These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Spinal stenosis and posterior lumbar interbody fusion.  

PubMed

One hundred forty-two patients with the common types of spinal stenosis were treated by posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). The majority of the patients had one or more decompressive procedures prior to PLIF. The results were excellent or good in 78%. A review of the literature concerning long-term results of decompressive procedures indicates a short-term failure rate of 15%-20% and about 50% failure by ten or more years after the operation. Anterior fusion in primary disc lesions produces admirable results but is of little value in spinal stenosis. Long-term reports of the success rates of posterior lumbar interbody fusion indicate that this operation combines the success rate of an anterior interbody fusion with the benefits of posterior decompression. PMID:3971609

Hutter, C G

1985-03-01

2

Instrumented Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion in Adult Spondylolisthesis  

PubMed Central

It is unclear whether using artificial cages increases fusion rates compared with use of bone chips alone in posterior lumbar interbody fusion for patients with lumbar spondylolisthesis. We hypothesized artificial cages for posterior lumbar interbody fusion would provide better clinical and radiographic outcomes than bone chips alone. We assumed solid fusion would provide good clinical outcomes. We clinically and radiographically followed 34 patients with spondylolisthesis having posterior lumbar interbody fusion with mixed autogenous and allogeneic bone chips alone and 42 patients having posterior lumbar interbody fusion with implantation of artificial cages packed with morselized bone graft. Patients with the artificial cage had better functional improvement in the Oswestry disability index than those with bone chips alone, whereas pain score, patient satisfaction, and fusion rate were similar in the two groups. Postoperative disc height ratio, slip ratio, and segmental lordosis all decreased at final followup in the patients with bone chips alone but remained unchanged in the artificial cage group. The functional outcome correlated with radiographic fusion status. We conclude artificial cages provide better functional outcomes and radiographic improvement than bone chips alone in posterior lumbar interbody fusion for lumbar spondylolisthesis, although both techniques achieved comparable fusion rates. Level of Evidence: Level III, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18846411

Yu, Ching-Hsiao; Wang, Chen-Ti

2008-01-01

3

Instrumented posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with interbody fusion device (Cage) in degenerative disc disease (DDD): 3 years outcome.  

PubMed

This prospective interventional study carried out at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University and a private hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh during the period from October 2003 to September 2011. Surgical treatment of degenerative disc disease (DDD) should aim to re-expand the interbody space and stabilize until fusion is complete. The present study conducted to find out the efficacy of using interbody fusion device (Cage) to achieve interbody space re-expansion and fusion in surgical management of DDD. We have performed the interventional study on 53 patients, 42 female and 11 male, with age between 40 to 67 years. All the patients were followed up for 36 to 60 months (average 48 months). Forty seven patients were with spondylolisthesis and 06 with desiccated disc. All subjects were evaluated with regard to immediate and long term complications, radiological fusion and interbody space re-expansion and maintenance. The clinical outcome (pain and disability) was scored by standard pre and postoperative questionnaires. Intrusion, extrusion and migration of the interbody fusion cage were also assessed. Forty seven patients were considered to have satisfactory outcome in at least 36 months follow up. Pseudoarthrosis developed in 04 cases and 06 patients developed complications. In this series posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with interbody cage and instrumentation in DDD showed significant fusion rate and maintenance of interbody space. Satisfactory outcome observed in 88.68% cases. PMID:24292314

Ahsan, M K; Hossain, M A; Sakeb, N; Khan, S I; Zaman, N

2013-10-01

4

Vertebral osteolytic defect due to cellulose particles derived from gauze fibers after posterior lumbar interbody fusion.  

PubMed

Vertebral cystic lesions may be observed in pseudarthroses after lumbar fusion surgery. The authors report a rare case of pseudarthrosis after spinal fusion, accompanied by an expanding vertebral osteolytic defect induced by cellulose particles. A male patient originally presented at the age of 69 years with leg and low-back pain caused by a lumbar isthmic spondylolisthesis. He underwent a posterior lumbar interbody fusion, and his neurological symptoms and pain resolved within a year but recurred 14 months after surgery. Radiological imaging demonstrated a cystic lesion on the inferior endplate of L-5 and the superior endplate of S-1, which rapidly enlarged into a vertebral osteolytic defect. The patient underwent revision surgery, and his low-back pain resolved. A histopathological examination demonstrated foreign body-type multinucleated giant cells, containing 10-?m particles, in the sample collected just below the defect. Micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that the foreign particles were cellulosic, presumably originating from cotton gauze fibers that had contaminated the interbody cages used during the initial surgery. Vertebral osteolytic defects that occur after interbody fusion are generally presumed to be the result of infection. This case suggests that some instances of vertebral osteolytic defects may be aseptically induced by foreign particles. Hence, this possibility should be carefully considered in such cases, to help prevent contamination of the morselized bone used for autologous grafts by foreign materials, such as gauze fibers. PMID:25259557

Takenaka, Shota; Mukai, Yoshihiro; Hosono, Noboru; Tateishi, Kosuke; Fuji, Takeshi

2014-12-01

5

Postoperative Flat Back: Contribution of Posterior Accessed Lumbar Interbody Fusion and Spinopelvic Parameters  

PubMed Central

Objective Posterior accessed lumbar interbody fusion (PALIF) has a clear objective to restore disc height and spinal alignment but surgeons may occasionally face the converse situation and lose lumbar lordosis. We analyzed retrospective data for factors contributing to a postoperative flat back. Methods A total of 105 patients who underwent PALIF for spondylolisthesis and stenosis were enrolled. The patients were divided according to surgical type [posterior lumbar inter body fusion (PLIF) vs. unilateral transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF)], number of levels (single vs. multiple), and diagnosis (spondylolisthesis vs. stenosis). We measured perioperative index level lordosis, lumbar lordosis, pelvic tilt, sacral slope, pelvic incidence, and disc height in standing lateral radiographs. The change and variance in each parameter and comparative group were analyzed with the paired and Student t-test (p<0.05), correlation coefficient, and regression analysis. Results A significant perioperative reduction was observed in index-level lordosis following TLIF at the single level and in patients with spondylolisthesis (p=0.002, p=0.005). Pelvic tilt and sacral slope were significantly restored following PLIF multilevel surgery (p=0.009, p=0.003). Sacral slope variance was highly sensitive to perioperative variance of index level lordosis in high sacral sloped pelvis. Perioperative variance of index level lordosis was positively correlated with disc height variance (R2=0.286, p=0.0005). Conclusion Unilateral TLIF has the potential to cause postoperative flat back. PLIF is more reliable than unilateral TLIF to restore spinopelvic parameters following multilevel surgery and spondylolisthesis. A high sacral sloped pelvis is more vulnerable to PALIF in terms of a postoperative flat back. PMID:25371781

Kim, Jin Kwon; Kim, Deok Ryeng; Kim, Joo Seung

2014-01-01

6

Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion Using Compressive Bone Graft with Allograft and Autograft in the Pyogenic Discitis  

PubMed Central

Study Design This is a retrospective study. Purpose To evaluate the advantages and effects of posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) using allograft and posterior instrumentation in the lumbar pyogenic discitis, which are resistant to antibiotics. Overview of Literature To present preliminary results of PLIF using a compressive bone graft with allograft and pedicle screw fixation in the lumbar pyogenic discitis. Methods Fifteen patients who had lumbar pyogenic discitis were treated by posterior approach from May 2004 to July 2008. The mean follow-up duration was 27.2 ± 18.68 months. The standing radiographs of the lumbar spine and clinical results were compared and analyzed in order to assess the bony union, the changes in the distance between the two vertebral bodies and the changes in the lordotic angle formed between the fused bodies immediately after surgery and at the final follow-up. Results Fifteen solid unions at an average of 15.2 ± 3.5 weeks after operation. The mean preoperative lordotic angle of the affected segments was 14.3 ± 15.1°, compared to 20.3 ± 12.3° after surgery and 19.8 ± 15.2° at last follow-up. For the functional result according to the Kirkaldy-Willis criteria, the outcome was excellent in 9, good in 5, fair in 1, and there were no poor cases. The average visual analogue scale score was decreased from 7.4 before surgery to 3.4 at 2 weeks postoperative. Conclusions The main advantage in the procedure of PLIF using compressive bone graft with allograft and post instrumentation is early ambulation. We believe that this is another good procedure for patients with poor general condition because a further autograft bone harvest is not required. PMID:22439083

An, Ki Chan; Kim, Tae Hyoung; Kim, Jin Suck; Park, Dae Hyoun; Kim, Jeon Gyo; Sung, Tae Woo

2012-01-01

7

Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion Using an Unilateral Cage: A Prospective Study of Clinical Outcome and Stability  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiological results of instrumented posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) using an unilateral cage. Methods Seventeen patients with unilateral radiculopathy who underwent bilateral percutaneous screw fixation with a single fusion cage inserted on the symptomatic side for treatment of focal degenerative lumbar spine disease were prospectively enrolled in this study. Their clinical results, radiological parameters, and related complications were assessed 10 days, 3 months, and 12 months postoperatively. Results There was no pseudarthrosis, instrumented fusion failure, significant cage subsidence, or retropulsion in any patient. The surgery restored the disc space height and maintained it as of 12 months postoperatively and did not exacerbate the lumbar lordotic and scoliotic angles. All patients had excellent or good outcomes according to the modified MacNab's criteria. The mean pain score according to the visual analogue scale was 7.5 preoperatively but had improved to 2.5 when reassessed 3 months postoperatively. The improvement was maintained as of 12 months postoperatively. Conclusion In cases of uncomplicated unilateral radiculopathy, PLIF using a single cage can be an effective and safe procedure with the advantage of preserving the posterior elements of the contralateral side. A shorter operative time and greater cost-effectiveness than for PLIF using bilateral cages can be expected. PMID:25110483

Lee, Seok Ki; Kim, Seok Won; Ju, Chang Il; Lee, Sung Myung

2014-01-01

8

Comparison of Dynesys posterior stabilization and posterior lumbar interbody fusion for spinal stenosis L4L5.  

PubMed

The aim of this prospective randomized study was to compare the radiological and clinical outcome after treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis L4L5 with or without spondylolisthesis, with either posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) (26 patients) or Dynesys posterior stabilization (27 patients). Demographic characteristics were comparable in both groups. Dynesys stabilization resulted in significantly higher preservation of motion at the index level (p < 0.001), and significantly less (p < 0.05) hypermobility at the adjacent segments. Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and VAS for back and leg pain improved significantly (p < 0.05) with both methods, but there was no significant difference between groups. Operation time, blood loss, and length of hospital stay were all significantly (p < 0.001) less in the Dynesys group. The latter benefits may be of particular importance for elderly patients, or those with significant comorbidities. Complications were comparable in both groups. Dynesys posterior stabilization was effective for treating spinal stenosis L4L5 with or without spondylolisthesis. PMID:22696995

Yu, Shang-Won; Yang, Shih-Chieh; Ma, Ching-Hou; Wu, Chin-Hsien; Yen, Cheng-Yo; Tu, Yuan-Kun

2012-04-01

9

Modified posterior lumbar interbody fusion for radiculopathy following healed vertebral collapse of the middle-lower lumbar spine.  

PubMed

Study Design?Retrospective study. Objectives?Lumbar radiculopathy is rarely observed in patients who have achieved bony healing of vertebral fractures in the middle-lower lumbar spine. The objectives of the study were to clarify the clinical features of such radiculopathy and to evaluate the preliminary outcomes of treatment using a modified posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) procedure. Methods?Fourteen patients with at least 2-year follow-up were enrolled in this study. The radiologic and clinical features of radiculopathy were retrospectively reviewed. As part of our modified PLIF procedure, a bone block was laid on chipped bone to fill the cavity of the fractured end plate and to flatten the cage-bone interface. Results?The morphologic features of spinal deformity in our patients typically consisted of the intradiscal vacuum phenomenon, spondylolisthesis, and a retropulsed intervertebral disk with a vertebral rim in the damaged segment. Cranial end plate fracture resulted in radiculopathy of the traversing nerve roots due to lateral recess stenosis. On the other hand, caudal end plate fracture led to unilateral radiculopathy of the exiting nerve root due to foraminal stenosis. The mean recovery rate based on the Japanese Orthopaedic Association score was 65.0%. Solid fusion was achieved in all but one case. Conclusions?Because of severe deterioration of the anterior column following end plate fracture, the foraminal zone must be decompressed in caudal end plate fractures. The modified PLIF procedure yielded satisfactory clinical outcomes due to anterior reconstruction and full decompression for both foraminal and lateral recess stenoses. PMID:25396106

Yamashita, Tomoya; Sakaura, Hironobu; Miwa, Toshitada; Ohwada, Tetsuo

2014-12-01

10

Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion and posterior lumbar interbody fusion utilizing BMP-2 in treatment of degenerative spondylolisthesis: neither safe nor cost effective  

PubMed Central

Background: With the rise of health care costs, there is increased emphasis on evaluating the cost of a particular surgical procedure for quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Recent data have shown that surgical intervention for the treatment of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) is as cost-effective as total joint arthroplasty. Despite these excellent outcomes, some argue that the addition of interbody fusion supplemented with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) enhances the value of this procedure. Methods: This review examines the current research regarding the cost-effectiveness of the surgical management of lumbar DS utilizing interbody fusion along with BMP. Results: Posterolateral spinal fusion with instrumentation for focal lumbar spinal stenosis with DS can provide and maintain improvement in self-reported quality of life. Based on the available literature, including nonrandomized comparative studies and case series, the addition of interbody fusion along with BMP does not lead to significantly better clinical outcomes and increases costs when compared with more routine posterolateral fusion techniques. Conclusions: To enhance the value of the surgical management for DS, costs must decrease or there should be substantial improvement in effectiveness as measured by clinical outcomes. To date, there is insufficient evidence to support the use of interbody fusion devices along with BMP to treat routine cases of focal stenosis accompanied by DS, which are routinely adequately treated utilizing posterolateral fusion techniques. PMID:23646277

Moatz, Bradley; Tortolani, P. Justin

2013-01-01

11

Clinical and radiological outcomes of axial lumbar interbody fusion.  

PubMed

Axial lumbar interbody fusion is a novel percutaneous alternative to common open techniques, such as anterior, posterior, and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion. This minimally invasive technique uses the presacral space to access the L5-S1 and L4-L5 disk space. The goal of this study was to examine outcomes following axial lumbar interbody fusion. The charts of all patients who underwent axial lumbar interbody fusion surgery at our institution between 2006 and 2008 were reviewed. Clinical outcomes included visual analog scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Radiographs were also evaluated for disk space height, L4-L5 and/or L5-S1 Cobb angle, and fusion. Of the 50 patients (32 women, 18 men; mean age, 49.29 years) treated with axial lumbar interbody fusion, 48 had preoperative VAS scores and 16 had preoperative ODI scores available. Complete radiographic data were available at the preoperative, initial postoperative, and final postoperative time points for 46 patients (92%). At last follow-up (average, 12 months), ODI scores were reduced from 46 to 22, and VAS scores were lowered from 8.1 to 3.6. Of the 49 patients with postoperative radiographs, 47 (96%) went on to a solid fusion. There were no significant differences between pre- and postoperative disk space height and lumbar lordosis angle. The most common complications were superficial infection and pseudoarthrosis. Other complications were rectal injury, hematoma, and irritation of a nerve root by a screw. Overall, we found the axial lumbar interbody fusion procedure in combination with pedicle screw placement to have good clinical and radiological outcomes. PMID:21162514

Patil, Suresh S; Lindley, Emily M; Patel, Vikas V; Burger, Evalina L

2010-12-01

12

Evaluation of Functional Outcomes in Individuals 10 Years after Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion with Corundum Implants and Decompression: A Comparison of 2 Surgical Techniques  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate lumbar spine-related functional disability in individuals 10 years after lumbar decompression and lumbar decompression with posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with corundum implants surgery for degenerative stenosis and to compare the long-term outcome of these 2 surgical techniques. Material/Methods From 1998 to 2002, 100 patients with single-level lumbar stenosis were surgically treated. The patients were randomly divided into 2 groups that did not differ in terms of clinical or neurological symptoms. Group A consisted of 50 patients who were treated with PLIF and the use of porous ceramic corundum implants; the mean age was 57.74 and BMI was 27.34. Group B consisted of 50 patients treated with decompression by fenestration; mean age was 51.28 and the mean BMI was 28.84. Results There was no statistical significance regarding age, BMI, and sex. Both treatments revealed significant improvements. In group A, ODI decreased from 41.01% to 14.3% at 1 year and 16.3 at 10 years. In group B, ODI decreased from 63.8% to 18.36% at 1 year and 22.36% at 10 years. The difference between groups was statistically significant. There were no differences between the groups regarding the Rolland-Morris disability questionnaire and VAS at 1 and 10 years after surgery. Conclusions Long-term results evaluated according to the ODI, the Rolland-Morris disability questionnaire, and the VAS showed that the both methods significantly reduce patient disability, and this was maintained during next 10 years. The less invasive fenestration procedure was only slightly less favorable than surgical treatment of stenosis by both PLIF with corundum implants and decompression. PMID:25106708

Truszczynska, Aleksandra; Rapala, Kazimierz; Lukawski, Stanislaw; Trzaskoma, Zbigniew; Tarnowski, Adam; Drzal-Grabiec, Justyna; Cabak, Anna

2014-01-01

13

Clinical and radiological outcome of anterior-posterior fusion versus transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for symptomatic disc degeneration: a retrospective comparative study of 133 patients  

PubMed Central

Abundant data are available for direct anterior/posterior spine fusion (APF) and some for transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF), but only few studies from one institution compares the two techniques. One-hundred and thirty-three patients were retrospectively analyzed, 68 having APF and 65 having TLIF. All patients had symptomatic disc degeneration of the lumbar spine. Only those with one or two-level surgeries were included. Clinical chart and radiologic reviews were done, fusion solidity assessed, and functional outcomes determined by pre- and postoperative SF-36 and postoperative Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and a satisfaction questionnaire. The minimum follow-up was 24 months. The mean operating room time and hospital length of stay were less in the TLIF group. The blood loss was slightly less in the TLIF group (409 vs. 480 cc.). Intra-operative complications were higher in the APF group, mostly due to vein lacerations in the anterior retroperitoneal approach. Postoperative complications were higher in the TLIF group due to graft material extruding against the nerve root or wound drainage. The pseudarthrosis rate was statistically equal (APF 17.6% and TLIF 23.1%) and was higher than most published reports. Significant improvements were noted in both groups for the SF-36 questionnaires. The mean ODI scores at follow-up were 33.5 for the APF and 39.5 for the TLIF group. The patient satisfaction rate was equal for the two groups. PMID:19125304

Schwender, James D.; Safriel, Yair; Gilbert, Thomas J.; Mehbod, Amir A.; Denis, Francis; Transfeldt, Ensor E.; Wroblewski, Jill M.

2009-01-01

14

Septic hematogenous lumbar spondylodiscitis in elderly patients with multiple risk factors: efficacy of posterior stabilization and interbody fusion with iliac crest bone graft  

PubMed Central

The conservative and operative treatment strategies of hematogenous spondylodiscitis in septic patients with multiple risk factors are controversial. The present series demonstrates the outcome of 18 elderly patients (median age, 72 years) with septic hematogenous spondylodiscitis and intraspinal abscess treated with microsurgical decompression and debridement of the infective tissue, followed by posterior stabilization and interbody fusion with iliac crest bone graft in one or two lumbar segments. The majority of the patients were unsuccessfully treated with intravenous antibiotics prior to the operation. Antibiotic therapy was continued for more than 6 weeks postoperatively. Morbidity and early mortality amounted to 50 and 17%, respectively. Three patients died in the hospital from internal complications after an initial postoperative improvement of the inflammatory clinical signs and laboratory parameters. Fifteen patients recovered from the spinal infection. Three of them died several months after discharge (cerebral hemorrhage, malignancy and unknown cause). Twelve patients had excellent or good outcomes during the follow-up period of at least 1 year. The series shows that operative decompression and eradication of the intraspinal and intervertebral infective tissue with fusion and stabilization via a posterior approach is possible in septic patients with multiple risk factors and leads to good results in those patients, who survive the initial severe stage of the septic disease. However, the morbidity and mortality suggest that this surgical treatment is not the therapy of first choice in high-risk septic patients, but may be considered in patients when conservative management has failed. PMID:20495933

Mater, Eckhardt; Schon, Ralph

2010-01-01

15

Complications in patients undergoing combined transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion and posterior instrumentation with deformity correction for degenerative scoliosis and spinal stenosis  

PubMed Central

Background: Utilization of the transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) approach for scoliosis offers the patients deformity correction and interbody fusion without the additional morbidity associated with more invasive reconstructive techniques. Published reports on complications associated with these surgical procedures are limited. The purpose of this study was to quantify the intra- and postoperative complications associated with the TLIF surgical approach in patients undergoing surgery for spinal stenosis and degenerative scoliosis correction. Methods: This study included patients undergoing TLIF for degenerative scoliosis with neurogenic claudication and painful lumbar degenerative disc disease. The TLIF technique was performed along with posterior pedicle screw instrumentation. The average follow-up time was 30 months (range, 15–47). Results: A total of 29 patients with an average age of 65.9 years (range, 49–83) were evaluated. TLIFs were performed at 2.2 levels on average (range, 1–4) in addition to 6.0 (range, 4–9) levels of posterolateral instrumented fusion. The preoperative mean lumbar lordosis was 37.6° (range, 16°–55°) compared to 40.5° (range, 26°–59.2°) postoperatively. The preoperative mean coronal Cobb angle was 32.3° (range, 15°–55°) compared to 15.4° (range, 1°–49°) postoperatively. The mean operative time was 528 min (range, 276–906), estimated blood loss was 1091.7 mL (range, 150–2500), and hospitalization time was 8.0 days (range, 3–28). A baseline mean Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score of 7.6 (range, 4–10) decreased to 3.6 (range, 0–8) postoperatively. There were a total of 14 (49%) hardware and/or surgical technique related complications, and 8 (28%) patients required additional surgeries. Five (17%) patients developed pseudoarthrosis. The systemic complications (31%) included death (1), cardiopulmonary arrest with resuscitation (1), myocardial infarction (1), pneumonia (5), and pulmonary embolism (1). Conclusion: This study suggests that although the TLIF approach is a feasible and effective method to treat degenerative adult scoliosis, it is associated with a high rate of intra- and postoperative complications and a long recovery process. PMID:22439116

Burneikiene, Sigita; Nelson, E. Lee; Mason, Alexander; Rajpal, Sharad; Serxner, Benjamin; Villavicencio, Alan T.

2012-01-01

16

Clinical and Radiological Comparison of Posterolateral Fusion and Posterior Interbody Fusion Techniques for Multilevel Lumbar Spinal Stabilization In Manual Workers  

PubMed Central

Study Design Eighty-four patients who had been treated for degenerative spinal diseases between January 2006 and June 2009 were reviewed retrospectively. Purpose We aimed to compare the clinical and radiologic findings of manual workers who underwent posterolateral fusion (PLF) or posterior interbody fusion (PLIF) involving fusion of 3 or more levels of the spine. Overview of Literature Previous studies have concluded that there is no significant difference between the clinical outcome of PLF and PLIF techniques. Methods After standard decompression, 42 patients underwent PLF and the other 42 patients underwent PLIF. Radiologic findings, Oswestry disability index (ODI) scores, and visual analogue scale (VAS) scores were assessed preoperatively and at 6-month intervals postoperatively and return to work times/rates were assessed for 48 months. Results Patients who underwent PLF had significantly shorter surgical time and less blood loss. According to the 48-month clinical results, ODI and VAS scores were reduced significantly in the two groups, but the PLIF group showed better results than the PLF group at the last follow-up. Return to work rate was 63% in the PLF group and 87% in the PLIF group. Union rates were found to be 81% and 89%, respectively, after 24 months (p=0.154). Conclusions PLIF is a preferable technique with respect to stability and correction, but the result does not depend on only the fusion rates. Discectomy and fusion mass localization should be considered for achieving clinical success with the fusion technique. Before performing PLIF, the association of the long operative time and high blood loss with mortality and morbidity should be taken into consideration, particularly in the elderly and disabled patients.

Cakar, Albert; Huseyinoglu, Nergiz; Huseyinoglu, Urfettin; Celik, Recep

2014-01-01

17

Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Two-Year Results with a Modular Interbody Device  

PubMed Central

Study Design Retrospective case series. Purpose To present radiographic outcomes following anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) utilizing a modular interbody device. Overview of Literature Though multiple anterior lumbar interbody techniques have proven successful in promoting bony fusion, postoperative subsidence remains a frequently reported phenomenon. Methods Forty-three consecutive patients underwent ALIF with (n=30) or without (n=11) supplemental instrumentation. Two patients underwent ALIF to treat failed posterior instrumented fusion. The primary outcome measure was presence of fusion as assessed by computed tomography. Secondary outcome measures were lordosis, intervertebral lordotic angle (ILA), disc height, subsidence, Bridwell fusion grade, technical complications and pain score. Interobserver reliability of radiographic outcome measures was calculated. Results Forty-three patients underwent ALIF of 73 motion segments. ILA and disc height increased over baseline, and this persisted through final follow-up (p<0.01). Solid anterior interbody fusion was present in 71 of 73 motion segments (97%). The amount of new bone formation in the interbody space increased over serial imaging. Subsidence >4 mm occurred in 12% of patients. There were eight surgical complications (19%): one major (reoperation for nonunion/progressive subsidence) and seven minor (five subsidence, two malposition). Conclusions The use of a modular interbody device for ALIF resulted in a high rate of radiographic fusion and a low rate of subsidence. The large endplate and modular design of the device may contribute to a low rate of subsidence as well as maintenance of ILA and lordosis. Previously reported quantitative radiographic outcome measures were found to be more reliable than qualitative or categorical measures. PMID:25346811

Yeoman, Chevas; Chung, Woosik M.; Chappuis, James L; Freedman, Brett

2014-01-01

18

Clinical and radiographic outcomes with L4-S1 axial lumbar interbody fusion (AxiaLIF) and posterior instrumentation: a multicenter study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Previous studies have confirmed the benefits and limitations of the presacral retroperitoneal approach for L5–S1 interbody fusion. The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and effectiveness of the minimally invasive axial lumbar interbody approach (AxiaLIF) for L4–S1 fusion. Methods In this retrospective series, 52 patients from four clinical sites underwent L4–S1 interbody fusion with the AxiaLIF two-level system with minimum 2-year clinical and radiographic follow-up (range: 24–51 months). Outcomes included back pain severity (on a 10-point scale), the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and Odom’s criteria. Flexion and extension radiographs, as well as computed tomography scans, were evaluated to determine fusion status. Longitudinal outcomes were assessed with repeated measures analysis of variance. Results Mean subject age was 52 ± 11 years and the male:female ratio was 1:1. Patients sustained no intraoperative bowel or vascular injury, deep infection, or neurologic complication. Median procedural blood loss was 220 cc and median length of hospital stay was 3 days. At 2-year follow-up, mean back pain had improved 56%, from 7.7 ± 1.6 at baseline to 3.4 ± 2.7 (P < 0.001). Back pain clinical success (ie, ?30% improvement from baseline) was achieved in 39 (75%) patients at 2 years. Mean ODI scores improved 42%, from 60% ± 16% at baseline to 35% ± 27% at 2 years (P < 0.001). ODI clinical success (ie, ?30% improvement from baseline) was achieved in 26 (50%) patients. At final follow-up, 45 (87%) patients were rated as good or excellent, five as fair, and two as poor by Odom’s criteria. Interbody fusion observed on imaging was achieved in 97 (93%) of 104 treated interspaces. During follow-up, five patients underwent reoperation on the lumbar spine, including facet screw removal (two), laminectomy (two), and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (one). Conclusion The AxiaLIF two-level device is a safe, effective treatment adjunct for patients with L4–S1 disc pathology resistant to conservative treatments. PMID:24092998

Tobler, William D; Melgar, Miguel A; Raley, Thomas J; Anand, Neel; Miller, Larry E; Nasca, Richard J

2013-01-01

19

Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion  

PubMed Central

Background: The use of minimally invasive surgical (MIS) techniques represents the most recent modification of methods used to achieve lumbar interbody fusion. The advantages of minimally invasive spinal instrumentation techniques are less soft tissue injury, reduced blood loss, less postoperative pain and shorter hospital stay while achieving clinical outcomes comparable with equivalent open procedure. The aim was to study the clinicoradiological outcome of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 23 patients, 17 females and 6 males, who underwent MIS-transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) followed up for a mean 15 months. The subjects were evaluated for clinical and radiological outcome who were manifested by back pain alone (n = 4) or back pain with leg pain (n = 19) associated with a primary diagnosis of degenerative spondylolisthesis, massive disc herniation, lumbar stenosis, recurrent disc herniation or degenerative disc disease. Paraspinal approach was used in all patients. The clinical outcome was assessed using the revised Oswestry disability index and Macnab criteria. Results: The mean age of subjects was 55.45 years. L4-L5 level was operated in 14 subjects, L5-S1 in 7 subjects; L3-L4 and double level was fixed in 1 patient each. L4-L5 degenerative listhesis was the most common indication (n = 12). Average operative time was 3 h. Fourteen patients had excellent results, a good result in 5 subjects, 2 subjects had fair results and 2 had poor results. Three patients had persistent back pain, 4 patients had residual numbness or radiculopathy. All patients had a radiological union except for 1 patient. Conclusion: The study demonstrates a good clinicoradiological outcome of minimally invasive TLIF. It is also superior in terms of postoperative back pain, blood loss, hospital stay, recovery time as well as medication use.

Jhala, Amit; Singh, Damandeep; Mistry, MS

2014-01-01

20

Minimally invasive lateral lumbar interbody fusion with direct psoas visualization  

PubMed Central

Background Minimally invasive lateral approaches to the lumbar spine have been adopted to allow access to the intervertebral disc space while avoiding the complications associated with anterior or posterior approaches. This report describes a minimally invasive technique for lateral lumbar interbody fusion LLIF that allows direct intraoperative visualization of the psoas and surrounding neurovasculature (DV-LIF). Methods The technique utilizes a radiolucent tubular retractor and a secondary psoas retractor that allows a muscle-sparing approach while offering excellent visualization of the operative site. The unique advantage of this procedure is that the psoas muscle and surrounding nerves can be directly visualized intraoperatively to supplement neuromonitoring. We retrospectively reviewed complication rates in 34 patients treated with DV-LLIF (n?=?19) or standard lateral lumbar interbody fusion (S-LLIF, n?=?15). Results There were 29 complications (median: 1 per patient) with DV-LLIF and 20 (median: 1 per patient) complications with S-LLIF. Postoperative sensory deficits were reported in eight (42%) and seven (47%) patients, respectively. Thigh pain or numbness was reported in eight (42%) and five (33%) patients, respectively. The percentage of the overall complications directly attributable to the procedure was 69% with DV-LLIF and 83% with S-LLIF. One severe complication (back pain) was reported in one DV-LLIF patient and four severe complications (severe bleeding, respiratory failure, deep venous thrombosis and gastrointestinal prophylaxis, and nicked renal vein and aborted procedure) were reported in two S-LLIF patients. Conclusions Preliminary evidence suggests that minimally invasive lateral interbody fusion with direct psoas visualization may reduce the risk for severe procedural complications. PMID:24666669

2014-01-01

21

Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 11: interbody techniques for lumbar fusion.  

PubMed

Interbody fusion techniques have been promoted as an adjunct to lumbar fusion procedures in an effort to enhance fusion rates and potentially improve clinical outcome. The medical evidence continues to suggest that interbody techniques are associated with higher fusion rates compared with posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF) in patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis who demonstrate preoperative instability. There is no conclusive evidence demonstrating improved clinical or radiographic outcomes based on the different interbody fusion techniques. The addition of a PLF when posterior or anterior interbody lumbar fusion is performed remains an option, although due to increased cost and complications, it is not recommended. No substantial clinical benefit has been demonstrated when a PLF is included with an interbody fusion. For lumbar degenerative disc disease without instability, there is moderate evidence that the standalone anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) has better clinical outcomes than the ALIF plus instrumented, open PLF. With regard to type of interbody spacer used, frozen allograft is associated with lower pseudarthrosis rates compared with freeze-dried allograft; however, this was not associated with a difference in clinical outcome. PMID:24980588

Mummaneni, Praveen V; Dhall, Sanjay S; Eck, Jason C; Groff, Michael W; Ghogawala, Zoher; Watters, William C; Dailey, Andrew T; Resnick, Daniel K; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Sharan, Alok; Wang, Jeffrey C; Kaiser, Michael G

2014-07-01

22

Sequential Changes of Plasma C-Reactive Protein, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate and White Blood Cell Count in Spine Surgery : Comparison between Lumbar Open Discectomy and Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion  

PubMed Central

Objective C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) are often utilized to evaluate for postoperative infection. Abnormal values may be detected after surgery even in case of non-infection because of muscle injury, transfusion, which disturbed prompt perioperative management. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the perioperative CRP, ESR, and white blood cell (WBC) counts after spine surgery, which was proved to be non-infection. Methods Twenty patients of lumbar open discectomy (LOD) and 20 patients of posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) were enrolled in this study. Preoperative and postoperative prophylactic antibiotics were administered routinely for 7 days. Blood samples were obtained one day before surgery and postoperative day (POD) 1, POD3, and POD7. Using repeated measures ANOVA, changes in effect measures over time and between groups over time were assessed. All data analysis was conducted using SAS v.9.1. Results Changes in CRP, within treatment groups over time and between treatment groups over time were both statistically significant F(3,120)=5.05, p=0.003 and F(1,39)=7.46, p=0.01, respectively. Most dramatic changes were decreases in the LOD group on POD3 and POD7. Changes in ESR, within treatment groups over time and between treatment groups over time were also found to be statistically significant, F(3,120)=6.67, p=0.0003 and F(1,39)=3.99, p=0.01, respectively. Changes in WBC values also were be statistically significant within groups over time, F(3,120)=40.52, p<0.001, however, no significant difference was found in between groups WBC levels over time, F(1,39)=0.02, p=0.89. Conclusion We found that, dramatic decrease of CRP was detected on POD3 and POD7 in LOD group of non-infection and dramatic increase of ESR on POD3 and POD7 in PLIF group of non-infection. We also assumed that CRP would be more effective and sensitive parameter especially in LOD than PLIF for early detection of infectious complications. Awareness of the typical pattern of CRP, ESR, and WBC may help to evaluate the early postoperative course. PMID:25368764

Choi, Man Kyu; Kim, Kee D; Ament, Jared D.

2014-01-01

23

Surgical results of lumbar interbody fusion using calcium phosphate cement.  

PubMed

Clinical and radiological outcomes of lumbar interbody fusion using artificial fusion cages filled with calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) were retrospectively reviewed. Between 2002 and 2011, 25 patients underwent lumbar interbody fusion at Tokushima University Hospital, and 22 patients were enrolled in this study. Of these, 5 patients received autologous local bone grafts and 17 received CPC. Japan Orthopedic Association (JOA) score was used for clinical outcome assessments. Lumbar radiography and computed tomography (CT) were performed at 12, 24 months and last follow-up period to assess bony fusion. The mean JOA score of all patients improved from 9.3 before surgery to 21.0 at 24 months after surgery. Fusion had occurred in 5 of 5 patients in the local bone graft group and in 16 of 17 patients in CPC group at 24 months postoperatively. No surgically related complication was occurred in both groups. CPC is a useful and safe graft material for lumbar interbody fusion. PMID:25169138

Hirasawa, Motohiro; Mure, Hideo; Toi, Hiroyuki; Nagahiro, Shinji

2014-09-15

24

MRI Measurement of Neuroforaminal Dimension at the Index and Supradjacent Levels after Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion: A Prospective Study  

PubMed Central

Background Anterior interbody fusion has previously been demonstrated to increase neuroforaminal height in a cadaveric model using cages. No prior study has prospectively assessed the relative change in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated neuroforaminal dimensions at the index and supradjacent levels, after anterior interbody fusion with a corticocancellous allograft in a series of patients without posterior decompression. The objective of this study was to determine how much foraminal dimension can be increased with indirect foraminal decompression alone via anterior interbody fusion, and to determine the effect of anterior lumbar interbody fusion on the dimensions of the supradjacent neuroforamina. Methods A prospective study comparing pre- and postoperative neuroforaminal dimensions on MRI scan among 26 consecutive patients undergoing anterior lumbar interbody fusion without posterior decompression was performed. We studies 26 consecutive patients (50 index levels) that had undergone anterior interbody fusion followed by posterior pedicle screw fixation without distraction or foraminotomy. We used preoperative and postoperative MRI imaging to assess the foraminal dimensions at each operated level on which the lumbar spine had been operated. The relative indirect foraminal decompression achieved was calculated. The foraminal dimension of the 26 supradjacent untreated levels was measured pre- and postoperatively to serve as a control and to determine any effects after anterior interbody fusion. Results In this study, 8 patients underwent 1 level fusion (L5-S1), 12 patients had 2 levels (L4-S1) and 6 patients had 3 levels (L3-S1). The average increase in foraminal dimension was 43.3% (p < 0.05)-19.2% for L3-4, 57.1% for L4-5, and 40.1% for L5-S1. Mean pre- and postoperative supradjacent neuroforaminal dimension measurements were 125.84 mm2 and 124.89 mm2, respectively. No significant difference was noted (p > 0.05). Conclusions Anterior interbody fusion with a coriticocancellous allograft can significantly increase neuroforaminal dimension even in the absence of formal posterior distraction or foraminotomy; anterior interbody fusion with a coriticocancellous allograft has little effect on supradjacent neuroforaminal dimensions. PMID:23467381

Sokolowski, Mark J.; Mehbod, Amir A.; Denis, Francis; Garvey, Timothy A.; Perl, John; Transfeldt, Ensor E.

2013-01-01

25

Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion using unilateral pedicle screws and a translaminar screw  

PubMed Central

Lumbar spinal fusion is advancing with minimally invasive techniques, bone graft alternatives, and new implants. This has resulted in significant reductions of operative time, duration of hospitalization, and higher success in fusion rates. However, costs have increased as many new technologies are expensive. This study was carried out to investigate the clinical outcomes and fusion rates of a low implant load construct of unilateral pedicle screws and a translaminar screw in transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) which reduced the cost of the posterior implants by almost 50%. Nineteen consecutive patients who underwent single level TLIF with this construct were included in the study. Sixteen patients had a TLIF allograft interbody spacer placed, while in three a polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage was used. Follow-up ranged from 15 to 54 months with a mean of 32 months. A clinical and radiographic evaluation was carried out preoperatively and at multiple time points following surgery. An overall improvement in Oswestry scores and visual analogue scales for leg and back pain (VAS) was observed. Three patients underwent revision surgery due to recurrence of back pain. All patients showed radiographic evidence of fusion from 9 to 26 months (mean 19) following surgery. This study suggests that unilateral pedicle screws and a contralateral translaminar screw are a cheaper and viable option for single level lumbar fusion. PMID:19015896

Lee, Sandra; Vaidya, Rahul

2008-01-01

26

Mini-Open Approach for Direct Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion  

PubMed Central

Study Design Retrospective analysis. Purposes To introduce the mini-open lateral approach for the anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), and to investigate the advantages, technical pitfalls and complications by providing basic knowledge on extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) or direct lumbar interbody fusion (DLIF). Overview of Literature Recently, minimally invasive lateral approach for the lumbar spine is revived and receiving popularity under the name of XLIF or DLIF by modification of mini-open method when using the sequential tubular dilator and special expandable retractor system. Methods Seventy-four patients who underwent surgery by the mini-open lateral approach from September 2000 to April 2008 with various disease entities were included. Blood losses, operation times, incision sizes, postoperative time to mobilization, length of hospital stays, technical problems and complications were all analyzed. Results The blood losses and operation times of patients who underwent simple ALIF were 61.2 mL and 86 minutes for one level, 107 mL and 106 minutes for two levels, 250 mL and 142.8 minutes for three levels, and 400 mL and 190 minutes for four levels of fusion. The incision sizes were on average 4.5 cm for one level, 6.3 cm for two levels, 8.5 cm for three levels and 10.0 cm for four levels of fusion. The complications were retroperitoneal hematoma (2 cases), pneumonia (1 case) and transient lumbosacral plexus palsy (3 cases). Conclusions Trials of mini-open lateral approach would be helpful before the trial of XLIF or DLIF. However, special attention is required for complications such as transient lumbosacral plexus palsy. PMID:25187867

Chung, Sung-Soo; Pae, Young-Ryeol; Park, Se-Jun

2014-01-01

27

Systematic review and meta-analysis of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion rates performed without posterolateral fusion.  

PubMed

The need for posterolateral fusion (PLF) in addition to interbody fusion during minimally invasive (MIS) transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) has yet to be established. Omitting a PLF significantly reduces overall surface area available for achieving a solid arthrodesis, however it decreases the soft tissue dissection and costs of additional bone graft. The authors sought to perform a meta-analysis to establish the fusion rate of MIS TLIF performed without attempting a PLF. We performed an extensive Medline and Ovid database search through December 2010 revealing 39 articles. Inclusion criteria necessitated that a one or two level TLIF procedure was performed through a paramedian MIS approach with bilateral posterior pedicle screw instrumentation and without posterolateral bone grafting. CT scan verified fusion rates were mandatory for inclusion. Seven studies (case series and case-controls) met inclusion criteria with a total of 408 patients who underwent MIS TLIF as described above. The mean age was 50.7 years and 56.6% of patients were female. A total of 78.9% of patients underwent single level TLIF. Average radiographic follow-up was 15.6 months. All patients had local autologous interbody bone grafting harvested from the pars interarticularis and facet joint of the approach side. Either polyetheretherketone (PEEK) or allograft interbody cages were used in all patients. Overall fusion rate, confirmed by bridging trabecular interbody bone on CT scan, was 94.7%. This meta-analysis suggests that MIS TLIF performed with interbody bone grafting alone has similar fusion rates to MIS or open TLIF performed with interbody supplemented with posterolateral bone grafting and fusion. PMID:24913928

Bevevino, Adam J; Kang, Daniel G; Lehman, Ronald A; Van Blarcum, Gregory S; Wagner, Scott C; Gwinn, David E

2014-10-01

28

Thoracolumbar fracture dislocations treated by posterior reduction, interbody fusion and segmental instrumentation  

PubMed Central

Background: Literature describing the application of modern segmental instrumentation to thoracic and lumbar fracture dislocation injuries is limited and the ideal surgical strategy for this severe trauma remains controversial. The purpose of this article was to investigate the feasibility and efficacy of single-stage posterior reduction with segmental instrumentation and interbody fusion to treat this type of injury. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of 30 patients who had sustained fracture dislocation of the spine and underwent single stage posterior surgery between January 2007 and December 2011 was performed. All the patients underwent single stage posterior pedicle screw fixation, decompression and interbody fusion. Demographic data, medical records and radiographic images were reviewed thoroughly. Results: Ten females and 20 males with a mean age of 39.5 years were included in this study. Based on the AO classification, 13 cases were Type B1, 4 cases were B2, 4 were C1, 6 were C2 and 3 cases were C3. The average time of the surgical procedure was 220 min and the average blood loss was 550 mL. All of the patients were followed up for at least 2 years, with an average of 38 months. The mean preoperative kyphosis was 14.4° and reduced to -1.1° postoperatively. At the final followup, the mean kyphosis was 0.2°. The loss of correction was small (1.3°) with no significant difference compared to postoperative kyphotic angle (P = 0.069). Twenty seven patients (90%) achieved definitive bone fusion on X-ray or computed tomography imaging within 1 year followup. The other three patients were suspected possible pseudarthrosis. They remained asymptomatic without hardware failure or local pain at the last followup. Conclusion: Single stage posterior reduction using segmental pedicle screw instrumentation, combined with decompression and interbody fusion for the treatment of thoracic or lumbar fracture-dislocations is a safe, less traumatic and reliable technique. This procedure can achieve effective reduction, sagittal angle correction and solid fusion.

Wang, Xiao-Bin; Yang, Ming; Li, Jing; Xiong, Guang-Zhong; Lu, Chang; Lu, Guo-Hua

2014-01-01

29

Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion and spondylolisthesis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical and radiological outcomes of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF) surgery for lumbar spondylolisthesis. A prospective analysis was conducted of 23 consecutive patients with grade I or grade II lumbar spondylolisthesis who underwent a MI-TLIF using image guidance between August 2008 and September 2010. The patient group comprised 13 males and 10 females (mean age 57 years), 22 of whom underwent single level fusion and one patient with a two level fusion. All patients underwent postoperative CT scans to assess pedicle screw and cage placement and fusion at six months. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores were recorded preoperatively and at the six-month follow-up. We found that 22 of 23 (95.7%) patients showed evidence of fusion at six months with a mean improvement of 26.7 on ODI scores. The mean length of hospital stay was four days. The mean operative time was 172 minutes. Anatomical reduction of the spondylolisthesis was complete in 16 patients and incomplete in seven. Regarding complications, we observed: one of 94 (1.1%) pedicle screws misplaced, which did not require revision postoperatively; one of 23 patients (4.3%) with a pulmonary embolism and one of 23 (4.3%) patients with transient nerve root pain. There were no occurrences of infection and no postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leaks. We conclude that MI-TLIF offers patients a safe and effective surgical option for lumbar spondylolisthesis treatment. Furthermore, it may offer patients additional advantages in terms of postoperative pain and recovery. PMID:22386479

Tsahtsarlis, Antonio; Wood, Martin

2012-06-01

30

TranS1 VEO system: a novel psoas-sparing device for transpsoas lumbar interbody fusion  

PubMed Central

Minimally invasive approaches for lumbar interbody fusion have been popularized in recent years. The retroperitoneal transpsoas approach to the lumbar spine is a technique that allows direct lateral access to the intervertebral disc space while mitigating the complications associated with traditional anterior or posterior approaches. However, a common complication of this procedure is iatrogenic injury to the psoas muscle and surrounding nerves, resulting in postsurgical motor and sensory deficits. The TranS1 VEO system (TranS1 Inc, Raleigh, NC, USA) utilizes a novel, minimally invasive transpsoas approach to the lumbar spine that allows direct visualization of the psoas and proximal nerves, potentially minimizing iatrogenic injury risk and resulting clinical morbidity. This paper describes the clinical uses, procedural details, and indications for use of the TranS1 VEO system. PMID:23766663

Hardenbrook, Mitchell A; Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

2013-01-01

31

Treatment of multilevel degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis with spondylolisthesis using a combination of microendoscopic discectomy and minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion  

PubMed Central

Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS) has become increasingly common and is characterized by multilevel disc herniation and lumbar spondylolisthesis, which are difficult to treat. The current study aimed to evaluate the short-term clinical outcomes and value of the combined use of microendoscopic discectomy (MED) and minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF) for the treatment of multilevel DLSS with spondylolisthesis, and to compare the combination with traditional posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). A total of 26 patients with multilevel DLSS and spondylolisthesis underwent combined MED and MI-TLIF surgery using a single cage and pedicle rod-screw system. These cases were compared with 27 patients who underwent traditional PLIF surgery during the same period. Data concerning incision length, surgery time, blood loss, time of bed rest and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score prior to and following surgery were analyzed statistically. Statistical significance was reached in terms of incision length, blood loss and the time of bed rest following surgery (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference between the surgery time and ODI scores of the two groups. The combined use of MED and MI-TLIF has the advantages of reduced blood loss, less damage to the paraspinal soft tissue, shorter length of incision, shorter bed rest time, improved outcomes and shorter recovery times and has similar short-term clinical outcomes to traditional PLIF. PMID:23403827

WU, HAN; YU, WEI-DONG; JIANG, RUI; GAO, ZHONG-LI

2013-01-01

32

Treatment of multilevel degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis with spondylolisthesis using a combination of microendoscopic discectomy and minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion.  

PubMed

Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS) has become increasingly common and is characterized by multilevel disc herniation and lumbar spondylolisthesis, which are difficult to treat. The current study aimed to evaluate the short-term clinical outcomes and value of the combined use of microendoscopic discectomy (MED) and minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF) for the treatment of multilevel DLSS with spondylolisthesis, and to compare the combination with traditional posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). A total of 26 patients with multilevel DLSS and spondylolisthesis underwent combined MED and MI-TLIF surgery using a single cage and pedicle rod-screw system. These cases were compared with 27 patients who underwent traditional PLIF surgery during the same period. Data concerning incision length, surgery time, blood loss, time of bed rest and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score prior to and following surgery were analyzed statistically. Statistical significance was reached in terms of incision length, blood loss and the time of bed rest following surgery (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference between the surgery time and ODI scores of the two groups. The combined use of MED and MI-TLIF has the advantages of reduced blood loss, less damage to the paraspinal soft tissue, shorter length of incision, shorter bed rest time, improved outcomes and shorter recovery times and has similar short-term clinical outcomes to traditional PLIF. PMID:23403827

Wu, Han; Yu, Wei-Dong; Jiang, Rui; Gao, Zhong-Li

2013-02-01

33

Minimally invasive lateral transpsoas interbody fusion using a stand-alone construct for the treatment of adjacent segment disease of the lumbar spine: review of the literature and report of three cases.  

PubMed

We describe 3 patients who presented with radiographic signs and clinical symptoms of adjacent segment disease several years after undergoing L4-S1 posterior pedicle screw fusion. All patients underwent successful lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) at 1-2 levels above their previous constructs, using stand-alone cages, with complete resolution of radiculopathy and a significant improvement in low-back pain. In addition to a thorough analysis of these cases, we review the pertinent literature regarding treatment options for adjacent segment disease and the applications of the lateral lumbar interbody technique. PMID:25019458

Palejwala, Sheri K; Sheen, Whitney A; Walter, Christina M; Dunn, Jack H; Baaj, Ali A

2014-09-01

34

Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion for the Treatment of Postoperative Spondylodiscitis  

PubMed Central

Objective To analyze the clinical courses and outcomes after anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) for the treatment of postoperative spondylodiscitis. Methods A total of 13 consecutive patients with postoperative spondylodiscitis treated with ALIF at our institute from January, 1994 to August, 2013 were included (92.3% male, mean age 54.5 years old). The outcome data including inflammatory markers (leukocyte count, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate), the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), the modified Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and bony fusion rate using spine X-ray were obtained before and 6 months after ALIF. Results All of the cases were effectively treated with combination of systemic antibiotics and ALIF with normalization of the inflammatory markers. The mean VAS for back and leg pain before ALIF was 6.8±1.1, which improved to 3.2±2.2 at 6 months after ALIF. The mean ODI score before ALIF was 70.0±14.8, which improved to 34.2±27.0 at 6 months after ALIF. Successful bony fusion rate was 84.6% (11/13) and the remaining two patients were also asymptomatic. Conclusion Our results suggest that ALIF is an effective treatment option for postoperative spondylodiscitis. PMID:25371780

Kim, Sung Han; Kang, Moo-Sung; Chin, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Keun-Su; Cho, Yong-Eun

2014-01-01

35

Mini-open approach to the spine for anterior lumbar interbody fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background context: Since the introduction of threaded devices in the mid-1990s, anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) has become a staple in the armamentarium of the spine surgeon. The procedure, however, is heavily dependent on the ability of the approach surgeon to provide exposure quickly and safely in view of a reported incidence of vascular injury as high as 15% and

Salvador A Brau

2002-01-01

36

Minimally invasive versus open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion: evaluating initial experience  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to compare our experience with minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MITLIF) and open midline transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). A total of 36 patients suffering from isthmic spondylolisthesis or degenerative disc disease were operated with either a MITLIF (n?=?18) or an open TLIF technique (n?=?18) with an average follow-up of 22 and 24 months, respectively. Clinical outcome was assessed using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Oswestry disability index (ODI). There was no difference in length of surgery between the two groups. The MITLIF group resulted in a significant reduction of blood loss and had a shorter length of hospital stay. No difference was observed in postoperative pain, initial analgesia consumption, VAS or ODI between the groups. Three pseudarthroses were observed in the MITLIF group although this was not statistically significant. A steeper learning effect was observed for the MITLIF group. PMID:19023571

Tzinieris, Nicolas; Tsiridis, Elefterios; Kosmopoulos, Victor

2008-01-01

37

Clinical and Radiological Outcomes of a New Cage for Direct Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion  

PubMed Central

Objective In Korea, direct lateral interbody fusion (DLIF) was started since 2011, using standard cage (6° lordotic angle, 18mm width). Recently, a new wider cage with higher lordotic angle (12°, 22mm) was introduced. The aim of our study is to compare the clinical and radiologic outcomes of the two cage types. Methods We selected patients underwent DLIF, 125 cases used standard cages (standard group) and 38 cases used new cages (wide group). We followed them up for more than 6 months, and their radiological and clinical outcomes were analyzed retrospectively. For radiologic outcomes, lumbar lordotic angle (LLA), segmental lordoic angle (SLA), disc angle (DA), foraminal height change (FH), subsidence and intraoperative endplate destruction (iED) were checked. Clinical outcomes were compared using visual analog scale (VAS) score, Oswestry disability index (ODI) score and complications. Results LLA and SLA showed no significant changes postoperatively in both groups. DA showed significant increase after surgery in the wide group (p<0.05), but not in the standard group. Subsidence was significantly lower in the wide group (p<0.05). There was no difference in clinical outcomes between the two groups. Additional posterior decompression was done more frequently in the wide group. Postoperative change of foraminal height was significantly lower in the wide group (p<0.05). The iED was observed more frequently in the wide group (p<0.05) especially at the anterior edge of cage. Conclusion The new type of cage seems to result in more DA and less subsidence. But indirect foraminal decompression seems to be less effective than standard cage. Intraoperative endplate destruction occurs more frequently due to a steeper lordotic angle of the new cage.

Kim, Shin Jae; Lee, Young Seok; Kim, Young Baeg; Hung, Vo Tan

2014-01-01

38

Instrumented transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion with bioabsorbable polymer implants and iliac crest autograft.  

