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Sample records for post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease

  1. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders.

    PubMed

    Dharnidharka, Vikas R; Webster, Angela C; Martinez, Olivia M; Preiksaitis, Jutta K; Leblond, Veronique; Choquet, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) are a group of conditions that involve uncontrolled proliferation of lymphoid cells as a consequence of extrinsic immunosuppression after organ or haematopoietic stem cell transplant. PTLDs show some similarities to classic lymphomas in the non-immunosuppressed general population. The oncogenic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a key pathogenic driver in many early-onset cases, through multiple mechanisms. The incidence of PTLD varies with the type of transplant; a clear distinction should therefore be made between the conditions after solid organ transplant and after haematopoietic stem cell transplant. Recipient EBV seronegativity and the intensity of immunosuppression are among key risk factors. Symptoms and signs depend on the localization of the lymphoid masses. Diagnosis requires histopathology, although imaging techniques can provide additional supportive evidence. Pre-emptive intervention based on monitoring EBV levels in blood has emerged as the preferred strategy for PTLD prevention. Treatment of established disease includes reduction of immunosuppression and/or administration of rituximab (a B cell-specific antibody against CD20), chemotherapy and EBV-specific cytotoxic T cells. Despite these strategies, the mortality and morbidity remains considerable. Patient outcome is influenced by the severity of presentation, treatment-related complications and risk of allograft loss. New innovative treatment options hold promise for changing the outlook in the future. PMID:27189056

  2. Prevention of EBV lymphoma development by oncolytic myxoma virus in a murine xenograft model of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Manbok; Rahman, Masmudur M.; Cogle, Christopher R.

    2015-07-10

    Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) has been associated with a variety of epithelial and hematologic malignancies, including B-, T- and NK cell-lymphomas, Hodgkin's disease (HD), post-transplant lymphoproliferative diseases (LPDs), nasopharyngeal and gastric carcinomas, smooth muscle tumors, and HIV-associated lymphomas. Currently, treatment options for EBV-associated malignancies are limited. We have previously shown that myxoma virus specifically targets various human solid tumors and leukemia cells in a variety of animal models, while sparing normal human or murine tissues. Since transplant recipients of bone marrow or solid organs often develop EBV-associated post-transplant LPDs and lymphoma, myxoma virus may be of utility to prevent EBV-associated malignancies in immunocompromised transplant patients where treatment options are frequently limited. In this report, we demonstrate the safety and efficacy of myxoma virus purging as a prophylactic strategy for preventing post-transplant EBV-transformed human lymphomas, using a highly immunosuppressed mouse xenotransplantation model. This provides support for developing myxoma virus as a potential oncolytic therapy for preventing EBV-associated LPDs following transplantation of bone marrow or solid organ allografts. - Highlights: • Myxoma virus effectively infects and purges EBV lymphoma cells in vivo. • Oncolytic myxoma virus effectively eradicates oncogenic EBV tumorigenesis. • Ex vivo pre-treatment of myxoma virus can be effective as a preventive treatment modality for post-transplant lymphoproliferative diseases.

  3. Sirolimus for pediatric liver transplant recipients with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease and hepatoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Rivera, Carolina; Avitzur, Yaron; Fecteau, Annie H; Jones, Nicola; Grant, David; Ng, Vicky Lee

    2004-06-01

    Sirolimus is a promising immune suppressive agent, with the potential to reduce calcineurin inhibitor associated nephrotoxicity, halt progression of chronic rejection and prevent tumor proliferation. The aim of this study was to review the experience using sirolimus in pediatric liver transplant recipients at a single center. Database and medical charts of all pediatric liver transplant recipients receiving sirolimus at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto were reviewed. Eight patients received sirolimus between October, 2000 and September, 2002. Indications for using sirolimus were post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) (n = 6) and hepatoblastoma (n = 2). Two patients with PTLD concurrently had renal impairment and chronic rejection. Sirolimus dosages ranged between 1.5 and 5 mg once daily. Median duration of follow-up was 17 months. Persistently elevated liver transaminase levels in the two children with chronic rejection decreased during sirolimus therapy. Recurrence of PTLD occurred in one patient. Two patients were diagnosed with acute cellular rejection after transition to maintenance sirolimus monotherapy. Resolution of adverse effects including mouth sores (n = 3), leg swelling (n = 2) and hyperlipidemia (n = 3) occurred either spontaneously or with dose reduction. Sirolimus was discontinued in four patients because of persisting bone marrow suppression, interstitial pneumonitis, life-threatening sepsis and refractory diarrhea. Children with PTLD or hepatoblastoma may benefit from immune suppression with sirolimus after liver transplantation. Further multi-center, prospective, randomized controlled trials will be instrumental to further the knowledge of long-term efficacy, safety and tolerability of sirolimus for selected children following liver transplantation. PMID:15176961

  4. [Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease in liver transplant recipients--Merkur University Hospital single center experience].

    PubMed

    Filipec-Kanizaj, Tajana; Budimir, Jelena; Colić-Cvrlje, Vesna; Kardum-Skelin, Ika; Sustercić, Dunja; Naumovski-Mihalić, Slavica; Mrzljak, Anna; Kolonić, Slobodanka Ostojić; Sobocan, Nikola; Bradić, Tihomir; Dolić, Zrinka Misetić; Kocman, Branislav; Katicić, Miroslava; Zidovec-Lepej, Snjezana; Vince, Adriana

    2011-09-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is an increasingly recognized condition as the number of solid organ and bone marrow transplant recipients increases. It can be a life threatening fulminant disorder and affects approximately 8% of solid organ transplant recipients. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is closely involved in the pathogenesis of PTLD and the majority of PTLD cases arise in response to primary infection with EBV or to re-activation of previously acquired EBV. The principal risk factors underlying the development of PTLD are the degree of overall immunosuppression and EBV serostatus of the recipient. The most commonly used pathologic classification of PTLD is the World Health Organization classification, which divides PTLD into three categories: early lesions, polymorphic PTLD, and monomorphic PTLD. Early lesions are characterized by reactive plasmacytic hyperplasia. Polymorphic PTLD may be either polyclonal or monoclonal and is characterized by destruction of the underlying lymphoid architecture, necrosis, and nuclear atypia. In monomorphic PTLD, the majority of cases (>80%) arise from B cells, similar to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in immunocompetent hosts. The most common subtype is diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, but Burkitt's/Burkitt's-like lymphoma and plasma cell myeloma are also seen. Rarely T-cell variants occur, which include peripheral T-cell lymphomas and, rarely, other uncommon types, including gamma/delta T-cell lymphoma and T-natural killer (NK) cell varieties. Hodgkin's disease-like lymphoma is very unusual. An accurate diagnosis of PTLD requires a high index of suspicion, since the disorder may present subtly and/or extranodally. Radiologic evidence of a mass or the presence of elevated serum markers (such as increased LDH levels) are suggestive of PTLD, with positive finding on ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance and/or positron emission tomography scanning (possibly indicating metabolically active areas) also

  5. Umbilical cord blood transplantation in adults with advanced hodgkin's disease: high incidence of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease.

    PubMed

    Piñana, José Luis; Sanz, Jaime; Esquirol, Albert; Martino, Rodrigo; Picardi, Alessandra; Barba, Pere; Parody, Rocio; Gayoso, Jorge; Montesinos, Pau; Guidi, Stefano; Terol, Maria José; Moscardó, Federico; Solano, Carlos; Arcese, William; Sanz, Miguel A; Sierra, Jorge; Sanz, Guillermo

    2016-02-01

    We report the outcome of 30 consecutive patients with Hodgkin disease (HD) who underwent single-unit UCBT. Most (90%) patients had failed previous autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The conditioning regimens were based on combinations of thiotepa, busulfan, cyclophosphamide or fludarabine, and antithymocyte globulin. The cumulative incidence (CI) of myeloid engraftment was 90% [95% confidence interval (C.I.), 74-98%] with a median of 18 d (range, 10-48). CI of acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) grades II-IV was 30% (95% C.I., 17-44%), while the incidence of chronic GVHD was 42% (95% C.I., 23-77%). The non-relapse mortality (NRM) at 100 d and 4 yr was 30% (95% C.I., 13-46%) and 47% (95% C.I., 29-65%), respectively. EBV-related post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (EBV-PTLD) accounted for more than one-third of transplant-related death, with an estimate incidence of 26% (95% C.I., 9-44). The incidence of relapse at 4 yr was 25% (95% C.I., 9-42%). Four-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 28% and 30%, respectively. Despite a high NRM and an unexpected high incidence of EBV-PTLD, UCBT in heavily pretreated HD patients is an option for patients lacking a suitable adult donor, provided the disease is not in refractory relapse. PMID:25845981

  6. Treatment Response and Outcomes in Post-transplantation Lymphoproliferative Disease vs Lymphoma in Immunocompetent Patients.

    PubMed

    Trusson, R; Serre, J E; Szwarc, I; Brunot, V; Garrigue, V; Delmas, S; Kanouni, T; Cartron, G; Mourad, G

    2016-01-01

    Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) after solid organ transplantation may carry a poorer prognosis than lymphoma in immunocompetent individuals, but comparative data are lacking. In a retrospective, single-center, case-control study, 21 cases of PTLD were identified in patients undergoing kidney transplantation since 2000, and compared to 42 nontransplanted controls cared for in the same institution and matched for age, prognostic index, and cerebral localization. Two-year and 5-year overall survival was 57% and 44%, respectively, in PTLD patients and 71% and 58% in controls (log-rank test P = .20). On multivariable analysis, overall survival was similar for PTLD and control patients (hazard ratio 1.71, 95% confidence interval 0.81 to 3.61, P = .16). Response rate to first-line chemotherapy was similar between the 2 groups. Death was due to progression of the disease in 46% vs 94% of PTLD and control patients, respectively (P < .01), or sepsis in 31% vs 0% (P = .03). Treatment-related mortality was significantly higher in PTLD (19%) than in controls (0%, P = .03). In conclusion, response to first-line chemotherapy and overall survival are similar in PTLD and control patients, whereas causes of death were significantly different. Better prevention and management of infectious complications could improve the results in PTLD patients. PMID:27569924

  7. Early gene expression changes by Epstein-Barr virus infection of B-cells indicate CDKs and survivin as therapeutic targets for post-transplant lymphoproliferative diseases.

    PubMed

    Bernasconi, Michele; Ueda, Seigo; Krukowski, Patricia; Bornhauser, Beat C; Ladell, Kristin; Dorner, Marcus; Sigrist, Juerg A; Campidelli, Cristina; Aslandogmus, Roberta; Alessi, Davide; Berger, Christoph; Pileri, Stefano A; Speck, Roberto F; Nadal, David

    2013-11-15

    Lymphoproliferative diseases (LPDs) associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection cause significant morbidity and mortality in bone marrow and solid organ transplant recipients. To gain insight into LPD pathogenesis and to identify potential effective therapeutic approaches, we investigated early molecular events leading to B-cell transformation by gene expression profiling of EBV-infected B-cells from tonsils by Affymetrix microarray 72 hr postinfection when the B-cells hyperproliferation phase starts. Cell cycle and apoptosis were the most significantly affected pathways and enriched gene sets. In particular, we found significantly increased expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)1 and CCNB1 (cyclin B1) and of one of their downstream targets BIRC5 (survivin). Importantly, the strong upregulation of the antiapoptotic protein survivin was confirmed in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) and 71% of EBV-positive post-transplant EBV-LPD lesions scored positive for survivin. The validity of early transforming events for the identification of therapeutic targets for EBV-LPD was confirmed by the marked antiproliferative effect of the CDK inhibitor flavopiridol on LCLs and by the strong induction of apoptosis by survivin inhibition with YM155 or terameprocol. Our results suggest that targeting of CDKs and/or survivin in post-transplant EBV-LPD by specific inhibitors might be an important approach to control and eliminate EBV-transformed B-cells that should be further considered. PMID:23640782

  8. Successful treatment of Epstein-Barr virus-related post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease with central nervous system involvement following allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation - a case study.

    PubMed

    Wróblewska, Małgorzata; Gil, Lidia A; Komarnicki, Mieczysław A

    2015-01-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is a rare but severe form of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven complication that develops in patients after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In rare cases it manifests as primary central nervous system (CNS) involvement, which is thought to be the most unfavourable localisation with respect to outcome. Disease confined to the CNS is much more challenging than systemic PTLD, and one of the contributing factors is the limited drug penetration across the blood-brain barrier. We describe the case of a 29-year-old woman who was successfully treated for PTLD with CNS involvement. The patient was diagnosed with T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma and underwent the procedure of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation from an unrelated donor. Two months after transplantation she manifested severe headache and progressive mental deterioration accompanied by enlargement of the lymph nodes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan revealed segmental, asymmetrical thickening of the meninges. Based on the clinical picture and the laboratory findings diagnosis of PTLD was made. The patient was effectively treated with reduction of immunosuppressive therapy and intravenous rituximab. Initially started intrathecal chemotherapy was stopped due to iatrogenic complications. We conclude that in this case the involvement of meninges in the course of the lymphoproliferative process might have compromised the blood-brain barrier. This factor probably improved rituximab's penetration to CNS, contributing to our patient's recovery. PMID:26155195

  9. Post-transplant T-cell type lymphoproliferative disorder.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Zubair; Ahsan, Aamir; Sheikh, Usman; Minhas, Khurram

    2007-12-01

    Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder (PTLD) is a lymphoma, which develops as a result of immunosuppression in a recipient of a solid organ or bone marrow allograft. Majority are associated with Ebstein-Barr Virus (EBV) infection, are mostly B-cell type and less often T-cell type. We report a case of T-cell PTLD, occurring in a renal transplant recipient. PMID:18182148

  10. [Primary central nervous system post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders].

    PubMed

    Honda, Masaya; Koga, Michiaki; Kanda, Takashi

    2014-08-01

    The post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are a heterogeneous disease entity of lymphoid and plasmacytic proliferations that can occur after solid organ and bone marrow/stem cell transplantation. PTLD sometimes involves the central nervous system (CNS), but primary occurrence in central nervous system (PCNS-PTLD) is rare. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) plays a causative role, and up to 90% of the tumors are associated with this virus. Diagnosing PCNS-PTLD is often challenging based solely on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and physical findings; therefore, direct biopsy of the lesion is usually necessary to make a definitive diagnosis. The optimal therapy for PCNS-PTLD remains unknown. Dose reduction or discontinuation of immunosuppressive agents is effective for approximately half of PTLD patients, but not for most patients with PCNS-PTLD. It has been noted that CNS involvement is a poor prognostic factor, but early diagnosis and initiation of chemotherapy or radiotherapy seem critical for maximizing the likelihood of a favorable outcome. PMID:25082316

  11. Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder in Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Single-Center Experience in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Hiroki; Shimizu, Tomokazu; Unagami, Kohei; Hirai, Toshihito; Toki, Daisuke; Omoto, Kazuya; Okumi, Masayoshi; Imai, Yoichi; Ishida, Hideki; Tanabe, Kazunari

    2016-04-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder is a serious complication of solid organ transplantation; however, few large studies have been performed in Asian institutions. We review our single-center experience with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder patients in Japan. We retrospectively evaluated patients with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder following kidney transplantation between January 1985 and December 2013. The patients were divided into early-onset post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (<1 year) and late-onset post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (≥1 year) groups. Thirteen patients had the disorder, an incidence rate of 0.75% (13/1730). Early-onset post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (N = 3) had not occurred for the last two decades. In the late-onset group (N = 10), the median time of onset was 108.7 months. The Kaplan-Meier 10-year overall survival rates were 76.9% and 95.4% in patients with and without the disorder, respectively (P = 0.0001). Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder significantly affected transplant recipients' mortality. Late-onset occurred even > 10 years after transplantation; therefore, long-term monitoring of patients is needed. PMID:26948427

  12. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder of the cervical spine mimicking an epidural abscess.

    PubMed

    Wewel, Joshua T; Harbhajanka, Aparna; Kasliwal, Manish K; Ahuja, Sumeet K; Loew, Jerome M; Fontes, Ricardo B

    2016-07-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is a recognized complication following solid organ and stem cell transplants with subsequent immunosuppression and is the most common malignancy complicating solid organ transplantation. Improved survival and use of aggressive immunosuppression following solid organ transplants have led to increased diagnosis of PTLD. Nevertheless, spinal involvement in PTLD is extremely rare. To our knowledge, this is the first report of PTLD causing epidural spinal cord compression of the cervical spine, mimicking the imaging and pathology of an epidural abscess. The patient underwent posterior and subsequent anterior decompression and stabilization. Rarity of occurrence of PTLD in the spine with absence of diagnostic imaging features may preclude differentiating it from the more commonly occurring lesions such as epidural abscess which occurs in a similar clinical setting. As the management strategy and overall prognosis are dramatically different, the importance of considering PTLD in the differential diagnosis for epidural spinal cord compression in a transplant recipient patient cannot be overemphasized. PMID:26916907

  13. Yttrium Y 90 Ibritumomab Tiuxetan and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-24

    Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  14. CD30+ Primary Cutaneous Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder with Signet-ring Cell Features

    PubMed Central

    Malviya, Neeta; Wickless, Heather

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of primary cutaneous CD30+ post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder with an uncommon finding of signet ring cell features in a heart transplant patient. The neoplastic cells were CD4 and CD30 positive, and negative for S-100, pancytokeratin, myeloperoxidase, and CD56. In situ hybridization for Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) was negative, even though the patient did have EBV viremia.

  15. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder after kidney transplantation: time to adopt monitoring of Epstein-Barr virus?

    PubMed

    Biller, P; Michaux, L; Pauw, L De; Camboni, A; Mourad, M; Kanaan, N

    2015-06-01

    Although post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder is a classical complication encountered after kidney transplantation, its diagnosis can still be challenging and its outcome life-threatening. Most cases are related to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and occur mainly in the first year post-transplant, favoured by the seronegative EBV status of the recipient transplanted with a kidney from a seropositive donor, and strong immunosuppression. We report the case of a young kidney-pancreas transplant recipient who developed post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) early after transplantation, with a rapid fatal issue. We review the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and management of PTLD with a focus on prevention. PMID:25541210

  16. EBV-induced post transplant lymphoproliferative disorders: a persisting challenge in allogeneic hematopoetic SCT.

    PubMed

    Rasche, L; Kapp, M; Einsele, H; Mielke, S

    2014-02-01

    EBV-induced post transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (EBV-PTLD) is a life-threatening complication after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Profound T-cell depletion of the allograft represents a major risk factor for EBV-PTLD. With regard to the increasing use of alternative stem cell sources such as cord blood or purified haploidentical stem cell grafts both associated with impaired immune reconstitution, the frequent occurrence of EBV-PTLD demands particular vigilance on laboratory changes and early symptoms. Here we have summarized today's knowledge about EBV-PTLD in a comprehensive review explaining the underlying mechanisms of EBV-based transformation, EBV-PTLD development, clinical presentation, incidence, diagnosis, screening, therapy and prognosis. In this context, we emphasize on the necessity of regularly applied screening tools and pre-emptive treatment strategies including anti-CD20 Abs particularly in high-risk patients to avoid disease progression to malignant lymphoma. Although EBV-PTLD has always been associated with a high mortality rate, novel immunotherapeutic approaches such as the transfer of EBV-specific T cells nowadays offer improved chances of disease control even at late stages. PMID:23832092

  17. Outcome of Rapamycin Therapy for Post-Transplant-Lymphoproliferative Disorder after Kidney Transplantation: Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafi, Farzaneh; Shahidi, Shahrzad; Mortazavi, Mojgan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are a complication of chronic immunosuppressive therapy in solid organ transplantation with a high mortality rate. Alternative treatments such as rapamycin have been explored. Methods: A detailed retrospective analysis was performed according to data collected from 13 patients with PTLD. At the time of PTLD diagnosis, immunosuppressive therapy was decreased and rapamycin administered. Overall survival, disease-free survival of patients and graft survival were determined. Results: Among 590 kidney transplant recipients, 13 adult patients with PTLD were included in this study. The mean age of the patients was 42.15 (range: 25–58) years at the time of PTLD diagnosis, and 9 patients were male. Histology was distributed in 9 diffuse large B cell, 1 Malt lymphoma, 1 Burkitt lymphoma, 2 Hodgkin-like PTLD. The response rate to rapamycin alone was 30.8%. The mean overall survival period was 23.38 months and 11 patients are still alive. In total, 10 patients (76.9%) achieved a complete remission with functioning graft in 11 (84.6%) patients. Conclusion: Despite the retrospective focus and limited number of patients, this study provides promising results regarding the effectiveness of stopping calcineurin inhibitors and switching to rapamycin for patients with PTLD. PMID:25802698

  18. Current preventive strategies and management of Epstein-Barr virus-related post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease in solid organ transplantation in Europe. Results of the ESGICH Questionnaire-based Cross-sectional Survey.

    PubMed

    San-Juan, R; Manuel, O; Hirsch, H H; Fernández-Ruiz, M; López-Medrano, F; Comoli, P; Caillard, S; Grossi, P; Aguado, J M

    2015-06-01

    There is limited clinical evidence on the utility of the monitoring of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNAemia in the pre-emptive management of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. We investigated current preventive measures against EBV-related PTLD through a web-based questionnaire sent to 669 SOT programmes in 35 European countries. This study was performed on behalf of the ESGICH study group from the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. A total of 71 SOT programmes from 15 European countries participated in the study. EBV serostatus of the recipient is routinely obtained in 69/71 centres (97%) and 64 (90%) have access to EBV DNAemia assays. EBV monitoring is routinely used in 85.9% of the programmes and 77.4% reported performing pre-emptive treatment for patients with significant EBV DNAemia levels. Pre-emptive treatment for EBV DNAemia included reduction of immunosuppression in 50.9%, switch to mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors in 30.9%, and use of rituximab in 14.5% of programmes. Imaging by whole-body 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is used in 60.9% of centres to rule out PTLD and complemented computer tomography is used in 50%. In 10.9% of centres, FDG-PET is included in the first-line diagnostic workup in patients with high-risk EBV DNAemia. Despite the lack of definitive evidence, EBV load measurements are frequently used in Europe to guide diagnostic workup and pre-emptive reduction of immunosuppression. We need prospective and controlled studies to define the impact of EBV monitoring in reducing the risk of PTLD in SOT recipients. PMID:25686696

  19. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder following kidney transplantation: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Maksten, Eva Futtrup; Vase, Maja Ølholm; Kampmann, Jan; d'Amore, Francesco; Møller, Michael Boe; Strandhave, Charlotte; Bendix, Knud; Bistrup, Claus; Thiesson, Helle Charlotte; Søndergaard, Esben; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen; Jespersen, Bente

    2016-04-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) incidence is difficult to determine, mainly because both early and other lesions may go unrecognized and unregistered. Few studies have included systematic pathology review to maximize case identification and decide more accurately PTLD frequency after long-term post-transplantation follow-up. A retrospective population-based cohort study including all kidney transplant recipients at two Danish centres (1990-2011; population covered 3.1 million; 2175 transplantations in 1906 patients). Pathology reports were reviewed for all patient biopsies to identify possible PTLDs. Candidate PTLDs underwent histopathological review and classification. Seventy PTLD cases were identified in 2175 transplantations (3.2%). The incidence rate (IR) after first transplantation was 5.4 cases per 1000 patient-years (95% CI: 4.0-7.3). Most PTLDs were monomorphic (58.5%), or early lesions (21.5%). Excluding early lesions and patients <18 years, IR was 3.7 (95% CI: 2.9-5.5). Ten patients with PTLD were retransplanted, 2 developing further PTLDs. Post-transplant patient survival was inferior in patients with PTLD, while death-censored graft survival was not. Using registry data together with extensive pathological review and long follow-up, a rather high incidence of PTLD was found. PMID:26749337

  20. Unusual gingival presentation of post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Raut, A; Huryn, J; Pollack, A; Zlotolow, I

    2000-10-01

    Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder is a well-documented complication of solid organ or bone marrow transplantation. Histologically, it is characterized by an abnormal proliferation of lymphocytes, which can range from benign B-cell hyperplasia to malignant lymphoma. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is associated with several risk factors, such as congenital or acquired immunodeficiency states, autoimmune disorders, and infectious agents (eg, Epstein-Barr virus). Primary sites of presentation in the head and neck are Waldeyer's ring, paranasal sinuses, salivary glands, the oral cavity, and the larynx. Clinical appearance of gingival NHL varies but is usually found to be an asymptomatic gingival enlargement or mass resembling a pyogenic granuloma. We present a patient with a gingival ulceration that was subsequently diagnosed as Epstein-Barr virus malignant lymphoma resulting from the immunosuppression needed to prevent graft-versus-host disease after bone marrow transplantation. PMID:11027379

  1. [Monomorphic post-transplant T-lymphoproliferative disorder after autologous stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Takei, Toshifumi; Koya, Hiroko; Iriuchishima, Hirono; Hosiho, Takumi; Hirato, Junko; Kojima, Masaru; Handa, Hiroshi; Nojima, Yoshihisa; Murakami, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    We report a rare case of T cell type monomorphic post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) after autologous stem cell transplantation. A 53-year-old man with multiple myeloma received autologous stem cell transplantation and achieved a very good partial response. Nine months later, he developed a high fever and consciousness disturbance, and had multiple swollen lymph nodes and a high titer of Epstein-Barr (EB) virus DNA in his peripheral blood. Neither CT nor MRI of the brain revealed any abnormalities. Cerebrospinal fluid contained no malignant cells, but the EB virus DNA titer was high. Lymph node biopsy revealed T cell type monomorphic PTLD. Soon after high-dose treatment with methotrexate and cytosine arabinoside, the high fever and consciousness disturbance subsided, and the lymph node swelling and EB virus DNA disappeared. Given the efficacy of chemotherapy in this case, we concluded that the consciousness disturbance had been induced by central nervous system involvement of monomorphic PTLD. PMID:26861102

  2. Hodgkin lymphoma post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder: A comparative analysis of clinical characteristics, prognosis, and survival.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Aaron S; Klein, Andreas K; Ruthazer, Robin; Evens, Andrew M

    2016-06-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (HL-PTLD) is an uncommon PTLD with unclear prognosis and differences between HL-PTLD and immunocompetent HL are not well defined. Patient characteristics were compared among 192 patients with HL-PTLD from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients and 13,847 HL patients in SEER (HL-SEER). Overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) were compared after exact matching. Additionally, multivariable analyses were used to identify prognostic markers of survival and associations between treatment and survival. Median time from transplant to HL-PTLD diagnosis was 88 months. When compared with HL-SEER, patients with HL-PTLD were older (median age, 52 vs. 36 years, P = 0.001), more likely male (73% vs. 54%, P < 0.001), Caucasian (81% vs. 70%, P = 0.02), and had extranodal disease (42% vs. 3%, P < 0.001). Five-year OS for patients with HL-PTLD was 57% versus 80% for HL-SEER (P < 0.001); DSS was also inferior (P < 0.001). For patients with HL-PTLD, the use of any chemotherapy was associated with decreased hazard of death (HR = 0.36, P < 0.001). Furthermore, patients who received no chemotherapy or nontraditional HL regimens had increased hazard of death (aHR = 2.94, P = 0.001 and 2.01, P = 0.04) versus HL-specific chemotherapy regimens. In multivariable analysis, advanced age and elevated creatinine were associated with inferior OS (aHR = 1.26/decade P < 0.001 and 1.64/0.1 mg/dL increase P = 0.02). A prognostic score based on the number of these adverse factors (0, 1, 2) was associated with 10-year OS rates of 79%, 53%, and 11%, respectively (P < 0.001). Altogether, HL-PTLD patients have inferior survival when compared with HL-SEER. Furthermore, treatment with HL-specific chemotherapy was associated with improved OS, whereas age and creatinine identified patients with markedly divergent survival. Am. J. Hematol. 91:560-565, 2016. © 2016

  3. Effect of Irradiation on Incidence of Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder after Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Miniature Swine.

    PubMed

    Matar, Abraham J; Patil, Aarti R; Al-Musa, Ahmad; Hanekamp, Isabel; Sachs, David H; Huang, Christene A; Duran-Struuck, Raimon

    2015-10-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is a major complication of clinical organ and cell transplantation. Conditioning and immunosuppressive regimens that significantly impair T cell immunity, including depleting antibodies and calcineurin inhibitors, increase the risk of PTLD after transplantation. Swine PTLD has been shown to closely resemble human PTLD in morphology, histology, and viral-driven reactivation of B cells. Previously, we reported high incidences of PTLD after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in miniature swine recipients conditioned with thymic irradiation (TI) in addition to T cell depletion and cyclosporine A monotherapy after transplantation. Replacement of TI with 100 cGy of total body irradiation resulted in similar numbers of B cells early post-transplantation, greater numbers of T cells at day 0, and markedly decreased incidence of PTLD, suggesting that a threshold number of T cells may be necessary to prevent subsequent B cell proliferation and development of overt PTLD. Results from this large cohort of animals provide insight into the important effect of irradiation and T cell immunity on the incidence of PTLD after HCT and reinforce the pig model as a valuable tool for the study of PTLD and HCT. PMID:26210443

  4. Role of diffusion weighted imaging in diagnosis of post transplant lymphoproliferative disorders: Case reports and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Singh, A.; Das, C. J.; Gupta, A. K.; Bagchi, S.

    2016-01-01

    Post transplant lymphoproliferative disorder include a spectrum of conditions occurring in immunosuppressed post transplant recipients, lymphoma being the most ominous. 18F-fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with computed tomography CT) is the current imaging gold standard for lymphoma imaging as it allows both morphological and functional assessment. CT and/or conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are used for morphological evaluation in transplant recipients. Integrating diffusion weighted imaging with apparent diffusion coefficient analysis in MRI protocol enhances its sensitivity and may prove invaluable in response assessment in transplant recipients. PMID:27194838

  5. Treatment options for post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder and other Epstein-Barr virus-associated malignancies.

    PubMed

    Davis, J E; Moss, D J

    2004-04-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with a range of malignancies that largely arise from a defect in EBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) immunity and function. Much work has focused on the reconstitution of CTL immunity to EBV in transplant patients, in whom immunosuppression modalities render them susceptible to post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD). Adoptive transfer of autologous CTLs is effective at both preventing and curing PTLD in solid organ transplant recipients and can produce a long-term memory response and protection against recurring disease. In this review, the benefits and restrictions of administering EBV-specific CTLs for the treatment of PTLD are discussed and compared with emerging therapies including the generation of allogeneic human leukocyte antigen-matched CTL banks and the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody therapy, MabThera. Furthermore, studies involving other EBV-associated disorders have described the potential benefit of adoptive transfer of EBV-specific CTLs for Hodgkin's disease, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, chronic active EBV infection, and Burkitt's lymphoma. The challenges of tailor-making therapies for individual diseases and EBV antigen expression latencies are highlighted, in addition to considering vaccination strategies for optimal treatment. PMID:15009802

  6. Hodgkin lymphoma post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder following pediatric renal transplant: serial imaging with F-18 FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Makis, William; Lisbona, Robert; Derbekyan, Vilma

    2010-09-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) occurs in 1.2% of pediatric renal transplant patients, and is frequently Epstein-Barr Virus mediated. Hodgkin Lymphoma PTLD is the rarest of the 4 types of PTLDs recognized by the World Health Organization, with an incidence of <4% of all PTLD patients. It has a distinct clinical course and treatment from all other types of PTLD. This is a case of a 16-year-old girl who had a renal transplant in 2000 due to Moya Moya disease. Her first F-18 FDG PET/CT done in 2006 showed mildly FDG-avid mediastinal adenopathy (histologically nonspecific reactive nodes), however in 2009, after presenting with fevers, a repeat PET/CT showed extensive intensely FDG-avid disease. Biopsy of a supraclavicular node identified Hodgkin Lymphoma PTLD. The patient was treated with chemotherapy and reimaged, showing excellent response to therapy. In contrast, classic PTLD is treated by withdrawal of immunosuppression and administration of Rituximab. F-18 FDG PET/CT is known to be very useful in the staging and monitoring of response to therapy in the setting of classic PTLD. In this case, serial F-18 FDG PET/CT scans proved very useful in the evaluation and follow-up of the rare and distinct Hodgkin Lymphoma PTLD subtype. PMID:20706047

  7. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in diagnosis of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder.

    PubMed

    Panagiotidis, Emmanouil; Quigley, Ann-Marie; Pencharz, Deborah; Ardeshna, Kirit; Syed, Rizwan; Sajjan, Rakesh; Bomanji, Jamshed

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) in the diagnosis of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), a serious complication of solid organ and bone marrow transplant. Between January 2004 and January 2012, 40 patients (22 males; median age 52 ± 17.4 years, range 11-77 years) underwent (18)F-FDG PET/CT scans in our department for diagnostic evaluation of PTLD. Twenty-three (57.5%) patients had negative (18)F-FDG PET/CT and 17 (42.5%) had a positive examination. In five patients PET/CT revealed extranodal disease (adrenal, pleural, spleen, liver, lung, esophagus and bone involvement). On the basis of our results, (18)F-FDG PET/CT had a sensitivity of 88.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.62-0.98), a specificity of 91.3% (CI 0.70-0.98), a positive predictive value of 88.2% (CI 0.62-0.98) and a negative predictive value of 91.3% (CI 0.70-0.98). The diagnostic performance of CT in patient-based analysis was: a sensitivity of 87.5% (CI 0.60-0.97), a specificity of 88.8% (CI 0.64-0.98), a positive predictive value of 87.5% (CI 0.60-0.97) and a negative predictive value of 88.8% (CI 0.64-0.98). PET/CT in five cases revealed more findings than CT, upstaging the disease, and revealed three extranodal findings, not visualized in conventional imaging. (18)F-FDG PET/CT plays a significant role in the setting of PTLD diagnosis, demonstrating its high accuracy in detecting PTLD. PMID:23772644

  8. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound findings of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder in a transplanted kidney: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Lampe, Alyssa; Duddalwar, Vinay A; Djaladat, Hooman; Aron, Manju; Gulati, Mittul

    2015-01-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder occurs in approximately one percent of kidney transplant recipients. We evaluated a seventy-seven year-old man with a solid mass in his transplant kidney. On contrast enhanced ultrasound, the mass enhanced but remained persistently hypovascular throughout exam. The enhancement pattern of the mass differed from that typical of clear cell renal cell carcinoma, the main differential diagnosis. Final pathology after partial nephrectomy confirmed post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. This is the first report of contrast enhanced ultrasound findings in a renal mass diagnosed as post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Contrast enhanced ultrasound has a promising role in imaging of renal masses, particularly relevant in transplant patients due to the lack of nephrotoxicity. PMID:26629291

  9. Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder of recipient origin in a boy with acute T-cell leukemia with detection of B-cell clonality 3 months before stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kontny, Udo; Boppana, Sridhar; Jung, Andreas; Goebel, Heike; Strahm, Brigitte; Peters, Anke; Dormann, Sabine; Werner, Martin; Bader, Peter; Fisch, Paul; Niemeyer, Charlotte

    2005-11-01

    Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder is an infrequent complication after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. It is hypothesized that lack of T-cell surveillance following transplantation permits reactivation of latent EBV leading to polyclonal B-cell expansion and finally outgrowth of a predominant clone. Most cases are of donor origin. Here, we describe an 8-year old boy with early onset post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder following matched-unrelated stem cell transplantation for high-risk T-cell leukemia whose disease was unusual for two reasons. First, his B-cell clone was of host origin and, in contrast to the few PTLD of host origin described so far, not associated with autologous reconstitution. Secondly, using clonal analysis, we could retrospectively show that the B-cell clone emerged during consolidation chemotherapy for T-cell leukemia, 3 months before stem cell transplantation. PMID:16266918

  10. Croup as Unusual Presentation of Post-transplantation Lymphoproliferative Disorder after Liver Transplantation in an 18-month-old Child

    PubMed Central

    Keshtkari, A.; Dehghani, S. M.; Haghighat, M.; Imanieh, M. H.; Nasimfard, A.; Yousefi, G.; Javaherizadeh, H.

    2016-01-01

    Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a serious complication of solid organ transplantation that occurs due to immunosuppression and other risk factors. PTLD may present with involvement of other organs and with unusual presentation. The presentation is often extranodal (e.g., in the gastrointestinal tract, lung, or the central nervous system). Herein, we report on a 1.5-year-old girl who underwent liver transplantation almost 5 months prior to admission. She was on medications such as tacrolimus and prednisolone. Her presentation was started with symptoms of the upper respiratory infection followed by croupy cough and respiratory distress with no response to usual treatments. She had respiratory arrest during broncoscopy. Therefore, emergency tracheostomy was done. Biopsy from the paratracheal mass revealed large B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (PTLD, monomorphic and high grade). This case presentation shows that persistent upper airway symptoms, particularly stridor and croupy cough, in children who underwent liver transplant should be further evaluated; the physician needs to have a high degree of clinical suspicion for the diagnosis of PTLD in this situation. PMID:26889375

  11. Croup as Unusual Presentation of Post-transplantation Lymphoproliferative Disorder after Liver Transplantation in an 18-month-old Child.

    PubMed

    Keshtkari, A; Dehghani, S M; Haghighat, M; Imanieh, M H; Nasimfard, A; Yousefi, G; Javaherizadeh, H

    2016-01-01

    Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a serious complication of solid organ transplantation that occurs due to immunosuppression and other risk factors. PTLD may present with involvement of other organs and with unusual presentation. The presentation is often extranodal (e.g., in the gastrointestinal tract, lung, or the central nervous system). Herein, we report on a 1.5-year-old girl who underwent liver transplantation almost 5 months prior to admission. She was on medications such as tacrolimus and prednisolone. Her presentation was started with symptoms of the upper respiratory infection followed by croupy cough and respiratory distress with no response to usual treatments. She had respiratory arrest during broncoscopy. Therefore, emergency tracheostomy was done. Biopsy from the paratracheal mass revealed large B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (PTLD, monomorphic and high grade). This case presentation shows that persistent upper airway symptoms, particularly stridor and croupy cough, in children who underwent liver transplant should be further evaluated; the physician needs to have a high degree of clinical suspicion for the diagnosis of PTLD in this situation. PMID:26889375

  12. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders and Epstein-Barr virus DNAemia in a cohort of lung transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are serious complications in lung transplant recipients. No consensus on EBV DNAemia levels predictive of PTLD has been reached. In addition, in many instances EBV DNAemia is determined in patients with suggestive symptoms only. Methods The characteristics of five patients with PTLD as well as the prevalence of EBV DNAmia in a cohort of 137 consecutive patients receiving lung transplantation are described. Results Twenty-six out of 137 patients (18.9%) were excluded from the analysis because lost at follow-up or dead from PTLD-independent reasons within three months of transplantation. EBV DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was determined in 83/111 patients (74.8%) because of potential PTLD-related symptoms, while 28 patients (25.2%) showed no symptoms and were not examined. EBV DNAemia was positive in 53/83 patients (63.8%), and negative in 30/83 patients (36.2%). PTLD was diagnosed in five (4.5%) patients at a median time of 270 (range 120-870) days following transplantation. All five PTLD (three large B-cell lymphomas, one Hodgkin lymphoma and one possible pre-neoplastic lesion) were potentially associated with EBV infection. However, only 3/5 patients with PTLD had detectable EBV DNAemia: < 1,000 copies EBV DNA/1 × 105 PBMC in one patient and > 1,000 copies EBV DNA/1 × 105 PBMC in two patients. Conclusion A systematic multidisciplinary (clinical, radiologic, virologic and histologic) approach is mandatory for the diagnosis and management of PTLD in lung transplant recipients, while monitoring of symptomatic patients only may provide an incomplete or late picture of the clinical problem. In addition, staining for EBV antigens and quantification of EBV DNA in biopsy specimens should always be performed to understand the role of EBV infection in the pathogenesis of PTLD. PMID:21892950

  13. A meta-analysis of potential relationship between Epstein-Barr-Encoded-RNA (EBER) and onset time of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders.

    PubMed

    Khedmat, Hossein; Karbasi-Afshar, Reza; Agah, Shahram; Ghamar-Chehreh, Mohammad Ebrahim; Amini, Mohsen

    2015-03-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encodes two non-polyadenylated RNAs termed EBV-encoded RNAs (EBERs). In this study, we tried to find series in which data of EBER and onset time of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) for patients have been documented to conduct a meta-analysis. A comprehensive search of the literature was performed by Pubmed and Google scholar to find reports indicating test results for EBER and PTLD onset in transplant patients. PTLD was considered "early onset" when it develops within the first post-transplant year. Finally, 265 patients from 15 studies have been included in the meta-analysis. The overall meta-analysis also showed a significant relation between EBER test positivity and early-onset PTLD development [relative risk (RR): 1.36; 95% CI: 1.16-1.59; P <0.001]. The i2 index was 49.8%. Our study suggests that PTLD lesions with positive EBER test are more likely to develop within the early post-transplant period. Since early-onset PTLD is supposed to have better prognosis, having a positive EBER test might not be a bad news. However, for having a precise conclusion, prospective studies are needed to be conducted. PMID:25758868

  14. Management of Epstein-Barr Virus infections and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders in patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Sixth European Conference on Infections in Leukemia (ECIL-6) guidelines.

