide prosecutions in countries that currently criminalize nonfatal suicidal behavior. The current study, therefore, explores the phenomenon of criminal prosecution and punishment for suicide attempters in Ghana, one among several countries where nonfatal suicidal behavior is a crime. Drawing from data extracted from local Ghanaian print and electronic news media articles, the study examines the sociodemographic characteristics of suicide attempt survivors, the patterns of nonfatal suicidal behavior, as well as the criminal justice outcomes of the criminal prosecutions. The findings indicate that the majority of defendants pled guilty to or were found guilty of the charge and sentenced to penalties ranging from monetary fines to incarceration. The results are discussed with regard to their implications for reducing nonfatal suicidal behavior in Ghana. PMID:22923775

  16. Intolerance to Delayed Reward in Girls with Multiple Suicide Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathias, Charles W.; Dougherty, Donald M.; James, Lisa M.; Richard, Dawn M.; Dawes, Michael A.; Acheson, Ashley; Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    Impulsivity has been conceptualized as influencing the expression of suicidal behavior. Adolescence is a developmental period characterized both by a relatively high rate of suicide attempts and a high level of impulsivity. The current study examined two behavioral measures (delay reward and disinhibition) and one self-report measure of…

  17. 29 CFR 1614.603 - Voluntary settlement attempts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Voluntary settlement attempts. 1614.603 Section 1614.603 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION FEDERAL SECTOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Matters of General Applicability § 1614.603 Voluntary settlement...

  18. EFL Teachers' Attempts at Feedback Innovation in the Writing Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Icy; Mak, Pauline; Burns, Anne

    2016-01-01

    To date, research on feedback in second language (L2) writing has primarily focused on feedback per se, with little attention paid to the teachers' professional development with regard to feedback in writing. This study aims to explore the ways in which two secondary teachers in Hong Kong attempted to implement feedback innovation in their writing…

  19. Internalized and Externalized Anger in Adolescent Suicide Attempters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehnert, Kim L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Evaluated modes of anger expression in 104 adolescent suicide attempters and 323 high school students. Results indicated that, in comparison to the control group of high school students, suicidal adolescents displayed an increased likelihood of experiencing anger, reported significantly higher levels of both internalized and externalized anger,…

  20. The 24 Hours before Hospitalization: Factors Related to Suicide Attempting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiles, John A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Psychiatric inpatients (N=59) were interviewd concerning psychological and environmental events that occurred in the 24 hours prior to their hospitalization. Suicide attempters were more likely to have used alcohol or marijuana and less likely to have contacted a health care professional than suicide ideators, even when past history of suicide…

  1. 31 CFR 537.206 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 537.206 Section 537.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  2. 31 CFR 536.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 536.204 Section 536.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS...

  3. 31 CFR 536.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 536.204 Section 536.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS...

  4. 31 CFR 536.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 536.204 Section 536.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS...

  5. 31 CFR 536.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 536.204 Section 536.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS...

  6. 31 CFR 536.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 536.204 Section 536.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS...

  7. Suicidal ideation and lifetime attempts in substance and gambling disorders.

    PubMed

    Manning, Victoria; Koh, Puay Kee; Yang, Yi; Ng, Andrew; Guo, Song; Kandasami, Gomathinayagam; Wong, Kim Eng

    2015-02-28

    Suicidality is more commonly reported among individuals with addictions relative to the general population, though data from Asian countries remain scarce. The medical records of 2187 Singaporean patients with drug (n=879), alcohol (n=754) or gambling (n=554) disorders entering an outpatient treatment service were examined to explore differences in suicidal ideation and lifetime attempts between substance and gambling addictions. The relationship between suicidality, co-morbidity and addiction severity were also examined. 25.0% reported thoughts of suicide in the past month, 11.8% had a suicide plan and 12.2% reported lifetime attempts. Rates of suicidal ideation (thoughts, and plan) but not lifetime attempts were significantly higher among gambling than substance use patients. Co-morbid (DSM-IV axis-1) disorders were found among 32.5%, 38% and 40% of those reporting thoughts, plan and lifetime attempts respectively. Addiction severity was higher and quality of life lower among those reporting suicidal behaviors. Logistic regression revealed co-morbidity, debt, gender (being female) and being a gambling patient as significant predictors of suicidal behaviors. The findings highlight the importance of screening for suicidality, even in the absence of co-morbidity, particularly among gambling disorder patients with debts. Suicide risk should be assessed periodically and referral to suicidal prevention interventions routinely offered to this vulnerable population. PMID:25555417

  8. 31 CFR 541.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 541.204 Section 541.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ZIMBABWE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  9. Suicidal ideation and attempted suicide in elderly people - subjective experiences.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Denise Machado Duran; Sousa, Amandia Braga Lima; Grubits, Sonia

    2015-06-01

    We discuss the subjective experiences of elderly people who show suicidal ideation and/or attempts at suicide, based on their own reports. We understand the concept of 'subjective' as referring to intra-psychic experience resulting from social, economic, relationship or biographical conditions. Although the subject is sparsely covered in the literature, it is important, because it is in the field of subjectivity that ideations of, and attempts at, suicide develop and occur until they become a concrete act. Empirical data were collected through semi-structured interviews focusing on: social characterization, portrayal and mode of life, previous mental state, atmosphere of the attempt, effects on the health of the elderly person and family. Based on the analysis of the meanings that emerge, five empirical categories were generated: (1) subject's feeling of being in a non-place; (2) absence of acceptance of losses; (3) suffering due to ingratitude of family members; (4) feeling of uselessness of, and in, life; (5) re-signification of the situations that generate suicide-related conduct. The results point to a fundamental need to incorporate knowledge about the subjective processes into programs for prevention of suicide among the elderly who have ideation of, or attempts at, suicide. PMID:26060951

  10. 31 CFR 561.205 - Evasions; attempts; causing violations; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; conspiracies. 561.205 Section 561.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 561.205 Evasions; attempts; causing violations; conspiracies. (a) Any transaction.... (b) Any conspiracy formed to violate any of the prohibitions set forth in this part is prohibited....

  11. 31 CFR 560.203 - Evasions; attempts; causing violations; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; conspiracies. 560.203 Section 560.203 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 560.203 Evasions; attempts; causing violations; conspiracies. (a) Any transaction.... (b) Any conspiracy formed to violate any of the prohibitions set forth in this part is prohibited....

  12. 31 CFR 542.205 - Evasions; attempts; causing violations; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; conspiracies. 542.205 Section 542.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Prohibitions § 542.205 Evasions; attempts; causing violations; conspiracies. (a) Any transaction by a U.S.... (b) Any conspiracy formed to violate any of the prohibitions set forth in this part is prohibited....

  13. 31 CFR 560.203 - Evasions; attempts; causing violations; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; conspiracies. 560.203 Section 560.203 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 560.203 Evasions; attempts; causing violations; conspiracies. (a) Any transaction.... (b) Any conspiracy formed to violate any of the prohibitions set forth in this part is prohibited....

  14. 31 CFR 537.206 - Evasions; attempts; causing violations; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; conspiracies. 537.206 Section 537.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Prohibitions § 537.206 Evasions; attempts; causing violations; conspiracies. (a) Any transaction by a U.S... forth in this part is prohibited. (b) Any conspiracy formed to violate any of the prohibitions set...

  15. 31 CFR 561.205 - Evasions; attempts; causing violations; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; conspiracies. 561.205 Section 561.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 561.205 Evasions; attempts; causing violations; conspiracies. (a) Any transaction.... (b) Any conspiracy formed to violate any of the prohibitions set forth in this part is prohibited....

  16. Alcohol problems among suicide attempters in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, A S; Bille-Brahe, U; Hjelmeland, H; Jensen, B; Ostamo, A; Salander-Renberg, E; Wasserman, D

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to see whether and how the number of suicide attempters with alcohol problems and their drinking habits differ between the Nordic areas under study. Problem-drinkers were defined as persons who themselves felt that they had an alcohol problem. The analyses were based on data collected at five Nordic research centers participating in the WHO/Euro Multicentre Study on Parasuicide, namely: Helsinki (Finland); Umeå and Stockholm (Sweden); Słr-Trłndelag (Norway); and Odense (Denmark). The results showed that the frequency of problem-drinking among suicide attempters differed markedly between the areas under study; the Finnish male and the Danish female suicide attempters included the highest proportions of self-identified problem-drinkers. The pattern of drinking among the suicide attempters also differed between the areas. The analyses indicate that the point when alcohol becomes a problem to somebody, especially to a degree that it increases the risk of suicidal behavior, not only depends on how much and how often the person drinks alcohol; the prevailing drinking pattern, the attitudes towards drinking alcohol, and the level of social control are also important factors to take into consideration when relations between alcohol and suicidal behavior are under study. PMID:9018904

  17. Neighborhood Predictors of Hopelessness among Adolescent Suicide Attempters: Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Smith, Alina; Spirito, Anthony; Boergers, Julie

    2002-01-01

    Adolescents (N=48) who attempted suicide were administered measures of hopelessness and depression. Those living in neighborhoods with weak social networks reported higher levels of hopelessness, even after controlling for socioeconomic backgrounds and depression. Findings suggest that the environmental context may play a role in the emotional…

  18. A follow-up study of attempted railway suicides.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, I; Arthur, A J; Farmer, R D

    1994-02-01

    This paper reports the subsequent mortality of 94 persons who attempted suicide by jumping in front of London Underground trains between 1977 and 1979. The follow-up period was 10 yr. Despite the apparent seriousness of the method, completion of suicide was not found to be higher than in previous studies of attempted suicide by other methods. By the end of the follow-up period 18 persons had died, nine of natural causes. Coroners' inquests were held for the unnatural deaths. Seven verdicts of suicide and two of accidental death were recorded. Of the nine unnatural deaths four were from multiple injuries, three from drowning, one from asphyxia and one from acute narcotic poisoning. All four multiple injury deaths were women, three of these were from repeated incidents involving London Underground trains. The time interval between the index attempt and eventual death for the suicide/accident group ranged from 1 day to 43 months. For ethical reasons it was not possible to follow-up attempted suicides who were presumed to have remained alive. PMID:8153748

  19. 101. ARAIII. View of control room with operators during attempted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    101. ARA-III. View of control room with operators during attempted 500-hour run of ML-1 reactor. April 21, 1964. Ineel photo no. 64-2185. Photographer: Benson. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. 31 CFR 538.211 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 538.211 Section 538.211 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SUDANESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  1. Heroin Addicts Reporting Previous Heroin Overdoses Also Report Suicide Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradvik, Louise; Frank, Arne; Hulenvik, Per; Medvedeo, Alvaro; Berglund, Mats

    2007-01-01

    Nonfatal heroin overdoses and suicide attempts are both common among heroin addicts, but there is limited knowledge about the association between them. The sample in the present study consisted of 149 regular heroin users in Malmo, Sweden. Out of these 98 had taken an unintentional heroin overdose at some time and 51 had made at least one attempt…

  2. Beyond Randomized Controlled Trials in Attempted Suicide Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Simon; Sharon, Cynthia; Coggan, Carol

    2009-01-01

    There is a lack of evidence about what is the best treatment for people who present to hospital after self harm. Most treatment trials have been small and involved unrepresentative groups of patients which result in inconclusive findings. Here we note some of the characteristics of attempted suicide which make it a difficult subject to study. We…

  3. Substance Use, Suicidal Ideation and Attempts in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ping; Hoven, Christina W.; Liu, Xinhua; Cohen, Patricia; Fuller, Cordelia J.; Shaffer, David

    2004-01-01

    Using data from a community sample of youth (N = 1,458; ages 9?17), this study assessed the association between adolescent substance use/abuse and suicidal behaviors. Suicide attempts were strongly associated with alcohol abuse and dependence, followed by frequent cigarette smoking. The associations remained significant even after controlling for…

  4. Risk Factors of Attempted Suicide in Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Suicide rates of bipolar patients are among the highest of any psychiatric disorder, and improved identification of risk factors for attempted and completed suicide translates into improved clinical outcome. Factors that may be predictive of suicidality in an exclusively bipolar population are examined. White race, family suicide history, and…

  5. High Prevalence of Psychotropics Overdose among Suicide Attempters in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinyoung; Kim, Minseob; Kim, Yoo-ra; Choi, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Kyoung-Uk

    2015-01-01

    Objective The availability of suicide methods affects the risk of suicide attempts. This study examined the patterns of substances ingested by suicide attempters (SAs) and the characteristics of SAs using psychotropic overdoses. Methods Data for 384 of the 462 eligible SAs who used self-poisoning were analyzed. Demographic variables, clinical characteristics, and factors related to the suicide attempts were examined. Results There were 256 (66.7%) females and 128 (33.3%) males. Roughly half the SAs ingested psychotropics (n=179, 46.6%). Agricultural chemicals (n=84, 21.9%) were the second most frequently ingested substances, followed by analgesics (n=62, 16.1%), household products (n=27, 7.0%), and other prescribed medications (n=23, 6.0%). Among psychotropics, the most frequently overdosed drugs were sedative-hypnotics, including hypnotics (n=104) and benzodiazepines (n=78). SAs favored Z-drugs and alprazolam. When compared with SAs with non-psychotropic overdoses, significantly more SAs with psychotropic overdoses were female (76% vs. 58.5%, p<0.001) and had a psychiatric history (59.8% vs. 29.8%, p<0.001). They had significantly more previous suicide attempts (0.52±1.02 vs. 0.32±0.80, p<0.05) and lower risk (7.96±1.49 vs. 8.44±1.99, p<0.01) and medical severity (3.06±0.81 vs. 3.37±0.93, p<0.005) scores. Conclusion Psychotropic overdose, especially with sedative-hypnotics, was a major method in suicide attempts. It is important that psychiatric patients are carefully evaluated and monitored for suicidality when prescribing psychotropics. PMID:26598590

  6. Qualitative study on suicide attempts and ideations with 60 elderly in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Fátima Gonçalves; Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza

    2015-06-01

    Sixty cases of suicidal attempts and ideations among elderly people from thirteen Brazilian municipalities were studied, with the objective of discovering, from what they had to say, their reasons and interpretations for attempting to take their own life. The study, with a hermeneutic and dialectic basis, was based on an interview guide, to steer the conversation with these individuals. It starts with a sociodemographic classification and looks in depth at the person's situation according to their social, community and family circumstances and their physical and mental health, functional capacity, and the reasons given for the suicidal ideations and attempts. This field information was first analysed locally and then cross-categorized according to the method used, severity of the events and reasons given by the elderly people, by sex, age, socioeconomic profile and risk and protection factors. A comprehensive, critical and interpretative summary was made of the material. The results show that failure to listen to and the isolation of elderly people, lack of awareness of the risks on the part of family, the association with physical and mental, functional, social and family losses and violence are predisposing factors, and concurrent in many cases. The conclusion is that vulnerability and self-neglect are reduced where there is family support, care and bonds of unity. PMID:26060944

  7. Military veteran mortality following a survived suicide attempt

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Suicide is a global public health problem. Recently in the U.S., much attention has been given to preventing suicide and other premature mortality in veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan. A strong predictor of suicide is a past suicide attempt, and suicide attempters have multiple physical and mental comorbidities that put them at risk for additional causes of death. We examined mortality among U.S. military veterans after hospitalization for attempted suicide. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted with all military veterans receiving inpatient treatment during 1993-1998 at United States Veterans Affairs (VA) medical facilities following a suicide attempt. Deaths occurring during 1993-2002, the most recent available year at the time, were identified through VA Beneficiary and Records Locator System data and National Death Index data. Mortality data for the general U.S. adult population were also obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics. Comparisons within the veteran cohort, between genders, and against the U.S. population were conducted with descriptive statistics and standardized mortality ratios. The actuarial method was used estimate the proportion of veterans in the cohort we expect would have survived through 2002 had they experienced the same rate of death that occurred over the study period in the U.S. population having the age and sex characteristics. Results During 1993-1998, 10,163 veterans were treated and discharged at a VA medical center after a suicide attempt (mean age = 44 years; 91% male). There was a high prevalence of diagnosed alcohol disorder or abuse (31.8%), drug dependence or abuse (21.8%), psychoses (21.2%), depression (18.5%), and hypertension (14.2%). A total of 1,836 (18.1%) veterans died during follow up (2,941.4/100,000 person years). The cumulative survival probability after 10 years was 78.0% (95% CI = 72.9, 83.1). Hence the 10-year cumulative mortality risk was 22.0%, which was 3

  8. Diagnosis and attempted surgical repair of hemivertebrae in an African penguin (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Bradford, Carol; Bronson, Ellen; Kintner, Leah; Schultz, Denise; McDonnell, John

    2008-12-01

    Spinal injuries and congenital or developmental spinal deformities have rarely been reported in pet birds, and treatment for these conditions is even less often described. In poultry, spinal and leg deformities have been well documented, but treatment of the individual is not considered, because affected individuals are typically culled. A 10-week-old male African black-footed penguin (Spheniscus demersus) from the penguin exhibit at the Maryland Zoo in Baltimore was evaluated for ataxia, weakness, and motor deficits and was diagnosed with a spinal deformity. Further investigation by using magnetic resonance imaging was conducted, and the penguin subsequently underwent an attempted surgical repair of the malformation. The penguin never regained normal motor control and was found dead 4 weeks after the surgery. Necropsy results revealed hemivertebrae and compression of the spinal cord with associated myositis. Although attempted treatment was unsuccessful in this case, this report illustrates the diagnostic and treatment challenges of avian spinal disease. PMID:19216262

  9. Intra-operative femoral neck fracture during attempted dislocation of a reduced hemi-arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Ling, Samuel Ka Kin; Ma, Chun Man; Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-05-01

    Fragility hip fractures are increasingly common and hemiarthroplasty is one of the standard treatments. Although a common surgery, it should be performed with great caution because of the poor premorbid and bone quality in this demographic. Intra-operative fractures can occur while attempting press fit of the femoral implant. However; vigilance often steps down once the implant is secured and the hip reduced. This case report reminds surgeons that a large amount of torque can be transmitted during intra-operative positioning, such as during an attempt of hip dislocation. This torque, in addition to the risk factor of osteoporotic bone, can result in iatrogenic fractures. Published literature regarding management of an intra-operative fracture while the prosthetic hip is still reduced is lacking. The authors propose that temporary prophylactic cerclage wiring is a prudent and safe procedure prior to hip dislocation. PMID:26058283

  10. Novel psychoactive substance intoxication resulting in attempted murder.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Richard; Tuddenham, Laurence

    2014-07-01

    A man in his twenties who had no previous history of violence, snorted large quantities of two substances he identified as 3-methoxyphencyclidine (3-MeO-PCP), and methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV); both are recognised as novel psychoactive substances, or commonly described in the media as "legal highs". He also inhaled butane gas. He experienced vivid hallucinations and developed bizarre ideas. During this state of mind he stabbed his father multiple times and was arrested and charged with attempted murder. He had a previous history of drug induced psychosis and although he had some slight residual symptoms before he consumed the substances, these were not considered relevant to his criminal liability at the time of the offence. The hallucinations caused by the use of these substances took six weeks to completely recede. He was convicted of attempted murder and sentenced to four years in prison. PMID:24931864

  11. Revisiting Mental Simulation in Language Comprehension: Six Replication Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Zwaan, Rolf A.; Pecher, Diane

    2012-01-01

    The notion of language comprehension as mental simulation has become popular in cognitive science. We revisit some of the original empirical evidence for this. Specifically, we attempted to replicate the findings from earlier studies that examined the mental simulation of object orientation, shape, and color, respectively, in sentence-picture verification. For each of these sets of findings, we conducted two web-based replication attempts using Amazon's Mechanical Turk. Our results are mixed. Participants responded faster to pictures that matched the orientation or shape implied by the sentence, replicating the original findings. The effect was larger and stronger for shape than orientation. Participants also responded faster to pictures that matched the color implied by the sentence, whereas the original studies obtained mismatch advantages. We argue that these results support mental simulation theory, show the importance of replication studies, and show the viability of web-based data collection. PMID:23300547

  12. Attempts to create ball lightning with triggered lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Jonathan D.; Uman, Martin A.; Stapleton, Michael; Jordan, Douglas M.; Chebaro, Alexander M.; Biagi, Christopher J.

