Science.gov

Sample records for post-treatment characterization plan

  1. Recovery post treatment: plans, barriers and motivators

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The increasing focus on achieving a sustained recovery from substance use brings with it a need to better understand the factors (recovery capital) that contribute to recovery following treatment. This work examined the factors those in recovery perceive to be barriers to (lack of capital) or facilitators of (presence of capital) sustained recovery post treatment. Methods A purposive sample of 45 participants was recruited from 11 drug treatment services in northern England. Semi-structured qualitative interviews lasting between 30 and 90 minutes were conducted one to three months after participants completed treatment. Interviews examined key themes identified through previous literature but focused on allowing participants to explore their unique recovery journey. Interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically using a combination of deductive and inductive approaches. Results Participants generally reported high levels of confidence in maintaining their recovery with most planning to remain abstinent. There were indications of high levels of recovery capital. Aftercare engagement was high, often through self referral, with non substance use related activity felt to be particularly positive. Supported housing was critical and concerns were raised about the ability to afford to live independently with financial stability and welfare availability a key concern in general. Employment, often in the substance use treatment field, was a desire. However, it was a long term goal, with substantial risks associated with pursuing this too early. Positive social support was almost exclusively from within the recovery community although the re-building of relationships with family (children in particular) was a key motivator post treatment. Conclusions Addressing internal factors and underlying issues i.e. ‘human capital’, provided confidence for continued recovery whilst motivators focused on external factors such as family and maintaining aspects of a

  2. Dynamic Underground Stripping Post-Treatment Characterization Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Vangelas, K.M.

    2001-04-17

    The A/M-Area of the Savannah River Site is a known area of solvent release to the subsurface. The Solvent Storage Tank Area is an area of documented dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) in the subsurface. June 30, 2000 a remediation using the Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) treatment technology commenced. This technology injects steam into the subsurface through a series of injection wells located within the treatment zone. The steam is pulled through the subsurface to an extraction well where it is removed. The heating of the subsurface causes the DNAPL present to be volatilized and removed through the extraction well.

  3. Post-treatment and characterization of novel luminescent hybrid bimodal mesoporous silicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuzhen; Sun, Jihong; Wu, Xia; Lin, Li; Gao, Lin

    2010-08-01

    A novel luminescent hybrid bimodal mesoporous silicas (LHBMS) were synthesized via grafting 1,8-Naphthalic anhydride into the pore channels of bimodal mesoporous silicas (BMMs) for the first time. The resulting samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), N 2 adsorption/desorption measurement, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, and Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). The results show that 1,8-Naphthalic anhydride organic groups have been successfully introduced into the mesopores of the BMMs and the hybrid silicas are of bimodal mesoporous structure with the ordered small mesopores of around 3 nm and the large mesopores of uniform intra-nanoparticle. The excellent photoluminescent performance of LHBMS has a blue shift compared to that of 2-[3-(triethoxysilyl) propyl-1 H-Benz [de]isoquinoline-1, 3(2 H)-dione, suggesting the existence of the quantum confinement effectiveness.

  4. Post-treatment and characterization of novel luminescent hybrid bimodal mesoporous silicas

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yuzhen; Sun Jihong; Wu Xia; Lin Li; Gao Lin

    2010-08-15

    A novel luminescent hybrid bimodal mesoporous silicas (LHBMS) were synthesized via grafting 1,8-Naphthalic anhydride into the pore channels of bimodal mesoporous silicas (BMMs) for the first time. The resulting samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption measurement, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, and Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). The results show that 1,8-Naphthalic anhydride organic groups have been successfully introduced into the mesopores of the BMMs and the hybrid silicas are of bimodal mesoporous structure with the ordered small mesopores of around 3 nm and the large mesopores of uniform intra-nanoparticle. The excellent photoluminescent performance of LHBMS has a blue shift compared to that of 2-[3-(triethoxysilyl) propyl-1 H-Benz [de]isoquinoline-1, 3(2 H)-dione, suggesting the existence of the quantum confinement effectiveness. - Graphical abstract: A novel luminescent hybrid bimodal mesoporous silicas was synthesized via modification and then grafting with 1, 8-Naphthalic anhydride, which would be strong potential application in the photoluminescent fields.

  5. Breast cancer survivorship and South Asian women: understanding about the follow-up care plan and perspectives and preferences for information post treatment

    PubMed Central

    Singh–Carlson, S.; Wong, F.; Martin, L.; Nguyen, S.K.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives As more treatment options become available and supportive care improves, a larger number of people will survive after treatment for breast cancer. In the present study, we explored the experiences and concerns of female South Asian (sa) breast cancer survivors (bcss) from various age groups after treatment to determine their understanding of follow-up care and to better understand their preferences for a survivorship care plan (scp). Methods Patients were identified by name recognition from BC Cancer Agency records for sa patients who were 3–60 months post treatment, had no evidence of recurrence, and had been discharged from the cancer centre to follow-up. Three focus groups and eleven face-to-face semistructured interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, cross-checked for accuracy, and analyzed using thematic and content analysis. Participants were asked about their survivorship experiences and their preferences for the content and format of a scp. Results Fatigue, cognitive changes, fear of recurrence, and depression were the most universal effects after treatment. “Quiet acceptance” was the major theme unique to sa women, with a unique cross-influence between faith and acceptance. Emphasis on a generalized scp with individualized content echoed the wide variation in breast cancer impacts for sa women. Younger women preferred information on depression and peer support. Conclusions For sa bcss, many of the psychological and physical impacts of breast cancer diagnosis and treatment may be experienced in common with bcss of other ethnic backgrounds, but the present study also suggests the presence of unique cultural nuances such as spiritual and language-specific support resource needs. The results provide direction for designing key content and format of scps, and information about elements of care that can be customized to individual patient needs. PMID:23559888

  6. Structural, optical, and ferromagnetic characterization of Sm-doped LaOCl nanocrystalline synthesized by solvothermal route: Significant effect of hydrogen post treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dakhel, A. A.

    2016-09-01

    Pure and Sm-doped lanthanum oxychloride (LaOCl) nanomaterials were synthesized by solvothermal route followed by a subsequent heat treatment process. The objective of the present work is to study and develop conditions required to create stable room-temperature ferromagnetic (RT-FM) properties in LaOCl. To achieve that aim, magnetic samarium Sm3+ ions were used as dopant sources for stable FM properties. Systematic structural, optical, and magnetic properties of undoped and Sm-doped LaOCl samples were investigated as function of post-annealing conditions (temperature and atmosphere). The optical absorption properties were studied by diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS). The magnetic measurements reveal that Sm-doped LaOCl nanopowders have partial RT-FM properties due to the doped ions. The variations of magnetic properties with pre-annealing temperature were investigated. Furthermore, the electronic medium of host LaOCl crystalline lattice, which carries the spin-spin (S.S) exchange interaction between localised dopant Sm3+(4f5) spins, was developed by annealing in hydrogen gas (hydrogenation). It was established that annealing in hydrogen atmosphere boosts the RT-FM properties so that the saturation magnetisation could be increased by more than 100%. Physical explanations and discussions were given in this paper. Thus, it was proved that the magnetic properties could be tailored to diamagnetic LaOCl compound by Sm-doping and post treatment under H2 atmosphere. Therefore, LaOCl nanocrystals could be used as a potential candidate for optical phosphor applications with magnetic properties.

  7. Materials Characterization Center program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.D.; Ross, W.A.; Hill, O.F.; Mendel, J.E.; Merz, M.D.; Turcotte, R.P.

    1980-03-01

    The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) has been established at Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the Materials Characterization Organization for providing an authoritative, referenceable basis for establishing nuclear waste material properties and test methods. The MCC will provide a data base that will include information on the components of the waste emplacement package - the spent fuel or processed waste form and the engineered barriers - and their interaction with each other and as affected by the environment. The MCC will plan materials testing, develop and document procedures, collect and analyze existing materials data, and conduct tests as necessary.

  8. Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... FAQ Health care providers Educational materials Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir It ... ONE 7(1): e29914. HHS Special Webinar on Lyme Disease Persistence frame support disabled and/or not supported ...

  9. Post-treatment lyme syndrome and central sensitization.

    PubMed

    Batheja, Shweta; Nields, Jenifer A; Landa, Alla; Fallon, Brian A

    2013-01-01

    Central sensitization is a process that links a variety of chronic pain disorders that are characterized by hypersensitivity to noxious stimuli and pain in response to non-noxious stimuli. Among these disorders, treatments that act centrally may have greater efficacy than treatments acting peripherally. Because many individuals with post-treatment Lyme syndrome (PTLS) have a similar symptom cluster, central sensitization may be a process mediating or exacerbating their sensory processing. This article reviews central sensitization, reports new data on sensory hyperarousal in PTLS, explores the potential role of central sensitization in symptom chronicity, and suggests new directions for neurophysiologic and treatment research. PMID:24026711

  10. Characterization equipment essential drawing plan

    SciTech Connect

    WILSON, G.W.

    1999-05-18

    The purpose of this document is to list the Characterization equipment drawings that are classified as Essential Drawings. Essential Drawings: Are those drawings identified by the facility staff as necessary to directly support the safe operation of the facility or equipment (HNF 1997a). The Characterization equipment drawings identified in this report are deemed essential drawings as defined in HNF-PRO-242, Engineering Drawing Requirements (HNF 1997a). These drawings will be prepared, revised, and maintained per HNF-PRO-440, Engineering Document Change Control (HNF 1997b). All other Characterization equipment drawings not identified in this document will be considered Support drawings until the Characterization Equipment Drawing Evaluation Report is completed.

  11. Tank 241-U-202 tank characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-02-21

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-U-202.

  12. Tank 241-U-201 tank characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-02-21

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 22-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-U-201.

  13. Tank 241-BX-104 tank characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1994-12-14

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-BX-104.

  14. Tank 241-SX-106 tank characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-03-08

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-SX-106.

  15. Tank 241-SX-103 tank characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-03-08

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-SX-103.

  16. Tank 241-T-107 tank characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-05

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-T-107.

  17. Tank 241-U-103 tank characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1995-01-24

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-U-103.

  18. Tank 241-TX-118 tank characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1994-12-09

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-TX-118.

  19. Tank 241-BY-103 tank characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1994-10-21

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL 329 Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-BY-103.

  20. Tank 241-U-105 tank characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-02-03

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-U-105.

  1. Tank 241-U-111 tank characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1995-01-24

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-U-111.

  2. Tank 241-S-111: Tank characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-03-07

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, ORNL, and PNL tank vapor program. Scope of this plan is to provide guidance for sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-S-111 (this tank is on the organic and flammable gas watch list). This tank received Redox plant waste, among other wastes.

  3. Tank 241-TX-105 tank characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-TX-105.

  4. Tank 241-T-111 tank characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-10

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-T-111.

  5. Tank 241-TY-101 Tank Characterization Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-03-20

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-TY-101.

  6. Tank 241-BY-105 tank characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-02-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-BY-105.

  7. Tank 241-C-201: Tank characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-03-06

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. Scope of this plan is to provide guidance for sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-C-201.

  8. Material stabilization characterization management plan

    SciTech Connect

    GIBSON, M.W.

    1999-08-31

    This document presents overall direction for characterization needs during stabilization of SNM at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Technical issues for needed data and equipment are identified. Information on material categories and links to vulnerabilities are given. Comparison data on the material categories is discussed to assist in assessing the relative risks and desired processing priority.

  9. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Gertz, C.P.; Bartlett, J.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) and establish an approved YMP baseline against which overall YMP progress and management effectiveness shall be measured. For the sake of brevity, this document will be referred to as the Project Plan throughout this document. This Project Plan only addresses activities up to the submittal of the repository license application (LA) to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A new Project Plan will be submitted to establish the technical, cost, and schedule baselines for the final design and construction phase of development extending through the start of repository operations, assuming that the site is determined to be suitable.

  10. Post-treatment control of HIV infection

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Conway, Jessica M.; Perelson, Alan S.

    2015-04-13

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV is not a cure. However, recent studies suggest that ART, initiated early during primary infection, may induce post-treatment control (PTC) of HIV infection with HIV RNA maintained at <50 copies per mL. We investigate the hypothesis that ART initiated early during primary infection permits PTC by limiting the size of the latent reservoir, which, if small enough at treatment termination, may allow the adaptive immune response to prevent viral rebound (VR) and control infection. We use a mathematical model of within host HIV dynamics to capture interactions among target cells, productively infected cells, latently infectedmore » cells, virus, and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Analysis of our model reveals a range in CTL response strengths where a patient may show either VR or PTC, depending on the size of the latent reservoir at treatment termination. Below this range, patients will always rebound, whereas above this range, patients are predicted to behave like elite controllers. As a result, using data on latent reservoir sizes in patients treated during primary infection, we also predict population-level VR times for non-controllers consistent with observations.« less

  11. Post-treatment control of HIV infection

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, Jessica M.; Perelson, Alan S.

    2015-04-13

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV is not a cure. However, recent studies suggest that ART, initiated early during primary infection, may induce post-treatment control (PTC) of HIV infection with HIV RNA maintained at <50 copies per mL. We investigate the hypothesis that ART initiated early during primary infection permits PTC by limiting the size of the latent reservoir, which, if small enough at treatment termination, may allow the adaptive immune response to prevent viral rebound (VR) and control infection. We use a mathematical model of within host HIV dynamics to capture interactions among target cells, productively infected cells, latently infected cells, virus, and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Analysis of our model reveals a range in CTL response strengths where a patient may show either VR or PTC, depending on the size of the latent reservoir at treatment termination. Below this range, patients will always rebound, whereas above this range, patients are predicted to behave like elite controllers. As a result, using data on latent reservoir sizes in patients treated during primary infection, we also predict population-level VR times for non-controllers consistent with observations.

  12. Digface characterization test plan (remote testing)

    SciTech Connect

    Croft, K.; Hyde, R.; Allen, S.

    1993-08-01

    The objective of the Digface Characterization (DFC) Remote Testing project is to remotely deploy a sensor head (Mini-Lab) across a digface to determine if it can characterize the contents below the surface. The purpose of this project is to provide a robotics technology that allows removal of workers from hazards, increases speed of operations, and reduces life cycle costs compared to alternate methods and technologies. The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is funding the demonstration, testing, and evaluation of DFC. This document describes the test plan for the DFC remote deployment demonstration for the BWID. The purposes of the test plan are to establish test parameters so that the demonstration results are deemed useful and usable and perform the demonstration in a safe manner and within all regulatory requirements.

  13. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-09-09

    The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan required each US Department of Energy (DOE) site that characterizes transuranic waste to be sent the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan that addresses applicable requirements specified in the QAPP.

  14. Causes and management of post-treatment apical periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, J F; Rôças, I N; Ricucci, D; Hülsmann, M

    2014-03-01

    Endodontic treatment failure is usually characterised by the presence of post-treatment apical periodontitis, which may be persistent, emergent or recurrent. The major aetiology of post-treatment disease is persistent intraradicular infection, but in some cases a secondary intraradicular infection due to coronal leakage or an extraradicular infection may be the cause of failure. Understanding the causes of endodontic treatment failure is of paramount importance for the proper management of this condition. Teeth with post-treatment apical periodontitis can be managed by either nonsurgical endodontic retreatment or periradicular surgery, both of which have very high chances of restoring the health of the periradicular tissues and maintaining the tooth function in the oral cavity. This review article focuses on the aetiological factors of post-treatment apical periodontitis and discusses the indications and basics of the procedures for optimal clinical management of this condition. PMID:24651336

  15. Tank 241-BY-111 tank characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Homi, C.S.

    1994-11-03

    The sampling and analytical needs associated with the 51 Hanford Site underground storage tanks classified on one or more of the four Watch Lists (ferrocyanide, organic, flammable gas, and high heat), and the safety screening of all 177 tanks have been identified through the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process. DQO`s identify information needed by a program group in the Tank Waste Remediation System concerned with safety issues, regulatory requirements, or the transporting and processing of tank waste. This Tank Characterization Plan will identify characterization objectives for Tank BY-111 pertaining to sample collection, sample preparation and analysis, and laboratory analytical evaluation and reporting requirements. In addition, an estimate of the current contents and status of the tank is given.

  16. Transuranic waste characterization sampling and analysis plan

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) is located approximately 25 miles northwest of Santa Fe, New Mexico, situated on the Pajarito Plateau. Technical Area 54 (TA-54), one of the Laboratory`s many technical areas, is a radioactive and hazardous waste management and disposal area located within the Laboratory`s boundaries. The purpose of this transuranic waste characterization, sampling, and analysis plan (CSAP) is to provide a methodology for identifying, characterizing, and sampling approximately 25,000 containers of transuranic waste stored at Pads 1, 2, and 4, Dome 48, and the Fiberglass Reinforced Plywood Box Dome at TA-54, Area G, of the Laboratory. Transuranic waste currently stored at Area G was generated primarily from research and development activities, processing and recovery operations, and decontamination and decommissioning projects. This document was created to facilitate compliance with several regulatory requirements and program drivers that are relevant to waste management at the Laboratory, including concerns of the New Mexico Environment Department.

  17. Second ILAW Site Borehole Characterization Plan

    SciTech Connect

    SP Reidel

    2000-08-10

    The US Department of Energy's Hanford Site has the most diverse and largest amounts of radioactive tank waste in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored at Hanford since 1944. Approximately 209,000 m{sup 3} (54 Mgal) of waste are currently stored in 177 tanks. Vitrification and onsite disposal of low-activity tank waste (LAW) are embodied in the strategy described in the Tri-Party Agreement. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low- and high-level fractions, and then immobilized. The low-activity vitrified waste will be disposed of in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. This report is a plan to drill and characterize the second borehole for the Performance Assessment. The first characterization borehole was drilled in 1998. The plan describes data collection activities for determining physical and chemical properties of the vadose zone and saturated zone on the northeast side of the proposed disposal site. These data will then be used in the 2005 Performance Assessment.

  18. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-12-14

    The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan required each U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site that characterizes transuranic waste to be sent the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan that addresses applicable requirements specified in the quality assurance project plan (QAPP).

  19. Characterization plan for Hanford spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Abrefah, J.; Thornton, T.A.; Thomas, L.E.; Berting, F.M.; Marschman, S.C.

    1994-12-01

    Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Hanford Site Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant (PUREX) was terminated in 1972. Since that time a significant quantity of N Reactor and Single-Pass Reactor SNF has been stored in the 100 Area K-East (KE) and K-West (KW) reactor basins. Approximately 80% of all US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned SNF resides at Hanford, the largest portion of which is in the water-filled KE and KW reactor basins. The basins were not designed for long-term storage of the SNF and it has become a priority to move the SNF to a more suitable location. As part of the project plan, SNF inventories will be chemically and physically characterized to provide information that will be used to resolve safety and technical issues for development of an environmentally benign and efficient extended interim storage and final disposition strategy for this defense production-reactor SNF.

  20. Site characterization plan thermal goals reevaluation

    SciTech Connect

    1993-09-08

    The Site Characterization Plan (SCP) (DOE, 1988) attempted to define surrogate criteria that could be used to establish potential repository performance. These criteria or SCP thermal goals were developed from knowledge existing at the time and, as a reference case, emphasized performance for waste emplacement in a vertical borehole. Since that time, new knowledge has become available and some additional analyses of thermal loading have been performed. Additionally, other emplacement modes such as in-drift emplacement are being considered to accommodate larger waste packages. New concepts such as ``extended hot`` are also being considered as possible methods to achieve improved waste isolation. Thus it became clear that the thermal goals established in the SCP should be reevaluated. A Working Group was formed to reassess the SCP thermal goals to determine whether each goal was still valid, if there were goals that needed to be added, and what if any effort was needed to reduce the uncertainty associated with a particular goal. The objectives of the effort were to: (1) provide thermal goals that would support the FY 1993 Thermal Loading Systems Study; (2) help focus the planned testing and analysis efforts; and (3) acquire data that potentially could be used to initiate a change to the project technical baseline. Sixteen thermal goals were evaluated; fifteen were from various sections of the SCP; one goal was added, and another was split into two to include in-drift emplacement. The group`s findings and recommendations are presented.

  1. A prospective study of the value of pre- and post-treatment magnetic resonance imaging examinations for advanced cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    CSUTAK, CSABA; ORDEANU, CLAUDIA; NAGY, VIORICA MAGDALENA; POP, DIANA CRISTINA; BOLBOACA, SORANA DANIELA; BADEA, RADU; CHIOREAN, LILIANA; DUDEA, SORIN MARIAN

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim Cervical cancer has high incidence and mortality in developing countries. It is the only gynecological malignancy that is clinically staged. Staging at the time of diagnosis is crucial for treatment planning. After radiation therapy, clinical examination is limited because of radiation changes. An imaging method relatively unaffected by radiation changes would be useful for the assessment of therapy results and for management. We sought to demonstrate the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the pre- and post-treatment assessment of cervical cancer. Methods This was a prospective study, carried out between November 2012 and October 2014 on 18 subjects with advanced-stage cervical cancer diagnosed by colposcopy. The disease stage was determined clinically according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) criteria. Only patients with disease stage ≥ IIB or IIA with one of the tumor dimensions > 4 cm were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent abdominal-pelvic contrast-enhanced MRI as part of the workup. Tumor size, local invasion, involved pelvic lymph nodes, and staging according to MRI criteria were evaluated. Clinical and MRI examinations were also performed after chemoradiotherapy. After chemoradiotherapy, 94% of the patients (17 of 18) were treated surgically. Results Eighteen patients aged 32–67 met the inclusion criteria and were enrolled: 10 stage IIB, 6 stage IIIA, 1 stage IIA and 1 stage IIIB, according to clinical staging. Using histopathological findings as a reference, MRI staging accuracy was 83.3%. The concordance of the clinical stage with MRI stage at the first examination was 56%. Parametrial involvement was assessed on pretreatment and post-treatment MRI, with post-treatment MRI compared with histology. There was no statistically significant difference between the pre- and post-therapy gynecological examinations (GYN) and the corresponding MRI assessments as to tumor size

  2. Tank 241-B-103 tank characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1995-01-23

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) has advised the US Department of Energy (DOE) to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The data quality objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used to identify sampling and analytical needs for the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement or TPA) milestone M-44-00 has been made, which states that ``A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process... Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users (e.g., Hanford Facility user groups, regulators) to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information.`` This document satisfies that requirement for Tank 241-B-103 (B-103) sampling activities. Tank B-103 was placed on the Organic Watch List in January 1991 due to review of TRAC data that predicts a TOC content of 3.3 dry weight percent. The tank was classified as an assumed leaker of approximately 30,280 liters (8,000 gallons) in 1978 and declared inactive. Tank B-103 is passively ventilated with interim stabilization and intrusion prevention measures completed in 1985.

  3. Site characterization plan thermal goals reevaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Saterlie, S.F.; Garza, J.C. de la

    1994-12-31

    Because performance standards are not established for the Yucca Mountain Site (the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards have been remanded), it is necessary to define surrogate or derived criteria to evaluate performance. The Site Characterization Plan (SCP) in 1988 attempted to define surrogate criteria that could be used to establish repository performance. Since that time, new knowledge has become available and some additional analyses of thermal loading have been performed. Thus it became clear that the thermal goals established in the SCP should be reevaluated. This paper reports on a two month effort undertaken to reevaluate the SCP thermal goals using an expert Working Group. Fifteen thermal goals identified in various sections of the SCP were evaluated by the Working Group. It was recommended that two goals be deleted: (1) to keep borehole wall temperature < 275 degrees C and keep the mid-drift temperature < 100 degrees C. It was also recommended that one goal be added to establish a thermal loading that would not degrade the Upper Paintbrush Tuff Formation (Lowermost Tiva Canyon; Yucca Mountain; Pah Canyon; and Uppermost Topopah Spring Members) (Vitric nonwelded) (PTn) barrier. Two other thermal goals and a process statement were reworded to afford compatibility with any emplacement mode, not just the vertical borehole. A recommendation was made to increase the conservatism of a goal to limit potential impact on the surface environment by limiting temperature rise to < 2 degrees C rather than < 6 degrees C. This revised set of goals was used in the Thermal Loading Systems Study.

  4. Thermal post-treatment alters nutrient release from a controlled-release fertilizer coated with a waterborne polymer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zijun; Du, Changwen; Li, Ting; Shen, Yazhen; Zhou, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) use a controlled-release technology to enhance the nutrient use efficiency of crops. Many factors affect the release of nutrients from the waterborne polymer-coated CRF, but the effects of thermal post-treatments remain unclear. In this study, a waterborne polyacrylate-coated CRF was post-treated at different temperatures (30 °C, 60 °C, and 80 °C) and durations (2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h) after being developed in the Wurster fluidized bed. To characterize the polyacrylate membrane, and hence to analyze the mechanism of nutrient release, Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were employed. The nutrient-release model of CRF post-treated at 30 °C was the inverse “L” curve, but an increased duration of the post-treatment had no effect. The nutrient-release model was “S” curve and nutrient-release period was enhanced at higher post-treatment temperatures, and increased post-treatment duration lengthened slowed nutrient release due to a more compact membrane and a smoother membrane surface as well as a promoted crosslinking action. CRF equipped with specified nutrient-release behaviors can be achieved by optimizing the thermal post-treatment parameters, which can contribute to the development and application of waterborne polymer-coated CRF and controlled-release technologies. PMID:26348791

  5. Thermal post-treatment alters nutrient release from a controlled-release fertilizer coated with a waterborne polymer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zijun; Du, Changwen; Li, Ting; Shen, Yazhen; Zhou, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) use a controlled-release technology to enhance the nutrient use efficiency of crops. Many factors affect the release of nutrients from the waterborne polymer-coated CRF, but the effects of thermal post-treatments remain unclear. In this study, a waterborne polyacrylate-coated CRF was post-treated at different temperatures (30 °C, 60 °C, and 80 °C) and durations (2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h) after being developed in the Wurster fluidized bed. To characterize the polyacrylate membrane, and hence to analyze the mechanism of nutrient release, Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were employed. The nutrient-release model of CRF post-treated at 30 °C was the inverse "L" curve, but an increased duration of the post-treatment had no effect. The nutrient-release model was "S" curve and nutrient-release period was enhanced at higher post-treatment temperatures, and increased post-treatment duration lengthened slowed nutrient release due to a more compact membrane and a smoother membrane surface as well as a promoted crosslinking action. CRF equipped with specified nutrient-release behaviors can be achieved by optimizing the thermal post-treatment parameters, which can contribute to the development and application of waterborne polymer-coated CRF and controlled-release technologies. PMID:26348791

  6. Thermal post-treatment alters nutrient release from a controlled-release fertilizer coated with a waterborne polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zijun; Du, Changwen; Li, Ting; Shen, Yazhen; Zhou, Jianmin

    2015-09-01

    Controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) use a controlled-release technology to enhance the nutrient use efficiency of crops. Many factors affect the release of nutrients from the waterborne polymer-coated CRF, but the effects of thermal post-treatments remain unclear. In this study, a waterborne polyacrylate-coated CRF was post-treated at different temperatures (30 °C, 60 °C, and 80 °C) and durations (2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h) after being developed in the Wurster fluidized bed. To characterize the polyacrylate membrane, and hence to analyze the mechanism of nutrient release, Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were employed. The nutrient-release model of CRF post-treated at 30 °C was the inverse “L” curve, but an increased duration of the post-treatment had no effect. The nutrient-release model was “S” curve and nutrient-release period was enhanced at higher post-treatment temperatures, and increased post-treatment duration lengthened slowed nutrient release due to a more compact membrane and a smoother membrane surface as well as a promoted crosslinking action. CRF equipped with specified nutrient-release behaviors can be achieved by optimizing the thermal post-treatment parameters, which can contribute to the development and application of waterborne polymer-coated CRF and controlled-release technologies.

  7. Ask Pete, software planning and estimation through project characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, T.

    2001-01-01

    Ask Pete, was developed by NASA to provide a tool for integrating the estimation and planning activities for a software development effort. It incorporates COCOMO II estimating with NASA's software development practices and IV&V criteria to characterize a project. This characterization is then used to generate estimates and tailored planning documents.

  8. Quality assurance implementation plan for spent nuclear fuel characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Horhota, M.J.; Lawrence, L.A.

    1997-07-10

    A plan was prepared to implement the Quality Assurance requirements of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management RW-0333P to the Spent Nuclear Fuel Characterization activities. The plan was based on an evaluation of the current characterization activities against the RW-0333P requirements.

  9. 10 CFR 60.16 - Site characterization plan required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Site characterization plan required. 60.16 Section 60.16 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses Preapplication Review § 60.16 Site characterization plan required. Before proceeding...

  10. 10 CFR 60.16 - Site characterization plan required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Site characterization plan required. 60.16 Section 60.16 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses Preapplication Review § 60.16 Site characterization plan required. Before proceeding...

  11. 10 CFR 60.16 - Site characterization plan required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Site characterization plan required. 60.16 Section 60.16 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses Preapplication Review § 60.16 Site characterization plan required. Before proceeding...

  12. 10 CFR 60.16 - Site characterization plan required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Site characterization plan required. 60.16 Section 60.16 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses Preapplication Review § 60.16 Site characterization plan required. Before proceeding...

  13. 10 CFR 60.16 - Site characterization plan required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Site characterization plan required. 60.16 Section 60.16 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses Preapplication Review § 60.16 Site characterization plan required. Before proceeding...

  14. Plans for characterization of salt sites

    SciTech Connect

    Heim, G.E.; Matthews, S.C.; Kircher, J.F.; Kennedy, R.K.

    1983-01-01

    This basic salt site characterization program has been designed to provide the data required to support the design, performance assessment, and licensing of each of the principal project elements: the repository, the shafts, and the surface facilities. The work has been sequenced to meet the design and licensing schedule. It is anticipated that additional characterization activities will be performed to address site-specific considerations and to provide additional information to address questions which arise during the evaluation of characterization data. 3 figures, 3 tables.

  15. Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-30

    This quality assurance plan identifies the data necessary, and techniques designed to attain the required quality, to meet the specific data quality objectives associated with the DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report specifies sampling, waste testing, and analytical methods for transuranic wastes.

  16. Tank 241-BY-103 Tank Characterization Plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-02-27

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations and WHC 222-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-BY-103.

  17. [Review of pre- and post-treatment multidetector computed tomography findings in abdominal aortic aneurysms].

    PubMed

    Casula, E; Lonjedo, E; Cerverón, M J; Ruiz, A; Gómez, J

    2014-01-01

    The increase in the frequency of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) and the widely accepted use of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) as a first-line treatment or as an alternative to conventional surgery make it necessary for radiologists to have thorough knowledge of the pre- and post-treatment findings. The high image quality provided by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) enables CT angiography to play a fundamental role in the study of AAA and in planning treatment. The objective of this article is to review the cases of AAA in which CT angiography was the main imaging technique, so that radiologists will be able to detect the signs related to this disease, to diagnose it, to plan treatment, and to detect complications in the postoperative period. PMID:23489768

  18. NORTH AMERICAN LANDSCAPE CHARACTERIZATION (NALC): RESEARCH PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The North American Landscape Characterization (NALC) project is a component of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Landsat Pathfinder program of experiments to study global change issues. he NALC program is funded principally by the U.S. Environmental Protect...

  19. Tank farm waste characterization Technology Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Hohl, T.M.; Schull, K.E.; Bensky, M.S.; Sasaki, L.M.

    1989-03-01

    This document presents technological and analytical methods development activities required to characterize, process, and dispose of Hanford Site wastes stored in underground waste tanks in accordance with state and federal environmental regulations. The document also lists the need date, current (fiscal year 1989) funding, and estimate of future funding for each task. Also identified are the impact(s) if an activity is not completed. The document integrates these needs to minimize duplication of effort between the various programs involved.

  20. Perspectives of the Breast Cancer Survivorship Continuum: Diagnosis through 30 Months Post-Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hulett, Jennifer M.; Armer, Jane M.; Stewart, Bob R.; Wanchai, Ausanee

    2015-01-01

    This study explored breast cancer survivors’ perspectives regarding their experiences of the survivorship continuum from diagnosis through 30 months post-treatment. The sample included women (N = 379) with newly-diagnosed breast cancer undergoing treatment at a Midwestern university-affiliated cancer center. Semi-structured interviews were conducted using the Lymphedema and Breast Cancer Questionnaire at time of diagnosis, post-operatively, quarterly during the first year, and then semi-annually thereafter through 30 months post-treatment. A mixed-methodology was used to analyze participants’ comments. Themes central to long-term survivorship experiences included social support, positive worldviews, breast cancer and lymphedema health literacy, religious/spiritual beliefs, self-empowerment, and recovery expectations. These themes were consistent with a psychoneuroimmunological model of health in which psychosocial variables mediate stress and influence health outcomes. Qualitative data showed that social support and positive worldviews were the two themes with the most significant impact on long-term breast cancer survivorship experiences. Survivors expressed a need to advance their health care literacy in order to share ownership of breast cancer and lymphedema treatment decisions. Since breast cancer is an immune-mediated disease, long-term survivorship planning should address psychosocial factors that influence the long-term psychological distress associated with immune dysfunction. PMID:26030800

  1. Characterization of a mammalian prosencephalic functional plan

    PubMed Central

    Croizier, Sophie; Chometton, Sandrine; Fellmann, Dominique; Risold, Pierre-Yves

    2015-01-01

    Hypothalamic organizational concepts have greatly evolved as the primary hypothalamic pathways have been systematically investigated. In the present review, we describe how the hypothalamus arises from a molecularly heterogeneous region of the embryonic neural tube but is first differentiated as a primary neuronal cell cord (earliest mantle layer). This structure defines two axes that align onto two fundamental components: a longitudinal tractus postopticus(tpoc)/retinian component and a transverse supraoptic tract(sot)/olfactory component. We then discuss how these two axonal tracts guide the formation of all major tracts that connect the telencephalon with the hypothalamus/ventral midbrain, highlighting the existence of an early basic plan in the functional organization of the prosencephalic connectome. PMID:25610375

  2. Impact of post-treatment on the characteristics of electrospun poly (vinyl alcohol)/chitosan nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susanto, H.; Samsudin, A. M.; Faz, M. W.; Rani, M. P. H.

    2016-04-01

    Electrospun nanofibers have many advantages such as high porosity, easy to be fabricated in various size and high ratio of surface area to volume. This paper presents the preparation of electrospun PVA/Chitosan nanofibers and more specifically focuses on the effect of post-treatment on the permeability and morphology of electrospun PVA/chitosan nanofibers. The mixtures of various concentrations of PVA (6,7,8 wt%)and 2 wt%.chitosan solution (with the ratio of 3:1)were used in electrospun with a constant rate of 0.7 ml/hour. The post-treatment was conducted by immersing in a ethanol or glutaraldehyde solution to performed crosslink structure. The electrospun PVA/Chitosan nanofiber was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results revealed that the viscosity of the mixture solution is directly proportional to its concentration. Increasing the viscosity increased the diameter of fiber but also made the larger beads formation. FTIR measurement exhibited the existence of relevant functional groups of both PVA and chitosan in the composites.The crosslinked structure was found for the electrospun PVA/Chitosan nanofibers treated with glutaraldehyde solution.

  3. Effect of BPSH post treatment on DMFC performance and properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kickner, M.; Yuseung, K.; McGrath, James E.; Zelenay, P.; Pivovar, B. S.

    2002-01-01

    Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) are being investigated for applications ranging from milliwatt (cell phones) to kilowatt (MUS) size scales. A common pitfall for DMFCs has been the inability of the electrolyte, typically Nafion, to act as an effective methanol barrier. Methanol crossover adversely affects the cell by lowering the cell voltage due to a mixed potential at the cathode and lower fuel utilization. Improved DMFC performance was demonstrated with sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymer membranes (1). Another study has shown the dependence of polymer properties and morphology on the post treatment of such membranes (2). In agreement with measurements on free-standing films, the fuel cell characteristics of these membranes have been found to have a strong dependence on acidification treatment. Methanol permeability, proton conductivity, and electro-osmotic drag coefficient all were found to increase when the membranes were acidified under boiling conditions versus a low-temperature process.

  4. Post-Treatment Hemodynamics of a Basilar Aneurysm and Bifurcation

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, J; Hartman, J; Rodriguez, J; Maitland, D

    2008-01-16

    Aneurysm re-growth and rupture can sometimes unexpectedly occur following treatment procedures that were initially considered to be successful at the time of treatment and post-operative angiography. In some cases, this can be attributed to surgical clip slippage or endovascular coil compaction. However, there are other cases in which the treatment devices function properly. In these instances, the subsequent complications are due to other factors, perhaps one of which is the post-treatment hemodynamic stress. To investigate whether or not a treatment procedure can subject the parent artery to harmful hemodynamic stresses, computational fluid dynamics simulations are performed on a patient-specific basilar aneurysm and bifurcation before and after a virtual endovascular treatment. The simulations demonstrate that the treatment procedure produces a substantial increase in the wall shear stress. Analysis of the post-treatment flow field indicates that the increase in wall shear stress is due to the impingement of the basilar artery flow upon the aneurysm filling material and to the close proximity of a vortex tube to the artery wall. Calculation of the time-averaged wall shear stress shows that there is a region of the artery exposed to a level of wall shear stress that can cause severe damage to endothelial cells. The results of this study demonstrate that it is possible for a treatment procedure, which successfully excludes the aneurysm from the vascular system and leaves no aneurysm neck remnant, to elevate the hemodynamic stresses to levels that are injurious to the immediately adjacent vessel wall.

  5. POST-TREATMENT REGRET AMONG YOUNG BREAST CANCER SURVIVORS

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Joan R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The study addresses: (1) what women regret about their breast cancer treatment five years later, and (2) what characteristics of disease and treatment predict post-treatment regret. Method Interviews were conducted with breast cancer survivors in the San Francisco Bay Area. Participants were interviewed following diagnosis. Five years later, women were asked whether they had any regrets about their cancer treatment (N=449). Qualitative analysis was used to identify regret content, and logistic regression was used to determine what characteristics of treatment predicted regret. Results 42.5% of women in the sample regretted some aspect of treatment. The most common regrets were primary surgery (24.1%), chemotherapy and/or radiation (21.5%), reconstruction (17.8%), and problems with providers (13.1%). In addition, women regretted inactions (59.2%) (actions that they did not take) more than actions that they did take (30.4%). This represents a novel finding in the study of post-treatment regret, which has largely focused on regrets over actions. Quantitative analysis revealed that women who were anxious about the future (OR=1.32; p=.03) or had problems communicating with physicians (OR=1.26; p=.02) during treatment were more likely to express regret 5 years later. In addition, women with new or recurrent cancers 5 years later were significantly more likely to regret some aspect of their primary treatment (OR=5.81; p<.001). Conclusion This research supports addressing the psychosocial aspects of cancer care and improving physician-patient communication. Evidence is also provided for addressing the unique emotional needs of women with recurrent cancers, who may experience an undue burden of regret. PMID:20878843

  6. In-situ bioremediation drilling and characterization work plan

    SciTech Connect

    Koegler, K.J.

    1994-04-26

    This work plan describes the design and construction of proposed wells and outlines the characterization activities to be performed in support of the In Situ Bioremediation Task for FY 1994. The purpose of the well-design is to facilitate implementation and monitoring of in situ biodegradation of CCl{sub 4} in ground water. However, the wells will also be used to characterize the geology, hydrology, microbiology, and contaminant distribution, which will all feed into the design of the technology. Implementation and design of this remediation demonstration technology will be described separately in an integrated test plan.

  7. Characterization Plan for Soils Around Drain Line PLA-100115

    SciTech Connect

    D. Shanklin

    2006-05-24

    This Characterization Plan supports the Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (HWMA/RCRA) closure of soils that may have been contaminated by releases from drain line PLA-100115, located within the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The requirements to address the closure of soils contaminated by a potential release from this line in a characterization plan was identified in the "HWMA/RCRA Less Than 90-day Generator Closure Report for the VES-SFE-126."

  8. TWRS phase I privatization site environmental baseline and characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Shade, J.W.

    1997-09-01

    This document provides a plan to characterize and develop an environmental baseline for the TWRS Phase I Privatization Site before construction begins. A site evaluation study selected the former Grout Disposal Area of the Grout Treatment Facility in the 200 East Area as the TWRS Phase I Demonstration Site. The site is generally clean and has not been used for previous activities other than the GTF. A DQO process was used to develop a Sampling and Analysis Plan that would allow comparison of site conditions during operations and after Phase I ends to the presently existing conditions and provide data for the development of a preoperational monitoring plan.

  9. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    GREAGER, T.M.

    2000-12-06

    The Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) has been prepared for waste characterization activities to be conducted by the Transuranic (TRU) Project at the Hanford Site to meet requirements set forth in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, 4890139088-TSDF, Attachment B, including Attachments B1 through B6 (WAP) (DOE, 1999a). The QAPjP describes the waste characterization requirements and includes test methods, details of planned waste sampling and analysis, and a description of the waste characterization and verification process. In addition, the QAPjP includes a description of the quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) requirements for the waste characterization program. Before TRU waste is shipped to the WIPP site by the TRU Project, all applicable requirements of the QAPjP shall be implemented. Additional requirements necessary for transportation to waste disposal at WIPP can be found in the ''Quality Assurance Program Document'' (DOE 1999b) and HNF-2600, ''Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan.'' TRU mixed waste contains both TRU radioactive and hazardous components, as defined in the WLPP-WAP. The waste is designated and separately packaged as either contact-handled (CH) or remote-handled (RH), based on the radiological dose rate at the surface of the waste container. RH TRU wastes are not currently shipped to the WIPP facility.

  10. 10 CFR 60.17 - Contents of site characterization plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN... radioactive waste; (iv) Plans to control any adverse impacts from such site characterization activities that...-level radioactive waste to be emplaced in such geologic repository, a description (to the...

  11. 10 CFR 60.17 - Contents of site characterization plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN... radioactive waste; (iv) Plans to control any adverse impacts from such site characterization activities that...-level radioactive waste to be emplaced in such geologic repository, a description (to the...

  12. 10 CFR 60.17 - Contents of site characterization plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN... radioactive waste; (iv) Plans to control any adverse impacts from such site characterization activities that...-level radioactive waste to be emplaced in such geologic repository, a description (to the...

  13. 10 CFR 60.17 - Contents of site characterization plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN... radioactive waste; (iv) Plans to control any adverse impacts from such site characterization activities that...-level radioactive waste to be emplaced in such geologic repository, a description (to the...

  14. 10 CFR 60.17 - Contents of site characterization plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN... radioactive waste; (iv) Plans to control any adverse impacts from such site characterization activities that...-level radioactive waste to be emplaced in such geologic repository, a description (to the...

  15. Test plan for FY-94 digface characterization field experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Josten, N.E.; Roybal, L.G.

    1994-08-01

    The digface characterization concept has been under development at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) since fiscal year (FY) 1992 through the support of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program. A digface characterization system conducts continuous subsurface characterization simultaneously with retrieval of hazardous and radioactive waste from buried waste sites. The system deploys multiple sensors at the retrieval operation digface and collects data that provide a basis for detecting, locating, and classifying buried materials and hazardous conditions before they are disturbed by the retrieval equipment. This test plan describes ongoing efforts to test the digface characterization concept at the INEL`s Cold Test Pit using a simplified prototype deployment apparatus and off-the-shelf sensors. FY-94 field experiments will explore problems in object detection and classification. Detection and classification of objects are fundamental to three of the four primary functions of digface characterization during overburden removal. This test plan establishes procedures for collecting and validating the digface characterization data sets. Analysis of these data will focus on testing and further developing analysis methods for object detection and classification during overburden removal.

  16. Quality Assurance Project Plan for waste tank vapor characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Suydam, C.D. Jr.

    1993-12-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan, WHC-SD-WM-QAPP-013, applies to four separate vapor sampling tasks associated with Phases 1 and 2 of the Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program and support of the Rotary Mode Core Drilling Portable Exhauster Permit. These tasks focus on employee safety concerns and tank ventilation emission control design requirements. Previous characterization efforts and studies are of insufficient accuracy to adequately define the problem. It is believed that the technology and maturity of sampling and analytical methods can be sufficiently developed to allow the characterization of the constituents of the tank vapor space.

  17. 241-Z-361 Sludge Characterization Sampling and Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    BANNING, D.L.

    1999-07-29

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies the type, quantity, and quality of data needed to support characterization of the sludge that remains in Tank 241-2-361. The procedures described in this SAP are based on the results of the 241-2-361 Sludge Characterization Data Quality Objectives (DQO) (BWHC 1999) process for the tank. The primary objectives of this project are to evaluate the contents of Tank 241-2-361 in order to resolve safety and safeguards issues and to assess alternatives for sludge removal and disposal.

  18. 241-Z-361 Sludge Characterization Sampling and Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    BANNING, D.L.

    1999-08-05

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies the type, quantity, and quality of data needed to support characterization of the sludge that remains in Tank 241-2-361. The procedures described in this SAP are based on the results of the 241-2-361 Sludge Characterization Data Quality Objectives (DQO) (BWHC 1999) process for the tank. The primary objectives of this project are to evaluate the contents of Tank 241-2-361 in order to resolve safety and safeguards issues and to assess alternatives for sludge removal and disposal.

  19. Oxygen post-treatment of plastic surface coated with plasma polymerized silicon-containing monomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wydeven, T. J.; Hollanhan, J. R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    The abrasion resistance of plastic surfaces coated with polymerized organosilanes can be significantly improved by post-treatment of the polymerized silane in an oxygen plasma. For optical purposes, the advantages of this post-treatment are developed with a transparent polycarbonate resin substrate coated with plasma polymerized vinyltrimethoxysilane.

  20. Computer-Based Script Training for Aphasia: Emerging Themes from Post-Treatment Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherney, Leora R.; Halper, Anita S.; Kaye, Rosalind C.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents results of post-treatment interviews following computer-based script training for persons with chronic aphasia. Each of the 23 participants received 9 weeks of AphasiaScripts training. Post-treatment interviews were conducted with the person with aphasia and/or a significant other person. The 23 interviews yielded 584 coded…

  1. Test plan for dig-face characterization performance testing

    SciTech Connect

    Josten, N.E.

    1993-09-01

    The dig-face characterization concept has been under development at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) since FY 1992 through the support of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program. A Dig-face Characterization System conducts continuous subsurface characterization simultaneously with retrieval of hazardous and radioactive waste from buried waste sites. The system deploys multiple sensors at the retrieval operation dig-face and collects data that provide a basis for detecting, locating, and identifying hazardous conditions before they are disturbed by the retrieval equipment. This test plan describes initial efforts to test the dig-face characterization concept at the INEL Cold Test Pit using a simplified prototype apparatus and off-the-shelf sensors. The Cold Test Pit is a simulated waste site containing hazardous and radioactive waste surrogates at known locations. Testing will be directed toward three generic characterization problems: metal detection, plume detection, and radioactive source detection. The prototype apparatus will gather data using magnetometers, a ground conductivity meter, a trace gas analyzer, and a gamma ray sensor during simulated retrieval of the surrogate waste materials. The data acquired by a dig-face characterization system are unique because of the high precision, high data density, and multiple viewpoints attainable through the dig-face deployment approach. The test plan establishes procedures for collecting and validating a representative dig-face characterization data set. Analysis of these data will focus on developing criteria for predicting the depth, location, composition, and other characteristics of the surrogate waste materials. If successful, this proof-of-concept exercise will provide a foundation for future development of a fully-operational system that is capable of operating on an actual waste site.

  2. Characterization plan for the immobilized low-activity waste borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, S.P.; Reynolds, K.D.

    1998-03-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site has the most diverse and largest amounts of radioactive tank waste in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored at Hanford in large underground tanks since 1944. Approximately 209,000 m{sup 3} (54 Mgal) of waste are currently stored in 177 tanks. Vitrification and onsite disposal of low activity tank waste (LAW) are embodied in the strategy described in the Tri-Party Agreement. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low- and high-level fractions, and then immobilized by private vendors. The DOE will receive the vitrified waste from private vendors and dispose of the low-activity fraction in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. The Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Disposal Complex (ILAWDC) is part of the disposal complex. This report is a plan to drill the first characterization borehole and collect data at the ILAWDC. This plan updates and revises the deep borehole portion of the characterization plan for the ILAWDC by Reidel and others (1995). It describes data collection activities for determining the physical and chemical properties of the vadose zone and the saturated zone at and in the immediate vicinity of the proposed ILAWDC. These properties then will be used to develop a conceptual geohydrologic model of the ILAWDC site in support of the Hanford ILAW Performance Assessment.

  3. Influence of TiCl4 post-treatment condition on TiO2 electrode for enhancement photovoltaic efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Eom, Tae Sung; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Bark, Chung Wung; Choi, Hyung Wook

    2014-10-01

    Titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) treatment processed by chemical bath deposition is usually adopted as pre- and post-treatment for nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2) film deposition in the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) technology. TiCl4 post-treatment is a widely known method capable of improving the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells. In this work, the effect of TiCl4 post-treatment on the TiO2 electrode is proposed and compared to the untreated film. A TiO2 passivating layer was deposited on FTO glass by RF magnetron sputtering. The TiO2 sol prepared sol-gel method, nanoporous TiO2 upper layer was deposited by screen printing method on the passivating layer. TiCl4 post-treatment was deposited on the substrate by hydrolysis of TiCl4 aqueous solution. Crystalline structure was adjusted by various TiCl4 concentration and dipping time: 20 mM-150 mM and 30 min-120 min. The conversion efficiency was measured by solar simulator (100 mW/cm2). The dye-sensitized solar cell using TiCl4 post-treatment was measured the maximum conversion efficiency of 5.04% due to electron transport effectively. As a result, the DSSCs based on TiCl4 post-treatment showed better photovoltaic performance than cells made purely of TiO2 nanoparticles. The relative DSSCs devices are characterized in terms of short circuit current density, open circuit voltage, fill factor, conversion efficiency. PMID:25942852

  4. Musculoskeletal Sarcoma: Update on Imaging of the Post-treatment Patient.

    PubMed

    Garner, Hillary W; Kransdorf, Mark J

    2016-02-01

    Post-treatment imaging of musculoskeletal sarcoma remains challenging, but newer imaging techniques are improving our ability to recognize both local and distant recurrence and accurately distinguish local recurrence from post-treatment change. We review recent advances in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with apparent diffusion coefficient mapping and positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the post-treatment follow-up of musculoskeletal sarcoma. We also describe our multidisciplinary sarcoma team approach to patient care and the essential role of the radiologist in the clinical follow-up scheme. PMID:25660298

  5. Site Characterization Plan: Uranium Stabilization through Polyphosphate Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Vermeul, Vince R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Williams, Bruce A.; Williams, Mark D.

    2006-12-01

    An initial feasibility study of options to treat the uranium plume at the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit considered hydraulic containment, slurry wall containment, and groundwater extraction as potential remedial action technologies. None were selected for interim action, and reduction of contamination levels by natural processes was considered a viable alternative while source removal actions continued. Subsequent planning for a Phase III feasibility study focused on methods that would reduce the concentration of uranium in the aquifer, including multiple methods to immobilize uranium using chemical-based technologies. Based on an initial technology screening, the polyphosphate technology was identified as the best candidate to treat the for further evaluation and selected for treatability testing. The overall objective of the polyphosphate treatability test is to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to treat uranium contaminated groundwater in situ. The objective of the work elements included in this site characterization plan is to collect site-specific characterization data that will be needed to design and implement a field-scale demonstration of the technology.

  6. Risk factors associated with short-term post-treatment outcomes of clinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Pinzón-Sánchez, C; Ruegg, P L

    2011-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize 60-d outcomes after treatment of mild (abnormal milk) and moderate (abnormal milk and abnormal udder) cases of clinical mastitis (CM) occurring in a single quarter of cows on Wisconsin farms (n=4) and to determine risk factors associated with those outcomes. Duplicate milk samples were collected from the affected quarter of each cow for microbiological analysis at the onset of CM (PRE) and 21 d later (POST). Cows were treated only in the affected quarter using an intramammary product containing 125 mg of ceftiofur. Bacteriological cure was defined as absence of pathogens in the POST sample obtained from the enrolled quarter. Recurrence was defined for the cow when CM occurred after the milk-withholding period for the enrolled case of CM. Retention in the herd was defined when a cow was retained within the herd for the 60-d follow-up period. Somatic cell count reduction (SCCR) was defined at the cow level as somatic cell count (SCC) below 200,000 cells/mL at the Dairy Herd Improvement Association test day occurring between 21 to 55 d post-treatment. The effects of farm, days in milk, parity, severity, microbiological diagnosis at PRE, previous milk yield, previous SCC, previous occurrence of CM and treatment duration on selected post-treatment outcomes were assessed using Chi-squared analysis and logistic regression. Microbiological results at PRE were distributed as: Escherichia coli (n=14), Klebsiella spp. (n=11), Enterobacter spp. (n=8), Serratia spp. (n=7), other gram-negative species (n=3), Streptococcus spp. (n=25), coagulase-negative staphylococci (n=4); Staphylococcus aureus (n=1); Streptococcus agalactiae (n=1), other gram-positive species (n=9), and culture negative (n=60). Treated quarters were more likely to experience bacteriological cure when the cow experienced CM for the first time in the lactation and when no pathogen was recovered from PRE milk samples obtained from the enrolled quarter. Parity and

  7. Post-treatment of anaerobic reactor effluent using coagulation/oxidation followed by double filtration.

    PubMed

    Cavallini, Grasiele Soares; de Sousa Vidal, Carlos Magno; de Souza, Jeanette Beber; de Campos, Sandro Xavier

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of a sanitary sewage treatment system, proposing post-treatment of the effluent generated by the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket UASB reactor, through a Fenton coagulation/oxidation ((ferric chloride (FC) or ferrous sulfate (FS) and peracetic acid (PAA)), followed by a double filtration system, composed of a gravel ascending drainage filter and a sand descending filter. Following the assessment of treatability, the system efficiency was evaluated using physicochemical and microbiological parameters. In all treatments performed in the pilot unit, total suspended solids (TSS) were completely removed, leading to a decrease in turbidity greater than 90% and close to 100% removal of total phosphorous. In the FC and PAA combination, the effluent was oxygenated prior to filtration, enabling a more significant removal of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), which characterizes aerobic degradation even in a quick sand filter. The treatments carried out in the presence of the PAA oxidizing agent showed a more significant bleaching of the effluent. Concerning the microbiological parameters, the simultaneous use of PAA and FC contributed to the partial inactivation of the assessed microorganisms. A 65% recovery of the effluent was obtained with the proposed treatment system, considering the volume employed in filter backwashing. PMID:26611629

  8. Tank 241-AP-107 tank characterization plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-01-20

    Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has directed the DOE to concentrate ear-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of issues (Conway 1993). The Data Quality Objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used in the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-44-00 has been made, which states that ``A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process; Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users (e.g., Hanford Facility user groups, regulators) to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information.`` This document satisfies that requirement for the tank 241-AP-107 (AP-107).

  9. Electron-beam-induced deposition and post-treatment processes to locally generate clean titanium oxide nanostructures on Si(100).