    PubMed

    Styczynski, Jan; van der Velden, Walter; Fox, Christopher P; Engelhard, Dan; de la Camara, Rafael; Cordonnier, Catherine; Ljungman, Per

    2016-07-01

    Epstein-Barr virus-related post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders are recognized as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. To better define current understanding of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders in stem cell transplant patients, and to improve its diagnosis and management, a working group of the Sixth European Conference on Infections in Leukemia 2015 reviewed the literature, graded the available quality of evidence, and developed evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis, prevention, prophylaxis and therapy of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders exclusively in the stem cell transplant setting. The key elements in diagnosis include non-invasive and invasive methods. The former are based on quantitative viral load measurement and imaging with positron emission tomography; the latter with tissue biopsy for histopathology and detection of Epstein-Barr virus. The diagnosis of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder can be established on a proven or probable level. Therapeutic strategies include prophylaxis, preemptive therapy and targeted therapy. Rituximab, reduction of immunosuppression and Epstein-Barr virus-specific cytotoxic T-cell therapy are recommended as first-line therapy, whilst unselected donor lymphocyte infusions or chemotherapy are options as second-line therapy; other methods including antiviral drugs are discouraged. PMID:27365460

  15. Management of Epstein-Barr Virus infections and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders in patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Sixth European Conference on Infections in Leukemia (ECIL-6) guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Styczynski, Jan; van der Velden, Walter; Fox, Christopher P.; Engelhard, Dan; de la Camara, Rafael; Cordonnier, Catherine; Ljungman, Per

    2016-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus-related post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders are recognized as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. To better define current understanding of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders in stem cell transplant patients, and to improve its diagnosis and management, a working group of the Sixth European Conference on Infections in Leukemia 2015 reviewed the literature, graded the available quality of evidence, and developed evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis, prevention, prophylaxis and therapy of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders exclusively in the stem cell transplant setting. The key elements in diagnosis include non-invasive and invasive methods. The former are based on quantitative viral load measurement and imaging with positron emission tomography; the latter with tissue biopsy for histopathology and detection of Epstein-Barr virus. The diagnosis of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder can be established on a proven or probable level. Therapeutic strategies include prophylaxis, preemptive therapy and targeted therapy. Rituximab, reduction of immunosuppression and Epstein-Barr virus-specific cytotoxic T-cell therapy are recommended as first-line therapy, whilst unselected donor lymphocyte infusions or chemotherapy are options as second-line therapy; other methods including antiviral drugs are discouraged. PMID:27365460

  16. Primary CNS lymphoproliferative disease, mycophenolate and calcineurin inhibitor usage

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Genevieve M.; Powell, Helen; Kostadinov, Rumen; Rocafort, Patrick Tim; Rifkin, Dena E.; Burger, Peter C.; Ambinder, Richard F.; Swinnen, Lode J.; Borowitz, Michael J.; Duffield, Amy S.

    2015-01-01

    Immunosuppression for solid organ transplantation increases lymphoproliferative disease risk. While central nervous system (CNS) involvement is more rare, we noticed an increase in primary CNS (PCNS) disease. To investigate a potential association with the immunosuppressive regimen we identified all post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) cases diagnosed over a 28-year period at our institution (174 total, 29 PCNS) and all similar cases recorded in a United Network for Organ Sharing-Organ Procurement and Transplant Network (UNOS-OPTN) data file. While no PCNS cases were diagnosed at our institution between 1986 and 1997, they comprised 37% of PTLD cases diagnosed from 2011–2014. PCNS disease was more often associated with renal vs. other organ transplant, Epstein-Barr virus, large B-cell morphology and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) as compared to PTLD that did not involve the CNS. Calcineurin inhibitors were protective against PCNS disease when given alone or in combination with MMF. A multivariate analysis of a larger UNOS-OPTN dataset confirmed these findings, where both MMF and lack of calcineurin inhibitor usage were independently associated with risk for development of PCNS PTLD. These findings have significant implications for the transplant community, particularly given the introduction of new regimens lacking calcineurin inhibitors. Further investigation into these associations is warranted. PMID:26460822

  17. Primary CNS lymphoproliferative disease, mycophenolate and calcineurin inhibitor usage.

    PubMed

    Crane, Genevieve M; Powell, Helen; Kostadinov, Rumen; Rocafort, Patrick Tim; Rifkin, Dena E; Burger, Peter C; Ambinder, Richard F; Swinnen, Lode J; Borowitz, Michael J; Duffield, Amy S

    2015-10-20

    Immunosuppression for solid organ transplantation increases lymphoproliferative disease risk. While central nervous system (CNS) involvement is more rare, we noticed an increase in primary CNS (PCNS) disease. To investigate a potential association with the immunosuppressive regimen we identified all post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) cases diagnosed over a 28-year period at our institution (174 total, 29 PCNS) and all similar cases recorded in a United Network for Organ Sharing-Organ Procurement and Transplant Network (UNOS-OPTN) datafile. While no PCNS cases were diagnosed at our institution between 1986 and 1997, they comprised 37% of PTLD cases diagnosed from 2011-2014. PCNS disease was more often associated with renal vs. other organ transplant, Epstein-Barr virus, large B-cell morphology and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) as compared to PTLD that did not involve the CNS. Calcineurin inhibitors were protective against PCNS disease when given alone or in combination with MMF. A multivariate analysis of a larger UNOS-OPTN dataset confirmed these findings, where both MMF and lack of calcineurin inhibitor usage were independently associated with risk for development of PCNS PTLD. These findings have significant implications for the transplant community, particularly given the introduction of new regimens lacking calcineurin inhibitors. Further investigation into these associations is warranted. PMID:26460822

  18. Association between HLA-A1 and -A2 types and Epstein-Barr virus status of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder.

    PubMed

    Kinch, Amelie; Sundström, Christer; Tufveson, Gunnar; Glimelius, Ingrid

    2016-10-01

    The susceptibility to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) may be affected by the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) type. We investigated HLA-A and HLA-B allele frequencies, focusing on HLA-A1 and -A2, in a population-based case series of EBV + (n = 60) and EBV- (n = 44) PTLD after solid organ transplantation. The proportion of EBV + PTLD was highest in HLA-A1 homozygotes (100%), lower in carriers of HLA-A1/AX (79%), HLA-A1/A2 (55%), HLA-A2/AX (54%), and lowest in HLA-A2 homozygotes (37%). HLA-A1 type was overrepresented (22% versus 7%, p = 0.05) and HLA-A2 type underrepresented (57% versus 80%, p = 0.01) in patients with EBV + compared with EBV - PTLD. EBV + PTLD in HLA-A1 carriers developed almost exclusively in already EBV-seropositive individuals. EBV status of PTLD was not related to any other HLA-A or HLA-B type. Our findings suggest that HLA-A1 carriers may have an increased risk of EBV + PTLD due to a decreased ability to control the latent EBV infection. PMID:27104753

  19. Detection of bone marrow involvement in newly diagnosed post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder: (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography versus bone marrow biopsy.

    PubMed

    Gheysens, Olivier; Thielemans, Sanne; Morscio, Julie; Boeckx, Nancy; Goffin, Karolien E; Deroose, Christophe M; Sagaert, Xavier; Wlodarska, Iwona; Verhoef, Gregor; Dierickx, Daan; Tousseyn, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Detecting bone marrow involvement (BMI) in lymphoma is important as it adversely affects stage. Bone marrow biopsy (BMB) remains the standard to detect BMI but is prone to sampling error. We retrospectively investigated whether (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with computed tomography ((18)F-FDG-PET/CT) could identify BMI in patients with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) with sufficient accuracy in comparison with staging BMB. Twenty-five patients diagnosed with PTLD who underwent (18)F-FDG-PET/CT and BMB within one month were evaluated. Based on our criteria, six patients (24%) were considered positive for BMI on (18)F-FDG-PET/CT compared to one by BMB. Although we cannot completely exclude false positive results on (18)F-FDG-PET/CT, our data indicate a significantly higher sensitivity of (18)F-FDG-PET/CT compared to BMB (100% vs 17%) but similar specificity. These data confirm the high diagnostic performance of (18)F-FDG-PET/CT for detecting BMI, but prospective studies are needed to determine whether (18)F-FDG-PET/CT could indeed replace staging BMB in PTLD. PMID:26854937

  20. The expression of Epstein-Barr virus latent proteins is related to the pathological features of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Delecluse, H. J.; Kremmer, E.; Rouault, J. P.; Cour, C.; Bornkamm, G.; Berger, F.

    1995-01-01

    Transplant recipients are at increased risk for the development of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs). PTLDs harbor genomes of the Epstein-Barr virus, a herpesvirus that immortalizes B cells in vitro. At least five viral proteins are required for immortalization. Two of them are particularly important. Latent membrane protein (LMP) has transforming activity in fibroblasts, and Epstein-Barr antigen (EBNA)2 transactivates the expression of numerous cellular and viral genes. To determine whether the expression of EBNA2 and LMP is related to the histological and clinical presentation of PTLD, we tested their expression in 14 Epstein-Barr virus-positive cases. Using monoclonal antibodies to EBNA2 and LMP on paraffin sections, we found an expression of both proteins in 2 of 3 polymorphic PTLD and in 7 of 8 cases of monomorphic, large cell PTLD, without plasmacytic differentiation. One polymorphic and one large cell PTLD expressed LMP only. LMP and EBNA2 were found particularly in immunoblasts. The number of positive cells was extremely variable in the different cases as well as within the same biopsy. Three cases of PTLD had morphological and phenotypical features of plasmacytomas and did not stain for EBNA2 or LMP. This suggests that the expression of EBNA2 and LMP is related to the differentiation stage of the infected cells and that other viral or cellular proteins may contribute to tumor growth. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7747805

  1. Concomitant Presentation of Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis and Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disease-Like Lymphoma in a Mildly Immunosuppressed Leukemia Patient: An Unusual Association.

    PubMed

    Sinno, Mohamad G; Rosen, David; Wittler, Robert

    2016-08-01

    We describe a 4-year-old female with pre-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia on maintenance chemotherapy, who developed hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) secondary to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, complicated by an aggressive lymphoproliferative disorder. Although there was no history of bone marrow transplant or underlying immunodeficiency, EBV triggered a post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD)-like lymphoma. Multiple regimens of chemotherapy failed to induce remission and patient developed multiorgan failure. The association of HLH with EBV-related PTLD-like lymphoproliferative disorder is rare. We present this case to highlight this unusual association so that this highly fatal disease can be recognized and promptly addressed. PMID:27148941

  2. Characterization of Clonality of Epstein-Barr Virus-Induced Human B Lymphoproliferative Disease in Mice with Severe Combined Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Nakamine, Hirokazu; Masih, Aneal S.; Okano, Motohiko; Taguchi, Yuichi; Pirruccello, Samuel J.; Davis, Jack R.; Mahloch, Mark L.; Beisel, Kirk W.; Kleveland, Kimberly; Sanger, Warren G.; Purtilo, David T.

    1993-01-01

    To improve the diagnostic accuracy and understanding of the pathogenesis of lymphoproliferative diseases (LPDs) occurring in immunosuppressed transplant recipients (post-transplantation LPD), clonality of Epstein-Barr virus-induced human LPDs in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency was examined by analyzing: 1) human immunoglobulin genes and their products, 2) the clonality of Epstein-Barr virus DNA, and 3) genetic alteration of c-myc or bcl-2 genes. A spectrum of clonality was found in the LPDs comparable with that reported for post-transplantation LPDs, although rearrangements of c-myc or bcl-2 genes were not detected. It is confirmed that this system is useful in terms of clonality for understanding the early phases in the pathogenesis of post-transplantation LPD or LPD in immune deficient patients. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:8380952

  3. Virus and Autoantigen-Specific CD4+ T Cells Are Key Effectors in a SCID Mouse Model of EBV-Associated Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Linnerbauer, Stefanie; Behrends, Uta; Adhikary, Dinesh; Witter, Klaus; Bornkamm, Georg W.; Mautner, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Polyclonal Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected B cell line (lymphoblastoid cell lines; LCL)-stimulated T-cell preparations have been successfully used to treat EBV-positive post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) in transplant recipients, but function and specificity of the CD4+ component are still poorly defined. Here, we assessed the tumor-protective potential of different CD4+ T-cell specificities in a PTLD-SCID mouse model. Injection of different virus-specific CD4+ T-cell clones showed that single specificities were capable of prolonging mouse survival and that the degree of tumor protection directly correlated with recognition of target cells in vitro. Surprisingly, some CD4+ T-cell clones promoted tumor development, suggesting that besides antigen recognition, still elusive functional differences exist among virus-specific T cells. Of several EBV-specific CD4+ T-cell clones tested, those directed against virion antigens proved most tumor-protective. However, enriching these specificities in LCL-stimulated preparations conferred no additional survival benefit. Instead, CD4+ T cells specific for unknown, probably self-antigens were identified as principal antitumoral effectors in LCL-stimulated T-cell lines. These results indicate that virion and still unidentified cellular antigens are crucial targets of the CD4+ T-cell response in this preclinical PTLD-model and that enriching the corresponding T-cell specificities in therapeutic preparations may enhance their clinical efficacy. Moreover, the expression in several EBV-negative B-cell lymphoma cell lines implies that these putative autoantigen(s) might also qualify as targets for T-cell-based immunotherapy of virus-negative B cell malignancies. PMID:24853673

  4. Metabolic Bone Disease in the Post-transplant Population: Preventative and Therapeutic Measures.

    PubMed

    Nel, Johan Daniël; Epstein, Sol

    2016-05-01

    Post-transplant bone disease contributes significantly to patients' morbidity and mortality after transplantation and has an impact on their quality of life. This article discusses the major contributors to mechanisms causing bone loss, highlighting the role of preexisting disease in both kidney and liver failure and contributions from glucocorticoids and calcineurin inhibitors. Suggested monitoring and investigations are reviewed as well as treatment as far as the current literature supports, emphasizing the difference between kidney and liver recipients. PMID:27095646

  5. The value of 18F-FDG PET in pediatric patients with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder at initial diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Vali, R; Punnett, A; Bajno, L; Moineddin, R; Shammas, A

    2015-12-01

    PTLD is a serious complication of both solid organ and BMT. This study assessed whether (18) F-FDG PET, when added to CT scan, had additional value in the initial evaluation of PTLD in pediatric patients and whether PET/CT at baseline can reliably guide biopsy. This retrospective study evaluated 34 consecutive pediatric patients (14 female), aged 3.5-17.0 yr (mean age: 9.9 yr, s.d.: 4.9 yr), who had undergone (18) F-FDG PET/CT from May 2007 to December 2014 at initial diagnosis of PTLD following heart (n = 13), lung (n = 8), kidney (n = 4), liver (n = 3), liver and bowel (n = 3), and bone marrow (n = 3) transplantation. PTLD was diagnosed histopathologically in 33 patients and was based on clinical findings, elevated EBV, and imaging and follow-up results in one patient. On lesion-based analysis, (18) F-FDG PET showed more lesions than conventional CT scan (168 vs. 134), but CT revealed 22 lesions negative on PET. On per patient analysis, PET detected more lesions in 13 patients, CT identified more abnormalities in seven, and both showed the same number of lesions in 14. Adding (18) F-FDG PET to CT scans upstaged the disease in seven patients (20.5%). A combination of (18) F-FDG PET and CT was also useful in guiding biopsy, being positive in 36 of 39 samples (92.3%). These findings indicated that (18) F-FDG PET and CT are complementary at initial staging of pediatric PTLD and that (18) F-FDG PET/CT scanning can guide biopsies. PMID:26515450

  6. EBV-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder following in vivo T-cell-depleted allogeneic transplantation: clinical features, viral load correlates and prognostic factors in the rituximab era.

    PubMed

    Fox, C P; Burns, D; Parker, A N; Peggs, K S; Harvey, C M; Natarajan, S; Marks, D I; Jackson, B; Chakupurakal, G; Dennis, M; Lim, Z; Cook, G; Carpenter, B; Pettitt, A R; Mathew, S; Connelly-Smith, L; Yin, J A L; Viskaduraki, M; Chakraverty, R; Orchard, K; Shaw, B E; Byrne, J L; Brookes, C; Craddock, C F; Chaganti, S

    2014-02-01

    EBV-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) following Alemtuzumab-based allo-SCT is a relatively uncommon and challenging clinical problem but has not received detailed study in a large cohort. Quantitative-PCR (qPCR) monitoring for EBV reactivation post allo-SCT is now commonplace but its diagnostic and predictive value remains unclear. Sixty-nine patients with PTLD following Alemtuzumab-based allo-SCT were studied. Marked clinicopathological heterogeneity was evident; lymphadenopathy was frequently absent, whereas advanced extranodal disease was common. The median viral load at clinical presentation was 49 300 copies/mL (50-65 200 000 copies/mL) and, notably, 23% and 45% of cases, respectively, had 10 000 and 40 000 copies/mL. The overall response rate to rituximab as first-line therapy was 70%. For rituximab failures, chemotherapy was ineffectual but DLIs were successful. A four-parameter prognostic index predicted response to therapy (OR 0.30 (0.12-0.74); P=0.009] and PTLD mortality (hazard ratio (HR) 1.81 (1.12-2.93) P=0.02) on multivariate analysis. This is the largest detailed series of EBV-associated PTLD after allo-SCT. At clinical presentation, EBV-qPCR values are frequently below customary thresholds for pre-emptive therapy, challenging current paradigms for monitoring and intervention. A four-point score identifies a proportion of patients at risk of rituximab-refractory disease for whom alternative therapy is needed. PMID:24212561

  7. Lymphoproliferative disorders in inflammatory bowel disease patients on immunosuppression: Lessons from other inflammatory disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Grace Y; Halloran, Brendan P; Peters, Anthea C; Fedorak, Richard N

    2015-01-01

    Immunosuppressive agents, such as thiopurines, methotrexate, and biologics, have revolutionized the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, a number of case reports, case control studies and retrospective studies over the last decade have identified a concerning link between immunosuppression and lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs), the oncological phenomenon whereby lymphocytes divide uncontrollably. These LPDs have been associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in which the virus provides the impetus for malignant transformation while immunosuppression hampers the immune system’s ability to detect and clear these malignant cells. As such, the use of immunosuppressive agents may come at the cost of increased risk of developing LPD. While little is known about the LPD risk in IBD, more is known about immunosuppression in the post-transplantation setting and the development of EBV associated post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD). In review of the PTLD literature, evidence is available to demonstrate that certain immune suppressants such as cyclosporine and T-lymphocyte modulators in particular are associated with an increased risk of PTLD development. As well, high doses of immunosuppressive agents and multiple immunosuppressive agent use are also linked to increased PTLD development. Here, we discuss these findings in context of IBD and what future studies can be taken to understand and reduce the risk of EBV-associated LPD development from immunosuppression use in IBD. PMID:26600976

  8. A novel model for post-transplant obliterative airway disease reveals angiogenesis from the pulmonary circulation.

    PubMed

    Dutly, Andre E; Andrade, Cristiano F; Verkaik, Ryan; Kugathasan, Lakshmi; Trogadis, Judy; Liu, Mingyao; Waddell, Thomas K; Stewart, Duncan J; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2005-02-01

    We present a novel animal model for post-transplant obliterative airway disease in which the donor trachea is implanted into the recipient's lung parenchyma. Although this procedure is technically more challenging than the heterotopic model of implantation into a subcutaneous pouch, it has several important advantages some of which are the appropriate local environment and the possibility of local immunosuppressive therapy after transtracheal gene, cell or drug delivery. This model has revealed new insights into angiogenic potential of the pulmonary circulation. PMID:15643984

  9. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked lymphoproliferative disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the development of specialized T cells called natural killer T cells. The SAP protein also helps control ... PubMed GeneReview: Lymphoproliferative Disease, X-Linked Latour S. Natural killer T cells and X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome. Curr ...

  10. Lymphoproliferative disease virus in wild turkeys in southeast United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, retroviral neoplasms reported in wild upland game birds in the United States of America have typically been associated with reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) infection. The information presented herein described the first reports of lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV) infection in ...

  11. Molecular signature of Epstein Barr virus-positive Burkitt lymphoma and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder suggest different roles for Epstein Barr virus

    PubMed Central

    Navari, Mohsen; Fuligni, Fabio; Laginestra, Maria A.; Etebari, Maryam; Ambrosio, Maria R.; Sapienza, Maria R.; Rossi, Maura; De Falco, Giulia; Gibellini, Davide; Tripodo, Claudio; Pileri, Stefano A.; Leoncini, Lorenzo; Piccaluga, Pier P.

    2014-01-01

    Epstein Barr virus (EBV) infection is commonly associated with human cancer and, in particular, with lymphoid malignancies. Although the precise role of the virus in the pathogenesis of different lymphomas is largely unknown, it is well recognized that the expression of viral latent proteins and miRNA can contribute to its pathogenetic role. In this study, we compared the gene and miRNA expression profile of two EBV-associated aggressive B non-Hodgkin lymphomas known to be characterized by differential expression of the viral latent proteins aiming to dissect the possible different contribution of such proteins and EBV-encoded miRNAs. By applying extensive bioinformatic inferring and an experimental model, we found that EBV+ Burkitt lymphoma presented with significant over-expression of EBV-encoded miRNAs that were likely to contribute to its global molecular profile. On the other hand, EBV+ post-transplant diffuse large B-cell lymphomas presented a significant enrichment in genes regulated by the viral latent proteins. Based on these different viral and cellular gene expression patterns, a clear distinction between EBV+ Burkitt lymphoma and post-transplant diffuse large B-cell lymphomas was made. In this regard, the different viral and cellular expression patterns seemed to depend on each other, at least partially, and the latency type most probably played a significant role in their regulation. In conclusion, our data indicate that EBV influence over B-cell malignant clones may act through different mechanisms of transcriptional regulation and suggest that potentially different pathogenetic mechanisms may depend upon the conditions of the interaction between EBV and the host that finally determine the latency pattern. PMID:25566237

  12. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder: no relationship to recombinant human growth hormone use in Australian and New Zealand pediatric kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Longmore, Danielle K; Conwell, Louise S; Burke, John R; McDonald, Stephen P; McTaggart, Steven J

    2013-12-01

    PTLD is a potentially life-limiting complication of pediatric transplantation. Previous registry-based studies in renal transplantation have suggested a link between rhGH use and PTLD. In this study, demographic and transplant data on those aged <18 yr and transplanted between 1991 and 2008 were collected from the ANZDATA Registry. Associations between gender, age at time of transplant, recipient CMV and EBV status, use of monoclonal antibody therapy, and use of rhGH were studied as potential predictors of PTLD. Among 650 transplants, there were 20 cases (3.1%) of PTLD, with half presenting within two yr post-transplant. Eight patients exposed to rhGH at any time developed PTLD, and this association was not statistically significant (RR = 1.5[0.6-3.4], p = 0.36). On multivariate analysis, there were no significant predictors for PTLD. In this study, previously identified potential risk factors were not identified as significant predictors for the development of PTLD. Although limited sample size may affect our ability to infer safety, this large retrospective cohort study does not suggest an increased risk of PTLD in pediatric kidney transplant recipients who received rhGH treatment. PMID:24164826

  13. Post-transplant hyperlipidaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, R. M.

    1997-01-01

    The correction of post-transplant hyperlipidaemia warrants the judicious and timely use of pharmacological agents with dietary modification and exercise. Reduction in hyperlipidaemia may have some role in decreasing the incidence of chronic rejection of allografts. The awareness that the morbidity and mortality of atherosclerotic disease may be lowered by active intervention will result in a better quality of life for transplant recipients. PMID:9497947

  14. Identification of lymphoproliferative disease virus in wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Viral-associated lymphoproliferative neoplasia in domestic poultry is caused by infection with a herpesvirus (Marek’s disease virus) or three species of retroviruses [Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), Avian leukosis/sarcoma virus, lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV)]. Previously, retroviral n...

  15. IFN-gamma gene polymorphisms associate with development of EBV+ lymphoproliferative disease in hu PBL-SCID mice.

    PubMed

    Dierksheide, Julie E; Baiocchi, Robert A; Ferketich, Amy K; Roychowdhury, Sameek; Pelletier, Ronald P; Eisenbeis, Charles F; Caligiuri, Michael A; VanBuskirk, Anne M

    2005-02-15

    Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a devastating post-transplantation complication often associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Although the type and length of immunosuppression are risk factors, a patient's inherent immune capacity also likely contributes to this disorder. This report uses severe-combined immunodeficient mice given injections of human peripheral blood leukocytes (hu PBL-SCID [Severe Combined Immunodeficient] mice) to test the hypothesis that cytokine genotype associates with the development of EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease (LPD). We observed that the A/A (adenosine/adenosine) genotype for base + 874 of the interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) gene was significantly more prevalent in PBLs producing rapid, high-penetrance LPD in hu PBL-SCID mice, compared to PBLs producing late, low-penetrance LPD or no LPD. In examining the relationship between genotype and cytolytic T-lymphocyte (CTL) function, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) inhibited restimulation of CTLs in PBLs with adenosine at IFNG base + 874, but not in PBLs homozygous for thymidine. Importantly, neutralization of TGF-beta in hu PBL-SCID mice injected with A/A genotype PBLs resulted in reduced LPD development and expanded human CD8(+) cells. Thus, our data show that TGF-beta may promote tumor development by inhibiting CTL restimulation and expansion. Further, our data indicate that IFNG genotype may provide valuable information for both identifying transplant recipients at greater risk for PTLD and developing preventive and curative strategies. PMID:15498860

  16. Post-transplantation primary central nervous system lymphoma in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus and prolonged use of immunosuppressant.

    PubMed

    Tse, Teresa P K; Chan, Allan N L; Chan, Tony K T; Po, Y C

    2014-12-01

    Post-transplantation primary central nervous system lymphoma is an uncommon and fatal post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Such lymphomas have been described in only a few case series in the literature. The incidence of this condition is rising with improved survival after organ transplantation. A case of post-transplantation primary central nervous system lymphoma in a young Chinese woman with systemic lupus erythematosus is described here. She presented with right-sided weakness and memory loss after tooth extraction 2 weeks before admission. Contrast computed tomography of the brain demonstrated a contrast rim-enhancing lesion over the left frontal lobe. With a history of recent dental procedure, long-term immunosuppressive therapy and computed tomography findings, cerebral abscess was highly suspected. Emergency operation was performed. Histopathology showed post-transplantation primary central nervous system lymphoma, with cells positive for B-cell marker CD20. Immunosuppressant was stopped and she was treated with radiotherapy and rituximab (anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody). She remained disease-free at 16 months. Post-transplantation primary central nervous system lymphoma is rare with variable presentation and radiological features. We believe rituximab may have a role in the treatment of such lymphomas. PMID:25488034

  17. Repeated detection of gas in the portal vein after liver transplantation: A sign of EBV-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferation?

    PubMed

    Wallot, Michael A; Klepper, Jörg; Clapuyt, Philippe; Dirsch, Olaf; Malagó, Max; Reding, Raymond; Otte, Jean Bernard; Sokal, Etienne M

    2002-08-01

    A 1-yr-old child presented with intractable right sided pleural effusion and progressive clinical deterioration 3 weeks after liver transplantation for Alagille Syndrome. He had been treated successfully for severe acute rejection before. Ultrasound and Doppler mode studies repeatedly demonstrated air in the portal vein. Intra-abdominal and intra-thoracic lymphoproliferation was detected, and EBV virus load and serology were suggestive of primary EBV infection. Liver biopsy revealed blast-like infiltrates of B-cells, considered diagnostic for post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease. The disease resolved upon reduction of immunosuppression. We suggest that the detection of portal vein gas in pediatric liver transplant recipients beyond the early post-operative period may be a sign of intra-abdominal post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease. PMID:12234275

  18. Post-transplantation cyclophosphamide versus conventional graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis in mismatched unrelated donor haematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Rohtesh S; Saliba, Rima M; Chen, Julianne; Rondon, Gabriela; Hammerstrom, Aimee E; Alousi, Amin; Qazilbash, Muzaffar; Bashir, Qaiser; Ahmed, Sairah; Popat, Uday; Hosing, Chitra; Khouri, Issa; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Champlin, Richard E; Ciurea, Stefan O

    2016-05-01

    Post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) is an effective strategy to prevent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after haploidentical haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We determined the efficacy of PTCy-based GVHD prophylaxis in human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched unrelated donor (MMUD) HCT. We analysed 113 adult patients with high-risk haematological malignancies who underwent one-antigen MMUD transplantation between 2009 and 2013. Of these, 41 patients received PTCy, tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) for GVHD prophylaxis; 72 patients received conventional prophylaxis with anti-thymocyte globulin, tacrolimus and methotrexate. Graft source was primarily bone marrow (83% PTCy vs. 63% conventional group). Incidence of grade II-IV (37% vs. 36%, P = 0·8) and grade III-IV (17% vs. 12%, P = 0·5) acute GVHD was similar at day 100. However, the incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD by day 30 was significantly lower in the PTCy group (0% vs. 15%, P = 0·01). Median time to neutrophil (18 days vs. 12 days, P < 0·001) and platelet (25·5 days vs. 18 days, P = 0·05) engraftment was prolonged in PTCy group. Rates of graft failure, chronic GVHD, 2-year non-relapse mortality, relapse, progression-free survival or overall survival were similar. Our results demonstrate that PTCy, tacrolimus and MMF for GVHD prophylaxis is safe and produced similar results as conventional prophylaxis in patients with one antigen HLA-MMUD HCT. PMID:26947769

  19. Post-transplantation Infections in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Arze, S; Arze, L; Abecia, C

    2016-03-01

    Over 26 years, we found 46 infectious episodes in 350 kidney transplant recipients. Fifteen were urinary tract infections, recurrent in 4 patients. There were 8 cytomegalovirus infections, three of them fatal when intravenous (IV) ganciclovir was not available. Seven patients had a reactivation of tuberculosis (TB) in the pleura, cervical spine, lumbar spine, knee, ankle, skin and peritoneum, respectively, and were all resolved satisfactorily with conventional anti-TB therapy. Three patients transplanted before routine prophylaxis with the use of acyclovir developed an extensive herpes zoster infection in the 1st 6 months after transplantation, which was resolved with the use of oral acyclovir, and 1 had a disseminated herpes simplex infection resolved with the use of IV acyclovir. Three patients transplanted before routine prophylaxis with trimethoprim sulfa developed Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in the 1st 6 months after transplantation, which was fatal in one of them. In 2 patients, we found a Nocardia infection, confined to the lung, which was cured in one of the cases and systemic and fatal in the other. Two patients transplanted before routine prophylaxis with the use of nystatin developed esophageal candidiasis in the 1st 6 months after transplantation. One patient developed infective endocarditis in a stenotic bicuspid aortic valve and died 10 years later after another incident of infective endocarditis at the prosthetic aortic valve. Two patients developed an extensive condyloma at the penis, perianal region, and perineum owing to human papillomavirus, requiring extensive surgical resection and podophyllin applications. Another patient developed fatal post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disease due to Epstein-Barr virus infection 15 years after transplantation. One patient developed a severe and fatal mucocutaneous leishmaniasis with no response to conventional antimonial therapy. It is interesting to note that despite Chagas disease being endemic

  20. Cure of X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT): report from the XLP registry.

    PubMed

    Gross, T G; Filipovich, A H; Conley, M E; Pracher, E; Schmiegelow, K; Verdirame, J D; Vowels, M; Williams, L L; Seemayer, T A

    1996-05-01

    Seven male patients in the David T Purtilo International X-linked Lymphoproliferative Disease (XLP) Registry have undergone allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). All patients received HSCT from HLA-identical donors: sibling BM, five; unrelated BM, one; and sibling umbilical cord blood, one. Ages at time of HSCT ranged from 5 to 30 years. Pre-HSCT clinical course varied, but four boys had a significant history of chronic and/or serious infections. Conditioning regimens varied: TBI containing regimens, four, chemotherapy only, three. All patients engrafted. Six developed grade I-II acute GVHD but no chronic GVHD. Four are alive and well with normal immune function greater than 3 years following HSCT. Three died within 100 days: disseminated adenovirus, one; polymicrobial sepsis, one; and multiple organ system failure and bleeding diathesis, one. No EBV-associated post-transplant complications were observed, even though all donors except the umbilical cord blood were EBV-seropositive. Unsuccessful HSCT was associated with age at HSCT (> 15 years), TBI-containing regimen and significant history for pre-HSCT infections. These results provide evidence that HSCT performed during childhood with HLA-identical sibling donors, regardless of EBV serostatus, offers the only curative therapy for XLP. PMID:8733691

  1. EBV Lymphoproliferative Disease after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Rouce, Rayne H; Louis, Chrystal U; Heslop, Helen E

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW EBV reactivation can cause significant morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (SCT). Delays in reconstitution of EBV-specific T lymphocyte activity can lead to life-threatening EBV lymphoproliferative disease (EBV-PTLD). This review highlights recent advances in the understanding of pathophysiology, risk factors, diagnosis, and management of EBV viremia and PTLD. RECENT FINDINGS During the past decade, early detection strategies, such as serial measurement of EBV-DNA load, have helped to identify high-risk patients and to diagnose early lymphoproliferation. The most significant advances have come in the form of innovative treatment options, including manipulation of the balance between outgrowing EBV-infected B cells and the EBV cytotoxic T lymphocyte (EBV-CTL) response, and targeting infected B cells with monoclonal antibodies, chemotherapy, unmanipulated donor lymphocytes, and donor or more recently third party EBV-CTLs. Defining criteria for preemptive therapy and remains a challenge. SUMMARY EBV reactivation is a significant complication after SCT. Continued improvements in risk-stratification and treatment options are required to improve the morbidity and mortality caused by EBV associated diseases. Current approaches use Rituximab to deplete B cells or adoptive transfer of EBV-CTL to reconstitute immunity. The availability of rapid EBV specific T cell products offers the possibility of improved outcomes. PMID:25159713

  2. Blood dendritic cell levels associated with impaired IL-12 production and T-cell deficiency in patients with kidney disease: implications for post-transplant viral infections.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ping; Sun, Qianmei; Huang, Yanfei; Atta, Mohamed G; Turban, Sharon; Segev, Dorry L; Marr, Kieren A; Naqvi, Fizza F; Alachkar, Nada; Kraus, Edward S; Womer, Karl L

    2014-10-01

    Reduced pretransplant blood myeloid dendritic cell (mDC) levels are associated with post-transplant BK viremia and cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease after kidney transplantation. To elucidate potential mechanisms by which mDC levels might influence these outcomes, we studied the association of mDC levels with mDC IL-12 production and T-cell level/function. Peripheral blood (PB) was studied in three groups: (i) end stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis (HD; n = 81); (ii) chronic kidney disease stage IV-V patients presenting for kidney transplant evaluation or the day of transplantation (Eval/Tx; n = 323); and (iii) healthy controls (HC; n = 22). Along with a statistically significant reduction in mDC levels, reduced CD8(+) T-cell levels were also demonstrated in the kidney disease groups compared with HC. Reduced PB mDC and monocyte-derived DC (MoDC) IL-12 production was observed after in vitro LPS stimulation in the HD versus HC groups. Finally, ELISpot assays demonstrated less robust CD3(+) INF-γ responses by MoDCs pulsed with CMV pp65 peptide from HD patients compared with HC. PB mDC level deficiency in patients with kidney disease is associated with deficient IL-12 production and T-cell level/function, which may explain the known correlation of CD8(+) T-cell lymphopenia with deficient post-transplant antiviral responses. PMID:24963818

  3. Does celiac disease influence survival in lymphoproliferative malignancy?

    PubMed Central

    Ludvigsson, Jonas F; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Rubio-Tapia, Alberto; Murray, Joseph A.; Green, Peter HR; Ekbom, Anders; Granath, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is associated with both lymphoproliferative malignancy (LPM) and increased death from LPM. Research suggests that co-existing autoimmune disease may influence survival in LPM. Through Cox regression we examined overall and cause-specific mortality in 316 individuals with CD+LPM vs. 689 individuals with LPM only. CD was defined as having villous atrophy according to biopsy reports at any of Sweden’s 28 pathology departments, and LPM as having a relevant disease code in the Swedish Cancer Register. During follow-up, there were 551 deaths (CD: n=200; non-CD: n=351). Individuals with CD+LPM were at an increased risk of death compared with LPM-only individuals (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR)=1.23; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.02–1.48). However, this excess risk was only seen in the first year after LPM diagnosis (aHR=1.76), with HRs decreasing to 1.09 in years 2–5 after LPM diagnosis and to 0.90 thereafter. Individuals with CD and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) were at a higher risk of any death as compared with NHL-only individuals (aHR=1.23; 95%CI=0.97–1.56). This excess risk was due to a higher proportion of T-cell lymphoma in CD patients. Stratifying for T- and B-cell status, the HR for death in individuals with CD+NHL was 0.77 (95%CI=0.46–1.31 In conclusion, we found no evidence that co-existing CD influences survival in individuals with LPM. The increased mortality in the first year after LPM diagnosis is related to the predominance of T-NHL in CD individuals. Individuals with CD+LPM should be informed that their prognosis is similar to that of individuals with LPM only. However, this study had low statistical power to rule our excess mortality in patients with CD and certain LPM subtypes. PMID:23463575

  4. Avian oncogenesis induced by lymphoproliferative disease virus: a neglected or emerging retroviral pathogen?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV) is an exogenous oncogenic retrovirus that induces lymphoid tumors in some galliform species of birds. Historically, outbreaks of LPDV have been reported from Europe and Israel. Although the virus has previously never been detected in North America, herein we ...

  5. Phase II Trial of Graft-versus-Host Disease Prophylaxis with Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide after Reduced-Intensity Busulfan/Fludarabine Conditioning for Hematological Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Alousi, Amin M; Brammer, Jonathan E; Saliba, Rima M; Andersson, Borje; Popat, Uday; Hosing, Chitra; Jones, Roy; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Khouri, Issa; Qazilbash, Muzaffar; Nieto, Yago; Shah, Nina; Ahmed, Sairah; Oran, Betul; Al Atrash, Gheath; Ciurea, Stefan; Kebriaei, Partow; Chen, Julianne; Rondon, Gabriela; Champlin, Richard E

    2015-05-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (CY) after ablative HLA-matched bone marrow (BM) transplantation has been reported to have comparable rates of acute GVHD with an apparent reduction in chronic GVHD and infections when compared to historical prophylaxis with a calcineurin-inhibitor (CNI) and methotrexate (MTX). We conducted a phase II trial of post-transplantation CY (post-CY) after reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) using intravenous busulfan (area under the curve of 4000 micromolar minute), fludarabine (40 mg/m(2)) for 4 days, and CY 50 mg/kg on days +3 and +4 after BM or peripheral blood (PB) transplantations from matched related (MRD) or unrelated donors (MUD). MUD recipients received antithymocyte globulin (ATG); however, a later amendment removed ATG. Forty-nine patients were treated (acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome, 82%). Median age was 62 years (range, 39 to 72). Fifteen patients received an MRD (9 PB/6 BM); 34 had a MUD (2 PB/32 BM). The cumulative incidence of grade II to IV acute GVHD, III to IV acute GVHD, and chronic GVHD was 58%, 22%, and 18%, respectively. A matched cohort analysis compared outcomes to tacrolimus/methotrexate GVHD prophylaxis and indicated higher rates of acute GVHD grade II to IV (46% versus 19%; hazard ratio [HR], 2.8; P = .02) and treatment-related mortality (HR, 3.3; P = .035) and worse overall survival (HR, 1.9; P = .04) with post-CY. The incidence of chronic GVHD and CMV reactivation did not differ. This study suggests that post-CY should not be used as sole GVHD prophylaxis after a RIC transplantation from HLA-matched donors. PMID:25667989

  6. Deregulation of Fas ligand expression as a novel cause of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome-like disease

    PubMed Central

    Nabhani, Schafiq; Ginzel, Sebastian; Miskin, Hagit; Revel-Vilk, Shoshana; Harlev, Dan; Fleckenstein, Bernhard; Hönscheid, Andrea; Oommen, Prasad T.; Kuhlen, Michaela; Thiele, Ralf; Laws, Hans-Jürgen; Borkhardt, Arndt; Stepensky, Polina; Fischer, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome is frequently caused by mutations in genes involved in the Fas death receptor pathway, but for 20–30% of patients the genetic defect is unknown. We observed that treatment of healthy T cells with interleukin-12 induces upregulation of Fas ligand and Fas ligand-dependent apoptosis. Consistently, interleukin-12 could not induce apoptosis in Fas ligand-deficient T cells from patients with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome. We hypothesized that defects in the interleukin-12 signaling pathway may cause a similar phenotype as that caused by mutations of the Fas ligand gene. To test this, we analyzed 20 patients with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome of unknown cause by whole-exome sequencing. We identified a homozygous nonsense mutation (c.698G>A, p.R212*) in the interleukin-12/interleukin-23 receptor-component IL12RB1 in one of these patients. The mutation led to IL12RB1 protein truncation and loss of cell surface expression. Interleukin-12 and -23 signaling was completely abrogated as demonstrated by deficient STAT4 phosphorylation and interferon γ production. Interleukin-12-mediated expression of membrane-bound and soluble Fas ligand was lacking and basal expression was much lower than in healthy controls. The patient presented with the classical symptoms of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome: chronic non-malignant, non-infectious lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, elevated numbers of double-negative T cells, autoimmune cytopenias, and increased levels of vitamin B12 and interleukin-10. Sanger sequencing and whole-exome sequencing excluded the presence of germline or somatic mutations in genes known to be associated with the autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome. Our data suggest that deficient regulation of Fas ligand expression by regulators such as the interleukin-12 signaling pathway may be an alternative cause of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome-like disease. PMID:26113417

  7. Post-transplantation diabetes-state of the art.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Adnan; Cohney, Solomon

    2016-04-01

    With increasing success in overcoming the immunological and infectious challenges accompanying solid organ transplantation, susceptibility to post-transplant diabetes and cardiovascular disease has assumed increasing importance. Although some guidance is available from diabetes-related literature pertaining to the general population, some aspects are unique to solid organ allograft recipients. Both insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction are generally agreed to contribute to development and manifestation of post-transplant diabetes, but controversy continues about which is most important and to what extent post-transplant diabetes is a distinct entity or simply a variant of type 2 diabetes with transplant-specific components. The optimum method and timing for detection and diagnosis of post-transplant diabetes remains an area of uncertainty. However, the greatest needs are to: address the absence of contemporary data for incidence and clinical outcomes associated with post-transplant diabetes; establish the role of glycaemic control; and assess the role of new diabetic therapies in prevention and management of post-transplant diabetes. We place the present knowledge base in the context of other advances in transplantation, challenge some existing ideas, and examine the potential role of emerging diabetes therapies. In highlighting existing deficiencies, we hope to provide direction for future research that will ultimately reduce incidence and improve management of post-transplant diabetes. PMID:26632096

  8. Minimal residual disease quantification using consensus primers and high-throughput IGH sequencing predicts post-transplant relapse in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Logan, A C; Zhang, B; Narasimhan, B; Carlton, V; Zheng, J; Moorhead, M; Krampf, M R; Jones, C D; Waqar, A N; Faham, M; Zehnder, J L; Miklos, D B

    2013-01-01

    Quantification of minimal residual disease (MRD) following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) predicts post-transplant relapse in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We utilized an MRD-quantification method that amplifies immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) loci using consensus V and J segment primers followed by high-throughput sequencing (HTS), enabling quantification with a detection limit of one CLL cell per million mononuclear cells. Using this IGH–HTS approach, we analyzed MRD patterns in over 400 samples from 40 CLL patients who underwent reduced-intensity allo-HCT. Nine patients relapsed within 12 months post-HCT. Of the 31 patients in remission at 12 months post-HCT, disease-free survival was 86% in patients with MRD <10−4 and 20% in those with MRD ⩾10−4 (relapse hazard ratio (HR) 9.0; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.5–32; P<0.0001), with median follow-up of 36 months. Additionally, MRD predicted relapse at other time points, including 9, 18 and 24 months post-HCT. MRD doubling time <12 months with disease burden ⩾10−5 was associated with relapse within 12 months of MRD assessment in 50% of patients, and within 24 months in 90% of patients. This IGH–HTS method may facilitate routine MRD quantification in clinical trials. PMID:23419792

  9. Application of polymerase chain reaction to detect rearrangement of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes in lymphoproliferative disease.