PubMed

Object. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic results in 31 patients from one center who underwent instrumented transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) for primarily degenerative indications. Methods. Bioabsorbable polymer spacers manufactured with a copolymer of 70:30 poly(L-lactide-co-D,L-lactide) and filled with iliac crest autograft bone were used for the TLIF procedure. In this paper the details of this procedure, intermediate (1- to 2-year) clinical and radiographic outcomes, and the basic science and rationale for the use of bioabsorbable polymers are discussed. At a mean of 18.4 months of follow up, 30 patients (96.8%) were judged to have attained solid fusions and 25 patients (81%) had good to excellent results. Three patients (9.7%) experienced complications, none of which were directly or indirectly attributable to the use of the bioabsorbable polymer implant. Only one implant in one patient (3.2%) demonstrated mechanical failure on insertion, and that patient experienced no clinical sequelae. Conclusions. This is the first clinical series to be published in which the mean follow-up duration equals or exceeds the biological life expectancy of this material (12-18 months). Both the clinical and radiographic results of this study support the use of interbody devices manufactured from biodegradable polymers for structural interbody support in the TLIF procedure. PMID:15198499

Coe, Jeffrey D

2004-03-15

39

Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion for the Correction of Spondylolisthesis and Adult Degenerative Scoliosis in High-Risk Patients: Early Radiographic Results and Complications  

PubMed Central

Background Lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is not associated with many of the complications seen in other interbody fusion techniques. This study used computed tomography (CT) scans, the radiographic gold standard, to assess interbody fusion rates achieved utilizing the LLIF technique in high-risk patients. Methods We performed a retrospective review of patients who underwent LLIF between January 2008 and July 2013. Forty-nine patients underwent nonstaged or staged LLIF on 119 levels with posterior correction and augmentation. Per protocol, patients received CT scans at their 1-year follow-up. Of the 49 patients, 21 patients with LLIF intervention on 54 levels met inclusion criteria. Two board-certified musculoskeletal radiologists and the senior surgeon (JZ) assessed fusion. Results Of the 21 patients, 6 patients had had previous lumbar surgery, and the cohort's comorbidities included osteoporosis, diabetes, obesity, and smoking, among others. Postoperative complications occurred in 12 (57.1%) patients and included anterior thigh pain and weakness in 6 patients, all of which resolved by 6 months. Two cases of proximal junctional kyphosis occurred, along with 1 case of hardware pullout. Two cases of abdominal atonia occurred. By CT scan assessment, each radiologist found fusion was achieved in 53 of 54 levels (98%). The radiologists' findings were in agreement with the senior surgeon. Conclusion Several studies have evaluated LLIF fusion and reported fusion rates between 88%-96%. Our results demonstrate high fusion rates using this technique, despite multiple comorbidities in the patient population. Spanning the ring apophysis with large LLIF cages along with supplemental posterior pedicle screw augmentation can enhance stability of the fusion segment and increase fusion rates. PMID:24688329

Waddell, Brad; Briski, David; Qadir, Rabah; Godoy, Gustavo; Houston, Allison Howard; Rudman, Ernest; Zavatsky, Joseph

2014-01-01

40

A Meta-Analysis of Unilateral versus Bilateral Pedicle Screw Fixation in Minimally Invasive Lumbar Interbody Fusion  

PubMed Central

Study Design Meta-analysis. Background Bilateral pedicle screw fixation (PS) after lumbar interbody fusion is a widely accepted method of managing various spinal diseases. Recently, unilateral PS fixation has been reported as effective as bilateral PS fixation. This meta-analysis aimed to comparatively assess the efficacy and safety of unilateral PS fixation and bilateral PS fixation in the minimally invasive (MIS) lumbar interbody fusion for one-level degenerative lumbar spine disease. Methods MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, BIOSIS Previews, and Cochrane Library were searched through March 30, 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) on unilateral versus bilateral PS fixation in MIS lumbar interbody fusion that met the inclusion criteria and the methodological quality standard were retrieved and reviewed. Data on participant characteristics, interventions, follow-up period, and outcomes were extracted from the included studies and analyzed by Review Manager 5.2. Results Six studies (5 RCTs and 1 CCT) involving 298 patients were selected. There were no significant differences between unilateral and bilateral PS fixation procedures in fusion rate, complications, visual analogue score (VAS) for leg pain, VAS for back pain, Oswestry disability index (ODI). Both fixation procedures had similar length of hospital stay (MD?=?0.38, 95% CI?=??0.83 to 1.58; P?=?0.54). In contrast, bilateral PS fixation was associated with significantly more intra-operative blood loss (P?=?0.002) and significantly longer operation time (P?=?0.02) as compared with unilateral PS fixation. Conclusions Unilateral PS fixation appears as effective and safe as bilateral PS fixation in MIS lumbar interbody fusion but requires less operative time and causes less blood loss, thus offering a simple alternative approach for one-level lumbar degenerative disease. PMID:25375315

Liu, Zheng; Fei, Qi; Wang, Bingqiang; Lv, Pengfei; Chi, Cheng; Yang, Yong; Zhao, Fan; Lin, Jisheng; Ma, Zhao

2014-01-01

41

Axial lumbar interbody fusion: a 6-year single-center experience  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aim of this study is to report our 6-year single-center experience with L5–S1 axial lumbar interbody fusion (AxiaLIF). Methods A total of 131 patients with symptomatic degenerative disc disease refractory to nonsurgical treatment were treated with AxiaLIF at L5–S1, and were followed for a minimum of 1 year (mean: 21 months). Main outcomes included back and leg pain severity, Oswestry Disability Index score, working status, analgesic medication use, patient satisfaction, and complications. Computed tomography was used to determine postoperative fusion status. Results No intraoperative complications, including vascular, neural, urologic, or bowel injuries, were reported. Back and leg pain severity decreased by 51% and 42%, respectively, during the follow-up period (both P < 0.001). Back function scores improved 50% compared to baseline. Clinical success, defined as improvement ?30%, was 67% for back pain severity, 65% for leg pain severity, and 71% for back function. The employment rate increased from 47% before surgery to 64% at final follow-up (P < 0.001). Less than one in four patients regularly used analgesic medications postsurgery. Patient satisfaction with the AxiaLIF procedure was 83%. The fusion rate was 87.8% at final follow-up. During follow-up, 17 (13.0%) patients underwent 18 reoperations on the lumbar spine, including pedicle screw fixation (n = 10), total disc replacement of an uninvolved level (n = 3), facet screw fixation (n = 3), facet screw removal (n = 1), and interbody fusion at L4–L5 (n = 1). Eight (6.1%) reoperations were at the index level. Conclusion Single-level AxiaLIF is a safe and effective means to achieve lumbosacral fusion in patients with symptomatic degenerative disc disease. PMID:23976846

Zeilstra, Dick J; Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

2013-01-01

42

Unilateral versus bilateral pedicle screw instrumentation for single-level minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion.  

PubMed

Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS TLIF) has become an increasingly popular method of lumbar arthrodesis. However, there are few published studies comparing the clinical outcomes between unilateral and bilateral instrumented MIS TLIF. Sixty-five patients with degenerative lumbar spine disease were enrolled in this study. Thirty-one patients were randomized to the unilateral group and 34 to the bilateral group. Recorded demographic data included sex, age, preoperative diagnosis, and degenerated segment. Operative time, blood loss, hospital stay length, complication rates, and fusion rates were also evaluated. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) pain score data were obtained. All patients were asked to follow-up at 3 and 6 months after surgery, and once every 6 months thereafter. The mean follow-up was 26.6 months (range 18-36 months). The two groups were similar in sex, age, preoperative diagnosis, and operated level. The unilateral group had significantly shorter operative time, lower blood loss, and shorter hospital time than the bilateral group. The average postoperative ODI and VAS scores improved significantly in each group. No significant differences were found between the two groups in relation to ODI and VAS. All patients showed evidence of fusion at 12 months postoperatively. The total fusion rate, screw failure, and general complication rate were not significantly different. Results showed that single-level MIS TLIF with unilateral pedicle screw fixation would be sufficient in the management of preoperatively stable patients with lumbar degenerative disease. It seems that MIS TLIF with unilateral pedicle screw instrumentation is a better choice for single-level degenerative lumbar spine disease. PMID:24814852

Shen, Xiaolong; Zhang, Hailong; Gu, Xin; Gu, Guangfei; Zhou, Xu; He, Shisheng

2014-09-01

43

Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion using unilateral pedicle screw fixation plus contralateral translaminar facet screw fixation in lumbar degenerative diseases  

PubMed Central

Background: Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) has been used in lumbar degenerative diseases. Some researchers have applied unilateral fixation in TLIF to reduce operational trauma without compromising the clinical outcome, but it is always suspected biomechanically unstable. The supplementary contralateral translaminar facet screw (cTLFS) seemed to be able to overcome the inherent drawbacks of unilateral pedicle screw (uPS) fixation theoretically. This study evaluates the safety, feasibility and efficacy of TLIF using uPS with cTLFS fixation in the treatment of lumbar degenerative diseases (LDD). Materials and Methods: 50 patients (29 male) underwent the aforementioned surgical technique for their LDD between December 2009 and April 2012. The results were evaluated based on visual analogue scale (VAS) of the leg and back, Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were recorded. The radiographic examinations in form of X-ray, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging was done preoperatively and 1 week, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months and 24 months postoperatively. The student t-test was used for comparison between the preoperative values and postoperative counterparts. P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Among 50 patients, 22 received one level fusion and 28 two level's, with corresponding operation time and estimated blood loss being approximately 90 min, 150 ml and 120 min, 200 ml, respectively. No severe complications happened perioperatively. The mean VAS (back, leg) scores dropped from (7.6, 7.5) preoperatively to (2.1, 0.6) at 12 months’ followup, ODI from 49.1 preoperatively to 5.6 and JOA score raised from 10.6 preoperatively to 28.5, all P < 0.001, suggesting of good clinical outcome. From the three-dimensional reconstructed CT, 62 out of 70 segments displayed solid fusion with fusion rate of 88.6% at 12 months postoperatively. Conclusions: TLIF using uPS fixation plus cTLFS fixation is a safe, feasible and effective technique in the treatment of one or two level lumbar degenerative diseases short termly. PMID:25143640

Liu, Fubing; Jiang, Chun; Cao, Yuanwu; Jiang, Xiaoxing; Feng, Zhenzhou

2014-01-01

44

Anterior Dislodgement of a Fusion Cage after Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion for the Treatment of Isthmic Spondylolisthesis  

PubMed Central

Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) is commonly used procedure for spinal fusion. However, there are no reports describing anterior cage dislodgement after surgery. This report is a rare case of anterior dislodgement of fusion cage after TLIF for the treatment of isthmic spondylolisthesis with lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV). A 51-year-old man underwent TLIF at L4-5 with posterior instrumentation for the treatment of grade 1 isthmic spondylolisthesis with LSTV. At 7 weeks postoperatively, imaging studies demonstrated that banana-shaped cage migrated anteriorly and anterolisthesis recurred at the index level with pseudoarthrosis. The cage was removed and exchanged by new cage through anterior approach, and screws were replaced with larger size ones and cement augmentation was added. At postoperative 2 days of revision surgery, computed tomography (CT) showed fracture on lateral pedicle and body wall of L5 vertebra. He underwent surgery again for paraspinal decompression at L4-5 and extension of instrumentation to S1 vertebra. His back and leg pains improved significantly after final revision surgery and symptom relief was maintained during follow-up period. At 6 months follow-up, CT images showed solid fusion at L4-5 level. Careful cage selection for TLIF must be done for treatment of spondylolisthesis accompanied with deformed LSTV, especially when reduction will be attempted. Banana-shaped cage should be positioned anteriorly, but anterior dislodgement of cage and reduction failure may occur in case of a highly unstable spine. Revision surgery for the treatment of an anteriorly dislodged cage may be effectively performed using an anterior approach. PMID:24175028

Oh, Hyeong Seok; Lee, Sang-Ho

2013-01-01

45

Usefulness of Contralateral Indirect Decompression through Minimally Invasive Unilateral Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion  

PubMed Central

Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose This study aims to investigate the clinical and radiological results of contralateral indirect decompression through minimally invasive unilateral transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF). Overview of Literature Several studies have proposed that blood loss and operation time could be reduced through a unilateral approach, although many surgeons have forecast that satisfactory foraminal decompression is difficult to achieve through a unilateral approach. Methods The study included 30 subjects who had undergone single-level MI-TLIF. Visual analogue scale (VAS) and Oswestry disability index (ODI) were analyzed for clinical assessment. Disc height, segmental lordosis, and lumbar lordosis angle were examined for radiological assessment. The degree of contralateral indirect decompression was evaluated through a comparative analysis, with a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed preoperatively and at one year postoperatively. Results Intraoperative blood loss volume was 308.75 mL in the unilateral approach group (UAP), and 575.00 mL in the bilateral approach group (BAP), showing a statistically significant difference. Operation time was 139.50 minutes in the UAP group, and 189.00 minutes in the BAP group, exhibiting a statistically significant difference (p<0.05). On the other hand, no significant difference was found in VAS, ODI, disc height, lordosis angles and the degree of nerve decompression in the vertebral foramen, using MRI, between the two groups (p>0.05). Conclusions Satisfactory results were acquired with MI-TLIF conducted through the unilateral approach of contralateral indirect decompression, in alignment with the bilateral approach. Therefore, contralateral indirect decompression is thought to be a useful procedure in reducing the operation time and volume of blood loss. PMID:25187862

Yoo, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jun-Yeul

2014-01-01

46

Ganglion cyst of the posterior longitudinal ligament causing lumbar radiculopathy.  

PubMed

Degenerated conditions such as herniated disc or spinal stenosis are common etiologies of lumbar radiculopathy. Less common etiologies include spinal extradural cyst such as synovial cysts and ganglion cysts. Ganglion cyst of the posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL) of the spine is a rare entity that can result in classical sciatica. Posterior longitudinal ligament cyst has no continuity with the facet joint and has no epithelial lining. Two young male patients presented with unilateral sciatica and were found to have intraspinal cystic lesions causing lumbar radiculopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated rounded, cystic lesions (i.e., hypointense on T1- but hyperintense on T2-weighted images) adjacent to minimally dehydrated, nonherniated disc spaces in both cases. These patients underwent posterior decompression and cysts were excised, and their sciatic symptoms were completely resolved. Histological examination showed typical features of ganglion cysts in these cases. PMID:20461173

Cho, Sung-Min; Rhee, Woo-Tack; Lee, Sang-Youl; Lee, Sang-Bok

2010-04-01

47

Injection of Bupivacaine into Disc Space to Detect Painful Nonunion after Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion (ALIF) Surgery in Patients with Discogenic Low Back Pain  

PubMed Central

Purpose Bupivacaine is commonly used for the treatment of back pain and the diagnosis of its origin. Nonunion is sometimes observed after spinal fusion surgery; however, whether the nonunion causes pain is controversial. In the current study, we aimed to detect painful nonunion by injecting bupivacaine into the disc space of patients with nonunion after anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) surgery for discogenic low back pain. Materials and Methods From 52 patients with low back pain, we selected 42 who showed disc degeneration at only one level (L4-L5 or L5-S1) on magnetic resonance imaging and were diagnosed by pain provocation on discography and pain relief by discoblock (the injection of bupivacaine). They underwent ALIF surgery. If the patients showed low back pain and nonunion 2 years after surgery, we injected bupivacaine into the nonunion disc space. Patients showing pain relief after injection of bupivacaine underwent additional posterior fixation using pedicle screws. These patients were followed up 2 years after the revision surgery. Results Of the 42 patient subjects, 7 showed nonunion. Four of them did not show low back pain; whereas 3 showed moderate or severe low back pain. These 3 patients showed pain reduction after injection of bupivacaine into their nonunion disc space and underwent additional posterior fixation. They showed bony union and pain relief 2 years after the revision surgery. Conclusion Injection of bupivacaine into the nonunion disc space after ALIF surgery for discogenic low back pain is useful for diagnosis of the origin of pain. PMID:24532522

Kimura, Seiji; Orita, Sumihisa; Inoue, Gen; Eguchi, Yawara; Takaso, Masashi; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Kuniyoshi, Kazuki; Aoki, Yasuchika; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Miyagi, Masayuki; Kamoda, Hiroto; Suzuki, Miyako; Sakuma, Yoshihiro; Kubota, Gou; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Toyone, Tomoaki; Nakamura, Junichi; Kishida, Shunji; Sato, Jun; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

2014-01-01

48

Posterior short segment pedicle screw fixation and TLIF for the treatment of unstable thoracolumbar/lumbar fracture  

PubMed Central

Background Currently, Posterior Short Segment Pedicle Screw Fixation is a popular procedure for treating unstable thoracolumbar/lumbar burst fracture. But progressive kyphosis and a high rate of hardware failure because of lack of the anterior column support remains a concern. The efficacy of different methods remains debatable and each technique has its advantages and disadvantages. Methods A consecutive series of 20 patients with isolated thoracolumbar/lumbar burst fractures were treated by posterior short segment pedicle screw fixation and transforaminal thoracolumbar/lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) between January 2005 and December 2007. All patients were followed up for a minimum of 2 years. Demographic data, neurologic status, anterior vertebral body heights, segmental Cobb angle and treatment-related complications were evaluated. Results The mean operative time was 167 minutes (range, 150–220). Blood loss was 450 ~ 1200 ml, an average of 820 ml. All patients recovered with solid fusion of the intervertebral bone graft, without main complications like misplacement of the pedicle screw, nerve or vessel lesion or hard ware failure. The post-operative radiographs demonstrated a good fracture reduction and it was well maintained until the bone graft fusion. Neurological recovery of one to three Frankel grade was seen in 14 patients with partial neurological deficit, three grades of improvement was seen in one patient, two grades of improvement was observed in 6 patients and one grade of improvement was found in 6 patients. All the 6 patients with no paraplegia on admission remained neurological intact, and in one patient with Frankel D on admission no improvement was observed. Conclusion Posterior short-segment pedicle fixation in conjunction with TLIF seems to be a feasible option in the management of selected thoracolumbar/lumbar burst fractures, thereby addressing all the three columns through a single approach with less trauma and good results. PMID:24517217

2014-01-01

49

Porous biodegradable lumbar interbody fusion cage design and fabrication using integrated global-local topology optimization with laser sintering.  

PubMed

Biodegradable cages have received increasing attention for their use in spinal procedures involving interbody fusion to resolve complications associated with the use of nondegradable cages, such as stress shielding and long-term foreign body reaction. However, the relatively weak initial material strength compared to permanent materials and subsequent reduction due to degradation may be problematic. To design a porous biodegradable interbody fusion cage for a preclinical large animal study that can withstand physiological loads while possessing sufficient interconnected porosity for bony bridging and fusion, we developed a multiscale topology optimization technique. Topology optimization at the macroscopic scale provides optimal structural layout that ensures mechanical strength, while optimally designed microstructures, which replace the macroscopic material layout, ensure maximum permeability. Optimally designed cages were fabricated using solid, freeform fabrication of poly(?-caprolactone) mixed with hydroxyapatite. Compression tests revealed that the yield strength of optimized fusion cages was two times that of typical human lumbar spine loads. Computational analysis further confirmed the mechanical integrity within the human lumbar spine, although the pore structure locally underwent higher stress than yield stress. This optimization technique may be utilized to balance the complex requirements of load-bearing, stress shielding, and interconnected porosity when using biodegradable materials for fusion cages. PMID:23897113

Kang, Heesuk; Hollister, Scott J; La Marca, Frank; Park, Paul; Lin, Chia-Ying

2013-10-01

50

Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion with unilateral pedicle screw fixation: comparison between primary and revision surgery.  

PubMed

Minimally invasive surgery with a transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS TLIF) is an important minimally invasive fusion technique for the lumbar spine. Lumbar spine reoperation is challenging and is thought to have greater complication risks. The purpose of this study was to compare MIS TLIF with unilateral screw fixation perioperative results between primary and revision surgeries. This was a prospective study that included 46 patients who underwent MIS TLIF with unilateral pedicle screw. The patients were divided into two groups, primary and revision MIS TLIF, to compare perioperative results and complications. The two groups were similar in age, sex, and level of operation, and were not significantly different in the length of follow-up or clinical results. Although dural tears were more common with the revision group (primary 1; revision 4), operation time, blood loss, total perioperative complication, and fusion rates were not significantly different between the two groups. Both groups showed substantial improvements in VAS and ODI scores one year after surgical treatment. Revision MIS TLIF performed by an experienced surgeon does not necessarily increase the risk of perioperative complication compared with primary surgery. MIS TLIF with unilateral pedicle screw fixation is a valuable option for revision lumbar surgery. PMID:24949483

Kang, Moo Sung; Park, Jeong Yoon; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Kuh, Sung Uk; Chin, Dong Kyu; Kim, Keun Su; Cho, Yong Eun

2014-01-01

51

Allogeneic morphogenetic protein vs. recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 in lumbar interbody fusion procedures: a radiographic and economic analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Since the introduction of rhBMP-2 (Infuse®) in 2002, surgeons have had an alternative substitute to autograft and its related donor site morbidity. Recently, the prevalence of reported adverse events and complications related to the use of rhBMP-2 has raised many ethical and legal concerns for surgeons. Additionally, the cost and decreasing reimbursement landscape of rhBMP-2 use have required identification of a viable alternative. Osteo allogeneic morphogenetic protein (OsteoAMP®) is a commercially available allograft-derived growth factor rich in osteoinductive, angiogenic, and mitogenic proteins. This study compares the radiographic fusion outcomes between rhBMP-2 and OsteoAMP allogeneic morphogenetic protein in lumbar interbody fusion spine procedures. Methods Three hundred twenty-one (321) patients from three centers underwent a transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) or lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) procedure and were assessed by an independent radiologist for fusion and radiographically evident complications. The independent radiologist was blinded to the intervention, product, and surgeon information. Two hundred and twenty-six (226) patients received OsteoAMP with autologous local bone, while ninety-five (95) patients received Infuse with autologous local bone. Patients underwent radiographs (x-ray and/or CT) at standard postoperative follow-up intervals of approximately 1, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. Fusion was defined as radiographic evidence of bridging across endplates, or bridging from endplates to interspace disc plugs. Osteobiologic surgical supply costs were also analyzed to ascertain cost differences between OsteoAMP and rhBMP-2. Results OsteoAMP produced higher rates of fusion at 6, 12, and 18 months (p???0.01). The time required for OsteoAMP to achieve fusion was approximately 40% less than rhBMP-2 with approximately 70% fewer complications. Osteobiologic supply costs were 80.5% lower for OsteoAMP patients (73.7% lower per level) than for rhBMP-2. Conclusions Results of this study indicate that OsteoAMP is a viable alternative to rhBMP-2 both clinically and economically when used in TLIF and LLIF spine procedures. PMID:24373225

2013-01-01

52

Anterior lumbar interbody surgery for spondylosis results from a classically-trained neurosurgeon.  

PubMed

Anterior lumbar surgery for degenerative disc disease (DDD) is a relatively novel technique that can prevent damage to posterior osseous, muscular and ligamentous spinal elements. This study reports the outcomes and complications in 286 patients who underwent fusion - with artificial disc implants or combined fusion and artificial disc implants - by a single-operator neurosurgeon, with up to 24 months of follow-up. The visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Short Form 36 (SF36) and prospective log of adverse events were used to assess the clinical outcome. Radiographic assessments of implant position and bony fusion were analysed. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were also recorded. Irrespective of pre-surgical symptoms (back pain alone or back and leg pain combined), workers' compensation status and type of surgical implant, clinically significant improvements in VAS, ODI and SF36 were primarily observed at 3 and/or 6 month follow-up, and improvements were maintained at 24 months after surgery. A 94% fusion rate was obtained; the overall complication was 9.8% which included 3.5% with vascular complications. The anterior lumbar approach can be used for treating DDD for both back pain and back and leg pain with low complication rates. With appropriate training, single-operator neurosurgeons can safely perform these surgeries. PMID:24786717

Chatha, Gurkirat; Foo, Stacy W L; Lind, Christopher R P; Budgeon, Charley; Bannan, Paul E

2014-09-01

53

Cortical blindness following posterior lumbar decompression and fusion.  

PubMed

Perioperative vision loss following non-ocular surgery is a well-documented phenomenon. In particular, perioperative vision loss has been frequently cited following spinal surgery. Although the rate of vision compromise in spinal surgery is relatively low, the consequences can be quite severe and devastating for the patient. We report a 60-year-old woman who initially presented with back and left leg pain as well as paraparesis. Imaging studies of the lumbar spine showed bony erosion consistent with tumor infiltration of the L3 and L4 spinal segments. Laminectomy at the L2-L4 levels for decompression of the intraspinal tumor was performed. Pathology of the resected bone was consistent with metastatic adenocarincoma. Postoperatively, the patient suffered severe anemia and bilateral infarctions of the posterior cerebral arteries and occipital lobes resulting in vision compromise. Although a definitive pathogenesis remains unknown, preoperative cardiovascular issues and intraoperative hemodynamic instabilities have typically been implicated as high risk factors. High risk factors for this novel clinical presentation of visual compromise following posterior lumbar laminectomy with decompression for an intraspinal tumor are reported. PMID:23791834

Agarwal, Nitin; Hansberry, David R; Goldstein, Ira M

2014-01-01

54

Three-dimensional load displacement properties of posterior lumbar fixation.  

PubMed

Pedicular fixation devices for the posterior treatment of segmental spinal instability are thought to offer enhanced stabilization compared with sublaminar wire systems, while avoiding the immobilization of multiple normal motion segments. We compared the performance of three dissimilar stabilization systems: the Hartshill rectangle, the Acromed/Steffee interpedicular screw and plate, and the Synthes/Dick fixateur interne. Human cadaveric lumbosacral specimens were first tested intact, then after a laminectomy and a facetectomy at the L3/L4 level, and finally after the fixation devices were sequentially attached. Constructs spanning two to four vertebral levels were compared for stabilization of the resected lumbar spine segments. When tested in compression, the Acromed/Steffee system with pedicular screws at L2-L5 allowed significantly less intersegmental distraction than the Synthes/Dick construct with screws at L2 and L5 only, and less than the intact and the destabilized uninstrumented spine. When sagittally rotated, the Acromed/Steffee construct with screws at L2-L5, or at L2 and L5, allowed significantly less distraction than the intact or destabilized segments, and the construct with screws at L2 through L5 allowed less distraction than the Synthes/Dick constructs with screws at L3/L4 or L2/L5. With the exception of the Acromed/Steffee system with screws at four levels, there were no significant differences in distraction allowed between the Synthes/Dick and Acromed/Steffee constructs, or between the multisegment and single segment constructs. There were no significant differences in stiffness across levels L3/L4 with the various implants. Results indicate that the use of posterior spine constructs significantly augment the stability of posterior segmental defects. Pedicular fixation immediately cephalad and caudad to the defect provided stable fixation in this application. PMID:1762002

Shea, M; Edwards, W T; Clothiaux, P L; Crowell, R R; Nachemson, A L; White, A A; Hayes, W C

1991-01-01

55

Rectocutaneous fistula and nonunion after TranS1 axial lumbar interbody fusion L5-S1 fixation: case report.  

PubMed

The authors report a case of rectal injury, rectocutaneous fistula, and pseudarthrosis after a TranS1 axial lumbar interbody fusion (AxiaLIF) L5-S1 fixation. The TranS1 AxiaLIF procedure is a percutaneous minimally invasive approach to transsacral fusion of the L4-S1 vertebral levels. It is gaining popularity due to the ease of access to the sacrum through the presacral space, which is relatively free from intraabdominal and neurovascular structures. This 35-year-old man had undergone the procedure for the treatment of degenerative disc disease. The patient subsequently presented with fever, syncope, and foul-smelling gas and bloody drainage from the surgical site. A CT fistulagram and flexible sigmoidoscopy showed evidence of rectocutaneous fistula, which was managed with intravenous antibiotic therapy and bowel rest with total parenteral nutrition. Subsequent studies performed 6 months postoperatively revealed evidence of pseudarthrosis. The patient's rectocutaneous fistula symptoms gradually subsided, but his preoperative back pain recurred prompting a revision of his L5-S1 spinal fusion. PMID:23790047

Siegel, Geoffrey; Patel, Nilesh; Ramakrishnan, Rakesh

2013-08-01

56

Outcome after limited posterior surgery for thoracic and lumbar spine metastases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of ‘limited posterior surgery’ for metastases in the thoracic and lumbar spine was studied prospectively in 51 patients (32 men and 19 women, mean age 64 years). The most common primary tumors were prostate, breast, and renal carcinoma, 37 patients had metastases in the thoracic spine and 14 in the lumbar spine. Indications for surgery were severe pain

B. Jónsson; L. Sjöström; C. Olerud; I. Andréasson; J. Bring; W. Rauschning

1996-01-01

57

Miniopen Oblique Lateral L5-S1 Interbody Fusion: A Report of 2 Cases  

PubMed Central

Extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) has been widely used for minimally invasive anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), but an approach to L5-S1 is difficult because of the iliac crest. In the current study, we present 2 cases using minimally invasive oblique lateral interbody fusion (OLIF) of L5-S1. The patients showed foraminal stenosis between L5 and S1 and severe low back and leg pain. The patients were placed in a lateral decubitus position and underwent OLIF surgery (using a cage and bone graft from the iliac crest) without posterior decompression. Posterior screws were used in the patients. Pain scores significantly improved after surgery. There was no spinal nerve, major vessel, peritoneal, or urinary injury. OLIF surgery was minimally invasive and produced good surgical results without complications.

Kanno, Keijiro; Orita, Sumihisa; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Eguchi, Yawara; Aoki, Yasuchika; Nakamura, Junichi; Suzuki, Miyako; Kubota, Gou; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Sato, Jun; Abe, Koki; Kanamoto, Hiroto; Toyone, Tomoaki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

2014-01-01

58

Biomechanical comparison of unilateral and bilateral pedicle screws fixation for transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion after decompressive surgery -- a finite element analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the biomechanical effectiveness of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) cages in different positioning and various posterior implants used after decompressive surgery. The use of the various implants will induce the kinematic and mechanical changes in range of motion (ROM) and stresses at the surgical and adjacent segments. Unilateral pedicle screw with or without supplementary facet screw fixation in the minimally invasive TLIF procedure has not been ascertained to provide adequate stability without the need to expose on the contralateral side. This study used finite element (FE) models to investigate biomechanical differences in ROM and stress on the neighboring structures after TLIF cages insertion in conjunction with posterior fixation. Methods A validated finite-element (FE) model of L1-S1 was established to implant three types of cages (TLIF with a single moon-shaped cage in the anterior or middle portion of vertebral bodies, and TLIF with a left diagonally placed ogival-shaped cage) from the left L4-5 level after unilateral decompressive surgery. Further, the effects of unilateral versus bilateral pedicle screw fixation (UPSF vs. BPSF) in each TLIF cage model was compared to analyze parameters, including stresses and ROM on the neighboring annulus, cage-vertebral interface and pedicle screws. Results All the TLIF cages positioned with BPSF showed similar ROM (<5%) at surgical and adjacent levels, except TLIF with an anterior cage in flexion (61% lower) and TLIF with a left diagonal cage in left lateral bending (33% lower) at surgical level. On the other hand, the TLIF cage models with left UPSF showed varying changes of ROM and annulus stress in extension, right lateral bending and right axial rotation at surgical level. In particular, the TLIF model with a diagonal cage, UPSF, and contralateral facet screw fixation stabilize segmental motion of the surgical level mostly in extension and contralaterally axial rotation. Prominent stress shielded to the contralateral annulus, cage-vertebral interface, and pedicle screw at surgical level. A supplementary facet screw fixation shared stresses around the neighboring tissues and revealed similar ROM and stress patterns to those models with BPSF. Conclusions TLIF surgery is not favored for asymmetrical positioning of a diagonal cage and UPSF used in contralateral axial rotation or lateral bending. Supplementation of a contralateral facet screw is recommended for the TLIF construct. PMID:22591664

2012-01-01

59

Hybrid computer-guided and minimally open surgery: anterior lumbar interbody fusion and translaminar screw fixation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Less invasiveness is the way forward for spinal surgery. Minimal disruption of tissue, preservation of muscle function, and restoration of normal spinal alignment are still the goals of most surgical procedures. An anterior lumbar fusion technique using a less invasive procedure with the addition of translaminar screws is described. The autograft is harvested from the vertebral body, thus avoiding the

N. Kumar; A. Wild; J. K. Webb; M. Aebi

2000-01-01

60

The use of RhBMP-2 in single-level transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion: a clinical and radiographic analysis.  

PubMed

The "off label" use of rhBMP-2 in the transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) procedure has become increasingly popular. Although several studies have demonstrated the successful use of rhBMP-2 for this indication, uncertainties remain regarding its safety and efficacy. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of the single-level TLIF procedure using rhBMP-2. Patients who underwent a single-level TLIF between January 2004 and May 2006 with rhBMP-2 were identified. A retrospective evaluation of these patients included operative report(s), pre- and postoperative medical records, and dynamic and static lumbar radiographs. Patient-reported clinical outcome measures were obtained from a telephone questionnaire and included a modification of the Odom's criteria, a patient satisfaction score, and back and leg pain numeric rating scale scores. Forty-eight patients met the study criteria and were available for follow-up (avg. radiographic and clinical follow-up of 19.4 and 27.4 months, respectively). Radiographic fusion was achieved in 95.8% of patients. Good to excellent results were achieved in 71% of patients. On most recent clinical follow-up, 83% of patients reported improvement in their symptoms and 84% reported satisfaction with their surgery. Twenty-nine patients (60.4%) reported that they still had some back pain, with an average back pain numeric rating score of 2.8. Twenty patients (41.7%) reported that they still had some leg pain, with an average leg pain numeric rating score was 2.4. Thirteen patients (27.1%) had one or more complications, including transient postoperative radiculitis (8/48), vertebral osteolysis (3/48), nonunion (2/48), and symptomatic ectopic bone formation (1/48). The use of rhBMP-2 in the TLIF procedure produces a high rate of fusion, symptomatic improvement and patient satisfaction. Although its use eliminates the risk of harvesting autograft, rhBMP-2 is associated with other complications that raise concern, including a high rate of postoperative radiculitis. PMID:19475434

Rihn, Jeffrey A; Makda, Junaid; Hong, Joseph; Patel, Ravi; Hilibrand, Alan S; Anderson, David G; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Albert, Todd J

2009-11-01

61

The use of RhBMP-2 in single-level transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion: a clinical and radiographic analysis  

PubMed Central

The “off label” use of rhBMP-2 in the transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) procedure has become increasingly popular. Although several studies have demonstrated the successful use of rhBMP-2 for this indication, uncertainties remain regarding its safety and efficacy. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of the single-level TLIF procedure using rhBMP-2. Patients who underwent a single-level TLIF between January 2004 and May 2006 with rhBMP-2 were identified. A retrospective evaluation of these patients included operative report(s), pre- and postoperative medical records, and dynamic and static lumbar radiographs. Patient-reported clinical outcome measures were obtained from a telephone questionnaire and included a modification of the Odom’s criteria, a patient satisfaction score, and back and leg pain numeric rating scale scores. Forty-eight patients met the study criteria and were available for follow-up (avg. radiographic and clinical follow-up of 19.4 and 27.4 months, respectively). Radiographic fusion was achieved in 95.8% of patients. Good to excellent results were achieved in 71% of patients. On most recent clinical follow-up, 83% of patients reported improvement in their symptoms and 84% reported satisfaction with their surgery. Twenty-nine patients (60.4%) reported that they still had some back pain, with an average back pain numeric rating score of 2.8. Twenty patients (41.7%) reported that they still had some leg pain, with an average leg pain numeric rating score was 2.4. Thirteen patients (27.1%) had one or more complications, including transient postoperative radiculitis (8/48), vertebral osteolysis (3/48), nonunion (2/48), and symptomatic ectopic bone formation (1/48). The use of rhBMP-2 in the TLIF procedure produces a high rate of fusion, symptomatic improvement and patient satisfaction. Although its use eliminates the risk of harvesting autograft, rhBMP-2 is associated with other complications that raise concern, including a high rate of postoperative radiculitis. PMID:19475434

Makda, Junaid; Hong, Joseph; Patel, Ravi; Hilibrand, Alan S.; Anderson, David G.; Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Albert, Todd J.

2009-01-01

62

Hybrid computer-guided and minimally open surgery: anterior lumbar interbody fusion and translaminar screw fixation.  

PubMed

Less invasiveness is the way forward for spinal surgery. Minimal disruption of tissue, preservation of muscle function, and restoration of normal spinal alignment are still the goals of most surgical procedures. An anterior lumbar fusion technique using a less invasive procedure with the addition of translaminar screws is described. The autograft is harvested from the vertebral body, thus avoiding the morbidity associated with an iliac crest bone graft. The operative steps for the procedure are described. PMID:10766061

Kumar, N; Wild, A; Webb, J K; Aebi, M

2000-02-01

63

Short term outcome of posterior dynamic stabilization system in degenerative lumbar diseases  

PubMed Central

Background: Decompression and fusion is considered as the ‘gold standard’ for the treatment of degenerative lumbar diseases, however, many disadvantages have been reported in several studies, recently like donor site pain, pseudoarthrosis, nonunion, screw loosening, instrumentation failure, infection, adjacent segment disease (ASDis) and degeneration. Dynamic neutralization system (Dynesys) avoids many of these disadvantages. This system is made up of pedicle screws, polyethylene terephthalate cords, and polycarbonate urethane spacers to stabilize the functional spinal unit and preserve the adjacent motion after surgeries. This was a retrospective cohort study to compare the effect of Dynesys for treating degenerative lumbar diseases with posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) based on short term followup. Materials and Methods: Seventy five consecutive patients of lumbar degenerative disease operated between October 2010 and November 2012 were studied with a minimum followup of 2 years. Patients were divided into two groups according to the different surgeries. 30 patients underwent decompression and implantation of Dynesys in two levels (n = 29) or three levels (n = 1) and 45 patients underwent PLIF in two levels (n = 39) or three levels (n = 6). Clinical and radiographic outcomes between two groups were reviewed. Results: Thirty patients (male:17, female:13) with a mean age of 55.96 ± 7.68 years were included in Dynesys group and the PLIF group included 45 patients (male:21, female:24) with a mean age of 54.69 ± 3.26 years. The average followup in Dynesys group and PLIF group was 2.22 ± 0.43 year (range 2-3.5 year) and 2.17 ± 0.76 year (range 2-3 year), respectively. Dynesys group showed a shorter operation time (141.06 ± 11.36 min vs. 176.98 ± 6.72 min, P < 0.001) and less intraoperative blood loss (386.76 ± 19.44 ml vs. 430.11 ± 24.72 ml, P < 0.001). For Dynesys group, visual analogue scale (VAS) for back and leg pain improved from 6.87 ± 0.80 to 2.92 ± 0.18 and 6.99 ± 0.81 to 3.25 ± 0.37, (both P < 0.001) and for PLIF, VAS for back and leg pain also improved significantly (6.97 ± 0.84–3.19 ± 0.19 and 7.26 ± 0.76–3.56 ± 0.38, both P < 0.001). Significant improvement was found at final followup in both groups in Oswestry disability index (ODI) score (both P < 0.001). Besides, Dynesys group showed a greater improvement in ODI and VAS back and leg pain scores compared with the PLIF group (P < 0.001, P = 0.009 and P = 0.031, respectively). For radiological, height of the operated level was found increased in both groups (both P < 0.001), but there was no difference between two groups (P = 0.93). For range of motion (ROM) of operated level, significant decrease was found in both groups (P < 0.001), but Dynesys showed a higher preservation of motion at the operative levels (P < 0.001). However, no significant difference was found in the percentage change of ROM of adjacent levels between Dynesys and PLIF (0.74 ± 8.92% vs. 0.92 ± 4.52%, P = 0.91). Some patients suffered from degeneration of adjacent intervertebral disc at final followup, but there was no significant difference in adjacent intervertebral disc degeneration between two groups (P = 0.71). Moreover, there were no differences in complications between Dynesys and PLIF (P = 0.90), although the incidence of complication in Dynesys was lower than PLIF (16.67% vs. 17.78%). Conclusion: Dynamic stabilization system treating lumbar degenerative disease showed clinical benefits with motion preservation of the operated segments, but does not have the significant advantage on motion preservation at adjacent segments, to avoid the degeneration of adjacent intervertebral disk.

Yang, Mingyuan; Li, Chao; Chen, Ziqiang; Bai, Yushu; Li, Ming

2014-01-01

64

MR Imaging of the Lumbar Spine: Relation of Posterior Soft-Tissue Edema-Like Signal and Body Weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. Our purpose was to determine the association between posterior lumbar spine subcutaneous edema, fluid collections, and body weight on lumbar spine MR imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS. MR images of the lumbar spine obtained at 1.5 T of 307 consecutive outpatients (191 female, 116 male) were reviewed on the basis of MR imag- ing signal characteristics for the presence, degree,

Hongyu Shi; Mark E. Schweitzer; John A. Carrino; Laurence Parker

65

Posterior thecal lumbar disc herniation mimicking synovial cyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a 70 year-old-patient with a rare, misleading presentation of lumbar disc prolapse, which on CT mimicked a synovial cyst. The whole nucleus pulposus had herniated, become sequestrated, and migrated behind the theca adjacent to the L4–5 facet joint. There was no continuity of the disc material with the intervertebral space. A fenestration was performed and the sequestrated disc

D. E. Sakas; M. A. Farrell; S. Young; J. Toland

1995-01-01

66

Posterior thecal lumbar disc herniation mimicking synovial cyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a 70 year-old-patient with a rare, misleading presentation of lumbar disc prolapse, which on CT mimicked a synovial cyst. The whole nucleus pulposus had herniated, become sequestrated, and migrated behind the theca adjacent to the L4-5 facet joint. There was no continuity of the disc material with the intervertebral space. A fenestration was performed and the sequestrated disc

D. E. Sakas; M. A. Farrell; S. Young; J. Toland

1995-01-01

67

Percutaneous techniques for minimally invasive posterior lumbar fusion.  

PubMed

Percutaneous pedicle screw fixation for lumbar posterolateral instrumented fusion is an attractive alternative to standard open techniques. The technical aspects of this procedure can be challenging and even frustrating when first learning the technique. However, once these techniques have been mastered, they offer a safe, less invasive, less traumatic, more aesthetic method for performing fusion. The authors have outlined a step-by-step method for performing this surgery, and include a case series that demonstrates excellent results in patients treated with this procedure. PMID:18673041

Harris, Eric B; Massey, Patrick; Lawrence, James; Rihn, Jeffrey; Vaccaro, Alex; Anderson, D Greg

2008-01-01

68

Quality-of-Life Outcomes With Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion Based on Long-Term Analysis of 304 Consecutive Patients  

PubMed Central

Study Design. This was a prospective clinical study that took place in an outpatient spine clinic. Objective. To demonstrate the short-/long-term outcomes from a large cohort of patients undergoing minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MITLIF). Summary of Background Data. Long-term prospective outcomes in patients undergoing minimally invasive spinal fusion for debilitating back pain has not been well studied. Methods. Presenting diagnosis was determined from clinical findings and radiographical (radiograph, magnetic resonance image, computed tomographic scan) evaluations preoperatively. Patients were assessed with outcome measures preoperatively, and postoperatively at 2 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months, 24 months, and annually 2 to 7 years (mean follow-up: 47 mo) final follow-up. The rate of postoperative complications and reoperations at the initial level of MITLIF and adjacent level(s) were followed. Fusion rates were assessed blinded and independently by radiograph. Results. Visual analogue scale scores decreased significantly from 7.0 preoperatively to 3.5 at mean 47-month follow-up. Oswestry Disability Index scores declined from 43.1 preoperatively to 28.2 at mean 47-month follow-up. Short-Form 36 mental component scores increased from 43.8 preoperatively to 49.7 at 47-month follow-up. Short-Form 36 physical component scores increased from 30.6 preoperatively to 39.6 at 47-month follow-up (P < 0.05). Conclusion. This prospectively collected outcomes study shows long-term statistically significant clinical outcomes improvement after MITLIF in patients with clinically symptomatic spondylolisthesis and degenerative disc disease with or without stenosis. MITLIF resulted in a high rate of spinal fusion and very low rate of interbody fusion failure and/or adjacent segment disease requiring reoperation while reducing postoperative complications. Level of Evidence: 3 PMID:24150437

Hussain, Namath S.; White, G. Zachary; Begun, Evan M.; Collins, Robert A.; Fahim, Daniel K.; Hiremath, Girish K.; Adbi, Fadumo M.; Yacob, Sammy A.

2014-01-01

69

Adjacent Lumbar Disc Herniation after Lumbar Short Spinal Fusion  

PubMed Central

A 70-year-old outpatient presented with a chief complaint of sudden left leg motor weakness and sensory disturbance. He had undergone L4/5 posterior interbody fusion with L3–5 posterior fusions for spondylolisthesis 3 years prior, and the screws were removed 1 year later. He has been followed up for 3 years, and there had been no adjacent segment problems before this presentation. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a large L2/3 disc hernia descending to the L3/4 level. Compared to the initial MRI, this hernia occurred in an “intact” disc among multilevel severely degenerated discs. Right leg paresis and bladder dysfunction appeared a few days after admission. Microscopic lumbar disc herniotomy was performed. The right leg motor weakness improved just after the operation, but the moderate left leg motor weakness and difficulty in urination persisted. PMID:25276453

Iwatsuki, Koichi; Ohnishi, Yu-ichiro; Yoshimine, Toshiki

2014-01-01

70

Continuous Femoral Versus Posterior Lumbar Plexus Nerve Blocks for Analgesia After Hip Arthroplasty: A Randomized, Controlled Study  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Hip arthroplasty frequently requires potent postoperative analgesia, often provided with an epidural or posterior lumbar plexus local anesthetic infusion. However, American Society of Regional Anesthesia guidelines now recommend against epidural and continuous posterior lumbar plexus blocks during administration of various perioperative anticoagulants often administered after hip arthroplasty. A continuous femoral nerve block is a possible analgesic alternative, but whether it provides comparable analgesia to a continuous posterior lumbar plexus block after hip arthroplasty remains unclear. We therefore tested the hypothesis that differing the catheter insertion site (femoral versus posterior lumbar plexus) after hip arthroplasty has no impact on postoperative analgesia. METHODS Preoperatively, subjects undergoing hip arthroplasty were randomly assigned to receive either a femoral or posterior lumbar plexus stimulating catheter inserted 5 to 15 cm or 0 to 1 cm past the needletip, respectively. Postoperatively, patients received perineural ropivacaine, 0.2% (basal 6 mL/hour, bolus 4 mL, 30 min lockout) for at least two days. The primary end point was the average daily pain scores as measured with a numeric rating scale (0–10) recorded in the 24-h period beginning at 07:30 the morning after surgery, excluding twice-daily physical therapy sessions. Secondary end points included pain during physical therapy, ambulatory distance, and supplemental analgesic requirements during the same 24-h period, as well as satisfaction with analgesia during hospitalization. RESULTS The mean (SD) pain scores for subjects receiving a femoral infusion (n = 25) were 3.6 (1.8) versus 3.5 (1.8) for patients receiving a posterior lumbar plexus infusion (n = 22) resulting in a group difference of 0.1 (95% confidence interval ?0.9 to 1.2; P = 0.78). Because the confidence interval was within a prespecified ?1.6 to 1.6 range, we conclude that the effect of the two analgesic techniques on postoperative pain was equivalent. Similarly, we detected no differences between the two treatments with respect to the secondary end points, with one exception: subjects with a femoral catheter ambulated a median (10th–90th percentiles) 2 (0–17) m the morning after surgery, compared with 11 (0–31) m for subjects with a posterior lumbar plexus catheter (data nonparametric; P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS After hip arthroplasty, a continuous femoral nerve block is an acceptable analgesic alternative to a continuous posterior lumbar plexus block when using a stimulating perineural catheter. However, early ambulatory ability suffers with a femoral infusion. PMID:21467563

Ilfeld, Brian M.; Mariano, Edward R.; Madison, Sarah J.; Loland, Vanessa J.; Sandhu, NavParkash S.; Suresh, Preetham J.; Bishop, Michael L.; Kim, T. Edward; Donohue, Michael C.; Kulidjian, Anna A.; Ball, Scott T.

2011-01-01

71

The presacral retroperitoneal approach for axial lumbar interbody fusion: a prospective study of clinical outcomes, complications and fusion rates at a follow-up of two years in 26 patients.  

PubMed

The presacral retroperitoneal approach for axial lumbar interbody fusion (presacral ALIF) is not widely reported, particularly with regard to the mid-term outcome. This prospective study describes the clinical outcomes, complications and rates of fusion at a follow-up of two years for 26 patients who underwent this minimally invasive technique along with further stabilisation using pedicle screws. The fusion was single-level at the L5-S1 spinal segment in 17 patients and two-level at L4-5 and L5-S1 in the other nine. The visual analogue scale for pain and Oswestry Disability Index scores were recorded pre-operatively and during the 24-month study period. The evaluation of fusion was by thin-cut CT scans at six and 12 months, and flexion-extension plain radiographs at six, 12 and 24 months. Significant reductions in pain and disability occurred as early as three weeks postoperatively and were maintained. Fusion was achieved in 22 of 24 patients (92%) at 12 months and in 23 patients (96%) at 24 months. One patient (4%) with a pseudarthrosis underwent successful revision by augmentation of the posterolateral fusion mass through a standard open midline approach. There were no severe adverse events associated with presacral ALIF, which in this series demonstrated clinical outcomes and fusion rates comparable with those of reports of other methods of interbody fusion. PMID:21705570

Tobler, W D; Ferrara, L A

2011-07-01

72

Current concepts on spinal arthrodesis in degenerative disorders of the lumbar spine  

PubMed Central

Back pain is a common chronic disorder that represents a large burden for the health care system. There is a broad spectrum of available treatment options for patients suffering from chronic lower back pain in the setting of degenerative disorders of the lumbar spine, including both conservative and operative approaches. Lumbar arthrodesis techniques can be divided into sub-categories based on the part of the vertebral column that is addressed (anterior vs posterior). Furthermore, one has to differentiate between approaches aiming at a solid fusion in contrast to motion-sparing techniques with the proposed advantage of a reduced risk of developing adjacent disc disease. However, the field of application and long-term outcomes of these novel motion-preserving surgical techniques, including facet arthroplasty, nucleus replacement, and lumbar disc arthroplasty, need to be more precisely evaluated in long-term prospective studies. Innovative surgical treatment strategies involving minimally invasive techniques, such as lateral lumbar interbody fusion or transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, as well as percutaneous implantation of transpedicular or transfacet screws, have been established with the reported advantages of reduced tissue invasiveness, decreased collateral damage, reduced blood loss, and decreased risk of infection. The aim of this study was to review well-established procedures for lumbar spinal fusion with the main focus on current concepts on spinal arthrodesis and motion-sparing techniques in degenerative disorders of the lumbar spine. PMID:24303453

Lykissas, Marios G; Aichmair, Alexander

2013-01-01

73

Change of Lumbar Motion after Multi-Level Posterior Dynamic Stabilization with Bioflex System : 1 Year Follow Up  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examined the change of range of motion (ROM) at the segments within the dynamic posterior stabilization, segments above and below the system, the clinical course and analyzed the factors influencing them. Methods This study included a consecutive 27 patients who underwent one-level to three-level dynamic stabilization with Bioflex system at our institute. All of these patients with degenerative disc disease underwent decompressive laminectomy with/without discectomy and dynamic stabilization with Bioflex system at the laminectomy level without fusion. Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores for back and leg pain, whole lumbar lordosis (from L1 to S1), ROMs from preoperative, immediate postoperative, 1.5, 3, 6, 12 months at whole lumbar (from L1 to S1), each instrumented levels, and one segment above and below this instrumentation were evaluated. Results VAS scores for leg and back pain decreased significantly throughout the whole study period. Whole lumbar lordosis remained within preoperative range, ROM of whole lumbar and instrumented levels showed a significant decrease. ROM of one level upper and lower to the instrumentation increased, but statistically invalid. There were also 5 cases of complications related with the fixation system. Conclusion Bioflex posterior dynamic stabilization system supports operation-induced unstable, destroyed segments and assists in physiological motion and stabilization at the instrumented level, decrease back and leg pain, maintain preoperative lumbar lordotic angle and reduce ROM of whole lumbar and instrumented segments. Prevention of adjacent segment degeneration and complication rates are something to be reconsidered through longer follow up period. PMID:19893714

Park, Hunho; Cho, Bo Young; Park, Jeong Yoon

2009-01-01

74

Symmetry of paraspinal muscle denervation in clinical lumbar spinal stenosis: Support for a hypothesis of posterior primary ramus stretching?  

PubMed Central

Introduction Denervation of the paraspinal muscles in spinal disorders is frequently attributed to radiculopathy. Therefore, persons with lumbar spinal stenosis causing asymmetrical symptoms should have asymmetrical paraspinal denervation. Methods 73 persons with clinical lumbar spinal stenosis, aged 55 to 85, completed a pain drawing and underwent masked electrodiagnostic testing including bilateral paraspinal mapping and testing of 6 muscles on the most symptomatic (or randomly chosen) limb. Results With the exception of 10 subjects with unilateral thigh pain (p=0.043), there was no relationship between side of pain and paraspinal mapping score for any subgroups (symmetrical pain, pain into one calf only). Among those with positive limb EMG (tested on one side), no relationship between side of pain and paraspinal EMG score was found. Discussion The evidence suggests that paraspinal denervation in spinal stenosis may not be due to radiculopathy, but rather due to stretch or damage to the posterior primary ramus. PMID:23813584

Haig, Andrew J.; London, Zachary; Sandella, Danielle E.; Yamakawa, Karen S.J.

2014-01-01

75

Lumbar Laminectomy and Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... FUSION THOMAS JEFFERSON UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA November 15, 2006 00:00:08 ANNOUNCER: During the next ... And the answer to that is in this case we will not, which is an advantage for ...

76

Time-sequential changes of differentially expressed miRNAs during the process of anterior lumbar interbody fusion using equine bone protein extract, rhBMP-2 and autograft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The precise mechanism of bone regeneration in different bone graft substitutes has been well studied in recent researches. However, miRNAs regulation of the bone formation has been always mysterious. We developed the anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) model in pigs using equine bone protein extract (BPE), recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) on an absorbable collagen sponge (ACS), and autograft as bone graft substitute, respectively. The miRNA and gene expression profiles of different bone graft materials were examined using microarray technology and data analysis, including self-organizing maps, KEGG pathway and Biological process GO analyses. We then jointly analyzed miRNA and mRNA profiles of the bone fusion tissue at different time points respectively. Results showed that miRNAs, including let-7, miR-129, miR-21, miR-133, miR-140, miR-146, miR-184, and miR-224, were involved in the regulation of the immune and inflammation response, which provided suitable inflammatory microenvironment for bone formation. At late stage, several miRNAs directly regulate SMAD4, Estrogen receptor 1 and 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 2C for bone formation. It can be concluded that miRNAs play important roles in balancing the inflammation and bone formation.

Chen, Da-Fu; Zhou, Zhi-Yu; Dai, Xue-Jun; Gao, Man-Man; Huang, Bao-Ding; Liang, Tang-Zhao; Shi, Rui; Zou, Li-Jin; Li, Hai-Sheng; Bünger, Cody; Tian, Wei; Zou, Xue-Nong

2014-03-01

77

Single-stage epidural catheter lavage with posterior spondylodesis in lumbar pyogenic spondylodiscitis with multilevel epidural abscess formation.  