    PubMed

    Schirmer, M; Walz, M-M; Vollnhals, F; Lukasczyk, T; Sandmann, A; Chen, C; Steinrück, H-P; Marbach, H

    2011-02-25

    We have investigated the lithographic generation of TiO(x) nanostructures on Si(100) via electron-beam-induced deposition (EBID) of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) in ultra-high vacuum (UHV) by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and local Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). In addition, the fabricated nanostructures were also characterized ex situ via atomic force microscopy (AFM) under ambient conditions. In EBID, a highly focused electron beam is used to locally decompose precursor molecules and thereby to generate a deposit. A drawback of this nanofabrication technique is the unintended deposition of material in the vicinity of the impact position of the primary electron beam due to so-called proximity effects. Herein, we present a post-treatment procedure to deplete the unintended deposits by moderate sputtering after the deposition process. Moreover, we were able to observe the formation of pure titanium oxide nanocrystals (<100 nm) in situ upon heating the sample in a well-defined oxygen atmosphere. While the nanocrystal growth for the as-deposited structures also occurs in the surroundings of the irradiated area due to proximity effects, it is limited to the pre-defined regions, if the sample was sputtered before heating the sample under oxygen atmosphere. The described two-step post-treatment procedure after EBID presents a new pathway for the fabrication of clean localized nanostructures. PMID:21242619

  10. Electron-beam-induced deposition and post-treatment processes to locally generate clean titanium oxide nanostructures on Si(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirmer, M.; Walz, M.-M.; Vollnhals, F.; Lukasczyk, T.; Sandmann, A.; Chen, C.; Steinrück, H.-P.; Marbach, H.

    2011-02-01

    We have investigated the lithographic generation of TiOx nanostructures on Si(100) via electron-beam-induced deposition (EBID) of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) in ultra-high vacuum (UHV) by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and local Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). In addition, the fabricated nanostructures were also characterized ex situ via atomic force microscopy (AFM) under ambient conditions. In EBID, a highly focused electron beam is used to locally decompose precursor molecules and thereby to generate a deposit. A drawback of this nanofabrication technique is the unintended deposition of material in the vicinity of the impact position of the primary electron beam due to so-called proximity effects. Herein, we present a post-treatment procedure to deplete the unintended deposits by moderate sputtering after the deposition process. Moreover, we were able to observe the formation of pure titanium oxide nanocrystals (<100 nm) in situ upon heating the sample in a well-defined oxygen atmosphere. While the nanocrystal growth for the as-deposited structures also occurs in the surroundings of the irradiated area due to proximity effects, it is limited to the pre-defined regions, if the sample was sputtered before heating the sample under oxygen atmosphere. The described two-step post-treatment procedure after EBID presents a new pathway for the fabrication of clean localized nanostructures.

  11. TEST PLAN CHARACTERIZATION OF JET FORCES UPON WASTE TANK COMPONENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company plans to install mixer pumps in double-shell waste tanks to mobilize and suspend settled sludge to allow eventual retrieval for treatment and permanent storage. The mixer pumps produce high momentum, horizontally directed jets that impact and mobilize the sludge and mix it into slurry for removal. There is concern that the force of the jet may damage tank internal components in its path. This test plan describes scaled experiments designed to characterize the velocity profiles of a near floor jet and to quantify the impact farces and drag coefficients of three tank components: radiation dry well, airlift circulator, and steam coil. The experiments will be conducted in water, at approximately 1/6-scale, using one stationary nozzle to simulate the jet. To measure and confirm the velocity profile of the free, submerged jet, the horizontal and vertical velocity profiles will be measured at several distances from the nozzle. The profile will also be measured after the jet impinges upon the tank floor to determine the·extent of the change in the profile caused by impingement. The jet forces upon the test articles will be measured at a maximum of four velocities and a variety of test article orientations. Each orientation will represent a unique position of the test article relative to the jet and the tank floor. In addition, the steam coil will be tested in three rotational orientations because it is not symmetric. The highest jet velocity will be selected so that the Reynolds number of the test article in the model will match that of the prototype when operating at design conditions. The forces measured upon the model components will be used to calculate the force on the prototype components using geometric scaling factors. In addition, the model force measurements will be used to calculate the component's drag coefficient as a function of the component Reynolds number.

  12. Site Characterization Work Plan for Gasbuggy, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    2000-12-14

    Project Gasbuggy was the first of three joint government-industry experiments conducted to test the effectiveness of nuclear explosives to fracture deeply buried, low-permeability natural gas reservoirs to stimulate production. The scope of this work plan is to document the environmental objectives and the proposed technical site investigation strategies that will be utilized for the site characterization of the Project Gasbuggy Site. Its goal is the collection of data in sufficient quantity and quality to determine current site conditions, support a risk assessment for the site surfaces, and evaluate if further remedial action is required to achieve permanent closure of the site that is both protective of human health and the environment. The Gasbuggy Site is located approximately 55 air miles east of Farmington, New Mexico, in Rio Arriba County within the Carson National Forest in the northeast portion of the San Juan Basin. Historically, Project Gasbuggy consisted of the joint government-industry detonation of a nuclear device on December 10, 1967, followed by reentry drilling and gas production testing and project evaluation activities in post-detonation operations from 1967 to 1976. Based on historical documentation, no chemical release sites other than the mud pits were identified; additionally, there was no material buried at the Gasbuggy Site other than drilling fluids and construction debris. Although previous characterization and restoration activities including sensitive species surveys, cultural resources surveys, surface geophysical surveys, and limited soil sampling and analysis were performed in 1978 and again in 2000, no formal closure of the site was achieved. Also, these efforts did not adequately address the site's potential for chemical contamination at the surface/shallow subsurface ground levels or the subsurface hazards for potential migration outside of the current site subsurface intrusion restrictions. Additional investigation activities

  13. Rapid and Checkable Electrical Post-Treatment Method for Organic Photovoltaic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sangheon; Seo, Yu-Seong; Shin, Won Suk; Moon, Sang-Jin; Hwang, Jungseek

    2016-01-01

    Post-treatment processes improve the performance of organic photovoltaic devices by changing the microscopic morphology and configuration of the vertical phase separation in the active layer. Thermal annealing and solvent vapor (or chemical) treatment processes have been extensively used to improve the performance of bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. In this work we introduce a new post-treatment process which we apply only electrical voltage to the BHJ-OPV devices. We used the commercially available P3HT [Poly(3-hexylthiophene)] and PC61BM (Phenyl-C61-Butyric acid Methyl ester) photovoltaic materials as donor and acceptor, respectively. We monitored the voltage and current applied to the device to check for when the post-treatment process had been completed. This electrical treatment process is simpler and faster than other post-treatment methods, and the performance of the electrically treated solar cell is comparable to that of a reference (thermally annealed) device. Our results indicate that the proposed treatment process can be used efficiently to fabricate high-performance BHJ-OPV devices. PMID:26932767

  14. Fate of oestrogens during anaerobic blackwater treatment with micro-aerobic post-treatment.

    PubMed

    de Mes, T Z D; Kujawa-Roeleveld, K; Zeeman, G; Lettinga, G

    2007-01-01

    The fate of oestrone (E1), 17beta-oestradiol (E2) and 17alpha-ethynyloestradiol (EE2) was investigated in a concentrated blackwater treatment system consisting of an UASB septic tank, with micro-aerobic post-treatment. In UASB septic tank effluent a (natural) total concentration of 4.02 microg/L E1 and 18.69 microg/L E2, comprising the sum of conjugated (>70% for E1 and >80% for E2) and unconjugated forms, was measured. During post-treatment the unconjugated oestrogens were removed to below 1 microg/L. A percentage of 77% of the measured unconjugated E1 and 82% of E2 was associated with particles >1.2 microm in the final effluent implying high sorption affinity of both compounds. When spiking the UASB septic tank effluent with E1, E2, EE2 and the sulphate conjugate of E2, removal in the micro-aerobic post-treatment was >99% for both E2 and EE2 and 83% for E1. The lower removal value for E1 was a result of (slow) deconjugation during the treatment, and in the final effluent still 40% of E1 and 99% of E2 was present in conjugated form. The latter was the result of incomplete deconjugation of the spiked E2(3S) in the post-treatment system. PMID:17881833

  15. Effective post treatment for preparing highly conductive carbon nanotube/reduced graphite oxide hybrid films.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ranran; Sun, Jing; Gao, Lian; Xu, Chaohe; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Yangqiao

    2011-03-01

    SWCNT-reduced graphite oxide hybrid films were prepared by a filtration method. An efficient post-treatment procedure was designed to reduce GO and remove dispersants simultaneously. The sheet resistance decreased significantly after treatment, by a factor of 4-13 times. Films with excellent performance (95.6%, 655 Ω per square) were obtained and had great potential applications. PMID:21132173

  16. Rapid and Checkable Electrical Post-Treatment Method for Organic Photovoltaic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sangheon; Seo, Yu-Seong; Shin, Won Suk; Moon, Sang-Jin; Hwang, Jungseek

    2016-03-01

    Post-treatment processes improve the performance of organic photovoltaic devices by changing the microscopic morphology and configuration of the vertical phase separation in the active layer. Thermal annealing and solvent vapor (or chemical) treatment processes have been extensively used to improve the performance of bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. In this work we introduce a new post-treatment process which we apply only electrical voltage to the BHJ-OPV devices. We used the commercially available P3HT [Poly(3-hexylthiophene)] and PC61BM (Phenyl-C61-Butyric acid Methyl ester) photovoltaic materials as donor and acceptor, respectively. We monitored the voltage and current applied to the device to check for when the post-treatment process had been completed. This electrical treatment process is simpler and faster than other post-treatment methods, and the performance of the electrically treated solar cell is comparable to that of a reference (thermally annealed) device. Our results indicate that the proposed treatment process can be used efficiently to fabricate high-performance BHJ-OPV devices.

  17. Agricultural potential of anaerobically digested industrial orange waste with and without aerobic post-treatment.

    PubMed

    Kaparaju, Prasad; Rintala, Jukka; Oikari, Aimo

    2012-01-01

    The potential of anaerobically digested orange waste with (AAD) and without (AD) aerobic post-treatment for use in agriculture was evaluated through chemical analyses, short-term phytotoxicity and long-term plant assays. Chemical analyses showed that AD contained ammonia and organic acids, and aerobic post-treatment did not significantly remove these phytotoxins. The N:P2O5:K2O ratio in AD was 1:0.26:0.96 and aerobic post-treatment did not change the composition in AAD except for K2O (1:0.26:1.24). Heavy metal contents in AD and AAD were more or less the same and were below the upper limit recommended for non-sewage sludge application on agricultural soils. Short-term phytotoxicity tests showed that seed germination and root elongation of Chinese cabbage and ryegrass were severely inhibited at digestate concentrations of 60-100%. Germination index values were well below the score of 50% required to indicate the phytotoxic-free nature of compost. Long-term plant assays showed that AD and AAD, when supplemented with a base fertilizer, resulted in higher plant growth, and fresh weight and dry matter production than AD without base fertilizer. The results thus indicate that aerobic post-treatment did not have any significant beneficial effect on reducing phytotoxicity, and AD could be used as such on agricultural soils, especially with high P. PMID:22519091

  18. Prediction of Intrafraction Prostate Motion: Accuracy of Pre- and Post-Treatment Imaging and Intermittent Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, Camille; Parikh, Parag J. Roy, Meghana; Kupelian, Patrick; Mahadevan, Arul; Weinstein, Geoffrey; Enke, Charles; Flores, Nicholas; Beyer, David; Levine, Lisa

    2009-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether pre- and post-treatment imaging (immediately before and after a radiation therapy treatment fraction) and intermittent imaging (at intervals during a treatment fraction) are accurate predictors of prostate motion during the delivery of radiation. Methods and Materials: The Calypso 4D Localization System was used to continuously track the prostate during radiation delivery in 35 prostate cancer patients, for a total of 1,157 fractions (28-45 per patient). Predictions of prostate motion away from isocenter were modeled for a pre- and post-treatment imaging schedule and for multiple intermittent intrafraction imaging schedules and compared with the actual continuous tracking data. The endpoint was drift of the prostate beyond a certain radial displacement for a duration of more than 30 s, 1 min, and 2 min. Results were used to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of these models as an evaluation of intrafraction prostate motion. Results: The sensitivity of pre- and post-treatment imaging in determining 30 s of intrafraction prostate motion greater than 3, 5, or 7 mm for all fractions was low, with values of 53%, 49%, and 39%, respectively. The specificity of pre- and post-treatment imaging was high for all displacements. The sensitivity of intermittent imaging improved with increasing sampling rate. Conclusions: These results suggest that pre- and post-treatment imaging is not a sensitive method of assessing intrafraction prostate motion, and that intermittent imaging is sufficiently sensitive only at a high sampling rate. These findings support the value of continuous, real-time tracking in prostate cancer radiation therapy.

  19. In vivo verification of proton beam path by using post-treatment PET/CT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hsi, Wen C.; Indelicato, Daniel J.; Vargas, Carlos; Duvvuri, Srividya; Li Zuofeng; Palta, Jatinder

    2009-09-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to establish the in vivo verification of proton beam path by using proton-activated positron emission distributions. Methods: A total of 50 PET/CT imaging studies were performed on ten prostate cancer patients immediately after daily proton therapy treatment through a single lateral portal. The PET/CT and planning CT were registered by matching the pelvic bones, and the beam path of delivered protons was defined in vivo by the positron emission distribution seen only within the pelvic bones, referred to as the PET-defined beam path. Because of the patient position correction at each fraction, the marker-defined beam path, determined by the centroid of implanted markers seen in the post-treatment (post-Tx) CT, is used for the planned beam path. The angular variation and discordance between the PET- and marker-defined paths were derived to investigate the intrafraction prostate motion. For studies with large discordance, the relative location between the centroid and pelvic bones seen in the post-Tx CT was examined. The PET/CT studies are categorized for distinguishing the prostate motion that occurred before or after beam delivery. The post-PET CT was acquired after PET imaging to investigate prostate motion due to physiological changes during the extended PET acquisition. Results: The less than 2 deg. of angular variation indicates that the patient roll was minimal within the immobilization device. Thirty of the 50 studies with small discordance, referred as good cases, show a consistent alignment between the field edges and the positron emission distributions from the entrance to the distal edge. For those good cases, average displacements are 0.6 and 1.3 mm along the anterior-posterior (D{sub AP}) and superior-inferior (D{sub SI}) directions, respectively, with 1.6 mm standard deviations in both directions. For the remaining 20 studies demonstrating a large discordance (more than 6 mm in either D{sub AP} or D{sub SI}), 13

  20. Providing Post-Treatment Support in an Outpatient Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Context: A Qualitative Study of Staff Opinion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulford, Justin; Black, Stella; Wheeler, Amanda; Sheridan, Janie; Adams, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the post-treatment support practices, attitudes and preferences of outpatient alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment staff as well as perceived barriers to implementing a post-treatment support service in an outpatient AOD treatment context. Data were collected via semi-structured interview and group discussion (n = 23).…

  1. Providing Post-Treatment Support in an Outpatient Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Context: A Survey of Client Opinion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulford, Justin; Black, Stella; Wheeler, Amanda; Sheridan, Janie; Adams, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a survey that sought the post-treatment support preferences of a group of outpatient alcohol and other drug treatment clients. The client group (n = 83) were presented with six possible models of post-treatment support and were asked to express their level of interest in using or receiving each model and, if…

  2. Post-treatment of molasses wastewater by electrocoagulation and process optimization through response surface analysis.

    PubMed

    Tsioptsias, C; Petridis, D; Athanasakis, N; Lemonidis, I; Deligiannis, A; Samaras, P

    2015-12-01

    Molasses wastewater is a high strength effluent of food industry such as distilleries, sugar and yeast production plants etc. It is characterized by a dark brown color and exhibits a high content in substances of recalcitrant nature such as melanoidins. In this study, electrocoagulation (EC) was studied as a post treatment step for biologically treated molasses wastewater with high nitrogen content obtained from a baker's yeast industry. Iron and copper electrodes were used in various forms; the influence and interaction of current density, molasses wastewater dilution, and reaction time, on COD, color, ammonium and nitrate removal rates and operating cost were studied and optimized through Box Behnken's response surface analysis. Reaction time varied from 0.5 to 4 h, current density varied from 5 to 40 mA/cm(2) and dilution from 0 to 90% (v/v expressed as water concentration). pH, conductivity and temperature measurements were also carried out during each experiment. From preliminary experiments, it was concluded that the application of aeration and sample dilution, considerably influenced the kinetics of the process. The obtained results showed that COD removal varied between 10 and 54%, corresponding to an operation cost ranging from 0.2 to 33 euro/kg COD removed. Significant removal rates were obtained for nitrogen as nitrate and ammonium (i.e. 70% ammonium removal). A linear relation of COD and ammonium to the design parameters was observed, while operation cost and nitrate removal responded in a curvilinear function. A low ratio of electrode surface to treated volume was used, associated to a low investment cost; in addition, iron wastes could be utilized as low cost electrodes i.e. iron fillings from lathes, aiming to a low operation cost due to electrodes replacement. In general, electrocoagulation proved to be an effective and low cost process for biologically treated molasses-wastewater treatment for additional removal of COD and nitrogen content and

  3. Characterization plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Area-Wide Groundwater Program, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This characterization plan has been developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) investigation of the Groundwater Operable Unit (GWOU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) located near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The first iteration of the characterization plan is intended to serve as a strategy document to guide subsequent GWOU remedial investigations. The plan provides a rationale and organization for groundwater data acquisition, monitoring, and remedial actions to be performed during implementation of environmental restoration activities associated with the ORNL GWOU. It is important to note that the characterization plan for the ORNL GWOU is not a prototypical work plan. As such, remedial investigations will be conducted using annual work plans to manage the work activities, and task reports will be used to document the results of the investigations. Sampling and analysis results will be compiled and reported annually with a review of data relative to risk (screening level risk assessment review) for groundwater. This characterization plan outlines the overall strategy for the remedial investigations and defines tasks that are to be conducted during the initial phase of investigation. This plan is presented with the understanding that more specific addenda to the plan will follow.

  4. Hormone resistant prostatic adenocarcinoma. An evaluation of prognostic factors in pre- and post-treatment specimens.

    PubMed Central

    Berner, A.; Nesland, J. M.; Waehre, H.; Silde, J.; Fosså, S. D.

    1993-01-01

    Pre- and post-treatment specimens from 47 patients with hormone resistant prostatic carcinoma were compared with each other regarding histological grade and immunoreactivity for p53 protein, neuron specific enolase and c-erbB-2 protein. Significantly more specimens expressed a high malignancy grade when the tumour had become hormone resistant than at the time of initial diagnosis (Gleason P: < 0.0001, WHO P:0.0003). p53 protein immunoreactivity increased significantly with disease progression (P:0.006), while tissue PSA immunoreactivity was reduced in post-treatment specimens (P:0.011). p53 protein expression did not correlate with histological grade or PSA expression and seems to be an independent parameter which participates late in the neoplastic transformation. Thirty-two percent of the tumours were neuron specific enolase positive, but this parameter did not correlate with development of hormone resistance. c-erbB-2 protein reactivity was not recognised. Images Figure 1 PMID:7688548

  5. Genetic Variants in Cyclooxygenase- 2 Contribute to Post-treatment Pain among Endodontic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Applebaum, Elizabeth; Nackley, Andrea G.; Bair, Eric; Maixner, William; Khan, Asma A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have a well-established analgesic efficacy for inflammatory pain. These drugs exert their effect by inhibiting the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX) and are commonly used for the management of pain following endodontic treatment. There are two distinct isoforms of COX: COX-1, which is constitutively expressed; and COX-2, which is primarily induced by inflammation. Previous studies have shown that functional human genetic variants of the COX-2 gene may explain individual variations in acute pain. The present study extends this work by examining the potential contribution of the two COX isoforms to pain after endodontic treatment. Methods Ninety-four patients treated by endodontic residents at the University of North Carolina School of Dentistry were enrolled into a prospective cohort study. Data on potential predictors of post-treatment pain was collected and all patients submitted saliva samples for genetic analysis. Non-surgical root canal therapy was performed and participants recorded pain levels for five days following. Results In this study, 63% of patients experienced at least mild pain after root canal therapy and 24% experienced moderate to severe pain. Presence of pretreatment pain was correlated with higher post-treatment pain (p=0.01). Elevated heart rate (p=0.02) and higher diastolic blood pressure (p=0.024) were also correlated with decreased post-treatment pain. Finally, we identified genetic variants in COX-2 (haplotype composed of rs2383515 G, rs5277 G, rs5275 T, and rs2206593 A) associated with post-treatment pain following endodontic treatment (p= 0.025). Conclusion Understanding the genetic basis of pain following endodontic treatment will advance its prevention and management. PMID:26081267

  6. Polydatin post-treatment alleviates myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury by promoting autophagic flux.

    PubMed

    Ling, Yuanna; Chen, Guiming; Deng, Yi; Tang, Huixiong; Ling, Long; Zhou, Xiaoming; Song, Xudong; Yang, Pingzhen; Liu, Yingfeng; Li, Zhiliang; Zhao, Cong; Yang, Yufei; Wang, Xianbao; Kitakaze, Masafumi; Liao, Yulin; Chen, Aihua

    2016-09-01

    Polydatin (PD), a resveratrol (RES) glycoside, has a stronger antioxidative effect than RES. It is known that RES is an autophagic enhancer and exerts a cardioprotective effect against ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the effect of PD post-treatment on myocardial I/R injury remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the influences of PD post-treatment on myocardial I/R injury and autophagy. C57BL/6 mice underwent left coronary artery (LCA) occlusion and cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCs) subjected to hypoxia were treated with vehicle or PD during reperfusion or re-oxygenation. We noted that PD enhanced autophagy and decreased apoptosis during I/R or hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R), and this effect was antagonized by co-treatment with adenovirus carrying short hairpin RNA for Beclin 1 and 3-methyladenine (3-MA), an autophagic inhibitor. Compared with vehicle-treated mice, PD-treated mice had a significantly smaller myocardial infarct size (IS) and a higher left ventricular fractional shortening (LVFS) and ejection fraction (EF), whereas these effects were partly reversed by 3-MA. Furthermore, in the PD-treated NRCs, tandem fluorescent mRFP-GFP-LC3 assay showed abundant clearance of autophagosomes with an enhanced autophagic flux, and co-treatment with Bafilomycin A1 (Baf), a lysosomal inhibitor, indicated that PD promoted the degradation of autolysosome. In addition, PD post-treatment reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in NRCs, and these effects were partially blocked by Baf. These findings indicate that PD post-treatment limits myocardial I/R injury by promoting autophagic flux to clear damaged mitochondria to reduce ROS and cell death. PMID:27340138

  7. Quantifying Appropriate PTV Setup Margins: Analysis of Patient Setup Fidelity and Intrafraction Motion Using Post-Treatment Megavoltage Computed Tomography Scans

    SciTech Connect

    Drabik, Donata M.; MacKenzie, Marc A.; Fallone, Gino B. . E-mail: ginofall@cancerboard.ab.ca

    2007-07-15

    Purpose: To present a technique that can be implemented in-house to evaluate the efficacy of immobilization and image-guided setup of patients with different treatment sites on helical tomotherapy. This technique uses an analysis of alignment shifts between kilovoltage computed tomography and post-treatment megavoltage computed tomography images. The determination of the shifts calculated by the helical tomotherapy software for a given site can then be used to define appropriate planning target volume internal margins. Methods and Materials: Twelve patients underwent post-treatment megavoltage computed tomography scans on a helical tomotherapy machine to assess patient setup fidelity and net intrafraction motion. Shifts were studied for the prostate, head and neck, and glioblastoma multiforme. Analysis of these data was performed using automatic and manual registration of the kilovoltage computed tomography and post-megavoltage computed tomography images. Results: The shifts were largest for the prostate, followed by the head and neck, with glioblastoma multiforme having the smallest shifts in general. It appears that it might be more appropriate to use asymmetric planning target volume margins. Each margin value reported is equal to two standard deviations of the average shift in the given direction. Conclusion: This method could be applied using individual patient post-image scanning and combined with adaptive planning to reduce or increase the margins as appropriate.

  8. Characterization program management plan for Hanford K basin spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    TRIMBLE, D.J.

    1999-07-19

    The program management plan for characterization of the K Basin spent nuclear fuel was revised to incorporate corrective actions in response to SNF Project QA surveillance 1K-FY-99-060. This revision of the SNF Characterization PMP replaces Duke Eng.

  9. In-well vapor stripping drilling and characterization work plan

    SciTech Connect

    Koegler, K.J.

    1994-03-13

    This work plan provides the information necessary for drilling, sampling, and hydrologic testing of wells to be completed in support of a demonstration of the in-well vapor stripping system. The in-well vapor stripping system is a remediation technology designed to preferentially extract volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater by converting them to a vapor phase. Air-lift pumping is used to lift and aerate groundwater within the well. The volatiles escaping the aerated water are drawn off by a slight vacuum and treated at the surface while the water is allowed to infiltrate the vadose zone back to the watertable.

  10. Site characterization plan overview: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Consultation Draft

    SciTech Connect

    1988-01-01

    The consultation draft of the site characterization plan is a lengthy document that describes in considerable detail the program that will be conducted to characterize the geologic, hydrologic, and other conditions relevant to the suitability of the site for a repository. The overview presented here consists of brief summaries of important topics covered in the consultation draft of the site-characterization plan; it is not a substitute for the site-characterization plan. The arrangement of the overview is similar to that of the plan itself, with brief descriptions of the disposal system -- the site, the repository, and the waste package -- preceding the discussion of the characterization program to be carried out at the Yucca Mountain site. It is intended primarily for the management staff of organizations involved in the DOE`s repository program -- staff who might wish to understand the general scope of the site-characterization program, the activities to be conducted, and the facilities to be constructed rather than the technical details of site characterization. 22 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Post-treatment and reuse of secondary effluents using natural ltreatment systems: the Indian practices.

    PubMed

    Kumar, D; Asolekar, S R; Sharma, S K

    2015-10-01

    Paper summarizes the results of India-wide survey of natural treatment systems (NTSs) for wastewater treatment and reuse. The quality of treated wastewater from different types of NTSs was analyzed for various physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters, and needs for post-treatment were identified. Currently, about 1838 million liters per day (MLD) of wastewater is being treated using NTSs, of which the contributions of polishing ponds, waste stabilization ponds, duckweed ponds, constructed wetlands, and Karnal technology were found to be 53.39, 45.15, 0.13, 0.55, and 0.78%, respectively. Among the NTSs studied, constructed wetland was found most efficient in removal of pollutants including nitrogen, phosphorus, total coliform, and fecal coliform in the range of 76, 61, 99.956, and 99.923%, respectively. Of all types of NTSs, only constructed wetland was found to meet the total coliform count requirements (<1000 per 100 ml). Of all the 108 NTSs in operation, 23 systems are producing treated effluents for irrigation; effluents from 48 systems are being discharged into river or lake, and remaining 38 systems have not found any designated use of treated effluent. The chlorination was the only post-treatment, which is being practiced at only three wastewater treatment facilities. During post-treatment, 1-2 ppm of chlorine is applied to the secondary effluent irrespective of its quality. The treated effluents from different NTSs contain fecal bacteria in the magnitude of 10(3) to 10(5), which may cause the severe health impacts through contamination of groundwater as well as surface water resources. PMID:26341500

  12. Evaluation and post-treatment of reanalysis precipitation series over Canadian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mailhot, A.; Aubin, P.; Khedhaouiria, D.; Talbot, G.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing the climate of Canadian Arctic region is challenging since few meteorological records are available. Interpolated gridded datasets are also of limited use because network density was historically small and resulting values strongly depend on the interpolation method. Reanalysis therefore represent an interesting alternative. The objective of this study was to analyze the performance of reanalysis to represent the precipitation for Canada and especially for the Canadian Arctic. Three reanalysis were considered: ERA-Interim, MERRA and CFSR. Annual and monthly precipitations series from these reanalysis were compared to corresponding series from record stations (approximately 1 500 stations across Canada with a few hundreds stations in Northern Canada). Reanalysis grid-box closest to a given station was considered for the comparison. Mean Square Errors (MSE), bias, Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) and ratio of variances between precipitation series from each pair station/reanalysis were estimated. These indicators have been used in order to assess the performance of reanalysis to reproduce the sequence of annual and monthly precipitation series. Results shown that, globally, ERA-Interim led to the smallest PCC, followed by MERRA and CFSR for annual precipitation series. All three reanalysis displayed large biases. A simple post-treatment method was then applied to the reanalysis series. It was first applied at local scale considering each pair of station/reanalysis. Improvement in MSE and PCC values using post-treated series were significant. In order to be able to use the reanalysis at gird-boxes where no station is available, a regional version of this post-treatment was implemented. This regional version consisted in the estimation of optimal mean regional values of post-treated parameters. Assessment of the performance of this regional post-treatment method was made using cross-validation.

  13. Investigation of fiber splitting in side-by-side bicomponent meltblown nonwoven webs through post treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanbo

    Investigation of Bicomponent (Bico) fiber splitting mechanism and hence finding proper ways to achieve fiber splitting in Side-by-side Bicompoent (Bico) meltblown (MB) nonwoven (NW) webs were carried out in this research. Based on the fiber splitting mechanism, incompatible polymer pairs were chosen and appropriate post-treating methods as well as the post-treating agent(s) were selected to facilitate fiber splitting in S/S Bico MB nonwoven webs. Several post treatments were used to split S/S MB NW fibers in this research, including hydroentanglement (HE), heat-stretching (HST), NaOH and benzoic acid treatment. In each post treatment method, fiber splitting was observed with SEM and/or laser-source microscope. Fiber diameter, web structure and web properties were examined before and after the fiber splitting inducing treatment. HE has been applied to S/S Bico MB NW webs with Bico pairs of PA6/PE, PA6/PP and PA6/PET. Fiber splitting was observed after HE treatment, but web uniformity decreased and web properties deteriorated due to the damage from high-pressure water jets. HST post treatment was applied to S/S Bico MB NW webs with Bico pairs of PA6/PE and PA6/PP along machine direction. No fiber splitting was resulted from this post treatment; however, the treated webs gained elasticity in cross machine direction. The S/S Bico MB NW webs of 25PE/75PET, and 50PBT/50PP were treated with NaOH solution at bath ratio of 1/20 and temperature of 100°C using different NaOH treatments. Fiber splitting was observed after NaOH treatment, but fibers and webs were damaged, web properties thus deteriorated after the treatment. Benzoic acid (BA) has been employed to split S/S Bico MB webs composed of 50PET/50PA6 and 50PP/50PA6. Degree of fiber splitting was evaluated using both fiber splitting ratio and initial dye adsorption ratio/initial dyeing ratio in this research. It was found that benzoic acid treatment could result in S/S Bico MB fiber splitting at appropriate treating

  14. Assembly and benign step-by-step post-treatment of oppositely charged reduced graphene oxides for transparent conductive thin films with multiple applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiayi; He, Junhui

    2012-05-01

    We report a new approach for the fabrication of flexible and transparent conducting thin films via the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of oppositely charged reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and the benign step-by-step post-treatment on substrates with a low glass-transition temperature, such as glass and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). The RGO dispersions and films were characterized by means of atomic force microscopy, UV-visible absorption spectrophotometery, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, contact angle/interface systems and a four-point probe. It was found that the graphene thin films exhibited a significant increase in electrical conductivity after the step-by-step post-treatments. The graphene thin film on the PET substrate had a good conductivity retainability after multiple cycles (30 cycles) of excessively bending (bending angle: 180°), while tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films on PET showed a significant decrease in electrical conductivity. In addition, the graphene thin film had a smooth surface with tunable wettability.We report a new approach for the fabrication of flexible and transparent conducting thin films via the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of oppositely charged reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and the benign step-by-step post-treatment on substrates with a low glass-transition temperature, such as glass and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). The RGO dispersions and films were characterized by means of atomic force microscopy, UV-visible absorption spectrophotometery, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, contact angle/interface systems and a four-point probe. It was found that the graphene thin films exhibited a significant increase in electrical conductivity after the step-by-step post-treatments. The graphene thin film on the PET substrate had a good conductivity retainability after multiple cycles (30 cycles) of excessively bending (bending angle: 180°), while tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films on

  15. Optimizing processes of dispersant concentration and post-treatments for fabricating single-walled carbon nanotube transparent conducting films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jing; Wang, Wen-Yi; Chen, Li-Ting; Cui, Li-Jun; Hu, Xiao-Yan; Geng, Hong-Zhang

    2013-07-01

    This study evaluated the effect of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as dispersant for the dispersion of purified single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in water in terms of dispersibility dependence on electrical conductivity of SWCNT transparent conducting film (TCF) performance. SWCNT TCFs were prepared by different proportions of CNTs/SDBS solution to find out the optimum SDBS concentration according to the film resistance of pristine and after post-treatment by nitric acid. TCFs fabricated with the aqueous solution by the ratio of CNTs/SDBS 1:5 gave the lowest sheet resistance and the highest transmittance. The TCFs were then further treated with thionyl chloride to improve their conductivity. Low sheet resistance (86 Ω/□, 80%T) was achieved. The dispersion condition of CNTs/SDBS aqueous solution was characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, while the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the dispersion and doping mechanism treated with nitric acid and thionyl chloride.

  16. Influence of post-treatment temperature of TNTa photoelectrodes on photoelectrochemical properties and photocatalytic degradation of 4-nonylphenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Yanjun; Liu, Huiling; Li, Junjing; Chen, Qinghua; Ma, Dong

    2013-03-01

    TiO2/Ti Nanotube array (TNTa) photoelectrodes were prepared by galvanostatic and potentiostatic anodization technique, and annealed at different temperature. The morphology and structure were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectra. Optical properties and photoelectrochemical (PECH) properties were investigated by surface photovoltage (SPV), ultra UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV/vis/DRS), open-circuit potential (OCP) and transient photocurrent. Photodecomposition performances were evaluated by the yield of •OH radicals and photocatalytic (PC) degradation rate of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) under xenon light. The results showed that with the increase of post-treatment temperature, PECH and PC properties increased gradually and then decreased. The photocurrent densities, yield of *OH radicals and photodecomposition rates of 4-NP were following the trend of TNT-823>TNT-873>TNT-773>TNT-673>TNT-973>TNT-298. When the annealing temperature was 823 K, the photoelectrodes were composed of mixed crystal structure and ordered nanotube array, which exhibited superior PECH properties. When the annealed temperature arrived to 973 K, the nanotube collapsed and the PECH and PC properties of TNTa photoelectrodes decreased. For TNT-823 photoelectrodes, after the assistant potential was applied, the degradation rate of 4-NP increased significantly from 77% to 97% after 120 min illumination.

  17. Bayesian Hierarchical Semiparametric Modelling of Longitudinal Post-treatment Outcomes from Open Enrolment Therapy Groups

    PubMed Central

    Paddock, Susan M.; Savitsky, Terrance D.

    2013-01-01

    There are several challenges to testing the effectiveness of group therapy-based interventions in alcohol and other drug use (AOD) treatment settings. Enrollment into AOD therapy groups typically occurs on an open (rolling) basis. Changes in therapy group membership induce a complex correlation structure among client outcomes, with relatively small numbers of clients attending each therapy group session. Primary outcomes are measured post-treatment, so each datum reflects the effect of all sessions attended by a client. The number of post-treatment outcomes assessments is typically very limited. The first feature of our modeling approach relaxes the assumption of independent random effects in the standard multiple membership model by employing conditional autoregression (CAR) to model correlation in random therapy group session effects associated with clients’ attendance of common group therapy sessions. A second feature specifies a longitudinal growth model under which the posterior distribution of client-specific random effects, or growth parameters, is modeled non-parametrically. The Dirichlet process prior helps to overcome limitations of standard parametric growth models given limited numbers of longitudinal assessments. We motivate and illustrate our approach with a data set from a study of group cognitive behavioral therapy to reduce depressive symptoms among residential AOD treatment clients. PMID:24353375

  18. Post-treatment phone contact: a weight maintenance strategy in obese youngsters.

    PubMed

    Deforche, B; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Tanghe, A; Debode, P; Hills, A P; Bouckaert, J

    2005-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of post-treatment phone contact on weight-loss maintenance and activity behaviour in obese youngsters. In all, 20 patients who completed a weight reduction program were randomly assigned to a 5-month maintenance programme (experimental) or control condition. Following the maintenance programme, patients sent a weekly activity diary to the therapist, who in turn phoned them biweekly to discuss their activities. Body weight, stature and physical activity were measured before and after the maintenance programme. The control group showed a continuous increase in overweight after initial treatment, while the experimental group showed a steep increase during the summer holidays (no intervention), but this increase slowed down during the maintenance programme (P<0.05). Moderate-to-high intensity activities increased during the maintenance programme in the experimental group, but decreased in the control group (P<0.001). In conclusion, post-treatment phone contact appears to have the potential to be an effective maintenance strategy in obese youngsters. PMID:15738933

  19. Cancergazing? CA125 and post-treatment surveillance in advanced ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Jordens, Christopher F C; Morrell, Bronwen; Harnett, Paul; Hobbs, Kim; Mason, Catherine; Kerridge, Ian H

    2010-11-01

    Post-treatment surveillance of advanced ovarian cancer involves regular testing of asymptomatic patients using the CA125 test. This practice is based on a rationale that is not supported by evidence from clinical trials. This paper aims to stimulate critical reflection concerning the effect of investigative tests on clinical decisions and interactions, and the experience of illness, particularly in the context of advanced malignant disease. Drawing on the idea of the "medical gaze", and building on previous health communication research, we present an analysis of in-depth interviews and psychometric tests collected in a prospective study of 20 Australian women with advanced ovarian cancer conducted between 2006 and 2009. We describe the demands placed on patients by the use of the CA125 test, some hazards it creates for decision-making, and some of the test's subjective benefits. It is widely believed that the CA125 test generates anxiety among patients, and the proposed solution is to educate women more about the test. We found no evidence that anxiety was a problem requiring a response over and above existing services. We conclude that the current debate is simplistic and limited. Focussing on patient anxiety does not account for other important effects of post-treatment surveillance, and educating patients about the test is unlikely to mitigate anxiety because testing is part of a wider process by which patients become aware of a disease that--once it has relapsed--will certainly kill them in the near future. PMID:20832155

  20. Bayesian Hierarchical Semiparametric Modelling of Longitudinal Post-treatment Outcomes from Open Enrolment Therapy Groups.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Susan M; Savitsky, Terrance D

    2013-06-01

    There are several challenges to testing the effectiveness of group therapy-based interventions in alcohol and other drug use (AOD) treatment settings. Enrollment into AOD therapy groups typically occurs on an open (rolling) basis. Changes in therapy group membership induce a complex correlation structure among client outcomes, with relatively small numbers of clients attending each therapy group session. Primary outcomes are measured post-treatment, so each datum reflects the effect of all sessions attended by a client. The number of post-treatment outcomes assessments is typically very limited. The first feature of our modeling approach relaxes the assumption of independent random effects in the standard multiple membership model by employing conditional autoregression (CAR) to model correlation in random therapy group session effects associated with clients' attendance of common group therapy sessions. A second feature specifies a longitudinal growth model under which the posterior distribution of client-specific random effects, or growth parameters, is modeled non-parametrically. The Dirichlet process prior helps to overcome limitations of standard parametric growth models given limited numbers of longitudinal assessments. We motivate and illustrate our approach with a data set from a study of group cognitive behavioral therapy to reduce depressive symptoms among residential AOD treatment clients. PMID:24353375

  1. Draft Plan for Characterizing Commercial Data Products in Support of Earth Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert E.; Terrie, Greg; Berglund, Judith

    2006-01-01

    This presentation introduces a draft plan for characterizing commercial data products for Earth science research. The general approach to the commercial product verification and validation includes focused selection of a readily available commercial remote sensing products that support Earth science research. Ongoing product verification and characterization will question whether the product meets specifications and will examine its fundamental properties, potential and limitations. Validation will encourage product evaluation for specific science research and applications. Specific commercial products included in the characterization plan include high-spatial-resolution multispectral (HSMS) imagery and LIDAR data products. Future efforts in this process will include briefing NASA headquarters and modifying plans based on feedback, increased engagement with the science community and refinement of details, coordination with commercial vendors and The Joint Agency Commercial Imagery Evaluation (JACIE) for HSMS satellite acquisitions, acquiring waveform LIDAR data and performing verification and validation.

  2. Work plan addendum for David Witherspoon, Inc., 901 Site Building Characterization, Knoxville, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    This building characterization plan was developed as an addendum to the existing site characterization work plan documents, which are in Appendix B of the David Witherspoon, Inc., (DWI) preliminary remedial investigation (RI)/feasibility study (FS). All building characterization activities will be conducted in accordance with the rules of the Hazardous Substance Remedial Action Program under the direction of the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Division of Superfund (TN Rules 1200-1-3) and its implementing regulations. Additional rules of the state of Tennessee, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidance were consulted during development of this plan. Activities at the DWI site were concerned with scrap metal processing and scrap metal resale.

  3. Project Work Plan Chromium Vadose Zone Characterization and Geochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Ainsworth, Calvin C.

    2006-05-23

    The major objectives of the proposed study are to 1) determine the leaching characteristics of Cr(VI) from contaminated sediments collected from 100 area spill sites, 2) elucidate possible Cr(VI) mineral and/or chemical associations that may be responsible for Cr(VI) retention in the Hanford site 100 areas through the use of i) macroscopic solubility studies and ii) microscale characterization of contaminated sediments, and 3) from these data construct a conceptual model of Cr(VI) geochemistry in the Hanford 100 area vadose zone. These objectives are based on locating and obtaining contaminated sediment with depth and at varying Cr(VI) concentrations as we hypothesize that mineral/chemical-Cr(VI) associations should be related to the total Cr concentration and other master geochemical variables (e.g., pH, counter-cation type and concentration, and water content). In addressing these objectives, additional benefits accrued will be (1) a fuller understanding of Cr(VI) entrained in the vadose zone that will that can be utilized in modeling potential Cr(VI) source terms, and 2) accelerating the Columbia River 100 area corridor cleanup by developing remedial action based on a fundamental understanding of Cr(VI) vadose zone geochemistry.

  4. RCRA Part A permit characterization plan for the U-2bu subsidence crater. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This plan presents the characterization strategy for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 109, U-2bu Subsidence Crater (referred to as U-2bu) in Area 2 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The objective of the planned activities is to obtain sufficient characterization data for the crater soils and observed wastes under the conditions of the current Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part A permit. The scope of the characterization plan includes collecting surface and subsurface soil samples with hand augers and for the purpose of site characterization. The sampling strategy is to characterize the study area soils and look for RCRA constituents. Observable waste soils and surrounding crater soils will be analyzed and evaluated according to RCRA closure criteria. Because of the status of the crater a RCRA Part A permit site, acquired radionuclide analyses will only be evaluated in regards to the health and safety of site workers and the disposition of wastes generated during site characterization. The U-2bu Subsidence Crater was created in 1971 by a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory underground nuclear test, event name Miniata, and was used as a land-disposal unit for radioactive and hazardous waste from 1973 to 1988.

  5. Performance assessment of different STPs based on UASB followed by aerobic post treatment systems

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper present the experiences gained from the study of ten up flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) based sewage treatment plants (STPs) of different cities of India. Presently 37 UASB based STPs were under operation and about 06 UASB based STPs are under construction and commissioning phase at different towns. The nature of sewage significantly varied at each STP. Two STP were receiving sewage with high sulfate and heavy metals due to the mixing of industrial waste. The treatment performance of all UASB reactors in terms of BOD, COD and TSS were observed between 55 to 70% respectively. The post treatment units down flow hanging sponge (DHS) and Aeration followed by activated sludge process (ASP) at two STPs were performing well and enable to achieve the required disposal standards. Results indicate the effluent quality in terms of BOD and SS were less than 30 and 50 mg/L and well below the discharging standards. PMID:24468307

  6. Post-treatment of Plasma-Sprayed Amorphous Ceramic Coatings by Spark Plasma Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chraska, T.; Pala, Z.; Mušálek, R.; Medřický, J.; Vilémová, M.

    2015-04-01

    Alumina-zirconia ceramic material has been plasma sprayed using a water-stabilized plasma torch to produce free standing coatings. The as-sprayed coatings have very low porosity and are mostly amorphous. The amorphous material crystallizes at temperatures above 900 °C. A spark plasma sintering apparatus has been used to heat the as-sprayed samples to temperatures above 900 °C to induce crystallization, while at the same time, a uniaxial pressure of 80 MPa has been applied to their surface. After such post-treatment, the ceramic samples are crystalline and have very low open porosity. The post-treated material exhibits high hardness and significantly increased flexural strength. The post-treated samples have a microstructure that is best described as nanocomposite with the very small crystallites embedded in an amorphous matrix.

  7. Post-Treatments for Multifunctional Property Enhancement of Carbon Nanotube Fibers from the Floating Catalyst Method.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thang Q; Fan, Zeng; Mikhalchan, Anastasiia; Liu, Peng; Duong, Hai M

    2016-03-30

    We investigated the effects of the synthesis conditions and condensation processes on the chemical compositions and multifunctional performance of the directly spun carbon nanotube (CNT) fibers. On the basis of the optimized synthesis conditions, a two-step post-treatment technique which involved acidification and epoxy infiltration was also developed to further enhance their mechanical and electrical properties. As a result, their tensile strength and Young's modulus increased remarkably by 177% and 325%, respectively, while their electrical conductivity also reached 8235 S/cm. This work may provide a general strategy for the postprocessing optimization of the directly spun CNT fibers. The treated CNT fibers with superior properties are promising for a wide range of applications, such as structural reinforcements and lightweight electric cables. PMID:26966936

  8. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 9, Index

    SciTech Connect

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules.

  9. Proton Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer Is Not Associated With Post-Treatment Testosterone Suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, R. Charles; Morris, Christopher G.; Hoppe, Bradford S.; Henderson, Randal H.; Marcus, Robert B.; Mendenhall, William M.; Li Zuofeng; Williams, Christopher R.; Costa, Joseph A.; Mendenhall, Nancy P.

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Three independent studies of photon (x-ray) radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer have demonstrated evidence of testosterone suppression after treatment. The present study was undertaken to determine whether this would also be the case with conformal protons. Methods and Materials: Between August 2006 and October 2007, 171 patients with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer were enrolled and underwent treatment according to University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute institutional review board-approved PR01 and PR02 protocols. Of the 171 patients, 18 were excluded because they had received androgen deprivation therapy either before (n = 17) or after (n = 1) RT. The pretreatment serum testosterone level was available for 150 of the remaining 153 patients. These 150 patients were included in the present study. The post-treatment levels were compared with the pretreatment levels. Results: The median baseline pretreatment serum testosterone level was 357.9 ng/dL. The median post-treatment testosterone value was 375.5 ng/dL at treatment completion (p = .1935) and 369.9 ng/dL (p = .1336), 348.7 ng/dL (p = .7317), 353.4 ng/dL (p = .6996), and 340.9 ng/dL (p = .1669) at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after proton therapy, respectively. Conclusions: Conformal proton therapy to the prostate, as delivered using University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute PR01 and PR02 protocols, did not appear to significantly affect the serum testosterone levels within 24 months after RT.

  10. Severe post-treatment leukopenia associated with the development of encephalopathy following ifosfamide infusion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sara S; Isola, Luis M; Oh, William K

    2016-03-01

    Ifosfamide has been shown to be associated with encephalopathy in 10-40% of patients. Although it is a well-documented toxicity associated with ifosfamide therapy, an anecdotal upsurge in its occurrence at our institution prompted us to review ifosfamide usage. A 1-year single-center retrospective study was performed to assess the incidence of and potential risk factors for ifosfamide-induced encephalopathy (IIE). A total of 28 inpatients received ifosfamide-based chemotherapy over 47 separate treatment sessions. During those treatment sessions, seven cases of IIE (14.9%) were observed, which presented a significant increase compared with historical data from our institution (≤3.3%). On the basis of these data, we switched from the ifosfamide product made from Sicor's liquid formulation for injection to that made from a different manufacturer's powder formulation for injection in 2010. Since this switch in the ifosfamide formulation was made, we have observed a reduction in the rate and severity of IIE at our institution. It is noteworthy that the infusions associated with encephalopathy showed a significantly higher degree of post-treatment leukopenia compared with those that did not. In the absence of chromatography analysis and/or potency analysis, we could not definitely attribute the high rate of IIE observed in our study to the liquid ifosfamide formulation; nevertheless, practitioners should be more vigilant about unexpected rates of chemotherapy adverse events when switching to a different manufacturer's product. We have also observed an association between severe post-treatment leukopenia and the development of IIE, which has not been reported previously. PMID:26628483

  11. Isoflurane post-treatment improves pulmonary vascular permeability via upregulation of heme oxygenase-1.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiang; Hu, Rong; Sun, Yu; Li, Qifang; Jiang, Hong

    2013-09-01

    Isoflurane (ISO) has been shown to attenuate acute lung injury (ALI). Induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression provide cytoprotection in lung and vascular injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of post-treatment with isoflurane on lung vascular permeability and the role of HO-1 in an ALI rat model induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups: sham group, sham rats post-treated with vehicle (Sham); CLP group, CLP rats post-treated with vehicle (CLP); ISO group, CLP rats post-treated with isoflurane (ISO); and ZnPP group, CLP rats injected with zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP), a competitive inhibitor of HO-1, 1 hour before the operation, and post-treated with isoflurane (ZnPP). Isoflurane (1.4%) was administered 2 hour after CLP. At 24 hour after CLP, the extent of ALI was evaluated by lung wet/dry ratio, Evans blue dye (EBD) extravasation, lung permeability index (LPI), as well as histological and immunohistochemical examinations. We also determined pulmonary iNOS and HO-1 expression. Compared with the CLP group, the isoflurane post-treatment group showed improved pulmonary microvascular permeability as detected by EBD extravasation, LPI, as well as histological and immunohistochemical examinations. Furthermore, isoflurane decreased iNOS and increased HO-1 expression in lung tissue. Pretreatment with ZnPP prevented the protective effects of isoflurane in rats. These findings indicate that the protective role of isoflurane post-conditioning against CLP-induced lung injury may be associated with its role in upregulating HO-1 in ALI. PMID:23919323

  12. Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan for the Characterization of Tank 25F Saltcake Core Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, C

    2005-08-15

    The Department of Energy (DOE) recognizes the need for the characterization of High-Level Waste (HLW) saltcake in the Savannah River Site (SRS) F- and H-area tank farms to support upcoming salt processing activities. As part of the enhanced characterization efforts, Tank 25F will be sampled and the samples analyzed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan documents the planned activities for the physical, chemical, and radiological analysis of the Tank 25F saltcake core samples. This plan does not cover other characterization activities that do not involve core sample analysis and it does not address issues regarding sampling or sample transportation. The objectives of this report are: (1) Provide information useful in projecting the composition of dissolved salt batches by quantifying important components (such as actinides, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 90}Sr) on a per batch basis. This will assist in process selection for the treatment of salt batches and provide data for the validation of dissolution modeling. (2) Determine the properties of the heel resulting from dissolution of the bulk saltcake. Also note tendencies toward post-mixing precipitation. (3) Provide a basis for determining the number of samples needed for the characterization of future saltcake tanks. Gather information useful towards performing characterization in a manner that is more cost and time effective.

  13. PrediQt-Cx: Post Treatment Health Related Quality of Life Prediction Model for Cervical Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Satwant; Rana, Madhu Lata; Verma, Khushboo; Singh, Narayanjeet; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Maria, Arun Kumar; Dhaliwal, Gobind Singh; Khaira, Harkiran Kaur; Saini, Sunil

    2014-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the third largest cause of cancer mortality in India. The objectives of the study were to compare the pre and the post treatment quality of life in cervical cancer patients and to develop a prediction model to provide an insight into the possibilities in the treatment modules. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 198 patients were assessed with two structured questionnaires of Health Related Quality of Life (The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer, EORTC QLQ C-30 and CX-24). The baseline observations were recorded when the patients first reported (T1) and second evaluation was done at 6 months post treatment (T2). The mean age of detection was 50.9 years with the literacy level being non-educated or less than high school. Majority of them were married/cohabiting 179 (90.4%). On histopathological examination (HPE) squamous cell carcinoma was found to be the most common cell type carcinoma 147 (74.2%) followed by Adenocarcinoma 31 (15.7%). Radical hysterectomy was the most common treatment modality 76 (38.4%), followed by Wertheims Hysterectomy 46 (23.2%) and Radiochemotherapy 59 (29.8%). The mean score of global health of cervical cancer patients post treatment was 77.90, which was significantly higher than the pre - treatment score (54.32). Mean “symptoms score” post treatment was 21.69 with an aggravation of 7.32 compared to pre treatment scores. Patients experienced substantial decrease in sexual activity post treatment. Conclusions/Significance The prediction model(PrediQt-Cx), based on Support Vector Machine(SVM) for predicting post treatment HRQoL in cervical cancer patients was developed and internally cross validated. After external validation PrediQt-Cx can be easily employed to support decision making by clinicians and patients from north India region, through openly made available for access at http://prediqt.org. PMID:24587074

  14. Disposal of tank farm long-length contaminated equipment: LLCE characterization software functional criteria and management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, H.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-15

    This plan outlines the functional criteria requirements and the management plan required to develop computer software to calculate the radionuclide and chemical content of the LLCE waste packages. The software will use the calculated radionuclide and chemical content to prepare waste characterization support data in support of LLCE waste characterization and shipment.

  15. Neuroimaging Findings of the Post-Treatment Effects of Radiation and Chemotherapy of Malignant Primary Glial Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Mamlouk, M.D.; Handwerker, J.; Ospina, J.; Hasso, A.N.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Post-treatment radiation and chemotherapy of malignant primary glial neoplasms present a wide spectrum of tumor appearances and treatment-related entities. Radiologic findings of these post-treatment effects overlap, making it difficult to distinguish treatment response and failure. The purposes of this article are to illustrate and contrast the imaging appearances of recurrent tumor from necrosis and to discuss other radiologic effects of cancer treatments. It is critical for radiologists to recognize these treatment-related effects to help direct clinical management. PMID:24007728

  16. Neuroimaging findings of the post-treatment effects of radiation and chemotherapy of malignant primary glial neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Mamlouk, M D; Handwerker, J; Ospina, J; Hasso, A N

    2013-08-01

    Post-treatment radiation and chemotherapy of malignant primary glial neoplasms present a wide spectrum of tumor appearances and treatment-related entities. Radiologic findings of these post-treatment effects overlap, making it difficult to distinguish treatment response and failure. The purposes of this article are to illustrate and contrast the imaging appearances of recurrent tumor from necrosis and to discuss other radiologic effects of cancer treatments. It is critical for radiologists to recognize these treatment-related effects to help direct clinical management. PMID:24007728

  17. NRC staff site characterization analysis of the Department of Energy`s Site Characterization Plan, Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1989-08-01

    This Site Characterization Analysis (SCA) documents the NRC staff`s concerns resulting from its review of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Site Characterization Plan (SCP) for the Yucca Mountain site in southern Nevada, which is the candidate site selected for characterization as the nation`s first geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. DOE`s SCP explains how DOE plans to obtain the information necessary to determine the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site for a repository. NRC`s specific objections related to the SCP, and major comments and recommendations on the various parts of DOE`s program, are presented in SCA Section 2, Director`s Comments and Recommendations. Section 3 contains summaries of the NRC staff`s concerns for each specific program, and Section 4 contains NRC staff point papers which set forth in greater detail particular staff concerns regarding DOE`s program. Appendix A presents NRC staff evaluations of those NRC staff Consultation Draft SCP concerns that NRC considers resolved on the basis of the SCP. This SCA fulfills NRC`s responsibilities with respect to DOE`s SCP as specified by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) and 10 CFR 60.18. 192 refs., 2 tabs.