    PubMed

    Khalil, S H; Siegrist, K; Akhtar, M

    1997-07-01

    As part of our routine work-up in the diagnosis of lymphoproliferative disease, we used a rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to amplify the DNA fragments of the framework 3 (FR3) region of the immunoglobulin heavy (IgH) chain genes. The assay does not involve hybridization, nested priming, or sequencing of the amplified PCR product. It was performed on 66 specimens of B-cell lymphoproliferative disease, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, multiple myeloma, hairy cell leukemia and follicular lymphoma. Twenty-six specimens of negative controls, including acute myeloid leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia in myeloid transformation and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, were also analyzed. The assay was performed with 77% sensitivity and 100% specificity. The standard IgH chain gene rearrangement by Southern blot analysis is reserved for the remaining negative cases if clinically indicated. PMID:17353588

  10. [The first experience of external quality control of immunohistochemical studies in the diagnosis of lymphoproliferative diseases].

    PubMed

    Krivolapov, Iu A; Peshkov, M V; Leenman, E E; Matsionis, A E; Kovrigina, A M

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the results of estimating the quality of immunohistochemical (IHC) staining in 36 pathologic laboratories of the Russian Federation. The results of IHC stains were assessed in 17 markers (CD3, CD5, CDIO, CD15, CD20, CD23, CD30, Bcl2, Bcl6, Pax5, TdT, Mum1, Cyclin D1, Ki-67, Kappa, Lambda, ALK), which are frequently used in the diagnosis of lymphoproliferative diseases, in the sections of specially formed tissue matrices. The study conducted in most participating laboratories has revealed the considerable IHC staining technology flaws that can critically affect the quality of diagnosis of lymphoproliferative diseases; the diagnostic capacities of some participating laboratories are inconsistent with the solved problems for a number of key antibodies being unavailable. PMID:21695985

  11. Establishment and operation of a Good Manufacturing Practice-compliant allogeneic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific cytotoxic cell bank for the treatment of EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Mark A; Wilkie, Gwen M; Robinson, Nicolas; Rivera, Nadja; Haque, Tanzina; Crawford, Dorothy H; Barry, Jacqueline; Fraser, Neil; Turner, David M; Robertson, Victoria; Dyer, Phil; Flanagan, Peter; Newlands, Helen R; Campbell, John; Turner, Marc L

    2014-11-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several malignancies, including post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). Conventional treatments for PTLD are often successful, but risk organ rejection and cause significant side effects. EBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) generated in vitro from peripheral blood lymphocytes provide an alternative treatment modality with few side effects, but autologous CTLs are difficult to use in clinical practice. Here we report the establishment and operation of a bank of EBV-specific CTLs derived from 25 blood donors with human leucocyte antigen (HLA) types found at high frequency in European populations. Since licensure, there have been enquiries about 37 patients, who shared a median of three class I and two class II HLA types with these donors. Cells have been infused into ten patients with lymphoproliferative disease, eight of whom achieved complete remission. Neither patient with refractory disease was matched for HLA class II. Both cases of EBV-associated non-haematopoietic sarcoma receiving cells failed to achieve complete remission. Thirteen patients died before any cells could be issued, emphasizing that the bank should be contacted before patients become pre-terminal. Thus, this third party donor-derived EBV-specific CTL cell bank can supply most patients with appropriately matched cells and most recipients have good outcomes. PMID:25066775

  12. Mesenchymal stromal cells transiently alter the inflammatory milieu post-transplant to delay graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Melinda E.; Turner, Brie E.; Sinfield, Laura J.; Kollar, Katarina; Cullup, Hannah; Waterhouse, Nigel J.; Hart, Derek N.J.; Atkinson, Kerry; Rice, Alison M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells suppress T-cell function in vitro, a property that has underpinned their use in treating clinical steroid-refractory graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However the potential of mesenchymal stromal cells to resolve graft-versus-host disease is confounded by a paucity of pre-clinical data delineating their immunomodulatory effects in vivo. Design and Methods We examined the influence of timing and dose of donor-derived mesenchymal stromal cells on the kinetics of graft-versus-host disease in two murine models of graft-versus-host disease (major histocompatibility complex-mismatched: UBI-GFP/BL6 [H-2b]→BALB/c [H-2d] and the sibling transplant mimic, UBI-GFP/BL6 [H-2b]→BALB.B [H-2b]) using clinically relevant conditioning regimens. We also examined the effect of mesenchymal stromal cell infusion on bone marrow and spleen cellular composition and cytokine secretion in transplant recipients. Results Despite T-cell suppression in vitro, mesenchymal stromal cells delayed but did not prevent graft-versus-host disease in the major histocompatibility complex-mismatched model. In the sibling transplant model, however, 30% of mesenchymal stromal cell-treated mice did not develop graft-versus-host disease. The timing of administration and dose of the mesenchymal stromal cells influenced their effectiveness in attenuating graft-versus-host disease, such that a low dose of mesenchymal stromal cells administered early was more effective than a high dose of mesenchymal stromal cells given late. Compared to control-treated mice, mesenchymal stromal cell-treated mice had significant reductions in serum and splenic interferon-γ, an important mediator of graft-versus-host disease. Conclusions Mesenchymal stromal cells appear to delay death from graft-versus-host disease by transiently altering the inflammatory milieu and reducing levels of interferon-γ. Our data suggest that both the

  13. Graft-versus-Host Disease Prophylaxis in Unrelated Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation with Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide, Tacrolimus, and Mycophenolate Mofetil.

    PubMed

    Moiseev, Ivan S; Pirogova, Olga V; Alyanski, Alexandr L; Babenko, Elena V; Gindina, Tatyana L; Darskaya, Elena I; Slesarchuk, Olga A; Bondarenko, Sergey N; Afanasyev, Boris V

    2016-06-01

    Clinical efficacy of post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis has been demonstrated in haploidentical and HLA-matched bone marrow but not in unrelated peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantations. Also, no direct comparisons have been published with current standard of care, combination of antithymocyte globulin (ATG), calcineurin inhibitors, and either methotrexate or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). Eighty-six adult patients (median age 34 years; range, 18 to 59) with acute myeloblastic and lymphoblastic leukemia underwent unrelated PBSC transplantation with PTCy, tacrolimus, and MMF as GVHD prophylaxis in the single-center trial (clinicaltrial.govNCT02294552). The control group comprised 125 consecutive historical control patients who received ATG, tacrolimus, and methotrexate or MMF. Cumulative incidences of grades II to IV acute (19% versus 45%, P = .0003), grades III to IV acute (4% versus 27%, P < .0001), and chronic GVHD (16% versus 65%, P < .0001) were significantly lower in the PTCy compared with the ATG group. PTCy-based prophylaxis was associated with reduced incidence of nonrelapse mortality (16% versus 36%, P = .005; HR, .55; 95% CI, .34 to .89) and improved overall survival (69% versus 40%, P = .0007; HR, .43; 95% CI, .26 to .70), event-free survival (65% versus 38%, P = .0006; HR, .49; 95% CI, .31 to .78), and GVHD relapse-free survival (52% versus 12%, P < .0001). PTCy-based prophylaxis also had a better safety profile compared with ATG with reduced incidence of veno-occlusive disease, cytomegalovirus reactivation, invasive mycosis, and reduced severity of mucositis. In this study we demonstrated that PTCy in combination with tacrolimus and MMF is a safe and effective GVHD prophylaxis for unrelated PBSC transplantation. Although there are several limitations of the historical control approach, this study suggests the superiority of a PTCy-based approach over an ATG

  14. De novo post-transplant thrombotic microangiopathy localized only to the graft in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease with thrombophilia

    PubMed Central

    Rolla, Davide; Fontana, Iris; Ravetti, Jean Louis; Marsano, Luigina; Bellino, Diego; Panaro, Laura; Ansaldo, Francesca; Mathiasen, Lisa; Storace, Giulia; Trezzi, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a serious complication of renal transplantation and is mostly related to the prothrombotic effect of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs). A subset of TMA (29%-38%) is localized only to the graft. Case 1: A young woman suffering from autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) underwent kidney transplant. After 2 months, she showed slow renal deterioration (serum creatinine from 1.9 to 3.1 mg/dl), without hematological signs of hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS); only LDH enzyme transient increase was detected. Renal biopsy showed TMA: temporary withdraw of tacrolimus and plasmapheresis was performed. The renal function recovered (serum creatinine 1.9 mg/dl). From screening for thrombophilia, we found a mutation of the Leiden factor V gene. Case 2: A man affected by ADPKD underwent kidney transplantation, with delay graft function; first biopsy showed acute tubular necrosis, but a second biopsy revealed TMA, while no altered hematological parameters of HUS was detected. We observed only a slight increase of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. The tacrolimus was halved and plasmapheresis was performed: LDH levels normalized within 10 days and renal function improved (serum creatinine from 9 to 2.9 mg/dl). We found a mutation of the prothrombin gene. Only a renal biopsy clarifies the diagnosis of TMA, but it is necessary to pay attention to light increasing level of LDH. Conclusion: Prothrombotic effect of CNIs and mTOR inhibitor, mutation of genes encoding factor H or I, anticardiolipin antibodies, vascular rejection, cytomegalovirus infection are proposed to trigger TMA; we detected mutations of factor II and Leiden factor V, as facilitating conditions for TMA in patients affected by ADPKD. PMID:26693501

  15. Severe Puumala virus infection in a patient with a lymphoproliferative disease treated with icatibant.

    PubMed

    Laine, Outi; Leppänen, Ilona; Koskela, Sirpa; Antonen, Jaakko; Mäkelä, Satu; Sinisalo, Marjatta; Vaheri, Antti; Mustonen, Jukka

    2015-02-01

    Early identification of patients at risk of a severe course of hantaviral disease and lack of effective medication represent a global challenge in the treatment of this emerging infection. We describe a 67-year-old female patient with a history of chronic lymphoproliferative disease involving the spleen and an extremely severe acute Puumala hantavirus infection. She was treated with the bradykinin receptor antagonist icatibant and recovered. She is the second patient with a spleen abnormality and severe Puumala infection treated with icatibant in our hospital. We suggest that patients with spleen abnormalities may be more susceptible to severe hantavirus disease. The activation of the kinin-kallikrein system and the formation of bradykinin in hantavirus-infected endothelial cells indicate that the role of bradykinin receptor antagonist icatibant in the treatment of hantavirus disease is worth studying. PMID:25496418

  16. Avian oncogenesis induced by lymphoproliferative disease virus: a neglected or emerging retroviral pathogen?

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Andrew B.; Keel, M. Kevin; Philips, Jamie E.; Cartoceti, Andrew N.; Munk, Brandon A.; Nemeth, Nicole M.; Welsh, Trista I.; Thomas, Jesse M.; Crum, James M.; Lichtenwalner, Anne B.; Fadly, Aly M.; Zavala, Guillermo; Holmes, Edward C.; Brown, Justin D.

    2014-01-01

    Lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV) is an exogenous oncogenic retrovirus that induces lymphoid tumors in some galliform species of birds. Historically, outbreaks of LPDV have been reported from Europe and Israel. Although the virus has previously never been detected in North America, herein we describe the widespread distribution, genetic diversity, pathogenesis, and evolution of LPDV in the United States. Characterization of the provirus genome of the index LPDV case from North America demonstrated an 88% nucleotide identity to the Israeli prototype strain. Although phylogenetic analysis indicated that the majority of viruses fell into a single North American lineage, a small subset of viruses from South Carolina were most closely related to the Israeli prototype. These results suggest that LPDV was transferred between continents to initiate outbreaks of disease. However, the direction (New World to Old World or vice versa), mechanism, and time frame of the transcontinental spread currently remain unknown. PMID:24503062

  17. Molecular Surveillance for Lymphoproliferative Disease Virus in Wild Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) from the Eastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jesse M.; Allison, Andrew B.; Holmes, Edward C.; Phillips, Jamie E.; Bunting, Elizabeth M.; Yabsley, Michael J.; Brown, Justin D.

    2015-01-01

    Lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV) is a poorly understood, oncogenic avian retrovirus of domestic turkeys that has historically been restricted to Europe and Israel. However, a recent study reported LPDV in multiple wild turkey diagnostic cases from throughout the eastern United States of America (USA). To better understand the distribution of LPDV in the eastern USA, we surveyed 1,164 reportedly asymptomatic hunter-harvested wild turkeys from 17 states for the presence of LPDV proviral DNA by PCR. In total, 564/1,164 (47%) turkeys were positive for LPDV. Wild turkeys from each state had a relatively high prevalence of LPDV, although statewide prevalence varied from 26 to 83%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two major clades of LPDV in the USA, although one was at a low frequency suggesting restricted transmission, as well as significant clustering by state of isolation. To determine the best tissue to target for diagnostic purposes, liver, spleen, and bone marrow were tested from a subset of 15 hunter-harvested wild turkeys and 20 wild turkey diagnostic cases. Overall, bone marrow provided the highest level of detection for both hunter-harvested turkeys and diagnostic cases. The sensitivity of LPDV detection between tissues was not significantly different for diagnostic cases, but was for hunter-harvested birds. These results indicate that LPDV infection is common and widespread in wild turkey populations throughout the eastern USA, even without overt signs of disease. PMID:25897755

  18. Expression of Human Herpesvirus-6 Antigens in Benign and Malignant Lymphoproliferative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Luppi, Mario; Barozzi, Patrizia; Garber, Richard; Maiorana, Antonio; Bonacorsi, Goretta; Artusi, Tullio; Trovato, Raffaella; Marasca, Roberto; Torelli, Giuseppe

    1998-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry was used to look for the expression of human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) antigens in a well characterized series of benign, atypical, and malignant lymphoid lesions, which tested positive for the presence of HHV-6 DNA. A panel of specific antibodies against HHV-6 antigens, characteristic either of the early (p41) or late (p101K, gp106, and gp116) phases of the viral cycle, was applied to the lymphoid tissues from 15 non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas, 14 Hodgkin’s disease cases, 5 angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathies with dysproteinemia, 14 reactive lymphadenopathies, and 2 cases of sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman disease). In lymphomatous tissues, the expression of late antigens was documented only in reactive cells, and mainly in plasma cells. Of interest, the expression of the early p41 antigen was detected in the so-called “mummified” Reed-Sternberg cells, in two Hodgkin’s disease cases. In reactive lymphadenopathies, the HHV-6 late antigen-expressing cells were plasma cells, histiocytes, and rare granulocytes distributed in interfollicular areas. In both cases of Rosai-Dorfman disease, the p101K showed an intense staining in follicular dendritic cells of germinal centers, whereas the gp106 exhibited an intense cytoplasmic reaction in the abnormal histiocytes, which represent the histological hallmark of the disease. The expression of HHV-6 antigens is tightly controlled in lymphoid tissues. The lack of HHV-6 antigen expression in neoplastic cells and the limited expression in degenerating Reed-Sternberg cells argue against a major pathogenetic role of the virus in human lymphomagenesis. The detection of a rather unique pattern of viral late antigen expression in Rosai-Dorfman disease suggests a possible pathogenetic involvement of HHV-6 in some cases of this rare lymphoproliferative disorder. PMID:9736030

  19. DIAGNOSING LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE DISEASE VIRUS IN LIVE WILD TURKEYS (MELEAGRIS GALLOPAVO) USING WHOLE BLOOD.

    PubMed

    Alger, Katrina; Bunting, Elizabeth; Schuler, Krysten; Jagne, Jarra; Whipps, Christopher M

    2015-12-01

    Lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV) is a retrovirus that infects wild and domestic turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo ). The first cases of LPDV in the United States were diagnosed in 2009, and subsequent surveillance has revealed the virus to be widespread in wild turkey populations throughout the eastern half of the country. More research is needed to determine whether LPDV is having a negative effect on turkey populations, but progress has been impeded by the lack of a simple method for diagnosing the virus in living birds. Infected animals may appear asymptomatic, and diagnostics currently rely on tissue or bone marrow, which can be difficult to obtain. This study investigated the reliability of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect LPDV in whole blood, compared with previous methods using buffy coat (concentrated white blood cells) and bone marrow. Paired samples of whole blood and buffy coat were collected from 137 live turkeys and paired samples of whole blood and bone marrow were collected from 32 turkeys postmortem. Compared with buffy coat, whole blood had 97% sensitivity and 100% specificity. When compared with bone marrow, whole blood had 100% sensitivity and 89% specificity. Both comparisons had a high degree of agreement using Cohen's kappa statistic. Based on these results, PCR of whole blood provides detection of LPDV in living birds that is on par with both buffy coat and bone marrow. PMID:26667537

  20. Expression of HSV-1 Receptors in EBV-Associated Lymphoproliferative Disease Determines Susceptibility to Oncolytic HSV

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pin-Yi; Currier, Mark A; Hansford, Loen; Kaplan, David; Chiocca, E. Antonio; Uchida, Hiroaki; Goins, William F.; Cohen, Justus B.; Glorioso, Joseph C.; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; Mo, Xiaokui; Cripe, Timothy P

    2012-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated B cell lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) after hematopoietic stem cell or solid organ transplantation remains a life-threatening complication. Expression of the virus-encoded gene product, EBER, has been shown to prevent apoptosis via blockade of PKR activation. Because PKR is a major cellular defense against Herpes simplex virus, and oncolytic HSV-1 (oHSV) mutants have shown promising anti-tumor efficacy in preclinical models, we sought to determine whether EBV-LPD cells are susceptible to infection by oHSVs. We tested three primary EBV-infected lymphocyte cell cultures from neuroblastoma (NB) patients as models of naturally acquired EBV-LPD. NB12 was most susceptible, NB122R was intermediate, and NB88R2 was essentially resistant. Despite EBER expression, PKR was activated by oHSV infection. Susceptibility to oHSV correlated with the expression of the HSV receptor, nectin-1. The resistance of NB88R2 was reversed by exogenous nectin-1 expression, whereas down-regulation of nectin-1 on NB12 decreased viral entry. Xenografts derived from the EBV-LPDs exhibited only mild (NB12) or no (NB88R2) response to oHSV injection, compared with a neuroblastoma cell line that showed a significant response. We conclude that EBV-LPDs are relatively resistant to oHSV virotherapy, in some cases due to low virus receptor expression but also due to intact anti-viral PKR signaling. PMID:23254370

  1. Hemophagocytic syndrome in Epstein-Barr virus-associated T-lymphoproliferative disorders: disease spectrum, pathogenesis, and management.

    PubMed

    Su, I J; Wang, C H; Cheng, A L; Chen, R L

    1995-11-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been shown to infect T lymphocytes and is associated with two recently recognized human T-lymphoproliferative disorders: childhood EBV-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (VAHS) representing a primary or active EBV infection of T cells in young children, and the EBV-containing T cell lymphoma in adults predominantly affecting the nose, skin and gastrointestinal tract. In both diseases, hemophagocytic syndrome (HS) accounts for the major cause of mortality. The patients developing HS share common clinicopathologic features such as fever, skin lesions, lung infiltrates, hepatosplenomegaly with jaundice, cytopenias, and coagulopathy. The liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow usually show florid histiocytic proliferation with hemophagocytosis in addition to the proliferation of atypical T lymphocytes or immunoblasts. The HS in T cell lymphoma may develop simultaneously with initial lymphoma presentation, at tumor relapse, or even during remission. The cytokines, in particular tumor necrosis factor-alpha, released from the EBV-infected T lymphocytes are presumed to cause the histiocytic activation and the subsequent hemophagocytic process. Chemotherapy or antiviral agents fail to arrest the hemophagocytic process in both diseases. Immunomodulatory treatment incorporating etoposide and intravenous immunoglobulin, however, has been effective in the control of the progression of the hemophagocytic process in a substantial number of VAHS patients. Preliminary data suggest that bone marrow transplantation may be a promising way for eliminating both the virus and the proliferating T cells. Further investigations are mandatory for combating this aggressive hemophagocytic process in EBV-associated T lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:8590839

  2. Increased Risk of Post-Transplant Malignancy and Mortality in Transplant Tourists

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Mu-Chi; Wu, Ming-Ju; Chang, Chao-Hsiang; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Yu, Tung-Min; Ho, Hao-Chung; Shu, Kuo-Hsiung; Chung, Chi-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Information on post-transplant malignancy and mortality risk in kidney transplant tourists remains controversial and is an important concern. The present study aimed to evaluate the incidence of post-transplant malignancy and mortality risk between tourists and domestic transplant recipients using the claims data from Taiwan's universal health insurance. A retrospective study was performed on 2394 tourists and 1956 domestic recipients. Post-transplant malignancy and mortality were defined from the catastrophic illness patient registry by using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision. Cox proportional hazard regression and Kaplan–Meier curves were used for the analyses. The incidence for post-transplant de novo malignancy in the tourist group was 1.8-fold higher than that of the domestic group (21.8 vs 12.1 per 1000 person-years). The overall cancer recurrence rate was approximately 11%. The top 3 post-transplant malignancies, in decreasing order, were urinary tract, kidney, and liver cancers, regardless of the recipient type. Compared with domestic recipients, there was significant higher mortality risk in transplant tourists (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.0–1.5). In addition, those with either pre-transplant or post-transplant malignancies were associated with increased mortality risk. We suggest that a sufficient waiting period for patients with pre-transplant malignancies should be better emphasized to eliminate recurrence, and transplant tourists should be discouraged because of the possibility of higher post-transplant de novo malignancy occurrence and mortality. PMID:25546686

  3. Microtubule associated tumor suppressor 1 deficient mice develop spontaneous heart hypertrophy and SLE-like lymphoproliferative disease

    PubMed Central

    ZUERN, CHRISTINA; KRENACS, LASZLO; STARKE, STEPHANIE; HEIMRICH, JUTTA; PALMETSHOFER, ALOIS; HOLTMANN, BETTINA; SENDTNER, MICHAEL; FISCHER, TOBIAS; GALLE, JAN; WANNER, CHRISTOPH; SEIBOLD, STEFAN

    2012-01-01

    The microtubule associated tumor suppressor gene 1 (MTUS1) is a recently published tumor suppressor gene, which has also been shown to act as an early component in the growth inhibitory signaling cascade of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R). In this study we report the generation of MTUS1 knock-out (KO) mice, which develop normally but reveal higher body weights and slightly decreased blood pressure levels. Twenty-eight percent of the studied MTUS1 KO mice also developed heart hypertrophy and 12% developed nephritis, independent of blood pressure levels. Forty-three percent of the MTUS1 KO mice revealed lymphoid hyperplasia affecting spleen (20%), kidney (37%), lung (23%), lymph nodes (17%), and liver (17%) accompanied with leukocytosis, lymphocytosis, and mild anemia. One animal (3%) developed a marginal zone B-cell lymphoma affecting submandibular salivary gland and regional lymph nodes. The symptoms of all mentioned animals are consistent with a B-cell lymphoproliferative disease with features of systemic lupus erythematosus. In addition, body weight of the MTUS1 KO mice was significantly increased and isolated skin fibroblasts showed increased cell proliferation and decreased cell size, compared to wild-type (WT) fibroblasts in response to depleted FCS concentration and lack of growth factors. In conclusion we herein report the first generation of a MTUS1 KO mouse, developing spontaneous heart hypertrophy and increased cell proliferation, confirming once more the anti-proliferative effect of MTUS1, and a SLE-like lymphoproliferative disease suggesting crucial role in regulation of inflammation. These MTUS1 KO mice can therefore serve as a model for further investigations in cardiovascular disease, autoimmune disease and carcinogenesis. PMID:22200760

  4. High-dose, post-transplantation cyclophosphamide to promote graft-host tolerance after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Luznik, Leo

    2010-01-01

    Graft-versus-host disease, or GVHD, is a major complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) for the treatment of hematologic malignancies. Here, we describe a novel method for preventing GVHD after alloHSCT using high-dose, post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (Cy). Post-transplantation Cy promotes tolerance in alloreactive host and donor T cells, leading to suppression of both graft rejection and GVHD after alloHSCT. High-dose, post-transplantation Cy facilitates partially HLA-mismatched HSCT without severe GVHD and is effective as sole prophylaxis of GVHD after HLA-matched alloHSCT. By reducing the morbidity and mortality of alloHSCT, post-transplantation Cy may expand the applications of this therapy to the treatment of autoimmune diseases and non-malignant hematologic disorders such as sickle cell disease. PMID:20066512

  5. Clinical evaluation for lymphoproliferative disease prompted by finding of IgM warm autoanti-IT in two cases.

    PubMed

    Leger, R M; Lowder, F; Dungo, M C; Chen, W; Mason, H M; Garratty, G

    2009-01-01

    Anti-IT is an unusual specificity originally described as a naturally occurring cold agglutinin. The antibody reacts strongly with cord RBCs, weakly with adult I RBCs, and most weakly with the rare adult i RBCs. IgG anti-IT in patients with hemolytic anemia has been associated with Hodgkin's lymphoma. Difficulties in blood grouping tests and the presence of a warm reactive agglutinin in samples from two patients with hemolytic anemia led to further serologic studies and the identification of anti-IT. In both cases, the anti-IT was a rarely encountered IgM warm reactive agglutinin; in one case, the IgG component was also anti-IT, whereas in the second case the IgG antibody was broadly reactive. The unusual serologic finding of anti-IT prompted further clinical evaluation for lymphoproliferative disease in these two patients. PMID:19927621

  6. Oral Lesions and Lymphoproliferative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Castellarin, P.; Pozzato, G.; Tirelli, G.; Di Lenarda, R.; Biasotto, M.

    2010-01-01

    Lymphoproliferative disorders are heterogeneous malignancy characterized by the expansion of a lymphoid clone more or less differentiated. At the level of the oral cavity, the lymphoproliferative disorder can occur in various ways, most commonly as lymphoid lesions with extranodal externalization, but sometimes, oral lesions may represent a localization of a disease spread. With regard to the primary localizations of lymphoproliferative disorders, a careful examination of the head and neck, oral, and oropharyngeal area is necessary in order to identify suspicious lesions, and their early detection results in a better prognosis for the patient. Numerous complications have been described and frequently found at oral level, due to pathology or different therapeutic strategies. These complications require precise diagnosis and measures to oral health care. In all this, oral pathologists, as well as dental practitioners, have a central role in the treatment and long-term monitoring of these patients. PMID:20871659

  7. Voriconazole-induced periostitis: beyond post-transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Reber, Joshua D; McKenzie, Gavin A; Broski, Stephen M

    2016-06-01

    Voriconazole-induced periostitis (VIP) is a rare but increasingly encountered entity since Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of the second generation antifungal medication in 2002. Literature reports most commonly include transplant recipients on immunosuppressive therapy simultaneously requiring antifungal therapy. Nontransplant patients receiving long-term voriconazole have an equal risk of developing the disease, but may experience a delay in diagnosis due to a lack of familiarity with the process outside of the post-transplant and/or immunosuppressed population. We present a case of VIP in a nontransplant, immunocompetent patient on suppressive antifungal therapy for prior abdominal aortic stent graft fungal infection. Radiologist review of current medications and recognition of periostitis on multiple imaging modalities may hasten the diagnosis and lead to earlier treatment and resolution of symptoms. PMID:26980228

  8. Risk assessment and management of post-transplant diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Han, Eugene; Kim, Myoung Soo; Kim, Yu Seun; Kang, Eun Seok

    2016-10-01

    The success rate of organ transplantation has been increasing with advances in surgical and pharmacological techniques. However, the number of solid organ transplant recipients who require metabolic disease management is also growing. Post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is a common complication after solid organ transplantation and is associated with risks of graft loss, cardiovascular morbidity, and mortality. Other risk factors for PTDM include older age, genetic background, obesity, hepatitis C virus infection, hypomagnesemia, and use of immunosuppressant agents (corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor). Management of PTDM should be started before the transplantation plan to properly screen high-risk patients. Even though PTDM management is similar to that of general type 2 diabetes, therapeutic approaches must be made with consideration of drug interactions between immunosuppressive agents, glucose-lowering medications, and graft rejection and function. PMID:27621191

  9. Study Provides Insights into Diagnosis, Treatment of Rare Immune Disease: Autoimmmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome ...

    MedlinePlus

    ... Related Links​ ALPS Unit, Laboratory of Immunology Autoimmune Diseases Immune System Primary Immune Deficiency Diseases National Library of ... Study Provides Insights Into Diagnosis, Treatment of Rare Immune Disease NIH Scientists Report Findings From 20 Years of ...

  10. Novel functional activities of anti-DNA autoantibodies from sera of patients with lymphoproliferative and autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Kozyr, A V; Kolesnikov, A V; Aleksandrova, E S; Sashchenko, L P; Gnuchev, N V; Favorov, P V; Kotelnikov, M A; Iakhnina, E I; Astsaturov, I A; Prokaeva, T B; Alekberova, Z S; Suchkov, S V; Gabibov, A G

    1998-10-01

    DNA-hydrolyzing activity of IgG autoantibodies from sera of patients with various types of lymphoproliferative diseases was investigated. The association of DNA-hydrolyzing activity with the antibody (Ab) fraction has been proved by newly developed affinity-capture assay. Study of abzyme incidence in blood tumors and systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE) revealed linkage of anti-DNA Ab catalysts to mature B-cell tumors, and increased probability of DNA-abzymes formation on the background of autoimmune manifestations. These data suggest possible similarity between mechanisms of abzyme formation in SLE and B-cell lymphomas. A new mechanism of formation of DNA-specific catalytic Abs has been proposed based on the increased crossreactivity of polyclonal DNA-abzymes to DNA-depleted nuclear matrix proteins. The possibility of the abzyme production as Ab to the energetically destabilized ground state of the antigen has been discussed. Preliminary results were obtained that indicate the complement-independent cytotoxicity of anti-DNA autoantibodies isolated from blood of patients with SLE and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. PMID:10214696

  11. Diagnostic Utility of a Clonality Test for Lymphoproliferative Diseases in Koreans Using the BIOMED-2 PCR Assay

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young; Choi, Yoo Duk; Choi, Chan

    2013-01-01

    Background A clonality test for immunoglobulin (IG) and T cell receptor (TCR) is a useful adjunctive method for the diagnosis of lymphoproliferative diseases (LPDs). Recently, the BIOMED-2 multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay has been established as a standard method for assessing the clonality of LPDs. We tested clonality in LPDs in Koreans using the BIOMED-2 multiplex PCR and compared the results with those obtained in European, Taiwanese, and Thai participants. We also evaluated the usefulness of the test as an ancillary method for diagnosing LPDs. Methods Two hundred and nineteen specimens embedded in paraffin, including 78 B cell lymphomas, 80 T cell lymphomas and 61 cases of reactive lymphadenitis, were used for the clonality test. Results Mature B cell malignancies showed 95.7% clonality for IG, 2.9% co-existing clonality, and 4.3% polyclonality. Mature T cell malignancies exhibited 83.8% clonality for TCR, 8.1% co-existing clonality, and 16.2% polyclonality. Reactive lymphadenitis showed 93.4% polyclonality for IG and TCR. The majority of our results were similar to those obtained in Europeans. However, the clonality for IGK of B cell malignancies and TCRG of T cell malignancies was lower in Koreans than Europeans. Conclusions The BIOMED-2 multiplex PCR assay was a useful adjunctive method for diagnosing LPDs. PMID:24255634

  12. Characterization of Two Distinct Lymphoproliferative Diseases Caused by Ectopic Expression of the Notch Ligand DLL4 on T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Latkowski, Jo-Ann; Henderson, Tanya; Schlessinger, Karni; Ding, Yi; Shen, Jie; Tadokoro, Carlos E.; Lafaille, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    Notch signaling is essential for the development of T cell progenitors through the interaction of NOTCH1 receptor on their surface with the ligand, Delta-like 4 (DLL4), which is expressed by the thymic epithelial cells. Notch signaling is quickly shut down once the cells pass β-selection, and CD4/CD8 double positive (DP) cells are unresponsive to Notch. Over the past two decades a number of papers reported that over-activation of Notch signaling causes T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), a cancer that prominently features circulating monoclonal CD4/CD8 double positive T cells in different mouse models. However, the possible outcomes of Notch over-activation at different stages of T cell development are unknown, and the fine timing of Notch signaling that results in T-ALL is poorly understood. Here we report, by using a murine model that ectopically expresses DLL4 on developing T cells, that the T-ALL onset is highly dependent on a sustained Notch activity throughout the DP stage, which induces additional mutations to further boost the signaling. In contrast, a shorter period of Notch activation that terminates at the DP stage causes a polyclonal, non-transmissible lymphoproliferative disorder that is also lethal. These observations resolved the discrepancy of previous papers on DLL4 driven hematological diseases in mice, and show the critical importance of the timing and duration of Notch activity. PMID:24386421

  13. Systematic Epstein-Barr virus-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disease presenting as a persistent fever and cough: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Systemic Epstein-Barr virus-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative childhood disease is an extremely rare disorder and classically arises following primary acute or chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection. It is characterized by clonal proliferation of Epstein-Barr virus-infected T-cells with an activated cytotoxic phenotype. This disease has a rapid clinical course and is more frequent in Asia and South America, with relatively few cases being reported in Western countries. The clinical and pathological features of the disease overlap with other conditions including infectious mononucleosis, chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and natural killer cell malignancies. We describe the rare case of systemic Epstein-Barr virus-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative childhood disease in a 16-year-old Malay boy. Case presentation He presented with a six-month history of fever and cough, with pulmonary and mediastinal lymphadenopathy and severe pancytopenia. Medium- to large-sized, CD8+ and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA-positive atypical lymphoid cells were present in the bone marrow aspirate. He subsequently developed fatal virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome and died due to sepsis and multiorgan failure. Conclusions Although systemic Epstein-Barr virus-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative childhood disease is a disorder which is rarely encountered in clinical practice, our case report underlines the importance of a comprehensive diagnostic approach in the management of this disease. A high level of awareness of the disease throughout the diagnosis process for young patients who present with systemic illness and hemophagocytic syndrome may be of great help for the clinical diagnosis of this disease. PMID:25163591

  14. Epstein-Barr Virus-positive T-cell Lymphoproliferative Disease Following Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation for Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Yui, Shunsuke; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Imadome, Ken-Ichi; Arai, Ayako; Takahashi, Mikiko; Ohashi, Ryuji; Tamai, Hayato; Moriya, Keiichi; Nakayama, Kazutaka; Shimizu, Akira; Inokuchi, Koiti

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of the extremely rare condition Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) which occurred after umbilical cord blood transplantation. A 25-year-old Japanese man underwent cord blood transplantation from a male human leukocyte antigen 4/6-matched donor due to acute myeloid leukemia with trisomy 8. Bone marrow examination on day 30 showed chimerism with at least 90% donor cells and complete hematological response. Chronic symptoms of graft-versus-host disease appeared only on the skin and were successfully treated with cyclosporine alone. Three years later, however, the patient experienced repeated cold-like symptoms and was hospitalized with liver dysfunction. A high fever developed and was followed by significant edema of the right side of the face. The EBV DNA copy number in whole peripheral blood was 2×10(4)/mL. Liver biopsy showed invasion of EBV-infected CD8-positive T cells. Southern blotting analysis of the whole peripheral blood showed that the T-cell receptor Cβ1 rearrangement was positive. On the basis of these results, EBV-positive T-cell LPD was diagnosed and treated with prednisolone, cyclosporine, and etoposide, followed by cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone. However, the patient died of cardiac function failure, pneumonia, and pulmonary hemorrhage, all of unidentified cause. Most cases of EBV-related LPD after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation consist of EBV-positive B-cell LPD, and, to our knowledge, de novo EBV-positive T-cell LPD subsequent to transplantation has not been previously reported. PMID:26960588

  15. Association of HLA polymorphisms with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder in solid-organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Reshef, R; Luskin, M R; Kamoun, M; Vardhanabhuti, S; Tomaszewski, J E; Stadtmauer, E A; Porter, D L; Heitjan, D F; Tsai, De E

    2011-04-01

    The association between HLA polymorphisms and PTLD was investigated in a case-control study, comparing 110 predominantly adult solid-organ transplant recipients who developed PTLD to 5601 who did not. Donor and recipient HLA were analyzed. We detected a significant association between recipient HLA-A26 and the development of PTLD (OR 2.74; p = 0.0007). In Caucasian recipients, both recipient and donor HLA-A26 were independently associated with development of PTLD (recipient A26 OR 2.99; p = 0.0004, donor A26 OR 2.81; p = 0.002). Analysis of HLA-A and -B haplotypes revealed that recipient HLA-A26, B38 haplotype was strongly correlated with a higher incidence of EBV-positive PTLD (OR 3.99; p = 0.001). The common ancestral haplotype HLA-A1, B8, DR3, when carried by the donor, was protective against PTLD (OR 0.41; p = 0.05). Several other HLA specificities demonstrated associations with clinical and pathological characteristics as well as survival. These findings demonstrate the importance of HLA polymorphisms in modulating the risk for PTLD, and may be useful in risk stratification and development of monitoring and prophylaxis strategies. PMID:21401872

  16. Association of HLA Polymorphisms with Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder in Solid-Organ Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Reshef, R; Luskin, MR; Kamoun, M; Vardhanabhuti, S; Tomaszewski, JE; Stadtmauer, EA; Porter, DL; Heitjan, DF; Tsai, DE

    2011-01-01

    The association between HLA polymorphisms and PTLD was investigated in a case-control study, comparing 110 predominantly adult solid-organ transplant recipients who developed PTLD to 5601 who did not. Donor and recipient HLA were analyzed. We detected a significant association between recipient HLA-A26 and the development of PTLD (OR 2.74; P=0.0007). In Caucasian recipients, both recipient and donor HLA-A26 were independently associated with development of PTLD (recipient A26 OR 2.99; P=0.0004, donor A26 OR 2.81; P=0.002). Analysis of HLA-A and -B haplotypes revealed that recipient HLA-A26, B38 haplotype was strongly correlated with a higher incidence of EBV-positive PTLD (OR 3.99; p=0.001). The common ancestral haplotype HLA-A1, B8, DR3, when carried by the donor, was protective against PTLD (OR 0.41; p=0.05). Several other HLA specificities demonstrated associations with clinical and pathological characteristics as well as survival. These findings demonstrate the importance of HLA polymorphisms in modulating the risk for PTLD, and may be useful in risk stratification and development of monitoring and prophylaxis strategies. PMID:21401872

  17. Epstein-Barr Virus–Positive Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disease After Solid Organ Transplantation: Pathogenesis, Clinical Manifestations, Diagnosis, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Nijland, Marieke L.; Kersten, Marie José; Pals, Steven T.; Bemelman, Frederike J.; ten Berge, Ineke J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is a potentially fatal complication after (solid organ) transplantation, which is highly associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The EBV-specific cytotoxic T cell response that is essential in controlling the virus in healthy individuals is suppressed in transplant recipients using immunosuppressive drugs. A primary EBV infection in EBV-seronegative patients receiving an EBV-seropositive donor organ or a reactivation in those who are already latently infected pretransplantation can lead to uninhibited growth of EBV-infected B cells and subsequently to PTLD. Effective preventive strategies, such as vaccines and antiviral agents, are lacking. Because not every transplant recipient with increasing EBV viral load develops PTLD, it is hard to decide how intensively these patients should be monitored and how and when a preemptive intervention should take place. There is a need for other tools to help predict the development of PTLD in patients at risk to make timing and strategy of preemptive intervention easier and more reliable. The cornerstone of the treatment of patients with PTLD is restoring the host's immunity by reduction of immunosuppressive drug therapy. American and British guidelines recommend to add rituximab monotherapy or rituximab in combination with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone, depending on histology and clinical characteristics. Although response to these therapies is good, toxicity is a problem, and PTLD still has a relatively high mortality rate. An evolving therapy, especially in PTLD occurring in allogeneic stem cell transplantation, is restoring the host's immune response with infusion of EBV-specific cytotoxic T cells. This may also play a role in the future in both prevention and treatment of PTLD in SOT.