PubMed

Background?Despite significant advances in the conservative management of pyogenic spondylodiscitis, consecutive instability, deformity, and/or neurologic compromise demands a prompt surgical intervention. However, in rare cases involving additional multilevel epidural abscess formation, the appropriate surgical strategy remains controversial. In this retrospective cohort analyses, we evaluated the efficacy of a single-stage posterior approach with the addition of a one-time multilevel epidural lavage via the surgically exposed interlaminar fenestration of the infected segment. Methods?From January 2009 through December 2010, 73 patients presenting pyogenic spondylodiscitis with instability of the lumbar spine were admitted. In all cases, the surgical strategy included a radical resection of the affected intervertebral disc and stabilization by intervertebral fusion using a titanium cage with autologous bone grafting in a level-dependent posterior approach with additional pedicle screw-and-rod instrumentation. In cases where multilevel abscess formation was evident, the standard surgical procedure was complemented by drainage and irrigation of the abscess from posterior by carefully advancing a soft infant feeding tube via the surgically exposed epidural space under fluoroscopic guidance. All patients received complementary oral antibiotic therapy for 12 weeks and were followed-up for a minimum of 12 months postoperatively. Results?Ten patients (three male and seven female patients; mean age: 64.9?±?10.9 years) presented with an additional lumbar epidural abscess extending beyond three levels proximal or distal to the infected disc. In all 10 patients the laboratory-chemical inflammatory parameters (leukocyte count, C-reactive protein) remained within the physiologic range after completing antibiotic therapy throughout the 1-year follow-up period. The plain radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated solid fusion and the complete remission of the initial abscess formation after 3 to 6 months with no recurrence of infection, respectively. Conclusion?The onetime epidural lavage presented in this small patient cohort proved to be an effective surgical adjunct with minimal exposure-related morbidity. We believe that the possibility of early mobilization and the patient's increased rehabilitation potential reduce the risk of nosocomial complications that often coincide with this multimorbid high-risk group of patients. PMID:24554611

Tschoeke, Sven K; Kayser, Ralph; Gulow, Jens; Hoeh, Nicolas von der; Salis-Soglio, Georg von; Heyde, Christoph

2014-11-01

78

Characteristics of Back Muscle Strength in Patients with Scheduled for Lumbar Fusion Surgery due to Symptomatic Lumbar Degenerative Diseases  

PubMed Central

Study Design Cross sectional study. Purpose To evaluate characteristics of back muscle strength in patients scheduled for lumbar fusion surgery. Overview of Literature Little is known regarding muscle strength in patients with symptomatic lumbar degenerative diseases who require fusion surgery. Methods Consecutive 354 patients scheduled for posterior lumbar interbody fusion due to symptomatic degenerative diseases were approached for participation. 316 patients were enrolled. Before surgery, muscle strength was assessed by measuring maximal isometric extension strength at seven angular positions (0°, 12°, 24°, 36°, 48°, 60°, and 72°) and mean isometric strength was calculated. The Oswestry Disability Index (0-100) and visual analogue scale (0-100) for back pain were recorded. Muscle strength was compared according to gender, age (<60, 60-70, and ?70 years) and scheduled fusion level (short, <3; long, ?3). Results Isometric strength was significantly decreased compared with previously reported results of healthy individuals, particularly at extension positions (0°-48°, p<0.05). Mean isometric strength was significantly lower in females (p<0.001) and older patients (p<0.05). Differences of isometric strength between short and long level fusion were not significantly different (p>0.05). Isometric strengths showed significant, but weak, inverse correlations with age and Oswestry Disability Index (r<0.4, p<0.05). Conclusions In patients with symptomatic lumbar degenerative diseases, back muscle strength significantly decreased, particularly at lumbar extension positions, and in females and older patients. PMID:25346820

Park, Won Hah; Lee, Chong Suh; Kang, Kyung Chung

2014-01-01

79

Posterior Transpedicular Dynamic Stabilization versus Total Disc Replacement in the Treatment of Lumbar Painful Degenerative Disc Disease: A Comparison of Clinical Results  

PubMed Central

Study Design. Prospective clinical study. Objective. This study compares the clinical results of anterior lumbar total disc replacement and posterior transpedicular dynamic stabilization in the treatment of degenerative disc disease. Summary and Background Data. Over the last two decades, both techniques have emerged as alternative treatment options to fusion surgery. Methods. This study was conducted between 2004 and 2010 with a total of 50 patients (25 in each group). The mean age of the patients in total disc prosthesis group was 37,32 years. The mean age of the patients in posterior dynamic transpedicular stabilization was 43,08. Clinical (VAS and Oswestry) and radiological evaluations (lumbar lordosis and segmental lordosis angles) of the patients were carried out prior to the operation and 3, 12, and 24 months after the operation. We compared the average duration of surgery, blood loss during the surgery and the length of hospital stay of both groups. Results. Both techniques offered significant improvements in clinical parameters. There was no significant change in radiologic evaluations after the surgery for both techniques. Conclusion. Both dynamic systems provided spine stability. However, the posterior dynamic system had a slight advantage over anterior disc prosthesis because of its convenient application and fewer possible complications. PMID:23401784

Oktenoglu, Tunc; Ozer, Ali Fahir; Sasani, Mehdi; Ataker, Yaprak; Gomleksiz, Cengiz; Celebi, Irfan

2013-01-01

80

Instrumented Minimally Invasive spinal-Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion (MIS-TLIF); Minimum 5-years Follow-up With Clinical and Radiologic Outcomes.  

PubMed

STUDY DESIGN:: A retrospective study. OBJECTIVE:: To determine the clinical and radiological outcomes of the long-term results of instrumented MIS-TLIF in unstable, single level, low-grade, isthmic spondylolisthesis (IS) or degenerative spondylosis (DS) including degenerative spondylolisthesis, foraminal stenosis with central stenosis, degenerative disc disease, and recurrent disc herniation. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:: MIS-TLIF is a common surgical procedure to treat lumbar spondylolisthesis. However, there are no studies that have documented the long-term results of MIS-TLIF. METHODS:: Forty-four patients who had undergone instrumented MIS-TLIF between July 2003 and January 2005, were retrospectively reviewed. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), patient satisfaction rate (PSR), and the patient's return-to-work status were used to assess clinical and functional outcomes. Radiological follow-up were carried out in patients to check for adjacent segmental degeneration (ASD). The plain radiographs, CT and MRI were used in all patients in last follow-up period. RESULTS:: The mean VAS scores for back and leg pain decreased from 5.8 and 7 to 3.5 and 3.7 respectively in the DS group (n=19) and from 6.8 and 6.9 to 1.8 and 2.0 respectively in the IS group (n=25) (P<0.001). The mean ODI scores improved from 61.7% to 21.5% in the DS group and from 53.9% to 16% in the IS group (P<0.001). PSR was 80% and 81% in the DS and IS groups, respectively. Evidence of fusion was observed radiologically in 24 (96%) and 19 (100%) of the patients in the IS and the DS group respectively, giving an overall fusion rate of 97.7% (43/44). The final ASD rate, observed using radiography, was 68.4% (13/19) in the DS, and 40% (10/25) in the IS group. However, 15.8% (3/19) in the DS and 4% (1/25) in the IS group had symptoms associated with ASD. CONCLUSIONS:: The long-term clinical and radiologic outcomes after instrumented MIS-TLIF in patients with unstable single-level spine are favorable. PMID:23027364

Kim, Jin-Sung; Jung, Byungjoo; Lee, Sang-Ho

2012-09-28

81

Posterior Ligamentous Complex Injuries Are Related to Fracture Severity and Neurological Damage in Patients with Acute Thoracic and Lumbar Burst Fractures  

PubMed Central

Purpose The proposed the thoracolumbar injury classification system (TLICS) for thoracolumbar injury cites the integrity of the posterior ligamentous complex (PLC). However, no report has elucidated the severity of damage in thoracic and lumbar injury with classification schemes by presence of the PLC injury. The purpose of this study was to accurately assess the severity of damage in thoracic and lumbar burst fractures with the PLC injuries. Materials and Methods One hundred consecutive patients treated surgically for thoracic and lumbar burst fractures were enrolled in this study. There were 71 men and 29 women whose mean age was 36 years. Clinical and radiologic data were investigated, and the thoracolumbar injury classification schemes were also evaluated. All patients were divided into two groups (the P group with PLC injuries and the C group without PLC injuries) for comparative examination. Results Fourth-one of 100 cases showed PLC injuries in MRI study. The load sharing classification score was significantly higher in the P group [7.8±0.2 points for the P group and 6.9±1.1 points for the C group (p<0.001)]. The TLICS (excluded PLC score) score was also significantly higher in the P group [6.2±1.1 points for the P group and 4.0±1.4 points for the C group (p<0.001)]. Conclusion The presence of PLC injury significantly influenced the severity of damage. In management of thoracic lumbar burst fractures, evaluation of PLC injury is important to accurately assess the severity of damage. PMID:23709440

Yukawa, Yasutsugu; Ito, Keigo; Kanbara, Shunsuke; Morita, Daigo; Kato, Fumihiko

2013-01-01

82

Single-level lumbar pyogenic spondylodiscitis treated with minimally invasive anterior debridement and fusion combined with posterior fixation via Wiltse approach.  

PubMed

The effect and safety of anterior debridement and fusion with a minimally invasive approach combined with posterior fixation via the Wiltse approach were assessed in the single-level lumbar pyogenic spondylodiscitis. Seventeen patients from 2007 to 2009 underwent anterior debridement and fusion with a minimally invasive approach combined with posterior fixation via the Wiltse approach. Postoperative follow-up time was 24-41 months. Data included the patients' general information, microbiology, operative time, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative complications, intervertebral fusion rate, and preoperative and final follow-up scores for American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) impairment, visual analogue scale (VAS), and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Ten patients had undergone a prior spinal invasive procedure, and 7 had hematogenous infection. The infected segments included L1-2, L2-3, L3-4, and L4-5 in 1, 2, 5, and 9 cases, respectively. Thirteen bacterial cultures were positive for Staphylococcus aureus (5 cases), Staphylococcus epidermidis (4), Streptococcus (3), and Escherichia coli (1). The operative time was 213.8±45.6 min, and the intraoperative blood loss was 180.6±88.1 mL. Postoperative complications consisted of urinary retention (2 cases), constipation (3), and deep vein thrombosis (2). On the final follow-up, VAS scores and ODIs were significantly lower than those of preoperation, while the ASIA grades improved. All the cases achieved good intervertebral bony fusion. Anterior debridement and fusion with a minimally invasive approach combined with posterior fixation via the Wiltse approach can successfully treat single-level lumbar pyogenic spondylodiscitis, with less trauma and reliable immobilization. It is a viable option for clinical application. PMID:24142724

Lin, Yang; Chen, Wen-jian; Zhu, Wen-tao; Li, Feng; Fang, Huang; Chen, An-min; Xiong, Wei

2013-10-01

83

Comparison of the effects of bilateral posterior dynamic and rigid fixation devices on the loads in the lumbar spine: a finite element analysis  

PubMed Central

A bilateral dynamic stabilization device is assumed to alter favorable the movement and load transmission of a spinal segment without the intention of fusion of that segment. Little is known about the effect of a posterior dynamic fixation device on the mechanical behavior of the lumbar spine. Muscle forces were disregarded in the few biomechanical studies published. The aim of this study was to determine how the spinal loads are affected by a bilateral posterior dynamic implant compared to a rigid fixator which does not claim to maintain mobility. A paired monosegmental posterior dynamic implant was inserted at level L3/L4 in a validated finite element model of the lumbar spine. Both a healthy and a slightly degenerated disc were assumed at implant level. Distraction of the bridged segment was also simulated. For comparison, a monosegmental rigid fixation device as well as the effect of implant stiffness on intersegmental rotation were studied. The model was loaded with the upper body weight and muscle forces to simulate the four loading cases standing, 30° flexion, 20° extension, and 10° axial rotation. Intersegmental rotations, intradiscal pressure and facet joint forces were calculated at implant level and at the adjacent level above the implant. Implant forces were also determined. Compared to an intact spine, a dynamic implant reduces intersegmental rotation at implant level, decreases intradiscal pressure in a healthy disc for extension and standing, and decreases facet joint forces at implant level. With a rigid implant, these effects are more pronounced. With a slightly degenerated disc intersegmental rotation at implant level is mildly increased for extension and axial rotation and intradiscal pressure is strongly reduced for extension. After distraction, intradiscal pressure values are markedly reduced only for the rigid implant. At the adjacent level L2/L3, a posterior implant has only a minor effect on intradiscal pressure. However, it increases facet joint forces at this level for axial rotation and extension. Posterior implants are mostly loaded in compression. Forces in the implant are generally higher in a rigid fixator than in a dynamic implant. Distraction strongly increases both axial and shear forces in the implant. A stiffness of the implant greater than 1,000 N/mm has only a minor effect on intersegmental rotation. The mechanical effects of a dynamic implant are similar to those of a rigid fixation device, except after distraction, when intradiscal pressure is considerably lower for rigid than for dynamic implants. Thus, the results of this study demonstrate that a dynamic implant does not necessarily reduce axial spinal loads compared to an un-instrumented spine. PMID:17206401

Burra, Nagananda K.; Zander, Thomas; Bergmann, Georg

2007-01-01

84

Biomechanical comparison of three stand-alone lumbar cages -- a three-dimensional finite element analysis  

PubMed Central

Background For anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), stand-alone cages can be supplemented with vertebral plate, locking screws, or threaded cylinder to avoid the use of posterior fixation. Intuitively, the plate, screw, and cylinder aim to be embedded into the vertebral bodies to effectively immobilize the cage itself. The kinematic and mechanical effects of these integrated components on the lumbar construct have not been extensively studied. A nonlinearly lumbar finite-element model was developed and validated to investigate the biomechanical differences between three stand-alone (Latero, SynFix, and Stabilis) and SynCage-Open plus transpedicular fixation. All four cages were instrumented at the L3-4 level. Methods The lumbar models were subjected to the follower load along the lumbar column and the moment at the lumbar top to produce flexion (FL), extension (EX), left/right lateral bending (LLB, RLB), and left/right axial rotation (LAR, RAR). A 10 Nm moment was applied to obtain the six physiological motions in all models. The comparison indices included disc range of motion (ROM), facet contact force, and stresses of the annulus and implants. Results At the surgical level, the SynCage-open model supplemented with transpedicular fixation decreased ROM (>76%) greatly; while the SynFix model decreased ROM 56-72%, the Latero model decreased ROM 36-91%, in all motions as compared with the INT model. However, the Stabilis model decreased ROM slightly in extension (11%), lateral bending (21%), and axial rotation (34%). At the adjacent levels, there were no obvious differences in ROM and annulus stress among all instrumented models. Conclusions ALIF instrumentation with the Latero or SynFix cage provides an acceptable stability for clinical use without the requirement of additional posterior fixation. However, the Stabilis cage is not favored in extension and lateral bending because of insufficient stabilization. PMID:24088294

2013-01-01

85

Biomechanical evaluation of posterior lumbar dynamic stabilization: an in vitro comparison between Universal Clamp and Wallis systems  

PubMed Central

Treatment of chronic low back pain due to degenerative lumbar spine conditions often involves fusion of the symptomatic level. A known risk of this procedure is accelerated adjacent level degeneration. Motion preservation devices have been designed to provide stabilization to the symptomatic motion segment while preserving some physiologic motion. The aim of this study was to compare the changes in relative range of motion caused as a result of application of two non-fusion, dynamic stabilization devices: the Universal Clamp (UC) and the Wallis device. Nine fresh, frozen human lumbar spines (L1–Sacrum) were tested in flexion–extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation with a custom spine simulator. Specimens were tested in four conditions: (1) intact, (2) the Universal Clamp implanted at L3–4 (UC), (3) the UC with a transverse rod added (UCTR), and (4) the Wallis device implanted at L3–4. Total range of motion at 7.5 N-m was determined for each device and compared to intact condition. The UC device (with or without a transverse rod) restricted motion in all planes more than the Wallis. The greatest restriction was observed in flexion. The neutral position of the L3–4 motion segment shifted toward extension with the UC and UCTR. Motion at the adjacent levels remained similar to that observed in the intact spine for all three constructs. These results suggest that the UC device may be an appropriate dynamic stabilization device for degenerative lumbar disorders. PMID:21132335

Ilharreborde, Brice; Shaw, Miranda N.; Berglund, Lawrence J.; Zhao, Kristin D.; An, Kai-Nan

2010-01-01

86

A Novel Approach to the Surgical Treatment of Lumbar Disc Herniations: Indications of Simple Discectomy and Posterior Transpedicular Dynamic Stabilization Based on Carragee Classification  

PubMed Central

Surgery of lumbar disc herniation is still a problem since Mixter and Barr. Main trouble is dissatisfaction after the operation. Today there is a debate on surgical or conservative treatment despite spending great effort to provide patients with satisfaction. The main problem is segmental instability, and the minimally invasive approach via microscope or endoscope is not necessarily appropriate solution for all cases. Microsurgery or endoscopy would be appropriate for the treatment of Carragee type I and type III herniations. On the other hand in Carragee type II and type IV herniations that are prone to develop recurrent disc herniation and segmental instability, the minimal invasive techniques might be insufficient to achieve satisfactory results. The posterior transpedicular dynamic stabilization method might be a good solution to prevent or diminish the recurrent disc herniation and development of segmental instability. In this study we present our experience in the surgical treatment of disc herniations. PMID:23653862

Ozer, A. F.; Keskin, F.; Oktenoglu, T.; Suzer, T.; Ataker, Y.; Gomleksiz, C.; Sasani, M.

2013-01-01

87

Posterior dynamic stabilization of the lumbar spine with the Accuflex rod system as a stand-alone device: experience in 20 patients with 2-year follow-up  

PubMed Central

Decompression surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis is a common procedure. After surgery, segmental instability sometimes occurs, therefore, different methods for restabilization have been developed. Dynamic stabilization systems have been designed to improve segmental stability. In this study, clinical results of patients with lumbar spinal stenosis that underwent decompression and stabilization with the Accuflex dynamic system are presented; clinical, radiographic, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings are fully described. Improvements in all clinical measurements, including visual analog scale for back and leg pain, Oswestry disability index, and SF-36 health status survey were noticed. At a 2-year follow-up, 22.22% of patients required hardware removal due to fatigue while in 83% of them no progression of disk degeneration was observed after implantation of the Accuflex system. Additionally, as demonstrated by the MRI images at follow up, three patients (16%) showed disk rehydration with one grade higher on the Pfirmann classification. Although a relatively high hardware failure was observed (22.22%), the use of the dynamic stabilization system Accuflex posterior to decompression procedures, showed clinical benefits and stopped the degenerative process in 83% the patients. PMID:20496039

Reyes-Sanchez, Alejandro; Ramirez-Mora, Isabel; Rosales-Olivarez, Luis Miguel; Alpizar-Aguirre, Armando; Sanchez-Bringas, Guadalupe

2010-01-01

88

Infection with bacteroides thetaiotaomicron during posterior decompression and dynamic stabilization of the lumbar spine: a case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Patient and surgical risk factors have often been implicated for postoperative posterior spinal wound infection. A 56-year-old male with widely disseminated multiple myeloma presented with severe back pain and lower extremity weakness as a result of fracture and collapse of the L4 vertebral body. Posterior decompression involving bilateral pedicle resection and partial L4 corpectomy was performed. Stabilization was performed by Dynesys instrumentation of L3-5, screw supplementation with polymethylmethacrylate, and posterolateral fusion was performed. Postoperatively, the patient suffered from multiple infections, including Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, which were eventually resolved with antibiotic as well as incision and debridement treatment regimens. In cases with numerous perioperative risk factors for infections, the best therapeutic approach may be a preventative one. An understanding of the relevant risk factors may enable the physician to facilitate a perioperative condition best suited for optimal treatment. A case report of infection with Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron during lumbar decompression and dynamic stabilization as well as a review of the literature regarding infection risk factors are presented. PMID:24320995

Agarwal, Nitin; Hansberry, David R; Goldstein, Ira M

2014-08-01

89

A new lumbar posterior fixation system, the memory metal spinal system: an in-vitro mechanical evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background Spinal systems that are currently available for correction of spinal deformities or degeneration such as lumbar spondylolisthesis or degenerative disc disease use components manufactured from stainless steel or titanium and typically comprise two spinal rods with associated connection devices (for example: DePuy Spines Titanium Moss Miami Spinal System). The Memory Metal Spinal System of this study consists of a single square spinal rod made of a nickel titanium alloy (Nitinol) used in conjunction with connecting transverse bridges and pedicle screws made of Ti-alloy. Nitinol is best known for its shape memory effect, but is also characterized by its higher flexibility when compared to either stainless steel or titanium. A higher fusion rate with less degeneration of adjacent segments may result because of the elastic properties of the memory metal. In addition, the use of a single, unilateral rod may be of great value for a TLIF procedure. Our objective is to evaluate the mechanical properties of the new Memory Metal Spinal System compared to the Titanium Moss Miami Spinal System. Methods An in-vitro mechanical evaluation of the lumbar Memory Metal Spinal System was conducted. The test protocol followed ASTM Standard F1717-96, “Standard Test Methods for Static and Fatigue for Spinal Implant Constructs in a Corpectomy Model.” 1. Static axial testing in a load to failure mode in compression bending, 2. Static testing in a load to failure mode in torsion, 3. Cyclical testing to estimate the maximum run out load value at 5.0 x 10^6 cycles. Results In the biomechanical testing for static axial compression bending there was no statistical difference between the 2% yield strength and the stiffness of the two types of spinal constructs. In axial compression bending fatigue testing, the Memory Metal Spinal System construct showed a 50% increase in fatigue life compared to the Titanium Moss Miami Spinal System. In static torsional testing the Memory Metal Spinal System constructs showed an average 220% increase in torsional yield strength, and an average 30% increase in torsional stiffness. Conclusions The in-vitro mechanical evaluation of the lumbar Memory Metal Spinal System showed good results when compared to a currently available spinal implant system. Throughout testing, the Memory Metal Spinal System showed no failures in static and dynamic fatigue. PMID:24047109

2013-01-01

90

An assessment of exposure indices in computed radiography for the posterior-anterior chest and the lateral lumbar spine.  

PubMed

Studies have indicated that computed radiography (CR) can increase radiation dose to the patient, leading to potential biological effects. Although manufacturers have set parameters to safeguard against overexposure, it is unclear whether these are being used by radiographers or if their recommended values are consistent with the ALARA principle. The research aims are to investigate (i) whether radiographers are producing images with exposure indices within the manufacturers recommended range (MRR); (ii) the phenomenon of exposure creep, and (iii) the relationship between exposure indices (EIs) and radiation dose. A retrospective analysis of exposure indices over an 18-month period for the posteroanterior (PA) chest and lateral (LAT) lumbar spine at two centres using Kodak 800 and 850 CR systems was conducted. A phantom study was performed to assess the relationship between EI and entrance surface dose (ESD) for fixed and varying tube potentials. Kodak recommends that images have EIs between 1700 and 1900. Thirty percent of LAT lumbar spine examinations at hospital B and 38% of PA chest examinations at hospital A were produced with EIs below 1700. In the phantom study, when using a varied tube potential (70-125 kVp) and maintaining a constant EI of 1550, ESD was reduced by 56%. All clinical and phantom images were assessed to be of a diagnostic quality. The retrospective results indicate that there is a potential to reduce the MRR and optimize patient dose. There is also evidence to suggest that EI is not a reliable indicator of patient dose. The authors recommend that staff training is essential on these newer systems. PMID:16916804

Warren-Forward, H; Arthur, L; Hobson, L; Skinner, R; Watts, A; Clapham, K; Lou, D; Cook, A

2007-01-01

91

Kinematic evaluation of the adjacent segments after lumbar instrumented surgery: a comparison between rigid fusion and dynamic non-fusion stabilization.  

PubMed

The aim of the current study was to evaluate changes in lumbar kinematics after lumbar monosegmental instrumented surgery with rigid fusion and dynamic non-fusion stabilization. A total of 77 lumbar spinal stenosis patients with L4 degenerative spondylolisthesis underwent L4-5 monosegmental posterior instrumented surgery. Of these, 36 patients were treated with rigid fusion (transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion) and 41 with dynamic stabilization [segmental spinal correction system (SSCS)]. Lumbar kinematics was evaluated with functional radiographs preoperatively and at final follow-up postoperatively. We defined the contribution of each segmental mobility to the total lumbar mobility as the percent segmental mobility [(sagittal angular motion of each segment in degrees)/(total sagittal angular motion in degrees) × 100]. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed on all patients preoperatively and at final follow-up postoperatively. The discs were classified into five grades based on the previously reported system. We defined the progress of disc degeneration as (grade at final follow-up) - (grade at preoperatively). No significant kinematical differences were shown at any of the lumbar segments preoperatively; however, significant differences were observed at the L2-3, L4-5, and L5-S1 segments postoperatively between the groups. At final follow-up, all of the lumbar segments with rigid fusion demonstrated significantly greater disc degeneration than those with dynamic stabilization. Our results suggest that the SSCS preserved 14% of the kinematical operations at the instrumented segment. The SSCS may prevent excessive effects on adjacent segmental kinematics and may prevent the incidence of adjacent segment disorder. PMID:21301893

Morishita, Yuichiro; Ohta, Hideki; Naito, Masatoshi; Matsumoto, Yoshiyuki; Huang, George; Tatsumi, Masato; Takemitsu, Yoshiharu; Kida, Hirotaka

2011-09-01

92

Biomechanical comparisons of different posterior instrumentation constructs after two-level ALIF: a finite element study.  

PubMed

Anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) with cylindrical cages and supplemental posterior fixation has been widely used for internal disc derangement. However, most researchers have focused on single-level ALIF. Therefore, the biomechanical performance of various fixation constructs after two-level ALIF is not well characterized. This research used three-dimensional finite element models (FEM) with a nonlinear contact analysis to evaluate the initial biomechanical behavior of five types of fixation devices after two-level ALIF (L3/L4, L4/L5) under six loading conditions. These fixation constructs included a three-level pedicle screw and rod, a two-level translaminar facet screw, a two-level transfacet pedicle screw, a bisegmental pedicle screw and rod, and a bisegmental pedicle screw and rod with cross-linking. The FEM's developed in this study demonstrate that, compared to the other four types of posterior fixation constructs analyzed, the three-level pedicle screw and rod provide the best biomechanical stability. Both two-level facet screw fixation constructs showed unfavorable loading in lateral bending. For the construct of the three-level pedicle screw and rod, the middle-segment pedicle screw should not be omitted even though a cross-link is used. The two-level ALIF models with cages and posterior fixation constructs that we developed can be used to evaluate the initial biomechanical performance of a wide variety of posterior fixation devices prior to surgery. PMID:20061174

Fan, Chang-Yuan; Hsu, Ching-Chi; Chao, Ching-Kong; Lin, Shang-Chih; Chao, Kuo-Hua

2010-03-01

93

Sagittal Sacropelvic Morphology and Balance in Patients with Sacroiliac Joint Pain Following Lumbar Fusion Surgery  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the sagittal sacropelvic morphology and balance of the patients with SIJ pain following lumbar fusion. Methods Among 452 patients who underwent posterior lumbar interbody fusion between June 2009 and January 2013, patients with postoperative SIJ pain, being responded to SIJ block were enrolled. For a control group, patients matched for sex, age group, the number of fused level and fusion to sacrum were randomly selected. Patients were assessed radiologic parameters including lumbar lordosis, pelvic incidence (PI), pelvic tilt (PT) and sacral slope (SS). To evaluate the sagittal sacropelvic morphology and balance, the ratio of PT/PI, SS/PI and PT/SS were analyzed. Results A total of 28 patients with SIJ pain and 56 patients without SIJ pain were assessed. Postoperatively, SIJ pain group showed significantly greater PT (p=0.02) than non-SIJ pain group. Postoperatively, PT/PI and SS/PI in SIJ pain group was significantly greater and smaller than those in non-SIJ pain group respectively (p=0.03, 0.02, respectively) except for PT/SS (p=0.05). SIJ pain group did not show significant postoperative changes of PT/PI and SS/PI (p=0.09 and 0.08, respectively) while non-SIJ pain group showed significantly decrease of PT/PI (p=0.00) and increase of SS/PI (p=0.00). Conclusion This study presents different sagittal sacropelvic morphology and balance between the patients with/without SIJ pain following lumbar fusion surgery. The patients with SIJ pain showed retroversed pelvis and vertical sacrum while the patients without SIJ pain have similar morphologic features with asymptomatic populations in the literature. PMID:24278648

Cho, Dong-Young; Hur, Jung-Woo; Ryu, Kyeong-Sik; Park, Chun-Kun

2013-01-01

94

Reconstruction of the lumbar spine using AO DCP plate internal fixation.  

PubMed

Augmentation of lumbar spine fusion with internal fixation using pedicle screw systems has gained wide currency because it offers rigid stabilization to foster fusion healing. The AO DCP plate has been employed in Europe as a spinal implant with pedicle fixation using 6.5 mm, full-threaded cancellous bone screws with success. This report details the experience of using this device for lumbar spine fusion in a series of 46 North American patients with a mean follow-up of 1.25 years (range 1-2.5 years). Thirty-one patients had had prior lumbar spine surgery with poor outcomes, and 15 had had no prior surgery. All were treated surgically for lumbar degenerative disease with canal decompression, internal fixation with AO plates, and fusion with autologous bone grafting posterolaterally. Complications included two early and one delayed wound infection; five cases of screw loosening; three cases of screw breakage; and three cases of screw impingement upon a nerve. Results of surgery in 17 patients with failed interbody fusion included good to excellent pain relief in 59%, and solid fusion in 76%. In 14 patients with failed posterior surgery the good to excellent pain relief rate was 79%, and the fusion rate was 86%. In 15 patients undergoing primary surgery there was 89% good to excellent pain relief and a solid fusion rate of 87%. The benefits accruing from augmentation of the fusion with internal fixation using AO DCP plates are positive and justify its continued use. Complications encountered in the early experience have been significantly reduced in subsequent series, indicating the existence of a "learning curve" effect which would mandate specific training of spinal surgeons in the technique. PMID:2913675

Thalgott, J S; LaRocca, H; Aebi, M; Dwyer, A P; Razza, B E

1989-01-01

95

Extreme Lateral Interbody Fusion Procedure  

MedlinePLUS

... there, we just get access to the disk space and perform the fusion. And that's all done ... are placed to allow exposure to the disc space. This patient is suffering from severe lumbar spondylosis. ...

96

Fracture of the L-4 vertebral body after use of a stand-alone interbody fusion device in degenerative spondylolisthesis for anterior L3-4 fixation.  

PubMed

Many studies attest to the excellent results achieved using anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) for degenerative spondylolisthesis. The purpose of this report is to document a rare instance of L-4 vertebral body fracture following use of a stand-alone interbody fusion device for L3-4 ALIF. The patient, a 55-year-old man, had suffered intractable pain of the back, right buttock, and left leg for several weeks. Initial radiographs showed Grade I degenerative spondylolisthesis, with instability in the sagittal plane (upon 15° rotation) and stenosis of central and both lateral recesses at the L3-4 level. Anterior lumbar interbody fusion of the affected vertebrae was subsequently conducted using a stand-alone cage/plate system. Postoperatively, the severity of spondylolisthesis diminished, with resolution of symptoms. However, the patient returned 2 months later with both leg weakness and back pain. Plain radiographs and CT indicated device failure due to anterior fracture of the L-4 vertebral body, and the spondylolisthesis had recurred. At this point, bilateral facetectomies were performed, with reduction/fixation of L3-4 by pedicle screws. Again, degenerative spondylolisthesis improved postsurgically and symptoms eased, with eventual healing of the vertebral body fracture. This report documents a rare instance of L-4 vertebral body fracture following use of a stand-alone device for ALIF at L3-4, likely as a consequence of angular instability in degenerative spondylolisthesis. Under such conditions, additional pedicle screw fixation is advised. PMID:24725181

Kwon, Yoon-Kwang; Jang, Ju-Hee; Lee, Choon-Dae; Lee, Sang-Ho

2014-06-01

97

Laparoscopic total extraperitoneal repair of lumbar hernia  

PubMed Central

Lumbar hernia is a rare surgical entity without a standard method of repair. With advancements in laparoscopic techniques, successful lumbar herniorrhaphy can be achieved by the creation of a completely extraperitoneal working space and secure fixation of a wide posterior mesh. We present a total extraperitoneal laparoendoscopic repair of lumbar hernia, which allowed for minimal invasiveness while providing excellent anatomical identification, easy mobilization of contents and wide secure mesh fixation. A total extraperitoneal method of lumbar hernia repair by laparoscopic approach is feasible and may be an ideal option. PMID:22111086

Lim, Man Sup; Lee, Hae Wan; Yu, Chang Hee

2011-01-01

98

Lumbar spine curvature during office chair sitting.  

PubMed

Prolonged sitting is generally accepted as a high risk factor in low back pain and it is frequently suggested that a lordotic posture of the lumbar spine should be maintained during sitting. We asked whether the sagittal curvature of the lumbar spine during sitting is affected by the seat tilt, backrest and the direction of the synchronised mechanism of the back and seat tilt (synchro tilt). Two office chairs were tested by multibody analysis interfacing a human model with a chair model. Results indicate that a synchronised mechanism of an office chair representing a posterior tilt of the seat while the backrest is reclined maintains an evenly distributed lumbar lordosis. The segmental angles are between 3.1 and 3.6 degrees at the lumbar vertebrae 1/2-4/5 (L1/2-L4/5). These lumbar spine segmental angles are not sensitive to the backrest height. In contrast, a synchro tilt concept with a reduction of the seat's posterior tilt while the backrest is reclined causes a strong reduction of the lumbar lordosis in backrest recline with a maximum reduction from 11.7 to 2.8 degrees in L4/5. As a consequence of these results, a synchro tilt concept with a posterior tilt of the seat while the backrest is reclined is preferable from the lumbar spine kinematics point of view. PMID:11259935

Lengsfeld, M; Frank, A; van Deursen, D L; Griss, P

2000-11-01

99

Synovial cysts of the lumbar spine: CT and MRI correlations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intraspinal synovial cysts were diagnosed in six patients during a 5-year period and retrospectively studied. Plain films of the lumbar spine showed degenerative changes in all patients. Lumbar myelography showed a posterior and lateral defect caused by extradural compression. Using CT without constrast enhancement established the diagnosis in five of the six-patients. in four cases MRI was performed, three before

P. Reginster; J. Collignon; R. F. Dondelinger

1994-01-01

100

Lumbar spine CT scan  

MedlinePLUS

... lumbar spine; Computed axial tomography scan - lumbar spine; Computed tomography scan - lumbar spine; CT - lower back ... 2008:chap 2. Shaw AS, Dixon AK. Multidetector computed tomography. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, eds. Grainger & Allison's ...

101

Cervical disc prosthesis replacement and interbody fusion: a comparative study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to compare the new functional intervertebral cervical disc prosthesis replacement and the classical interbody fusion operation, including the clinical effect and maintenance of the stability and segmental motion of cervical vertebrae. Twenty-four patients with single C5-6 intervertebral disk hernias were specifically selected and divided randomly into two groups: One group underwent artificial cervical disc replacement and the other group received interbody fusion. All patients were followed up and evaluated. The operation time for the single disc replacement was (130 +/- 50) minutes and interbody fusion was (105 +/- 53) minutes. Neurological or vascular complications were not observed during or after operation. There was no prosthesis subsidence or extrusion. The JOA score of the group with prosthesis replacement increased from an average of 8.6 to 15.8. The JOA score of the group with interbody fusion increased from an average of 9 to 16.2. The clinical effect and the ROM of the adjacent space of the two groups showed no statistical difference. The short follow-up time does not support the advantage of the cervical disc prosthesis. The clinical effect and the maintenance of the function of the motion of the intervertebral space are no better than the interbody fusion. At least 5 years of follow-up is needed to assess the long-term functionality of the prosthesis and the influence on adjacent levels. PMID:17180356

Peng-Fei, Sun; Yu-Hua, Jia

2008-02-01

102

Clinical Outcome and Fusion Rates after the First 30 Extreme Lateral Interbody Fusions  

PubMed Central

Introduction. The lateral transpsoas approach for lumbar interbody fusion (XLIF) is gaining popularity. Studies examining a surgeon's early experience are rare. We aim to report treatment, complication, clinical, and radiographic outcomes in an early series of patients. Methods. Prospective data from the first thirty patients treated with XLIF by a single surgeon was reviewed. Outcome measures included pain, disability, and quality of life assessment. Radiographic assessment of fusion was performed by computed tomography. Results. Average follow-up was 11.5 months, operative time was 60 minutes per level and blood loss was 50?mL. Complications were observed: clinical subsidence, cage breakage upon insertion, new postoperative motor deficit and bowel injury. Approach side-effects were radiographic subsidence and anterior thigh sensory changes. Two patients required reoperation; microforaminotomy and pedicle screw fixation respectively. VAS back and leg pain decreased 63% and 56%, respectively. ODI improved 41.2% with 51.3% and 8.1% improvements in PCS and MCS. Complete fusion (last follow-up) was observed in 85%. Conclusion. The XLIF approach provides superior treatment, clinical outcomes and fusion rates compared to conventional surgical approaches with lowered complication rates. Mentor supervision for early cases and strict adherence to the surgical technique including neuromonitoring is essential. PMID:23213282

Malham, Gregory M.; Ellis, Ngaire J.; Parker, Rhiannon M.; Seex, Kevin A.

2012-01-01

103

Disc herniation in the thoracolumbar junction treated by minimally invasive transforaminal interbody fusion surgery.  

PubMed

Minimally invasive surgery-transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of lumbar degenerative diseases. Use of this procedure for thoracolumbar junction disc herniation remains challenging. Reports concerning MIS-TLIF at the thoracolumbar junction are rare. Thus, we performed a retrospective analysis of the clinical outcomes of 10 patients with thoracolumbar junction disc herniation treated by MIS-TLIF between December 2007 and October 2010. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of MIS-TLIF for disc herniation in the thoracolumbar junction. Clinical and radiological data were collected and analyzed. Fusion levels included T12-L1 (two patients), L1-L2 (four patients) and L2-L3 (four patients). Clinical outcome was assessed using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). The average follow-up period was 39.2 months, with a minimum of 24 months. The mean ± standard error of the mean of the operative time, intraoperative blood loss, and x-ray exposure were 128 ± 36 minutes, 204 ± 35 mL, and 43 ± 12 seconds, respectively. The VAS for back and leg pain decreased significantly postoperatively from 6.4 ± 2.7 to 1.5 ± 0.6 (p<0.01), and from 7.1 ± 2.4 to 1.3 ± 0.4 (p<0.01) respectively, as did the ODI from 39.3 ± 11.2 to 16.5 ± 4.7 (p<0.01). Bone fusion was observed in eight patients. There were no other major complications at last follow-up. MIS-TIF is a safe and effective procedure for disc herniation in the thoracolumbar junction. Occurrence of non-union is relatively high compared to previous findings. PMID:24225365

Wang, Jian; Zhou, Yue; Zhang, Zheng Feng; Li, Chang Qing; Zheng, Wen Jie; Huang, Bo

2014-03-01

104

Reconstruction of Posterior Trunk Defects  

PubMed Central

The posterior trunk roughly encompasses the upper back from the shoulders to the lumbar area above the iliac crests. Long-term outcomes in the treatment of defects of the spine and bony thorax have been proved superior if flaps were used. Many local muscle and fasciocutaneous flaps are available alternatives. A guideline, patterned according to arbitrary anatomic territories of the back, is suggested as a starting point for the selection of appropriate primary and secondary flap options. Depending on flap availability, the latissimus dorsi and trapezius muscles are the workhorse flaps for the upper back, whereas perforator flaps have become a useful alternative for the lumbar region in lieu of free flaps. PMID:22294946

Hallock, Geoffrey G.

2011-01-01

105

Segmental pedicle screw instrumentation in idiopathic thoracolumbar and lumbar scoliosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of posterior correction and fusion in thoracolumbar and lumbar scoliosis as well as pedicle screw instrumentation\\u000a in scoliosis surgery are matters of debate. Our hypothesis was that in lumbar and thoracolumbar scoliosis, segmental pedicle\\u000a screw instrumentation is safe and enables a good frontal and sagittal plane correction with a fusion length comparable to\\u000a anterior instrumentation. In a prospective

H. Halm; T. Niemeyer; T. Link; U. Liljenqvist

2000-01-01

106

Comparison of posterior dynamic and posterior rigid transpedicular stabilization with fusion to treat degenerative spondylolisthesis.  

PubMed

This article describes the clinical and radiological outcomes of a comparison of posterior dynamic transpedicular stabilization and posterior rigid transpedicular stabilization with fusion after decompression in the treatment of degenerative spondylolisthesis. This prospective clinical and radiologic study was conducted between 2004 and 2007 and included 46 patients, of whom 33 were women (71.7%) and 13 were men (28.3%). Mean patient age was 61.67+/-10.80 years (range, 45-89 years). Twenty-six patients who underwent lumbar decompression and posterior dynamic transpedicular stabilization were followed for a mean of 38 months (range, 24-55 months). In the fusion group, 20 patients who underwent lumbar decompression and rigid stabilization with fusion were followed for a mean of 44 months (range, 26-64 months). The intervertebral space measurements of the dynamic group at the preoperative examination and at 12 and 24 months postoperatively were statistically significantly higher than the intervertebral space measurements of the fusion group (P<.05). In the dynamic group, complications occurred in 2 patients; the first was a screw malposition, which was improved with revision surgery within 1 month of the initial surgery, and the second was a fusion performed in the second year in 1 patient because the patient reported continued pain. In the fusion group, adjacent segment disease was observed in 1 patient, with subsequent reoperation. Lumbar decompression and posterior dynamic transpedicular stabilization yield satisfactory results in the treatment of degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis and can be considered a valid alternative to fusion. PMID:20506953

Kaner, Tuncay; Dalbayrak, Sedat; Oktenoglu, Tunc; Sasani, Mehdi; Aydin, Ahmet Levent; Ozer, Ali Fahir

2010-05-01

107

The Microendoscopic Decompression of Lumbar Stenosis: A Review of the Current Literature and Clinical Results  

PubMed Central

Lumbar stenosis is a well-defined pathologic condition with excellent surgical outcomes. Empiric evidence as well as randomized, prospective trials has demonstrated the superior efficacy of surgery compared to medical management for lumbar stenosis. Traditionally, lumbar stenosis is decompressed with open laminectomies. This involves removal of the spinous process, lamina, and the posterior musculoligamentous complex (posterior tension band). This approach provides excellent improvement in symptoms, but is also associated with potential postoperative spinal instability. This may result in subsequent need for spinal fusion. Advances in technology have enabled the application of minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS) as an acceptable alternative to open lumbar decompression. Recent studies have shown similar to improved perioperative outcomes when comparing MISS to open decompression for lumbar stenosis. A literature review of MISS for decompression of lumbar stenosis with tubular retractors was performed to evaluate the outcomes of this modern surgical technique. In addition, a discussion of the advantages and limitations of this technique is provided. PMID:22900163

Wong, Albert P.; Smith, Zachary A.; Lall, Rohan R.; Bresnahan, Lacey E.; Fessler, Richard G.

2012-01-01

108

Intradural invasion of lumbar synovial cyst. Case report.  

PubMed

A 63-year-old female presented with a rare case of synovial cyst invading the dura mater and mimicking an intradural extramedullary tumor in the lumbar spine. She underwent posterior lumbar fusion with laminar wire fixation from L3 to S1 levels. She complained of severe pain along the anterolateral thigh in both legs for 1 year. Radiological examinations, including magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography revealed an intradural extramedullary lesion at the L2-3 level that was compressing the thecal sac. Histological examination confirmed a synovial cyst. Synovial cyst should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an intradural extramedullary mass causing lumbar radiculopathy. PMID:22522339

Bae, Jun Seok; Lee, Sang-Ho; Kim, Jin-Sung; Myung, Sung Hui; Paeng, Sung Suk

2012-01-01

109

Lumbar facet stress fracture in a ballet dancer.  

PubMed

A frequent cause of back pain in athletes and dancers is stress injury to the posterior vertebral elements. Stress fractures affect the pars interarticularis and, rarely, other vertebral regions. The authors present their experience with the diagnosis and treatment of a fourth lumbar inferior articular facet stress fracture in a ballerina in this brief report and discuss the literature concerning posterior element stress fractures. PMID:8303462

Fehlandt, A F; Micheli, L J

1993-12-01

110

Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion Using a Modified Distractor Handle: A Midterm Clinicoradiological Follow-Up Study  

PubMed Central

In current TLIF practice, the choice of the cage size is empirical and primarily depends on the case volume and experience of the surgeon. We used a self-made modified distractor handle in TLIF procedure with the goal of standardizing the intervertebral space tension and determining the proper cage size. PMID:24089692

Rewuti, Abuduaini; Chen, Zixian; Feng, Zhenzhou; Cao, Yuanwu; Jiang, Xiaoxing; Jiang, Chun

2013-01-01

111

Structural and mechanical evaluations of a topology optimized titanium interbody fusion cage fabricated by selective laser melting process.  

PubMed

A topology optimized lumbar interbody fusion cage was made of Ti-Al6-V4 alloy by the rapid prototyping process of selective laser melting (SLM) to reproduce designed microstructure features. Radiographic characterizations and the mechanical properties were investigated to determine how the structural characteristics of the fabricated cage were reproduced from design characteristics using micro-computed tomography scanning. The mechanical modulus of the designed cage was also measured to compare with tantalum, a widely used porous metal. The designed microstructures can be clearly seen in the micrographs of the micro-CT and scanning electron microscopy examinations, showing the SLM process can reproduce intricate microscopic features from the original designs. No imaging artifacts from micro-CT were found. The average compressive modulus of the tested caged was 2.97+/-0.90 GPa, which is comparable with the reported porous tantalum modulus of 3 GPa and falls between that of cortical bone (15 GPa) and trabecular bone (0.1-0.5 GPa). The new porous Ti-6Al-4V optimal-structure cage fabricated by SLM process gave consistent mechanical properties without artifactual distortion in the imaging modalities and thus it can be a promising alternative as a porous implant for spine fusion. PMID:17415762

Lin, Chia-Ying; Wirtz, Tobias; LaMarca, Frank; Hollister, Scott J

2007-11-01

112

The first lumbar puncture.  

PubMed

In this article it is argued that Heinrich Irenäus Quincke who should be credited with the discovery of lumbar puncture. Although some authors mention the names of James Leonard Corning and Walter Essex Wynter as well, it is demonstrated, by comparing the relevant publications, that the discovery, the application for diagnostic purposes and the introduction in clinical practice of the lumbar puncture were done by Quincke. At first, the purposes for performing a lumbar puncture were purely therapeutic, for instance CSF-drainage in hydrocephalus and meningitis. But, soon after, it was applied for diagnostic aims as well. PMID:11619518

Frederiks, J A; Koehler, P J

1997-08-01

113

[Interbody spacers in the treatment of cervical spine disorders].  

PubMed

Degenerative conditions of the spine represent a group of most common lifestyle associated diseases with significant medical and important social impact. Clinical symptoms and syndromes of surgically considerable degenerative diseases of the spine mostly result from nerve root or spinal cord compression caused by a herniated intervertebral disc or a dorsal osteophyte. Therefore, the main goal of the surgical treatment is decompression of the neural structures by complete removal of the intervertebral disc and the osteophytes followed by insertion of an artificial disc spacer into the remaining space. The most frequently used procedure for treating such findings is called anterior cervical discectomy. Since its first introduction in 1950, several modifications of the original technique have been introduced. Their common feature is that removal of the degenerated intervertebral disc or the osteophytes requires stabilization of the adjacent segments by fusion. Thus, implantation of an interbody spacer results not only in intervertebral space reconstruction, but by immobilizing the adjacent vertebral bodies also in forming a firm bony bridging between them--and ultimately a solid bony block. Our paper provides a review of cervical interbody spacers in the order of their evolution from auto- and allografts, through compact materials, cages and dynamic artificial disks. Furthermore, different types of cage filling materials used for fusion augmentation are also discussed. PMID:20731309

Pataky, F; Gajdos, M; Kat'uch, V

2010-07-01

114

Lumbar fractures involving five vertebrae: a case report.  

PubMed

We report a 20-year-old man who sustained lumbar fractures involving 5 vertebrae following a road traffic accident. He was initially treated non-operatively to allow multiple pedicles to heal. He developed post-traumatic kyphosis for which corrective osteotomy and posterior spinal instrumented fusion was performed. He achieved a good functional outcome. We emphasise the need for careful radiological evaluation in patients with high-energy trauma, and the option of treating such complex injuries by non-operative means. If post-traumatic kyphosis develops, it can be dealt with later and the most mobile segments of the lumbar spine can be preserved. PMID:22184180

Jettoo, Prithee; Sharma, Himanshu; Andrews, John R; Sanderson, Paul L

2011-12-01

115

Experience with transforaminal interbody fusion in corrective surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.  

PubMed

One of the surgical goals during the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is to preserve segments and thus mobility while achieving a well-balanced spine on all planes. The transforaminal interbody fusion (TLIF) technique allows for a significant degree of rotational correction and thus may allow for preservation of more mobile segments. This retrospective study analyzed the use of TLIF in AIS patients who underwent surgery between 2006 and 2009 at a single center, and discusses the degree of curve correction, complications and outcomes. All curves were classified using the Lenke classification system. Standing posterior-anterior Cobb angle, sagittal and coronal balance, percent correction, and end/stable/neutral/apical vertebra were determined on preoperative, postoperative and follow-up radiographs. Nine patients were identified (eight women and one man) ranging in age from 11.6-18 years. All TLIF procedures were performed at the L2/3 level. Lenke curves included 5CN (n=5), 5BN (n=2), and 6CN (n=2). Average follow-up was 27.4 months (range, 12-57 months). Average postoperative curve correction was 79%. One patient underwent revision surgery. All patients remained stable from a clinical and radiographic standpoint on their last follow-up visit. TLIF is an important adjunct in the surgical management of select AIS patients. By allowing for greater rotational correction, it may be possible to preserve one more mobile segment without decompensation or overcorrection. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the role of TLIF in AIS. Future studies are warranted in determining those who will maximally benefit from this technique. PMID:23702374

Barami, Kaveh; Lincoln, Todd; Bains, Ravinder

2013-09-01

116

Acute cauda equina syndrome secondary to a lumbar synovial cyst.  

PubMed

Cauda equina syndrome is a well described state of neurologic compromise due to lumbosacral root compression. In most cases, it is due to a herniated disc, tumor, infection, or hematoma. We report a case of rapid lumbar synovial cyst expansion leading to acute cauda equina syndrome and compare it to similar cases in the literature. The patient is a 49-year-old woman with a history of chronic low back pain who developed cauda equina syndrome. Serial lumbar magnetic resonance imaging studies demonstrated a significant increase in the size of a lumbar synovial cyst over a 2 week interval. After an unsuccessful attempt to relieve her acute symptoms with computed tomography-guided cyst aspiration, an L4-5 posterior spinal decompression with excision of the synovial cyst was performed. Postoperatively the patient's perineal numbness, bladder incontinence, and associated pain complaints resolved. The only residual symptom at one month follow-up was continued numbness in the right lower limb in an L5 distribution. This report adds to 6 other well described similar cases found in the literature by illustrating several important points. First, a lumbar synovial cyst is a rare but possible cause of acute cauda equina syndrome. Second, magnetic resonance imaging is the test of choice to diagnose and characterize lumbar synovial cysts; serial imaging can detect fluctuations in cyst size. Third, percutaneous treatment of lumbar synovial cysts is variable in efficacy and proved to be unsuccessful in our patient. Finally, surgical management has shown high success rates for symptomatic cysts. Specifically, in the setting of acute cauda equina syndrome secondary to a lumbar synovial cyst, urgent surgical decompression has led to resolution of neurologic symptoms in most reported cases. A lumbar synovial cyst is an uncommon cause of acute cauda equina syndrome. Prompt diagnosis and treatment may lead to reduced morbidity associated with this condition. PMID:22996855

Muir, Jeffery J; Pingree, Matthew J; Moeschler, Susan M

2012-01-01

117

Lumbar Disc Herniation in Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lumbar disc herniation very rarely occurs in adolescence. The aim of this study was to assess the radiological, clinical and surgical features and case outcomes for adolescents with lumbar disc herniation, and to compare with adult cases. The cases of 17 adolescents (7 girls and 10 boys, age range 13–17 years) who were surgically treated for lumbar disc herniation in

Serdar Ozgen; Deniz Konya; O. Zafer Toktas; Adnan Dagcinar; M. Memet Ozek

2007-01-01

118

A Short History of Posterior Dynamic Stabilization  

PubMed Central

Interspinous spacers were developed to treat local deformities such as degenerative spondylolisthesis. To treat patients with chronic instability, posterior pedicle fixation and rod-based dynamic stabilization systems were developed as alternatives to fusion surgeries. Dynamic stabilization is the future of spinal surgery, and in the near future, we will be able to see the development of new devices and surgical techniques to stabilize the spine. It is important to follow the development of these technologies and to gain experience using them. In this paper, we review the literature and discuss the dynamic systems, both past and present, used in the market to treat lumbar degeneration. PMID:23326674

Gomleksiz, Cengiz; Sasani, Mehdi; Oktenoglu, Tunc; Ozer, Ali Fahir

2012-01-01

119

Lumbar intraspinal synovial cyst containing gas as a cause for low-back pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To discuss intraspinal synovial cysts caused by degenerative changes involving the posterior articular facets in the lumbar spine and to provide differential considerations for patients with low-back pain.Clinical Features: A 70-year-old man with low-back and gluteal pain demonstrating eventual progression of radiating pain into the left thigh, calf, ankle, and foot over a 5-month period. Radiographs of the lumbar

Ronnie L. Firth

2000-01-01

120

Traumatic lumbar hernia: can't afford to miss.  

PubMed

We describe the radiological and surgical correlation of an uncommon case of a traumatic lumbar hernia in a 22-year-old man presenting to the emergency department following a motor vehicle accident. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen revealed a right-sided traumatic inferior lumbar hernia containing a small amount of fat through the posterior lateral internal oblique muscle with hematoma in the subcutaneous fat and adjacent abdominal wall musculature, which was repaired surgically via primary closure on emergent basis. The purpose of this article is to emphasize the importance of diagnosing traumatic lumbar hernia on CT and need for urgent repair to avoid potential complications of bowel incarceration and strangulation. PMID:24424984

Saboo, Sachin S; Khurana, Bharti; Desai, Naman; Juan, Yu-Hsiang; Landman, Wendy; Sodickson, Aaron; Gates, Jonathan

2014-06-01

121

Posterior fossa malformations.  

PubMed

Understanding embryologic development of the cerebellum and the 4th ventricle is essential for understanding posterior fossa malformations. Posterior fossa malformations can be conveniently classified into those that have a large posterior fossa and those with normal or small posterior fossa. Disorders associated with a large posterior fossa include classic Dandy-Walker malformation, Blake's pouch cyst, mega cisterna magna, and posterior fossa arachnoid cyst. Disorders associated with normal or small posterior fossa include Dandy-Walker variant, Joubert syndrome, tecto-cerebellar dysraphia, rhombencephalosynapsis, the neocerebellar hypoplasias, and cerebellar atrophy. Neuro-imaging features should enable the imager to provide the referring physician a logical approach to these complex posterior fossa malformations. PMID:21596278

Shekdar, Karuna

2011-06-01

122

Comparison of three types of lumbar osteotomy for ankylosing spondylitis: a case series and evolution of a safe technique for instrumented reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  The principles of correction of thoraco-lumbar kyphotic deformity (TKLD) in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are essentially centred\\u000a on lordosing osteotomies such as pedicle subtraction closing wedge osteotomy (CWO), polysegmental posterior lumbar wedge osteotomies\\u000a (PWO) and Smith Peterson’s open wedge osteotomy (OWO) of the lumbar spine. There have been no studies that compared the results\\u000a of the three osteotomies performed by a

Ranganathan ArunH; H. V. Dabke; H. Mehdian

123

Effects of interspinous spacers on lumbar degenerative disease  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed to evaluate the early effects of interspinous spacers on lumbar degenerative disease. The clinical outcomes of 23 patients with lumbar degenerative disease, treated using interspinous spacer implantation alone or combined with posterior lumbar fusion, were retrospectively studied and assessed with a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Pre-operative and post-operative interspinous distance, disc space height, foraminal width and height and segmental lordosis were determined. The early effects and complications associated with the interspinous spacers were recorded. The surgical procedures performed with the in-space treatment were easy and minimally invasive. The VAS scores and ODI were improved post-operatively compared with pre-operatively. Significant changes in the interspinous distance, disc space height, foraminal width and height and segmental lordosis were noted. In-space treatment for degenerative lumbar disease is easy and safe, with good early effects. The in-space system provides an alternative treatment for lumbar degenerative disease. PMID:23407682

ZHOU, DONG; NONG, LU-MING; DU, RUI; GAO, GONG-MING; JIANG, YU-QING; XU, NAN-WEI

2013-01-01

124

Arthrodesis to L5 versus S1 in long instrumentation and fusion for degenerative lumbar scoliosis.  