    2010-08-01

    We describe attempts to create ball lightning by directing lightning, triggered from natural thunderclouds using the rocket-and-wire technique, through a variety of materials. Some of the observed phenomena have features in common with natural ball lightning or with laboratory attempts to create it: flame-like luminosity for up to 0.5 s above salt water; constant-luminosity silicon fragments falling for about 1 s under the influence of gravity; a 0.7 m region of stationary luminosity whose bottom was 0.3 m above a stainless steel surface to which arcing had occurred; and a glow for about 0.5 s above pine tree sections.

  13. [Suicide attempt in the adolescence: a clinical report].

    PubMed

    Finkelsztein, Carlos; Girard, Paula; Job, Alfredo; Matusevich, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to communicate the job in a psychiatric inpatient unit based on the narration and analysis of an adolescent's suicide attempt. We insist on a personalized approach from an individual, familiar, and group point of view and the arrangement of treatment following discharge; all these from a therapeutic community's psychodynamic perspective. The work in the acute hospitalization is focused on the patient's recovery and returning to the community. PMID:21977609

  14. Soil Still in Scoop After Sample-Delivery Attempt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image from the Robotic Arm Camera on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows that soil remained inside the arm's scoop after an attempt to deliver a soil sample to a laboratory oven during the lander's 60th Martian day, or sol (July 26, 2008).

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Suicide attempts by self-immolation--our experience.

    PubMed

    Meir, P B; Sagi, A; Ben Yakar, Y; Rosenberg, L

    1990-08-01

    Of 5934 patients admitted to our Burns' Unit at the Soroka University Hospital, Beer-Sheva, Israel between the years 1965 and 1986, 22 had attempted suicide by fire (0.37 per cent). Seventeen of them (77 per cent) died from their burns. The use of flammable liquids was the most common method of immolation. Fifty per cent of the victims were known to have previous mental disorders. PMID:2257067

  16. Collective Efficacy, Family Attachment, and Urban Adolescent Suicide Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Maimon, David; Browning, Christopher R.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    The suicide rate among American adolescents between the ages of 14–25 has dramatically increased during the last 50 years, and this fact has been the focus of extensive social-scientific investigation. To date, however, research focusing on the joint effects of mental health, family, and contextual-level predictors on adolescents’ suicidal behaviors is scarce. Drawing on Durkheim’s classic macro-level approach to suicide and collective efficacy theory, we use data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) to examine the effect of informal social controls on adolescents’ suicide attempts. Analyzing reports from 990 youth, we examine the hypothesis that neighborhood-level collective efficacy and family-level integration and social control independently affect suicide attempts. We also examine the extent to which they interact in their effects on suicidal behavior. Overall, results from multilevel logit models support the Durkheimian expectation that family attachment reduces the probability that adolescents will attempt suicide. The effect of collective efficacy is interactive in nature. Specifically, we find that collective efficacy significantly enhances the protective effect of family attachment and support on adolescent suicidal behaviors. We discuss findings within the context of social control theory. PMID:20943592

  17. Substance Use, Suicidal Ideation and Attempts in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ping; Hoven, Christina W.; Liu, Xinhua; Cohen, Patricia; Fuller, Cordelia J.; Shaffer, David

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a community sample of youth (N = 1,458; ages 9–17), this study assessed the association between adolescent substance use/abuse and suicidal behaviors. Suicide attempts were strongly associated with alcohol abuse and dependence, followed by frequent cigarette smoking. The associations remained significant even after controlling for depression. The associations between substance use/abuse and suicidal ideation were no longer significant after controlling for depression. These findings highlight the important role that substance use plays in adolescent suicidal behaviors. PMID:15585462

  18. Attempts to Produce D2-Gas-Filled Be Shells

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, B; McElfresh, M; Alford, C; Fought, E; Letts, S

    2005-01-14

    We have attempted to fabricate some 0.5 mm diameter D{sub 2}-gas-filled Be shells by coating gas-filled PVA-coated GDP mandrels with Cu-doped Be. We find that during the coating all (or most) of the gas leaks out. This is likely due to either small cracks or holes in the coating that are formed at the earliest points and are maintained during the thickness build-up of the coating, and/or to some level of intrinsic porosity in the coating. This memo documents our efforts.

  19. A tale of two transparency attempts at FDA.

    PubMed

    Tai, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    This Article describes and evaluates two elements of the FDA's recent operations implicating information transparency: the Transparency Initiative and a reduction in the agency's FOIA backlog. After discussing the legal context for information disclosure at the FDA and these two transparency attempts, this Article identifies two reasons that the first has fallen short of expectations compared to the second: unlike the reduction in the FOIA backlog, the Transparency Initiative had legal constraints that it did not adequately address, along with political appointee leadership. These principles may be more generally useful for understanding how to stimulate institutional change in administrative agencies. PMID:24552081

  20. Suicide and suicide attempts in the lesbian and gay community.

    PubMed

    Millard, J

    1995-12-01

    The most common suicide theories share a widely recognized set of social factors that contribute to suicide and suicide attempts. This paper discusses additional suicide risk factors that affect the gay and lesbian community such as: discrimination, gay adolescence, coming out, establishment of a gay identity, HIV/AIDS, intrapersonal stressors, drugs and alcohol, racial/ethnic factors and limited support structures. Poor awareness of these additional risks, both within mainstream society and within the gay and lesbian community, is also discussed. A review of the literature is conducted that examines the impact of these risk factors and the implications of these issues to mental health nursing. PMID:9086933

  1. Attempted suicide in Ghana: motivation, stigma, and coping.

    PubMed

    Osafo, Joseph; Akotia, Charity Sylvia; Andoh-Arthur, Johnny; Quarshie, Emmanuel Nii-Boye

    2015-01-01

    To understand the experiences of suicidal persons in Ghana, 10 persons were interviewed after they attempted suicide. Thematic analysis of data showed that motivation for suicidal behavior included social taunting, hopelessness, and partner's infidelity. Suicidal persons reported stigma expressed through physical molestation and social ostracism, which left them traumatized. However, they coped through social support from relations, religious faith, and use of avoidance. Community-wide sensitive education should target reducing stigma and also increase mental health education on suicidal behavior in Ghanaian communities. PMID:25562343

  2. Frequency of suicide attempts by ingestion of drugs seen at a tertiary care pediatric hospital in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Olguin, Hugo Juárez; Garduño, Lina Barrañco; Pérez, Janett Flores; Bastida, Mario Acosta; Flores-Pérez, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Suicide is a complex behavior with biological, psychological and social causes. It has predisposing family factors such as domestic violence, psychiatric disorders and parents' alcohol abuse. Suicides have increased in children and adolescents in the last decades and it is now the third leading cause of death. Mexico has the second place in mortality in adolescents between 10-14 years old, of which 21.9 % are suicides. This study aimed to determine the frequency of suicide attempts using drugs in children and adolescents in a tertiary care hospital and to identify the causes. A retrospective and descriptive study was performed considering socioeconomic, cultural and biological issues related to suicide attempts using drugs in children and adolescents who were attended at the National Institute of Pediatrics from January 1995 to March 2005. A total of 141 drug intoxication cases were detected including 47 suicide attempts; 25 girls and 22 boys, with a median of 13 years of age. The most frequently drug classes used were analgesics 21 of 47 cases and antidepressants 11 of 47 cases. Risk factors were parents' divorce and family dysfunction in 16 of 47 cases of the population. Suicidal behavior in children and adolescents can be a way to attract attention, as well as an alarm signal asking for help. Analgesics and antidepressants are drugs commonly used in suicide attempts. PMID:21471607

  3. Young People's Risk of Suicide Attempts in Relation to Parental Death: A Population-Based Register Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Christiansen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to examine the association between the death of a biological parent and subsequent suicide attempts by young people (aged 10-22 years), and to explore sociodemographic factors as modifying factors in the process. Methods: The study used a nested case-control design. The full study population was obtained…

  4. Does Household Gun Access Increase the Risk of Attempted Suicide?: Evidence from a National Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Adam M.; Lizotte, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to assess if home firearm access increases the risk of nonfatal suicidal attempts among adolescents. Such a gun focus has largely been limited to case-control studies on completed suicides. This line of research has found that household gun access increases the risk of suicide due to features of available firearms…

  5. Attempted auto-enucleation in two incarcerated young men with psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Reichstein, David; Esmaili, Neda; Wells, Timothy; Kim, Judy E.

    2014-01-01

    Auto-enucleation is a sign of untreated psychosis. We describe two patients who presented with attempted auto-enucleation while being incarcerated. This is an observation two-case series of two young men who suffered untreated psychosis while being incarcerated. These young men showed severe self-inflicted ocular trauma during episodes of untreated psychosis. Injuries included orbital bone fracture and dehiscence of the lateral rectus in one patient and severe retinal hemorrhage and partial optic nerve avulsion in the second patient. Auto-enucleation is a severe symptom of untreated psychosis. This urgent finding can occur in a jail setting in which psychiatric care may be minimal. PMID:25892940

  6. Attempted auto-enucleation in two incarcerated young men with psychosis.

    PubMed

    Reichstein, David; Esmaili, Neda; Wells, Timothy; Kim, Judy E

    2015-01-01

    Auto-enucleation is a sign of untreated psychosis. We describe two patients who presented with attempted auto-enucleation while being incarcerated. This is an observation two-case series of two young men who suffered untreated psychosis while being incarcerated. These young men showed severe self-inflicted ocular trauma during episodes of untreated psychosis. Injuries included orbital bone fracture and dehiscence of the lateral rectus in one patient and severe retinal hemorrhage and partial optic nerve avulsion in the second patient. Auto-enucleation is a severe symptom of untreated psychosis. This urgent finding can occur in a jail setting in which psychiatric care may be minimal. PMID:25892940

  7. Attempts to characterize microballoon sensors for shock velocity and material motion studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, H.W.; Looney, L.D.; Taylor, R.C.; Medina, R.S.; Baumgart, J.S.; Baca, G.T.; Dominguez, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    Optimization of performance of gas filled microballoons mounted on optical fibers as sensors for shock and material motion studies, was attempted by variation of several parameters. In some cases, results were not predictable and, in general, results were not as reproductible as desired. Change of some parameters caused little effect but effects of the sleeve size and sleeve material seem to be significant. Recorded shape of optical spectra match black-body temperature of 8000/sup 0/K when argon filled balloons were impacted with projectiles with velocity of 1 km/s, in close agreement with expected values based on ideal gas calculations. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  8. Suicidal Career in Severe Depression among Long-Term Survivors: In a Followup after 37–53 Years Suicide Attempts Appeared to End Long before Depression

    PubMed Central

    Brådvik, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To describe the suicidal career in the long-term course of severe depression. Subjects and Method. Seventy-five former in-patients were interviewed by telephone about course of depression and suicide attempts 37–53 years after index admission. Medical records were read in many cases. Results. 29 subjects had attempted suicide, 13 repeated, 10 made severe, and 13 violent attempts. The risk of suicide attempt decreased by 10% for every decade spent depressed. Suicide attempts were made early in course of depression, and more time was spent depressed after suicide attempts than before. Conclusions. A healing process of the suicidal career, which may occur long before the end of the last depressive episode (sometimes decades), is proposed. PMID:24455226

  9. Changes in Quality of Life After a Suicide Attempt.

    PubMed

    Pien, Feng-Chen; Chang, Yue-Cune; Feng, Hsin-Pei; Hung, Pin-Wei; Huang, San-Yuan; Tzeng, Wen-Chii

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this follow-up study was to examine factors related to a suicide attempt within 3 months of a prior attempt. Participants were recruited from a suicide-prevention center. Of 96 suicidal individuals who had participated in the baseline study, only 51 completed all measures at follow-up assessment. Study results showed that suicidal individuals who reattempted suicide during the first 3 months of follow-up care exhibited lower mean scores on all four domains of the brief version of the World Health Organization Quality-of-Life Instrument at follow-up assessment than at baseline. In contrast, individuals who did not reattempt suicide had higher quality-of-life scores across all domains between baseline and 3 months. The reattempt and no-reattempt groups differed significantly in the physical health and environmental domains. These results can be used by nurses to develop their abilities to recognize and prevent suicide reattempts in high-risk groups. PMID:26681669

  10. Prior altitude experience of climbers attempting to summit Aconcagua.

    PubMed

    Borm, Nicholas; Van Roo, Jon D; Pesce, Carlos; Courtney, D Mark; Malik, Sanjeev; Lazio, Matthew P

    2011-01-01

    Aconcagua (6962 m) is one of the seven summits and the highest mountain outside of Asia. Climbers of varying experience are drawn to its nontechnical route. Our objective was to detail the prior altitude experience of climbers attempting to summit Aconcagua. We asked all climbers on the normal route of Aconcagua to complete questionnaires with demographics and prior high altitude experience while acclimatizing at Plaza de Mulas base camp during 9 nonconsecutive days in January 2009. 127 volunteers from 22 countries were enrolled. Mean age was 39.8 years and 88.2% were male. Median altitude at place of residence was 200 m (IQR: 30, 700). Median previous maximum altitude reached was 5895 m (IQR: 5365, 6150). 7.1% of climbers had never been above 4000 m. Median previous maximum sleeping altitude was 4800 m (IQR: 4300, 5486). 12.6% of climbers had never slept above 4000 m. Climbers who performed acclimatization treks spent a mean of 3.6 (2.5, 4.7) days at>3000 m in the previous 2 months. However, 50.4% of climbers performed no acclimatization treks. Although the majority of mountaineers who attempt Aconcagua have prior high altitude experience, a substantial minority has never been above 4000 m. PMID:22206564

  11. Attempted suicide in a Xhosa schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder population.

    PubMed

    Lückhoff, Marlize; Koen, Liezl; Jordaan, Esme; Niehaus, Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Suicide risk behavior is a significant contributor to the mortality and morbidity of schizophrenia. We previously reported affected sibship status in a Xhosa schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder sample to be protective in nature; given the counterintuitive nature of this finding, we expanded the sample size to seek further clarification. Subjects were assessed with the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies and then stratified into two groups: with (n = 137) or without (n = 837) a previous suicide attempt. The presence of lifetime bizarre behavior (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.12-1.87) or cannabis use or abuse (OR 1.2; 95% CI 10.01-1.47) was a significant predictor of suicide attempts, while a higher global alogia score (OR 0.84; 95% CI 0.74-0.96) was a protective factor. Our data seem to support that in this population, encouraging family members to report bizarre behavior and implementing dual diagnosis interventions for cannabis use or abuse could be an appropriate starting point toward developing a targeted suicide prevention program for further research. PMID:24286498

  12. Suicide attempts by elderly women - from a gender perspective.

    PubMed

    Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Moura, Rosylaine; Hesler, Lilian Zielke; Gutierrez, Denise Machado Duran

    2015-06-01

    This article analyzes the presence of gender inequality and violence in the lives of elderly women who have attempted suicide. This survey is part of a qualitative research study developed in twelve municipal regions in Brazil with high levels of suicide, and is coordinated by Claves-Fiocruz. Information was obtained by means of semi-structured interviews with thirty-two women from a sampling of fifty-nine elderly women with a history of attempted suicide. It was decided not to identify the interviewees, and to construct a narrative based on events that have occurred in the lives of all these women. The study was based on the women's life cycle (infancy, youth, adult life and old age) to see if gender inequality had been an issue in each of these phases. The inequalities began in infancy with differentiated gender upbringing; these continued during their youth and with their sexual initiation, marriage and maturity these continued during their adult life through acts of violence committed by their partners and/ or other family members which culminates in old age, when they are deprived of their independence and have lost ties, possessions and points of reference. These lives permeated with violence result in a feeling of emptiness and unworthiness, and lead many elderly women to view death as their only solution. PMID:26060950

  13. Neocortical Expansion: An Attempt toward Relating Phylogeny and Ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Killackey, H P

    1990-01-01

    The neocortex is the most characteristic feature of the human brain. On gross inspection, its convoluted surfaces can be seen to have overgrown and covered most other brain structures. In the functional sphere, it is to the neocortex that we attribute those behaviors assumed to be most uniquely human such as cognition and linguistic behavior. This essay is an attempt to understand how this structure expanded during the course of mammalian evolution. At present, any attempt must be more speculative than definitive, but it is offered in the hope that it will generate more discussion on a topic that is central to all neurobiology, as well as a number of allied disciplines. I will proceed by outlining current views on the evolution of the brain, briefly review the organization of the somatosensory cortex in several mammalian forms, and then discuss in some detail ontogenetic mechanisms that may have some bearing on neocortical phylogeny. The primary proposition put forth is that the mammalian neocortex is relatively unspecified by strict genetic means, and that this allowed the neocortex to expand and adapt to a variety of circumstances during the course of phylogeny. PMID:23964719

  14. Attempts to prepare an all-carbon indigoid system

    PubMed Central

    Yildizhan, Şeref; Jones, Peter G

    2015-01-01

    Summary First attempts are described to prepare a precursor for an all-carbon analog of indigo, the tetracyclic triene 4. Starting from indan-2-one (9) the α-methylene ketone 13 was prepared. Upon subjecting this compound to a McMurry coupling reaction, it dimerized to the bis-indene derivative 17, rather than providing the tetramethyl derivative of 4, the hydrocarbon 14. In a second approach, indan-1-one (18) was dimerized to the conjugated enedione 21 through the bis-1-indene dimer 19. All attempts to methylenate 21 failed, however. When 19 was treated with the Tebbe reagent, the dimer 23 was produced, presumably through a Cope reaction of the intermediately generated isomer 22. The bis-indene derivative 23 can be alkylated with 1,2-dibromoethane to produce a 1:1 mixture of the spiro compounds 24 and 25. Although 9 could be reductively dimerized to 30, the conversion of this olefin to 14 failed. PMID:25977710

  15. [Suicide attempts in children under 12 years of age].