  18. SU-E-J-97: Pretreatment Test and Post-Treatment Evaluation for Iso-NTCP Dose Guided Adapive Radiotherapy (DGART), Experience with Prostate Cancer Patients Treated with Rectal Balloons

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, J; Hardcastle, N; Bender, E; Jeong, K; Tome', M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To explore the feasibility of pretreatment test for iso-NTCP DGART and to compare the pretreatment test results with post-treatment evaluations. Methods: NTCP here refers to late rectal wall toxicity only and is calculated with the ring rectal wall DVH. Simulation for one time iso- NTCP DGART starts after half of the total dose was done for 10 patients to investigate if TCP gains could be achieved. Six patients were treated using a 12-fraction 4.3Gy technique and four using 16-fraction 3.63Gy technique. For each of the 12-fraction cases a VMAT plan was generated in Pinnacle3™ using the daily CT obtained prior to the 6th fraction. A pretreatment simulation was performed using only the first 6 daily CTs. The idea is to add the 6 original plan delivered doses with 6 DGART plan delivered doses by deformable dose accumulation (DDA) on each of the first 6 CTs, resulting in 6 rectal wall doses (RWDs) and NTCPs. The 95% confidence interval (95%CI) for the 6 NTCPs were computed.The posttreatment evaluation was done by: a) copy the DGART plan to 6 CTs for fraction 7–12 and calculate the 6 actual DGART delivered fractional doses; b) sum the 6 actual DGART doses with the 6 original plan delivered doses by DDA on each of the 12 CTs resulting in 12 post-treatment RWDs and NTCPs; c) boxplot the 12 post-treatment NTCPs. Results: Target dose gain is 0.76–1.93 Gy. The 95%CI widths of the pretreatment tests NTCPs were 1.1–2.7%. For 5 patients, the planned NTCP fell within the 95%CI. For 4 patients, the planned NTCP was lower than the 95%CI lines. Post-treatment results show that for 7 patients, the upper quartile was within the 95%CI; for 2 patients, the upper quartile were higher than the 95%CI. Conclusion: The pretreatment test yields conservative prediction of the actual delivered NTCP.

  19. Management of comments on DOE`s Site Characterization Plan (SCP) and integration with the planned geotechnical program

    SciTech Connect

    Bjerstedt, T.W.; Gil, A.V.; Baird, F.A.

    1991-12-31

    The US DOE has committed to respond to comments on the SCP throughout the site characterization process. As of January 1990 DOE has received 4,574 comments on both the SCP/Consultation Draft and the statutory SCP. Of these, 2,662 responses have been completed and returned to the originators. Many comments are programmatic in nature and express diverse concerns beyond the scope of the SCP. DOE uses a three-tiered process in responding to comments that integrated technical and management responsibilities. The process defines specific roles in developing, reviewing, and concurring on responses. Commitments or open-items can be generated in DOE responses to comments, which are tracked on a relational database. Major changes reflected in the Secretary of Energy`s 1989 reassessment of the high-level waste program were advocated in comments on the SCP. Most DOE commitments, however, deal with consideration of recommendations contained in SCP comments relevant to low-levels of technical planning detail (SCP Study Plans). Commitments are discharged when referred to the appropriate quality-affecting or management process whereupon their merits can be evaluated.

  20. Health and safety plan for characterization sampling of ETR and MTR facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, D.E.

    1994-10-01

    This health and safety plan establishes the procedures and requirements that will be used to minimize health and safety risks to persons performing Engineering Test Reactor and Materials Test Reactor characterization sampling activities, as required by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard, 29 CFR 1910.120. It contains information about the hazards involved in performing the tasks, and the specific actions and equipment that will be used to protect persons working at the site.

  1. Post-treatment of sanitary landfill leachate by coagulation-flocculation using chitosan as primary coagulant.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Inara Oliveira do Carmo; Guedes, Ana Rosa Pinto; Perelo, Louisa Wessels; Queiroz, Luciano Matos

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan was chosen as an alternative primary coagulant in a complementary coagulation-flocculation treatment of sanitary landfill leachate with the aim of removing recalcitrant organic matter. In order to optimize the process conditions, central composite design and response surface methodology were applied. To evaluate the performance of the process using chitosan, we also carried out tests with aluminium sulphate (Al(2) (SO(4))(3).14 H(2)O) as coagulant. In addition, acute toxicity tests were carried using the duckweed Lemna minor and the guppy fish Poecilia reticulata as test organisms. The analytic hierarchy process was employed for selecting the most appropriate coagulant. Mean values of true colour removal efficiency of 80% and turbidity removal efficiency of 91.4% were reached at chitosan dosages of 960 mg L(-1) at pH 8.5. The acute toxicity tests showed that organisms were sensitive to all samples, mainly after coagulation-flocculation using chitosan. CE(50) for L. minor was not determined because there was no inhibition of the average growth rate and biomass production; LC(50) for P. reticulata was 23% (v v(-1)). Multi-criteria analysis showed that alum was the most appropriate coagulant. Therefore, chitosan as primary coagulant was not considered to be a viable alternative in the post-treatment of landfill leachate. PMID:27387003

  2. Endovascular and Surgical Treatment of Spinal Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas: Assessment of Post-treatment Clinical Outcome

    PubMed Central

    ZOGOPOULOS, Panagiotis; NAKAMURA, Hajime; OZAKI, Tomohiko; ASAI, Katsunori; IMA, Hiroyuki; KIDANI, Tomoki; KADONO, Yoshinori; MURAKAMI, Tomoaki; FUJINAKA, Toshiyuki; YOSHIMINE, Toshiki

    2016-01-01

    Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) are the most commonly encountered vascular malformation of the spinal cord and a treatable cause of progressive para- or tetraplegia. It is an elusive pathology that tends to be under-diagnosed, due to lack of awareness among clinicians, and affects males more commonly than females, typically between the fifth and eighth decades. Early diagnosis and treatment may significantly improve outcome and prevent permanent disability and even mortality. The purpose of our retrospective, single-center study was to determine the long-term clinical and radiographic outcome of patients who have received endovascular or surgical treatment of a spinal DAVF. In particular, during a 6-year period (2009–2014) 14 patients with a spinal DAVF were treated at our department either surgically (n = 4) or endovascularly (n = 10) with detachable coils and/or glue. There was no recurrence in the follow-up period (mean: 36 months, range 3–60 months) after complete occlusion with the endovascular treatment (n = 9; 90%), while only one patient (10%) had residual flow both post-treatment and at 3-month follow-up. All four surgically treated patients (100%) had no signs of residual DAVF on follow-up magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and/or angiography (mean follow-up period of 9 months). Since improvement or stabilization of symptoms may be seen even in patients with delayed diagnosis and substantial neurological deficits, either endovascular or surgical treatment is always justified. PMID:26466887

  3. Post-treatment of the permeate of a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR) treating landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Trzcinski, Antoine P; Ofoegbu, Nkechi; Stuckey, David C

    2011-01-01

    In this study, various methods were compared to reduce the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) content of stabilised leachate from a Submerged Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor (SAMBR). It was found that Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC) resulted in greater COD removals (84 %) than Granular Activated Carbon (GAC-80 %), an ultrafiltration membrane of 1kDa (75 %), coagulation-flocculation with FeCl(3) and polyelectrolyte (45 %), FeCl(3) alone (32 %), and polymeric adsorbents such as XAD7HP (46 %) and XAD4 (32 %). Results obtained on the <1 kDa fraction showed that PAC and GAC had a similar adsorption efficiency of about 60 % COD removal, followed by XAD7HP (48 %), XAD4 (27 %) and then FeCl(3) (23 %). The post-treatment sequence UF+GAC would result in a final effluent with less than 100 mg COD/L. Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC) revealed that the extent of adsorption of low MW compounds onto PAC was limited due to low MW hydrophilic compounds, whereas the kinetics of PAC adsorption depended mainly on the adsorption of high MW aromatics. PMID:21992219

  4. Recovery among adolescents: models for post-treatment gains in drug abuse treatments.

    PubMed

    Joe, George W; Knight, Danica Kalling; Becan, Jennifer E; Flynn, Patrick M

    2014-03-01

    Recovery among adolescents undergoing substance abuse treatment was modeled in terms of pre-treatment motivation, therapeutic relationships, psychological functioning, treatment retention, legal pressures, DSM diagnoses, and client demographics. To address between program differences, a within-covariance matrix, based on 547 youth, was used. Applicability of the results across treatment modalities was also examined. The data were from the NIDA-sponsored DATOS Adolescent study. Results from structural equation models (estimated using Mplus) indicated that higher pre-treatment motivation predicted stronger counselor and in-treatment peer relationships, better counselor relationships and retention predicted less illegal drug use at follow-up, and DSM diagnosis was important in the treatment process. Overall, illegal drug use at follow-up was associated with post-treatment alcohol consumption, cigarette use, condom nonuse, psychological distress, criminality, and school non-attendance. The results document the importance of motivation and therapeutic relationships on recovery, even when taking into account the relative effects of legal pressures, DSM diagnoses, and demographics. PMID:24238715

  5. Post-treatment of fly ash by ozone in a fixed bed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Kim Hougaard Pedersen; Merc Casanovas Meli; Anker Degn Jensen; Kim Dam-Johansen

    2009-01-15

    The residual carbon in fly ash produced from pulverized coal combustion can adsorb the air-entraining admixtures (AEAs) added to enhance air entrainment in concrete. This behavior of the ash can be suppressed by exposing the fly ash to oxidizing species, which oxidizes the carbon surface and thus prevents the AEA to be adsorbed. In the present work, two fly ashes have been ozonated in a fixed bed reactor and the results showed that ozonation is a potential post-treatment method that can lower the AEA requirements of a fly ash up to 6 times. The kinetics of the carbon oxidation by ozone was found to be fast. A kinetic model has been formulated, describing the passivation of carbon, and it includes the stoichiometry of the ozone consumption (0.8 mol of O{sub 3}/kg of C) and an ineffective ozone loss caused by catalytic decomposition. The simulated results correlated well with the experimental data. 28 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. The Teaching-Family Model and Post-Treatment Recidivism: A Critical Review of the Conventional Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsley, David E.

    2006-01-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that the Teaching-Family Model (TFM) approach to treating youthful offenders is not effective in reducing post-treatment recidivism. This article reviews two major studies referenced in support of this widespread perception. Data presented in one widely referenced study are treated with a Cochran-Mantel-Haensel test,…

  7. Predicting Post-Treatment-Initiation Alcohol Use among Patients with Severe Mental Illness and Alcohol Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradizza, Clara M.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Vincent, Paula C.; Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Connors, Gerard J.; Mercer, Nicole D.

    2009-01-01

    Few investigators studying alcohol abuse among individuals with a severe mental illness (SMI) have examined predictors of posttreatment alcohol outcomes. In the present study, a multivariate approach based on a theoretical model was used to study the relationship between psychosocial factors and post-treatment-initiation alcohol use. Predictors of…

  8. State of Nevada comments on the US Department of Energy site characterization plan, Yucca Mountain site, Nevada; Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    1989-09-01

    In December 1988, the US Department of Energy issued a Site Characterization Plan (SCP) for the Yucca Mountain site, as required by Section 113 of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA). The purpose of site characterization is to develop sufficient information to support a determination of the suitability, or lack of suitability of the site to safely isolate high-level radioactive waste with reasonable certainty for thousands of years. The purpose of the Site Characterization Plan is to describe plans for obtaining sufficient information about the site, plans for mitigation of any adverse impacts occurring from site characterization activities, and plans for decontamination and decommissioning of the site if it is determined not to be suitable for a repository. Part I presents an overview of the State`s comments. The overview takes the form of general concerns and comments organized by specific areas of concern. The overview does not follow the format of the SCP.

  9. WE-G-BRD-07: Investigation of Distal Lung Atelectasis Following Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Using Regional Lung Volume Changes Between Pre- and Post- Treatment CT Scans

    SciTech Connect

    Diot, Q; Kavanagh, B; Miften, M

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To propose a quantitative method using lung deformations to differentiate between radiation-induced fibrosis and potential airway stenosis with distal atelectasis in patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung tumors. Methods: Twenty-four lung patients with large radiation-induced density increases outside the high dose region had their pre- and post-treatment CT scans manually registered. They received SBRT treatments at our institution between 2002 and 2009 in 3 or 5 fractions, to a median total dose of 54Gy (range, 30–60). At least 50 anatomical landmarks inside the lung (airway branches) were paired for the pre- and post-treatment scans to guide the deformable registration of the lung structure, which was then interpolated to the whole lung using splines. Local volume changes between the planning and follow-up scans were calculated using the deformation field Jacobian. Hyperdense regions were classified as atelectatic or fibrotic based on correlations between regional density increases and significant volume contractions compared to the surrounding tissues. Results: Out of 24 patients, only 7 demonstrated a volume contraction that was at least one σ larger than the remaining lung average. Because they did not receive high doses, these shrunk hyperdense regions were likely showing distal atelectasis resulting from radiation-induced airway stenosis rather than conventional fibrosis. On average, the hyperdense regions extended 9.2 cm farther than the GTV contours but not significantly more than 8.6 cm for the other patients (p>0.05), indicating that a large offset between the radiation and hyperdense region centers is not a good surrogate for atelectasis. Conclusion: A method based on the relative comparison of volume changes between different dates was developed to identify potential lung regions experiencing distal atelectasis. Such a tool is essential to study which lung structures need to be avoided to prevent

  10. Consultation draft: Site characterization plan overview, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 113)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing a site characterization plan for the candidate site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The DOE has provided, for information and review, a consultation draft of the plan to the State of Texas and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The site characterization plan is a lengthy document that describes in considerable detail the program that will be conducted to characterize the geologic, hydrologic, and other conditions relevant to the suitability of the site for a repository. The overview presented here consists of brief summaries of important topics covered in the consultation draft of the site characterization plan; it is not a substitute for the site characterization plan. The arrangement of the overview is similar to that of the plan itself, with brief descriptions of the repository system - the site, the repository, and the waste package - preceding the discussion of the characterization program to be carried out at the Deaf Smith County site. It is intended primarily for the management staff of organizations involved in the DOE's repository program or other persons who might wish to understand the general scope of the site-characterization program, the activities to be conducted, and the facilities to be constructed rather than the technical details of site characterization. 15 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Environmental Regulatory Compliance Plan for site: Draft characterization of the Yucca Mountain site:Draft

    SciTech Connect

    1988-01-01

    The objective of the EMMP is to document compliance with the NWPA. To do so, a summary description of site characterization activites is provided, based on the consultation draft of the SCP. Subsequent chpaters identify those technical areas having the potential to be impacted by site characterization activities and the monitoring plans proposed to identify whether those impacts acutally occur. Should monitoring confirm the potential for significant adverse impact, mitigative measures will be developed. In the context of site characterization, mitigation is defined as those changes in site characterization activities that serve to avoid or minimize, to the maximum extent practicle, any significant adverse environmental impacts. Although site characterization activies involve both surface and subsurface activities, it is the surface-based aspect of site characterization that is addressed in detailed by the EMMP. The schedule and duration of these activities is given in the consultation draft of the SCP. A breif summary of all proposed activities is given in the EMMP. 10 refs., 8 figs.

  12. [Impact of proportion of adding raw wastewater on post-treatment of digested piggery wastewater].

    PubMed

    Deng, Liang-Wei; Cao, Wei-Ping; Sun, Xin; Li, Shu-Lan; Chen, Zi-Ai

    2007-03-01

    Sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was used to treat digested piggery wastewater, in order to investigate the impact of proportion of adding raw wastewater. In consecutive experiments, the reactor with adding 30% raw wastewater could get low ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), usually less than 10 mg/L in the effluent, while the reactors with adding 10% or 20% raw wastewater, concentration of NH3-N increased by degrees until reached 300 mg/L or 80 mg/L respectively at end of experiment. These can be explained by the facts that the reactor with adding 30% raw wastewater could maintain stable pH (about 7.7), whereas pH in the reactors with adding 10% or 20% raw wastewater decreased gradually until to below 5.5. Performance monitoring of a cycle of SBR indicate that the peak value of nitrite nitrogen (NO2(-)-N) and valley value of ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) occur in the fourth, third and second hour after aeration beginning for the reactors with adding 10%, 20% and 30% raw wastewater respectively, which imply that the more is the proportion of adding raw wastewater, the fast does the ammonia oxidized. These results can be attributed to the facts the higher proportion of adding raw wastewater brought better denitrification resulting in stable and high pH. The batch experiment shows that the rate of denitrification has positive correlation with ratio of BOD5 to TN in influent. The consecutive and batch experiment all prove the proportion of adding raw wastewater must reach more than 30% for normal operation of post-treatment of digested piggery wastewater. PMID:17633638

  13. Prediction of post-treatment outcome after combined treatment with maxillary protraction and chincap appliances.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ikue; Yamaguchi, Nobuhito; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2006-02-01

    The aims of this study were to identify differences in the initial skeletal morphology between successful and unsuccessful groups and to establish a novel method for predicting the final outcome of treatment with a maxillary protraction appliance (MPA) and chincap. The cephalograms used in this study were taken from 32 Japanese girls (mean age 10.2 years) with a Class III malocclusion at the beginning of treatment with an MPA and chincap (T1), at removal of the appliance (T2), and during the final post-treatment period (T3). The subjects were divided into two groups according to the treatment outcome at T3. Lower face height (ANS-Me), total face height (N-Me), ratio of face height (ANS-Me/N-ANS), maxillary position, mandibular plane and gonial angle at T1 were all significantly larger in the unsuccessful group, compared with the successful group. Discriminant analysis indicated that lower face height and gonial angle were significant determinants for distinguishing between the two groups at T1. From T1 to T2, while the anterior displacement of the maxilla was almost the same in the two groups, SNB decreased by 1.6 degrees in the successful group and 0.4 degrees in the unsuccessful group. After orthopaedic treatment, a second phase of treatment with a multibracket system was performed (T2 to T3). From T2 to T3, SNA increased by 0.4 degrees in the successful group and decreased by 0.7 degrees in the unsuccessful group. These results indicate that the vertical dimensions of the craniofacial skeleton are important for predicting the prognosis of skeletal Class III patients treated with a MPA and chincap and that the discriminant formula established in this study is effective in predicting the final treatment outcome. PMID:16113036

  14. Post-treatment supportive care for the natural dentition and dental implants.

    PubMed

    Armitage, Gary C; Xenoudi, Pinelopi

    2016-06-01

    Long-term successful treatment of chronic periodontitis requires placement of patients on post-treatment recall programs known as either periodontal maintenance therapy or supportive periodontal therapy. Selection of the recall intervals must be based on the specific needs of individual patients. A single recall interval (e.g. 6 months) is not suitable for all patients. The main purpose of these programs is to prevent the recurrence of periodontitis. The components of every periodontal maintenance therapy program include: review of medical/dental histories; complete oral examination with an emphasis on the detection of gingival inflammation; establishing whether the maintenance program is working by monitoring clinical attachment levels; evaluation of oral hygiene; and full-mouth supragingival and subgingival debridement (i.e. biofilm removal). Long-term post-insertion care for dental implants also requires a similar patient-specific recall program of supportive implant therapy. The main purposes of a supportive implant therapy program are to maintain a healthy peri-implant mucosa and thereby prevent the development of peri-implantitis. In cases in which plaque-induced peri-implant mucositis has occurred, a well-designed supportive implant therapy program can help return the mucosa to a healthy state. At the current time there is no consensus on the optimal interventions for the treatment of peri-implant mucositis. However, all effective supportive implant therapy programs emphasize meticulous oral hygiene practices, careful peri-implant examination, thoughtful analysis of risk factors and periodic removal of microbial deposits from the implants. PMID:27045436

  15. Post-Treatment Edema after Meningioma Radiosurgery is a Predictable Complication

    PubMed Central

    Pontoriero, Antonio; Siddi, Francesca; Iatì, Giuseppe; Cardali, Salvatore; Angileri, Filippo F; Granata, Francesca; Pergolizzi, Stefano; Germanò, Antonino; Tomasello, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Symptomatic post-treatment edema (PTE) causing seizures, focal deficits, and intracranial hypertension is a rather common complication of meningioma radiosurgery. Factors associated to the occurrence of PTE still needs to be clarified. We retrospectively analyzed our patients’ data to identify factors associated with the development of symptomatic PTE. Supposed risk factors were systematically analyzed. Between July 2007 and March 2014, 245 meningiomas in 229 patients were treated by a single fraction or multisession radiosurgery (2-5 fractions) or hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (6-15 fractions) using the CyberKnife system (Accuray Inc., Sunnyvale, CA) at the University Hospital of Messina, Italy. Local tumor control was achieved in 200 of 212 patients with World Health Organization (WHO) Grade I meningiomas (94%) at a mean follow-up of 62 months. Symptomatic PTE on MRI was diagnosed in 19 patients (8.3%) causing seizure (n=17, 89%), aggravating headache (n=12, 63%), or focal deficits (n=13, 68%). Four variables were found to be associated with the likelihood of edema development, including tumor volume > 4.5 mL, non-basal tumor location, tight brain/tumor interface, and atypical histology. Nonetheless, when multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed, only tumor volume and brain-tumor interface turned out to be independent predictors of PTE development. Our results suggest that the factor associated with the risk of developing PTE is associated to characteristics of meningioma rather than to the treatment modality used. Accordingly, an appropriate patient selection is the way to achieve safe treatment and long-term disease control. PMID:27330873

  16. High post-treatment absolute monocyte count predicted hepatocellular carcinoma risk in HCV patients who failed peginterferon/ribavirin therapy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsung-Ming; Lin, Chun-Che; Huang, Pi-Teh; Wen, Chen-Fan

    2016-06-01

    Salient studies have investigated the association between host inflammatory response and cancer. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that peripheral absolute monocyte counts (AMC) could impart an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients after a failed peginterferon/ribavirin (PR) combination therapy. A total of 723 chronic HCV-infected patients were treated with PR, of which 183 (25.3 %) patients did not achieve a sustained virological response (non-SVR). Post-treatment AMC values were measured at 6 months after end of PR treatment. Fifteen (2.8 %) of 540 patients with an SVR developed HCC during a median follow-up period of 41.4 months, and 14 (7.7 %) of 183 non-SVR patients developed HCC during a median follow-up of 36.8 months (log rank test for SVR vs. non-SVR, P = 0.002). Cox regression analysis revealed that post-treatment AFP level (HR 1.070; 95 % CI = 1.024-1.119, P = 0.003) and post-treatment aspartate aminotransferase (AST)-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) ≥0.5 (HR 4.401; 95 % CI = 1.463-13.233, P = 0.008) were independent variables associated with HCC development for SVR patients. For non-SVR patients, diabetes (HR 5.750; 95 % CI = 1.387-23.841, P = 0.016), post treatment AMC ≥370 mm(-3) (HR 5.805; 95 % CI = 1.268-26.573, P = 0.023), and post-treatment APRI ≥1.5 (HR 10.905; 95 % CI = 2.493-47.697, P = 0.002) were independent risks associated with HCC. In conclusion, post-treatment AMC has a role in prognostication of HCC development in HCV-infected patients who failed to achieve an SVR after PR combination therapy. PMID:26662957

  17. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Quality Assurance Project Plan for the Transuranic Waste Characterization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Sailer, S.J.

    1996-08-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPJP) specifies the quality of data necessary and the characterization techniques employed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to meet the objectives of the Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) requirements. This QAPJP is written to conform with the requirements and guidelines specified in the QAPP and the associated documents referenced in the QAPP. This QAPJP is one of a set of five interrelated QAPjPs that describe the INEL Transuranic Waste Characterization Program (TWCP). Each of the five facilities participating in the TWCP has a QAPJP that describes the activities applicable to that particular facility. This QAPJP describes the roles and responsibilities of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) in the TWCP. Data quality objectives and quality assurance objectives are explained. Sample analysis procedures and associated quality assurance measures are also addressed; these include: sample chain of custody; data validation; usability and reporting; documentation and records; audits and 0385 assessments; laboratory QC samples; and instrument testing, inspection, maintenance and calibration. Finally, administrative quality control measures, such as document control, control of nonconformances, variances and QA status reporting are described.

  18. Plan for the Characterization of HIRF Effects on a Fault-Tolerant Computer Communication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo; Malekpour, Mahyar R.; Miner, Paul S.; Koppen, Sandra V.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the plan for the characterization of the effects of high intensity radiated fields on a prototype implementation of a fault-tolerant data communication system. Various configurations of the communication system will be tested. The prototype system is implemented using off-the-shelf devices. The system will be tested in a closed-loop configuration with extensive real-time monitoring. This test is intended to generate data suitable for the design of avionics health management systems, as well as redundancy management mechanisms and policies for robust distributed processing architectures.

  19. Coagulation and precipitation as post-treatment of anaerobically treated primary municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Diamadopoulos, Evan; Megalou, Konstantina; Georgiou, Maria; Gizgis, Nikolaos

    2007-02-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of coagulation as a post-treatment method of anaerobically treated primary municipal wastewater. Both mesophilic and ambient (20 degrees C) temperature conditions were investigated in a laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor. In addition, optimization of the coagulant, both in terms of type and dose, was performed. Finally, phosphorus removal by means of aluminum and iron coagulation and phosphorus and ammonia nitrogen removal by means of struvite precipitation were studied. Anaerobic treatment of primary effluent at low hydraulic retention times (less than 15 hours) resulted in mean chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals ranging from 50 to 70%, while, based on the filtered treated effluent, the mean removals increased to 65 to 80%. Alum coagulation of the UASB effluent gave suspended solids removals ranging from approximately 35 to 65%. Turbidity removal reached up to 80%. Remaining COD values after coagulation and settling were below 100 mg/L, while remaining total organic carbon (TOC) levels were below 50 mg/L. Filterable COD levels were generally below 60 mg/L, while filterable TOC levels were below 40 mg/L. All coagulants tested, including prepolymerized aluminum and iron coagulants, demonstrated similar efficiency compared with alum for the removal of suspended solids, COD, and TOC. Regarding struvite precipitation, optimal conditions for phosphorus and nitrogen removal were pH 10 and molar ratio of magnesium: ammonia-nitrogen: phosphate-phosphorus close to the stoichiometric ratio (1:1:1). During struvite precipitation, removal of suspended solids reached 40%, while turbidity removal reached values up to 80%. The removal of COD was approximately 30 to 35%; yet, when removal of organic matter was based on the treated filterable COD, the removal increased to approximately 65%. In addition, nitrogen was removed by approximately 70%, while phosphorus removal ranged between

  20. Elimination of micropollutants during post-treatment of hospital wastewater with powdered activated carbon, ozone, and UV.

    PubMed

    Kovalova, Lubomira; Siegrist, Hansruedi; von Gunten, Urs; Eugster, Jakob; Hagenbuch, Martina; Wittmer, Anita; Moser, Ruedi; McArdell, Christa S

    2013-07-16

    A pilot-scale hospital wastewater treatment plant consisting of a primary clarifier, membrane bioreactor, and five post-treatment technologies including ozone (O3), O3/H2O2, powdered activated carbon (PAC), and low pressure UV light with and without TiO2 was operated to test the elimination efficiencies for 56 micropollutants. The extent of the elimination of the selected micropollutants (pharmaceuticals, metabolites and industrial chemicals) was successfully correlated to physical-chemical properties or molecular structure. By mass loading, 95% of all measured micropollutants in the biologically treated hospital wastewater feeding the post-treatments consisted of iodinated contrast media (ICM). The elimination of ICM by the tested post-treatment technologies was 50-65% when using 1.08 g O3/gDOC, 23 mg/L PAC, or a UV dose of 2400 J/m(2) (254 nm). For the total load of analyzed pharmaceuticals and metabolites excluding ICM the elimination by ozonation, PAC, and UV at the same conditions was 90%, 86%, and 33%, respectively. Thus, the majority of analyzed substances can be efficiently eliminated by ozonation (which also provides disinfection) or PAC (which provides micropollutants removal, not only transformation). Some micropollutants recalcitrant to those two post-treatments, such as the ICM diatrizoate, can be substantially removed only by high doses of UV (96% at 7200 J/m(2)). The tested combined treatments (O3/H2O2 and UV/TiO2) did not improve the elimination compared to the single treatments (O3 and UV). PMID:23758546

  1. Comparison of pre-treatment and post-treatment use of selenium in retinal ischemia reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Yazici, Alper; Aksit, Hasan; Sari, Esin Sogutlu; Yay, Arzu; Erken, Haydar Ali; Aksit, Dilek; Cakmak, Harun; Seyrek, Kamil; Ermis, Sitki Samet

    2015-01-01

    AIM To investigate the effects of selenium in rat retinal ischemia reperfusion (IR) model and compare pre-treatment and post-treatment use. METHODS Selenium pre-treatment group (n=8) was treated with intraperitoneal (i.p.) selenium 0.5 mg/kg for 7d and terminated 24h after the IR injury. Selenium post-treatment group (n=8) was treated with i.p. selenium 0.5 mg/kg for 7d after the IR injury with termination at the end of the 7d period. Sham group (n=8) received i.p. saline injections identical to the selenium volume for 7d with termination 24h after the IR injury. Control group (n=8) received no intervention. Main outcome measures were retina superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant status (TAS), malondialdehyde (MDA), DNA fragmentation levels, and immunohistological apoptosis evaluation. RESULTS Compared to the Sham group, selenium pre-treatment had a statistical difference in all parameters except SOD. Post-treatment selenium also resulted in statistical differences in all parameters except the MDA levels. When comparing selenium groups, the pre-treatment selenium group had a statistically higher success in reduction of markers of cell damage such as MDA and DNA fragmentation. In contrast, the post-selenium treatment group had resulted in statistically higher levels of GSH. Histologically both selenium groups succeeded to limit retinal thickening and apoptosis. Pre-treatment use was statistically more successful in decreasing apoptosis in ganglion cell layer compared to post-treatment use. CONCLUSION Selenium was successful in retinal protection in IR injuries. Pre-treatment efficacy was superior in terms of prevention of tissue damage and apoptosis. PMID:25938038

  2. Effect of post-treatment conditions on the inactivation of helminth eggs (Ascaris suum) after the composting process.

    PubMed

    Darimani, Hamidatu S; Ito, Ryusei; Maiga, Ynoussa; Sou, Mariam; Funamizu, Naoyuki; Maiga, Amadou H

    2016-01-01

    Safe and appropriate disposal of human waste is a basic requirement for sanitation and protection of public health. For proper sanitation and nutrient recovery, it is necessary to ensure effective treatment methods to complete pathogen destruction in excreta prior to reuse. Composting toilets convert faeces to a reusable resource such as fertilizer or humus for organic agriculture. A composting toilet for rural Burkina Faso was created by modifying a commercial model available in Japan to improve hygiene and increase food production. The toilet has shown to result in a degraded final product, but its effectiveness for pathogen destruction was unclear due to low temperatures generated from the toilet. This study aimed to sanitize compost withdrawn from the composting toilet for food production by setting post-treatment conditions. The inactivation kinetics of Ascaris suum eggs, selected as an indicator for helminth eggs, was determined during post-treatment at different temperatures (30°C, 40°C, 50°C and 60°C) with varying moisture contents (MC) (50%, 60% and 70%). The treatment of compost in a possible additional post-treatment after the composting process was tried in the laboratory test. Inactivation of A. suum eggs was fast with greater than two log reductions achieved within 2 h for temperature 50°C and 50% MC and greater than three log reductions for temperature 60°C and 50% MC within 3 h. Statistical analysis showed the significant impact of temperature and moisture on the inactivation rates of A. suum eggs. The post-treatment can efficiently increase helminth eggs destruction prior to reuse. PMID:26370295

  3. Comparison of the secondary metabolites in two scales of cephalosporin C (CPC) fermentation and two different post-treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ying-Xiu; Lu, Hua; Qiao, Bin; Chen, Yao; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Cephalosporin C (CPC) is the precursor of a class of antibiotics that were more effective than traditional penicillins. CPC production is performed mainly through fermentation by Acremonium chrysogenum, whose secondary metabolism was sensitive to the environmental changes. In the present work, secondary metabolites were measured by ion-pair reversed-phase liquid chromatography tandemed with hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and the disparity of them from two scales of CPC fermentations (pilot and industrial) and also two different post-treatment processes (oxalic acid and formaldehyde added and control) were investigated. When fermentation size was enlarged from pilot scale (50 l) to industrial scale (156,000 l), the remarkable disparities of concentrations and changing trends of the secondary metabolites in A. chrysogenum were observed, which indicated that the productivity of CPC biosynthesis was higher in the large scale of fermentation. Three environmental factors were measured, and the potential reasons that might cause the differences were analyzed. In the post-treatment process after industrial fermentation, the changes of these secondary metabolites in the tank where oxalic acid and formaldehyde were added were much less than the control tank where none was added. This indicated that the quality of the final product was more stable after the oxalic acid and formaldehyde were added in the post-treatment process. These findings provided new insight into industrial CPC production. PMID:23053347

  4. Psychosocial adjustments in patients with prostate cancer from pre-diagnosis to 6 months post-treatment.

    PubMed

    Chien, Ching-Hui; Chuang, Cheng-Keng; Liu, Kuan-Lin; Huang, Xuan-Yi; Liu, Hsueh-Erh

    2016-02-01

    We evaluated changes in psychosocial adjustment over time and its associated factors in prostate cancer patients. A total of 69 patients with prostate cancer were surveyed at pre-diagnosis, 1 month and 6 months post-treatment. The questionnaires distributed to the patients consisted of the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale and the UCLA Prostate Cancer Index. The generalized estimating equations were used to analyse the collected data. The results of adjustments to psychological distress, the domestic environment and the social environment worsened post-treatment. However, the adjustment to health-care orientation was worst at the time of pre-diagnosis and improved during post-treatment. Patients who perceived an unfavourable health status reported poor adjustment in psychological distress. Patients exhibiting poor urinary function poorly adjusted to the domestic environment. Patients with sexual dysfunction exhibited poor adjustment to the social environment. Patients with low education demonstrated poor adjustment to health-care orientation. Further studies should assess the psychosocial adjustment among prostate cancer patients and provide interventions following pre-diagnosis. PMID:25307968

  5. Plans for characterization of the potential geologic repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, D.C.; Blanchard, M.B.; Voegele, M.D.; Younker, J.L.

    1990-04-01

    Site investigations in the vicinity of the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have occurred for many years. Although information from previous site investigations was adequate to support preliminary evaluations by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in the Environmental Assessment and to develop conceptual repository and waste package designs, this information is insufficient to proceed to the advanced designs and performance assessments required for the license application to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Therefore, intensive site characterization is planned, as described in the December 1988 Site Characterization Plan (SCP). The data acquisition activities described in the SCP are focused on obtaining information to allow evaluations of the natural and engineered barriers considered potentially relevant to repository performance. The site data base must be adequate to allow predictions of the range of expected variation in geologic conditions over the next 10,000 years, as well as predictions of the probabilities for catastrophic geologic events that could affect repository performance. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Global Threat Reduction Initiative Fuel-Thermo-Physical Characterization Project Quality Assurance Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, Mario M.; Slonecker, Bruce D.

    2012-06-01

    The charter of the Fuel Thermo-Physical Characterization Project is to ready Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) facilities and processes for the receipt of unirradiated and irradiated low enriched uranium (LEU) molybdenum (U-Mo) fuel element samples, and to perform analysis to support the Global Threat Reduction Initiative conversion program. PNNL’s support for the program will include the establishment of post-irradiation examination processes, including thermo-physical properties, unique to the U.S. Department of Energy laboratories. These processes will ultimately support the submission of the base fuel qualification (BFQ) to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and revisions to High Performance Research Reactor Safety Analysis Reports to enable conversion from highly enriched uranium to LEU fuel. This quality assurance plan (QAP) provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that support the NRC BFQ. This QAP is designed to be used by project staff, and prescribes the required management control elements that are to be met and how they are implemented. Additional controls are captured in Fuel Thermo-Physical Characterization Project plans, existing procedures, and procedures to be developed that provide supplemental information on how work is conducted on the project.

  7. Global Threat Reduction Initiative Fuel Thermo-Physical Characterization Project: Sample Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Casella, Amanda J.; Pereira, Mario M.; Steen, Franciska H.

    2013-01-01

    This sample management plan provides guidelines for sectioning, preparation, acceptance criteria, analytical path, and end-of-life disposal for the fuel element segments utilized in the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), Fuel Thermo-Physical Characterization Project. The Fuel Thermo-Physical Characterization Project is tasked with analysis of irradiated Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) Molybdenum (U-Mo) fuel element samples to support the GTRI conversion program. Sample analysis may include optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) fuel-surface interface analysis, gas pycnometry (density) measurements, laser flash analysis (LFA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis with mass spectroscopy (TG /DTA-MS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrophotometry (ICP), alpha spectroscopy, and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectroscopy (TIMS). The project will utilize existing Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) operating, technical, and administrative procedures for sample receipt, processing, and analyses. Test instructions (TIs), which are documents used to provide specific details regarding the implementation of an existing RPL approved technical or operational procedure, will also be used to communicate to staff project specific parameters requested by the Principal Investigator (PI). TIs will be developed, reviewed, and issued in accordance with the latest revision of the RPL-PLN-700, RPL Operations Plan. Additionally, the PI must approve all project test instructions and red-line changes to test instructions.

  8. Characterization plan for Fort St. Vrain and Peach Bottom graphite fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Maarschman, S.C.; Berting, F.M.; Clemmer, R.G.; Gilbert, E.R.; Guenther, R.J.; Morgan, W.C.; Sliva, P.

    1993-09-01

    Part of Fort St. Vrain (FSV) and most of the Peach Bottom (PB) reactor spent fuels are currently stored at INEL and may remain in storage for many years before disposal. Three disposal pathways have been proposed: intact disposal, fuels partially disassembled and the high-level waste fraction conditioned prior to disposal, and fuels completed disassembled and conditioned prior to disposal. Many options exist within each of these pathways. PNL evaluated the literature and other reference to develop a fuels characterization plan for these fuels. This plan provides guidance for the characteristics of the fuel which will be needed to pursue any of the storage or disposal pathways. It also provides a suggested fuels monitoring program for the current storage facilities. This report recommends a minimum of 7 fuel elements be characterized: PB Core 1 fuel: one Type II nonfailed element, one Type II failed element, and one Type III nonfailed element; PB Core 2 fuel: two Type II nonfailed fuel elements; and FSV fuel: at least two fuel blocks from regions of high temperature and fluence and long in-reactor performance (preferably at reactor end-of- life). Selection of PB fuel elements should focus on these between radial core position 8 and 14 and on compacts between compact numbers 10 and 20. Selection of FSV fuel elements should focus on these from Fuel Zones II and III, located in Core Layers 6, 7, and possibly 8.

  9. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsbad Field Office

    2005-08-03

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for Nondestructive Assay (NDA) is a test program designed to yield data on measurement system capability to characterize drummed transuranic (TRU) waste generated throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The tests are conducted periodically and provide a mechanism for the independent and objective assessment of NDA system performance and capability relative to the radiological characterization objectives and criteria of the Office of Characterization and Transportation (OCT). The primary documents requiring an NDA PDP are the Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC), which requires annual characterization facility participation in the PDP, and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD). This NDA PDP implements the general requirements of the QAPD and applicable requirements of the WAC. Measurement facilities must demonstrate acceptable radiological characterization performance through measurement of test samples comprised of pre-specified PDP matrix drum/radioactive source configurations. Measurement facilities are required to analyze the NDA PDP drum samples using the same procedures approved and implemented for routine operational waste characterization activities. The test samples provide an independent means to assess NDA measurement system performance and compliance per criteria delineated in the NDA PDP Plan. General inter-comparison of NDA measurement system performance among DOE measurement facilities and commercial NDA services can also be evaluated using measurement results on similar NDA PDP test samples. A PDP test sample consists of a 55-gallon matrix drum containing a waste matrix type representative of a particular category of the DOE waste inventory and nuclear material standards of known radionuclide and isotopic composition typical of DOE radioactive material. The PDP sample components are made available to participating measurement facilities as designated by the

  10. Characterization Plan for Establishing a PCB Baseline Inventory in Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    2000-08-09

    In May 2000, the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted meetings to discuss management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Hanford tank waste. It was decided that the radioactive waste currently stored in the doubleshell tanks (DSTs) will be managed to comply with the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) (40 CFR 761). As a result, DOE-ORP directed the River Protection Project tank farm contractor to prepare plans for managing the PCB inventory in the DSTs. One component of the PCB management plans is this characterization plan. At this time, available PCB data for Hanford tank waste is limited to thirteen DSTs and one single-shell tank (SST). Only concentration data for some individual Aroclors (i.e., commercial PCB mixtures) are available for these tanks. Total PCB data is needed to establish a baseline inventory of PCBs in the DSTs. Appropriate transfer controls for the tanks will be developed based on the baseline inventory. The controls will be used to ensure PCB levels in the DSTs will not exceed anticipated waste feed acceptance criteria of the Waste Treatment Facility (WTF). Approximately ninety percent of the waste to be received at the DSTs in the future will come from the SSTs (Strode and Boyles 1999). Single-shell tank waste will be retrieved into the DSTs prior to treatment for disposal. Liquids from the SSTs currently are being transferred to the DSTs as part of the interim stabilization effort. In addition, waste sample materials taken from the SSTs have been and will continue to be sent to the DSTs after analysis by the site laboratories. Thus, to properly manage the PCB inventory in the DSTs, baseline characterization data of SST waste is also needed.

  11. Population-Level Trends in Post-Treatment Cancer Survivors’ Concerns and Associated Receipt of Care: Results from the 2006 and 2010 LIVESTRONG Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Beckjord, Ellen Burke; Reynolds, Kerry A.; van Londen, GJ; Burns, Rachel; Singh, Reema; Arvey, Sarah R.; Nutt, Stephanie A.; Rechis, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to better understand the post-treatment concerns of the nearly 14 million cancer survivors alive in the United States today and their receipt of care. Methods Using data from 2910 post-treatment cancer survivors from the 2006 or 2010 LIVESTRONG Surveys, we examined physical, emotional, and practical concerns, receipt of care, and trends in these outcomes at the population level. Results 89% of respondents reported at least one physical concern (67% received associated post-treatment care); 90% reported at least one emotional concern (47% received care); and 45% reported at least one practical concern (36% received care). Female survivors, younger survivors, those who received more intensive treatment, and survivors without health insurance often reported a higher burden of post-treatment concerns though were less likely to have received post-treatment care. Conclusions These results reinforce the importance of post-treatment survivorship and underscore the need for continued progress in meeting the needs of this population. Efforts to increase the availability of survivorship care are extremely important to improve the chances of people affected by cancer living as well as possible in the post-treatment period. PMID:24364920

  12. Phase 1 Characterization sampling and analysis plan West Valley demonstration project.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R. L.

    2011-06-30

    The Phase 1 Characterization Sampling and Analysis Plan (CSAP) provides details about environmental data collection that will be taking place to support Phase 1 decommissioning activities described in the Phase 1 Decommissioning Plan for the West Valley Demonstration Project, Revision 2 (Phase I DP; DOE 2009). The four primary purposes of CSAP data collection are: (1) pre-design data collection, (2) remedial support, (3) post-remediation status documentation, and (4) Phase 2 decision-making support. Data collection to support these four main objectives is organized into two distinct data collection efforts. The first is data collection that will take place prior to the initiation of significant Phase 1 decommissioning activities (e.g., the Waste Management Area [WMA] 1 and WMA 2 excavations). The second is data collection that will occur during and immediately after environmental remediation in support of remediation activities. Both data collection efforts have a set of well-defined objectives that encompass the data needs of the four main CSAP data collection purposes detailed in the CSAP. The main body of the CSAP describes the overall data collection strategies that will be used to satisfy data collection objectives. The details of pre-remediation data collection are organized by WMA. The CSAP contains an appendix for each WMA that describes the details of WMA-specific pre-remediation data collection activities. The CSAP is intended to expand upon the data collection requirements identified in the Phase 1 Decommissioning Plan. The CSAP is intended to tightly integrate with the Phase 1 Final Status Survey Plan (FSSP). Data collection described by the CSAP is consistent with the FSSP where appropriate and to the extent possible.

  13. Site characterization plan overview: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1988-12-01

    To help the public better understand both the SCP and the site characterization program, the DOE has prepared this overview and the SCP Public Handbook. The overview presents summaries of selected topics covered in the SCP; it is not a substitute for the SCP. The organization of the overview is similar to that of the SCP itself, with brief descriptions of the Yucca Mountain site, the repository, and the containers in which the waste would be packaged, followed by a discussion of the characterization program to be carried out at the Yucca Mountain site. This overview is intended primarily for those persons who want to understand the general scope and basis of the site-characterization program, the activities to be conducted, and the facilities to be constructed without spending the time necessary to become familiar with all of the technical details presented in the SCP. For the readers of the SCP, the overview will be useful as a general guide to the plan. The SCP Public Handbook is a short document that contains brief descriptions of the SCP process and the contents of the SCP. It also explains how the public can submit comments on the SCP and lists the libraries and reading rooms at which the SCP is available. 9 refs., 18 tabs.

  14. Preclosure performance assessment review of the draft site characterization plan conceptual design report: Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Waite, D.A.; Gupta, R.; Ludwig, S.B.; Maheras, S.J.; Mayberry, J.J.; Plummer, A.M.; Tarapore, P.S.

    1987-12-01

    This report presents the preclosure performance assessment review (PAR) of the Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design Report (SCP-CDR). The PAR was performed on the design presented in the SCP-CDR working draft, Revision 1, released in October 1986. After review this working draft became the ''Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design Report'', Revision 1. There are two distinct objectives of the PAR: (1) to analyze the design presented in the SCP-CDR in terms of offsite and occupational radiological safety, and (2) to test safety assessment methods and tools. This report addresses only the first of the PAR objectives. The PAR analysis consists of assessments of offsite and occupational doses resulting from routine and abnormal repository events. The scope of the analysis is restricted to preclosure operations at the repository. This report addresses (1) the description of repository facilities and operations, (2) the development of radioactive material inventories and radiation dose rates, (3) the development of radioactive material release scenarios and source terms, and (4) the assessment of offsite and occupational radiation dose equivalents. This report contains a summary of the analyses in the above four areas, and analysis details are documented. The results of the assessments are compared with regulatory requirements to determine how the repository performs relative to the requirements. The analyses indicate that the offsite and occupational impacts comply with regulatory requirements. However, based on this preliminary analysis of the draft design document, the occupational impacts exceed the SCP-CDR design objective of 1 rem/year in some areas. 59 refs., 12 figs., 127 tabs.

  15. Protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial of an online intervention for post-treatment cancer survivors with persistent fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, Teresa; Walsh, Jane C; Groarke, AnnMarie; Moss-Morris, Rona; McGuire, Brian E

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Many post-treatment cancer survivors experience persistent fatigue that can disrupt attempts to resume normal everyday activities after treatment. Theoretical models that aim to explain contributory factors that initiate and sustain fatigue symptoms, or that influence the efficacy of interventions for cancer-related fatigue (CrF) require testing. Adjustment to fatigue is likely to be influenced by coping behaviours that are guided by the representations of the symptom. Objectives This paper describes the protocol for a pilot trial of a systematically and theoretically designed online intervention to enable self-management of CrF after cancer treatment. Methods and analysis This 2-armed randomised controlled pilot trial will study the feasibility and potential effectiveness of an online intervention. Participants will be allocated to either the online intervention (REFRESH (Recovery from Cancer-Related Fatigue)), or a leaflet comparator. Participants 80 post-treatment cancer survivors will be recruited for the study. Interventions An 8-week online intervention based on cognitive–behavioural therapy. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome is a change in fatigue as measured by the Piper Fatigue Scale (revised). Quality of life will be measured using the Quality of Life in Adult Survivors of Cancer Scale. Outcome measures will be collected at baseline, and at completion of intervention. Results The feasibility of trial procedures will be tested, as well as the effect of the intervention on the outcomes. Conclusions This study may lead to the development of a supportive resource to target representations and coping strategies of cancer survivors with CrF post-treatment. Setting Recruitment from general public in Ireland. Ethics and dissemination This trial was approved by the Research Ethics Committee at National University of Ireland Galway in January 2013. Trial results will be communicated in a peer-reviewed journal. Trial

  16. Prostacyclin post-treatment improves LPS-induced acute lung injury and endothelial barrier recovery via Rap1

    PubMed Central

    Birukova, Anna A.; Meng, Fanyong; Tian, Yufeng; Meliton, Angelo; Sarich, Nicolene; Quilliam, Lawrence A.; Birukov, Konstantin G.

    2015-01-01

    Protective effects of prostacyclin (PC) or its stable analog beraprost against agonist-induced lung vascular inflammation have been associated with elevation of intracellular cAMP and Rac GTPase signaling which inhibited the RhoA GTPase-dependent pathway of endothelial barrier dysfunction. This study investigated a distinct mechanism of PC-stimulated lung vascular endothelial (EC) barrier recovery and resolution of LPS-induced inflammation mediated by small GTPase Rap1. Efficient barrier recovery was observed in LPS-challenged pulmonary EC after prostacyslin administration even after 15 hrs of initial inflammatory insult and was accompanied by the significant attenuation of p38 MAP kinase and NFkB signaling and decreased production of IL-8 and soluble ICAM1. These effects were reproduced in cells post-treated with 8CPT, a small molecule activator of Rap1-specific nucleotide exchange factor Epac. By contrast, pharmacologic Epac inhibitor, Rap1 knockdown, or knockdown of cell junction-associated Rap1 effector afadin attenuated EC recovery caused by PC or 8CPT post-treatment. The key role of Rap1 in lung barrier restoration was further confirmed in the murine model of LPS-induced acute lung injury. Lung injury was monitored by measurements of bronchoalveolar lavage protein content, cell count, and Evans blue extravasation and live imaging of vascular leak over 6 days using a fluorescent tracer. The data showed significant acceleration of lung recovery by PC and 8CPT post-treatment, which was abrogated in Rap1a−/− mice. These results suggest that post-treatment with PC triggers the Epac/Rap1/afadin-dependent mechanism of endothelial barrier restoration and downregulation of p38MAPK and NFkB inflammatory cascades, altogether leading to accelerated lung recovery. PMID:25545047

  17. The diagnostic value of endoscopy and Helicobacter pylori tests for peptic ulcer patients in late post-treatment setting

    PubMed Central

    Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid; Andreson, Helena; Lõivukene, Krista; Hütt, Pirje; Kolk, Helgi; Kull, Ingrid; Labotkin, Katrin; Mikelsaar, Marika

    2004-01-01

    Background Guidelines for management of peptic ulcer patients after the treatment are largely directed to detection of H. pylori infection using only non-invasive tests. We compared the diagnostic value of non-invasive and endoscopy based H. pylori tests in a late post-treatment setting. Methods Altogether 34 patients with dyspeptic complaints were referred for gastroscopy 5 years after the treatment of peptic ulcer using a one-week triple therapy scheme. The endoscopic and histologic findings were evaluated according to the Sydney classification. Bacteriological, PCR and cytological investigations and 13C-UBT tests were performed. Results Seventeen patients were defined H. pylori positive by 13C-UBT test, PCR and histological examination. On endoscopy, peptic ulcer persisted in 4 H. pylori positive cases. Among the 6 cases with erosions of the gastric mucosa, only two patients were H. pylori positive. Mucosal atrophy and intestinal metaplasia were revealed both in the H. pylori positive and H. pylori negative cases. Bacteriological examination revealed three clarithromycin resistant H. pylori strains. Cytology failed to prove validity for diagnosing H. pylori in a post-treatment setting. Conclusions In a late post-treatment setting, patients with dyspepsia should not be monitored only by non-invasive investigation methods; it is also justified to use the classical histological evaluation of H. pylori colonisation, PCR and bacteriology as they have shown good concordance with 13C-UBT. Moreover, endoscopy and histological investigation of a gastric biopsy have proved to be the methods with an additional diagnostic value, providing the physician with information about inflammatory, atrophic and metaplastic lesions of the stomach in dyspeptic H. pylori positive and negative patients. Bacteriological methods are suggested for detecting the putative antimicrobial resistance of H. pylori, aimed at successful eradication of infection in persistent peptic ulcer cases. PMID

  18. Site health and safety plan/work plan for further characterization of waste drums at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Abston, J.P.; Burman, S.N.; Jones, D.L.

    1995-10-01

    The health and safety plan/work plan describes a strategy for characterizing the contents of 172 liquid waste and 33 solid waste drums. It also addresses the control measures that will be taken to (1) prevent or minimize any adverse impact on the environment or personnel safety and health and (2) meet standards that define acceptable management of hazardous and radioactive materials and wastes. When writing this document, the authors considered past experiences, recommendations, and best management practices to minimize possible hazards to human health or the environment from events such as fires, explosions, falls, mechanical hazards, or unplanned releases of hazardous or radioactive materials to air, soil, or surface water.

  19. Characterizing Urban Traffic Exposures Using Transportation Planning Tools: An Illustrated Methodology for Health Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Gute, David M.; Brugge, Doug; Peterson, Scott; Parmenter, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to elevated levels of vehicular traffic has been associated with adverse cardiovascular and respiratory health effects in a range of populations, including children, the elderly, and individuals with pre-existing heart conditions, diabetes, obesity, and genetic susceptibilities. As these relationships become clearer, public health officials will need to have access to methods to identify areas of concern in terms of elevated traffic levels and susceptible populations. This paper briefly reviews current approaches for characterizing traffic exposure and then presents a detailed method that can be employed by public health officials and other researchers in performing screening assessments to define areas of potential concern within a particular locale and, with appropriate caveats, in epidemiologic studies examining traffic-related health impacts at the intra-urban scale. The method is based on two exposure parameters extensively used in numerous epidemiologic studies of traffic and health—proximity to high traffic roadways and overall traffic density. The method is demonstrated with publically available information on susceptible populations, traffic volumes, and Traffic Analysis Zones, a transportation planning tool long used by Metropolitan Planning Agencies and planners across the USA but presented here as a new application which can be used to spatially assess possible traffic-related impacts on susceptible populations. Recommendations are provided for the appropriate use of this methodology, along with its limitations. PMID:20094920

  20. Effect of post-treatment on photocatalytic oxidation activity of (111) oriented NaNbO3 film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Feng; Wu, Zhou; Sun, Bingyang; Li, Guoqiang; Zhang, Weifeng

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the impact of post-treatment on photocatalytic oxidation activity of (111) oriented NaNbO3 film prepared by pulse laser deposition. Some impurities such as Na2Nb4O11 and bigger particles appear in the treated samples. The activity of rhodamine B degradation with N2 purge increases with the amount of ṡOH, the sample treated under H2/Ar(7%) being the highest activity, followed by under air and untreated one; the opposite trend is observed when the system was without N2 purge.

  1. Co- and Post-Treatment with Lysine Protects Primary Fish Enterocytes against Cu-Induced Oxidative Damage.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Yin; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Juan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the work was primarily to explore the protective activity pathways of lysine against oxidative damage in fish in vivo and in enterocytes in vitro. First, grass carp were fed diets containing six graded levels of lysine (7.1-19.6 g kg-1 diet) for 56 days. Second, the enterocytes were treated with different concentrations of lysine (0-300 mg/L in media) prior to (pre-treatment), along with (co-treatment) or following (post-treatment) with 6 mg/L of Cu for 24 h. The results indicated that lysine improved grass carp growth performance. Meanwhile, lysine ameliorated lipid and protein oxidation by elevating the gene expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathioneperoxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and reductase (GR)), and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) mRNA levels in fish intestine. The in vitro studies showed that co- and post-treatment with lysine conferred significant protection against Cu-induced oxidative damage in fish primary enterocytes as measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) OD values, along with alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase activities, and the depletion of protein carbonyl (PC), malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine contents. Moreover, lysine co-treatment decreased the activities and mRNA level of cellular SOD, GPx, GST and GR compared with the Cu-only exposed group. Gene expression of the signalling molecule Nrf2 showed the same pattern as that of SOD activity, whereas Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1b (Keap1b) followed the opposite trend, indicating that co-treatment with lysine induced antioxidant enzymes that protected against oxidative stress through Nrf2 pathway. In addition, post-treatment with lysine increased proteasomal activity and blocked the Cu-stimulated increase in mRNA levels of GST and associated catalase (CAT) and GST activities (P<0.01 and P<0.001). GR activity and gene

  2. Field efficacy evaluation and post-treatment contamination risk assessment of an ultraviolet disinfection and safe storage system.