  18. Epstein-Barr Virus-Positive Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disease After Solid Organ Transplantation: Pathogenesis, Clinical Manifestations, Diagnosis, and Management.

    PubMed

    Nijland, Marieke L; Kersten, Marie José; Pals, Steven T; Bemelman, Frederike J; Ten Berge, Ineke J M

    2016-01-01

    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is a potentially fatal complication after (solid organ) transplantation, which is highly associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The EBV-specific cytotoxic T cell response that is essential in controlling the virus in healthy individuals is suppressed in transplant recipients using immunosuppressive drugs. A primary EBV infection in EBV-seronegative patients receiving an EBV-seropositive donor organ or a reactivation in those who are already latently infected pretransplantation can lead to uninhibited growth of EBV-infected B cells and subsequently to PTLD. Effective preventive strategies, such as vaccines and antiviral agents, are lacking. Because not every transplant recipient with increasing EBV viral load develops PTLD, it is hard to decide how intensively these patients should be monitored and how and when a preemptive intervention should take place. There is a need for other tools to help predict the development of PTLD in patients at risk to make timing and strategy of preemptive intervention easier and more reliable. The cornerstone of the treatment of patients with PTLD is restoring the host's immunity by reduction of immunosuppressive drug therapy. American and British guidelines recommend to add rituximab monotherapy or rituximab in combination with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone, depending on histology and clinical characteristics. Although response to these therapies is good, toxicity is a problem, and PTLD still has a relatively high mortality rate. An evolving therapy, especially in PTLD occurring in allogeneic stem cell transplantation, is restoring the host's immune response with infusion of EBV-specific cytotoxic T cells. This may also play a role in the future in both prevention and treatment of PTLD in SOT. PMID:27500242

  19. Disclosing the CXCR4 Expression in Lymphoproliferative Diseases by Targeted Molecular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wester, Hans Jürgen; Keller, Ulrich; Schottelius, Margret; Beer, Ambros; Philipp-Abbrederis, Kathrin; Hoffmann, Frauke; Šimeček, Jakub; Gerngross, Carlos; Lassmann, Michael; Herrmann, Ken; Pellegata, Natalia; Rudelius, Martina; Kessler, Horst; Schwaiger, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Chemokine ligand-receptor interactions play a pivotal role in cell attraction and cellular trafficking, both in normal tissue homeostasis and in disease. In cancer, chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) expression is an adverse prognostic factor. Early clinical studies suggest that targeting CXCR4 with suitable high-affinity antagonists might be a novel means for therapy. In addition to the preclinical evaluation of [68Ga]Pentixafor in mice bearing human lymphoma xenografts as an exemplary CXCR4-expressing tumor entity, we report on the first clinical applications of [68Ga]Pentixafor-Positron Emission Tomography as a powerful method for CXCR4 imaging in cancer patients. [68Ga]Pentixafor binds with high affinity and selectivity to human CXCR4 and exhibits a favorable dosimetry. [68Ga]Pentixafor-PET provides images with excellent specificity and contrast. This non-invasive imaging technology for quantitative assessment of CXCR4 expression allows to further elucidate the role of CXCR4/CXCL12 ligand interaction in the pathogenesis and treatment of cancer, cardiovascular diseases and autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. PMID:25825601

  20. Adoptive transfer of the generalized lymphoproliferative disease (gld) syndrome in nude beige mice.

    PubMed Central

    Froidevaux, S; Rosenblatt, N; Loor, F

    1992-01-01

    C57BL/6 nude beige mice (B6 nubg) were used as recipients for the transfer of haematopoietic cells from either B6 wild as control mice, or systemic lupus erythematous B6 mice homozygous for the recessive generalized lymphadenopathy disease (gld) locus. Both gld and wild cell grafts prolonged survival of the short-living B6 nubg recipients and restored some T-cell functions, as monitored by the presence of T-dependent Ig isotypes in the serum and responsiveness of spleen cells to a T-cell mitogen. Moreover, the [gld----nubg] chimeras but not the [wild----nubg] chimeras showed several similarities with gld control mice, particularly, a spleen and lymph node hyperplasia, elevated anti-single-stranded DNA antibody titres and a hyperglobulinaemia. This hyperglobulinaemia was however qualitatively different from the gld-type hyperglobulinaemia with an important contribution of the IgG1 isotype; the lymph node hyperplasia was also less marked than in B6 gld mice. PMID:1592442

  1. Emerging treatments for post-transplantation diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Jenssen, Trond; Hartmann, Anders

    2015-08-01

    Post-transplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM), also known as new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM), occurs in 10-15% of renal transplant recipients and is associated with cardiovascular disease and reduced lifespan. In the majority of cases, PTDM is characterized by β-cell dysfunction, as well as reduced insulin sensitivity in liver, muscle and adipose tissue. Glucose-lowering therapy must be compatible with immunosuppressant agents, reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and severe arteriosclerosis. Such therapy should not place the patient at risk by inducing hypoglycaemic episodes or exacerbating renal function owing to adverse gastrointestinal effects with hypovolaemia. First-generation and second-generation sulphonylureas are generally avoided, and caution is currently advocated for the use of metformin in patients with GFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2). DPP-4 inhibitors do not interact with immunosuppressant drugs and have demonstrated safety in small clinical trials. Other therapeutic options include glinides and glitazones. Evidence-based treatment regimens used in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus cannot be directly implemented in patients with PTDM. Studies investigating the latest drugs are required to direct the development of improved treatment strategies for patients with PTDM. This Review outlines the modern principles of glucose-lowering treatment in PTDM with specific reference to renal transplant recipients. PMID:25917553

  2. Post-transplant adjustment--the later years.

    PubMed

    Fredericks, Emily M; Zelikovsky, Nataliya; Aujoulat, Isabelle; Hames, Anna; Wray, Jo

    2014-11-01

    As survival rates for pediatric solid organ transplantation have continued to improve, researchers and healthcare providers have increasingly focused on understanding and enhancing the HRQOL and psychosocial functioning of their patients. This manuscript reviews the psychosocial functioning of pediatric transplant recipients during the "later years," defined as more than three yr post-transplant, and focuses on the day-to-day impact of living with a transplant after the immediate period of adjustment and early years after surgery. Key topics reviewed include HRQOL, cognitive functioning, impact on the family, regimen adherence, and transition of responsibility for self-management tasks. Overall, pediatric transplant recipients evidence impairment in HRQOL, neuropsychological outcomes, and family functioning as compared to non-transplant recipients. However, the degree of impairment is influenced by a variety of factors including, disease severity, age, solid organ type, and study methodologies. Studies are limited by small samples, cross-sectional design, and the lack of universal assessment battery to allow for comparisons across solid organ populations. Areas for future research are discussed. PMID:25220845

  3. Inherited CHST11/MIR3922 deletion is associated with a novel recessive syndrome presenting with skeletal malformation and malignant lymphoproliferative disease

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Sameer S; Leshchiner, Ignaty; Duzkale, Hatice; McLaughlin, Heather; Giovanni, Monica; Zhang, Chengsheng; Stitziel, Nathan; Fingeroth, Joyce; Joyce, Robin M; Lebo, Matthew; Rehm, Heidi; Vuzman, Dana; Maas, Richard; Sunyaev, Shamil R; Murray, Michael; Cassa, Christopher A

    2015-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) such as chondroitin are ubiquitous disaccharide carbohydrate chains that contribute to the formation and function of proteoglycans at the cell membrane and in the extracellular matrix. Although GAG-modifying enzymes are required for diverse cellular functions, the role of these proteins in human development and disease is less well understood. Here, we describe two sisters out of seven siblings affected by congenital limb malformation and malignant lymphoproliferative disease. Using Whole-Genome Sequencing (WGS), we identified in the proband deletion of a 55 kb region within chromosome 12q23 that encompasses part of CHST11 (encoding chondroitin-4-sulfotransferase 1) and an embedded microRNA (MIR3922). The deletion was homozygous in the proband but not in each of three unaffected siblings. Genotyping data from the 1000 Genomes Project suggest that deletions inclusive of both CHST11 and MIR3922 are rare events. Given that CHST11 deficiency causes severe chondrodysplasia in mice that is similar to human limb malformation, these results underscore the importance of chondroitin modification in normal skeletal development. Our findings also potentially reveal an unexpected role for CHST11 and/or MIR3922 as tumor suppressors whose disruption may contribute to malignant lymphoproliferative disease. PMID:26436107

  4. Predictive roles of intraoperative blood glucose for post-transplant outcomes in liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul Soo

    2015-06-14

    Diabetogenic traits in patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT) are exacerbated intraoperatively by exogenous causes, such as surgical stress, steroids, blood transfusions, and catecholamines, which lead to intraoperative hyperglycemia. In contrast to the strict glucose control performed in the intensive care unit, no systematic protocol has been developed for glucose management during LT. Intraoperative blood glucose concentrations typically exceed 200 mg/dL in LT, and extreme hyperglycemia (> 300 mg/dL) is common during the neohepatic phase. Only a few retrospective studies have examined the relationship between intraoperative hyperglycemia and post-transplant complications, with reports of infectious complications or mortality. However, no prospective studies have been conducted regarding the influence of intraoperative hyperglycemia in LT on post-transplant outcome. In addition to absolute blood glucose values, the temporal patterns in blood glucose levels during LT may serve as prognostic features. Persistent neohepatic hyperglycemia (without a decline) throughout LT is a useful indicator of early graft dysfunction. Moreover, intraoperative variability in glucose levels may predict the need for reoperation for hemorrhage after LT. Thus, there is an urgent need for guidelines for glucose control in these patients, as well as prospective studies on the impact of glucose control on various post-transplant complications. This report highlights some of the recent studies related to perioperative blood glucose management focused on LT and liver disease. PMID:26078559

  5. Bridge to lung transplantation and rescue post-transplant: the expanding role of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Gulack, Brian C.; Hirji, Sameer A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last several decades, the growth of lung transplantation has been hindered by a much higher demand for donor lungs than can be supplied, leading to considerable waiting time and mortality among patients waiting for transplant. This has led to the search for an alternative bridging strategy in patients with end-stage lung disease. The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as a bridge to lung transplantation as well as a rescue strategy post-transplant for primary graft dysfunction (PGD) has been studied previously, however due to initially poor outcomes, its use was not heavily instituted. In recent years, with significant improvement in technologies, several single and multi-center studies have shown promising outcomes related to the use of ECMO as a bridging strategy as well as a therapy for patients suffering from PGD post-transplant. These results have challenged our current notion on ECMO use and hence forced us to reexamine the utility, efficacy and safety of ECMO in conjunction with lung transplantation. Through this review, we will address the various aspects related to ECMO use as a bridge to lung transplantation as well as a rescue post-transplant in the treatment of PGD. We will emphasize newer technologies related to ECMO use, examine recent observational studies and randomized trials of ECMO use before and after lung transplantation, and reflect upon our own institutional experience with the use of ECMO in these difficult clinical situations. PMID:25132974

  6. Restimulation-induced apoptosis of T cells is impaired in patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative disease caused by SAP deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Andrew L.; Marsh, Rebecca A.; Krummey, Scott M.; Roehrs, Philip; Young, Lisa R.; Zhang, Kejian; van Hoff, Jack; Dhar, Deepali; Nichols, Kim E.; Filipovich, Alexandra H.; Su, Helen C.; Bleesing, Jack J.; Lenardo, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is a rare congenital immunodeficiency that leads to an extreme, usually fatal increase in the number of lymphocytes upon infection with EBV. It is most commonly defined molecularly by loss of expression of SLAM-associated protein (SAP). Despite this, there is little understanding of how SAP deficiency causes lymphocytosis following EBV infection. Here we show that T cells from individuals with XLP are specifically resistant to apoptosis mediated by TCR restimulation, a process that normally constrains T cell expansion during immune responses. Expression of SAP and the SLAM family receptor NK, T, and B cell antigen (NTB-A) were required for TCR-induced upregulation of key pro-apoptotic molecules and subsequent apoptosis. Further, SAP/NTB-A signaling augmented the strength of the proximal TCR signal to achieve the threshold required for restimulation-induced cell death (RICD). Strikingly, TCR ligation in activated T cells triggered increased recruitment of SAP to NTB-A, dissociation of the phosphatase SHP-1, and colocalization of NTB-A with CD3 aggregates. In contrast, NTB-A and SHP-1 contributed to RICD resistance in XLP T cells. Our results reveal what we believe to be novel roles for NTB-A and SAP in regulating T cell homeostasis through apoptosis and provide mechanistic insight into the pathogenesis of lymphoproliferative disease in XLP. PMID:19759517

  7. Epstein-Barr virus: general factors, virus-related diseases and measurement of viral load after transplant

    PubMed Central

    Gequelin, Luciana Cristina Fagundes; Riediger, Irina N.; Nakatani, Sueli M.; Biondo, Alexander W.; Bonfim, Carmem M.

    2011-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus is responsible for infectious mononucleosis syndrome and is also closely associated to several types of cancer. The main complication involving Epstein-Barr virus infection, both in recipients of hematopoietic stem cells and solid organs, is post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease. The importance of this disease has increased interest in the development of laboratory tools to improve post-transplant monitoring and to detect the disease before clinical evolution. Viral load analysis for Epstein-Barr virus through real-time polymerase chain reaction is, at present, the best tool to measure viral load. However, there is not a consensus on which sample type is the best for the test and what is its predictive value for therapeutic interventions. PMID:23049344

  8. The impact of viral hepatitis-related hepatocellular carcinoma to post-transplant outcomes.

    PubMed

    Younossi, Z M; Stepanova, M; Saab, S; Ahmed, A; Lam, B; Srishord, M; Venkatesan, C; Wai, H; Henry, L

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common complication of HCV infection leading to liver transplantation. We evaluated the impact of aetiology of liver disease on patient and graft survival following liver transplantation for HCC. From the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (2002-2011), all adults who underwent liver transplantation for HCC were retrospectively included. Aetiology of liver disease was grouped into HCV, HBV, HCV-HBV co-infection and nonviral liver disease. Of 8,733 liver transplant recipients with HCC, 5507 had HCV, 631 had HBV, 163 were co-infected, and 2432 had nonviral causes of liver disease. In follow-up (48 ± 32 months), 8.2% had graft failure and 29.5% died. The mean rates of graft failure were 9.5%, 4.7%, 6.1% and 6.4% in HCV, HBV, HCV-HBV co-infection and nonviral liver disease, respectively (P < 0.0001). Post-transplant mortality rate in patients with HBV was 20.2%, HCV 31.0%, HCV-HBV 28.5% and nonviral 28.5% (P < 0.0001). This difference was significant starting one year post-transplant and became even more prominent later in follow-up. Five-year post-transplant survival was 64.7% in HCV, 77.7% in HBV, 71.0% in HCV-HBV and 69.1% in nonviral HCC (P < 0.0001). A diagnosis of HCV in patients with HCC was also independently associated with an increased risk of both graft failure (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.84 (1.46-2.33), P < 0.0001) and mortality (1.35 (1.21-1.50), P < 0.0001) in multivariate analysis. Patients with HCV-related HCC are at higher risk of adverse post-transplant outcomes. These patients should be considered for preemptive interferon-free antiviral therapy prior to or immediately following liver transplantation. PMID:26289820

  9. Post-transplant dyslipidemia: Mechanisms, diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Arnav; Prasad, G V Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Post-transplant dyslipidemia is highly prevalent and presents unique management challenges to the clinician. The two major outcomes to consider with post-transplant therapies for dyslipidemia are preserving or improving allograft function, and reducing cardiovascular risk. Although there are other cardiovascular risk factors such as graft dysfunction, hypertension, and diabetes, attention to dyslipidemia is warranted because interventions for dyslipidemia have an impact on reducing cardiac events in clinical trials specific to the transplant population. Dyslipidemia is not synonymous with hyperlipidemia. Numerous mechanisms exist for the occurrence of post-transplant dyslipidemia, including those mediated by immunosuppressive drug therapy. Statin therapy has received the most attention in all solid organ transplant recipient populations, although the effect of proper dietary advice and adjuvant pharmacological and non-pharmacological agents should not be dismissed. At all stages of treatment appropriate monitoring strategies for side effects should be implemented so that the benefits from these therapies can be achieved. Clinicians have a choice when there is a conflict between various transplant society and lipid society guidelines for therapy and targets. PMID:27011910

  10. Targeted activation of human Vγ9Vδ2-T cells controls epstein-barr virus-induced B cell lymphoproliferative disease.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Zheng; Liu, Yinping; Zheng, Jian; Liu, Ming; Lv, Aizhen; Gao, Yulong; Hu, Huaidong; Lam, Kowk-Tai; Chan, Godfrey Chi-Fung; Yang, Yuanzhong; Chen, Honglin; Tsao, George Sai-Wah; Bonneville, Marc; Lau, Yu-Lung; Tu, Wenwei

    2014-10-13

    Epstein-Barr virus-induced lymphoproliferative disease (EBV-LPD) after transplantation remains a serious and life-threatening complication. Herein we showed that the aminobisphosphonate pamidronate-expanded human Vγ9Vδ2-T cells efficiently killed EBV-transformed autologous lymphoblastoid B cell lines (EBV-LCL) through γ/δ-TCR and NKG2D receptor triggering and Fas and TRAIL engagement. By inoculation of EBV-LCL in Rag2(-/-)γc(-/-) mice and humanized mice, we established lethal EBV-LPD with characteristics close to those of the human disease. Adoptive transfer of pamidronate-expanded Vγ9Vδ2-T cells alone effectively prevented EBV-LPD in Rag2(-/-)γc(-/-) mice and induced EBV-LPD regression in EBV(+) tumor-bearing Rag2(-/-)γc(-/-) mice. Pamidronate treatment inhibited EBV-LPD development in humanized mice through selective activation and expansion of Vγ9Vδ2-T cells. This study provides proof-of-principle for a therapeutic approach using pamidronate to control EBV-LPD through Vγ9Vδ2-T cell targeting. PMID:25220446

  11. Treatment of Epstein-Barr virus lymphoproliferative disease after hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation with hydroxyurea and cytotoxic T-cell lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Pakakasama, Samart; Eames, Gretchen M; Morriss, Michael C; Huls, M Helen; Rooney, Cliona M; Heslop, Helen E; Krance, Robert A

    2004-09-15

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) is a potentially fatal complication that may follow allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). In this article, the authors report a 2-year-old girl with Hurler's syndrome who developed multiple central nervous system (CNS) EBV LPD lesions 1 year after unrelated donor HSCT. Before this CNS occurrence, the patient had a complete response to rituximab treatment for EBV LPD of the spleen and lymph nodes; however, treatment of the CNS disease with rituximab proved ineffective. Because of reported favorable response of primary CNS EBV LPD in two human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients, the authors treated this patient with low-dose oral hydroxyurea. The patient improved clinically, with a decrease in size of multiple EBV LPD brain lesions. Subsequently, the patient received EBV-specific cytotoxic T-cell lymphocytes and remains well. The benefit and limited toxicity of hydroxyurea therapy merit its further consideration as treatment for EBV LPD. PMID:15371682

  12. Epstein–Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disease in non-immunocompromised hosts: a status report and summary of an international meeting, 8–9 September 2008

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, J. I.; Kimura, H.; Nakamura, S.; Ko, Y.-H.; Jaffe, E. S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recently novel Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) lymphoproliferative diseases (LPDs) have been identified in non-immunocompromised hosts, both in Asia and Western countries. These include aggressive T-cell and NK-cell LPDs often subsumed under the heading of chronic active Epstein–Barr virus (CAEBV) infection and EBV-driven B-cell LPDs mainly affecting the elderly. Design: To better define the pathogenesis, classification, and treatment of these disorders, participants from Asia, The Americas, Europe, and Australia presented clinical and experimental data at an international meeting. Results: The term systemic EBV-positive T-cell LPD, as adopted by the WHO classification, is preferred as a pathological classification over CAEBV (the favored clinical term) for those cases that are clonal. The disease has an aggressive clinical course, but may arise in the background of CAEBV. Hydroa vacciniforme (HV) and HV-like lymphoma represent a spectrum of clonal EBV-positive T-cell LPDs, which have a more protracted clinical course; spontaneous regression may occur in adult life. Severe mosquito bite allergy is a related syndrome usually of NK cell origin. Immune senescence in the elderly is associated with both reactive and neoplastic EBV-driven LPDs, including EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. Conclusion: The participants proposed an international consortium to facilitate further clinical and biological studies of novel EBV-driven LPDs. PMID:19515747

  13. Management and prevention of post-transplant malignancies in kidney transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Stallone, Giovanni; Infante, Barbara; Grandaliano, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The central issue in organ transplantation remains suppression of allograft rejection. Thus, the development of immunosuppressive drugs has been the key to successful allograft function. The increased immunosuppressive efficiency obtained in the last two decades in kidney transplantation dramatically reduced the incidence of acute rejection. However, the inevitable trade-off was an increased rate of post-transplant infections and malignancies. Since the incidence of cancer in immunosuppressed transplant recipients becomes greater over time, and the introduction of new immunosuppressive strategies are expected to extend significantly allograft survival, the problem might grow exponentially in the near future. Thus, cancer is becoming a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients otherwise successfully treated by organ transplantation. There are at least four distinct areas requiring consideration, which have a potentially serious impact on recipient outcome after transplantation: (i) the risk of transmitting a malignancy to the recipient within the donor organ; (ii) the problems of previously diagnosed and treated malignancy in the recipient; (iii) the prevention of de novo post-transplant malignant diseases and (iv) the management of these complex and often life-threatening clinical problems. In this scenario, the direct and indirect oncogenic potential of immunosuppressive therapy should be always carefully considered. PMID:26413294

  14. Management and prevention of post-transplant malignancies in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Stallone, Giovanni; Infante, Barbara; Grandaliano, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    The central issue in organ transplantation remains suppression of allograft rejection. Thus, the development of immunosuppressive drugs has been the key to successful allograft function. The increased immunosuppressive efficiency obtained in the last two decades in kidney transplantation dramatically reduced the incidence of acute rejection. However, the inevitable trade-off was an increased rate of post-transplant infections and malignancies. Since the incidence of cancer in immunosuppressed transplant recipients becomes greater over time, and the introduction of new immunosuppressive strategies are expected to extend significantly allograft survival, the problem might grow exponentially in the near future. Thus, cancer is becoming a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients otherwise successfully treated by organ transplantation. There are at least four distinct areas requiring consideration, which have a potentially serious impact on recipient outcome after transplantation: (i) the risk of transmitting a malignancy to the recipient within the donor organ; (ii) the problems of previously diagnosed and treated malignancy in the recipient; (iii) the prevention of de novo post-transplant malignant diseases and (iv) the management of these complex and often life-threatening clinical problems. In this scenario, the direct and indirect oncogenic potential of immunosuppressive therapy should be always carefully considered. PMID:26413294

  15. Hemophagocytic syndrome following haploidentical peripheral blood stem cell transplantation with post-transplant cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Sarita Rani; Chakrabarti, Aditi; Chatterjee, Sumita; Bhargava, Sneh; Ray, Kunal; Chakrabarti, Suparno

    2016-02-01

    Hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is a rare but serious complication after allogeneic transplantation which has been reported to be particularly high after unrelated cord blood transplantation. We report on the incidence, risk factors and outcome of HPS in 51 patients (age 2-64 years) after haploidentical peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCY). The incidence of HPS was 12.2 %, occurring at a median of 18 days. The non-relapse mortality in patients with HPS was 83.3 % compared to 11.6 % in patients without HPS. Complete donor chimerism was documented in all patients with HPS. Definite infective etiology was identified in two patients only. The others were refractory to multiple lines of treatment and 3 patients underwent a second transplant. Even though the symptoms and biochemical markers of HPS showed prompt response in 2/3 patients undergoing a second allograft, they succumbed to infections before haematological recovery. The others succumbed to multi-organ failure or infections. Age < 10 years, transplantation for non-malignant disease and high CD34 content of the graft were identified as risk factors for HPS. Considering the fact that post-transplant HPS is usually a refractory and fatal condition, we discuss further attempts at deciphering the pathogenesis, developing modalities to prevent this complication and improve the outcome. PMID:26619832

  16. Incidence of post-transplant glomerulonephritis and its impact on graft outcome

    PubMed Central

    An, Jung Nam; Lee, Jung Pyo; Oh, Yun Jung; Oh, Yun Kyu; Ha, Jong-won; Chae, Dong-Wan; Kim, Yon Su; Lim, Chun Soo

    2012-01-01

    Background Herein, the significance of post-transplant glomerulonephritis (PTGN) has been revisited to investigate whether PTGN induces allograft failure. The aim of this study was to identify the incidence of PTGN and its association with allograft failure, as well as to analyze the risk factors for PTGN. Methods Among the 996 Korean patients who underwent kidney transplantation in a multicenter cohort from 1995 to 2010, 764 patients were enrolled in this study. Results The incidence rate of PTGN was 9.7% and 17.0% at 5 and 10 years of follow-up, respectively. PTGN was diagnosed in 17.8% of the recipients with results of biopsy tests or clinical diagnosis identifying glomerular diseases as the underlying cause, compared with 0.0%, 4.4%, 4.9%, 5.5%, and 5.7% of the recipients with renal vascular diseases, renal interstitial diseases/pyelonephritis/uropathy, diabetic renal disease, hereditary renal diseases, and diseases with unknown etiologies, respectively. Allograft survival was significantly decreased in patients with PTGN. PTGN was associated with a fourfold increase in graft failure with a hazard ratio of 7.11 for both acute rejection and PTGN. Results of the risk factor analysis for PTGN revealed that the underlying glomerular renal diseases and treatment methods using drugs such as tacrolimus and basiliximab significantly increased PTGN development, after adjusting for other risk factors. Conclusion We conclude that PTGN is strongly associated with poor kidney allograft survival. Therefore, optimal management of recurrent or de novo GN should be the critical focus of post-transplant care. PMID:26889425

  17. Expansion of somatically reverted memory CD8+ T cells in patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative disease caused by selective pressure from Epstein-Barr virus

    PubMed Central

    Low, Carol; Bell, Andrew I.; Abbott, Rachel J.M.; Phan, Tri Giang; Riminton, D. Sean; Choo, Sharon; Smart, Joanne M.; Lougaris, Vassilios; Giliani, Silvia; Buckley, Rebecca H.; Grimbacher, Bodo; Alvaro, Frank; Klion, Amy D.; Nichols, Kim E.; Adelstein, Stephen; Rickinson, Alan B.

    2012-01-01

    Patients with the primary immunodeficiency X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP), which is caused by mutations in SH2D1A, are highly susceptible to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Nonetheless, some XLP patients demonstrate less severe clinical manifestations after primary infection. SH2D1A encodes the adaptor molecule SLAM-associated protein (SAP), which is expressed in T and natural killer cells and is required for cytotoxicity against B cells, the reservoir for EBV. It is not known why the clinical presentation of XLP is so variable. In this study, we report for the first time the occurrence of somatic reversion in XLP. Reverted SAP-expressing cells resided exclusively within the CD8+ T cell subset, displayed a CD45RA−CCR7− effector memory phenotype, and were maintained at a stable level over time. Importantly, revertant CD8+ SAP+ T cells, but not SAP− cells, proliferated in response to EBV and killed EBV-infected B cells. As somatic reversion correlated with EBV infection, we propose that the virus exerts a selective pressure on the reverted cells, resulting in their expansion in vivo and host protection against ongoing infection. PMID:22493517

  18. Wildebeest-associated malignant catarrhal fever: perspectives for integrated control of a lymphoproliferative disease of cattle in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Wambua, Lillian; Wambua, Peninah Nduku; Ramogo, Allan Maurice; Mijele, Domnic; Otiende, Moses Yongo

    2016-01-01

    Wildebeest-associated malignant catarrhal fever (WA-MCF), an acute lymphoproliferative disease of cattle caused by alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1), remains a significant constraint to cattle production in nomadic pastoralist systems in eastern and southern Africa. The transmission of WA-MCF is dependent on the presence of the wildlife reservoir, i.e. wildebeest, belonging to the species Connochaetes taurinus and Connochaetes gnou; hence, the distribution of WA-MCF is largely restricted to Kenya, Tanzania and the Republic of South Africa, where wildebeest are present. WA-MCF is analogous to sheep-associated MCF (SA-MCF) in many aspects, with the latter having sheep as its reservoir host and a more global distribution, mainly in developed countries with intensive livestock production systems. However, unlike SA-MCF, the geographic seclusion of WA-MCF may have contributed to an apparent neglect in research efforts aimed at increased biological understanding and control of the disease. This review aims to highlight the importance of WA-MCF and the need for intensified research towards measures for its integrated control. We discuss current knowledge on transmission and geographical distribution in eastern and southern Africa and the burden of WA-MCF in affected vulnerable pastoral communities in Africa. Recent findings towards vaccine development and pertinent knowledge gaps for future research efforts on WA-MCF are also considered. Finally, integrated control of WA-MCF based on a logical three-pronged framework is proposed, contextualizing vaccine development, next-generation diagnostics, and diversity studies targeted to the viral pathogen and cattle hosts. PMID:26446889

  19. High-flux hemodialysis after administering high-dose methotrexate in a patient with posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease and impaired renal function

    PubMed Central

    Reshetnik, Alexander; Scheurig-Muenkler, Christian; van der Giet, Markus; Tölle, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message A young patient develops cerebral posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Despite concurrent significantly impaired transplant kidney function use of add-on high-flux hemodialysis for additional clearance made the administration of high-dose methotrexate feasible in this patient without occurence of acute chronic kidney failure and significant hematological toxicity. PMID:26576275

  20. [Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome].

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Vera; Conde, Marta; Figueiredo, António; Vasconcelos, Júlia; Dias, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    The Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS) is an impairment of lymphocyte apoptosis expressed by generalized non-malignant lymphoproliferation, lymphadenopathy and/or splenomegaly. This article describes a seven and 14 year old males. The first one was admitted at 3 years of age with fever, bicytopenia and generalized lymphadenopathy. Hystopathological analysis of lymph nodes showed reactive follicular hyperplasia and marked paracortical expansion. He was readmitted three years later presenting herpes zoster and similar clinical features. High levels of IL-10 and increasing tendency of Fas-L in plasma and serum. The second child was admitted at 13 years of age presenting thigh and gluteus cellulitis, anemia and neutropenia. T lymphocytes aß+CD4-CD8- 3,1%. Hystopathological analysis of lymph nodes showed marked paracortical hyperplasia. Both children are treated with mycophenolate mofetil with good response. ALPS is an underestimated entity that must be considered in non malign lymphoproliferation, autoimmunity and expansion of an unusual population of a/ßCD3+CD4-CD8-(double-negative T cells>1%). PMID:22525637

  1. Post-transplant bendamustine reduces GvHD while preserving GvL in experimental haploidentical bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Jessica; Hoffman, Emely A; Zeng, Yi; Larmonier, Nicolas; Katsanis, Emmanuel

    2016-07-01

    Advances in haploidentical bone marrow transplantation (h-BMT) have drastically broadened the treatment options for patients requiring BMT. The possibility of significantly reducing the complications resulting from graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) with the administration of post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PT-CY) has substantially improved the efficacy and applicability of T cell-replete h-BMT. However, higher frequency of disease recurrence remains a major challenge in h-BMT with PT-CY. There is a critical need to identify novel strategies to prevent GvHD while sparing the graft-versus-leukaemia (GvL) effect in h-BMT. To this end, we evaluated the impact of bendamustine (BEN), given post-transplant, on GvHD and GvL using clinically relevant murine h-BMT models. We provide results indicating that post-transplant bendamustine (PT-BEN) alleviates GvHD, significantly improving survival, while preserving engraftment and GvL effects. We further document that PT-BEN can mitigate GvHD even in the absence of Treg. Our results also indicate that PT-BEN is less myelosuppressive than PT-CY, significantly increasing the number and proportion of CD11b(+) Gr-1(hi) cells, while decreasing lymphoid cells. In vitro we observed that BEN enhances the suppressive function of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) while impairing the proliferation of T- and B-cells. These results advocate for the consideration of PT-BEN as a new therapeutic platform for clinical implementation in h-BMT. PMID:27030315

  2. Post-Transplant Recurrence of Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis in a Child With Heterozygous Mutations in NPHS1 and NPHS2.

    PubMed

    Battelino, Nina; Arnol, Miha; Kandus, Aljoša; Ponikvar, Rafael; Novljan, Gregor

    2016-06-01

    Renal transplantation is the optimal renal replacement therapy (RRT) in children, but some primary diseases can recur after transplantation, and recurrence accounts for a significant proportion of graft losses, being second only to acute rejection. The risk of disease recurrence is highest among patients with idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), presumably due to a circulating permeability factor. Less is clear about the genetic forms of FSGS, where the data regarding the frequency of recurrence are rather conflicting. We present a 12-year-old girl with rapidly progressive FSGS and end-stage renal disease in her native kidneys associated with heterozygous mutations in NPHS1 and in NPHS2, suffering from early post-transplant recurrence. On the basis of reviewed literature, and until further and more conclusive evidence considering pathogenicity is provided, we propose that FSGS patients with heterozygous mutations in NPHS1 or NPHS2 should be considered as having idiopathic FSGS, and post-transplant recurrence should be anticipated. PMID:27312921

  3. Pre-transplant angiotensin receptor II type 1 antibodies and risk of post-transplant focal segmental glomerulosclerosis recurrence.

    PubMed

    Mujtaba, Muhammad A; Sharfuddin, Asif A; Book, Benita L; Goggins, William C; Khalil, Ali A; Mishler, Dennis P; Fridell, Johnathan A; Yaqub, Muhammad S; Taber, Tim E

    2015-07-01

    Post-kidney transplant recurrence of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a major problem. AT1R is expressed on podocyte; its expression is elevated in the proteinuric state. Using an ELISA, we tested pre-transplant sera of 28 patients with history of idiopathic FSGS for anti-AT1R levels and serum soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) as a biomarker for risk of recurrence of FSGS. Sera from 11 patients with polycystic kidney disease (PKD) were used as controls. Twelve patients had biopsy proven post-transplant FSGS recurrence at 1.5 months. No difference was found in the pre-transplant suPAR levels of FSGS patients (5993 ± 2292 pg/mL) vs. PKD (7334 ± 4538 pg/mL) (p = 0.23). Serum suPAR levels in patients with FSGS recurrence (5786 ± 1899 pg/mL) vs. no FSGS recurrence (6149 ± 2598 pg/mL) (p = 0.69) were not different. Anti-AT1R levels in patients with FSGS were 12.66 ± 11.85 U/mL vs. 8.69 ± 6.52 U/mL in PKD (p = 0.32); however, a difference was found in patients with and without FSGS recurrence 20.41 ± 14.36 U/mL 6.84 ± 4.181 U/mL, respectively (p < 0.01). Area under curve for suPAR and anti-AT1R to predict post-transplant FSGS recurrence was 0.51 and 0.84, respectively. Pre-transplant anti-AT1R levels appear to be a helpful biomarker in identifying patients at high risk of post-transplant FSGS recurrence. PMID:25973696

  4. Alternative-Donor Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation with Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide for Nonmalignant Disorders.

    PubMed

    Klein, Orly R; Chen, Allen R; Gamper, Christopher; Loeb, David; Zambidis, Elias; Llosa, Nicolas; Huo, Jeffrey; Dezern, Amy E; Steppan, Diana; Robey, Nancy; Holuba, Mary Jo; Cooke, Kenneth R; Symons, Heather J

    2016-05-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is curative for many nonmalignant pediatric disorders, including hemoglobinopathies, bone marrow failure syndromes, and immunodeficiencies. There is great success using HLA-matched related donors for these patients; however, the use of alternative donors has been associated with increased graft failure, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and transplant-related mortality (TRM). HSCT using alternative donors with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PT/Cy) for GVHD prophylaxis has been performed for hematologic malignancies with engraftment, GVHD, and TRM comparable with that seen with HLA-matched related donors. There are limited reports of HSCT in nonmalignant pediatric disorders other than hemoglobinopathies using alternative donors and PT/Cy. We transplanted 11 pediatric patients with life-threatening nonmalignant conditions using reduced-intensity conditioning, alternative donors, and PT/Cy alone or in combination with tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. We observed limited GVHD, no TRM, and successful engraftment sufficient to eliminate manifestations of disease in all patients. Allogeneic HSCT using alternative donors and PT/Cy shows promise for curing nonmalignant disorders; development of prospective clinical trials to confirm these observations is warranted. PMID:26860634

  5. Alternative donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide for nonmalignant disorders

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Orly R.; Chen, Allen R.; Gamper, Christopher; Loeb, David; Zambidis, Elias; Llosa, Nicolas; Huo, Jeffrey; Dezern, Amy E.; Steppan, Diana; Robey, Nancy; Holuba, Mary Jo; Cooke, Kenneth R.; Symons, Heather J.

