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1

Posterior interbody fusion using laminectomy bone and transpedicular screw fixation in the treatment of lumbar spondylolisthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDLaminectomy bone is used widely in posterolateral lumbar fusion, but not interbody fusion. No prospective evaluation of interbody fusion using bone grafts from the posterior neural arch in spondylolisthesis has been found in the literature. We prospectively studied series of patients operated on for lumbar spondylolisthesis to evaluate clinical improvement and bony fusion.METHODSForty-six patients were operated on for lumbar spondylolisthesis

György I Csécsei; Álmos P Klekner; József Dobai; Attila Lajgut; Judit Sikula

2000-01-01

2

Comparison of the early results of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion and posterior lumbar interbody fusion in symptomatic lumbar instability  

PubMed Central

Background: Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) has been preferred to posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) for different spinal disorders but there had been no study comparing their outcome in lumbar instability. A comparative retrospective analysis of the early results of TLIF and PLIF in symptomatic lumbar instability was conducted between 2005 and 2011. Materials and Methods: Review of the records of 102 operated cases of lumbar instability with minimum 1 year followup was done. A total of 52 cases (11 men and 41 women, mean age 46 years SD 05.88, range 40-59 years) underwent PLIF and 50 cases (14 men and 36 women, mean age 49 years SD 06.88, range 40-59 years) underwent TLIF. The surgical time, duration of hospital stay, intraoperative blood loss were compared. Self-evaluated low back pain and leg pain status (using Visual Analog Score), disability outcome (using Oswestry disability questionnaire) was analyzed. Radiological structural restoration (e.g., disc height, foraminal height, lordotic angle, and slip reduction), stability (using Posner criteria), fusion (using Hackenberg criteria), and overall functional outcome (using MacNab's criteria) were compared. Results: Pain, disability, neurology, and overall functional status were significantly improved in both groups but PLIF required more operative time and caused more blood loss. Postoperative hospital stay, structural restoration, stability, and fusion had no significant difference but neural complications were relatively more with PLIF. Conclusions: Both methods were effective in relieving symptoms, achieving structural restoration, stability, and fusion, but TLIF had been associated with shorter operative time, less blood loss, and lesser complication rates for which it can be preferred for symptomatic lumbar instability. PMID:23798756

Sakeb, Najmus; Ahsan, Kamrul

2013-01-01

3

Fusion rate after posterior lumbar interbody fusion with carbon fiber implant: 1-year follow-up of 51 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems associated with posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) have traditionally included the need for donor bone, prolonged healing time of donor bone, the difficulty of cutting precise bony channels, the risk of retropulsion of graft, postoperative collapse of the bone graft, and pseudarthrosis. To avoid these problems a carbon fiber reinforced polymer implant cage has been developed to facilitate interbody

T. Tullberg; B. Brandt; J. Rydberg; P. Fritzell

1996-01-01

4

Complete cage migration/subsidence into the adjacent vertebral body after posterior lumbar interbody fusion.  

PubMed

A variety of implant-related short and long-term complications after lumbar fusion surgery are recognized. Mid to long-term complications due to cage migration and/or cage subsidence are less frequently reported. Here, we report a patient with a complete cage migration into the superior adjacent vertebral body almost 20years after the initial posterior lumbar interbody fusion procedure. In this patient, the cage migration/subsidence was clinically silent, but a selective decompression for adjacent segment degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis was performed. We discuss the risk factors for cage migration/subsidence in view of the current literature. PMID:25455736

Corniola, Marco V; Jägersberg, Max; Stienen, Martin N; Gautschi, Oliver P

2014-11-01

5

Segmental and global lordosis changes with two-level axial lumbar interbody fusion and posterior instrumentation  

PubMed Central

Background Loss of lumbar lordosis has been reported after lumbar interbody fusion surgery and may portend poor clinical and radiographic outcome. The objective of this research was to measure changes in segmental and global lumbar lordosis in patients treated with presacral axial L4-S1 interbody fusion and posterior instrumentation and to determine if these changes influenced patient outcomes. Methods We performed a retrospective, multi-center review of prospectively collected data in 58 consecutive patients with disabling lumbar pain and radiculopathy unresponsive to nonsurgical treatment who underwent L4-S1 interbody fusion with the AxiaLIF two-level system (Baxano Surgical, Raleigh NC). Main outcomes included back pain severity, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Odom's outcome criteria, and fusion status using flexion and extension radiographs and computed tomography scans. Segmental (L4-S1) and global (L1-S1) lumbar lordosis measurements were made using standing lateral radiographs. All patients were followed for at least 24 months (mean: 29 months, range 24-56 months). Results There was no bowel injury, vascular injury, deep infection, neurologic complication or implant failure. Mean back pain severity improved from 7.8±1.7 at baseline to 3.3±2.6 at 2 years (p < 0.001). Mean ODI scores improved from 60±15% at baseline to 34±27% at 2 years (p < 0.001). At final follow-up, 83% of patients were rated as good or excellent using Odom's criteria. Interbody fusion was observed in 111 (96%) of 116 treated interspaces. Maintenance of lordosis, defined as a change in Cobb angle ? 5°, was identified in 84% of patients at L4-S1 and 81% of patients at L1-S1. Patients with loss or gain in segmental or global lordosis experienced similar 2-year outcomes versus those with less than a 5° change. Conclusions/Clinical Relevance Two-level axial interbody fusion supplemented with posterior fixation does not alter segmental or global lordosis in most patients. Patients with postoperative change in lordosis greater than 5° have similarly favorable long-term clinical outcomes and fusion rates compared to patients with less than 5° lordosis change.

Melgar, Miguel A; Tobler, William D; Ernst, Robert J; Raley, Thomas J; Anand, Neel; Miller, Larry E; Nasca, Richard J

2014-01-01

6

Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion Using Compressive Bone Graft with Allograft and Autograft in the Pyogenic Discitis  

PubMed Central

Study Design This is a retrospective study. Purpose To evaluate the advantages and effects of posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) using allograft and posterior instrumentation in the lumbar pyogenic discitis, which are resistant to antibiotics. Overview of Literature To present preliminary results of PLIF using a compressive bone graft with allograft and pedicle screw fixation in the lumbar pyogenic discitis. Methods Fifteen patients who had lumbar pyogenic discitis were treated by posterior approach from May 2004 to July 2008. The mean follow-up duration was 27.2 ± 18.68 months. The standing radiographs of the lumbar spine and clinical results were compared and analyzed in order to assess the bony union, the changes in the distance between the two vertebral bodies and the changes in the lordotic angle formed between the fused bodies immediately after surgery and at the final follow-up. Results Fifteen solid unions at an average of 15.2 ± 3.5 weeks after operation. The mean preoperative lordotic angle of the affected segments was 14.3 ± 15.1°, compared to 20.3 ± 12.3° after surgery and 19.8 ± 15.2° at last follow-up. For the functional result according to the Kirkaldy-Willis criteria, the outcome was excellent in 9, good in 5, fair in 1, and there were no poor cases. The average visual analogue scale score was decreased from 7.4 before surgery to 3.4 at 2 weeks postoperative. Conclusions The main advantage in the procedure of PLIF using compressive bone graft with allograft and post instrumentation is early ambulation. We believe that this is another good procedure for patients with poor general condition because a further autograft bone harvest is not required. PMID:22439083

An, Ki Chan; Kim, Tae Hyoung; Kim, Jin Suck; Park, Dae Hyoun; Kim, Jeon Gyo; Sung, Tae Woo

2012-01-01

7

Influence of Alendronate and Endplate Degeneration to Single Level Posterior Lumbar Spinal Interbody Fusion  

PubMed Central

Objective Using alendronate after spinal fusion is a controversial issue due to the inhibition of osteoclast mediated bone resorption. In addition, there are an increasing number of reports that the endplate degeneration influences the lumbar spinal fusion. The object of this retrospective controlled study was to evaluate how the endplate degeneration and the bisphosphonate medication influence the spinal fusion through radiographic evaluation. Methods In this study, 44 patients who underwent single-level posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) using cage were examined from April 2007 to March 2009. All patients had been diagnosed as osteoporosis and would be recommended for alendronate medication. Endplate degeneration is categorized by the Modic changes. The solid fusion is defined if there was bridging bone between the vertebral bodies, either within or external to the cage on the plain X-ray and if there is less than 5° of angular difference in dynamic X-ray. Results In alendronate group, fusion was achieved in 66.7% compared to 73.9% in control group (no medication). Alendronate did not influence the fusion rate of PLIF. However, there was the statistical difference of fusion rate between the endplate degeneration group and the group without endplate degeneration. A total of 52.4% of fusion rate was seen in the endplate degeneration group compared to 91.3% in the group without endplate degeneration. The endplate degeneration suppresses the fusion process of PLIF. Conclusion Alendronate does not influence the fusion process in osteoporotic patients. The endplate degeneration decreases the fusion rate. PMID:25620981

Rhee, Wootack; Ha, Seongil; Lim, Jae Hyeon; Jang, Il Tae

2014-01-01

8

A minimally invasive posterior lumbar interbody fusion using percutaneous long arm pedicle screw system for degenerative lumbar disease  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study is to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of patients with lumbar degeneration and instability treated with percutaneous pedicle screw fixation and minimally invasive lumbar interbody fusion. Twenty-one patients were selected in our hospital from November, 2012 to March, 2013. The patients with an average age 55.62 years, including 8 vertebral spondylolisthesis, 4 lumbar intervertebral disc herniation, and 9 lumbar spinal canal stenosis cases. All the patients were managed to take the lumbar MRI and radiographs. The comparison of preoperative and postoperative (3 days, 2 weeks, 3 months) VAS and ODI score were analyzed. The results indicated that VAS scores were 7.14 ± 0.79 before operation, and 5.19 ± 0.81 in 3 days after operation, 4 ± 0.84 after 2 weeks, and 2.67 ± 0.66 after 3 months. The pain was relieved, and the postoperative VAS score was lower than that before treatment (P < 0.05). ODI score was 55.8 ± 11.4 before operation, 47.38 ± 9.38 after 3 days, 41.38 ± 8.09 after 2 weeks, 35.76 ± 4.50 after 3 months. ODI score was obviously decreased (P < 0.05). In conclusion, percutaneous pedicle screw fixation combined with minimally invasive interbody fusion is a safe, effective, feasible minimally invasive spine operation, with worthy for spreading.

He, Er-Xing; Cui, Ji-Hao; Yin, Zhi-Xun; Li, Chuang; Tang, Cheng; He, Yi-Qian; Liu, Cheng-Wei

2014-01-01

9

A Multi-center Clinical Study of Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion with the Expandable Stand-alone Cage (Tyche® Cage) for Degenerative Lumbar Spinal Disorders  

PubMed Central

Objective This multi-center clinical study was designed to determine the long-term results of patients who received a one-level posterior lumbar interbody fusion with expandable cage (Tyche® cage) for degenerative spinal diseases during the same period in each hospital. Methods Fifty-seven patients with low back pain who had a one-level posterior lumbar interbody fusion using a newly designed expandable cage were enrolled in this study at five centers from June 2003 to December 2004 and followed up for 24 months. Pain improvement was checked with a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and their disability was evaluated with the Oswestry Disability Index. Radiographs were obtained before and after surgery. At the final follow-up, dynamic stability, quality of bone fusion, interveretebral disc height, and lumbar lordosis were assessed. In some cases, a lumbar computed tomography scan was also obtained. Results The mean VAS score of back pain was improved from 6.44 points preoperatively to 0.44 at the final visit and the score of sciatica was reduced from 4.84 to 0.26. Also, the Oswestry Disability Index was improved from 32.62 points preoperatively to 18.25 at the final visit. The fusion rate was 92.5%. Intervertebral disc height, recorded as 9.94±2.69 mm before surgery was increased to 12.23±3.31 mm at postoperative 1 month and was stabilized at 11.43±2.23 mm on final visit. The segmental angle of lordosis was changed significantly from 3.54±3.70° before surgery to 6.37±3.97° by 24 months postoperative, and total lumbar lordosis was 20.37±11.30° preoperatively and 24.71±11.70° at 24 months postoperative. Conclusion There have been no special complications regarding the expandable cage during the follow-up period and the results of this study demonstrates a high fusion rate and clinical success. PMID:19096552