    PubMed

    Reygadas, Fermin; Gruber, Joshua S; Ray, Isha; Nelson, Kara L

    2015-11-15

    Inconsistent use of household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) systems reduces their potential health benefits. Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection is more convenient than some existing HWTS systems, but it does not provide post-treatment residual disinfectant, which could leave drinking water vulnerable to recontamination. In this paper, using as-treated analyses, we report on the field efficacy of a UV disinfection system at improving household drinking water quality in rural Mexico. We further assess the risk of post-treatment contamination from the UV system, and develop a process-based model to better understand household risk factors for recontamination. This study was part of a larger cluster-randomized stepped wedge trial, and the results complement previously published population-level results of the intervention on diarrheal prevalence and water quality. Based on the presence of Escherichia coli (proportion of households with ≥ 1 E. coli/100 mL), we estimated a risk difference of -28.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): -33.9%, -22.1%) when comparing intervention to control households; -38.6% (CI: -48.9%, -28.2%) when comparing post- and pre-intervention results; and -37.1% (CI: -45.2%, -28.9%) when comparing UV disinfected water to alternatives within the household. We found substantial increases in post-treatment E. coli contamination when comparing samples from the UV system effluent (5.0%) to samples taken from the storage container (21.1%) and drinking glasses (26.0%). We found that improved household infrastructure, additional extractions from the storage container, additional time from when the storage container was filled, and increased experience of the UV system operator were associated with reductions in post-treatment contamination. Our results suggest that the UV system is efficacious at improving household water quality when used as intended. Promoting safe storage habits is essential for an effective UV system dissemination. The drinking

  3. Co- and Post-Treatment with Lysine Protects Primary Fish Enterocytes against Cu-Induced Oxidative Damage

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xue-Yin; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Juan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the work was primarily to explore the protective activity pathways of lysine against oxidative damage in fish in vivo and in enterocytes in vitro. First, grass carp were fed diets containing six graded levels of lysine (7.1–19.6 g kg-1 diet) for 56 days. Second, the enterocytes were treated with different concentrations of lysine (0–300 mg/L in media) prior to (pre-treatment), along with (co-treatment) or following (post-treatment) with 6 mg/L of Cu for 24 h. The results indicated that lysine improved grass carp growth performance. Meanwhile, lysine ameliorated lipid and protein oxidation by elevating the gene expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathioneperoxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and reductase (GR)), and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) mRNA levels in fish intestine. The in vitro studies showed that co- and post-treatment with lysine conferred significant protection against Cu-induced oxidative damage in fish primary enterocytes as measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) OD values, along with alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase activities, and the depletion of protein carbonyl (PC), malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine contents. Moreover, lysine co-treatment decreased the activities and mRNA level of cellular SOD, GPx, GST and GR compared with the Cu-only exposed group. Gene expression of the signalling molecule Nrf2 showed the same pattern as that of SOD activity, whereas Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1b (Keap1b) followed the opposite trend, indicating that co-treatment with lysine induced antioxidant enzymes that protected against oxidative stress through Nrf2 pathway. In addition, post-treatment with lysine increased proteasomal activity and blocked the Cu-stimulated increase in mRNA levels of GST and associated catalase (CAT) and GST activities (P<0.01 and P<0.001). GR activity and gene

  4. Enhanced killing effects of caffein post-treatment in ultraviolet-light irradiated mouse lymphoma cells: is cAMP a mediator of the effects?

    PubMed

    Kuwashima, Y; Miyachi, Y; Okada, S; Iio, M; Nakamura, N

    1983-01-01

    Effects of post-treatment with caffein, cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate (cAMP) and N6, O2-dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP) were investigated in ultraviolet light (UV)-irradiated mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells. Under conditions where UV or each chemical alone caused only slight cytotoxic effects, caffein post-treatment showed clear synergistic effects in cell killing but not for cAMP or dbcAMP. Subsequently, a mutant clone resistant to cAMP was isolated. This mutant was supposed to be deficient in cAMP-mediated cellular functions. Using the mutant cells, it was found that these cells were also sensitive to caffein post-treatment as wild cells after UV-irradiation. The results imply that the enhanced killing effects by caffein post-treatment in UV irradiated cells is not mediated by cAMP. PMID:6093199

  5. M\\TiO₂ (M=Au, Ag) transparent aqueous sols and its application on polymeric surface antibacterial post-treatment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liangzhuan; Yu, Yuan; Song, Le; Zhi, Jinfang

    2015-05-15

    In this paper, we reported a simple and mild chemical method for synthesis of crystalline metal\\TiO2 (M=Au, Ag) transparent aqueous sols at low temperature (80°C). It should be found that the as-synthesized metal\\TiO2 sols could easily be coated on the flexible PET surfaces of the through the as-developed electroless-plating-like solution deposition (EPLSD) procedure. The as-prepared metal\\TiO2 sols and related flexible thin film were characterized by TEM, SEM, XRD, UV-vis, and FTIR analysis. The results showed that the Au and Ag nanoparticles can significantly improve the optical absorption properties of TiO2 due to the surface plasmon generated by the noble metal, which in turn enhanced the photo-induced antibacterial performance of the as-prepared metal\\TiO2 flexible film. Moreover, the photo-generated electrons could transfer between the metal and titanium dioxide under different irradiation (ultraviolet or visible light), which could significantly reduce the recombination of photo-induced electrons and holes, resulting in the better photo-induced antibacterial performance. Therefore, the EPLSD procedure may be used as a general polymeric surface antibacterial post-treatment procedure for preparing the metal\\TiO2 flexible film because of the noble metal enhanced antibacterial performance. PMID:25678155

  6. Tuning model drug release and soft-tissue bioadhesion of polyester films by plasma post-treatment.

    PubMed

    Mogal, Vishal T; Yin, Chaw Su; O'Rorke, Richard; Boujday, Souhir; Méthivier, Christophe; Venkatraman, Subbu S; Steele, Terry W J

    2014-04-23

    Plasma treatments are investigated as a post-production method of tuning drug release and bioadhesion of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) thin films. PLGA films were treated under varying conditions by controlling gas flow rate, composition, treatment time, and radio frequency (RF) power. In vitro release of the drug-like molecule fluorescein diacetate (FDAc) from plasma-treated PLGA was tunable by controlling RF power; an increase of 65% cumulative release is reported compared to controls. Bioadhesion was sensitive to RF power and treatment time, assessed using ex vivo shear-stress tests with wetted swine aorta. We report a maximum bioadhesion ∼6-fold that of controls and 5-fold that of DOPA-based mussel adhesives tested to swine skin.1 The novelty of this post-treatment is the activation of a hydrophobic polyester film for bioadhesion, which can be quenched, while simultaneously tuning drug-release kinetics. This exemplifies the promise of plasma post-treatment for in-clinic bioadhesive activation, along with technological advancements, i.e., atmospheric plasma and hand-held "plasma pencils". PMID:24666261

  7. Pre- and post-treatment effect of physostigmine on soman-inhibited human erythrocyte and muscle acetylcholinesterase in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Herkert, N.M.; Schulz, S.; Wille, T.; Thiermann, H.; Hatz, R.A.; Worek, F.

    2011-05-15

    Standard treatment of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning includes administration of an antimuscarinic (e.g., atropine) and of an oxime-based reactivator. However, successful oxime treatment in soman poisoning is limited due to rapid aging of phosphylated acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Hence, the inability of standard treatment procedures to counteract the effects of soman poisoning resulted in the search for alternative strategies. Recently, results of an in vivo guinea pig study indicated a therapeutic effect of physostigmine given after soman. The present study was performed to investigate a possible pre- and post-treatment effect of physostigmine on soman-inhibited human AChE given at different time intervals before or after perfusion with soman by using a well-established dynamically working in vitro model for real-time analysis of erythrocyte and muscle AChE. The major findings were that prophylactic physostigmine prevented complete inhibition of AChE by soman and resulted in partial spontaneous recovery of the enzyme by decarbamylation. Physostigmine given as post-treatment resulted in a time-dependent reduction of the protection from soman inhibition and recovery of AChE. Hence, these date indicate that physostigmine given after soman does not protect AChE from irreversible inhibition by the OP and that the observed therapeutic effect of physostigmine in nerve agent poisoning in vivo is probably due to other factors.

  8. Catalytic oxidation with Al-Ce-Fe-PILC as a post-treatment system for coffee wet processing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sanabria, Nancy R; Peralta, Yury M; Montañez, Mardelly K; Rodríguez-Valencia, Nelson; Molina, Rafael; Moreno, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    The effluent from the anaerobic biological treatment of coffee wet processing wastewater (CWPW) contains a non-biodegradable compound that must be treated before it is discharged into a water source. In this paper, the wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation (WHPCO) process using Al-Ce-Fe-PILC catalysts was researched as a post-treatment system for CWPW and tested in a semi-batch reactor at atmospheric pressure and 25 °C. The Al-Ce-Fe-PILC achieved a high conversion rate of total phenolic compounds (70%) and mineralization to CO(2) (50%) after 5 h reaction time. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) of coffee processing wastewater after wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation was reduced in 66%. The combination of the two treatment methods, biological (developed by Cenicafé) and catalytic oxidation with Al-Ce-Fe-PILC, achieved a 97% reduction of COD in CWPW. Therefore, the WHPCO using Al-Ce-Fe-PILC catalysts is a viable alternative for the post-treatment of coffee processing wastewater. PMID:22907449

  9. Physicochemical determinants of multiwalled carbon nanotubes on cellular toxicity: influence of a synthetic method and post-treatment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Eun; Kang, Seung-Hyon; Moon, Youngmi; Chae, Jin-Joo; Lee, Ah Young; Lee, Jae-Ho; Yu, Kyeong-Nam; Jeong, Dae Hong; Choi, Mansoo; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2014-02-17

    Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), scientists have performed extensive studies on nanotubes in the fields of materials science, physics, and electronic engineering. Because multiwalled CNTs (MWCNTs) are not homogeneous materials, and because it is not feasible to test every newly synthesized MWCNT, this study was aimed at investigating the physicochemical properties that primarily determine the cellular toxicity of MWCNTs. This study analyzed the relationship between cell viability and physicochemical characteristics following exposure to eight different MWCNTs. We generated eight different MWCNTs using various synthetic methods and post-treatments. From this analysis, we sought to identify the major physicochemical determinants that could predict the cellular toxicity of MWCNTs, regardless of the synthetic method and post-treatment conditions. Creation of binding sites on the tube walls by breaking C-C bonds played a pivotal role in increasing toxicity and was most clearly demonstrated by a Raman G peak shift and the ID/IG ratio. In addition, several factors were found to be strongly related to cellular toxicity: surface charge in the case of MWCNTs created by the chemical vapor deposition method and surface area and EPR intensity in the case of MWCNTs created by the arc discharge based method. The methods developed in this study could be applied to the prediction of the toxicity of newly synthesized MWCNTs. PMID:24405247

  10. Site Characterization Plan for decontamination and decommissioning of Buildings 3506 and 3515 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Buildings 3506, the Waste Evaporator Facility, and 3515, the Fission Product Pilot Plant, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), are scheduled for decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). This Site Characterization Plan (SCP) presents the strategy and techniques to be used to characterize Buildings 3506/3515 for the purpose of planning D&D activities. The elements of the site characterization for Buildings 3506/3515 are planning and preparation, field investigation, and characterization reporting. Other level of effort activities will include management and oversight, project controls, meetings, and progress reporting. The objective of the site characterization is to determine the nature and extent of radioactive and hazardous materials and other industrial hazards in and around the buildings. This information will be used in subsequent planning to develop a detailed approach for final decommissioning of the facilities: (1) to evaluate decommissioning alternatives and design the most cost-effective D&D approach; (2) to determine the level and type of protection necessary for D&D workers; and (3) to estimate the types and volumes of wastes generated during D&D activities. The current D&D characterization scope includes the entire building, including the foundation and equipment or materials within the building. To estimate potential worker exposure from the soil during D&D, some subfoundation soil sample collection is planned. Buildings 3506/3515 are located in the ORNL main plant area, to the west and east, respectively, of the South Tank Farm. Building 3506 was built in 1949 to house a liquid waste evaporator and was subsequently used for an incinerator experiment. Partial D&D was done prior to abandonment, and most equipment has been removed. Building 3515 was built in 1948 to house fission product separation equipment. In about 1960, all entrances were sealed with concrete block and mortar. Building 3515 is expected to be highly contaminated.

  11. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site; to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. Chapter 3 summarizes present knowledge of the regional and site hydrologic systems. The purpose of the information presented is to (1) describe the hydrology based on available literature and preliminary site-exploration activities that have been or are being performed and (2) provide information to be used to develop the hydrologic aspects of the planned site characterization program. Chapter 4 contains geochemical information about the Yucca Mountain site. The chapter references plan for continued collection of geochemical data as a part of the site characterization program. Chapter 4 describes and evaluates data on the existing climate and site meterology, and outlines the suggested procedures to be used in developing and validating methods to predict future climatic variation. 534 refs., 100 figs., 72 tabs.

  12. Hanford tanks initiative work plan -- subsurface characterization to support the closure-readiness demonstration for tank 241-AX-104

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D.B.

    1996-09-27

    This document presents a plan for subsurface investigation near 241-AX-104 Single-Shell tank. Objectives of the investigation are soil sampling and analyses (physical and chemical), local stratigraphic correlation, groundwater background characterization, and geophysical surveys. The primary purpose of the investigation is to supply physical and hydraulic properties for numerical modeling of vadose zone flow and transport.

  13. Site Characterization Work Plan for Gnome-Coach Site, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    2001-02-13

    Project Gnome was the first nuclear experiment conducted under the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), predecessor to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Plowshare Program. Gnome was part of a joint government-industry experiment focused on developing nuclear devices exclusively for peaceful purposes. The intent of the Gnome experiment was to evaluate the effects of a nuclear detonation in a salt medium. Historically, Project Gnome consisted of a single detonation of a nuclear device on December 10, 1961. Since the Gnome detonation, the AEC/DOE has conducted surface restoration, site reconnaissance, and decontamination and decommissioning activities at the site. In addition, annual groundwater sampling is performed under a long-term hydrological monitoring program begun in 1980. Coach, an experiment to be located near the Gnome project, was initially scheduled for 1963. Although construction and rehabilitation were completed for Coach, the experiment was canceled and never executed. Known collectively as Project Gnome-Coach, the site is situated within the Salado Formation approximately 25 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico, in Eddy County, and is comprised of nearly 680 acres, of which 60 acres are disturbed from the combined AEC/DOE operations. The scope of this work plan is to document the environmental objectives and the proposed technical site investigation strategies that will be utilized for the site characterization of the project. The subsurface at the Gnome-Coach site has two contaminant sources that are fundamentally different in terms of both their stratigraphic location and release mechanism. The goal of this characterization is to collect data of sufficient quantity and quality to establish current site conditions and to use the data to identify and evaluate if further action is required to protect human health and the environment and achieve permanent closure of the site. The results of these activities will be presented in a subsequent corrective

  14. Site Characterization Work Plan for the Gnome-Coach Site, New Mexico (Rev. 1, January 2002)

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office

    2002-01-14

    Project Gnome was the first nuclear experiment conducted under the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), predecessor to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Plowshare Program. The Plowshare Program focused on developing nuclear devices exclusively for peaceful purposes. The intent of the Gnome experiment was to evaluate the effects of a nuclear detonation in a salt medium. Historically, Project Gnome consisted of a single detonation of a nuclear device on December 10, 1961 with the Salado Formation. Since the Gnome detonation, the AEC/DOE has conducted surface restoration, site reconnaissance, and decontamination and decommissioning activities at the site. In addition, annual groundwater sampling is performed under a long-term hydrological monitoring program begun in 1972. Coach, an experiment to be located near the Gnome project, was initially scheduled for 1963. Although construction and rehabilitation were completed for Coach, the experiment was canceled and never executed. Known collectively as Project Gnome-Coach, the site is located approximately 25 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico, in Eddy County, and is comprised of nearly 680 acres, of which approximately 60 acres are disturbed from the combined AEC/DOE operations. The scope of this work plan is to document the environmental objectives and the proposed technical site investigation strategies that will be utilized for the site characterization of the project. The subsurface at the Gnome-Coach site has two contaminant sources that are fundamentally different in terms of both their stratigraphic location and release mechanism. The goal of this characterization is to collect data of sufficient quantity and quality to establish current site conditions and to use the data to identify and evaluate if further action is required to protect human health and the environment and achieve permanent closure of the site. The results of these activities will be presented in a subsequent corrective action decision document.

  15. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 1, Part A: Chapters 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 750 refs., 123 figs., 42 tabs.

  16. Site Characterization Plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 3, Part A: Chapters 6 and 7

    SciTech Connect

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 218 figs., 50 tabs.

  17. Technical know-how relevant to planning of borehole investigation for fault characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, T.; Takeuchi, R.; Tsuruta, T.; Matsuoka, T.; Kunimaru, T.; Saegusa, H.

    2011-12-01

    As part of the national R&D program for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW), the broad scientific study of the deep geological environment, JAEA has established the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) in Central Japan as a generic underground research laboratory (URL) facility. The MIU Project focuses on the crystalline rocks. In the case of fractured rock, a fault is one of the major discontinuity structures which control the groundwater flow conditions. It is important to estimate geological, hydrogeological, hydrochemical and rock mechanical characteristics of faults, and then to evaluate its role in the engineering design of repository and the assessment of long-term safety of HLW disposal. Therefore, investigations for fault characterization have been performed to estimate its characteristics and to evaluate existing conceptual and/or numerical models of the geological environment in the MIU project. Investigations related to faults have been conducted based on the conventional concept that a fault consists of a "fault core (FC)" characterized by distribution of the faulted rocks and a "fractured zone (FZ)" along FC. With the progress of investigations, furthermore, it is clear that there is also a case in which an "altered zone (AZ)" characterized by alteration of host rocks to clay minerals can be developed around the FC. Intensity of alteration in AZ generally decreases with distance from the FC, and AZ transits to FZ. Therefore, the investigation program focusing on properties of AZ is required for revising the existing conceptual and/or numerical models of geological environment. In this study, procedures for planning of fault characterizations have been summarized based on the technical know-how learnt through the MIU Project for the development of Knowledge Management System performed by JAEA under a contract with the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry as part of its R&D supporting program for developing geological

  18. Protection afforded by pre- or post-treatment with 4-phenylbutyrate against liver injury induced by acetaminophen overdose in mice.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Daisuke; Ishitsuka, Yoichi; Miyata, Keishi; Tomishima, Yoshiro; Kondo, Yuki; Irikura, Mitsuru; Iwawaki, Takao; Oike, Yuichi; Irie, Tetsumi

    2014-09-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol, N-acetyl-p-aminophenol; APAP) is a widely used analgesic/antipyretic drug with few adverse effects at therapeutic doses; suicidal or unintentional overdose of APAP frequently induces severe hepatotoxicity. To explore a new and effective antidote for APAP hepatotoxicity, this study examined the effects of sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) on liver injury induced by APAP overdose in mice. Liver injury was induced in C57BL/6 male mice by intraperitoneal injection of APAP (400mg/kg). The effects of 4-PBA (100-200mg/kg) treatment at 1h before the APAP injection were evaluated with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and blood ammonia levels, hepatic pathological changes, including histopathology, DNA damage, nitrotyrosine formation, and mRNA or protein expression involved in the development of hepatotoxicity, such as X-box binding protein-1 (XBP1), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and B-cell lymphoma 2 interacting mediator of cell death (Bim). In addition, glutathione depletion and CYP2E1 protein expression, which are measures of the metabolic conversion of APAP to a toxic metabolite, were examined. Furthermore, we examined the effects of post-treatment with 4-PBA against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. When administered at 1h before APAP injection, 4-PBA significantly prevented the increase in serum ALT and blood ammonia levels, centrilobular necrosis of hepatocytes, DNA fragmentation, and nitrotyrosine formation induced by APAP in mice. 4-PBA also inhibited hepatic Xbp1 mRNA splicing and JNK phosphorylation induced by APAP, but did not suppress CHOP and Bim mRNA and protein expression. In addition, 4-PBA had little effect on hepatic glutathione depletion and CYP2E1 expression, parameters of toxic APAP metabolite production. Post-treatment with 4-PBA administration at 1 or 2h after APAP injection also attenuated the increase in serum ALT and blood ammonia levels and hepatic pathological changes in APAP

  19. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 6

    SciTech Connect

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  20. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in acordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and eveloping a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing prinicples, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed. 880 refs., 130 figs., 25 tabs.

  1. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 7

    SciTech Connect

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Neavada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended and approved for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining hte geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare and environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  2. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    SciTech Connect

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended by the Secretary of Energy and approved by the President for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the requirements of the Nulcear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of the site characterization plan are oulined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  3. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended and approved by the President for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site; to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package; and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstate the suitability of the site for a repository, to desin the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next; it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  4. Postclosure performance assessment of the SCP (Site Characterization Plan) conceptual design for horizontal emplacement: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    This report is a preliminary postclosure performance assessment of the repository design specified in the Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design Report (SCP-CDR) for horizontal emplacement of high-level nuclear waste. At the time that these analyses were done, horizontal emplacement was the preferred orientation for the waste packages but vertical emplacement is now the reference design. This assessment consists of (1) a review of the regulatory requirements and strategy to demonstrate compliance with these requirements, (2) an analysis of the performance of the total repository system, (3) an analysis of the thermomechanical behavior of the repository, (4) an analysis of brine mobility in the repository, (5) an analysis of the waste package performance, (6) an analysis of the performance of seals, and (7) comments on the sensitivity of the various performance measures to uncertainties in the data and models. These are preliminary analyses and, in most cases, involve bounding calculations of the repository behavior. They have several purposes including (1) assessing how well this conceptual design ''measures up'' against requirements, (2) gaining experience in implementing the performance assessment strategy and tools and thereby learning where improvements are needed, (3) helping to identify needed data, and (4) helping to indicate required design modifications. 26 refs., 40 figs., 20 tabs.

  5. Site Characterization Work Plan for Gasbuggy, New Mexico (Rev.1, Jan. 2002)

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office

    2002-01-25

    Project Gasbuggy was the first of three joint government-industry experiments conducted to test the effectiveness of nuclear explosives to fracture deeply buried, low-permeability natural gas reservoirs to stimulate production. The scope of this work plan is to document the environmental objectives and the proposed technical site investigation strategies that will be utilized for the site characterization of the Project Gasbuggy Site. Its goal is the collection of data in sufficient quantity and quality to determine current site conditions, support a risk assessment for the site surfaces, and evaluate if further remedial action is required to achieve permanent closure of the site that is both protective of human health and the environment. The Gasbuggy Site is located approximately 55 air miles east of Farmington, New Mexico, in Rio Arriba County within the Carson National Forest in the northeast portion of the San Juan Basin. Historically, Project Gasbuggy consisted of the joint government-industry detonation of a nuclear device on December 10, 1967, followed by reentry drilling and gas production testing and project evaluation activities in post-detonation operations from 1967 to 1976. Based on historical documentation, no chemical release sites other than the mud pits were identified; additionally, there was no material buried at the Gasbuggy Site other than drilling fluids and construction debris. Although previous characterization and restoration activities including sensitive species surveys, cultural resources surveys, surface geophysical surveys, and limited soil sampling and analysis were performed in 1978 and again in 2000, no formal closure of the site was achieved. Also, these efforts did not adequately address the site's potential for chemical contamination at the surface/shallow subsurface ground levels or the subsurface hazards for potential migration outside of the current site subsurface intrusion restrictions. Additional investigation activities

  6. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration, site characterization plan: Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This plan presents the strategy for the characterization of the Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility at the Nevada Test Site which will be conducted for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, Environmental Restoration Division. The objectives of the planned activities are to: obtain sufficient, sample analytical data from which further assessment, remediation, and/or closure strategies may be developed for the site; obtain sufficient, sample analytical data for management of investigation-derived waste. The scope of the characterization may include surface radiation survey(s), surface soil sampling, subsurface soil boring (i.e., drilling), and sampling of soil in and around the pond; in situ sampling of the soil within subsurface soil borings; and sample analysis for both site characterization and waste management purposes.

  7. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration site characterization plan. Area 6 Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This plan presents the strategy for the characterization of the Area 6 South and North Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEPs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to be conducted for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Environmental Restoration Division (ERD). The purposes of the planned activities are to: obtain sufficient, sample analytical data from which further assessment, remediation, and/or closure strategies may be developed for the site; obtain sufficient, sample analytical data for management of investigation-derived waste (IDW). The scope of the characterization may include excavation, drilling, and sampling of soil in and around both ponds; sampling of the excavated material; in situ sampling of the soil at the bottom and on the sides of the excavations as well as within subsurface borings; and conducting sample analysis for both characterization and waste management purposes. Contaminants of concern include RCRA-regulated VOCs and metals.

  8. Bias-enhanced post-treatment process for enhancing the electron field emission properties of ultrananocrystalline diamond films

    SciTech Connect

    Saravanan, A.; Huang, B. R.; Sankaran, K. J.; Tai, N. H.; Dong, C. L.; Lin, I. N.

    2015-03-16

    The electron field emission (EFE) properties of ultrananocrystalline diamond films were markedly improved via the bias-enhanced plasma post-treatment (bep) process. The bep-process induced the formation of hybrid-granular structure of the diamond (bep-HiD) films with abundant nano-graphitic phase along the grain boundaries that increased the conductivity of the films. Moreover, the utilization of Au-interlayer can effectively suppress the formation of resistive amorphous-carbon (a-C) layer, thereby enhancing the transport of electrons crossing the diamond-to-Si interface. Therefore, bep-HiD/Au/Si films exhibit superior EFE properties with low turn-on field of E{sub 0} = 2.6 V/μm and large EFE current density of J{sub e} = 3.2 mA/cm{sup 2} (at 5.3 V/μm)

  9. Sprouty2 protein in prediction of post-treatment ascites in epithelial ovarian cancer treated with adjuvant carbotaxol chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Masoumi-Moghaddam, Samar; Amini, Afshin; Wei, Ai-Qun; Robertson, Gregory; Morris, David L

    2015-01-01

    Ascites development and resistance to chemotherapy with carbotaxol are common clinical problems in epithelial ovarian cancer, partly due to the activation of MAPK/ERK signaling. Sprouty proteins are negative modulators of MAPK/ERK pathway, but their role in predicting resistance to carbotaxol chemotherapy and ascites development is unknown. In this study, we evaluated the expression of Sprouty protein isoforms by immunohistochemistry. The associations between the Sprouty expression and the clinicopathological features, including chemoresistance and the presence of ascites, were then explored. We found that the decreased expression of Spry2 was correlated with the post-treatment development of ascites and represented an independent predictor of this condition in carbotaxol-treated patients. However, no association was observed between the Sprouty expression and chemoresistance. In conclusion, our results suggest that Spry2 may be useful for patient follow-up and monitoring as it predicts the development of ascites in epithelial ovarian cancer cases treated with carbotaxol. PMID:26396926

  10. Chemical post-treatment and thermoelectric properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxylthiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jinji; Billep, Detlef; Blaudeck, Thomas; Sheremet, Evgeniya; Rodriguez, Raul D.; Zahn, Dietrich R. T.; Toader, Marius; Hietschold, Michael; Otto, Thomas; Gessner, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    We report on the modification of the thermoelectric properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxylthiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) thin films by means of a simple post treatment of the solid thin films realized by drop-coating. We show that the organic polar solvents, dimethyl sulfoxide and ethylene glycol as secondary dopants for PEDOT:PSS, only affect the film morphology for which a high electrical conductivity is observed. In contrast, ethanolamine (MEA) and ammonia solutions are reduction agents that improve the density of PEDOT chains in the reduced forms (polaron and neutral states), resulting in the trade-off between Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity. Furthermore, we show that the nature of amines determines the reduction degree: the nitrogen lone pair electrons in MEA are easier to be donated than those in ammonia solution and will therefore neutralize the PEDOT chains.

  11. Effect of post-treatment processing on copper migration from Douglas-fir lumber treated with ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate.

    PubMed

    Ye, Min; Morrell, Jeffrey J

    2015-04-01

    Migration of heavy metals into aquatic environments has become a concern in some regions of the world. Many wood preservatives are copper based systems that have the potential to migrate from the wood and into the surrounding environment. Some wood treaters have developed "best management practices" (BMPs) that are designed to reduce the risk of migration, but there are few comparative studies assessing the efficacy of these processes. The potential for using various heating combinations to limit copper migration was assessed using ammoniacal coper zinc arsenate treated Douglas-fir lumber. Kiln drying and air drying both proved to be the most effective methods for limiting copper migration, while post-treatment steaming or hot water immersion produced more variable results. The results should provide guidance for improving the BMP processes. PMID:25659940

  12. Chemical post-treatment and thermoelectric properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxylthiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Jinji Blaudeck, Thomas; Billep, Detlef; Otto, Thomas; Sheremet, Evgeniya; Rodriguez, Raul D.; Zahn, Dietrich R. T.; Toader, Marius; Hietschold, Michael; Gessner, Thomas

    2014-02-07

    We report on the modification of the thermoelectric properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxylthiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) thin films by means of a simple post treatment of the solid thin films realized by drop-coating. We show that the organic polar solvents, dimethyl sulfoxide and ethylene glycol as secondary dopants for PEDOT:PSS, only affect the film morphology for which a high electrical conductivity is observed. In contrast, ethanolamine (MEA) and ammonia solutions are reduction agents that improve the density of PEDOT chains in the reduced forms (polaron and neutral states), resulting in the trade-off between Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity. Furthermore, we show that the nature of amines determines the reduction degree: the nitrogen lone pair electrons in MEA are easier to be donated than those in ammonia solution and will therefore neutralize the PEDOT chains.

  13. Post-treatment mechanical refining as a method to improve overall sugar recovery of steam pretreated hybrid poplar.

    PubMed

    Dou, Chang; Ewanick, Shannon; Bura, Renata; Gustafson, Rick

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates the effect of mechanical refining to improve the sugar yield from biomass processed under a wide range of steam pretreatment conditions. Hybrid poplar chips were steam pretreated using six different conditions with or without SO2. The resulting water insoluble fractions were subjected to mechanical refining. After refining, poplar pretreated at 205°C for 10min without SO2 obtained a 32% improvement in enzymatic hydrolysis and achieved similar overall monomeric sugar recovery (539kg/tonne) to samples pretreated with SO2. Refining did not improve hydrolyzability of samples pretreated at more severe conditions, nor did it improve the overall sugar recovery. By maximizing overall sugar recovery, refining could partially decouple the pretreatment from other unit operations, and enable the use of low temperature, non-sulfur pretreatment conditions. The study demonstrates the possibility of using post-treatment refining to accommodate potential pretreatment process upsets without sacrificing sugar yields. PMID:26881333

  14. Evaluation of the Quality of Life in Adult Cancer Survivors (QLACS) scale for early post-treatment breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Sohl, Stephanie J.; Levine, Beverly

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The end of primary treatment for cancer patients is increasingly recognized as an important time of adjustment that may impact quality of life (QoL). A psychometrically sound QoL instrument that assesses the mix of acute and longer-term concerns present during this unique time has not yet been identified. This article evaluates the Quality of Life in Adult Cancer Survivors (QLACS) scale, originally developed for long-term (≥5 years) cancer survivors, as an appropriate QoL measure for this transition period. Methods Psychometric properties of the QLACS were evaluated in a sample of post-treatment breast cancer survivors 18–24 months post-diagnosis. This observational study consisted of women (n = 552) aged 25 years and older (mean = 55.4 years) who were diagnosed with stage I, II, or III breast cancer. The 47 items of the QLACS comprise 12 domains: seven domains are generic, and five are cancer specific. Results The QLACS demonstrated adequate internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha for the 12 domains ranged from 0.79 to 0.91) and good convergent and divergent validity (assessed by comparison with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy and other measures). Conclusions The QLACS appears to be consistent with other widely accepted measures in capturing QoL, while also allowing for more inclusive measurement of specific issues relevant to post-treatment cancer survivors. These data, in addition to previous data supporting use of the QLACS across different cancer sites, suggest that the QLACS is a promising comprehensive QoL measure appropriate for breast cancer survivors transitioning off active treatment. PMID:24996392

  15. A new post-treatment process for attaining Ca2+, Mg2+, SO42- and alkalinity criteria in desalinated water.

    PubMed

    Birnhack, Liat; Lahav, Ori

    2007-09-01

    A novel post-treatment approach for desalinated water, aimed at supplying a balanced concentration of alkalinity, Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and SO(4)(2-), is introduced. The process is based on replacing excess Ca(2+) ions generated in the common H(2)SO(4)-based calcite dissolution post-treatment process with Mg(2+) ions originating from seawater. In the first step, Mg(2+) ions are separated from seawater by means of a specific ion exchange resin that has high affinity toward divalent cations (Mg(2+) and Ca(2+)) and an extremely low affinity toward monovalent cations (namely Na(+) and K(+)). In the second step, the Mg(2+)-loaded resin is contacted with the effluent of the calcite dissolution reactor and Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) are exchanged. Consequently, the excess Ca(2+) concentration in the water decreases while the Mg(2+) concentration increases. The process is stopped at a predetermined Ca(2+) to Mg(2+) ratio. All water streams used in the process are internal and form a part of the desalination plant sequence, regardless of the additional ion exchange component. The proposed process allows for the supply of cheap Mg(2+) ions, while at the same time enables the application of the cheap H(2)SO(4)-based calcite dissolution process, thus resulting in higher quality water at a cost-effective price. A case study is presented in which additional cost of supplying a Mg(2+) concentration of 12mg/L using the process is estimated at $0.004/m(3) product water. PMID:17618670

  16. Long-term treatment effects of the FR-2 appliance: a prospective evalution 7 years post-treatment

    PubMed Central

    Franchi, Lorenzo; Cevidanes, Lucia H. S.; Scanavini, Marco A.; McNamara, James A.

    2014-01-01

    AIM To examine the long-term effects induced by treatment with the function regulator (FR-2) appliance 7 years post-treatment compared with untreated class II subjects. SUBJECTS AND METHODS The FR-2 sample was collected prospectively and comprised 17 subjects (10 boys and 7 girls, mean age 10.8 years) who were treated with the FR-2 appliance for 1.7 years and re-evaluated 7.1 years after treatment. The step-by-step mandibular advancement was performed gradually (increments up to 3–4 mm), until a ‘super class I’ molar relationship was obtained. The control group consisted of 17 class II subjects (9 boys and 8 girls, mean age 11.3 years) with class II malocclusion, excessive overjet, and class II molar relationship, matched to the treated group as to ages at all times, gender distribution, and stages of skeletal maturity (evaluated by the cervical vertebral maturation method). The lateral cephalograms were analysed at T1 (initial), T2 (final), and T3 (7.1 years post-treatment). The compatibility between the groups and the comparisons of their changes at T1–T2, T2–T3, and T1–T3 intervals were examined by independent sample t-tests (P < 0.05). RESULTS FR-2 treatment provided a significant improvement in the maxillomandibular relationship due to an increase in mandibular length compared with controls, which remained stable over time. Also overjet, overbite, and molar relationship corrections demonstrated stability. Among dentoalveolar changes, only the increased mesial movement of the mandibular molars in the FR-2 group demonstrated stability. CONCLUSIONS Correction of class II malocclusion remained stable 7 years after FR-2 treatment mainly due to the stability of the skeletal changes. PMID:23736378

  17. Post-treatment of secondary wastewater treatment plant effluent using a two-stage fluidized bed bioreactor system.

    PubMed

    Safari, Golam Hossein; Yetilmezsoy, Kaan; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Zarrabi, Mansur

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of a two-stage fluidized bed reactor (FBR) system for the post-treatment of secondary wastewater treatment plant effluents (Shahrak Gharb, Tehran, Iran). The proposed treatment scheme was evaluated using pilot-scale reactors (106-L of capacity) filled with PVC as the fluidized bed (first stage) and gravel for the filtration purpose (second stage). Aluminum sulfate (30 mg/L) and chlorine (1 mg/L) were used for the coagulation and disinfection of the effluent, respectively. To monitor the performance of the FBR system, variation of several parameters (biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity, total phosphorous, total coliform and fecal coliform) were monitored in the effluent wastewater samples. The results showed that the proposed system could effectively reduce BOD5 and COD below 1.95 and 4.06 mg/L, respectively. Turbidity of the effluent could be achieved below 0.75 NTU, which was lower than those reported for the disinfection purpose. The total phosphorus was reduced to 0.52 mg/L, which was near the present phosphorous standard for the prevention of eutrophication process. Depending on both microorganism concentration and applied surface loading rates (5-10 m/h), about 35 to 75% and 67 to 97% of coliform were removed without and with the chlorine addition, respectively. Findings of this study clearly confirmed the efficiency of the FBR system for the post-treatment of the secondary wastewater treatment plant effluents without any solid problem during the chlorination. PMID:24499570

  18. Post-treatment of secondary wastewater treatment plant effluent using a two-stage fluidized bed bioreactor system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of a two-stage fluidized bed reactor (FBR) system for the post-treatment of secondary wastewater treatment plant effluents (Shahrak Gharb, Tehran, Iran). The proposed treatment scheme was evaluated using pilot-scale reactors (106-L of capacity) filled with PVC as the fluidized bed (first stage) and gravel for the filtration purpose (second stage). Aluminum sulfate (30 mg/L) and chlorine (1 mg/L) were used for the coagulation and disinfection of the effluent, respectively. To monitor the performance of the FBR system, variation of several parameters (biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity, total phosphorous, total coliform and fecal coliform) were monitored in the effluent wastewater samples. The results showed that the proposed system could effectively reduce BOD5 and COD below 1.95 and 4.06 mg/L, respectively. Turbidity of the effluent could be achieved below 0.75 NTU, which was lower than those reported for the disinfection purpose. The total phosphorus was reduced to 0.52 mg/L, which was near the present phosphorous standard for the prevention of eutrophication process. Depending on both microorganism concentration and applied surface loading rates (5–10 m/h), about 35 to 75% and 67 to 97% of coliform were removed without and with the chlorine addition, respectively. Findings of this study clearly confirmed the efficiency of the FBR system for the post-treatment of the secondary wastewater treatment plant effluents without any solid problem during the chlorination. PMID:24499570

  19. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Industrial Site Environmental Restoration Site Characterization Plan, Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-12

    This plan presents the strategy for the characterization of the Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility (DPF) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) which will be conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations OffIce (DOE/NV), Environmental Restoration Division (ERD). The objectives of the planned activities are to: o Obtain sufficient, ample analytical data from which further assessment, remediation, and/or closure strategies maybe developed for the site. o Obtain sufficient, sample analytical data for management of investigation-derived waste. All references to regulations contained in this plan are to the versions of the regulations that are current at the time of publication of this plan. The scope of the characterization may include surface radiation survey(s), surface soil sampling, subsurface soil boring (i.e., drilling), and sampling of soil in and Mound the pond; in situ sampling of the soil within subsurface soil borings; and sample analysis for both site . . characterization and waste management purposes.

  20. DCE-MRI for Pre-Treatment Prediction and Post-Treatment Assessment of Treatment Response in Sites of Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the Head and Neck

    PubMed Central

    King, Ann D.; Chow, Steven Kwok Keung; Yu, Kwok-Hung; Mo, Frankie Kwok Fai; Yeung, David K. W.; Yuan, Jing; Law, Benjamin King Hong; Bhatia, Kunwar S.; Vlantis, Alexander C.; Ahuja, Anil T.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose It is important to identify patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) who fail to respond to chemoradiotherapy so that they can undergo post-treatment salvage surgery while the disease is still operable. This study aimed to determine the diagnostic performance of dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)-MRI using a pharmacokinetic model for pre-treatment predictive imaging, as well as post-treatment diagnosis, of residual SCC at primary and nodal sites in the head and neck. Material and Methods Forty-nine patients with 83 SCC sites (primary and/or nodal) underwent pre-treatment DCE-MRI, and 43 patients underwent post-treatment DCE-MRI, of which 33 SCC sites had a residual mass amenable to analysis. Pre-treatment, post-treatment and % change in the mean Ktrans, kep, ve and AUGC were obtained from SCC sites. Logistic regression was used to correlate DCE parameters at each SCC site with treatment response at the same site, based on clinical outcome at that site at a minimum of two years. Results None of the pre-treatment DCE-MRI parameters showed significant correlations with SCC site failure (SF) (29/83 sites) or site control (SC) (54/83 sites). Post-treatment residual masses with SF (14/33) had significantly higher kep (p = 0.05), higher AUGC (p = 0.02), and lower % reduction in AUGC (p = 0.02), than residual masses with SC (19/33), with the % change in AUGC remaining significant on multivariate analysis. Conclusion Pre-treatment DCE-MRI did not predict which SCC sites would fail treatment, but post-treatment DCE-MRI showed potential for identifying residual masses that had failed treatment. PMID:26657972

  1. Site Characterization Plan for the Old Hydrofracture Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The aboveground structures of the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are scheduled for decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). This Site Characterization Plan presents the strategy and techniques to be used to characterize the OHF D&D structures in support of D&D planning, design, and implementation. OHF is located approximately 1 mile southwest of the main ORNL complex. From 1964 to 1979, OHF was used in the development and full-scale application of hydrofracture operations in which 969,000 gal of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) was mixed with grout and then injected under high pressure into a low-permeability shale formation approximately 1/6 mile underground.

  2. An experimental test plan for the characterization of molten salt thermochemical properties in heat transport systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pattrick Calderoni

    2010-09-01

    Molten salts are considered within the Very High Temperature Reactor program as heat transfer media because of their intrinsically favorable thermo-physical properties at temperatures starting from 300 C and extending up to 1200 C. In this context two main applications of molten salt are considered, both involving fluoride-based materials: as primary coolants for a heterogeneous fuel reactor core and as secondary heat transport medium to a helium power cycle for electricity generation or other processing plants, such as hydrogen production. The reference design concept here considered is the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), which is a large passively safe reactor that uses solid graphite-matrix coated-particle fuel (similar to that used in gas-cooled reactors) and a molten salt primary and secondary coolant with peak temperatures between 700 and 1000 C, depending upon the application. However, the considerations included in this report apply to any high temperature system employing fluoride salts as heat transfer fluid, including intermediate heat exchangers for gas-cooled reactor concepts and homogenous molten salt concepts, and extending also to fast reactors, accelerator-driven systems and fusion energy systems. The purpose of this report is to identify the technical issues related to the thermo-physical and thermo-chemical properties of the molten salts that would require experimental characterization in order to proceed with a credible design of heat transfer systems and their subsequent safety evaluation and licensing. In particular, the report outlines an experimental R&D test plan that would have to be incorporated as part of the design and operation of an engineering scaled facility aimed at validating molten salt heat transfer components, such as Intermediate Heat Exchangers. This report builds on a previous review of thermo-physical properties and thermo-chemical characteristics of candidate molten salt coolants that was generated as part of the

  3. Hypoxic-ischemic injury in the neonatal rat brain: effects of pre- and post-treatment with the glutamate release inhibitor BW1003C87.

    PubMed

    Gilland, E; Puka-Sundvall, M; Andiné, P; Bona, E; Hagberg, H

    1994-11-18

    In a model of perinatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) we examined the neuroprotective efficacy of pre- and post-treatment with the glutamate release inhibitor BW1003C87 [5-(2,3,5-trichlorophenyl)-2,4-diamino-pyrimidine). Ipsilateral brain damage developed in 99% of rat pups subjected to HI (unilateral common carotid artery ligation and 100 min of 7.7% oxygen exposure) with a 26 +/- 16% (mean +/- S.D.) weight deficit of the damaged hemisphere 2 weeks after the insult. Pre-treatment with BW1003C87 (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally) reduced the brain damage by 46% (P < 0.05). A higher dose (20 mg/kg) of pre-treatment was not tolerated. Administration of BW1003C87 did not affect the rectal temperature of the rats. Post-treatment with BW1003C87 (10-30 mg/kg) offered no neuroprotection in this model. In conclusion, there was a neuroprotective effect from pre- but not post-treatment with BW1003C87 in this model, supporting the concept that intra-ischemic excitatory amino acid release is important for development of brain damage. The lack of post-treatment effect indicates that BW1003C87 did not attenuate deleterious EAA cycling during reflow in the neonatal brain. PMID:7697873

  4. Effect of TiCl4 Post-Treatment on the Embedded-Type TiO2 Nanotubes Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kang-Pil; Kim, Jeong-Hwa; Hwang, Dae-Kue; Sung, Shi-Joon; Heo, Young-Woo

    2015-10-01

    We have studied the effect of TiCl4 post-treatment on the embedded-type TiO2 nanotubes (NT)-dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The TiO2 nanoparticles layer formed on TiO2 NTs surface by TiCl4 post-treatment showed different morphologies depending on TiCl4 treatment temperature. These different morphologies influenced the cell efficiency of TiO2 NT-DSSCs. The TiO2 NT treated with TiCl4 at 50 °C exhibited a rougher surface than that treated at 70 °C. The rough surface of the TiO2 NT improved the charge exchange between the dye and electrolyte. The TiO2 NT treated with TiCl4 at 50 °C showed better fill factor and cell efficiency than that treated at 70 °C. The TiCl4 post-treatment of TiO2 NT was effective at conditions of low temperature and long times. The TiO2 NT-DSSCs with TiCl4 post-treatment at 50 °C for 1.5 h showed an efficiency of 6.52%. PMID:26726426

  5. State of Nevada comments on the US Department of Energy site characterization plan, Yucca Mountain site, Nevada; Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1989-12-31

    We find the Site Characterization Plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area (DOE/RW-0160) seriously deficient, in terms of establishing an investigative program to confidently characterize hydrogeologic and closely-related aspects of the proposed repository, in the vadose zone at Yucca Mountain. Most hydrogeological licensing criteria indirectly measure waste isolation provided by the geologic environment during pre- and post-closure conditions. We believe the Site Characterization Plan (SCP) generally fails to establish scientifically sound and feasible programs of investigation that will, in a timely and confident manner, resolve most of the hydrogeologic and geochemical licensing issues that have been recognized since the vadose-zone repository was first proposed at this location in 1982. The SCP generally fails in its responsibility because it does not objectively set aside the DOE conceptual model of a ``dry`` repository environment with extremely slow flow of water confined to the rock matrix. In the SCP, the DOE fails to establish a scientifically sound investigative program that seriously tests for hydrogeologic conditions based on the range of existing data and general knowledge. Rather, the DOE builds a probabilistic program upon a preconceived conceptual model, without designing a field-data collection program with the power to test the validity of the conceptual model. This is unacceptable in that the DOE program, as described in the SCP, plans to build numerical model after numerical model upon untested conceptual models, in attempts to ``resolve`` the fundamental licensing issues of waste isolation by the geologic barrier. If executed as planned, these analyses will have only a series of assumptions of their foundation and, therefore, can not resolve licensing issues. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  6. TWRS hydrogen mitigation gas characterization system design and fabrication engineering task plan

    SciTech Connect

    Straalsund, E.K.

    1995-01-01

    The flammable gas watch-list (FGWL) tanks, which have demonstrated a gas release event (GRE) exceeding 0.625% hydrogen by volume will require additional characterization. The purpose of this additional characterization is to accurately measure the flammable and hazardous gas compositions and resulting lower flammability limit (LFL) of the tank vapor space during baseline and GRE emissions. Data from this characterization will help determine methods to resolve the unreviewed safety questions for the FGWL tanks. This document details organization responsibilities and engineering requirements for the design and fabrication of two gas characterization systems used to monitor flammable gas watch-list tanks.

  7. Post-treatment with plant extracts used in Brazilian folk medicine caused a partial reversal of the antiproliferative effect of glyphosate in the Allium cepa test.

    PubMed

    Frescura, Viviane Dal-Souto; Kuhn, Andrielle Wouters; Laughinghouse, Haywood Dail; Paranhos, Juçara Terezinha; Tedesco, Solange Bosio

    2013-08-01

    Species of the genus Psychotria are used for multiple purposes in Brazilian folk medicine, either as water infusions, baths or poultices. This study was aimed to evaluate the genotoxic and antiproliferative effects of infusions of Psychotria brachypoda and P. birotula on the Allium cepa test. Exposure to distilled water was used as a negative control, while exposure to glyphosate was used as a positive control. The interaction of extracts (as a post-treatment) with the effects of glyphosate was also studied. Results showed that glyphosate and the extracts of both P. brachypoda and P. birotula reduced the mitotic index as compared with the negative control (distilled water). Surprisingly, however, both extracts from P. brachypoda and P. birotula caused a partial reversal of the antiproliferative effect of glyphosate when used as a post-treatment. Glyphosate also induced the highest number of cells with chromosomal alterations, which was followed by that of P. birotula extracts. However, the extracts from P. brachypoda did not show any significant genotoxic effect. Post-treatment of glyphosate-treated samples with distilled water allowed a partial recovery of the genotoxic effect of glyphosate, and some of the Psychotria extracts also did so. Notably, post-treatment of glyphosate-treated samples with P. brachypoda extracts induced a statistically significant apoptotic effect. It is concluded that P. brachypoda extracts show antiproliferative effects and are not genotoxic, while extracts of P. birotula show a less potent antiproliferative effect and may induce chromosomal abnormalities. The finding of a partial reversion of the effects of glyphosate by a post-treatment with extracts from both plants should be followed up. PMID:24392578

  8. Site characterization plan for groundwater in Waste Area Grouping 1 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.R.; Curtis, A.H.; Houlberg, L.M.; Purucker, S.T.; Singer, M.L.; Tardiff, M.F.; Wolf, D.A.

    1994-07-01

    The Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is undergoing a site characterization to identify environmental contamination that may be present. This document, Site Characterization Report for Groundwater in Waste Area Grouping I at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, identifies areas of concern with respect to WAG 1 groundwater and presents the rationale, justification, and objectives for conducting this continuing site characterization. This report summarizes the operations that have taken place at each of the areas of concern in WAG 1, summarizes previous characterization studies that have been performed, presents interpretations of previously collected data and information, identifies contaminants of concern, and presents an action plan for further site investigations and early actions that will lead to identification of contaminant sources, their major groundwater pathways, and reduced off-site migration of contaminated groundwater to surface water. Site characterization Activities performed to date at WAG I have indicated that groundwater contamination, principally radiological contamination, is widespread. An extensive network of underground pipelines and utilities have contributed to the dispersal of contaminants to an unknown extent. The general absence of radiological contamination in surface water at the perimeter of WAG 1 is attributed to the presence of pipelines and underground waste storage tank sumps and dry wells distributed throughout WAG 1 which remove more than about 40 million gal of contaminated groundwater per year.

  9. [Spectroscopy properties of dissolved organic matter in landfill leachate during corrosion cell-Fenton post-treatment].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing-Liang; Bu, Lin; Yang, Jun-Chen; Wang, Kun

    2011-08-01

    To differentiate the transformation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) during corrosion cell-Fenton (CCF) post-treatment, the leachate was separated into five fractions by XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins (hydrophilic fraction, HPI; hydrophobic acid, HPO-A; transphilic acid, TPI-A; hydrophobic neutral, HPO-N; transphilic neutral, TPI-N). UV-Vis spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy were used for the degradation analysis. Experimental results showed that DOM in landfill leachate reduced 61.8% of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Especially for HPO-A and HPO-N, with the removal ratios were up to 74.9% and 66.5%, respectively. The predominant portion in the effluent was HPI (comprising 60.1% of DOC). Spectral analyses showed that the leachate DOM was composed of abundant condensed ring aromatic compounds and humic substances, with the HPO-A was the highest aromatic fraction. The ratio of absorbance at 253 nm and 203 nm (E253/E203) was decreased in the order of HPO-A > HPO-N > TPI-A > TPI-N > HPI. The unsaturated conjugated structures were efficiently destroyed after the CCF treatment, and the functional groups such as carbonyl, amine were also eliminated. The main fluorophores in leachate fractions were in the region of aromatic protein-like and visible fulvic-like. The fluorescence intensity of peaks in each fraction decreased after CCF treatment, especially for the fulvic-like fluorescent substances. The results indicated that the CCF treatment was efficient to remove the hydrophobic fractions and reduce the complicacy of leachate effluent. PMID:22619966

  10. Decorin Binding Proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi Promote Arthritis Development and Joint Specific Post-Treatment DNA Persistence in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Jemiina; Jaatinen, Annukka; Söderström, Mirva; Viljanen, Matti K.; Hytönen, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    Decorin binding proteins A and B (DbpA and B) of Borrelia burgdorferi are of critical importance for the virulence of the spirochete. The objective of the present study was to further clarify the contribution of DbpA and B to development of arthritis and persistence of B. burgdorferi after antibiotic treatment in a murine model of Lyme borreliosis. With that goal, mice were infected with B. burgdorferi strains expressing either DbpA or DbpB, or both DbpA and B, or with a strain lacking the adhesins. Arthritis development was monitored up to 15 weeks after infection, and bacterial persistence was studied after ceftriaxone and immunosuppressive treatments. Mice infected with the B. burgdorferi strain expressing both DbpA and B developed an early and prominent joint swelling. In contrast, while strains that expressed DbpA or B alone, or the strain that was DbpA and B deficient, were able to colonize mouse joints, they caused only negligible joint manifestations. Ceftriaxone treatment at two or six weeks of infection totally abolished joint swelling, and all ceftriaxone treated mice were B. burgdorferi culture negative. Antibiotic treated mice, which were immunosuppressed by anti-TNF-alpha, remained culture negative. Importantly, among ceftriaxone treated mice, B. burgdorferi DNA was detected by PCR uniformly in joint samples of mice infected with DbpA and B expressing bacteria, while this was not observed in mice infected with the DbpA and B deficient strain. In conclusion, these results show that both DbpA and B adhesins are crucial for early and prominent arthritis development in mice. Also, post-treatment borrelial DNA persistence appears to be dependent on the expression of DbpA and B on B. burgdorferi surface. Results of the immunosuppression studies suggest that the persisting material in the joints of antibiotic treated mice is DNA or DNA containing remnants rather than live bacteria. PMID:25816291

  11. Brayton-Cycle Heat Recovery System Characterization Program. Glass-furnace facility test plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-29

    The test plan for development of a system to recover waste heat and produce electricity and preheated combustion air from the exhaust gases of an industrial glass furnace is described. The approach is to use a subatmospheric turbocompressor in a Brayton-cycle system. The operational furnace test requirements, the operational furnace environment, and the facility design approach are discussed. (MCW)

  12. Quality Assurance Program Plan for the Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Grabbe, R.R.

    1995-03-02

    The objective of this Quality Assurance Plan is to provide quality assurance (QA) guidance, implementation of regulatory QA requirements, and quality control (QC) specifications for analytical service. This document follows the Department of Energy (DOE)-issued Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Plan (HASQAP) and additional federal [10 US Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 830.120] QA requirements that HASQAP does not cover. This document describes how the laboratory implements QA requirements to meet the federal or state requirements, provides what are the default QC specifications, and/or identifies the procedural information that governs how the laboratory operates. In addition, this document meets the objectives of the Quality Assurance Program provided in the WHC-CM-4-2, Section 2.1. This document also covers QA elements that are required in the Guidelines and Specifications for Preparing Quality Assurance Program Plans (QAPPs), (QAMS-004), and Interim Guidelines and Specifications for Preparing Quality Assurance Product Plans (QAMS-005) from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A QA Index is provided in the Appendix A.

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF LONG-TERM TOXIC EMISSIONS FROM MUNICIPAL SLUDGE INCINERATION - PROJECT PLANS AND STATUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions testing is to be conducted on four municipal sludge incinerators over longer periods of time than normal. Three multiple hearths and one fluid bed are to be included and testing is scheduled during April, May, and June 1987. Measurements are planned over the short term ...