    2016-01-01

    Allogeneic (allo-) hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is curative for many nonmalignant pediatric disorders, including hemoglobinopathies, bone marrow failure syndromes, and immunodeficiencies. There is great success using HLA-matched related donors for these patients; however, the use of alternative donors has been associated with increased graft failure, graft versus host disease (GVHD), and transplant-related mortality (TRM). HSCT using alternative donors with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PT/Cy) for GVHD prophylaxis has been performed for hematologic malignancies with engraftment, GVHD, and TRM comparable to that seen with HLA-matched related donors. There are limited reports of HSCT in nonmalignant pediatric disorders other than hemoglobinopathies using alternative donors and PT/Cy. We transplanted eleven pediatric patients with life-threatening nonmalignant conditions using reduced intensity conditioning (RIC), alternative donors, and PT/Cy alone or in combination with tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. We observed limited GVHD, no TRM, and successful engraftment sufficient to eliminate manifestations of disease in all patients. Allo-HSCT using alternative donors and PT/Cy shows promise for curing nonmalignant disorders; development of prospective clinical trials to confirm these observations is warranted. PMID:26860634

  6. Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in FLT3-ITD-Positive Acute Myelogenous Leukemia: The Role for FLT3 Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Post-Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Gary J; Tuttle, Pamela; Desai, Pinkal

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) has become increasingly common in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) due to improved donor availability and the use of nonmyeloablative regimens. However, despite the potential clinical gains with allo-HSCT, the post-transplantation outcomes for many patients, especially those with high-risk disease, remain dismal. Patients with AML who have internal tandem duplication mutations in the tyrosine kinase receptor FLT3 (FLT3-ITD) face particularly poor outcomes, even after allo-HSCT, which appears to only partially mitigate the poor prognosis associated with this mutation. Experimental treatments to reduce the likelihood of relapse and improve survival following allo-HSCT include maintenance with FLT3-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), several of which are currently being evaluated in clinical studies. Preliminary data and case reports suggest that FLT3 TKIs can be effective in the post-transplantation setting, particularly for patients with FLT3-ITD mutations. Improvements in donor matching, transplantation procedures, and supportive care have allowed a greater number of patients to undergo allo-HSCT than ever before. For these patients, it is essential to identify effective post-transplantation therapies to reduce the risk of relapse and improve disease-free survival. PMID:26785334

  7. Should metformin be our antiglycemic agent of choice post-transplantation?

    PubMed

    Sharif, A

    2011-07-01

    New onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) is a major complication associated with solid-organ transplantation, sharing many similarities with type 2 diabetes mellitus. While metformin is recommended as the antiglycemic agent of choice in the general population, guidelines post-transplantation do not endorse metformin with equal importance and promote meglitinides as the agents of choice. Concerns with tolerability and safety of metformin in the complex polypharmacy of transplant recipients are likely causative factors for reluctant prescription among clinicians. However, such practice denies recipients a wide array of benefits attributed to metformin use in the general population. These include attenuation of abnormal glucose metabolism (diabetes treatment and prevention), weight neutrality, improvement in pathophysiological components of the metabolic syndrome (insulin resistance, subclinical inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease [NAFLD]), lipid-lowering properties, cardiovascular protection and antineoplastic potential. Whether such benefits translate from the general population to our high-risk recipients requires further investigation. By discussing the evidence of the risk/benefit ratio of metformin, the aim of this article is to promote the safe use of metformin as the first-line antiglycemic agent in the context of solid-organ transplantation for a host of indications that require clinical validation with appropriately designed trials. PMID:21564529

  8. Early post-transplant complications following ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Naciri Bennani, Hamza; Abdulrahman, Zhyiar; Allal, Asma; Sallusto, Federico; Delarche, Antoine; Game, Xavier; Esposito, Laure; Doumerc, Nicolas; Debiol, Bénédicte; Kamar, Nassim; Rostaing, Lionel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Living-kidney transplantation is increasing because of the scarcity of kidneys from deceased donors and the increasing numbers of patients on waiting lists for a kidney transplant. Living-kidney transplantation is now associated with increased long-term patient- and allograft-survival rates. Objectives: The purpose of this retrospective study was to identify, in a cohort of 44 ABO-incompatible (ABOi) live-kidney transplant patients, the main complications that occurred within 6 months post-transplantation, and to compare these findings with those from 44 matched ABO-compatible (ABOc) live-kidney transplant patients who were also from our center. Patients and Methods: This single-center retrospective study assessed post-transplantation complications in 44 ABO-i versus 44 matched ABO-c patients. All patients were comparable at baseline except that ABO-i patients had greater immunological risks. Results: During the 6-month post-transplant period, more ABO-i patients presented with postoperative bleeds, thus requiring significantly more blood transfusions. Bleeds were associated with significantly lower values of fibrinogen, platelets, prothrombin time, and hemoglobin levels. Surgical complications, patient- and graft-survival rates, and kidney-function statuses were similar between both groups at 6 months post-transplantation. Conclusions: We conclude that impairment of hemostatic factors at pre-transplant explained the increased risk of a post-transplant bleed in ABO-i patients. PMID:27047806

  9. African American kidney transplantation survival: the ability of immunosuppression to balance the inherent pre- and post-transplant risk factors.

    PubMed

    Malat, Gregory E; Culkin, Christine; Palya, Aniruddha; Ranganna, Karthik; Kumar, Mysore S Anil

    2009-10-22

    Among organ transplant recipients, the African American population historically has received special attention. This is because secondary to their disposition to certain disease states, for example hypertension, an African American patient has a propensity to reach end-stage renal disease and require renal replacement earlier than a Caucasian patient. Regardless of the initiative to replace dialysis therapy with organ transplantation, the African American patient has many barriers to kidney transplantation, thus extending their time on dialysis and waiting time on the organ transplant list. These factors are among the many negative causes of decreased kidney graft survival, realized before kidney transplantation. Unfortunately, once the African American recipient receives a kidney graft, the literature documents that many post-transplant barriers exist which limit successful outcomes. The primary post-transplant barrier relates to designing proper immunosuppression protocols. The difficulty in designing protocols revolves around (i) altered genetic metabolism/lower absorption, (ii) increased immuno-active cytokines and (iii) detrimental effects of noncompliance. Based on the literature, dosing of immunosuppression must be aggressive and requires a diligent practitioner. Research has indicated that, despite some success with proven levels of immunosuppression, the African American recipient usually requires a higher 'dose per weight' regimen. However, even with aggressive immunosuppressant dosing, African Americans still have worse outcomes than Caucasian recipients. Additionally, many of the targeted sites of action that immunosuppression exerts its effects on have been found to be amplified in the African American population. Finally, noncompliance is the most discouraging inhibitor of long-term success in organ transplantation. The consequences of noncompliance are biased by ethnicity and affect the African American population more severely. All of these factors

  10. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS). Case report and family history.

    PubMed

    Ries, F; Ferster, A; Rieux-Laucat, F; Biwer, A; Dicato, M

    2010-01-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a rare disease caused by defective lymphocyte apoptosis and is characterized by non-malignant lymphoproliferation, hepatosplenomegaly, autoimmune manifestations and increased risk of both Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Most forms of the disease are due to germ line mutations of the FAS gene and manifest during the first years of life with fluctuating lymphadenopathies, hemolysis, immune thrombocytopenia. During the second decade of life disease manifestations improve spontaneously but autoimmune problems still occur and there is an increased risk of lymphoproliferative malignancy. We describe a typical case of ALPS in a now 44 year old man, followed since the age of 2 for disease manifestations that were unclear at the beginning. PMID:20882745

  11. Image findings of monomorphic non-hogdkin lymphoproliferative disorder in a post renal transplant patient diagnosed with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Rajasekar, Thirugnanam; Shibu, Deepu; Radhakrishnan, Edathurthy Kalarikal; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan

    2014-01-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a heterogeneous group of lymphoid proliferations caused by immunosuppression after solid organ or bone marrow transplantation. PTLD is categorized by early lesion, polymorphic PTLD and monomorphic PTLD. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG-PET/CT) scans have clinical significance in the evaluation of PTLD following renal transplantation. We report imaging findings of a monomorphic non-Hodgkin lymphoma, post renal transplant seen on FDG PET/CT in a 32-year-old lactating woman. Whole body FDG- ET/CT demonstrated uptake in right external iliac and inguinal lymph nodes. PMID:25210292

  12. Image findings of monomorphic non-hogdkin lymphoproliferative disorder in a post renal transplant patient diagnosed with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Rajasekar, Thirugnanam; Shibu, Deepu; Radhakrishnan, Edathurthy Kalarikal; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan

    2014-07-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a heterogeneous group of lymphoid proliferations caused by immunosuppression after solid organ or bone marrow transplantation. PTLD is categorized by early lesion, polymorphic PTLD and monomorphic PTLD. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG-PET/CT) scans have clinical significance in the evaluation of PTLD following renal transplantation. We report imaging findings of a monomorphic non-Hodgkin lymphoma, post renal transplant seen on FDG PET/CT in a 32-year-old lactating woman. Whole body FDG- ET/CT demonstrated uptake in right external iliac and inguinal lymph nodes. PMID:25210292

  13. Quaternary Epitopes of α345(IV) Collagen Initiate Alport Post-Transplant Anti-GBM Nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Olaru, Florina; Luo, Wentian; Wang, Xu-Ping; Ge, Linna; Hertz, Jens Michael; Kashtan, Clifford E.; Sado, Yoshikazu; Segal, Yoav; Hudson, Billy G.

    2013-01-01

    Alport post-transplant nephritis (APTN) is an aggressive form of anti-glomerular basement membrane disease that targets the allograft in transplanted patients with X-linked Alport syndrome. Alloantibodies develop against the NC1 domain of α5(IV) collagen, which occurs in normal kidneys, including renal allografts, forming distinct α345(IV) and α1256(IV) networks. Here, we studied the roles of these networks as antigens inciting alloimmunity and as targets of nephritogenic alloantibodies in APTN. We found that patients with APTN, but not those without nephritis, produce two kinds of alloantibodies against allogeneic collagen IV. Some alloantibodies targeted alloepitopes within α5NC1 monomers, shared by α345NC1 and α1256NC1 hexamers. Other alloantibodies specifically targeted alloepitopes that depended on the quaternary structure of α345NC1 hexamers. In Col4a5-null mice, immunization with native forms of allogeneic collagen IV exclusively elicited antibodies to quaternary α345NC1 alloepitopes, whereas alloimmunogens lacking native quaternary structure elicited antibodies to shared α5NC1 alloepitopes. These results imply that quaternary epitopes within α345NC1 hexamers may initiate alloimmune responses after transplant in X-linked Alport patients. Thus, α345NC1 hexamers are the culprit alloantigen and primary target of all alloantibodies mediating APTN, whereas α1256NC1 hexamers become secondary targets of anti-α5NC1 alloantibodies. Reliable detection of alloantibodies by immunoassays using α345NC1 hexamers may improve outcomes by facilitating early, accurate diagnosis. PMID:23620401

  14. Quaternary epitopes of α345(IV) collagen initiate Alport post-transplant anti-GBM nephritis.

    PubMed

    Olaru, Florina; Luo, Wentian; Wang, Xu-Ping; Ge, Linna; Hertz, Jens Michael; Kashtan, Clifford E; Sado, Yoshikazu; Segal, Yoav; Hudson, Billy G; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan

    2013-05-01

    Alport post-transplant nephritis (APTN) is an aggressive form of anti-glomerular basement membrane disease that targets the allograft in transplanted patients with X-linked Alport syndrome. Alloantibodies develop against the NC1 domain of α5(IV) collagen, which occurs in normal kidneys, including renal allografts, forming distinct α345(IV) and α1256(IV) networks. Here, we studied the roles of these networks as antigens inciting alloimmunity and as targets of nephritogenic alloantibodies in APTN. We found that patients with APTN, but not those without nephritis, produce two kinds of alloantibodies against allogeneic collagen IV. Some alloantibodies targeted alloepitopes within α5NC1 monomers, shared by α345NC1 and α1256NC1 hexamers. Other alloantibodies specifically targeted alloepitopes that depended on the quaternary structure of α345NC1 hexamers. In Col4a5-null mice, immunization with native forms of allogeneic collagen IV exclusively elicited antibodies to quaternary α345NC1 alloepitopes, whereas alloimmunogens lacking native quaternary structure elicited antibodies to shared α5NC1 alloepitopes. These results imply that quaternary epitopes within α345NC1 hexamers may initiate alloimmune responses after transplant in X-linked Alport patients. Thus, α345NC1 hexamers are the culprit alloantigen and primary target of all alloantibodies mediating APTN, whereas α1256NC1 hexamers become secondary targets of anti-α5NC1 alloantibodies. Reliable detection of alloantibodies by immunoassays using α345NC1 hexamers may improve outcomes by facilitating early, accurate diagnosis. PMID:23620401

  15. Lymphoproliferative lesions of the skin

    PubMed Central

    Cerroni, L

    2006-01-01

    Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders is one of the most difficult areas in dermatopathology, and biopsies are often taken to rule out a cutaneous lymphoma in patients with “unclear” or “therapy‐resistant” skin lesions. Histopathological features alone often enable a given case to be classified to a diagnostic group (eg, epidermotropic lymphomas), but seldom allow a definitive diagnosis to be made. Performing several biopsies from morphologically different lesions is suggested, especially in patients with suspicion of mycosis fungoides. Immunohistochemistry is often crucial for proper classification of the cases, but in some instances is not helpful (eg, early lesions of mycosis fungoides). Although molecular techniques provide new, powerful tools for diagnosing cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders, results of molecular methods should always be interpreted with the clinicopathological features, keeping in mind the possibility of false positivity and false negativity. In many cases, a definitive diagnosis can be made only on careful correlation of the clinical with the histopathological, immunophenotypical and molecular features. PMID:16873563

  16. Timed Sequential Busulfan and Post Transplant Cyclophosphamide for Allogeneic Transplantation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-05

    Other Diseases of Blood and Blood-forming Organs; Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia; Chronic Myeloid Leukemia; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Myeloproliferative Syndrome; Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma; Hodgkins Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma

  17. Comparison of Subcutaneous versus Intravenous Alemtuzumab for Graft-versus-Host Disease Prophylaxis with Fludarabine/Melphalan-Based Conditioning in Matched Unrelated Donor Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Patel, Khilna; Parmar, Sapna; Shah, Shreya; Shore, Tsiporah; Gergis, Usama; Mayer, Sebastian; van Besien, Koen

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare infusion-related reactions and outcomes of using subcutaneous (subQ) alemtuzumab versus intravenous (i.v.) alemtuzumab as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis for matched unrelated donor stem cell transplantations. Outcomes include incidence of cytomegalovirus (CMV)/Epstein-Barr (EBV) viremia, development of CMV disease or post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder, fatal infections, acute and chronic GVHD, time to engraftment, relapse rate, and survival. We conducted a retrospective study of all adult matched unrelated donor stem cell transplantations patients who received fludarabine/melphalan with subQ or i.v. alemtuzumab in combination with tacrolimus as part of their conditioning for unrelated donor transplantation at New York-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medical Center from January 1, 2012 to March 21, 2014. Alemtuzumab was administered at a total cumulative dose of 100 mg (divided over days -7 to -3). Forty-six patients received an unrelated donor stem cell transplantation with fludarabine/melphalan and either subQ (n = 26) or i.v. (n = 20) alemtuzumab in combination with tacrolimus. Within the evaluable population, 130 subQ and 100 i.v. alemtuzumab doses were administered. For the primary outcome, ≥grade 2 infusion-related reactions occurred in 11 (8%) versus 25 (25%) infusions in the subQ and i.v. cohorts, respectively (P = .001). Overall, 12 injections (9%) in the subQ arm versus 26 infusions (26%) in the i.v. arm experienced an infusion-related reaction of any grade (P = .001). There were no significant differences between the subQ and i.v. arms in rates of reactivation of CMV/EBV, development of CMV disease or post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder, fatal infections, acute and chronic GVHD, relapse, or survival. Subcutaneous administration of alemtuzumab for GVHD prophylaxis was associated with fewer infusion-related reactions compared with i.v. administration in the SCT

  18. Autoimmune and Lymphoproliferative Complications of Common Variable Immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Maglione, Paul J

    2016-03-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is frequently complicated by the development of autoimmune and lymphoproliferative diseases. With widespread use of immunoglobulin replacement therapy, autoimmune and lymphoproliferative complications have replaced infection as the major cause of morbidity and mortality in CVID patients. Certain CVID complications, such as bronchiectasis, are likely to be the result of immunodeficiency and are associated with infection susceptibility. However, other complications may result from immune dysregulation rather than immunocompromise. CVID patients develop autoimmunity, lymphoproliferation, and granulomas in association with distinct immunological abnormalities. Mutations in transmembrane activator and CAML interactor, reduction of isotype-switched memory B cells, expansion of CD21 low B cells, heightened interferon signature expression, and retained B cell function are all associated with both autoimmunity and lymphoproliferation in CVID. Further research aimed to better understand that the pathological mechanisms of these shared forms of immune dysregulation may inspire therapies beneficial for multiple CVID complications. PMID:26857017

  19. CCL2 gene polymorphism is associated with post-transplant diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Dabrowska-Zamojcin, Ewa; Romanowski, Maciej; Dziedziejko, Violetta; Maciejewska-Karlowska, Agnieszka; Sawczuk, Marek; Safranow, Krzysztof; Domanski, Leszek; Pawlik, Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is a common complication after solid organ transplantation, especially in recipients treated with calcineurin inhibitors. Previous studies suggest that chronic inflammation and chemokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can increase or decrease transcriptional activity and can change the production of chemokines. The aim of this study was to examine the association between CCL2 and CCL5 gene polymorphisms and the development of post-transplant diabetes mellitus. The study included 315 patients who received kidney transplants and were treated with calcineurin inhibitors. Patients were divided into two subgroups: with PTDM (n=43) and without PTDM (n=272). An additive model of univariate Cox regression analysis showed that the hazard of PTDM development was significantly positively associated with the number of CCL2 rs1024611 G alleles (HR 1.65; 95%CI 1.08-2.53; p=0.021). Multivariate Cox regression analysis, taking into the account the recipient's sex, age and BMI, as well as the number of G alleles of the CCL2 rs1024611 polymorphism, revealed that this polymorphism is an independent risk factor for post-transplant diabetes. The results of our study suggest an association between the CCL2 gene rs1024611 G allele and PTDM in patients treated with tacrolimus or cyclosporine. PMID:26802601

  20. New developments in post-transplant maintenance treatment of multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; McCarthy, Philip

    2013-10-01

    Treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) has evolved significantly over the past two decades with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT), incorporating novel therapies such as proteasome inhibitors (PIs) and immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) during induction and post-transplant maintenance therapies. We reviewed the evolution of maintenance therapy from traditional chemotherapy, interferon (IFN), and prednisone to the current use of thalidomide, lenalidomide, and bortezomib in the post-transplant maintenance setting. Based on existing literature, either thalidomide or lenalidomide can be recommended for maintenance therapy post-transplant resulting in improved progression- free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Thalidomide is less tolerated than lenalidomide and does not improve survival in patient subgroups who had achieved at least a very good partial response (VGPR) or who had chromosome 13 deletion. Thalidomide maintenance may be even detrimental in patients with high-risk cytogenetics. Alternatively, lenalidomide maintenance improves PFS in all subgroups of patients including those achieving at least a VGPR and those with high-risk cytogenetics, and improves OS in one other study. Bortezomib maintenance improves PFS and OS as part of induction and maintenance when compared to thalidomide maintenance and it is uncertain as to whether this improvement was due to bortezomib used during induction. The future research in maintenance therapy may include incorporation of current novel agents and testing new oral agents such as pomalidomide, or ixazomib or antibody therapy with elotuzumab. PMID:24135405

  1. Therapeutic drug monitoring for either oral or intravenous busulfan when combined with pre- and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, Lindsey R.; Kanakry, Christopher G.; Zahurak, Marianna; Durakovic, Nadira; Bolaños-Meade, Javier; Kasamon, Yvette L.; Gladstone, Douglas E.; Matsui, William; Borrello, Ivan; Huff, Carol Ann; Swinnen, Lode J.; Brodsky, Robert A.; Ambinder, Richard F.; Fuchs, Ephraim J.; Rosner, Gary L.; Jones, Richard J.; Luznik, Leo

    2016-01-01

    Busulfan (Bu)/cyclophosphamide (Cy) is a standard conditioning platform for allogeneic transplantation. We developed a strategy separating the Cy into two pre/post-transplantation doses (PTCy), providing myeloablative conditioning and single-agent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. We investigated the impact of Bu route on treatment-related toxicity for 131 consecutive adult patients. Busulfan was administered in four daily divided doses either orally (n = 72) or intravenously (n = 59) with pharmacokinetics on the first-dose and as necessary on subsequent doses to achieve a target area-under-the-concentration-curve (AUC) of 800–1400 µmol*min/L per dose. BuCy/PTCy with pharmacokinetics is well-tolerated with low treatment-related toxicity. Hepatic veno-occlusive disease incidence was 6% with two fatal events. Bu administration route in the context of BuCy/PTCy did not statistically impact hepatotoxicity, GVHD, relapse, disease-free survival, or overall survival. The BuCy/PTCy platform has a low incidence of treatment-related toxicity, including hepatotoxicity, in hematologic malignancies when using pharmacokinetics for a target AUC of 800–1400 µmol*min/L, irrespective of Bu administration route. PMID:26292764

  2. Rabbit model for human EBV-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS): sequential autopsy analysis and characterization of IL-2-dependent cell lines established from herpesvirus papio-induced fatal rabbit lymphoproliferative diseases with HPS.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Jin, Zaishun; Onoda, Sachiyo; Joko, Hiromasa; Teramoto, Norihiro; Ohara, Nobuya; Oda, Wakako; Tanaka, Takehiro; Liu, Yi-Xuan; Koirala, Tirtha Raj; Oka, Takashi; Kondo, Eisaku; Yoshino, Tadashi; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Akagi, Tadaatsu

    2003-05-01

    Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (EBV-AHS) is often associated with fatal infectious mononucleosis or T-cell lymphoproliferative diseases (LPD). To elucidate the true nature of fatal LPD observed in Herpesvirus papio (HVP)-induced rabbit hemophagocytosis, reactive or neoplastic, we analyzed sequential development of HVP-induced rabbit LPD and their cell lines. All of the seven Japanese White rabbits inoculated intravenously with HVP died of fatal LPD 18 to 27 days after inoculation. LPD was also accompanied by hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) in five of these seven rabbits. Sequential autopsy revealed splenomegaly and swollen lymph nodes, often accompanied by bleeding, which developed in the last week. Atypical lymphoid cells infiltrated many organs with a "starry sky" pattern, frequently involving the spleen, lymph nodes, and liver. HVP-small RNA-1 expression in these lymphoid cells was clearly demonstrated by a newly developed in situ hybridization (ISH) system. HVP-ISH of immunomagnetically purified lymphoid cells from spleen or lymph nodes revealed HVP-EBER1+ cells in each CD4+, CD8+, or CD79a+ fraction. Hemophagocytic histiocytosis was observed in the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and thymus. HVP-DNA was detected in the tissues and peripheral blood from the infected rabbits by PCR or Southern blot analysis. Clonality analysis of HVP-induced LPD by Southern blotting with TCR gene probe revealed polyclonal bands, suggesting polyclonal proliferation. Six IL-2-dependent rabbit T-cell lines were established from transplanted scid mouse tumors from LPD. These showed latency type I/II HVP infection and had normal karyotypes except for one line, and three of them showed tumorigenicity in nude mice. These data suggest that HVP-induced fatal LPD in rabbits is reactive polyclonally in nature. PMID:12707056

  3. Impaired interferon-alpha production by plasmacytoid dendritic cells after cord blood transplantation in children: implication for post-transplantation toll-like receptor ligand-based immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Charrier, Emily; Cordeiro, Paulo; Brito, Rose-Marie; Harnois, Michaël; Mezziani, Samira; Herblot, Sabine; Le Deist, Françoise; Duval, Michel

    2014-10-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) initiate both innate and adaptive immune responses, making them attractive targets for post-transplantation immunotherapy, particularly after cord blood transplantation (CBT). Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists are currently studied for pDC stimulation in various clinical settings. Their efficacy depends on pDC number and functionality, which are unknown after CBT. We performed a longitudinal study of pDC reconstitution in children who underwent bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and single-unit CBT. Both CBT and unrelated BMT patients received antithymocyte globulin as part of their graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis regimen. pDC blood counts were higher in CBT patients than in healthy volunteers from 2 to 9 months after transplantation, whereas they remained lower in BMT patients. We showed that cord blood progenitors gave rise in vitro to a 500-fold increase in functional pDCs over bone marrow counterparts. Upon stimulation with a TLR agonist, pDCs from both CBT and BMT recipients upregulated T cell costimulatory molecules, whereas interferon-alpha (IFN-α) production was impaired for 9 months after CBT. TLR agonist treatment is thus not expected to induce IFN-α production by pDCs after CBT, limiting its immunotherapeutic potential. Fortunately, in vitro production of large amounts of functional pDCs from cord blood progenitors paves the way for the post-transplantation adoptive transfer of pDCs. PMID:25128615

  4. Cutaneous manifestations as presenting sign of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome in childhood.

    PubMed

    Auricchio, Luigi; Vitiello, Laura; Adriani, Marsilio; Ferri, Pasqualina; Chiocchetti, Annalisa; Pettinato, Guido; Racioppi, Luigi; Maiuri, Luigi; Dianzani, Umberto; Pignata, Claudio

    2005-01-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome is a disorder due to a defect of lymphocyte apoptosis, whose clinical manifestations consist of hyperplasia of lymphoid tissues and autoimmune diseases. We report on a 26-month-old child who presented with frequent eruptions of weals and angioedema without any apparent triggering factor, who subsequently developed an erythematopapular rash with a histological pattern of a lymphoplasmacellular infiltrate. Familial anamnesis revealed a history of lymphoadenomegaly and massive spleen and liver enlargement in her sister. Functional and molecular analysis led to a diagnosis of type 1a autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome. Immunophenotyping of the cutaneous lesion revealed the presence of an inflammatory infiltrate with a considerably high number of Langerhans cells. Cutaneous features such as urticaria, angioedema and vasculitis in children with a personal and familial history of hyperplasia of lymphoid tissues may be a presenting sign of a systemic disease, such as autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome. PMID:15942224

  5. Adverse drug interactions as a high-risk factor for lethal post-transplant complications in Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ting; Wu, Xue Mei; Qiu, Hong Qiang; Fu, Dan Hui; Hu, Jian Da; Li, Jian; Zheng, Xiao Yun; Luo, Xiao Feng; Yuan, Xiao Hong; Chen, Ru Ling; Chen, Zhi Zhe

    2013-01-01

    Metabolism of triazole antifungal agents is highly competitive to conventional post-transplant immunosuppressants like cyclosporine A (CsA) via the cytochrome P450-dependent pathway. We present the first report on lethal complications that may arise due to this type of drug interaction. A retrospective survey identified 10 of 104 cases (9.62%) that suffered life-threatening complications associated with the interaction between CsA and itraconazole or voriconazole following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) at our center. According to the close drug monitoring, all 10 patients experienced supratherapeutic levels of CsA even with a preemptive CsA dosage reduction and prompt dose adjustment. Six patients developed grade I to III acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) and eventually died from either idiopathic pneumonia syndrome or diffuse alveolar hemorrhage; another four patients died from CSA-associated neurological complications. Impaired hepatic and renal function was noted in only one of these 10 cases. The high frequency as well as the unpredictability of severe complications lead us to suggest that triazole should always be replaced by another antifungal medication (e.g., amphotericin B or Echincandins) while patients receive CsA after HSCT, especially in the Chinese population. PMID:23294039

  6. Immunological aspects of a case of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder.

    PubMed

    Franco, A; Muñoz, C; Aranda, I; Cabezas, A; Perdiguero, M; Prados, C

    1995-01-01

    We describe a female renal transplant recipient with cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections who developed aggressive polymorphous polyclonal B cell proliferation. She received two courses of OKT3. We found a majority of transformed B cells bearing EBV membrane receptor CR2 and EBV nuclear antigen. Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders may be associated with a significant immunological activation, detected in this case by the sudden increase of beta 2-microglobulin and immunoglobulin levels, including immunoglobulin D. These raised levels persisted throughout the short and rapid course of the disease. PMID:7733150

  7. ABO-incompatible living donor kidney transplantation without post-transplant therapeutic plasma exchange.

    PubMed

    Yabu, Julie M; Fontaine, Magali J

    2015-12-01

    Blood group incompatibility remains a significant barrier to kidney transplantation. Approximately, one-third of donors are blood group incompatible with their intended recipient. Options for these donor-recipient pairs include blood group incompatible transplantation or kidney paired donation. However, the optimal protocol for blood group incompatible transplantation is unknown. Protocols differ in techniques to remove ABO antibodies, titer targets, and immunosuppression regimens. In addition, the mechanisms of graft accommodation to blood group antigens remain poorly understood. We describe a blood group incompatible protocol using pretransplant therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin, and rituximab in addition to prednisone, mycophenolate mofetil, and tacrolimus. In this protocol, we do not exclude patients based on a high initial titer and do not implement post-transplant TPE. All 16 patients who underwent this protocol received a living donor transplant with 100% patient and graft survival, and no reported episodes of antibody-mediated rejection to date with a median follow-up of 2.6 years (range 0.75-4.7 years). We conclude that blood group incompatible transplantation can be achieved without post-transplant TPE. PMID:25739580

  8. Therapeutic trials for a rabbit model of EBV-associated Hemophagocytic Syndrome (HPS): effects of vidarabine or CHOP, and development of Herpesvirus papio (HVP)-negative lymphomas surrounded by HVP-infected lymphoproliferative disease.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, K; Joko, H; Koirala, T R; Onoda, S; Jin, Z-S; Munemasa, M; Ohara, N; Oda, W; Tanaka, T; Oka, T; Kondo, E; Yoshino, T; Takahashi, K; Yamada, M; Akagi, T

    2003-10-01

    Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (EBV-AHS), which is often associated with fatal infectious mononucleosis or T-cell lymphoproliferative diseases (LPD), is a distinct disease characterized by high mortality. Treatment of patients with EBV-AHS has proved challenging. To develop some therapeutic interventions for EBV-AHS, we examined the effectiveness of an antiviral agent (vidarabine) or chemotherapy (CHOP), using a rabbit model for EBV-AHS. Fourteen untreated rabbits were inoculated intravenously with cell-free virions of the EBV-like virus Herpesvirus papio (HVP). All of the rabbits died of HVP-associated (LPD) and hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) between 21 and 31 days after inoculation. Furthermore, three HVP-infected rabbits treated with vidarabine died between days 23 and 28 after inoculation, and their clinicopathological features were no different from those of untreated rabbits, indicating that this drug is not effective at all to treat HVP-induced rabbit LPD and HPS. Three of the infected rabbits that were treated with one course, with an incomplete set of three courses, or with three full courses of CHOP treatment died of HVP-induced LPD and HPS with a bleeding tendency and/or with opportunistic infections. They died on the 26th, 62nd and 105th day after virus inoculation, respectively. CHOP treatment transiently suppressed the HVP-induced LPD and contributed to the prolonged survival time of two infected rabbits. However, it did not remove all of the HVP-infected cells from the infected rabbits, and residual HVP-infected lymphocytes caused recurrences of rabbit LPD and HPS. The most interesting finding of this experiment was observed in the infected rabbit with the longest survival time of 105 days: HVP-negative lymphomas surrounded by HVP-induced LPD developed in the larynx and ileum of this rabbit, causing an obstruction of the lumen. We concluded that these were not secondary lymphomas caused by CHOP treatment, because no suspicious

  9. Kidney Allograft Telomere Length Is Not Associated with Sex, Recipient Comorbid Conditions, Post-Transplant Infections, or CMV Reactivation.

    PubMed

    Kłoda, Karolina; Domański, Leszek; Kwiatkowska, Ewa; Safranow, Krzysztof; Drozd, Arleta; Ciechanowicz, Andrzej; Ciechanowski, Kazimierz

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Immunosenescence is closely linked to chromosome telomere erosion and telomerase activity alterations. The aim of this study was to analyze the associations of relative telomere length (RTL) of a graft with sex, comorbid conditions, post-transplant infections, and CMV reactivation among transplanted kidney recipients. Additionally, the associations of donor and recipient hTERT, BICD1 genes and chromosome 18 polymorphisms with post-transplant infections were analyzed, including the analysis of donor-recipient genotype pairs. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study enrolled 119 white Polish kidney allograft recipients (64M/55F, mean age 47.3±14.0). The RTL was assessed by modification of a method developed by Cawthon, using a qPCR system. To identify genotypes of the studied polymorphisms, real-time PCR was performed. RESULTS There were no significant associations between graft RTL and sex of donor and recipient, comorbid DM and AH, as well as post-transplant infections and CMV reactivation. There were no statistically significant differences in distribution of hTERT, BICD1 genes and chromosome 18 graft and recipient polymorphisms genotypes between individuals with post-transplant infection and those without infection. The rs2735940 CX-TT hTERT gene donor-recipient genotypes combination was associated with higher risk of post-transplant infection on the border of statistical significance (OR=4.632, 95%CI (0.853-25.14); p=0.067). CONCLUSIONS Assessment of kidney allograft RTL does not show its association with sex, DM, AH, post-transplant infection, or CMV reactivation in the recipients, suggesting that other factors, probably directly related to the transplantation procedure, have a greater effect on telomere length. PMID:27350315

  10. Donor Monoclonal Gammopathy May Cause Lymphoproliferative Disorders in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Felldin, M; Ekberg, J; Polanska-Tamborek, D; Hansson, U; Sender, M; Rizell, M; Svanvik, J; Mölne, J

    2016-09-01

    Prior research on donor monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) has been inadequate regarding the risk for lymphoproliferative disease in solid organ transplantation recipients. Seven organ recipients from two different donors developed lymphoproliferative disease. The origin of the malignancy was determined by use of microsatellite analysis, and the plasma of the two donors was analyzed with the use of electrophoresis. The clinical courses of the seven recipients were followed for 36-60 months. One donor transmitted lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma to two kidney recipients and MGUS to a liver recipient, all IgMκ. A second donor caused IgGλ myeloma in two kidney and one liver recipient, and IgGλ gammopathy in a heart recipient. Transplant nephrectomy was performed in three kidney recipients and remission was achieved. The fourth kidney recipient has kept the graft and the disease has progressed. The liver recipient died from myeloma. There were no clinical signs of lymphoproliferative disease in the donors, but retrospective serum analyses showed M-components, IgMκ (37 g/L) and IgGλ (8 g/L). Donors with MGUS may cause donor-transmitted malignancies via passenger lymphocytes/plasma cells in solid organ recipients. The results call for a large register study of the incidence of donor MGUS and lymphoproliferative disease in their recipients. PMID:27575725

  11. X-Linked Lymphoproliferative Disease (XLP)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patients Procedure for Accessing Lab Services Data Package Requirements AIDS Therapies Resource Guide In Vitro Efficacy Evaluations ... Assurances to Users Application and Approval Process User Requirements Malaria Vaccine Production Services Data Sharing and Release ...

  12. Post-transplantation diabetes mellitus; frequency and related risk factors: a single center study.

    PubMed

    Ghafari, Ali; PourAli, Reza; Sepehrvand, Nariman; Hatami, Sanaz; Modarres, Vanooshe

    2010-09-01

    Post-transplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is a serious complication after organ transplantation, which could lead to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The rate of PTDM increased in recent years, probably due to new immunosuppressive drugs such as Tacrolimus. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated the frequency of PTDM and related risk factors in 644 non diabetic patients who underwent renal transplantation. Data was analyzed by chi-square and Fisher's exact test in SPSS software ver11.5. Among 644 patients PTDM developed in 10.2% similar to literature. PTDM was significantly correlated to age (P value = 0.000), positive familial history (P= 0.003) and HBV infection (P= 0.046). In conclusion, PTDM is not uncommon in Iranian patients and a positive family history of diabetes, HBV infection and older age increases the likelihood to develop PTDM. PMID:20814117

  13. How do I manage hyperglycemia/post-transplant diabetes mellitus after allogeneic HSCT.

    PubMed

    Fuji, S; Rovó, A; Ohashi, K; Griffith, M; Einsele, H; Kapp, M; Mohty, M; Majhail, N S; Engelhardt, B G; Tichelli, A; Savani, B N

    2016-08-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) recipients frequently develop glucose intolerance and post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM). The clinical importance of PTDM and its detrimental impact on HSCT outcomes are under-recognized. After allo-HSCT, various mechanisms can contribute to the development of PTDM. Here we review information about hyperglycemia and PTDM after allo-HSCT as well as PTDM after solid organ transplantation and describe ways to manage hyperglycemia/PTDM after allogeneic HSCT. Taking into consideration a lack of well-established evidence in the field of allo-HSCT, more studies should be conducted in the future, which will require closer multidisciplinary collaboration between hematologists, endocrinologists and nutritionists. PMID:27042848

  14. Post-Transplant Diabetes Mellitus: Causes, Treatment, and Impact on Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Shivaswamy, Vijay; Boerner, Brian; Larsen, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    Post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is a frequent consequence of solid organ transplantation. PTDM has been associated with greater mortality and increased infections in different transplant groups using different diagnostic criteria. An international consensus panel recommended a consistent set of guidelines in 2003 based on American Diabetes Association glucose criteria but did not exclude the immediate post-transplant hospitalization when many patients receive large doses of corticosteroids. Greater glucose monitoring during all hospitalizations has revealed significant glucose intolerance in the majority of recipients immediately after transplant. As a result, the international consensus panel reviewed its earlier guidelines and recommended delaying screening and diagnosis of PTDM until the recipient is on stable doses of immunosuppression after discharge from initial transplant hospitalization. The group cautioned that whereas hemoglobin A1C has been adopted as a diagnostic criterion by many, it is not reliable as the sole diabetes screening method during the first year after transplant. Risk factors for PTDM include many of the immunosuppressant medications themselves as well as those for type 2 diabetes. The provider managing diabetes and associated dyslipidemia and hypertension after transplant must be careful of the greater risk for drug-drug interactions and infections with immunosuppressant medications. Treatment goals and therapies must consider the greater risk for fluctuating and reduced kidney function, which can cause hypoglycemia. Research is actively focused on strategies to prevent PTDM, but until strategies are found, it is imperative that immunosuppression regimens are chosen based on their evidence to prolong graft survival, not to avoid PTDM. PMID:26650437

  15. Subclinical Rejection Phenotypes at 1 Year Post-Transplant and Outcome of Kidney Allografts.

    PubMed

    Loupy, Alexandre; Vernerey, Dewi; Tinel, Claire; Aubert, Olivier; Duong van Huyen, Jean-Paul; Rabant, Marion; Verine, Jérôme; Nochy, Dominique; Empana, Jean-Philippe; Martinez, Frank; Glotz, Denis; Jouven, Xavier; Legendre, Christophe; Lefaucheur, Carmen

    2015-07-01

    Kidney allograft rejection can occur in clinically stable patients, but long-term significance is unknown. We determined whether early recognition of subclinical rejection has long-term consequences for kidney allograft survival in an observational prospective cohort study of 1307 consecutive nonselected patients who underwent ABO-compatible, complement-dependent cytotoxicity-negative crossmatch kidney transplantation in Paris (2000-2010). Participants underwent prospective screening biopsies at 1 year post-transplant, with concurrent evaluations of graft complement deposition and circulating anti-HLA antibodies. The main analysis included 1001 patients. Three distinct groups of patients were identified at the 1-year screening: 727 (73%) patients without rejection, 132 (13%) patients with subclinical T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR), and 142 (14%) patients with subclinical antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR). Patients with subclinical ABMR had the poorest graft survival at 8 years post-transplant (56%) compared with subclinical TCMR (88%) and nonrejection (90%) groups (P<0.001). In a multivariate Cox model, subclinical ABMR at 1 year was independently associated with a 3.5-fold increase in graft loss (95% confidence interval, 2.1 to 5.7) along with eGFR and proteinuria (P<0.001). Subclinical ABMR was associated with more rapid progression to transplant glomerulopathy. Of patients with subclinical TCMR at 1 year, only those who further developed de novo donor-specific antibodies and transplant glomerulopathy showed higher risk of graft loss compared with patients without rejection. Our findings suggest that subclinical TCMR and subclinical ABMR have distinct effects on long-term graft loss. Subclinical ABMR detected at the 1-year screening biopsy carries a prognostic value independent of initial donor-specific antibody status, previous immunologic events, current eGFR, and proteinuria. PMID:25556173

  16. Augmenting the Post-Transplantation Growth and Survivorship of Juvenile Scleractinian Corals via Nutritional Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Toh, Tai Chong; Ng, Chin Soon Lionel; Peh, Jia Wei Kassler; Toh, Kok Ben; Chou, Loke Ming

    2014-01-01

    Size-dependant mortality influences the recolonization success of juvenile corals transplanted for reef restoration and assisting juvenile corals attain a refuge size would thus improve post-transplantation survivorship. To explore colony size augmentation strategies, recruits of the scleractinian coral Pocillopora damicornis were fed with live Artemia salina nauplii twice a week for 24 weeks in an ex situ coral nursery. Fed recruits grew significantly faster than unfed ones, with corals in the 3600, 1800, 600 and 0 (control) nauplii/L groups exhibiting volumetric growth rates of 10.65±1.46, 4.69±0.9, 3.64±0.55 and 1.18±0.37 mm3/week, respectively. Corals supplied with the highest density of nauplii increased their ecological volume by more than 74 times their initial size, achieving a mean final volume of 248.38±33.44 mm3. The benefits of feeding were apparent even after transplantation to the reef. The corals in the 3600, 1800, 600 and 0 nauplii/L groups grew to final sizes of 4875±260 mm3, 2036±627 mm3, 1066±70 mm3 and 512±116 mm3, respectively. The fed corals had significantly higher survival rates than the unfed ones after transplantation (63%, 59%, 56% and 38% for the 3600, 1800, 600 and 0 nauplii/L treatments respectively). Additionally, cost-effectiveness analysis revealed that the costs per unit volumetric growth were drastically reduced with increasing feed densities. Corals fed with the highest density of nauplii were the most cost-effective (US$0.02/mm3), and were more than 12 times cheaper than the controls. This study demonstrated that nutrition enhancement can augment coral growth and post-transplantation survival, and is a biologically and economically viable option that can be used to supplement existing coral mariculture procedures and enhance reef restoration outcomes. PMID:24896085

  17. Spontaneous Post-Transplant Disorders in NOD.Cg- Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Sug/JicTac (NOG) Mice Engrafted with Patient-Derived Metastatic Melanomas