PubMed

There is a debate regarding the distal fusion level for degenerative lumbar scoliosis. Whether a healthy L5-S1 motion segment should be included or not in the fusion remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal indication for the fusion to the sacrum, and to compare the results of distal fusion to L5 versus the sacrum in the long instrumented fusion for degenerative lumbar scoliosis. A total of 45 patients who had undergone long instrumentation and fusion for degenerative lumbar scoliosis were evaluated with a minimum 2 year follow-up. Twenty-four patients (mean age 63.6) underwent fusion to L5 and 21 patients (mean age 65.6) underwent fusion to the sacrum. Supplemental interbody fusion was performed in 12 patients in the L5 group and eleven patients in the sacrum group. The number of levels fused was 6.08 segments (range 4-8) in the L5 group and 6.09 (range 4-9) in the sacrum group. Intraoperative blood loss (2,754 ml versus 2,938 ml) and operative time (220 min versus 229 min) were similar in both groups. The Cobb angle changed from 24.7 degrees before surgery to 6.8 degrees after surgery in the L5 group, and from 22.8 degrees to 7.7 degrees in the sacrum group without statistical difference. Correction of lumbar lordosis was statistically better in the sacrum group (P = 0.03). Less correction of lumbar lordosis in the L5 group seemed to be associated with subsequent advanced L5-S1 disc degeneration. The change of coronal and sagittal imbalance was not different in both groups. Subsequent advanced L5-S1 disc degeneration occurred in 58% of the patients in the L5 group. Symptomatic adjacent segment disease at L5-S1 developed in five patients. Interestingly, the development of adjacent segment disease was not related to the preoperative grade of disc degeneration, which proved minimal degeneration in the five patients. In the L5 group, there were nine patients of complications at L5-S1 segment, including adjacent segment disease at L5-S1 and loosening of L5 screws. Seven of the nine patients showed preoperative sagittal imbalance and/or lumbar hypolordosis, which might be risk factors of complications at L5-S1. For the patients with sagittal imbalance and lumbar hypolordosis, L5-S1 should be included in the fusion even if L5-S1 disc was minimal degeneration. PMID:19165507

Cho, Kyu-Jung; Suk, Se-Il; Park, Seung-Rim; Kim, Jin-Hyok; Choi, Sung-Wook; Yoon, Young-Hyun; Won, Man-Hee

2009-04-01

125

Lumbar spinal stenosis.  

PubMed Central

Lumbar spinal stenosis, the results of congenital and degenerative constriction of the neural canal and foramina leading to lumbosacral nerve root or cauda equina compression, is a common cause of disability in middle-aged and elderly patients. Advanced neuroradiologic imaging techniques have improved our ability to localize the site of nerve root entrapment in patients presenting with neurogenic claudication or painful radiculopathy. Although conservative medical management may be successful initially, surgical decompression by wide laminectomy or an intralaminar approach should be done in patients with serious or progressive pain or neurologic dysfunction. Because the early diagnosis and treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis may prevent intractable pain and the permanent neurologic sequelae of chronic nerve root entrapment, all physicians should be aware of the different neurologic presentations and the treatment options for patients with spinal stenosis. Images PMID:8434469

Ciricillo, S F; Weinstein, P R

1993-01-01

126

Pedicle Screw-Based Posterior Dynamic Stabilization: Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Posterior dynamic stabilization (PDS) indicates motion preservation devices that are aimed for surgical treatment of activity related mechanical low back pain. A large number of such devices have been introduced during the last 2 decades, without biomechanical design rationale, or clinical evidence of efficacy to address back pain. Implant failure is the commonest complication, which has resulted in withdrawal of some of the PDS devices from the market. In this paper the authors presented the current understanding of clinical instability of lumbar motions segment, proposed a classification, and described the clinical experience of the pedicle screw-based posterior dynamic stabilization devices. PMID:23227349

Sengupta, Dilip K.; Herkowitz, Harry N.

2012-01-01

127

Efficacy of percutaneous laser disc decompression on lumbar spinal stenosis.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to observe the effect of percutaneous laser disc decompression (PLDD) on lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Thirty-two LSS patients were treated using pulsed Nd: YAG laser, of which 21 cases (11 males and 10 females with an average age of 64 years old) were followed up for 2 years. All of the 21 patients had intermittent claudication with negative straight leg raising test results. Fifteen patients suffered from anterior central disc herniation which often compressed the cauda equina but seldom compressed the posterior part; six patients suffered from posterior ligamentum flavum hypertrophy which often compressed the cauda equina but seldom compressed the anterior part. The efficacy was evaluated 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after surgery on 21 patients using the performance evaluation criteria of the lumbago treatment by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA 29 scores). The fineness (i.e. excellent and good treatment outcome) rate 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after the operation were 46.7%, 66.7%, 66.7%, 66.7% and 66.7%, respectively, in patients with severe anterior compression and 16.7%, 33.3%, 33.3%, 33.3% and 33.3%, respectively, in patients with severe posterior compression. PLDD had certain positive efficacy on the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis, which was more significant on LSS dominated by the anterior compression than that by the posterior compression. PMID:23996073

Ren, Longxi; Han, Zhengfeng; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhang, Tongtong; Yin, Jian; Liang, Xibin; Guo, Han; Zeng, Yanjun

2014-05-01

128

Sagittal spinal alignment in patients with lumbar disc herniation.  

PubMed

A retrospective cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate total sagittal spinal alignment in patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH) and healthy subjects. Abnormal sagittal spinal alignment could cause persistent low back pain in lumbar disease. Previous studies analyzed sciatic scoliotic list in patients with lumbar disc herniation; but there is little or no information on the relationship between sagittal alignment and subjective findings. The study subjects were 61 LDH patients and 60 age-matched healthy subjects. Preoperative and 6-month postoperatively lateral whole-spine standing radiographs were assessed for the distance between C7 plumb line and posterior superior corner on the top margin of S1 sagittal vertical axis (SVA), lumbar lordotic angle between the top margin of the first lumbar vertebra and first sacral vertebra (L1S1), pelvic tilting angle (PA), and pelvic morphologic angle (PRS1). Subjective symptoms were evaluated by the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score for lower back pain (nine points). The mean SVA value of the LDH group (32.7 +/- 46.5 mm, +/- SD) was significantly larger than that of the control (2.5 +/- 17.1 mm), while L1S1 was smaller (36.7 +/- 14.5 degrees ) and PA was larger (25.1 +/- 9.0 degrees ) in LDH than control group (49.0 +/- 10.0 degrees and 18.2 +/- 6.0 degrees , respectively). At 6 months after surgery, the malalignment recovered to almost the same level as the control group. SVA correlated with the subjective symptoms measured by the JOA score. Sagittal spinal alignment in LDH exhibits more anterior translation of the C7 plumb line, less lumbar lordosis, and a more vertical sacrum. Measurements of these spinal parameters allowed assessment of the pathophysiology of LDH. PMID:20091188

Endo, Kenji; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Tanaka, Hidetoshi; Kang, Yupeng; Yamamoto, Kengo

2010-03-01

129

Posterior fossa tumor  

MedlinePLUS

... and cause increased pressure on the brain and spinal cord. Most tumors of the posterior fossa are primary brain cancers . They start in the brain, rather than spreading from somewhere else ... Posterior fossa tumors have no known causes or risk factors.

130

Posterior instrumentation in scoliosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of posterior fusion and instrumentation in scoliosis are to achieve and maintain correction of the deformity and balance the spine in three planes, whilst keeping the fusion as short as possible and protecting the spinal cord. Harrington developed the first generation of posterior instrumentation, which considered only frontal plane correction. Since that time there has been an evolution

J. K. Webb; R. G. Burwell; A. A. Cole; I. Lieberman

1995-01-01

131

Hemorrhagic lumbar synovial cyst.  

PubMed

Synovial cysts of the lumbar spine are an uncommon cause of back and radicular pain. These cysts most frequently present as back pain, followed by chronic progressive radiculopathy or gradual onset of symptoms secondary to spinal canal compromise. Although less common, they can also present with acute spinal cord or root compression symptoms. We report of a case in which hemorrhaging into a right L2-3 facet synovial cyst caused an acute onset of back pain and radiculopathy, requiring surgical excision. PMID:23346333

Park, Hyun Seok; Sim, Hong Bo; Kwon, Soon Chan; Park, Jun Bum

2012-12-01

132

Hemorrhagic Lumbar Synovial Cyst  

PubMed Central

Synovial cysts of the lumbar spine are an uncommon cause of back and radicular pain. These cysts most frequently present as back pain, followed by chronic progressive radiculopathy or gradual onset of symptoms secondary to spinal canal compromise. Although less common, they can also present with acute spinal cord or root compression symptoms. We report of a case in which hemorrhaging into a right L2-3 facet synovial cyst caused an acute onset of back pain and radiculopathy, requiring surgical excision. PMID:23346333

Park, Hyun Seok; Kwon, Soon Chan; Park, Jun Bum

2012-01-01

133

Health economic evaluation in lumbar spinal fusion: a systematic literature review anno 2005.  

PubMed

The goal of this systematic literature review was to assess the evidence for cost-effectiveness of various surgical techniques in lumbar spinal fusion in conformity with the guidelines provided by the Cochrane Back Review Group. As new technology continuously emerges and divergent directions in clinical practice are present, economic evaluation is needed in order to facilitate the decision-makers' budget allocations. NHS Economic Evaluation Database, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library were searched. Two independent reviewers (one clinical content expert and one economic content expert) applied the eligibility criteria. A list of criteria for methodological quality assessment was established by merging the criteria recommended by leading health economists with the criteria recommended by the Cochrane Back Review Group. The two reviewers independently scored the selected literature and the disagreement was resolved by means of consensus following discussion. Key data were extracted and the level of evidence concluded. Seven studies were eligible; these studies reflected the diversified choices of economic methodology, study populations (diagnosis), outcome measures and comparators. At the conclusion of quality assessment, the methodological quality of three studies was judged credible. Two studies investigated posteolateral fusion (PLF) +/- instrumentation in different populations: one investigated non-specific low back pain and one investigated degenerative stenosis + spondylolisthesis. Both studies reflected that cost-effectiveness of instrumentation in PLF is not convincing. The third study concerned the question of circumferential vs anterior lumbar interbody fusion and found a non-significant difference between the techniques. In conclusion, the literature is limited and, in view of the fact that the clinical effects are statistically synonymous, it does not support the use of high-cost techniques. There is a great potential for improvement of methodological quality in economic evaluations of lumbar spinal fusion and further research is imperative. PMID:16369828

Soegaard, Rikke; Christensen, Finn B

2006-08-01

134

Primary Lumbar Hernia Repair: The Open Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Lumbar hernias arise through posterolateral abdominal wall defects, named inferior triangle (Petit) and superior triangle (Grynfelt). Most of the lumbar hernias are secondary to trauma or previous surgery, while primary lumbar hernias are rare. There are two possible surgical approaches: the anterior approach with lumbar incision and the laparoscopic (transabdominal or totally extraperitoneal) approach. Methods: We present a series

G. Cavallaro; A. Sadighi; M. Miceli; A. Burza; G. Carbone; A. Cavallaro

2007-01-01

135

Lumbar synovial cysts.  

PubMed

Synovial spinal cysts are typically found in the lumbar spine, most often at the L4-L5 level. Magnetic resonance imaging is the diagnostic imaging of choice in the workup of suspected synovial cysts. This study consisted of 24 patients with lumbar synovial cysts treated by cyst excision and nerve root decompression through partial or complete facetectomy and primary posterolateral fusion. The most common location of the cysts was the L4-L5 segment. Synovial tissue was found in histological sections of 18 cysts. At a mean follow-up of 12 (range, 8 to 24) months, 20 patients (83%) had excellent or good results; two patients (8.3%) had fair and two patients (8.3%) had poor improvement. Operative complications included dural tear in two patients and postoperative wound dehiscence in one patient, which were treated accordingly. To eliminate the risk of recurrence synovial cyst excision through partial or complete facetectomy is required. In addition, since synovial cysts reflect disruption of the facet joint and some degree of instability, primary spinal fusion is recommended. PMID:23327848

Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J; Sapkas, George S; Korres, Demetrios S; Pneumaticos, Spyridon G

2012-01-01

136

Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction  

MedlinePLUS

... patients will notice some limitation in activity a er surgery. Anatomy The posterior tibial tendon is one ... the pain to last another 6 months a er treatment starts. Rest Decreasing or even stopping activities ...

137

Lumbar peritoneal shunt.  

PubMed

A lumbar peritoneal (LP) shunt is a technique of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion from the lumbar thecal sac to the peritoneal cavity. It is indicated under a large number of conditions such as communicating hydrocephalus, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, normal pressure hydrocephalus, spinal and cranial CSF leaks, pseudomeningoceles, slit ventricle syndrome, growing skull fractures which are difficult to treat by conventional methods (when dural defect extends deep in the cranial base or across venous sinuses and in recurrent cases after conventional surgery), raised intracranial pressure following chronic meningitis, persistent bulging of craniotomy site after operations for intracranial tumors or head trauma, syringomyelia and failed endoscopic third ventriculostomy with a patent stoma. In spite of the large number of indications of this shunt and being reasonably good, safe, and effective, very few reports about the LP shunt exist in the literature. This procedure did not get its due importance due to some initial negative reports. This review article is based on search on Google and PubMed. This article is aimed to review indications, complications, results, and comparison of the LP shunt with the commonly practiced ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt. Shunt blocks, infections, CSF leaks, overdrainage and acquired Chiari malformation (ACM) are some of the complications of the LP shunt. Early diagnosis of overdrainage complications and ACM as well as timely appropriate treatment especially by programmable shunts could decrease morbidity. Majority of recent reports suggest that a LP shunt is a better alternative to the VP shunt in communicating hydrocephalus. It has an advantage over the VP shunt of being completely extracranial and can be used under conditions other than hydrocephalus when the ventricles are normal sized or chinked. More publications are required to establish its usefulness in the treatment of wide variety of indications. PMID:20508332

Yadav, Yad R; Parihar, Vijay; Sinha, Mallika

2010-01-01

138

Pars Stress Fracture (Lumbar Spondylolysis)  

MedlinePLUS

... Neck and Back) > Pars Stress Fracture Pars Stress Fracture Page Content Pars stress fractures occur in young athletes involved in repetitive bending ... an episode of low back pain Pars stress fracture, also called lumbar spondylolysis, is one of the ...

139

Use of autologous growth factors in lumbar spinal fusion.  

PubMed

The results of spinal fusion, especially posteriorly above the lumbosacral junction, have been mixed. Autologous growth factor concentrate (AGF) prepared by ultraconcentration of platelets contains multiple growth factors having a chemotactic and mitogenic effect on mesenchymal stem cells and osteoblasts and may play a role in initiating bone healing. The purpose of this retrospective study is to review our results with AGF in lumbar spinal fusions. To date, AGF has been used in 39 patients having lumbar spinal fusion. The study group consisted of the first 19 consecutive cases to allow at least 6 months follow-up. The average follow-up was 13 months (range 6 to 18 months). Follow-up compliance was 91%. There were 7 men and 12 women. Average age was 52 years (range 30-72 years). Nine patients had prior back surgery. There were 8 smokers. AGF was used in posterior (n = 15) or anterior intradiscal (n = 4) fusions. AGF was used with autograft and coraline hydroxyapatite in all posterior fusions, and autograft, coral, and intradiscal spacer (carbon fiber spinal fusion cages or Synthes femoral ring) in intradiscal fusions. Posterior stabilization was used in all cases. Eight cases were single-level fusions, 6 were two-level, and 1 was a three-level fusion. Autologous iliac crest bone graft was taken in 14 cases and local autograft used in 5 cases. Posteriorly, a total of 23 levels were fused; of these, nine were at L5-S1, eight at L4-L5, five at L3-L4, and one at L2-L3. No impending pseudoarthroses were noted on plain radiographic examination at last follow-up visit. Solid fusion was confirmed in 3 patients having routine hardware removal, and in 2 patients who had surgery at an adjacent level. There was one posterior wound infection, which was managed without sequelae. When used as an adjunct to autograft, AGF offers theoretical advantages that need to be examined in controlled studies. Further study is necessary to determine whether coralline hydroxyapatite used as a bone graft extender in lumbar spinal fusion may help to obviate the need for secondary site graft harvesting. PMID:10458274

Lowery, G L; Kulkarni, S; Pennisi, A E

1999-08-01

140

Pedicle-Screw-Based Dynamic Systems and Degenerative Lumbar Diseases: Biomechanical and Clinical Experiences of Dynamic Fusion with Isobar TTL  

PubMed Central

Dynamic systems in the lumbar spine are believed to reduce main fusion drawbacks such as pseudarthrosis, bone rarefaction, and mechanical failure. Compared to fusion achieved with rigid constructs, biomechanical studies underlined some advantages of dynamic instrumentation including increased load sharing between the instrumentation and interbody bone graft and stresses reduction at bone-to-screw interface. These advantages may result in increased fusion rates, limitation of bone rarefaction, and reduction of mechanical complications with the ultimate objective to reduce reoperations rates. However published clinical evidence for dynamic systems remains limited. In addition to providing biomechanical evaluation of a pedicle-screw-based dynamic system, the present study offers a long-term (average 10.2 years) insight view of the clinical outcomes of 18 patients treated by fusion with dynamic systems for degenerative lumbar spine diseases. The findings outline significant and stable symptoms relief, absence of implant-related complications, no revision surgery, and few adjacent segment degenerative changes. In spite of sample limitations, this is the first long-term report of outcomes of dynamic fusion that opens an interesting perspective for clinical outcomes of dynamic systems that need to be explored at larger scale. PMID:25031874

Barrey, Cedric; Perrin, Gilles; Champain, Sabina

2013-01-01

141

Posterior tracheal diverticulosis.  

PubMed

Multiple tracheal diverticulosis is a rare clinical entity. Tracheal diverticula are usually recognized radiologically as solitary right paratracheal air collections on thoracic computed tomography examination. They are usually asymptomatic but can occasionally present with persistent symptoms. We herein report the case of a 50-year-old male patient who underwent extensive evaluation for persistent cough. Multiple posterior right paratracheal air collections were recognized on thoracic multidetector computed tomography examination, which was confirmed as multiple-acquired posterior upper tracheal diverticula on flexible bronchoscopy. The patient improved with conservative medical management. PMID:25321454

Madan, Karan; Das, Chandan J; Guleria, Randeep

2014-10-01

142

Percutaneous treatment of lumbar compression fracture with canal stenosis and neurogenic intermittent claudication: combining kyphoplasty and interspinous spacer.  

PubMed

Vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) can cause symptomatic spinal canal stenosis secondary to posterior wall retropulsion. This report describes four patients with VCF and lumbar stenosis secondary to posterior wall retropulsion who were treated with combined kyphoplasty and percutaneous interspinous spacer (IS) placement. Clinical and imaging follow-up ranged from 12-36 months. Outcomes were favorable. Combined kyphoplasty and percutaneous IS implant represents a minimally invasive, safe, and efficient option to treat VCF with symptomatic spinal stenosis. PMID:23101915

Bonaldi, Giuseppe; Cianfoni, Alessandro

2012-11-01

143

Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Minimally Invasive Treatment with Bilateral Transpedicular Facet Augmentation System  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new pedicle screw-based posterior dynamic stabilization device PDS Percudyn System Trade-Mark-Sign Anchor and Stabilizer (Interventional Spine Inc., Irvine, CA) as alternative minimally invasive treatment for patients with lumbar spine stenosis. Methods. Twenty-four consecutive patients (8 women, 16 men; mean age 61.8 yr) with lumbar spinal stenosis underwent implantation of the minimally invasive pedicle screw-based device for posterior dynamic stabilization. Inclusion criteria were lumbar stenosis without signs of instability, resistant to conservative treatment, and eligible to traditional surgical posterior decompression. Results. Twenty patients (83 %) progressively improved during the 1-year follow-up. Four (17 %) patients did not show any improvement and opted for surgical posterior decompression. For both responder and nonresponder patients, no device-related complications were reported. Conclusions. Minimally invasive PDS Percudyn System Trade-Mark-Sign has effectively improved the clinical setting of 83 % of highly selected patients treated, delaying the need for traditional surgical therapy.

Masala, Salvatore, E-mail: salva.masala@tiscali.it [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy, University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging (Italy); Tarantino, Umberto [University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology (Italy); Nano, Giovanni, E-mail: gionano@gmail.com [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy, University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging (Italy); Iundusi, Riccardo [University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology (Italy); Fiori, Roberto, E-mail: fiori.r@libero.it; Da Ros, Valerio, E-mail: valeriodaros@hotmail.com; Simonetti, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy, University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging (Italy)

2013-06-15

144

Percutaneous endoscopic decompression for lumbar spinal stenosis.  

PubMed

Percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy has become a representative minimally invasive spine surgery for lumbar disc herniation. Due to the remarkable evolution in the techniques available, the paradigm of spinal endoscopy is shifting from treatments of soft disc herniation to those of lumbar spinal stenosis. Lumbar spinal stenosis can be classified into three categories according to pathological zone as follows: central stenosis, lateral recess stenosis and foraminal stenosis. Moreover, percutaneous endoscopic decompression (PED) techniques may vary according to the type of lumbar stenosis, including interlaminar PED, transforaminal PED and endoscopic lumbar foraminotomy. However, these techniques are continuously evolving. In the near future, PED for lumbar stenosis may be an efficient alternative to conventional open lumbar decompression surgery. PMID:25033889

Ahn, Yong

2014-11-01

145

A Musculoskeletal model for the lumbar spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new musculoskeletal model for the lumbar spine is described in this paper. This model features a rigid pelvis and sacrum,\\u000a the five lumbar vertebrae, and a rigid torso consisting of a lumped thoracic spine and ribcage. The motion of the individual\\u000a lumbar vertebrae was defined as a fraction of the net lumbar movement about the three rotational degrees of

Miguel Christophy; Nur Adila Faruk Senan; Jeffrey C. Lotz; Oliver M. O’Reilly

146

Posteriorly migrated thoracic disc herniation: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Posterior epidural migration of thoracic disc herniation is extremely rare but may occur in the same manner as in the lumbar spine. Case presentation A 53-year-old Japanese man experienced sudden onset of incomplete paraplegia after lifting a heavy object. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a posterior epidural mass compressing the spinal cord at the T9-T10 level. The patient underwent emergency surgery consisting of laminectomy at T9-T10 with right medial facetectomy, removal of the mass lesion, and posterior instrumented fusion. Histological examination of the mass lesion yielded findings consistent with sequestered disc material. His symptoms resolved, and he was able to resume walking without a cane 4 weeks after surgery. Conclusions Pre-operative diagnosis of posterior epidural migration of herniated thoracic disc based on magnetic resonance imaging alone may be overlooked, given the rarity of this pathology. However, this entity should be considered among the differential diagnoses for an enhancing posterior thoracic extradural mass. PMID:23402642

2013-01-01

147

Lumbar and sacral radiofrequency neurotomy.  

PubMed

Radiofrequency (RF) neurotomy is an interventional procedure used to alleviate certain types of low back pain. RF energy is used to thermally coagulate the specific nerves that transmit pain signals. Recent evidence has shown that this procedure demonstrates significant efficacy in relieving low back pain in lumbar zygapophysial joints, and research is ongoing to determine if pain relief for the sacroiliac joint is also possible. This article provides an evidence-based background for performing RF neurotomy, discusses the relevant anatomy, and highlights the indications and technique for lumbar and sacral RF neurotomy. PMID:20977967

Mazin, David A; Sullivan, Joseph P

2010-11-01

148

Computed tomographic evaluation of lumbar spinal structures during traction.  

PubMed

In the previous studies, it is reported that traction diminishes the compressive load on intervertebral discs, reduces herniation, stretches lumbar spinal muscle and ligaments, decreases muscle spasm, and widens intervertebral foramina. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of horizontal motorized static traction on spinal anatomic structures (herniated area, spinal canal area, intervertebral disc heights, neural foraminal diameter, and m.psoas diameter) by quantitative measures in patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH). At the same time the effect of traction in different localizations (median and posterolateral herniation) and at different levels (L4-L5 and L5-S1) was assessed. Thirty two patients with acute LDH participated in the study. A special traction system was used to apply horizontally-motorized static lumbar traction. Before and during traction a CT- scan was made to observe the changes in the area of spinal canal and herniated disc material, in the width of neural foramina, intervertebral disc heights, and in the thickness of psoas muscle. During traction, the area of protruded disc area, and the thickness of psoas muscle decreased 24.5% (p = 0.0001), and 5.7% (p = 0.0001), respectively. The area of the spinal canal and the width of the neural foramen increased 21.6% (p = 0.0001) and 26.7% (p = 0.0001), respectively. The anterior intervertebral disc height remained unchanged with traction however the posterior intervertebral disc height was significantly expanded. This study is the first to evaluated in detail and quantitatively the effect of motorized horizontal lumbar spinal traction on spinal structures and herniated area. According to detailed measures it was concluded that during traction of individuals with acute LDH there was a reduction of the size of the herniation, increased space within the spinal canal, widening of the neural foramina, and decreased thickness of the psoas muscle. PMID:16385939

Sari, Hidayet; Akarirmak, Ulkü; Karacan, Ilhan; Akman, Haluk

2005-01-01

149

Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis and lumbar spine configuration.  

PubMed

As life expectancy increases, degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS) becomes a common health problem among the elderly. DLSS is usually caused by degenerative changes in bony and/or soft tissue elements. The poor correlation between radiological manifestations and the clinical picture emphasizes the fact that more studies are required to determine the natural course of this syndrome. Our aim was to reveal the association between lower lumbar spine configuration and DLSS. Two groups were studied: the first included 67 individuals with DLSS (mean age 66 ± 10) and the second 100 individuals (mean age 63.4 ± 13) without DLSS-related symptoms. Both groups underwent CT images (Philips Brilliance 64) and the following measurements were performed: a cross-section area of the dural sac, vertebral body dimensions (height, length and width), AP diameter of the bony spinal canal, lumbar lordosis and sacral slope angles. All measurements were taken at L3 to S1. Vertebral body lengths were significantly greater in the DLSS group at all levels compared to the control, whereas anterior vertebral body heights (L3, L4, L5) and middle vertebral heights (L3, L5) were significantly smaller in the LSS group. Lumbar lordosis, sacral slope and bony spinal canal were significantly smaller in the DLSS compared to the control. We conclude that the size and shape of vertebral bodies and canals significantly differed between the study groups. A tentative model is suggested to explain the association between these characteristics and the development of degenerative spinal stenosis. PMID:20652366

Abbas, J; Hamoud, K; May, H; Hay, O; Medlej, B; Masharawi, Y; Peled, N; Hershkovitz, I

2010-11-01

150

The Effects on the Pain Index and Lumbar Flexibility of Obese Patients with Low Back Pain after PNF Scapular and PNF Pelvic Patterns  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether exercises using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) scapular and pelvic patterns might decrease the pain index and increase the lumbar flexibility of obese patients with low back pain. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty obese patients with low back pain were randomly assigned to an experimetal group (n=15) and a control group (n=15). The exercise program of the experimental group consisted of scapular patterns (anterior depression ? posterior elevation) and pelvic patterns (anterior elevation ? posterior depression). The control group performed neutral back muscle strengthening exercises. Over the course of four weeks, the groups participated in PNF or performed strengthening exercises for 30 minutes, three times per week. Subjects were assessed a pre-test and post-test using measurements of pain and lumbar flexibility. [Results] The results show that lumbar flexion and lumbar extension significantly improved in the experimental group, had significant improvement and that the Oswestry Disability index (ODI) significantly decreased. However, there were no significant changes in the control group. The experimental group also showed significant differences in the pain index and lumbar flexibility from the control group. [Conclusion] This study showed that PNF can be used to improve pain index rating and lumbar flexibility. The findings indicate that the experimental group experienced greater improvement than the control group by participating in the PNF lumbar stabilization program. PMID:25364115

Park, KwangYong; Seo, KyoChul

2014-01-01

151

Incidental Dural Tears During Lumbar Spine Surgery: A Retrospective Case Study of 84 Degenerative Lumbar Spine Patients  

PubMed Central

Study Design A retrospective case study. Purpose To retrospectively review all incidental dural tears (DTs) that occurred at a single institution, classify them anatomically and evaluate the clinical significance of each subgroup. Overview of Literature Dural tears are considered the most commonly encountered complication during lumbar spine surgery. In contrast to the high frequency of DTs, reports on the characteristic location and mechanism are sparse. Methods We retrospectively retrieved all cases of degenerative lumbar spine surgery performed over a 9-year period and classified all identified DTs according to two independent planes. The coronal plane was divided into lower, middle and upper surgical fields, and the sagittal plane into posterior, lateral and ventral occurring tears. Demographic and clinical variables were retrieved and analyzed to search for significant associations. Results From 2003 to 2011, 1,235 cases of degenerative lumbar spine conditions were treated surgically at our institution. In 84 operations (6.8%), an incidental DT was either identified intraoperatively or suspected retrospectively. The most commonly involved location was the lower surgical field (n=39, 46.4%; p=0.002), followed equally by the middle and upper fields (n=16, 19%). In the sagittal plane, the most commonly involved locations were those in close proximity to the nerve root (n=35, 41.6%), followed by the dorsal aspect of the dural sac (n=24, 28.6%). None of the variables recorded was found to be associated with a particular location. Conclusions In our series, incidental DTs were found to occur most commonly in the lower surgical field. We hypothesize that local anatomic feature, such as the lordotic and broadening lumbar dura, may play a role in the observed DT tendency to occur in the lower surgical field. In light of the high frequency and potentially substantial resulting morbidity of incidental DTs, a better characterization of its location and mechanism may optimize both prevention and management.

Anekstein, Yoram; Mirovsky, Yigal

2014-01-01

152

Aortic Perforation During Lumbar Laminectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

umbar laminectomy is a common and usually routine operation, but it can occasionally result in sudden, life-threatening complications. Such events usually require rapid therapy, so it is essential that anesthesiologists be aware of these potential com- plications, as well as their manifestations and treat- ment. We report the occurrence of aortic perforation, an uncommon but potentially fatal complication of lumbar

Christian W. Hiinemann; Gerhard Brodner; Hugo Van Aken; Ulrich Ruta; Marcel E. Durieux; Thomas Mollhoff

1998-01-01

153

Effects of aging and spinal degeneration on mechanical properties of lumbar supraspinous and interspinous ligaments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background context: The effects of aging and spinal degeneration on the mechanical properties of spinal ligaments are still unknown, although there have been several studies demonstrating those of normal spinal ligaments.Purpose: To investigate the mechanical properties of the human posterior spinal ligaments in human lumbar spine, and their relation to age and spinal degeneration parameters.Study design\\/setting: Destructive uniaxial tensile tests

Takahiro Iida; Kuniyoshi Abumi; Yoshihisa Kotani; Kiyoshi Kaneda

2002-01-01

154

Serial Changes in Signal Intensities of the Adjacent Discs on T2Weighted Sagittal Images after Surgical Treatment of Cervical Spondylosis: Anterior Interbody Fusion Versus Expansive Laminoplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a ?Background. There have been many reports about newly developed degenerative changes in the adjacent segments after anterior interbody\\u000a fusion. It is a controversial issue whether the adjacent-segment disease in patients treated by anterior interbody fusion\\u000a is the result of progressive cervical spondylosis at the adjacent levels or is caused by the arthrodesis. The aim of this\\u000a study is to

T. Iseda; T. Goya; S. Nakano; T. Kodama; T. Moriyama; S. Wakisaka

2001-01-01

155

The influence of different magnitudes and methods of applying preload on fusion and disc replacement constructs in the lumbar spine: a finite element analysis.  

PubMed

In a finite element (FE) analysis of the lumbar spine, different preload application methods that are used in biomechanical studies may yield diverging results. To investigate how the biomechanical behaviour of a spinal implant is affected by the method of applying the preload, hybrid-controlled FE analysis was used to evaluate the biomechanical behaviour of the lumbar spine under different preload application methods. The FE models of anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) and artificial disc replacement (ADR) were tested under three different loading conditions: a 150 N pressure preload (PP) and 150 and 400 N follower loads (FLs). This study analysed the resulting range of motion (ROM), facet contact force (FCF), inlay contact pressure (ICP) and stress distribution of adjacent discs. The FE results indicated that the ROM of both surgical constructs was related to the preload application method and magnitude; differences in the ROM were within 7% for the ALIF model and 32% for the ADR model. Following the application of the FL and after increasing the FL magnitude, the FCF of the ADR model gradually increased, reaching 45% at the implanted level in torsion. The maximum ICP gradually decreased by 34.1% in torsion and 28.4% in lateral bending. This study concluded that the preload magnitude and application method affect the biomechanical behaviour of the lumbar spine. For the ADR, remarkable alteration was observed while increasing the FL magnitude, particularly in the ROM, FCF and ICP. However, for the ALIF, PP and FL methods had no remarkable alteration in terms of ROM and adjacent disc stress. PMID:22224913

Zhong, Zheng-Cheng; Hung, Chinghua; Lin, Hung-Ming; Wang, Ying-Hui; Huang, Chang-Hung; Chen, Chen-Sheng

2013-01-01

156

Lumbar spine disc heights and curvature: upright posture vs. supine compression harness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

INTRODUCTION: Spinal lengthening in microgravity is thought to cause back pain in astronauts. A spinal compression harness can compress the spine to eliminate lengthening but the loading condition with harness is different than physiologic conditions. Our purpose was to compare the effect of spine compression with a harness in supine position on disk height and spinal curvature in the lumbar spine to that of upright position as measured using a vertically open magnetic resonance imaging system. METHODS: Fifteen healthy subjects volunteered. On day 1, each subject lay supine for an hour and a baseline scan of the lumbar spine was performed. After applying a load of fifty percent of body weight with the harness for thirty minutes, the lumbar spine was scanned again. On day 2, after a baseline scan, a follow up scan was performed after kneeling for thirty minutes within the gap between two vertically oriented magnetic coils. Anterior and posterior disk heights, posterior disk bulging, and spinal curvature were measured from the baseline and follow up scans. RESULTS: Anterior disk heights increased and posterior disk heights decreased compared with baseline scans both after spinal compression with harness and upright posture. The spinal curvature increased by both loading conditions of the spine. DISCUSSION: The spinal compression with specially designed harness has the same effect as the physiologic loading of the spine in the kneeling upright position. The harness shows some promise as a tool to increase the diagnostic capabilities of a conventional MR system.

Lee, Shi-Uk; Hargens, Alan R.; Fredericson, Michael; Lang, Philipp K.

2003-01-01

157

The effect of anterior-posterior shear on the wear of Charité TDR  

PubMed Central

Study Design An in-vitro study of the wear rates of the Charité lumbar total disc replacement. Objective To investigate the effect of anterior-posterior shear on the in-vitro wear rates of the Charité lumbar total disc replacement. Summary of Background Data Current standards prescribe only 4 degree of freedom (DOF) inputs for evaluating the in-vitro wear of total disc replacements, despite the functional spinal unit incorporating 6DOF. Anterior-posterior shear has been highlighted as a significant load, particularly in the lumbar spine. A previous study investigated the effect of an anterior-posterior shear on the ProDisc-L, finding that wear rates were not significantly different from 4DOF wear tests. Methods 6 Charité lumbar discs were mounted in a 5 active DOF spine wear simulator and tested under 4DOF (ISO18192) conditions. 6 further Charité lumbar discs were tested under 5DOF conditions, consisting of 4DOF conditions plus an anterior-posterior shear displacement of +2/-1.5mm. The displacement was decreased and then increased by a factor of 2, to investigate the effect of the magnitude of displacement. µCT scans were taken of the discs before and after wear testing, and the height loss of the discs calculated. These were compared to the same measurements taken from explanted Charite discs, µCT scanned at another institution. Results 4DOF wear rates (12.2±1.0mg/MC) were not significantly different from 4DOF tests on the ProDisc-L. Wear rates were significantly increased (p<0.01) for ‘standard’ 5DOF conditions (22.3±2.0 mg/MC), decreased 5DOF (24.3±4.9 mg/MC) and increased 5DOF (29.1±7.6mg/MC). The height loss of the explants and in-vitro tested discs were not significantly different (p>0.05). Conclusion The addition of anterior-posterior shear to wear testing inputs of the Charité lumbar total disc replacement increases the wear rate significantly, which is in direct contrast to the previous 5DOF testing on the ProDisc. This study highlights the importance of clinically relevant testing regimens, and that test inputs may be different for dissimilar design philosophies. PMID:22037530

Vicars, R; Prokopovich, P; Brown, T D; Tipper, JL; Ingham, E; Fisher, J; Hall, RM

2011-01-01

158

Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis and lumbar spine configuration  

PubMed Central

As life expectancy increases, degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS) becomes a common health problem among the elderly. DLSS is usually caused by degenerative changes in bony and/or soft tissue elements. The poor correlation between radiological manifestations and the clinical picture emphasizes the fact that more studies are required to determine the natural course of this syndrome. Our aim was to reveal the association between lower lumbar spine configuration and DLSS. Two groups were studied: the first included 67 individuals with DLSS (mean age 66 ± 10) and the second 100 individuals (mean age 63.4 ± 13) without DLSS-related symptoms. Both groups underwent CT images (Philips Brilliance 64) and the following measurements were performed: a cross-section area of the dural sac, vertebral body dimensions (height, length and width), AP diameter of the bony spinal canal, lumbar lordosis and sacral slope angles. All measurements were taken at L3 to S1. Vertebral body lengths were significantly greater in the DLSS group at all levels compared to the control, whereas anterior vertebral body heights (L3, L4, L5) and middle vertebral heights (L3, L5) were significantly smaller in the LSS group. Lumbar lordosis, sacral slope and bony spinal canal were significantly smaller in the DLSS compared to the control. We conclude that the size and shape of vertebral bodies and canals significantly differed between the study groups. A tentative model is suggested to explain the association between these characteristics and the development of degenerative spinal stenosis. PMID:20652366

Hamoud, K.; May, H.; Hay, O.; Medlej, B.; Masharawi, Y.; Peled, N.; Hershkovitz, I.

2010-01-01

159

Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 4: radiographic assessment of fusion status.  

PubMed

The ability to identify a successful arthrodesis is an essential element in the management of patients undergoing lumbar fusion procedures. The hypothetical gold standard of intraoperative exploration to identify, under direct observation, a solid arthrodesis is an impractical alternative. Therefore, radiographic assessment remains the most viable instrument to evaluate for a successful arthrodesis. Static radiographs, particularly in the presence of instrumentation, are not recommended. In the absence of spinal instrumentation, lack of motion on flexion-extension radiographs is highly suggestive of a successful fusion; however, motion observed at the treated levels does not necessarily predict pseudarthrosis. The degree of motion on dynamic views that would distinguish between a successful arthrodesis and pseudarthrosis has not been clearly defined. Computed tomography with fine-cut axial images and multiplanar views is recommended and appears to be the most sensitive for assessing fusion following instrumented posterolateral and anterior lumbar interbody fusions. For suspected symptomatic pseudarthrosis, a combination of techniques including static and dynamic radiographs as well as CT images is recommended as an option. Lack of facet fusion is considered to be more suggestive of a pseudarthrosis compared with absence of bridging posterolateral bone. Studies exploring additional noninvasive modalities of fusion assessment have demonstrated either poor potential, such as with (99m)Tc bone scans, or provide insufficient information to formulate a definitive recommendation. PMID:24980581

Choudhri, Tanvir F; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Dhall, Sanjay S; Eck, Jason C; Groff, Michael W; Ghogawala, Zoher; Watters, William C; Dailey, Andrew T; Resnick, Daniel K; Sharan, Alok; Wang, Jeffrey C; Kaiser, Michael G

2014-07-01

160

Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 3: assessment of economic outcome.  

PubMed

A comprehensive economic analysis generally involves the calculation of indirect and direct health costs from a societal perspective as opposed to simply reporting costs from a hospital or payer perspective. Hospital charges for a surgical procedure must be converted to cost data when performing a cost-effectiveness analysis. Once cost data has been calculated, quality-adjusted life year data from a surgical treatment are calculated by using a preference-based health-related quality-of-life instrument such as the EQ-5D. A recent cost-utility analysis from a single study has demonstrated the long-term (over an 8-year time period) benefits of circumferential fusions over stand-alone posterolateral fusions. In addition, economic analysis from a single study has found that lumbar fusion for selected patients with low-back pain can be recommended from an economic perspective. Recent economic analysis, from a single study, finds that femoral ring allograft might be more cost-effective compared with a specific titanium cage when performing an anterior lumbar interbody fusion plus posterolateral fusion. PMID:24980580

Ghogawala, Zoher; Whitmore, Robert G; Watters, William C; Sharan, Alok; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Dailey, Andrew T; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Eck, Jason C; Groff, Michael W; Wang, Jeffrey C; Resnick, Daniel K; Dhall, Sanjay S; Kaiser, Michael G

2014-07-01

161

Novel posterior fixation keratoprosthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The keratoprosthesis is the last solution for corneally blind patients that cannot benefit from corneal transplants. Keratoprostheses that have been designed to be affixed anteriorly usually necessitate multi-step surgical procedures and are continuously subjected to the extrusion forces generated by the positive intraocular pressure; therefore, clinical results in patients prove inconsistent. We proposed a novel keratoprosthesis concept that utilizes posterior corneal fixation which `a priori' minimizes the risk of aqueous leakage and expulsion. This prosthesis is implanted in a single procedure thereby reducing the number of surgical complications normally associated with anterior fixation devices. In addition, its novel design makes this keratoprosthesis implantable in phakic eyes. With an average follow-up of 13 months (range 3 to 25 months), our results on 21 cases are encouraging. Half of the keratoprostheses were implanted in severe burn cases, with the remainder in cases of pseudo- pemphigus. Good visual results and cosmetic appearance were obtained in 14 of 21 eyes.

Lacombe, Emmanuel

1992-08-01

162

49 CFR 572.85 - Lumbar spine flexure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...assembled in an upright position, adjust the lumbar cable by tightening the adjustment nut for the lumbar vertebrae until the spring is compressed...adapter so that at 40 degrees of the lumbar spine flexion the applied force is perpendicular...

2010-10-01

163

49 CFR 572.85 - Lumbar spine flexure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...assembled in an upright position, adjust the lumbar cable by tightening the adjustment nut for the lumbar vertebrae until the spring is compressed...adapter so that at 40 degrees of the lumbar spine flexion the applied force is perpendicular...

2011-10-01

164

49 CFR 572.9 - Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis. 572.9 Section 572.9 Transportation... § 572.9 Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis. (a) The lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis consist of the assemblies designated...

2013-10-01

165

49 CFR 572.9 - Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis. 572.9 Section 572.9 Transportation... § 572.9 Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis. (a) The lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis consist of the assemblies designated...

2012-10-01

166

Lumbar lordosis of extinct hominins.  

PubMed

The lordotic curvature of the lumbar spine (lumbar lordosis) in humans is a critical component in the ability to achieve upright posture and bipedal gait. Only general estimates of the lordotic angle (LA) of extinct hominins are currently available, most of which are based on the wedging of the vertebral bodies. Recently, a new method for calculating the LA in skeletal material has become available. This method is based on the relationship between the lordotic curvature and the orientation of the inferior articular processes relative to vertebral bodies in the lumbar spines of living primates. Using this relationship, we developed new regression models in order to calculate the LAs in hominins. The new models are based on primate group-means and were used to calculate the LAs in the spines of eight extinct hominins. The results were also compared with the LAs of modern humans and modern nonhuman apes. The lordotic angles of australopithecines (41° ± 4), H. erectus (45°) and fossil H. sapiens (54° ± 14) are similar to those of modern humans (51° ± 11). This analysis confirms the assumption that human-like lordotic curvature was a morphological change that took place during the acquisition of erect posture and bipedalism as the habitual form of locomotion. Neandertals have smaller lordotic angles (LA = 29° ± 4) than modern humans, but higher angles than nonhuman apes (22° ± 3). This suggests possible subtle differences in Neandertal posture and locomotion from that of modern humans. PMID:22052243

Been, Ella; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Kramer, Patricia A

2012-01-01

167

Automated quantification of lumbar vertebral kinematics from dynamic fluoroscopic sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We hypothesize that the vertebra-to-vertebra patterns of spinal flexion and extension motion of persons with lower back pain will differ from those of persons who are pain-free. Thus, it is our goal to measure the motion of individual lumbar vertebrae noninvasively from dynamic fluoroscopic sequences. Two-dimensional normalized mutual information-based image registration was used to track frame-to-frame motion. Software was developed that required the operator to identify each vertebra on the first frame of the sequence using a four-point "caliper" placed at the posterior and anterior edges of the inferior and superior end plates of the target vertebrae. The program then resolved the individual motions of each vertebra independently throughout the entire sequence. To validate the technique, 6 cadaveric lumbar spine specimens were potted in polymethylmethacrylate and instrumented with optoelectric sensors. The specimens were then placed in a custom dynamic spine simulator and moved through flexion-extension cycles while kinematic data and fluoroscopic sequences were simultaneously acquired. We found strong correlation between the absolute flexionextension range of motion of each vertebra as recorded by the optoelectric system and as determined from the fluoroscopic sequence via registration. We conclude that this method is a viable way of noninvasively assessing twodimensional vertebral motion.

Camp, Jon; Zhao, Kristin; Morel, Etienne; White, Dan; Magnuson, Dixon; Gay, Ralph; An, Kai-Nan; Robb, Richard

2009-02-01

168

Solitary Epidural Lipoma with Ipsilateral Facet Arthritis Causing Lumbar Radiculopathy  

PubMed Central

A 55-year-old obese man (body mass index, 31.6 kg/m2) presented radiating pain and motor weakness in the left leg. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an epidural mass posterior to the L5 vertebral body, which was isosignal to subcutaneous fat and it asymmetrically compressed the left side of the cauda equina and the exiting left L5 nerve root on the axial T1 weighted images. Severe arthritis of the left facet joint and edema of the bone marrow regarding the left pedicle were also found. As far as we know, there have been no reports concerning a solitary epidural lipoma combined with ipsilateral facet arthorsis causing lumbar radiculopathy. Solitary epidural lipoma with ipsilateral facet arthritis causing lumbar radiculopathy was removed after the failure of conservative treatment. After decompression, the neurologic deficit was relieved. At a 2 year follow-up, motor weakness had completely recovered and the patient was satisfied with the result. We recommend that a solitary epidural lipoma causing neurologic deficit should be excised at the time of diagnosis. PMID:22977701

Kim, Hong Kyun; Koh, Sung Hye

2012-01-01

169

A Comparison of Radiostereometric Analysis and Computed Tomography for the Assessment of Lumbar Spinal Fusion in a Sheep Model  

PubMed Central

Study Design?Prospective animal study. Objective?The aim of this animal study is to evaluate the accuracy of radiostereometric analysis (RSA) compared with computed tomographic (CT) scan in the assessment of spinal fusion after anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) using histology as a gold standard. Methods?Three non-adjacent ALIFs (L1–L2, L3–L4, and L5–L6) were performed in nine sheep. The sheep were divided into three groups of three sheep. All the animals were humanely killed immediately after having the last scheduled RSA. The lumbar spine was removed and in vitro fine cut CT and histopathology were performed. Results?Using histological assessment as the gold standard for assessing fusion, RSA demonstrated better results (100% sensitivity and 66.7% specificity; positive predictive value [PPV]?=?27.3%, negative predictive value [NPV] =100.0%) compared with CT (66.7% sensitivity and 60.0% specificity [PPV?=?16.7%, NPV?=?93.8%]). Conclusions?RSA demonstrated higher sensitivity and specificity when compared with CT. Furthermore, RSA has the advantage of much lower radiation exposure compared with fine cut CT. Further studies are required to see if RSA remains superior to CT scan for the assessment spinal fusion in the clinical setting. Assessment of Class of Evidence (CoE) for individual studies of diagnostic test evaluation Methodological principle Study design  Prospective cohort design X  Retrospective cohort design  Case–control design Broad spectrum of patients with expected condition a Appropriate reference standard used X Adequate description of test and reference for replication X Blinded comparison with appropriate reference X Reference standard performed independently of test X Evidence level II Note: Blank box indicates criterion not met, could not be determined, or information not reported by author or was not reported. aThis study contained nine animal subjects. PMID:24436705

Humadi, Ali; Freeman, Brian J. C.; Moore, Rob J.; Callary, Stuart; Halldin, Klas; David, Vikram; Maclaurin, William; Tauro, Paul; Schoenwaelder, Mark

2013-01-01

170

Posterior wall prolapse and repair.  

PubMed

Most posterior wall defects occur in combination with other pelvic support disorders. Some patients with rectoceles, the most common posterior wall defect, are asymptomatic, whereas others experience a range of symptoms from a sensation of lower pelvic fullness to defecatory and/or sexual dysfunction. If patients are symptomatic, rectoceles can be treated conservatively with pelvic floor physiotherapy, behavioral therapy, or pessaries. Surgically, the most common rectocele repair is a traditional posterior colporrhaphy which provides excellent cure rates of up to 95%. The studies published to date do not support the use of biologic or synthetic absorbable grafts in reconstructive surgical procedures of the posterior compartment as these repairs have not improved anatomic or functional outcomes over traditional posterior colporrhaphy. PMID:20142644

Kudish, Bela I; Iglesia, Cheryl B

2010-03-01

171

Spontaneous hemorrhage into a lumbar synovial cyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lumbar synovial cysts frequently present with back pain, chronic radiculopathy and\\/or progressive symptoms of spinal canal\\u000a compromise. These cysts generally appear in the context of degenerative lumbar spinal disease. Few cases of spontaneous hemorrhage\\u000a into synovial cysts have been reported in the literature.

Marta CicuendezJose; Jose F. Alen; Ana Ramos; Ramiro D. Lobato; Alfonso Lagares

2010-01-01

172

Spontaneous hemorrhage into a lumbar synovial cyst.  

PubMed

Lumbar synovial cysts frequently present with back pain, chronic radiculopathy and/or progressive symptoms of spinal canal compromise. These cysts generally appear in the context of degenerative lumbar spinal disease. Few cases of spontaneous hemorrhage into synovial cysts have been reported in the literature. PMID:20174835

Cicuendez, Marta; Alen, Jose F; Ramos, Ana; Lobato, Ramiro D; Lagares, Alfonso

2010-07-01

173

Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Puncture under C-arm Fluoroscopy: a New Rat Model of Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Degeneration  

PubMed Central

To establish a minimally invasive rat model of lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) to better understand the pathophysiology of the human condition. The annulus fibrosus of lumbar level 4–5 (L4-5) and L5-6 discs were punctured by 27-gauge needles using the posterior approach under C-arm fluoroscopic guidance. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), histological examination by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were performed at baseline and 2, 4, and 8 weeks after disc puncture surgery to determine the degree of degeneration. All sixty discs (thirty rats) were punctured successfully. Only two of thirty rats subjected to the procedure exhibited immediate neurological symptoms. The MRI results indicated a gradual increase in Pfirrmann grade from 4 to 8 weeks post-surgery (P<0.05), and H&E staining demonstrated a parallel increase in histological grade (P<0.05). Expression levels of aggrecan, type II collagen (Col2), and Sox9 mRNAs, which encode disc components, decreased gradually post-surgery. In contrast, mRNA expression of type I collagen (Col1), an indicator of fibrosis, increased (P<0.05). The procedure of annular puncture using a 27-gauge needle under C-arm fluoroscopic guidance had a high success rate. Histological, MRI, and RT-PCR results revealed that the rat model of disc degeneration is a progressive pathological process that is similar to human IDD. PMID:24770648

Li, Dapeng; Yang, Huilin; Huang, Yonghui; Wu, Yan; Sun, Taicun; Li, Xuefeng

2014-01-01

174

Solitary lower lumbar osteochondroma (spinous process of L3 involvement): a case report  

PubMed Central

Solitary osteochondromas, which are the most common benign bone tumors of long bones, are rarely found in the vertebral column. A 16-year-old female patient presented with a hard palpable mass at lower lumbar region like a congenital deformity. Plain radiography illustrated a well-defined solid mass arising from the posterior elements of the L3 and ruled out any congenital anomalies. A computed tomography scan further determined a mass that arose from the spinous process of L3. The tumor was excised en bloc through a posterior approach and histopathological examination verified the diagnosis of osteocondroma. Osteochondromas are rarely found in the spine, when present in the spine, however, have a predilection for cervical or upper thoracic region arising usually from lamina of vertebrae and are rare in lumbosacral region and very rare at spinous process of the vertebrae. We present a case of osteochondroma locates in lumbar region and spinous process of vertebrae with unusual presentation and was considered clinically as congenital lumbar kyphosis. PMID:20066066

2009-01-01

175

Lumbar intraspinal extradural ganglion cysts.  

PubMed

The lumbar intraspinal epidural ganglion cyst has been a rare cause of the low back pain or leg pain. Ganglion cysts and synovial cysts compose the juxtafacet cysts. Extensive studies have been performed about the synovial cysts, however, very little has been known about the ganglion cyst. Current report is about two ganglion cysts associated with implicative findings in young male patients. We discuss about the underlying pathology of the ganglion cyst based on intraoperative evidences, associated disc herniation at the same location or severe degeneration of the ligament flavum that the cyst originated from in young patients. PMID:19707495

Cho, Sung Min; Rhee, Woo Tack; Choi, Soo Jung; Eom, Dae Woon

2009-07-01

176

Investigation of biomechanical behavior of lumbar vertebral segments with dynamic stabilization device using finite element approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Degenerative disc disease is a major source of lower back pain and significantly alters the biomechanics of the lumbar spine. Dynamic stabilization device is a remedial technique which uses flexible materials to stabilize the affected lumbar region while preserving the natural anatomy of the spine. The main objective of this research work is to investigate the stiffness variation of dynamic stabilization device under various loading conditions under compression, axial rotation and flexion. Three dimensional model of the two segment lumbar spine is developed using computed tomography (CT) scan images. The lumbar structure developed is analyzed in ANSYS workbench. Two types of dynamic stabilization are considered: one with stabilizing device as pedicle instrumentation and second with stabilization device inserted around the inter-vertebral disc. Analysis suggests that proper positioning of the dynamic stabilization device is of paramount significance prior to the surgery. Inserting the device in the posterior region indicates the adverse effects as it shows increase in the deformation of the inter-vertebral disc. Analysis executed by positioning stabilizing device around the inter-vertebral disc yields better result for various stiffness values under compression and other loadings. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

Deoghare, Ashish B.; Kashyap, Siddharth; Padole, Pramod M.