  14. Steelhead of the south-central/southern California coast: Population characterization for recovery planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boughton, David A.; Adams, P.B.; Anderson, E.; Fusaro, Craig; Keller, E.; Kelley, Elsie; Lentsch, Leo; Nielsen, J. L.; Perry, Katie; Regan, Helen; Swift, C.; Watson, Fred

    2006-01-01

    This report by the National Marine Fisheries Service applies a formal evaluation framework to the problem of delineating Oncorhynchus mykiss populations in the South-Central/Southern California Coast recovery domain, in support of recovery planning under the Endangered Species Act.

  15. Characterize and explore potential sites and prepare research and development plan (site investigation study). Final draft. Task 2. Milestone report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    Phase II of a 5-phase overall compressed air energy storage (CAES) development program was performed to characterize and explore potential CAES sites and to prepare a research and development plan. This volume for Phase II activities contains an evaluation of the suitability of seven selected sites to undergo field drilling and air injection testing; a bibliography; results of a literature search on the effects of air injection of aquifer-caprock well systems; reservoir data for the sites; cost estimates; and predicted potential risks from a CAES plant. (LCL)

  16. Transport processes investigation: A necessary first step in site scale characterization plans

    SciTech Connect

    Roepke, C.; Glass, R.J.; Brainard, J.; Mann, M.; Kriel, K.; Holt, R.; Schwing, J.

    1995-03-01

    We propose an approach, which we call the Transport Processes Investigation or TPI, to identify and verify site-scale transport processes and their controls. The TPI aids in the formulation of an accurate conceptual model of flow and transport, an essential first step in the development of a cost effective site characterization strategy. The TPI is demonstrated in the highly complex vadose zone of glacial tills that underlie the Fernald Environmental Remediation Project (FEMP) in Fernald, Ohio. As a result of the TPI, we identify and verify the pertinent flow processes and their controls, such as extensive macropore and fracture flow through layered clays, which must be included in an accurate conceptual model of site-scale contaminant transport. We are able to conclude that the classical modeling and sampling methods employed in some site characterization programs will be insufficient to characterize contaminant concentrations or distributions at contaminated or hazardous waste facilities sited in such media.

  17. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    SciTech Connect

    1988-01-01

    Chapter six describes the basis for facility design, the completed facility conceptual design, the completed analytical work relating to the resolution of design issues, and future design-related work. The basis for design and the conceptual design information presented in this chapter meet the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, for a conceptual repository design that takes into account site-specific requirements. This information is presented to permit a critical evaluation of planned site characterization activities. Chapter seven describes waste package components, emplacement environment, design, and status of research and development that support the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) Project. The site characterization plan (SCP) discussion of waste package components is contained entirely within this chapter. The discussion of emplacement environment in this chapter is limited to considerations of the environment that influence, or which may influence, if perturbed, the waste packages and their performance (particularly hydrogeology, geochemistry, and borehole stability). The basis for conceptual waste package design as well as a description of the design is included in this chapter. The complete design will be reported in the advanced conceptual design (ACD) report and is not duplicated in the SCP. 367 refs., 173 figs., 68 tabs.

  18. Assessment of electrochemical and chemical coagulation as post-treatment for the effluents of a UASB reactor treating cellulose pulp mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Buzzini, A P; Motheo, A J; Pires, E C

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents results from exploratory experiments to test the technical feasibility of electrolytic treatment and coagulation followed by flocculation and sedimentation as post-treatment for the effluent of an UASB reactor treating simulated wastewater from an unbleached Kraft pulp mill. The electrolytic treatment provided up to 67% removal of the remaining COD and 98% of color removal. To achieve these efficiencies the energy consumption ranged from 14 Wh x l(-1) to 20 Wh x l(-1). The coagulation-flocculation treatment followed by settling required 350-400 mg x l(-1) of aluminium sulfate. The addition of a high molecular weight cationic polymer enhanced both COD and color removal. Both post-treatment processes are technically feasible. PMID:16180426

  19. The Mothers and Toddlers Program, an attachment-based parenting intervention for substance using women: Post-treatment results from a randomized clinical pilot

    PubMed Central

    Suchman, Nancy E.; DeCoste, Cindy; Castiglioni, Nicole; McMahon, Thomas J.; Rounsaville, Bruce; Mayes, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This is a report of post-treatment findings from a completed randomized pilot study testing the preliminary efficacy of The Mothers and Toddlers Program (MTP), a 12 week attachment-based individual parenting therapy for mothers enrolled in substance abuse treatment and caring for children ages birth to 36 months. Forty-seven mothers were randomized to MTP versus the Parent Education Program (PE) – a comparison intervention providing individual case management and child guidance brochures. At post-treatment, MTP mothers demonstrated better reflective functioning in the Parent Development Interview, representational coherence and sensitivity, and caregiving behavior than PE mothers. Partial support was also found for proposed mechanisms of change in the MTP model. Together, preliminary findings suggest that attachment-based interventions may be more effective than traditional parent training for enhancing relationships between substance using women and their young children. PMID:20730641

  20. Improving high-resistance state uniformity and leakage current for polyimide-based resistive switching memory by rubbing post-treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Yu-Ping; Yang, Wen-Luh; Wu, Chi-Chang; Lin, Li-Min; Chin, Fun-Tat; Lin, Yu-Hsien; Yang, Ke-Luen

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a polyimide (PI) thin film is synthesized as a resistive switching layer for resistive random access memory (ReRAM) applications. The experimental results on polyimide thickness show that the Schottky effect between the interface of polyimide and metal thin films is the dominant mechanism in the high-resistance state (HRS). We, therefore, propose a rubbing post-treatment to improve the device performance. Results show that the uniformity and leakage of the memory in the HRS, as well as the power consumption in the low-resistance state (LRS), are improved. The power density of the set process is less than half after the rubbing post-treatment. Moreover, the power density of the reset process can be markedly decreased by about two orders of magnitude. In addition, the rubbed ReRAM exhibits a stable storage capability with seven orders of magnitude ION/IOFF current ratio at 85 °C.

  1. Leveraging Characterization Data to Develop a Comprehensive Monitoring Plan for CO2 Storage at an Industrial Injection Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerst, J. L.; Gupta, N.; Jagucki, P.; Sminchak, J.

    2007-12-01

    In the current validation stage of geologic storage technology, the development of a monitoring, mitigation and verification (MMV) plan for an industrial carbon sequestration project requires consideration of both the implementation and research goals, within the practical site constraints. In this presentation, we integrate data from the drilling of a characterization well and 2D surface seismic to develop an MMV plan for the proposed injection and monitoring phase at AEP's Mountaineer Power Plant in New Haven, West Virginia. The Mountaineer plant has specific challenges for MMV design such as the presence of the Ohio River, relatively rough terrain and injection targets of varying thickness. In addition, there is limited space at the surface so any monitoring must be carefully designed to best utilize the area. For example, we present our evaluation the applicability of seismic monitoring techniques. This includes the possibility of using crosswell seismic or vertical seismic profiling to help reduce signal attenuation at the surface and increase resolution to allow the imaging of smaller units within the injection reservoir. Also, we evaluate using downhole, point measurements such as reservoir fluid sampling and other wireline tools in monitoring wells. The use of these tools may be the key element in evaluating dissolution and reservoir behavior. This results in an MMV plan that allows for plume location identification and reservoir assessment while keeping costs realistic for an industrial site. This work is supported by DOE-NETL, AEP, Ohio Coal Development Office, BP, Battelle, and Schlumberger.

  2. DebriSat - A Planned Laboratory-Based Satellite Impact Experiment for Breakup Fragment Characterizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi; Clark, S.; Fitz-Coy, N.; Huynh, T.; Opiela, J.; Polk, M.; Roebuck, B.; Rushing, R.; Sorge, M.; Werremeyer, M.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the DebriSat project is to characterize fragments generated by a hypervelocity collision involving a modern satellite in low Earth orbit (LEO). The DebriSat project will update and expand upon the information obtained in the 1992 Satellite Orbital Debris Characterization Impact Test (SOCIT), which characterized the breakup of a 1960 s US Navy Transit satellite. There are three phases to this project: the design and fabrication of DebriSat - an engineering model representing a modern, 60-cm/50-kg class LEO satellite; conduction of a laboratory-based hypervelocity impact to catastrophically break up the satellite; and characterization of the properties of breakup fragments down to 2 mm in size. The data obtained, including fragment size, area-to-mass ratio, density, shape, material composition, optical properties, and radar cross-section distributions, will be used to supplement the DoD s and NASA s satellite breakup models to better describe the breakup outcome of a modern satellite.

  3. Investigating the effects of anaerobic and aerobic post-treatment on quality and stability of organic fraction of municipal solid waste as soil amendment.

    PubMed

    Abdullahi, Y A; Akunna, J C; White, N A; Hallett, P D; Wheatley, R

    2008-12-01

    The use of OFMSW for biogas and compost production is considered as a sustainable strategy in saving valuable landfill space while producing valuable product for soil application. This study examines the effects of anaerobic and aerobic post-treatment of OFMSW on the stability of anaerobic digestate and compost and soil quality using seed germination tests. Anaerobic digestion of OFMSW was carried out for fifteen days after which the residual anaerobic digestate was subjected to aerobic post-treatment for seventy days. Seed germination tests showed that fresh feedstock and digestates collected during anaerobic digestion and during the early stages of aerobic post-treatment were phytotoxic. However, phytotoxic effects were not observed in soils amended with the fully stabilised anaerobic digestate compost, ADC. It was also found that seed germination increases with dilution and incubation time, suggesting that lower soil application rates and longer lag periods between soil application of ADC and planting can reduce the amount of biodegradable organics in the ADC, thus enhancing the benefits of ADC as soil amendment. PMID:18511266

  4. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin film bioelectrodes: effect of thermal post-treatments and the use of Ti adhesion layer.

    PubMed

    Laurila, Tomi; Rautiainen, Antti; Sintonen, Sakari; Jiang, Hua; Kaivosoja, Emilia; Koskinen, Jari

    2014-01-01

    The effect of thermal post-treatments and the use of Ti adhesion layer on the performance of thin film diamond like carbon bioelectrodes (DLC) have been investigated in this work. The following results were obtained: (i) The microstructure of the DLC layer after the deposition was amorphous and thermal annealing had no marked effect on the structure, (ii) formation of oxygen containing SiOx and Ti[O,C] layers were detected at the Si/Ti and Ti/DLC interfaces with the help of transmission electron microscope (TEM), (iii) thermal post-treatments increased the polar fraction of the surface energy, (iv) cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements showed that the DLC films had wide water windows and were stable in contact with dilute sulphuric acid and phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solutions, (v) use of Ti interlayer between Pt(Ir) microwire and DLC layer was crucial for the electrodes to survive the electrochemical measurements without the loss of adhesion of the DLC layer, (vi) DLC electrodes with small exposed Pt areas were an order of magnitude more sensitive towards dopamine than Pt electrodes and (vii) thermal post-treatments did not markedly change the electrochemical behavior of the electrodes despite the significant increase in the polar nature of the surfaces. It can be concluded that thin DLC bioelectrodes are stable under physiological conditions and can detect dopamine in micro molar range, but their sensitivity must be further improved. PMID:24268281

  5. Clinical studies in dermatology require a post-treatment observation phase to define the impact of the intervention on the natural history of the complaint.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Rodney; Turner, Graham A; Jones, D Andrew R; Luo, Shengjun

    2016-08-01

    The use of a post-treatment period of observation or "regression phase" is common in pharmaceutical and cosmetic clinical dermatology studies. Regression phases can be incorporated into a variety of study designs, ranging from simple post-treatment observation for a defined period, as has been used for moisturizers, antidandruff formulations, and treatments for acne, to more complex randomized intermittent-treatment designs, as used in studies of psoriasis pharmacotherapies. Extensive information can be derived from a regression phase. Notably, it can provide useful data on the persistence of effect and time to relapse after treatment cessation, which are particularly relevant to skin conditions in which consumer or patient adherence to treatment is suboptimal. By incorporating a regression phase, a clinical study can more closely reflect "real-world" behavior, e.g., the switching by consumers from antidandruff to beauty shampoos. The regression phase can also help to differentiate between products that show similar effectiveness during the treatment phase, and monitoring post-treatment physiological end points can provide valuable evidence on the safety and mechanism of action of the therapy. PMID:27025208

  6. Acetyl-L-carnitine and oxaloacetate in post-treatment against LTP impairment in a rat ischemia model. An in vitro electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Kocsis, K; Knapp, L; Mészáros, J; Kis, Z; Farkas, T; Vécsei, L; Toldi, J

    2015-06-01

    A high proportion of research relating to cerebral ischemia focuses on neuroprotection. The application of compounds normally present in the organism is popular, because they do not greatly influence the synaptic activity by receptor modulation, and can be administered without serious side effects. Oxaloacetate (OxAc) and acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) are such favorable endogenous molecules. ALC can exert a protective effect by improving the energy state of the neurons under ischemic conditions. A promising neuroprotective strategy is glutamate scavenging, which can be achieved by the intravenous administration of OxAc. This study involved the possible protective effects of ALC and OxAc in different post-treatment protocols against long-term potentiation (LTP) impairment. Ischemia was induced in rats by 2-vessel occlusion, which led to a decreased LTP relative to the control group. High-dose (200 mg/kg) ALC or OxAc post-treatment resulted in a higher potentiation relative to the 2VO group, but it did not reach the control level, whereas low-dose ALC (100 mg/kg) in combination with OxAc completely restored the LTP function. Many previous studies have concluded that ALC can be protective only as pretreatment. The strategy described here reveals that ALC can also be neuroprotective when utilized as post-treatment against ischemia. PMID:25432433

  7. Weighted quantification of ¹⁸F-FDG tumor metabolism activity using fuzzy-thresholding to predict post-treatment tumor recurrence.

    PubMed

    Roman-Jimenez, Geoffrey; Acosta, Oscar; Leseur, Julie; Devillers, Anne; Le Gouestre, Jonathan; Ospina, Juan-David; Simon, Antoine; Terve, Pierre; De Crevoisier, Renaud

    2015-08-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancer to affect women worldwide. Despite the efficiency of radiotherapy treatment, some patients present post-treatment tumor recurrence which increases the risk of death. Early outcome prediction could help oncologists to adapt the treatment. Several studies suggest that quantification of tumor activity using (18)FFDG PET imaging could be used to predict post-treatment tumor recurrence. In this paper we study the predictive value of weighted quantification of tumor metabolism extracted by fuzzy-thresholding for tumor recurrence of locally advanced cervical cancer. Fifty-three patients with locally advanced cervical cancer treated by chemo-radiotherapy were considered in our study. For each patient, a coregistered (18)F-FDG PET/CT scan was acquired before the treatment and was segmented using different hard and fuzzy segmentations methods. The tumor activity was extracted through the total lesion glycolysis and through a weighted analog of the total lesion glycolysis using the probability maps provided by the fuzzy segmentations. Outcomes prediction was performed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and the Harrell's C-index. Results suggest that weighted quantification of tumor activity seems to be strongly informative and could be used to predict post-treatment tumor recurrence in cervical cancer. PMID:26736737

  8. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Boxed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-10-01

    Each testing and analytical facility performing waste characterization activities for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) participates in the Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) to comply with the Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC) (DOE/WIPP-02-3122) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (CBFO-94-1012). The PDP serves as a quality control check for data generated in the characterization of waste destined for WIPP. Single-blind audit samples are prepared and distributed to each of the facilities participating in the PDP. Different PDPs evaluate the analyses of simulated headspace gases (HSGs), constituents of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and transuranic (TRU) radionuclides using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques.

  9. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2009-04-01

    Each testing and analytical facility performing waste characterization activities for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) participates in the Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) to comply with the Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC) (DOE/WIPP-02-3122) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (CBFO-94-1012). The PDP serves as a quality control check for data generated in the characterization of waste destined for WIPP. Single blind audit samples are prepared and distributed to each of the facilities participating in the PDP. The PDP evaluates analyses of simulated headspace gases, constituents of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and transuranic (TRU) radionuclides using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques.

  10. Characterizing the Preturbulence Environment for Sensor Development, New Hazard Algorithms and NASA Experimental Flight Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Michael L.; Lin, Yuh-Lang

    2004-01-01

    During the grant period, several tasks were performed in support of the NASA Turbulence Prediction and Warning Systems (TPAWS) program. The primary focus of the research was on characterizing the preturbulence environment by developing predictive tools and simulating atmospheric conditions that preceded severe turbulence. The goal of the research being to provide both dynamical understanding of conditions that preceded turbulence as well as providing predictive tools in support of operational NASA B-757 turbulence research flights. The advancements in characterizing the preturbulence environment will be applied by NASA to sensor development for predicting turbulence onboard commercial aircraft. Numerical simulations with atmospheric models as well as multi-scale observational analyses provided insights into the environment organizing turbulence in a total of forty-eight specific case studies of severe accident producing turbulence on commercial aircraft. These accidents exclusively affected commercial aircraft. A paradigm was developed which diagnosed specific atmospheric circulation systems from the synoptic scale down to the meso-y scale that preceded turbulence in both clear air and in proximity to convection. The emphasis was primarily on convective turbulence as that is what the TPAWS program is most focused on in terms of developing improved sensors for turbulence warning and avoidance. However, the dynamical paradigm also has applicability to clear air and mountain turbulence. This dynamical sequence of events was then employed to formulate and test new hazard prediction indices that were first tested in research simulation studies and then ultimately were further tested in support of the NASA B-757 turbulence research flights. The new hazard characterization algorithms were utilized in a Real Time Turbulence Model (RTTM) that was operationally employed to support the NASA B-757 turbulence research flights. Improvements in the RTTM were implemented in an

  11. State of Nevada comments on the US Department of Energy site characterization plan, Yucca Mountain site, Nevada; Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    1989-09-01

    The following document comprises a critical evaluation of the DOE`s Site Characterization Plan (SCP). The comments address a number of issues related to the scientific methods involved in the proposed procedures of site characterization, the suitability and integration of the methods, and the validity of the approach taken by the DOE in the context of the NRC regulations. The SCP contains many improvements of the Draft Environmental Assessment (DEA) and the Environmental Assessment (EA), and fewer improvements of the SCP Consultation Draft. An obvious attempt has been made to address topics that were regarded in these previous reviews as deficiencies in the study program. For example, the activity and seismogenic potential of the Quaternary faults at Yucca Mountain are treated much more realistically than orignally proposed by the DOE, even though published data has not increased significantly since the DEA and EA were released. Water is now recognized as a resource, and faults and fault breccias are recognized as potential hosts for epithermal mineralization. There has, in addition, been considerable effort to incorporate a number of alternative conceptual models (involving both cross sections of Yucca Mountain and regional tectonic models) into the realm of tectonic hypotheses. There is a little doubt that the SCP proposes an exhaustive and wide-ranging scope of investigations for the purpose of site characterization, and that many of these investigations have been included by the DOE in response to critical reviews by external groups (such as the NRC and various State of Nevada agencies).

  12. Coupling alkaline pre-extraction with alkaline-oxidative post-treatment of corn stover to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentability

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A two-stage chemical pretreatment of corn stover is investigated comprising an NaOH pre-extraction followed by an alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) post-treatment. We propose that conventional one-stage AHP pretreatment can be improved using alkaline pre-extraction, which requires significantly less H2O2 and NaOH. To better understand the potential of this approach, this study investigates several components of this process including alkaline pre-extraction, alkaline and alkaline-oxidative post-treatment, fermentation, and the composition of alkali extracts. Results Mild NaOH pre-extraction of corn stover uses less than 0.1 g NaOH per g corn stover at 80°C. The resulting substrates were highly digestible by cellulolytic enzymes at relatively low enzyme loadings and had a strong susceptibility to drying-induced hydrolysis yield losses. Alkaline pre-extraction was highly selective for lignin removal over xylan removal; xylan removal was relatively minimal (~20%). During alkaline pre-extraction, up to 0.10 g of alkali was consumed per g of corn stover. AHP post-treatment at low oxidant loading (25 mg H2O2 per g pre-extracted biomass) increased glucose hydrolysis yields by 5%, which approached near-theoretical yields. ELISA screening of alkali pre-extraction liquors and the AHP post-treatment liquors demonstrated that xyloglucan and β-glucans likely remained tightly bound in the biomass whereas the majority of the soluble polymeric xylans were glucurono (arabino) xylans and potentially homoxylans. Pectic polysaccharides were depleted in the AHP post-treatment liquor relative to the alkaline pre-extraction liquor. Because the already-low inhibitor content was further decreased in the alkaline pre-extraction, the hydrolysates generated by this two-stage pretreatment were highly fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that were metabolically engineered and evolved for xylose fermentation. Conclusions This work demonstrates that this two

  13. Cost-effectiveness analysis of universal noninvasive testing for post-treatment confirmation of Helicobacter pylori eradication and the impact of patient adherence

    PubMed Central

    Boklage, Susan H; Mangel, Allen W; Ramamohan, Varun; Mladsi, Deirdre; Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Background The treatment failure rate for Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy is ~20% due to poor patient compliance and increased antibiotic resistance. This analysis assessed the cost-effectiveness of universal post-treatment testing to confirm eradication of H. pylori infection in adults. Methods Decision-analytic models evaluated the cost-effectiveness of universal post-treatment testing (urea breath test [UBT] or monoclonal fecal antigen test [mFAT]) vs no testing (Model 1), and UBT vs mFAT after adjusting for patient adherence to testing (Model 2) in adults who previously received first-line antimicrobial therapy. Patients testing positive received second-line quadruple therapy; no further action was taken for those testing negative or with no testing (Model 1) or for those nonadherent to testing (Model 2). In addition to testing costs, excess lifetime costs and reduced quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) due to continuing H. pylori infection were considered in the model. Results Expected total costs per patient were higher for post-treatment testing (UBT: US$325.76; mFAT: US$242.12) vs no testing (US$182.41) in Model 1 and for UBT (US$336.75) vs mFAT (US$326.24) in Model 2. Expected QALYs gained per patient were 0.71 and 0.72 for UBT and mFAT, respectively, vs no testing (Model 1), and the same was 0.37 for UBT vs mFAT (Model 2). The estimated incremental costs per QALY gained for post-treatment testing vs no testing were US$82.90–US$202.45 and, after adjusting for adherence, US$28.13 for UBT vs mFAT. Conclusion Universal post-treatment testing was found to be cost-effective for confirming eradication of H. pylori infection following first-line therapy. Better adherence to UBT relative to mFAT was the key to its cost-effectiveness. PMID:27354772

  14. Project plan for the Background Soil Characterization Project on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The Background Soil characterization Project (BSCP) will provide background concentration levels of selected metals, organic compounds, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated on-site areas at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and off-site in the western part of Roane County and the eastern part of Anderson County. The BSCP will establish a database, recommend how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide estimates of the potential human health and environmental risks associated with the background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents.

  15. Final work plan: Expedited Site Characterization of the IES Industries, Inc., Site at Marshalltown, Iowa. Ames Expedited Site Characterization Project, Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-04

    The overall goal of the Ames Laboratory Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) project is to evaluate and promote both innovative and state-of-the-practice site characterization and/or monitoring technologies. This will be accomplished by fielding both types of technologies together in the context of an expedited site characterization. The first site will be at a former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) in Marshalltown, Iowa. The project will field three areas of technology: geophysical, analytical, and data fusion. Geophysical technologies are designed to understand the subsurface geology to help predict fate and transport of the target contaminants. Analytical technologies/methods are designed to detect and quantify the target contaminants. Data fusion technology consists of software systems designed to rapidly integrate or fuse all site information into a conceptual site model that then becomes the decision making tool for the site team to plan subsequent sampling activity. Not all of the contaminants present can be located at the action level. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the signature organics associated with the coal tar activities that took place at the site. As a result, PAHs were selected as the target compounds. Screening analytical instruments and nonintrusive geophysical techniques will be fielded to qualitatively map the spatial contaminant distribution. Soil gas surveys, immunoassay testing (IMA), innovative optical techniques, and passive organic sorbent sensors will be deployed along with the geophysical methods. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) instruments and a cone penetrometer system equipped with a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) probe will quantitatively map the action level edges of the PAH plume(s). Samples will be taken both by the cone penetrometer test system (CPT) and the Geoprobe {reg_sign} sampler system.

  16. Test plan for single well injection/extraction characterization of DNAPL

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B.B.; Jerome, K.M.; Burdick, S.; Rossabi, J.; Jarosch, T.R.; Eddy-Dilek, C.A.

    1995-12-01

    Soils and groundwater beneath an abandoned Process sewer line in the A/M Area of the Savannah River Site (SRS) contain elevated levels of volatile organic compounds, specifically trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE), two common chlorinated solvents. These compounds have low aqueous solubilities, thus when released to the subsurface in sufficient quantity, tend to exist as immiscible fluids or nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs). Because chlorinated solvents are also denser than water, they are referred to by the acronym DNAPLS, or dense non aqueous Phase liquids. Technologies targeted at the efficient characterization or removal of DNAPL are not currently proven. For example, most DNAPL studies rely on traditional soil and water sampling and the fortuitous observation of immiscible solvent. Once DNAPL is identified, soil excavation (which is only applicable to small contained spill sites) is the only ``proven`` cleanup method. New cleanup approaches based on enhanced removal by surfactants and/or alcohols have been proposed and tested at the pilot scale. As described below, carefully designed experiments similar to the enhanced removal methods may provide important characterization information on DNAPLs.

  17. Indoor air quality large building characterization project planning. Report for September 1992--May 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Menetrez, M.Y.; Kulp, R.N.; Pyle, B.; Williamson, A.; McDonough, S.

    1998-08-01

    Three buildings were characterized in this project by examining radon concentrations and indoor air quality (IAQ) levels as affected by building ventilation dynamics. IAQ data collection stations (IAQDS) for monitoring and data logging, remote switches (pressure and sail switches), and a weather station were installed. Measurements of indoor radon carbon dioxide, particle concentrations, temperature, humidity, pressure differentials, ambient and sub-slab radon concentrations, and outdoor air (OA) intake flow rates were collected. The OA intake was adjusted when possible, and fan cycles were controlled while tracer gas measurements were taken in all zones and IAQDS data were collected. Ventilation, infiltration, mixing rates, radon entry, pressure/temperature convective driving forces, CO{sub 2} generation/decay rates, and IAQ levels were established for baseline and OA-adjusted conditions.

  18. Assessing spatial uncertainty in reservoir characterization for carbon sequestration planning using public well-log data: A case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venteris, E.R.; Carter, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    Mapping and characterization of potential geologic reservoirs are key components in planning carbon dioxide (CO2) injection projects. The geometry of target and confining layers is vital to ensure that the injected CO2 remains in a supercritical state and is confined to the target layer. Also, maps of injection volume (porosity) are necessary to estimate sequestration capacity at undrilled locations. Our study uses publicly filed geophysical logs and geostatistical modeling methods to investigate the reliability of spatial prediction for oil and gas plays in the Medina Group (sandstone and shale facies) in northwestern Pennsylvania. Specifically, the modeling focused on two targets: the Grimsby Formation and Whirlpool Sandstone. For each layer, thousands of data points were available to model structure and thickness but only hundreds were available to support volumetric modeling because of the rarity of density-porosity logs in the public records. Geostatistical analysis based on this data resulted in accurate structure models, less accurate isopach models, and inconsistent models of pore volume. Of the two layers studied, only the Whirlpool Sandstone data provided for a useful spatial model of pore volume. Where reliable models for spatial prediction are absent, the best predictor available for unsampled locations is the mean value of the data, and potential sequestration sites should be planned as close as possible to existing wells with volumetric data. ?? 2009. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  19. Field characterization plan for the 216-U-8 vitrified clay pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, C.A.

    1994-01-21

    The 216-U-8 Crib was constructed in 1952 and received waste from 1952 to 1960 as described in Appendix A. This description of work details the field activities associated with the characterization of the vitrified clay pipe (VCP) delivery line to the 216-U-8 Crib and subsurface soil sampling along the pipe route in the 200 West Area of Hanford U Plant. It will serves as a field guide for those performing the work. Soil sampling locations will be determined by a combination of radiological surface surveys and internal camera surveys of the VCP line. Depending on the condition of the pipeline and field conditions, the objectives are as follows: examine the internal condition of the VCP with a survey camera to the extent allowed by field conditions; determine precise location and depth of the VCP; document VCP integrity; document gamma radiation profile through the VCP; and correlate any relationships between surface contamination zones at grade above the VCP to identify breaches in the pipe integrity.

  20. Current plans to characterize the design basis ground motion at the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site

    SciTech Connect

    Simecka, W.B.; Grant, T.A.; Voegele, M.D.; Cline, K.M.

    1993-09-01

    A site at Yucca Mountain Nevada is currently being studied to assess its suitability as a potential host site for the nation`s first commercial high level waste repository. The DOE has proposed a new methodology for determining design-basis ground motions that uses both deterministic and probabilistic methods. The role of the deterministic approach is primary. It provides the level of detail needed by design engineers in the characterization of ground motions. The probabilistic approach provides a logical structured procedure for integrating the range of possible earthquakes that contribute to the ground motion hazard at the site. In addition, probabilistic methods will be used as needed to provide input for the assessment of long-term repository performance. This paper discusses the local tectonic environment, potential seismic sources and their associated displacements and ground motions. It also discusses the approach to assessing the design basis earthquake for the surface and underground facilities, as well as selected examples of the use of this type of information in design activities.

  1. Post-treatment with an ultra-low dose of NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium attenuates disease progression in multiple Parkinson’s disease models

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Li; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chu, Chun-Hsien; Wilson, Belinda; Oyarzabal, Esteban; Ali, Syed; Robinson, Bonnie; Rao, Deepa

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, a key superoxide-producing enzyme, plays a critical role in microglia-mediated chronic neuroinflammation and subsequent progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s disease. Although nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-targeting anti-inflammatory therapy for Parkinson’s disease has been proposed, its application in translational research remains limited. The aim of this study was to obtain preclinical evidence supporting this therapeutic strategy by testing the efficacy of an ultra-low dose of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium in both endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide)- and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-treated mice using post-treatment regimens. Our data revealed that post-treatment with diphenyleneiodonium significantly attenuated progressive dopaminergic degeneration and improved rotarod activity. Remarkably, post-treatment with diphenyleneiodonium 10 months after lipopolysaccharide injection when mice had 30% loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons, showed high efficacy in protecting the remaining neuronal population and restoring motor function. Diphenyleneiodonium-elicited neuroprotection was associated with the inhibition of microglial activation, a reduction in the expression of proinflammatory factors and an attenuation of α-synuclein aggregation. A pathophysiological evaluation of diphenyleneiodonium-treated mice, including assessment of body weight, organs health, and neuronal counts, revealed no overt signs of toxicity. In summary, infusion of ultra-low dose diphenyleneiodonium potently reduced microglia-mediated chronic neuroinflammation by selectively inhibiting nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase and halted the progression of neurodegeneration in mouse models of Parkinson’s disease. The robust neuroprotective effects and lack of apparent toxic side effects suggest that diphenyleneiodonium

  2. The role of prophylactic ibuprofen and N-acetylcysteine on the level of cytokines in periapical exudates and the post-treatment pain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Periapical lesions are inflammatory diseases that result in periapical bone destruction because of host defensive–microbial disturbances. Objective To evaluate the role of prophylactic ibuprofen and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α), interleukin- 6(IL-6) and IL-17 and post-treatment pain level in chronic periapical lesions. Materials and methods Eighty patients with chronic apical lesions less than 1 cm were randomly assigned to receive NAC tablets (400 mg), ibuprofen tablets (400 mg), NAC (400 mg)/ibuprofen (200 mg) combination and placebo 90 minutes prior to sampling. Periapical exudates were collected from root canals. TNF- α, IL-6 and IL-17 levels were determined by ELISA and post-treatment pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS). Results There was a significant difference in IL-6 level between ibuprofen group and placebo (p = 0.019). Significant difference in IL-17 level was observed between NAC/ibuprofen combination group and placebo (p = 0.043). Four hours after treatment, a significant difference was observed in VAS pain score between ibuprofen group and placebo (p = 0.017). Eight hours post-treatment, VAS pain score for NAC group was statistically lower than placebo group (p = 0.033). After 12 hours VAS pain score showed a significant decrease in NAC group compared to placebo (p = 0.049). Conclusion The prophylactic ibuprofen and NAC failed to clearly reflect their effect on cytokines levels in exudates of chronic periapical lesions. On the other hand it seems that NAC can be a substitute for ibuprofen in the management of post endodontic pain. PMID:23351387

  3. A mission planning tool for the Characterization of Sea Ice (CASIE) mission to Svalbard, Norway, in July 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, J. M.; Enomoto, F.; Johan, S.; Crocker, R. I.; Fladeland, M. M.; Long, D.; Maslanik, J. A.; Sullivan, D.; Wegrzyn, K.

    2009-12-01

    Team members from NASA Ames Research Center developed a mission planning tool using Google Earth to support mission planning and monitoring during the Characterization of Sea Ice (CASIE) 2009 Mission to Svalbard, Norway. The tool allowed both deployed and non-deployed team members to view near-real time satellite imagery, ancillary information and flight paths before, during and after flights. MODIS, QuikSCAT, and AMSR-E data were displayed in Google Earth as ground overlays. MODIS data included two true color images (one each from Aqua and Terra) and a false color image (bands 3, 6, and 7) from Terra. The images were converted from GeoTIFF format to KML format using GDAL and provided cloud information to flight planners. The QuikSCAT and AMSR-E satellite imagery provided information on ice location and concentration, which allowed flight planners to locate areas for data collection. Ancillary information included sounding data, icing and snow cover forecasts, cloud pressure, perceptible water, and surface temperature data. Before flying, flight paths were created in Google Earth and then converted into shapefiles for input into flight software. While in-flight, the plane sent position, temperature, and humidity data to the base station in Ny-Ålesund. These data were converted into KML format and displayed within Google Earth in near-real time. The simultaneous display of satellite data, weather forecasts, and real-time data from the aircraft allowed mission planners to make real time mission operation decisions and allowed for remote mission monitoring by team members not deployed to Svalbard.

  4. Review and critique of the US Department of Energy environmental program plan for site characterization for a high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    This report provides a review and critique of the US Department of Energy (DOE) environmental program plan for site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain which principally addresses compliance with federal and state environmental regulation and to a lesser extent monitoring and mitigation of significant adverse impacts and reclamation of disturbed areas. There are 15 documents which comprise the plan and focus on complying with the environmental requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, as amended, (NWPA) and with single-media environmental statutes and their regulations. All elements of the plan follow from the 1986 statutory environmental assessment (EA) required by NWPA which concluded that no significant adverse impacts would result from characterization of the Yucca Mountain site. The lack of appropriate environmental planning and review for site characterization at Yucca Mountain points to the need for an oversight function by the State of Nevada. It cannot be assumed that on its own DOE will properly comply with environmental requirements, especially the substantive requirements that comprise the intent of NEPA. Thus, procedures must be established to assure that the environmental interests of the State are addressed in the course of the Yucca Mountain Project. Accordingly, steps will be taken by the State of Nevada to review the soundness and efficacy of the DOE field surveys, monitoring and mitigation activities, reclamation actions, and ecological impact studies that follow from the DOE environmental program plans addressed by this review.

  5. State-of-the-art study of resource characterization and planning for underground coal mining. Final technical report as of June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, D.; Ingham, W.; Kauffman, P.

    1980-06-01

    With the rapid developments taking place in coal mining technology and due to high investment costs, optimization of the structure of underground coal mines is crucial to the success of the mining project. The structure of a mine, once it is developed, cannot be readily changed and has a decisive influence on the productivity, safety, economics, and production capacity of the mine. The Department of Energy desires to ensure that the resource characterization and planning activity for underground coal mining will focus on those areas that offer the most promise of being advanced. Thus, this project was undertaken by Management Engineers Incorporated to determine the status in all aspects of the resource characterization and planning activities for underground coal mining as presently performed in the industry. The study team conducted a comprehensive computerized literature search and reviewed the results. From this a selection of the particularly relevant sources were annotated and a reference list was prepared, catalogued by resource characterization and mine planning activity. From this data, and discussions with industry representatives, academia, and research groups, private and federal, an assessment and evaluation was made of the state-of-the-art of each element in the resource characterization and mine planning process. The results of this analysis lead to the identifcation of areas requiring research and, specifically, those areas where DOE research efforts may be focused.

  6. Development of slow sponge sand filter (SpSF) as a post-treatment of UASB-DHS reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Maharjan, N; Kuroda, K; Dehama, K; Hatamoto, M; Yamaguchi, T

    2016-01-01

    In this study, conventional slow sand filter (SSF) and modified slow sponge sand filter (SpSF) were investigated for the post-treatment of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)-down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor effluent. The seasonal variation did not show significant differences in removal efficiencies of both filters. However in summer, both filters were able to achieve high total suspended solids and total biochemical oxygen demand removal averaging 97% and 99%, respectively. Contrary to organic removal, total nitrogen removal efficiency was satisfactory, showing increased removal efficiencies averaging 58% and 62% for SSF and SpSF in summer. On the other hand, average total coliform removal of SSF and SpSF was 4.2 logs and 4.4 logs and corresponding Escherichia coli removal was 4.0 logs and 4.1 logs, respectively. From our observation, it could be concluded that the relative performance of SpSF for nutrients and coliforms was better than SSF due to the effectiveness of sponge media over fine sands. Moreover, microbial community analysis revealed that the members of phylum Proteobacteria were predominant in the biofilms of both filters, which could have contributed to pollutant removal. Therefore, SpSF could be concluded to be a suitable post-treatment of UASB-DHS system in warmer conditions. PMID:27386984

  7. Effects of O2 plasma post-treatment on ZnO: Ga thin films grown by H2O-thermal ALD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yueh-Lin; Chuang, Jia-Hao; Huang, Tzu-Hsuan; Ho, Chong-Long; Wu, Meng-Chyi

    2013-03-01

    Transparent conducting oxides have been widely employed in optoelectronic devices using the various deposition methods such as sputtering, thermal evaporator, and e-gun evaporator technologies.1-3 In this work, gallium doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Ga) thin films were grown on glass substrates via H2O-thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) at different deposition temperatures. ALD-GZO thin films were constituted as a layer-by-layer structure by stacking zinc oxides and gallium oxides. Diethylzinc (DEZ), triethylgallium (TEG) and H2O were used as zinc, gallium precursors and oxygen source, respectively. Furthermore, we investigated the influences of O2 plasma post-treatment power on the surface morphology, electrical and optical property of ZnO:Ga films. As the result of O2 plasma post-treatment, the characteristics of ZnO:Ga films exhibit a smooth surface, low resistivity, high carrier concentration, and high optical transmittance in the visible spectrum. However, the transmittance decreases with O2 plasma power in the near- and mid-infrared regions.

  8. Evaluation of the SOS/umu-test post-treatment assay for the detection of genotoxic activities of pure compounds and complex environmental mixtures.

    PubMed

    Hamer, B; Bihari, N; Reifferscheid, G; Zahn, R K; Müller, W E; Batel, R

    2000-03-23

    This study presents an evaluation of the SOS/umu-test after introducing an additional dilution and incubation in the post-treatment assay. This treatment reduces the influence of coloured test compounds that otherwise affect the colorimetric determination of the beta-galactosidase activity and the bacterial growth measurement during the testing of complex environmental samples. The post-treatment assay significantly increased the beta-galactosidase activity and consequently the enzyme induction ratios at higher doses of model genotoxins 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, 2-aminoanthracene, benzo(a)pyrene with low or no effect on the sensitivity of the test itself. On the other hand tests of environmental extracts indicated significant increases in sensitivity after additional incubation. 4-Nitroquinoline-N-oxide treatments of bacteria in the test affected cell division and caused filamentous growth. The size of filamentous bacteria and incidence rate of the length categories was positively correlated with the concentrations of genotoxins. Presence of filamentous tester bacteria proved induction of SOS response and genotoxic activity of environment samples in SOS/umu-test. PMID:10727903

  9. Highly Reliable Liquid-Phase-Deposited SiO2 with Nitrous Oxide Plasma Post-Treatment for Low-Temperature-Processed Polysilicon Thin Film Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Ching-Fa; Chen, Darren Chi-Hsiang; Lu, Cheng-Yu; Liu, Chung; Lee, Su-Tseng; Liu, Cheng-Hong; Chen, Tai-Ju

    2002-10-01

    Low-temperature (˜300°C) N2O-plasma post-treatment for liquid-phase-deposited (LPD) gate oxide has been proposed for the first time. This treatment successfully takes the place of conventional furnace annealing in O2 ambient. Results of physicochemical and electrical characteristics show that N2O-plasma post-treated LPD-SiO2 has a high electrical breakdown field and low interface state density. In addition, N2O-plasma treatment also improves the Si-rich phenomenon of LPD-SiO2. From the comparison with pure N2O-plasma oxidation film, LPD-SiO2 with its short re-oxidation time in N2O plasma plays an important role in relieving interfacial stress. Finally, the novel technology is applied to the gate oxide of low-temperature-processed (LTP) polysilicon thin film transistors (poly-Si TFTs). The device performance reveals excellent electrical characteristics, and the reliability shows a satisfactory result, as well as the gate oxide reliability. It is believed that the N2O-plasma post-treatment not only improves the oxide quality, but also effectively passivates the trap states of poly-Si TFTs.

  10. Using Health Care Utilization and Publication Patterns to Characterize the Research Portfolio and to Plan Future Research Investments

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Luba; Fink, Rebecca V.; Bozeman, Samuel R.; McNeil, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Government funders of biomedical research are under increasing pressure to demonstrate societal benefits of their investments. A number of published studies attempted to correlate research funding levels with the societal burden for various diseases, with mixed results. We examined whether research funded by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is well aligned with current and projected veterans’ health needs. The organizational structure of the VA makes it a particularly suitable setting for examining these questions. Methods We used the publication patterns and dollar expenditures of VA-funded researchers to characterize the VA research portfolio by disease. We used health care utilization data from the VA for the same diseases to define veterans’ health needs. We then measured the level of correlation between the two and identified disease groups that were under- or over-represented in the research portfolio relative to disease expenditures. Finally, we used historic health care utilization trends combined with demographic projections to identify diseases and conditions that are increasing in costs and/or patient volume and consequently represent potential targets for future research investments. Results We found a significant correlation between research volume/expenditures and health utilization. Some disease groups were slightly under- or over-represented, but these deviations were relatively small. Diseases and conditions with the increasing utilization trend at the VA included hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, hearing loss, sleeping disorders, complications of pregnancy, and several mental disorders. Conclusions Research investments at the VA are well aligned with veteran health needs. The VA can continue to meet these needs by supporting research on the diseases and conditions with a growing number of patients, costs of care, or both. Our approach can be used by other funders of disease research to characterize their portfolios

  11. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 2, Part A: Chapters 3, 4, and 5

    SciTech Connect

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1--5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 575 refs., 84 figs., 68 tabs.

  12. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 4, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.0 through 8.3.1.4

    SciTech Connect

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 74 figs., 32 tabs.

  13. Lessons learned from the preclosure performance assessment review of the Fluor Technology, Inc. , draft site characterization plan conceptual design report

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.J.

    1987-06-09

    This report presents the lessons learned from the preclosure performance assessment review (PAR) of the Draft Site Characterization Plan---Conceptual Design Report (SCP-CDR). The PAR analyzes the operations of the waste handling facilities as presented in the SCP-CDR against appropriate regulatory and design criteria. The PAR applies to the design presented in a working draft released in April, 1986. We will analyze the design presented in the SCP-CDR, the other is to test safety assessment methods and tools. This report addresses only the second of these objectives. The PAR analysis consists of assessments of offsite and occupational doses resulting from routine and accidental events during preclosure operations at the repository. The activities related to the PAR are divided into subject areas. These areas include (1) the description of repository facilities and operations, (2) the development of radioactive material inventories and radiation dose rates, (3) the development of radioactive material-release scenarios and source terms, (4) the assessment of offsite dose equivalents, and (5) the assessment of occupational radiation dose equivalents. This report contains a summary of the analyses in these fives areas and lists those preclosure analyses not performed as part of the PAR. Chapters detail the strengths and weaknesses of each analysis and include recommendations for improving the analyses. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. Characterization of spatial distribution of Tetranychus urticae in peppermint in California and implication for improving sampling plan.

    PubMed

    Rijal, Jhalendra P; Wilson, Rob; Godfrey, Larry D

    2016-02-01

    Twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is an important pest of peppermint in California, USA. Spider mite feeding on peppermint leaves causes physiological changes in the plant, which coupling with the favorable environmental condition can lead to increased mite infestations. Significant yield loss can occur in absence of pest monitoring and timely management. Understating the within-field spatial distribution of T. urticae is critical for the development of reliable sampling plan. The study reported here aims to characterize the spatial distribution of mite infestation in four commercial peppermint fields in northern California using spatial techniques, variogram and Spatial Analysis by Distance IndicEs (SADIE). Variogram analysis revealed that there was a strong evidence for spatially dependent (aggregated) mite population in 13 of 17 sampling dates and the physical distance of the aggregation reached maximum to 7 m in peppermint fields. Using SADIE, 11 of 17 sampling dates showed aggregated distribution pattern of mite infestation. Combining results from variogram and SADIE analysis, the spatial aggregation of T. urticae was evident in all four fields for all 17 sampling dates evaluated. Comparing spatial association using SADIE, ca. 62% of the total sampling pairs showed a positive association of mite spatial distribution patterns between two consecutive sampling dates, which indicates a strong spatial and temporal stability of mite infestation in peppermint fields. These results are discussed in relation to behavior of spider mite distribution within field, and its implications for improving sampling guidelines that are essential for effective pest monitoring and management. PMID:26692381

  15. HAZWOPER work plan and site safety and health plan for the Alpha characterization project at the solid waste storage area 4 bathtubbing trench at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This work plan/site safety and health plan is for the alpha sampling project at the Solid Waste Storage Area 4 bathtubbing trench. The work will be conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Sciences Division and associated ORNL environmental, safety, and health support groups. This activity will fall under the scope of 29 CFR 1910.120, Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER). The purpose of this document is to establish health and safety guidelines to be followed by all personnel involved in conducting work for this project. Work will be conducted in accordance with requirements as stipulated in the ORNL HAZWOPER Program Manual and applicable ORNL; Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.; and U.S. Department of Energy policies and procedures. The levels of protection and the procedures specified in this plan are based on the best information available from historical data and preliminary evaluations of the area. Therefore, these recommendations represent the minimum health and safety requirements to be observed by all personnel engaged in this project. Unforeseeable site conditions or changes in scope of work may warrant a reassessment of the stated protection levels and controls. All adjustments to the plan must have prior approval by the safety and health disciplines signing the original plan.

  16. Assumption Trade-Offs When Choosing Identification Strategies for Pre-Post Treatment Effect Estimation: An Illustration of a Community-Based Intervention in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    van der Laan, Mark J.; Petersen, Maya L.

    2015-01-01

    Failure (or success) in finding a statistically significant effect of a large-scale intervention may be due to choices made in the evaluation. To highlight the potential limitations and pitfalls of some common identification strategies used for estimating causal effects of community-level interventions, we apply a roadmap for causal inference to a pre-post evaluation of a national nutrition program in Madagascar. Selection into the program was non-random and strongly associated with the pre-treatment (lagged) outcome. Using structural causal models (SCM), directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) and simulated data, we illustrate that an estimand with the outcome defined as the post-treatment outcome controls for confounding by the lagged outcome but not by possible unmeasured confounders. Two separate differencing estimands (of the pre- and post-treatment outcome) have the potential to adjust for a certain type of unmeasured confounding, but introduce bias if the additional identification assumptions they rely on are not met. In order to illustrate the practical impact of choice between three common identification strategies and their corresponding estimands, we used observational data from the community nutrition program in Madagascar to estimate each of these three estimands. Specifically, we estimated the average treatment effect of the program on the community mean nutritional status of children 5 years and under and found that the estimate based on the post-treatment estimand was about a quarter of the magnitude of either of the differencing estimands (0.066 SD vs. 0.26–0.27 SD increase in mean weight-for-age z-score). Choice of estimand clearly has important implications for the interpretation of the success of the program to improve nutritional status of young children. A careful appraisal of the assumptions underlying the causal model is imperative before committing to a statistical model and progressing to estimation. However, knowledge about the data

  17. Pre-Treatment Objective Diagnosis and Post-Treatment Outcome Evaluation in Patients with Vascular Pulsatile Tinnitus Using Transcanal Recording and Spectro-Temporal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Inyong; Koo, Ja-Won; Lee, Kyogu

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although vascular pulsatile tinnitus (VPT) has been classified as “objective”, VPT is not easily recognizable or documentable in most cases. In response to this, we have developed transcanal sound recording (TSR) and spectro-temporal analysis (STA) for the objective diagnosis of VPT. By refining our initial method, we were able to apply TSR/STA to post-treatment outcome evaluation, as well as pre-treatment objective diagnosis. Methods TSR was performed on seven VPT patients and five normal controls before and after surgical or interventional treatment. VPT was recorded using an inserted microphone with the subjects placed in both upright and supine positions with 1) a neutral head position, 2) head rotated to the tinnitus side, 3) head rotated to the non-tinnitus side, and 4) a neutral position with ipsi-lesional manual cervical compression. The recorded signals were analyzed in both time and time-frequency domains by performing a short-time Fourier transformation. Results The pre-treatment ear canal signals of all VPT patients demonstrated pulse-synchronous periodic structures and acoustic characteristics that were representative of their presumptive vascular pathologies, whereas those the controls exhibited smaller peaks and weak periodicities. Compared with the pre-treatment signals, the post-treatment signals exhibited significantly reduced peak- and root mean square amplitudes upon time domain analysis. Additionally, further sub-band analysis confirmed that the pulse-synchronous signal of all subjects was not identifiable after treatment and, in particular, that the signal decrement was statistically significant at low frequencies. Moreover, the post-treatment signals of the VPT subjects revealed no significant differences when compared to those of the control group. Conclusion We reconfirmed that the TSR/STA method is an effective modality to objectify VPT. In addition, the potential role of the TSR/STA method in the objective evaluation of

  18. Pre- or post-treatment with ethanol and ethyl pyruvate results in distinct anti-inflammatory responses of human lung epithelial cells triggered by interleukin-6.

    PubMed

    Relja, Borna; Omid, Nina; Schaible, Alexander; Perl, Mario; Meier, Simon; Oppermann, Elsie; Lehnert, Mark; Marzi, Ingo

    2015-08-01

    Increased local and systemic levels of interleukin (IL)-6 are associated with inflammatory processes, including neutrophil infiltration of the alveolar space, resulting in lung injury. Our previous study demonstrated the beneficial anti-inflammatory effects of acute exposure to ethanol (EtOH) in an acute in vivo model of inflammation. However, due to its side-effects, EtOH is not used clinically. In the present study, the effects of EtOH and ethyl pyruvate (EtP) as an alternative anti-inflammatory drug prior to and following application of an IL-6 stimulus on cultured A549 lung epithelial cells were compared, and it was hypothesized that treatment with EtOH and EtP reduces the inflammatory potential of the A549 cells. Time- and dose-dependent release of IL-8 from the A549 cells was observed following stimulation with IL-6. The release of IL-8 from the A549 cells was assessed following treatment with EtP (2.5-10 mM), sodium pyruvate (NaP; 10 mM) or EtOH (85-170 mM) for 1, 24 or 72 h, prior to and following IL-6 stimulation. The adhesion capacities of neutrophils to the treated A549 cells, and the expression levels of cluster of differentiation (CD)54 by the epithelial cells were measured. Treatment of the A549 cells with either EtOH or EtP significantly reduced the IL-6-induced release of IL-8. This effect was observed in the pre- and post-stimulatory conditions, which is of therapeutic importance. Similar data was revealed regarding the IL-6-induced neutrophil adhesion to the treated A549 cells, in which pre- and post-treatment with EtOH or EtP decreased the adhesion capacity, however, the results were dependent on the duration of incubation. Incubation durations of 1 and 24 h decreased the adhesion rates of neutrophils to the stimulated A549 cells, however, the reduction was only significant at 72 h post-treatment. The expression of CD54 was reduced only following treatment for 24 h with either EtOH or EtP, prior to IL-6 stimulation. Therefore, EtOH and Et

  19. Integrated test plan for crosswell compressional and shear wave seismic tomography for site characterization at the VOC Arid Site

    SciTech Connect

    Elbring, G.J.; Narbutovskih, S.M.

    1994-02-01

    This integrated test plan describes the demonstration of the crosswell acoustic tomography technique as part of the Volatile Organic Compounds-Arid Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID). The purpose of this demonstration is to image the subsurface seismic velocity structure and to relate the resulting velocity model to lithology and saturation. In fiscal year (FY) 1994 an initial fielding will test three different downhole sources at two different sites at the Hanford US Department of Energy facility to identify which sources will provide the energy required to propagate between existing steel-cased wells at these two sites. Once this has been established, a second fielding will perform a full compressional and shear wave tomographic survey at the most favorable site. Data reduction, analysis, and interpretation of this full data set will be completed by the end of this fiscal year. Data collection for a second survey will be completed by the end of the fiscal year, and data reduction for this data set will be completed in FY 1995. The specific need is detailed subsurface characterization with minimum intrusion. This technique also has applications for long term vadose zone monitoring for both Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) waste storage facilities and for remediation monitoring. Images produced are continuous between boreholes. This is a significant improvement over the single point data derived solely from core information. Saturation changes, either naturally occurring (e.g., perched water tables) or remediation induced (e.g., water table mounding from injection wells or during inwell air sparging) could be imaged. These crosswell data allow optimal borehole placement for groundwater remediation, associated monitoring wells and possibly evaluation of the effective influence of a particular remediation technique.

  20. Synthesis of ultra-nano-carbon composite materials with extremely high conductivity by plasma post-treatment process of ultrananocrystalline diamond films

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, Chien-Jui; Leou, Keh-Chyang; Manoharan, Divinah; Chang, Hsin-Tzer; Lin, I-Nan

    2015-08-24

    Needle-like diamond grains encased in nano-graphitic layers are an ideal granular structure of diamond films to achieve high conductivity and superior electron field emission (EFE) properties. This paper describes the plasma post-treatment (ppt) of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films at low substrate temperature to achieve such a unique granular structure. The CH{sub 4}/N{sub 2} plasma ppt-processed films exhibit high conductivity of σ = 1099 S/cm as well as excellent EFE properties with turn-on field of E{sub 0} = 2.48 V/μm (J{sub e} = 1.0 mA/cm{sup 2} at 6.5 V/μm). The ppt of UNCD film is simple and robust process that is especially useful for device applications.

  1. Post Treatment With an FGF Chimeric Growth Factor Enhances Epithelial Cell Proliferation to Improve Recovery From Radiation-Induced Intestinal Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Fumiaki; Hagiwara, Akiko; Umeda, Sachiko; Asada, Masahiro; Goto, Megumi; Oki, Junko; Suzuki, Masashi; Imamura, Toru; Akashi, Makoto

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: A fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 1-FGF2 chimera (FGFC) was created previously and showed greater structural stability than FGF1. This chimera was capable of stimulating epithelial cell proliferation much more strongly than FGF1 or FGF2 even without heparin. Therefore FGFC was expected to have greater biologic activity in vivo. This study evaluated and compared the protective activity of FGFC and FGF1 against radiation-induced intestinal injuries. Methods and Materials: We administered FGFC and FGF1 intraperitoneally to BALB/c mice 24 h before or after total-body irradiation (TBI). The numbers of surviving crypts were determined 3.5 days after TBI with gamma rays at doses ranging from 8 to 12 Gy. Results: The effect of FGFC was equal to or slightly superior to FGF1 with heparin. However, FGFC was significantly more effective in promoting crypt survival than FGF1 (p < 0.01) when 10 {mu}g of each FGF was administered without heparin before irradiation. In addition, FGFC was significantly more effective at promoting crypt survival (p < 0.05) than FGF1 even when administered without heparin at 24 h after TBI at 10, 11, or 12 Gy. We found that FGFC post treatment significantly promoted 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation into crypts and increased crypt depth, resulting in more epithelial differentiation. However, the number of apoptotic cells in FGFC-treated mice decreased to almost the same level as that in FGF1-treated mice. Conclusions: These findings suggest that FGFC strongly enhanced radioprotection with the induction of epithelial proliferation without exogenous heparin after irradiation and is useful in clinical applications for both the prevention and post treatment of radiation injuries.