Kim, Jin Wook; Yoon, Seung Hwan; Oh, Seong Hoon; Roh, Sung Woo; Rim, Dae Cheol; Kim, Tae Sung

2007-01-01

10

Functional outcomes of instrumented posterior lumbar interbody fusion in active-duty US servicemen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background context: The existing literature lacks a functional outcome study addressing instrumented posterior lumbar fusion surgery in physically active patients. Furthermore, results of operative versus nonoperative treatment in these patients are not clear. Purpose: To evaluate patient-assessed function, pain, and satisfaction and military job performance between servicemen treated operatively and nonoperatively. Study design\\/setting: This is a nonrandomized analysis of consecutive

Major Robert W Molinari; Major Tad Gerlinger

2001-01-01

11

The value of adding posterior interbody fusion in the surgical treatment of degenerative lumbar spine disorders: A systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Posterolateral fusion (PF) is a common method by which to achieve fusion in lumbar spine surgery. It has been reported that posterior interbody fusion (PIF) yields a higher fusion rate and a better functional and clinical outcome. Our objective was to determine whether PIF improves the clinical and radiologic outcomes in adults surgically treated for degenerative lumbar spine conditions compared with PF. Methods We performed a systematic search of electronic databases, bibliographies, and relevant journals and meta-analyses. Results Of 2798 citations identified, 5 studies met our inclusion criteria (none of which was a randomized controlled trial), with a total of 148 patients in the PIF group (intervention) and 159 in the PF group (control). Pooled meta-analyses showed that nonunion rates were lower in the intervention group (relative risk, 0.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.08–0.62). The intervention group had a significantly higher disc height (weighted mean difference, 3.2 mm; 95% CI, 1.9–4.4 mm) and lower residual percent slippage (weighted mean difference, 6.3%; 95% CI, 3.9%–8.7%) at final follow-up. There were no significant differences in segmental or total lumbar lordosis. Because of heterogeneity of results, no conclusions could be made with regard to functional benefits. Conclusions This review suggests that PIF achieves a higher fusion rate and better correction of certain radiographic aspects of deformity over PF. It also showed a slight but not significant trend toward a better functional outcome in the PIF group. The lack of randomized controlled trials and the methodologic limitations of the available studies call for the planning and conduct of a sufficiently sized, methodologically sound study with clinically relevant outcome measures. Until this has been done, the current evidence regarding the beneficial effects of PIF should be interpreted with caution.

Fallatah, Salah; Wai, Eugene; Baily, Christopher S.

2013-01-01

12

Comparison of instrumented anterior interbody fusion with instrumented circumferential lumbar fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) restores disc height, the load bearing ability of anterior ligaments and muscles, root canal dimensions, and spinal balance. It immobilizes the painful degenerate spinal segment and decompresses the nerve roots. Anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) does the same, but could have complications of graft extrusion, compression and instability contributing to pseudarthrosis in the absence of

S. S. Madan; N. R. Boeree

2003-01-01

13

Effects of Lordotic Angle of a Cage on Sagittal Alignment and Clinical Outcome in One Level Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion with Pedicle Screw Fixation  

PubMed Central

This study aims to assess the differences in the radiological and clinical results depending on the lordotic angles of the cage in posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). We reviewed 185 segments which underwent PLIF using two different lordotic angles of 4° and 8° of a polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage. The segmental lordosis and total lumbar lordosis of the 4° and 8° cage groups were compared preoperatively, as well as on the first postoperative day, 6th and 12th months postoperatively. Clinical assessment was performed using the ODI and the VAS of low back pain. The pre- and immediate postoperative segmental lordosis angles were 12.9° and 12.6° in the 4° group and 12° and 12.0° in the 8° group. Both groups exhibited no significant different segmental lordosis angle and total lumbar lordosis over period and time. However, the total lumbar lordosis significantly increased from six months postoperatively compared with the immediate postoperative day in the 8° group. The ODI and the VAS in both groups had no differences. Cages with different lordotic angles of 4° and 8° showed insignificant results clinically and radiologically in short-level PLIF surgery. Clinical improvements and sagittal alignment recovery were significantly observed in both groups.

Lee, Ji-Ho; Lee, Dong-Oh; Lee, Jae Hyup; Shim, Hee Jong

2015-01-01

14

Evaluation of Functional Outcomes in Individuals 10 Years after Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion with Corundum Implants and Decompression: A Comparison of 2 Surgical Techniques  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate lumbar spine-related functional disability in individuals 10 years after lumbar decompression and lumbar decompression with posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with corundum implants surgery for degenerative stenosis and to compare the long-term outcome of these 2 surgical techniques. Material/Methods From 1998 to 2002, 100 patients with single-level lumbar stenosis were surgically treated. The patients were randomly divided into 2 groups that did not differ in terms of clinical or neurological symptoms. Group A consisted of 50 patients who were treated with PLIF and the use of porous ceramic corundum implants; the mean age was 57.74 and BMI was 27.34. Group B consisted of 50 patients treated with decompression by fenestration; mean age was 51.28 and the mean BMI was 28.84. Results There was no statistical significance regarding age, BMI, and sex. Both treatments revealed significant improvements. In group A, ODI decreased from 41.01% to 14.3% at 1 year and 16.3 at 10 years. In group B, ODI decreased from 63.8% to 18.36% at 1 year and 22.36% at 10 years. The difference between groups was statistically significant. There were no differences between the groups regarding the Rolland-Morris disability questionnaire and VAS at 1 and 10 years after surgery. Conclusions Long-term results evaluated according to the ODI, the Rolland-Morris disability questionnaire, and the VAS showed that the both methods significantly reduce patient disability, and this was maintained during next 10 years. The less invasive fenestration procedure was only slightly less favorable than surgical treatment of stenosis by both PLIF with corundum implants and decompression. PMID:25106708

Truszczy?ska, Aleksandra; R?pa?a, Kazimierz; ?ukawski, Stanislaw; Trzaskoma, Zbigniew; Tarnowski, Adam; Drzal-Grabiec, Justyna; Cabak, Anna

2014-01-01

15

Assessment of bone graft incorporation by 18?F-fluoride positron-emission tomography/computed tomography in patients with persisting symptoms after posterior lumbar interbody fusion  

PubMed Central

Background Posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) is a method that allows decompression of the spinal canal and nerve roots by laminectomy combined with fusion by means of intervertebral cages filled with bone graft and pedicle screw fixation. Conventional imaging techniques, such as plain radiography and computed tomography (CT), have limitations to assess bony fusion dynamics. Methods In 16 PLIFs of 15 patients with persisting symptoms, positron-emission tomography (PET)/CT scans were made 60?min after intravenous administration of 156 to 263?MBq of 18?F-fluoride, including 1-mm sliced, high-dose, non-contrast-enhanced CT scanning. Maximal standard uptake values (SUVmax) of various regions were calculated and correlated with abnormalities on CT. Results Subsidence of the cages into the vertebral endplates was the most frequently observed abnormality on CT (in 16 of 27 or 59% of evaluable endplates). Endplate SUVmax values were significantly higher for those patients with pronounced (p?posterior transmission of increased bone stress. In our patient group, intercorporal fusion was seen on CT in 63% but showed no correlation to intercorporal SUVmax values. Conclusions With the use of 18?F-fluoride PET/CT, intervertebral cage subsidence appeared to be a prominent finding in this patient group with persisting symptoms, and highly correlating with the degree of PET hyperactivity at the vertebral endplates and pedicle screw entry points. Further study using 18?F-fluoride PET/CT should specifically assess the role of metabolically active subsidence in a prospective patient group, to address its role in nonunion and as a cause of persisting pain. PMID:22846374

2012-01-01

16

Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Two-Year Results with a Modular Interbody Device  

PubMed Central

Study Design Retrospective case series. Purpose To present radiographic outcomes following anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) utilizing a modular interbody device. Overview of Literature Though multiple anterior lumbar interbody techniques have proven successful in promoting bony fusion, postoperative subsidence remains a frequently reported phenomenon. Methods Forty-three consecutive patients underwent ALIF with (n=30) or without (n=11) supplemental instrumentation. Two patients underwent ALIF to treat failed posterior instrumented fusion. The primary outcome measure was presence of fusion as assessed by computed tomography. Secondary outcome measures were lordosis, intervertebral lordotic angle (ILA), disc height, subsidence, Bridwell fusion grade, technical complications and pain score. Interobserver reliability of radiographic outcome measures was calculated. Results Forty-three patients underwent ALIF of 73 motion segments. ILA and disc height increased over baseline, and this persisted through final follow-up (p<0.01). Solid anterior interbody fusion was present in 71 of 73 motion segments (97%). The amount of new bone formation in the interbody space increased over serial imaging. Subsidence >4 mm occurred in 12% of patients. There were eight surgical complications (19%): one major (reoperation for nonunion/progressive subsidence) and seven minor (five subsidence, two malposition). Conclusions The use of a modular interbody device for ALIF resulted in a high rate of radiographic fusion and a low rate of subsidence. The large endplate and modular design of the device may contribute to a low rate of subsidence as well as maintenance of ILA and lordosis. Previously reported quantitative radiographic outcome measures were found to be more reliable than qualitative or categorical measures. PMID:25346811

Yeoman, Chevas; Chung, Woosik M.; Chappuis, James L; Freedman, Brett

2014-01-01

17

Finite element analysis of minimal invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion.  

PubMed

The purpose of our study is to develop and validate three-dimensional finite element models of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, and explore the most appropriate method of fixation and fusion by comparing biomechanical characteristics of different fixation method. We developed four fusion models: bilateral pedicle screws fixation with a single cage insertion model (A), bilateral pedicle screws fixation with two cages insertion model (B), unilateral pedicle screws fixation with a single cage insertion model (C), and unilateral pedicle screws fixation with two cages insertion model (D); the models were subjected to different forces including anterior bending, posterior extension, left bending, right bending, rotation, and axial compressive. The von Mises stress of the fusion segments on the pedicle screw and cages was recorded. Angular variation and stress of pedicle screw and cage were compared. There were differences of Von Mises peak stress among four models, but were within the range of maximum force. The angular variation in A, B, C, and D decreased significantly compared with normal. There was no significant difference of angular variation between A and B, and C and D. Bilateral pedicle screws fixation had more superior biomechanics than unilateral pedicle screws fixation. In conclusion, the lumbar interbody fusion models were established using varying fixation methods, and the results verified that unilateral pedicle screws fixation with a single cage could meet the stability demand in minimal invasive transforaminal interbody fusion. PMID:24782059

Zhao, Chuncheng; Wang, Xinhu; Chen, Changchun; Kang, Yanzhong

2014-09-01

18

Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion  

PubMed Central

Background: The use of minimally invasive surgical (MIS) techniques represents the most recent modification of methods used to achieve lumbar interbody fusion. The advantages of minimally invasive spinal instrumentation techniques are less soft tissue injury, reduced blood loss, less postoperative pain and shorter hospital stay while achieving clinical outcomes comparable with equivalent open procedure. The aim was to study the clinicoradiological outcome of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 23 patients, 17 females and 6 males, who underwent MIS-transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) followed up for a mean 15 months. The subjects were evaluated for clinical and radiological outcome who were manifested by back pain alone (n = 4) or back pain with leg pain (n = 19) associated with a primary diagnosis of degenerative spondylolisthesis, massive disc herniation, lumbar stenosis, recurrent disc herniation or degenerative disc disease. Paraspinal approach was used in all patients. The clinical outcome was assessed using the revised Oswestry disability index and Macnab criteria. Results: The mean age of subjects was 55.45 years. L4-L5 level was operated in 14 subjects, L5-S1 in 7 subjects; L3-L4 and double level was fixed in 1 patient each. L4-L5 degenerative listhesis was the most common indication (n = 12). Average operative time was 3 h. Fourteen patients had excellent results, a good result in 5 subjects, 2 subjects had fair results and 2 had poor results. Three patients had persistent back pain, 4 patients had residual numbness or radiculopathy. All patients had a radiological union except for 1 patient. Conclusion: The study demonstrates a good clinicoradiological outcome of minimally invasive TLIF. It is also superior in terms of postoperative back pain, blood loss, hospital stay, recovery time as well as medication use. PMID:25404767