    PubMed Central

    Omodho, Lorna; Francis, Annick; Vander Borght, Sara; Marine, Jean-Christophe; van den Oord, Joost; Amant, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDTX) approach is nowadays considered a reliable preclinical model to study in vivo cancer biology and therapeutic response. NOD scid and Il2rg-deficient mice represent the “gold standard” host for the generation of PDTXs. Compared to other immunocompromised murine lines, these mice offers several advantages including higher engraftment rate, longer lifespan and improved morphological and molecular preservation of patient-derived neoplasms. Here we describe a spectrum of previously uncharacterized post-transplant disorders affecting 14/116 (12%) NOD.Cg- Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Sug/JicTac (NOG) mice subcutaneously engrafted with patient-derived metastatic melanomas. Affected mice exhibited extensive scaling/crusting dermatitis (13/14) associated with emaciation (13/14) and poor/unsuccessful tumor engraftment (14/14). In this context, the following pathological conditions have been recognized and characterized in details: (i) immunoinflammatory disorders with features of graft versus host disease (14/14); (ii) reactive lymphoid infiltrates effacing xenografted tumors (8/14); (iii) post-transplant B cell lymphomas associated with Epstein-Barr virus reactivation (2/14). We demonstrate that all these entities are driven by co-transplanted human immune cells populating patient-derived tumor samples. Since the exploding interest in the utilization of NOD scid and Il2rg-deficient mice for the establishment of PDTX platforms, it is of uppermost importance to raise the awareness of the limitations associated with this model. The disorders here described adversely impact tumor engraftment rate and animal lifespan, potentially representing a major confounding factor in the context of efficacy and personalized therapy studies. The occurrence of these conditions in the NOG model reflects the ability of this mouse line to promote efficient engraftment of human immune cells. Co-transplanted human lymphoid cells have indeed the potential to colonize

  18. [Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome: a case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Sun, Jia-peng; Lu, Xin-tian; Zhao, Wei-hong; Hua, Ying

    2015-12-18

    We described 1 case of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), first diagnosed in our hospital, and reviewed the recent literature. The 11-month old male patient presented with a history of splenomegaly and hepatomegaly since 1 month after birth. He suffered recurrent infectious diseases including cytomegalovirus infection, parvovirus B19 infection and chronic diarrhea disease. Besides, his symptoms included hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. The laboratory abnormality indicated an expanded population of alpha/beta double-negative T cells (DNTs) (27.18% of lymphocytes, 35.16% of CD3+ T lymphocytes) in peripheral blood, and autoantibodies including antinuclear antibody, double-stranded DNA and rheumatic factor were positive. Hyper gamma globulinemia and positive direct Coombs tests were seen in the patient. His parents were both healthy and denied autoimmune diseases. We identified a heterozygous point mutation in exon 3 of the FAS gene carrying c.309 A>C, resulting in a single base pair substitution in exon 3 of FAS gene which changed the codon of Arg103 to Ser103. Unfortunately, we were unable to obtain the gene results of the child's parents. The patient was treated with glucocorticoids in our hospital and with mycophenolatemofetil in other hospital. And we were informed that his anemia condition relieved through the telephone follow-up, but he still suffered recurrent infections, hepatomegaly and splenomegaly still existed. As we all know ALPS is characterized by defective lymphocyte apoptosis, and thus cause lymphoproliferative disease and autoimmune disease, and increase the risk of lymphoma. It is more likely to be misdiagnosed as other diseases. ALPS should be suspected in the case of chronic lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly and autoimmune features. Flow cytometry approach is helpful for the diagnosis. Immunosuppressive drugs are the necessary treatment. PMID:26679669

  19. Malignant pleural effusions in lymphoproliferative disorders.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Shahid; Shahid, Rabia K; Rimawi, Rola; Siddiqui, Anita K; Rossoff, Leonard; Sison, Cristina P; Steinberg, Harry; Rai, Kanti R

    2005-07-01

    In order to determine variables that correlate with malignant pleural effusion and mortality in patients with lymphoproliferative disorders and pleural effusion, a retrospective study was performed. Clinical data of hospitalized patients with a lymphoid malignancy and pleural effusion who underwent thoracentesis from January 1993 to December 2002 were collected. A logistic regression analysis was carried out to determine prognostic variables that predict malignant pleural effusion and hospital mortality. There were 86 patients who were admitted on 91 occasions. The median age was 70 years (range 4 - 92) and the male:female ratio was 44:42. Sixty-four patients (74%) had advanced disease, 43 (50%) had received prior chemotherapy and 9 (10%) were in remission. Of 91 cases of pleural effusions, 44 (48%) were bilateral, 80 (88%) were exudates and 48 (53%) were due to malignant involvement of pleura. In multivariate analysis, symptomatic pleural effusion (odds ratio 10.3, 95% confidence interval 1.7 - 98.3), pleural fluid mesothelial cell count < 5% (odds ratio 8.0, 95% confidence interval 1.4 - 58.2), pleural fluid:serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) > or =1 (odds ratio 6.4, 95% confidence interval 1.2 - 45.6) and pleural fluid lymphocyte percentage > or =50 (odds ratio 6.4, 95% confidence interval 1.2 - 50) were significantly correlated with malignant effusion. A secondary cancer (odds ratio 11.9, 95% confidence interval 2.3 - 88.8), pleural fluid:serum LDH > or =1 (odds ratio 10.9, 95% confidence interval 2.6 - 64.9), and pneumonia (odds ratio 6.4, 95% confidence interval 1.7 - 28.6) were significantly correlated with hospital mortality. In conclusion, malignant pleural effusion is the common etiology of pleural effusion in patients with lymphoid malignancy. Many clinical and cytochemical markers have discriminatory values in identifying malignant effusion. A high pleural fluid to serum LDH level correlates with malignant pleural involvement and hospital mortality. PMID

  20. Prognostic and diagnostic value of procalcitonin in the post-transplant setting after liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Stirkat, Falk; Croner, Roland S.; Vassos, Nikolaos; Raptis, Dimitrios; Yedibela, Süleyman; Hohenberger, Werner; Müller, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin (PCT) as a marker for complications and as a prognostic factor for mortality after liver transplantation. Material and methods Liver transplant patients between January 2007 and April 2011 were prospectively included in the study. Procalcitonin serum concentration was recorded before, 6 h after reperfusion and then daily. Postoperative clinical course was prospectively analyzed from admission to discharge. Main surgical data such as operating procedure, type of reperfusion, operating and ischemic times, high urgency (HU) status and MELD score at the time of transplantation were also recorded. Results Sixteen patients with initial PCT > 5 ng/ml suffered ≥ 1 complication (p = 0.03). However, there was no association between the level of the 1st peak PCT and the further postoperative course or the occurrence of complications. Patients in whom a 2nd PCT peak occurred had a significantly higher risk for a complicated course, for a complicated sepsis course and for mortality (p < 0.0001). Warm ischemic time over 58 min, operating time over 389 min and HU status were significant independent factors for a complicated postoperative course (p < 0.001, p < 0.001 and p = 0.03 respectively). Conclusions Based on our results, we believe that PCT course and the occurrence of a 2nd peak seem to possess important diagnostic and prognostic power in the post-transplant setting after liver transplantation. PMID:27186183

  1. Unperturbed vs. post-transplantation hematopoiesis: both in vivo but different

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Katrin; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation has yielded tremendous information on experimental properties of HSCs. Yet, it remains unclear whether transplantation reflects the physiology of hematopoiesis. A limitation is the difficulty in accessing HSC functions without isolation, in-vitro manipulation and readout for potential. New genetic fate mapping and clonal marking techniques now shed light on hematopoiesis under physiological conditions. Recent findings Transposon-based genetic marks were introduced across the entire hematopoietic system to follow the clonal dynamics of these tags over time. A polyclonal source downstream from stem cells was found responsible for the production of at least granulocytes. In independent experiments, HSCs were genetically marked in adult mice, and the kinetics of label emergence throughout the system was followed over time. These experiments uncovered that during physiological steady-state hematopoiesis large numbers of HSCs yield differentiated progeny. Individual HSCs were active only rarely, indicating their very slow periodicity of differentiation rather than quiescence. Summary Noninvasive genetic experiments in mice have identified a major role of stem and progenitor cells downstream from HSCs as drivers of adult hematopoiesis, and revealed that post-transplantation hematopoiesis differs quantitatively from normal steady-state hematopoiesis. PMID:27213498

  2. Pre- and Post-Transplantation Risk Factors for Delirium Onset and Severity in Patients Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Fann, Jesse R.; Hubbard, Rebecca A.; Alfano, Catherine M.; Roth-Roemer, Sari; Katon, Wayne J.; Syrjala, Karen L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To determine pre- and post-transplantation risk factors for delirium onset and severity during the acute phase of myeloablative hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). Patients and Methods Ninety adult patients with malignancies admitted to the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center for their first HSCT were assessed prospectively from 1 week before transplantation to 30 days after transplantation. Delirium was assessed three times per week using the Delirium Rating Scale and the Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale. Potential risk factors were assessed by patient self-report, charts, and computerized records. Multivariable analysis of time to onset of a delirium episode was undertaken using Cox proportional hazards regression with time-varying covariates. Analysis for delirium severity was carried out using a linear mixed effects model. Validation and sensitivity analyses were performed on the final models. Results Forty-five patients (50%) experienced a delirium episode. Pretransplantation risk factors for onset and higher severity of delirium were higher mean alkaline phosphatase and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels. Poorer pretransplantation executive functioning was also associated with higher delirium severity. Higher doses of opioid medications were the only post-transplantation risk factor for delirium onset (hazard ratio, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.08). Higher opioid doses, current and prior pain, and higher BUN levels were post-transplantation risk factors for greater delirium severity (all P < .01). Conclusion Pre- and post-transplantation factors can assist in identifying patients who are at risk for delirium during myeloablative HSCT and may enable clinical interventions to prevent delirium onset or decrease delirium symptoms. PMID:21263081

  3. Allosensitization does not alter post-transplant outcomes in pediatric patients bridged to transplant with a ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Castleberry, Chesney; Zafar, Farhan; Thomas, Tamara; Khan, Muhammad S; Bryant, Roosevelt; Chin, Clifford; Morales, David L S; Lorts, Angela

    2016-06-01

    Patients supported with a VAD are at increased risk for sensitization. We aimed to determine risk factors for sensitization as well as the impact of sensitization on post-transplant outcomes. The UNOS database (January 2004-June 2014) was used to identify patients (≤18 yrs) supported with a durable VAD. Rates and degree of sensitization in the VAD cohort were calculated. Post-transplant survival was determined comparing outcomes of sensitized vs. non-sensitized patients. There were 3097 patients included in the study; 19% (n = 579) were bridged with a VAD. Of these, 41.8% were sensitized vs. 29.9% of the patients who were not bridged with a VAD (p < 0.001). VAD was an independent predictor of sensitization (OR 2.05 [1.63-2.57]; p < 0.001). There was no difference in sensitization based on device type (continuous vs. pulsatile flow, p = 0.990). Post-transplant survival rates between the sensitized and non-sensitized VAD patients were not different, including patients with a PRA >50% and VAD patients with a positive DSC (p = 0.280 and 0.160, respectively). In conclusion, pediatric VAD patients are more likely to be sensitized, but there was no difference in sensitization based on device type. In addition, sensitization does not appear to impact outcomes. PMID:27102953

  4. OCTET-CY: a phase II study to investigate the efficacy of post-transplant cyclophosphamide as sole graft-versus-host prophylaxis after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Holtick, Udo; Chemnitz, Jens-Markus; Shimabukuro-Vornhagen, Alexander; Theurich, Sebastian; Chakupurakal, Geothy; Krause, Anke; Fiedler, Anne; Luznik, Leo; Hellmich, Martin; Wolf, Dominik; Hallek, Michael; von Bergwelt-Baildon, Michael; Scheid, Christof

    2016-01-01

    Objective Post-transplant cyclophosphamide is increasingly used as graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) prophylaxis in the setting of bone marrow transplantation. No data have been published on the use of single-agent GvHD prophylaxis with post-transplant cyclophosphamide in the setting of peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). Methods In a phase II trial, 11 patients with myeloma or lymphoma underwent conditioning with fludarabine and busulfan followed by T-replete PBSCT and application of 50 mg/kg/d of cyclophosphamide on day+3 and +4 without other concurrent immunosuppression (IS). Results Median time to leukocyte, neutrophil, and platelet engraftment was 18, 21, and 18 d. The incidence of grade II–IV and grade III–IV GvHD was 45% and 27%, with a non-relapse mortality (NRM) of 36% at one and 2 yr. After median follow-up of 927 d, overall and relapse-free survival was 64% and 34%. Three patients did not require any further systemic IS until day+100 and thereafter. Analysis of immune reconstitution demonstrated rapid T- and NK-cell recovery. B- and CD3+/CD161+NK/T-cell recovery was superior in patients not receiving additional IS. Conclusion Post-transplant cyclophosphamide as sole IS in PBSCT is feasible and allows rapid immune recovery. Increased rates of severe acute GvHD explain the observed NRM and may advise a temporary combination partner such as mTor-inhibitors in the PBSCT setting. PMID:25703164

  5. Autoimmunity and auto-immune syndromes associated with and preceding the development of lymphoproliferative disorders.

    PubMed

    Polliack, A; Lugassy, G

    1992-11-01

    In this report the association of autoimmunity and autoimmune syndromes with lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) is described in 15 patients. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) developed in 10 patients, Hodgkin's disease (HD) in 3 and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in two. In most instances clinical and laboratory phenomena preceded the development/diagnosis of these disorders. Manifestations ranged from the presence of autoantibodies in the serum to the presence of both ill defined or incomplete autoimmune syndromes including cold urticaria, Raynaud's phenomenon, cold agglutinin disease, thyroiditis, nephrotic syndrome and vasculitis to typical systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and even one of scleroderma. It is suggested that in some patients (in)complete clinical manifestations of autoimmunity may precede the development of lymphoid neoplasias. The link between autoimmunity and lymphoproliferative disorders is briefly discussed. PMID:1434818

  6. POST-TRANSPLANT HYPERGLYCEMIA IS ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED RISK OF LIVER ALLOGRAFT REJECTION

    PubMed Central

    Wallia, Amisha; Parikh, Neehar D; Molitch, Mark E; Mahler, Eileen; Tian, Lu; Huang, Jie Jenny; Levitsky, Josh

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Intensive glycemic control has been shown to positively impact outcomes in an intensive care setting. Whether this practice is beneficial after liver transplantation (LT) is not known. METHODS A retrospective review of patients undergoing LT from 2/02-07/04 was conducted to analyze the association between peri-operative hyperglycemia and outcomes after LT. Covariates included pre-existing diabetes, mean glucose three months pre-LT, need for insulin drip post-LT, mean total glucose during the post-LT hospitalization, age, gender, type of transplant, and MELD score. Outcomes within one year of LT included rejection, infection, re-hospitalization, prolonged ventilation, and patient/graft survival. RESULTS 113 LT and 31 liver-kidney recipients were included. By multivariate logistic regression adjusting for covariates, the rejection rate was significantly lower for patients with postoperative glucose levels < 200 mg/dL (n=114) vs. > 200 mg/dL (n=30) (OR 0.055, 95%CI [0.0154, 0.200], p<0.001). The need for prolonged ventilation was more common in patients with glucose < 200 vs. > 200 mg/dL (OR 4.30, 95%CI [1.284, 14.388], p=0.018). While other outcomes, infection, re-hospitalization, patient/graft survival, were not different among the glucose control groups, rejection was associated with increased re-hospitalizations and infections. CONCLUSION Our data demonstrate an association between immediate post-transplant glycemic control and the development of subsequent rejection. Prospective trials investigating the effects of perioperative glycemic control on outcomes and morbidity after LT are warranted. PMID:20098286

  7. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome presenting with glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Kanegane, Hirokazu; Vilela, Maria Marluce dos Santos; Wang, Yue; Futatani, Takeshi; Matsukura, Hiroyoshi; Miyawaki, Toshio

    2003-05-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is characterized clinically by chronic non-malignant lymphoproliferation and autoimmunity and is caused by a genetic defect in programmed cell death (apoptosis). Most patients with ALPS have heterozygous mutations in the Fas gene. We describe an 11-year-old Brazilian boy with hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, hemolytic anemia, and hypergammaglobulinemia since early infancy. T cell lines from the patient were defective in Fas-mediated apoptosis. He was diagnosed as having ALPS and found to have a novel Fas gene mutation (IVS4+1G>A). In addition, he presented with glomerulonephritis in infancy. An aunt and uncle who had the same Fas mutations also had histories of glomerulonephritis. Although glomerulonephritis is common in Fas-deficient mice, it is infrequent in human ALPS. Corticosteroid therapy ameliorated the glomerulonephritis in our patient, as well as his lymphoproliferation, anemia, and hypergammaglobulinemia. This study suggests that glomerulonephritis is one of the characteristic features of ALPS. PMID:12736807

  8. Comparison of Non-myeloablative Conditioning Regimens for Lymphoproliferative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sanghee; Le-Rademacher, Jennifer; Artz, Andrew; McCarthy, Philip L.; Logan, Brent R.; Pasquini, Marcelo C.

    2014-01-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) with non-myeloablative conditioning (NMA) for lymphoproliferative diseases (LD) includes fludarabine with and without low-dose total body irradiation (TBI). Transplant outcomes were compared among patients ≥40 years with LD who received a HCT with TBI (N=382) and no-TBI (N=515) NMA from 2001 to 2011. The groups were comparable except for donor, graft, prophylaxis for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), disease status and year of HCT. Cumulative incidences of grades II–IV GVHD at 100 days, were 29% and 20% (p=0.001), and chronic GVHD at 1 year were 54% and 44% (p=0.004) for TBI and no-TBI, respectively. Multivariate analysis of progression/relapse, treatment failure and mortality showed no outcome differences by conditioning. Full donor chimerism at day 100 was observed in 82% vs. 64% in the TBI and no-TBI groups, respectively (p=0.006). Subset of four most common conditioning/ GVHD prophylaxis combinations demonstrated higher rates of grades II–IV acute (p<0.001) and chronic GVHD (p<0.001) among recipients of TBI-mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) compared to other combinations. TBI-based NMA conditioning induces faster full donor chimerism but overall survival outcomes are comparable to no-TBI regimens. Combination of TBI and MMF are associated with higher rates of GVHD without impact on survival outcomes in patients with LD. PMID:25437248

  9. Spleen Tyrosine Kinase: A Crucial Player and Potential Therapeutic Target in Renal Disease.

    PubMed

    Ma, Terry King-Wing; McAdoo, Stephen P; Tam, Frederick Wai-Keung

    2016-01-01

    Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), a 72 kDa cytoplasmic non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinase, plays an important role in signal transduction in a variety of cell types. Ever since its discovery in the early 1990s, there has been accumulating evidence to suggest a pathogenic role of Syk in various allergic disorders, autoimmune diseases and malignancies. Additionally, there is emerging data from both pre-clinical and clinical studies that Syk is implicated in the pathogenesis of proliferative glomerulonephritis (GN), including anti-glomerular basement membrane disease, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated GN, lupus nephritis and immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN). Moreover, recent animal studies have shed light on the importance of Syk in mediating acute renal allograft rejection, Epstein Barr virus-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease and kidney fibrosis. Fostamatinib, an oral Syk inhibitor, has undergone clinical testing in rheumatoid arthritis, refractory immune thrombocytopenic purpura, leukemia and lymphoma. The recent STOP-IgAN trial showed that the addition of non-selective immunosuppressive therapy to intensive supportive care did not improve clinical outcomes in high-risk IgAN patients. A Syk-targeted approach may be beneficial and is currently being evaluated in a phase II randomized controlled trial. In this review, we will discuss the pathogenic role of Syk and potential use of Syk inhibitor in a variety of renal diseases. PMID:27476075

  10. X-linked lymphoproliferative syndromes: brothers or distant cousins?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kejian; Snow, Andrew L.; Marsh, Rebecca A.

    2010-01-01

    X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP1), described in the mid-1970s and molecularly defined in 1998, and XLP2, reported in 2006, are prematurely lethal genetic immunodeficiencies that share susceptibility to overwhelming inflammatory responses to certain infectious triggers. Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP; encoded by SH2D1A) is mutated in XLP1, and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP; encoded by BIRC4) is mutated in XLP2. XLP1 is a disease with multiple and variable clinical consequences, including fatal hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) triggered predominantly by Epstein-Barr virus, lymphomas, antibody deficiency, and rarer consequences of immune dysregulation. To date, XLP2 has been found to cause HLH with and without exposure to Epstein-Barr virus, and HLH is commonly recurrent in these patients. For both forms of XLP, the only curative therapy at present is allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Beyond their common X-linked locus and their requirement for normal immune responses to certain viral infections, SAP and XIAP demonstrate no obvious structural or functional similarity, are not coordinately regulated with respect to their expression, and do not appear to directly interact. In this review, we describe the genetic, clinical, and immunopathologic features of these 2 disorders and discuss current diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:20660790

  11. How I treat autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, João Bosco

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) represents a failure of apoptotic mechanisms to maintain lymphocyte homeostasis, permitting accumulation of lymphoid mass and persistence of autoreactive cells that often manifest in childhood with chronic nonmalignant lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and recurring multilineage cytopenias. Cytopenias in these patients can be the result of splenic sequestration as well as autoimmune complications manifesting as autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, and autoimmune neutropenia. More than 300 families with hereditary ALPS have now been described; nearly 500 patients from these families have been studied and followed worldwide over the last 20 years by our colleagues and ourselves. Some of these patients with FAS mutations affecting the intracellular portion of the FAS protein also have an increased risk of B-cell lymphoma. The best approaches to diagnosis, follow-up, and management of ALPS, its associated cytopenias, and other complications resulting from infiltrative lymphoproliferation and autoimmunity are presented. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrial.gov as #NCT00001350. PMID:21885601

  12. Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome: A Rare Cause of Disappearing HDL Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sriram, Swetha; Joshi, Avni Y.; Rodriguez, Vilmarie

    2016-01-01

    The term disappearing HDL syndrome refers to development of severe high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) deficiency in noncritically ill patients with previously normal HDL-C and triglyceride levels. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a disorder of the immune system due to an inability to regulate lymphocyte homeostasis resulting in lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly. We describe a 17-year-old boy who was evaluated in the lipid clinic for history of undetectable or low HDL-C and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Past medical history was significant for ALPS IA diagnosed at 10 years of age when he presented with bilateral cervical adenopathy. He was known to have a missense mutation in one allele of the FAS protein extracellular domain consistent with ALPS type 1A. HDL-C and LDL-C levels had been undetectable on multiple occasions, though lipids had not been measured prior to the diagnosis of ALPS. He had been receiving sirolimus for immunosuppression. The HDL-C and LDL-C levels correlated with disease activity and improved to normal levels during times when the activity of ALPS was controlled. This case highlights the importance of considering ALPS as a cause of low HDL-C and LDL-C levels in a child with evidence of lymphoproliferation.

  13. Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome: A Rare Cause of Disappearing HDL Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sriram, Swetha; Joshi, Avni Y; Rodriguez, Vilmarie; Kumar, Seema

    2016-01-01

    The term disappearing HDL syndrome refers to development of severe high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) deficiency in noncritically ill patients with previously normal HDL-C and triglyceride levels. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a disorder of the immune system due to an inability to regulate lymphocyte homeostasis resulting in lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly. We describe a 17-year-old boy who was evaluated in the lipid clinic for history of undetectable or low HDL-C and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Past medical history was significant for ALPS IA diagnosed at 10 years of age when he presented with bilateral cervical adenopathy. He was known to have a missense mutation in one allele of the FAS protein extracellular domain consistent with ALPS type 1A. HDL-C and LDL-C levels had been undetectable on multiple occasions, though lipids had not been measured prior to the diagnosis of ALPS. He had been receiving sirolimus for immunosuppression. The HDL-C and LDL-C levels correlated with disease activity and improved to normal levels during times when the activity of ALPS was controlled. This case highlights the importance of considering ALPS as a cause of low HDL-C and LDL-C levels in a child with evidence of lymphoproliferation. PMID:27579193

  14. T-lymphocyte colonies in the lymphoproliferative disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Dao, C; Marie, J P; Bernadou, A; Bilski-Pasquier, G

    1978-01-01

    Human lymphocytes from peripheral blood, bone marrow spleen and lymph nodes were cultured. Continuous phytoheamagglutinin (PHA) stimulation was used, first during a 24 h liquid preincubation, then during a 5 day culture in methylcellulose. In normal donors a rapid colony formation took place, with a mean of 124+/-82 colonies per 1 times 10(5) preincubated lymphocytes. Cells from such colonies were studied by cytology, scanning electron microscopy and rosette formation techniques; arguments favour the hypothesis that these could be T lymphocytes. Neither granulocytes nor macrophages could be grown, and no lymphoid colony formation occurred without PHA stimulation. The same technique was applied to patients with various lymphoproliferative disorders. Significant colony suppression was observed in nearly every case of chronic lymphatic leukaemia; the number of colonies was reduced in some patients with acute lymphatic leukaemia, lymphosarcoma, dysglobulinaemia and Hodgkin's disease. This lymphoid culture method should be applied to a larger number of patients to determine whether it has a classification value and/or prognostic significance. When colonies were grown in pathological states, rosette formation was identical to that of normal donors; colony formation could be due to persisting normal lymphocytes. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:309852

  15. Tolerability and Clinical Activity of Post-Transplantation Azacitidine in Patients Allografted for Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treated on the RICAZA Trial.

    PubMed

    Craddock, Charles; Jilani, Nadira; Siddique, Shamyla; Yap, Christina; Khan, Josephine; Nagra, Sandeep; Ward, Janice; Ferguson, Paul; Hazlewood, Peter; Buka, Richard; Vyas, Paresh; Goodyear, Oliver; Tholouli, Eleni; Crawley, Charles; Russell, Nigel; Byrne, Jenny; Malladi, Ram; Snowden, John; Dennis, Mike

    2016-02-01

    Disease relapse is the major causes of treatment failure after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). As well as demonstrating significant clinical activity in AML, azacitidine (AZA) upregulates putative tumor antigens, inducing a CD8(+) T cell response with the potential to augment a graft-versus-leukemia effect. We, therefore, studied the feasibility and clinical sequelae of the administration of AZA during the first year after transplantation in 51 patients with AML undergoing allogeneic SCT. Fourteen patients did not commence AZA either because of transplantation complications or withdrawal of consent. Thirty-seven patients commenced AZA at a median of 54 days (range, 40 to 194 days) after transplantation, which was well tolerated in the majority of patients. Thirty-one patients completed 3 or more cycles of AZA. Sixteen patients relapsed at a median time of 8 months after transplantation. No patient developed extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease. The induction of a post-transplantation CD8(+) T cell response to 1 or more tumor-specific peptides was studied in 28 patients. Induction of a CD8(+) T cell response was associated with a reduced risk of disease relapse (hazard ratio [HR], .30; 95% confidence interval [CI], .10 to .85; P = .02) and improved relapse-free survival (HR, .29; 95% CI, .10 to .83; P = .02) taking into account death as a competing risk. In conclusion, AZA is well tolerated after transplantation and appears to have the capacity to reduce the relapse risk in patients who demonstrate a CD8(+) T cell response to tumor antigens. These observations require confirmation in a prospective clinical trial. PMID:26363443

  16. Tolerability and Clinical Activity of Post-Transplantation Azacitidine in Patients Allografted for Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treated on the RICAZA Trial

    PubMed Central

    Craddock, Charles; Jilani, Nadira; Siddique, Shamyla; Yap, Christina; Khan, Josephine; Nagra, Sandeep; Ward, Janice; Ferguson, Paul; Hazlewood, Peter; Buka, Richard; Vyas, Paresh; Goodyear, Oliver; Tholouli, Eleni; Crawley, Charles; Russell, Nigel; Byrne, Jenny; Malladi, Ram; Snowden, John; Dennis, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Disease relapse is the major causes of treatment failure after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). As well as demonstrating significant clinical activity in AML, azacitidine (AZA) upregulates putative tumor antigens, inducing a CD8+ T cell response with the potential to augment a graft-versus-leukemia effect. We, therefore, studied the feasibility and clinical sequelae of the administration of AZA during the first year after transplantation in 51 patients with AML undergoing allogeneic SCT. Fourteen patients did not commence AZA either because of transplantation complications or withdrawal of consent. Thirty-seven patients commenced AZA at a median of 54 days (range, 40 to 194 days) after transplantation, which was well tolerated in the majority of patients. Thirty-one patients completed 3 or more cycles of AZA. Sixteen patients relapsed at a median time of 8 months after transplantation. No patient developed extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease. The induction of a post-transplantation CD8+ T cell response to 1 or more tumor-specific peptides was studied in 28 patients. Induction of a CD8+ T cell response was associated with a reduced risk of disease relapse (hazard ratio [HR], .30; 95% confidence interval [CI], .10 to .85; P = .02) and improved relapse-free survival (HR, .29; 95% CI, .10 to .83; P = .02) taking into account death as a competing risk. In conclusion, AZA is well tolerated after transplantation and appears to have the capacity to reduce the relapse risk in patients who demonstrate a CD8+ T cell response to tumor antigens. These observations require confirmation in a prospective clinical trial. PMID:26363443

  17. [Epstein-Barr virus infection - life cycle, methods of diagnosis, associated diseases].

    PubMed

    Bocian, Joanna; Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska, Danuta

    2011-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous virus that infects about 90–95% of the adult population. EBV establishes life-long latent persistence. The virus is found to be the major cause of infectious mononucleosis but it has also been associated with development of endemic Burkitt’s lymphoma. Result of EBV infection is the most common complication in patients after transplantation which is a post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease. Strong associations between EBV infection and Hodgkin’s lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric carcinoma and carcinomas derived from smooth muscle tissue also exist. There is a hypothesis that there is an association between EBV infection and autoimmune and allergic diseases. EBV is a Herpesvirus family member; its genetic material has dsDNA form. There are two strains of EBV: A and B. The only host for EBV is human with target cells: B cells and epithelial cells. The life cycle of EBV consists of lytic and latent phases. In the latent phase three different patterns of gene expression are possible. Due to some circumstances EBV can undergo reactivation, which is an important issue in transplantology. The main methods of diagnosis of EBV infections are serological methods that detect certain specific antibodies and recently more popular molecular biological methods such as PCR or in situ hybridization. PMID:21677354

  18. Chronic Graft Loss and Death in Patients With Post-Transplant Malignancy in Living Kidney Transplantation: A Competing Risk Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Salesi, Mahmoud; Rostami, Zohreh; Rahimi Foroushani, Abbas; Mehrazmay, Ali Reza; Mohammadi, Jamile; Einollahi, Behzad; Asgharian, Saeed; Eshraghian, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Malignancy is a common complication after renal transplantation. Death with functioning graft and chronic graft loss are two competing outcomes in patients with post-transplant malignancies. Objectives: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the risk factors associated with cumulative incidence of these two outcomes. Patients and Methods: Fine-Gray model was used for 266 cases with post-transplant malignancy in Iran. These patients were followed-up from the diagnosis until the date of last visit, chronic graft loss, or death, subsequently. Results: At the end of the study, as competing events, chronic graft loss and death with functioning graft were seen in 27 (10.2%) and 53 cases (19.9%), respectively, while 186 cases (69.9%) were accounted as censored. The incidence rate of death was approximately two-time of the incidence rate of chronic graft loss (8.6 vs. 4.4 per 100 person-years). In multivariate analysis, significant risk factors associated with cumulative incidence of death included age (P < 0.007, subhazard ratio (SHR) = 1.03), type of cancer (P < 0.0001), and response to treatment (P < 0.0001, SHR = 0.027). The significant risk factors associated with cumulative incidence of chronic graft loss were gender (P = 0.05, SHR = 0.37), treatment modality (P < 0.0001), and response to treatment (P = 0.048, SHR = 0.47). Conclusions: Using these factors, nephrologists may predict the occurrence of graft loss or death. If the probability of graft loss was higher, physicians can decrease the immunosuppressive medications dosage to decrease the incidence of graft loss. PMID:25032129

  19. Advances in Understanding the Pathogenesis of Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Lymphoproliferative Disorders.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xi; Nishida, Naonori; Zhao, Xiaodong; Kanegane, Hirokazu

    2015-10-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was discovered 50 years ago  from an african Burkitt lymphoma cell line. EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) are life- threatening diseases, especially in children. In this article, we review EBV-associated LPDs, especially in the area of primary immunodeficiency disease (PID). We searched PubMed for publications with key words including EBV infection, lymphoma, LPDs and PID, and selected the manuscripts written in English that we judged to be relevant to the topic of this review.On the basis of the data in the literature, we grouped the EBV-associated LPDs into four categories: nonmalignant disease, malignant disease, acquired immunodeficiency disease and PID. Each category has its own risk factor for LPD development. EBV-associated LPD is a complex disease, creating new challenges for diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26742434

  20. Expression of Ki-67 nuclear antigen in B and T cell lymphoproliferative disorders.

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, N.; Matutes, E.; Cordone, I.; Morilla, R.; Catovksy, D.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To determine whether the proliferation rates of tumour cells may relate to prognosis and reflect disease activity. METHODS: Blood mononuclear cells from 155 patients with B cell (n = 120) or T cell (n = 35) chronic lymphoproliferative disorders were tested with the monoclonal antibody Ki-67 by indirect immunoperoxidase or immunoalkaline phosphatase techniques. B cell diseases included chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), CLL in prolymphocytic transformation (CLL/PL), prolymphocytic leukaemia (B-PLL) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL) in leukaemic phase. The T cell diseases comprised large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukaemia, T-PLL, and T-NHL. RESULTS: These showed significantly higher proportions of Ki-67 positive cells in T cell (11.2%) than in B cell (2.9%) disorders (p < 0.001). The highest values were found in NHL of both B and T cell types, particularly when low grade disease transformed to high grade. The lowest percentages of Ki-67 positive cells were found in CLL (1.4%) and LGL leukaemia (1.7%); intermediate values were seen in B PLL (3.3%) and T PLL (5.8%). CONCLUSIONS: There is a positive correlation between prognosis and proliferation rates in chronic B and T cell lymphoproliferative disorders. Estimation of Ki-67 in circulating leukaemic cells could be used to determine prognosis in low grade malignancies. Images PMID:1401173

  1. High-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell support followed by post-transplant doxorubicin and taxol as initial therapy for metastatic breast cancer: hematopoietic tolerance and efficacy.

    PubMed

    deMagalhaes-Silverman, M; Hammert, L; Lembersky, B; Lister, J; Rybka, W; Ball, E

    1998-06-01

    A multistep HDC regimen was designed as first-line chemotherapy for MBC. Twenty-four patients with MBC and no previous chemotherapy for metastatic disease were treated with high-dose cyclophosphamide (5000 mg/m2), and etoposide (1000 mg/m2) (CyVP16), followed by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) were collected. Subsequently patients received cyclophosphamide (6000 mg/m2), thiotepa (500 mg/m2) and carboplatin (800 mg/m2) (CTCb) with hematopoietic rescue. Upon recovery from hematopoietic and gastrointestinal toxicity three cycles of doxorubicin (50 mg/m2) and taxol (150 mg/m2) were delivered. After CyVP16 42% of patients developed neutropenic fevers. There was one documented episode of bacteremia. Patients received CTCb 32 days after starting CyVP16. After CTCb the median number of days to ANC >5 x 10(9)/l was 10 and to a platelet count >20 x 10(9)/l was 14. Neutropenic fevers developed in 16 patients. There were no hemorrhagic episodes. A total of 69 cycles of doxorubicin and taxol were delivered (87% of planned). The median time from PBSC infusion to the first cycle was 38 days. The median time to the second cycle was 27 days and to the last cycle was 24 days. One patient developed congestive heart failure. Two episodes of neutropenic fevers were observed. No toxicity-related deaths were observed. Grafts are stable at 6 months post transplantation. This multistep regimen is feasible with acceptable toxicity. PMID:9674853

  2. Sirolimus for Autoimmune Disease of Blood Cells

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-22

    Autoimmune Pancytopenia; Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS); Evans Syndrome; Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura; Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune; Autoimmune Neutropenia; Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic; Inflammatory Bowel Disease; Rheumatoid Arthritis

  3. Fatal B-cell lymphoproliferative syndrome in allogeneic marrow graft recipients. A clinical, immunobiological and pathological study.

    PubMed

    Simon, M; Bartram, C R; Friedrich, W; Arnold, R; Schmeiser, T; Hampl, W; Müller-Hermelink, H K; Heymer, B

    1991-01-01

    We have studied four cases of fatal B-cell lymphoproliferative syndrome (LPS) developing among 333 patients (incidence 1.2%) treated with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). All four patients had received a T-cell depleted graft. Onset of the first clinical symptoms (palpable lymph node enlargement in three and IgA-lambda paraproteinemia in two patients) occurred between 41 and 188 days post-BMT (median 76 days). The course of the LPS was rapidly progressive in all cases, leading to death in 2-5 weeks. The peripheral blood showed progressive pancytopenia with disproportionally high numbers of activated NK cells, apparently compensating for the T-cell deficiency. Post-mortem histological studies disclosed polymorphic B-cell proliferations, most pronounced in the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, lungs and kidneys. Lymphohemopoietic cells were of donor origin in three patients. In the fourth patient, graft failure suggested a host origin for the proliferating cells. Immunophenotyping and gene rearrangement analysis revealed polyclonal proliferation in one patient, monoclonal proliferation in another patient, and an oligoclonal pattern in the other two patients. The clinical behavior of the LPS was independent of clonality. Immunohistologically, the proliferating cells showed characteristics of relatively mature B-cells in three cases, and pre-B-cell features in one case. Epstein Barr virus (EBV) serology indicated seroconversion (primary infection) in one child, and chronic active EBV infection in both adults. EBV DNA as well as EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA) were detected in infiltrated tissues of all four patients. The labeling pattern on in situ hybridization suggested a replicative EBV infection comparable to that in lymphoblastoid cell lines. We conclude that EBV-associated LPS developing as a result of post-transplant immunodeficiency is a distinct clinicopathologic entity, differing from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (including Burkitt's lymphoma) and infectious

  4. Risk factors for lymphoproliferative disorders after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Ethel S.; Rizzo, J. Douglas; Socié, Gérard; Banks, Peter M.; Sobocinski, Kathleen A.; Horowitz, Mary M.; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Kingma, Douglas W.; Travis, Lois B.; Flowers, Mary E.; Martin, Paul J.; Deeg, H. Joachim; Curtis, Rochelle E.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated 26 901 patients who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) at 271 centers worldwide to define patterns of posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs). PTLDs developed in 127 recipients, with 105 (83%) cases occurring within 1 year after transplantation. In multivariate analyses, we confirmed that PTLD risks were strongly associated (P < .001) with T-cell depletion of the donor marrow, antithymocyte globulin (ATG) use, and unrelated or HLA-mismatched grafts (URD/HLA mismatch). Significant associations were also confirmed for acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease. The increased risk associated with URD/HLA-mismatched donors (RR = 3.8) was limited to patients with T-cell depletion or ATG use (P = .004). New findings were elevated risks for age 50 years or older at transplantation (RR = 5.1; P < .001) and second transplantation (RR = 3.5; P < .001). Lower risks were found for T-cell depletion methods that remove both T and B cells (alemtuzumab and elutriation, RR = 3.1; P = .025) compared with other methods (RR = 9.4; P = .005 for difference). The cumulative incidence of PTLDs was low (0.2%) among 21 686 patients with no major risk factors, but increased to 1.1%, 3.6%, and 8.1% with 1, 2, and more than 3 major risk factors, respectively. Our findings identify subgroups of patients who underwent allogeneic HCT at elevated risk of PTLDs for whom prospective monitoring of Epstein-Barr virus activation and early treatment intervention may be particularly beneficial. PMID:19264919

  5. Remission of late-onset post-heart transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder following treatment with rituximab and modified mini-CHOP chemotherapy: A case report

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, QIANG; YANG, TIANXIN; JIN, XING; NI, XUMING; QI, HAIYAN; YAN, ZHIKUN

    2016-01-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is one of the most frequent secondary malignancies that can follow immunosuppressive therapy for solid organ transplantation, and may result in severe morbidities and even mortality. A middle-aged Han Chinese patient, prescribed with immunosuppressive cyclosporine and prednisone, developed PTLD that manifested as a painless cervical lymph node enlargement, 12 years following heart transplantation. Histology revealed monomorphic B-cell PTLD (diffuse large-cell lymphoma); as a result the immunosuppressive regimen of the patient was changed to tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. In addition, the patient was changed to 6-cycle rituximab with a modified mini-CHOP (R-mini-CHOP) regimen for induction, and 8-cycle quarterly rituximab treatment and maintenance therapy. R-mini-CHOP therapy was well tolerated, and no allograft rejection occurred. The patient exhibited clinical remission as demonstrated by the results of the positron emission tomography-computed tomography at the 5-year follow-up visit following R-mini-CHOP therapy. In conclusion, R-mini-CHOP therapy following reduced immunosuppression is effective and safe for the treatment of late-onset PTLD following heart transplantation. PMID:27347047

  6. Chronic Disease and Childhood Development: Kidney Disease and Transplantation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Susan D.; Simmons, Roberta G.