    PubMed

    Stordeur, C; Acquaviva, E; Galdon, L; Mercier, J-C; Titomanlio, L; Delorme, R

    2015-03-01

    Suicide attempts (SA) in children are often considered rare and poorly studied. The aim of this study was to explore the clinical characteristics of SA in children under 12 years of age. A retrospective assessment was conducted in 30 consecutive SAs reported in children under 12 years of age admitted to the emergency department at the Robert-Debré University Hospital (Paris, France) from 2007 to 2010 and the Regional University Hospital (Besançon, France) from 2000 to 2008. All suicide attempters were directly assessed at the somatic and psychiatric level. Patients were 8-11 years old (mean, 10.2±0.8). The sex ratio was 0.9 boys for 1 girl. The leading SA methods were poisoning by medication (53.3%), hanging or strangulation (23.3%), jumping from a height (16.7%), poisoning by chemicals (3.3%), and lesions inflicted by sharp objects (3.3%). In addition, SAs were characterized by high lethality (43.7%) contrasting with their low to moderate suicidal intentionality (43.8% and 56.2%, respectively). In conclusion, we reported that SA in children differs from those of adolescents by their greater lethality related to the methods used, but contrasting with the low intentionality mentioned by these patients. PMID:25656458

  16. Attitudes towards suicide attempts broadcast on social media: an exploratory study of Chinese microblogs.

    PubMed

    Li, Ang; Huang, Xiaoxiao; Hao, Bibo; O'Dea, Bridianne; Christensen, Helen; Zhu, Tingshao

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Broadcasting a suicide attempt on social media has become a public health concern in many countries, particularly in China. In these cases, social media users are likely to be the first to witness the suicide attempt, and their attitudes may determine their likelihood of joining rescue efforts. This paper examines Chinese social media (Weibo) users' attitudes towards suicide attempts broadcast on Weibo. Methods. A total of 4,969 Weibo posts were selected from a customised Weibo User Pool which consisted of 1.06 million active users. The selected posts were then independently coded by two researchers using a coding framework that assessed: (a) Themes, (b) General attitudes, (c) Stigmatising attitudes, (d) Perceived motivations, and (e) Desired responses. Results and Discussion. More than one third of Weibo posts were coded as "stigmatising" (35%). Among these, 22%, 16%, and 15% of posts were coded as "deceitful," "pathetic," and "stupid," respectively. Among the posts which reflected different types of perceived motivations, 57% of posts were coded as "seeking attention." Among the posts which reflected desired responses, 37% were "not saving" and 28% were "encouraging suicide." Furthermore, among the posts with negative desired responses (i.e., "not saving" and "encouraging suicide"), 57% and 17% of them were related to different types of stigmatising attitudes and perceived motivations, respectively. Specifically, 29% and 26% of posts reflecting both stigmatising attitudes and negative desired responses were coded as "deceitful" and "pathetic," respectively, while 66% of posts reflecting both perceived motivations, and negative desired responses were coded as "seeking attention." Very few posts "promoted literacy" (2%) or "provided resources" (8%). Gender differences existed in multiple categories. Conclusions. This paper confirms the need for stigma reduction campaigns for Chinese social media users to improve their attitudes towards those who

  17. Relationship between a history of a suicide attempt and treatment outcomes in patients with depression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Wan; Stewart, Robert; Kim, Jae-Min; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang; Jung, Sung-Won; Lee, Min-Soo; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Jun, Tae-Youn

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the sociodemographic and clinical correlates of a history of a suicide attempt in people with depression and their relationship with treatment outcomes and subsequent suicidal ideation and deliberate self-harm. Patients with depressive disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, were recruited from 18 hospitals across South Korea. Data on sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were obtained, and scales assessing depression, anxiety, and general functioning were administered during the first 12 weeks of antidepressant treatment. Baseline characteristics, responses to treatment, and suicidal ideation/deliberate self-harm during the follow-up period were compared according to a reported history or not of a suicide attempt. In a total of 723 participants, 143 (19.8%) with a history of a suicide attempt had an earlier age of onset, longer duration of illness, and a greater number of depressive episodes. Levels of depression and anxiety were significantly higher at baseline in this group who also experienced significantly lower remission and response rates, as well as longer time to remission. The case group was more likely to experience new suicidal ideation and carry out a deliberate self-harm act during the 12-week treatment period. In conclusion, a history of a suicide attempt in a Korean population with depression was characterized by more severe psychopathology, poorer treatment outcomes, and higher subsequent suicidal ideation and self-harm. Therefore, more intensive and longer-term treatment with particular ongoing clinical attention to risk is indicated in patients with these distinct, chronic, and severe forms of depression and ongoing high suicide risk. PMID:21694625

  18. Early attempts at production of prawn cell lines.

    PubMed

    Owens, L; Smith, J

    1999-01-01

    This report describes some unsuccessful attempts to produce continuous cell lines from penaeid prawn tissues in the late 1980s. This information is presented so that others might save time by not repeating the unsuccessful measures that were attempted. The osmolarity of Penaeus monodon haemolymph was measured at 687 mOsmol/kg (N = 10). Of the media tested, the best medium for cell growth and maintenance was shown to be double strength L-15, supplemented with 10% foetal bovine serum, and 10% prawn muscle extract at 28 degrees C ( approximately 675.5 mOsmol/kg). Prawn muscle extract was made by homogenizing 30 g of prawn muscle in 50/50 ratio of distilled water/autoclaved seawater, clarified stepwise by centrifugation at 2k, 14k, 14k xg for 30 minutes each. The resultant supernatant was heat-inactivated on occasions with no improvement in growth. Preconditioned medium, cholesterol, galactose and trehalose supplements and the use of Cell-Tak did not improve growth conditions, and haemolymph extracts were detrimental to the cells. In addition it was shown that Nunc 25 cm(2) plastic culture flasks were better than Linbro and both were better than glass as substrates. The fate of 101 individual primary cell cultures, established from penaeid prawns, was as follows. Fifteen of the cultures succumbed to bacterial contamination, five became contaminated with fungi, four with thauastrochytrids, four succumbed to presumptive viral autocultures and two to ciliate contamination. Cell cultures derived from heart tissue could be maintained for a mean of 12.7 days (sd 9.7d), those derived from the epidermis 15.6 days (sd 9.0d), ovarian tissue 10 days (sd 2d), lymphoid organ 6.8 days (sd 0.4d), nerve cord and hepatopancreas 2 days. The most persistent cell cultures -- those derived from the heart explants -- contained dividing cells at 40 days, and epidermis cells were still dividing at 30 days. The longest lasting, non- proliferating, but viable, cell cultures were those of

  19. Behavior of Puerto Rican parrots during failed nesting attempts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, K.A.; Wilson, M.H.; Field, R.

    1997-01-01

    We compared patterns of nesting behavior of four pairs of Puerto Rican Parrots (Amazona vittata) that experienced failed nesting attempts to behavior of four pairs of parrots that experienced no substantial nest problems and successfully fledged young without management intervention. Only changes in female parrots' behavior were clearly associated with nest failure. During incubation, decreases in nest attendance, increases in duration of recesses, and increases in frequency of nest entries by female parrots were associated with imminent abandonment of nests. During early chick rearing, similar behavior was associated with the loss of broods. Low nest attendance and long recesses by female parrots during incubation were also associated with successful hatching of eggs followed by death of young several days later. The behavior patterns and changes in Puerto Rican Parrot nesting behavior described in this paper may alert biologists to nest problems that might be mitigated by management intervention.

  20. Early Attempts to Detect the Neutrino at the Cavendish Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Jaume

    2006-03-01

    In the 1920s and early 1930s the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge was preeminent in experimental research on radioactivity and nuclear physics, with theoretical physics playing a subsidiary role in guiding, but not determining the course of experimental research. Soon after Wolfgang Pauli (1900 1958) proposed his neutrino hypothesis in 1930 to preserve conservation of energy and momentum in beta decay, experiments the first of their kind were carried out in the Cavendish Laboratory to detect Pauli’s elusive particle, but they were abandoned in 1936. I trace these early attempts and suggest reasons for their abandonment, which may contribute to an understanding of the complex way in which theoretical entities are accepted by physicists.

  1. Results of an attempt to reproduce the STAP phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Aizawa, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, Obokata and colleagues reported their observation of a novel cell reprogramming phenomenon they named ‘stimulus-triggered acquisition of pluripotency’ (STAP). The most conclusive evidence for the pluripotency of so-called STAP cells was the purported ability of such cells to contribute to chimera formation. Here, I report the results of an attempt by Haruko Obokata to replicate the phenomenon under the supervision of the Scientific Validity Examination Team of RIKEN. In this follow-up study, putative STAP cells prepared by Haruko Obokata were injected into 1051 embryos, of which 591 were recovered. However, the injected cells made no significant contribution in any tissue in any of the embryos that developed. PMID:27610221

  2. Results of an attempt to reproduce the STAP phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, Obokata and colleagues reported their observation of a novel cell reprogramming phenomenon they named 'stimulus-triggered acquisition of pluripotency' (STAP). The most conclusive evidence for the pluripotency of so-called STAP cells was the purported ability of such cells to contribute to chimera formation. Here, I report the results of an attempt by Haruko Obokata to replicate the phenomenon under the supervision of the Scientific Validity Examination Team of RIKEN. In this follow-up study, putative STAP cells prepared by Haruko Obokata were injected into 1051 embryos, of which 591 were recovered. However, the injected cells made no significant contribution in any tissue in any of the embryos that developed. PMID:27610221

  3. Global fitting of single spin asymmetry: an attempt

    SciTech Connect

    Alexey Prokudin,Zhong-Bo Kang

    2012-04-01

    We present an attempt of global analysis of Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering (SIDIS) $\\ell p^\\uparrow \\to \\ell' \\pi X$ data on single spin asymmetries and data on left-right asymmetry $A_N$ in $p^\\uparrow p \\to \\pi X$ in order to simultaneously extract information on Sivers function and twist-three quark-gluon Efremov-Teryaev-Qiu-Sterman (ETQS) function. We explore different possibilities such as node of Sivers function in $x$ or $k_\\perp$ in order to explain ``sign mismatch'' between these functions. We show that $\\pi^\\pm$ SIDIS data and $\\pi^0$ STAR data can be well described in a combined TMD and twist-3 fit, however $\\pi^\\pm$ BRAHMS data are not described in a satisfactory way. This leaves open a question to the solution of the ``sign mismatch''. Possible explanations are then discussed.

  4. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF ATTEMPTED SUICIDE IN ARMED FORCES

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, P.K.

    2002-01-01

    The Indian Armed Forces with a closely knit community, life of their own provides a unique opportunity to study the adaptive and maladaptive characteristics of his actions. In this study thirty two percent of attempted suicide in the Armed Forces achieved discharge from service is a testament to the urgency and intensity of the need to get out of the service. Twently-two percent of control psychiathc in-patient who sought environmental change also achieved premature discharge from service, further highlights the intensity of the need of these patients to change their environment. The intensity of these patients need to change their environment is coupled with a marked sense of isolation. They find themselves not only friendless but also incapable of making friends. PMID:21206584

  5. Reward signals, attempted suicide, and impulsivity in late-life depression.

    PubMed

    Dombrovski, Alexandre Y; Szanto, Katalin; Clark, Luke; Reynolds, Charles F; Siegle, Greg J

    2013-10-01

    IMPORTANCE—Suicide can be viewed as an escape from unendurable punishment at the cost of any future rewards. Could faulty estimation of these outcomes predispose to suicidal behavior? In behavioral studies, many of those who have attempted suicide misestimate expected rewards on gambling and probabilistic learning tasks.OBJECTIVES—To describe the neural circuit abnormalities that underlie disadvantageous choices in people at risk for suicide and to relate these abnormalities to impulsivity, which is one of the components of vulnerability to suicide.DESIGN—Case-control functional magnetic resonance imaging study of reward learning using are inforcement learning model.SETTING—University hospital and outpatient clinic.PATIENTS—Fifty-three participants 60 years or older, including 15 depressed patients who had attempted suicide, 18 depressed patients who had never attempted suicide (depressed control subjects), and 20 psychiatrically healthy controls.MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES—Components of the cortical blood oxygenation level–dependent response tracking expected and unpredicted rewards.RESULTS—Depressed elderly participants displayed 2 distinct disruptions of control over reward-guided behavior. First, impulsivity and a history of suicide attempts (particularly poorly planned ones) were associated with a weakened expected reward signal in the paralimbic cortex,which in turn predicted the behavioral insensitivity to contingency change. Second, depression was associated with disrupted corticostriatothalamic encoding of unpredicted rewards, which in turn predicted the behavioral over sensitivity to punishment. These results were robust to the effects of possible brain damage from suicide attempts, depressive severity, co-occurring substance use and anxiety disorders, antidepressant and anticholinergic exposure, lifetime exposure to electroconvulsive therapy, vascular illness, and incipient dementia.CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE—Altered paralimbic reward

  6. Factors Associated with the Medical Severity of Suicide Attempts in Youths and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swahn, Monica H.; Potter, Lloyd B.

    2002-01-01

    This study examined factors associated with the medical severity of suicide attempts focusing on demographic characteristics, and circumstances of the suicide attempt. Results show that young age was significantly associated with a nearly lethal suicide attempt. Prior attempts, hopelessness, depression, and help-seeking were significantly and…

  7. Single and Multiple Suicide Attempts and Associated Health Risk Factors in New Hampshire Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Harriet J.; Jankowski, Mary K.; Sengupta, Anjana; Wolfe, Rosemarie S.; Wolford, George L., II; Rosenberg, Stanley D.

    2005-01-01

    In this study we examined self-reported suicide attempts and their relationship to other health risk factors in a community sample of 16,644 adolescents. Fifteen percent endorsed suicide attempts (10% single; 5% multiple attempts). We hypothesized that multiple attempters would show higher prevalence of comorbid health risks than single or…

  8. A Survey of Physical Principles Attempting to Define Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oas, Gary; Acacio de Barros, J.

    Quantum mechanics, one of the most successful theories in the history of science, was created to account for physical systems not describable by classical physics. Though it is consistent with all experiments conducted thus far, many of its core concepts (amplitudes, global phases, etc.) can not be directly accessed and its interpretation is still the subject of intense debate, more than 100 years since it was introduced. So, a fundamental question is why this particular mathematical model is the one that nature chooses, if indeed it is the correct model. In the past two decades there has been a renewed effort to determine what physical or informational principles define quantum mechanics. In this chapter, recent attempts at establishing reasonable physical principles are reviewed and their degree of success is tabulated. An alternative approach using joint quasi-probability distributions is shown to provide a common basis of representing most of the proposed principles. It is argued that having a common representation of the principles can provide intuition and guidance to relate current principles or advance new principles. The current state of affairs, along with some alternative views are discussed.

  9. STS-105 Commander Horowitz suits up for another launch attempt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- STS-105 Commander Scott Horowitz is helped with his launch and entry suit for the second launch attempt after a 24-hour weather delay. Launch countdown activities for the 12-day mission were called off at about 5:12 p.m. Aug. 9 during the T-9 minute hold due to the high potential for lightning, a thick cloud cover and the potential for showers. Launch is currently scheduled for 5:15 p.m. EDT Aug. 10. Highlighting the mission will be the rotation of the International Space Station crew, the third flight of an Italian-built Multi-Purpose Logistics Module delivering additional scientific racks, equipment and supplies for the Space Station, and two spacewalks. Included in the payload is the Early Ammonia Servicer (EAS) tank, which will be attached to the Station during the spacewalks. The EAS will be installed on the P6 truss, which holds the Station'''s giant U.S. solar arrays, batteries and the cooling radiators. The EAS contains spare ammonia for the Station'''s cooling system. The three-member Expedition Two crew will be returning to Earth aboard Discovery after a five-month stay on the Station.

  10. Yang-Mills vacuum: An attempt of lattice loop calculus

    SciTech Connect

    Furmanski, W.; Kolawa, A.

    1985-01-01

    An attempt is made to derive and to solve the Schrodinger equation in the low energy region (vacuum, first excitation, etc.) of the Yang-Mills theory on the lattice. The complete orthonormal basis in the physical Hilbert space is constructed by classifying independent solutions of Gauss's law. Loops of electric flux are chosen as elementary variables. The loop space Hamiltonian is derived, an ansatz is made for the low energy wave functionals and the Schrodinger equation is solved in the (truncated) loop basis. The resulting physical picture for the Yang-Mills vacuum in the cross-over region is that of, still quite dilute, gas of fluctuating loops. Definite candidate for the confining force emerges: the repulsive non-abelian loop-loop interaction (rather weak but persistent) generates an effective external field (''external pressure'') prohibiting unbounded loop size fluctuations. The negative sign (repulsion) is universal for all compact groups. Preliminary numerical results, so far mainly of illustrative character, are presented. 8 refs., 22 figs.

  11. [Medicolegal aspects of a survived suicide attempt by hanging].

    PubMed

    Nadjem, Hadi; Pollak, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Report on the clinical and medicolegal findings in a survived suicide attempt by hanging. A 39-year-old woman was found unconscious in a crouching position on the balcony of her flat. The hanging device was an electric cable running around her neck in a single loop and attached to the balcony wall. After removing the noose, resuscitation measures were started immediately. For 5 hours, the victim was at first in a comatose and then in a somnolent state. The period of amnesia covered also the preparations for the suicidal act. The forensic examination performed on the same day showed a reddish, streak-like hanging mark, pronounced signs of blood congestion with dense petechial haemorrhages in the facial skin, confluent haemorrhages in the conjunctivae as well as bleeding from the left external auditory canal. BAC was 2.2 per mil. On the basis of the findings and the clinical course, criminalistic and pathophysiological aspects of near-hanging are discussed. PMID:23878897

  12. Attempted rapid elbow flexion movements in patients with athetosis.

    PubMed Central

    Hallett, M; Alvarez, N

    1983-01-01

    Voluntary rapid elbow flexion movements were studied in 14 patients with athetosis on the basis of cerebral palsy. When the movement was attempted with one arm, other muscles inappropriate for the task, such as muscles in the opposite limb, were also activated. EMG activity of the biceps and triceps was analysed in detail, and the patterns seen in the different patients were divided into six groups: (1) The normal "ballistic" triphasic pattern, with bursts of normal duration, alternating in biceps and triceps, but the triceps might be activated first, causing the limb to extend rather than flex, (2) The triphasic pattern, with bursts of long duration, (3) Repetitive cycles of the triphasic pattern with particularly long antagonist bursts, apparently limiting the movement in each cycle, (4) Long bursts synchronous in agonist and antagonist muscles, (5) Continuous activity of the agonist, with reduction in activity of the antagonist, (6) Failure to be able to do the task. The pathophysiology of athetosis is that voluntary movement is characterised by excessive muscular activity, most prominently in inappropriate muscles, both extraneous to the task and directly antagonistic. PMID:6886719

  13. Global fitting of single spin asymmetry: An attempt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Zhong-Bo; Prokudin, Alexei

    2012-04-01

    We present an attempt of global analysis of semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering ℓp↑→ℓ'πX data on single spin asymmetries and data on left-right asymmetry AN in p↑p→πX in order to simultaneously extract information on the Sivers function and the twist-three quark-gluon Efremov-Teryaev-Qiu-Sterman function. We explore different possibilities such as the node of the Sivers function in x or k⊥ in order to explain “sign mismatch” between these functions. We show that π± semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering data and π0 STAR data can be well described in a combined fit based on both the transverse momentum dependent and collinear twist-three factorization formalisms; however, π± BRAHMS data are not described in a satisfactory way. This leaves the question open of a solution to the “sign mismatch.” Possible explanations are then discussed.

  14. The narratives of abused children who have survived attempted filicide.

    PubMed

    Katz, Carmit

    2013-10-01

    Child abuse is a social problem that receives much attention from policy makers, practitioners, and researchers. This alarming phenomenon generates many consequences for children, their families, and society as a whole; one tragic consequence of child abuse is filicide. Because of the unfortunate circumstances surrounding such events, children are hushed by their perpetrators, whether abusers or killers, and we are thus denied the opportunity to hear their voices and to promote understanding of the phenomenon. The aim of the current study is to explore in depth the patterns and themes that can be found in the narratives of children who survived a murder attempt by one of their parents. Content analysis was performed on seven investigative interviews with children using thematic analysis. Five key categories were determined based on the children's narratives: (a) many bad things have happened to me, (b) this was not the first time I was abused by my parent, (c) I am concerned about my parent, (d) I am alive thanks to my siblings, and (e) it is hard to remember what exactly happened. This study contributes to the understanding of child physical abuse and filicide. The discussion integrated conclusions for policy makers and practitioners who seek methods of addressing child abuse as well as determining whether and how filicide can be prevented. PMID:23735872

  15. Early attempts to visualize cortical monoamine nerve terminals.

    PubMed

    Hökfelt, Tomas

    2016-08-15

    The Falck-Hillarp, formaldehyde fluorescence method for the demonstration of monoamine neurons in a microscope was established in Lund, Sweden and published in 1962. In the same year Hillarp moved to Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm. Two years later Dahlström and Fuxe published the famous supplement in Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, describing the distribution of the dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin cell groups in the rat brain. This landmark paper also represented an important contribution to an emerging discipline in neuroscience - chemical neuroanatomy. During the following years several modifications of the original method were developed, attempting to solve some shortcomings, one being the reproducible demonstration of noradrenaline nerve terminals in cortical regions. One result was the paper focused on in the present article, which also describes other efforts in the same direction going on in parallel, primarily, in Lund and Stockholm. As a result there was, in the mid 1970s, a fairly complete knowledge of the catecholamine systems in the rat brain. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:50th Anniversary Issue. PMID:26806405

  16. STS-108 Crew Breakfast for second launch attempt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    STS-108 Crew Breakfast for second launch attempt KSC-01PD-1775 KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Gathered for a second day after a scrub due to weather conditions, the STS-108 crew again enjoy a pre-launch snack featuring a cake with the mission patch. Seated left to right are Mission Specialists Daniel M. Tani and Linda A. Godwin, Pilot Mark E. Kelly and Commander Dominic L. Gorie; the Expedition 4 crew Commander Yuri Onufrienko and astronauts Carl E. Walz and Daniel W. Bursch. Top priorities for the STS-108 (UF-1) mission of Endeavour are rotation of the International Space Station Expedition 3 and Expedition 4 crews; bringing water, equipment and supplies to the station in the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello; and the crew's completion of robotics tasks and a spacewalk to install thermal blankets over two pieces of equipment at the bases of the Space Station's solar wings. Launch is scheduled for 5:19 p.m. EST Dec .5, 2001, from Launch Pad 39B.