Jhala, Amit; Singh, Damandeep; Mistry, MS

2014-01-01

19

Biomechanical Characteristics of an Integrated Lumbar Interbody Fusion Device  

PubMed Central

Introduction We hypothesized that an Integrated Lumbar Interbody Fusion Device (PILLAR SA, Orthofix, Lewisville, TX) will function biomechanically similar to a traditional anterior interbody spacer (PILLAR AL, Orthofix, Lewisville, TX) plus posterior instrumentation (FIREBIRD, Orthofix, Lewisville, TX). Purpose of this study was to determine if an Integrated Interbody Fusion Device (PILLAR SA) can stabilize single motion segments as well as an anterior interbody spacer (PILLAR AL) + pedicle screw construct (FIREBIRD). Methods Eight cadaveric lumbar spines (age: 43.9±4.3 years) were used. Each specimen's range of motion was tested in flexion-extension (FE), lateral bending (LB), and axial rotation (AR) under intact condition, after L4-L5 PILLAR SA with intervertebral screws and after L4-L5 360° fusion (PILLAR AL + Pedicle Screws and rods (FIREBIRD). Each specimen was tested in flexion (8Nm) and extension (6Nm) without preload (0 N) and under 400N of preload, in lateral bending (±6 Nm) and axial rotation (±5 Nm) without preload. Results Integrated fusion using the PILLAR SA device demonstrated statistically significant reductions in range of motion of the L4-L5 motion segment as compared to the intact condition for each test direction. PILLAR SA reduced ROM from 8.9±1.9 to 2.9±1.1° in FE with 400N follower preload (67.4%), 8.0±1.7 to 2.5±1.1° in LB, and 2.2±1.2 to 0.7±0.3° in AR. A comparison between the PILLAR SA integrated fusion device versus 360° fusion construct with spacer and bilateral pedicle screws was statistically significant in FE and LB. The 360° fusion yielded motion of 1.0±0.5° in FE, 1.0±0.8° in LB (p0.05). Conclusions The PILLAR SA resulted in motions of less than 3° in all modes of motion and was not as motion restricting as the traditional 360° using bilateral pedicle screws. The residual segmental motions compare very favorably with published biomechanical studies of other interbody integrated fusion devices.

Voronov, Leonard I.; Vastardis, Georgios; Zelenakova, Julia; Carandang, Gerard; Havey, Robert M.; Waldorff, Erik I.; Zindrick, Michael R.

2014-01-01

20

Endoscopic Foraminal Decompression Preceding Oblique Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion To Decrease The Incidence Of Post Operative Dysaesthesia  

PubMed Central

Background Lumbar interbody fusion has become a well established method to diminish axial back pain as well as radiculopathy in patients with degenerative disc disease, stenosis, and instability. The concept of indirect decompression of the neural foramen and spinal canal while performing fusion became popular in the mid 1990’s with description of ALIF techniques. Morphometric analysis confirmed the extent of decompression of posterior elements with interbody height restoration. In an attempt to diminish potential complications associated with anterior or posterior approaches to the spine for interbody fusion, and with the hope of accomplishing fusion in a less invasive manner, lateral lumbar interbody fusion has become quite popular. This transpsoas approach to the disc space has been associated with a high incidence of neurologic complications. Even though this is the first technique to routinely recommend EMG monitoring to increase safety in the approach, neurologic injuries still occur. A newer oblique lateral lumbar interbody (OLLIF) approach has recently been described to lessen the incidence of neurologic injury. This technique also advocates use of EMG testing to lessen neurologic trauma. In spite of this precaution, neurologic insult has not been eliminated. In fact, even in patients whose electrical stimulation thresholds suggested a safe entry space into the disc, transient dysaesthesia continues to occur in 20-25 percent of cases. Purpose This pilot study reflects data and observations of a subset of patients treated with endoscopic foraminotomy preceding oblique lateral lumbar interbody fusion (OLLIF) to assess specifically potential improvements in dysaesthesia rates. Methods A select subset of patients undergoing OLLIF failed to meet electrodiagnostic criteria for safe disc access through Kambin’s triangle. These patients underwent an endoscopic foraminotomy and exiting nerve decompression prior to discectomy, endplate preparation and cage insertion. Results Dysaesthesia did not occur in these patients whom otherwise would have likely been at risk for neurologic deficit. Conclusions These findings suggest that patients at risk for neurologic insult during oblique lateral lumbar interbody fusion can be protected by foraminoplasty. PMID:25694923

Katzell, Jeffrey

2014-01-01

21

Comparison of Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion with Direct Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Clinical and Radiological Results  

PubMed Central

Objective The use of direct lumbar interbody fusion (DLIF) has gradually increased; however, no studies have directly compared DLIF and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). We compared DLIF and TLIF on the basis of clinical and radiological outcomes. Methods A retrospective review was performed on the medical records and radiographs of 98 and 81 patients who underwent TLIF and DLIF between January 2011 and December 2012. Clinical outcomes were compared with a visual analog scale (VAS) and the Oswestry disability index (ODI). The preoperative and postoperative disc heights, segmental sagittal/coronal angles, and lumbar lordosis were measured on radiographs. Fusion rates, operative time, estimated blood loss (EBL), length of hospital stay, and complications were assessed. Results DLIF was superior to TLIF regarding its ability to restore disc height, foraminal height, and coronal balance (p<0.001). As the extent of surgical level increased, DLIF displayed significant advantages over TLIF considering the operative time and EBL. However, fusion rates at 12 months post-operation were lower for DLIF (87.8%) than for TLIF (98.1%) (p=0.007). The changes of VAS and ODI between the TLIF and DLIF were not significantly different (p>0.05). Conclusion Both DLIF and TLIF are less invasive and thus good surgical options for treating degenerative lumber diseases. DLIF has higher potential in increasing neural foramina and correcting coronal balance, and involves a shorter operative time and reduced EBL, in comparison with TLIF. However, DLIF displayed a lower fusion rate than TLIF, and caused complications related to the transpsoas approach. PMID:25628805

Lee, Young Seok; Park, Seung Won; Chung, Chan

2014-01-01

22

Failure of a Carbon Fiber–Reinforced Polymer Implant Used for Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion  

PubMed Central

Lumbar interbody fusion is a common procedure owing to the high prevalence of degenerative spinal disorders. During such procedures, carbon fiber–reinforced polymer (CFRP) cages are frequently utilized to fill the void created between adjacent vertebral bodies, to provide mechanical stability, and to carry graft material. Failure of such implants can lead to significant morbidity. We discuss the possible causes leading to the failure of a CFRP cage in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. Review of a 49-year-old woman who underwent revision anterior lumbar interbody fusion 2 years after posterior instrumentation and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion at L4–L5 and L5–S1. The patient developed pseudarthrosis at the two previously fused levels with failure of the posterior instrumentation. Revision surgery reveled failure with fragmentation of the CFRP cage at the L5–S1 level. CFRP implants can break if mechanical instability or nonunion occurs in the spinal segments, thus emphasizing the need for optimizing medical management and meticulous surgical technique in achieving stability. PMID:24436878

Sardar, Zeeshan; Jarzem, Peter

2013-01-01

23

The Significance of Removing Ruptured Intervertebral Discs for Interbody Fusion in Treating Thoracic or Lumbar Type B and C Spinal Injuries through a One-Stage Posterior Approach  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify the negative effect on treatment results of reserving damaged intervertebral discs when treating type B and type C spinal fracture-dislocations through a one-stage posterior approach. Methods This is a retrospective review of 53 consecutive patients who were treated in our spine surgery center from January 2005 to May 2012 due to severe thoracolumbar spinal fracture-dislocation. The patients in Group A (24 patients) underwent long-segment instrumentation laminectomy with pedicle screw-rod fixators for neural decompression. In Group B (29 patients), the patients underwent long-segment instrumentation laminectomy with pedicle screw-rod fixators for neural decompression evacuating of the ruptured disc and inserting of a bone graft into the evacuated disc space for interbody fusion. The mean time between injury and operation was 4.1 days (range 2–15 days). The clinical, radiologic and complication outcomes were analyzed retrospectively. Results Periodic follow-ups were carried out until an affirmative union or treatment failure took place. A progressive kyphosis angle larger than 10°, loss of disc height, pseudoarthrosis, recurrence of dislocation or subluxation, or instrument failure before fusion were considered treatment failures. Treatment failures were detected in 13 cases in Group A (failure rate was 54.2%). In Group B, there were 28 cases in which definitive bone fusion was demonstrated on CT scans, and CT scans of the other cases demonstrated undefined pseudoarthrosis without hardware failure. There were statistically significant differences between the two groups (p<0.001 chi-square test). The neurologic recoveries, assessed by the ASIA scoring system, were not satisfactory for the neural deficit patients in either group, indicating there was no significant difference with regard to neurologic recovery between the two groups (p>0.05 Fisher's exact test). Conclusion Intervertebral disc damage is a common characteristic in type B and C spinal fracture-dislocation injuries. The damaged intervertebral disc should be removed and substituted with a bone graft because reserving the damaged disc in situ increases the risk of treatment failure. PMID:24827733

Zhang, Qian-Shi; Lü, Guo-Hua; Wang, Xiao-Bin; Li, Jing

2014-01-01

24

Biomechanical comparison of anterior lumbar interbody fusion: stand-alone interbody cage versus interbody cage with pedicle screw fixation - a finite element analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) followed by pedicle screw fixation (PSF) is used to restore the height of the intervertebral disc and provide stability. Recently, stand-alone interbody cage with anterior fixation has been introduced, which eliminates the need for posterior surgery. We compared the biomechanics of the stand-alone interbody cage to that of the interbody cage with additional PSF in ALIF. Methods A three-dimensional, non-linear finite element model (FEM) of the L2-5 segment was modified to simulate ALIF in L3-4. The models were tested under the following conditions: (1) intact spine, (2) destabilized spine, (3) with the interbody cage alone (type 1), (4) with the stand-alone cage with anterior fixation (SynFix-LR®; type 2), and (5) with type 1 in addition to PSF (type 3). Range of motion (ROM) and the stiffness of the operated level, ROM of the adjacent segments, load sharing distribution, facet load, and vertebral body stress were quantified with external loading. Results The implanted models had decreased ROM and increased stiffness compared to those of the destabilized spine. The type 2 had differences in ROM limitation of 8%, 10%, 4%, and 6% in flexion, extension, axial rotation, and lateral bending, respectively, compared to those of type 3. Type 2 had decreased ROM of the upper and lower adjacent segments by 3-11% and 3-6%, respectively, compared to those of type 3. The greatest reduction in facet load at the operated level was observed in type 3 (71%), followed by type 2 (31%) and type 1 (23%). An increase in facet load at the adjacent level was highest in type 3, followed by type 2 and type 1. The distribution of load sharing in type 2 (anterior:posterior, 95:5) was similar to that of the intact spine (89:11), while type 3 migrated posterior (75:25) to the normal. Type 2 reduced about 15% of the stress on the lower vertebral endplate compared to that in type 1. The stress of type 2 increased two-fold compared to the stress of type 3, especially in extension. Conclusions The stand-alone interbody cage can provide sufficient stability, reduce stress in adjacent levels, and share the loading distribution in a manner similar to an intact spine. PMID:23890389

2013-01-01

25

MRI Measurement of Neuroforaminal Dimension at the Index and Supradjacent Levels after Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion: A Prospective Study  

PubMed Central

Background Anterior interbody fusion has previously been demonstrated to increase neuroforaminal height in a cadaveric model using cages. No prior study has prospectively assessed the relative change in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated neuroforaminal dimensions at the index and supradjacent levels, after anterior interbody fusion with a corticocancellous allograft in a series of patients without posterior decompression. The objective of this study was to determine how much foraminal dimension can be increased with indirect foraminal decompression alone via anterior interbody fusion, and to determine the effect of anterior lumbar interbody fusion on the dimensions of the supradjacent neuroforamina. Methods A prospective study comparing pre- and postoperative neuroforaminal dimensions on MRI scan among 26 consecutive patients undergoing anterior lumbar interbody fusion without posterior decompression was performed. We studies 26 consecutive patients (50 index levels) that had undergone anterior interbody fusion followed by posterior pedicle screw fixation without distraction or foraminotomy. We used preoperative and postoperative MRI imaging to assess the foraminal dimensions at each operated level on which the lumbar spine had been operated. The relative indirect foraminal decompression achieved was calculated. The foraminal dimension of the 26 supradjacent untreated levels was measured pre- and postoperatively to serve as a control and to determine any effects after anterior interbody fusion. Results In this study, 8 patients underwent 1 level fusion (L5-S1), 12 patients had 2 levels (L4-S1) and 6 patients had 3 levels (L3-S1). The average increase in foraminal dimension was 43.3% (p < 0.05)-19.2% for L3-4, 57.1% for L4-5, and 40.1% for L5-S1. Mean pre- and postoperative supradjacent neuroforaminal dimension measurements were 125.84 mm2 and 124.89 mm2, respectively. No significant difference was noted (p > 0.05). Conclusions Anterior interbody fusion with a coriticocancellous allograft can significantly increase neuroforaminal dimension even in the absence of formal posterior distraction or foraminotomy; anterior interbody fusion with a coriticocancellous allograft has little effect on supradjacent neuroforaminal dimensions. PMID:23467381

Sokolowski, Mark J.; Mehbod, Amir A.; Denis, Francis; Garvey, Timothy A.; Perl, John; Transfeldt, Ensor E.