2013-03-01

177

Classification of posterior vitreous detachment  

PubMed Central

Diagnosing a posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) is important for predicting the prognosis and determining the indication for vitreoretinal surgery in many vitreoretinal diseases. This article presents both classifications of a PVD by slit-lamp biomicroscopy and of a shallow PVD by optical coherence tomography (OCT). By biomicroscopy, the vitreous condition is determined based on the presence or absence of a PVD. The PVD then is classified as either a complete posterior vitreous detachment (C-PVD) or a partial posterior vitreous detachment (P-PVD). A C-PVD is further divided into a C-PVD with collapse and a C-PVD without collapse, while a P-PVD is divided into a P-PVD with shrinkage of the posterior hyaloid membrane (P-PVD with shrinkage) and a P-PVD without shrinkage of the posterior hyaloid membrane (P-PVD without shrinkage). A P-PVD without shrinkage has a subtype characterized by vitreous gel attachment through the premacular hole in a posterior hyaloid membrane to the macula (P-PVD without shrinkage [M]). By OCT, a shallow PVD is classified as the absence of a shallow PVD or as a shallow PVD. A shallow PVD is then subclassified as a shallow PVD without shrinkage of the posterior vitreous cortex, a shallow PVD with shrinkage of the posterior vitreous cortex, and a peripheral shallow PVD. A shallow PVD without shrinkage of the posterior vitreous cortex has two subtypes: an age-related shallow PVD and a perifoveal PVD associated with a macular hole. PMID:24376338

Kakehashi, Akihiro; Takezawa, Mikiko; Akiba, Jun

2014-01-01

178

The Comprehensive Biomechanics and Load-Sharing of Semirigid PEEK and Semirigid Posterior Dynamic Stabilization Systems  

PubMed Central

Alternatives to conventional rigid fusion have been proposed for several conditions related to degenerative disc disease when nonoperative treatment has failed. Semirigid fixation, in the form of dynamic stabilization or PEEK rods, is expected to provide compression under loading as well as an intermediate level of stabilization. This study systematically examines both the load-sharing characteristics and kinematics of these two devices compared to the standard of internal rigid fixators. Load-sharing was studied by using digital pressure films inserted between an artificially machined disc and two loading fixtures. Rigid rods, PEEK rods, and the dynamic stabilization system were inserted posteriorly for stabilization. The kinematics were quantified on ten, human, cadaver lumbosacral spines (L3-S1) which were tested under a pure bending moment, in flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. The magnitude of load transmission through the anterior column was significantly greater with the dynamic device compared to PEEK rods and rigid rods. The contact pressures were distributed more uniformly, throughout the disc with the dynamic stabilization devices, and had smaller maximum point-loading (pressures) on any particular point within the disc. Kinematically, the motion was reduced by both semirigid devices similarly in all directions, with slight rigidity imparted by a lateral interbody device. PMID:23984077

Sengupta, D. K.; Bucklen, Brandon; McAfee, Paul C.; Nichols, Jeff; Angara, Raghavendra; Khalil, Saif

2013-01-01

179

Posterior spinal artery aneurysm rupture after 'Ecstasy' abuse.  

PubMed

Posterior spinal artery (PSA) aneurysms are a rare cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The commonly abused street drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or 'Ecstasy' has been linked to both systemic and neurological complications. A teenager presented with neck stiffness, headaches and nausea after ingesting 'Ecstasy'. A brain CT was negative for SAH but a CT angiogram suggested cerebral vasculitis. A lumbar puncture showed SAH but a cerebral angiogram was negative. After a spinal MR angiogram identified abnormalities on the dorsal surface of the cervical spinal cord, a spinal angiogram demonstrated a left PSA 2?mm fusiform aneurysm. The patient underwent surgery and the aneurysmal portion of the PSA was excised without postoperative neurological sequelae. 'Ecstasy' can lead to neurovascular inflammation, intracranial hemorrhage, SAH and potentially even de novo aneurysm formation and subsequent rupture. PSA aneurysms may be treated by endovascular proximal vessel occlusion or open surgical excision. PMID:24994748

Johnson, Jeremiah; Patel, Shnehal; Saraf-Lavi, Efrat; Aziz-Sultan, Mohammad Ali; Yavagal, Dileep R

2014-01-01

180

Interspinous posterior devices: What is the real surgical indication?  

PubMed Central

Interspinous posterior device (IPD) is a term used to identify a relatively recent group of implants used to treat lumbar spinal degenerative disease. This kind of device is classified as part of the group of the dynamic stabilization systems of the spine. The concept of dynamic stabilization has been replaced by that of dynamic neutralization of hypermobility, with the intention of clarifying that the primary aim of this kind of system is not the preservation of the movement, but the dynamic neutralization of the segmental hypermobility which is at the root of the pathological condition. The indications for the implantation of an IPD are spinal stenosis and neurogenic claudication, assuming that its function is the enlargement of the neural foramen and the decompression of the roots forming the cauda equina in the central part of the vertebral canal. In the last 10 years, use of these implants has been very common but to date, no long-term clinical follow-up regarding clinical and radiological aspects are available. The high rate of reoperation, recurrence of symptoms and progression of degenerative changes is evident in the literature. If these devices are effectively a miracle cure for lumbar spinal stenosis, why do the utilization and implantation of IPD remain extremely controversial and should they be investigated further? Excluding the problems related to the high cost of the device, the main problem remains the pathological substrate on which the device is explicit in its action: the degenerative pathology of the spine.

Landi, Alessandro

2014-01-01

181

Interspinous posterior devices: What is the real surgical indication?  

PubMed

Interspinous posterior device (IPD) is a term used to identify a relatively recent group of implants used to treat lumbar spinal degenerative disease. This kind of device is classified as part of the group of the dynamic stabilization systems of the spine. The concept of dynamic stabilization has been replaced by that of dynamic neutralization of hypermobility, with the intention of clarifying that the primary aim of this kind of system is not the preservation of the movement, but the dynamic neutralization of the segmental hypermobility which is at the root of the pathological condition. The indications for the implantation of an IPD are spinal stenosis and neurogenic claudication, assuming that its function is the enlargement of the neural foramen and the decompression of the roots forming the cauda equina in the central part of the vertebral canal. In the last 10 years, use of these implants has been very common but to date, no long-term clinical follow-up regarding clinical and radiological aspects are available. The high rate of reoperation, recurrence of symptoms and progression of degenerative changes is evident in the literature. If these devices are effectively a miracle cure for lumbar spinal stenosis, why do the utilization and implantation of IPD remain extremely controversial and should they be investigated further? Excluding the problems related to the high cost of the device, the main problem remains the pathological substrate on which the device is explicit in its action: the degenerative pathology of the spine. PMID:25232541

Landi, Alessandro

2014-09-16

182

Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury  

MedlinePLUS

... extends from the top-rear surface of the tibia (bone between the knee and ankle) to the ... from posterior instability. This means it prevents the tibia from moving too much and going behind the ...

183

[Dynamic instrumentation of the lumbar spine. Clinical and biomechanical analysis of success factors].  

PubMed

Total disc replacement and posterior dynamic stabilization represent alternatives to lumbar spinal fusion which should reduce the risk of adjacent segment degeneration. Disc replacement is indicated for pure discopathy without facet joint degeneration. Spinopelvic balance influences the implant's biomechanics. Therefore pelvic incidence, sacral slope, segmental lordosis and the mean axis of rotation need to be considered. Dynamic stabilization is indicated in moderate discopathy and facet joint degeneration, in degenerative spondylolisthesis grade I with a hypermobile segment and in dynamic lumbar stenosis. The combination of caudal fusion and cranial dynamic stabilization allows a better maintenance of lordosis with multiple level instrumentation and prevents adjacent segment degeneration. If pelvic incidence and sacral slope are high, L5-S1 should be fused because of elevated shear forces. PMID:21681502

Charles, Y P; Walter, A; Schuller, S; Steib, J-P

2011-08-01

184

Dynamic Stabilization for Challenging Lumbar Degenerative Diseases of the Spine: A Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Fusion and rigid instrumentation have been currently the mainstay for the surgical treatment of degenerative diseases of the spine over the last 4 decades. In all over the world the common experience was formed about fusion surgery. Satisfactory results of lumbar spinal fusion appeared completely incompatible and unfavorable within years. Rigid spinal implants along with fusion cause increased stresses of the adjacent segments and have some important disadvantages such as donor site morbidity including pain, wound problems, infections because of longer operating time, pseudarthrosis, and fatigue failure of implants. Alternative spinal implants were developed with time on unsatisfactory outcomes of rigid internal fixation along with fusion. Motion preservation devices which include both anterior and posterior dynamic stabilization are designed and used especially in the last two decades. This paper evaluates the dynamic stabilization of the lumbar spine and talks about chronologically some novel dynamic stabilization devices and thier efficacies. PMID:23662211

Kaner, Tuncay; Ozer, Ali Fahir

2013-01-01

185

Surgical treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis with microdecompression and interspinous distraction device insertion. A case series  

PubMed Central

Background Interspinous distraction devices (IPDD) are indicated as stand-alone devices for the treatment of spinal stenosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the results of patients undergoing surgery for spinal stenosis with a combination of unilateral microdecompression and interspinous distraction device insertion. Methods This is a prospective clinical and radiological study of minimum 2 years follow-up. Twenty-two patients (average age 64.5 years) with low-back pain and unilateral sciatica underwent decompressive surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis. Visual Analogue Scale, Oswestry Disability Index and walking capacity plus radiologic measurements of posterior disc height of the involved level and lumbar lordosis Cobb angle were documented both preoperatively and postoperatively. One-sided posterior subarticular and foraminal decompression was conducted followed by dynamic stabilization of the diseased level with an IPDD (X-STOP). Results The average follow-up time was 27.4 months. Visual Analogue Scale and Oswestry Disability Index improved statistically significantly (p < 0.001) in the last follow-up exam. Also, the walking distance increased in all patients but two. Posterior intervertebral disc height of the diseased level widened average 1.8 mm in the postoperative radiograph compared to the preoperative. No major complication, including implant failure or spinous process breakage, has been observed. Conclusions The described surgical technique using unilateral microdecompression and IPDD insertion is a clinically effective and radiologically viable treatment method for symptoms of spinal stenosis resistant to non-operative treatment. PMID:23107358

2012-01-01

186

In vivo range of motion of the lumbar spinous processes  

PubMed Central

The study design included an in vivo laboratory study. The objective of the study is to quantify the kinematics of the lumbar spinous processes in asymptomatic patients during un-restricted functional body movements with physiological weight bearing. Limited data has been reported on the motion patterns of the posterior spine elements. This information is necessary for the evaluation of traumatic injuries and degenerative changes in the posterior elements, as well as for improving the surgical treatment of spinal diseases using posterior procedures. Eight asymptomatic subjects with an age ranging from 50 to 60 years underwent MRI scans of their lumbar segments in a supine position and 3D models of L2–5 were constructed. Next, each subject was asked to stand and was positioned in the following sequence: standing, 45° flexion, maximal extension, maximal left and right twisting, while two orthogonal fluoroscopic images were taken simultaneously at each of the positions. The MRI models were matched to the osseous outlines of the images from the two orthogonal views to quantify the position of the vertebrae in 3D at each position. The data revealed that interspinous process (ISP) distance decreased from L2 to L3 to L4 to L5 when measured in the supine position; with significantly higher values at L2–3 and L3–4 compared with L4–5. These differences were not seen with weight-bearing conditions. During the maximal extension, the ISP distance at the L2–3 motion segment was significantly reduced, but no significant changes were detected at L3–4 and L4–5. During flexion the ISP distances were not significantly different than those measured in the MRI position at all segments. Going from the left to right twist positions, the L4–5 segment had greater amounts of ISP rotation, while all segments had similar ranges of translation in the transverse plane. The interspinous process distances were dependent on body posture and vertebral level. PMID:19543753

Xia, Qun; Wang, Shaobai; Passias, Peter G.; Kozanek, Michal; Li, Gang; Grottkau, Brian E.; Wood, Kirkham B.

2009-01-01

187

Lumbar Epidural Varix Mimicking Perineural Cyst  

PubMed Central

Lumbar epidural varices are rare and usually mimick lumbar disc herniations. Back pain and radiculopathy are the main symptoms of lumbar epidural varices. Perineural cysts are radiologically different lesions and should not be confused with epidural varix. A 36-year-old male patient presented to us with right leg pain. The magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic lesion at S1 level that was compressing the right root, and was interpreted as a perineural cyst. The patient underwent surgery via right L5 and S1 hemilaminectomy, and the lesion was coagulated and removed. The histopathological diagnosis was epidural varix. The patient was clinically improved and the follow-up magnetic resonance imaging showed the absence of the lesion. Lumbar epidural varix should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of the cystic lesions which compress the spinal roots. PMID:23741553

Pusat, Serhat; Kural, Cahit; Aslanoglu, Atilla; Kurt, Bulent

2013-01-01

188

Vascular injury during anterior lumbar surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background contextWith the number of anterior lumbar procedures expected to increase significantly over the next few years, it is important for spine surgeons to have a good understanding about the incidence of vascular complications during these operations.

Salvador A Brau; Rick B Delamarter; Michael L Schiffman; Lytton A Williams; Robert G Watkins

2004-01-01

189

Isolated Posterior Fossa Involvement in Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Summary Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is characterized by reversible vasogenic edema affecting the subcortical white matter of bilateral occipital and parietal lobes. We describe a case of isolated posterior fossa involvement of PRES which occurred during remission induction chemotherapy for T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Both the brainstem and cerebellum were extensively involved, but the supratentorial structures were completely spared. The follow-up magnetic resonance images revealed reversibility of most lesions. The knowledge of atypical radiological features of PRES is essential for prompt diagnosis. PMID:24199811

Shimizu, Yukie; Tha, Khin Khin; Iguchi, Akihiro; Cho, Yuko; Yoshida, Atsushi; Fujima, Noriyuki; Tsukahara, Akiko; Shirato, Hiroki; Terae, Satoshi

2013-01-01

190

[Finite element modeling of lumbar spine and study on its biodynamics].  

PubMed

A detailed three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model of lumbar segment L3-L5 was developed to investigate the influence of vibration on the components of human spine. The results show that the vibration effects of different spinal components are not exactly the same, and the stress near the posterior region of L4-L5 annulus is higher than that of its anterior region. The vibration exerts a great influence on the facet joint of L4-L5 segment. The changing amplitudes of stress and deformation of spine reduce by 50% on the condition that the damping ratio is 0.08. PMID:18027702

Guo, Lixin; Liu, Xueyong; Chen, Wei; Mu, En

2007-10-01

191

Mechanical properties of human lumbar spine motion segments. Influence of age, sex, disc level, and degeneration.  

PubMed

The influences of age, sex, disc level, and degree of degenration on the mechanical behavior of 42 fresh cadaver lumbar motion segments are reported. The motions and intradiscal pressure changes that result from the application of flexion, extension, lateral bending, and torsional moments; compression; and anterior, posterior, and lateral shears are described. The authors find that the mean behaviors of the different segment classes sometimes differ, but these differences are seldom pronounced. Scatter in the behavior of individual motion segments is pronounced, and very often overshadows any class differences. PMID:432710

Nachemson, A L; Schultz, A B; Berkson, M H

1979-01-01

192

49 CFR 572.75 - Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis assembly and test procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis assembly and test procedure. 572...572.75 Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis assembly and test procedure. (a) Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis assembly. The lumbar spine,...

2013-10-01

193

The effect of complex training on the children with all of the deformities including forward head, rounded shoulder posture, and lumbar lordosis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of complex training on children with the deformities including forward head, rounded shoulder posture, and lumbar lordosis. The complex training program was performed for 6 month three times per week. The complex training improved posture as measured by forward head angle (FHA), forward shoulder angle (FSA), and angle between anterior superior iliac spine and posterior superior iliac spine (APA). In the present results, complex training might overcome vertebral deformity through decreasing forward head, rounded shoulder posture, and lumbar lordosis and increasing flexibility in the children. PMID:25061597

Park, Hae-Chan; Kim, Yang-Soo; Seok, Sang-Hun; Lee, Soo-Kyung

2014-06-01

194

Primary myelolipoma in posterior mediastinum  

PubMed Central

Myelolipoma in posterior mediastinum is indeed rare. As a benign tumor, it consists of mature fat with scattered foci of haematopoietic elements resembling bone marrow. The computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are effective methods to detect them, while the definite diagnosis still depends on pathological diagnosis. Up to now, there is no standard treatment for this disease. Surgery is thought to be the best choice in some literatures reports. In this paper, two patients with primary posterior mediastinal tumor are reported, both of whom were underwent Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Postoperative pathological diagnosis was myelolipoma.

Xiong, Yan; Wang, Yong

2014-01-01

195

Primary myelolipoma in posterior mediastinum.  

PubMed

Myelolipoma in posterior mediastinum is indeed rare. As a benign tumor, it consists of mature fat with scattered foci of haematopoietic elements resembling bone marrow. The computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are effective methods to detect them, while the definite diagnosis still depends on pathological diagnosis. Up to now, there is no standard treatment for this disease. Surgery is thought to be the best choice in some literatures reports. In this paper, two patients with primary posterior mediastinal tumor are reported, both of whom were underwent Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Postoperative pathological diagnosis was myelolipoma. PMID:25276393

Xiong, Yan; Wang, Yong; Lin, Yidan

2014-09-01

196

Comparison between two different concepts of lumbar posterior osteosynthesis implants A finite-element analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The present study is a numerical comparison using finite-element analysis (FEA) of two different concepts of spinal fixation devices when implanted. These implants are 1) the Easy®, “rigid” Screw\\/Rod (ø 6mm) system; 2) the Twinflex®, “dynamic” system (ø 2 X 2.5 mm ELF). A parameterised 3D FEA model of an L3-sacrum segment, developed by Lavaste, Skalli & Robin, was

A. Templier; L. Denninger; C. Mazel; F. Lavaste; W. Skalli

1998-01-01

197

Biocompatibility of posterior restorative materials.  

PubMed

Biocompatibility of dental materials is an important consideration for the patient, clinician, laboratory technician and manufacturer. This paper examines biocompatibility testing methods and the biocompatibility of posterior restorative materials, including amalgam, casting alloys, resin composites, dentin bonding agents, cements, porcelains and ceramics. PMID:9120609

Schuster, G S; Lefebvre, C A; Wataha, J C; White, S N

1996-09-01

198

An optimization study of the screw orientation on the interfacial strength of the anterior lumbar plate system using neurogenetic algorithms and experimental validation.  

PubMed

Anterior lumbar plate (ALP) systems have been widely used as an effective interbody fusion device for treating spinal cord compression. However, clinical complications, such as implant loosening and breakage, still occur. Past studies have investigated the effects of the screw orientation on the interfacial strength, but these studies were inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to identify an ALP system with excellent interfacial strength by varying the screw orientation. Three-dimensional finite element models of L4-L5 segments with an ALP system were first constructed. A neurogenetic algorithm, which combines artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms, was subsequently developed to discover the optimum plate design. Finally, biomechanical tests were conducted to validate the results of the finite element models and the engineering algorithm. The results indicated that the interfacial strength of the optimum plate design obtained using the neurogenetic algorithm was excellent compared with the other designs and that all of the locking screws should be inserted divergently. Both the numerical and experimental outcomes can provide clinical suggestions to surgeons and help them to understand the interfacial strength of ALP systems in terms of the screw orientation. PMID:25162521

Lee, Chian-Her; Hsu, Ching-Chi; Huy, Dinh Cong

2014-11-01

199

49 CFR 572.115 - Lumbar spine and pelvis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Side Impact Hybrid Dummy 50th Percentile Male § 572.115 Lumbar spine and pelvis. The specifications and test procedure for the lumbar...

2011-10-01

200

Sense in the lumbar spine Is diminished with flexion  

E-print Network

the change in position sense as a function of altered trunk flexion and moment loading independently. Reposition sense of lumbar angle in seventeen subjects was assessed. Subjects were trained to assume specified lumbar angles using visual feedback...

Gade, Venkata; Wilson, Sara E.

2007-01-01

201

Strength gains through lumbar lordosis restoration  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To test the hypothesis that restoring the lumbar lordosis will increase a patient's voluntary muscular strength and decrease back pain symptoms. Clinical Features A patient was diagnosed with mechanical low back pain. The initial radiographic study revealed a loss of the lumbar lordosis. The patient determined his maximum bench press prior to the treatment program. The treatment outcome was based upon post-intervention radiographs, a Borg pain scale, and the patient's post-intervention maximum bench press. Intervention and Outcome The treatment program consisted of warm-up exercises, spinal manipulation, rehabilitative exercises, neuromuscular re-education, and prescribed home care. The treatment period consisted of 12 visits in the first 4 weeks, followed by once weekly for another 12 weeks, for a total of 24 visits in 4 months. In the first month, the Borg scale decreased from 5/10 to 0/10, and after 4 months the lumbar lordosis was increased from 2° to 31°. The sacral base angle (Ferguson's angle) increased from 18° to 31°. The patient's maximum bench press also increased from 245 pounds to 305 pounds. Conclusion Restoration of the lumbar lordosis appears to have a positive effect on muscular strength. This study supports the previous premise that a lumbar lordosis provides an inherent mechanical advantage for strength and stability. PMID:19674610

Morningstar, Mark W

2003-01-01

202

Risk Factors and Surgical Treatment for Symptomatic Adjacent Segment Degeneration after Lumbar Spine Fusion  

PubMed Central

Objective The present study analyzed the risk factors, prevalence and clinical results following revision surgery for adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) in patients who had undergone lumbar fusion. Methods Over an 8-year period, we performed posterior lumbar fusion in 81 patients. Patients were followed a minimum of 2 years (mean 5.5 years). During that time, 9 patients required revision surgery due to ASD development. Four patients underwent autogenous posterolateral arthrodesis and extended transpedicle screw fixation, 4 patients underwent decompressive laminectomy and interspinous device implantation, and 1 patient underwent simple decompression. Results Of the 9 of patients with clinical ASD, 33.3% (3 of 9) of patients did not have radiographic ASD on plain radiographs. Following revision surgery, the clinical results were excellent or good in 8 patients (88.9%). Age > 50 years at primary surgery was a significant risk factor for ASD development, while number of fusion levels, initial diagnosis and type of fusion were not. Conclusion The incidence of ASD development after lumbar surgery was 11.1% (9 of 81) in this study. Age greater than 50 was the statistically significant risk factor for ASD development. Similar successful clinical outcomes were observed after extended fusion with wide decompression or after interspinous device implantation. Given the latter procedure is less invasive, the findings suggest it may be considered a treatment alternative in selected cases but it needs further study. PMID:20041051

Cho, Kyoung-Suok; Kang, Suk-Gu; Yoo, Do-Sung; Huh, Pil-Woo; Kim, Dal-Soo

2009-01-01

203

[Anterior scoliosis surgery. State of the art and a comparison with posterior techniques].  

PubMed

For more than 2 decades ventral derotation spondylodesis (Zielke VDS) as a major improvement over Dwyer instrumentation (DI) was the gold standard of instrumented curve correction and stabilization from the anterior approach. As the first available system it enables a true three-dimensional curve correction. A disadvantage is the low internal stabilization capability with a need for long-term external stabilization by means of cast and brace treatment postoperatively. Meanwhile with the development of modern single and dual solid rod systems these disadvantages can be avoided completely. Video-assisted (thoracoscopic) anterior scoliosis surgery accounts for less than 2% of anteriorly treated scoliosis cases, mainly due to a long operating time and significant learning curve.From the posterior approach the Cotrel-Dubousset instrumentation (CDI) as a polysegmentally attached posterior hook threaded dual rod system used to be state of the art for a long time, since it eliminated the disadvantages of Harrington instrumentation (HI) in terms of only one-dimensional correction and low stabilization capabilities. However even with CDI effective derotation was impossible. In posterior scoliosis surgery there is a strong trend away from hook systems towards transpedicular segmentally fixed dual rod systems not only in the lumbar spine but also in the thoracic area. Advantages of these newer techniques are shorter fusion, improved correction, and less loss of correction over time.Advantages of modern anterior instrumentation systems in comparison to posterior transpedicular instrumented dual rod systems are less blood loss, better derotation, slightly shorter fusion levels, and a better influence on sagittal plane control or improvement especially for hypokyphotic thoracic scoliosis cases. Our data also document a superior spontaneous correction of the lumbar curve after selective anterior instrumented correction (Lenke 1B+C), although other studies could not find significant differences. In our experience the neurological risk of anterior instrumented correction is also lower than that of posterior scoliosis surgery, although the morbidity and mortality data of the Scoliosis Research Society could not prove that anymore in recent years. A negative effect of anterior transthoracic scoliosis surgery in comparison to posterior surgery is a more negative effect on lung function, which improves slower after surgery and does not quite reach the levels of posterior surgery at follow-up. But new data on posterior segmental transpedicular correction and fusion also prove a lordosating effect with negative effect on lung function. PMID:19198802

Halm, H; Richter, A; Thomsen, B; Köszegvary, M; Ahrens, M; Quante, M

2009-02-01

204

49 CFR 572.9 - Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of this section, the lumbar spine assembly shall...accordance with Figure 11. Flexion (degrees) Force...Assemble the thorax, lumbar spine, pelvic...surface of the pelvic-lumbar adapter. Apply the force...second up to 40° of flexion but no further,...

2011-10-01

205

49 CFR 572.115 - Lumbar spine and pelvis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Lumbar spine and pelvis. 572.115 Section 572.115 Transportation...Male § 572.115 Lumbar spine and pelvis. The specifications and test procedure for the lumbar spine and pelvis are identical to those for the SID...

2013-10-01

206

49 CFR 572.115 - Lumbar spine and pelvis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Lumbar spine and pelvis. 572.115 Section 572.115 Transportation...Male § 572.115 Lumbar spine and pelvis. The specifications and test procedure for the lumbar spine and pelvis are identical to those for the SID...

2012-10-01

207

Biomechanical implications of lumbar spinal ligament transection.  

PubMed

Many lumbar spine surgeries either intentionally or inadvertently damage or transect spinal ligaments. The purpose of this work was to quantify the previously unknown biomechanical consequences of isolated spinal ligament transection on the remaining spinal ligaments (stress transfer), vertebrae (bone remodelling stimulus) and intervertebral discs (disc pressure) of the lumbar spine. A finite element model of the full lumbar spine was developed and validated against experimental data and tested in the primary modes of spinal motion in the intact condition. Once a ligament was removed, stress increased in the remaining spinal ligaments and changes occurred in vertebral strain energy, but disc pressure remained similar. All major biomechanical changes occurred at the same spinal level as the transected ligament, with minor changes at adjacent levels. This work demonstrates that iatrogenic damage to spinal ligaments disturbs the load sharing within the spinal ligament network and may induce significant clinically relevant changes in the spinal motion segment. PMID:23477405

Von Forell, Gregory A; Bowden, Anton E

2014-11-01

208

Mini-open transpedicular lumbar vertebrectomy reconstructed with double cages and short segment fixation  

PubMed Central

Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of using dual expandable cages plus short segment posterior fixation for reconstruction of vertebral bodies following a mini-open transpedicular approach. Methods: A single posterior incision was used to perform a laminectomy of L2, a partial laminectomy of L1 and bilateral transpedicular approaches for a piecemeal vertebrectomy in a patient with spinal compression secondary to metastatic cancer. Subsequently, bilateral cages were placed through the transpedicular corridors and percutaneous pedicle screws were inserted a single level above and below the level of the vertebral column resection. Results: The bilateral transpedicular approach facilitated the use of a mini-open incision (6.0 cm) compared with the extensive dissection normally employed for a lateral extracavitary type approach in the lumbar region. The bilateral transpedicular approach at L2 allowed for a vertebrectomy and complete decompression of neurological elements. The use of expandable cages allowed the nerve roots to be preserved. Placement of the cages in the lateral position was straightforward despite minimal exposure. The reconstruction with double expandable cages appeared robust. Conclusions: In select patients requiring circumferential decompression of the lumbar spine, dual cage reconstruction decreases the technical difficulty of the operation and facilitates a mini-open approach. The durability of this construct will need biomechanical assessment and long-term clinical follow-up. PMID:23248755

Jandial, Rahul; Chen, Mike Yue

2012-01-01

209

[Ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament].  

PubMed

Ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) is a hyperostotic disease of the spine associated with myelopathy which is occurred by an anterior compression to the spinal cord. OPLL was first reported by Key GA in 1838, and was previously considered specific to east Asian people, especially Japanese. However, now OPLL is recognized as a subtype of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperosteosis, which is detected in Europe and the United States. We discuss the etiology and natural history of OPLL in this review. PMID:24473355

Watanabe, Ryuichi; Miyamoto, Takeshi

2014-02-01

210

Posterior asymmetry and idiopathic scoliosis  

E-print Network

Study design Are there neuro-anatomical abnormalities associated with idiopathic scoliosis (IS)? Posterior Basicranium (PBA) reflects cerebellum growth and contains vestibular organs, two structures suspected to be involved in scoliosis. Objective The aim of this study was to compare posterior basicranium asymmetry (PBA) in Idiopathic scoliosis (IS) and normal subjects. Method: To measure the shape of PBA in 3D, we defined an intra-cranial frame of reference based on CNS and guided by embryology of the neural tube. Measurements concerned three directions of space referred to a specific intra cranial referential. Data acquisition was performed with T2 MRI (G.E. Excite 1.5T, mode Fiesta). We explored a scoliosis group of 76 women and 20 men with a mean age of 17, 2 and a control group of 26 women and 16 men, with a mean age of 27, 7. Results: IS revealed a significant asymmetry of PBA (Pr>|t|<.0001) in 3 directions of space compared to the control group. This asymmetry was more pronounced in antero-posterior...

Rousie, D L; Berthoz, A

2009-01-01

211

Reliability of a measure of total lumbar spine range of motion in individuals with low back pain.  

PubMed

Measuring lumbar spine range of motion (ROM) using multiple movements is impractical for clinical research, because finding statistically significant effects requires a large proportion of subjects to present with the same impairment. The purpose of this study was to develop a single measure representing the total available lumbar ROM. Twenty participants with low back pain performed three series of eight lumbar spine movements, in each of two sessions. For each series, an ellipse and a cubic spline were fit to the end-range positions, measured based on the position of the twelfth thoracic vertebra in the transverse plane of the sacrum. The area of each shape provides a measure of the total available ROM, whereas their center reflects the movements' symmetry. Using generalizability theory, the index of dependability for the area and anterior-posterior center position was found to be 0.90, but was slightly lower for the mediolateral center position. Slightly better values were achieved using the spline-fitting approach. Further analysis also indicated that excellent reliability, and acceptable minimal detectable change values, would be achieved with a single testing session. These data indicate that the proposed measure provides a reliable and easily interpretable measure of total lumbar spine ROM. PMID:23270840

Al Zoubi, Fadi M; Preuss, Richard A

2013-12-01

212

Diagnostic value of the lumbar extension-loading test in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The gait-loading test is a well known, important test with which to assess the involved spinal level in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. The lumbar extension-loading test also functions as a diagnostic loading test in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis; however, its efficacy remains uncertain. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic value of the lumbar extension-loading test with that of the gait-loading test in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. Methods A total of 116 consecutive patients (62 men and 54 women) diagnosed with lumbar spinal stenosis were included in this cross-sectional study of the lumbar extension-loading test. Subjective symptoms and objective neurological findings (motor, sensory, and reflex) were examined before and after the lumbar extension-loading and gait-loading tests. The efficacy of the lumbar extension-loading test for establishment of a correct diagnosis of the involved spinal level was assessed and compared with that of the gait-loading test. Results There were no significant differences between the lumbar extension-loading test and the gait-loading test in terms of subjective symptoms, objective neurological findings, or changes in the involved spinal level before and after each loading test. Conclusions The lumbar extension-loading test is useful for assessment of lumbar spinal stenosis pathology and is capable of accurately determining the involved spinal level. PMID:25080292

2014-01-01

213

Revisional Percutaneous Full Endoscopic Disc Surgery for Recurrent Herniation of Previous Open Lumbar Discectomy  

PubMed Central

Study Design A retrospective study. Purpose To determine the feasibility and effectiveness of revisional percutaneous full endoscopic discectomy for recurrent herniation after conventional open disc surgery. Overview of the Literature Repeated open discectomy with or without fusion has been the most common procedure for recurrent lumbar disc herniation. Percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy for recurrent herniation has been thought of as an impossible procedure. Despite good results with open revisional surgery, major problems may be caused by injuries to the posterior stabilized structures. Our team did revisional full endoscopic lumbar disc surgery on the basis of our experience doing primary full endoscopic disc surgery. Methods Between February 2004 and August 2009 a total of 41 patients in our hospital underwent revisional percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy using a YESS endoscopic system and a micro-osteotome (designed by the authors). Indications for surgery were recurrent disc herniation following conventional open discectomy; with compression of the nerve root revealed by Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging; corresponding radiating pain which was not alleviated after conservative management over 6 weeks. Patients with severe neurologic deficits and isolated back pain were excluded. Results The mean follow-up period was 16 months (range, 13 to 42 months). The visual analog scale for pain in the leg and back showed significant post-treatment improvement (p < 0.001). Based on a modified version of MacNab's criteria, 90.2% showed excellent or good outcomes. There was no measurable blood loss. There were two cases of recurrence of and four cases with complications. Conclusions Percutaneous full-endoscopic revisional disc surgery without additional structural damage is feasible and effective in terms of there being less chance of fusion and bleeding. This technique can be an alternative to conventional repeated discectomy. PMID:21386940

Chang, Ho-Guen; Rhee, Nam Kyou; Lim, Kwahn Sue

2011-01-01

214

Hip flexion contracture caused by an intraspinal osteochondroma of the lumbar spine.  

PubMed

Osteochondroma (or osteocartilaginous exostosis) is the most common bone tumor of childhood, with an incidence ranging from 1 to 1.4 per 1,000,000. In the lumbar spine, osteochondromata usually arise from the posterior column at the secondary ossification center and grow away from the spinal canal without causing neurologic deficits. This article reports a rare intraspinal lumbar osteochondroma that compressed the thecal sac, resulting in a hip flexion contracture in an 11-year-old boy. This lumbar, intraspinal, extradural exostosis was confluent with the L3 inferior articular process and compressed the L3 nerve root and thecal sac severely. The patient underwent an en bloc resection of the tumor with a right-sided hemilaminectomy of L3 and L4, a right-sided partial facetectomy at L3 to L4, and an extended resection from the pars intra-articularis of the L2 to the L5 vertebrae. The tumor specimen measured 4.8×3.7×2.5 cm with clear margins. Instrumented posterolateral fusion was completed from L2 to L5 due to iatrogenic instability from the resection. The patient had an uneventful recovery and returned to his normal activities of daily living, including sports. He remains asymptomatic at 54-month follow-up. A solitary lumbar osteochondroma that compresses the spinal cord, resulting in a motor neurological deficit, has not been reported in a pediatric patient. Orthopedic surgeons should be aware of potential intraspinal presentation of osteochondromas. Magnetic resonance imaging is the modality of choice in diagnosing and screening for spinal osteochondromas. These cases can be treated with resection surgery. PMID:24762848

Pourtaheri, Sina; Emami, Arash; Stewart, Tyler; Hwang, Ki; Issa, Kimona; Harwin, Steven F; Mont, Michael A

2014-04-01

215

The BioFlex System as a Dynamic Stabilization Device : Does It Preserve Lumbar Motion?  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examines whether functional motion is present at one or more years after Bioflex System placement. BioFlex System is a flexible rod system which has been used to preserve motion at the area of implantation. There has not been a scientific study showing how much motion is preserved after implantation. Methods A total of 12 consecutive patients underwent posterior dynamic stabilization using the BioFlex System. Six patients were treated using a L3-4-5 construct and other six patients using a L4-5-S1 construct. Follow-up ranged from 12 to 33 months and standing neutral lateral, extension, flexion and posteroanterior (PA) radiographs were obtained at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months and at more than 12 months postoperatively. Range of motion (ROM), whole lumbar lordosis, and ROMs of motion segments from L2 to S1 were determined. Results Patients with a L3-4-5 construct demonstrated a decrease in mean ROM for whole lumbar decreased from 40.08 to 30.77. Mean ROM for L3-4 (6.12 to 2.20) and L4-5 (6.55 to 1.67) also decreased after one year. Patients with a L4-5-S1 construct demonstrated L4-5 (8.75 to 2.70) and L5-S1 (9.97 to 3.25) decrease of mean ROM at one year postoperatively. Lumbar lordosis was preserved at both L3-4-5 and L4-5-S1 constructs. Clinical results showed significant improvements in both study groups. Conclusion The present study provides preliminary information regarding the BioFlex motion preservation system. We conclude that the BioFlex System preserves functional motion to some degree at instrumented levels. However, although total lumbar lordosis was preserved, ROMs at implantation segments were lower than preoperative values. PMID:20041052

Zhang, Ho Yeol; Cho, Bo Young

2009-01-01

216

Comparison of the biomechanical stability of dense cancellous allograft with tricortical iliac autograft and fibular allograft for cervical interbody fusion  

PubMed Central

Several choices are available for cervical interbody fusion after anterior cervical discectomy. A recent option is dense cancellous allograft (CS) which is characterized by an open-matrix structure that may promote vascularization and cellular penetration during early osseous integration. However, the biomechanical stability of CS should be comparable to that of the tricortical iliac autograft (AG) and fibular allograft (FA) to be an acceptable alternative to these materials. The purpose of this study was to compare the initial biomechanical stability of CS to that of AG and FA in a one-level anterior cervical discectomy and interbody fusion (ACDF) model. Twelve human cervical spines (C3–T1) were loaded in six modes of motion and evaluated under three conditions: (1) intact, (2) after ACDF using CS, AG, and FA in alternating sequences, and (3) after ACDF with anterior plating. Three reflective markers were placed on the adjacent vertebral bodies. Intervertebral motion was measured with a video-based motion-capture system (MacReflex, Qualisys, Sweden). Torques were applied to a maximum of 2.0 N m. The range-of-motion and neutral-zone values measured in each loading mode were compared. No graft material displayed significant differences in biomechanical stability in any of the tested loading modes, suggesting that the initial stability of CS is comparable to that of AG and FA. Anterior cervical plating significantly increased biomechanical stability in all modes. PMID:16429289

Lim, Jesse T.; Kim, Sung-Min; Paterno, Josemaria; Kim, Daniel H.

2006-01-01

217

Clinical measurement of posterior shoulder flexibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to determine both the intra-rater reliability and the smallest real difference necessary to detect meaningful clinical changes over an 8–12 week period for three clinical measures of posterior shoulder flexibility. Posterior shoulder tightness has been associated with abnormal humeral head translations that narrow the subacromial space and contribute to impingement. Posterior shoulder stretching to

John D. Borstad; Krista M. Mathiowetz; Laura E. Minday; Bhakti Prabhu; Daisy E. Christopherson; Paula M. Ludewig

2007-01-01

218

Lumbar Laminectomy for the Resection of Synovial Cysts and Coexisting Lumbar Spinal Stenosis or Degenerative Spondylolisthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surgeon-based evaluations and various patient-based questionnaires have been used to report the outcome of lumbar laminectomy to treat spinal stenosis alone. Sur- geon-based outcome data reveal a 56.6% to 75% inci- dence of good to excellent results.1-5 Few studies have reported on the long-term outcomes using the patient- based Oswestry Disability Questionnaire.2,6 Lumbar spinal stenosis may be further complicated by

Nancy E. Epstein

219

Midsagittal Anatomy of Lumbar Lordosis in Adult Egyptians: MRI Study  

PubMed Central

Despite the increasing recognition of the functional and clinical importance of lumbar lordosis, little is known about its description, particularly in Egypt. At the same time, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been introduced as a noninvasive diagnostic technique. The aim of this study was to investigate the anatomy of the lumbar lordosis using midsagittal MRIs. Normal lumbar spine MRIs obtained from 93 individuals (46 males, 47 females; 25–57 years old) were evaluated retrospectively. The lumbar spine curvature and its segments “vertebrae and discs” were described and measured. The lumbar lordosis angle (LLA) was larger in females than in males. Its mean values increased by age. The lumbar height (LH) was longer in males than in females. At the same time, the lumbar breadth (LB) was higher in females than in males. Lumbar index (LI?=?LB/LH?×?100) showed significant gender differences (P < 0.0001). Lordosis was formed by wedging of intervertebral discs and bodies of lower lumbar vertebrae. In conclusion, MRI might clearly reveal the anatomy of the lumbar lordosis. Use of LI in association with LLA could be useful in evaluation of lumbar lordosis.

Hegazy, Abdelmonem A.; Hegazy, Raafat A.

2014-01-01

220

Partial facetectomy for lumbar foraminal stenosis.  

PubMed

Background. Several different techniques exist to address the pain and disability caused by isolated nerve root impingement. Failure to adequately decompress the lumbar foramen may lead to failed back surgery syndrome. However, aggressive treatment often causes spinal instability or may require fusion for satisfactory results. We describe a novel technique for decompression of the lumbar nerve root and demonstrate its effectiveness in relief of radicular symptoms. Methods. Partial facetectomy was performed by removal of the medial portion of the superior facet in patients with lumbar foraminal stenosis. 47 patients underwent the procedure from 2001 to 2010. Those who demonstrated neurogenic claudication without spinal instability or central canal stenosis and failed conservative management were eligible for the procedure. Functional level was recorded for each patient. These patients were followed for an average of 3.9 years to evaluate outcomes. Results. 27 of 47 patients (57%) reported no back pain and no functional limitations. Eight of 47 patients (17%) reported moderate pain, but had no limitations. Six of 47 patients (13%) continued to experience degenerative symptoms. Five of 47 patients (11%) required additional surgery. Conclusions. Partial facetectomy is an effective means to decompress the lumbar nerve root foramen without causing spinal instability. PMID:25110591

Kang, Kevin; Rodriguez-Olaverri, Juan Carlos; Schwab, Frank; Hashem, Jenifer; Razi, Afshin; Farcy, Jean Pierre

2014-01-01

221

Split Cord Malformations of the Lumbar Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

From a group of 84 patients with split cord malformations presenting to our Department between 1976 and 1990, we have selected 47 cases in whom the split cord was confined to the lower dorsal-lumbar region and in whom there were no other dysraphic features such as meningocele, lipoma or dermoid cyst. We have studied these cases of ‘pure split cord

U. B Andar; W. F. J. Harkness; R. D. Hayward

1997-01-01

222

Acute Sciatic Neuritis following Lumbar Laminectomy  

PubMed Central

It is commonly accepted that the common cause of acute/chronic pain in the distribution of the lumbosacral nerve roots is the herniation of a lumbar intervertebral disc, unless proven otherwise. The surgical treatment of lumbar disc herniation is successful in radicular pain and prevents or limits neurological damage in the majority of patients. Recurrence of sciatica after a successful disc surgery can be due to many possible etiologies. In the clinical setting we believe that the term sciatica might be associated with inflammation. We report a case of acute sciatic neuritis presented with significant persistent pain shortly after a successful disc surgery. The patient is a 59-year-old female with complaint of newly onset sciatica after complete pain resolution following a successful lumbar laminectomy for acute disc extrusion. In order to manage the patient's newly onset pain, the patient had multiple pain management visits which provided minimum relief. Persistent sciatica and consistent physical examination findings urged us to perform a pelvic MRI to visualize suspected pathology, which revealed right side sciatic neuritis. She responded to the electrical neuromodulation. Review of the literature on sciatic neuritis shows this is the first case report of sciatic neuritis subsequent to lumbar laminectomy. PMID:25024708

Hitchon, Patrick; Reddy, Chandan G.

2014-01-01

223

Vision Loss After Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

'isual loss associated with retinal hemorrhages after laparoscopy performed under general an- esthesia has been previously reported in the an- esthesiology literature (1). This complication has been reported only once after an epidural steroid injection in the anesthesia literature (2). We report a case of acute monocular vision loss secondary to multiple retinal hemorrhages after a lumbar epidural steroid injection.

ERIG P. PURDY; GURJIT S. AJIMAL

1998-01-01

224

49 CFR 572.187 - Lumbar spine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...it to fall freely to achieve an impact velocity of 6.05 ±0.1 m/s measured at...with its decelerating mechanism. The velocity-time history of the pendulum falls...ES-2re Lumbar Spine Certification Pendulum Velocity Corridor Upper boundary...

2011-10-01

225

49 CFR 572.187 - Lumbar spine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...it to fall freely to achieve an impact velocity of 6.05 ±0.1 m/s measured at...with its decelerating mechanism. The velocity-time history of the pendulum falls...ES-2re Lumbar Spine Certification Pendulum Velocity Corridor Upper boundary...

2013-10-01

226

49 CFR 572.187 - Lumbar spine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...it to fall freely to achieve an impact velocity of 6.05 ±0.1 m/s measured at...with its decelerating mechanism. The velocity-time history of the pendulum falls...ES-2re Lumbar Spine Certification Pendulum Velocity Corridor Upper boundary...

2010-10-01

227

49 CFR 572.187 - Lumbar spine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...it to fall freely to achieve an impact velocity of 6.05 ±0.1 m/s measured at...with its decelerating mechanism. The velocity-time history of the pendulum falls...ES-2re Lumbar Spine Certification Pendulum Velocity Corridor Upper boundary...

2012-10-01

228

Partial Facetectomy for Lumbar Foraminal Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Background. Several different techniques exist to address the pain and disability caused by isolated nerve root impingement. Failure to adequately decompress the lumbar foramen may lead to failed back surgery syndrome. However, aggressive treatment often causes spinal instability or may require fusion for satisfactory results. We describe a novel technique for decompression of the lumbar nerve root and demonstrate its effectiveness in relief of radicular symptoms. Methods. Partial facetectomy was performed by removal of the medial portion of the superior facet in patients with lumbar foraminal stenosis. 47 patients underwent the procedure from 2001 to 2010. Those who demonstrated neurogenic claudication without spinal instability or central canal stenosis and failed conservative management were eligible for the procedure. Functional level was recorded for each patient. These patients were followed for an average of 3.9 years to evaluate outcomes. Results. 27 of 47 patients (57%) reported no back pain and no functional limitations. Eight of 47 patients (17%) reported moderate pain, but had no limitations. Six of 47 patients (13%) continued to experience degenerative symptoms. Five of 47 patients (11%) required additional surgery. Conclusions. Partial facetectomy is an effective means to decompress the lumbar nerve root foramen without causing spinal instability. PMID:25110591

Kang, Kevin; Rodriguez-Olaverri, Juan Carlos; Razi, Afshin; Farcy, Jean Pierre

2014-01-01

229

Stepping-like movements in humans with complete spinal cord injury induced by epidural stimulation of the lumbar cord: electromyographic study of compound muscle action potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design: It has been previously demonstrated that sustained nonpatterned electric stimulation of the posterior lumbar spinal cord from the epidural space can induce stepping-like movements in subjects with chronic, complete spinal cord injury. In the present paper, we explore physiologically related components of electromyographic (EMG) recordings during the induced stepping-like activity.Objectives: To examine mechanisms underlying the stepping-like movements activated

K Minassian; B Jilge; F Rattay; M M Pinter; H Binder; F Gerstenbrand; M R Dimitrijevic

2004-01-01

230

The Interspinous Spacer: A New Posterior Dynamic Stabilization Concept for Prevention of Adjacent Segment Disease  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Posterior Dynamic stabilization using the interspinous spacer device is a known to be used as an alternative to rigid fusion in neurogenic claudication patients in the absence of macro instability. Actually, it plays an important in the management of adjacent segment disease in previously fused lumbar spine. Materials and Method. We report our experience with posterior dynamic stabilization using an interspinous spacer. 134 cases performed in our institution between September 2008 and August 2012 with different lumbar spine pathologies. The ages of our patients were between 40 and 72 years, with a mean age of 57 years. After almost 4 years of follow up in our patient and comparing their outcome to our previous serious we found that in some case the interspinous distracter has an important role not only in the treatment of adjacent segment disease but also in its prevention. Results and Discussion. Clinical improvement was noted in ISD-treated patients, with high satisfaction rate. At first, radicular pain improves with more than 3/10 reduction of the mean score on visual analog scale (VAS). In addition, disability score as well as disc height and lordotic angle showed major improvement at 3 to 6 months post operatively. And, no adjacent segment disease was reported in the patient operated with interspinous spacer. Conclusion. The interspinous spacer is safe and efficient modality to be used not only as a treatment of adjacent segment disease but also as a preventive measure in patients necessitating rigid fusion. PMID:23662209

Nachanakian, Antoine; El Helou, Antonios; Alaywan, Moussa

2013-01-01

231

Autologous clavicle bone graft for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with titanium interbody cage.  

PubMed

A variety of donor-site complications have been reported for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) using autologous iliac bone graft. To minimize such morbidities and to obtain optimal bony fusion at the ACDF surgery, a novel technique was used to harvest cancellous bone from the autologous clavicle instead of the popular iliac crest graft. After a routine cervical discectomy of the affected level, a 1.5-cm linear skin incision was made over the clavicle within 2.5 cm of the sternoclavicular joint on the medial one-third portion. This portion is known as an anatomically safe zone, with no subcutaneous distribution of the supraclavicular nerve. Then, cancellous bone was harvested through a small cortical window developed on the clavicle. Care was taken not to injure the subclavian major vessels and the lung below the clavicle. A box-type titanium cage was packed with the harvested cancellous bone and then inserted into the discectomy-treated space for cervical interbody fusion. From 2009 to 2013, 16 patients with cervical radiculopathy and/or myelopathy underwent single-level ACDF with this method. All but 1 patient experienced significant improvement of clinical symptoms after the surgery and showed radiographic evidence of solid bony fusion and spinal stabilization within 6 months. Further, no peri- and postoperative complications at the clavicular donor site were noted. The mean visual analog scale pain score (range 0 [no pain to 10 [maximum pain]) at 1 year after the surgery was 0.1, and 13 of 14 patients with data at 1-year follow-up were highly satisfied with their donor-site cosmetic outcome. The clavicle is a safe, reliable, and technically easy source of autologous bone graft that yields optimal fusion rates and patient satisfaction with ACDF surgery. PMID:25170654

Iwasaki, Koichi; Ikedo, Taichi; Hashikata, Hirokuni; Toda, Hiroki

2014-11-01

232

Posterior and Anterior Spinal Fusion for the Management of Deformities in Patients with Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Spinal scoliosis and kyphosis in elderly people sometimes cause severe low back pain. Surgical methods such as osteotomy are useful for correcting the deformity. However, complications during and after surgery are associated with the osteotomy procedure. In particular, it is difficult to manage deformity correction surgery for patients with Parkinson's disease. Here, we present two cases of combined anterior and posterior surgery for deformity in patients with adult scoliosis and kyphosis due to Parkinson's disease. Case Presentation. Two 70-year-old women had spinal scoliosis and kyphosis due to Parkinson's disease. They had severe low back pain, and conservative treatment was not effective for the pain. Surgery was planned to correct the deformity in both patients. We performed combined posterior and anterior correction surgery. At first, posterior fusions were performed from T4 to the ilium using pedicle screws. Next, cages and autograft from the iliac crest were used in anterior lumbar surgery. The patients became symptom free after surgery. Bony fusion was observed 12 months after surgery. Conclusions. Combined posterior and anterior fusion surgery is effective for patients who show scoliosis and kyphosis deformity, and symptomatic low back pain due to Parkinson's disease. PMID:24073349

Sato, Masashi; Sainoh, Takeshi; Orita, Sumihisa; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Aoki, Yasuchika; Miyagi, Masayuki; Suzuki, Miyako; Kubota, Gou; Sakuma, Yoshihiro; Inage, Kazuhide; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Junichi; Takaso, Masashi; Toyone, Tomoaki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

2013-01-01

233

Posterior dynamic stabilization systems: DYNESYS.  

PubMed

Posterior dynamic stabilization systems have to neutralize injurious forces and restore painless function of the spine segments and protect the adjacent segments. Because degenerative disc disease has many clinical manifestations, pedicular screw systems and interspinous implants have their indications. A dynamic stabilization device has to provide stability throughout its lifetime, unless it activates or allows reparative processes with a reversal of the degenerative changes. Anchorage to the bone is crucial, at least for pedicular systems. This is a great demand on spinal implants and assumes rest and motion going together. Our experience with DYNESYS has shown that this method has limitations in elderly patients with osteoporotic bone or in patients with a severe segmental macro-instability combined with degenerative olisthesis and advanced disc degeneration. Such cases have an increased risk of failure. Only future randomized evaluations will be able to address the potential reduction of accelerated adjacent segment degeneration. The few posterior dynamic stabilization systems that have had clinical applications so far have produced clinical outcomes comparable with fusion. No severe adverse events caused by these implants have been reported. Long-term follow-up data and controlled prospective randomized studies are not available for most of the cited implants but are essential to prove the safety, efficacy, appropriateness, and economic viability of these methods. PMID:15950696

Schwarzenbach, Othmar; Berlemann, Ulrich; Stoll, Thomas M; Dubois, Gilles

2005-07-01

234

Posterior Lamellar Keratoplasty in Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Posterior lamellar keratoplasty (PLK) offers many substantial benefits compared to penetrating keratoplasty (PK) including:\\u000a closed eye surgery elimination of both regular and irregular postoperative astigmatism leading to full visual rehabilitation\\u000a with spectacles within 3–6 months, elimination of postoperative corneal anaesthesia, and a reduced risk of postoperative globe\\u000a rupture.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Disadvantages of PLK compared to PK include: corneal stromal scarring

F Arnalich-Montiel; JKG Dart

235

CT recognition of lateral lumbar disk herniation  

SciTech Connect

Although computed tomography (CT) has been shown to be useful in diagnosing posterolateral and central lumbar disk herniations, its effectiveness in demonstrating lateral herniated disks has not been emphasized. The myelographic recognition of those herniations may be difficult because root sheaths or dural sacs may not be deformed. A total of 274 CT scans interpreted as showing lumbar disk herniation was reviewed. Fourteen (5%) showed a lateral disk herniation. The CT features of a lateral herniated disk included: (1) focal protrusion of the disk margin within or lateral to the intervertebral foramen: (2) displacement of epidural fat within the intervertebral foramen; (3) absence of dural sac deformity; and (4) soft-tissue mass within or lateral to the intervertebral foramen. Because it can image the disk margin and free disk fragments irrespective of dural sac or root sheath deformity, CT may be more effective than myelography for demonstrating the presence and extent of lateral disk herniation.

Williams, A.L.; Haughton, V.M.; Daniels, D.L.; Thornton, R.S.