  2. Prognostic value of post-treatment 18F-FDG PET/CT for advanced head and neck cancer after combined intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Shimoji, Keigo; Miyata, Yoko; Kamiya, Kouhei; Minamimoto, Ryogo; Kubota, Kazuo; Okasaki, Momoko; Morooka, Miyako; Yokoyama, Jyunkichi

    2014-01-01

    Objective To clarify the prognostic value of post-treatment 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in patients with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) after combined intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiotherapy (IACR). Methods Thirty-six patients with HNSCC who underwent IACR were recruited. The period from the end of IACR to the last post-treatment 18F-FDG PET/CT examination was 8-12 weeks. Both patient-based and lesion-based analyses were used to evaluate the PET/CT images. For lesion-based analysis, 36 regions (12 lesions of recurrences and 24 scars at primary sites) were selected. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to assess the overall survival (OS) stratified by 18F-FDG uptake or visual interpretation results. Results Twelve patients with recurrence were identified by six months after IACR. The sensitivity and specificity in the patient-based analysis were 67% (8/12) and 88% (21/24), respectively. The mean OS was estimated to be 12.1 months (95% CI, 6.3-18.0 months) for the higher maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) group (n=7) and 44.6 months (95% CI, 39.9-49.3 months) for the lower SUVmax group (n=29). OS in the higher SUVmax group (cut-off point, 6.1) or positive visual interpretation group was significantly shorter than that in the lower SUVmax or negative visual interpretation group (P<0.001 and P<0.05, respectively). Conclusions The SUVmax and visual interpretation of HNSCC on post-IACR 18F-FDG PET/CT can provide prognostic survival estimates. PMID:24653624

  3. Azide vs Alkyne Functionalization in Pt(II) Complexes for Post-treatment Click Modification: Solid-State Structure, Fluorescent Labeling, and Cellular Fate.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Regina; White, Jonathan D; Moghaddam, Alan D; Ginzburg, Aurora L; Zakharov, Lev N; Haley, Michael M; DeRose, Victoria J

    2015-12-01

    Tracking of Pt(II) complexes is of crucial importance toward understanding Pt interactions with cellular biomolecules. Post-treatment fluorescent labeling of functionalized Pt(II)-based agents using the bioorthogonal Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction has recently been reported as a promising approach. Here we describe an azide-functionalized Pt(II) complex, cis-[Pt(2-azidobutyl)amido-1,3-propanediamine)Cl2] (1), containing the cis geometry and difunctional reactivity of cisplatin, and present a comparative study with its previously described alkyne-functionalized congener. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction reveals a dramatic change in the solid-state arrangement with exchange of the alkyne for an azide moiety wherein 1 is dominated by a pseudo-chain of Pt-Pt dimers and antiparallel alignment of the azide substituents, in comparison with a circular arrangement supported by CH/π(C≡C) interactions in the alkyne version. In vitro studies indicate similar DNA binding and click reactivity of both congeners observed by fluorescent labeling. Interestingly, complex 1 shows in vitro enhanced click reactivity in comparison to a previously reported azide-appended Pt(II) complex. Despite their similar behavior in vitro, preliminary in cellulo HeLa studies indicate a superior imaging potential of azide-functionalized 1. Post-treatment fluorescent labeling of 1 observed by confocal fluorescence microscopy shows nuclear and intense nucleolar localization. These results demonstrate the potential of 1 in different cell line localization studies and for future isolation and purification of Pt-bound targets. PMID:26512733

  4. Post-treatment of calibrated model parameters to ensure transferability in a changing climate: an experiment based on a 122 catchments set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coron, Laurent; Andréassian, Vazken; Bourqui, Marie; Hendrickx, Frédéric; Perrin, Charles; Bourgin, François; Lerat, Julien; Vaze, Jai

    2013-04-01

    Long time-series of climate forcings and runoff observations can be used to diagnose one of the most complex issues in hydrological model parameterization: the temporal and climatic transferability of parameters. We started this analysis with a set of 600 catchments in France and Australia and two parsimonious precipitation-runoff models (GR4J and Mordor6). By focusing on the correlations between climatic conditions and model error, we identified a sub-group of 122 catchments where simulation biases are correlated with changes in mean air temperature between calibration and validation periods. We analyse specifically these 122 catchments, and study how the parameters involved in the water balance adjustment also vary with temperature changes. From these results, we test the delta change approach as a post-treatment on these parameters, to assess whether it could help suppress the dependency between climate and model error. A procedure was therefore built to establish a relationship linking parameters variations and temperatures changes on half of the 122 catchments. This regression was then used on the other half to post-treat models parameters after calibration. Results show a slight improvement of models robustness for GR4J and a more significant improvement for Mordor6, where average performances errors remain stable for all temperature differences between periods. Validation biases reaching an average of 20% for highest temperature gaps without parameters correction remain centred around 0% for Mordor6 when the procedure is used. Although we recognize that post-treatment as a curative measure is conceptually inferior to a preventive measure, this work shows how robustness issues can sometimes be controlled if an appropriate diagnosis scheme is implemented.

  5. Improvement of electric and magnetic properties of patterned magnetic tunnel junctions by recovery of damaged layer using oxygen showering post-treatment process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, J. H.; Endoh, T.

    2015-05-01

    In order to recover the patterning damage and improve the electric and magnetic properties of the patterned magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs), the novel post-treatment process using oxygen ions has been studied. Generally, the oxygen is known as an unsuitable gas for the MTJs patterning because it causes degradation of the patterned MTJs by over-oxidation of MgO. By the way, if the damaged layer could be oxidized selectively without over-oxidation of the damage-less area, oxygen can be the most effective gas to recover the patterning damage of the MTJs. In this study, for the selective oxidation, we proposed the non-reactive oxygen treatment scheme called the oxygen showering post-treatment process (OSP) using an ozone diffusion chamber. By the specific OSP conditions, 8 l/min of the flow rate, 250 °C of the temperature, and 30 s of the time, the magneto-resistance (MR) was increased from 103% to 110%, and the switching current was decreased from 41.1 μA to 31.6 μA when compared with reference data at the same resistance level. These results show that the electric and magnetic properties of the patterned MTJs by the OSP treatment have been improved compared to the reference sample. The improvement in electric and magnetic properties by the OSP treatment is assumed because the reference sample already contains slight patterning damages at the edge of the MTJs despite the optimized patterning process, and these damages have been oxidized by the OSP treatment. Moreover, by the OSP treatment, the proportion of the electric short fail was dramatically decreased from 1.51% to 0%, which is a remarkable improvement in terms of a successful commercialization of spintronic devices.

  6. The Utilization of Chloroform Post-Treatment to Improve the Adhesion of Au Thin Films onto PMMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krist, Kathleen; Hughes, Chris; Hu, Xiaofeng; Augustine, Brian

    2015-03-01

    The metallization of Au onto plastics is an important processing step in the fabrication of microfluidic devices. While its corrosion resistance and excellent electrical and thermal conductivity make Au a good choice, its inertness results in poor adhesion to polymer surfaces. Previous studies have indicated that exposing commercially available Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) sheets to chloroform vapor following Au deposition significantly improves adhesion. In this study, we deposited 6 nm of Au onto 1.50 mm thick PMMA and exposed the samples to vapor released from chloroform heated on a hot plate set at 70 °C. The force required to remove the Au thin films was determined by placing samples on a polisher spinning at 150 rpm and utilizing UV-VIS spectroscopy to measure the transmittance of 700 nm light through the films to quantify their removal as a function of applied polishing force. The Au thin films were also characterized using AFM. AFM images demonstrated a progressive roughening of the surface corresponding to an increase in applied force. Additionally, these images support a model in which the chloroform treatment softens the PMMA surface, producing a softened layer that the polisher removes simultaneously with the Au thin film. Undergraduate.

  7. Confirmation of a Low {alpha}/{beta} Ratio for Prostate Cancer Treated by External Beam Radiation Therapy Alone Using a Post-Treatment Repeated-Measures Model for PSA Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Proust-Lima, Cecile; Taylor, Jeremy M.G.; Secher, Solene; Sandler, Howard; Kestin, Larry; Pickles, Tom; Bae, Kyoungwha; Allison, Roger; Williams, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate the {alpha}/{beta} ratio of prostate cancer treated with external beam radiation only by use of a model of long-term prostate-specific antigen (PSA) dynamics. Methods and Materials: Repeated measures of PSA from 5,093 patients from 6 institutions treated for localized prostate cancer by external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) without planned androgen deprivation were analyzed. A biphasic linear mixed model described the post-treatment evolution of PSA, rather than a conventional model of time to biochemical recurrence. The model was adjusted for standard prognostic factors (T stage, initial PSA level, and Gleason score) and cohort-specific effects. The radiation dose fractionation effect was estimated from the long-term rate of rise of PSA level. Results: Adjusted for other factors, total dose of EBRT and sum of squared doses per fraction were associated with long-term rate of change of PSA level (p = 0.0017 and p = 0.0003, respectively), an increase of each being associated with a lower rate of rise. The {alpha}/{beta} ratio was estimated at 1.55 Gy (95% confidence band, 0.46-4.52 Gy). This estimate was robust to adjustment of the linear mixed model. Conclusions: By analysis of a large EBRT-only cohort along with a method that uses all the repeated measures of PSA after the end of treatment, a low and precise {alpha}/{beta} was estimated. These data support the use of hypofractionation at fractional doses up to 2.8 Gy but cannot presently be assumed to accurately represent higher doses per fraction.

  8. Direct synthesis of Al-SBA-15 containing aluminosilicate species plugs in an acid-free medium and structural adjustment by hydrothermal post-treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Lei; Xu, Yan; Zhang, Na; Lin, Sen; Li, Xiangping; Guo, Peng; Li, Xuebing

    2013-07-15

    A series of Al-SBA-15 with controllable aluminosilicate plug structures inside straight mesopores has been hydrothermally synthesized in a one-step synthesis in an environmentally friendly acid-free medium, using triblock copolymer Pluronic P123 as a structure-directing agent, water as solvent, tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and aluminum nitrate (Al(NO){sub 3}·9H{sub 2}O) as silica and aluminum sources, respectively. The effects of the P123/Si molar ratio in the initial solution and aging temperature on the structural properties of the resulting materials were investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption–desorption at 77 K, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric (TG), FT-IR spectra and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analyses. The nature of the Al species and the acidity of the resultant samples were studied by solid state {sup 27}Al MAS NMR and pyridine adsorption measurements. The specific surface area (935–755 m{sup 2}g{sup −1}), pore volume (1.03–0.56 cm{sup 3}g{sup −1}) and especially the concentration and distribution of open type mesopores (0–68% to the total pores) of the synthesized Al-SBA-15 can be controlled by a simple adjustment of the P123/Si molar ratio in the initial solution. Moreover, increasing the aging temperature higher than 363 K can remarkably decrease the formation of plug structures to obtain “open” form mesopores. The observation by TEM of alternate defined gray and white areas inside the mesopores gives the strong evidence of isolated microporous aluminosilicate plugs inside the channels. In addition, a moderate hydrothermal post-treatment can finely modify the mesostructures through the partial or complete dissolution of the aluminosilicate plugs. - Graphical abstract: The plugs-containing structures can be interpreted as the distribution of individual isolated plugs along the mesoporous channel. - Highlights: • Al-SBA-15 with controllable

  9. Protective Effects of Phosphocreatine Administered Post-Treatment Combined With Ischemic Post-Conditioning on Rat Hearts With Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenhua; Zhang, Huizhen; Xing, Yanqiu

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of phosphocreatine (PCr) post-treatment combined with ischemic post-conditioning on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in a rat model. Methods Forty Sprague-Dawley rats that had undergone 30 minutes ischemia and 120 minutes reperfusion were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 in each group): the I/R group, the ischemia post-conditioning (IPost) group, the PCr group, and the IPost + PCr group. The activities of serum creatine kinase (CK), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured after 120 minutes of reperfusion. At the end of the experiment, serum levels of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were detected, myocardial infarct size (IS) was measured by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining, and myocardial expression of Bcl-2 and phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) was determined by western blot. Results The IPost, PCr, and PCr + IPost groups had significantly lower IS than the I/R group (P < 0.05). The reductions in CK, LDH, and MPO release were consistent with the decrease in the myocardial IS (P < 0.05). Serum concentrations of TNF-α and NF-κB in the IPost, PCr, and PCr + IPost groups were significantly lower than those in the I/R group (P < 0.05). The levels of p-Akt and Bcl-2 in the IPost, PCr, and PCr + IPost groups were greater than those in the I/R group (P < 0.05). CK, LDH, MPO, NF-κB, TNF-α, p-Akt, Bcl-2 and IS were further enhanced in the IPost + PCr group (P < 0.05). Conclusions Post-treatment with PCr enhanced the protective effect of IPost on rat myocardium affected by I/R injury, possibly by inhibiting the inflammatory response and activating the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K)/Akt/Bcl-2 signaling pathway. PMID:25699120

  10. Post Treatment of Acoustic Neuroma

    MedlinePlus

    Home What is an AN What is an Acoustic Neuroma? Identifying an AN Symptoms Acoustic Neuroma Keywords Educational Video Pre-Treatment Treatment Options Summary Treatment Options Watch and Wait Radiation Microsurgery Acoustic Neuroma Decision Tree Questions for Your Physician Questions ...

  11. Development of a sixth-generation down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor using rigid sponge media for post-treatment of UASB treating municipal sewage.

    PubMed

    Onodera, Takashi; Tandukar, Madan; Sugiyana, Doni; Uemura, Shigeki; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Harada, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    A sixth-generation down-flow hanging sponge reactor (DHS-G6), using rigid sponge media, was developed as a novel aerobic post-treatment unit for upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) treating municipal sewage. The rigid sponge media were manufactured by copolymerizing polyurethane with epoxy resin. The UASB and DHS system had a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10.6 h (8.6 h for UASB and 2 h for DHS) when operated at 10-28 °C. The system gave reasonable organic and nitrogen removal efficiencies. The final effluent had a total biochemical oxygen demand of only 12 mg/L and a total Kjeldahl nitrogen content of 6 mg/L. The DHS reactor gave particularly good nitrification performance, which was attributed to the new rigid sponge media. The sponge media helped to provide a sufficient HRT, and retained a high biomass concentration, extending the solids retention time. The DHS reactor maintained a high dissolved oxygen concentration under natural ventilation. PMID:24291312

  12. Thermal Stability of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) Nanocrystalline Cellulose: Effects of post-treatment of oven drying and solvent exchange techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indarti, E.; Marwan; Wanrosli, W. D.

    2015-06-01

    Nanocrystallinecellulose (NCC) from biomass is a promising material with huge potentials in various applications. A big challenge in its utilization is the agglomeration of the NCC's during processing due to hydrogen bonding among the cellulose chains when in close proximity to each other. Obtaining NCC's in a non-agglomerated and non-aqueous condition is challenging. In the present work NCC's was isolated from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) using TEMPO-oxidation reaction method. To obtain non-agglomerated and non-aqueous products, the NCC's underwent post-treatment using oven drying (OD) and solvent exchanged (SE) techniques. The thermal stability of all samples was determined from TGA and DTG profiles whilst FTIR was used to analyzethe chemical modifications that occurred under these conditions. NCC-SE has better thermal stability than the NCC-OD and its on-set degradation temperature and residue are also higher. FTIR analysis shows that NCC-SE has a slightly different chemical composition whereby the absorption band at 1300 cm-1 (due to C-O symmetric stretching) is absent as compared to NCC-OD indicating that in NCC-SE the carboxylate group is in acid form which contribute to its thermal stability

  13. Development of a natural treatment system consisting of red ball earth and alfalfa for the post-treatment of anaerobically digested livestock wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaochen; Fukushi, Kensuke

    2014-01-01

    With the objective of developing a post-treatment process for anaerobically digested livestock wastewater, an innovative natural treatment system composed of two units is proposed. The first trickling filter unit further reduced biochemical oxygen demand and achieved a certain degree of nitrification. The second soil-plant unit was targeted at the removal and recovery of nutrients N, P and K. For the feasibility study, a bench-scale soil column test was carried out, in which red ball earth and alfalfa were utilized for treating synthetic nutrient-enriched wastewater. Through long-term operation, the nitrification function was well established in the top layers, especially the top 20 cm, although a supplementary denitrification process was still required before discharge. P and K were retained by the soil through different mechanisms, and their plant-available forms that remained in the soil were considered suitable for indirect nutrient reuse. As for alfalfa, with wastewater application it fixed more N from the atmosphere, and directly recovered 6% of P and 4% of K input from wastewater. More importantly, alfalfa was verified to have an indispensable role in stimulating the soil nitrifying microorganisms by sustaining their abundance during substrate (NH3) and oxygen scarcity, and enhancing cell-specific nitrification potential during substrate (NH3) and oxygen sufficiency. The proposed system is expected to be further improved, and adopted as a sound countermeasure for livestock wastewater pollution. PMID:25225925

  14. Total and hexavalent chromium removal in a subsurface horizontal flow (h-SSF) constructed wetland operating as post-treatment of textile wastewater for water reuse.

    PubMed

    Fibbi, D; Doumett, S; Colzi, I; Coppini, E; Pucci, S; Gonnelli, C; Lepri, L; Del Bubba, M

    2011-01-01

    In this study we investigated total and hexavalent chromium removal in an h-SSF constructed wetland (CW) planted with Phragmites australis and operating as post-treatment of effluent wastewater from an activated sludge plant serving the textile industrial district of Prato (Italy). Two measurement campaigns were carried out in 2006 and 2008-2010 in which more than 950 inlet and outlet samples were analyzed. When inlet and outlet concentrations were compared one to the other, the latter were found to be significantly lower than the former (p < 0.001); during the entire period of investigation, removal of hexavalent chromium equal to about 70% was achieved. Outlet concentrations ranged between values lower than the quantification limit (0.5 microg L(-1)) and 4.5 microg L(-1), and in all cases were therefore lower than the limit indicated for hexavalent chromium in the Italian regulation for water reuse (5 microg L(-1)). The comparison of the removal efficiencies achieved for hexavalent and trivalent chromium during the two campaigns suggested that the removal of the former can be sustained in the long term, while for the latter, the treatment efficiency is more sensitive to the age of the CW, being that it is it based on trivalent chromium retention in the reed bed. PMID:22097067

  15. Implementation of post treatment critical evaluation improved the quality of orthodontic care in postgraduate orthodontic clinic: A 10 years comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Rashmi; Utreja, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Satinder Pal; Jena, Ashok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of post- treatment critical evaluation on the quality of orthodontic care in a postgraduate orthodontic clinic. Materials and Methods: Orthodontic treatment outcome of 109 consecutively treated cases was evaluated in Phase-I evaluation. Following Phase-I evaluation, PTCE of each case was made mandatory. After 6-years of implementation of compulsory PTCE for each case, orthodontic treatment outcome of all consecutively treated cases (n = 126) was evaluated (Phase-II). The treatment outcome was evaluated by American Board of Orthodontics Model Grading System (ABO MGS) and Subjective evaluation (Visual Analogue Scale, VAS). Results: Based on the ABO scores, the cases were divided into three grades, that is, Grade-I, Grade-II, and Grade-III. The mean total ABO score was improved significantly in Phase-II evaluation (P < 0.01). The total number of cases in ABO Grade-II were increased significantly (P < 0.01) whereas cases in ABO Grade-I remained comparable. The VAS score was improved from 5.66 ± 0.77 at Phase-I to 6.02 ± 0.99 at Phase-II evaluation (P < 0.01). Conclusion: The implementation of PTCE significantly improved the quality of orthodontic care in a postgraduate orthodontic clinic. Clinical Significance: Grading one's own treatment improves the quality of future treatment. PMID:26392728

  16. Cytotoxicity, Post-Treatment Recovery, and Selectivity Analysis of Naturally Occurring Podophyllotoxins from Bursera fagaroides var. fagaroides on Breast Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Peña-Morán, Omar Aristeo; Villarreal, María Luisa; Álvarez-Berber, Laura; Meneses-Acosta, Angélica; Rodríguez-López, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Despite prevention and treatment options, breast cancer (BC) has become one of the most important issues in the present day. Therefore, the need for more specific and efficient compounds remains paramount. We evaluated four previously isolated aryltetralin lignans: 5'-demethoxy-β-peltatin-A-methylether (1), acetylpodophyllotoxin (2), 5'-demethoxydeoxypodophyllotoxin (3), and 7',8'-dehydroacetylpodophyllotoxin (4) for cytotoxicity, clonogenicity, and selectivity against three BC cell lines: MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and BT-549, as well as the non-tumorigenic mammary epithelial cell line MCF-10A. Cytotoxicity was evaluated after 72 h of treatment, and clonogenicity was determined at 72 h post-treatment; experiments were performed using the sulforhodamine B staining assay. Selective-index (SI) was calculated by comparing pure compound IC50 values in MCF-10A cell line against the IC50 of the same compound in cancer cell lines. Structural similarities among lignans and controls (podophyllotoxin and etoposide) were analyzed using the Tanimoto coefficient (Tc). Lignans were cytotoxic against all tested cell lines (0.011-7.22 µM) and clonogenicity testing showed a dose-dependent cytocidality for all lignans (≥0.08 µg/mL); compounds 2 and 3 were more potent (14.1 and 7.6 respectively) than etoposide in BT-549 cell line, while compound 2 displayed selectivity (SI = 28.17) in BT-549 cell line. Tc values of lignans suggested a greater similarity with podophyllotoxin structure. PMID:27527135

  17. Development of natural treatment system consisting of black soil and Kentucky bluegrass for the post-treatment of anaerobically digested strong wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaochen; Fukushi, Kensuke

    2016-03-01

    To develop a sound post-treatment process for anaerobically-digested strong wastewater, a novel natural treatment system comprising two units is put forward. The first unit, a trickling filter, provides for further reduction of biochemical oxygen demand and adjustable nitrification. The subsequent soil-plant unit aims at removing and recovering the nutrients nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). As a lab-scale feasibility study, a soil column test was conducted, in which black soil and valuable Kentucky bluegrass were integrated to treat artificial nutrient-enriched wastewater. After a long-term operation, the nitrification function was well established in the top layers, despite the need for an improved denitrification process prior to discharge. P and K were retained by the soil through distinct mechanisms. Since they either partially or totally remained in plant-available forms in the soil, indirect nutrient reuse could be achieved. As for Kentucky bluegrass, it displayed better growth status when receiving wastewater, with direct recovery of 8%, 6% and 14% of input N, P and K, respectively. Furthermore, the indispensable role of Kentucky bluegrass for better treatment performance was proved, as it enhanced the cell-specific nitrification potential of the soil nitrifying microorganisms inhabiting the rhizosphere. After further upgrade, the proposed system is expected to become a new solution for strong wastewater pollution. PMID:26969049

  18. Post-treatment change in Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen-stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha release in patients with active tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang Ho; Yoo, Seung Soo; Lee, Shin Yup; Cha, Seung Ick; Park, Jae Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background Monitoring tuberculosis (TB) treatment response remains challenging due to lack of reliable laboratory markers. In recent years, increased efforts have been exerted toward development of new biomarkers reflecting treatment response appropriately. While performance of interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) to monitor anti-TB treatment has been extensively evaluated, there is no data about post-treatment changes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) antigen-stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) release in active TB patients. Herein, we explored whether the MTB antigen-stimulated TNF-α release would be useful for monitoring responses to anti-TB treatment. Methods We compared unstimulated (TNF-αNil), MTB antigen-stimulated (TNF-αAg), and MTB antigen-stimulated minus unstimulated TNF-α levels (TNF-αAg-Nil) in supernatants from QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube tests before and after treatment in 16 active TB patients, 25 latent TB infection (LTBI) subjects, and 10 healthy controls (HC). Results TNF-αAg and TNF-αAg-Nil levels decreased significantly after treatment in patients with active TB. In addition, TNF-αNil, TNF-αAg, and TNF-αAg-Nil levels were significantly higher in untreated active TB patients compared to LTBI subjects and HC. Conclusions This finding cautiously suggests that MTB Ag-stimulated TNF-α response may be a potential adjunctive marker for monitoring treatment response in active TB patients. PMID:26101647

  19. Significance of TiCl4 post-treatment on the performance of hydrothermally synthesized titania nanotubes-based dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akilavasan, Jeganathan; Wijeratne, Kosala; Gannoruwa, Asangi; Alamoud, A. R. M.; Bandara, Jayasundera

    2013-01-01

    In this investigation, the effect of concentration of TiCl4 for the post-treatment of hydrothermally synthesized titania nanotubes-based working electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells has been studied. Hydrothermally synthesized TiO2 nanotubes were treated with different concentrations of TiCl4 to investigate the effect of TiCl4 concentration. The solar cell performance increased with the increase in TiCl4 concentration up to 0.5 M and leveled off. The best solar cell showed a short-circuit current density (J sc), open-circuit voltage (V oc), fill factor (FF) and efficiency (η) of 12.75 mA/cm2, 795 mV, 69.2 % and 7.04 %, respectively, while untreated TiO2 nanotube showed J sc, V oc, FF and η of 2.4 mA/cm2, 899 mV, 78.9 % and 1.7 %, respectively.

  20. Cannabidiol Post-Treatment Alleviates Rat Epileptic-Related Behaviors and Activates Hippocampal Cell Autophagy Pathway Along with Antioxidant Defense in Chronic Phase of Pilocarpine-Induced Seizure.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Mahshid; Nikseresht, Sara; Khodagholi, Fariba; Naderi, Nima; Maghsoudi, Nader

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal and sometimes severe behavioral and molecular symptoms are usually observed in epileptic humans and animals. To address this issue, we examined the behavioral and molecular aspects of seizure evoked by pilocarpine. Autophagy can promote both cell survival and death, but there are controversial reports about the neuroprotective or neurodegenerative effects of autophagy in seizure. Cannabidiol has anticonvulsant properties in some animal models when used as a pretreatment. In this study, we investigated alteration of seizure scores, autophagy pathway proteins, and antioxidant status in hippocampal cells during the chronic phase of pilocarpine-induced epilepsy after treatment with cannabidiol. Cannabidiol (100 ng, intracerebroventricular injection) delayed the chronic phase of epilepsy. Single administration of cannabidiol during the chronic phase of seizure significantly diminished seizure scores such as mouth clonus, head nodding, monolateral and bilateral forelimb clonus and increased the activity of catalase enzyme and reduced glutathione content. Such a protective effect in the behavioral scores of epileptic rats was also observed after repeated administrations of cannabidiol at the onset of the silent phase. Moreover, the amount of Atg7, conjugation of Atg5/12, Atg12, and LC3II/LC3I ratio increased significantly in epileptic rats treated with repeated injections of cannabidiol. In short, our results suggest that post-treatment of Cannabidiol could enhance the induction of autophagy pathway and antioxidant defense in the chronic phase of epilepsy, which could be considered as the protective mechanisms of cannabidiol in a temporal lobe epilepsy model. PMID:26738731

  1. Post-treatment with prolactin protects hippocampal CA1 neurons of the ovariectomized female rat against kainic acid-induced neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Mendoza, Julio; Morales, Teresa

    2016-07-22

    Kainic acid (KA) is a glutamate agonist widely used in studies of neurodegeneration due to its ability to induce excitotoxic damage in the rodent brain. Previously, we reported that pre-treatment with prolactin (PRL) prevents the neuron loss induced by KA administration in CA1, CA3 and CA4 of the hippocampus of the female rat. Here, we investigated if PRL has a neuroprotective effect in the dorsal hippocampus when it is administered after KA. For this, 100ng of KA or 0.9% saline was administered intracerebroventricularly (ICV) to ovariectomized female rats. One hour later, they received subcutaneous PRL (103μg/day for 7days) or saline through an osmotic minipump. Also, to determine the hippocampal neurogenesis rate, the rats were administered bromodeoxyuridine along with the PRL treatment. Immunostaining for NeuN revealed that neuronal loss is lower in the CA1 of PRL-treated rats compared with the untreated group, but PRL did not confer any protection in the CA3 and CA4 subfields. Furthermore, PRL prevented the KA-induced cognitive deficit measured as a better performance in the novel object recognition test. The PRL treatment did not modify the neurogenesis rate. These data indicate that post-treatment with PRL confers differential neuroprotection against KA-induced neuronal loss in hippocampal subfield CA1, which correlates with a more mild cognitive deficit compared with the untreated control group. PMID:27126559

  2. Evaluation of post-treatment filter, Part I: Experimental study of DMMP and DIMP filtration at high temperature and high dew point using activated carbon. Final report, November 1994-September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Mahle, J.J.; Buettner, L.C.; Mauer, S.

    1996-08-01

    A series of experimental results are reported for breakthrough of the agent simulants DMMP and DIMP on coconut carbon. This adsorbent is used in filters for the Chemical Demiliterization program. The conditions were appropriate for a post treatment stack gas filter. Results indicate that high capacity and long filtration times are achievable under moderate humidity conditions up to 180 degrees F.

  3. Sampling and analysis plan for the characterization of groundwater quality in two monitoring wells near Pavillion, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Peter R.; McMahon, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    In June 2010, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency installed two deep monitoring wells (MW01 and MW02) near Pavillion, Wyoming to study groundwater quality. The U.S Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, designed a plan to collect groundwater data from these monitoring wells. This sampling and analysis plan describes the sampling equipment that will be used, well purging strategy, purge water disposal, sample collection and processing, field and laboratory sample analysis, equipment decontamination, and quality-assurance and quality-control procedures.

  4. Environmental Regulatory Compliance Plan for Site Characterization; Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1988-12-01

    The DOE is committed to conduct its operations in an environmentally safe and sound manner, and will comply with applicable environmental statutes and regulations. These objectives are described in DOE Order 5400.1 (Environmental Protection Program Requirements). This document -- the Environmental Regulatory Compliance Plan (ERCP) -- is one method of implementing the policy set forth in DOE Order 5400.1 and the NWPA. The ERCP describes the plan by which the DOE will comply with applicable Federal environmental statutes and regulations. The ERCP also discusses how DOE will address State and local environmental statutes and regulations. 180 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab.

  5. A Ten Step Protocol and Plan for CCS Site Characterization, Based on an Analysis of the Rocky Mountain Region, USA

    SciTech Connect

    McPherson, Brian; Matthews, Vince

    2013-09-15

    This report expresses a Ten-Step Protocol for CO2 Storage Site Characterization, the final outcome of an extensive Site Characterization analysis of the Rocky Mountain region, USA. These ten steps include: (1) regional assessment and data gathering; (2) identification and analysis of appropriate local sites for characterization; (3) public engagement; (4) geologic and geophysical analysis of local site(s); (5) stratigraphic well drilling and coring; (6) core analysis and interpretation with other data; (7) database assembly and static model development; (8) storage capacity assessment; (9) simulation and uncertainty assessment; (10) risk assessment. While the results detailed here are primarily germane to the Rocky Mountain region, the intent of this protocol is to be portable or generally applicable for CO2 storage site characterization.

  6. Sampling and analysis plan for the site characterization of the waste area Grouping 1 groundwater operable unit at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 1 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) includes all of the former ORNL radioisotope research, production, and maintenance facilities; former waste management areas; and some former administrative buildings. Site operations have contaminated groundwater, principally with radiological contamination. An extensive network of underground pipelines and utilities have contributed to the dispersal of contaminants to a known extent. In addition, karst geology, numerous spills, and pipeline leaks, together with the long and varied history of activities at specific facilities at ORNL, complicate contaminant migration-pathway analysis and source identification. To evaluate the extent of contamination, site characterization activity will include semiannual and annual groundwater sampling, as well as monthly water level measurements (both manual and continuous) at WAG 1. This sampling and analysis plan provides the methods and procedures to conduct site characterization for the Phase 1 Remedial Investigation of the WAG 1 Groundwater Operable Unit.

  7. Direct synthesis of Al-SBA-15 containing aluminosilicate species plugs in an acid-free medium and structural adjustment by hydrothermal post-treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Lei; Xu, Yan; Zhang, Na; Lin, Sen; Li, Xiangping; Guo, Peng; Li, Xuebing

    2013-07-01

    A series of Al-SBA-15 with controllable aluminosilicate plug structures inside straight mesopores has been hydrothermally synthesized in a one-step synthesis in an environmentally friendly acid-free medium, using triblock copolymer Pluronic P123 as a structure-directing agent, water as solvent, tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and aluminum nitrate (Al(NO)3·9H2O) as silica and aluminum sources, respectively. The effects of the P123/Si molar ratio in the initial solution and aging temperature on the structural properties of the resulting materials were investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption-desorption at 77 K, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric (TG), FT-IR spectra and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analyses. The nature of the Al species and the acidity of the resultant samples were studied by solid state 27Al MAS NMR and pyridine adsorption measurements. The specific surface area (935-755 m2g-1), pore volume (1.03-0.56 cm3g-1) and especially the concentration and distribution of open type mesopores (0-68% to the total pores) of the synthesized Al-SBA-15 can be controlled by a simple adjustment of the P123/Si molar ratio in the initial solution. Moreover, increasing the aging temperature higher than 363 K can remarkably decrease the formation of plug structures to obtain “open” form mesopores. The observation by TEM of alternate defined gray and white areas inside the mesopores gives the strong evidence of isolated microporous aluminosilicate plugs inside the channels. In addition, a moderate hydrothermal post-treatment can finely modify the mesostructures through the partial or complete dissolution of the aluminosilicate plugs.

  8. Assessing acute toxicities of pre- and post-treatment industrial wastewaters with Hydra attenuata: A comparative study of acute toxicity with the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, L.J.; Staples, R.E.; Stahl, R.G. Jr. . Haskell Lab. for Toxicology and Industrial Medicine)

    1994-04-01

    This study was undertaken to (a) determine wastewater treatment effectiveness using two freshwater organisms, (b) compare acute toxicity results from the two species exposed to the wastewaters, and (c) link acute and potential developmental toxicity of wastewaters in one organism. The acute toxicities of several pretreatment and post-treatment industrial waste-water samples wee evaluated with adult Hydra attenuata and fathead minnows. The acute LC50s agreed closely when results in Hydra attenuata were compared with those from fathead minnow tests. Acute LC50s ranged from 3 to >100% of samples with hydra, and from 1.0 to >100% of sample with fathead minnows. The results provided strong evidence of treatment effectiveness because toxicity decreased with progressive stages of treatment. Previously the Hydra Developmental Toxicity Assay was used as a prescreen mainly for in vitro assessment of developmental toxicity with pure compounds and to prioritized toxicants according to selective toxicity to the developing embryo. Recently the authors modified the assay for testing natural waters and wastewaters; hence, some of the wastewater samples also were tested for their developmental toxicity. In this case, the relative selective toxicity of these wastewater samples ranged from 0.7 to 2.1, indicating that no sample was uniquely toxic to the developing embryo, although acute toxicity was manifested. Overall, their results indicate the Hydra Assay functions appropriately in assessments of acute and developmental toxicity of industrial wastewaters and may be a simple and useful tool in a battery of tests for broader scale detection of environmental hazards.

  9. Alterations of microRNA-124 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in pre- and post-treatment patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    He, Shen; Liu, Xiaohua; Jiang, Kaida; Peng, Daihui; Hong, Wu; Fang, Yiru; Qian, Yiping; Yu, Shunying; Li, Huafang

    2016-07-01

    Recently, increasing evidence has indicated that dysfunction of microRNA-124 (miR-124) might be involved in the pathophysiology and treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) in some animal models of depression. However, the role of miR-124 in MDD patients remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the miR-124 expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were associated with MDD and to evaluate the effects of antidepressant treatment on miR-124 levels. Quantitative real-time PCR was applied to detect miR-124 expression in 32 pre- and post-treatment MDD patients and 30 healthy controls. Our results showed that expression levels of miR-124 from PBMCs in MDD patients were significantly higher than those in healthy controls (p < 0.001), and that the area under the curve of miR-124 from ROC analysis was 0.762 with a sensitivity of 83.33% and specificity of 66.67% in distinguishing MDD patients from healthy controls. In addition, the expression levels of miR-124 were significantly down-regulated after eight weeks of treatment (p < 0.001). MiRNA target gene prediction and functional annotation analysis indicated that altered miR-124 was involved in affecting some important biological processes and pathways related to MDD. These results provide new information on miR-124 involvement in the biological alterations of MDD and in antidepressant effects. PMID:27078210

  10. Structural, optical, and magnetic properties of Cu- and Ni-codoped CdO dilute magnetic nanocrystalline semiconductor: effect of hydrogen post-treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dakhel, A. A.; Bououdina, M.

    2015-06-01

    Cadmium oxide codoped with Cu and Ni ions powders was synthesised by thermal co-decomposition of a mixture of cadmium, copper, and nickel acetylacetonates. The mass ratio of Cu/Cd was fixed, while the Ni/Cd mass ratio was varied systematically. The purpose of the present study is to prepare powders having room-temperature ferromagnetic (RT-FM) properties. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirm the purity and the formation of single nanocrystalline structure of the as-prepared powders. The energy bandgap of the as-prepared powders was found to vary slightly and then increases by 3.96-38.02 % after post-H2-treatment. Magnetic measurements reveal that all as-prepared doped CdO powders gained partial (RT-FM) properties. Furthermore, the created RT-FM is dependent on the Ni% doping level. After annealing under H2 gas, a strong enhancement of RT-FM was observed, especially for 1.2 % Ni-doping-level powder where the whole powder became ferromagnetic with coercivity, remanence, and saturation magnetisation of 249.2 Oe, 4.52 memu/g, and 14.57 memu/g, respectively, representing an increase by ~241.3, 1062, and 1700 %, respectively, in comparison with the as-prepared sample. Thus, it was proved, for the first time, the possibility of producing of codoped CdO with RT-FM, where the magnetic characteristics can be tailored by doping and post-treatment under H2 atmosphere, thus a new potential candidate for dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMS).

  11. Characterize and explore potential sites and prepare research and development plan (site investigation study). Final draft. Task 2. Milestone report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    A specific research and development plan to investigate the behavior and suitability of aquifers as compressed air energy storage (CAES) sites is presented. The proposed effort will evaluate present uncertainties in the performance of the underground energy storage subsystem and its impact on above ground plant design and cost. The project is planned to provide the utility industry with a quantitative basis for confidence that financial commitment to a demonstration plant and subsequent expansion is justified and poses acceptable risks. Activities in Phase II of a 5-phase overall CAES development program are reported. Information is included on the development of field testing specifications and schedules; selection of specific site for the conceptual design; development plan and schedule for the media site; development of analytical models of aquifer airflow; and well drilling requirements. As a result of these studies 14 sites in Illinois and Indiana were evaluated, 7 were ranked for suitability for CAES, and 4 were selected for possible use in the field testing program. Test procedures, the mathematical models and drilling requirments were developed. (LCL)

  12. SU-E-T-65: Characterization of a 2D Array for QA and Pretreatment Plan Verification

    SciTech Connect

    Anvari, A; Aghamiri, S; Mahdavi, S; Alaei, P

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The OCTAVIUS detector729 is a 2D array of 729 air vented cubic plane parallel ion chambers used for pretreatment verification and QA. In this study we investigated dosimetric characteristics of this system for clinical photon beam dosimetry. Methods: Detector performance evaluation included determination of the location of the effective point of measurement (EPM), sensitivity, linearity, and reproducibility of detector response, as well as output factor, dose rate, and source to surface distance (SSD) dependence. Finally, assessment of wedge modulated fields was carried out. All the evaluations were performed five times for low and high photon energies. For reference measurements, a 0.6 cc ionization chamber was used. Data analysis and comparison of the OCTAVIUS detector with reference ion chamber data was performed using the VeriSoft patient plan verification software. Results: The reproducibility and stability of the measurements are excellent, the detector showed same signal with a maximum deviation of less than 0.5% in short and long term. Results of sensitivity test showed same signal with a maximum deviation of approximately 0.1%. As the detector 729 response is linear with dose and dose rate, it can be used for the measurement at regions of high dose gradient effectively. The detector agrees with the ionization chamber measurement to within 1% for SSD range of 75 to 125 cm. Also, its measured wedge modulated profiles matched very well with ion chamber dose profiles acquired in a water tank. Conclusions: As the response of the detector 729 is linear with dose and dose rate, it can be used for the measurements in the areas of dose gradients effectively. Based on the measurements and comparisons performed, this system is a reliable and accurate dosimeter for QA and pretreatment plan verification in radiotherapy.

  13. Final report on the Background Soil Characterization Project at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 3: Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Hatmaker, T.L.; Hook, L.A.; Jackson, B.L.

    1993-10-01

    The Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP) will provide background concentration levels of selected metals, organic compounds, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated on-site areas at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and off-site in the western part of Roane County and the eastern part of Anderson County. The BSCP will establish a database, recommend how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide estimates of the potential human health and environmental risks associated with the background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents. ORR background soil characterization data will be used for two purposes. The first application will be in differentiating between naturally occurring constituents and site-related contamination. This is a very important step in a risk assessment because if sufficient background data are not available, no constituent known to be a contaminant can be eliminated from the assessment even if the sampled concentration is measured at a minimum level. The second use of the background data will be in calculating baseline risks against which site-specific contamination risks can be compared.

  14. Scientific drilling into the San Andreas fault and site characterization research: Planning and coordination efforts. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Zoback, M.D.

    1998-08-30

    The fundamental scientific issue addressed in this proposal, obtaining an improved understanding of the physical and chemical processes responsible for earthquakes along major fault zones, is clearly of global scientific interest. By sampling the San Andreas fault zone and making direct measurements of fault zone properties to 4.0 km at Parkfield they will be studying an active plate-boundary fault at a depth where aseismic creep and small earthquakes occur and where a number of the scientific questions associated with deeper fault zone drilling can begin to be addressed. Also, the technological challenges associated with drilling, coring, downhole measurements and borehole instrumentation that may eventually have to be faced in deeper drilling can first be addressed at moderate depth and temperature in the Parkfield hole. Throughout the planning process leading to the development of this proposal they have invited participation by scientists from around the world. As a result, the workshops and meetings they have held for this project have involved about 350 scientists and engineers from about a dozen countries.

  15. Avian influenza at both ends of a migratory flyway: characterizing viral genomic diversity to optimize surveillance plans for North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearce, John M.; Ramey, Andrew M.; Flint, Paul L.; Koehler, Anson V.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Franson, J. Christian; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Derksen, Dirk V.; Ip, Hon S.

    2009-01-01

    Although continental populations of avian influenza viruses are genetically distinct, transcontinental reassortment in low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses has been detected in migratory birds. Thus, genomic analyses of LPAI viruses could serve as an approach to prioritize species and regions targeted by North American surveillance activities for foreign origin highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). To assess the applicability of this approach, we conducted a phylogenetic and population genetic analysis of 68 viral genomes isolated from the northern pintail (Anas acuta) at opposite ends of the Pacific migratory flyway in North America. We found limited evidence for Asian LPAI lineages on wintering areas used by northern pintails in California in contrast to a higher frequency on breeding locales of Alaska. Our results indicate that the number of Asian LPAI lineages observed in Alaskan northern pintails, and the nucleotide composition of LPAI lineages, is not maintained through fall migration. Accordingly, our data indicate that surveillance of Pacific Flyway northern pintails to detect foreign avian influenza viruses would be most effective in Alaska. North American surveillance plans could be optimized through an analysis of LPAI genomics from species that demonstrate evolutionary linkages with European or Asian lineages and in regions that have overlapping migratory flyways with areas of HPAI outbreaks.

  16. Identification and characterization of conservative organic tracers for use as hydrologic tracers for the Yucca Mountain site characterization project: Quality Assurance Project Plan, Revision 1; Quarterly progress report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Stetzenbach, K.J.

    1993-12-13

    The purpose of this work is to identify and characterize candidate conservative organic tracers for use as hydrologic tracers for experiments to be conducted at the Yucca Mountain C-well complex. During this quarter the main effort was directed towards rewriting the quality assurance program in preparation for a review and audit by the USGS. However, due to budget constraints the review and audit were not carried out. The tracer QA plan and standard operating procedures (SOPs) were revised and copies are included in the report. Instrumental problems were encountered and corrected with the addition of new integration and sample control software. In the sampling, there was an unexplained peak in the chromatograms of the tracers being tested in the light tuff. This was not correctable and these experiments will be repeated in the next quarter.

  17. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 6, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.3.2 through 8.3.4.4

    SciTech Connect

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 35 figs., 70 tabs.

  18. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 8, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.4 through 8.7; Glossary and Acronyms

    SciTech Connect

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Section 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 88 figs., 42 tabs.

  19. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 5, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.3.1.5 through 8.3.1.17

    SciTech Connect

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the SOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules.

  20. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 8, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.3.5 through 8.3.5.20

    SciTech Connect

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 68 figs., 102 tabs.

  1. Planned Change in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Meter, Eddy J.

    1979-01-01

    Summarizes the literature on educational change as it is characterized by trends toward increased clarification of strategies relating to planned change, more sophisticated understanding of change-related phenomena, more reports of planned change, greater awareness of the complexities of change, and increased concern for the ethical dimension of…

  2. TH-C-19A-03: Characterization of the Dose Per Pulse Dependence of Various Detectors Used in Quality Assurance of FFF Treatment Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Karan, T; Viel, F; Atwal, P; Gete, E; Camborde, M; Horwood, R; Strgar, V; Duzenli, C

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To present the dose per pulse dependence of various QA devices under Flattening Filter Free (FFF) conditions. Methods: Air and liquid filled ion chamber arrays, diode arrays, radiochromic film and optically stimulated luminescence detectors were investigated. All detectors were irradiated under similar conditions of varying dose per pulse on a TrueBeam linac. Dose per pulse was controlled by varying SSD from 70 to 160 cm providing a range from ~0.5 to ~3 mGy per pulse. MU rates of up to 2400 MU/min for 10X FFF and 1400 MU/min for the 6X FFF beam were used. Beam pulses were counted using the Profiler™ diode array and pulse timing was confirmed by examining linac node files. Delivered doses were calculated with the Eclipse™ treatment planning system. Results: The detectors show a range of behaviors depending on the detector type, as expected. Diode arrays show up to 4% change in sensitivity (sensitivity increases with increasing dose per pulse) over the range tested. Air and liquid ion chambers arrays show a change in sensitivity of up to 3% (air) and 6% (liquid) (sensitivity decreases with increasing dose per pulse) while film and OSLD do not demonstrate a dependence on dose per pulse. Conclusion: Dependence of detector response on dose per pulse varies considerably depending on detector design. Interplay between dose per pulse and MU rate also exists for some detectors. Due diligence is required to characterize detector response prior to implementation of a QA protocol for FFF treatment delivery. During VMAT delivery, the MU rate may also vary dramatically within a treatment fraction. We intend to further investigate the implications of this for VMAT FFF patient specific quality assurance. T Karan and F Viel have received partial funding through the Varian Research program.

  3. SU-E-J-254: Evaluating the Role of Mid-Treatment and Post-Treatment FDG-PET/CT in Predicting Progression-Free Survival and Distant Metastasis of Anal Cancer Patients Treated with Chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H; Wang, J; Chuong, M; D’Souza, W; Choi, W; Lu, W; Latifi, K; Hoffe, S; Moros, E; Saeed, Nadia; Tan, S; Shridhar, R

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of mid-treatment and post-treatment FDG-PET/CT in predicting progression-free survival (PFS) and distant metastasis (DM) of anal cancer patients treated with chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Methods: 17 anal cancer patients treated with CRT were retrospectively studied. The median prescription dose was 56 Gy (range, 50–62.5 Gy). All patients underwent FDG-PET/CT scans before and after CRT. 16 of the 17 patients had an additional FDG-PET/CT image at 3–5 weeks into the treatment (denoted as mid-treatment FDG-PET/CT). 750 features were extracted from these three sets of scans, which included both traditional PET/CT measures (SUVmax, SUVpeak, tumor diameters, etc.) and spatialtemporal PET/CT features (comprehensively quantify a tumor’s FDG uptake intensity and distribution, spatial variation (texture), geometric property and their temporal changes relative to baseline). 26 clinical parameters (age, gender, TNM stage, histology, GTV dose, etc.) were also analyzed. Advanced analytics including methods to select an optimal set of predictors and a model selection engine, which identifies the most accurate machine learning algorithm for predictive analysis was developed. Results: Comparing baseline + mid-treatment PET/CT set to baseline + posttreatment PET/CT set, 14 predictors were selected from each feature group. Same three clinical parameters (tumor size, T stage and whether 5-FU was held during any cycle of chemotherapy) and two traditional measures (pre- CRT SUVmin and SUVmedian) were selected by both predictor groups. Different mix of spatial-temporal PET/CT features was selected. Using the 14 predictors and Naive Bayes, mid-treatment PET/CT set achieved 87.5% accuracy (2 PFS patients misclassified, all local recurrence and DM patients correctly classified). Post-treatment PET/CT set achieved 94.0% accuracy (all PFS and DM patients correctly predicted, 1 local recurrence patient misclassified) with logistic regression, neural network or

  4. The consequences of physical post-treatments (microwave and electron-beam) on food/packaging interactions: A physicochemical and toxicological approach.

    PubMed

    Riquet, A M; Breysse, C; Dahbi, L; Loriot, C; Severin, I; Chagnon, M C

    2016-05-15

    The safety of microwave and electron-beam treatments has been demonstrated, in regards to the formation of reaction products that could endanger human health. An integrated approach was used combining the potential toxicity of all the substances likely to migrate to their chemical characterizations. This approach was applied to polypropylene (PP) films prepared with a selection of additives. Components were identified by liquid and gas chromatography using a mass selective detector system. Their potential toxicity was assessed using three in vitro short-term bioassays and their migrations were carried out using a standards-based approach. After the electron-beam treatment some additives decomposed and there was a significant increase in the polyolefin oligomeric saturated hydrocarbons concentration. PP prepared with Irgafos 168 led to a significantly strong cytotoxic effect and PP prepared with Irganox 1076 induced a dose-dependant estrogenic effect in vitro. Migration values were low and below the detection limit of the analytical method applied. PMID:26775944

  5. Concordance of sustained virologic response at weeks 4, 12 and 24 post-treatment of hepatitis c in the era of new oral direct-acting antivirals: A concise review.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Sarah V; Hussaini, Trana; Yoshida, Eric M

    2016-01-01

    The goal of treatment for chronic hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection is to cure the infection rather than suppress the virus. Historically, a sustained virological response (SVR) defined as undetectable HCV RNA at 24 weeks following the completion of treatment was considered the gold standard to define successful eradication of the virus as a primary endpoint in clinical trials. SVR measured at 12 weeks post-treatment has been shown to be highly concordant with SVR24 in trials of pegylated interferon and ribavirin. The appropriateness and durability of SVR12 as the efficacy endpoint with new oral direct-acting antivirals is less established. A literatura search was performed using PubMed, EMBASE and CENTRAL databases to identify any studies that examined the concordance between SVR24 and earlier time points. Two studies and 4 abstracts were found that performed concordance analyses using positive and negative predictive values. Overall, SVR4 and SVR12 were highly concordant with SVR24 with high positive (> 97%) and negative (> 94%) predictive values; however there was a higher risk of HCV relapse occurring after post-treatment week 4. The majority of the data focused on SVR12 and demonstrated that SVR12 reliably predicted SVR24 in several populations infected with HCV (treatment-naïve, prior null responders, different genotypes) using various new oral direct-acting antiviral regimens. In conclusion, the available data suggests that SVR12 is a reliable assessment of HCV eradication and could be used instead of SVR24 for drug development clinical trials assessing efficacy of new direct-acting antivirals. Data on the long-term durability of SVR12 is still needed. PMID:26845592

  6. Improved performance of dye-sensitized solar cells: An TiO2-nano-SiO2 hybrid photoanode with post-treatment of TiCl4 aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ling; Niu, Haihong; Zhang, Shouwei; Wan, Lei; Miao, Shiding; Xu, Jinzhang

    2012-11-01

    A TiO2-nano-SiO2 hybrid film was prepared on a conductive F-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate by depositing a mixture paste of TiO2 (P25) and nano-sized SiO2 particles. The hybrid film was further treated by a titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) aqueous solution with different concentrations before it was assembled as a photoanode in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We studied the performance of DSSCs by using the dye molecule of cis-bis(isothiocy-anato)-bis-(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylato)-ruthenium(II) bis-tetrabutylammonium (N719) as sensitizer. Results suggested that the post-treatment using TiCl4 could enhance the dye adsorption. The thin TiO2 layer hydrolyzed from TiCl4 could fill gaps between nanoparticles in the composite film, leading to a better electron transport than non-treated films, and improve the light harvesting efficiency. The optimal concentration was found to be 75 mM for the post-treatment of TiO2-SiO2 hybrid film by TiCl4 solution. A photoelectron conversion efficiency of 6.39% was achieved in the back-side illuminated dye-sensitized solar cells, which is ˜105% higher than the basic efficiency of the bare TiO2 sensitized sample. TiO2-nano-SiO2 hybrid photoanode was prepared by incorporation of nano-sized SiO2 in the TiO2 film. The introduced SiO2 as a wide band-gap material gives a significant improvement of the performance of corresponding DSSCs in terms of photocurrent densities and energy conversion efficiency.

  7. Post-treatment of Plasma-Sprayed Cr2O3 with Methane-Containing Gas for Conversion to Binder-Free Cr3C2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brupbacher, Michael C.; Zhang, Dajie; Buchta, William M.; Rhim, Yo-Rhin; Nagle, Dennis C.; Spicer, James B.

    2015-12-01

    In most applications, the performance of thermally sprayed Cr3C2-NiCr cermet coatings is known to be adversely affected by the presence of the NiCr binder phase. A processing technique for the rapid synthesis of Cr3C2 on industrial-scale components could improve the functionality of these coatings by eliminating the metallic binder phase. To form a thick, continuous surface layer of adherent, binder-free Cr3C2, the reduction of plasma-sprayed Cr2O3 with methane-containing gas was investigated. Conversion of the plasma-sprayed Cr2O3 to carbide resulted in a significant increase in coating porosity, yielding a highly microporous Cr3C2 surface layer. The physical characteristics of the reduction process appear to be dependent on the coating defect structure at the reduction temperature. Phase morphology and porosity evolution throughout the reduction process were qualitatively examined using x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The utility of the resultant Cr3C2 coating is discussed with respect to these microstructural characterizations and microindentation hardness measurements.