2013-01-01

26

Cantilever Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Upper Lumbar Degenerative Diseases (Minimum 2 Years Follow Up)  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the clinical outcomes of cantilever transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (c-TLIF) for upper lumbar diseases. Materials and Methods Seventeen patients (11 males, 6 females; mean ± SD age: 62 ± 14 years) who underwent c-TLIF using kidney type spacers between 2002 and 2008 were retrospectively evaluated, at a mean follow-up of 44.1 ± 12.3 months (2 year minimum). The primary diseases studied were disc herniation, ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL), degenerative scoliosis, lumbar spinal canal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and degeneration of adjacent disc after operation. Fusion areas were L1-L2 (5 patients), L2-L3 (9 patients), L1-L3 (1 patient), and L2-L4 (2 patients). Operation time, blood loss, complications, Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score for back pain, bone union, sagittal alignment change of fusion level, and degeneration of adjacent disc were evaluated. Results JOA score improved significantly after surgery, from 12 ± 2 to 23 ± 3 points (p < 0.01). We also observed significant improvement in sagittal alignment of the fusion levels, from - 1.0 ± 7.4 to 5.2 ± 6.1 degrees (p < 0.01). Bony fusion was obtained in all cases. One patient experienced a subcutaneous infection, which was cured by irrigation. At the final follow-up, three patients showed degenerative changes in adjacent discs, and one showed corrective loss of fusion level. Conclusion c-TLIF is a safe procedure, providing satisfactory results for patients with upper lumbar degenerative diseases. PMID:21319352

Hioki, Akira; Hosoe, Hideo; Sugiyama, Seiichi; Suzuki, Naoki; Shimizu, Katsuji

2011-01-01

27

Comparing Miniopen and Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Interbody Fusion in Single-Level Lumbar Degeneration  

PubMed Central

Degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine, which are common among elderly people, cause back pain and radicular symptoms and lead to a poor quality of life. Lumbar spinal fusion is a standardized and widely accepted surgical procedure used for treating degenerative lumbar diseases; however, the classical posterior approach used in this procedure is recognized to cause vascular and neurologic damage of the lumbar muscles. Various studies have suggested that using the minimally invasive transforaminal interbody fusion (TLIF) technique provides long-term clinical outcomes comparable to those of open TLIF approaches in selected patients. In this study, we compared the perioperative and short-term advantages of miniopen, MI, and open TLIF. Compared with open TLIF, MI-TLIF and miniopen TLIF were associated with less blood loss, shorter hospital stays, and longer operative times; however, following the use of these procedures, no difference in quality of life was measured at 6 months or 1 year. Whether miniopen TLIF or MI-TLIF can replace traditional TLIF as the surgery of choice for treating degenerative lumbar deformity remains unclear, and additional studies are required for validating the safety and efficiency of these procedures. PMID:25629037

Lo, Wei-Lun; Lin, Chien-Min; Yeh, Yi-Shian; Tseng, Yuan-Yun; Yang, Shun-Tai

2015-01-01

28

Comparison of adjacent segment disease after minimally invasive or open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion.  

PubMed

Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is a potential long-term risk after lumbar fusion. Its incidence has been evaluated in anterior and posterior lumbar interbody fusions, but few studies have focused on transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). Relative risk of ASD with open or minimally invasive (MI) TLIF is poorly understood. To report our experience with risk for ASD in patients receiving TLIF and test its association with surgical approach, we performed a retrospective cohort study based on medical record review at a single institution. Eligible patients were ? 18 years old at operation, underwent single-level TLIF during the period 2007-2008, and had at least 6 months postoperative follow-up. Patients were categorized by surgical approach (open versus MI). Primary outcome of interest was development of symptomatic ASD, defined by (1) new back and/or leg pain, (2) imaging findings adjacent to original surgical level, and (3) decision to treat. A total of 68 patients (16 open, 52 MI) were included in the analysis. Groups had similar baseline characteristics, except the open group tended to be older (p=0.04). Seven (10%) patients developed ASD. Mean patient age was 62 years and three were male. Three underwent open and four underwent MI TLIF. Risk of ASD did not differ significantly by surgical approach. The MI group showed a trend toward decreased risk of ASD compared to the open group, although it was not statistically significant. This suggests MI TLIF may be associated with decreased long-term morbidity compared to the open approach. Large prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24880486

Yee, Timothy J; Terman, Samuel W; La Marca, Frank; Park, Paul

2014-10-01

29

Comparison of conventional versus minimally invasive extraperitoneal approach for anterior lumbar interbody fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to compare conventional versus minimally invasive extraperitoneal approach for anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF). Fifty-six consecutive patients with spondylolisthesis, lumbar instability, or failed back syndrome were treated with ALIF between 1991 and 2001. The patients were retrospectively evaluated and divided in two groups: Group 1, consisting 33 patients, was treated with ALIF using the

V. Saraph; C. Lerch; N. Walochnik; C. M. Bach; M. Krismer; C. Wimmer

2004-01-01

30

Endoscopic transforaminal decompression, interbody fusion, and percutaneous pedicle screw implantation of the lumbar spine: A case series report  

PubMed Central

Background On the basis of the experiences gained from conventional open spinal procedures, a long list of desirable objectives have emerged with the evolution of the lesser invasive spinal procedures. At the top of that list is the desire to minimize the trauma of surgery. The rest of the objectives, which include reductions of operating time, surgical blood loss, hospital stay, postoperative narcotic medication, convalescence, complication rates, and escalating health care costs, as well as the desire of elderly patients to continue rigorous physical activities, largely depend on the ability to minimize the trauma of surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of the least invasive lumbar decompression, interbody fusion and percutaneous pedicle screw implantation, to minimize surgical trauma without compromising the quality of the treatment outcome, as well as to minimize risk of complications. Methods In this case series, 60 patients with diagnoses of degenerative disc disease, degenerative motion segments with stenosis, and spondylolisthesis, in whom nonoperative treatments failed, were treated with endoscopic transforaminal decompression and interbody fusion by 1 surgeon in 2 centers. The outcome measures were as follows: operating time, intraoperative blood loss, hospital stay, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores for back and leg pain, scores on the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, and postoperative imaging studies. A consecutive series of patients who met the treatment criteria completed VAS forms and Roland-Morris questionnaires preoperatively. Surgical procedures included arthroscopic decompression of the foramina and the discs; endplate preparation and implantation of allograft bone chips and bone morphogenetic protein 2 on absorbable collagen sponge into the disc space; and percutaneous implantation of pedicle screws. Postoperatively, the patients again completed the VAS forms and Roland-Morris questionnaires. Their charts were reviewed for office notes, operative notes, hospital stay, medications, and imaging studies. The latest X-ray and computed tomography scan films were reviewed and analyzed. Patients were followed up for a minimum of 6 months. The literature was reviewed for comparison of outcomes. Results Sixty patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 52.8 years. The duration of illness averaged 5 years. Follow-up ranged from 6 to 25 months, with a mean of 12 months. Preoperative diagnoses included degenerative disc disease, degenerative motion segments with stenosis, and spondylolisthesis. The mean time in the operating room was 2 hours 54 minutes. Estimated blood loss averaged 57.6 mL. The duration of the hospital stay averaged 2.6 days. Preoperative back pain and leg pain were significantly reduced (P < .005). Forty-seven imaging studies obtained at the last visit, including X-ray and computed tomography scans, showed solid fusion in 28 patients (59.6%), stable fixation in 17 (36.2%), and osteolysis around the pedicle screws in 2 (4.2%). All patients had improvement of motor function, whereas 2 patients complained of residual numbness. In addition, 8 patients (13%) complained of residual discomfort on extension of the lumbar spine. Two patients had pedicle screw–related complications requiring surgery. A review of the literature showed that endoscopic transforaminal decompression and interbody fusion performed better than open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion/posterior lumbar interbody fusion, minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, and extreme lateral lumbar interbody fusion, with regard to most parameters studied. Conclusions The endoscopic transforaminal lumbar decompression, interbody fusion, and percutaneous pedicle screw instrumentation consistently produced satisfactory results in all demographics. It performed better than the alternative procedures for most parameters studied.

Osman, Said G.

2012-01-01

31

Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion for the Treatment of Postoperative Spondylodiscitis  

PubMed Central

Objective To analyze the clinical courses and outcomes after anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) for the treatment of postoperative spondylodiscitis. Methods A total of 13 consecutive patients with postoperative spondylodiscitis treated with ALIF at our institute from January, 1994 to August, 2013 were included (92.3% male, mean age 54.5 years old). The outcome data including inflammatory markers (leukocyte count, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate), the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), the modified Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and bony fusion rate using spine X-ray were obtained before and 6 months after ALIF. Results All of the cases were effectively treated with combination of systemic antibiotics and ALIF with normalization of the inflammatory markers. The mean VAS for back and leg pain before ALIF was 6.8±1.1, which improved to 3.2±2.2 at 6 months after ALIF. The mean ODI score before ALIF was 70.0±14.8, which improved to 34.2±27.0 at 6 months after ALIF. Successful bony fusion rate was 84.6% (11/13) and the remaining two patients were also asymptomatic. Conclusion Our results suggest that ALIF is an effective treatment option for postoperative spondylodiscitis. PMID:25371780

Kim, Sung Han; Kang, Moo-Sung; Chin, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Keun-Su; Cho, Yong-Eun

2014-01-01

32

Direct Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Clinical and Radiological Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objective According to the recent development of minimally invasive spinal surgery, direct lumbar interbody fusion (DLIF) was introduced as an effective option to treat lumbar degenerative diseases. However, comprehensive results of DLIF have not been reported in Korea yet. The object of this study is to summarize radiological and clinical outcomes of our DLIF experience. Methods We performed DLIF for 130 patients from May 2011 to June 2013. Among them, 90 patients, who could be followed up for more than 6 months, were analyzed retrospectively. Clinical outcomes were compared using visual analog scale (VAS) score and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Bilateral foramen areas, disc height, segmental coronal and sagittal angle, and regional sagittal angle were measured. Additionally, fusion rate was assessed. Results A total of 90 patients, 116 levels, were underwent DLIF. The VAS and ODI improved statistically significant after surgery. All the approaches for DLIF were done on the left side. The left and right side foramen area changed from 99.5 mm2 and 102.9 mm2 to 159.2 mm2 and 151.2 mm2 postoperatively (p<0.001). Pre- and postoperative segmental coronal and sagittal angles changed statistically significant from 4.1° and 9.9° to 1.1° and 11.1°. Fusion rates of 6 and 12 months were 60.9% and 87.8%. Complications occurred in 17 patients (18.9%). However, most of the complications were resolved within 2 months. Conclusion DLIF is not only effective for indirect decompression and deformity correction but also shows satisfactory mechanical stability and fusion rate. PMID:25132930