  17. STS-113 crew breakfast before second launch attempt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On the second launch attempt, the STS-113 crew enjoys a snack before suiting up for launch. The launch was scrubbed on Nov. 22 because of poor weather in the Transoceanic Abort Landing sites. Seated left to right are Mission Specialists Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington, Pilot Paul Lockhart and Commander James Wetherbee; Expedition 6 flight engineer Nikolai Budarin, Commander Ken Bowersox and flight engineer Donald Pettit. STS-113 is the 16th American assembly flight to the International Space Station. The launch will carry the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and return the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. The major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is now scheduled for Nov. 23 at 7:50 p.m. EST.

  18. Attempt towards a novel classification of triple-negative breast cancer using immunohistochemical markers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan-Xi; Wang, Ke-Ren; Xing, Hua; Zhai, Xu-Jie; Wang, Li-Ping; Wang, Wan

    2016-01-01

    Significant efforts have been made to gain a better understanding of the heterogeneity of triple-negative breast cancers from the histological to the molecular and genomic levels. In this study, we attempted to bring forward gene expression subtypes of triple-negative breast cancer (TBNC) to the clinic, by translating gene stratification to clinically accessible immunohistochemical (IHC) classification. Using IHC analysis, we categorized 154 TBNC cases into three main subclasses. Differences in the frequencies of basic characteristics and clinicopathological parameters between the subtypes were examined using Chi-square tests. We defined three main groups among the 154 triple-negative cases. The basal-like (BL) group expressed cytokeratin (CK) 5/6 and/or CK14 (83 cases), the AR+ group demonstrated positivity for androgen receptor (18 cases), and the final group exhibited a CD44+CD24-/low phenotype (39 cases). There were three overlapping cases between the BL subgroup and the CD44+CD24-/low phenotype subgroup, and 11 unclassified cases. In this new IHC classification, three subcategories exhibited a statistical difference with regard to age, tumor size, histological grade, tumor necrosis, Ki67 labeling index, relapse-free survival, breast cancer-specific survival and response to chemotherapy. According to our definition, the BL group and CD44+CD24-/low phenotype could be observed in tumors that were not triple-negative, and BL tumors that were triple-negative demonstrated almost undistinguishable clinicopathological characteristics compared with BL tumors that were not triple-negative. The same observation was made with CD44+CD24-/low tumors that were triple-negative vs. CD44+CD24-/low tumors that were not. The AR+ group demonstrated undistinguishable clinicopathological characteristics compared with the luminal subtype. We successfully distinguished three subtypes exhibiting diverse clinicopathological and prognostic characteristics with the minimum use of IHC

  19. [Adolescence, substance abuse and suicide attempt by jumping from a window].

    PubMed

    de Pourtalès, Marie-Atéa; Hazen, Constance; Cottencin, Olivier; Consoli, Silla M

    2010-02-01

    Suicide represents, in France, the second cause of death in youth aged 15 to 24. Sixteen per cent of juvenile mortality is attributable to suicide. The annual incidence of suicide attempts in this age group is estimated at about 40 000 cases. Jumping from high represents 6% of deaths from suicide: girls resort to this method twice as often as boys. The severity of somatic consequences and the frequency of sequels following a jumping from a window can hold center stage for a long time, at the risk of trivializing the psychopathology underlying such a violent acting-out. These clinical situations particularly involve a multidisciplinary follow up including an early and active participation of psychiatric consultation-liaison teams. Jumping from a window can occur even apart from established mental disorders, such as psychotic or mood disorders. Our four case-reports draw attention to risk factors represented by: substance abuse (alcohol, cannabis, but also cocaine, ecstasy...), the notion of previous suicide attempts and various drive disorders having a self-harm value or displaying an underlying impulsiveness (eating disorders, scarifications, shoplifting, running away...), the precipitating role of a recent loss of a parent or an important removal from family environment, the potential influence, especially in this age group, of spectacular cases of suicide amplified by the Medias ("Werther effect"). Paradoxically, to belong to a well-off milieu can also contribute to the risk of such acting-out, when parents replace affection and availability by an easy access to various consumer goods and a permissive education, thus opening the way to the encounter with different substances. PMID:19944561

  20. Recurrent hospitalization for self-injuries and suicide attempts: case study of a super-utilizer

    PubMed Central

    Roden-Foreman, Jacob W.; Warren, Ann Marie; Reynolds, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Super-utilizers, patients who amass disproportionately large occurrences of emergency department visits and hospital admissions, are increasingly recognized as a significant and potentially preventable resource consumer. A comprehensive understanding of these individuals and their situations may prove useful in preventing unnecessary admissions and improving patient care and outcomes. While most super-utilizers suffer from chronic medical issues, this patient is an unusual variant, as his super-utilization stemmed from mental health problems leading to serial self-injury. Between January 2010 and October 2014, the patient performed 49 acts of self-harm resulting in 27 acute hospital admissions and 17 additional admissions secondary to complications. In addition to documented injuries, he and his family reported up to 50 additional self-injuries since his first episode 34 years earlier. It was concluded that the patient's pattern of self-injury resulted from a combination of factors, including underlying psychiatric conditions, chronic noncompliance with medications, and potentially unavoidable behavioral reinforcement from health care professionals. PMID:26130879

  1. A Case Study of Two Teachers Attempting to Create Active Mathematics Discourse Communities with Latinos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willey, Craig Joseph

    2013-01-01

    This is a qualitative study of two English-dominant mathematics teachers, who I refer to as "monolingual" because they speak only English and do not speak competently or extensively the cultural language of their students. This study explores how these teachers plan, implement, and reflect upon lessons with respect to their bilingual,…

  2. A. Philip Randolph's Attempt at Equal Economic Opportunity: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Joel

    2013-01-01

    A. Philip Randolph, the national president of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters was one of the driving forces behind the March on Washington Movement in 1941. In frustration over the federal government's lack of support for opportunities in the booming war industries and equality in the military, Randolph had begun to organize the March…

  3. [The analysis of physicians' work: announcing the end of attempts at in vitro fertilization].

    PubMed

    Santiago-Delefosse, M; Cahen, F; Coeffin-Driol, C

    2003-01-01

    private medical practice increases self-esteem in cases of success but weakens it when IVF attempts fail. In addition, it goes against collective involvement in the work situation, yet such involvement may act as a strong moderating factor for the experience of distress. The second area contrasts work that is well done with recognition by peers. Indeed, in the hierarchy of medical values, recognition by peers that work has been well performed is anchored in successful healing (in the broad sense of the term), whereas in situations of abandonment of IVF attempts, ending the attempt is considered by everyone to be a failure, even if it has been well conducted . The third area opposes objective medical practice to a necessarily subjective medical involvement. The scientific and ideal values which characterise medicine reflect its objective and scientific orientation, but IVF situations are a reminder that medicine is not an exact science and that it can make mistakes. There are numerous special individual cases which reduce certainty that a decision to terminate IVF is well-founded. The fourth area distinguishes between work that is considered to be well done and work considered to be well conducted . Personal estimation of work that is well done is based on the impression that the maximum feasible has been done . But in IVF situations, constant uncertainty leads to professional over-involvement (examinations, verifications, changes of protocols). Work that is poorly done is work that does not cure or that brings no relief. As a result, work that consists in ending IVF attempts, even if it is well conducted , remains a subjective failure for everyone since it does not bring a cure (pregnancy). 2. Areas of tension in the physician-patient relationship. The first area contrasts women's irrational desire with possible support from their husbands, when the time has come to announce the end of the attempts. But this voice/presence of husbands is consi-dered desirable and

  4. Alcohol-Related Risk of Suicidal Ideation, Suicide Attempt, and Completed Suicide: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Darvishi, Nahid; Farhadi, Mehran; Haghtalab, Tahereh; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2015-01-01

    Background Several original studies have investigated the effect of alcohol use disorder (AUD) on suicidal thought and behavior, but there are serious discrepancies across the studies. Thus, a systematic assessment of the association between AUD and suicide is required. Methods We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus until February 2015. We also searched the Psycinfo web site and journals and contacted authors. We included observational (cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional) studies addressing the association between AUD and suicide. The exposure of interest was AUD. The primary outcomes were suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and completed suicide. We assessed heterogeneity using Q-test and I2 statistic. We explored publication bias using the Egger's and Begg's tests and funnel plot. We meta-analyzed the data with the random-effects models. For each outcome we calculated the overall odds ratio (OR) or risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results We included 31 out of 8548 retrieved studies, with 420,732 participants. There was a significant association between AUD and suicidal ideation (OR=1.86; 95% CI: 1.38, 2.35), suicide attempt (OR=3.13; 95% CI: 2.45, 3.81); and completed suicide (OR=2.59; 95% CI: 1.95, 3.23 and RR=1.74; 95% CI: 1.26, 2.21). There was a significant heterogeneity among the studies, but little concern to the presence of publication bias. Conclusions There is sufficient evidence that AUD significantly increases the risk of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and completed suicide. Therefore, AUD can be considered an important predictor of suicide and a great source of premature death. PMID:25993344

  5. Second Attempt of Cabergoline Withdrawal in Patients with Prolactinomas after a Failed First Attempt: Is it Worthwhile?

    PubMed Central

    Vilar, Lucio; Albuquerque, José Luciano; Gadelha, Patrícia Sampaio; Rangel Filho, Frederico; Siqueira, Aline Maria C.; da Fonseca, Maíra Melo; Viana, Karoline Frazão; Gomes, Barbara Sales; Lyra, Ruy

    2015-01-01

    Successful discontinuation of cabergoline (CAB) treatment has been reported in 31–75% of prolactinomas patients treated for at least 2 years. In contrast, it is not well established whether CAB therapy can be successfully withdrawn after a failed first attempt. This prospective open trial was designed to address this topic and to try to identify possible predictor factors. Among 180 patients with prolactinomas on CAB therapy, the authors selected those who fulfilled very strict criteria, particularly additional CAB therapy for at least 2 years, normalization of serum prolactin (PRL) levels following CAB restart, no tumor remnant >10 mm, no previous pituitary radiotherapy or surgery; and current CAB dose ≤1.0 mg/week. Recurrence was defined as an increase of PRL levels above the upper limit of normal. A total of 34 patients (70.6% female) treated with CAB for 24–30 months were recruited. Ten patients (29.4%) remained without evidence of recurrence after 24–26 months of follow-up. Twenty-four patients (70.6%) recurred within 15 months (75% within 12 months) after drug withdrawal and ~80% were restarted CAB. Median time to recurrence was 10.5 months (range, 3–15). Despite overlapping values, non-recurring patients had significantly lower mean PRL levels before withdrawal. Moreover, the recurrence rate was lower in subjects without visible tumor on pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) than in those with small remnant tumor (60 vs. 79%), though the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.20). No other characteristic could be identified as a predictor of successful CAB discontinuation. In conclusion, a second attempt of CAB withdrawal after two additional years of therapy may be successful, particularly in patients with lower PRL levels and no visible tumor on pituitary MRI. Close monitoring of PRL level is mandatory, especially within the first year after withdrawal, where most recurrences are detected. PMID:25699020

  6. What Interrupts Suicide Attempts in Men: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Player, Michael J; Proudfoot, Judy; Fogarty, Andrea; Whittle, Erin; Spurrier, Michael; Shand, Fiona; Christensen, Helen; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Wilhelm, Kay

    2015-01-01

    Despite higher rates of suicide in men, there is a dearth of research examining the perspectives and experiences of males at risk of suicide, particularly in terms of understanding how interventions can be tailored to men's specific needs. The current study aimed to examine factors assisting, complicating or inhibiting interventions for men at risk, as well as outlining the roles of family, friends and others in male suicide prevention. Thirty-five male suicide survivors completed one-to-one interviews, and forty-seven family and friends of male suicide survivors participated in eight focus groups. Thematic analysis revealed five major themes: (1) development of suicidal behaviours tends to follow a common path associated with specific types of risk factors (disrupted mood, unhelpful stoic beliefs and values, avoidant coping strategies, stressors), (2) men at risk of suicide tend to systematically misinterpret changes in their behaviour and thinking, (3) understanding mood and behavioural changes in men enables identification of opportunities to interrupt suicide progression, (4) distraction, provision of practical and emotional supports, along with professional intervention may effectively interrupt acute risk of harm, and (5) suicidal ideation may be reduced through provision of practical help to manage crises, and helping men to focus on obligations and their role within families. Findings suggest that interventions for men at risk of suicidal behaviours need to be tailored to specific risk indicators, developmental factors, care needs and individuals' preferences. To our knowledge this is the first qualitative study to explore the experiences of both suicidal men and their family/friends after a suicide attempt, with the view to improve understanding of the processes which are effective in interrupting suicide and better inform interventions for men at risk. PMID:26090794

  7. Attempted treatment of tigers (Panthera tigris) infected with Microsporum canis.

    PubMed

    Sykes, John M; Ramsay, Edward C

    2007-06-01

    An outbreak of dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis occurred in tigers (Panthera tigris) at an exotic felid sanctuary in 2003. In an attempt to find an effective, practical, safe, and affordable method for controlling this epizootic, a clinical treatment trial was conducted. Nonalopecic tigers were studied to address the inapparent carrier state observed at the facility. The efficacy of three topical and environmental treatment combinations of a 2% lime sulfur solution and a peroxide-based cleaner were evaluated in nonalopecic, culture-positive tigers (n = 18) housed in four separate enclosures. Lime sulfur solution was applied topically to all of these animals. As a control, nonalopecic but culture-positive tigers (n = 6) housed in two other enclosures were not treated. Environmental treatments included lime sulfur solution (n = 1), a peroxide-based cleaner (n = 1), and no treatment (n = 2). All solutions were applied at 2-wk intervals for seven treatments. The 2% lime sulfur solution treatments were unsuccessful in resolving infections in most tigers. Lime sulfur was effective in suppressing environmental fungal growth immediately posttreatment, whereas the peroxide-based cleaner was not effective. A follow-up survey of all study tigers and their enclosures was conducted 2 yr later, at which time 22 of 24 tigers (92%) had attained resolution, defined as two sequential negative hair cultures. Review of the culture results during the clinical trial and follow-up study suggests that nonalopecic dermatophytosis in tigers that are housed outdoors may not warrant aggressive individual or environmental treatment, as the infection may clear with time. PMID:17679509

  8. The culture of dysthanasia: attempting CPR in terminally ill children.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jonna D; Dudzinski, Denise M

    2013-03-01

    Both dying children and their families are treated with disrespect when the presumption of consent to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) applies to all hospitalized children, regardless of prognosis and the likely efficacy of CPR. This "opt-out" approach to CPR fails to appreciate the nuances of the special parent-child relationship and the moral and emotional complexity of enlisting parents in decisions to withhold CPR from their children. The therapeutic goal of CPR is not merely to resume spontaneous circulation, but rather it is to provide circulation to vital organs to allow for treatment of the underlying proximal and distal etiologies of cardiopulmonary arrest. When the treating providers agree that attempting CPR is highly unlikely to achieve the therapeutic goal or will merely prolong dying, we should not burden parents with the decision to forgo CPR. Rather, physicians should carry the primary professional and moral responsibility for the decision and use a model of informed assent from parents, allowing for respectful disagreement. As emphasized in the palliative care literature, we recommend a directive and collaborative goal-oriented approach to conversations about limiting resuscitation, in which physicians provide explicit recommendations that are in alignment with the goals and hopes of the family and emphasize the therapeutic indications for CPR. Through this approach, we hope to help parents understand that "doing everything" for their dying child means providing medical therapies that ameliorate suffering and foster the intimacy of the parent-child relationship in the final days of a child's life, making the dying process more humane. PMID:23382437

  9. Microbiology: lessons from a first attempt at Lake Ellsworth.

    PubMed

    Pearce, D A; Magiopoulos, I; Mowlem, M; Tranter, M; Holt, G; Woodward, J; Siegert, M J

    2016-01-28

    During the attempt to directly access, measure and sample Subglacial Lake Ellsworth in 2012-2013, we conducted microbiological analyses of the drilling equipment, scientific instrumentation, field camp and natural surroundings. From these studies, a number of lessons can be learned about the cleanliness of deep Antarctic subglacial lake access leading to, in particular, knowledge of the limitations of some of the most basic relevant microbiological principles. Here, we focus on five of the core challenges faced and describe how cleanliness and sterilization were implemented in the field. In the light of our field experiences, we consider how effective these actions were, and what can be learnt for future subglacial exploration missions. The five areas covered are: (i) field camp environment and activities, (ii) the engineering processes surrounding the hot water drilling, (iii) sample handling, including recovery, stability and preservation, (iv) clean access methodologies and removal of sample material, and (v) the biodiversity and distribution of bacteria around the Antarctic. Comparisons are made between the microbiology of the Lake Ellsworth field site and other Antarctic systems, including the lakes on Signy Island, and on the Antarctic Peninsula at Lake Hodgson. Ongoing research to better define and characterize the behaviour of natural and introduced microbial populations in response to deep-ice drilling is also discussed. We recommend that future access programmes: (i) assess each specific local environment in enhanced detail due to the potential for local contamination, (ii) consider the sterility of the access in more detail, specifically focusing on single cell colonization and the introduction of new species through contamination of pre-existing microbial communities, (iii) consider experimental bias in methodological approaches, (iv) undertake in situ biodiversity detection to mitigate risk of non-sample return and post-sample contamination, and (v

  10. What Interrupts Suicide Attempts in Men: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Player, Michael J.; Proudfoot, Judy; Fogarty, Andrea; Whittle, Erin; Spurrier, Michael; Shand, Fiona; Christensen, Helen; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Wilhelm, Kay

    2015-01-01

    Despite higher rates of suicide in men, there is a dearth of research examining the perspectives and experiences of males at risk of suicide, particularly in terms of understanding how interventions can be tailored to men’s specific needs. The current study aimed to examine factors assisting, complicating or inhibiting interventions for men at risk, as well as outlining the roles of family, friends and others in male suicide prevention. Thirty-five male suicide survivors completed one-to-one interviews, and forty-seven family and friends of male suicide survivors participated in eight focus groups. Thematic analysis revealed five major themes: (1) development of suicidal behaviours tends to follow a common path associated with specific types of risk factors (disrupted mood, unhelpful stoic beliefs and values, avoidant coping strategies, stressors), (2) men at risk of suicide tend to systematically misinterpret changes in their behaviour and thinking, (3) understanding mood and behavioural changes in men enables identification of opportunities to interrupt suicide progression, (4) distraction, provision of practical and emotional supports, along with professional intervention may effectively interrupt acute risk of harm, and (5) suicidal ideation may be reduced through provision of practical help to manage crises, and helping men to focus on obligations and their role within families. Findings suggest that interventions for men at risk of suicidal behaviours need to be tailored to specific risk indicators, developmental factors, care needs and individuals’ preferences. To our knowledge this is the first qualitative study to explore the experiences of both suicidal men and their family/friends after a suicide attempt, with the view to improve understanding of the processes which are effective in interrupting suicide and better inform interventions for men at risk. PMID:26090794

  11. An attempt to define the Road Climate Room

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almkvist, Esben; Gustavsson, Torbjörn; Bogren, Jörgen

    2005-12-01

    Since the start of field station manufacturing approximately 25 years ago, the configuration of Road Weather Information System (RWIS) stations and the type of sensors used has changed very little. Little is known about the variation of climatic variables from the 2 m level, where instruments are normally placed, down to the road surface. The ‘Road Climate Room’ can be defined as the volume of air, road and surroundings influencing the conditions on the road. This study attempts to describe the Road Climate Room both theoretically and experimentally. Mobile measurements as well as a permanent station were used. At the permanent station detailed temperature measurements above and beside the road were made. These were related to other climatic variables such as wind, cloudiness, humidity and ground heat flux. The results show that the most important processes occur below the 10 cm level. The air column above this level is well represented by the 2 m level temperature sensor. For most situations the cooling of the air closest to the ground is much more intense in the vegetation than over the road. The temperature difference can be as large as 8 °C and can be represented statistically with high determination by wind and cloudiness. The heat storage in the road is a key factor for keeping the temperature of the road high throughout a full diurnal cycle. The cold air in the vegetation can be considered as a potential source for cold air drainage onto the road surface in terrain where that is a problem. No advection affecting the road surface was observed at the permanent station. This suggests that the Road Climate Room can be defined as being well within the internal boundary layer of the road. The mobile measurements, however, show that advection from the surroundings is likely to have taken place, which makes the definition of the Road Climate Room more difficult. Further studies are needed to fully understand the complicated processes.