  8. Influence of post-treatment with 75% (v/v) ethanol vapor on the properties of SF/P(LLA-CL) nanofibrous scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kui-Hua; Ye, Qing; Yan, Zhi-Yong

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the water-resistant ability of silk fibroin (SF) and SF/P(LLA-CL) blended nanofibrous scaffolds for tissue engineering applications, 75% (v/v) ethanol vapor was used to post-treat electrospun nanofibers. SEM indicated that the treated SF and SF/P(LLA-CL) nanofibrous scaffolds maintained a nanofibrous structure and possessed good water-resistant ability. Characterization of (13)C CP-MAS NMR clarified that 75% (v/v) ethanol vapor could induce SF conformation from random coil or α-helix to β-sheet. Although the water contact showed that treated SF/P(LLA-CL) blended nanofibrous scaffolds were hydrophobic, the water uptake demonstrated that their hydrophilicity was greatly superior to those of pure P(LLA-CL) nanofibrous scaffolds. Furthermore, the treated SF/P(LLA-CL) nanofibrous scaffolds, both in dry state and wet state, could retain good mechanical properties. Therefore, 75% (v/v) ethanol vapor treatment might be an ideal method to treat SF and SF/P(LLA-CL) nanofibrous scaffolds for biomedical applications. PMID:22408436

  9. RESPONSE PROTOCOL TOOLBOX: PLANNING FOR AND RESPONDING TO DRINKING WATER CONTAMINATION THREATS AND INCIDENTS, MODULE 3: SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND SAMPLING GUIDE. INTERIM FINAL - DECEMBER 2003

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interim final Response Protocol Toolbox: Planning for and Responding to Contamination Threats to Drinking Water Systems is designed to help the water sector effectively and appropriately respond to intentional contamination threats and incidents. It was produced by EPA, buil...

  10. GUIDANCE MANUAL FOR THE PREPARATION OF DEMONSTRATION AND QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLANS FOR THE VERIFICATION OF FIELD CHARACTERIZATION AND MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work represents the technical and editorial contributions of a large number of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) employees and others familiar with or interested in the demonstration and evaluation of innovative site characterization and monitoring technologies. In ...

  11. Parotid Glands Dose-Effect Relationships Based on Their Actually Delivered Doses: Implications for Adaptive Re-Planning in Radiotherapy of Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Klaudia U.; Fernandes, Laura; Vineberg, Karen A.; McShan, Daniel; Antonuk, Alan E.; Cornwall, Craig; Feng, Mary; Schipper, Mathew; Balter, James; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Doses actually delivered to the parotid glands during radiotherapy often exceed planned doses. We hypothesized that the delivered doses correlate better with parotid salivary output than the planned doses, used in all previous studies, and that determining these correlations will help decisions regarding adaptive re-planning (ART) aimed at reducing the delivered doses. Methods and Materials Prospective study: oropharyngeal cancer patients treated definitively with chemo-irradiation underwent daily cone beam CT (CBCT) with clinical set-up alignment based on C2 posterior edge. Parotid glands in the CBCTs were aligned by deformable registration to calculate cumulative delivered doses. Stimulated salivary flow rates were measured separately from each parotid gland pretherapy and periodically posttherapy. Results 36 parotid glands of 18 patients were analyzed. Average mean planned doses was 32 Gy and differences from planned to delivered mean gland doses were −4.9 to +8.4 Gy, median difference +2.2 Gy in glands whose delivered doses increased relative to planned. Both planned and delivered mean doses were significantly correlated with post-treatment salivary outputs at almost all post-therapy time points, without statistically significant differences in the correlations. Large dispersions [on average, standard deviation (SD) 3.6 Gy] characterized the dose/effect relationships for both. The differences between the cumulative delivered doses and planned doses were evident already at first fraction (r=0.92, p<0.0001) due to complex set-up deviations, e.g. rotations and neck articulations, uncorrected by the translational clinical alignments. Conclusions After daily translational set-up corrections, differences between planned and delivered doses in most glands were small relative to the SDs of the dose/saliva data, suggesting that ART is not likely to gain measurable salivary output improvement in most cases. These differences were observed already at first

  12. Types of Post-Treatment Issues

    MedlinePlus

    ... short term. These tumors are most accurately termed vestibular schwannomas because they arise from the sheath of ... hearing is lower. Tumors originating from the superior vestibular nerve have a greater chance of hearing preservation ...

  13. Post-treatment imaging of liver tumours

    PubMed Central

    Ba-Ssalamah, Ahmed; Kurtaran, Amir; Schindl, Martin; Gruenberger, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Abstract In the past few years, great improvements have been made to achieve local tumour control of primary liver malignancies and liver metastases. For hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE) and tumour ablation techniques, including percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), radiofrequency ablation (RF), and laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) have been developed. For colorectal liver metastases, surgery is still the standard technique in localised disease, although percutaneous RF ablation has gained considerable acceptance. In patients with widespread disease, chemotherapy with new drugs offers improved survival. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the modalities of choice to evaluate treatment response. The present review demonstrates imaging findings of complete and incomplete tumour control after intervention as well as the imaging spectrum of complications. Imaging guidelines according to the World Health Organization and Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) for assessment of chemotherapy response are presented. PMID:17921098

  14. Distribution and mass balance of hexavalent and trivalent chromium in a subsurface, horizontal flow (SF-h) constructed wetland operating as post-treatment of textile wastewater for water reuse.

    PubMed

    Fibbi, Donatella; Doumett, Saer; Lepri, Luciano; Checchini, Leonardo; Gonnelli, Cristina; Coppini, Ester; Del Bubba, Massimo

    2012-01-15

    In this study, during a two-year period, we investigated the fate of hexavalent and trivalent chromium in a full-scale subsurface horizontal flow constructed wetland planted with Phragmites australis. The reed bed operated as post-treatment of the effluent wastewater from an activated sludge plant serving the textile industrial district and the city of Prato (Italy). Chromium speciation was performed in influent and effluent wastewater and in water-suspended solids, at different depths and distances from the inlet; plants were also analyzed for total chromium along the same longitudinal profile. Removals of hexavalent and trivalent chromium equal to 72% and 26%, respectively were achieved. The mean hexavalent chromium outlet concentration was 1.6 ± 0.9 μg l(-1) and complied with the Italian legal limits for water reuse. Chromium in water-suspended solids was in the trivalent form, thus indicating that its removal from wastewater was obtained by the reduction of hexavalent chromium to the trivalent form, followed by accumulation of the latter inside the reed bed. Chromium in water-suspended solids was significantly affected by the distance from the inlet. Chromium concentrations in the different plant organs followed the same trend of suspended solids along the longitudinal profile and were much lower than those found in the solid material, evidencing a low metal accumulation in P. australis. PMID:22104764

  15. Strategic planning for waste management: Characterization of chemically and radioactively hazardous waste and treatment, storage, and disposal capabilities for diverse and varied multisite operations

    SciTech Connect

    Jolley, R.L.; Rivera, A.L.; Fox, E.C.; Hyfantis, G.J.; McBrayer, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    Information about current and projected waste generation as well as available treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) capabilities and needs is crucial for effective, efficient, and safe waste management. This is especially true for large corporations that are responsible for multisite operations involving diverse and complex industrial processes. Such information is necessary not only for day-to-day operations, but also for strategic planning to ensure safe future performance. This paper reports on some methods developed and successfully applied to obtain requisite information and to assist waste management planning at the corporate level in a nationwide system of laboratories and industries. Waste generation and TSD capabilities at selected US Department of Energy (DOE) sites were studied. 1 ref., 2 tabs.

  16. Survey Plan For Characterization of the Subsurface Underlying the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Volume 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Topic considered include: survey objectives; technologies for non-Invasive imaging of subsurface; cost; data requirements and sources; climatic condition; hydrology and geology; chemicals; magnetometry; electrical(resistivity, potential); optical-style imaging; reflection/refraction seismics; gravitometry; photo-acoustic activation;well drilling and borehole analysis; comparative assessment matrix; ground sensors; choice of the neutron sources; logistic of operations; system requirements; health and safety plans.

  17. Participatory Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William S.

    1980-01-01

    A synopsis of a Planning Assistance Kit designed by the Council of Educational Facility Planners (CEFP) and Educational Facilities Laboratories (EFL) to assist local communities in participatory planning. (MLF)

  18. Planning Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Medard

    1984-01-01

    To solve societal problems, both local and global, a global approach is needed. Serious diseases that are crippling present-day problem solving and planning are discussed, and the characteristics of a healthy, effective planning approach are described. (RM)

  19. Data management implementation plan for the site characterization of the Waste Area Grouping 1 Groundwater Operable Unit at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, T.S.; Nickle, E.B.

    1994-10-01

    The Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is undergoing a site characterization. This project is not mandated by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); therefore, no formalized meetings for data quality objective (DQO) development were held. Internally, DQOs were generated by the project team based on the end uses of the data to be collected. The 150-acre WAG 1 is contained within the ORNL security area. It includes all of the former ORNL radioisotope research, production, and maintenance facilities; former waste management areas; and some former administrative facilities. The goal of the WAG 1 Groundwater Site Characterization is to provide the necessary data on the nature and extent of groundwater contamination with an acceptable level of uncertainty to support the selection of remedial alternatives and to identify additional data needs for future actions. Primary objectives for the site characterization are: (1) To identify and characterize contaminant migration pathways based on the collection of groundwater data; (2) to identify sources of groundwater contamination and evaluate remedial actions which could be implemented to control or eliminate these sources; and (3) To conduct groundwater monitoring in support of other OUs in WAG 1 and the ORNL Groundwater OU.

  20. Comprehensive Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlenko, Victor V.

    Comprehensive planning, defined as the work of those who engage in efforts, within a delimited geographic area, to identify and order the physical, social, and economic relationships of that area, is discussed in the four sections of this paper. Section I, Introduction, describes what "planning" and "comprehensive planning" are. In Section II, Why…

  1. Fire Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, June

    2011-01-01

    Many libraries have disaster recovery plans, but not all have prevention and action plans to prepare for an emergency in advance. This article presents the author's review of the prevention and action plans of several libraries: (1) Evergreen State College; (2) Interlochen Public Library; (3) University of Maryland, Baltimore-Marshall Law Library;…

  2. Early nerve ending rescue from oxidative damage and energy failure by L: -carnitine as post-treatment in two neurotoxic models in rat: recovery of antioxidant and reductive capacities.

    PubMed

    Elinos-Calderón, Diana; Robledo-Arratia, Yolanda; Pérez-De La Cruz, Verónica; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José; Ali, Syed F; Santamaría, Abel

    2009-08-01

    Cell rescue is a primary need during acute and chronic insults to the central nervous system. Functional preservation during the early stages of toxicity in a given degenerative event may represent a significant amelioration of detrimental processes linked to neuronal cell loss. Excitotoxicity and depleted cellular energy are toxic events leading to cell death in several neurodegenerative disorders. In this work, the effects of the well-known antioxidant and energy precursor, L: -carnitine (L: -CAR), were tested as a post-treatment in two neurotoxic models under in vitro and in vivo conditions. The experimental models tested included: (1) a typical excitotoxic and pro-oxidant inducer, quinolinic acid (QUIN); and (2) a mitochondrial energy inhibitor, 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP). For in vitro studies, increasing concentrations of L: -CAR (10-1,000 microM) were added to the isolated brain synaptosomes at different times (1, 3 and 6 h) after the incubation with toxins (100 microM QUIN and 1 mM 3-NP), and 30 min later, lipid peroxidation (LP) and mitochondrial dysfunction (MD) were evaluated. For in vivo purposes, L: -CAR (100 mg/kg, i.p.) was given to rats either as a single administration 120 min after the intrastriatal infusion of QUIN (240 nmol/microl) or 3-NP (500 nmol/microl), or for 7 consecutive days (starting 120 min post-lesion). LP and MD were evaluated 4 h and 7 days post-lesions in isolated striatal synaptosomes. Our results show that, despite some variations depending on the toxic model tested, the time of exposure, or the biomarker evaluated, nerve ending protection can be mostly achieved by L: -CAR within the first hours after the toxic insults started, suggesting that targeting the ongoing oxidative damage and/or energy depletion during the first stages of neurotoxic events is essential to rescue nerve endings. PMID:19565224

  3. Site characterization plan conceptual design report for a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt, vertical emplacement mode: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    This Conceptual Design Report describes the conceptual design of a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt at a proposed site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Waste receipt, processing, packing, and other surface facility operations are described. Operations in the shafts underground are described, including waste hoisting, transfer, and vertical emplacement. This report specifically addresses the vertical emplacement mode, the reference design for the repository. Waste retrieval capability is described. The report includes a description of the layout of the surface, shafts, and underground. Major equipment items are identified. The report includes plans for decommissioning and sealing of the facility. The report discusses how the repository will satisfy performance objectives. Chapters are included on basis for design, design analyses, and data requirements for completion of future design efforts. 105 figs., 52 tabs.

  4. Transition Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Statfeld, Jenna L.

    2011-01-01

    Post-school transition is the movement of a child with disabilities from school to activities that occur after the completion of school. This paper provides information about: (1) post-school transition; (2) transition plan; (3) transition services; (4) transition planning; (5) vocational rehabilitation services; (6) services that are available…

  5. Planned orphanhood.

    PubMed

    Landau, R

    1999-07-01

    Medical technology, which today makes it possible to bear a child after death, enables planned orphanhood. The first part of this paper will discuss the medical innovations in human conception, the psycho-social aspects of the wish for children from the genes of someone who is no longer alive, and the ensuing orphanhood and its implications. The second part will discuss the ethical issues relating to planned orphanhood: Who are involved in the matter of planned orphanhood? Is the decision to produce a planned orphan a private or public matter? Whose responsibility is the birth and bringing up of the planned orphan? To whom does society have more responsibility - the children who already exist or future children? And can planned orphanhood be regarded as a justification for wrongful conception? The last part of the paper will examine the judicial aspects of planned orphanhood in Israel and elsewhere and discuss the application of the principles of human dignity, human welfare, and justice. The paper argues for discouraging planned orphanhood so as to avoid violating the principles of human dignity and liberty, human welfare, and human justice, from the perspectives of both those who are involved in the process in general and the orphan who is the target of the medical intervention in particular. Its aim is to encourage deep and comprehensive public discussion of this issue in all its aspects. PMID:10414828

  6. Expedition Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert, Alan

    Planning an expedition, particularly an expedition to climb Mount McKinley, can appear monumental. Not only must the obvious items like food, equipment and personnel be carefully planned, but attention must also focus on "insignificant" items like applications and reservations which, if forgotten, could mean the difference between a successful or…

  7. The feasibility, patterns of use and acceptability of using mobile phone text-messaging to improve treatment adherence and post-treatment review of children with uncomplicated malaria in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Trials evaluating the impact of mobile phone text-messaging to support management of acute diseases, such as malaria, are urgently needed in Africa. There has been however a concern about the feasibility of interventions that rely on access to mobile phones among caregivers in rural areas. To assess the feasibility and inform development of an intervention to improve adherence to malaria medications and post-treatment review, mobile phone network, access, ownership and use among caregivers in western Kenya was assessed. Methods A cross-sectional survey based on outpatient exit interviews was undertaken among caregivers of children with malaria at four trial facilities. The main outcomes were proportions of caregivers that have mobile signal at home; have access to mobile phones; are able to read; and use text-messaging. Willingness to receive text-message reminders was also explored. Descriptive analyses were performed. Results Of 400 interviewed caregivers, the majority were female (93.5%), mothers of the sick children (87.8%) and able to read (97.3%). Only 1.7% of caregivers were without any education. Nearly all (99.8%) reported access to a mobile signal at home. 93.0% (site range: 89-98%) had access to a mobile phone within their household while 73.8% (site range: 66-78%) possessed a personal phone. Among caregivers with mobile phone access, 93.6% (site range: 85-99%) used the phone to receive text-messages. Despite only 19% having electricity at home nearly all (99.7%) caregivers reported that they would be able to have permanent phone access to receive text-messages in the next 28 days. Willingness to receive text-message reminders was nearly universal (99.7%) with 41.7% of caregivers preferring texts in English, 32.3% in Kiswahili and 26.1% in Dholuo. Conclusions Despite concerns that the feasibility of text-messaging interventions targeting caregivers may be compromised in rural high malaria risk areas in Kenya, very favourable conditions were

  8. Tank waste characterization basis

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.M.

    1996-08-09

    This document describes the issues requiring characterization information, the process of determining high priority tanks to obtain information, and the outcome of the prioritization process. In addition, this document provides the reasoning for establishing and revising priorities and plans.

  9. Remedial investigation work plan for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek characterization area, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, located within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), is owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. The entire ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) of CERCLA sites in November 1989. Following CERCLA guidelines, sites under investigation require a remedial investigation (RI) to define the nature and extent of contamination, evaluate the risks to public health and the environment, and determine the goals for a feasibility study (FS) of potential remedial actions. The need to complete RIs in a timely manner resulted in the establishment of the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Characterization Area (CA) and the Bear Creek CA. The CA approach considers the entire watershed and examines all appropriate media within it. The UEFPC CA, which includes the main Y-12 Plant area, is an operationally and hydrogeologically complex area that contains numerous contaminants and containment sources, as well as ongoing industrial and defense-related activities. The UEFPC CA also is the suspected point of origin for off-site groundwater and surface-water contamination. The UEFPC CA RI also will address a carbon-tetrachloride/chloroform-dominated groundwater plume that extends east of the DOE property line into Union Valley, which appears to be connected with springs in the valley. In addition, surface water in UEFPC to the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek CA boundary will be addressed. Through investigation of the entire watershed as one ``site,`` data gaps and contaminated areas will be identified and prioritized more efficiently than through separate investigations of many discrete units.

  10. Optimizing global liver function in radiation therapy treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Victor W.; Epelman, Marina A.; Wang, Hesheng; Romeijn, H. Edwin; Feng, Mary; Cao, Yue; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Matuszak, Martha M.

    2016-09-01

    Liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) patients differ in both pre-treatment liver function (e.g. due to degree of cirrhosis and/or prior treatment) and radiosensitivity, leading to high variability in potential liver toxicity with similar doses. This work investigates three treatment planning optimization models that minimize risk of toxicity: two consider both voxel-based pre-treatment liver function and local-function-based radiosensitivity with dose; one considers only dose. Each model optimizes different objective functions (varying in complexity of capturing the influence of dose on liver function) subject to the same dose constraints and are tested on 2D synthesized and 3D clinical cases. The normal-liver-based objective functions are the linearized equivalent uniform dose (\\ell \\text{EUD} ) (conventional ‘\\ell \\text{EUD} model’), the so-called perfusion-weighted \\ell \\text{EUD} (\\text{fEUD} ) (proposed ‘fEUD model’), and post-treatment global liver function (GLF) (proposed ‘GLF model’), predicted by a new liver-perfusion-based dose-response model. The resulting \\ell \\text{EUD} , fEUD, and GLF plans delivering the same target \\ell \\text{EUD} are compared with respect to their post-treatment function and various dose-based metrics. Voxel-based portal venous liver perfusion, used as a measure of local function, is computed using DCE-MRI. In cases used in our experiments, the GLF plan preserves up to 4.6 % ≤ft(7.5 % \\right) more liver function than the fEUD (\\ell \\text{EUD} ) plan does in 2D cases, and up to 4.5 % ≤ft(5.6 % \\right) in 3D cases. The GLF and fEUD plans worsen in \\ell \\text{EUD} of functional liver on average by 1.0 Gy and 0.5 Gy in 2D and 3D cases, respectively. Liver perfusion information can be used during treatment planning to minimize the risk of toxicity by improving expected GLF; the degree of benefit varies with perfusion pattern. Although fEUD model optimization is computationally inexpensive and

  11. Optimizing global liver function in radiation therapy treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Wu, Victor W; Epelman, Marina A; Wang, Hesheng; Edwin Romeijn, H; Feng, Mary; Cao, Yue; Ten Haken, Randall K; Matuszak, Martha M

    2016-09-01

    Liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) patients differ in both pre-treatment liver function (e.g. due to degree of cirrhosis and/or prior treatment) and radiosensitivity, leading to high variability in potential liver toxicity with similar doses. This work investigates three treatment planning optimization models that minimize risk of toxicity: two consider both voxel-based pre-treatment liver function and local-function-based radiosensitivity with dose; one considers only dose. Each model optimizes different objective functions (varying in complexity of capturing the influence of dose on liver function) subject to the same dose constraints and are tested on 2D synthesized and 3D clinical cases. The normal-liver-based objective functions are the linearized equivalent uniform dose ([Formula: see text]) (conventional '[Formula: see text] model'), the so-called perfusion-weighted [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) (proposed 'fEUD model'), and post-treatment global liver function (GLF) (proposed 'GLF model'), predicted by a new liver-perfusion-based dose-response model. The resulting [Formula: see text], fEUD, and GLF plans delivering the same target [Formula: see text] are compared with respect to their post-treatment function and various dose-based metrics. Voxel-based portal venous liver perfusion, used as a measure of local function, is computed using DCE-MRI. In cases used in our experiments, the GLF plan preserves up to [Formula: see text] more liver function than the fEUD ([Formula: see text]) plan does in 2D cases, and up to [Formula: see text] in 3D cases. The GLF and fEUD plans worsen in [Formula: see text] of functional liver on average by 1.0 Gy and 0.5 Gy in 2D and 3D cases, respectively. Liver perfusion information can be used during treatment planning to minimize the risk of toxicity by improving expected GLF; the degree of benefit varies with perfusion pattern. Although fEUD model optimization is computationally inexpensive and often

  12. Third Floor Plan, Second Floor Plan, First Floor Plan, Ground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Third Floor Plan, Second Floor Plan, First Floor Plan, Ground Floor Plan, West Bunkhouse - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  13. Southwest elevation, roof plan, site plan & main floor plan, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southwest elevation, roof plan, site plan & main floor plan, loft plan, section looking east, north window head detail - Richard Buckminster Fuller & Anne Hewlett Fuller Dome Home, 407 South Forest Avenue, Carbondale, Jackson County, IL

  14. Post-treatment of refinery wastewater effluent using a combination of AOPs (H2O2 photolysis and catalytic wet peroxide oxidation) for possible water reuse. Comparison of low and medium pressure lamp performance.

    PubMed

    Rueda-Márquez, J J; Levchuk, I; Salcedo, I; Acevedo-Merino, A; Manzano, M A

    2016-03-15

    The main aim of this work was to study the feasibility of multi-barrier treatment (MBT) consisting of filtration, hydrogen peroxide photolysis (H2O2/UVC) and catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (CWPO) for post-treatment of petroleum refinery effluent. Also the possibility of water reuse or safe discharge was considered. The performance of MBT using medium (MP) and low (LP) pressure lamps was compared as well as operation and maintenance (O&M) cost. Decomposition of organic compounds was followed by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) analysis. After filtration step (25 μm) turbidity and concentration of suspended solids decreased by 92% and 80%, respectively. During H2O2/UVC process with LP lamp at optimal conditions (H2O2:TOC ratio 8 and UVC dose received by water 5.28 WUVC s cm(-2)) removal of phenolic compounds, TOC and COD was 100%, 52.3% and 84.3%, respectively. Complete elimination of phenolic compounds, 47.6% of TOC and 91% of COD was achieved during H2O2/UVC process with MP lamp at optimal conditions (H2O2:TOC ratio 5, UVC dose received by water 6.57 WUVC s cm(-2)). In order to compare performance of H2O2/UVC treatment with different experimental set up, the UVC dose required for removal of mg L(-1) of COD was suggested as a parameter and successfully applied. The hydrophilicity of H2O2/UVC effluent significantly increased which in turn enhanced the oxidation of organic compounds during CWPO step. After H2O2/UVC treatment with LP and MP lamps residual H2O2 concentration was 160 mg L(-1) and 96.5 mg L(-1), respectively. Remaining H2O2 was fully consumed during subsequent CWPO step (6 and 3.5 min of contact time for LP and MP, respectively). Total TOC and COD removal after MBT was 94.7% and 92.2% (using LP lamp) and 89.6% and 95%, (using MP lamp), respectively. The O&M cost for MBT with LP lamp was estimated to be 0.44 € m(-3) while with MP lamp it was nearly five

  15. New Applications of Gamma Spectroscopy: Characterization Tools for D&D Process Development, Inventory Reduction Planning & Shipping, Safety Analysis & Facility Management During the Heavy Element Facility Risk Reduction Program

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, M; Anderson, B; Gray, L; Vellinger, R; West, M; Gaylord, R; Larson, J; Jones, G; Shingleton, J; Harris, L; Harward, N

    2006-01-23

    Novel applications of gamma ray spectroscopy for D&D process development, inventory reduction, safety analysis and facility management are discussed in this paper. These applications of gamma spectroscopy were developed and implemented during the Risk Reduction Program (RPP) to successfully downgrade the Heavy Element Facility (B251) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) from a Category II Nuclear Facility to a Radiological Facility. Non-destructive assay in general, gamma spectroscopy in particular, were found to be important tools in project management, work planning, and work control (''Expect the unexpected and confirm the expected''), minimizing worker dose, and resulted in significant safety improvements and operational efficiencies. Inventory reduction activities utilized gamma spectroscopy to identify and confirm isotopics of legacy inventory, ingrowth of daughter products and the presence of process impurities; quantify inventory; prioritize work activities for project management; and to supply information to satisfy shipper/receiver documentation requirements. D&D activities utilize in-situ gamma spectroscopy to identify and confirm isotopics of legacy contamination; quantify contamination levels and monitor the progress of decontamination efforts; and determine the point of diminishing returns in decontaminating enclosures and glove boxes containing high specific activity isotopes such as {sup 244}Cm and {sup 238}Pu. In-situ gamma spectroscopy provided quantitative comparisons of several decontamination techniques (e.g. TLC-free Stripcoat{trademark}, Radiac{trademark} wash, acid wash, scrubbing) and was used as a part of an iterative process to determine the appropriate level of decontamination and optimal cost to benefit ratio. Facility management followed a formal, rigorous process utilizing an independent, state certified, peer-reviewed gamma spectroscopy program, in conjunction with other characterization techniques, process knowledge, and

  16. Initial evaluation of automated treatment planning software.

    PubMed

    Gintz, Dawn; Latifi, Kujtim; Caudell, Jimmy; Nelms, Benjamin; Zhang, Geoffrey; Moros, Eduardo; Feygelman, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Even with advanced inverse-planning techniques, radiation treatment plan opti-mization remains a very time-consuming task with great output variability, which prompted the development of more automated approaches. One commercially available technique mimics the actions of experienced human operators to pro-gressively guide the traditional optimization process with automatically created regions of interest and associated dose-volume objectives. We report on the initial evaluation of this algorithm on 10 challenging cases of locoreginally advanced head and neck cancer. All patients were treated with VMAT to 70 Gy to the gross disease and 56 Gy to the elective bilateral nodes. The results of post-treatment autoplanning (AP) were compared to the original human-driven plans (HDP). We used an objective scoring system based on defining a collection of specific dosimetric metrics and corresponding numeric score functions for each. Five AP techniques with different input dose goals were applied to all patients. The best of them averaged the composite score 8% lower than the HDP, across the patient population. The difference in median values was statistically significant at the 95% confidence level (Wilcoxon paired signed-rank test p = 0.027). This result reflects the premium the institution places on dose homogeneity, which was consistently higher with the HDPs. The OAR sparing was consistently better with the APs, the differences reaching statistical significance for the mean doses to the parotid glands (p < 0.001) and the inferior pharyngeal constrictor (p = 0.016), as well as for the maximum doses to the spinal cord (p = 0.018) and brainstem (p = 0.040). If one is prepared to accept less stringent dose homogeneity criteria from the RTOG 1016 protocol, nine APs would comply with the protocol, while providing lower OAR doses than the HDPs. Overall, AP is a promising clinical tool, but it could benefit from a better process for shifting the balance between the target dose

  17. Two Characterizations of Optimality in Dynamic Programming

    SciTech Connect

    Karatzas, Ioannis; Sudderth, William D.

    2010-06-15

    It holds in great generality that a plan is optimal for a dynamic programming problem, if and only if it is 'thrifty' and 'equalizing.' An alternative characterization of an optimal plan, that applies in many economic models, is that the plan must satisfy an appropriate Euler equation and a transversality condition. Here we explore the connections between these two characterizations.

  18. Strategic Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivelo, Frank Robert

    1992-01-01

    Describes the future environment facing community colleges, addressing the service population, demands for accountability and quality, and the need for currency. Identifies seven areas a strategic plan should address (e.g., mission, student success, instructional quality, resource development, diversity, operational efficiency, and community…

  19. Motor Planning.

    PubMed

    Wong, Aaron L; Haith, Adrian M; Krakauer, John W

    2015-08-01

    Motor planning colloquially refers to any process related to the preparation of a movement that occurs during the reaction time prior to movement onset. However, this broad definition encompasses processes that are not strictly motor-related, such as decision-making about the identity of task-relevant stimuli in the environment. Furthermore, the assumption that all motor-planning processes require processing time, and can therefore be studied behaviorally by measuring changes in the reaction time, needs to be reexamined. In this review, we take a critical look at the processes leading from perception to action and suggest a definition of motor planning that encompasses only those processes necessary for a movement to be executed-that is, processes that are strictly movement related. These processes resolve the ambiguity inherent in an abstract goal by defining a specific movement to achieve it. We propose that the majority of processes that meet this definition can be completed nearly instantaneously, which means that motor planning itself in fact consumes only a small fraction of the reaction time. PMID:24981338

  20. Planning Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Richard B., Ed.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Nine articles give information to help make professionals in health, physical education, recreation, dance, and athletics more knowledgeable about planning facilities. Design of natatoriums, physical fitness laboratories, fitness trails, gymnasium lighting, homemade play equipment, indoor soccer arenas, and dance floors is considered. A…

  1. Strategic Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groff, Warren H.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the strategic elements of an institutional plan: assessment of the external environment, auditing of institutional strengths and weaknesses, and matching of institutional strengths with external opportunities through the process of strategic goal setting. Urges community colleges to take action-oriented, dynamic, purposeful steps to shape…

  2. Mobile systems capability plan

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This plan was prepared to initiate contracting for and deployment of these mobile system services. 102,000 cubic meters of retrievable, contact-handled TRU waste are stored at many sites around the country. Also, an estimated 38,000 cubic meters of TRU waste will be generated in the course of waste inventory workoff and continuing DOE operations. All the defense TRU waste is destined for disposal in WIPP near Carlsbad NM. To ship TRU waste there, sites must first certify that the waste meets WIPP waste acceptance criteria. The waste must be characterized, and if not acceptable, subjected to additional processing, including repackaging. Most sites plan to use existing fixed facilities or open new ones between FY1997-2006 to perform these functions; small-quantity sites lack this capability. An alternative to fixed facilities is the use of mobile systems mounted in trailers or skids, and transported to sites. Mobile systems will be used for all characterization and certification at small sites; large sites can also use them. The Carlsbad Area Office plans to pursue a strategy of privatization of mobile system services, since this offers a number of advantages. To indicate the possible magnitude of the costs of deploying mobile systems, preliminary estimates of equipment, maintenance, and operating costs over a 10-year period were prepared and options for purchase, lease, and privatization through fixed-price contracts considered.

  3. Columbia River Impact Evaluation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, S.G.

    1994-03-01

    A preliminary impact evaluation was conducted to assess the adequacy of existing data and proposed data collection programs for evaluating cumulative health and environmental impacts to the Columbia River due to past practices at the Hanford Site. The results of this evaluation were used to develop this plan to ensure collection of sufficient data for adequate characterization of the Columbia River along the 100 Area for CERCLA purposes. The evaluation used to develop the plan is not a risk assessment; the plan presented here is only a mechanism to collect additional data to support a future risk assessment.

  4. The Consensus Plan: Dutchess Community College, 1984-85.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donsky, Aaron P.; And Others

    This 1984-85 Consensus Plan for Dutchess Community College is the result of a comprehensive planning process characterized by three elements: (1) a cycle of departmental input directed by a voluntary planning committee and finalized by the deans and president; (2) an integrated process in which departmental plans reflect the major thrusts…

  5. Reflected Deck Plan, Reflected Roof Plan, Deck Plan Bridgeport ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Reflected Deck Plan, Reflected Roof Plan, Deck Plan - Bridgeport Covered Bridge, Spanning South Fork of Yuba River at bypassed section of Pleasant Valley Road (originally Virginia Turnpike) in South Yuba River State Park , Bridgeport, Nevada County, CA

  6. Energy planning and management plan

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This paper contains printed copies of 60FR 53181, October 12, 1995 and 60 FR 54151. This is a record of decision concerning the Western Area Power Administration`s final draft and environmental impact statement, and Energy Planning and Management Program.

  7. Health and Safety Plan for Operations Performed for the Environmental Restoration Program: Task, Characterization of Potential Waste Sources at Auxiliary Reactor Area-1 Operable Unit 5--07 site ARA-02

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, S.L.; Morton, S.L.

    1992-06-01

    This document constitutes the generic health and safety plan for the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP). It addresses the health and safety requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 29 CFR 1910.120 standard; and EG&G Idaho, Inc. This plan is a guide to individuals who must complete a health and safety plan for a task performed for the ERP. It contains a task specific addendum that, when completed, specifically addresses task specific health and safety issues. This health and safety plan reduces the time it takes to write a task specific health and safety plan by providing discussions of requirements, guidance on where specific information is located, and specific topics in the Addendum that must be discussed at a task level. This format encourages a complete task specific health and safety plan and a standard for all health and safety plans written for ERP.

  8. Health and Safety Plan for Operations Performed for the Environmental Restoration Program: Task, Characterization of Potential Waste Sources at Auxiliary Reactor Area-1 Operable Unit 5--07 site ARA-02

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, S.L.; Morton, S.L.

    1992-06-01

    This document constitutes the generic health and safety plan for the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP). It addresses the health and safety requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 29 CFR 1910.120 standard; and EG G Idaho, Inc. This plan is a guide to individuals who must complete a health and safety plan for a task performed for the ERP. It contains a task specific addendum that, when completed, specifically addresses task specific health and safety issues. This health and safety plan reduces the time it takes to write a task specific health and safety plan by providing discussions of requirements, guidance on where specific information is located, and specific topics in the Addendum that must be discussed at a task level. This format encourages a complete task specific health and safety plan and a standard for all health and safety plans written for ERP.

  9. Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Althouse, P E; Bertoldo, N A; Bowen, B M; Brown, R A; Campbell, C G; Christofferson, E; Gallegos, G M; Grayson, A R; Jones, H E; Larson, J M; Laycak, D; Mathews, S; Peterson, S R; Revelli, M J; Rueppel, D; Williams, R A; Wilson, K; Woods, N

    2005-11-23

    The purpose of the environmental monitoring plan (EMP) is to promote the early identification of, and response to, potential adverse environmental impacts associated with DOE operations. Environmental monitoring supports the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) to detect, characterize, and respond to releases from DOE activities; assess impacts; estimate dispersal patterns in the environment; characterize the pathways of exposure to members of the public; characterize the exposures and doses to individuals and to the population; and to evaluate the potential impacts to the biota in the vicinity of the DOE activity. In addition, the EMP addresses the analytical work supporting environmental monitoring to ensure the following: (1) A consistent system for collecting, assessing, and documenting environmental data of known and documented quality; (2) A validated and consistent approach for sampling and analysis of radionuclide samples to ensure laboratory data meets program-specific needs and requirements within the framework of a performance-based approach for analytical laboratory work; and (3) An integrated sampling approach to avoid duplicative data collection. Until recently, environmental monitoring at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was required by DOE Order 5400.1, which was canceled in January 2003. LLNL is in the process of adopting the ISO 14001 Environmental Management Systems standard, which contains requirements to perform and document environmental monitoring. The ISO 14001 standard is not as prescriptive as DOE Order 5400.1, which expressly required an EMP. LLNL will continue to prepare the EMP because it provides an organizational framework for ensuring that the work is conducted appropriately. The environmental monitoring addressed by the plan includes preoperational characterization and assessment, and effluent and surveillance monitoring. Additional environmental monitoring is conducted at LLNL as part of the compliance with the

  10. Environmental monitoring plan - environmental monitoring section. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, G.C.; Tate, P.J.; Brigdon, S.L.

    1994-11-01

    This report presents the environmental monitoring plan for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A site characterization is provided along with monitoring and measurement techniques and quality assurance measures.

  11. FY 1996 Tank waste analysis plan

    SciTech Connect

    Homi, C.S.

    1996-09-18

    This Tank Waste Analysis Plan (TWAP) describes the activities of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Characterization Project to plan, schedule, obtain, and document characterization information on Hanford waste tanks. This information is required to meet several commitments of Programmatic End-Users and the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement. This TWAP applies to the activities scheduled to be completed in fiscal year 1996.

  12. Design and implementation of a CO{sub 2} flood utilizing advanced reservoir characterization and horizontal injection wells in a shallow shelf carbonate approaching waterflood depletion: Project management/evaluation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Hallenbeck, L.D.; Harpole, K.J.; Gerard, M.G.

    1995-05-03

    The objectives of the Management/Evaluation Plan are: (1) clarify management structure, task responsibilities and schedules, and (2) to be used as a basis for judging the Project Evaluation Report submitted as a part of the continuation application. The components addressed in the report are: management structure; project staff organization; management procedure; quality assurance plan; ES and H plan and environmental compliance reporting; task WBS and logic flow diagram; list and schedule of planned deliverables; diagram of existing facilities; industry interaction; and evaluation of technical and economic feasibility.

  13. Vapor sampling and analysis plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-10-10

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from both SST and DST tanks

  14. Closing the Loop: Linking Planning and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middaugh, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    Institutions often engage in elaborate assessment and planning processes that have little or no relationship to each other. Highly effective institutions are characterized by strategic planning activities that are intentionally informed by assessments of both student learning outcomes and the extent to which human and fiscal resources are being…

  15. Succession planning.

    PubMed

    Catanzaro, Thomas E

    2006-03-01

    This article provides the reader with an appreciation of the diverse elements that go into a buy-sell, affiliation, or merger situation for veterinary practices. In the changing market place of American veterinary medicine, old paradigms no longer hold comfort. The generational differences are briefly explored herein as well as the new economic realities. A few examples are offered to illustrate just how much variability exists in the current business of veterinary medicine and the subsequent practice transitions needed to enhance value. Functioning models are explored, as well as affiliation and merger options. Practice valuation is discussed in general terms, referencing the cutting-edge factors. The six-point summary provides almost all practices a solid operational base for daily operations and succession planning. PMID:16442447

  16. Theory-and evidence-based development and process evaluation of the Move More for Life program: a tailored-print intervention designed to promote physical activity among post-treatment breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective Several physical activity interventions have been effective in improving the health outcomes of breast cancer survivors. However, few interventions have provided detailed descriptions regarding how such interventions work. To develop evidence-based practice in this field, detailed descriptions of intervention development and delivery is needed. This paper aims to (1) describe the theory-and evidence-based development of the Move More for Life program, a physical activity program for breast cancer survivors; and (2) serve as an exemplar for theory-based applied research. Method The program-planning model outlined by Kreuter and colleagues was used to develop the computer-tailored intervention. Results The tailoring guide developed by Kreuter and colleagues served as a useful program planning tool in terms of integrating theory and evidence-based best practice into intervention strategies. Overall, participants rated the intervention positively, with the majority reporting that the tailored materials caught their attention, were personally relevant to them, and were useful for helping them to change their behaviour. However, there was considerable room for improvement. Conclusion The Move More for Life program is an example of a theory-based, low-cost and potentially sustainable strategy to physical activity promotion and may stand as an exemplar for Social Cognitive Theory-based applied research. By providing a detailed description of the development of the Move More for Life program, a critical evaluation of the working mechanisms of the intervention is possible, and will guide researchers in the replication or adaption and re-application of the specified techniques. This has potential implications for researchers examining physical activity promotion among cancer survivors and for researchers exploring distance-based physical activity promotion techniques among other populations. Trial registrations Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR

  17. Planning Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RP Group of California Community Colleges, Santa Ana.

    The Planning Resource Guide by the RP Group of California Community Colleges was created to provide practical planning assistance. It contains four sections, including: (1) a basic conceptual framework for planning; (2) common planning definitions for colleges; (3) planning steps and samples of planning structures; and (4) suggestions for linking…

  18. Game Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morring, Frank, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Industry proposals for the Crew Exploration Vehicle that NASA plans as a replacement for the space shuttle are due next week, but the agency's new chief says it might be necessary to slow the CEV procurement at first to speed it up later. After a quick trip to Kennedy Space Center for briefings on getting the space shuttle back in operation, Michael D. Griffin sat down with his growing staff last week to begin work on modifying the CEV procurement. "We are going to rethink our entire program in that area," he said during an inaugural press conference Apr. 18. The proposals due May 2 are being prepared in response to NASA's call for a "risk-reduction flight effort" in 2008 that would lead to delivery of a human-rated CEV in 2014. But Griffin was co-leader on an independent study in 2004 that recommended a way to get the CEV flying astronauts in 2010, the year President Bush has set as a deadline for retiring the space shuttle fleet. In that study, produced for The Planetary Society, Griffin and his team called for development of a 13-15-ton "Block 1" CEV limited to low Earth orbit (LEO) that would be launched atop a single space shuttle solid rocket motor (SRM), with a new cryogenic upper stage based on existing rocket engine technology, Under this approach, NASA would develop a "Block 2" CEV later for human exploration beyond LEO.

  19. Roof Plans: Section "CC", Roof Plan; Roof Framing Plans: Section ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Roof Plans: Section "C-C", Roof Plan; Roof Framing Plans: Section "C-C", Section "D-D"; Roof Framing Sections: Cross Section "G-G", Cross Section "H-H" - Fort Washington, Fort Washington Light, Northeast side of Potomac River at Fort Washington Park, Fort Washington, Prince George's County, MD

  20. Overview of the Hanford risk management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, T.G.

    1998-03-26

    The Project Hanford Management Contract called for the enhancement of site-wide decision processes, and development of a Hanford Risk Management Plan to adopt or develop a risk management system for the Hanford Site. This Plan provides a consistent foundation for Site issues and addresses site-wide management of risks of all types. It supports the Department of Energy planning and sitewide decision making policy. Added to this requirement is a risk performance report to characterize the risk management accomplishments. This paper presents the development of risk management within the context of work planning and performance. Also discussed are four risk elements which add value to the context.

  1. GEND planning report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    The Three Mile Island (TMI) Unit 2 accident on March 28, 1979 was and is of great concern to the nuclear industry; electric power generating companies and their customers, regulatory and other government agencies, the entire nuclear community, and to the country as a whole. While the accident resulted in only limited external plant radiation exposure, the plant itself suffered extensive damage with high radiation contamination within the reactor and auxiliary system facilities. The GEND Planning Report for cleanup activities at TMI-2 covers the areas of: instrumentation and electrical equipment survivability; fission product transport; decontamination/radiation dose reduction technology; data bank organization and sample archive facility; characterization of primary system pressure boundary and mechanical components; core damage assessment; and fuel handling, removal, examination and disposal.

  2. Graphite Technology Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    W. Windes; T. Burchell; M.Carroll

    2010-10-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be a helium-cooled High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) with a large graphite core. Graphite physically contains the fuel and comprises the majority of the core volume. Graphite has been used effectively as a structural and moderator material in both research and commercial high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. This development has resulted in graphite being established as a viable structural material for HTGRs. While the general characteristics necessary for producing nuclear grade graphite are understood, historical “nuclear” grades no longer exist. New grades must be fabricated, characterized, and irradiated to demonstrate that current grades of graphite exhibit acceptable non-irradiated and irradiated properties upon which the thermomechanical design of the structural graphite in NGNP is based. This Technology Development Plan outlines the research and development (R&D) activities and associated rationale necessary to qualify nuclear grade graphite for use within the NGNP reactor.

  3. Hanford Site Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Rinne, C.A.; Curry, R.H.; Hagan, J.W.; Seiler, S.W.; Sommer, D.J. ); Yancey, E.F. )

    1990-01-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (Site Development Plan) is intended to guide the short- and long-range development and use of the Hanford Site. All acquisition, development, and permanent facility use at the Hanford Site will conform to the approved plan. The Site Development Plan also serves as the base document for all subsequent studies that involve use of facilities at the Site. This revision is an update of a previous plan. The executive summary presents the highlights of the five major topics covered in the Site Development Plan: general site information, existing conditions, planning analysis, Master Plan, and Five-Year Plan. 56 refs., 67 figs., 31 tabs.

  4. ESnet Program Plan 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Merola, S.

    1994-11-01

    This Program Plan characterizes ESnet with respect to the current and future needs of Energy Research programs for network infrastructure, services, and development. In doing so, this document articulates the vision and recommendations of the ESnet Steering Committee regarding ESnet`s development and its support of computer networking facilities and associated user services. To afford the reader a perspective from which to evaluate the ever-increasing utility of networking to the Energy Research community, we have also provided a historical overview of Energy Research networking. Networking has become an integral part of the work of DOE principal investigators, and this document is intended to assist the Office of Scientific Computing in ESnet program planning and management, including prioritization and funding. In particular, we identify the new directions that ESnet`s development and implementation will take over the course of the next several years. Our basic goal is to ensure that the networking requirements of the respective scientific programs within Energy Research are addressed fairly. The proliferation of regional networks and additional network-related initiatives by other Federal agencies is changing the process by which we plan our own efforts to serve the DOE community. ESnet provides the Energy Research community with access to many other peer-level networks and to a multitude of other interconnected network facilities. ESnet`s connectivity and relationship to these other networks and facilities are also described in this document. Major Office of Energy Research programs are managed and coordinated by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, the Office of High Energy and Nuclear Physics, the Office of Magnetic Fusion Energy, the Office of Scientific Computing, and the Office of Health and Environmental Research. Summaries of these programs are presented, along with their functional and technical requirements for wide-area networking.

  5. Riverland ERA cleanup sampling and analysis plan

    SciTech Connect

    Heiden, C.E.

    1993-07-01

    This report describes the Riverland Expedited Response Action taking place at the Hanford Reservation. Characterization of potential waste sites within the Riverland ERA boundaries was conducted in October and November 1992. This sampling and analysis plan contains two parts: The field sampling plan (Part 1) and the quality assurance project plan (Part 2). The field sampling plan describes the activities to be performed, defines sample designation, and identifies sample analysis to be performed. The quality assurance project plan establishes data quality objectives, defines analytical methods and procedures and documentation requirements, and provides established technical procedures to be used for field sampling and measurement. The quality assurance project plan details all quality assurance/quality control procedures to be followed to ensure that usable and defensible data are collected.

  6. Understanding health insurance plans

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000879.htm Understanding health insurance plans To use the sharing features on this ... plan for you and your family. Types of Health Insurance Plans Depending on how you get your health ...

  7. Maintenance Business Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Matt

    2002-01-01

    Discusses maintenance business plans, statements which provide accountability for facilities maintenance organizations' considerable budgets. Discusses the plan's components: statement of plan objectives, macro and detailed description of the facility assets, maintenance function descriptions, description of key performance indicators, milestone…

  8. Preferred Provider Organization (PPO) Plans

    MedlinePlus

    ... up/change plans About Medicare health plans Medicare Advantage Plans + Share widget - Select to show Subcategories Getting ... plan? About Medicare health plans , current subcategory Medicare Advantage Plans , current page Medicare Medical Savings Account (MSA) ...

  9. Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) Plan

    MedlinePlus

    ... up/change plans About Medicare health plans Medicare Advantage Plans + Share widget - Select to show Subcategories Getting ... plan? About Medicare health plans , current subcategory Medicare Advantage Plans , current page Medicare Medical Savings Account (MSA) ...

  10. Medicare Special Needs Plan (SNP)

    MedlinePlus

    ... up/change plans About Medicare health plans Medicare Advantage Plans + Share widget - Select to show Subcategories Getting ... plan? About Medicare health plans , current subcategory Medicare Advantage Plans , current page Medicare Medical Savings Account (MSA) ...

  11. 11. Strategic planning.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    There are several types of planning processes and plans, including strategic, operational, tactical, and contingency. For this document, operational planning includes tactical planning. This chapter examines the strategic planning process and includes an introduction into disaster response plans. "A strategic plan is an outline of steps designed with the goals of the entire organisation as a whole in mind, rather than with the goals of specific divisions or departments". Strategic planning includes all measures taken to provide a broad picture of what must be achieved and in which order, including how to organise a system capable of achieving the overall goals. Strategic planning often is done pre-event, based on previous experience and expertise. The strategic planning for disasters converts needs into a strategic plan of action. Strategic plans detail the goals that must be achieved. The process of converting needs into plans has been deconstructed into its components and includes consideration of: (1) disaster response plans; (2) interventions underway or planned; (3) available resources; (4) current status vs. pre-event status; (5) history and experience of the planners; and (6) access to the affected population. These factors are tempered by the local: (a) geography; (b) climate; (c) culture; (d) safety; and (e) practicality. The planning process consumes resources (costs). All plans must be adapted to the actual conditions--things never happen exactly as planned. PMID:24785808

  12. Characterization of the T cell repertoire by deep T cell receptor sequencing in tissues and blood from patients with advanced colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    TAMURA, KENJI; HAZAMA, SHOICHI; YAMAGUCHI, RUI; IMOTO, SEIYA; TAKENOUCHI, HIROKO; INOUE, YUKA; KANEKIYO, SHINSUKE; SHINDO, YOSHITARO; MIYANO, SATORU; NAKAMURA, YUSUKE; KIYOTANI, KAZUMA

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize infiltrated T cell clones that define the tumor immune environment and are important in the response to treatment in patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC). In order to explore predictive biomarkers for the efficacy of immunochemotherapies, T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire analysis was performed using blood samples and tumor tissues obtained from patients with advanced CRC that had been treated with a combination of five-cancer peptide vaccines and oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. The TCR-α/β complementary DNAs (cDNAs), prepared from the messenger RNAs (mRNAs) obtained from 17 tumor tissues and 39 peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 9 CRC patients at various time points, were sequenced. The oligoclonal enrichment of certain TCR sequences was identified in tumor tissues and blood samples; however, only a few TCR sequences with a frequency of >0.1% were commonly detected in pre- and post-treatment tumor tissues, or in post-treatment blood and tissue samples. The average correlation coefficients of the TCR-α and TCR-β clonotype frequencies between the post-treatment tumor tissues and blood samples were 0.023 and 0.035, respectively, and were much lower compared with the correlation coefficients of the TCR-α and TCR-β clonotype frequencies between pre- and post-treatment blood samples (0.430 and 0.370, respectively), suggesting that T cell populations in tumor tissues vary from those in blood. Although the sample size was small, a tendency for the TCR diversity in tumor tissues to drastically decrease during the treatment was indicated in two patients, who exhibited a longer progression-free survival time. The results of the present study suggest that TCR diversity scores in tissues may be a useful predictive biomarker for the therapeutic effect of immunochemotherapy for patients with advanced CRC. PMID:27284367

  13. Planning for Disaster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Steven

    1996-01-01

    Disaster recovery planning need not be expensive nor complete to be effective. Systematic planning involves several crucial steps, including outlining the final plan, understanding the nature of a disaster's effects and the stages of disaster recovery, prioritizing appropriately, and learning how to test the plan in a practical way for the…

  14. 34 CFR Plans - Contents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1997-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 1997-07-01 1997-07-01 false Contents Plans State Plans ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE...-General § 300.111 Content of plan. Each State plan must contain the provisions required in §§ 300.121-300.154. State Plans—Contents...

  15. Master Plan for Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Thomas E.

    1998-01-01

    Contains a planning prospectus a consultant group might utilize in serving the planning needs of a medium size school district. Includes the types of tasks and data which need to be performed and analyzed for the effective completion of a facility planning effort. Planning prospectus content was obtained from Tuba City School District, Arizona's…

  16. Energy Management Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasmania Dept. of Education, Hobart (Australia). Facilities Services Section.

    This report presents an overview of the energy management plan for Tasmanian schools designed to minimize the costs of all forms of energy usage within these facilities. The policy and objectives of the plan are provided along with details of the plan itself and its current status. Appendices contain an extract from Asset Management Plan for Real…

  17. 340 Representative sampling verification tank sampling and analysis plan

    SciTech Connect

    Olander, A.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-07

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan contains requirements for characterizing the 340 vault tank 1. The objective of the sampling and characterization is to determine if the tank is homogeneous when agitated and which sampling method provides the most representative sample. A secondary objective is to collect and characterize solid samples.

  18. 340 Representative sampling verification tank sampling and analysis plan

    SciTech Connect

    Olander, A.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-21

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan contains requirements for characterizing the 340 vault tank 1. The objective of the sampling and characterization is to determine if the tank is homogeneous when agitated and which sampling method provides the most representative sample. A secondary objective is to collect and characterize solid samples.

  19. 340 representative sampling verification tank sampling and analysis plan

    SciTech Connect

    Halgren, D.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-09

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan contains requirements for characterizing the 340 vault tank 1. The objective of the sampling and characterization is to determine if the tank is homogeneous when agitated and which sampling method provides the most representative sample. A secondary objective is to collect and characterize solid samples.

  20. Environmental Monitoring Plan, Revision 6

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, G M; Bertoldo, N A; Blake, R G; Campbell, C G; Grayson, A R; Nelson, J C; Revelli, M A; Rosene, C A; Wegrecki, T; Williams, R A; Wilson, K R; Jones, H E

    2012-03-02

    The purpose of environmental monitoring is to promote the early identification of, and response to, potential adverse environmental impacts associated with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) operations. Environmental monitoring supports the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 Environmental Management Systems standard, and U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 458.1, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. Specifically, environmental monitoring enables LLNL to detect, characterize, and respond to releases from LLNL activities; assess impacts; estimate dispersal patterns in the environment; characterize the pathways of exposure to members of the public; characterize the exposures and doses to individuals and to the population; and to evaluate the potential impacts to the biota in the vicinity of LLNL. Environmental monitoring is also a major component of compliance demonstration for permits and other regulatory requirements. The Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) addresses the sample collection and analytical work supporting environmental monitoring to ensure the following: (1) A consistent system for collecting, assessing, and documenting environmental data of known and documented quality; (2) A validated and consistent approach for sampling and analysis of samples to ensure laboratory data meets program-specific needs and requirements within the framework of a performance-based approach for analytical laboratory work; and (3) An integrated sampling approach to avoid duplicative data collection. LLNL prepares the EMP because it provides an organizational framework for ensuring that environmental monitoring work, which is integral to the implementation of LLNL's Environmental Management System, is conducted appropriately. Furthermore, the Environmental Monitoring Plan helps LLNL ensure compliance with DOE Order 231.1 Change 2, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting

  1. Improving composting as a post-treatment of anaerobic digestate.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yang; De Guardia, Amaury; Dabert, Patrick

    2016-02-01

    This work investigated the influences of practical parameters upon composting of digestate. The yardsticks for evaluation were digestate stabilization, nitrogenous emissions mitigation and self-heating potential. The results suggest choosing an "active" bulking agent like dry wood chips (WC) which served as free-water and nitrogen sink through composting. At an optimal volumetric WC:digestate mixing ratio of 4:1, nearly 90% of the initial NH4(+)/NH3 were fixed, which reduced significantly nitrogenous emissions. This mixing ratio also improved the stabilization and self-heating potential. Using small particle size WC increased narrowly O2 consumption and reduced NH3 emission. Storing used WC prior to recycling reduced 40% N2O emission compared to directly recycled WC. Recycling compost helped to decrease NH3 emission, but quadrupled N2O emission. The optimal aeration rate (15Lh(-1)kg OM0) which was lower compared to composting of organic waste, was enough to ensure the O2 supply and ameliorate the self-heating potential through composting of digestate. PMID:26684176

  2. Photocatalytic post-treatment in waste water reclamation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Gerald; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Verostko, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    A photocatalytic water purification process is described which effectively oxidizes organic impurities common to reclaimed waste waters and humidity condensates to carbon dioxide at ambient temperatures. With this process, total organic carbon concentrations below 500 ppb are readily achieved. The temperature dependence of the process is well described by the Arrhenius equation and an activation energy barrier of 3.5 Kcal/mole. The posttreatment approach for waste water reclamation described here shows potential for integration with closed-loop life support systems.