Lee, Young Seok; Kim, Young Baeg

2014-01-01

33

Clinical and Radiological Outcomes of a New Cage for Direct Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion  

PubMed Central

Objective In Korea, direct lateral interbody fusion (DLIF) was started since 2011, using standard cage (6° lordotic angle, 18mm width). Recently, a new wider cage with higher lordotic angle (12°, 22mm) was introduced. The aim of our study is to compare the clinical and radiologic outcomes of the two cage types. Methods We selected patients underwent DLIF, 125 cases used standard cages (standard group) and 38 cases used new cages (wide group). We followed them up for more than 6 months, and their radiological and clinical outcomes were analyzed retrospectively. For radiologic outcomes, lumbar lordotic angle (LLA), segmental lordoic angle (SLA), disc angle (DA), foraminal height change (FH), subsidence and intraoperative endplate destruction (iED) were checked. Clinical outcomes were compared using visual analog scale (VAS) score, Oswestry disability index (ODI) score and complications. Results LLA and SLA showed no significant changes postoperatively in both groups. DA showed significant increase after surgery in the wide group (p<0.05), but not in the standard group. Subsidence was significantly lower in the wide group (p<0.05). There was no difference in clinical outcomes between the two groups. Additional posterior decompression was done more frequently in the wide group. Postoperative change of foraminal height was significantly lower in the wide group (p<0.05). The iED was observed more frequently in the wide group (p<0.05) especially at the anterior edge of cage. Conclusion The new type of cage seems to result in more DA and less subsidence. But indirect foraminal decompression seems to be less effective than standard cage. Intraoperative endplate destruction occurs more frequently due to a steeper lordotic angle of the new cage. PMID:25346760

Kim, Shin Jae; Lee, Young Seok; Kim, Young Baeg; Hung, Vo Tan

2014-01-01

34

Clinical and Radiological Outcomes of Segmental Spinal Fusion in Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion with Spinous Process Tricortical Autograft  

PubMed Central

Study Design A retrospective study. Purpose To investigate clinical and radiological outcomes when using spinous process as a tricortical autograft for segmental spinal fusion in transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). Overview of Literature Interbody spinal fusion is one of the important procedures in spinal surgery. Many types of autografts are harvested at the expense of complications. Clinical and radiographic results of patients who underwent TLIF with intraoperative harvested spinous process autograft in Prasat Neurological Institue, Bangkok, Thailand, were assessed as new technical innovation. Methods Between October 2005 to July 2009, 30 cases of patients who underwent TLIF with spinous process tricortical autograft were included. Clinical evaluations were assessed by visual analog scales (VAS) and Prolo functional and economic scores at the preoperation and postoperation and at 2 years postoperation. Static and dynamic plain radiograph of lumbar spine were reviewed for achievement of fusion. Results Initial successful fusion time in lumbar interbody fusion with spinous process tricortical autograft was 4.72 months (range, 3.8-6.1 months) postoperation and 100% fusion rate was reported at 2 years. Our initial successful fusion time in lumbar interbody fusion was compared to the other types of grafts in previous literatures. Conclusions The use of intraoperative harvested spinous process tricortical autograft has overcome many disadvantages of harvesting autograft with better initial successful fusion time (4.72 months). VAS and Prolo scores showed some improvement in the outcomes between the preoperative and postoperative periods. PMID:24761199

Tangviriyapaiboon, Teera

2014-01-01

35

A randomized double-blind prospective study of the efficacy of pulsed electromagnetic fields for interbody lumbar fusions  

SciTech Connect

A randomized double-blind prospective study of pulsed electromagnetic fields for lumbar interbody fusions was performed on 195 subjects. There were 98 subjects in the active group and 97 subjects in the placebo group. A brace containing equipment to induce an electromagnetic field was applied to patients undergoing interbody fusion in the active group, and a sham brace was used in the control group. In the active group there was a 92% success rate, while the control group had a 65% success rate (P greater than 0.005). The effectiveness of bone graft stimulation with the device is thus established.

Mooney, V. (Univ. of California, Irvine (USA))

1990-07-01

36

A Meta-Analysis of Unilateral versus Bilateral Pedicle Screw Fixation in Minimally Invasive Lumbar Interbody Fusion  

PubMed Central

Study Design Meta-analysis. Background Bilateral pedicle screw fixation (PS) after lumbar interbody fusion is a widely accepted method of managing various spinal diseases. Recently, unilateral PS fixation has been reported as effective as bilateral PS fixation. This meta-analysis aimed to comparatively assess the efficacy and safety of unilateral PS fixation and bilateral PS fixation in the minimally invasive (MIS) lumbar interbody fusion for one-level degenerative lumbar spine disease. Methods MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, BIOSIS Previews, and Cochrane Library were searched through March 30, 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) on unilateral versus bilateral PS fixation in MIS lumbar interbody fusion that met the inclusion criteria and the methodological quality standard were retrieved and reviewed. Data on participant characteristics, interventions, follow-up period, and outcomes were extracted from the included studies and analyzed by Review Manager 5.2. Results Six studies (5 RCTs and 1 CCT) involving 298 patients were selected. There were no significant differences between unilateral and bilateral PS fixation procedures in fusion rate, complications, visual analogue score (VAS) for leg pain, VAS for back pain, Oswestry disability index (ODI). Both fixation procedures had similar length of hospital stay (MD?=?0.38, 95% CI?=??0.83 to 1.58; P?=?0.54). In contrast, bilateral PS fixation was associated with significantly more intra-operative blood loss (P?=?0.002) and significantly longer operation time (P?=?0.02) as compared with unilateral PS fixation. Conclusions Unilateral PS fixation appears as effective and safe as bilateral PS fixation in MIS lumbar interbody fusion but requires less operative time and causes less blood loss, thus offering a simple alternative approach for one-level lumbar degenerative disease. PMID:25375315

Liu, Zheng; Fei, Qi; Wang, Bingqiang; Lv, Pengfei; Chi, Cheng; Yang, Yong; Zhao, Fan; Lin, Jisheng; Ma, Zhao

2014-01-01

37

Radiation exposure during the lateral lumbar interbody fusion procedure and techniques to reduce radiation dosage  

PubMed Central

Background Fluoroscopy is widely used in spine surgery to assist with graft and hardware placement. Previous studies have not measured radiation exposure to a surgeon during minimally invasive lateral lumbar spine surgery for single-level discectomy and interbody cage insertion. This study was performed to model and measure radiation exposure to a surgeon during spine surgery using the direct lateral lumbar procedure. Methods The study was performed using a mannequin substituting for the surgeon and a cadaver substituting for the patient. Radiation was measured with dosimeters attached to 6 locations on the mannequin using a OEC Medical Systems 9800 C-arm fluoroscope (OEC Medical Systems, Salt Lake City, Utah). Three different fluoroscopy setups were tested: a standard imaging setup, a standard setup using pulsed-mode fluoroscopy, and a reversed setup. The experiment was tested 5 times per setup, and the dosimeters’ values were recorded. Results The highest amount of radiation exposure occurred when obtaining an anteroposterior view of the spine in the standard setup. Compared with the standard setup, the pulsed-mode setting decreased the radiation exposure to the mannequin by a factor of 6 times (P < .001). Compared with the standard setup, the reversed setup also decreased the radiation exposure to the mannequin by a factor of 6 times (P < .001) and it had the lowest amount of radiation exposure to the eye level (P < .001). Conclusions Care should be taken when one is obtaining an anteroposterior view of the lumbar spine during lateral lumbar procedures to limit radiation exposure. Radiation exposure to the surgeon can be greatly minimized by using either a pulsed imaging mode or the reversed setup. The reversed setup has the lowest amount of radiation exposure to the eye level.

Tatsumi, Robert L.

2012-01-01

38

Durotomy repair in minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion by nonpenetrating clips  

PubMed Central

Background: Closure of the dura defect may be easy to perform in open lumbar surgery but could be difficult in minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusions (MIS-TLIF) since MIS-TLIF was done through a small tube, which limited the use of standard dural repair instruments. We used nonpenetrating titanium clips that were originally designed for the vascular anastomoses to repair the dura defect, which is never described in the literature. Methods: We presented a case of spinal stenosis with incidental durotomy while performing MIS-TLIF. We closed the dura laceration with three medium-sized nonpenetrating titanium clips (AnastoClip Vessel Closure System, LeMaitre Vascular, Inc., Burlington, MA). Results: Nonpenetrating titanium clips have the benefits of being technically easy to use, reduced durotomy repair time, decreased bed rest due to related medical complications, superior postoperation with immediate hydrostatic strength, and better reapproximation if it fails to clip successfully. As for the postoperation follow up, clips are tiny and reveal no obvious artifact, especially in cases where the pedicle screws are already causing much artifact. Conclusion: Primary dural closure during MIS-TLIF with clips is an effective way in cases that involve limited tubular space. PMID:24818043

Cheng, Yen-Po; Lin, Ping-Yi; Huang, Abel Po-Hao; Cheng, Chun-Yuan; Chen, Chien-Min; Hueng, Dueng-Yuan

2014-01-01

39

Instrumented transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion in surgical treatment of recurrent disc herniation  

PubMed Central

Background: The incidence of recurrence in patients undergoing primary discectomy due to lumbar disc herniation (LDH), is regularly reported as 5-15%. In this study we aimed to evaluate surgical outcome of instrumented transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) in the patients suffering from recurrent LDH. Methods: We retrospectively studied 51 patients (30 female, 21 male) from August 2007 to October 2011. The mean age and follow-up of the patients was 46.4±14.8 (ranged; 29-77 years old) and 31.4±6.8 (ranged; 25-50 months), respectively. Clinical improvement was assessed by Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), visual analogue scale (VAS), and subjective satisfaction rate, while fusion was appraised radiologically. Data analysis was by one sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov, paired t, and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: Surgery could significantly improve mean leg and lumbar VAS and ODI from preoperative 7.4±2.5, 7.8±3.1, and 72.1±21.5 to postoperative 3.4±3.6, 3.5±2.6, and 27.5±18.0, respectively at the last follow-up visit. Subjective satisfaction rate was excellent in 24 patients (47.1%), good in 14 (27.5%), fair 11 (21.6%), and poor in two (3.9%). We had one patient with iatrogenic partial L5 nerve root injury and one with unknown late onset refractory postoperative back pain. Fusion rate was 100% and instrument failure was nil. Conclusion: In surgical treatment of the patients with recurrent LDH, bilaterally instrumented TLIF is a relatively safe and effective procedure and can be associated with least instrument failure and highest fusion rate while no postoperative bracing is also needed.