  12. Attempts to Automate the Process of Generation of Orthoimages of Objects of Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markiewicz, J. S.; Podlasiak, P.; Zawieska, D.

    2015-02-01

    At present, digital documentation recorded in the form of raster or vector files is the obligatory way of inventorying historical objects. The orthoimage is a cartometric form of photographic presentation of information in the two-dimensional reference system. The paper will discuss the issue of automation of the orthoimage generation basing on the TLS data and digital images. At present attempts are made to apply modern technologies not only for the needs of surveys, but also during the data processing. This paper will present attempts aiming at utilisation of appropriate algorithms and the author's application for automatic generation of the projection plane, for the needs of acquisition of intensity orthoimages from the TLS data. Such planes are defined manually in the majority of popular TLS data processing applications. A separate issue related to the RGB image generation is the orientation of digital images in relation to scans. It is important, in particular in such cases when scans and photographs are not taken simultaneously. This paper will present experiments concerning the utilisation of the SIFT algorithm for automatic matching of intensity orthoimages of the intensity and digital (RGB) photographs. Satisfactory results of the process of automation, as well as in relation to the quality of resulting orthoimages have been obtained.

  13. Non-traumatic Bilateral Orbital Subperiosteal Hematoma in a Person Who Attempted Suicide by Hanging.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Keiji; Morita, Seiji; Otsuka, Hiroyuki; Sugita, Mariko; Taira, Takayuki; Nakagawa, Yoshihide; Inokuchi, Sadaki

    2014-09-01

    Orbital subperiosteal hematomas are rare and most often result from facial trauma; however, occurrence of these hematomas due to non-traumatic causes is extremely rare. Herein, we present the case of a 38-year-old man who was transferred to our emergency department because he became comatose after attempting suicide by hanging. He underwent computed tomography (CT) of the head and neck. CT findings revealed a bilateral orbital subperiosteal hematoma. We then performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head for definite diagnosis of hematoma. There is no consensus regarding if this condition should be treated conservatively or surgically. Conservative management was selected for this patient because he was in deep coma. Some non-traumatic causes of orbital subperiosteal hematoma include weight lifting, coughing, vomiting, Valsalva maneuver, labor, and scuba diving. Sudden elevations in cranial pressure may be the mechanism underlying this condition. Although suicide attempt by hanging could have caused a sudden elevation in cranial pressure, this is the first report of the occurrence of this condition. Patients with orbital subperiosteal hematomas generally complain of blurred vision, eye pain, or exophthalmos. However, identifying this sign may be difficult in patients with disturbed consciousness. PMID:25248423

  14. Non-surgical and non-chemical attempts to treat echinococcosis: do they work?

    PubMed Central

    Tamarozzi, Francesca; Vuitton, Lucine; Brunetti, Enrico; Vuitton, Dominique Angèle; Koch, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) are chronic, complex and neglected diseases. Their treatment depends on a number of factors related to the lesion, setting and patient. We performed a literature review of curative or palliative non-surgical, non-chemical interventions in CE and AE. In CE, some of these techniques, like radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFA), were shelved after initial attempts, while others, such as High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound, appear promising but are still in a pre-clinical phase. In AE, RFA has never been tested, however, radiotherapy or heavy-ion therapies have been attempted in experimental models. Still, application to humans is questionable. In CE, although prospective clinical studies are still lacking, therapeutic, non-surgical drainage techniques, such as PAIR (puncture, aspiration, injection, re-aspiration) and its derivatives, are now considered a useful option in selected cases. Finally, palliative, non-surgical drainage techniques such as US- or CT-guided percutaneous biliary drainage, centro-parasitic abscesses drainage, or vascular stenting were performed successfully. Recently, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)-associated techniques have become increasingly used to manage biliary fistulas in CE and biliary obstructions in AE. Development of pre-clinical animal models would allow testing for AE techniques developed for other indications, e.g. cancer. Prospective trials are required to determine the best use of PAIR, and associated procedures, and the indications and techniques of palliative drainage. PMID:25531730

  15. Correlates of lifetime suicide attempts among individuals with affective disorders in a Chinese rural community.

    PubMed

    Ran, Mao-Sheng; Xiang, Meng-Ze; Li, Jie; Huang, Jian; Chen, Eric Yu-Hai; Chan, Cecilia Lai-Wan; Conwell, Yeates

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the demographic and clinical characteristics of individuals with affective disorders who had attempted suicide at some time in their lives and those who had not made a suicide attempt. In a Chinese rural community, individuals with suicide attempt (N = 30) and those without suicide attempt (N = 166) were assessed with Present State Examination (PSE). Attempters had a significantly higher level of family economic status, higher rate of lifetime depressed mood and hopelessness, and delusions than nonattempters. The logistic regression models also indicated that depressed mood and hopelessness were the most important predictors of suicide attempts. No significant difference in treatment condition was found between attempters and non-attempters. Early identification and interventions focusing on reducing depressed mood, hopelessness, and controlling psychotic symptoms may be helpful in reducing the risk of suicide attempts among individuals with affective disorders residing in the community. PMID:17178647

  16. [Attempt at computer modeling of evolution of human society].

    PubMed

    Levchenko, V F; Menshutkin, V V

    2009-01-01

    A model of evolution of human society and biosphere, which is based on the concepts of V. I. Vernadskii about noosphere and of L. N. Gumilev about ethnogenesis is developed and studied. The mathematical apparatus of the model is composition of finite stochastic automata. By using this model, a possibility of the global ecological crisis is demonstrated in the case of preservation of the current tendencies of interaction of the biosphere and the human civilization. PMID:19435269

  17. Attitudes towards suicide attempts broadcast on social media: an exploratory study of Chinese microblogs

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaoxiao; Hao, Bibo; O’Dea, Bridianne; Christensen, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Broadcasting a suicide attempt on social media has become a public health concern in many countries, particularly in China. In these cases, social media users are likely to be the first to witness the suicide attempt, and their attitudes may determine their likelihood of joining rescue efforts. This paper examines Chinese social media (Weibo) users’ attitudes towards suicide attempts broadcast on Weibo. Methods. A total of 4,969 Weibo posts were selected from a customised Weibo User Pool which consisted of 1.06 million active users. The selected posts were then independently coded by two researchers using a coding framework that assessed: (a) Themes, (b) General attitudes, (c) Stigmatising attitudes, (d) Perceived motivations, and (e) Desired responses. Results and Discussion. More than one third of Weibo posts were coded as “stigmatising” (35%). Among these, 22%, 16%, and 15% of posts were coded as “deceitful,” “pathetic,” and “stupid,” respectively. Among the posts which reflected different types of perceived motivations, 57% of posts were coded as “seeking attention.” Among the posts which reflected desired responses, 37% were “not saving” and 28% were “encouraging suicide.” Furthermore, among the posts with negative desired responses (i.e., “not saving” and “encouraging suicide”), 57% and 17% of them were related to different types of stigmatising attitudes and perceived motivations, respectively. Specifically, 29% and 26% of posts reflecting both stigmatising attitudes and negative desired responses were coded as “deceitful” and “pathetic,” respectively, while 66% of posts reflecting both perceived motivations, and negative desired responses were coded as “seeking attention.” Very few posts “promoted literacy” (2%) or “provided resources” (8%). Gender differences existed in multiple categories. Conclusions. This paper confirms the need for stigma reduction campaigns for Chinese social

  18. Tobacco Use and Suicide Attempt: Longitudinal Analysis with Retrospective Reports

    PubMed Central

    Berlin, Ivan; Hakes, Jahn K.; Hu, Mei-Chen; Covey, Lirio S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Suicide has been associated with smoking/tobacco use but its association of and change in smoking/tobacco use status with suicide attempt (SA) is not well established. Methods We investigated whether persistent, former tobacco use, initiation, quitting tobacco use, relapse to tobacco use, and DSM-IV nicotine dependence predict independently SA using Wave 1 and 2 data of the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions. Data from 34,653 US adults interviewed at Wave 1 (2001-02) and Wave 2 (2004-05) were analyzed. The main outcome measure was SA between Wave 1 and Wave 2 as reported at Wave 2. Results Among the 1,673 respondents reporting lifetime SA at Wave 2, 328 individuals reported SA between Wave 1 and Wave 2. Current and former tobacco use at Wave 1 predicted Wave 2 SA independently of socio-demographic characteristics, psychiatric history, and prior SA (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 1.49; 95% CI: 1.13-1.95, AOR: 1.31; 95% CI:1.01-1.69, respectively versus never tobacco users). The strongest association with SA was observed among former tobacco users who relapsed after Wave 1 (AOR: 4.66; 95% CI: 3.49-6.24) and among tobacco use initiators after Wave 1 (AOR: 3.16; 95% CI: 2.23-4.49). Persistent tobacco use (current tobacco use at both Wave 1 and Wave 2) also had an increased risk of SA (AOR: 1.89; 95% CI: 1.47-2.42). However, former tobacco users in both Waves 1 and 2 did not show a significantly elevated risk for SA in Wave 2 (AOR:1.09, 95% CI: 0.78-1.52) suggesting that the risk resided mainly in Wave 1 former tobacco users who relapsed to tobacco use by Wave 2. DSM-IV nicotine dependence did not predict SA at Wave 2. Conclusion In a representative sample of US adults, relapse, tobacco use initiation, and persistent tobacco use, which are amenable to intervention, were associated with risk of SA. PMID:25849514

  19. “My Friend Said it was Good LSD”: A Suicide Attempt Following Analytically Confirmed 25I-NBOMe Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Joji; Poklis, Justin L.; Poklis, Alphonse

    2014-01-01

    A new class of synthetic hallucinogens called NBOMe has emerged, and reports of adverse effects are beginning to appear. We report on a case of a suicide attempt after LSD ingestion which was analytically determined to be 25I-NBOMe instead. Clinicians need to have a high index of suspicion for possible NBOMe ingestion in patients reporting the recent use of LSD or other hallucinogens. PMID:25364988

  20. "My friend said it was good LSD": a suicide attempt following analytically confirmed 25I-NBOMe ingestion.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Joji; Poklis, Justin L; Poklis, Alphonse

    2014-01-01

    A new class of synthetic hallucinogens called NBOMe has emerged, and reports of adverse effects are beginning to appear. We report on a case of a suicide attempt after LSD ingestion which was analytically determined to be 25I-NBOMe instead. Clinicians need to have a high index of suspicion for possible NBOMe ingestion in patients reporting the recent use of LSD or other hallucinogens. PMID:25364988

  1. [Clinico-psychopathological characteristics of states in patients with suicidal attempts].

    PubMed

    Ostroglazov, V G; Lisina, M A

    2000-01-01

    A total psychiatric examination of the persons, after attempted suicides was performed during a month of stay in the department of resuscitation of the N.V. Sklifosovsky Institute for the Emergency Medical care. In all the patients some mental pathology was found that took place in the moment of suicide and long before it. In most of the cases the disorders of either affective (48.7%) or schizophrenic (38.5%) spectrum were diagnosed. Psychogenic reactions to stress and personality disorders were in only 10.2% of the patients. In most of the patients (74.7%) a mental disease wasn't diagnosed before in spite of its long duration (11.5 years on the average). PMID:10900682

  2. Waking the dying: must we always attempt to involve critically ill patients in end-of-life decisions?

    PubMed

    Tonelli, Mark R

    2005-02-01

    Many critically ill persons are unable to participate in medical decision making, due, at least in part, to medications administered to provide sedation and analgesia. Such patients may retain the ability to participate to some degree in medical decisions if these medications can be reduced or eliminated. Decisions regarding the withdrawal of support, in particular, highlight the ethical complexities surrounding the participation of the critically ill patient. An appeal to the principle of autonomy would seem to demand that in all such cases attempts must be made to involve the patient; however, under certain circumstances arousing a dying patient to inform them of their imminent demise runs counter to the principle of beneficence in health care. A casuistic approach to this apparent dilemma identifies the ethically relevant aspects of such cases and allows for the development of specific criteria for judging the appropriateness of attempting to involve a critically ill patient directly in decision making. Patient comfort, prognosis, and prior preferences carry significant ethical weight. In cases in which a sedated, critically ill person cannot be aroused without causing significant pain and suffering, has a very poor prognosis, and in which prior unambiguous directives or current family/surrogate consensus exists that withdrawal of support would be preferred by the patient, the author argues that no ethical obligation to attempt to involve the patient in medical decisions exists. PMID:15706007

  3. Quadruple Pact Suicide Attempt Involving a Man and Three Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Siddharth; Srinivas, Balachander; Grover, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    Pact suicides involving families have been reported in the scientific literature, but reports have been few from India. We report the case of a family, in which the father and three children had entered into a suicidal pact and executed it due to social reasons. A 41-year-old man, with no past psychiatric or substance use history, had reportedly come to know that his wife had been involved in an extra-marital affair. As expressed by him in a suicide note, he could not bear the humiliation due to this and also did not want his children to face disrespect from the society. He along with his daughter and 2 sons, aged 14, 12 and 11 years respectively, thus entered into a suicide pact to end their lives and wrote a suicide note. Man and two of his children consumed aluminum phosphide. However, the youngest son did not consume the poison and raised alarm, following which they were rushed for medical care. The father died, but the three children recovered completely. The case highlights the rare phenomenon of suicide pacts involving an adult and children. PMID:25336777

  4. Suicide Attempt Self-Injury Interview (SASII): Development, Reliability, and Validity of a Scale to Assess Suicide Attempts and Intentional Self-Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linehan, Marsha M.; Comtois, Katherine Anne; Brown, Milton Z.; Heard, Heidi L.; Wagner, Amy

    2006-01-01

    The authors describe the development of the Suicide Attempt Self-Injury Interview (SASII), an instrument designed to assess the factors involved in nonfatal suicide attempts and intentional self-injury. Using 4 cohorts of participants, authors generated SASII items and evaluated them with factor and content analyses and internal consistency…

  5. Suicide Mortality of Suicide Attempt Patients Discharged from Emergency Room, Nonsuicidal Psychiatric Patients Discharged from Emergency Room, Admitted Suicide Attempt Patients, and Admitted Nonsuicidal Psychiatric Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jae W.; Park, Subin; Yi, Ki K.; Hong, Jin P.

    2012-01-01

    The suicide mortality rate and risk factors for suicide completion of patients who presented to an emergency room (ER) for suicide attempt and were discharged without psychiatric admission, patients who presented to an ER for psychiatric problems other than suicide attempt and were discharged without psychiatric admission, psychiatric inpatients…

  6. Alcohol Use to Facilitate a Suicide Attempt: An Event-Based Examination

    PubMed Central

    Bagge, Courtney L.; Conner, Kenneth R.; Reed, Louren; Dawkins, Milton; Murray, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The current study is based on the hypothesis that alcohol-involved suicide attempts are characterized by lower premeditation and intent, but only when the use of alcohol is not motivated by the desire to facilitate the attempt. Test of this idea was conducted by comparing proximal suicide premeditation and intent of suicide attempts among three groups: individuals who (a) drank to facilitate the attempt (e.g., to “numb fears” about attempting), (b) drank for nonfacilitative motives, and (c) did not use alcohol before the attempt. Method: Participants included 324 (62% female) recent suicide attempters presenting to a Level 1 trauma hospital. The Timeline Followback Interview for Suicide Attempts and a novel Suicide Facilitative Drinking Motives Scale were used to assess facilitative motives for drinking and characteristics of the attempt. Results: One third of participants drank before the attempt, and most (73%) who used alcohol did not do so to facilitate the attempt. As hypothesized, attempts carried out by this group had shorter proximal suicide premeditation and lower suicide intent compared with the other study groups; in contrast, individuals who drank to facilitate the attempt were similar to non–alcohol users on these indices. Conclusions: Alcohol-involved suicide attempts are heterogeneous. Motives for drinking are a key source of heterogeneity insofar as fundamental characteristics of attempts (proximal premeditation, intent) differ as a function of drinking motivation. Clinical implications include that individuals making suicide attempts with facilitative motives for drinking cannot be assumed to be at lowered risk upon a drop in blood alcohol level. PMID:25978835

  7. Circadian Variation in Suicide Attempts in Tokyo from 1978 to 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motohashi, Yutaka

    1990-01-01

    Analyzed circadian variations in suicide attempts in Tokyo from 1978 to 1985 from records of Ambulance Service of Tokyo. Findings showed significant circadian variation in suicide attempts which seemed to be associated with endogenous rhythms, such as mood, and daily variation in social activities. Established peak time for suicide attempts as…

  8. Attempting to Answer a Meaningful Question Enhances Subsequent Learning Even When Feedback Is Delayed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornell, Nate

    2014-01-01

    Attempting to retrieve information from memory enhances subsequent learning even if the retrieval attempt is unsuccessful. Recent evidence suggests that this benefit materializes only if subsequent study occurs immediately after the retrieval attempt. Previous studies have prompted retrieval using a cue (e.g., "whale-???") that has no…

  9. Suicide Attempts as Social Goal-Directed Systems of Joint Careers, Projects, and Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valach, Ladislav; Michel, Konrad; Young, R. A.; Dey, P.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study we examined to what extent persons who attempt suicide describe their attempt in terms of social, joint processes. Psychotherapists interviewed 40 patients hospitalized in a general hospital for a few days after an attempted suicide. The content of the interviews was analyzed for the level of systemic processes the patients…

  10. Suicide Attempts in Israel: Age by Gender Analysis of a National Emergency Departments Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Daphna; Haklai, Ziona; Stein, Nechama; Gordon, Ethel-Sherry

    2006-01-01

    An analysis of all emergency department admissions in Israel classified as an attempted suicide in the years 1996-2002 was done to examine attempted suicide rates by age and gender with particular attention to adolescents and young adults. Gender differences in attempted suicide rates were significant only during adolescence and young adulthood,…

  11. Self-Injurious Behavior and Suicide Attempts among Indonesian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tresno, Fiona; Ito, Yoshimi; Mearns, Jack

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the prevalence of self-injurious behavior and suicide attempts among college students in Indonesia and examines risk factors distinguishing between 3 groups: self-injury with suicide attempt, non-suicidal self-injury, and non-self-injury. Self-report questionnaires measuring self-injury and suicide attempts, negative mood…

  12. Psychosocial Determinants of Suicide Attempts among Black South African Adolescents: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shilubane, Hilda N.; Ruiter, Robert A. C.; Bos, Arjan E. R..; van den Borne, Bart; James, Shamagonam; Reddy, Priscilla S.