1982-08-01

236

Hemophilic pseudotumor of the first lumbar vertebra  

PubMed Central

Hemophilic pseudotumor involving the spine is extremely uncommon and presents a challenging problem. Preoperative planning, angiography, intra and perioperative monitoring with factor VIII cover and postoperative care for hemophilic pseudotumor is vital. Recognition of the artery of Adamkiewicz in the thoracolumbar junction helps to avoid intraoperative neurological injury. We report the case of a 26-year-old male patient with hemophilia A, who presented with a massive pseudotumor involving the first lumbar vertebra and the left iliopsoas. Preoperative angiography revealed the artery of Adamkiewicz arising from the left first lumbar segmental artery. Excision of pseudotumor was successfully carried out with additional spinal stabilization. At 2 years followup, there was no recurrence and the patient was well stabilized with a satisfactory functional status. Surgical excision gives satisfactory outcome in such cases.

Nachimuthu, Gurusamy; Arockiaraj, Justin; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Sundararaj, Gabriel David

2014-01-01

237

Lumbar Intervertebral Disk Degeneration in Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Several studies have reported that physical loading related to competitive sports activities is associated with lumbar intervertebral disk degeneration. However, the association between types of sports activities and disk degeneration has not been clarified.Hypothesis: The frequencies of disk degeneration may vary with the competitive sport because of the different postures and actions specific to each sport.Study Design: Cross-sectional study

Mika Hangai; Koji Kaneoka; Shiro Hinotsu; Ken Shimizu; Yu Okubo; Shumpei Miyakawa; Naoki Mukai; Masataka Sakane; Naoyuki Ochiai

2009-01-01

238

Training does not increase maximal lumbar extension in healthy adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To investigate if there is training reserve in the maximal lumbar extension.Design. Three-year longitudinal study.Background. Among adults there is variation in the normal range of sagittal motion of the lumbar spine, but reduced spinal flexibility does not predict future occupational back pain. In various sports and in ballet, maximal extension of lumbar spine is a common manoeuvre, and low-back

UM Kujala; A Oksanen; S Taimela; JJ Salminen

1997-01-01

239

Design concepts in lumbar total disc arthroplasty  

PubMed Central

The implantation of lumbar disc prostheses based on different design concepts is widely accepted. This paper reviews currently available literature studies on the biomechanics of TDA in the lumbar spine, and is targeted at the evaluation of possible relationships between the aims of TDA and the geometrical, mechanical and material properties of the various available disc prostheses. Both theoretical and experimental studies were analyzed, by a PUBMED search (performed in February 2007, revised in January 2008), focusing on single level TDA. Both semi-constrained and unconstrained lumbar discs seem to be able to restore nearly physiological IAR locations and ROM values. However, both increased and decreased ROM was stated in some papers, unrelated to the clinical outcome. Segmental lordosis alterations after TDA were reported in most cases, for both constrained and unconstrained disc prostheses. An increase in the load through the facet joints was documented, for both semi-constrained and unconstrained artificial discs, but with some contrasting results. Semi-constrained devices may be able to share a greater part of the load, thus protecting the surrounding biological structure from overloading and possible early degeneration, but may be more susceptible to wear. The next level of development will be the biomechanical integration of compression across the motion segment. All these findings need to be supported by long-term clinical outcome studies. PMID:18946684

Bellini, Chiara M.; Zweig, Thomas; Ferguson, Stephen; Raimondi, Manuela T.; Lamartina, Claudio; Brayda-Bruno, Marco; Fornari, Maurizio

2008-01-01

240

[Rehabilitation after lumbar intervertebral disk operation].  

PubMed

122 patients were admitted 3 months after a lumbar disc operation to a rehabilitation clinic. Conservative treatment during the rehabilitation induced a decrease of low back pain (70 out of 107 patients), of paresis (30/51 patients), and of paresthesia (51/77 patients). More than 20 pre- and post-operative variables were tested with a rank-variance analysis regarding a possible influence on efficacy of the rehabilitation treatment. The success of the conservative treatment measured by improvement of paresis, paresthesia, pain and mobility of lumbar spine was influenced favourably by preoperative paresis (p less than 0.03). Women showed more often than men an improvement of paresis (p = 0.006) immediately after surgery. Patients with a preoperative paresis had a shorter history of radicular symptoms (p = 0.002), an acute onset was seen more often in patients with persistent paresis (p = 0.019). Paresthesia was found more frequently before surgery (p = 0.010) and at begin of rehabilitation (p = 0.006) in patients with paresis compared to patients without paresis. A statistically significant association was also evaluated between decreased lumbar mobility and laminectomy (p = 0.007). Patients with L5/S1 disc operation had a longer duration of radicular symptoms (p = 0.012), a decreased frequency of paresis (p = 0.040), but more often paresthesia (p = 0.001) compared with L4/5 operation. PMID:1796721

Scherak, O; Kolarz, G; Wottawa, A

1991-01-01

241

Management of lumbar injuries in athletes.  

PubMed

Lumbar spine pain is a common and disabling condition affecting an athlete's ability to train and compete. The athletic management team must take a cooperative approach to diagnosis and treatment. The presentation pattern and injury history may provide an early cue to diagnosis; information gained by the trainer or therapist at the time of injury is particularly important. The unique anatomy and biomechanics of the lumbar segments leads to certain injury patterns. Knowledge of the potential motion, muscle effectors of motion and mechanisms of injury allows for a highly specific diagnosis. A meticulous physical examination with particular attention to neurological findings should be used to confirm suspicions from the athlete's symptom pattern. Early conservative treatment should be initiated for all patients except those who are mechanically unstable or neurologically impaired. Aerobic and nonpainful sports-specific training may be continued under the care of the trainer or physical therapist. This will limit the loss of skill and endurance when normal activity is resumed. Diagnosis-specific medical and physical therapy should supplement this training activity. A care team that carefully analyses the pain presentation, injury history and symptoms, and directs a diagnosis-specific treatment programme, should manage lumbar spine conditions in the athlete. PMID:10091277

Montgomery, S; Haak, M

1999-02-01

242

Delayed Retroperitoneal Hemorrhage due to Lumbar Artery Pseudoaneurysm after Lumbar Posterolateral Fusion  

PubMed Central

A 55-year-old female patient presented with lower back pain and neurogenic intermittent claudication and underwent L3-L4 posterolateral fusion. To prepare the bone fusion bed, the transverse process of L3 and L4 was decorticated with a drill. On the 9th post-operative day, the patient complained of a sudden onset of severe abdominal pain and distension. Abdominal computed tomography revealed retroperitoneal hematoma in the right psoas muscle and iatrogenic right L3 transverse process fracture. Lumbar spinal angiography showed the delayed hematoma due to rupture of the 2nd lumbar artery pseudoaneurysm and coil embolization was done at the ruptured lumbar artery pseudoaneusyrm. Since then, the patient's postoperative progress proceeded normally with recovery of the hemodynamic parameters. PMID:24294460

Oh, Young Min; Choi, Ha Young

2013-01-01

243

Delayed Retroperitoneal Hemorrhage due to Lumbar Artery Pseudoaneurysm after Lumbar Posterolateral Fusion.  

PubMed

A 55-year-old female patient presented with lower back pain and neurogenic intermittent claudication and underwent L3-L4 posterolateral fusion. To prepare the bone fusion bed, the transverse process of L3 and L4 was decorticated with a drill. On the 9th post-operative day, the patient complained of a sudden onset of severe abdominal pain and distension. Abdominal computed tomography revealed retroperitoneal hematoma in the right psoas muscle and iatrogenic right L3 transverse process fracture. Lumbar spinal angiography showed the delayed hematoma due to rupture of the 2nd lumbar artery pseudoaneurysm and coil embolization was done at the ruptured lumbar artery pseudoaneusyrm. Since then, the patient's postoperative progress proceeded normally with recovery of the hemodynamic parameters. PMID:24294460

Oh, Young Min; Choi, Ha Young; Eun, Jong Pil

2013-10-01

244

[Juxta facet cyst of the lumbar spine: an uncommon cause of lumbar radiculopathy].  

PubMed

Lumbar juxta facet cysts (JFC) are an uncommon cause of radiculopathy. Spontaneous regression of symptomatic JFC has not often been reported. We describe 2 patients, a 59-year-old man and a 55-year-old man, with radiculopathy of the 5th lumbar nerve root due to a JFC at L4-5. The first patient recovered spontaneously. After 8 months, the JFC had clearly reduced on MRI. In the second patient the JFC was surgically resected due to progressive pain, after which the patient remained without symptoms. In the literature it is suggested that surgical removal of the JFC should be the treatment of choice. However, of the 5 patients who were diagnosed with a JFC in our department, 3 recovered spontaneously and 2 after surgery. In our opinion further studies on the course and management of symptomatic lumbar JFC are warranted. PMID:20619028

de Beukelaar, Janet W K; Dallenga, Alof; de Jong, Gert-Jan; de Winter, Koos J A Ruizeveld; Bakker, Stef L M

2010-01-01

245

The Effects of Stretching with Lumbar Traction on VAS and Oswestry Scales of Patients with Lumbar 4-5 Herniated Intervertebral Disc  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study investigated the effect of stretching with lumbar traction on VAS and Oswestry scale scores of lumbar 4–5 herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD) patients. [Subjects] We recruited 20 lumbar 4–5 HIVD patients. [Methods] We performed stretching with lumbar traction for lumbar 4–5 HIVD patients during 4 weeks. The VAS and Oswestry scales were measured before and 4 weeks after the intervention. [Results] The results showed a significant decrease in VAS scale scores for stretching with lumbar traction in lumbar 4–5 HIVD patients, from 18±1.29 to 2.1±1.35. The Oswestry scale scores also decreased significantly, from 20.35±2.01 to 3.5±2.84, after stretching with lumbar traction. [Conclusion] Thus, we suggest stretching with lumbar traction for lumbar 4–5 HIVD patients. PMID:25140094

Yang, Hae-sun; Yoo, Won-gyu

2014-01-01

246

Lumbar disk herniation surgery: outcome and predictors.  

PubMed

Study Design?A retrospective cohort study. Objectives?To determine the outcome and any differences in the clinical results of three different surgical methods for lumbar disk herniation and to assess the effect of factors that could predict the outcome of surgery. Methods?We evaluated 148 patients who had operations for lumbar disk herniation from March 2006 to March 2011 using three different surgical techniques (laminectomy, microscopically assisted percutaneous nucleotomy, and spinous process osteotomy) by using Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire, Resumption of Activities of Daily Living scale and changes of visual analog scale (VAS) for low back pain and radicular pain. Our study questionnaire addressed patient subjective satisfaction with the operation, residual complaints, and job resumption. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 16.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, Illinois, United States). Statistical significance was set at 0.05. For statistical analysis, chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and repeated measure analysis were performed. For determining the confounding factors, univariate analysis by chi-square test was used and followed by logistic regression analysis. Results?Ninety-four percent of our patients were satisfied with the results of their surgeries. VAS documented an overall 93.3% success rate for reduction of radicular pain. Laminectomy resulted in better outcome in terms of JOA Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire. The outcome of surgery did not significantly differ by age, sex, level of education, preoperative VAS for back, preoperative VAS for radicular pain, return to previous job, or level of herniation. Conclusion?Surgery for lumbar disk herniation is effective in reducing radicular pain (93.4%). All three surgical approaches resulted in significant decrease in preoperative radicular pain and low back pain, but intergroup variation in the outcome was not achieved. As indicated by JOA Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire-Low Back Pain (JOABPQ-LBP) and lumbar function functional scores, laminectomy achieved significantly better outcome compared with other methods. It is worth mentioning that relief of radicular pain was associated with subjective satisfaction with the surgery among our study population. Predictive factors for ineffective surgical treatment for lumbar disk herniation were female sex and negative preoperative straight leg raising. Age, level of education, and preoperative VAS for low back pain were other factors that showed prediction power. PMID:25396104

Sedighi, Mahsa; Haghnegahdar, Ali

2014-12-01

247

Higher risk of dural tears and recurrent herniation with lumbar micro-endoscopic discectomy  

PubMed Central

Existing studies on micro-endoscopic lumbar discectomy report similar outcomes to those of open and microdiscectomy and conflicting results on complications. We designed a randomised controlled trial to investigate the hypothesis of different outcomes and complications obtainable with the three techniques. 240 patients aged 18–65 years affected by posterior lumbar disc herniation and symptoms lasting over 6 weeks of conservative management were randomised to micro-endoscopic (group 1), micro (group 2) or open (group 3) discectomy. Exclusion criteria were less than 6 weeks of pain duration, cauda equina compromise, foraminal or extra-foraminal herniations, spinal stenosis, malignancy, previous spinal surgery, spinal deformity, concurrent infection and rheumatic disease. Surgery and follow-up were made at a single Institution. A biomedical researcher independently collected and reviewed the data. ODI, back and leg VAS and SF-36 were the outcome measures used preoperatively, postoperatively and at 6-, 12- and 24-month follow-up. 212/240 (91%) patients completed the 24-month follow-up period. VAS back and leg, ODI and SF36 scores showed clinically and statistically significant improvements within groups without significant difference among groups throughout follow-up. Dural tears, root injuries and recurrent herniations were significantly more common in group 1. Wound infections were similar in group 2 and 3, but did not affect patients in group 1. Overall costs were significantly higher in group 1 and lower in group 3. In conclusion, outcome measures are equivalent 2 years following lumbar discectomy with micro-endoscopy, microscopy or open technique, but severe complications are more likely and costs higher with micro-endoscopy. PMID:20127495

Lovi, Alessio; Brayda-Bruno, Marco; Zagra, Antonino; Corriero, Andrea; Giudici, Fabrizio; Minoia, Leone

2010-01-01

248

Posterior Cruciate Ligament Removal Contributes to Abnormal Knee Motion during Posterior Stabilized Total Knee Arthroplasty  

E-print Network

Posterior Cruciate Ligament Removal Contributes to Abnormal Knee Motion during Posterior Stabilized Total Knee Arthroplasty Melinda J. Cromie,1,2 Robert A. Siston,1,2,3,4 Nicholas J. Giori,2,5 Scott L (20­608) following posterior stabilized total knee arthroplasty. The underlying biomechanical causes

Delp, Scott

249

[Suprasegmental effects of selective posterior rhizotomy].  

PubMed

The occurrence of spasticity is most commonly attributed to the lack of presynaptic inhibition. Perinatal damage to the central nervous system, as it happens in cerebral palsy, leads to pathological reflex response both on segmental and polysegmental levels. It results not only in clinical signs typical for spasticity but also in alterations of brainstem function, such as dysarthria or congenital nystagmus. Selective posterior rhizotomy is a neurosurgical method, routinely used in the treatment of spasticity. The lumbosacral posterior roots are partially cut under perioperative neurophysiological control. The aim of the treatment is the reduction of afferentation for posterior horns resulting in a decrease of pathological reflex responses. Selective posterior rhizotomy consequently decreases lower limbs spasticity. The improvement of upper extremities fine skills, the improvement of speech and cognitive functions has been also observed after selective posterior rhizotomy. The possible pathophysiological explanations of these so-called suprasegmental effects are discussed in the article. PMID:15446453

Horínek, D; Tichý, M; Cerný, R; Vlková, J

2004-01-01

250

Chronic spontaneous lumbar epidural hematoma simulating extradural spinal tumor: a case report.  

PubMed

Spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) is an uncommon disorder, and chronic SEHs are rarer than acute SEHs. However, there is few reported involving the bone change of the vertebral body in chronic SEHs. We present a case report of lumbar epidural hematoma that required differentiation from extramedullary spinal tumors by a long process because the CT scan revealed scalloping of the vertebral body and review the relevant literature. A 78-year-old man had experienced a gradual onset of low back pain and excruciating pain in both legs. Lumbar MRI on T1-weighted images revealed a space-occupying lesion with a hyperintense signal relative to the spinal cord with no enhancement on gadolinium adminisration. Meanwhile, T2-weighted images revealed a heterogeneous intensity change, accompanying a central area of hyperintense signals with a hypointense peripheral border at the L4 vertebra. Moreover, the CT scan demonstrated scalloping of the posterior wall of the L4 vertebral body which is generally suspected as the CT finding of spainal tumor. During the epidural space exploration, we found a dark red-colored mass surrounded by a capsular layer, which was fibrous and adhered to the flavum and dura mater. Microscopic histological examination of the resected mass revealed a mixture of the relatively new hematoma and the hematoma that was moving into the connective tissue. Accordingly, the hematoma was diagnosed as chronic SEH. The particular MRI findings of chronic SEHs are helpful for making accurate preoperative diagnoses of this pathology. PMID:25130006

Matsui, Hiroki; Imagama, Shiro; Ito, Zenya; Ando, Kei; Hirano, Kenichi; Tauchi, Ryoji; Muramoto, Akio; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Ishiguro, Naoki

2014-02-01

251

Unilateral lumbar facet joint hypertrophy causing nerve root irritation.  

PubMed

We present four cases of massive unilateral lumbar facet joint hypertrophy in an otherwise morphologically normal spine. All presented with a combination of low back pain and symptoms of entrapment of a single lumbar nerve root. The abnormality is best visualised by CT scanning and the results of surgical decompression by partial undercutting facetectomy are favourable. PMID:3190129

Wilde, G P; Szypryt, E P; Mulholland, R C

1988-09-01

252

Lumbar Puncture: It Is Time to Change the Needle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lumbar puncture is a frequent procedure performed by physicians from several disciplines to help establish a diagnosis and treatment for several diseases. Post-lumbar puncture headache (PLPH) is a frequent complication that typically lasts for a couple of days and can be severe enough to immobilize the patient and to require therapy. There are several risk factors identified, pain characteristics, and

Ronit Lavi; J. M. Rowe; Irit Avivi

2010-01-01

253

Spinal lumbar synovial cysts. Diagnosis and management challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sophisticated and newer imaging capabilities have resulted in increased reporting and treatment options of spinal lumbar synovial cysts (LSS). Most of the patients with lumbar cysts tend to be in their sixth decade of life with a slight female predominance. The incidence of LSS is thought to be less than 0.5% of the general symptomatic population. They may be asymptomatic

Amir M. Khan; Federico Girardi

2006-01-01

254

[Ischemic optic neuropathy after lumbar spine surgery].  

PubMed

Ischemic optic neuropathy is the most common cause of visual complications after non-ophthalmic surgery. The incidence has varied in different case series, but prone-position spine surgery appears to be involved in most of the reports. We present the case of a 47-year-old woman who developed near total blindness in the left eye following lumbar spine fusion surgery involving the loss of 900 mL of blood. An ophthalmic examination including inspection of the ocular fundus, fluorescein angiography, and visual evoked potentials returned a diagnosis of retrolaminar optic neuropathy. Outcome was poor. PMID:18200998

Bermejo-Alvarez, M A; Carpintero, M; García-Carro, G; Acebal, G; Fervienza, P; Cosío, F

2007-12-01

255

A novel computer algorithm allows for volumetric and cross-sectional area analysis of indirect decompression following transpsoas lumbar arthrodesis despite variations in MRI technique.  

PubMed

Many patients present for neurosurgical spine evaluation with MRI studies conducted at facilities outside of the treating medical center. These images often vary widely in technique, for example, variation in slice thickness, number of slices, and gantry angle. While these images may be sufficient in conjunction with a physical exam to make surgical evaluations, we have found they are often incapable of being used for objective post-operative volumetric comparisons. In order to overcome this, we created a computer program that compensates for these variations in MRI technique. For this study, we examined patients who had undergone outside MRI pre-operatively and were deemed appropriate for a lateral retroperitoneal transpsoas lumbar interbody arthrodesis procedure. Volumetric analysis was performed on sagittal and axial T2-weighted pre- and post-operative MRI. The percentage change of central canal volume and foraminal area was calculated for each level. The authors identified five levels with MRI sufficient for volumetric analysis and eight levels (16 foramina) sufficient for foraminal cross-sectional analysis. Through use of our computer algorithm, average central canal volume and foraminal cross-sectional area was calculated to increase by 32.8% and 67.6% respectively following the procedure. These results are consistent with previous study findings and support the idea that restoration of the anterior column via a lateral approach can result in significant indirect decompression of the neural elements. Additionally, the novel algorithm created and used for this study suggests that it can achieve quick measurement and comparison of MRI studies despite variations in pre- and post-operative technique. PMID:24128766

Gates, Timothy A; Vasudevan, Ram R; Miller, Kai J; Stamatopoulou, Vasiliki; Mindea, Stefan A

2014-03-01

256

Posterior compartment prolapse: a urogynecology perspective.  

PubMed

Posterior compartment prolapse is often caused by a defect in the rectovaginal septum, also known as Denonvillier's fascia. Patients with symptomatic posterior compartment prolapse can present with bulge symptoms as well as defecatory dysfunction, including constipation, tenesmus, splinting, and fecal incontinence. The diagnosis can successfully be made on clinical examination. Treatment of posterior prolapse includes pessaries and surgery. Both traditional colporrhaphy and site-specific defect repair have excellent success rates. Complications from surgery can include sexual dysfunction, de novo dyspareunia, and defecatory dysfunction. Compared with native tissue repair, biological and synthetic grafting has not improved overall anatomic and subjective outcomes. PMID:22877719

Richardson, Monica L; Elliot, Christopher S; Sokol, Eric R

2012-08-01

257

Sickle cell disease and posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy.  

PubMed

Sickle cell disease can present with neurological manifestations. One such presentation is with posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy also known as reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy. The condition is classically described as reversible over time; it commonly presents with oedematous changes involving the white matter of the occipital and parietal regions. Only a few patients with the association between sickle cell disease and posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy have been described in the adult literature. We present two patients from our institutions to emphasise the association between the two conditions and summarise the published cases in the literature. PMID:24656986

Geevasinga, Nimeshan; Cole, Catherine; Herkes, Geoffrey K; Barnett, Yael; Lin, Jamie; Needham, Merrilee

2014-08-01

258

Does lumbar spinal degeneration begin with the anterior structures? A study of the observed epidemiology in a community-based population  

PubMed Central

Background- Prior studies that have concluded that disk degeneration uniformly precedes facet degeneration have been based on convenience samples of individuals with low back pain. We conducted a study to examine whether the view that spinal degeneration begins with the anterior spinal structures is supported by epidemiologic observations of degeneration in a community-based population. Methods- 361 participants from the Framingham Heart Study were included in this study. The prevalences of anterior vertebral structure degeneration (disk height loss) and posterior vertebral structure degeneration (facet joint osteoarthritis) were characterized by CT imaging. The cohort was divided into the structural subgroups of participants with 1) no degeneration, 2) isolated anterior degeneration (without posterior degeneration), 3) combined anterior and posterior degeneration, and 4) isolated posterior degeneration (without anterior structure degeneration). We determined the prevalence of each degeneration pattern by age group < 45, 45-54, 55-64, ?65. In multivariate analyses we examined the association between disk height loss and the response variable of facet joint osteoarthritis, while adjusting for age, sex, BMI, and smoking. Results- As the prevalence of the no degeneration and isolated anterior degeneration patterns decreased with increasing age group, the prevalence of the combined anterior/posterior degeneration pattern increased. 22% of individuals demonstrated isolated posterior degeneration, without an increase in prevalence by age group. Isolated posterior degeneration was most common at the L5-S1 and L4-L5 spinal levels. In multivariate analyses, disk height loss was independently associated with facet joint osteoarthritis, as were increased age (years), female sex, and increased BMI (kg/m2), but not smoking. Conclusions- The observed epidemiology of lumbar spinal degeneration in the community-based population is consistent with an ordered progression beginning in the anterior structures, for the majority of individuals. However, some individuals demonstrate atypical patterns of degeneration, beginning in the posterior joints. Increased age and BMI, and female sex may be related to the occurrence of isolated posterior degeneration in these individuals. PMID:21914197

2011-01-01

259

[Lumbar spondylodiscitis caused by Salmonella enteritidis].  

PubMed

A 19-year-old boy developed paravertebral muscular pain in the lumbar region after an episode of extremely arduous sporting activity, with fever followed by meningism. The cerebrospinal fluid showed a reactive pleocytosis. Initially, no acute inflammatory changes were present on serum and blood analysis, although the erythrocyte sedimentation rate was moderately increased to 25/60 mm. Pyrexia of up to 38.5 degrees C developed 6 days after admission. Because Borrelia IgM and IgG titres were positive, the diagnosis was at first thought to be atypical borreliosis and the patient was treated with antibiotics. However, after a further episode of fever. Salmonella antibody titres, which had initially been normal, rose to 1: 3200 (Salmonella typhi O and H antigens) and 1: 12800 (Salmonella enteritidis, H antigen). At this stage, the erythrocyte sedimentation rate rose to 86/120 mm and the C-reactive protein to 77 mg/dl. The white cell count remained normal throughout. Blood cultures grew Salmonella enteritidis. Abnormalities on bone scintigraphy were confirmed by CT and MRI scans, showing spondylodiscitis of lumbar vertebrae 1 and 2 with limited osteolysis. The lesion resolved completely on 6 week's treatment with ciprofloxacin (200 mg twice a day intravenously) and conservative supportive treatment. Spondylodiscitis is an uncommon complication of salmonellosis and may occur long after the diarrhoea. Cross reactions with Borrelia flagellin antigens may lead to the wrong diagnosis being made. PMID:7924947

Schüler, A; Schaumann, D; Manns, M P; Koch, K M

1994-10-14

260

Dynesys fixation for lumbar spine degeneration.  

PubMed

The dynamic fixation system Dynesys is utilized in the last 10 years for treatment of degenerative segmental disease of the lumbar spine. Dynesys is a semi-rigid fixation system that allows minimal lengthening and shortening between two segmental pedicle screws as opposed to a rigid metal bar. Thus, the system is regarded to maintain stability and near physiological motion patterns of the lumbar spine. The theoretical advantage of this system is to stabilize the treated segment and to prevent adjacent segment degeneration. The goal of this prospective trial was to evaluate clinical, radiographic, and computed tomography (CT) scan outcomes in 54 consecutive cases. Postoperative complications are discussed in detail. Forty cases were recruited with a mean follow-up of 16 months (range, 12 to 37). Postoperative pain scores (Hannover Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire and VAS for back and leg pain) improved in 29 cases (73%) and was best when dynamic fusion was combined with nerve root decompression. Outcome data were not superior to conventional rigid fusion systems and had a considerable number of complications requiring revision surgery in 27.5% of cases. PMID:17906883

Bothmann, Matthias; Kast, Erich; Boldt, Gerald Jens; Oberle, Joachim

2008-04-01

261

Anatomical Posterior Cruciate Ligament TransplantationA Biomechanical Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although current techniques of posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction may successfully stabilize the posterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee, no studies have demonstrated restoration of intact-knee kinematics.Hypothesis: Posterior cruciate ligament transplantation will successfully restore posterior stability and kinematics to the posterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee.Study Design: Controlled laboratory study.Methods: Seven pairs (donor\\/recipient) of size-matched cadaveric knees underwent a novel technique for posterior cruciate

Daniel K. Davis; David H. Goltz; Donald C. Fithian; Darryl D’Lima

2006-01-01

262

Biomechanical response of the lumbar spine in dynamic compression.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the biomechanical properties of the human lumbar spine subjected to dynamic compression. A series of six experiments using the lumbar spines from four human cadavers was performed. The first two tests utilized the entire lumbar spine while the remaining four tests used lumbar functional joints to separate the differences in stability. A high rate material testing machine was used to produce the dynamic compression at a displacement rate of 1 m/s. Custom mounting plates were developed to ensure proper anatomical position of the lumbar spine sections. Both tests with the whole lumbar spines resulted in compression fractures at T12 due to combined axial loads of 5009 N and 5911 N and bending moments of 237 Nm and 165 Nm respectively. These failures occurred as the spine behaved in first order buckling which resulted in concentrated loading and bending of the anterior aspects of the vertebral bodies. All tests with functional units resulted in endplate fractures and recorded substantially higher axial loads between 11,203 N and 13,065 N and substantially lower bending moments between 47 Nm and 88 Nm. The results indicate that the mechanical stability of the lumbar spine is critical component in relation to the tolerable compressive loads. PMID:16817654

Duma, Stefan M; Kemper, Andrew R; McNeely, David M; Brolinson, P Gunnar; Matsuoka, Fumio

2006-01-01

263

Posterior approach white line advancement ptosis repair: the evolving posterior approach to ptosis surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionWe describe a surgical technique for ptosis correction in moderate to good levator function involving advancement of the levator aponeurosis via a transconjunctival posterior approach without resection of Müller's muscle. We present our experience of and the results from this method, and review the evolution of posterior approach ptosis surgery.PurposeTo assess the efficacy and predictability of posterior approach white line

Vikesh Patel; Aysha Salam; Raman Malhotra

2010-01-01

264

Posterior horn instability of the medial meniscus a sign of posterior meniscotibial ligament insufficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  In longstanding chronic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) insufficiency, we identified an abnormal movement of the posterior\\u000a medial meniscal horn, likely due to insufficiency of the posteromedial meniscotibial ligament. Passing from extension to flexion\\u000a or vice versa, the medial posterior horn slides below the posterior rim of the tibia exposing the tibial plateau. Fixation\\u000a with suture anchors of the meniscotibial ligament

P. P. Mariani

2011-01-01

265

Efficacy of surgery and type of fusion in patients with degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis.  

PubMed

Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS) can be treated by several surgical procedures. However, the choice of procedure and use of instrumentation remain controversial. In this retrospective study of 81 patients with DLSS, 43 patients received decompression and posterolateral fusion without instrumentation, and the surgery for 38 patients was supplemented with posterior transpedicular screw fixation. Both surgeon-based (Fischgrund criteria) and patient-based (Medical Outcome Trust Short-Form 36 [SF-36] questionnaire) standards were used to assess the clinical outcomes. An excellent to good result was achieved in 71.6% of patients and there was no significant difference 6.2 years later between groups with or without instrumentation (Z=0.0358, p>0.05). SF-36 data revealed significant postoperative improvement (p<0.01), and there was no significant difference between the two groups (t=1.67, p>0.05). Successful fusion occurred in 87% of patients with instrumentation versus 67% of the patients without instrumentation (chi(2)=4.23, p<0.05). Thus, surgical treatment of DLSS generally results in satisfactory outcomes. Transpedicular screw fixation may not improve clinical outcomes and the use of posterior instrumentation should be adopted cautiously. PMID:19577930

Gu, Yong; Chen, Liang; Yang, Hui-Lin; Chen, Xiao-Qing; Dong, Ren-Bin; Han, Guo-Sheng; Tang, Tian-Si; Zhang, Zhi-Ming

2009-10-01

266

Posterior urethral polyp with type I posterior urethral valves: a rare association in a neonate.  

PubMed

Urethral polyp is a rare cause of bladder outlet obstruction, voiding dysfunction, and hematuria in the pediatric age group. Urethral polyps are rarely associated with other congenital urinary tract anomalies. In this study, we report a case of solitary posterior urethral polyp with type I posterior urethral valve in a 7-day-old neonate presented with urinary retention and deranged renal function. The polyp was diagnosed on cystoscopy. Transurethral resection of the polyp with posterior urethral valve fulguration was performed. Pathologic assessment revealed a fibroepithelial lesion, which was consistent with congenital posterior urethral polyp. PMID:24767515

Kesan, Krushnakumar V; Gupta, Rahul Kumar; Kothari, Paras; Gupta, Abhaya; Mudkhedkar, Kedar; Kamble, Ravikiran; Dikshit, K Vishesh

2014-06-01

267

Lumbar Spinal Stenosis-Specific Symptom Scale  

PubMed Central

Study Design. Cross-sectional study. Objectives. To test the validity and responsiveness of the lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS)–specific symptom scale (FLS-25 [Fukushima LSS Scale 25]). Summary of Background Data. The FLS-25, a self-administered questionnaire designed to comprehensively cover various symptoms of LSS, has been developed to address the need to measure symptoms specific to this disorder. Methods. One hundred sixty-seven patients with confirmed LSS who required conservative therapy were asked to complete a questionnaire including questions regarding walking capacity and the FLS-25. These patients also underwent a lumbar extension test and a walking stress test, which are stress tests designed to objectively evaluate LSS symptoms, to measure standing time, walking distance, and walking time. Relationship between the FLS-25 scores and these external standards was analyzed to evaluate the criterion validity of the FLS-25. The patients underwent the same evaluations after 8 weeks of conservative therapy. The relationship between changes from baseline to week 8 in FLS-25 scores and changes in the 3 external standards was analyzed to evaluate the responsiveness of the FLS-25. Results. The distribution of FLS-25 scores among patients was symmetric, and there were no ceiling or floor effects. FLS-25 scores increased as self-reported walking capacity decreased (P = 0.006). The mean standing time in the lumbar extension test was 165 (SD = 109) seconds, and FLS-25 scores increased as standing time decreased (P = 0.003). In the walking stress test, mean walking distance and mean walking time were 213 (SD = 154) m and 236 (SD = 114) seconds. FLS-25 scores increased as walking distance (P = 0.002) and walking time (P = 0.054) decreased. Changes from baseline to week 8 in FLS-25 scores correlated with changes in the stress test standing time (P = 0.014), walking distance (P < 0.001), and walking time (P < 0.001). Conclusion. The criterion validity and responsiveness of the FLS-25 were confirmed. The use of FLS-25 in clinical and investigational settings is warranted to monitor patients and evaluate therapeutic efficacy. Level of Evidence: 3

Wakita, Takafumi; Otani, Koji; Onishi, Yoshihiro; Fukuhara, Shunichi; Kikuchi, Shin-ichi; Konno, Shin-ichi

2014-01-01

268

Damage accumulation location under cyclic loading in the lumbar disc shifts from inner annulus lamellae to peripheral annulus with increasing disc degeneration.  

PubMed

It is difficult to study the breakdown of lumbar disc tissue over several years of exposure to bending and lifting by experimental methods. In our earlier published study we have shown how a finite element model of a healthy lumbar motion segment was used to predict the damage accumulation location and number of cyclic to failure under different loading conditions. The aim of the current study was to extend the continuum damage mechanics formulation to the degenerated discs and investigate the initiation and progression of mechanical damage. Healthy disc model was modified to represent degenerative discs (Thompson grade III and IV) by incorporating both geometrical and biochemical changes due to degeneration. Analyses predicted decrease in the number of cycles to failure with increasing severity of disc degeneration. The study showed that the damage initiated at the posterior inner annulus adjacent to the endplates and propagated outwards towards its periphery in healthy and grade III degenerated discs. The damage accumulated preferentially in the posterior region of the annulus. However in grade IV degenerated disc damage initiated at the posterior outer periphery of the annulus and propagated circumferentially. The finite element model predictions were consistent with the infrequent occurrence of rim lesions at early age but a much higher incidence in severely degenerated discs. PMID:24231247

Qasim, Muhammad; Natarajan, Raghu N; An, Howard S; Andersson, Gunnar B J

2014-01-01

269

Sciatica caused by lumbar epidural gas  

PubMed Central

Gas production as a part of disc degeneration can occur but rarely causes nerve compression syndromes. The clinical features are similar to those of common sciatica. CT is very useful in the detection of epidural gas accumulation and nerve root compression. We report a case of symptomatic epidural gas accumulation originating from vacuum phenomenon in the intervertebral disc, causing lumbo-sacral radiculopathy. A 45-year-old woman suffered from sciatica for 9 months. The condition worsened in recent days. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated intradiscal vacuum phenomenon, and accumulation of gas in the lumbar epidural space compressing the dural sac and S1 nerve root. After evacuation of the gas, her pain resolved without recurrence.

Belfquih, Hatim; El Mostarchid, Brahim; Akhaddar, Ali; Gazzaz, Miloudi; Boucetta, Mohammed

2014-01-01

270

Arthroscopic stabilization of posterior shoulder instability.  

PubMed

Posterior shoulder instability is a rare and challenging condition with a complex patho-anatomy. The role of arthroscopic repair in the treatment remains poorly defined. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the result of arthroscopic stabilization procedures in patients with posterior shoulder instability. In this case series, we treated eighteen patients (19 shoulders) with posterior shoulder instability with either arthroscopic thermal capsular shrinkage (9 patients), capsulorrhaphy (3) or labral refixation (7). There were eight male and ten female patients with a mean age of 26 years. The study group included unidirectional (6 patients; PI), bi-directional (8; PII) and multidirectional posterior instability (5; MDI). The Rowe-score and DASH-score as well as subjective and objective evaluations of the patients function, range of motion, pain and instability were used as clinical outcome measurements. At a mean follow-up of 50 months, the Rowe-score improved significantly from 46 to 74 (P = 0.005). Four patients (21%) had recurrent instability after arthroscopic treatment (2 with generalized ligamentous laxity; 3 after thermal shrinkage). Analysis of postoperative DASH-scores showed a tendency toward inferior outcomes after thermal shrinkage and in patients with an a-traumatic origin of shoulder instability. We conclude that arthroscopic shoulder stabilization by either labral refixation or capsulorrhaphy is a safe and effective treatment for posterior shoulder instability. Thermal capsular shrinkage however showed poor results and should be abandoned for this indication. PMID:20411378

Engelsma, Y; Willems, W J

2010-12-01

271

Lumbar SpondylolysisA Study of Natural Progression in Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the natural course of athletically active young people with back pain and a diagnosis of spon dylolysis (stress fracture of the pars interarticularis of the facet joint of the lumbar spine). We limited the study to those with \\

Joseph Congeni; John McCulloch; Kenneth Swanson

1997-01-01

272

Hemorrhagic lumbar synovial facet cyst secondary to anticoagulation therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background contextAcute onset of radicular symptoms has been reported following hemorrhage into lumbar synovial cysts after trauma or in cases of spinal instability. No previous cases have been linked to anticoagulation therapy.

Jason C. Eck; Steven J. Triantafyllou

2005-01-01

273

PREDICTING HEALTH CARE NEEDS FOLLOWING LUMBAR SPINE SURGERY  

E-print Network

Low back pain is one of the most common health problems globally, having significant impact on individuals, community, and health care system. Lumbar Spine Surgery (LSS) is usually considered a treatment of low back pain ...

Kanaan, Saddam

2013-08-31

274

Comparison of the Combined Anterior-Posterior Approach versus Posterior-Only Approach in Scoliosis Treatment  

PubMed Central

Study Design This is descriptive analytical study. Purpose The present study aims at comparing treatment results found between the two groups comprising of patients who underwent posterior spinal fusion using thoracic pedicle screws and the ones who underwent combined anterior-posterior method, respectively. Overview of Literature There was controversy about surgical techniques including anterior, posterior, or a combined anterior-posterior approaches are applied to treat non-congenital scoliosis with surgical indications. Methods Medical records of 50 patients suffering from thoracic non-congenital scoliosis with curves exceeding 70° were reviewed. In this study, 25 patients who underwent posterior spinal fusion using thoracic pedicle screws were compared with 25 patients who underwent combined anterior-posterior method. Results Patients treated through posterior-only and combined approaches were respectively hospitalized for 11.84±5.18 and 26.5±5.2 days (p=0.001). There was a significant difference between these two groups considering intensive care unit admission duration (p=0.001), correction in sagittal view of X-ray (p=0.01), and number of days the patients underwent traction (0.001). Finally, coronal view was corrected without any significant difference (p=0.2). Conclusions According to our findings, it is hypothesized that posterior-only method is associated with some significant advantages and is an advisable method in patients with severe scoliosis over than 70°. PMID:24596599

Pourfeizi, Hossein Hojjat; Sales, Jafar Ganjpour; Borran, Ghanbar; Alavi, Sahar

2014-01-01

275

Unilateral lumbar facet joint hypertrophy causing nerve root irritation.  

PubMed Central

We present four cases of massive unilateral lumbar facet joint hypertrophy in an otherwise morphologically normal spine. All presented with a combination of low back pain and symptoms of entrapment of a single lumbar nerve root. The abnormality is best visualised by CT scanning and the results of surgical decompression by partial undercutting facetectomy are favourable. Images fig. 1 fig. 2 fig. 3 fig. 4 PMID:3190129

Wilde, G. P.; Szypryt, E. P.; Mulholland, R. C.

1988-01-01

276

Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis and its imposters: three case studies  

PubMed Central

Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis causing neurogenic claudicaton is a common condition impacting walking ability in older adults. There are other highly prevalent conditions in this patient population that have similar signs and symptoms and cause limited walking ability. The purpose of this study is to highlight the diagnostic challenges using three case studies of older adults who present with limited walking ability who have imaging evidence of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis.

Ammendolia, Carlo

2014-01-01

277

Lumbar spinal stenosis: treatment options for an aging population.  

PubMed

The fastest growing age group in the United States is the 45 and older population. Due to the nature of the aging lumbar spine, a significant majority of this population will experience low back pain (LBP) and symptoms associated with lumbar spinal stenosis. Accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment is required if this particular aging group of our population is to maintain an active and productive life into their later years. PMID:23362650

Jackson, Roger P; McManus, Anne C; Moore, Jill

2012-01-01

278

Large vocabulary decoding and confidence estimation using word posterior probabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper investigates the estimation of word posterior probabilities based on word lattices and presents applications of these posteriors in a large vocabulary speech recognition system. A novel approach to integrating these word posterior probability distributions into a conventional Viterbi decoder is presented. The problem of the robust estimation of confidence scores from word posteriors is examined and a method

G. Evermann; P. C. Woodland

2000-01-01

279

Lumbar extension in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: effect on lateral curvature.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that a lumbar pad producing extension of the lumbar spine is of value in posture support seats for children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Our method was to establish whether or not an increase in lumbar lordosis produced any increase in resistance to static lateral curvature of the supine lumbar spine. Nine boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy were studied at an age when they were about to go into a wheelchair or had recently become wheelchair mobile. In each case the child lay supine on low-friction material on an x-ray table while the spine was flexed first to the right and then to the left, with and without a lumbar pad, by a predetermined force. The degree of lateral curvature was measured from anteroposterior radiographs. While lateral forces were applied when the boys were supine rather than seated, the results failed to show a difference in curvature with or without the lumbar pad. PMID:3985776

Seeger, B R; Sutherland, A D

1985-04-01

280

Does prolonged seated deskwork alter the lumbar flexion relaxation phenomenon?  

PubMed

Sustained maximum lumbar spine flexion can increase the angle at which the low back flexion relaxation phenomenon (FRP) is observed. This adaptation has been hypothesized to have implications for the control of lumbar spine stability and increase the potential for low back injury. The objective of this study was to investigate if similar changes in the FRP would occur from sub-maximal spine flexion induced by an extended continuous duration of seated office deskwork. Twenty-three participants (12 male and 11 female) performed three bouts of full forward spine flexion interspersed with two 1-h periods of seated deskwork. Lumbar spine angular kinematics and electromyographic activity from the lumbar erector spinae were obtained throughout all trials. The angles at which myoelectric silence occurred (FRP onset) were documented. Lumbar flexion at FRP onset increased by 1.3±1.5° after 1-h of sitting (p<0.05) with no further increase after 2-h. However, when the angle at the FRP onset was normalized to the total range of flexion, there was no difference in the FRP onset. These results suggest that the seated posture may induce residual deformation in the viscoelastic passive tissues of the low back; this could increase the challenge of controlling spine motion and reduce the load-bearing capacity of the lumbar spine system during activities performed following extended bouts of sitting. PMID:23380695

Howarth, Samuel J; Glisic, Drazen; Lee, Joyce G B; Beach, Tyson A C

2013-06-01

281

Posterior-compartment repair: a urology perspective.  

PubMed

The prevalence of posterior-compartment prolapse (rectocele) is not known. The authors have found that operative repair symptomatically improved a majority of patients with impaired defecation associated with a large rectocele, but this improvement was likely related at least in part to factors other than the size of the rectocele. Multiple surgical techniques are available for rectocele repair, and the literature is not clear regarding indications for each type of surgical intervention. This article reviews the literature regarding various types of posterior-compartment repair, and draws conclusions regarding their absolute efficacy and relative efficacy in comparison with one another. PMID:22877720

Gomelsky, Alex; Dmochowski, Roger R

2012-08-01

282

Interspinous spacers in the treatment of degenerative lumbar spinal disease: our experience with DIAM and Aperius devices.  

PubMed

Insertion of an interspinous devices has became a common procedure for the treatment of different clinical picture of degenerative spinal disease. We present our experience in 1,575 patients with the use of two different interspinous spacers: Device for Intervertebral Assisted Motion (DIAM) and Aperius PercLID system. From 2000 through 2008, 1,315 consecutive patients underwent DIAM implantation and 260 had an Aperius PercLID procedure. The main surgical indications included: degenerative disc disease (478 patients), canal and/or foraminal stenosis (347 patients), disc herniation (283 patients), black disc and facet syndrome (143) and topping-off (64 patients). 1,100 patients underwent a single level implant and 475 had a multiple level implant. Mean operating time was 35 min for DIAM and 7 min for Aperius. Complications were detected in 20 patients (10 cases of infections, 10 fractures of the posterior spinous processes). 40 patients were subsequently treated with posterior arthrodesis (n = 30) or total disc replacement (n = 10). Patient's postoperative clinical status was rated according to the modified Macnab criteria: symptoms resolution or improvement was achieved in 1,505 patients; and unchanged or unsatisfactory results in 70. Both techniques are safe, simple and less technically demanding. These approaches appear to be an effective alternative in selected cases, although conventional posterior lumbar decompression and fusion still may be required. PMID:21409561

Fabrizi, Antonio P; Maina, Raffaella; Schiabello, Luigi

2011-05-01

283

Biomechanical effect of altered lumbar lordosis on intervertebral lumbar joints during the golf swing: a simulation study.  

PubMed

Although the lumbar spine region is the most common site of injury in golfers, little research has been done on intervertebral loads in relation to the anatomical-morphological differences in the region. This study aimed to examine the biomechanical effects of anatomical-morphological differences in the lumbar lordosis on the lumbar spinal joints during a golf swing. The golf swing motions of ten professional golfers were analyzed. Using a subject-specific 3D musculoskeletal system model, inverse dynamic analyses were performed to compare the intervertebral load, the load on the lumbar spine, and the load in each swing phase. In the intervertebral load, the value was the highest at the L5-S1 and gradually decreased toward the T12. In each lumbar spine model, the load value was the greatest on the kypholordosis (KPL) followed by normal lordosis (NRL), hypolordosis (HPL), and excessive lordosis (EXL) before the impact phase. However, results after the follow-through (FT) phase were shown in reverse order. Finally, the load in each swing phase was greatest during the FT phase in all the lumbar spine models. The findings can be utilized in the training and rehabilitation of golfers to help reduce the risk of injury by considering individual anatomical-morphological characteristics. PMID:25162173

Bae, Tae Soo; Cho, Woong; Kim, Kwon Hee; Chae, Soo Won

2014-11-01

284

Percutaneous Decompression of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis with a New Interspinous Device  

SciTech Connect

Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of the implantation of a new interspinous device (Falena) in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. The clinical outcomes and imaging results were assessed by orthostatic MR during an up to 6-month follow-up period. Methods: Between October 2008 and February 2010, the Falena was implanted at a single level in 26 patients (17 men; mean age, 69 (range, 54-82) years) who were affected by degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. All of the patients were clinically evaluated before the procedure and at 1 and 3 months. Furthermore, 20 patients have completed a 6-month follow-up. Pain was assessed before and after the intervention using the Visual Analogue Scale score and the Oswestry Disability Index questionnaire. Orthostatic MR imaging was performed before the implantation and at 3 months to assess the correlation with the clinical outcome. Results: The mean ODI score decreased from 48.9 before the device implantation to 31.2 at 1 month (p < 0.0001). The mean VAS score decreased from 7.6 before to 3.9 (p < 0.0001) at 1 month and 3.6 at 3 months after the procedure (p = 0.0115). These values were stable at 6 months evaluation. No postimplantation major complications were recorded. MRI evaluation documented in most cases an increased size of the spinal canal area. Similarly a bilateral foraminal area improvement was found. The variation of the intervertebral space height measured on the posterior wall was not significant. Conclusions: In our preliminary experience with the Falena in a small cohort of patients, we obtained clinical and imaging results aligned to those reported with similar interspinous devices.

Masala, Salvatore; Fiori, Roberto; Bartolucci, Dario Alberto, E-mail: bartolucci.md@gmail.com; Volpi, Tommaso; Calabria, Eros [University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Interventional Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Therapy (Italy); Novegno, Federica [University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Department of Neurosurgery (Italy); Simonetti, Giovanni [University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Interventional Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Therapy (Italy)

2012-04-15

285

Sequence variations in the collagen IX and XI genes are associated with degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis  

PubMed Central

Background: Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is usually caused by disc herniation or degeneration. Several genetic factors have been implicated in disc disease. Tryptophan alleles in COL9A2 and COL9A3 have been shown to be associated with lumbar disc disease in the Finnish population, and polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) (FokI and TaqI), the matrix metalloproteinase-3 gene (MMP-3) and an aggrecan gene (AGC1) VNTR have been reported to be associated with disc degeneration. In addition, an IVS6-4 a>t polymorphism in COL11A2 has been found in connection with stenosis caused by ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament in the Japanese population. Objective: To study the role of genetic factors in LSS. Methods: 29 Finnish probands were analysed for mutations in the genes coding for intervertebral disc matrix proteins, COL1A1, COL1A2, COL2A1, COL9A1, COL9A2, COL9A3, COL11A1, COL11A2, and AGC1. VDR and MMP-3 polymorphisms were also analysed. Sequence variations were tested in 56 Finnish controls. Results: Several disease associated alleles were identified. A splice site mutation in COL9A2 leading to a premature translation termination codon and the generation of a truncated protein was identified in one proband, another had the Trp2 allele, and four others the Trp3 allele. The frequency of the COL11A2 IVS6-4 t allele was 93.1% in the probands and 72.3% in controls (p = 0.0016). The differences in genotype frequencies for this site were less significant (p = 0.0043). Conclusions: Genetic factors have an important role in the pathogenesis of LSS. PMID:14644861

Noponen-Hietala, N; Kyllonen, E; Mannikko, M; Ilkko, E; Karppinen, J; Ott, J; Ala-Kokko, L

2003-01-01

286

Vertebral body shape variation in the thoracic and lumbar spine: characterization of its asymmetry and wedging.  

PubMed

This study was designed to characterize the vertebral body (VB) shape, focusing on vertebral wedging, along the thoracic and lumbar spine, and to look for shape variations with relation to gender, age, and ethnicity. All thoracic and lumbar (T1-L5) dissected vertebrae of 240 individuals were measured and analyzed by age, gender, and ethnicity. A 3D digitizer was used to measure all VB lengths, heights, and widths, and their ratios were calculated. This study showed that the VB size was independent of age or ethnicity. VB left lateral wedging was found in most vertebrae of most individuals, yet systematically was absent in six vertebrae (T4, T8-T9, T11, L3-L4) with a greater tendency in females than males ( approximately 92% vs. 86%). The VB was anteriorly wedged from T1 through L2 (peak at T7), nonwedged at L3, and posteriorly wedged at L4-L5 (peak at L5). VB width decreased from T1 to T4 and then increased toward L4-L5, so that the spinal configuration in the coronal plane resembled two pyramids of opposite directions, sharing an apex at T4. The inferior VB width was significantly greater than the superior width of both the same vertebra and the adjacent lower vertebra, indicating a trapezoidal shape of the VB and an inverted trapezoidal shape of the intervertebral space. In conclusion, these findings indicate that the human vertebra, in its normal condition, maintains its external dimensions with age, independent of gender or ethnic origin. Clinical and surgical implications of the unique thoracolumbar architecture are discussed. PMID:17729333

Masharawi, Youssef; Salame, Khalil; Mirovsky, Yigal; Peleg, Smadar; Dar, Gali; Steinberg, Nili; Hershkovitz, Israel

2008-01-01

287

[Posterior longitudinal ligament ossification: case report].  

PubMed

Posterior longitudinal ligament ossification of cervical spine is a rare condition among caucasians. A 42 years old japanese patient with progressive walking difficulty was diagnosed with this pathology by CT scan and MRI and treated surgically by an anterior approach with arthrodesis. Pathophysiology, racial prevalence, clinical picture, radiological characteristics and surgical approaches options are revised. PMID:16622577

Tella, Oswaldo Inácio de; Herculano, Marco Antonio; Paiva Neto, Manoel Antonio; Faedo Neto, Atílio; Crosera, João Francisco

2006-03-01

288

Extralobar pulmonary sequestration simulates posterior neurogenic tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of 19-year-old asymptomatic man with posterior mediastinal mass thought to be of neurogenic origin on computed tomography scan. During video-assisted thoracic surgery the mass appeared to be an extralobar pulmonary sequestration. Surgery was straightforward by division of vascular pedicle. Histopathology confirmed diagnosis.

Ryszard W Lupinski; Thirugnanam Agasthian; Chong Hee Lim; Yeow Leng Chua

2004-01-01

289

Vision through nuclear and posterior subcapsular cataract  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a new set of tests for evaluation of visual function through media opacities, based on vernier acuity measurements (hyperacuity). In this paper, results of one of these tests, the ‘gap test’, are compared in patients with posterior subcapsular (PSC) cataract versus nuclear cataract (NC). Patients with PSC cataract often report multiple images or significant ‘star burst’ effects.

Patrizia Baraldi; Jay M. Enoch; Sylvan Raphael

1986-01-01

290

Acute Posterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Mimicking Posterior Cerebral Artery Stroke Visualized by 3-Tesla MRI  

PubMed Central

Acute ischemic lesions of the posterior optic nerve and optic tract can produce a variety of visual field defects. A 71-year-old woman presented with acute hemianopia, which led to rt-PA thrombolysis for suspected posterior cerebral artery ischemia. 3-Tesla cMRI, however, revealed the cause to be an acute posterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Cases like this may be more common than thought and quite regularly overlooked in clinical practice, especially when there is no high-resolution MRI available. This case strengthens the importance of repeat MR imaging in patients with persistent visual field defects. PMID:23185170

Menzel, Tilman; Kern, Rolf; Griebe, Martin; Hennerici, Michael; Fatar, Marc

2012-01-01

291

Posterior spinal decompression, stabilization and arthrodesis in Nigerian adults: Profile and outcome  

PubMed Central

Background: The availability of intraoperative fluoroscopy and improved access to varieties of spinal titanium implants has revived posterior spinal stabilization techniques with their distinct advantages. Our aim is to describe the profile of various spine pathologies requiring subaxial posterior spinal decompression, stabilization (using titanium implants), and arthrodesis, and to determine the rate of postoperative complications and factors affecting outcome. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective single institution study of consecutive adult patients seen during the study period. Data collected included the patients’ demographics, radiological findings, indication for surgery, surgical procedure, operation time, intraoperative blood loss, and postoperative complications. Results: There were 26 patients (15 males and 11 females). Their ages ranged between 24 and 78 years (median = 42 years). The most common indications for surgery were spinal trauma and degenerative spine disease (24 patients). The region that was most commonly stabilized was the lumbar- 12 cases (46.2%). No patients experienced neural or vascular injury as a result of screw position; likewise no patient had screw loosening. There was a case each of superficial surgical site infection and transient cerebrospinal fluid leak but no case of implant failure was encountered. The outcome was significantly associated with the etiology (0.030) of the indication for surgery and preoperative power grade (0.000). Conclusion: Spinal trauma and degenerative spine disease are the two most common indications for posterior spinal decompression, stabilization and fusion in our center. It is associated with acceptable postoperative complication rate when done under fluoroscopic guidance. Outcome is related more to the preoperative neurological deficit and etiology of the indication for surgical stabilization. PMID:23271844

Idowu, O. E.; Adewole, O. A.; Majekodunmi, A. A.