Omidi-Kashani, Farzad; Ghayem Hasankhani, Ebrahim; Noroozi, Hamid Reza

2014-01-01

40

Anterior Dislodgement of a Fusion Cage after Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion for the Treatment of Isthmic Spondylolisthesis  

PubMed Central

Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) is commonly used procedure for spinal fusion. However, there are no reports describing anterior cage dislodgement after surgery. This report is a rare case of anterior dislodgement of fusion cage after TLIF for the treatment of isthmic spondylolisthesis with lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV). A 51-year-old man underwent TLIF at L4-5 with posterior instrumentation for the treatment of grade 1 isthmic spondylolisthesis with LSTV. At 7 weeks postoperatively, imaging studies demonstrated that banana-shaped cage migrated anteriorly and anterolisthesis recurred at the index level with pseudoarthrosis. The cage was removed and exchanged by new cage through anterior approach, and screws were replaced with larger size ones and cement augmentation was added. At postoperative 2 days of revision surgery, computed tomography (CT) showed fracture on lateral pedicle and body wall of L5 vertebra. He underwent surgery again for paraspinal decompression at L4-5 and extension of instrumentation to S1 vertebra. His back and leg pains improved significantly after final revision surgery and symptom relief was maintained during follow-up period. At 6 months follow-up, CT images showed solid fusion at L4-5 level. Careful cage selection for TLIF must be done for treatment of spondylolisthesis accompanied with deformed LSTV, especially when reduction will be attempted. Banana-shaped cage should be positioned anteriorly, but anterior dislodgement of cage and reduction failure may occur in case of a highly unstable spine. Revision surgery for the treatment of an anteriorly dislodged cage may be effectively performed using an anterior approach. PMID:24175028

Oh, Hyeong Seok; Lee, Sang-Ho

2013-01-01

41

Mid-term Clinical Outcomes of Stand-alone Posterior Interbody Fusion with Rectangular Cages: A 4-year-minimum Follow-up  

PubMed Central

Objective We sought to determine minimum 4 years of clinical outcomes including fusion rate, revision rate and complications of patients who underwent placement of rectangular stand-alone cages. Methods Thirty-three cases of degenerative spine that had been followed for at least 4-years were reviewed retrospectively. Cages were inserted at L4-L5 level or L5-S1 in 27 or in 6 cases respectively. Visual analogue scale (VAS), Odom's criteria, fusion rate, intervertebral disc height and lumbar lordosis were determined pre- and post-operatively on standing x-rays. Amount of intra- and postoperative blood loss, total volume transfused, duration of surgery and perioperative complications were also evaluated. Results The mean VAS score of back pain and sciatica were improved from 8.0 and 7.0 points to 3.4 and 2.4 during 1 years follow-up visit and the scores was raised gradually. Also, during the follow-up, 94% of patients showed excellent or good outcomes by the Odom's criteria. Intervertebral disc height was increased from 8.2±1.4mm to 9.2±1.9mm at the first year of follow-up, however, found to be decreased and stabilized to 8.3±1.8mm after 2 years. The fusion rate was approximately 91% after 4 year postoperative. The segmental angle of lordosis was increased significantly by two years but it was not maintained after four years. A statistically insignificant change in total lumbar lordosis was also observed. Three patients (9%) had experienced perioperative complications. Conclusion The use of rectangular stand-alone cages for posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) resulted in a various degree of subsidence and demonstrate very low complication rate, high functional stability and improved clinical outcomes in patients with degenerative lumbar disc disease. PMID:24757473

Cho, Kyung Rae; Lee, Sun-Ho; Kim, Eun Sang

2013-01-01

42

Posterior short segment pedicle screw fixation and TLIF for the treatment of unstable thoracolumbar/lumbar fracture  

PubMed Central

Background Currently, Posterior Short Segment Pedicle Screw Fixation is a popular procedure for treating unstable thoracolumbar/lumbar burst fracture. But progressive kyphosis and a high rate of hardware failure because of lack of the anterior column support remains a concern. The efficacy of different methods remains debatable and each technique has its advantages and disadvantages. Methods A consecutive series of 20 patients with isolated thoracolumbar/lumbar burst fractures were treated by posterior short segment pedicle screw fixation and transforaminal thoracolumbar/lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) between January 2005 and December 2007. All patients were followed up for a minimum of 2 years. Demographic data, neurologic status, anterior vertebral body heights, segmental Cobb angle and treatment-related complications were evaluated. Results The mean operative time was 167 minutes (range, 150–220). Blood loss was 450 ~ 1200 ml, an average of 820 ml. All patients recovered with solid fusion of the intervertebral bone graft, without main complications like misplacement of the pedicle screw, nerve or vessel lesion or hard ware failure. The post-operative radiographs demonstrated a good fracture reduction and it was well maintained until the bone graft fusion. Neurological recovery of one to three Frankel grade was seen in 14 patients with partial neurological deficit, three grades of improvement was seen in one patient, two grades of improvement was observed in 6 patients and one grade of improvement was found in 6 patients. All the 6 patients with no paraplegia on admission remained neurological intact, and in one patient with Frankel D on admission no improvement was observed. Conclusion Posterior short-segment pedicle fixation in conjunction with TLIF seems to be a feasible option in the management of selected thoracolumbar/lumbar burst fractures, thereby addressing all the three columns through a single approach with less trauma and good results. PMID:24517217

2014-01-01

43

Porous biodegradable lumbar interbody fusion cage design and fabrication using integrated global-local topology optimization with laser sintering.  

PubMed

Biodegradable cages have received increasing attention for their use in spinal procedures involving interbody fusion to resolve complications associated with the use of nondegradable cages, such as stress shielding and long-term foreign body reaction. However, the relatively weak initial material strength compared to permanent materials and subsequent reduction due to degradation may be problematic. To design a porous biodegradable interbody fusion cage for a preclinical large animal study that can withstand physiological loads while possessing sufficient interconnected porosity for bony bridging and fusion, we developed a multiscale topology optimization technique. Topology optimization at the macroscopic scale provides optimal structural layout that ensures mechanical strength, while optimally designed microstructures, which replace the macroscopic material layout, ensure maximum permeability. Optimally designed cages were fabricated using solid, freeform fabrication of poly(?-caprolactone) mixed with hydroxyapatite. Compression tests revealed that the yield strength of optimized fusion cages was two times that of typical human lumbar spine loads. Computational analysis further confirmed the mechanical integrity within the human lumbar spine, although the pore structure locally underwent higher stress than yield stress. This optimization technique may be utilized to balance the complex requirements of load-bearing, stress shielding, and interconnected porosity when using biodegradable materials for fusion cages. PMID:23897113

Kang, Heesuk; Hollister, Scott J; La Marca, Frank; Park, Paul; Lin, Chia-Ying

2013-10-01

44

Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion with Unilateral Pedicle Screw Fixation: Comparison between Primary and Revision Surgery  

PubMed Central

Minimally invasive surgery with a transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS TLIF) is an important minimally invasive fusion technique for the lumbar spine. Lumbar spine reoperation is challenging and is thought to have greater complication risks. The purpose of this study was to compare MIS TLIF with unilateral screw fixation perioperative results between primary and revision surgeries. This was a prospective study that included 46 patients who underwent MIS TLIF with unilateral pedicle screw. The patients were divided into two groups, primary and revision MIS TLIF, to compare perioperative results and complications. The two groups were similar in age, sex, and level of operation, and were not significantly different in the length of follow-up or clinical results. Although dural tears were more common with the revision group (primary 1; revision 4), operation time, blood loss, total perioperative complication, and fusion rates were not significantly different between the two groups. Both groups showed substantial improvements in VAS and ODI scores one year after surgical treatment. Revision MIS TLIF performed by an experienced surgeon does not necessarily increase the risk of perioperative complication compared with primary surgery. MIS TLIF with unilateral pedicle screw fixation is a valuable option for revision lumbar surgery. PMID:24949483

Kang, Moo Sung; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Kuh, Sung Uk; Chin, Dong Kyu; Kim, Keun Su; Cho, Yong Eun

2014-01-01

45

Analysis of spinal lumbar interbody fusion cage subsidence using Taguchi method, finite element analysis, and artificial neural network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subsidence, when implant penetration induces failure of the vertebral body, occurs commonly after spinal reconstruction. Anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) cages may subside into the vertebral body and lead to kyphotic deformity. No previous studies have utilized an artificial neural network (ANN) for the design of a spinal interbody fusion cage. In this study, the neural network was applied after initiation from a Taguchi L 18 orthogonal design array. Three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) was performed to address the resistance to subsidence based on the design changes of the material and cage contact region, including design of the ridges and size of the graft area. The calculated subsidence is derived from the ANN objective function which is defined as the resulting maximum von Mises stress (VMS) on the surface of a simulated bone body after axial compressive loading. The ANN was found to have minimized the bone surface VMS, thereby optimizing the ALIF cage given the design space. Therefore, the Taguchi-FEA-ANN approach can serve as an effective procedure for designing a spinal fusion cage and improving the biomechanical properties.

Nassau, Christopher John; Litofsky, N. Scott; Lin, Yuyi

2012-09-01

46

The Use of a Dehydrated Amnion/Chorion Membrane Allograft in Patients Who Subsequently Undergo Reexploration after Posterior Lumbar Instrumentation  

PubMed Central

Background Context. Products that can reduce development of epidural fibrosis may reduce risk for ongoing pain associated with development of scar tissue and make subsequent epidural reexploration easier. Purpose. To evaluate the use of dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane (dHACM) on the formation of soft tissue scarring in the epidural space. Study Design. Case series. Patient Sample. Five patients having transforaminal lumbar interbody lumbar fusion (TLIF) with posterior instrumentation and implantation of dHACM in the epidural space and subsequent epidural reexploration. Outcome Measures. Degree of scar tissue adjacent to the epidural space at reexploration. Intraoperative and postoperative complications related to dHACM and patient reported outcomes. Methods. The degree of scar tissue adjacent to the epidural space was assessed during the reexploration surgery. Patients' outcomes were collected using standard validated questionnaires. Results. Four of 5 cases had easily detachable tissue during epidural reexploration. Angiolipoma of 10% was noted in 1 case and 5% in 2 cases. Significant improvements in patient reported outcomes were observed. No intraoperative or postoperative complications occurred. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that dHACM implant during TLIF may have favorable effects on epidural fibrosis and is well tolerated. Further studies with larger cohorts are required to prove our results. PMID:25653880

Subach, Brian R.; Copay, Anne G.

2015-01-01

47

The use of a dehydrated amnion/chorion membrane allograft in patients who subsequently undergo reexploration after posterior lumbar instrumentation.  

PubMed

Background Context. Products that can reduce development of epidural fibrosis may reduce risk for ongoing pain associated with development of scar tissue and make subsequent epidural reexploration easier. Purpose. To evaluate the use of dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane (dHACM) on the formation of soft tissue scarring in the epidural space. Study Design. Case series. Patient Sample. Five patients having transforaminal lumbar interbody lumbar fusion (TLIF) with posterior instrumentation and implantation of dHACM in the epidural space and subsequent epidural reexploration. Outcome Measures. Degree of scar tissue adjacent to the epidural space at reexploration. Intraoperative and postoperative complications related to dHACM and patient reported outcomes. Methods. The degree of scar tissue adjacent to the epidural space was assessed during the reexploration surgery. Patients' outcomes were collected using standard validated questionnaires. Results. Four of 5 cases had easily detachable tissue during epidural reexploration. Angiolipoma of 10% was noted in 1 case and 5% in 2 cases. Significant improvements in patient reported outcomes were observed. No intraoperative or postoperative complications occurred. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that dHACM implant during TLIF may have favorable effects on epidural fibrosis and is well tolerated. Further studies with larger cohorts are required to prove our results. PMID:25653880

Subach, Brian R; Copay, Anne G

2015-01-01

48

Nerve root anomalies: implications for transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion surgery and a review of the Neidre and Macnab classification system.  

PubMed

Lumbar nerve root anomalies are uncommon phenomena that must be recognized to avoid neural injury during surgery. The authors describe 2 cases of nerve root anomalies encountered during mini-open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) surgery. One anomaly was a confluent variant not previously classified; the authors suggest that this variant be reflected in an amendment to the Neidre and Macnab classification system. They also propose strategies for identifying these anomalies and avoiding injury to anomalous nerve roots during TLIF surgery. Case 1 involved a 68-year-old woman with a 2-year history of neurogenic claudication. An MR image demonstrated L4-5 stenosis and spondylolisthesis and an L-4 nerve root that appeared unusually low in the neural foramen. During a mini-open TLIF procedure, a nerve root anomaly was seen. Six months after surgery this patient was free of neurogenic claudication. Case 2 involved a 60-year-old woman with a 1-year history of left L-4 radicular pain. Both MR and CT images demonstrated severe left L-4 foraminal stenosis and focal scoliosis. Before surgery, a nerve root anomaly was not detected, but during a unilateral mini-open TLIF procedure, a confluent nerve root was identified. Two years after surgery, this patient was free of radicular pain. PMID:23905960

Burke, Shane M; Safain, Mina G; Kryzanski, James; Riesenburger, Ron I

2013-08-01

49

A biomechanical and histological evaluation of a bioresorbable lumbar interbody fusion cage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel spinal interbody fusion cages made of bioactive and bioresorbable composites by a unique forging process were developed. Previous in vitro study demonstrated that these cages marked excellent biomechanical values. The purpose of the present in vivo study was to evaluate the viability and advantage of this forged composite of uncalcined hydroxyapatite\\/poly L-Lactide (F-u-HA\\/PLLA) cage radiographically, biomechanically, and histologically, when

Yoshihiro Hojo; Yoshihisa Kotani; Manabu Ito; Kuniyoshi Abumi; Tsuyoshi Kadosawa; Yasuo Shikinami; Akio Minami

2005-01-01

50

Four-year follow-up results of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion as revision surgery for recurrent lumbar disc herniation after conventional discectomy.  