    2012-01-01

    In South Africa, one in five adolescents attempt suicide. Suicide attempts continue to rise. We aimed to identify psychosocial target points for future educational interventions. One-to-one semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore psychosocial factors associated with past suicide attempts among suicide survivors in Limpopo province,…

  13. Individual and environmental contingencies associated with multiple suicide attempts among U.S. military personnel.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Craig J; Rudd, M David; Wertenberger, Evelyn

    2016-08-30

    Suicidal behavior among U.S. military personnel persists as a significant public health issue. Previous research indicates the primary motive for suicide attempts among military personnel is the desire to reduce or alleviate emotional distress, a finding that converges with studies in nonmilitary samples. Much less is understood about the consequences of a first suicide attempt that could influence the occurrence of additional suicide attempts. In order to identify these contingencies, 134 active duty Soldiers who had attempted suicide (n=69 first-time attempters, n=65 multiple attempters) participated in structured interviews focused on their experiences immediately following their first attempt. Soldiers were more likely to have made multiple suicide attempts if they were younger at the time of their first attempt, were not admitted to a hospital or treatment program after their first attempt, or experienced emotional and psychological relief immediately afterwards. Results suggest that Soldiers who experience emotional and/or psychological relief immediately after their first suicide attempt or do not receive treatment are more likely to make additional suicide attempts. PMID:27262267

  14. Attempted Suicide, Self-Harm, and Violent Victimization among Regular Illicit Drug Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darke, Shane; McCrim, Michelle Torok; Kaye, Sharlene; Ross, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Relationships among attempted suicide, nonsuicidal self-harm, and physical assault were examined in 400 regular users of heroin and/or psychostimulants. Twenty-eight percent had episodes of nonsuicidal self-harm, 32% had attempted suicide, and 95% had been violently assaulted. The number of suicide attempts and nonsuicidal self-harm incidents were…

  15. Mental Disorders and Socioeconomic Status: Impact on Population Risk of Attempted Suicide in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Andrew; Taylor, Richard; Hall, Wayne; Carter, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    The population attributable risk (PAR) of mental disorders compared to indicators of socioeconomic status (SES) for attempted suicide was estimated for Australia. For mental disorders, the highest PAR% for attempted suicide was for anxiety disorders (males 28%; females 36%). For SES, the highest PAR% for attempted suicide in males was for…

  16. Variables Associated with Repeated Suicide Attempt in a Criminal Justice Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakansson, Anders; Bradvik, Louise; Schlyter, Frans; Berglund, Mats

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with repeated suicide attempts among criminal justice clients examined for substance abuse using the Addiction Severity Index. Among suicide attempters (n = 1,404), repeaters (two or more attempts, n = 770) were compared to nonrepeaters. In logistic regression, repetition was associated with…

  17. Examining the Impact of Psychiatric Diagnosis and Comorbidity on the Medical Lethality of Adolescent "Suicide Attempts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mc Manama O'Brien, Kimberly H.; Berzin, Stephanie C.

    2012-01-01

    Specific psychiatric diagnoses and comorbidity patterns were examined to determine if they were related to the medical lethality of "suicide attempts" among adolescents presenting to an urban general hospital (N = 375). Bivariate analysis showed that attempters with substance abuse disorders had higher levels of lethality than attempters without…

  18. Suicide Attempts in a Longitudinal Sample of Adolescents Followed Through Adulthood: Evidence of Escalation

    PubMed Central

    Goldston, David B.; Daniel, Stephanie S.; Erkanli, Alaattin; Heilbron, Nicole; Doyle, Otima; Weller, Bridget; Sapyta, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study was designed to examine escalation in repeat suicide attempts from adolescence through adulthood, as predicted by sensitization models (and reflected in increasing intent and lethality with repeat attempts, decreasing amount of time between attempts, and decreasing stress to trigger attempts) Method In a prospective study of 180 adolescents followed through adulthood after a psychiatric hospitalization, suicide attempts and antecedent life events were repeatedly assessed (M = 12.6 assessments, SD = 5.1) over an average of 13 years, 6 months (SD = 4 years, 5 months). Multivariate logistic, multiple linear, and negative binomial regression models were used to examine patterns over time. Results After age 17-18, the majority of suicide attempts were repeat attempts (i.e., made by individuals with prior suicidal behavior). Intent increased both with increasing age, and with number of prior attempts. Medical lethality increased as a function of age but not recurrent attempts. The time between successive suicide attempts decreased as a function of number of attempts. The amount of precipitating life stress was not related to attempts. Conclusions Adolescents and young adults show evidence of escalation of recurrent suicidal behavior, with increasing suicidal intent and decreasing time between successive attempts. However, evidence that sensitization processes account for this escalation was inconclusive. Effective prevention programs that reduce the likelihood of individuals attempting suicide for the first time (and entering this cycle of escalation), and relapse prevention interventions that interrupt the cycle of escalating suicidal behavior among individuals who already have made attempts are critically needed. PMID:25622200

  19. How do repeat suicide attempters differ from first timers? An exploratory record based analysis

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Vikas; Kattimani, Shivanand; Sarkar, Siddharth; Mathan, Kaliaperumal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence indicates that repeat suicide attempters, as a group, may differ from 1st time attempters. The identification of repeat attempters is a powerful but underutilized clinical variable. Aims: In this research, we aimed to compare individuals with lifetime histories of multiple attempts with 1st time attempters to identify factors predictive of repeat attempts. Setting and Design: This was a retrospective record based study carried out at a teaching cum Tertiary Care Hospital in South India. Methods: Relevant data was extracted from the clinical records of 1st time attempters (n = 362) and repeat attempters (n = 61) presenting to a single Tertiary Care Center over a 4½ year period. They were compared on various sociodemographic and clinical parameters. The clinical measures included Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Coping Strategies Inventory – Short Form, and the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale. Statistical Analysis Used: First time attempters and repeaters were compared using appropriate inferential statistics. Logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of repeat attempts. Results: The two groups did not significantly differ on sociodemographic characteristics. Repeat attempters were more likely to have given prior hints about their act (χ2 = 4.500, P = 0.034). In the final regression model, beck hopelessness score emerged as a significant predictor of repeat suicide attempts (odds ratio = 1.064, P = 0.020). Conclusion: Among suicide attempters presenting to the hospital, the presence of hopelessness is a predictor of repeat suicide attempts, independent of clinical depression. This highlights the importance of considering hopelessness in the assessment of suicidality with a view to minimize the risk of future attempts. PMID:26933353

  20. [Two paradigms of mathematical population biology. Attempting to synthesise].

    PubMed

    Logofet, D O; Ulanova, N G; Belova, I N

    2011-01-01

    Whatever popular the slogan of nonlinear ecological interactions has been in theory, practical ecology professes the projection matrix paradigm, which is essentially linear, i.e., the linear matrix model paradigm for discrete-structured population dynamics. The dominant eigenvalue lamda1, of the projection matrix L is considered as a growth potential of the population. It provides for a quantitative measure of the fitness at which the species is adapted to the given environment, the measure being adequate and accurate, given the data of"identified individuals" type. The case of"identified individuals with unknown parents" bears uncertainty in the status-specific reproduction rates, which eliminates in a unique way (for a broad class of structures and life cycle graphs) by maximizing lamda1(L) under the constraints ensuing from the data and knowledge of species biology. The paradigm of linearity gives way to nonlinear models when modeled are species interactions, such as competition for shared resources, and where the outcome of interaction depends on the population structure of the competitors. This circumstance dictates a need for the synthesis of two paradigms, which is achieved in nonlinear matrix operators as models of interaction between the species whose populations are discrete-structured. PMID:22121575

  1. Suicide mortality of suicide attempt patients discharged from emergency room, nonsuicidal psychiatric patients discharged from emergency room, admitted suicide attempt patients, and admitted nonsuicidal psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae W; Park, Subin; Yi, Ki K; Hong, Jin P

    2012-06-01

    The suicide mortality rate and risk factors for suicide completion of patients who presented to an emergency room (ER) for suicide attempt and were discharged without psychiatric admission, patients who presented to an ER for psychiatric problems other than suicide attempt and were discharged without psychiatric admission, psychiatric inpatients admitted for suicide attempt, and psychiatric inpatients admitted for other reasons were examined. The records of 3,897 patients who were treated at a general hospital in Seoul, Korea, from July 2003 to December 2006 were reviewed. Forty-three of the 3,897 subjects died by suicide during the 2.5-year observation period. Compared to the general Korean population, the suicide mortality rate was 82-fold higher for suicide attempt patients, admitted; 54-fold higher for suicide attempt patients, discharged; 21-fold higher for nonsuicidal patients, admitted; and 11-fold higher for nonsuicidal patients, discharged. In all four groups, diagnosis of a depressive disorder and suicide attempt at presentation were each significant independent risk factors for suicide completion. These results highlight the need for suicide prevention strategies for depressed patients who present to the ER or are admitted to a psychiatric ward after a suicide attempt. PMID:22380459

  2. Are suicide attempts by young Latinas a cultural idiom of distress?

    PubMed Central

    Zayas, Luis H.; Gulbas, Lauren E.

    2015-01-01

    The high rates of suicide attempts among adolescent Hispanic females in the United States have been well established by epidemiological and clinical studies. In this paper, we review the research history of Latina suicide attempts and their characteristics. Then we apply multifaceted conceptual and empirical criteria found in the anthropological and psychiatric literature about cultural idioms of distress to the suicide attempts of young Latinas. We contrast the suicide-attempt phenomenon to the well-known ataque de nervios and propose that the phenomenon may reflect a developmental or cultural variant of the ataque. The attempt-as-idiom proposition is intended to invite discussion that can deepen our understanding of the cultural roots of the suicide attempts and their possible designation as cultural idiom. Establishing the meaning of suicide attempts within a cultural perspective can assist psychological and psychiatric research and clinical interventions. PMID:23075802

  3. MCMI-III Scores on Substance Abusers With and Without Histories of Suicide Attempts.

    PubMed

    Craig, Robert J.; Bivens, Alex

    2000-09-01

    Sixty-eight patients with a history of suicide attempt were compared to 340 patients without a history of suicide attempt using the MCMI-III, a frequently used test for measuring personality disorders. Patients with a suicide attempt history scored higher on Schizoid, Avoidant, Depression, Dependent, Passive-Aggressive (Negativistic), Self-Defeating, and Paranoid and significantly lower on Histrionic and Compulsive and scored higher on all clinical syndrome scales except for Drug Dependence and Delusional Disorder. Logistic regression correctly predicted the no-suicide-history group with 97% accuracy, but only accurately predicted 16% of the patients with a suicide attempt history. A discriminant function analysis correctly predicted 90% of the patients with a suicidal attempt history and 63% of the patients with no history of suicide attempt. Results suggest that MCMI-III scores may be able to detect patients with a history of suicide attempt, using multivariate statistics. PMID:12466656

  4. Attempted integration of multiple species of turaco into a mixed-species aviary.

    PubMed

    Valuska, Annie J; Leighty, Katherine A; Ferrie, Gina M; Nichols, Valerie D; Tybor, Cheryl L; Plassé, Chelle; Bettinger, Tamara L

    2013-03-01

    Mixed-species exhibits offer a variety of benefits but can be challenging to maintain due to difficulty in managing interspecific interactions. This is particularly true when little has been documented on the behavior of the species being mixed. This was the case when we attempted to house three species of turaco (family: Musophagidae) together with other species in a walk-through aviary. To learn more about the behavior of great blue turacos, violaceous turacos, and white-bellied gray go-away birds, we supplemented opportunistic keeper observations with systematic data collection on their behavior, location, distance from other birds, and visibility to visitors. Keepers reported high levels of aggression among turacos, usually initiated by a go-away bird or a violaceous turaco. Most aggression occurred during feedings or when pairs were defending nest sites. Attempts to reduce aggression by temporarily removing birds to holding areas and reintroducing them days later were ineffective. Systematic data collection revealed increased social behavior, including aggression, during breeding season in the violaceous turacos, as well as greater location fidelity. These behavioral cues may be useful in predicting breeding behavior in the future. Ultimately, we were only able to house three species of turaco together for a short time, and prohibitively high levels of conflict occurred when pairs were breeding. We conclude that mixing these three turaco species is challenging and may not be the most appropriate housing situation for them, particularly during breeding season. However, changes in turaco species composition, sex composition, or exhibit design may result in more compatible mixed-turaco species groups. PMID:22972609

  5. Attempted Suicide Among Students and Young Adults in Montreal, Quebec, Canada: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study of Hospitalized and Nonhospitalized Suicide Attempts Based on Chart Review

    PubMed Central

    Rahme, Elham; Low, Nancy C. P.; Lamarre, Suzanne; Turecki, Gustavo; Bonin, Jean-Pierre; Diane Daneau, RN; Habel, Youssef; Yung, Emily C. C.; Morin, Suzanne; Szkrumelak, Nadia; Singh, Santokh; Renaud, Johanne; Lesage, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Objective We conducted a chart review to identify postsecondary students and nonstudents in the same age range who presented to the emergency department following a suicide attempt to (1) compare demographic characteristics and suicide risk factors and (2) determine factors associated with more serious attempts requiring hospitalizations. Method The study was conducted in 1 tertiary trauma hospital and 1 community hospital affiliated with McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, between January 1, 2009, and March 31, 2010. Charts of patients with potential suicide attempts were identified from medical records using ICD-10 codes that indicated traumatic injury, intentional self-harm, poisoning, and psychiatric or perception/cognition disorders and from the emergency department triage file using keywords that indicated suicidality or self-harm at presentation. Results In multivariable logistic regression models (odds ratio, 95% CI), students were younger (per 5-year increase: 0.22, 0.12–0.41), less likely to be born in Canada (0.17, 0.06–0.44), and more likely to use less violent methods (laceration, poisoning, other, multiple methods) versus more violent methods (collision, jump, fire burns, firearm, hanging) in their attempt. Fewer students had a history of substance abuse (0.12, 0.02–0.94) but were not different from nonstudents on history of other mental disorders. Less students attempted suicide in the winter/spring (January–April) versus fall (September–December) semester (0.32, 0.11–0.91). Students who attempted suicide were more likely to have family/social support. Those who attempted suicide in the previous year were more likely to require hospitalization for their current suicide attempt. Conclusions Knowledge of specific factors associated with suicide attempts in young people can help inform and guide suicide prevention efforts in both academic and community settings. Specific to the findings of this study regarding the method of suicide

  6. Gender differences in suicide attempters: a retrospective study of precipitating factors for suicide attempts at a critical emergency unit in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a shortage of empirical data concerning precipitating factors for suicides in Japan. The purpose of the present study was to clarify gender differences of precipitating factors for suicide attempts in Japan. Methods The subjects were high-lethality suicide attempters who were admitted to the Nippon Medical School Hospital Critical Care Medical Center between March 1, 2010 and March 31, 2012. Precipitating factors for suicide attempt, method of suicide attempt, psychiatric diagnoses and other sociodemographic data were collected from the patients’ medical records retrospectively, and statistical analyses were performed for categorical variables of male/female. Results The total number of subjects was 193 (88 males and 105 females). The rate of subjects attempting suicide by poisonous gas was significantly higher in males while that of subjects attempting suicide by drug overdose was significantly higher in females. The rate of subjects diagnosed with “major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder” was significantly higher in males while that of subjects diagnosed with “personality disorders” or “dysthymic disorder” was significantly higher in females. Subjects with “health problems”, “financial problems”, “work problems”, “debts (others)” or “unwanted transfer” were significantly more numerous among males; subjects with “family problems”, “parent–child relations” or “loneliness” were significantly more frequently found among females. Conclusions Mental disorders were the most common precipitating factor for suicide attempts regardless of gender. Significant gender differences were observed in psychiatric diagnoses, methods of suicide attempt and psychosocial problems. This indicates the necessity of suicide prevention measures corresponding to these gender differences. PMID:24885851

  7. Predictors of quit attempts among smokers enrolled in substance abuse treatment

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Cristina; Guydish, Joseph; Le, Thao; Tajima, Barbara; Passalacqua, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This study investigates factors predicting past year quit attempts among smokers enrolled in substance abuse treatment in New York State. Methods Data were drawn from two prior cross-sectional surveys conducted among clients treated in 10 randomly selected substance abuse treatment programs. Among 820 clients recruited, 542 self-identified as current smokers, and 485 provided information about their quit attempts. The main outcome was reporting a quit smoking attempt in the past year, dichotomized as quit attempters or non-quit attempters. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to explore predictors of attempting to quit. Results Half of substance abuse clients in treatment programs reported a past year quit attempt. Quit attempters were more likely to be in a preparation and contemplation stage of change (preparation: OR = 2.68, 95% CI: 1.51-4.77; contemplation: OR = 2.96 95% CI: 1.61-5.42), reported more positive attitudes toward quitting (OR = 1.49; 95% CI: 1.11 - 1.99) and received more cessation services than non-quit attempters (OR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.11-1.99). Conclusions Addressing patient attitudes about quitting smoking, having clinicians address smoking in the course of addiction treatment, and offering interventions to increase readiness to quit may contribute to increased quit attempts in smokers enrolled in addiction treatment programs. PMID:25218064

  8. The epidemiology of attempted suicide in the Oxford area, England (1989-1992).

    PubMed

    Hawton, K; Fagg, J; Simkin, S; Mills, J

    1994-01-01

    The epidemiological and clinical characteristics of attempted suicide in Oxford, United Kingdom, between 1989 and 1992 are reported on the basis of data collected as part of the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study of Parasuicide in Europe. Some further findings for the period 1976-1992 are also described. Rates of attempted suicide were particularly high among females aged 15-19 years. There was a very marked association in males and females between attempted suicide and both lower socioeconomic status and unemployment. The percentage of first-time attempters entering the attempted suicide population remained steady between 1976 and 1992, with approximately two-thirds of attempters each year making their first attempts. There was a great increase in the use of paracetamol (acetominophen) for self-poisoning between 1976 and 1992, this being involved in 14.3% of overdoses in 1976 and 43.2% in 1992. On the basis of the Oxford rates, there are approximately 100,000 general hospital admissions for attempted suicide each year in England and Wales, approximately 19,000 involving teenagers (mostly girls). Oxford has a similar pattern of attempted suicide to that in the rest of the UK. The findings indicate that the UK has one of the highest rates of attempted suicide in Europe. PMID:7859480

  9. Clinical variables associated with suicide attempts in schizophrenia before and after the first episode.

    PubMed

    Togay, Bilge; Noyan, Handan; Tasdelen, Rumeysa; Ucok, Alp

    2015-09-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate variables associated with suicide attempts in schizophrenia before and after the first episode. We evaluated history of past sucide attempts, clinical symptoms, level of functioning and cognitive performances of 172 patients with first-episode schizophrenia at first admission. Information was collected regarding clinical symptom severity, treatment compliance, and suicide attempts during the follow-up. We found that 16.5% of the patients attempted suicide before admission, and 6.2% of them attempted suicide during the follow-up. The patients who had attempted suicide before admission were mostly women, and more likely to be hospitalized in first year of follow up. BPRS-depression subscale score at admission and alcohol/substance use appeared as independent variables that found associated with suicide attempts prior to admission in logistic regression analysis. The patients who attempted suicide during the follow-up had significantly higher BPRS-depression subcale scores at sixth months of follow-up. Treatment compliance during the first 6 months and duration of remission was lower in this group. Our findings suggest that longer duration of first hospital treatment, the presence of depressive symptoms, and nonadherence to treatment in early phases of follow up after FES are predictors of suicide attempts. On the other hand, keeping remission during the follow-up protects against suicide attempts. PMID:26210651

  10. Stressful life events, hopelessness, and coping strategies among impulsive suicide attempters

    PubMed Central

    Kattimani, Shivanand; Sarkar, Siddharth; Rajkumar, Ravi Philip; Menon, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Suicides are among the most important causes of death in the economically productive population. Characteristics of impulsive and nonimpulsive suicide attempters may differ which would have a bearing on planning preventive measures. Aims: This study aimed to characterize the clinical and psychological profile of impulsive and nonimpulsive suicide attempters. Settings and Design: This retrospective comprehensive chart-based study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in South India. Methods: The study utilized records of patients over a period of 3 years. An attempt was considered impulsive if the time between suicidal idea and the attempt was <30 min. Stressful life events were assessed using presumptive stressful life events scale; hopelessness was evaluated using Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) and coping was measured using Coping Strategies Inventory Short Form. Statistical Analysis Used: Impulsive and nonimpulsive suicide attempters were compared using appropriate inferential statistical tests. Results: Of 316 patients, 151 were classified as having an impulsive suicidal attempt (47.8% of the sample). The impulsive and nonimpulsive suicide attempters did not differ on demographic characteristics. Use of natural plant products was more common in impulsive attempters (27.2% vs. 12.7%), while physical methods like hanging was less common (0.7% vs. 7.3%). Those with an impulsive attempt were more likely to have a recent contact with a health professional (24.5% vs. 4.5%). Impulsive suicide attempters had higher scores on BHS (Mann–Whitney U = 7680.5, P < 0.001), and had recollected greater number of stressors. Conclusion: Impulsive suicide attempters differ from nonimpulsive suicide attempters in clinical features like methods of attempt, presence of hopelessness, and stressors. PMID:25883475