2012-01-01

292

A new PMHS model for lumbar spine injuries during vertical acceleration.  

PubMed

Ejection from military aircraft exerts substantial loads on the lumbar spine. Fractures remain common, although the overall survivability of the event has considerably increased over recent decades. The present study was performed to develop and validate a biomechanically accurate experimental model for the high vertical acceleration loading to the lumbar spine that occurs during the catapult phase of aircraft ejection. The model consisted of a vertical drop tower with two horizontal platforms attached to a monorail using low friction linear bearings. A total of four human cadaveric spine specimens (T12-L5) were tested. Each lumbar column was attached to the lower platform through a load cell. Weights were added to the upper platform to match the thorax, head-neck, and upper extremity mass of a 50th percentile male. Both platforms were raised to the drop height and released in unison. Deceleration characteristics of the lower platform were modulated by foam at the bottom of the drop tower. The upper platform applied compressive inertial loads to the top of the specimen during deceleration. All specimens demonstrated complex bending during ejection simulations, with the pattern dependent upon the anterior-posterior location of load application. The model demonstrated adequate inter-specimen kinematic repeatability on a spinal level-by-level basis under different subfailure loading scenarios. One specimen was then exposed to additional tests of increasing acceleration to induce identifiable injury and validate the model as an injury-producing system. Multiple noncontiguous vertebral fractures were obtained at an acceleration of 21 g with 488 g/s rate of onset. This clinically relevant trauma consisted of burst fracture at L1 and wedge fracture at L4. Compression of the vertebral body approached 60% during the failure test, with -6,106 N axial force and 168 Nm flexion moment. Future applications of this model include developing a better understanding of the vertebral injury mechanism during pilot ejection and developing tolerance limits for injuries sustained under a variety of different vertical acceleration scenarios. PMID:21950895

Stemper, Brian D; Storvik, Steven G; Yoganandan, Narayan; Baisden, Jamie L; Fijalkowski, Ronald J; Pintar, Frank A; Shender, Barry S; Paskoff, Glenn R

2011-08-01

293

Molecular MR imaging for the evaluation of the effect of dynamic stabilization on lumbar intervertebral discs  

PubMed Central

The dynamic stabilization of lumbar spine is a non-fusion stabilization system that unloads the disc without the complete loss of motion at the treated motion segment. Clinical outcomes are promising but still not definitive, and the long-term effect on instrumented and adjacent levels is still a matter of discussion. Several experiments have been devised in order to gain a better understanding of the effect of the device on the intervertebral disc. One of the hypotheses was that while instrumented levels are partially relieved from loading, adjacent levels suffer from the increased stress. But this has not been proved yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effect of dynamic stabilization in vivo, through the quantification of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) concentration within instrumented and adjacent levels by means of the delayed Gadolinium-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cartilage (dGEMRIC) protocol. Ten patients with low back pain, unresponsive to conservative treatment and scheduled for Dynesys implantation at one to three lumbar spine levels, underwent the dGEMRIC protocol to quantify GAG concentration before and 6 months after surgery. Each patient was also evaluated with visual analog scale (VAS), Oswestry, Prolo, Modic and Pfirrmann scales, both at pre-surgery and at follow-up. Six months after implantation, VAS, Prolo and Oswestry scales had improved in all patients. Pfirrmann scale could not detect any change, while dGEMRIC data already showed a general improvement in the instrumented levels: GAG was increased in 61% of the instrumented levels, while 68% of the non-instrumented levels showed a decrease in GAG, mainly in the posterior disc portion. In particular, seriously GAG-depleted discs seemed to have the greatest benefit from the Dynesys implantation, whereas less degenerated discs underwent a GAG depletion. dGEMRIC was able to visualize changes in both instrumented and non-instrumented levels. Our results suggest that the dynamic stabilization of lumbar spine is able to stop and partially reverse the disc degeneration, especially in seriously degenerated discs, while incrementing the stress on the adjacent levels, where it induces a matrix suffering and an early degeneration. PMID:19396475

Brayda-Bruno, M.; Perona, F.; Fornari, M.; Raimondi, M. T.; Petruzzi, M.; Grava, G.; Costa, F.; Caiani, E. G.; Lamartina, C.

2009-01-01

294

Molecular MR imaging for the evaluation of the effect of dynamic stabilization on lumbar intervertebral discs.  

PubMed

The dynamic stabilization of lumbar spine is a non-fusion stabilization system that unloads the disc without the complete loss of motion at the treated motion segment. Clinical outcomes are promising but still not definitive, and the long-term effect on instrumented and adjacent levels is still a matter of discussion. Several experiments have been devised in order to gain a better understanding of the effect of the device on the intervertebral disc. One of the hypotheses was that while instrumented levels are partially relieved from loading, adjacent levels suffer from the increased stress. But this has not been proved yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effect of dynamic stabilization in vivo, through the quantification of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) concentration within instrumented and adjacent levels by means of the delayed Gadolinium-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cartilage (dGEMRIC) protocol. Ten patients with low back pain, unresponsive to conservative treatment and scheduled for Dynesys implantation at one to three lumbar spine levels, underwent the dGEMRIC protocol to quantify GAG concentration before and 6 months after surgery. Each patient was also evaluated with visual analog scale (VAS), Oswestry, Prolo, Modic and Pfirrmann scales, both at pre-surgery and at follow-up. Six months after implantation, VAS, Prolo and Oswestry scales had improved in all patients. Pfirrmann scale could not detect any change, while dGEMRIC data already showed a general improvement in the instrumented levels: GAG was increased in 61% of the instrumented levels, while 68% of the non-instrumented levels showed a decrease in GAG, mainly in the posterior disc portion. In particular, seriously GAG-depleted discs seemed to have the greatest benefit from the Dynesys implantation, whereas less degenerated discs underwent a GAG depletion. dGEMRIC was able to visualize changes in both instrumented and non-instrumented levels. Our results suggest that the dynamic stabilization of lumbar spine is able to stop and partially reverse the disc degeneration, especially in seriously degenerated discs, while incrementing the stress on the adjacent levels, where it induces a matrix suffering and an early degeneration. PMID:19396475

Vaga, Stefania; Brayda-Bruno, M; Perona, F; Fornari, M; Raimondi, M T; Petruzzi, M; Grava, G; Costa, F; Caiani, E G; Lamartina, C

2009-06-01

295

Relationship between New Osteoporotic Vertebral Fracture and Instrumented Lumbar Arthrodesis  

PubMed Central

Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose To evaluate the relationship between a new osteoporotic vertebral fracture and instrumented lumbar arthrodesis. Overview of Literature In contrast to the growing recognition of the importance of adjacent segment disease after lumbar arthrodesis, relatively little attention has been paid to the relationship between osteoporotic vertebral fractures and instrumented lumbar arthrodesis. Methods Twenty five patients with a thoracolumbar vertebral fracture following instrumented arthrodesis for degenerative lumbar disorders (study group) were investigated. The influence of instrumented lumbar arthrodesis was examined by comparing the bone mineral density (BMD) of the femoral neck in the study group with that of 28 patients (control group) who had sustained a simple osteoporotic vertebral fracture. The fracture after instrumented arthrodesis was diagnosed at a mean 47 months (range, 7 to 100 months) after the surgery. Results There was a relatively better BMD in the study group, 0.67 ± 0.12 g/cm2 compared to the control group, 0.60 ± 0.13 g/cm2 (p = 0.013). The level of back pain improved from a mean of 7.5 ± 1.0 at the time of the fracture to a mean of 4.9 ± 2.0 at 1 year after the fracture (p = 0.001). However, 12 (48%) patients complained of severe back pain 1 year after the fracture. There was negative correlation between the BMD of the femoral neck and back pain at the last follow up (r = - 0.455, p = 0.022). Conclusions Osteoporotic vertebral fractures after instrumented arthrodesis contribute to the aggravation of back pain and the final outcome of degenerative lumbar disorders. Therefore, it is important to examine the possibility of new osteoporotic vertebral fractures for new-onset back pain after lumbar instrumented arthrodesis. PMID:21165309

Kim, Bung-Hak; Choi, Dong-Hyuk; Jeon, Seong-Hun

2010-01-01

296

Conservative treatments for lumbar radicular pain.  

PubMed

Lumbar radicular pain is a frequent medical pathology and represents a significant burden on society. The diagnosis of sciatica is largely clinical, in the setting of a combination of radicular pain and neurologic deficits (motor, reflexes, and/or sensation) or a positive straight leg raise test. Imaging is generally not necessary for sciatica, except in the presence of warning signs or in the setting of persisting or worsening pain. The recommended first-line treatment has not yet been clearly established. The choice of a conservative treatment approach combined with simple analgesics in the initial stages seems to be reasonable. A detailed discussion with the patient is important to explain the fact that surgery may only be necessary in the event of pain persisting in excess of 3 months or because of the development or worsening of a neurologic deficit. More high quality studies are clearly required to assist the medical practitioner in knowing how best to treat this group of patients. PMID:25230798

Fleury, Gregory; Nissen, Michael J; Genevay, Stéphane

2014-10-01

297

Lumbar puncture preferences among Swedish neurologists.  

PubMed

Lumbar puncture (LP) with cerebrospinal fluid analysis is a common diagnostic tool in neurology, and may be complicated by post-LP headache (PLPHA). The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) has published guidelines for performing diagnostic LPs with the aim to reduce PLPHA risk, but our clinical hands-on experience suggests that these are not followed. We performed a questionnaire study among Swedish neurologists to investigate the acceptance and implementation of the AAN guidelines. Only one-eighth (22/174) of the respondents performed their LPs according to the AAN guidelines. The poor adherence to the AAN guidelines among Swedish neurologists may be due to perceived low credibility, as the current guidelines cite only one study to support the recommendation to use atraumatic needles, and only one study to support the recommendation to replace the stylet before needle withdrawal. An international survey has been posted ( https://www.surveymonkey.com/s/lumbarpuncturesurvey ) to investigate whether the results of this Swedish questionnaire are representative of neurologists worldwide. PMID:25213597

Salzer, Jonatan; Sundström, Peter; Vågberg, Mattias; Svenningsson, Anders

2015-01-01

298

Arthroscopic Posterior Labral Repair and Capsular Shift With a Lateralized Posterior Portal  

PubMed Central

Arthroscopic techniques for posterior shoulder subluxation with labral injuries in athletes have shown good results. The difficulty with the procedure is gaining appropriate access to the posteroinferior quadrant of the glenoid at a steep enough angle that allows for safe anchor placement. Various portals have been described that can be used as accessory portals for anchor placement. Although the use of additional portals to create appropriate access to the joint is always encouraged, preoperative planning can minimize the need for their use. The video shows a simple technique for posterior labral repair with capsular plications through a lateralized posterior portal in the lateral decubitus position. This technique allows the surgeon to address posterior labral tears and capsular laxity without the need for accessory portals. PMID:24400175

Ciccone, William J.

2013-01-01

299

Percutaneous surgical treatment in lumbar spinal stenosis with Aperius-PercLID: indications, surgical technique and results.  

PubMed

Interspinous spacers have recently been used in the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis. In vitro studies have demonstrated a reduction in facet joint forces by 68% and annulus pressures by 63%. MRI studies have demonstrated increased canal and neural foraminal area after implantation of these devices. Previous studies by Zucherman et al. (Spine 30:1351-1358, 2005) demonstrated patient satisfaction rates of 71-73%.We carried out a multicentric retrospective study to assess the clinical outcomes following percutaneous posterior decompression using an interspinous spacer device (Aperius™-PercLID™ System; Kyphon-Medtronic). A total of 70 patients were included in the study. All of them had evidence of radiologically and clinically proven lumbar stenosis. The average age was 63.5 years. Patients completed the Zurich Claudication Questionnaire (ZCQ) and recorded pain levels on a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Average stay in hospital was 2 days. The average improvement in ZCQ included both symptomatic pain disappearance and functional ambulatory recovery. The average VAS pain score improved from 8.2 to 3.6 (scale of 1 to 10). The overall patient satisfaction rate was 76%. No complications were detected at 6 months' follow-up. PMID:21107956

Menchetti, P P M; Postacchini, F; Bini, W; Canero, G

2011-01-01

300

Evaluation of a single-dose, extended-release epidural morphine formulation for pain control after lumbar spine surgery.  

PubMed

DepoDur, an extended-release epidural morphine, has been used effectively for postoperative pain control following many orthopaedic and general surgery procedures and has provided prolonged analgesia when compared with Duramorph. The goal of this article was to compare the safety and analgesic efficacy of DepoDur versus Duramorph after lumbar spine surgery. A prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical study was completed at a single extended-stay ambulatory surgery center. All patients over 18 undergoing posterior lumbar spine fusions were considered for the study. Sixty patients were randomly assigned to a control or treatment group. The control group received DepoDur before surgery, while the treatment group received Duramorph. Although results show no significant differences between the two groups in postoperative visual analog pain scale scores, use of pain medication, and adverse events, subjects receiving DepoDur were less likely to receive Naloxone and oxygen supplementation, experience nausea or fever, and were more likely to experience hypotension. DepoDur proved to be safe and effective, offering similar prolonged analgesic activity when compared with Duramorph. PMID:24641892

Vineyard, Joseph C; Toohey, John S; Neidre, Arvo; Fogel, Guy; Joyner, Robert

2014-01-01

301

A unique modular implant system enhances load sharing in anterior cervical interbody fusion: a finite element study  

PubMed Central

Background The efficacy of dynamic anterior cervical plates is somewhat controversial. Screws in static-plate designs have a smaller diameter and can cut through bone under load. While not ideal, this unintended loosening can help mitigate stress shielding. Stand-alone interbody devices with integral fixation have large endplate contact areas that may inhibit or prevent loosening of the fixation. This study investigates the load sharing ability of a novel dynamic plate design in preventing the stress shielding of the graft material compared to the non-dynamic devices. Methods An experimentally validated intact C5-C6 finite element model was modified to simulate discectomy and accommodate implant-graft assembly. Four implant iterations were modeled; InterPlate titanium device with dynamic surface features (springs), InterPlate titanium non-dynamic device, InterPlate titanium design having a fully enclosed graft chamber, and the InterPlate design in unfilled PEEK having a fully enclosed graft chamber. All the models were fixed at the inferior-most surface of C6 and the axial displacement required to completely embed the dynamic surface features was applied to the model. Results InterPlate device with dynamic surface features induced higher graft stresses compared to the other design iterations resulting in uniform load sharing. The distribution of these graft stresses were more uniform for the InterPlate dynamic design. Conclusions These results indicate that the dynamic design decreases the stress shielding by increasing and more uniformly distributing the graft stress. Fully enclosed graft chambers increase stress shielding. Lower implant material modulus of elasticity does not reduce stress shielding significantly. PMID:24618205

2014-01-01

302

Sympathetic radiofrequency neurolysis for unilateral lumbar hyperhidrosis: a case report.  

PubMed

Patients with hyperhidrosis suffer from physical, social and mental discomfort which often cannot be treated sufficiently using conservative measures. A new percutaneous approach to sympathectomy using radiofrequency denervation has seemed to offer longer duration of action and less incidence of post sympathetic neuralgia. This article reports the authors' experience with sympathetic RF neurolysis in a 35 year old male with right unilateral lumbar hyperhidrosis. Under scopy guided localization of the lumbar spine sympathetic blockade with local anesthetics to L2-5 vertebral levels were performed as a diagnostic block. Lesion effectiveness is monitored by bilateral feet skin temperature measurement. Clinical effects produced by the first sympathetic ganglion block were sustained for 1 week and then RF neurolysis of lumbar sympathetic ganglion was performed to the same levels for a longer effect. The procedure was accomplished within 30 minutes and the patient was discharged within 2 hours after the procedure. Hyperhidrosis was relieved after the procedure and there were no postsympathectomy neuralgia and sexual dysfunction. The patient obtained improvement of lumbar hyperhidrosis at his first month of follow- up and was satisfied with the outcome. In conclusion, RF neurolysis of lumbar sympathetic ganglions is a safe and effective palliative procedure with minimal invasiveness for relieving excessive sweat secretion in patients with localized hyperhidrosis. PMID:19085180

A?ik, Züleyha Soytürk; Orbey, Ba?ak Ceyda; A?ik, Ibrahim

2008-07-01

303

[Progress on dynamic neutralization system in treating lumbar degenerative diseases].  

PubMed

Dynamic stabilization technology has increasingly become the hot spot in basic and clinical research for treating lumbar degenerative diseases. As one kind of dynamic stabilization technology,dynamic neutralization system (Dynesys) keeps the spinal motion ability and improve clinical symptoms of patients, moreover, it shows a certain advantage in delaying the degeneration of adjacent segments. From the available documents,the preliminary biomechanical and clinical results of Dynesys were optimistically, it has become another choice in treating the lumbar degenerative diseases besides the lumbar fusion, and it primarily applies to the treatment of mild to moderate lumbar degenerative disease. However, it lacks a mechanism to maintain and restore the lumbar lordosis and patients need active stretching to achieve lordosis. What's more, how to extend the service life and prevent complications remain to be solved, the long-term effect and the mechanism of delaying the adjacent segment degeneration need further investigation. In this article, the design principle, biomechanical research, clinical outcome and clinical application of Dynesys was reviewed. PMID:24015664

Chen, Xi-Jun; Fan, Shun-Wu

2013-06-01

304

Long-term follow-up of functional outcomes and radiographic changes at adjacent levels following lumbar spine fusion for degenerative disc disease.  

PubMed

There are very few studies with more than 20 years' follow-up of lumbar spine fusions for disc degeneration. Currently, there is a lot of interest in the subject of degenerative changes above the level of fusion; this study is concerned with such changes in the very long term (30 years). Twenty-eight patients showing sound fusion on radiographs following posterior midline spinal fusion performed by a single surgeon between 1968 and 1970 were compared with an age- and gender-matched group of 28 patients who had undergone surgery for degenerative disc disease without fusion during the same period, by the same surgeon and using similar criteria for evaluation (Short Form 36 and Oswestry Disability Index; functional testing using self-paced walk and timed up-and-go; flexion and extension lateral radiographs of the lumbar spine). In this study, the incidence of radiographic changes at levels above the level of previous involvement was twice as high in the fusion group as in the non-fusion group. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in the outcomes measured using validated scales and functional testing. The study emphasises the importance of complete evaluation of these patients using validated outcome measurement instruments against the background of radiographic changes and subjective assessment of back pain. It also shows that radiographic changes do not necessarily mean functional impairment in all patients following lumbar spine fusion for degenerative disc disease. PMID:11563616

Kumar, M N; Jacquot, F; Hall, H

2001-08-01

305

Transpedicular vertebral body augmentation reinforced with pedicle screw fixation in fresh traumatic A2 and A3 lumbar fractures: comparison between two devices and two bone cements.  

PubMed

This retrospective study compares efficacy and safety of balloon kyphoplasty (BK) with calcium phosphate (Group A) versus KIVA implant with PMMA (Group B) reinforced with three vertebrae pedicle screw constructs for A2 and A3 single fresh non-osteoporotic lumbar (L1-L4) fractures in 38 consecutive age- and diagnosis-matched patient populations. Extracanal leakage of both low-viscosity PMMA and calcium phosphate (CP) as well as the following roentgenographic parameters: segmental kyphosis (SKA), anterior (AVBHr) and posterior (PVBHr) vertebral body height ratio, spinal canal encroachment (SCE) clearance, and functional outcome measures: VAS and SF-36, were recorded and compared between the two groups. All patients in both groups were followed for a minimum 26 (Group A) and 25 (Group B) months. Extracanal CP and PMMA leakage was observed in four (18 %) and three (15 %) vertebrae/patients of group A and B, respectively. Hybrid fixation improved AVBHr, SKA, SCE, but PVBHr only in group B. VAS and SF-36 improved postoperatively in the patients of both groups. Short-segment construct with the novel KIVA implant restored better than BK-fractured lumbar vertebral body, but this had no impact in functional outcome. Since there was no leakage difference between PMMA and calcium phosphate and no short-term adverse related to PMMA use were observed, we advice the use of PMMA in fresh traumatic lumbar fractures. PMID:23982115

Korovessis, Panagiotis; Vardakastanis, Konstantinos; Repantis, Thomas; Vitsas, Vasilios

2014-07-01

306

Shining a light on posterior cortical atrophy.  

PubMed

Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a clinicoradiologic syndrome characterized by progressive decline in visual processing skills, relatively intact memory and language in the early stages, and atrophy of posterior brain regions. Misdiagnosis of PCA is common, owing not only to its relative rarity and unusual and variable presentation, but also because patients frequently first seek the opinion of an ophthalmologist, who may note normal eye examinations by their usual tests but may not appreciate cortical brain dysfunction. Seeking to raise awareness of the disease, stimulate research, and promote collaboration, a multidisciplinary group of PCA research clinicians formed an international working party, which had its first face-to-face meeting on July 13, 2012 in Vancouver, Canada, prior to the Alzheimer's Association International Conference. PMID:23274153

Crutch, Sebastian J; Schott, Jonathan M; Rabinovici, Gil D; Boeve, Bradley F; Cappa, Stefano F; Dickerson, Bradford C; Dubois, Bruno; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Krolak-Salmon, Pierre; Lehmann, Manja; Mendez, Mario F; Pijnenburg, Yolande; Ryan, Natalie S; Scheltens, Philip; Shakespeare, Tim; Tang-Wai, David F; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Bain, Lisa; Carrillo, Maria C; Fox, Nick C

2013-07-01

307

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome following measles vaccination.  

PubMed

Due to recent domestic measles outbreaks in Japan, the Japanese government has mandated measles vaccination at ages 14 and 17 since April 2008. Since then, the number of people receiving measles vaccination has increased in Japan. Measles vaccination may cause serious neurological complications including encephalopathy, although the incidence is very low. We report here an adult case of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) and myeloradiculoneuropathy following measles vaccination. Brain MRI demonstrated typical findings of PRES, high intensity signals in the occipital lobes on FLAIR imaging, isointensity signals on diffusion weighted imaging, with an increase in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Vasoconstriction mainly in the posterior cerebral arteries was detected by MRA. Physicians should keep in mind the possible occurrence of PRES and myeloradiculoneuropathy following measles vaccination. PMID:20850135

Hamano, Tadanori; Takeda, Tomoko; Morita, Hiroshi; Muramatsu, Tomoko; Yoneda, Makoto; Kimura, Hirohiko; Kuriyama, Masaru

2010-11-15

308

Pseudoexfoliation material on posterior chamber intraocular lenses  

PubMed Central

The presence of pseudoexfoliation material on the surface of an intraocular lens (IOL) is a rare finding. We report a series of seven cases with different patterns of pseudoexfoliation material deposition on the posterior chamber IOLs, recognized 2–20 years after cataract surgery. Six patients had an IOL implanted in the capsular bag and one in the ciliary sulcus. Two patients had undergone posterior capsulotomy. Although the pathophysiological mechanisms and clinical significance of this finding remain unknown, the careful follow-up of pseudophakic patients with known or suspected pseudoexfoliation syndrome is essential to monitor the development or progression of glaucoma, since deposition of pseudoexfoliation material continues even after cataract surgery. PMID:25143707

da Rocha-Bastos, Ricardo António; Silva, Sérgio Estrela; Prézia, Flávio; Falcão-Reis, Fernando; Melo, António B

2014-01-01

309

The posterior palatal seal. A review.  

PubMed

The posterior palatal seal area is described and its anatomical borders are defined. The methods used to achieve a seal are (1) scraping the cast, (2) a selective loading impression technique, and (3) a physiological impression technique. Each method is described and its problems are discussed. It is believed by the authors that the physiological impression technique using wax requires the least amount of skill and experience to master competently. PMID:7004416

Ettinger, R L; Scandrett, F R

1980-08-01

310

Cyclosporine-related reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy: MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three patients aged 48, 11 and 40 years, two of whom were recent recipients of renal transplants and one of a bone marrow\\u000a transplant, developed seizures, with cortical blindness in two cases. All were immunosuppressed with cyclosporine and were\\u000a hypertensive at the onset of symptoms. MRI showed predominantly posterior signal changes in all three cases. The abnormalities\\u000a were more conspicuous

J. M. Jarosz; D. C. Howlett; T. C. S. Cox; J. B. Bingham

1997-01-01

311

Indocyanine green angiography in posterior uveitis  

PubMed Central

Literature review for indocyanine green angiography and evaluate the role of indocyanine green angiogram (ICGA) in patients with posterior uveitis seen at a tertiary referral eye care centre. Detailed review of the literature on ICGA was performed. Retrospective review of medical records of patients with posterior uveitis and dual fundus and ICGA was done after institutional board approval. Eighteen patients (26 eyes) had serpiginous choroiditis out of which 12 patients had active choroiditis and six patients had healed choroiditis, six patients (12 eyes) had ampiginous choroiditis, six patients (12 eyes) had acute multifocal posterior placoid pigment epitheliopathy, eight patients (10 eyes) had multifocal choroiditis, four patients (eight eyes) had presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome, four patients (eight eyes) had presumed tuberculous choroiditis, two patients (four eyes) had multiple evanescent white dot syndrome and two patients (four eyes) had Vogt Koyanagi Harada (VKH) syndrome. The most characteristic feature noted on ICGA was the presence of different patterns of hypofluorescent dark spots, which were present at different stages of the angiogram. ICGA provides the clinician with a powerful adjunctive tool in choroidal inflammatory disorders. It is not meant to replace already proven modalities such as the fluorescein angiography, but it can provide additional information that is useful in establishing a more definitive diagnosis in inflammatory chorioretinal diseases associated with multiple spots. It still needs to be determined if ICGA can prove to be a follow up parameter to evaluate disease progression. PMID:23685486

Agrawal, Rupesh V; Biswas, Jyotirmay; Gunasekaran, Dinesh

2013-01-01

312

Treatment of posterior skull base tumors.  

PubMed

Surgery for posterior skull base tumors may be associated with high morbidity and mortality because of the complex anatomy, irregular bony topography, and vital neurovascular structures in this region. We experienced three benign posterior skull base tumors. These were petroclival and foramen magnum meningiomas and a jugular formen neurinoma. Three dimensional computed tomography (3 D-CT) in addition to the conventional CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and cerebral angiography were performed preoperatively. Preoperative embolizations for the tumors were also done, and intraoperative neurophysiological monitorings were performed. The tumors could be subtotally removed with no damage to the brainstem, cranial nerves, and vessels. No newly developed postoperative neurological symptoms were observed. As to the remaining tumors, gamma knife (gamma-knife) therapy was planned. 3 D-CT was very useful in the preoperative evaluation of the surgical approach, and the intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring was considered to be necessary to prevent permanent damage. gamma-knife after direct approach was recommended for the benign posterior skull base tumors. PMID:9755601

Lin, C; Node, Y; Teramoto, A

1998-08-01

313

Lumbar spinal ganglia enhancement after Gadolinium chelate administration: a radio-histological correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

: The aim of the present study was to assess the frequency of enhancement of lumbar spinal ganglia after Gadolinium chelate injection in patients without radiculopathy, and to correlate the enhancement with histology. This study is based on the analysis of MR lumbar examinations conducted on 18 patients without radicular symptoms, or previous surgery of the lumbar spine, or disease

X. Demondion; X. Leroy; F. Lapègue; A. Drizenko; J.-P. Francke; A. Cotten

2002-01-01

314

Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension Secondary to Lumbar Disc Herniation  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is often idiopathic. We report on a patient presenting with symptomatic intracranial hypotension and pain radiating to the right leg caused by a transdural lumbar disc herniation. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain revealed classic signs of intracranial hypotension, and an additional spinal MR confirmed a lumbar transdural herniated disc as the cause. The patient was treated with a partial hemilaminectomy and discectomy. We were able to find the source of cerebrospinal fluid leak, and packed it with epidural glue and gelfoam. Postoperatively, the patient's headache and log radiating pain resolved and there was no neurological deficit. Thus, in this case, lumbar disc herniation may have been a cause of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. PMID:20157378

Kim, Kyoung-Tae

2010-01-01

315

Electrocardiographic diagnosis of remote posterior wall myocardial infarction using unipolar posterior lead V9  

SciTech Connect

The accuracy of four electrocardiographic criteria for diagnosing remote posterior myocardial infarction was assessed prospectively in 369 patients undergoing exercise treadmill testing with thallium scintigraphy. Criteria included the following: (1) R-wave width greater than or equal to 0.04 s and R-wave greater than or equal to S-wave in V1; (2) R-wave greater than or equal to S-wave in V2; (3) T-wave voltage in V2 minus V6 greater than or equal to 0.38 mV (T-wave index); (4) Q-wave greater than or equal to 0.04 s in left paraspinal lead V9. Twenty-seven patients (7.3 percent) met thallium criteria for posterior myocardial infarction, defined as a persistent perfusion defect in the posterobase of the left ventricle. Sensitivities for the four criteria ranged from 4 to 56 percent, and specificities ranged from 64 to 99 percent. Posterior paraspinal lead V9 provided the best overall predictive accuracy (94 percent), positive predictive value (58 percent), and ability to differentiate patients with and without posterior myocardial infarction of any single criterion (p less than .0001). Combining the T-wave index with lead V9 further enhanced the diagnostic yield: the sensitivity for detecting posterior infarction by at least one of these criteria was 78 percent, and when both criteria were positive, specificity was 98.5 percent. It is concluded that a single, unipolar posterior lead in the V9 position is superior to standard 12-lead electrocardiographic criteria in diagnosing remote posterior myocardial infarction, and that combining V9 with the T-wave index maximizes the diagnostic yield.

Rich, M.W.; Imburgia, M.; King, T.R.; Fischer, K.C.; Kovach, K.L. (Jewish Hospital Washington University Medical Center, St. Louis (USA))

1989-09-01

316

Extradural Corticosteroid Injection in Management of Lumbar Nerve Root Compression  

PubMed Central

The effect of extradural corticosteroid injection in patients with nerve root compression syndromes associated with degenerative disease of the lumbar intervertebral discs was assessed in a double-blind controlled trial on 100 consecutive inpatients assigned by random allocation to treatment and control groups. Assessment during admission and at three months revealed statistically highly significant differences in respect of relief of pain and resumption of normal occupation in favour of the group treated by extradural injection. This treatment seems to be a valuable adjunct to the management of lumbar nerve root compression syndromes associated with degenerative disc disease. PMID:4577015

Dilke, T. F. W.; Burry, H. C.; Grahame, R.

1973-01-01

317

[Optimization of the preoperative diagnosis of herniated lumbar disks].  

PubMed

Pneumomyelography (PMG) and discography (DG) were employed to establish the exact diagnosis of Schmorl's bodies in the lumbar spine. Information concerning 101 patients with lumbar osteochondrosis is analysed. PMG was conducted in all patients. DG only in 29. The exact preoperative diagnosis was made in 98% due to PMG and DG and only in 64% of cases without these methods of examination. In view of the use of microsurgical techniques the authors show that additional rediocontrast examination must be conducted in all cases before the operation. They object to wide approaches for searching Shmorl's body during the operation. PMID:6528789

Chudnovski?, N A; Desnitskaia, E V

1984-01-01

318

Mobile tumours in the lumbar spinal canal: a diagnostic problem  

PubMed Central

In two cases of mobile tumours in the lumbar spinal canal there was difficulty and delay in clinical and radiologic diagnosis because the early symptoms did not correspond to any particular dermatome. Myelography and computed tomography (CT) are the initial diagnostic procedures used in most institutions, even where magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is available. The purpose of these 2 case reports is to remind clinicians that it is possible for certain tumours attached to the roots in the lumbar spinal canal to migrate, because the roots tend to be redundant or lax. Multilevel search is essential in neuroradiologic studies for early diagnostic confirmation of mobile tumours. PMID:9030087

Varughese, George; Mazagri, Rida

1997-01-01

319

Extraforaminal lumbar synovial cyst causing sudden foot drop: case report.  

PubMed

A 52-year-old female presented with extraforaminal lumbar synovial cyst at the L4-5 level causing sudden foot drop on the right. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and coronal MR myelography source images identified the cystic mass in the extraforaminal zone. The patient underwent microdecompression via a lateral transmuscular route, and the extraforaminal cyst compressing L4 ganglion was successfully removed. The histological diagnosis was synovial cyst. This unique case of surgically proven extraforaminal lumbar synovial cyst causing sudden foot drop indicates that extraforaminal synovial cyst should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with sudden foot drop. PMID:19106499

Kim, Jin Uk; Lee, Sang-Ho; Lee, Dong Yeob

2008-12-01

320

Lumbar-pelvic range and coordination during lifting tasks  

E-print Network

Greek weightlifters. J Sports Sci. 2000; 18(8):643-6 652. 7 Khalsa, PS, Chiu, JB, Aliberti, N, Sileo, M. Biomechanical evidence for proprioceptive 8 function of lumbar facet joint capsule. 4th World Congress on Biomechanics. 9 Calgary, CA. 2002. 10... necessarily represent the views of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and 2 Health. 3 Page 19 of 22 References 1 Adams, MA, Hutton, WC. Has the lumbar spine, a margin of safety in forward bending? 2 Clin Biomechanics 1986;1(1):3-6. 3 Adams...

Maduri, Anupama; Pearson, Bethany L.; Wilson, Sara E.

2008-01-01

321

Rat posterior parietal cortex: topography of corticocortical and thalamic connections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anatomical and functional findings support the contention that there is a distinct posterior parietal cortical area (PPC) in the rat, situated between the rostrally adjacent hindlimb sensorimotor area and the caudally adjacent secondary visual areas. The PPC is distinguished from these areas by receiving thalamic afferents from the lateral dorsal (LD), lateral posterior (LP), and posterior (Po) nuclei, in the

R. L. Reep; H. C. Chandler; V. King; J. V. Corwin

1994-01-01

322

A study of posterior palatal seals with varying palatal forms.  

PubMed

A study was carried out to determine the depth and width of posterior palatal seals in different shapes of palates. Four different methods of developing the posterior palatal seal were utilized on each patient. The width of the posterior palatal seal area was compared with original models which were produced by plaster impressions. PMID:1104808

Nikoukari, H

1975-12-01

323

Fluoroscopic lumbar interlaminar epidural injections in managing chronic lumbar axial or discogenic pain  

PubMed Central

Among the multiple causes of chronic low back pain, axial and discogenic pain are common. Various modalities of treatments are utilized in managing discogenic and axial low back pain including epidural injections. However, there is a paucity of evidence regarding the effectiveness, indications, and medical necessity of any treatment modality utilized for managing axial or discogenic pain, including epidural injections. In an interventional pain management practice in the US, a randomized, double-blind, active control trial was conducted. The objective was to assess the effectiveness of lumbar interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids for managing chronic low back pain of discogenic origin. However, disc herniation, radiculitis, facet joint pain, or sacroiliac joint pain were excluded. Two groups of patients were studied, with 60 patients in each group receiving either local anesthetic only or local anesthetic mixed with non-particulate betamethasone. Primary outcome measures included the pain relief-assessed by numeric rating scale of pain and functional status assessed by the, Oswestry Disability Index, Secondary outcome measurements included employment status, and opioid intake. Significant improvement or success was defined as at least a 50% decrease in pain and disability. Significant improvement was seen in 77% of the patients in Group I and 67% of the patients in Group II. In the successful groups (those with at least 3 weeks of relief with the first two procedures), the improvement was 84% in Group I and 71% in Group II. For those with chronic function-limiting low back pain refractory to conservative management, it is concluded that lumbar interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids may be an effective modality for managing chronic axial or discogenic pain. This treatment appears to be effective for those who have had facet joints as well as sacroiliac joints eliminated as the pain source. PMID:23055773

Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Cash, Kimberly A; McManus, Carla D; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Benyamin, Ramsin

2012-01-01

324

Synovial cysts of the lumbar spine--pathological considerations and surgical strategy.  

PubMed

Symptomatic lumbar synovial cysts (LSCs) are a rare cause of degenerative narrowing of the spinal canal, with thecal sac or nerve root compression. True synovial cysts have a thick wall lined by synovial cells, containing granulation tissue, numerous histiocytes, and giant cells. In contrast, pseudo-cysts lack specialized epithelium, have a collagenous capsule filled with myxoid material, and may be classified into ganglion cysts, originating from periarticular fibrous tissues, and ligamentous cysts, arising from the ligamentum flavum or even from the posterior longitudinal ligament. Here we present the surgical series of the Chair of Neurosurgery at the University of Cagliari (Italy) including a total of 17 LSCs. Surgical technique consisted of facet sparing excision of LSC, achieved by simple hemilaminectomy/laminectomy, and diagnosis was always confirmed by histological specimen examination, which detected the typical synovial epithelium, the intracystic presence of hemosiderin, histiocytes, and calcifications. Further immunohistochemical investigation revealed positive staining for cytokeratin: CK5, CK6, and AE1/AE3. Clinically, our cohort experienced rapid and complete resolution of symptoms, without perioperative complications, or recurrence of cysts or vertebral instability at a median follow up of 28 months, when the MacNab score was generally excellent. A review of the literature, retrieving articles published from 1973, collected a total of 101 articles concerning all the cases of LSC scientifically described to date. Both clinical and histological findings described in our study support the theory of degenerative microtraumatic pathogenesis of synovial cysts. PMID:23438660

Ganau, Mario; Ennas, Franco; Bellisano, Giulia; Ganau, Laura; Ambu, Rossano; Faa, Gavino; Maleci, Alberto

2013-01-01

325

Control of bilateral seminal emissions from ejaculatory ducts by a lumbar splanchnic nerve.  

PubMed

To investigate the route of efferent signals for seminal emissions from ejaculatory ducts (SEEDs), canine lumbar splanchnic nerves (LSNs) were electrically stimulated. SEED was confirmed by visual verification of seminal flow into the exposed posterior urethra. In intact dogs, electrical stimulation of an LSN caused bilateral SEEDs in 13 of 16 dogs examined, with a greater volume at the stimulated side. After transection of a unilateral hypogastric nerve, bilateral SEEDs occurred by electrical stimulation of the contralateral LSN in 11 of 14 dogs with a greater volume at the stimulated side and by the stimulation of the ipsilateral LSN in 13 of 15 dogs with a greater volume at the contralateral side. Contraction pressure of the epididymal tail under the same conditions harmonized with the above results. We conclude that each LSN generates bilateral SEEDs by sending signals to bilateral epididymal tails and that some of the signals through each LSN cross to the other side at the caudal mesenteric plexus and/or the prostatic plexus. PMID:8238441

Kihara, K; Sato, K; Ando, M; Morita, T; Oshima, H

1993-10-01

326

Long-term results of pediculo-body fixation and posterolateral fusion for lumbar spondylolisthesis.  

PubMed

Grob et al. (Eur Spine J 5:281-285, 1996) illustrated a new fixation technique in inveterate cases of grade 2-3 spondylolisthesis (degenerative or spondylolytic): a fusion without reduction of the spondylolisthesis. Fixation of the segment was achieved by two cancellous bone screws inserted bilaterally through the pedicles of the lower vertebra into the body of the upper slipped vertebra. Since 1998 we have been using this technique according to the authors' indications: symptomatic spondylolisthesis with at least 25% anterior slippage and advanced disc degeneration. Afterwards this technique was used also in spondylolisthesis with low reduction of the disc height and slippage less than 25%. In every case we performed postero-lateral fusion and fixation with two AO 6.5 Ø thread 16 mm cancellous screws. From 1998 to 2002 we performed 62 fusions for spondylolisthesis with this technique: 28 males (45.16%) and 34 females (54.84%), mean age 45 years (14-72 years). The slipped vertebra was L5 in 57 cases (92%), L4 in 2 cases (3.2%), L3 in 1 case (1.6%), combined L4 and L5 in 2 cases (3.2%). In all cases there was an ontogenetic spondylolisthesis with lysis. Lumbar pain was present in 22 patients and lumbar-radicular pain was present in 40 patients. The mean preoperative VAS was 6.2 (range 5-8) for lumbar pain, and 5.5 (range 4-7) for leg pain. The fusion area was L5-S1 in 53 cases (85.5%), L3-L4 in 1 case (1.6%), L4-S1 in 8 cases (12.9%). A decompression of the spinal canal by laminectomy was performed in 33 procedures (53%). When possible a bone graft was done from the removed neural arc, and from the posterior iliac crest in the other cases. The mean blood loss was about 254 ml (100-1,000). The mean operative time was 75 min (range 60-90). The results obtained by computerized analysis at follow-up at least 5 years after surgery showed a significant improvement in preoperative symptoms. The patients were asymptomatic in 52 cases (83.9%); strained-back pain was present in 8 cases (12.9%), and there was persistent lumbar-radicular pain in 2 cases (3.2%). The mean ODI score was 2.6%, the mean VAS back pain was 1.3, the mean VAS leg pain 0.7. Some complications were observed: a nerve root compression by a screw invasion of intervertebral foramen, resolved by screw removal; an iliac artery compression by a lateral exit screw from pediculo, resolved by screw removal; a deep iliac vein phlebitis with thrombosis caused by external compression due to a wrong intraoperative position, treated by medicine. Two cases of synthesis mobilization and two cases of broken screws was detected. No cases of pseudoarthrosis and immediate or late superficial or deep infection were observed. The analysis of the long-term results of the spondylolisthesis surgical treatment with direct pediculo-body screw fixation and postero-lateral fusion gave a very satisfactory response. The technique is reliable in allowing an optimal primary stability, creating the best biomechanical conditions to obtain a solid fusion. PMID:19444490

Zagra, Antonino; Giudici, Fabrizio; Minoia, Leone; Corriero, Andrea Saverio; Zagra, Luigi

2009-06-01

327

Long-term results of pediculo-body fixation and posterolateral fusion for lumbar spondylolisthesis  

PubMed Central

Grob et al. (Eur Spine J 5:281–285, 1996) illustrated a new fixation technique in inveterate cases of grade 2–3 spondylolisthesis (degenerative or spondylolytic): a fusion without reduction of the spondylolisthesis. Fixation of the segment was achieved by two cancellous bone screws inserted bilaterally through the pedicles of the lower vertebra into the body of the upper slipped vertebra. Since 1998 we have been using this technique according to the authors’ indications: symptomatic spondylolisthesis with at least 25% anterior slippage and advanced disc degeneration. Afterwards this technique was used also in spondylolisthesis with low reduction of the disc height and slippage less than 25%. In every case we performed postero-lateral fusion and fixation with two AO 6.5 Ø thread 16 mm cancellous screws. From 1998 to 2002 we performed 62 fusions for spondylolisthesis with this technique: 28 males (45.16%) and 34 females (54.84%), mean age 45 years (14–72 years). The slipped vertebra was L5 in 57 cases (92%), L4 in 2 cases (3.2%), L3 in 1 case (1.6%), combined L4 and L5 in 2 cases (3.2%). In all cases there was an ontogenetic spondylolisthesis with lysis. Lumbar pain was present in 22 patients and lumbar-radicular pain was present in 40 patients. The mean preoperative VAS was 6.2 (range 5–8) for lumbar pain, and 5.5 (range 4–7) for leg pain. The fusion area was L5–S1 in 53 cases (85.5%), L3–L4 in 1 case (1.6%), L4–S1 in 8 cases (12.9%). A decompression of the spinal canal by laminectomy was performed in 33 procedures (53%). When possible a bone graft was done from the removed neural arc, and from the posterior iliac crest in the other cases. The mean blood loss was about 254 ml (100–1,000). The mean operative time was 75 min (range 60–90). The results obtained by computerized analysis at follow-up at least 5 years after surgery showed a significant improvement in preoperative symptoms. The patients were asymptomatic in 52 cases (83.9%); strained-back pain was present in 8 cases (12.9%), and there was persistent lumbar-radicular pain in 2 cases (3.2%). The mean ODI score was 2.6%, the mean VAS back pain was 1.3, the mean VAS leg pain 0.7. Some complications were observed: a nerve root compression by a screw invasion of intervertebral foramen, resolved by screw removal; an iliac artery compression by a lateral exit screw from pediculo, resolved by screw removal; a deep iliac vein phlebitis with thrombosis caused by external compression due to a wrong intraoperative position, treated by medicine. Two cases of synthesis mobilization and two cases of broken screws was detected. No cases of pseudoarthrosis and immediate or late superficial or deep infection were observed. The analysis of the long-term results of the spondylolisthesis surgical treatment with direct pediculo-body screw fixation and postero-lateral fusion gave a very satisfactory response. The technique is reliable in allowing an optimal primary stability, creating the best biomechanical conditions to obtain a solid fusion. PMID:19444490

Giudici, Fabrizio; Minoia, Leone; Corriero, Andrea Saverio; Zagra, Luigi

2009-01-01

328

Dexmedetomidine sedation in painful posterior segment surgery  

PubMed Central

Purpose To present a case series on the use of dexmedetomidine (Precedex) sedation in painful posterior segment surgery performed under topical anesthesia, similar to its use in cataract surgery. Methods A prospective review of cases that had posterior segment surgery under topical anesthesia and that needed sedation. Dexmedetomidine-loading infusion was 1 mcg/kg over 10 minutes, followed by a maintenance infusion (0.5 mcg/kg/h). Results Nine patients were operated on under topical anesthesia: two scleral buckle, five cryopexy, one scleral laceration, and one pars plana vitrectomy with very dense laser therapy in an albinotic fundus; six patients had retinal detachment. General or local anesthesia were not possible due to medical or ocular morbidities, use of anticoagulants, or the surgery plan changed intraoperatively when new pathologies were discovered. The surgeon achieved good surgical control in eight of nine cases, with one patient having ocular and bodily movements that were disturbing. Six patients had no pain, while three patients reported mild pain. No adverse effects were noted and all patients had successful surgical outcomes. Heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation were well controlled throughout the procedures. The most frequent adverse reactions of dexmedetomidine reported in the literature in less than 5% (hypotension, bradycardia, and dry mouth) were not recorded in the present study. Conclusion When a surgeon has planned to do a pars plana vitrectomy under topical anesthesia and the surgical situation dictates the addition of cryopexy, scleral buckle, or intense laser retinopexy, then sedation with dexmedetomidine can help in the control of ocular pain in the majority of cases, with good intraoperative and immediate postoperative hemodynamic control with the possibility of supplemental rescue analgesia. Dexmedetomidine, a sedative analgesic, is devoid of respiratory depressant effects, and its use in posterior segment surgery under topical anesthesia is reported here for the first time. PMID:23271889

Mansour, Ahmad; Taha, Samar

2012-01-01

329

Endoscopic treatment of posterior ankle pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The aim of this study is to describe the indications for two-portal hindfoot endoscopy in the treatment of posterior ankle\\u000a compartment pathologies and to express the effectiveness of this technique by short- to mid-term outcomes on 59 consecutive\\u000a patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In our institute, between 2003 and 2009, patients operated by single surgeon with hindfoot endoscopy were enrolled. The American\\u000a Orthopaedic Foot

Tahir Ogut; Egemen Ayhan; Kaan Irgit; Abdullah Ilker Sarikaya

2011-01-01

330

Posterior optic buttonholing prevents intraocular pressure peaks after cataract surgery with primary posterior capsulorhexis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The performance of a primary posterior capsulorhexis (PPC) with and without posterior optic buttonholing (POBH) may significantly\\u000a influence the intraocular pressure (IOP) after cataract surgery in age-related cataract patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The prospective randomized clinical study was performed at the department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Vienna,\\u000a Austria. Thirty consecutive cataract patients with bilateral same-day cataract surgery (60 eyes) under topical anesthesia

Eva Stifter; Rupert Menapace; Katharina Kriechbaum; Alexandra Luksch

2010-01-01

331

Detectability of pathological lesions in lumbar spine radiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty images with added simulated pathological lesions at two different dose levels (100% and 10% dose) were evaluated with the free-response forced error experiment by nine experienced radiologists. The simulated pathological lesions present in the images were classified according to four different parameters: the position within the lumbar spine, possibility to perform a symmetrical (left-right) comparison, the lesion contrast, and

Anders Tingberg; Magnus Bath; Mark Ruschin; Anna Grahn; Jack Besjakov; Sara Borjesson; Markus Hakansson; Soren Mattsson; Lars Gunnar Mansson

2005-01-01

332

Lumbar Spine Disc Herniation Diagnosis with a Joint Shape Model  

E-print Network

Lumbar Spine Disc Herniation Diagnosis with a Joint Shape Model Raja S Alomari1 , Jason J Corso1 clinically known as Herniation) using shape potentials. We extract these shape potentials by jointly applying cold. In fact, it is the most common reason patients visited the emergency room in the U.S. in 2008

Corso, Jason J.

333

Lumbar-sacral radiculopathy secondary to intraspinal synovial cyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:The presentation of a patient with acute low back pain and distal radiation to the lower extremities is often attributed to a herniated nucleus pulposus (NHP). The purpose of this report is to illustrate how an intraspinal lumbar synovial cyst can have a similar presentation.

Philip Jordan Marion; Neil Kahanovitz

1995-01-01

334

[Asynchronous lumbar synovial cysts after surgical resection: a case report].  

PubMed

Lumbar synovial cysts represent a rare condition, they are believed to arise from defects of the joint capsule due to degeneration, trauma, rheumatoid arthritis or spondylosis. The symptom spectrum ranges from neural claudication to neurological deficits. We report the case of a contralateral asynchronous facet joint cyst after surgical resection and review the literature. PMID:19358082

Pechlivanis, I; Scholz, M; Harders, A; Schmieder, K

2009-01-01

335

The cost-utility of lumbar disc herniation surgery.  

PubMed

The cost and utility of surgery for a herniated lumbar disc has not been determined simultaneously in a single cohort. The aim of this study is to perform a cost-utility analysis of surgical and nonsurgical treatment of patients with lumbar disc herniation. Ninety-two individuals in a cohort of 1,146 Swedish subjects underwent lumbar disc herniation surgery during a 2-year study. Each person operated on was individually matched with one treated conservatively. The effects and costs of the treatments were determined individually. By estimating quality of life before and after the treatment, the number of quality adjusted life years (QALY) gained with and without surgery was calculated. The medical costs were much higher for surgical treatment; however, the total costs, including disability costs, were lower among those treated surgically. Surgery meant fewer recurrences and less permanent disability benefits. The gain in QALY was ten times higher among those operated. Lower total costs and better utility resulted in a better cost utility for surgical treatment. Surgery for lumbar disc herniation was cost-effective. The total costs for surgery were lower due to lower recurrence rates and fewer disability benefits, and surgery improved quality of life much more than nonsurgical treatments. PMID:16683121

Hansson, Elisabeth; Hansson, Tommy

2007-03-01

336

49 CFR 572.19 - Lumbar spine, abdomen and pelvis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2) Attach the pelvis to the seating surface by a bolt C/328, modified as shown in Figure 18, and the upper legs at the knee axial rotation joints by the attachments shown in Figure 18. Tighten the mountings so that the pelvis-lumbar joining...

2012-10-01

337

49 CFR 572.19 - Lumbar spine, abdomen and pelvis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2) Attach the pelvis to the seating surface by a bolt C/328, modified as shown in Figure 18, and the upper legs at the knee axial rotation joints by the attachments shown in Figure 18. Tighten the mountings so that the pelvis-lumbar joining...

2013-10-01

338

49 CFR 572.19 - Lumbar spine, abdomen and pelvis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2) Attach the pelvis to the seating surface by a bolt C/328, modified as shown in Figure 18, and the upper legs at the knee axial rotation joints by the attachments shown in Figure 18. Tighten the mountings so that the pelvis-lumbar joining...

2011-10-01

339

49 CFR 572.19 - Lumbar spine, abdomen and pelvis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2) Attach the pelvis to the seating surface by a bolt C/328, modified as shown in Figure 18, and the upper legs at the knee axial rotation joints by the attachments shown in Figure 18. Tighten the mountings so that the pelvis-lumbar joining...

2010-10-01

340

Structural behavior of human lumbar spinal motion segments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to obtain linearized stiffness matrices, and assess the linearity and hysteresis of the motion segments of the human lumbar spine under physiological conditions of axial preload and fluid environment. Also, the stiffness matrices were expressed in the form of an 'equivalent' structure that would give insights into the structural behavior of the spine. Mechanical

Mack G. Gardner-Morse; Ian A. F. Stokes

341

Lumbar plexus block: Safe anesthesia for hip surgery  

PubMed Central

General anesthesia and neuraxial blockade have their own advantages and disadvantages over each other when used for hip surgery. Single shot lumbar plexus block can be the choice of the anesthetic technique for postrenal transplant, immunocompromised, postspinal surgery patient to undergo dynamic hip screw surgery.

Sarkar (Mitra), T.; Mukherjee, A; Agarwal, G.; Rupert, E.

2012-01-01

342

Selective Management of Posterior Stab Wounds  

PubMed Central

Selective management of 473 patients with stab wounds limited to the posterior abdomen was reviewed. This group was composed of predominantly young, healthy men. Laporotomy was based primarily on clinical findings. Tenderness, not localized to the area of injury, or absent or rare bowel sounds best identified patients with serious injuries. Omental protrusion was frequently associated with significant organ injury. Peritoneal lavage and local wound exploration were used infrequently. All patients with fatal injuries were operated on or died within four hours of admission. Diagnosis was delayed in five serious injuries: one diaphragmatic, three retroperitoneal colon perforations and one duodenal injury, all of which were identified and treated successfully in the initial hospital admission without any complications. Seventy-six percent of the patients never required surgery. Sixteen percent of all patients had significant organ injury, and six percent had “nonessential” laporotomy. Overall morbidity was 12 percent and mortality was 1.1 percent. The colon, liver, diaphragm, and kidneys were the most common organs injured. Thus, clinical assessment alone is a reliable means of selectively managing patients with posterior abdominal stab wounds. PMID:3573058

Ocampo, H.; Yamaguchi, M.; Mackabee, J.; Ordog, G.; Fleming, A.

1987-01-01

343

Sampling Networks from Their Posterior Predictive Distribution  

PubMed Central

Recent research indicates that knowledge about social networks can be leveraged to increase efficiency of interventions (Valente, 2012). However, in many settings, there exists considerable uncertainty regarding the structure of the network. This can render the estimation of potential effects of network-based interventions difficult, as providing appropriate guidance to select interventions often requires a representation of the whole network. In order to make use of the network property estimates to simulate the effect of interventions, it may be beneficial to sample networks from an estimated posterior predictive distribution, which can be specified using a wide range of models. Sampling networks from a posterior predictive distribution of network properties ensures that the uncertainty about network property parameters is adequately captured. The tendency for relationships among network properties to exhibit sharp thresholds has important implications for understanding global network topology in the presence of uncertainty; therefore, it is essential to account for uncertainty. We provide detail needed to sample networks for the specific network properties of degree distribution, mixing frequency, and clustering. Our methods to generate networks are demonstrated using simulated data and data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. PMID:25339990

Goyal, Ravi; De Gruttola, Victor; Blitzstein, Joseph

2014-01-01

344

Posterior consistency in conditional distribution estimation  

PubMed Central

A wide variety of priors have been proposed for nonparametric Bayesian estimation of conditional distributions, and there is a clear need for theorems providing conditions on the prior for large support, as well as posterior consistency. Estimation of an uncountable collection of conditional distributions across different regions of the predictor space is a challenging problem, which differs in some important ways from density and mean regression estimation problems. Defining various topologies on the space of conditional distributions, we provide sufficient conditions for posterior consistency focusing on a broad class of priors formulated as predictor-dependent mixtures of Gaussian kernels. This theory is illustrated by showing that the conditions are satisfied for a class of generalized stick-breaking process mixtures in which the stick-breaking lengths are monotone, differentiable functions of a continuous stochastic process. We also provide a set of sufficient conditions for the case where stick-breaking lengths are predictor independent, such as those arising from a fixed Dirichlet process prior. PMID:25067858

Pati, Debdeep; Dunson, David B.; Tokdar, Surya T.