PubMed

This study investigated the safety, effectiveness, and clinical and radiological outcomes of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) for recurrent lumbar disc herniation (rLDH) following previous lumbar spine surgery. Seventy-three consecutive patients treated for rLDH between June 2005 and May 2012 were included in the study. The previous surgical procedures included percutaneous discectomy, discectomy with laminotomy, discectomy with unilateral laminectomy, and discectomy with bilateral laminectomy. The level of rLDH was L4-L5 in 51 patients, L5-S1 in 19 patients, and L3-L4 in three patients. All patients underwent reoperation using the TLIF technique. Outcomes were evaluated using the Oswestry disability index (ODI), visual analogue scale (VAS) scores for low back pain and leg pain, and the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score, based on the results of physical examinations and questionnaires. The range of motion and disc height index of the operative segment were compared between preoperative and postoperative radiographs. The mean follow-up period was 4.1years. The VAS scores for low back pain and leg pain, ODI, and JOA score improved significantly between the preoperative and final follow-up evaluations. The mean recovery rate of the JOA score was 89.0%. The disc space height and stability at the fused level were significantly improved after surgery. The fusion rate at the final follow-up was 93.2%. There were no major complications. These results indicate that TLIF can be considered an effective, reliable, and safe alternative procedure for the treatment of rLDH. PMID:25443080

Li, Zhonghai; Tang, Jiaguang; Hou, Shuxun; Ren, Dongfeng; Li, Li; Lu, Xiang; Hou, Tiesheng

2015-02-01

51

Clinical and radiographic outcomes of extreme lateral approach to interbody fusion with ?-tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite composite for lumbar degenerative conditions  

PubMed Central

Background Historically, iliac crest bone graft has been used as the graft of choice for lumbar spine fusion procedures. Because fusion techniques have become less invasive, the demand for minimally disruptive grafting options has increased. This prospective study was performed to assess clinical and radiographic outcomes of patients treated with an iliac crest bone graft alternative and lateral lumbar interbody fusion. Methods Fifty degenerative lumbar patients were treated with the extreme lateral approach to interbody fusion and a ?-tricalcium phosphate–hydroxyapatite graft with bone marrow aspirate (BMA) at 1 or 2 adjacent levels. BMA was collected from the iliac crest with a bone aspiration needle and applied to the FormaGraft (NuVasive, Inc., San Diego, California) in a 1:1 ratio. Radiolucent cages were filled with FormaGraft strips, granules, or blocks and implanted in a standard fashion. Clinical data were collected at baseline, 6 weeks, and 3, 6, and 12 months and included visual analog scale, Oswestry Disability Index, and Short Form 36 patient-reported assessments. Fusion assessments were made from neutral anteroposterior/lateral radiographs, lateral flexion/extension radiographs, and computed tomography images taken at least 12 months after surgery. Results Forty-four patients treated at 49 levels completed follow-up. The mean patient age was 54.7 ± 10.8 years, and mean body mass index was 30.8 ± 7.7 kg/m2. Radiographic fusion was observed in 41 of 44 assessed levels (93.2%). Blood loss was less than 100 mL in 95.5% of patients. Of the patients, 93.2% spent 1 night or less in the hospital. By the 6-week follow-up, all clinical outcomes were significantly improved (P < .05). Improvements were maintained or increased throughout the course of follow-up. Conclusions This report shows that the technique of extreme lateral approach to interbody fusion in combination with FormaGraft and BMA in the interbody space is a safe and effective treatment option for interbody fusion of the lumbar spine when compared with other approaches and biologic options.

Rodgers, W. Blake; Gerber, Edward J.; Rodgers, Jody A.

2012-01-01

52

An in vivo kinematic comparison of dynamic lumbar stabilization to lumbar discectomy and posterior lumbar fusion using radiostereometric analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Biomechanical studies have shown that dynamic stabilization restores the neutral zone and stabilizes the motion segment. Unfortunately, there are limitations to clinical measurement of lumbar motion segments when using routine radiographs. Radiostereometric analysis is a 3-dimensional technique and can measure the spinal motion segment more accurately than techniques using plain film radiographs. The purpose of this study was measure and compare the range of motion after dynamic stabilization, posterior lumbar fusion (PLF), and lumbar discectomy. Methods Four patients who underwent lumbar decompression and dynamic stabilization (Dynesys; Zimmer Spine, Inc., Warsaw, Indiana) for treatment of lumbar spondylosis were compared with 4 patients with a similar diagnosis who were treated by PLF and pedicle screw fixation (PLF group) and 8 patients who had undergone lumbar microdiscectomy (discectomy group) for treatment of radiculopathy. During the surgical procedure, 3 to 5 tantalum beads were placed into each of the operative segments. The patients were followed up postoperatively at 1 month, 1 year, and 2 years. At each follow-up time point, segmental motions (flexion, extension, and total sagittal range of motion [SROM]) were measured by radiostereometric analysis. Results Flexion, extension, and SROM measured 1.0° ± 0.9°, 1.5° ± 1.3°, and 2.3° ± 1.2°, respectively, in the Dynesys group; 1.0° ± 0.6°, 1.1° ± 0.9°, and 1.5° ± 0.6°, respectively, in the PLF group; and 2.9° ± 2.4°, 2.3° ± 1.5°, and 4.7° ± 2.2°, respectively, in the discectomy group. No significant difference in motion was seen between the Dynesys and PLF groups or between the Dynesys and discectomy groups in extension. Significant differences in motions were seen between the PLF and discectomy groups and between the Dynesys and discectomy groups in flexion (P = .007) and SROM (P = .002). There was no significant change in the measured motions over time. Conclusions In this study a significantly lower amount of motion was seen after dynamic stabilization and PLF when compared with discectomy. A future study with a larger cohort is necessary to examine what effect, if any, these motions have on clinical outcomes.

Park, Soo-An; Fayyazi, Amir H.; Yonemura, Kenneth S.; Fredrickson, Bruce E.; Ordway, Nathaniel R.

2012-01-01

53

Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion rates in patients using a novel titanium implant and demineralized cancellous allograft bone sponge  

PubMed Central

Background Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) with grafting and implant options like iliac crest bone graft (ICBG), recombinant bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP), and polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages have been reported to achieve extremely high fusion rates. Unfortunately, these options have also been frequently cited in the literature as causing postoperative morbidity and complications at a high cost. Knowing this, we sought to investigate TLIF using an acid-etched, roughened titanium cage that upregulates osteogenesis to see if similar fusion rates to those cited for ICBG, rhBMP, and PEEK cages could be safely achieved with minimal morbidity and complications. Materials and methods A radiographic fusion study of 82 patients who underwent TLIF using an acid-etched, roughened titanium cage with demineralized cancellous bone graft was conducted. Fusion was assessed and graded by an independent radiologist using computed tomography scan with sagittal and coronal reconstructions. Results Fusion rates at 6 months were 41 of 44 (93.2%) and at 12 months were 37 of 38 (97.4%). There were no radiographic device-related complications. Conclusions TLIF with an acid-etched, roughened titanium cage filled with a decalcified bone graft achieved similar fusion rates to historical controls using ICBG, rhBMP, and PEEK. PMID:25580378

Girasole, Gerard; Muro, Gerard; Mintz, Abraham; Chertoff, Jason

2014-01-01

54

Spontaneous slip reduction of low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis following circumferential release via bilateral minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion: technical note and short-term outcome.  

PubMed

STUDY DESIGN.: Retrospective clinical data analysis. OBJECTIVE.: To investigate and verify our philosophy of spontaneous slip reduction following circumferential release via bilateral minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (Mini-TLIF) for treatment of low-grade symptomatic isthmic spondylolisthesis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: Symptomatic isthmic spondylolisthesis usually requires surgical intervention, and the most currently controversial focus is on method and degree of reduction; and Mini-TLIF is an attractive surgical procedure for isthmic spondylolisthesis. METHODS.: Between February 2004 and June 2008, 21 patients with low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis underwent Mini-TLIF in our institute. Total resection of the scar around the pars interarticularis liberated the nerve roots, achieving posterior release as well. The disc was thoroughly resected, and the disc space was gradually distracted and thoroughly released with sequential disc shavers until rupture of anulus conjunct with anterior longitudinal ligament, accomplishing anterior release, so as to insert Cages. Because of circumferential release, the slipped vertebrae would tend to obtain spontaneous reduction, and with pedicle screw fixation, additional reduction would be achieved without any application of posterior translation force. Radiographs, Visual Analogue Scale, and Oswestry Disability Index were documented. All the cases were followed up for 10 to 26 months. RESULTS.: Slip percentage was reduced from 24.2% ± 6.9% to 10.5% ± 4.0%, and foraminal area percentage increased from 89.1% ± 3.0% to 93.6% ± 2.1%. Visual Analogue Scale and Oswestry Disability Index decreased from 7.8 ± 1.5 to 2.1 ± 1.1 and from 53.3 ± 16.2 to 17.0 ± 7.8, respectively. No neurologic complications were encountered. There were no signs of instrumentation failure. The fusion rate approached 100%. CONCLUSION.: Slip reduction is based on circumferential release. The procedure can be well performed via Mini-TLIF, the outcome of which is equally gratifying to that of instrumented slip reduction and traditional midline approach. There is no need to fully reduce the slipped vertebrae. Circumferential release contributes to achieving spontaneous slip reduction partially, which aids sufficiently in the surgical treatment of low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis. PMID:20714277

Pan, Jie; Li, Lijun; Qian, Lie; Zhou, Wei; Tan, Jun; Zou, Le; Yang, Mingjie

2011-02-15

55

Evaluation of unilateral cage-instrumented fixation for lumbar spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To investigate how unilateral cage-instrumented posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) affects the three-dimensional flexibility in degenerative disc disease by comparing the biomechanical characteristics of unilateral and bilateral cage-instrumented PLIF. METHODS: Twelve motion segments in sheep lumbar spine specimens were tested for flexion, extension, axial rotation, and lateral bending by nondestructive flexibility test method using a nonconstrained testing apparatus. The

Ti-Sheng Chang; Jia-Hao Chang; Chien-Shiung Wang; Hung-Yi Chen; Ching-Wei Cheng

2010-01-01

56

Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring for Minimally Invasive 1- and 2-Level Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Does It Improve Patient Outcome?  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the widespread use of intraoperative monitoring (IOM) in many types of spinal surgeries, an absence of data comparing monitored a nd unmonitored postoperative outcomes places IOM's efficacy into question. A lack of consensus among surgeons about when to use monitoring also raises concerns about its overuse in routine and low-risk procedures. Methods We performed a retrospective database review of 112 patients undergoing a 1- or 2-level minimally invasive surgery transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF). Our analysis focused on patient demographics, use of IOM, length of surgery, hospital length of stay, the perioperative complication of pedicle screw malposition, and average hospital cost. Results For the 73 patients who underwent MIS-TLIF with intraoperative neuromonitoring, their hospital length of stay (P=0.8) and need for pedicle screw revisions (P=0.93) were not statistically significant compared to the 39 patients who underwent MIS-TLIF procedures without IOM. The incidence of reoperation was 5.48% and 5.13%, and average length of stay was 3.25 days and 3.13 days, respectively. However, the cost of surgery and the length of surgery were significantly higher in the monitored group compared to the nonmonitored group (P=0.008 and P=0.009, respectively). Conclusion IOM is widely used in spine surgery, but our retrospective review shows that its use does not necessarily decrease the incidence of malpositioning of pedicle screws. In fact, no statistical difference was detected in the incidence of screw malposition in the 2 groups of patients. On the other hand, IOM adds cost and increases the length of surgery. Because the use of IOM did not make a difference in the incidence of pedicle screw malpositioning and because of the comparative cost analysis for both groups of patients, we believe that the use of IOM for MIS-TLIF provides no added benefit. PMID:24688334

Garces, Juanita; Berry, J. Franklin; Valle-Giler, Edison P.; Sulaiman, Wale A. R.