  11. The Role of Help-Seeking in Preventing Suicide Attempts among Lesbians, Gay Men, and Bisexuals

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Ilan H.; Teylan, Merilee; Schwartz, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    One possible approach to prevention of suicide attempts is to encourage help-seeking among individuals at risk. We assessed whether different forms of treatment were associated with lower odds of a suicide attempt in a diverse group of 388 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults aged 18–59, sampled from New York City venues. Of individuals who attempted suicide, 23% sought mental health or medical treatment and 14% sought religious or spiritual treatment prior to the suicide attempt. Black and Latino LGBs were underrepresented in mental health or medical treatment and Black LGBs were overrepresented in religious or spiritual treatment. Seeking mental health or medical treatment was not associated with lower odds of a suicide attempt; seeking religious or spiritual treatment was associated with higher odds of a suicide attempt. We discuss these results and posit hypotheses for further research of this understudied topic. PMID:24825437

  12. Assessment of risk factors related to suicide attempts in patients with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Song, Joo Yun; Yu, Han Young; Kim, Se Hyun; Hwang, Samuel S-H; Cho, Hyun-Sang; Kim, Yong Sik; Ha, Kyooseob; Ahn, Yong Min

    2012-11-01

    We compared the characteristics of patients with bipolar disorder with and without a history of suicide attempts to identify the risk factors of suicide in this disorder. Among 212 patients with bipolar disorder, 44 (21.2%) patients had histories of suicide attempts. Suicide attempters were younger and more likely to be diagnosed with bipolar II. The variables that differentiated those who did from those who did not attempt suicide included age at first contact, lifetime history of antidepressant use, major depressive episode, mixed episode, auditory hallucinations, rapid cycling, the number of previous mood episodes, age of first depressive episode, and age of first psychotic symptoms. Strong predictors of suicide attempts were younger age at onset, lifetime history of auditory hallucinations, and history of antidepressant use. Antecedent depressive episodes and psychotic symptoms predicted the first suicide attempt in patients with bipolar disorder. This study could help clinicians to understand the major risk factors of suicidal behavior in bipolar disorder. PMID:23124183

  13. The role of help-seeking in preventing suicide attempts among lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Ilan H; Teylan, Merilee; Schwartz, Sharon

    2015-02-01

    One possible approach to prevention of suicide attempts is to encourage help-seeking among individuals at risk. We assessed whether different forms of treatment were associated with lower odds of a suicide attempt in a diverse group of 388 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults aged 18-59, sampled from New York City venues. Of individuals who attempted suicide, 23% sought mental health or medical treatment and 14% sought religious or spiritual treatment prior to the suicide attempt. Black and Latino LGBs were underrepresented in mental health or medical treatment and Black LGBs were overrepresented in religious or spiritual treatment. Seeking mental health or medical treatment was not associated with lower odds of a suicide attempt; seeking religious or spiritual treatment was associated with higher odds of a suicide attempt. We discuss these results and posit hypotheses for further research of this understudied topic. PMID:24825437

  14. Reasons for attempting suicide among men who use alcohol and other drugs.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Danilo Bertasso; Terra, Marlene Gomes; Soccol, Keity Laís Siepmann; Schneider, Jacó Fernando; Camillo, Lucia Amabile; Plein, Fátima Aparecida Dos Santos

    2016-03-01

    Objective To understand the reasons that lead men who use alcohol and other drugs to attempt suicide. Methods Qualitative research at an alcohol and psychosocial drugs support centre (CAPSad) in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in December of 2011, with 11 men who use alcohol and other drugs and who attempted suicide. Data were collected by means of phenomenological interviewing. The phenomenological sociology of Alfred Schütz was used to analyse and interpret the interview statements. Results The results led to three categories: attempted suicide triggered by alcohol and drug use; attempted suicide triggered by the family lifeworld; and attempted suicide triggered by everyday feelings. Conclusion We found that alcohol and drug abuse and the different life circumstances of men in their families and social relationships contributed to the suicide attempt. PMID:27074308

  15. A Novel Brief Therapy for Patients Who Attempt Suicide: A 24-months Follow-Up Randomized Controlled Study of the Attempted Suicide Short Intervention Program (ASSIP)

    PubMed Central

    Gysin-Maillart, Anja; Schwab, Simon; Soravia, Leila; Megert, Millie; Michel, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Background Attempted suicide is the main risk factor for suicide and repeated suicide attempts. However, the evidence for follow-up treatments reducing suicidal behavior in these patients is limited. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Attempted Suicide Short Intervention Program (ASSIP) in reducing suicidal behavior. ASSIP is a novel brief therapy based on a patient-centered model of suicidal behavior, with an emphasis on early therapeutic alliance. Methods and Findings Patients who had recently attempted suicide were randomly allocated to treatment as usual (n = 60) or treatment as usual plus ASSIP (n = 60). ASSIP participants received three therapy sessions followed by regular contact through personalized letters over 24 months. Participants considered to be at high risk of suicide were included, 63% were diagnosed with an affective disorder, and 50% had a history of prior suicide attempts. Clinical exclusion criteria were habitual self-harm, serious cognitive impairment, and psychotic disorder. Study participants completed a set of psychosocial and clinical questionnaires every 6 months over a 24-month follow-up period. The study represents a real-world clinical setting at an outpatient clinic of a university hospital of psychiatry. The primary outcome measure was repeat suicide attempts during the 24-month follow-up period. Secondary outcome measures were suicidal ideation, depression, and health-care utilization. Furthermore, effects of prior suicide attempts, depression at baseline, diagnosis, and therapeutic alliance on outcome were investigated. During the 24-month follow-up period, five repeat suicide attempts were recorded in the ASSIP group and 41 attempts in the control group. The rates of participants reattempting suicide at least once were 8.3% (n = 5) and 26.7% (n = 16). ASSIP was associated with an approximately 80% reduced risk of participants making at least one repeat suicide attempt (Wald χ21 = 13.1, 95% CI

  16. Effects of sentencing options and strict / lenient instructions on convicting suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Range, Lillian M; Berman, Mitchell; Embry, Tippins

    2003-11-01

    Sentence and strictness of instructions influence juries' willingness to convict. To see whether this result holds for suicide attempters, 240 undergraduates read jury instructions for a suicide attempt that varied sentence (jail term, fine, community service, or mandatory counseling) and instructions, voted guilty / not guilty, and rated their certainty and effectiveness. With sentences of 25 hours mandatory counseling, or strict instructions, more respondents voted guilty. Sentence did not impact certainty or effectiveness, but strictness enhanced certainty. Overall, respondents were neutral that convicting a suicide attempter would reduce future attempts. Consistent with terror management theory, present students were willing to punish regardless of whether they thought that the punishment was preventive. PMID:14577449

  17. Victimization of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual People in Childhood: Associations with Attempted Suicide.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Anna B; Johnson, Renee M; Bolton, Shay-Lee; Mojtabai, Ramin

    2016-08-01

    Higher rates of attempted suicide have been documented among people who identify themselves as gay, lesbian, and bisexual (LGB) compared with heterosexuals. This study sought to ascertain the association between childhood abuse and neglect and attempted suicide, comparing LGBs and heterosexuals. Childhood sexual abuse among men and childhood sexual and physical abuse among women were found to mediate the association between LGB identity and attempted suicide. The experience of childhood abuse likely plays a significant role in the relationship between LGB identity and attempted suicide, but other factors such as experience of discrimination are also important. PMID:27484047

  18. Quantifying the combined effects of attempt rate and swimming capacity on passage through velocity barriers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castro-Santos, T.

    2004-01-01

    The ability of fish to migrate past velocity barriers results from both attempt rate and swimming capacity. Here, I formalize this relationship, providing equations for estimating the proportion of a population successfully passing a barrier over a range of distances and times. These equations take into account the cumulative effect of multiple attempts, the time required to stage those attempts, and both the distance traversed on each attempt and its variability. I apply these equations to models of white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) ascending a 23-m-long flume against flows ranging from 1.5 to 4.5 m??s-1. Attempt rate varied between species, attempts, and over time and was influenced by hydraulic variables (velocity of flow and discharge). Distance of ascent was primarily influenced by flow velocity. Although swimming capacity was similar, white sucker had greater attempt rates, and consequently better passage success, than walleye. Over short distances, models for both species predict greater passage success against higher velocities owing to the associated increased attempt rate. These results highlight the importance of attraction to fish passage and the need for further investigation into the hydraulic and other environmental conditions required to simultaneously optimize both attempt rate and passage success.

  19. Does Attempt at Hearing Preservation Microsurgery of Vestibular Schwannoma Affect Postoperative Tinnitus?

    PubMed Central

    Chovanec, Martin; Zvěřina, Eduard; Balogová, Zuzana; Kluh, Jan; Syka, Josef; Merunka, Ilja; Skřivan, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of vestibular schwannoma microsurgery via the retrosigmoid-transmeatal approach with special reference to the postoperative tinnitus outcome. Material and Methods. A prospective study was performed in 89 consecutive patients with unilateral vestibular schwannoma indicated for microsurgery. Patient and tumor related parameters, pre- and postoperative hearing level, intraoperative findings, and hearing and tinnitus handicap inventory scores were analyzed. Results. Cochlear nerve integrity was achieved in 44% corresponding to preservation of preoperatively serviceable hearing in 47% and useful hearing in 21%. Main prognostic factors of hearing preservation were grade/size of tumor, preoperative hearing level, intraoperative neuromonitoring, tumor consistency, and adhesion to neurovascular structures. Microsurgery led to elimination of tinnitus in 66% but also new-onset of the symptom in 14% of cases. Preservation of useful hearing and neurectomy of the eighth cranial nerve were main prognostic factors of tinnitus elimination. Preservation of cochlear nerve but loss of preoperative hearing emerged as the main factor for tinnitus persistence and new onset tinnitus. Decrease of THI scores was observed postoperatively. Conclusions. Our results underscore the importance of proper pre- and intraoperative decision making about attempt at hearing preservation versus potential for tinnitus elimination/risk of new onset of tinnitus. PMID:25654125

  20. Subcellular compartmentalization in protoplasts from Artemisia annua cell cultures: engineering attempts using a modified SNARE protein.

    PubMed

    Di Sansebastiano, Gian Pietro; Rizzello, Francesca; Durante, Miriana; Caretto, Sofia; Nisi, Rossella; De Paolis, Angelo; Faraco, Marianna; Montefusco, Anna; Piro, Gabriella; Mita, Giovanni

    2015-05-20

    Plants are ideal bioreactors for the production of macromolecules but transport mechanisms are not fully understood and cannot be easily manipulated. Several attempts to overproduce recombinant proteins or secondary metabolites failed. Because of an independent regulation of the storage compartment, the product may be rapidly degraded or cause self-intoxication. The case of the anti-malarial compound artemisinin produced by Artemisia annua plants is emblematic. The accumulation of artemisinin naturally occurs in the apoplast of glandular trichomes probably involving autophagy and unconventional secretion thus its production by undifferentiated tissues such as cell suspension cultures can be challenging. Here we characterize the subcellular compartmentalization of several known fluorescent markers in protoplasts derived from Artemisia suspension cultures and explore the possibility to modify compartmentalization using a modified SNARE protein as molecular tool to be used in future biotechnological applications. We focused on the observation of the vacuolar organization in vivo and the truncated form of AtSYP51, 51H3, was used to induce a compartment generated by the contribution of membrane from endocytosis and from endoplasmic reticulum to vacuole trafficking. The artificial compartment crossing exocytosis and endocytosis may trap artemisinin stabilizing it until extraction; indeed, it is able to increase total enzymatic activity of a vacuolar marker (RGUSChi), probably increasing its stability. Exploring the 51H3-induced compartment we gained new insights on the function of the SNARE SYP51, recently shown to be an interfering-SNARE, and new hints to engineer eukaryote endomembranes for future biotechnological applications. PMID:25451863

  1. Prevention of suicide and attempted suicide in Denmark. Epidemiological studies of suicide and intervention studies in selected risk groups.

    PubMed

    Nordentoft, Merete

    2007-11-01

    The suicide rates in Denmark have been declining during the last two decades. The decline was relatively larger among women than among men. All age groups experienced a decline except the very young with stable rates and the very old with increasing rates. The Universal, Selective, Indicated (USI) model recommended by Institute of Medicine was used as a framework for the thesis. Universal preventive interventions are directed toward the entire population; selective interventions are directed toward individuals who are at greater risk for suicidal behaviour; and indicated preventions are targeted at individuals who have already begun self-destructive behaviour. At the universal level, a review was carried out to highlight the association between availability of methods for suicide and suicide rate. There were mostly studies of firearms, and the conclusion of the review was that there was clear indication of restricted access to lethal means was associated with decline in suicide with that specific method, and in many cases also with overall suicide mortality. Restricting access is especially important for methods with high case fatality rate. Our own study indicated a beneficial effect on suicide rates of restrictions in access to barbiturates, dextropropoxyphen, domestic gas and car exhaust with high content of carbon monoxide. Although a range of other factors in the society might also be of importance, it was concluded that restrictions in access to dangerous means for suicide were likely to play an important role in reducing suicide rates in Denmark, especially for women. At the selective level, there are several important risk groups such as psychiatric patients, persons with alcohol and drug abuse, persons with newly diagnosed severe physical illness, all who previously attempted suicide, and groups of homeless, institutionalized, prisoners and other socially excluded persons. The thesis focused on homeless persons and psychiatric patients, especially patients

  2. Suicide attempt in young people: A signal for long-term healthcare and social needs

    PubMed Central

    Goldman-Mellor, Sidra J.; Caspi, Avshalom; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Nada-Raja, Shyamala; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2013-01-01

    Importance Suicidal behavior has increased since the onset of the global recession, a trend that may have long-term health and social implications. Objective To test whether suicide attempts among young people signal increased risk for later poor health and social functioning, above and beyond pre-existing psychiatric disorder. Design We followed a cohort of young people and assessed multiple aspects of their health and social functioning as they approached midlife. Outcomes among individuals who had self-reported a suicide attempt up through age 24 (young suicide attempters) were compared to those who reported no attempt through age 24 (non-attempters). Psychiatric history and social class were controlled. Setting The population-representative Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Participants A total of 1,037 birth cohort members, comprising 91 young suicide attempters and 946 non-attempters, 95% of whom were followed to age 38. Main Outcome Measures Outcomes were selected to represent significant individual and societal costs: mental health, physical health, harm towards others, and need for support. Results As adults approaching midlife, young suicide attempters were significantly more likely to have persistent mental health problems (e.g., depression, substance dependence, additional suicide attempts) when compared to non-attempters. They were also more likely to have physical health problems (e.g., metabolic syndrome, elevated inflammation). They engaged in more violence (e.g., violent crime, intimate partner abuse) and needed more social support (e.g., long-term welfare receipt, unemployment). Furthermore, they reported being lonelier and less satisfied with their lives. These associations remained after adjustment for youth psychiatric diagnoses and social class. Conclusions Many young suicide attempters remain vulnerable to costly health and social problems into midlife. As rates of suicidal behavior rise with the continuing global

  3. The temptation of suicide: striatal gray matter, discounting of delayed rewards, and suicide attempts in late-life depression

    PubMed Central

    Dombrovski, Alexandre Y.; Siegle, Greg J.; Szanto, Katalin; Clark, Luke; Reynolds, Charles F.; Aizenstein, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Background Converging evidence implicates basal ganglia alterations in impulsivity and suicidal behavior. For example, D2/D3 agonists and subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson’s disease trigger impulse control disorders and possibly suicidal behavior. Further, suicidal behavior has been associated with structural basal ganglia abnormalities. Finally, low-lethality, unplanned suicide attempts are associated with increased discounting of delayed rewards, a behavior dependent upon the striatum. Thus, we tested whether, in late-life depression, changes in the basal ganglia were associated with suicide attempts and with increased delay discounting. Methods Fifty-two persons aged ≥60 underwent extensive clinical and cognitive characterization: 33 with major depression (13 suicide attempters [SA], 20 non-suicidal depressed elderly), and 19 non-depressed controls. Participants had high-resolution T1-weighted MPRAGE MRI scans. Basal ganglia gray matter voxel counts were estimated using atlas-based segmentation, with a highly-deformable automated algorithm. Discounting of delayed rewards was assessed using the Monetary Choice Questionnaire, and delay aversion with the Cambridge Gamble Task. Results SA had lower putamen but not caudate or pallidum gray matter voxel counts, compared to the control groups. This difference persisted after accounting for substance use disorders and possible brain injury from suicide attempts. SA with lower putamen gray matter voxel counts displayed higher delay discounting on the MCQ, but not delay aversion on the CGT. Secondary analyses revealed that SA had lower voxel counts in associative and possibly ventral, but not sensorimotor striatum. Conclusions Our findings, while limited by small sample size and case-control design, suggest that striatal lesions could contribute to suicidal behavior by increasing impulsivity. PMID:21999930

  4. The Relationship between Social Skills and Depression in Adolescent Suicide Attempters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spirito, Anthony; And Others

    Although suicide is the second leading cause of death for adolescents in the United States, there are little empirical data available on psychological factors which may lead an adolescent to consider or attempt suicide. To address this issue, the relationships among depression, social skills, and severity of suicidal attempt were investigated in…

  5. The Rate and Characteristics of Suicide Attempters in the Native Hawaiian Adolescent Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuen, Noelle; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Surveyed native Hawaiian high school students (n=1,779) for symptoms of psychopathology and suicide attempts in the previous 6 months. Seventy-seven students reported making a suicide attempt. There were no significant differences in prevalence rates for males and females. Depression, anxiety, aggression, substance abuse symptoms, and low family…

  6. Gender in Suicide Attempt Rates and Childhood Sexual Abuse Rates: Is There an Interaction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Alec; Janal, Malvin

    2006-01-01

    Two competing explanations for higher rates of attempted suicide in women than men were compared. Because childhood sexual abuse is more prevalent in girls than boys, one explanation of higher rates of suicide attempts in women is that it is a direct result of the higher incidence of sexual abuse in girls. Alternatively, higher rates of suicide…

  7. Interpersonal Reactions to Suicide Attempt: The Role of Respondent Causal Attributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paukert, Amber L.; Pettit, Jeremy W.

    2007-01-01

    Interpersonal responses to a depressed person with or without a suicide attempt were examined. It was hypothesized that the depressed person who attempted suicide would receive higher negative attributions and interpersonal rejection, and that attributions would mediate the relationship between exposure to a depressed person and rejection.…

  8. Post-Admission Cognitive Therapy: A Brief Intervention for Psychiatric Inpatients Admitted After a Suicide Attempt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan; Cox, Daniel W.; Greene, Farrah N.

    2012-01-01

    To date, no empirically based inpatient intervention for individuals who have attempted suicide exists. We present an overview of a novel psychotherapeutic approach, Post-Admission Cognitive Therapy (PACT), currently under development and empirical testing for inpatients who have been admitted for a recent suicide attempt. PACT is adapted from an…

  9. 22 CFR 127.6 - Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. 127.6 Section 127.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES § 127.6 Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. (a)...

  10. 22 CFR 127.6 - Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. 127.6 Section 127.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES § 127.6 Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. (a)...

  11. 22 CFR 127.6 - Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. 127.6 Section 127.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES § 127.6 Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. (a)...

  12. 22 CFR 127.6 - Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. 127.6 Section 127.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES § 127.6 Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. (a)...

  13. 22 CFR 127.6 - Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. 127.6 Section 127.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES § 127.6 Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. (a)...