    As part of a larger study of transplantation and chronic disease and the family, 124 children (10-18 years old) who were chronically ill with kidney disease (n=72) or were a year or more post-transplant (n=52) were included in a study focusing on the effects of chronic kidney disease and transplantation on children's psychosocial development. Ss…

  7. Long-term use of amiodarone before heart transplantation significantly reduces early post-transplant atrial fibrillation and is not associated with increased mortality after heart transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Rivinius, Rasmus; Helmschrott, Matthias; Ruhparwar, Arjang; Schmack, Bastian; Erbel, Christian; Gleissner, Christian A; Akhavanpoor, Mohammadreza; Frankenstein, Lutz; Darche, Fabrice F; Schweizer, Patrick A; Thomas, Dierk; Ehlermann, Philipp; Bruckner, Tom; Katus, Hugo A; Doesch, Andreas O

    2016-01-01

    Background Amiodarone is a frequently used antiarrhythmic drug in patients with end-stage heart failure. Given its long half-life, pre-transplant use of amiodarone has been controversially discussed, with divergent results regarding morbidity and mortality after heart transplantation (HTX). Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term use of amiodarone before HTX on early post-transplant atrial fibrillation (AF) and mortality after HTX. Methods Five hundred and thirty patients (age ≥18 years) receiving HTX between June 1989 and December 2012 were included in this retrospective single-center study. Patients with long-term use of amiodarone before HTX (≥1 year) were compared to those without long-term use (none or <1 year of amiodarone). Primary outcomes were early post-transplant AF and mortality after HTX. The Kaplan–Meier estimator using log-rank tests was applied for freedom from early post-transplant AF and survival. Results Of the 530 patients, 74 (14.0%) received long-term amiodarone therapy, with a mean duration of 32.3±26.3 months. Mean daily dose was 223.0±75.0 mg. Indications included AF, Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome, ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation. Patients with long-term use of amiodarone before HTX had significantly lower rates of early post-transplant AF (P=0.0105). Further, Kaplan–Meier analysis of freedom from early post-transplant AF showed significantly lower rates of AF in this group (P=0.0123). There was no statistically significant difference between patients with and without long-term use of amiodarone prior to HTX in 1-year (P=0.8596), 2-year (P=0.8620), 5-year (P=0.2737), or overall follow-up mortality after HTX (P=0.1049). Moreover, Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed no statistically significant difference in overall survival (P=0.1786). Conclusion Long-term use of amiodarone in patients before HTX significantly reduces early post-transplant AF and is not associated with

  8. Constitutive JAK3 activation induces lymphoproliferative syndromes in murine bone marrow transplantation models

    PubMed Central

    Cornejo, Melanie G.; Kharas, Michael G.; Werneck, Miriam B.; Bras, Séverine Le; Moore, Sandra A.; Ball, Brian; Beylot-Barry, Marie; Rodig, Scott J.; Aster, Jon C.; Lee, Benjamin H.; Cantor, Harvey; Merlio, Jean-Philippe

    2009-01-01

    The tyrosine kinase JAK3 plays a well-established role during normal lymphocyte development and is constitutively phosphorylated in several lymphoid malignancies. However, its contribution to lymphomagenesis remains elusive. In this study, we used the newly identified activating JAK3A572V mutation to elucidate the effect of constitutive JAK3 signaling on murine lymphopoiesis. In a bone marrow transplantation model, JAK3A572V induces an aggressive, fatal, and transplantable lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by the expansion of CD8+TCRαβ+CD44+CD122+Ly-6C+ T cellsthat closely resemble an effector/memory T-cell subtype. Compared with wild-type counterparts, these cells show increased proliferative capacities in response to polyclonal stimulation, enhanced survival rates with elevated expression of Bcl-2, and increased production of interferon-γ (IFNγ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), correlating with enhanced cytotoxic abilities against allogeneic target cells. Of interest, the JAK3A572V disease is epidermotropic and produces intraepidermal microabscesses. Taken together, these clinical features are reminiscent of those observed in an uncommon but aggressive subset of CD8+ human cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs). However, we also observed a CD4+ CTCL-like phenotype when cells are transplanted in an MHC-I–deficient background. These data demonstrate that constitutive JAK3 activation disrupts T-cell homeostasis and induces lymphoproliferative diseases in mice. PMID:19139084

  9. Serum Uric Acid and Renal Transplantation Outcomes: At Least 3-Year Post-transplant Retrospective Multivariate Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kun; Gao, Baoshan; Wang, Yuantao; Wang, Gang; Wang, Weigang; Zhu, Yaxiang; Yao, Liyu; Gu, Yiming; Chen, Mo; Zhou, Honglan; Fu, Yaowen

    2015-01-01

    Since the association of serum uric acid and kidney transplant graft outcome remains disputable, we sought to evaluate the predictive value of uric acid level for graft survival/function and the factors could affect uric acid as time varies. A consecutive cohort of five hundred and seventy three recipients transplanted during January 2008 to December 2011 were recruited. Data and laboratory values of our interest were collected at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 36 months post-transplant for analysis. Cox proportional hazard model, and multiple regression equation were built to adjust for the possible confounding variables and meet our goals as appropriate. The current cohort study lasts for 41.86 ± 15.49 months. Uric acid level is proven to be negatively associated with eGFR at different time point after adjustment for age, body mass index and male gender (standardized β ranges from -0.15 to -0.30 with all P<0.001).Males with low eGFR but high level of TG were on CSA, diuretics and RAS inhibitors and experienced at least one episode of acute rejection and diabetic issue were associated with a higher mean uric acid level. Hyperuricemia was significantly an independent predictor of pure graft failure (hazard ratio=4.01, 95% CI: 1.25-12.91, P=0.02) after adjustment. But it was no longer an independent risk factor for graft loss after adjustment. Interestingly, higher triglyceride level can make incidence of graft loss (hazard ratio=1.442, for each unit increase millimoles per liter 95% CI: 1.008-2.061, P=0.045) and death (hazard ratio=1.717, 95% CI: 1.105-2.665, P=0.016) more likely. The results of our study suggest that post-transplant elevated serum uric acid level is an independent predictor of long-term graft survival and graft function. Together with the high TG level impact on poor outcomes, further investigations for therapeutic effect are needed. PMID:26208103

  10. Inflammation-based scores do not predict post-transplant recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients within Milan criteria.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Ioanna; Tsochatzis, Emmanuel; Wijewantha, Hasitha; Rodríguez-Perálvarez, Manuel; De Luca, Laura; Manousou, Pinelopi; Fatourou, Evangelia; Pieri, Giulia; Papastergiou, Vassilios; Davies, Neil; Yu, Dominic; Luong, TuVinh; Dhillon, Amar Paul; Thorburn, Douglas; Patch, David; O'Beirne, James; Meyer, Tim; Burroughs, Andrew K

    2014-11-01

    Increased preoperative inflammation scores, such as neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and inflammation-based index (IBI) have been related to post-transplant HCC recurrence. We evaluated the association between inflammation-based scores (NLR, PLR, IBI) and post-LT HCC recurrence as well as tumor necrosis after transarterial embolization. 150 consecutive patients who underwent transplantation for HCC within the Milan criteria between 1996 and 2010 were included; data regarding inflammatory markers, patient and tumor characteristics were analyzed. NLR, PLR, and IBI were not significantly associated with post-LT HCC recurrence or worse overall survival. Increased NLR and PLR were associated with complete tumor necrosis in the subset of patients who received preoperative transarterial embolization (P < 0.05). Cox regression analysis revealed that absence of neoadjuvant transarterial therapy (OR = 4.33, 95% CI = 1.28-14.64; P = 0.02) and no fulfillment of the Milan criteria in the explanted liver (OR = 3.34, 95% CI = 1.08-10.35; P = 0.04) were independently associated with post-LT HCC recurrence inflammation-based scores did not predict HCC recurrence post-LT in our group of patients. NLR and PLR were associated with better response to TAE, as this was recorded histologically in the explanted liver. Histological fulfillment of the Milan criteria and absence of neoadjuvant transarterial treatment were significantly associated with post-LT HCC recurrence. PMID:25088400

  11. Post-Transplant Membranous Nephropathy Associated with Chronic Active Antibody-Mediated Rejection and Hepatitis C Infection after Deceased Donor Renal Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Doke, Tomohito; Sato, Waichi; Takahashi, Kazuo; Hayashi, Hiroki; Koide, Sigehisa; Sasaki, Hitomi; Kusaka, Mamoru; Shiroki, Ryoichi; Hoshinaga, Kiyotaka; Takeda, Asami; Yuzawa, Yukio; Hasegawa, Midori

    2016-01-01

    A 53-year-old woman who had undergone deceased donor kidney transplantation twice, at 35 and 43 years of age, presented with renal impairment. She was infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). The histology of the graft kidney revealed post-transplant membranous nephropathy (MN) with podocytic infolding and antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). IgG subclass staining showed fine granular deposits of IgG1 and IgG3, but not IgG4, in the glomerular capillary walls. Panel reactive antibody scores for human leukocyte antigen class I and class II were 92.67% and 66.68%, respectively. Thus, this case of post-transplanted MN was considered to be associated with AMR and HCV infection. PMID:26875963

  12. Extra-intestinal malignancies in inflammatory bowel disease: results of the 3rd ECCO Pathogenesis Scientific Workshop (III).

    PubMed

    Magro, Fernando; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; Sokol, Harry; Aldeger, Xavier; Costa, Antonia; Higgins, Peter D; Joyce, Joel C; Katsanos, Konstantinos H; Lopez, Anthony; de Xaxars, Teresa Mas; Toader, Elena; Beaugerie, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of lymphoproliferative disorders (LD) is increasing in developed countries. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) exposed to thiopurines are at additional risk of three specific forms of LD: Epstein-Barr-Virus-related post-transplant like LD, hepato-splenic T-cell lymphoma and post-mononucleosis lymphoproliferation. The risk of the two latter forms of LD can be reduced when considering specific immunosuppressive strategies in young males. It is still unclear whether the risk of uterine cervix abnormalities is increased in IBD women, irrespective of the use of immunosuppressants. Given the excess risk demonstrated in various other contexts of immunosuppression, it is currently recommended that all women with IBD, particularly those receiving immunosuppressants, strictly adhere to a screening program of cervical surveillance and undergo vaccination against HPV, when appropriate. Patients with IBD receiving immunosuppressants are at increased risk of skin cancers. The risk of non-melanoma skin cancer is notably increased in patients receiving thiopurines. Recent data suggest that the risk of melanoma is mildly increased in patients exposed to anti-TNF therapy. All IBD patients should adhere to a program of sun protection and dermatological surveillance, whose details should take into account the other non-IBD-related risk factors. PMID:23721759

  13. Antibodies against "DANGER" in the dynamic of post-transplant circulation.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Michiko

    2013-01-01

    Evidence that has accumulated about the impact of non-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies against tissue-restricted antigens supports the concept that humoral targets can be constantly altered by transplant-associated stresses such as ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury, organ preservation, immunosuppressive drugs, and pre-existing diseases. This accounts for the growing interest in "danger" signals--in the form of damage-induced molecules--expanding our understanding of the humoral cause of allograft rejection and failure from thinking it is caused only by genetically determined HLA mismatches to seeing the role played by antibody recognition of antigens modified posttransplant. The heterogeneous repertoire of antibodies was evidenced by the recent protein microarray analysis that revealed increased posttransplant levels of heterogeneous antibodies against the targets localized in specific kidney compartments. Antibodies can also be developed against molecules dynamically generated in the circulation as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that are the endogenous version of exogenous pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Antibodies against some DAMP molecules have been identified in many autoimmune diseases, but mostly have been elusive in transplant immunology. Those humoral DAMP targets include the well-studied high-mobility group box 1, IR injury-induced proteins, and oxidation-specific epitopes exposed on oxidized low-density lipoprotein. Moreover, understanding the intersection of endogenous DAMPs and exogenous PAMPs in transplant immunology may reveal a new aspect of humoral reactions. Recently reported cross-recognition by polyreactive antibodies of apoptotic cells may be one of many unidentified recognition patterns that indicate existence of an immune system strategy for defending against a number of stress-induced targets as a set of "danger." Given all these findings, the recent approach of identifying disease-specific panels of up

  14. Regional evaluation of renal dynamics in post transplant kidneys with Tc-99m DTPA and scinti-camera

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, T.; Akuta, K.; Aoki, S.; Furunishi, H.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, T.; Nakane, Y.; Pak, K.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to analyze the regional renal dynamic process (renal perfusion, accumulation and clearance) using Tc-99m DTPA and assess for the regional renal indices from this analysis early to detect acute tubular necrosis and acute rejection of post transplant kidneys. The subjects were 6 normal donors and 10 post renal transplant patients. Tc-99m DTPA (20 mCi) was injected into the vein by a bolus, and its activity change in the kidney was measured by a scintillation camera, and stored each 1 sec. for 20 sec. following each 15 sec. for 20 min. in the computer, to calculate the renal functional indices: the perfusion index, the blood flow mean transit time, the accumulation rate and the clearance rate in the cortex, medulla and pelvis, whose R.O.I. regions were separated in the early and late scinti-images. The accumulation ratio, a new parameter, which is the second upslope part of Tc-99m DTPA renogram, and the clearance rate were calculated from H/A method. The authors made the functional images of these indices to estimate their regional distribution. The accumulation rate and the clearance rate only in the cortex were markedly decreased in the acute tubular necrosis and the rejection, which functional images showed irregular distributions. It was possible to evaluate the renal perfusion with Tc-99m DTPA, separated from the renal accumulation and clearance process. The authors' method gave the assessment of the regional renal disorders with the functional images; the renal disorders in acute tubular necrosis and acute rejection exist mainly in the cortex.

  15. Existence of circulating anti-endothelial cell antibodies after heart transplantation is associated with post-transplant acute allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Lehle, Karla; Kroher, Johannes; Kolat, Philipp; von Süßkind-Schwendi, Marietta; Schmid, Christof; Haneya, Assad; Rupprecht, Leopold; Hirt, Stephan

    2016-05-01

    Anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECA) may be involved in the development of heart allograft rejection. Its detection might be a cheap and noninvasive method to identify high-risk patients. An indirect immunofluorescence method on human umbilical vein endothelial cells was used to investigate the presence of AECAs in 260 pre- and post-transplant serum samples sequentially collected from 34 patients within the first year after heart transplantation (HTX). The presence of AECAs before (23.5 %) and early after HTX (14.7 %) was associated with a significantly increased risk of early acute rejection (75 and 60 %, respectively) compared to 33 % in AECA-negative patients (p = 0.049). Moreover, rejections from AECA-positive patients were more severe (p = 0.057) with a significantly increased incidence of multiple (p = 0.025). The mean number of the sum of rejection episodes was significantly higher in AECA-positive patients (p ≤ 0.05). Patients free of AECAs mainly received mycophenolate mofetil as primary immunosuppression (p = 0.067). Nevertheless, the presence of AECAs did not affect long-term outcome and mortality of HTX patients. Despite a low number of patient samples, the detection of AECAs before and early after HTX could be used as a biomarker for an increased risk of early acute rejection in high-risk patients. This easy method might be a valuable tool to support screening procedures to improve individualized immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:25820657

  16. Impact of pretransplant minimal residual disease on the post-transplant outcome of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Umeda, Katsutsugu; Hiramatsu, Hidefumi; Kawaguchi, Koji; Iwai, Atsushi; Mikami, Masamitsu; Nodomi, Seishiro; Saida, Satoshi; Heike, Toshio; Ohomori, Katsuyuki; Adachi, Souichi

    2016-08-01

    There are few reports on the clinical significance of MRD before HSCT in pediatric ALL. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical significance of FCM-based detection of MRD (FCM-MRD) before allogeneic HSCT in pediatric ALL. Of 38 pediatric patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT for the first time between 1998 and 2014, 33 patients were in CR and five patients were in non-CR. The CR group was further divided into two groups based on the pretransplant FCM-MRD level: the MRD(neg) (<0.01%; 30 patients) group and the MRD(pos) (≥0.01%; three patients) group. There were significant differences in the three-yr event-free survival rates between the CR and non-CR group, and between the MRD(neg) and MRD(pos) group. The three-yr cumulative RI in the MRD(neg) group were 27.3% ± 8.8%, whereas two of the three patients in the MRD(pos) group relapsed within one yr after HSCT. The clinical outcome of the MRD(pos) group was as poor as that of the non-CR group in pediatric ALL. Therefore, an improvement in pretransplant treatment that aims to achieve a more profound remission would contribute to reducing the risk of relapse. PMID:27256540

  17. Successful treatment of post-transplant thrombocytopenia with romiplostim in a pediatric patient with X-linked chronic granulomatous disease.

    PubMed

    Buchbinder, David; Hsieh, Loan; Krance, Robert; Nugent, Diane J

    2014-11-01

    Thrombocytopenia is a frequent complication following HSCT in pediatric patients. Romiplostim is a TPO receptor agonist that has been utilized successfully in the treatment of pediatric patients with immune thrombocytopenia. We describe a three-yr-old male with X-linked CGD treated with an unrelated donor bone marrow transplant. His course was complicated by the development of symptomatic thrombocytopenia. He was started on romiplostim with prompt improvement in his thrombocytopenia. We found the use of romiplostim to be an effective and safe alternative to the potential complications as well as morbidity and mortality associated with the use of immunosuppressive agents such as corticosteroids. PMID:25118016

  18. Molecular etiology of an indolent lymphoproliferative disorder determined by whole-genome sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Jeremy D.K.; Shen, Yaoqing; Pleasance, Erin; Li, Yvonne; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Zhao, Yongjun; Moore, Richard; Wegrzyn-Woltosz, Joanna; Savage, Kerry J.; Weng, Andrew P.; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Jones, Steven; Marra, Marco; Laskin, Janessa; Karsan, Aly

    2016-01-01

    In an attempt to assess potential treatment options, whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing were performed on a patient with an unclassifiable small lymphoproliferative disorder. Variants from genome sequencing were prioritized using a combination of comparative variant distributions in a spectrum of lymphomas, and meta-analyses of gene expression profiling. In this patient, the molecular variants that we believe to be most relevant to the disease presentation most strongly resemble a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), whereas the gene expression data are most consistent with a low-grade chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The variant of greatest interest was a predicted NOTCH2-truncating mutation, which has been recently reported in various lymphomas. PMID:27148583

  19. A DNA hybridization system for labeling of neural stem cells with SPIO nanoparticles for MRI monitoring post-transplantation.

    PubMed

    Egawa, Edgar Y; Kitamura, Narufumi; Nakai, Ryusuke; Arima, Yusuke; Iwata, Hiroo

    2015-06-01

    detected by MRI in vitro as well in vivo. Cells transplanted into the rat brain striatum could be detected by MRI scanning up to 1 month post-transplantation. PMID:25907049

  20. Spectrum of Radiological Manifestations in Lymphoproliferative Malignancies with Unusual Extra Nodal Soft Tissue Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Kahila; Upreti, Lalendra; Garga, Umesh Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoproliferative malignancies constitute a wide spectrum of haematological malignancies and their prevalence is widely increasing. Non-Hodgkin lymphomas and Hodgkin disease, frequently involve extranodal soft tissue structures in the head and neck, thorax and abdomen. These malignancies may involve virtually any type of soft tissues to any extent; hence many different imaging manifestations are possible which may mimic other disorders. The imaging characteristics of extranodal lymphomatous soft tissue involvement are described and classified here according to the site of involvement in 6 cases (primary diseases with orbital, muscle, extra testicular, scalp, sinonasal and pachymeningeal/dural involvement). In majority of these cases at presentation we found a predominantly homogeneous soft tissue mass with mildly high attenuation on CT and a T2 intermediate signal on MRI at these sites without any manifestation of disease elsewhere but on follow-up two out of these six cases developed systemic disease elsewhere. Few consistent patterns were noticed on CT and MRI which might help to include lymphomas as an important differential diagnosis of soft tissue masses. Though a definitive diagnosis requires a biopsy (bone marrow, lymph node, or mass), and other laboratory tests, imaging primarily aims at staging of the disease and identification of new or recurrent disease.

  1. Hematopoietic Neoplasias in Horses: Myeloproliferative and Lymphoproliferative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    MUÑOZ, Ana; RIBER, Cristina; TRIGO, Pablo; CASTEJÓN, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Leukemia, i.e., the neoplasia of one or more cell lines of the bone marrow, although less common than in other species, it is also reported in horses. Leukemia can be classified according to the affected cells (myeloproliferative or lymphoproliferative disorders), evolution of clinical signs (acute or chronic) and the presence or lack of abnormal cells in peripheral blood (leukemic, subleukemic and aleukemic leukemia). The main myeloproliferative disorders in horses are malignant histiocytosis and myeloid leukemia, the latter being classified as monocytic and myelomonocytic, granulocytic, primary erythrocytosis or polycythemia vera and megakaryocytic leukemia. The most common lymphoproliferative disorders in horses are lymphoid leukemia, plasma cell or multiple myeloma and lymphoma. Lymphoma is the most common hematopoietic neoplasia in horses and usually involves lymphoid organs, without leukemia, although bone marrow may be affected after metastasis. Lymphoma could be classified according to the organs involved and four main clinical categories have been established: generalized-multicentric, alimentary-gastrointestinal, mediastinal-thymic-thoracic and cutaneous. The clinical signs, hematological and clinical pathological findings, results of bone marrow aspirates, involvement of other organs, prognosis and treatment, if applicable, are presented for each type of neoplasia. This paper aims to provide a guide for equine practitioners when approaching to clinical cases with suspicion of hematopoietic neoplasia. PMID:24833969

  2. Importance of glucokinase −258G/A polymorphism in Asian Indians with post-transplant and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Imran Ali; Vattam, Kiran Kumar; Jahan, Parveen; Hasan, Qurratulain; Rao, Pragna

    2016-01-01

    Summary Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) are non-synonymous forms of diabetes. Glucokinase (GCK) plays a key role in glucose metabolism. The relationship between the GCK promoter and specific types of diabetes, such as PTDM and T2DM, in the Asian Indian population is unknown. We examined the occurrence of a specific GCK promoter variant (−258G/A) in patients with T2DM and PTDM. The case-control study enrolled 640 Asian Indian subjects, including controls (n = 250) and T2DM (n = 250), PTDM (n = 42), and non-post-transplant diabetes mellitus (non-PTDM) (n = 98) patients. Purified Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was genotyped with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. The digested PCR products were analyzed on 12% polyacrylamide gels. The anthropometric, biochemical, and clinical details of each group were documented. GCK −258G/A alleles and genotypes were not associated with T2DM. However, among PTDM subjects, we detected a higher frequency of heterozygotes (52.4%) and a positive association with alleles/genotypes. The results suggest that the promoter region (−258G/A) of GCK plays an important role in PTDM in Asian Indians. PMID:26989645

  3. Eosinophilic density in graft biopsies positive for rejection and blood eosinophil count can predict development of post-transplant digestive tract eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Bush, Jonathan W; Mohammad, Saeed; Melin-Aldana, Hector; Kagalwalla, Amir F; Arva, Nicoleta C

    2016-06-01

    EGID is a known post-transplant complication. Its etiology has been related to antirejection medication, but other factors may also play a role as only few transplant recipients develop EGID despite standardized treatment. This study aimed to determine whether EGID is associated with rejection events and with a specific phenotype of the rejection-positive graft biopsies in children with solid organ transplant. All patients with liver, heart, and kidney transplant followed at our institution were included in the study. Digestive tract eosinophilia was more common in heart and liver recipients and was a rare event after renal transplantation. Subjects with EGID had higher incidence of rejection and elevated peripheral blood AEC. The first rejection event and high AEC values preceded EGID diagnosis in the majority of patients. Histologically, the initial rejection-positive graft biopsy revealed accentuated eosinophilia in EGID patients compared with non-EGID cohort, which correlated with higher blood eosinophil counts at the time of first rejection episode. Prominent graft tissue and peripheral blood eosinophilia prior to EGID diagnosis suggests a predisposition for eosinophil activation in patients with post-transplant digestive eosinophilic disorder. These parameters can be used as markers for subsequent development of EGID. PMID:26917244

  4. Population pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic modelling of mycophenolic acid in paediatric renal transplant recipients in the early post-transplant period

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Min; Fukuda, Tsuyoshi; Cox, Shareen; de Vries, Marij T; Hooper, David K; Goebel, Jens; Vinks, Alexander A

    2014-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK−PD) model for mycophenolic acid (MPA) in paediatric renal transplant recipients in the early post-transplant period. Methods A total of 214 MPA plasma concentrations−time data points from 24 patients were available for PK model development. In 17 out of a total of 24 patients, inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) enzyme activity measurements (n = 97) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were available for PK−PD modelling. The PK−PD model was developed using non-linear mixed effects modelling sequentially by 1) developing a population PK model and 2) incorporating IMPDH activity into a PK−PD model using post hoc Bayesian PK parameter estimates. Covariate analysis included patient demographics, co-medication and clinical laboratory data. Non-parametric bootstrapping and prediction-corrected visual predictive checks were performed to evaluate the final models. Results A two compartment model with a transit compartment absorption best described MPA PK. A non-linear relationship between dose and MPA exposure was observed and was described by a power function in the model. The final population PK parameter estimates (and their 95% confidence intervals) were CL/F, 22 (14.8, 25.2) l h−1 70 kg−1; Vc/F, 45.4 (29.6, 55.6) l; Vp/F, 411 (152.6, 1472.6)l; Q/F, 22.4 (16.0, 32.5) l h−1; Ka, 2.5 (1.45, 4.93) h−1. Covariate analysis in the PK study identified body weight to be significantly correlated with CL/F. A simplified inhibitory Emax model adequately described the relationship between MPA concentration and IMPDH activity. The final population PK−PD parameter estimates (and their 95% confidence intervals) were: E0, 3.45 (2.61, 4.56) nmol h−1 mg−1 protein and EC50, 1.73 (1.16, 3.01) mg l−1. Emax was fixed to 0. There were two African-American patients in our study cohorts and both had low IMPDH baseline activities (E0) compared

  5. Pre-stem cell transplantation enzyme replacement therapy in Hurler syndrome does not lead to significant antibody formation or delayed recovery of the endogenous enzyme post-transplant: a case report.

    PubMed

    Soni, Sandeep; Hente, Monica; Breslin, Nancy; Hersh, Joseph; Whitley, Chester; Cheerva, Alexandra; Bertolone, Salvatore

    2007-08-01

    Combined enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and stem cell transplant (SCT) were done for a two year old boy with severe Hurler syndrome(HS) with the aim to decrease transplant related complications. He tolerated both the procedures well without any major complications. Urine glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) decreased post-transplant and child has improved clinically and neurologically. Insignificant titers of the anti-iduronidase antibodies which developed post-transplant did not affect the transplant outcome or the endogenous recovery of the alpha-L-iduronidase enzyme. PMID:17631030

  6. Familial Lymphoproliferative Malignancies and Tandem Duplication of NF1 Gene.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Gustavo; Souto, Mirela; Costa, Frederico; Oliveira, Edite; Garicochea, Bernardo

    2014-01-01

    Background. Neurofibromatosis type 1 is a genetic disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in a tumor suppressor gene (NF1) which codifies the protein neurofibromin. The frequent genetic alterations that modify neurofibromin function are deletions and insertions. Duplications are rare and phenotype in patients bearing duplication of NF1 gene is thought to be restricted to developmental abnormalities, with no reference to cancer susceptibility in these patients. We evaluated a patient who presented with few clinical signs of neurofibromatosis type 1 and a conspicuous personal and familiar history of different types of cancer, especially lymphoproliferative malignancies. The coding region of the NF-1 gene was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification was performed to detect the number of mutant copies. The NF1 gene analysis showed the following alterations: mosaic duplication of NF1, TRAF4, and MYO1D. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using probes (RP5-1002G3 and RP5-92689) flanking NF1 gene in 17q11.2 and CEP17 for 17q11.11.1 was performed. There were three signals (RP5-1002G3conRP5-92689) in the interphases analyzed and two signals (RP5-1002G3conRP5-92689) in 93% of cells. These findings show a tandem duplication of 17q11.2. Conclusion. The case suggests the possibility that NF1 gene duplication may be associated with a phenotype characterized by lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:25580325

  7. Sirolimus, Tacrolimus, Thymoglobulin and Rituximab as Graft-versus-Host-Disease Prophylaxis in Patients Undergoing Haploidentical and HLA Partially Matched Donor Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-09

    Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Graft Versus Host Disease; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

  8. PHASE II TRIAL OF GVHD PROPHYLAXIS WITH POST-TRANSPLANTATION CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE FOLLOWING REDUCED-INTENSITY BUSULFAN/FLUDARABINE (BU/FLU) CONDITIONING FOR HEMATOLOGICAL MALIGNANCIES

    PubMed Central

    Alousi, Amin M.; Brammer, Jonathan E.; Saliba, Rima M.; Andersson, Borje; Popat, Uday; Hosing, Chitra; Jones, Roy; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Khouri, Issa; Qazilbash, Muzaffar; Nieto, Yago; Shah, Nina; Ahmed, Sairah; Oran, Betul; Atrash, Gheath Al; Ciurea, Stefan; Kebriaei, Partow; Chen, Julianne; Rondon, Gabriela; Champlin, Richard

    2016-01-01

    GVHD-prophylaxis with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (CY) following ablative HLA-matched bone marrow (BM) transplantation has been reported to have comparable rates of acute GVHD with an apparent reduction in chronic GVHD and infections. We conducted a phase II trial of post-CY following reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) using intravenous busulfan (AUC of 4,000 micromolar-minutes), Fludarabine (40mg/m2) for 4 days and CY 50mg/kg on days +3 and +4 following BM or peripheral blood (PB) transplants from matched related (MRD) or unrelated donors (MUD). MUD- recipients received anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG); however, a later amendment removed ATG. 49 patients were treated (AML/MDS: 82%). Median age was 62 years (range, 39–72). Fifteen patients received a MRD (9 PB/6 BM); 34 had a MUD (2 PB/32 BM). The cumulative incidence of grade II–IV, III–IV acute and chronic GVHD was 58%, 22% and 18%. A matched-cohort analysis compared outcomes to tacrolimus/methotrexate GVHD prophylaxis and indicated higher rates of acute GVHD grade II–IV (46% versus 19%, HR=2.8, p=0.02) and treatment-related mortality (HR 3.3, p=0.035) and worse overall survival (HR=1.9, p=0.04) with post-Cy. The incidence of chronic GVHD and CMV reactivation did not differ. This study suggests that post-transplant CY should not be used as sole GVHD-prophylaxis following a RIC transplant from HLA matched donors. PMID:25667989

  9. Molecular Pathogenesis of Post-Transplant Acute Kidney Injury: Assessment of Whole-Genome mRNA and MiRNA Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Wilflingseder, Julia; Sunzenauer, Judith; Toronyi, Eva; Heinzel, Andreas; Kainz, Alexander; Mayer, Bernd; Perco, Paul; Telkes, Gábor; Langer, Robert M.; Oberbauer, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) affects roughly 25% of all recipients of deceased donor organs. The prevention of post-transplant AKI is still an unmet clinical need. We prospectively collected zero-hour, indication as well as protocol kidney biopsies from 166 allografts between 2011 and 2013. In this cohort eight cases with AKI and ten matched allografts without pathology serving as control group were identified with a follow-up biopsy within the first twelve days after engraftment. For this set the zero-hour and follow-up biopsies were subjected to genome wide microRNA and mRNA profiling and analysis, followed by validation in independent expression profiles of 42 AKI and 21 protocol biopsies for strictly controlling the false discovery rate. Follow-up biopsies of AKI allografts compared to time-matched protocol biopsies, further baseline adjustment for zero-hour biopsy expression level and validation in independent datasets, revealed a molecular AKI signature holding 20 mRNAs and two miRNAs (miR-182-5p and miR-21-3p). Next to several established biomarkers such as lipocalin-2 also novel candidates of interest were identified in the signature. In further experimental evaluation the elevated transcript expression level of the secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor (SLPI) in AKI allografts was confirmed in plasma and urine on the protein level (p<0.001 and p = 0.003, respectively). miR-182-5p was identified as a molecular regulator of post-transplant AKI, strongly correlated with global gene expression changes during AKI. In summary, we identified an AKI-specific molecular signature providing the ground for novel biomarkers and target candidates such as SLPI and miR-182-5p in addressing AKI. PMID:25093671

  10. Inherited perforin and Fas mutations in a patient with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome and lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Clementi, Rita; Dagna, Lorenzo; Dianzani, Umberto; Dupré, Loïc; Dianzani, Irma; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Cometa, Angela; Chiocchetti, Annalisa; Sabbadini, Maria Grazia; Rugarli, Claudio; Ciceri, Fabio; Maccario, Rita; Locatelli, Franco; Danesino, Cesare; Ferrarini, Marina; Bregni, Marco

    2004-09-30

    A 27-year-old man with the autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome and a large-B-cell lymphoma had heterozygous mutations in the Fas and perforin (Prf1) genes. The Fas mutation was inherited from his healthy father and was also carried by his healthy brother, whereas the Prf1 mutation was inherited from his healthy mother. The combined effect of the two mutant genes may have contributed to the development of the autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome and lymphoma in this patient. PMID:15459303

  11. Related Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) for Genetic Diseases of Blood Cells

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-11

    Stem Cell Transplantation; Bone Marrow Transplantation; Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Allogeneic Transplantation,; Genetic Diseases; Thalassemia; Pediatrics; Diamond-Blackfan Anemia; Combined Immune Deficiency; Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; X-linked Lymphoproliferative Disease; Metabolic Diseases

  12. Disturbed B-lymphocyte selection in autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome.

    PubMed

    Janda, Ales; Schwarz, Klaus; van der Burg, Mirjam; Vach, Werner; Ijspeert, Hanna; Lorenz, Myriam Ricarda; Elgizouli, Magdeldin; Pieper, Kathrin; Fisch, Paul; Hagel, Joachim; Lorenzetti, Raquel; Seidl, Maximilian; Roesler, Joachim; Hauck, Fabian; Traggiai, Elisabetta; Speckmann, Carsten; Rensing-Ehl, Anne; Ehl, Stephan; Eibel, Hermann; Rizzi, Marta

    2016-05-01

    Fas is a transmembrane receptor involved in the maintenance of tolerance and immune homeostasis. In murine models, it has been shown to be essential for deletion of autoreactive B cells in the germinal center. The role of Fas in human B-cell selection and in development of autoimmunity in patients carrying FAS mutations is unclear. We analyzed patients with either a somatic FAS mutation or a germline FAS mutation and somatic loss-of-heterozygosity, which allows comparing the fate of B cells with impaired vs normal Fas signaling within the same individual. Class-switched memory B cells showed: accumulation of FAS-mutated B cells; failure to enrich single V, D, J genes and single V-D, D-J gene combinations of the B-cell receptor variable region; increased frequency of variable regions with higher content of positively charged amino acids; and longer CDR3 and maintenance of polyreactive specificities. Importantly, Fas-deficient switched memory B cells showed increased rates of somatic hypermutation. Our data uncover a defect in B-cell selection in patients with FAS mutations, which has implications for the understanding of the pathogenesis of autoimmunity and lymphomagenesis of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome. PMID:26907631

  13. [Chronic B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders with hairy cells].

    PubMed

    Troussard, Xavier; Cornet, Édouard

    2015-01-01

    The standardized blood smear examination is the first step in the diagnosis of a B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorder and can guide further investigations. In the laboratory, the identification of hairy cells on blood smear is a matter of daily practice. Hairy cell proliferations represent heterogeneous entities and their respective diagnoses can be difficult. If hairy cell leukemia (HCL) and splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) represent separate entities, the variant form of HCL (HCLv) and splenic diffuse red pulp small B-cell lymphoma (SDRPL) remain provisional entities in the 2008 WHO classification. We discuss the main clinical and biological characteristics of these four entities and appropriate means to characterize, identify and distinguish from each other; standardized blood smear examination, multiparameter flow cytometry analysis, analysis of the repertoire of immunoglobulins heavy chains genes and their mutational status (mutated or unmutated profile), molecular analyses: BRAF gene V600E mutation in HCL and MAP2K1 gene mutations in HCLv. We also discuss the main therapeutic aspects with emphasis on the new targeted drugs that enter into force in the therapeutic arsenal. PMID:25858127

  14. Epstein-Barr Virus-associated lymphoproliferative disorders: experimental and clinical developments

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Lingyun; Wang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), the first human virus related to oncogenesis, was initially identified in a Burkitt lymphoma cell line in 1964. EBV infects over 90% of the world’s population. Most infected people maintain an asymptomatic but persistent EBV infection lifelong. However, in some individuals, EBV infection has been involved in the development of cancer and autoimmune disease. Nowadays, oncogenic potential of EBV has been intensively studied in a wide range of human neoplasms, including Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL), non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL), nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), gastric carcinoma (GC), etc. EBV encodes a series of viral protein and miRNAs, promoting its persistent infection and the transformation of EBV-infected cells. Although the exact role of EBV in the oncogenesis remains to be clarified, novel diagnostic and targeted therapeutic approaches are encouraging for the management of EBV-related malignancies. This review mainly focuses on the experimental and clinical advances of EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:26628948

  15. Approaches to Managing Autoimmune Cytopenias in Novel Immunological Disorders with Genetic Underpinnings Like Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rao, V. Koneti

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a rare disorder of apoptosis. It is frequently caused by mutations in FAS (TNFRSF6) gene. Unlike most of the self-limiting autoimmune cytopenias sporadically seen in childhood, multi lineage cytopenias due to ALPS are often refractory, as their inherited genetic defect is not going to go away. Historically, more ALPS patients have died due to overwhelming sepsis following splenectomy to manage their chronic cytopenias than due to any other cause, including malignancies. Hence, current recommendations underscore the importance of avoiding splenectomy in ALPS, by long-term use of corticosteroid-sparing immunosuppressive agents like mycophenolate mofetil and sirolimus. Paradigms learnt from managing ALPS patients in recent years is highlighted here and can be extrapolated to manage refractory cytopenias in patients with as yet undetermined genetic bases for their ailments. It is also desirable to develop international registries for children with rare and complex immune problems associated with chronic multilineage cytopenias in order to elucidate their natural history and long-term comorbidities due to the disease and its treatments. PMID:26258116

  16. LYMPHO-PROLIFERATIVE RESPONSES TO VARIOUS FASCIOLA HEPATICA WORM'S ANTIGENS: AN IN VITRO STUDY.

    PubMed

    Sharaf, Osama F; Amir, Elamir M; Hawash, Yousry A

    2016-04-01

    Fascioliasis is an important zoonotic disease with approximately 2-4 million people infected worldwide and a further 180 million at risk of infection. F. hepatica can survive within the bile ducts for many years through its ability to suppress the host immunity with Fasciola cathepsin L1 cysteine protease and Glutathione S transferase playing an important role. The aim of the present study is to investigate the in vitro lympho-proliferative responses of hepatic hilar lymphocytes (HLN) of infected sheep in response to different F. hepatica antigens. The suppressive effects of Fasciola excretory/secretory (ES) and tegument (TEG) and their fractions were also investigated. Our results showed that both ES and TEG had significant suppressive effects on lympho-proliferation, up to 74% and 92%, respectively. When these antigens were fractionated, fraction 3 (MW of >10000-30000) of both ES (64%) and TEG (59%) in addition to fraction 4 (MW of ≤ 10000) of TEG (38%) inherited the suppressive effects. Identification of the potential molecule(s) with such suppressive effects on lymphocytes in TEG fraction 4 could reveal vaccine candidates. PMID:27363058

  17. Intrafollicular Epstein-Barr virus-positive large B cell lymphoma. A variant of "germinotropic" lymphoproliferative disorder.