2014-01-01

345

Costs and effects in lumbar spinal fusion. A follow-up study in 136 consecutive patients with chronic low back pain.  

PubMed

Although cost-effectiveness is becoming the foremost evaluative criterion within health service management of spine surgery, scientific knowledge about cost-patterns and cost-effectiveness is limited. The aims of this study were (1) to establish an activity-based method for costing at the patient-level, (2) to investigate the correlation between costs and effects, (3) to investigate the influence of selected patient characteristics on cost-effectiveness and, (4) to investigate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of (a) posterior instrumentation and (b) intervertebral anterior support in lumbar spinal fusion. We hypothesized a positive correlation between costs and effects, that determinants of effects would also determine cost-effectiveness, and that posterolateral instrumentation and anterior intervertebral support are cost-effective adjuncts in posterolateral lumbar fusion. A cohort of 136 consecutive patients with chronic low back pain, who were surgically treated from January 2001 through January 2003, was followed until 2 years postoperatively. Operations took place at University Hospital of Aarhus and all patients had either (1) non-instrumented posterolateral lumbar spinal fusion, (2) instrumented posterolateral lumbar spinal fusion, or (3) instrumented posterolateral lumbar spinal fusion + anterior intervertebral support. Analysis of costs was performed at the patient-level, from an administrator's perspective, by means of Activity-Based-Costing. Clinical effects were measured by means of the Dallas Pain Questionnaire and the Low Back Pain Rating Scale at baseline and 2 years postoperatively. Regression models were used to reveal determinants for costs and effects. Costs and effects were analyzed as a net-benefit measure to reveal determinants for cost-effectiveness, and finally, adjusted analysis (for non-random allocation of patients) was performed in order to reveal the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of (a) posterior instrumentation and (b) anterior support. The costs of non-instrumented posterolateral spinal fusion were estimated at DKK 88,285(95% CI 81,369;95,546), instrumented posterolateral spinal fusion at DKK 94,396(95% CI 89,865;99,574) and instrumented posterolateral lumbar spinal fusion + anterior intervertebral support at DKK 120,759(95% CI 111,981;133,738). The net-benefit of the regimens was significantly affected by smoking and functional disability in psychosocial life areas. Multi-level fusion and surgical technique significantly affected the net-benefit as well. Surprisingly, no correlation was found between treatment costs and treatment effects. Incremental analysis suggested that the probability of posterior instrumentation being cost-effective was limited, whereas the probability of anterior intervertebral support being cost-effective escalates as willingness-to-pay per effect unit increases. This study reveals useful and hitherto unknown information both about cost-patterns at the patient-level and determinants of cost-effectiveness. The overall conclusion of the present investigation is a recommendation to focus further on determinants of cost-effectiveness. For example, patient characteristics that are modifiable at a relatively low expense may have greater influence on cost-effectiveness than the surgical technique itself--at least from an administrator's perspective. PMID:16871387

Soegaard, Rikke; Christensen, Finn Bjarke; Christiansen, Terkel; Bünger, Cody

2007-05-01

346

Diagnostic challenge: bilateral infected lumbar facet cysts--a rare cause of acute lumbar spinal stenosis and back pain.  

PubMed

Symptomatic synovial lumbar facet cysts are a relatively rare cause of radiculopathy and spinal stenosis. This case and brief review of the literature, details a patient who presented with acutely symptomatic bilateral spontaneously infected synovial facet (L4/5) cysts. This report highlights diagnostic clues for identifying infection of a facet cyst. PMID:20205727

Freedman, Brett A; Bui, Tuan L; Yoon, S Timothy

2010-01-01

347

Spontaneous hemorrhage in an upper lumbar synovial cyst causing subacute cauda equina syndrome.  

PubMed

Lumbar spine synovial cysts are becoming more frequent, and they are generally associated with degenerative lumbar spinal disease. They are common in lower lumbar lesions but rare in upper lumbar lesions. Several cases of hemorrhage into lower lumbar juxtafacet cysts after trauma or anticoagulation therapy have been reported in the literature. This article describes a case of subacute cauda equina syndrome resulting from spontaneous hemorrhage into an upper lumbar synovial cyst. A 65-year-old man presented with a 3-month history of intermittent bilateral lumbar pain. One week before, he experienced a sudden exacerbation of lumbar pain and began falling frequently; he also reported weakness and tingling in his lower limbs. A hematic collection associated with a large juxtafacet cyst at L2-L3 was suspected on magnetic resonance imaging. He underwent surgical decompression, and the cyst was resected. Microscopic examination was consistent with the diagnosis of a synovial cyst. Two days postoperatively, he was walking independently. Although several descriptions exist of hemorrhagic lumbar juxtafacet cysts after trauma or anticoagulant therapy, to the authors' knowledge, this is the first documented case of hemorrhage in an upper lumbar synovial cyst with no previous traumatic event or medication use. Magnetic resonance imaging was essential in making the preoperative diagnosis. Surgical removal of the cyst was an effective treatment. PMID:22955421

Machino, Masaaki; Yukawa, Yasutsugu; Ito, Keigo; Kanbara, Shunsuke; Kato, Fumihiko

2012-09-01

348

Electroclinical characteristics of posterior lateral temporal epilepsy.  

PubMed

The current study aimed to investigate the electroclinical differences between mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) and posterior lateral temporal lobe epilepsy (PLTLE). All patients had Engel class I outcomes after surgery for at least one year. In MTLE patients, the epileptogenic zone was inside the boundary of a standard temporal lobectomy, whereas in PLTLE, the epileptogenic zone was behind the boundary of a standard temporal lobectomy. Febrile convulsion, history of psychic aura, oroalimentary automatism, and diffuse interictal epileptiform discharges were more frequent in MTLE. Theta wave and increasing heart rate were more evident at the seizure onset in MTLE, whereas an ictal onset fast rhythm was more evident in PLTLE. Tonic head turning was more frequent in PLTLE. Distinguishing between MTLE and PLTLE was easier than distinguishing MTLE from lateral TLE (LTLE), which may be helpful in planning epilepsy surgery. Combinations of these manifestations and signs can provide vital clues to distinguish between MTLE and PLTLE. PMID:23200534

Wang, Fang; Liu, Xingzhou; Pan, Sipei; Wang, Mengyang; Chen, Shuhua

2013-01-01

349

Posterior restorations--a clinical view.  

PubMed

This paper examines the state-of-the-art in the direct restoration of posterior teeth. The existing paradigms for the management of caries are questioned and some existing methods of cavity preparation are reviewed. Dental restorations need to be durable but able to adapt to a changing environment brought about by wear of the adjacent tooth substance and by fatigue processes within the tooth itself. The wear of restorative materials needs to be matched to that of the tooth, otherwise differential loss of either the restorative material or the enamel may destabilize the occlusion. Esthetic instability due to natural darkening of the tooth with age, punctuated by clinical intervention with bleaching procedures, adds a further dimension to the concept of a permanent restoration. Clinical methods that minimize the disruptive effects of dental restorations upon the remaining tooth structure are a continuing challenge. PMID:11317380

Jedynakiewicz, N M; Martin, N

2001-01-01

350

Asymptomatic posterior mediastinal teratoma diagnosed incidentally.  

PubMed

We present a young patient with occasional chest pain and an incidentally found posterior mediastinal mass on radiology which was confirmed as mature teratoma on histopathology. The gross specimen received in the department of pathology was globular measuring 9.0×7.0×5.5 cm and varying in consistency from soft cystic to firm. Cut surface showed numerous hair entangled in pultaceous material. Representative sections were taken and stained with H&E stain. Histopathology revealed haphazardly distributed mature derivatives of all the three germ layers comprising of epidermis, pilo sebaceous units, nerve bundles (ectodermal), cartilage, bone, salivary gland clusters, blood vessels, muscle bundles, fibrous tissue infiltrated by foreign body giant cells, lymphoid follicles (mesodermal) and pseudostratified columnar epithelium (mesodermal), thus establishing the diagnosis of mature teratoma. PMID:24654248

Jaiswal, Riddhi; Rani, Poonam; Devenraj, Vijayant

2014-01-01

351

Objective autorefraction in posterior chamber pseudophakia.  

PubMed Central

Automated refraction with the Canon RK-1 Autoref keratometer was evaluated in 110 eyes (110 patients) six to eight weeks after they had undergone extracapsular cataract extraction with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation and achieved a best corrected visual acuity of at least 6/12. Autorefraction readings were obtained in 100 (91%) of these eyes. The agreement between autorefraction and clinical refraction data was 98% for spherical equivalence less than 0.51 dioptres (D), 95% for sphere power less than 0.51D, 94% for cylinder power less than 0.51D, and 85% for cylinder axis less than 11 degrees. Autorefraction can provide acceptably accurate postoperative refraction values in pseudophakic eyes. Images PMID:2275935

Raj, P S; Akingbehin, T; Levy, A M

1990-01-01

352

The role of cumulative physical work load in lumbar spine disease: risk factors for lumbar osteochondrosis and spondylosis associated with chronic complaints  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESTo investigate the relation with a case-control study between symptomatic osteochondrosis or spondylosis of the lumbar spine and cumulative occupational exposure to lifting or carrying and to working postures with extreme forward bending.METHODSFrom two practices and four clinics were recruited 229 male patients with radiographically confirmed osteochondrosis or spondylosis of the lumbar spine associated with chronic complaints. Of these 135

A Seidler; U Bolm-Audorff; H Heiskel; N Henkel; B Roth-Küver; U Kaiser; R Bickeböller; W J Willingstorfer; W Beck; G Elsner

2001-01-01

353

Dynamics of human lumbar intervertebral joints. Experimental and finite-element investigations.  

PubMed

To improve our understanding of the dynamic characteristics of the human lumbar spine, both experimental and finite-element methods are required. The experimental methods included measurement of the axial steady state response, resonant frequencies, and damping of seven lumbar motion segments under an upper-body mass of 40 kg. The influence of the presence of posterior elements and different magnitudes of compression preload on the response was also studied. To supplement the measurements, linear and nonlinear, axisymmetric, and three-dimensional finite-element models of a L2-L3 disc-vertebra unit were developed to predict the free and forced-vibration responses. The step and harmonic loadings in the axial direction were considered for the forced-vibration analysis. The effect of the presence of the body mass and compression preloads were also examined. The results of experimental and finite-element studies were in good agreement with each other. They indicated that the system resonant frequencies are reduced considerably with the addition of a body mass of 40 kg and increase significantly (P less than .005) as the compression preload increases. The compliance at both low and resonant frequencies decreases with increasing compression preload. Under preloads of not more than 680 N, removal of the facet joints tends to decrease slightly the segmental resonant frequencies irrespective of the magnitude of compression preload (P less than .1). The finite-element model studies show quasi-static response under harmonic loads with periods much larger than the fundamental period of the segment and under step loads with slow rising times. Under a step load without the body mass, the nucleus pressure varies with both location and time and reaches a maximum of about 2.5 times that under equivalent static load. The addition of a 40-kg mass, in this case, renders a single degree-of-freedom response, with the pressure remaining nearly constant with location inside the nucleus. The stresses and strains throughout the segment in this case increase approximately twofold in comparison with equivalent static values. Partial or complete removal of the disc nucleus considerably decreases the resonant frequency and increases the corresponding segmental response amplitude (ie, compliance). The results indicate that the most vulnerable element under axial vibration loads is the cancellous bone adjacent to the nucleus space. Fatigue fracture of bone as a cumulative trauma and the subsequent loss of nucleus content likely initiates or accelerate the segmental degenerative processes. The annulus fibers do not appear to be vulnerable to rupture when the segment is subjected to pure axial vibration. PMID:1536019

Kasra, M; Shirazi-Adl, A; Drouin, G

1992-01-01

354

Quantifying the centre of rotation pattern in a multi-body model of the lumbar spine.  

PubMed

Understanding the kinematics of the spine provides paramount knowledge for many aspects of the clinical analysis of back pain. More specifically, visualisation of the instantaneous centre of rotation (ICR) enables clinicians to quantify joint laxity in the segments, avoiding a dependence on more inconclusive measurements based on the range of motion and excessive translations, which vary in every individual. Alternatively, it provides motion preserving designers with an insight into where a physiological ICR of a motion preserving prosthesis can be situated in order to restore proper load distribution across the passive and active elements of the lumbar region. Prior to the use of an unconstrained dynamic musculoskeletal model system, based on multi-body models capable of transient analysis, to estimate segmental loads, the model must be kinematically evaluated for all possible sensitivity due to ligament properties and the initial locus of intervertebral disc (IVD). A previously calibrated osseoligamentous model of lumbar spine was used to evaluate the changes in ICR under variation of the ligament stiffness and initial locus of IVD, when subjected to pure moments from 0 to 15 Nm. The ICR was quantified based on the closed solution of unit quaternion that improves accuracy and prevents coordinate singularities, which is often observed in Euler-based methods and least squares principles. The calculation of the ICR during flexion/extension revealed complexity and intrinsic nonlinearity between flexion and extension. This study revealed that, to accommodate a good agreement between in vitro data and the multi-body model predictions, in flexion more laxity is required than in extension. The results showed that the ICR location is concentrated in the posterior region of the disc, in agreement with previous experimental studies. However, the current multi-body model demonstrates a sensitivity to the initial definition of the ICR, which should be recognised as a limitation of the method. Nevertheless, the current simulations suggest that, due to the constantly evolving path of the ICR across the IVD during flexion-extension, a movable ICR is a necessary condition in multi-body modelling of the spine, in the context of whole body simulation, to accurately capture segmental kinematics and kinetics. PMID:22439815

Abouhossein, Alireza; Weisse, Bernhard; Ferguson, Stephen J

2013-01-01

355

Segmental in vivo vertebral motion during functional human lumbar spine activities  

PubMed Central

Quantitative data on the range of in vivo vertebral motion is critical to enhance our understanding of spinal pathology and to improve the current surgical treatment methods for spinal diseases. Little data have been reported on the range of lumbar vertebral motion during functional body activities. In this study, we measured in vivo 6 degrees-of-freedom (DOF) vertebral motion during unrestricted weightbearing functional body activities using a combined MR and dual fluoroscopic imaging technique. Eight asymptomatic living subjects were recruited and underwent MRI scans in order to create 3D vertebral models from L2 to L5 for each subject. The lumbar spine was then imaged using two fluoroscopes while the subject performed primary flexion-extension, left-right bending, and left-right twisting. The range of vertebral motion during each activity was determined through a previously described imaging-model matching technique at L2-3, L3-4, and L4-5 levels. Our data revealed that the upper vertebrae had a higher range of flexion than the lower vertebrae during flexion-extension of the body (L2-3, 5.4 ± 3.8°; L3-4, 4.3 ± 3.4°; L4-5, 1.9 ± 1.1°, respectively). During bending activity, the L4-5 had a higher (but not significant) range of left-right bending motion (4.7 ± 2.4°) than both L2-3 (2.9 ± 2.4°) and L3-4 (3.4 ± 2.1°), while no statistical difference was observed in left-right twisting among the three vertebral levels (L2-3, 2.5 ± 2.3°; L3-4, 2.4 ± 2.6°; and L4-5, 2.9 ± 2.1°, respectively). Besides the primary rotations reported, coupled motions were quantified in all DOFs. The coupled translation in left-right and anterior-posterior directions, on average, reached greater than 1 mm, while in the proximal-distal direction this was less than 1 mm. Overall, each vertebral level responds differently to flexion-extension and left-right bending, but similarly to the left-right twisting. This data may provide new insight into the in vivo function of human spines and can be used as baseline data for investigation of pathological spine kinematics. PMID:19301040

Wang, Shaobai; Passias, Peter; Xia, Qun; Li, Gang; Wood, Kirkham

2009-01-01

356

Postoperative acetabular retroversion causes posterior osteoarthritis of the hip  

PubMed Central

We retrospectively reviewed 68 hips in 62 patients with acetabular dysplasia who underwent curved periacetabular osteotomy. Among the 68 hips, 33 had acetabular retroversion (retroversion group) and 35 had anteversion (control group) preoperatively. All hips were evaluated according to the Harris hip score. Radiographic evaluations of acetabular retroversion and posterior wall deficiency were based on the cross-over sign and posterior wall sign, respectively. The clinical scores of the two groups at the final follow-up were similar. In the retroversion group, 12 hips had anteverted acetabulum postoperatively. The posterior wall sign disappeared in these hips, but remained in 21 hips with retroverted acetabulum postoperatively. Among the 21 hips with retroverted acetabulum, posterior osteoarthritis of the hip developed postoperatively in five hips. When performing corrective osteotomy for a dysplastic hip with acetabular retroversion, it is important to correct the acetabular retroversion to prevent posterior osteoarthritis of the hip due to posterior wall deficiency. PMID:18157533

Naito, Masatoshi; Shiramizu, Kei; Shinoda, Tsuyoshi

2007-01-01

357

Posterior cranial vault distraction with resorbable distraction devices.  

PubMed

Posterior cranial vault distraction is recognized as a viable initial approach to patients with syndromic craniosynostosis. It offers advantages to initial anterior vault surgery and to traditional 1-stage advancements. Reports of posterior vault distraction have thus far focused on the use of standard titanium distractors. We present a case of posterior vault distraction with resorbable distraction devices, obviating the need for a second surgery and anesthetic for distractor removal. Distraction was performed successfully without complications or device-related issues. PMID:25006906

Maurice, Samuel M; Gachiani, John M

2014-07-01

358

Evaluation of posterior fossa lesions by computer assisted tomography (CAT).  

PubMed

Valuable neuroradiologic information can be obtained with routine examination of the posterior fossa by computer assisted tomography (CAT). The diagnosis can be difficult in the posterior fossa due to the relatively small size of the compartment and its proximities to large bony masses and air in the mastoid cells. However, many lesions can be accurately diagnosed when close attention is given to anatomic detail and the frequent use of contrast enhancement. We introduced a new CAT classification of posterior fossa neoplasms. PMID:877637

Lott, T; El Gammal, T; Volcan, I

1977-07-01

359

Posterior Thigh Muscle Injuries in Elite Track and Field Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Posterior thigh muscle injuries in athletes are common, and prediction of recovery time would be of value.Hypothesis: Knee active range of motion deficit 48 hours after a unilateral posterior thigh muscle injury correlates with time to full recovery.Study Design: Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2.Methods: One hundred sixty-five track and field athletes with acute, first-time, unilateral posterior thigh

Nikolaos Malliaropoulos; Emmanuel Papacostas; Olga Kiritsi; Agapi Papalada; Nikolaos Gougoulias; Nicola Maffulli

2010-01-01

360

Posterior Circulation Stroke: Animal Models and Mechanism of Disease  

PubMed Central

Posterior circulation stroke refers to the vascular occlusion or bleeding, arising from the vertebrobasilar vasculature of the brain. Clinical studies show that individuals who experience posterior circulation stroke will develop significant brain injury, neurologic dysfunction, or death. Yet the therapeutic needs of this patient subpopulation remain largely unknown. Thus understanding the causative factors and the pathogenesis of brain damage is important, if posterior circulation stroke is to be prevented or treated. Appropriate animal models are necessary to achieve this understanding. This paper critically integrates the neurovascular and pathophysiological features gleaned from posterior circulation stroke animal models into clinical correlations. PMID:22665986

Lekic, Tim; Ani, Chizobam

2012-01-01

361

Rheological properties of the human lumbar spine ligaments.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to provide a better understanding of the rheological properties of the lumbar spinal ligaments under subfailure physiological loads. Non-destructive tests including an hysteresis experiment, stress-relaxation and stepwise load-relaxation tests were used to investigate the time-dependent properties of the interspinous-supraspinous ligament complex. Using a reduced relaxation function, the viscoelastic behaviour over the experimental time-scale was described by a linear function of the logarithm of time. Internal damping of ligament substance dissipates about 36% of the mechanical energy applied during physiological loading. Local elastic stiffness is found to be two to four times global stiffness of the bone-ligament-bone complex. These physical parameters (stiffness, energy dissipation, hysteresis, relaxation, etc) can be used to improve computer models of the lumbar spinal column. PMID:1795507

Yahia, L H; Audet, J; Drouin, G

1991-09-01

362

Fluoronavigation-assisted, lumbar vertebroplasty for a painful Schmorl node.  

PubMed

Lumbar Schmorl nodes usually remain asymptomatic. Painful nodes either heal spontaneously or respond to conservative therapy in most instances. Diagnosis and treatment may be difficult in patients presenting with chronic back pain. We present a 31-year-old man with a lumbar Schmorl node that was unrecognised for 10 years as the origin of his severe chronic back pain. Finally, MRI revealed a significant oedematous rim around a huge Schmorl node in the L4 vertebra. After conservative therapy failed the patient underwent a successful fluoronavigation-assisted, percutaneous vertebroplasty. In the absence of other pathological conditions, an oedematous rim around the node (as seen on MRI) is probably the pain generator in chronic back pain. We believe that the relevant nociceptors are located in the oedematous rim and not in the node itself. Therefore, cement augmentation of the rim is expected to be a successful treatment. Fluoronavigation facilitates safe access to the vertebral body. PMID:19539476

Wenger, Markus; Markwalder, Thomas-Marc

2009-09-01

363

Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: Who Should Be Fused? An Updated Review  

PubMed Central

Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is mostly caused by osteoarthritis (spondylosis). Clinically, the symptoms of patients with LSS can be categorized into two groups; regional (low back pain, stiffness, and so on) or radicular (spinal stenosis mainly presenting as neurogenic claudication). Both of these symptoms usually improve with appropriate conservative treatment, but in refractory cases, surgical intervention is occasionally indicated. In the patients who primarily complain of radiculopathy with an underlying biomechanically stable spine, a decompression surgery alone using a less invasive technique may be sufficient. Preoperatively, with the presence of indicators such as failed back surgery syndrome (revision surgery), degenerative instability, considerable essential deformity, symptomatic spondylolysis, refractory degenerative disc disease, and adjacent segment disease, lumbar fusion is probably recommended. Intraoperatively, in cases with extensive decompression associated with a wide disc space or insufficient bone stock, fusion is preferred. Instrumentation improves the fusion rate, but it is not necessarily associated with improved recovery rate and better functional outcome.

Hasankhani, Ebrahim Ghayem; Ashjazadeh, Amir

2014-01-01

364

Early adolescent lumbar intervertebral disc injury: a case study  

PubMed Central

This article describes and discusses the case of an adolescent male with lumbar intervertebral disc injury characterized by chronic low back pain (LBP) and antalgia. A 13-year-old boy presented for care with a complaint of chronic LBP and subsequent loss of quality of life. The patient was examined and diagnosed by means of history, clinical testing and use of imaging. He had showed failure in natural history and conservative management relief in both symptomatic and functional improvement, due to injury to the intervertebral joints of his lower lumbar spine. Discogenic LBP in the young adolescent population must be considered, particularly in cases involving even trivial minor trauma, and in those in which LBP becomes chronic. More research is needed regarding long-term implications of such disc injuries in young people, and how to best conservatively manage these patients. A discussion of discogenic LBP pertaining to adolescent disc injury is included. PMID:23621900

2013-01-01

365

Lumbar spinal angiolipoma: case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Spinal angiolipomas are extremely rare benign tumors composed of mature lipomatous and angiomatous elements. Most are symptomatic due to progressive spinal cord or root compression. This article describes the case of a 60-year-old woman who presented with a 6-month history of low back pain radiating to her right leg. The pain was multisegmental. The condition had worsened with time. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging revealed a dorsal epidural mass at L5 and erosion of the lamina of the L5 vertebra. Laminectomy was performed, and an extradural tumor was totally excised. Neuropathologic examination identified it as a lumbar spinal angiolipoma. There was no evidence of recurrence in follow-up 12 months later. This rare clinical entity must be considered in the differential diagnosis for any spinal epidural lesion. PMID:16172903

Konya, Deniz; Ozgen, Serdar; Kurtkaya, Ozlem; Pamir, Necmettin M

2006-06-01

366

An anatomic investigation of the serratus posterior superior and serratus posterior inferior muscles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In classical anatomy textbooks the serratus posterior superior muscle was said to elevate the superior four ribs, thus increasing\\u000a the AP diameter of the thorax and raising the sternum. However, electromyographic and other studies do not support its role\\u000a in respiration. In order to help resolve this controversy and provide some insight into their possible functionality, the\\u000a present study aimed

Marios Loukas; Robert G. Louis Jr; Christopher T. Wartmann; R. Shane Tubbs; Ankmalika A. Gupta; Nihal Apaydin; Robert Jordan

2008-01-01

367

Critical analysis of lumbar interspinous devices failures: a retrospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interspinous devices (IDs) were introduced in the 90s. Since then, they have rapidly become very popular for the minimally\\u000a invasive treatment of lumbar pain disorders. They feature different shapes and biomechanical characteristics, and are used\\u000a in the spine degenerative pathologies or as motion segment stabilizers (dynamic stabilization) or to obtain the decompression\\u000a of neurological structures. The indications seem to be

Francesco Ciro Tamburrelli; Luca Proietti; Carlo Ambrogio Logroscino

2011-01-01

368

Diagnosis and conservative management of degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) is a disorder that causes the slip of one vertebral body over the one below due to degenerative\\u000a changes in the spine. Lumbar DS is a major cause of spinal canal stenosis and is often related to low back and leg pain. We\\u000a reviewed the symptoms, prognosis and conservative treatments for symptoms associated with DS. PubMed and

Leonid Kalichman; David J. Hunter

2008-01-01

369

Treatment of tetanus by lumbar intrathecal tetanus-antitoxin.  

PubMed

The use of human tetanus antitoxin by lumbar intrathecal injection for the treatment of tetanus in five consecutive cases is reported. The intrathecal administration of human tetanus antitoxin as part of treatment appears to be the most effective treatment of tetanus and should be given as soon as the diagnosis of tetanus is established. The dose of antitoxin does not relate with the rapid improvement of muscle spasm. PMID:6937027

Ogatuti, P

1980-12-01

370

The lumbar paraspinal muscle morphometry of fast bowlers in cricket  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:: To describe the functional cross-sectional area (FCSA) of the lumbar paraspinal muscles of professional fast bowlers in cricket and to investigate the nature of any muscle asymmetry. DESIGN:: Descriptive cross-sectional between-groups study. SETTING:: The England and Wales Cricket Board. PARTICIPANTS:: Forty-six asymptomatic professional fast bowlers and 17 athletic controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS:: The magnetic resonance imaging of functional cross-sectional

Craig Ranson; Angus Burnett; Mark Batt; Robert Kerslake

2008-01-01

371

Step activity monitoring in lumbar stenosis patients undergoing decompressive surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symptomatic degenerative central lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is a frequent indication for decompressive spinal surgery, to\\u000a reduce spinal claudication. No data are as yet available on the effect of surgery on the level of activity measured with objective\\u000a long-term monitoring. The aim of this prospective, controlled study was to objectively quantify the level of activity in central\\u000a LSS patients before

Tobias L. Schulte; Tim Schubert; Corinna Winter; Mirko Brandes; Lars Hackenberg; Hansdetlef Wassmann; Dennis Liem; Dieter Rosenbaum; Viola Bullmann

2010-01-01

372

MR imaging of lumbar facet joint synovial cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The increasing application of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the spine has raised the awareness of lumbar facet synovial\\u000a cysts (LFSC). This well recognised, yet uncommon condition, presents with low back pain and radiculopathy due to the presence\\u000a of an extradural mass. The commonest affected level is L4\\/5 with a mild degenerative spondylolisthesis a frequent associated\\u000a finding. MR imaging

E. Apostolaki; A. M. Davies; N. Evans; V. N. Cassar-Pullicino

2000-01-01

373

Stabilising effect of dynamic interspinous spacers in degenerative low-grade lumbar instability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to investigate the stabilising effect of dynamic interspinous spacers (IS) in combination with interlaminar\\u000a decompression in degenerative low-grade lumbar instability with lumbar spinal stenosis and to compare its clinical effect\\u000a to patients with lumbar spinal stenosis in stable segments treated by interlaminar decompression only. Fifty consecutive patients\\u000a with a minimum age of 60 years were

Johannes Holinka; Petra Krepler; Michael Matzner; Josef G. Grohs

2011-01-01

374

Clinical applications of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar foraminal nerve root entrapment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can provide valuable structural information about tissues that may be useful for clinical\\u000a applications in evaluating lumbar foraminal nerve root entrapment. Our purpose was to visualize the lumbar nerve root and\\u000a to analyze its morphology, and to measure its apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in healthy volunteers and patients with\\u000a lumbar foraminal stenosis using 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging.

Yawara Eguchi; Seiji Ohtori; Masaomi Yamashita; Kazuyo Yamauchi; Munetaka Suzuki; Sumihisa Orita; Hiroto Kamoda; Gen Arai; Tetsuhiro Ishikawa; Masayuki Miyagi; Nobuyasu Ochiai; Shunji Kishida; Yoshitada Masuda; Shigehiro Ochi; Takashi Kikawa; Masashi Takaso; Yasuchika Aoki; Tomoaki Toyone; Takane Suzuki; Kazuhisa Takahashi

2010-01-01

375

Cartilage intermediate layer protein promotes lumbar disc degeneration.  

PubMed

Lumbar disc disease (LDD) is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders, and accompanies intervertebral disc degeneration. CILP encodes cartilage intermediate layer protein, which is highly associated with LDD. Moreover, CILP inhibits transcriptional activation of cartilage matrix genes in nucleus pulposus (NP) cells in vitro by binding to TGF-?1 and inhibiting the phosphorylation of Smads. However, the aetiology and mechanism of pathogenesis of LDD in vivo are unknown. To demonstrate the role of CILP in LDD in vivo, we generated transgenic mice that express CILP specifically in the intervertebral disc tissues and assessed whether CILP exacerbates disc degeneration. Degeneration of the intervertebral discs was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histology. The level of phosphorylation of Smad2/3 in intervertebral discs was measured to determine whether overexpressed CILP suppressed TGF-beta signalling. Although the macroscopic skeletal phenotype of transgenic mice appeared normal, histological findings revealed significant degeneration of lumbar discs. MRI analysis of the lumbar intervertebral discs indicated a significantly lower signal intensity of the nucleus pulposus where CILP was overexpressed. Intervertebral disc degeneration was also observed. The number of phosphorylation of Smad2/3 immuno-positive cells in the NP significantly was decreased in CILP transgenic mice compared with normal mice. In summary, overexpression of CILP in the NP promotes disc degeneration, indicating that CILP plays a direct role in the pathogenesis of LDD. PMID:24631904

Seki, Shoji; Tsumaki, Noriyuki; Motomura, Hiraku; Nogami, Makiko; Kawaguchi, Yoshiharu; Hori, Takeshi; Suzuki, Kayo; Yahara, Yasuhito; Higashimoto, Mami; Oya, Takeshi; Ikegawa, Shiro; Kimura, Tomoatsu

2014-04-18

376

Posterior regeneration in Isodiametra pulchra (Acoela, Acoelomorpha)  

PubMed Central

Introduction Regeneration is a widespread phenomenon in the animal kingdom, but the capacity to restore damaged or missing tissue varies greatly between different phyla and even within the same phylum. However, the distantly related Acoelomorpha and Platyhelminthes share a strikingly similar stem-cell system and regenerative capacity. Therefore, comparing the underlying mechanisms in these two phyla paves the way for an increased understanding of the evolution of this developmental process. To date, Isodiametra pulchra is the most promising candidate as a model for the Acoelomorpha, as it reproduces steadily under laboratory conditions and is amenable to various techniques, including the silencing of gene expression by RNAi. In order to provide an essential framework for future studies, we report the succession of regeneration events via the use of cytochemical, histological and microscopy techniques, and specify the total number of cells in adult individuals. Results Isodiametra pulchra is not capable of regenerating a new head, but completely restores all posterior structures within 10 days. Following amputation, the wound closes via the contraction of local muscle fibres and an extension of the dorsal epidermis. Subsequently, stem cells and differentiating cells invade the wound area and form a loosely delimited blastema. After two days, the posterior end is re-patterned with the male (and occasionally the female) genital primordium being apparent. Successively, these primordia differentiate into complete copulatory organs. The size of the body and also of the male and female copulatory organs, as well as the distance between the copulatory organs, progressively increase and by nine days copulation is possible. Adult individuals with an average length of 670 ?m consist of approximately 8100 cells. Conclusion Isodiametra pulchra regenerates through a combination of morphallactic and epimorphic processes. Existing structures are “re-modelled” and provide a framework onto which newly differentiating cells are added. Growth proceeds through the intercalary addition of structures, mirroring the embryonic and post-embryonic development of various organ systems. The suitability of Isodiametra pulchra for laboratory techniques, the fact that its transcriptome and genome data will soon be available, as well as its small size and low number of cells, make it a prime candidate subject for research into the cellular mechanisms that underlie regeneration in acoelomorphs. PMID:24160844

2013-01-01

377

Technical factors related to the incidence of adjacent superior segment facet joint violation after transpedicular instrumentation in the lumbar spine  

PubMed Central

Segmental pedicle screw fixation is rapidly becoming a popular method of spinal instrumentation. Few studies have investigated the rates of adjacent superior segment facet joint violation. The purpose of our study were to investigate the incidence of superior segment facet joint violation after pedicle screw instrumentation in the lumbar spine and to evaluate technical factors related to the incidence. A prospective study including 96 patients who underwent lumbar and lumbosacral fusion was conducted between March 2006 and December 2007. All patients had bilateral or unilateral posterior pedicle screw-rod instrumentation with either CD-Horizon (top-loading screw) or TSRH (side-connecting screw) implants. Pedicle screws were instrumented according to the methods advocated by Roy-Camille (Group 1, 20 cases) or Weinstein (Group 2, 76 cases). All patients had computed tomography scan at 1 week post operation. CT scans were reviewed blind by an experienced spine research fellow and a consultant radiologist to determine violation of the adjacent superior segment facet joint. Superior segment facet joint violation occurred in all of the 20 patients (100%) and all of the top-level screws (100%) in Group 1. The spinal research fellow noted the incidence of facet joint violation to be present in 23.8% of the screws and 32.9% of the patients in Group 2, whereas the consultant radiologist noted this to be the case in 25.2 and 35.5%, respectively. The incidence of facet joint violation in patients with CD-Horizon screws was far lower than patients with TSRH screws (P < 0.001). In conclusion, it seems that meticulous surgical dissection without injuring the top-level facet joints, proper instrumentation of pedicle screws with the appropriate entry site (Weinstein’s method), trajectory, and use of top-loading screw heads are some ways that surgeons could minimize the risk of top-level facet joint violation. PMID:18795343

Chen, Zhiming; Xu, Hao; Liu, Aigang; Yuan, Jiandong; Wang, Cong

2008-01-01

378

The geometry of the muscles of the lumbar spine determined by magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a new multiplanar imaging technique that clearly demonstrates soft tissue anatomy. The lumbar spines of 26 males have been scanned. From the transverse scans, the position and cross-sectional areas of the muscles of the lumbar region were recorded. Regression analysis was performed to relate these values to trunk measurements and body weight. Sagittal scans were used to measure the angles to the vertical of the lumbar discs and of the skin overlying the spinous processes. The position of each lumbar disc relative to two skin points was measured. These parameters can then be used in biochemical calculations of low-back forces. PMID:2922639

Tracy, M F; Gibson, M J; Szypryt, E P; Rutherford, A; Corlett, E N

1989-02-01

379

Analysis of post-operative pain patterns following total lumbar disc replacement: results from fluoroscopically guided spine infiltrations.  

PubMed

Although a variety of biomechanical laboratory investigations and radiological studies have highlighted the potential problems associated with total lumbar disc replacement (TDR), no previous study has performed a systematic clinical failure analysis. The aim of this study was to identify the post-operative pain sources, establish the incidence of post-operative pain patterns and investigate the effect on post-operative outcome with the help of fluoroscopically guided spine infiltrations in patients from an ongoing prospective study with ProDisc II. Patients who reported unsatisfactory results at any of the FU-examinations received fluoroscopically guided spine infiltrations as part of a semi-invasive diagnostic and conservative treatment program. Pain sources were identified in patients with reproducible (> or =2x) significant (50-75%) or highly significant (75-100%) pain relief. Results were correlated with outcome parameters visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry disability index (ODI) and the subjective patient satisfaction rate. From a total of 175 operated patients with a mean follow-up (FU) of 29.3 months (range 12.2-74.9 months), n = 342 infiltrations were performed in n = 58 patients (33.1%) overall. Facet joint pain, predominantly at the index level (86.4%), was identified in n = 22 patients (12.6%). The sacroiliac joint was a similarly frequent cause of post-operative pain (n = 21, 12.0%). Pain from both structures influenced all outcome parameters negatively (P < 0.05). Patients with an early onset of pain (< or =6 months) were 2-5x higher at risk of developing persisting complaints and unsatisfactory outcome at later FU-stages in comparison to the entire study cohort (P < 0.05). The level of TDR significantly influenced post-operative outcome. Best results were achieved for the TDRs above the lumbosacral junction at L4/5 (incidence of posterior joint pain 14.8%). Inferior outcome and a significantly higher incidence of posterior joint pain were observed for TDR at L5/S1 (21.6%) and bisegmental TDR at L4/5/S1 (33.3%), respectively. Lumbar facet and/or ISJ-pain are a frequent and currently underestimated source of post-operative pain and the most common reasons for unsatisfactory results following TDR. Further failure-analysis studies are required and adequate salvage treatment options need to be established with respect to the underlying pathology of post-operative pain. The question as to whether or not TDR will reduce the incidence of posterior joint pain, which has been previously attributed to lumbar fusion procedures, remains unanswered. Additional studies will have to investigate whether TDR compromises the index-segment in an attempt to avoid adjacent segment degeneration. PMID:17972116

Siepe, Christoph J; Korge, Andreas; Grochulla, Frank; Mehren, Christoph; Mayer, H Michael

2008-01-01

380

Analysis of post-operative pain patterns following total lumbar disc replacement: results from fluoroscopically guided spine infiltrations  

PubMed Central

Although a variety of biomechanical laboratory investigations and radiological studies have highlighted the potential problems associated with total lumbar disc replacement (TDR), no previous study has performed a systematic clinical failure analysis. The aim of this study was to identify the post-operative pain sources, establish the incidence of post-operative pain patterns and investigate the effect on post-operative outcome with the help of fluoroscopically guided spine infiltrations in patients from an ongoing prospective study with ProDisc II. Patients who reported unsatisfactory results at any of the FU-examinations received fluoroscopically guided spine infiltrations as part of a semi-invasive diagnostic and conservative treatment program. Pain sources were identified in patients with reproducible (?2×) significant (50–75%) or highly significant (75–100%) pain relief. Results were correlated with outcome parameters visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry disability index (ODI) and the subjective patient satisfaction rate. From a total of 175 operated patients with a mean follow-up (FU) of 29.3 months (range 12.2–74.9 months), n = 342 infiltrations were performed in n = 58 patients (33.1%) overall. Facet joint pain, predominantly at the index level (86.4%), was identified in n = 22 patients (12.6%). The sacroiliac joint was a similarly frequent cause of post-operative pain (n = 21, 12.0%). Pain from both structures influenced all outcome parameters negatively (P < 0.05). Patients with an early onset of pain (?6 months) were 2–5× higher at risk of developing persisting complaints and unsatisfactory outcome at later FU-stages in comparison to the entire study cohort (P < 0.05). The level of TDR significantly influenced post-operative outcome. Best results were achieved for the TDRs above the lumbosacral junction at L4/5 (incidence of posterior joint pain 14.8%). Inferior outcome and a significantly higher incidence of posterior joint pain were observed for TDR at L5/S1 (21.6%) and bisegmental TDR at L4/5/S1 (33.3%), respectively. Lumbar facet and/or ISJ-pain are a frequent and currently underestimated source of post-operative pain and the most common reasons for unsatisfactory results following TDR. Further failure-analysis studies are required and adequate salvage treatment options need to be established with respect to the underlying pathology of post-operative pain. The question as to whether or not TDR will reduce the incidence of posterior joint pain, which has been previously attributed to lumbar fusion procedures, remains unanswered. Additional studies will have to investigate whether TDR compromises the index-segment in an attempt to avoid adjacent segment degeneration. PMID:17972116

Korge, Andreas; Grochulla, Frank; Mehren, Christoph

2007-01-01

381

Vision through nuclear and posterior subcapsular cataract.  

PubMed

We have developed a new set of tests for evaluation of visual function through media opacities, based on vernier acuity measurements (hyperacuity). In this paper, results of one of these tests, the 'gap test', are compared in patients with posterior subcapsular (PSC) cataract versus nuclear cataract (NC). Patients with PSC cataract often report multiple images or significant 'star burst' effects. We hypothesized the presence of 'multi-prismatic' and/or high frequency spurious resolution phenomena due to PSC cataract characteristic substructure. We were able to minimize these effects by using a pinhole held close to the eye, a large (adapting) background field of white light superimposed on the vernier test targets, a low-pass spatial filter applied to the targets. When the particular problems associated with PSC cataract are not present or are adequately addressed and when patients are matched for visual acuity, the hyperacuity 'gap test' shows less functional effect due to the opacity for PSC cataract than NC in all the cases we have tested. These findings, moreover, indicate that visual acuity provides an insufficient description of the effects of intraocular scattering on image formation. The results emphasize the importance and the necessity of developing models that better clarify the specific effects of different types of ocular media opacities. PMID:3721717

Baraldi, P; Enoch, J M; Raphael, S

1986-05-01

382

Automatic quantification of posterior capsule opacification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After Cataract surgery where a plastic implant lens is implanted into the eye to replace the natural lens, many patients suffer from cell growth across a membrane situated at the back of the lens which degrades their vision. The cell growth is known as Posterior Capsule Opacification (or PCO). It is important to be able to quantify PCO so that the effect of different implant lens types and surgical techniques may be evaluated. Initial results obtained using a neural network to detect PCO from implant lenses are compared to an established but less automated method of detection, which segments the images using texture segmentation in conjunction with co- occurrence matrices. Tests show that the established method performs well in clinical validation and repeatability trials. The requirement to use a neural network to analyze the implant lens images evolved from the analysis of over 1000 images using the established co-occurrence matrix segmentation method. The work shows that a method based on neural networks is a promising tool to automate the procedure of calculating PCO.

Barman, Sarah A.; Uyyanonvara, Bunyarit; Boyce, James F.; Sanguinetti, Giorgia; Hollick, Emma J.; Meacock, William R.; Spalton, David J.; Paplinski, Andrew P.

2000-06-01

383

Decoding Trajectories from Posterior Parietal Cortex Ensembles  

PubMed Central

High-level cognitive signals in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) have previously been used to decode the intended endpoint of a reach, providing the first evidence that PPC can be used for direct control of a neural prosthesis (Musallam et al., 2004). Here we expand on this work by showing that PPC neural activity can be harnessed to estimate not only the endpoint but also to continuously control the trajectory of an end effector. Specifically, we trained two monkeys to use a joystick to guide a cursor on a computer screen to peripheral target locations while maintaining central ocular fixation. We found that we could accurately reconstruct the trajectory of the cursor using a relatively small ensemble of simultaneously recorded PPC neurons. Using a goal-based Kalman filter that incorporates target information into the state-space, we showed that the decoded estimate of cursor position could be significantly improved. Finally, we tested whether we could decode trajectories during closed-loop brain control sessions, in which the real-time position of the cursor was determined solely by a monkey’s neural activity in PPC. The monkey learned to perform brain control trajectories at 80% success rate(for 8 targets) after just 4–5 sessions. This improvement in behavioral performance was accompanied by a corresponding enhancement in neural tuning properties (i.e., increased tuning depth and coverage of encoding parameter space) as well as an increase in off-line decoding performance of the PPC ensemble. PMID:19036985

Mulliken, Grant H.; Musallam, Sam; Andersen, Richard A.

2009-01-01

384

Posterior likelihood methods for multivariate survival data.  

PubMed

This article deals with the semiparametric analysis of multivariate survival data with random block (group) effects. Survival times within the same group are correlated as a consequence of a frailty random block effect. The standard approaches assume either a parametric or a completely unknown baseline hazard function. This paper considers an intermediate solution, that is, a nonparametric function that is reasonably smooth. This is accomplished by a Bayesian model in which the conditional proportional hazards model is used with a correlated prior process for the baseline hazard. The posterior likelihood based on data, as well as the prior process, is similar to the discretized penalized likelihood for the frailty model. The methodology is exemplified with the recurrent kidney infections data of McGilchrist and Aisbett (1991, Biometrics 47, 461-466), in which the times to infections within the same patients are expected to be correlated. The reanalysis of the data has shown that the estimates of the parameters of interest and the associated standard errors depend on the prior knowledge about the smoothness of the baseline hazard. PMID:9883545

Sinha, D

1998-12-01

385

Posterior infectious crystalline keratopathy with Staphylococcus epidermidis.  

PubMed

Two cases of infectious crystalline keratopathy located in the posterior stroma after penetrating keratoplasty are presented. Topical steroids and suture removal were risk factors in both cases. In the first case, a moderate anterior chamber reaction was present. Crystalline infiltrates persisted on topical and systemic steroid therapy. In the second case, deep corneal ulceration, hypopyon, and vitreitis were noted. A vitreous aspirate showed rare gram-positive cocci in pairs. The corneal ulceration and crystalline keratopathy persisted despite intravitreal and topical antibiotics. Therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty was performed in both cases. Staphylococcus epidermidis sensitive to vancomycin was isolated from corneal tissue. Light microscopy documented aggregates of gram-positive bacteria anterior to Descemet's membrane, with an overlying keratitis. Electron microscopy in the second case showed all bacteria within stromal keratocytes. No clinical recurrence was seen using topical vancomycin. As demonstrated in the cases presented, infectious crystalline keratopathy can occur exclusively in the deeper layers of the cornea. Isolation of S. epidermidis, associated inflammation, and intraocular spread of organisms are rare findings. PMID:2255518

Lubniewski, A J; Houchin, K W; Holland, E J; Weeks, D A; Wessels, I F; McNeill, J I; Cameron, J D

1990-11-01

386

Facet-sparing lumbar decompression with a minimally invasive flexible MicroBlade Shaver® versus traditional decompression: quantitative radiographic assessment  

PubMed Central

Background Laminectomy/laminotomy and foraminotomy are well established surgical techniques for treatment of symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis. However, these procedures have significant limitations, including limited access to lateral and foraminal compression and postoperative instability. The purpose of this cadaver study was to compare bone, ligament, and soft tissue morphology following lumbar decompression using a minimally invasive MicroBlade Shaver® instrument versus hemilaminotomy with foraminotomy (HL). Methods The iO-Flex® system utilizes a flexible over-the-wire MicroBlade Shaver instrument designed for facet-sparing, minimally invasive “inside-out” decompression of the lumbar spine. Unilateral decompression was performed at 36 levels in nine human cadaver specimens, six with age-appropriate degenerative changes and three with radiographically confirmed multilevel stenosis. The iO-Flex system was utilized on alternating sides from L2/3 to L5/S1, and HL was performed on the opposite side at each level by the same investigator. Spinal canal, facet joint, lateral recess, and foraminal morphology were assessed using computed tomography. Results Similar increases in soft tissue canal area and decreases in ligamentum flavum area were noted in nondiseased specimens, although HL required removal of 83% more laminar area (P < 0.01) and 95% more bone resection, including the pars interarticularis and facet joints (P < 0.001), compared with the iO-Flex system. Similar increases in lateral recess diameter were noted in nondiseased specimens using each procedure. In stenotic specimens, the increase in lateral recess diameter was significantly (P = 0.02) greater following use of the iO-Flex system (43%) versus HL (7%). The iO-Flex system resulted in greater facet joint preservation in nondiseased and stenotic specimens. In stenotic specimens, the iO-Flex system resulted in a significantly greater increase in foraminal width compared with HL (24% versus 4%, P = 0.01), with facet joint preservation. Conclusion The iO-Flex system resulted in significantly better decompression of the lateral recess and foraminal areas compared with HL, while preserving posterior spinal elements, including the facet joint. PMID:22879740

Lauryssen, Carl; Berven, Sigurd; Mimran, Ronnie; Summa, Christopher; Sheinberg, Michael; Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

2012-01-01

387

Accurate Approximations for Posterior Moments and Marginal Densities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes approximations to the posterior means and variances of positive functions of a real or vector-valued parameter, and to the marginal posterior densities of arbitrary (i.e., not necessarily positive) parameters. These approximations can also be used to compute approximate predictive densities. To apply the proposed method, one only needs to be able to maximize slightly modified likelihood functions

Luke Tierney; Joseph B. Kadane

1986-01-01

388

Establishing the posterior palatal seal during the final impression stage.  

PubMed

A procedure for adding a posterior palatal seal at the final impression stage with green stick modeling compound is described. The location and degree of tissue displacement of the posterior palatal seal area are controlled by the dentist. This procedure is suggested to be more accurate than the arbitrary scraping of the master cast. PMID:9297652

Ansari, I H

1997-09-01

389

Establishing the posterior palatal seal during the final impression stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for adding a posterior palatal seal at the final impression stage with green stick modeling compound is described. The location and degree of tissue displacement of the posterior palatal seal area are controlled by the dentist. This procedure is suggested to be more accurate than the arbitrary scraping of the master cast. (J Prosthet Dent 1997;78: 324-6.)

Izharul Haque Ansari

1997-01-01

390

Combined posterior and transaxillary approach for neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Incomplete removal of the first rib in operations intended to decompress the thoracic outlet is often seen after the single transaxillary approach (often leaving a posterior stump) or supraclavicular techniques (leaving an anterior stump). The former may also cause neurogenic and vascular injuries because the exposure is often poor in attempting complete removal of the first rib posteriorly and

J. Ernesto Molina

1998-01-01

391

Artificial Discs for Lumbar and Cervical Degenerative Disc Disease -Update  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Objective To assess the safety and efficacy of artificial disc replacement (ADR) technology for degenerative disc disease (DDD). Clinical Need Degenerative disc disease is the term used to describe the deterioration of 1 or more intervertebral discs of the spine. The prevalence of DDD is roughly described in proportion to age such that 40% of people aged 40 years have DDD, increasing to 80% among those aged 80 years or older. Low back pain is a common symptom of lumbar DDD; neck and arm pain are common symptoms of cervical DDD. Nonsurgical treatments can be used to relieve pain and minimize disability associated with DDD. However, it is estimated that about 10% to 20% of people with lumbar DDD and up to 30% with cervical DDD will be unresponsive to nonsurgical treatments. In these cases, surgical treatment is considered. Spinal fusion (arthrodesis) is the process of fusing or joining 2 bones and is considered the surgical gold standard for DDD. Artificial disc replacement is the replacement of the degenerated intervertebral disc with an artificial disc in people with DDD of the lumbar or cervical spine that has been unresponsive to nonsurgical treatments for at least 6 months. Unlike spinal fusion, ADR preserves movement of the spine, which is thought to reduce or prevent the development of adjacent segment degeneration. Additionally, a bone graft is not required for ADR, and this alleviates complications, including bone graft donor site pain and pseudoarthrosis. It is estimated that about 5% of patients who require surgery for DDD will be candidates for ADR. Review Strategy The Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a computerized search of the literature published between 2003 and September 2005 to answer the following questions: What is the effectiveness of ADR in people with DDD of the lumbar or cervical regions of the spine compared with spinal fusion surgery? Does an artificial disc reduce the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) compared with spinal fusion? What is the rate of major complications (device failure, reoperation) with artificial discs compared with surgical spinal fusion? One reviewer evaluated the internal validity of the primary studies using the criteria outlined in the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Injuries Group Quality Assessment Tool. The quality of concealment allocation was rated as: A, clearly yes; B, unclear; or C, clearly no. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system was used to evaluate the overall quality of the body of evidence (defined as 1 or more studies) supporting the research questions explored in this systematic review. A random effects model meta-analysis was conducted when data were available from 2 or more randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and when there was no statistical and or clinical heterogeneity among studies. Bayesian analyses were undertaken to do the following: Examine the influence of missing data on clinical success rates; Compute the probability that artificial discs were superior to spinal fusion (on the basis of clinical success rates); Examine whether the results were sensitive to the choice of noninferiority margin. Summary of Findings The literature search yielded 140 citations. Of these, 1 Cochrane systematic review, 1 RCT, and 10 case series were included in this review. Unpublished data from an RCT reported in the grey literature were obtained from the manufacturer of the device. The search also yielded 8 health technology assessments evaluating ADR that are also included in this review. Six of the 8 health technology assessments concluded that there is insufficient evidence to support the use of either lumbar or cervical ADR. The results of the remaining 2 assessments (one each for lumbar and cervical ADR) led to a National Institute for Clinical Excellence guidance document supporting the safety and effectiveness of lumbar and cervical ADR with the proviso that an ongoing audit of all clinical outcomes be undertaken owing to a lack of long-term outcome data from clinical trials. Regard

2006-01-01

392

Comparative biomechanical investigation of a modular dynamic lumbar stabilization system and the Dynesys system  

PubMed Central

The goal of non-fusion stabilization is to reduce the mobility of the spine segment to less than that of the intact spine specimen, while retaining some residual motion. Several in vitro studies have been conducted on a dynamic system currently available for clinical use (Dynesys®). Under pure moment loading, a dependency of the biomechanical performance on spacer length has been demonstrated; this variability in implant properties is removed with a modular concept incorporating a discrete flexible element. An in vitro study was performed to compare the kinematic and stabilizing properties of a modular dynamic lumbar stabilization system with those of Dynesys, under the influence of an axial preload. Six human cadaver spine specimens (L1–S1) were tested in a spine loading apparatus. Flexibility measurements were performed by applying pure bending moments of 8 Nm, about each of the three principal anatomical axes, with a simultaneously applied axial preload of 400 N. Specimens were tested intact, and following creation of a defect at L3–L4, with the Dynesys implant, with the modular implant and, after removal of the hardware, the injury state. Segmental range of motion (ROM) was reduced for flexion–extension and lateral bending with both implants. Motion in flexion was reduced to less than 20% of the intact level, in extension to approximately 40% and in lateral bending a motion reduction to less than 40% was measured. In torsion, the total ROM was not significantly different from that of the intact level. The expectations for a flexible posterior stabilizing implant are not fulfilled. The assumption that a device which is particularly compliant in bending allows substantial intersegmental motion cannot be fully supported when one considers that such devices are placed at a location far removed from the natural rotation center of the intervertebral joint. PMID:19565278

Gedet, Philippe; Haschtmann, Daniel; Thistlethwaite, Paul A.

2009-01-01