  3. Hyoid Displacement in Post-Treatment Cancer Patients: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zu, Yihe; Yang, Zhenyu; Perlman, Adrienne L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Dysphagia after head and neck cancer treatment is a health care issue; in some cases, the cause of death is not cancer but, rather, the passage of food or liquid into the lungs. Hyoid displacement is known to be important to safe swallowing function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate hyoid displacement after cancer treatment.…

  4. Superhydrophobic Post Treatment and Coating Extenders for Improved Asset Sustainability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trigwell, Steven; Montgomery, Eliza L.; Calle, Luz M.

    2015-01-01

    Launch structures, hardware, and ground support equipment, at NASA's John F. Kennedy Space Center in Florida, are exposed to a highly corrosive natural coastal marine environment. In addition, during launches, rocket exhaust deposition is also highly corrosive. Superhydrophobic coatings are being considered for additional corrosion protection on existing structures to enhance corrosion resistance and add an additional layer of protection against harsh environmental elements. These coatings have come into their own recently, and are now being investigated as corrosion protective coatings due to their water repelling capability. These coatings can be used on existing coatings, newly coated materials, or used on bare substrates. The coatings are not suitable for permanent corrosion protection, but can be used where additional corrosion control is desired or only when temporary corrosion control is needed, such as in hardware sitting on a launch pad for 30-45 days prior to a launch. In this study, superhydrophobic coatings were applied on various coated and uncoated substrates and exposed to the spaceport environment for various times up to 60 days. This paper highlights the current results of the superhydrophobic coatings performance evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and contact angle measurements.

  5. New Guidelines Issued for Cancer Patients' Post-Treatment Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... treatments for pain. These include hypnosis, meditation and medical marijuana where it's legal. ASCO also cautioned doctors to ... said. In states where allowed, doctors can prescribe medical marijuana. But they should first consider the potential benefits ...

  6. Pre- and post-treatment techniques for spacecraft water recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, David F.; Colombo, Gerald V.; Chullen, Cinda

    1986-01-01

    Distillation-based waste water pretreatment and recovered water posttreatment methods are proposed for the NASA Space Station. Laboratory investigation results are reported for two nonoxidizing urine pretreatment formulas (hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide and Cu/Cr) which minimize the generation of volatile organics, thereby significantly reducing posttreatment requirements. Three posttreatment methods (multifiltration, reverse osmosis, and UV-assisted ozone oxidation) have been identified which appear promising for the removal of organic contaminants from recovered water.

  7. Site Development Planning Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    The Handbook provides facility managers and site planners at DOE organizations responsible for planning site developments and facilities utilization a step-by-step planning checklist to ensure that planners at each site are focusing on Department-wide goals and objectives. It begins with a brief discussion of a site development-by-objectives program design to promote, recognize, and implement opportunities for improvements in site utilization through planning. Additional information is included on: assembling existing data, plans, programs, and procedures; establishing realistic objectives; identifying site problems, opportunities; and development needs; determining priorities among development needs; developing short and long-range plans; choosing the right development solutions and meeting minimum legal site restrictions; presenting the plan; implementing elements of the plan; monitoring and reporting plan status; and modifying development program plans. (MCW)

  8. Technology Planning: Thinking Strategically for Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westbrook, Kathleen C.

    1993-01-01

    Sound educational planning is essential in an era faced with declining resources, increasing accountability demands, and reluctance to fund higher taxation requests. Planners are seriously challenged by shift from an industrial to a paperless, technological society. This article compares long-range and strategic planning approaches, describes…

  9. 7 CFR 1450.207 - Conservation plan, forest stewardship plan, or equivalent plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conservation plan, forest stewardship plan, or... plan, forest stewardship plan, or equivalent plan. (a) The producer must implement a conservation plan, forest stewardship plan, or equivalent plan that complies with CCC guidelines and is approved by...

  10. 7 CFR 1450.207 - Conservation plan, forest stewardship plan, or equivalent plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conservation plan, forest stewardship plan, or... plan, forest stewardship plan, or equivalent plan. (a) The producer must implement a conservation plan, forest stewardship plan, or equivalent plan that complies with CCC guidelines and is approved by...

  11. 7 CFR 1450.207 - Conservation plan, forest stewardship plan, or equivalent plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conservation plan, forest stewardship plan, or... plan, forest stewardship plan, or equivalent plan. (a) The producer must implement a conservation plan, forest stewardship plan, or equivalent plan that complies with CCC guidelines and is approved by...

  12. 7 CFR 1450.207 - Conservation plan, forest stewardship plan, or equivalent plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conservation plan, forest stewardship plan, or... plan, forest stewardship plan, or equivalent plan. (a) The producer must implement a conservation plan, forest stewardship plan, or equivalent plan that complies with CCC guidelines and is approved by...

  13. Draft Mission Plan Amendment

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-01

    The Department of Energy`s Office Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has prepared this document to report plans for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, whose mission is to manage and dispose of the nation`s spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and of workers and the quality of the environment. The Congress established this program through the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Specifically, the Congress directed us to isolate these wastes in geologic repositories constructed in suitable rock formations deep beneath the surface of the earth. In the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the Congress mandated that only one repository was to be developed at present and that only the Yucca Mountain candidate site in Nevada was to be characterized at this time. The Amendments Act also authorized the construction of a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) and established the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator and the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board. After a reassessment in 1989, the Secretary of Energy restructured the program, focusing the repository effort scientific evaluations of the Yucca Mountain candidate site, deciding to proceed with the development of an MRS facility, and strengthening the management of the program. 48 refs., 32 figs.

  14. MAPES Plans at EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Guang-Nan

    2013-10-01

    The Material and Plasma Evaluation System (MAPES) has been successfully built up at the H section of EAST tokamak, consisting of a mid-plane material probe with both active cooling and heating, and multiple diagnostics of sample and boundary plasma. Samples or PFC mock-ups with a weight less than 20 kg and a diameter less than 500 mm can be inserted into the main scrape-off layer plasma from the low field side of EAST. Local background plasma could be characterized by Langmuir probes and thermocouples embedded in the samples, visible and infrared cameras are set at M and D sections. During the 2012 EAST campaign, MAPES has been used to address a variety of PMI issues relevant to ITER. In 2014, several new optical systems will be constructed. A WI emission spectroscopy system and an IR imaging system are being developed and dedicated to the monitoring of the W influx profile and temperature distribution. A set of lens will also be set at H upper port to collect the visible emission light from the lower divertor. The laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is planned to be installed to detect the first wall surface composition at the high field side. In the next EAST campaign, more experiment proposals have been accepted and are being prepared. EAST-MAPES is oriented towards a bridge for international collaborations and is playing an active role in supporting PWI-related researches under tokamak plasma environment.

  15. Geothermal induced seismicity program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    A plan for a National Geothermal Induced Seismicity Program has been prepared in consultation with a panel of experts from industry, academia, and government. The program calls for baseline seismic monitoring in regions of known future geothermal development, continued seismic monitoring and characterization of earthquakes in zones of geothermal fluid production and injection, modeling of the earthquake-inducing mechanism, and in situ measurement of stresses in the geothermal development. The Geothermal Induced Seismicity Program (GISP) will have as its objectives the evaluation of the seismic hazard, if any, associated with geothermal resource exploitation and the devising of a technology which, when properly utilized, will control or mitigate such hazards.

  16. FY 91 Annual Research Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    In line with the Federal Oil Research Program to maximize the economic producibility of the domestic oil resource, the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER) presents this FY91 Annual Research Plan. NIPER is organized into two research departments -- Energy Production Research (EPR) and Fuels Research (FR). Projects in EPR deal with various aspects of enhanced oil recovery and include reservoir characterization, chemical flooding, gas injection, steam injection, microbial enhanced oil recovery, and the environmental concerns related to these processes. Projects in FR consider the impact of heavy oil and alternative fuels on the processing and end-use of fuels. Projects are briefly described.

  17. Drug Plan Coverage Rules

    MedlinePlus

    ... works with other insurance Find health & drug plans Drug plan coverage rules Note Call your Medicare drug ... shingles vaccine) when medically necessary to prevent illness. Drugs you get in hospital outpatient settings In most ...

  18. Developing the plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The basic sequence in the planning development process is discussed. Alternative ways of satisfying estimated needs, and the selection of an alternative are described along with the development of a plan to implement the selected alternative.

  19. Disaster Recovery Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jeannine W.

    1985-01-01

    Every school needs an effective disaster recovery plan that is flexible, comprehensive and designed to take into account unexpected disasters. Presents guidelines for preparing such a plan, with immediate and long-range recovery procedures. (MD)

  20. My Reproductive Life Plan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information For... Media Policy Makers My Reproductive Life Plan Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... use with their patients. How to Make a Plan First, think about your goals for school, for ...

  1. Advance Care Planning.

    PubMed

    Stallworthy, Elizabeth J

    2013-04-16

    Advance care planning should be available to all patients with chronic kidney disease, including end-stage kidney disease on renal replacement therapy. Advance care planning is a process of patient-centred discussion, ideally involving family/significant others, to assist the patient to understand how their illness might affect them, identify their goals and establish how medical treatment might help them to achieve these. An Advance Care Plan is only one useful outcome from the Advance Care Planning process, the education of patient and family around prognosis and treatment options is likely to be beneficial whether or not a plan is written or the individual loses decision making capacity at the end of life. Facilitating Advance Care Planning discussions requires an understanding of their purpose and communication skills which need to be taught. Advance Care Planning needs to be supported by effective systems to enable the discussions and any resulting Plans to be used to aid subsequent decision making. PMID:23586906

  2. Planning for Office Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, Colin K.

    1983-01-01

    Outlines a practical approach to planning for office automation termed the "Focused Process Approach" (the "what" phase, "how" phase, "doing" phase) which is a synthesis of the problem-solving and participatory planning approaches. Thirteen references are provided. (EJS)

  3. Networking and Institutional Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Donald E.

    1987-01-01

    Explores the impact of networks and shared library resources on the library planning process. Environmental scanning techniques, the need for cooperative planning, and the formulation of strategies to achieve networking goals are discussed. (CLB)

  4. Advance Care Planning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Division of Geriatrics and Clinical Gerontology Division of Neuroscience FAQs Funding Opportunities Intramural Research Program Office of ... Is Advance Care Planning? Advance care planning involves learning about the types of decisions that might need ...

  5. Prescriptions and Insurance Plans

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Prescriptions and Insurance Plans Prescriptions and Insurance Plans Getting a prescription filled is usually easy. But because of the high cost of prescription medicines, most insurance ...

  6. Human Resource Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, W. H.; Wyatt, L. L.

    1977-01-01

    By using the total resource approach, we have focused attention on the need to integrate human resource planning with other business plans and highlighted the importance of a productivity strategy. (Author)

  7. Planning your pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... March of Dimes Premature Birth Report Card Grades Cities, Counties; Focuses on Racial and Ethnic Disparities March ... Pregnancy > Before or between pregnancies > Planning your pregnancy Planning your pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ...

  8. Comprehensive Interpretive Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohen, Richard; Sikoryak, Kim

    1999-01-01

    Discusses interpretive planning and provides information on how to maximize a sense of ownership shared by managers, staff, and other organizational shareholders. Presents practical and effective plans for providing interpretive services. (CCM)

  9. Developing nursing care plans.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, Helen

    2016-02-24

    This article aims to enhance nurses' understanding of nursing care plans, reflecting on the past, present and future use of care planning. This involves consideration of the central theories of nursing and discussion of nursing models and the nursing process. An explanation is provided of how theories of nursing may be applied to care planning, in combination with clinical assessment tools, to ensure that care plans are context specific and patient centred. PMID:26907149

  10. Microgravity strategic plan, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The NASA agency-wide microgravity strategic plan is presented, and its research, applications, and commercialization for the 1990's is addressed. The plan presents an analysis of the current situation, identifies critical factors, and defines goals, objectives, and strategies, which are intended to: (1) provide a context for decision making; (2) assure realism in long-range planning and direction for hardware development; and (3) establish a framework for developing a national microgravity research plan.

  11. General Temporal Knowledge for Planning and Data Mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Robert; Khatib, Lina

    2001-01-01

    We consider the architecture of systems that combine temporal planning and plan execution and introduce a layer of temporal reasoning that potential1y improves both the communication between humans and such systems, and the performance of the temporal planner itself. In particular, this additional layer simultaneously supports more flexibility in specifying and maintaining temporal constraints on plans within an uncertain and changing execution environment, and the ability to understand and trace the progress of plan execution. It is shown how a representation based on single set of abstractions of temporal information can be used to characterize the reasoning underlying plan generation and execution interpretation. The complexity of such reasoning is discussed.

  12. Mars exploration planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, Dean B.; Buoni, Corinne; Niehoff, John

    1993-01-01

    Mars exploration planning is discussed which is based on three scientific objectives: to understand Mars' geologic and geophysical evolution; to understand the present state and past evolution of Martian climate, and to determine the state of present biological activity and past life. The plan assumes a 25-year planning horizon, from 1995-2020, and includes both broad-scale and local exploration capabilities.

  13. Identifying Executable Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedrax-Weiss, Tania; Jonsson, Ari K.; Frank, Jeremy D.; McGann, Conor

    2003-01-01

    Generating plans for execution imposes a different set of requirements on the planning process than those imposed by planning alone. In highly unpredictable execution environments, a fully-grounded plan may become inconsistent frequently when the world fails to behave as expected. Intelligent execution permits making decisions when the most up-to-date information is available, ensuring fewer failures. Planning should acknowledge the capabilities of the execution system, both to ensure robust execution in the face of uncertainty, which also relieves the planner of the burden of making premature commitments. We present Plan Identification Functions (PIFs), which formalize what it means for a plan to be executable, md are used in conjunction with a complete model of system behavior to halt the planning process when an executable plan is found. We describe the implementation of plan identification functions for a temporal, constraint-based planner. This particular implementation allows the description of many different plan identification functions. characteristics crf the xectieonfvii rnm-enft,h e best plan to hand to the execution system will contain more or less commitment and information.

  14. Disaster Planning in Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Yi Ling; Green, Ravonne

    2006-01-01

    Disaster preparedness is an important issue in library management today. This article presents a general overview of the theoretical aspects of disaster planning in libraries. The stages of disaster planning are a circular process of planning, prevention, response, recovery, preparedness, and training.

  15. Planning for School Emergencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Della-Giustina, Daniel E.

    This document is designed to provide civil leaders and school administrators with a resource that will enable them to develop comprehensive contingency plans for specific emergency situations. A discussion of disaster and emergency management planning includes an outline of the objectives of emergency planning that were established for this guide.…

  16. National Planning for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Rexford G., Jr.

    This report presents the findings of a study on the current status of planning in American higher education and the feasibility of establishing a "national planning congress" for higher education. The study team gathered the views of key people concerned with higher education planning through extensive interviews and seminars throughout the…

  17. Planning and Management Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuang, Ying C.

    The planning technique or device, regardless of its degree of sophistication, is only a tool and cannot be substituted for effective managers. The planning process must be an integral part of the entire management process, which often evolves over many generations of trial and error. The function of planning and management entails the continuous,…

  18. Kansas State Inservice Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KASCO Record, 1988

    1988-01-01

    The first paper (by Jim Jarrett) in this monograph on the Kansas State Inservice Plan offers an overview of one facet of staff development plans, i.e., peer coaching and its effectiveness in teacher inservice education. The next paper (by Dan Neuenswander) reviews the Kansas State Department of Education Inservice Plan, defining inservice and/or…

  19. Facility Planning and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earthman, Glen I.

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" reviews the extensive range of activities associated with planning for and constructing school facilities. These activities include (1) organizing the staff and organizing the task; (2) conducting long-range planning (involving the gathering of data, the development of a planning document,…

  20. Perspectives on Educational Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miklos, E.; And Others

    This overview is designed to provide those readers who have just begun to study educational planning with a useful point of departure for the more intensive examination of educational planning literature. The first chapter offers definitions of concepts that are the subject of chapters to follow. The discussion of educational planning in Chapter…

  1. Conference Planning Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermont Library Association, Burlington.

    Intended as a useful aid for organizing its annual spring meeting, this general conference planning manual developed by the Vermont Library Association provides a blueprint for planners on the responsibilities of the planning committee, the conference chair, and others; site selection and local arrangements; program and sessions planning;…

  2. Understanding health insurance plans

    MedlinePlus

    Most insurance companies offer different types of health plans. And when you are comparing plans, it can sometimes seem ... Depending on how you get your health insurance, you may have a ... (HMOs). These plans offer a network of health care providers ...

  3. Conceptualizing 2000: Proactive Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angel, Dan, Ed.; DeVault, Mike, Ed.

    As community, technical, and junior colleges approach the 21st century, faculty shortages, an increasingly diverse student body, dwindling financial resources, and accountability mandates will require careful, action-oriented college planning. This two-part book presents 10 articles on the dynamics of planning and specific planning models, and…

  4. Planning as Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Gonzalez, Carmen Beatriz; Hernandez, Teresa; Kusch, Jim; Ryan, Charly

    2004-01-01

    Planning contains so much more than the written plan. Early in 2000, an invitation came from the Collaborative Action Research Network (CARN), to people experienced in action research who might want to help plan and present an action research event for elementary school science teachers in Venezuela, South America, in Autumn 2000. This article…

  5. Planning Homemaking Departments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schooler, Ruth; Mather, Mary

    1961-01-01

    A comprehensive guide for home economists, the article treats five major ideas for planning home economics departments in schools, as follows--(1) the importance of sharing the planning responsibility among teacher, parent, and administrator, citing an example of successful planning, (2) the need for teaching methods, course content and equipment…

  6. Introduction to Health Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergwall, David F.; And Others

    This fundamental text is designed for students of both health care administration and comprehensive health planning. It is intended as a resource on the theory and process of health project planning with some mention of possible sources for further exploration. The emphasis is on how to develop a plan when the planner also has the authority to…

  7. NASA Strategic Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The aforementioned strategic decisions and the overarching direction for America's aeronautics and space program are addressed in the Strategic Plan. Our Strategic Plan is critical to our ability to meet the challenges of this new era and deliver a vibrant aeronautics and space program that strengthens and inspires the Nation. The Plan is our top-level strategy.

  8. Planning a Fieldhouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of School Planning.

    Area design, plan diagrams, and planning procedures for athletic fieldhouses adopted by North Carolina schools are recommended in this guide. The fieldhouse, generally a separate building accommodating the football team, is used by other teams of both sexes during their sports season. Location should be near play areas and planned for building…

  9. Long Range Technology Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambron, Sueann, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This summary of a meeting of the Apple Education Advisory Council, on long range technology plans at the state, county, district, and school levels, includes highlights from group discussions on future planning, staff development, and curriculum. Three long range technology plans at the state level are provided: Long Range Educational Technology…

  10. Sandia Strategic Plan 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    Sandia embarked on its first exercise in corporate strategic planning during the winter of 1989. The results of that effort were disseminated with the publication of Strategic Plan 1990. Four years later Sandia conducted their second major planning effort and published Strategic Plan 1994. Sandia`s 1994 planning effort linked very clearly to the Department of Energy`s first strategic plan, Fueling a Competitive Economy. It benefited as well from the leadership of Lockheed Martin Corporation, the management and operating contractor. Lockheed Martin`s corporate success is founded on visionary strategic planning and annual operational planning driven by customer requirements and technology opportunities. In 1996 Sandia conducted another major planning effort that resulted in the development of eight long-term Strategic Objectives. Strategic Plan 1997 differs from its predecessors in that the robust elements of previous efforts have been integrated into one comprehensive body. The changes implemented so far have helped establish a living strategic plan with a stronger business focus and with clear deployment throughout Sandia. The concept of a personal line of sight for all employees to this strategic plan and its objectives, goals, and annual milestones is becoming a reality.

  11. Fiscal Year 2007 Program Performance Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The strategic goals and objectives set forth in the Department of Education's "FY (Fiscal Year) 2002-2007 Strategic Plan" form the context for the broad outcomes that the Department believes should characterize American education. The Department administers more than 150 programs in support of these goals and objectives. This "FY 2007 Program…

  12. Light duty utility arm startup plan

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, G.A.

    1998-09-01

    This plan details the methods and procedures necessary to ensure a safe transition in the operation of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System. The steps identified here outline the work scope and identify responsibilities to complete startup, and turnover of the LDUA to Characterization Project Operations (CPO).

  13. Monitoring the Curriculum: From Plan to Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maglaras, Tom; Lynch, Deborah

    1988-01-01

    The Aurora Public School System (Colorado) has devised a plan to ensure implementation of the adopted curriculum. By developing a program monitoring process and incorporating it in a handbook, staff can rate their behavior and use "green flags" or "red alerts" to characterize subject area strengths and deficiencies. (MLH)

  14. Planned hospital birth versus planned home birth

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Ole; Clausen, Jette A

    2014-01-01

    Background Observational studies of increasingly better quality and in different settings suggest that planned home birth in many places can be as safe as planned hospital birth and with less intervention and fewer complications. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1998. Objectives To assess the effects of planned hospital birth compared with planned home birth in selected low-risk women, assisted by an experienced midwife with collaborative medical back up in case transfer should be necessary. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (30 March 2012) and contacted editors and authors involved with possible trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing planned hospital birth with planned home birth in low-risk women as described in the objectives. Data collection and analysis The two review authors as independently as possible assessed trial quality and extracted data. We contacted study authors for additional information. Main results Two trials met the inclusion criteria but only one trial involving 11 women provided some outcome data and was included. The evidence from this trial was of moderate quality and too small to allow conclusions to be drawn. Authors’ conclusions There is no strong evidence from randomised trials to favour either planned hospital birth or planned home birth for low-risk pregnant women. However, the trials show that women living in areas where they are not well informed about home birth may welcome ethically well-designed trials that would ensure an informed choice. As the quality of evidence in favour of home birth from observational studies seems to be steadily increasing, it might be as important to prepare a regularly updated systematic review including observational studies as described in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions as to attempt to set up new randomised controlled trials. PMID:22972043

  15. Manpower and project planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, David W.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose was to study how manpower and projects are planned at the Facilities Engineering Division (FENGD) within the Systems Engineering and Operations Directorate of the LaRC and to make recommendations for improving the effectiveness and productivity ot the tools that are used. The existing manpower and project planning processes (including the management plan for the FENGD, existing manpower planning reports, project reporting to LaRC and NASA Headquarters, employee time reporting, financial reporting, and coordination/tracking reports for procurement) were discussed with several people, and project planning software was evaluated.

  16. Operating plan FY 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    This document is the first edition of Argonne`s new Operating Plan. The Operating Plan complements the strategic planning in the Laboratory`s Institutional Plan by focusing on activities that are being pursued in the immediate fiscal year, FY 1998. It reflects planning that has been done to date, and it will serve in the future as a resource and a benchmark for understanding the Laboratory`s performance. The heart of the Institutional Plan is the set of major research initiatives that the Laboratory is proposing to implement in future years. In contrast, this Operating Plan focuses on Argonne`s ongoing R&D programs, along with cost-saving measures and other improvements being implemented in Laboratory support operations.

  17. Federal Facilities Compliance Act, Conceptual Site Treatment Plan. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    1993-10-29

    This Conceptual Site Treatment Plan was prepared by Ames Laboratory to meet the requirements of the Federal Facilities Compliance Act. Topics discussed in this document include: general discussion of the plan, including the purpose and scope; technical aspects of preparing plans, including the rationale behind the treatability groupings and a discussion of characterization issues; treatment technology needs and treatment options for specific waste streams; low-level mixed waste options; TRU waste options; and future waste generation from restoration activities.

  18. Planned CMB Satellite Mission Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Adrian

    2016-03-01

    I will summarize space missions that are in the planning stage to measure the polarized spatial fluctuations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Space missions are complementary to ground-based observatories. First, the absence of atmospheric emission results in a wider range of frequencies that can be observed, which in turn improves removal of galactic foreground emission. Second, the stable observations possible from space give high-fidelity measurements at angular scales of tens of degrees where inflation theory predicts a peak in the B-mode angular power spectrum. Robust detection of both this ``reionization'' peak and the ``recombination'' peak at degree angular scales will give the most convincing case that the fingerprints of inflation have been detected. CMB polarization space missions in the planning stage include CORE+, LiteBIRD, and PIXIE. Science goals for all these missions include the detection and characterization of inflation and the characterization of the reionization epoch. CORE+ and LiteBIRD are imaging telescopes with sub-Kelvin superconducting focal-plane detector arrays with several thousand detectors. PIXIE is a two-beam differential spectrometer that will measure the Planck spectrum of the CMB in addition to searching for inflation.

  19. PlanJury: probabilistic plan evaluation revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, M.; Sonke, J.-J.; van Herk, M.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: Over a decade ago, the 'Van Herk margin recipe paper' introduced plan evaluation through DVH statistics based on population distributions of systematic and random errors. We extended this work for structures with correlated uncertainties (e.g. lymph nodes or parotid glands), and considered treatment plans containing multiple (overlapping) dose distributions (e.g. conventional lymph node and hypo-fractionated tumor doses) for which different image guidance protocols may lead to correlated errors. Methods: A command-line software tool 'PlanJury' was developed which reads 3D dose and structure data exported from a treatment planning system. Uncertainties are specified by standard deviations and correlation coefficients. Parameters control the DVH statistics to be computed: e.g. the probability of reaching a DVH constraint, or the dose absorbed at given confidence in a (combined) volume. Code was written in C++ and parallelized using OpenMP. Testing geometries were constructed using idealized spherical volumes and dose distributions. Results: Negligible stochastic noise could be attained within two minutes computation time for a single target. The confidence to properly cover both of two targets was 90% for two synchronously moving targets, but decreased by 7% if the targets moved independently. For two partially covered organs at risk the confidence of at least one organ below the mean dose threshold was 40% for synchronous motion, 36% for uncorrelated motion, but only 20% for either of the organs separately. Two abutting dose distributions ensuring 91% confidence of proper target dose for correlated motions led to 28% lower confidence for uncorrelated motions as relative displacements between the doses resulted in cold spots near the target. Conclusions: Probabilistic plan evaluation can efficiently be performed for complicated treatment planning situations, thus providing important plan quality information unavailable in conventional PTV based evaluations.

  20. Expedited site characterization

    SciTech Connect

    McCreary, I.; Booth, S.R.

    1997-03-01

    Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) is being offered as a new, more cost-effective way to perform DOE environmental site characterizations. Site characterization of environmental cleanup sites can be costly and time consuming. {open_quotes}Traditional techniques,{close_quotes} though effective, are the outgrowth of cautious and often restrictive regulatory control. At some sites up to 40% of the funds and 70% of the time spent on cleanup operations have been devoted to characterization. More realistically, the DOE`s Ten Year Plan (TYP) Cost Rollup by Category (high budgetary version) budgets $1.34 billion to remedial action assessments out of a total of $9.7 billion in remedial actions - about 14% of the total TYP expenditures for this type of cleanup work. The expenditure percentage for characterization drops to a much lower 3% of total expenditures during outyears, after 2006, as most of the assessments will have been completed during the early TYP years. (The sampling and monitoring costs, however, rise from 7% of the budget during the TYP to 30% during the outyears as this activity continues and others decline. Improved characterizations could have the potential to reduce the need for some of these ongoing monitoring costs.) Fortunately, regulatory agencies have begun to relax many of the constraints on site characterization allowing more efficient and innovative approaches to be applied. Argonne National Laboratory`s Expedited Site Characterization is perhaps the best defined of these new approaches. ESC is founded on the premise that it is cheaper, faster, and more efficient to develop and test a conceptual model (or {open_quotes}hypothesis{close_quotes}) of contamination at a site than it is to collect data on a statistical basis and then attempt to model a site from those data. The difference between these two approaches has been described as a {open_quotes}scientific versus an engineering approach{close_quotes}.

  1. Environmental Monitoring Plan, Revision 5

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, G M; Blake, R G; Bertoldo, N A; Campbell, C G; Coty, J; Folks, K; Grayson, A R; Jones, H E; Nelson, J C; Revelli, M A; Wegrecki, T; Williams, R A; Wilson, K

    2010-01-27

    The purpose of environmental monitoring is to promote the early identification of, and response to, potential adverse environmental impacts associated with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) operations. Environmental monitoring supports the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 Environmental Management Systems standard, and U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program. Specifically, in conformance with DOE Order 450.1A, Attachment 1, paragraph 1(b)(5), environmental monitoring enables LLNL to detect, characterize, and respond to releases from LLNL activities; assess impacts; estimate dispersal patterns in the environment; characterize the pathways of exposure to members of the public; characterize the exposures and doses to individuals and to the population; and to evaluate the potential impacts to the biota in the vicinity of LLNL. Environmental monitoring also serves to demonstrate compliance with permits and other regulatory requirements. The Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) addresses the sample collection and analytical work supporting environmental monitoring to ensure the following: (1) A consistent system for collecting, assessing, and documenting environmental data of known and documented quality. (2) A validated and consistent approach for sampling and analysis of samples to ensure laboratory data meets program-specific needs and requirements within the framework of a performance-based approach for analytical laboratory work. (3) An integrated sampling approach to avoid duplicative data collection. Until its cancellation in January 2003, DOE Order 5400.1 required the preparation of an environmental monitoring plan. Neither DOE Order 450.1A nor the ISO 14001 standard are as prescriptive as DOE Order 5400.1, in that neither expressly requires an EMP. However, LLNL continues to prepare the EMP because it provides an organizational framework for

  2. Agent independent task planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, William S.

    1990-01-01

    Agent-Independent Planning is a technique that allows the construction of activity plans without regard to the agent that will perform them. Once generated, a plan is then validated and translated into instructions for a particular agent, whether a robot, crewmember, or software-based control system. Because Space Station Freedom (SSF) is planned for orbital operations for approximately thirty years, it will almost certainly experience numerous enhancements and upgrades, including upgrades in robotic manipulators. Agent-Independent Planning provides the capability to construct plans for SSF operations, independent of specific robotic systems, by combining techniques of object oriented modeling, nonlinear planning and temporal logic. Since a plan is validated using the physical and functional models of a particular agent, new robotic systems can be developed and integrated with existing operations in a robust manner. This technique also provides the capability to generate plans for crewmembers with varying skill levels, and later apply these same plans to more sophisticated robotic manipulators made available by evolutions in technology.

  3. National transuranic program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-11

    As a result of various program initiatives, the U.S. generated and will continue to generate waste contaminated with radioactive materials. Because of increased awareness of the risks and special requirements to safely manage long-lived alpha-emitting radionuclides, a new category of radioactive waste, transuranic (TRU) waste, was adopted in 1970. Heads of Field Elements can determine that other alpha-contaminated wastes, peculiar to a specific site, must be managed as transuranic waste{close_quotes}. TRU waste is generated and stored at various DOE sites around the country. In December 1993, the National Transuranic Program Office (NTPO) was established as part of the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) to integrate and coordinate the diverse organizational elements that contribute to the complex-wide management of TRU waste. Numerous sites with small TRU waste inventories are also part of the national TRU waste system. The majority of TRU waste is also contaminated with hazardous materials and is thus considered mixed waste. Mixed waste must be managed in compliance with all federal, state, and local regulations that are applicable to the radioactive and/or hazardous component of the waste. Each generator site is responsible for the management of its respective waste. Sites must plan and implement programs to minimize, characterize, package, treat, store, ship, and dispose of all TRU waste; construct required waste management facilities and equipment; obtain permits; perform site-specific National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analyses; conduct environmental studies; perform laboratory analyses; and certify that waste meets appropriate disposal facility criteria. Due to the toxicity and long half-lives of TRU radionuclides, TRU waste must be disposed in a manner that offers greater confinement than shallow land burial.

  4. TWRS safety program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Calderon, L.M., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    Management of Nuclear Safety, Industrial Safety, Industrial Hygiene, and Fire Protection programs, functions, and field support resources for Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) has, until recently, been centralized in TWRS Safety, under the Emergency, Safety, and Quality organization. Industrial hygiene technician services were also provided to support operational needs related to safety basis compliance. Due to WHC decentralization of safety and reengineering efforts in West Tank Farms, staffing and safety responsibilities have been transferred to the facilities. Under the new structure, safety personnel for TWRS are assigned directly to East Tank Farms, West Tank Farms, and a core Safety Group in TWRS Engineering. The Characterization Project Operations (CPO) safety organization will remain in tact as it currently exists. Personnel assigned to East Tank Farms, West Tank Farms, and CPO will perform facility-specific or project-specific duties and provide field implementation of programs. Those assigned to the core group will focus on activities having a TWRS-wide or programmatic focus. Hanford-wide activities will be the responsibility of the Safety Center of Expertise. In order to ensure an effective and consistent safety program for TWRS under the new organization program functions, goals, organizational structure, roles, responsibilities, and path forward must be clearly established. The purpose of the TWRS Safety Program Plan is to define the overall safety program, responsibilities, relationships, and communication linkages for safety personnel under the new structure. In addition, issues associated with reorganization transition are addressed, including training, project ownership, records management, and dissemination of equipment. For the purpose of this document ``TWRS Safety`` refers to all safety professionals and technicians (Industrial Safety, Industrial Hygiene, Fire Protection, and Nuclear Safety) within the TWRS organization, regardless of their

  5. 40 CFR 264.112 - Closure plan; amendment of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Closure plan; amendment of plan. 264... Closure and Post-Closure § 264.112 Closure plan; amendment of plan. (a) Written plan. (1) The owner or operator of a hazardous waste management facility must have a written closure plan. In addition,...

  6. 40 CFR 265.112 - Closure plan; amendment of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Closure plan; amendment of plan. 265... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Closure and Post-Closure § 265.112 Closure plan; amendment of plan. (a) Written plan... have a written closure plan. Until final closure is completed and certified in accordance with §...

  7. 40 CFR 265.112 - Closure plan; amendment of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closure plan; amendment of plan. 265... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Closure and Post-Closure § 265.112 Closure plan; amendment of plan. (a) Written plan... have a written closure plan. Until final closure is completed and certified in accordance with §...

  8. 40 CFR 264.112 - Closure plan; amendment of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure plan; amendment of plan. 264... Closure and Post-Closure § 264.112 Closure plan; amendment of plan. (a) Written plan. (1) The owner or operator of a hazardous waste management facility must have a written closure plan. In addition,...

  9. 40 CFR 265.112 - Closure plan; amendment of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure plan; amendment of plan. 265... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Closure and Post-Closure § 265.112 Closure plan; amendment of plan. (a) Written plan... have a written closure plan. Until final closure is completed and certified in accordance with §...

  10. 40 CFR 264.112 - Closure plan; amendment of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closure plan; amendment of plan. 264... Closure and Post-Closure § 264.112 Closure plan; amendment of plan. (a) Written plan. (1) The owner or operator of a hazardous waste management facility must have a written closure plan. In addition,...

  11. 40 CFR 264.112 - Closure plan; amendment of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Closure plan; amendment of plan. 264... Closure and Post-Closure § 264.112 Closure plan; amendment of plan. (a) Written plan. (1) The owner or operator of a hazardous waste management facility must have a written closure plan. In addition,...

  12. 40 CFR 264.112 - Closure plan; amendment of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Closure plan; amendment of plan. 264... Closure and Post-Closure § 264.112 Closure plan; amendment of plan. (a) Written plan. (1) The owner or operator of a hazardous waste management facility must have a written closure plan. In addition,...

  13. Radiological Characterization and Final Facility Status Report Tritium Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, T.B.; Gorman, T.P.

    1996-08-01

    This document contains the specific radiological characterization information on Building 968, the Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) Complex and Facility. We performed the characterization as outlined in its Radiological Characterization Plan. The Radiological Characterization and Final Facility Status Report (RC&FFSR) provides historic background information on each laboratory within the TRL complex as related to its original and present radiological condition. Along with the work outlined in the Radiological Characterization Plan (RCP), we performed a Radiological Soils Characterization, Radiological and Chemical Characterization of the Waste Water Hold-up System including all drains, and a Radiological Characterization of the Building 968 roof ventilation system. These characterizations will provide the basis for the Sandia National Laboratory, California (SNL/CA) Site Termination Survey .Plan, when appropriate.

  14. Idaho National Laboratory Site Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Jenifer Nordstrom

    2014-02-01

    This plan provides a high-level summary of environmental monitoring performed by various organizations within and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and DOE Order 458.1, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, Guide DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance, and in accordance with 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. The purpose of these orders is to 1) implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations, and 2) to establish standards and requirements for the operations of DOE and DOE contractors with respect to protection of the environment and members of the public against undue risk from radiation. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL Site, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. Detailed monitoring procedures, program plans, or other governing documents used by contractors or agencies to implement requirements are referenced in this plan. This plan covers all planned monitoring and environmental surveillance. Nonroutine activities such as special research studies and characterization of individual sites for environmental restoration are outside the scope of this plan.

  15. Particle characterization for geothermal operations

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, O.J.; Kandarpa, V.

    1981-01-06

    A detailed summary of an ongoing evaluation of existing particle measuring methodology with emphasis on (a) adapting of existing methods in geothermal operations and (b) further development of existing instrumentation for field use is presented. The various instruments and methods used and/or suggested for particle characterization are described in detail. Theoretical and practical aspects of particle characterizations are outlined. A plan for further laboratory and field experiments is outlined. The instrumentations to be selected after some additional lab and field tests will be used in the studies on (a) formation damage through particle invasion and (b) characterizing and monitoring of particle suspensions in geothermal operations.

  16. Mission planning for autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, G.

    1987-01-01

    Planning is a necessary task for intelligent, adaptive systems operating independently of human controllers. A mission planning system that performs task planning by decomposing a high-level mission objective into subtasks and synthesizing a plan for those tasks at varying levels of abstraction is discussed. Researchers use a blackboard architecture to partition the search space and direct the focus of attention of the planner. Using advanced planning techniques, they can control plan synthesis for the complex planning tasks involved in mission planning.

  17. Phase Transitions in Planning Problems: Design and Analysis of Parameterized Families of Hard Planning Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hen, Itay; Rieffel, Eleanor G.; Do, Minh; Venturelli, Davide

    2014-01-01

    There are two common ways to evaluate algorithms: performance on benchmark problems derived from real applications and analysis of performance on parametrized families of problems. The two approaches complement each other, each having its advantages and disadvantages. The planning community has concentrated on the first approach, with few ways of generating parametrized families of hard problems known prior to this work. Our group's main interest is in comparing approaches to solving planning problems using a novel type of computational device - a quantum annealer - to existing state-of-the-art planning algorithms. Because only small-scale quantum annealers are available, we must compare on small problem sizes. Small problems are primarily useful for comparison only if they are instances of parametrized families of problems for which scaling analysis can be done. In this technical report, we discuss our approach to the generation of hard planning problems from classes of well-studied NP-complete problems that map naturally to planning problems or to aspects of planning problems that many practical planning problems share. These problem classes exhibit a phase transition between easy-to-solve and easy-to-show-unsolvable planning problems. The parametrized families of hard planning problems lie at the phase transition. The exponential scaling of hardness with problem size is apparent in these families even at very small problem sizes, thus enabling us to characterize even very small problems as hard. The families we developed will prove generally useful to the planning community in analyzing the performance of planning algorithms, providing a complementary approach to existing evaluation methods. We illustrate the hardness of these problems and their scaling with results on four state-of-the-art planners, observing significant differences between these planners on these problem families. Finally, we describe two general, and quite different, mappings of planning

  18. Optimal Limited Contingency Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meuleau, Nicolas; Smith, David E.

    2003-01-01

    For a given problem, the optimal Markov policy over a finite horizon is a conditional plan containing a potentially large number of branches. However, there are applications where it is desirable to strictly limit the number of decision points and branches in a plan. This raises the question of how one goes about finding optimal plans containing only a limited number of branches. In this paper, we present an any-time algorithm for optimal k-contingency planning. It is the first optimal algorithm for limited contingency planning that is not an explicit enumeration of possible contingent plans. By modelling the problem as a partially observable Markov decision process, it implements the Bellman optimality principle and prunes the solution space. We present experimental results of applying this algorithm to some simple test cases.

  19. Temporal planning for transportation planning and scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederking, Robert E.; Muscettola, Nicola

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we describe preliminary work done in the CORTES project, applying the Heuristic Scheduling Testbed System (HSTS) to a transportation planning and scheduling domain. First, we describe in more detail the transportation problems that we are addressing. We then describe the fundamental characteristics of HSTS and we concentrate on the representation of multiple capacity resources. We continue with a more detailed description of the transportation planning problem that we have initially addressed in HSTS and of its solution. Finally we describe future directions for our research.

  20. IDC Integrated Master Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, David J.; Harris, James M.

    2014-12-01

    This is the IDC Re-Engineering Phase 2 project Integrated Master Plan (IMP). The IMP presents the major accomplishments planned over time to re-engineer the IDC system. The IMP and the associate Integrated Master Schedule (IMS) are used for planning, scheduling, executing, and tracking the project technical work efforts. REVISIONS Version Date Author/Team Revision Description Authorized by V1.0 12/2014 IDC Re- engineering Project Team Initial delivery M. Harris

  1. Alabama district flood plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedgecock, T. Scott; Pearman, J. Leroy; Stricklin, Victor E.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this flood plan is to outline and record advance planning for flood emergencies, so that all personnel will know the general plan and have a ready-reference for necessary information. This will ensure that during any flood event, regardless of the extent or magnitude, the resources of the District can be mobilized into a maximum data collection operation with a mimimum of effort.

  2. Strategic plan, 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Lewis Strategic Plan was updated for 1985 and beyond. Major programs for the space station, the advanced turboprop, the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS), and the Altitude Wind Tunnel were begun or greatly expanded during 1984. In parallel, The Lewis aeropropulsion research and technology program was extensively evaluated and reviewed; a reduced and reoriented program emerged. The thrusts and implementation plans for these programs are described as they pertain to the individual directorates. Other key accomplishments and plans are summarized.

  3. Conservation Planning for Ecosystem Services

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kai M. A; Shaw, M. Rebecca; Cameron, David R; Underwood, Emma C; Daily, Gretchen C

    2006-01-01

    Despite increasing attention to the human dimension of conservation projects, a rigorous, systematic methodology for planning for ecosystem services has not been developed. This is in part because flows of ecosystem services remain poorly characterized at local-to-regional scales, and their protection has not generally been made a priority. We used a spatially explicit conservation planning framework to explore the trade-offs and opportunities for aligning conservation goals for biodiversity with six ecosystem services (carbon storage, flood control, forage production, outdoor recreation, crop pollination, and water provision) in the Central Coast ecoregion of California, United States. We found weak positive and some weak negative associations between the priority areas for biodiversity conservation and the flows of the six ecosystem services across the ecoregion. Excluding the two agriculture-focused services—crop pollination and forage production—eliminates all negative correlations. We compared the degree to which four contrasting conservation network designs protect biodiversity and the flow of the six services. We found that biodiversity conservation protects substantial collateral flows of services. Targeting ecosystem services directly can meet the multiple ecosystem services and biodiversity goals more efficiently but cannot substitute for targeted biodiversity protection (biodiversity losses of 44% relative to targeting biodiversity alone). Strategically targeting only biodiversity plus the four positively associated services offers much promise (relative biodiversity losses of 7%). Here we present an initial analytical framework for integrating biodiversity and ecosystem services in conservation planning and illustrate its application. We found that although there are important potential trade-offs between conservation for biodiversity and for ecosystem services, a systematic planning framework offers scope for identifying valuable synergies. PMID

  4. It's in the Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracci, Richard L.

    1999-01-01

    Examines how master planning and participatory process combines to successfully integrate technology into a school's educational system. Discussions on budget setting and environmental design are included. (GR)

  5. Planning Complex Projects Automatically

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henke, Andrea L.; Stottler, Richard H.; Maher, Timothy P.

    1995-01-01

    Automated Manifest Planner (AMP) computer program applies combination of artificial-intelligence techniques to assist both expert and novice planners, reducing planning time by orders of magnitude. Gives planners flexibility to modify plans and constraints easily, without need for programming expertise. Developed specifically for planning space shuttle missions 5 to 10 years ahead, with modifications, applicable in general to planning other complex projects requiring scheduling of activities depending on other activities and/or timely allocation of resources. Adaptable to variety of complex scheduling problems in manufacturing, transportation, business, architecture, and construction.

  6. Research Planning Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lofton, Rodney

    2010-01-01

    This presentation describes the process used to collect, review, integrate, and assess research requirements desired to be a part of research and payload activities conducted on the ISS. The presentation provides a description of: where the requirements originate, to whom they are submitted, how they are integrated into a requirements plan, and how that integrated plan is formulated and approved. It is hoped that from completing the review of this presentation, one will get an understanding of the planning process that formulates payload requirements into an integrated plan used for specifying research activities to take place on the ISS.

  7. Publication planning 101.

    PubMed

    Sismondo, Sergio; Nicholson, Scott Howard

    2009-01-01

    Publication planning is the sub-industry to the pharmaceutical industry that does the organizational and practical work of shaping pharmaceutical companies' data and turning it into medical journal articles. Its main purpose is to create and communicate scientific information to support the marketing of products. This report is based mostly on information presented at the 2007 annual meeting of the International Society of Medical Planning Professionals, including a workshop entitled "Publication Planning 101/201", attended by one of us. We provide some analysis of the role of publication planning in medical publishing, and its implications for the structuring of medical knowledge. PMID:20067704

  8. Strategic implementation plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Life Science Division of the NASA Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) describes its plans for assuring the health, safety, and productivity of astronauts in space, and its plans for acquiring further fundamental scientific knowledge concerning space life sciences. This strategic implementation plan details OSSA's goals, objectives, and planned initiatives. The following areas of interest are identified: operational medicine; biomedical research; space biology; exobiology; biospheric research; controlled ecological life support; flight programs and advance technology development; the life sciences educational program; and earth benefits from space life sciences.

  9. Hanford Site Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Hathaway, H.B.; Daly, K.S.; Rinne, C.A.; Seiler, S.W.

    1993-05-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (HSDP) provides an overview of land use, infrastructure, and facility requirements to support US Department of Energy (DOE) programs at the Hanford Site. The HSDP`s primary purpose is to inform senior managers and interested parties of development activities and issues that require a commitment of resources to support the Hanford Site. The HSDP provides an existing and future land use plan for the Hanford Site. The HSDP is updated annually in accordance with DOE Order 4320.1B, Site Development Planning, to reflect the mission and overall site development process. Further details about Hanford Site development are defined in individual area development plans.

  10. Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck Plan 2009; Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck Plan 2009; Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck Plan 2010 - Gilpin's Falls Covered Bridge, Spanning North East Creek at Former (Bypassed) Section of North East Road (SR 272), North East, Cecil County, MD

  11. Planned neck dissection for patients with complete response to chemoradiotherapy: a concept approaching obsolescence.

    PubMed

    Ferlito, Alfio; Corry, June; Silver, Carl E; Shaha, Ashok R; Thomas Robbins, K; Rinaldo, Alessandra

    2010-02-01

    The question of efficacy of "planned" neck dissection following complete response to chemoradiation of head and neck cancer is discussed. There is general agreement that preemptive neck dissection in patients who present initially with low volume (N1) neck disease is not necessary. However, routine performance of planned neck dissection for patients who present initially with high volume (> or =N2) disease remains controversial. The authors reviewed a large number of studies reported in the recent literature and discuss how they affect this debate.Twenty-four of the reviewed studies indicate a benefit in regional control obtained by "planned" neck dissection among patients who had bulky neck disease pretreatment. All these studies are retrospective, they do not assess treatment response prior to surgery, although they do show very good regional control rates. Twenty-six studies demonstrate no benefit from "planned" neck dissection after complete clinical response. The reasons for these different conclusions include the development of more effective chemoradiation regimens which have improved the initial locoregional control rates of patients undergoing primary chemoradiation treatment, and improvements in diagnostic technology which have increased ability to detect low volume persistent tumor in the post treatment period. When neck dissection is necessary for persistent or recurrent disease, recent studies have shown that selective or superselective neck dissection may produce results therapeutically equivalent to those obtained with more extensive procedures, with less morbidity.There is now a large body of evidence, based on long-term clinical outcomes, that patients who have achieved a complete clinical (including radiologic) response to chemoradiation have a low rate of isolated neck failure, and the continued use of planned neck dissection for these patients cannot be justified. PMID:19572281

  12. Characterization of Pollution Transport into Texas Using OMI and TES Satellite and In Situ data, and HYSPLIT Back Trajectory Analyses: implications for TCEQ State Implementation Plans and High School/Undergraduate STEM Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boxe, C.; Bella, D.; Khaimova, J.; Culpepper, J.; Ahmed, N.; Belkalai, A.; Ealy, J.; Arroyo, I.; Lahoumh, M.; Jenkins, O.; Emmanuel, S.; Andrews, J.; Fu, D.; Wu, L.; Choi, Y.; Morris, G.; Osterman, G. B.; Johnson, L. P.; Austin, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Using an online trajectory analysis tool NASA, ArcGIS, Satellite and EPA in situ data, we assess whether high pollution events in Texas are primarily sourced locally or remotely. We focus satellite data that exemplify high O3 and NO2 over Texas's lower troposphere. Four day back trajectory analyses of all dates show that upper-, mid-, and lower-tropospheric air over Texas, containing high O3, is transported from the Gulf of Mexico, Southeast USA, Midwest USA, Northeast USA, the Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Mexico, etc. Only day showed air at 1 km is sourced within Texas. Satellite data show O3 enhancements in the boundary layer and O3 and NO2 enhancements via tropospheric column profiles. These enhancements complement four-day trajectory analysis. This study provides a viable basis for more quantifiable and accurate information for developing effective air quality State Implementation Plans. STEM Impact: (i) D. Bella was an NSF-LSAMP undergraduate research mentee with me at Medgar Evers College-CUNY; she received a B.S. in Environmental Science (and a Chemistry Minor) and is now a Ph.D. graduate student at University at Albany's School of Public Health. (ii) J. Khaimova is an undergraduate Geology and Planetary Science B.S. major at Brooklyn College-CUNY. I have supported Jessica's summer internship in summer 2013 as a CUNY Summer Research Fellow, where she is currently an NSF-REU research mentee at Pennsylvania State University's Meteorology Department. (iii) J. Culpepper received his B.S. in Environmental Science from MEC-CUNY and will be a Ph.D. student, Fall 2014 at University of Iowa's Civil and Environmental Engineering Department. (iv) S. Gentle was a high school researcher with me within ACS's Project SEED Program for high school students. S. Gentle will start her undergraduate career Fall 2014 at Pennsylvania State University and seeks to attain a B.S. in Chemistry. (v). All parties, including high school and undergraduate researchers seek to attend

  13. Guide for Planning Educational Facilities. Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Deborah P., Ed.

    A looseleaf format allows for the easy addition of annual updates to this practitioner's handbook for planning educational facilities from the conception of needs through occupancy and use. Each unit contains numerous photographs, drawings, and figures that illustrate the contents. Unit subjects are as follows: historical perspectives; planning…

  14. Guidelines for strategic planning

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    Strategic planning needs to be done as one of the integral steps in fulfilling our overall Departmental mission. The role of strategic planning is to assure that the longer term destinations, goals, and objectives which the programs and activities of the Department are striving towards are the best we can envision today so that our courses can then be set to move in those directions. Strategic planning will assist the Secretary, Deputy Secretary, and Under Secretary in setting the long-term directions and policies for the Department and in making final decisions on near-term priorities and resource allocations. It will assist program developers and implementors by providing the necessary guidance for multi-year program plans and budgets. It is one of the essential steps in the secretary's Strategic Planning Initiative. The operational planning most of us are so familiar with deals with how to get things done and with the resources needed (people, money, facilities, time) to carry out tasks. Operating plans like budgets, capital line item projects, R D budgets, project proposals, etc., are vital to the mission of the Department. They deal, however, with how to carry out programs to achieve some objective or budget assumption. Strategic planning deals with the prior question of what it is that should be attempted. It deals with what objectives the many programs and activities of the Department of Department should be striving toward. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance to those organizations and personnel starting the process for the first time as well as those who have prepared strategic plans in the past and now wish to review and update them. This guideline should not be constructed as a rigid, restrictive or confining rulebook. Each organization is encouraged to develop such enhancements as they think may be useful in their planning. The steps outlined in this document represent a very simplified approach to strategic planning. 9 refs.

  15. NASA/ESMD Analogue Mission Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation exploring Earth and its analogues is shown. The topics include: 1) ESMD Goals for the Use of Earth Analogues; 2) Stakeholders Summary; 3) Issues with Current Analogue Situation; 4) Current state of Analogues; 5) External Implementation Plan (Second Step); 6) Recent Progress in Utilizing Analogues; 7) Website Layout Example-Home Page; 8) Website Layout Example-Analogue Site; 9) Website Layout Example-Analogue Mission; 10) Objectives of ARDIG Analog Initiatives; 11) Future Plans; 12) Example: Cold-Trap Sample Return; 13) Example: Site Characterization Matrix; 14) Integrated Analogue Studies-Prerequisites for Human Exploration; and 15) Rating Scale Definitions.

  16. Treatability study on the Bear Creek Valley characterization area at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Phase II work plan for S-3 site contaminated groundwater interception--in-field media evaluation and groundwater capture methods

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    A treatability study is being conducted to support implementation:of early actions at the S-3 Site in the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Characterization Area (CA). The objectives of the early actions Will be (1) to reduce concentrations of uranium and nitrate in Bear Creek and (2) to reduce contaminants of concern in North Tributary (NT)-1 and NT-2. The BCV CA is located within the US DOE`s Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee. Hazardous and radioactive materials from the Y-12 Plant operations were, disposed of at various sites within BCV. Groundwater and surface water in the BCV CA have been contaminated. The remedial investigation (RI) for the BCV CA identified that the greatest mass flux of contaminants from the various sources migrates via groundwater at the source and discharges to surface water in Bear Creek and its tributaries. In the RI, the combined discharge from the S-3 Site and the Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY) was identified as accounting for 75% of the cancer risk and more than 80% of the chemical toxicity to Potential downgradient human receptors. In addition, the S-3 Site has caused degradation of surface water quality in upper Bear Creek and two of its tributaries. The BCV CA treatability study focuses on capture and treatment of shallow groundwater before it discharges to tributary waters. The objectives Of treatment of this groundwater are (1) to reduce the concentrations of uranium and nitrate in NT-1 and Bear Creek such that the concentrations of these chemicals in surface water and groundwater are reduced to acceptable levels, (2) to reduce the concentrations of nitrate and metals, and reduce the overall concentration of total dissolved solids; and (3) to hydraulically contain the plume of contaminated, groundwater that is moving in bedrock in the Nolichucky Shale such that the rate of contaminant discharge will be reduced in the long term. The objective of Phase II is to produce conceptual designs for treatment system configurations.

  17. A Plan Called Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia State Commission on Mental Retardation, Charleston.

    Recommendations of the West Virginia Commission on Mental Retardation are summarized for both legislative action and major supplementary requests, and basic principles of the state plan are given. Descriptions are given of the state plan organization as a whole and programs for community facilities (diagnostic and treatment centers and community…

  18. Fermilab Program and Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Denisov, Dmitri

    2014-01-01

    This article is a short summary of the talk presented at 2014 Instrumentation Conference in Novosibirsk about Fermilab's experimental program and future plans. It includes brief description of the P5 long term planning progressing in US as well as discussion of the future accelerators considered at Fermilab.

  19. Marketing Plan 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harford Community Coll., Bel Air, MD.

    To assure the continued and successful contribution by Harford Community College to the greatest number of citizens in its service area, a marketing plan for the college's educational services was developed. The first stage in the plan, service, includes: support services at off-campus locations, services for evening and Saturday classes, liaison…

  20. Planning Perspectives for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, A. P., Ed.; McNamara, James F., Ed.

    This book presents a collection of previously published journal articles dealing with the theory, practice, and research of planning. The various readings were selected to stimulate thought and action in educational planning, rather than to present solutions to specific problems. The articles include "Knowledge and Action: A Guide to Planning…