  14. Trend of Increasingly Higher Units Attempted by Students Continues. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glyer-Culver, Betty

    2005-01-01

    This July 2005 Research presents an analysis of the changing picture of average units attempted by students who attend the four Los Rios colleges in Sacramento, California--American River College, Cosumnes River College, Folsom Lake College and Sacramento City College. Beginning in 2000 a six-year trend of declining average units attempted by Los…

  15. Emotional Antecedents and Consequences of Deliberate Self-Harm and Suicide Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Alexander L.; Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L.

    2007-01-01

    Emotional experiences immediately prior to (emotional antecedents) and following (emotional consequences) deliberate self-harm and suicide attempts in female inmates (N = 63) were examined. Anger was the antecedent emotion reported by the largest proportion of individuals who had engaged in deliberate self-harm (45.16%), suicide attempts (40.9%),…

  16. A Closer Look at Self-Reported Suicide Attempts: False Positives and False Negatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ploderl, Martin; Kralovec, Karl; Yazdi, Kurosch; Fartacek, Reinhold

    2011-01-01

    The validity of self-reported suicide attempt information is undermined by false positives (e.g., incidences without intent to die), or by unreported suicide attempts, referred to as false negatives. In a sample of 1,385 Austrian adults, we explored the occurrence of false positives and false negatives with detailed, probing questions. Removing…

  17. Predictors of Suicidal Behavior in a Sample of Turkish Suicide Attempters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayar, Kemal; Kose, Samet; Acar, Burcin; Ak, Ismail; Reeves, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    In a Turkish sample, 100 suicide attempters, were compared with 60 healthy controls on measures of hopelessness, depression, and suicidal ideation. Suicide attempters were more depressive, more hopeless, and displayed greater suicidal ideation than healthy controls. Depression severity rather than hopelessness correlated with suicidal intent.…

  18. Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse in Depressed Patients with Single and Multiple Suicide Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andover, Margaret S.; Zlotnick, Caron; Miller, Ivan W.

    2007-01-01

    Research has shown both childhood physical and sexual abuse to be associated with later suicide attempts, although some studies have not supported these findings. However, few studies have investigated differences in physical and sexual abuse histories among single and multiple suicide attempters. The goals of the current study were two-fold: (a)…

  19. Attempts to Stop or Reduce Daily Cannabis Use: An Intensive Natural History Study

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, John R.; Naud, Shelly; Budney, Alan J.; Fingar, James R.; Callas, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    We attempted to replicate and add to our prior study of attempts to stop or reduce cannabis use among daily cannabis users trying to change on their own, by observing a larger sample and adding further clinically-relevant outcomes. Daily users (n = 193) who intended to stop or reduce sometime in the next 3 months called an Interactive Voice Response system each morning for 3 months to report on cannabis use, attempts to stop or reduce, withdrawal symptoms, etc., on the prior day. This study replicated our prior findings that a) cannabis users trying to change make many, and often rapid, transitions among use as usual, reduction and abstinence; b) reduction attempts are more common than abstinence attempts; c) quit and reduction attempts are short-lived and few participants achieve long-term abstinence; d) alcohol and drug use are not greater on abstinence days; and e) few users seek treatment. Novel findings included f) a greater number of days of abstinence or intentional reduction predicted a greater decline in cannabis dependence; g) most users do not prepare before their quit attempt; h) coping outcomes during abstinence predict increased duration of abstinence; i) tobacco use is less common on days of abstinence; and j) withdrawal symptoms occur even with short quit attempts. Replication tests in more generalizable samples and of longer duration are indicated. Further natural history studies are likely to provide information to help improve the content of psychological treatments for cannabis use. PMID:26828641

  20. Personality Disorder Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts over 10 Years of Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Ansell, Emily B.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Markowitz, John C.; Sanislow, Charles A.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Zanarini, Mary C.; Yen, Shirley; Pinto, Anthony; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Identifying personality disorder (PD) risk factors for suicide attempts is an important consideration for research and clinical care alike. However, most prior research has focused on single PDs or categorical PD diagnoses without considering unique influences of different PDs, or severity (sum) of PD criteria on the risk for suicide related outcomes. This has usually been done in cross-sectional or retrospective assessment methods. Rarely are dimensional models of PDs examined in longitudinal, naturalistic prospective designs. In addition, it is important to consider divergent risk factors in predicting the risk of ever making a suicide attempt versus making an increasing number of attempts within the same model. Method This study examined 431 participants who were followed for 10 years in the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (CLPS). Baseline assessments of personality disorder criteria were summed as dimensional counts of personality pathology and examined as predictors of suicide attempts reported at annual interviews throughout the ten-year follow-up. We employed univariate and multivariate zero-inflated Poisson regression models to simultaneously evaluate PD risk factors for ‘ever attempt’ and for increasing numbers of attempts among attempters. Results Consistent with prior research, borderline PD was uniquely associated with ever attempting. However, only narcissistic PD was uniquely associated with an increasing number of attempts. Conclusion These findings highlight the relevance of both borderline and narcissistic personality pathology as unique contributors to suicide related outcomes. PMID:25705977

  1. Characteristics of Suicide Attempters and Nonattempters with Schizophrenia in a Rural Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ran, Mao-Sheng; Xiang, Meng-Ze; Mao, Wen-Jun; Hou, Zai-Jin; Tang, Mu-Ni; Chen, Eric Yu-Hai; Chan, Cecilia Lai-Wan; Yip, Paul S. F.; Conwell, Yeates

    2006-01-01

    In this study, demographic and clinical characteristics of individuals with schizophrenia in a Chinese rural community who had attempted suicide at some time in their lives and those who had not made a suicide attempt were compared. Among individuals with schizophrenia, subjects with (n = 38) and without (n = 472) a lifetime history of suicide…

  2. Attempts to stop or reduce daily cannabis use: An intensive natural history study.

    PubMed

    Hughes, John R; Naud, Shelly; Budney, Alan J; Fingar, James R; Callas, Peter W

    2016-05-01

    We attempted to replicate and add to our prior study of attempts to stop or reduce cannabis use among daily cannabis users trying to change on their own, by observing a larger sample and adding further clinically relevant outcomes. Daily users (n = 193) who intended to stop or reduce sometime in the next 3 months called an Interactive Voice Response system each morning for 3 months to report on cannabis use, attempts to stop or reduce, withdrawal symptoms, and so forth, on the prior day. This study replicated our prior findings that (a) cannabis users trying to change make many, and often rapid, transitions among use as usual, reduction, and abstinence; (b) reduction attempts are more common than abstinence attempts; (c) quit and reduction attempts are short-lived and few participants achieve long-term abstinence; (d) alcohol and drug use are not greater on abstinence days; and (e) few users seek treatment. Novel findings included (f) a greater number of days of abstinence or intentional reduction predicted a greater decline in cannabis dependence, (g) most users do not prepare before their quit attempt, (h) coping outcomes during abstinence predict increased duration of abstinence, (i) tobacco use is less common on days of abstinence, and (j) withdrawal symptoms occur even with short quit attempts. Replication tests in more generalizable samples and of longer duration are indicated. Further natural history studies are likely to provide information to help improve the content of psychological treatments for cannabis use. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26828641

  3. A Life History of a Korean Adolescent Girl Who Attempted Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Sungeun

    2012-01-01

    The present study explores the life history of a South Korean adolescent girl who attempted suicide. The study focuses on how sociocultural values affected her suicide attempt and how she made meaning out of the experience. The results revealed that her life history was a process of seeking independence and autonomy, and freeing herself from…

  4. Resistance to Persuasion as a Consequence of Influence Attempts in Advertising and Non-Advertising Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Norbert; And Others

    1986-01-01

    College students read a communication about a textbook, designated either as a "review" or an "advertisement," and containing either a highly explicit or a less explicit influence attempt. Both presenting the communication as an advertisement and a highly explicit influence attempt reduced the communication's effectiveness, indicating the…

  5. Multisystemic Therapy Effects on Attempted Suicide by Youths Presenting Psychiatric Emergencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huey, Stanley J.; Henggeler, Scott W.; Rowland, Melisa D.; Halliday-Boykins, Colleen A.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Pickrel, Susan G.; Edwards, James

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of multisystemic therapy (MST) in reducing attempted suicide among predominantly African American youths referred for emergency psychiatric hospitalization. Method: Youths presenting psychiatric emergencies were randomly assigned to MST or hospitalization. Indices of attempted suicide, suicidal ideation,…

  6. “Patterns of Distress, Precipitating Events, and Reflections on Suicide Attempts by Young Latinas”

    PubMed Central

    Zayas, Luis H.; Gulbas, Lauren E; Fedoravicius, Nicole; Cabassa, Leopoldo J

    2010-01-01

    By most epidemiological accounts, young US Latinas attempt suicide more often than other youth. Little is known, however, about the circumstance and internal experiences of the attempts. To understand this phenomenon, we conducted thematic analyses of twenty-seven qualitative interviews with teenage Latinas (aged 11-19) living in New York City who had attempted suicide. Collected between July 2005 and July 2009, the interviews explored the emotional, cognitive and physical experiences of the attempts and the social situations in which they took place. Results show that the girls were divisible nearly equally into a group with a stated intent of death and a group that did not intend death. The pathways to the suicidal event consisted of a pattern of continuous, escalating stress (primarily at home) that created the emotionally combustible conditions for the attempt. A trigger event that either reminded them of past stress or revived feelings of that stress catalyzed the attempt. Guilt and remorse were common responses to the suicide attempts, and on reflection the girls demonstrated some broader perspectives. Results of the analysis clarify the sociocultural context of the suicide attempts, underscoring the cultural discontinuity experienced by adolescent Latinas, who struggle to reconcile traditional Hispanic gender socialization with their own insertion in a modern Western society. PMID:20347199

  7. Gratitude and Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts among Chinese Adolescents: Direct, Mediated, and Moderated Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Dongping; Zhang, Wei; Li, Xian; Li, Nini; Ye, Baojuan

    2012-01-01

    In a sample of 1252 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 15.00 years), this study examined the direct relations between gratitude and adolescents' suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. This study also examined indirect relations between gratitude and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts via two self-system beliefs--coping efficacy and self-esteem.…

  8. Toward an integrative model of suicide attempt: a cognitive psychological approach.

    PubMed

    Dieserud, G; Røysamb, E; Ekeberg, O; Kraft, P

    2001-01-01

    Applying a cognitive approach, the purpose of the present study was to expand previous research on stress-vulnerability models of depression and problem-solving deficits, as it relates to suicide attempt. Structural equation modelling, involving latent variables, was used to evaluate (a) whether low self-esteem, a low sense of self-efficacy, loneliness, and divorce constituted vulnerability factors for the development of depression; (b) whether hopelessness and suicidal ideation mediated the relationship between depression and suicide attempt; and (c) whether problem-solving deficits mediated the relationship between the vulnerability factors and suicide attempt, separate from depression/hopelessness. A total of 123 individuals, aged 18-75 years, participated in the study (72 suicide attempters and 51 psychiatric outpatients with no history of suicidal behavior). The results indicated a two path model of suicide attempt. The first path began with low self-esteem, loneliness, and separation or divorce, which advanced to depression, and was further mediated by hopelessness and suicidal ideation which led to suicide attempt. The second path developed from low self-esteem and a low sense of self-efficacy and advanced to suicide attempt, mediated by a negative appraisal of one's own problem-solving capacity, and poor interpersonal problem-solving skills. The importance of addressing both depression/hopelessness, and problem-solving deficits when working with suicide attempters is noted. PMID:11459248

  9. Impulsive and non-impulsive suicide attempts in patients treated for alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Wojnar, Marcin; Ilgen, Mark A.; Czyz, Ewa; Strobbe, Stephen; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Glass, Jennifer; Brower, Kirk J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Suicidal behavior has been recognized as an increasing problem among alcohol-dependent subjects. The aim of the study was to identify correlates of impulsive and non-impulsive suicide attempts among a treated population of alcohol-dependent patients. Methods A total of 154 patients with alcohol dependence consecutively admitted for addiction treatment participated in the study. Suicidal behavior was assessed together with severity of alcohol dependence, childhood abuse, impulsivity, and family history. A stop-signal procedure was used as a behavioral measure of impulsivity. Results and conclusions Lifetime suicide attempts were reported by 43% of patients in alcohol treatment; of which 62% were impulsive. Compared to patients without a suicide attempt, those with a non-impulsive attempt were more likely to have a history of sexual abuse (OR = 7.17), a family history of suicide (OR = 4.09), and higher scores on a personality measure of impulsiveness (OR = 2.27). The only significant factor that distinguished patients with impulsive suicide attempts from patients without a suicide attempt and from patients with a non-impulsive suicide attempt was a higher level of behavioral impulsivity (OR = 1.84 – 2.42). Limitations Retrospective self-report of suicide attempts and family history. Lack of diagnostic measure. PMID:18835498

  10. A Brief History of Attempts To Monitor Testing. NBETPP Statements, Volume 2, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madaus, George F.

    This paper provides a brief history of attempts to monitor testing in the United States. It describes proposals for monitoring from the first attempts in the 1920s to similar proposals in the 1990s. The discussion focuses on: (1) Giles Ruche's proposal for a consumer research bureau on tests; (2) Oscar K. Burros' reviews of tests and efforts to…

  11. Depressive Symptoms and Clinical Status during the Treatment of Adolescent Suicide Attempters (TASA) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitiello, Benedetto; Brent, David A.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Emslie, Graham; Wells, Karen; Walkup, John T.; Stanley, Barbara; Bukstein, Oscar; Kennard, Betsy D.; Compton, Scott; Coffey, Barbara; Cwik, Mary F.; Posner, Kelly; Wagner, Ann; March, John S.; Riddle, Mark; Goldstein, Tina; Curry, John; Capasso, Lisa; Mayes, Taryn; Shen, Sa; Gugga, S. Sonia; Turner, J. Blake; Barnett, Shannon; Zelazny, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the course of depression during the treatment of adolescents with depression who had recently attempted suicide. Method: Adolescents (N = 124), ages 12 to 18 years, with a 90-day history of suicide attempt, a current diagnosis of depressive disorder (96.0% had major depressive disorder), and a Children's Depression Rating…

  12. 14 CFR 417.415 - Post-launch and post-flight-attempt hazard controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Post-launch and post-flight-attempt hazard controls. 417.415 Section 417.415 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Ground Safety § 417.415 Post-launch and post-flight-attempt hazard...

  13. Developmental Differences in Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts between Ninth and Eleventh Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacker, Karen A.; Suglia, Shakira F.; Fried, Lise E.; Rappaport, Nancy; Cabral, Howard

    2006-01-01

    In order to identify differences in risk factors for suicide attempts throughout adolescence, this study utilized a school-based survey of ninth (n = 1,192) and eleventh graders (N = 1,055). Suicide attempts were associated with cigarette and alcohol use, family violence, and depression for ninth graders and with illicit drug use, school violence,…

  14. Using Path Analysis To Examine Adolescent Suicide Attempts, Life Satisfaction, and Health Risk Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thatcher, W. Gregory; Reininger, Belinda M.; Drane, J. Wanzer

    2002-01-01

    Examined racial and gender differences in attempted suicide among South Carolina public high school students. Data on quality of life, life satisfaction, and six risk-behavior categories from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey indicated that specific associations among risk behaviors, mediating variables, and self- reported attempted suicide varied…

  15. Factors Associated with Recent Suicide Attempts in Clients Presenting for Addiction Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penney, Alexander; Mazmanian, Dwight; Jamieson, John; Black, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Factors associated with recent suicide attempts were examined in clients who sought treatment at an addictions facility between 2001 and 2008. Clients who reported being hospitalized for attempting suicide in the past year (n = 76) were compared to all other clients (n = 5914) on demographic, mental health, substance use, and problem gambling…

  16. Treatment for Adolescents Following a Suicide Attempt: Results of a Pilot Trial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Deidre; Spirito, Anthony; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of a skills-based treatment protocol to a supportive relationship therapy for adolescents after a suicide attempt. Method: Thirty-nine adolescents (12-17 years old) and parents who presented to a general pediatric emergency department or inpatient unit of a child psychiatric hospital after a suicide attempt were…

  17. Prediction by data mining, of suicide attempts in Korean adolescents: a national study

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Sung Man; Lee, Seung A; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to develop a prediction model for suicide attempts in Korean adolescents. Methods We conducted a decision tree analysis of 2,754 middle and high school students nationwide. We fixed suicide attempt as the dependent variable and eleven sociodemographic, intrapersonal, and extrapersonal variables as independent variables. Results The rate of suicide attempts of the total sample was 9.5%, and severity of depression was the strongest variable to predict suicide attempt. The rates of suicide attempts in the depression and potential depression groups were 5.4 and 2.8 times higher than that of the non-depression group. In the depression group, the most powerful factor to predict a suicide attempt was delinquency, and the rate of suicide attempts in those in the depression group with higher delinquency was two times higher than in those in the depression group with lower delinquency. Of special note, the rate of suicide attempts in the depressed females with higher delinquency was the highest. Interestingly, in the potential depression group, the most impactful factor to predict a suicide attempt was intimacy with family, and the rate of suicide attempts of those in the potential depression group with lower intimacy with family was 2.4 times higher than that of those in the potential depression group with higher intimacy with family. And, among the potential depression group, middle school students with lower intimacy with family had a 2.5-times higher rate of suicide attempts than high school students with lower intimacy with family. Finally, in the non-depression group, stress level was the most powerful factor to predict a suicide attempt. Among the non-depression group, students who reported high levels of stress showed an 8.3-times higher rate of suicide attempts than students who reported average levels of stress. Discussion Based on the results, we especially need to pay attention to depressed females with higher delinquency and those with

  18. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Suicide Re-attempts in Persons with Chronic Mental Disabilities in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jo, Sun-Jin; Ko, Jung-A; Park, Jung-Suk; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Kyung-Min; Lee, Myung-Soo

    2016-07-01

    Suicide re-attempters are clinically different from single-episode attempters and are at higher risk of completed suicide. This study explored psychosocial risk factors and modifiable factors related to suicide re-attempt in a representative sample of 441 chronic mentally disabled individuals in Seoul, Korea. The participants were listed on the public sector registry based on the Act for the Welfare of Disabled Persons. Individualized interviews were conducted, and the authors analyzed the data via multiple logistic regression analysis. The results showed that physical illness (under treatment OR 1.7; left untreated OR 4.2) and no leisure activities (OR 1.9) were factors related to a higher risk of re-attempted suicide. Unmet and modifiable needs in addition to mental health services should be considered to prevent suicide re-attempts in the chronic mentally disabled. PMID:27154333

  19. Early Maladaptive Schemas in Bipolar Disorder Patients With and Without Suicide Attempts.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Kristine Kahr

    2016-03-01

    Patients with bipolar disorder (BD) are at an increased risk of attempted and completed suicide. To elucidate the beliefs and assumptions associated with suicidality in BD, the present study compared BD patients with and without a history of suicide attempt in terms of early maladaptive schemas (EMSs). The sample consisted of 49 remitted BD patients who completed the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Version. Information on suicide attempts was obtained through interviews combined with medical records. Compared with BD patients without suicide attempts, the BD patients with suicide attempts scored significantly higher on 3 EMSs: social isolation, practical incompetence, and entitlement. The findings suggest that specific EMSs may be implicated in suicidal behaviors in BD. These results have implications for the assessment and treatment of suicidality in BD. PMID:26919302

  20. Understanding the life experiences of older adults in Korea following a suicide attempt.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yujin

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe life experiences following suicide attempts from the perspective of older Korean adults. Both field notes and in-depth interviews with 35 elderly Koreans who had attempted suicide were analyzed through qualitative content analysis. With an underlying theme of "life with no way out for those who believe they do not even have any luck in dying," I classified the experiences of participants in the wake of a failed suicide attempt into four categories: (a) facing additional hardships including deteriorating physical health, (b) having more sadness and loneliness than before the suicide attempt, (c) deepening dependency on tranquilizers, and (d) seesawing between despair and faint hope. Based on these research findings, I make four recommendations regarding secondary preventive interventions for elderly suicide attempters. PMID:25147216