    PubMed

    Lorenzi, Luisa; Lonardi, Silvia; Essatari, Murad H M; Pellegrini, Vilma; Fisogni, Simona; Gazzola, Anna; Agostinelli, Claudio; Vermi, William; Rossi, Giuseppe; Massarelli, Giovannino; Pileri, Stefano A; Facchetti, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    Germinotropic lymphoproliferative disorders were previously described as localized disorders associated with coinfection by human herpes virus 8 and Epstein-Barr virus and characterized by good clinical outcome. We report the clinical, morphological, phenotypical, and molecular features of three cases of a hitherto unreported variant of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive, human herpes virus 8 (HHV8)-negative large B cell lymphoma with exclusive intrafollicular localization. All cases occurred in elderly individuals (63, 77, and 65 years old; one male, two females) without obvious immunedeficiency, who presented with high stage disease. Lymph nodes showed an effaced nodular architecture with abnormal B follicles colonized by EBV+ large, pleomorphic atypical cells, including Reed-Sternberg-like cells, showing an activated B cell phenotype (CD10-FOXP1-Bcl6-IRF4+ or CD10-FOXP1+Bcl6+IRF4+) and intense expression of CD30. No monoclonal light-chain restriction was detected by immunohistochemistry or in situ hybridization, and IGH rearrangement was polyclonal; notably, EBV clonality was detectable in one case. Lymphoma cells in all cases showed diffuse expression of the c-Myc protein, while Bcl2 was dim or negative; moreover, the strong expression of phosphorylated-STAT3 in tumor cell nuclei suggested activation of the JAK-STAT pathway. FISH analysis was performed in two cases and showed no translocations of BCL2, BCL6, MYC, and PAX5 genes. Response to treatment was poor in 2/3 patients: one died after 18 months, one is alive with disease after 12 months. The intrafollicular EBV-positive large B cell lymphoma expands the spectrum of EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders in immunocompetent individuals. PMID:26762526

  18. Epstein-Barr virus, infectious mononucleosis, and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders.

    PubMed

    Nalesnik, M A; Starzl, T E

    1994-09-01

    PTLD may be considered as an "opportunistic cancer" in which the immunodeficiency state of the host plays a key role in fostering the environment necessary for abnormal lymphoproliferation. The following discussion reflects our own current thoughts regarding events which may result in PTLD and its sequelae. Many of the individual steps have not been rigorously proved or disproved at this point in time. Following transplantation and iatrogenic immunosuppression, the host:EBV equilibrium is shifted in favor of the virus. Most seronegative patients will become infected either via the graft or through natural means; seropositive patients will begin to shed higher levels of virus and may become secondarily superinfected via the graft. There is a "grace" period of approximately one month posttransplant before increased viral shedding begins. PTLD is almost never seen during this interval. In many cases infection continues to be silent whereas in rare individuals there is an overwhelming polyclonal proliferation of infected B lymphocytes. This is the parallel of infectious mononucleosis occurring in patients with a congenital defect in virus handling (X-linked lymphoproliferative disorder). It is possible that transplant patients with this presentation also suffer a defect in virus handling. In other cases excessive iatrogenic immunosuppression may paralyze their ability to respond to the infection. With CsA and FK506 regimens, individual tumors may occur within a matter of months following transplant. The short time of incubation suggests that these are less than fully developed malignancies. It may be that local events conspire to allow outgrowth of limited numbers of B-lymphocyte clones. A cytokine environment favoring B-lymphocyte growth may be one factor and differential inhibition by the immuno-suppressive drugs of calcium-dependent and -independent B-cell stimulation may be another. In addition, there is some evidence that CsA itself may inhibit apoptosis within B

  19. Molecular and cytogenetic characterization of expanded B-cell clones from multiclonal versus monoclonal B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Henriques, Ana; Rodríguez-Caballero, Arancha; Criado, Ignacio; Langerak, Anton W.; Nieto, Wendy G.; Lécrevisse, Quentin; González, Marcos; Cortesão, Emília; Paiva, Artur; Almeida, Julia; Orfao, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Chronic antigen-stimulation has been recurrently involved in the earlier stages of monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders. The expansion of two or more B-cell clones has frequently been reported in individuals with these conditions; potentially, such coexisting clones have a greater probability of interaction with common immunological determinants. Here, we analyzed the B-cell receptor repertoire and molecular profile, as well as the phenotypic, cytogenetic and hematologic features, of 228 chronic lymphocytic leukemia-like and non-chronic lymphocytic leukemia-like clones comparing multiclonal (n=85 clones from 41 cases) versus monoclonal (n=143 clones) monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders. The B-cell receptor of B-cell clones from multiclonal cases showed a slightly higher degree of HCDR3 homology than B-cell clones from mono clonal cases, in association with unique hematologic (e.g. lower B-lymphocyte counts) and cytogenetic (e.g. lower frequency of cytogenetically altered clones) features usually related to earlier stages of the disease. Moreover, a subgroup of coexisting B-cell clones from individual multiclonal cases which were found to be phylogenetically related showed unique molecular and cytogenetic features: they more frequently shared IGHV3 gene usage, shorter HCDR3 sequences with a greater proportion of IGHV mutations and del(13q14.3), than other unrelated B-cell clones. These results would support the antigen-driven nature of such multiclonal B-cell expansions, with potential involvement of multiple antigens/epitopes. PMID:24488564

  20. EBV-driven B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders: from biology, classification and differential diagnosis to clinical management

    PubMed Central

    Ok, Chi Young; Li, Ling; Young, Ken H

    2015-01-01

    Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous herpesvirus, affecting >90% of the adult population. EBV targets B-lymphocytes and achieves latent infection in a circular episomal form. Different latency patterns are recognized based on latent gene expression pattern. Latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1) mimics CD40 and, when self-aggregated, provides a proliferation signal via activating the nuclear factor-kappa B, Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription, phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways to promote cellular proliferation. LMP-1 also induces BCL-2 to escape from apoptosis and gives a signal for cell cycle progression by enhancing cyclin-dependent kinase 2 and phosphorylation of retinoblastoma (Rb) protein and by inhibiting p16 and p27. LMP-2A blocks the surface immunoglobulin-mediated lytic cycle reactivation. It also activates the Ras/PI3K/Akt pathway and induces Bcl-xL expression to promote B-cell survival. Recent studies have shown that ebv-microRNAs can provide extra signals for cellular proliferation, cell cycle progression and anti-apoptosis. EBV is well known for association with various types of B-lymphocyte, T-lymphocyte, epithelial cell and mesenchymal cell neoplasms. B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders encompass a broad spectrum of diseases, from benign to malignant. Here we review our current understanding of EBV-induced lymphomagenesis and focus on biology, diagnosis and management of EBV-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:25613729

  1. Screening for cardiovascular disease before kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Palepu, Sneha; Prasad, G V Ramesh

    2015-12-24

    Pre-kidney transplant cardiac screening has garnered particular attention from guideline committees as an approach to improving post-transplant success. Screening serves two major purposes: To more accurately inform transplant candidates of their risk for a cardiac event before and after the transplant, thereby informing decisions about proceeding with transplantation, and to guide pre-transplant management so that post-transplant success can be maximized. Transplant candidates on dialysis are more likely to be screened for coronary artery disease than those not being considered for transplantation. Thorough history and physical examination taking, resting electrocardiography and echocardiography, exercise stress testing, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, dobutamine stress echocardiography, cardiac computed tomography, cardiac biomarker measurement, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging all play contributory roles towards screening for cardiovascular disease before kidney transplantation. In this review, the importance of each of these screening procedures for both coronary artery disease and other forms of cardiac disease are discussed. PMID:26722655

  2. Screening for cardiovascular disease before kidney transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Palepu, Sneha; Prasad, G V Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Pre-kidney transplant cardiac screening has garnered particular attention from guideline committees as an approach to improving post-transplant success. Screening serves two major purposes: To more accurately inform transplant candidates of their risk for a cardiac event before and after the transplant, thereby informing decisions about proceeding with transplantation, and to guide pre-transplant management so that post-transplant success can be maximized. Transplant candidates on dialysis are more likely to be screened for coronary artery disease than those not being considered for transplantation. Thorough history and physical examination taking, resting electrocardiography and echocardiography, exercise stress testing, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, dobutamine stress echocardiography, cardiac computed tomography, cardiac biomarker measurement, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging all play contributory roles towards screening for cardiovascular disease before kidney transplantation. In this review, the importance of each of these screening procedures for both coronary artery disease and other forms of cardiac disease are discussed. PMID:26722655

  3. A case of lymphoproliferative disorder of NK-cells: aggressive immunophenotype but indolent behavior

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Min; Savage, Natasha M; Salman, Huda; Morice, William G

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Distinguishing chronic lymphoproliferative disorder of NK-cells from aggressive NK-cell leukemia is critical because they have distinct clinical course and management. Immunophenotyping plays a key role in distinguishing these two entities, however, it could not be used as sole criteria and clinical/laboratory findings are equally important. PMID:26401278

  4. Pre-transplant angiotensin II type 1receptor antibodies: a risk factor for decreased kidney graft function in the early post-transplant period?

    PubMed

    Hernández-Méndez, Erick Alejandro; Arreola-Guerra, José Manuel; Morales-Buenrostro, Luis E; Ramírez, Julia B; Calleja, Said; Castelán, Natalia; Salcedo, Isaac; Vilatobá, Mario; Contreras, Alan G; Gabilondo, Bernardo; Granados, Julio; Alberú, Josefina

    2014-01-01

    Angiotensin II type 1 receptor antibodies (AT1Rab) are associated to a significantly lower graft survival and a higher risk of acute rejection after kidney transplantation. This study aimed to evaluate graft function and BPAR during the 1st year post-transplant (PT) in adult kidney transplant recipients (KTR), between 03/2009 and 08/2012. Pre-KT sera were screened for AT1Rab (ELISA) and HLA-DSA (Luminex). Three groups were analyzed: AT1Rab only (n = 13); HLA-DSA only (n = 8); and no AT1Rab or HLA-DSA (n = 90). No differences were observed in clinical characteristics across groups. A higher percentage of BPAR was observed in the AT1Rab positive group, but this difference was not significant. KTR with AT1Rab had a lower mean eGFR (20 mL/min/1.73m2) when compared to KTR with no Abs at 12 months. The significant difference in eGFR was observed since the 1st month PT. Multivariate analysis showed 4 factors independently and significantly associated with eGFR at 12mos PT: BPAR (-18.7 95%, CI -28.2 to -9.26, p<0.001), AT1Rab (-10.51, CI -20.9 to -0.095, p = 0.048), donor age (-0.42, CI -0.75 to -0.103 p = 0.010), and recipient age (-0.36, CI -0.67 to -0.048, p = 0.024). In this study AT1Rab in pre-transplant sera from KTR, was an independent and significant risk factor contributing to a lower eGFR 12 months. PT. This finding deserves to be confirmed in a larger KTR population. PMID:25695237

  5. Changes in Pre- and Post-Exercise Gene Expression among Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease and Kidney Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Coletta, Dawn K.; Campbell, Latoya E.; Weil, Jennifer; Kaplan, Bruce; Clarkson, Marie; Finlayson, Jean; Mandarino, Lawrence J.; Chakkera, Harini A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Decreased insulin sensitivity blunts the normal increase in gene expression from skeletal muscle after exercise. In addition, chronic inflammation decreases insulin sensitivity. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an inflammatory state. How CKD and, subsequently, kidney transplantation affects skeletal muscle gene expression after exercise are unknown. Methods Study cohort: non-diabetic male/female 4/1, age 52±2 years, with end-stage CKD who underwent successful kidney transplantation. The following were measured both pre-transplant and post-transplant and compared to normals: Inflammatory markers, euglycemic insulin clamp studies determine insulin sensitivity, and skeletal muscle biopsies performed before and within 30 minutes after an acute exercise protocol. Microarray analyses were performed on the skeletal muscle using the 4x44K Whole Human Genome Microarrays. Since nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) plays an important role in T cell activation and calcineurin inhibitors are mainstay immunosuppression, calcineurin/NFAT pathway gene expression was compared at rest and after exercise. Log transformation was performed to prevent skewing of data and regression analyses comparing measures pre- and post-transplant performed. Result Markers of inflammation significantly improved post-transplantation. Insulin infusion raised glucose disposal slightly lower post-transplant compared to pre-transplant, but not significantly, thus concluding differences in insulin sensitivity were similar. The overall pattern of gene expression in response to exercise was reduced both pre-and post-transplant compared to healthy volunteers. Although significant changes were observed among NFAT/Calcineurin gene at rest and after exercise in normal cohort, there were no significant differences comparing NFAT/calcineurin pathway gene expression pre- and post-transplant. Conclusions Despite an improvement in serum inflammatory markers, no significant differences in glucose

  6. STAT3 mutations unify the pathogenesis of chronic lymphoproliferative disorders of NK cells and T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Jerez, Andres; Clemente, Michael J.; Makishima, Hideki; Koskela, Hanna; LeBlanc, Francis; Peng Ng, Kwok; Olson, Thomas; Przychodzen, Bartlomiej; Afable, Manuel; Gomez-Segui, Ines; Guinta, Kathryn; Durkin, Lisa; Hsi, Eric D.; McGraw, Kathy; Zhang, Dan; Wlodarski, Marcin W.; Porkka, Kimmo; Sekeres, Mikkael A.; List, Alan; Mustjoki, Satu; Loughran, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic lymphoproliferative disorders of natural killer cells (CLPD-NKs) and T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemias (T-LGLs) are clonal lymphoproliferations arising from either natural killer cells or cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). We have investigated for distribution and functional significance of mutations in 50 CLPD-NKs and 120 T-LGL patients by direct sequencing, allele-specific PCR, and microarray analysis. STAT3 gene mutations are present in both T and NK diseases: approximately one-third of patients with each type of disorder convey these mutations. Mutations were found in exons 21 and 20, encoding the Src homology 2 domain. Patients with mutations are characterized by symptomatic disease (75%), history of multiple treatments, and a specific pattern of STAT3 activation and gene deregulation, including increased expression of genes activated by STAT3. Many of these features are also found in patients with wild-type STAT3, indicating that other mechanisms of STAT3 activation can be operative in these chronic lymphoproliferative disorders. Treatment with STAT3 inhibitors, both in wild-type and mutant cases, resulted in accelerated apoptosis. STAT3 mutations are frequent in large granular lymphocytes suggesting a similar molecular dysregulation in malignant chronic expansions of NK and CTL origin. STAT3 mutations may distinguish truly malignant lymphoproliferations involving T and NK cells from reactive expansions. PMID:22859607

  7. Programmed death 1 and B and T lymphocyte attenuator immunoreceptors and their association with malignant T-lymphoproliferative disorders: brief review.

    PubMed

    Karakatsanis, Stamatis; Bertsias, George; Roussou, Paraskevi; Boumpas, Dimitrios

    2014-09-01

    Malignant T-cell lymphoproliferative diseases are relatively rare. T cells are activated through the T-cell receptor with the aid of costimulating molecules that can be either excitatory or inhibitory. Such pathways have been also implicated in mechanisms of malignant T-cell lymphoproliferative diseases' persistence and relapse by circumventing immune responses. To date, three major immunoinhibitory molecules have been recognized, namely programmed cell death-1 (PD-1), B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4). Although CTLA-4 is considered the 'gatekeeper' of immune tolerance, PD-1 negatively regulates immune responses broadly, whereas BTLA activation has been shown to inhibit CD8+ cancer-specific T cells. Both PD-1 and BTLA downregulate proximal T-cell receptor signalling cascade and are involved in immune evasion of leukaemias and lymphomas, even after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. These immunoregulatory molecules can have seemingly a synergistic effect on weakening the immune response of patients with haematological malignancies, and their manipulation represents a very active field of preclinical as well as clinical interest. PMID:24038528

  8. Everolimus in combination with mycophenolate mofetil as pre- and post-transplantation immunosuppression after nonmyeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in canine littermates.

    PubMed

    Machka, Christoph; Lange, Sandra; Werner, Juliane; Wacke, Rainer; Killian, Doreen; Knueppel, Anne; Knuebel, Gudrun; Vogel, Heike; Lindner, Iris; Roolf, Catrin; Murua Escobar, Hugo; Junghanss, Christian

    2014-09-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus (RAD001) is a successfully used immunosuppressant in solid-organ transplantation. Several studies have already used RAD001 in combination with calcineurin inhibitors after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We investigated calcineurin inhibitor-free pre- and post-transplantation immunosuppression of RAD001 combined with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in a nonmyeloablative HSCT setting. After nonmyeloablative conditioning with 2 Gy total body irradiation, 8 dogs received HSCT from dog leukocyte antigen-identical siblings. Immunosuppressives were given at doses of 1.5 mg RAD001 twice daily from day -1 to +49, then tapered until day +56, and 20 mg/kg MMF from day 0 to +28, then tapered until day +42. An historical cyclosporin A (CsA)/MMF regimen was used in the control group. All dogs engrafted. Median platelet nadir amounted in all dogs to 0 × 10(9)/L (median, day +10; duration <50 × 10(9)/L, 22 days) and median leukocyte nadir was 1.0 × 10(9)/L (range, .1 to 2.5 × 10(9)/L; median, day +13). Eventually, 5 of 8 (63%) animals rejected their grafts. Two dogs died of infections on day +19 and +25. Pharmacokinetics of RAD001 and MMF showed median trough levels of 19.1 (range, 10.5 to 43.2) μg/L and .3 (.1 to 1.3) mg/L, respectively. The median area under the curve was 325 (range, 178 to 593) μg/L × hour for RAD001 and 29.6 (range, 7.9 to 40.5) ng/L × hour for MMF. All dogs developed clinically mucosal viral infections during the clinical course. Compared with the control group, the level of toxicities for RAD001/MMF increased in all qualities. Combined immunosuppression of RAD001 and MMF after nonmyeloablative HSCT is associated with significant toxicities, including a prolonged platelet recovery time as well as increased infections compared to the CsA/MMF regimen. PMID:24923538

  9. Acquired von Willebrand syndrome: an underdiagnosed and misdiagnosed bleeding complication in patients with lymphoproliferative and myeloproliferative disorders.

    PubMed

    Federici, Augusto B

    2006-01-01

    Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS) is a rare bleeding disorder with laboratory findings similar to those for congenital von Willebrand disease (VWD). Unlike the congenital disease, AVWS usually occurs in individuals with no personal or family history of bleeding. The prevalence of AVWS in the general population is unknown because data from large prospective studies of this syndrome are not available. Although AVWS is particularly frequent in lymphoproliferative or myeloproliferative disorders, it can also be associated with solid tumors, immunologic and cardiovascular disorders, and other miscellaneous conditions. Diagnosis of AVWS is based on assays measuring the activity of von Willebrand factor (VWF). This tends to be abnormally low, but factor VIII (FVIII) coagulant activity can sometimes be normal. FVIII/VWF inhibiting activity is found in only a minority of cases. Bleeding episodes in patients with AVWS are mostly of the mucocutaneous type and can be managed with desmopressin, plasma-derived FVIII/VWF concentrates, and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). Recombinant activated factor VII can be useful in patients unresponsive to standard therapy. An updated version of the International Registry on AVWS, recently available online, will provide more information on this rare, but underdiagnosed and misdiagnosed, disorder. PMID:16427386

  10. Secondary Epstein-Barr virus associated lymphoproliferative disorder developing in a patient with angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma on vorinostat.

    PubMed

    Smeltzer, Jacob P; Viswanatha, David S; Habermann, Thomas M; Patnaik, Mrinal M

    2012-09-01

    Ebstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-related lymphoproliferative disorders primarily occur in the setting of immunosuppression, most commonly after solid organ transplantation. The frequency depends on the degree of immunosuppression and the specific organ transplanted, but can be as high as 3–9% in heart or lung transplant patients. Less frequent outside of the transplant setting, EBV-related lymphoproliferative disorders classified as other iatrogenic immunodeficiency associated lymphoproliferative disorders in the WHO Classification, which are different than iatrogenically related lymphomas supervening on hematological malignancies, have been associated with other immunosuppressive therapies such as 6-Mercaptopurine, azathioprine, or alemtuzumab. These disorders have also been reported to develop spontaneously in patients with T cell lymphomas (angioimmunoblastic and peripheral T cell NOS). Here we report the case of a patient with an angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma on therapy with vorinostat who developed an EBV related B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder involving bilateral adrenal glands. Angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma is associated with severe immunodeficiency and risk for opportunistic infections. This immune dysregulation has been implicated in its association with EBV related lymphoproliferative disorders. In this patient, vorinostat therapy also appears to be linked to the development of an EBV-related lymphoproliferative disorder. PMID:22718468

  11. Role of Metabolism by Intestinal Bacteria in Arbutin-Induced Suppression of Lymphoproliferative Response in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kang, Mi Jeong; Ha, Hyun Woo; Kim, Ghee Hwan; Lee, Sang Kyu; Ahn, Young Tae; Kim, Dong Hyun; Jeong, Hye Gwang; Jeong, Tae Cheon

    2012-03-01

    Role of metabolism by intestinal bacteria in arbutin-induced immunotoxicity was investigated in splenocyte cultures. Following an incubation of arbutin with 5 different intestinal bacteria for 24 hr, its aglycone hydroquinone could be produced and detected in the bacterial culture media with different amounts. Toxic effects of activated arbutin by intestinal bacteria on lymphoproliferative response were tested in splenocyte cultures from normal mice. Lipopolysaccharide and concanavalin A were used as mitogens for B- and T-cells, respectively. When bacteria cultured medium with arbutin was treated into the splenocytes for 3 days, the medium cultured with bacteria producing large amounts of hydroquinone induced suppression of lymphoproliferative responses, indicating that metabolic activation by intestinal bacteria might be required in arbutin-induced toxicity. The results indicated that the present testing system might be applied for determining the possible role of metabolism by intestinal bacteria in certain chemical-induced immunotoxicity in animal cell cultures. PMID:24116295

  12. Hepatitis C virus related lymphoproliferative disorder in a renal transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Aravindan, A N; Moger, Venkatesh; Sakhuja, Vinay; Kohli, Harbir S; Varma, Neelam; Jha, Vivekanand

    2006-01-01

    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are commonly caused by Ebstein-Barr Virus infection. The role of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the genesis of lymphomas has been recognized recently. We report a HCV infected renal transplant recipient who developed PTLD 11 months after transplantation. Reduction of immunosuppression led to disappearance of viremia and clearance of PTLD. This is the first such report in the world literature. PMID:16868710

  13. Epstein-Barr virus-positive lymphoproliferative disorder associated with old organized chronic subdural hematoma.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Yasuo; Ohta, Masaru; Ohshima, Koichi; Niino, Daisuke; Nakamura, Yukihiko; Okada, Yosuke; Nakashima, Shinji

    2012-06-01

    This report describes a case of an immunocompetent 77-year-old male with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive lymphoproliferative disorder associated with calcified chronic subdural hematoma (CSH). On the day prior to consultation in our outpatient clinic, the patient fell from his bed, striking his frontal head on the floor. Magnetic resonance imaging showed ill-defined lesions in the right frontal-temporal subdural regions. At surgery, a hard and thickened outer membrane of a CSH and muddy organized subdural hematoma were observed. However, macroscopic neoplastic lesions were not apparent. Histologically, there were atypical lymphoid cells scattered or conglomerated in some areas of the thick outer membrane of the CSH. They were composed of occasional large atypical lymphoid cells. The lesions were accompanied by necrosis. Atypical lymphoid cells were immunopositive for B-cell markers but not for T-cell markers. EBNA2 was seen in the nuclei of tumor cells. Atypical lymphoid cells showed positive signals for EBV-encoded small RNAs (EBERs) on in situ hybridization. These findings were consistent with EBV-positive lymphoproliferative disorder associated with CSH. These results also suggested that EBV and the inflammatory reaction found in the CSH could be the etiological factors in the pathogenesis of lymphoproliferative disorder. PMID:22612510

  14. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Metabolic Syndrome after Liver Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Gitto, Stefano; Villa, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Liver transplant is the unique curative therapy for patients with acute liver failure or end-stage liver disease, with or without hepatocellular carcinoma. Increase of body weight, onset of insulin resistance and drug-induced alterations of metabolism are reported in liver transplant recipients. In this context, post-transplant diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and arterial hypertension can be often diagnosed. Multifactorial illnesses occurring in the post-transplant period represent significant causes of morbidity and mortality. This is especially true for metabolic syndrome. Non-alcoholic steatosis and steatohepatitis are hepatic manifestations of metabolic syndrome and after liver transplant both recurrent and de novo steatosis can be found. Usually, post-transplant steatosis shows an indolent outcome with few cases of fibrosis progression. However, in the post-transplant setting, both metabolic syndrome and steatosis might play a key role in the stratification of morbidity and mortality risk, being commonly associated with cardiovascular disease. The single components of metabolic syndrome can be treated with targeted drugs while lifestyle intervention is the only reasonable therapeutic approach for transplant patients with non-alcoholic steatosis or steatohepatitis. PMID:27049380

  15. GM-CSF and IL-2 induce specific cellular immunity and provide protection against Epstein-Barr virus lymphoproliferative disorder.

    PubMed

    Baiocchi, R A; Ward, J S; Carrodeguas, L; Eisenbeis, C F; Peng, R; Roychowdhury, S; Vourganti, S; Sekula, T; O'Brien, M; Moeschberger, M; Caligiuri, M A

    2001-09-01

    Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disease (EBV-LPD) is a potentially life-threatening complication in immune-deficient patients. We have used the severe combined immune deficient (SCID) mouse engrafted with human leukocytes (hu-PBL-SCID) to evaluate the use of human cytokines in the prevention of EBV-LPD in vivo. Daily low-dose IL-2 therapy can prevent EBV-LPD in the hu-PBL-SCID mouse, but protection is lost if murine natural killer (NK) cells are depleted. Here we demonstrate that combined therapy with human GM-CSF and low-dose IL-2 is capable of preventing EBV-LPD in the hu-PBL-SCID mouse in the absence of murine NK cells. Lymphocyte depletion experiments showed that human NK cells, CD8(+) T cells, and monocytes were each required for the protective effects of GM-CSF and IL-2 combination therapy. This treatment resulted in a marked expansion of human CD3(+)CD8(+) lymphocytes in vivo. Using HLA tetramers complexed with EBV immunodominant peptides, a subset of these lymphocytes was found to be EBV-specific. These data establish that combined GM-CSF and low-dose IL-2 therapy can prevent the immune deficiencies that lead to fatal EBV-LPD in the hu-PBL-SCID mouse depleted of murine NK cells, and they point to a critical role for several human cellular subsets in mediating this protective effect. PMID:11560958

  16. GM-CSF and IL-2 induce specific cellular immunity and provide protection against Epstein-Barr virus lymphoproliferative disorder

    PubMed Central

    Baiocchi, Robert A.; Ward, Jacqueline S.; Carrodeguas, Lester; Eisenbeis, Charles F.; Peng, Ruoqi; Roychowdhury, Sameek; Vourganti, Srinivas; Sekula, Taryn; O’Brien, Maggie; Moeschberger, Melvin; Caligiuri, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus–associated lymphoproliferative disease (EBV-LPD) is a potentially life-threatening complication in immune-deficient patients. We have used the severe combined immune deficient (SCID) mouse engrafted with human leukocytes (hu-PBL-SCID) to evaluate the use of human cytokines in the prevention of EBV-LPD in vivo. Daily low-dose IL-2 therapy can prevent EBV-LPD in the hu-PBL-SCID mouse, but protection is lost if murine natural killer (NK) cells are depleted. Here we demonstrate that combined therapy with human GM-CSF and low-dose IL-2 is capable of preventing EBV-LPD in the hu-PBL-SCID mouse in the absence of murine NK cells. Lymphocyte depletion experiments showed that human NK cells, CD8+ T cells, and monocytes were each required for the protective effects of GM-CSF and IL-2 combination therapy. This treatment resulted in a marked expansion of human CD3+CD8+ lymphocytes in vivo. Using HLA tetramers complexed with EBV immunodominant peptides, a subset of these lymphocytes was found to be EBV-specific. These data establish that combined GM-CSF and low-dose IL-2 therapy can prevent the immune deficiencies that lead to fatal EBV-LPD in the hu-PBL-SCID mouse depleted of murine NK cells, and they point to a critical role for several human cellular subsets in mediating this protective effect. PMID:11560958

  17. Research update: Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory avian tumor viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomics and Immunogenetics Use of genomics to identify QTL, genes, and proteins associated with resistance to Marek’s disease. Marek’s disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease caused by the highly oncogenic herpesvirus Marek's disease virus (MDV), continues to be a major disease concern to the p...

  18. Epstein–Barr Virus-Positive T/NK-Cell Lymphoproliferative Disorders Manifested as Gastrointestinal Perforations and Skin Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Hai-Juan; Li, Ji; Song, Hong-Mei; Li, Zheng-Hong; Dong, Mei; Zhou, Xiao-Ge

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Systemic Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) of childhood is a highly aggressive EBV-positive T/natural killer (NK)-cell LPD, which emerges in the background of chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) or shortly after primary acute EBV infection. The clinical presentations of CAEBV are varied; patients with atypical manifestations are easily misdiagnosed. We described a 14-year-old boy suffering from digestive disorders and intermittent fever for 1 year and 9 months, whose conditions worsened and skin lesions occurred 2 months before hospitalization. He was diagnosed as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and treated accordingly. His other clinical features, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, and elevated inflammatory marks, were found in hospitalization. The boy suffered from repeatedly spontaneous intestinal perforations shortly after hospitalization and died of intestinal hemorrhea. The pathological results of intestine and skin both showed EBV-positive T/NK-cell LPD (lymphoma stage). There are rare studies reporting gastrointestinal perforations in EBV-positive T/NK-cell LPD, let alone repeatedly spontaneous perforations. Based on the clinical features and pathological results of this patient, the disease progressed from CAEBV (T-cell type) to systemic EBV-positive T-cell LPD of childhood (lymphoma). Not all the patients with CAEBV could have unusual patterns of anti-EBV antibodies. However, the presence of high EBV loads (EBV-encoded early small ribonucleic acid (RNA) (EBER) in affected tissues and/or EBV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in peripheral blood) is essential for diagnosing CAEBV. Maybe because of his less common clinical features for CAEBV and negative anti-EBV antibodies, the boy was not diagnosed correctly. We should have emphasized the test for EBER or EBV-DNA. Meanwhile, for the IBD patients whose manifestations were not typical, and whose conditions were not improved by

  19. Bendamustine: new perspective for an old drug in lymphoproliferative disorders.

    PubMed

    Montillo, Marco; Ricci, Francesca; Tedeschi, Alessandra; Vismara, Eleonora; Morra, Enrica

    2010-04-01

    Bendamustine is an old bifunctional alkylating agent that also has potential antimetabolite properties, and only partial cross-resistance with other alkylators. Although it was synthesized in 1963 only few validated study results exist from this early period. More recently, its peculiar mechanism of action has reawakened interest in this drug that has been extensively studied in indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Experience has also been reported in high-grade NHL and Hodgkin disease. Based on its unique structure, various strategies can be used for mechanism-based combination chemotherapeutic regimens with bendamustine. Moreover, data indicates that bendamustine when combined with rituximab is a valid therapeutic choice for patients with CLL or low-grade NHL demonstrating refractoriness to standard chemotherapy regimens. Furthermore, its documented favorable toxicity profile makes it a particularly useful treatment option for elderly patients. PMID:21083456

  20. Atypical presentation of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome due to CASP10 mutation.

    PubMed

    Tripodi, Serena Ilaria; Mazza, Cinzia; Moratto, Daniele; Ramenghi, Ugo; Caorsi, Roberta; Gattorno, Marco; Badolato, Raffaele

    2016-09-01

    Herein we describe the case of a 8-years-old boy with diagnosis of atypical autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), carrying heterozygous mutation of CASP10 gene (I406L). He presented with multiple non-invasive infections of the skin, that were associated to chronic non-malignant non-infectious lymphadenopathy, failure to thrive, weakness, arthralgia, relapsing oral aftosis, and expansion of TCRαβ(+) CD4(-)/CD8(-) T cells. This observation suggests that cutaneous infections can be observed in ALPS patients carrying CASP10 mutations. PMID:27378136

  1. Unusual Indolent Course of a Chronic Active Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Natural Killer Cell Lymphoproliferative Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Al-Riyami, Arwa Z.; Al-Farsi, Khalil; Al-Khabori, Murtadha; Al-Huneini, Mohammed; Al-Hadabbi, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cell lymphoproliferative disorders are uncommon and the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) plays an important aetiological role in their pathogenesis. We report a 20-year-old male with a chronic active EBV infection associated with a NK cell lymphoproliferative disorder which had an unusual indolent course. He presented to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital in Muscat, Oman, in December 2011 with a history of intermittent fever and coughing. Examinations revealed generalised lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, leukocytosis, transaminitis, diffuse bilateral lung infiltrates and bone marrow lymphocyte involvement. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test revealed a high EBV viral load in the peripheral blood cells. The patient received a course of piperacillin-tazobactam for Klebsiella pneumoniae, but no active treatment for the lymphoproliferative disorder. However, his lymphocyte count, serum lactate dehydrogenase and liver enzymes dropped spontaneously. In addition, EBV PCR copies fluctuated and then decreased significantly. He remained clinically asymptomatic over the following four years. PMID:27226916

  2. Co-existence of acute myeloid leukemia with multilineage dysplasia and Epstein-Barr virus-associated T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Tokuhira, Michihide; Hanzawa, Kyoko; Watanabe, Reiko; Sekiguchi, Yasunobu; Nemoto, Tomoe; Toyozumi, Yasuo; Tamaru, Jun-ichi; Itoyama, Shinji; Suzuki, Katsuya; Kameda, Hideto; Mori, Shigehisa; Kizaki, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease mediated by inflammatory processes mainly at the joints. Recently, awareness of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (T-LPD) has been heightened for its association with methotraxate usage in RA patients. In the contrary, acute myeloid leukemia with multilineage dysplasia (AML-MLD) has never been documented to be present concomitantly with the above two conditions. In this report we present a case of an autopsy-proven co-existence of AML-MLD and EBV-associated T-LPD in a patient with RA. PMID:19566938

  3. Marek's disease virus induced transient paralysis--a closer look

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s Disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens caused by a highly cell-associated alpha herpesvirus, Marek’s disease virus (MDV). Clinical signs of MD include depression, crippling, weight loss, and transient paralysis (TP). TP is a disease of the central nervous system...

  4. Research update: Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory avian tumor viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomics and Immunogenetics Marek’s disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease caused by the highly oncogenic herpesvirus Marek's disease virus (MDV), continues to be a major disease concern to the poultry industry. The fear of MD is further enhanced by unpredictable vaccine breaks that result in ...

  5. Attention! Cardiac tamponade may be caused by underlying Castleman's disease.

    PubMed

    Atay, Hilmi; Kelkitli, Engin; Okuyucu, Muhammed; Yildiz, Levent; Turgut, Mehmet

    2015-05-01

    Castleman's disease is a rarely observed lymphoproliferative disease. In the literature, various signs and symptoms of the disease have been reported; one of these is secondary cardiac tamponade. We describe the case of a 41-year-old man who developed cardiac tamponade during examination, and who was later diagnosed with Castleman's disease, based on his lymph node biopsies. PMID:24887912

  6. Clinical and In Vitro Studies on Impact of High-Dose Etoposide Pharmacokinetics Prior Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia on the Risk of Post-Transplant Leukemia Relapse.

    PubMed

    Sobiak, Joanna; Kazimierczak, Urszula; Kowalczyk, Dariusz W; Chrzanowska, Maria; Styczyński, Jan; Wysocki, Mariusz; Szpecht, Dawid; Wachowiak, Jacek

    2015-10-01

    The impact of etoposide (VP-16) plasma concentrations on the day of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) on leukemia-free survival in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was studied. In addition, the in vitro effects of VP-16 on the lymphocytes proliferation, cytotoxic activity and on Th1/Th2 cytokine responses were assessed. In 31 children undergoing allo-HSCT, VP-16 plasma concentrations were determined up to 120 h after the infusion using the HPLC-UV method. For mentioned in vitro studies, VP-16 plasma concentrations observed on allo-HSCT day were used. In 84 % of children, VP-16 plasma concentrations (0.1-1.5 μg/mL) were quantifiable 72 h after the end of the drug infusion, i.e. when allo-HSCT should be performed. In 20 (65 %) children allo-HSCT was performed 4 days after the end of the drug infusion, and VP-16 was still detectable (0.1-0.9 μg/mL) in plasma of 12 (39 %) of them. Post-transplant ALL relapse occurred in four children, in all of them VP-16 was detectable in plasma (0.1-0.8 μg/mL) on allo-HSCT day, while there was no relapse in children with undetectable VP-16. In in vitro studies, VP-16 demonstrated impact on the proliferation activity of stimulated lymphocytes depending on its concentration and exposition time. The presence of VP-16 in plasma on allo-HSCT day may demonstrate an adverse effect on graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) reaction and increase the risk of post-transplant ALL relapse. Therefore, if 72 h after VP-16 administration its plasma concentration is still above 0.1 μg/mL then the postponement of transplantation for next 24 h should be considered to protect GvL effector cells from transplant material. PMID:26040247

  7. Bortezomib-based vs non-bortezomib-based post-transplantation treatment in multiple myeloma patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of Phase III randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoping; He, Colin K; Meng, Xiangyu; He, Li; Li, Kaili; Liang, Qing; Shao, Liang; Liu, Shangqin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of bortezomib-based vs non-bortezomib-based post-transplantation therapy in patients with multiple myeloma. Methods Data of relevant randomized controlled trials assessing the effect of bortezomib as post-transplantation consolidation or maintenance therapy was obtained through a comprehensive search. The outcome measures included response rate, progression-free survival, overall survival, and adverse events (AEs). The hazard ratio (HR), Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio (OR), and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were applied to evaluate the effect of bortezomib in relation to the end points such as progression-free survival, overall survival, response rate, and AEs. Results Three randomized controlled trials comprising 1,518 participants were included in this study. Pooled ORs for the rates of overall response, and complete response and near complete response, were 1.85 and 1.75, respectively. Pooled HR for progression-free survival favored bortezomib-based therapy over non-bortezomib-based therapy (0.73, 95% CI: 0.67–0.81), while no statistically significant difference could be found between the two groups regarding the pooled HR for 3-year overall survival. Moreover, incidence rates of overall adverse events and grade 3 and 4 peripheral neuropathy were similar in the bortezomib-based groups and the non-bortezomib-based groups (P=0.12 and P=0.41, respectively). The corresponding cumulative meta-analyses of the rates of overall response rate, complete response and near complete response, and grades 3 and 4 peripheral neuropathy supported the superiority of bortezomib-based maintenance therapy over consolidation therapy. Conclusion Bortezomib-based therapy after autologous stem cell transplantation, with tolerable AEs, could obviously improve the response as well as the outcome of multiple myeloma patients, particularly when bortezomib was administered as maintenance therapy. PMID:26109870

  8. Analysis of the cells involved in the lymphoproliferative response to Coxiella burnetii antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Izzo, A A; Marmion, B P; Hackstadt, T

    1991-01-01

    Vaccination with an inactivated, whole cell, Q fever vaccine (Q-vax) induces lasting antibody conversion and a positive delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin reaction in about 60% of recipients but a long-lasting positive lymphoproliferative or mitogenic response to C. burnetii antigens with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in 85-95% of subjects. Analysis of the lymphoproliferative response to C. burnetii antigens has now been made by fractionation-reconstitution experiments with PBMC from vaccines, from past infections, and from healthy controls. The major contributor to the response in immune subjects proved to be the T lymphocyte. T cells were stimulated by both the phase I and phase II antigens of two prototype strains of C. burnetii and responses were greatly amplified by addition of IL-2. Similar T lymphocyte stimulation profiles were obtained with the 'Priscilla' strain of C. burnetii which represents a different biotype of Coxiella isolated from Q fever endocarditis; Q-vax is therefore likely to protect against endocarditis strains. Fractionation-reconstitution experiments with T and B cells from vaccines and subjects infected in the past, using various antigenic or haptenic fractions from C. burnetii indicate that protein, non-lipopolysaccharide components of the organism are responsible for the mitogenic response of immune T cells. However, the role of the lipopolysaccharide in the protective immunogen has still to be defined. PMID:2070564

  9. Genetic bases for Marek's disease resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek's disease (MD) is a highly contagious lymphoproliferative disease of chickens caused by MD virus (MDV). Therefore, the control of MD is of particular concern to the poultry industry. The poultry industry has been heavily relying on biosecurity and vaccination to control the spread and occurren...

  10. No evidence of HTLV-I proviral integration in lymphoproliferative disorders associated with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Wood, G. S.; Schaffer, J. M.; Boni, R.; Dummer, R.; Burg, G.; Takeshita, M.; Kikuchi, M.

    1997-01-01

    Several recent studies have reported detection of HTLV-I genetic sequences in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) including mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome. The purpose of this study was to determine whether HTLV-I was detectable in lesional tissues of patients suffering from diseases known to be associated with CTCL. Thirty-five cases were obtained from diverse geographical locations including Ohio, California, Switzerland, and Japan. Six of them had concurrent CTCL. Cases were analyzed using a combination of genomic polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/ Southern blot, dot blot, and Southern blot analyses. All assays were specific for HTLV-I provirus. Sensitivity ranged from approximately 10(-6) for PCR-based studies to 10(-2) for unamplified genomic blotting. Lesional DNA from patients with lymphomatoid papulosis (fourteen cases), Hodgkin's disease (twelve cases), and CD30+ large-cell lymphoma (nine cases) was tested for the HTLV-I proviral pX region using a genomic PCR assay followed by confirmatory Southern blot analysis with a nested oligonucleotide pX probe. All cases were uniformly negative. All of the Hodgkin's disease cases, eight of the large-cell lymphoma cases, and six of the lymphomatoid papulosis cases were then subjected to dot blot analysis of genomic DNA using a full-length HTLV-I proviral DNA probe that spans all regions of the HTLV-I genome. Again, all cases were negative. Finally, eleven of the Hodgkin's disease cases were also subjected to Southern blot analysis of EcoRI-digested genomic DNA using the same full-length HTLV-I probe. Once again, all cases were negative. These findings indicated that, despite utilization of a variety of sensitive and specific molecular biological methods, HTLV-I genetic sequences were not detectable in patients with CTCL-associated lymphoproliferative disorders. These results strongly suggest that the HTLV-I retrovirus is not involved in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Images Figure 1 Figure 2