2014-01-01

57

Surgeons' Exposure to Radiation in Single- and Multi-Level Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion; A Prospective Study  

PubMed Central

Although minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) has widely been developed in patients with lumbar diseases, surgeons risk exposure to fluoroscopic radiation. However, to date, there is no studies quantifying the effective dose during MIS-TLIF procedure, and the radiation dose distribution is still unclear. In this study, the surgeons' radiation doses at 5 places on the bodies were measured and the effective doses were assessed during 31 consecutive 1- to 3-level MIS-TLIF surgeries. The operating surgeon, assisting surgeon, and radiological technologist wore thermoluminescent dosimeter on the unshielded thyroid, chest, genitals, right middle finger, and on the chest beneath a lead apron. The doses at the lens and the effective doses were also calculated. Mean fluoroscopy times were 38.7, 53.1, and 58.5 seconds for 1, 2, or 3 fusion levels, respectively. The operating surgeon's mean exposures at the lens, thyroid, chest, genitals, finger, and the chest beneath the shield, respectively, were 0.07, 0.07, 0.09, 0.14, 0.32, and 0.05 mSv in 1-level MIS-TLIF; 0.07, 0.08, 0.09, 0.18, 0.34, and 0.05 mSv in 2-level; 0.08, 0.09, 0.14, 0.15, 0.36, and 0.06 mSv in 3-level; and 0.07, 0.08, 0.10, 0.15, 0.33, and 0.05 mSv in all cases. Mean dose at the operating surgeon's right finger was significantly higher than other measurements parts (P<0.001). The operating surgeon's effective doses (0.06, 0.06, and 0.07 mSv for 1, 2, and 3 fusion levels) were low, and didn't differ significantly from those of the assisting surgeon or radiological technologist. Revision MIS-TLIF was not associated with higher surgeons' radiation doses compared to primary MIS-TLIF. There were significantly higher surgeons' radiation doses in over-weight than in normal-weight patients. The surgeons' radiation exposure during MIS-TLIF was within the safe level by the International Commission on Radiological Protection's guidelines. The accumulated radiation exposure, especially to surgeon's hands, should be carefully monitored. PMID:24736321

Funao, Haruki; Ishii, Ken; Momoshima, Suketaka; Iwanami, Akio; Hosogane, Naobumi; Watanabe, Kota; Nakamura, Masaya; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Morio

2014-01-01

58

[Use of artifiial bone in lateral interbody fusion of the lumbar spine: a prospective radiographic study].  

PubMed

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The aim of the study was to evaluate the extent of fusion using synthetic ?-tricalcium phosphate as a bone substitute in extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF). MATERIAL AnD METHODS In this prospective study, patients undergoing XLIF with an Oracle cage filed with the artifiial bone ChronOs Strip (Synthes, USA) were evaluated. The group consisted of 61 patients, 33 women and 28 men, with an average age of 50.9 years (range, 21 to 73 years). A total of 64 segments were operated on. Stand-alone interbody fusion was performed in 14 segments, lateral plate fiation in 19, transpedicular (TP) fiation before XLIF was carried out in 14 and TP fiation after XLIF in 17 segments. At one-year follow-up, dynamic X-rays to exclude instability, and CT images were obtained in order to evaluate the extent of bone fusion outside the implant (complete fusion, partial fusion, no fusion) and inside it (% of the bone fusion surface area). In addition, bone mineral density following fusion mass bone quality (expressed in Hounsfild units [HU]) was assessed inside the implant at the site of ChronOs Strip placement, using a region of interest (ROI) analysis. For the evaluation of fusion bone quality inside the implant on CT scans with HU qualifiation, the authors propose the following scale: 1. no fusion (0-99 HU) 2. Uncertain fusion (100-190 HU) 3. Probable fusion (200-299 HU) 4. Reliable fusion (300 and more HU) All results were statistically evaluated in relation to the gender, age, treated segment, surgical diagnosis, method of fiation, implant height and intervertebral space reduction at one-year follow-up. RESULTS Fusion outside the implant was complete in 18 segments (28%) and partial in 27 (42%); in 19 segments (30%) it was not detected. The bone fusion surface area inside the implant was 54.5% (0-100%) on the average. It was related to age and implant height; the surface area increased with increasing age and with increasing implant height. Solid bone fusion inside the implant, as assessed on CT images using HU, was reliable in 36 segments (56%), probable in 11 (17%), uncertain in 10 (16%) and was not detected in seven segments (11%). A signifiant relationship was found between the quality of bone fusion and the type of fiation. Of the segments treated by stand-alone XLIF, 29% showed no fusion while the segments managed by lateral plate fiation had 32% of them with probable fusion. Correlations were also found with the height of an implant (the higher the implant, the more reliable its fusion), with age (the higher age, the higher bone density) and with the spinal level (the lower level, the lower bone density). In 45 (70%) segments, bone mineral density inside the implant was higher than the density of surrounding spongious bone. The average density inside the implant was 333.7 HU (14-1075) and that of the surrounding bone was 244.6 HU (66-500). The intervertebral space was reduced by an average of 1.1 mm (0-6.2). All treated segments were found stable on dynamic X-rays. PMID:25651294

Hrabálek, L; ?echáková, E; Bu?val, S; Adamus, M; Langová, K; Vaverka, M

2014-01-01

59

Short term outcome of posterior dynamic stabilization system in degenerative lumbar diseases  

PubMed Central

Background: Decompression and fusion is considered as the ‘gold standard’ for the treatment of degenerative lumbar diseases, however, many disadvantages have been reported in several studies, recently like donor site pain, pseudoarthrosis, nonunion, screw loosening, instrumentation failure, infection, adjacent segment disease (ASDis) and degeneration. Dynamic neutralization system (Dynesys) avoids many of these disadvantages. This system is made up of pedicle screws, polyethylene terephthalate cords, and polycarbonate urethane spacers to stabilize the functional spinal unit and preserve the adjacent motion after surgeries. This was a retrospective cohort study to compare the effect of Dynesys for treating degenerative lumbar diseases with posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) based on short term followup. Materials and Methods: Seventy five consecutive patients of lumbar degenerative disease operated between October 2010 and November 2012 were studied with a minimum followup of 2 years. Patients were divided into two groups according to the different surgeries. 30 patients underwent decompression and implantation of Dynesys in two levels (n = 29) or three levels (n = 1) and 45 patients underwent PLIF in two levels (n = 39) or three levels (n = 6). Clinical and radiographic outcomes between two groups were reviewed. Results: Thirty patients (male:17, female:13) with a mean age of 55.96 ± 7.68 years were included in Dynesys group and the PLIF group included 45 patients (male:21, female:24) with a mean age of 54.69 ± 3.26 years. The average followup in Dynesys group and PLIF group was 2.22 ± 0.43 year (range 2-3.5 year) and 2.17 ± 0.76 year (range 2-3 year), respectively. Dynesys group showed a shorter operation time (141.06 ± 11.36 min vs. 176.98 ± 6.72 min, P < 0.001) and less intraoperative blood loss (386.76 ± 19.44 ml vs. 430.11 ± 24.72 ml, P < 0.001). For Dynesys group, visual analogue scale (VAS) for back and leg pain improved from 6.87 ± 0.80 to 2.92 ± 0.18 and 6.99 ± 0.81 to 3.25 ± 0.37, (both P < 0.001) and for PLIF, VAS for back and leg pain also improved significantly (6.97 ± 0.84–3.19 ± 0.19 and 7.26 ± 0.76–3.56 ± 0.38, both P < 0.001). Significant improvement was found at final followup in both groups in Oswestry disability index (ODI) score (both P < 0.001). Besides, Dynesys group showed a greater improvement in ODI and VAS back and leg pain scores compared with the PLIF group (P < 0.001, P = 0.009 and P = 0.031, respectively). For radiological, height of the operated level was found increased in both groups (both P < 0.001), but there was no difference between two groups (P = 0.93). For range of motion (ROM) of operated level, significant decrease was found in both groups (P < 0.001), but Dynesys showed a higher preservation of motion at the operative levels (P < 0.001). However, no significant difference was found in the percentage change of ROM of adjacent levels between Dynesys and PLIF (0.74 ± 8.92% vs. 0.92 ± 4.52%, P = 0.91). Some patients suffered from degeneration of adjacent intervertebral disc at final followup, but there was no significant difference in adjacent intervertebral disc degeneration between two groups (P = 0.71). Moreover, there were no differences in complications between Dynesys and PLIF (P = 0.90), although the incidence of complication in Dynesys was lower than PLIF (16.67% vs. 17.78%). Conclusion: Dynamic stabilization system treating lumbar degenerative disease showed clinical benefits with motion preservation of the operated segments, but does not have the significant advantage on motion preservation at adjacent segments, to avoid the degeneration of adjacent intervertebral disk. PMID:25404769

Yang, Mingyuan; Li, Chao; Chen, Ziqiang; Bai, Yushu; Li, Ming

2014-01-01

60

Quality-of-Life Outcomes With Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion Based on Long-Term Analysis of 304 Consecutive Patients  

PubMed Central

Study Design. This was a prospective clinical study that took place in an outpatient spine clinic. Objective. To demonstrate the short-/long-term outcomes from a large cohort of patients undergoing minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MITLIF). Summary of Background Data. Long-term prospective outcomes in patients undergoing minimally invasive spinal fusion for debilitating back pain has not been well studied. Methods. Presenting diagnosis was determined from clinical findings and radiographical (radiograph, magnetic resonance image, computed tomographic scan) evaluations preoperatively. Patients were assessed with outcome measures preoperatively, and postoperatively at 2 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months, 24 months, and annually 2 to 7 years (mean follow-up: 47 mo) final follow-up. The rate of postoperative complications and reoperations at the initial level of MITLIF and adjacent level(s) were followed. Fusion rates were assessed blinded and independently by radiograph. Results. Visual analogue scale scores decreased significantly from 7.0 preoperatively to 3.5 at mean 47-month follow-up. Oswestry Disability Index scores declined from 43.1 preoperatively to 28.2 at mean 47-month follow-up. Short-Form 36 mental component scores increased from 43.8 preoperatively to 49.7 at 47-month follow-up. Short-Form 36 physical component scores increased from 30.6 preoperatively to 39.6 at 47-month follow-up (P < 0.05). Conclusion. This prospectively collected outcomes study shows long-term statistically significant clinical outcomes improvement after MITLIF in patients with clinically symptomatic spondylolisthesis and degenerative disc disease with or without stenosis. MITLIF resulted in a high rate of spinal fusion and very low rate of interbody fusion failure and/or adjacent segment disease requiring reoperation while reducing postoperative complications. Level of Evidence: 3 PMID:24150437

Hussain, Namath S.; White, G. Zachary; Begun, Evan M.; Collins, Robert A.; Fahim, Daniel K.; Hiremath, Girish K.; Adbi, Fadumo M.; Yacob, Sammy A.

2014-01-01

61

Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial of The Stabilis Stand Alone Cage (SAC) Versus Bagby and Kuslich (BAK) Implants for Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion  

PubMed Central

Background Degenerative disc disease is common and debilitating for many patients. If conservative extensive care fails, anterior lumbar interbody fusion has proven to be an alternative form of surgical management. The Stabilis Stand Alone Cage(SAC) was introduced as a method to obtain stability and fusion. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Stabilis Stand Alone Cage (SAC) is comparable in safety and efficacy to the Bagby and Kuslich (BAK) device. Methods As part of a prospective, randomized, controlled FDA trial, 73 patients underwent anterior interbody fusion using either the SAC(56%) or the BAK device (44%). Results Background characteristics were similar between the two groups. There was no significant difference between the SAC and BAK groups in mean operative time or mean blood loss during surgery. Adverse event rates did not differ between the groups. Assessment of plain radiographs could not confirm solid fusion in 63% of control and 71% of study patients. Functional scores from Owestry and SF-36 improved in both groups by the two-year follow-up. There were no significant differences between the SAC and BAK patients with respect to outcome. Conclusions Both the Stabilis Stand Alone Cage and the BAK Cage provided satisfactory improvement in function and pain relief, despite less than expected radiographic fusion rates. The apparent incongruency between fusion rates and functional outcomes suggests that either radiographs underestimate the true incidence of fusion, or that patients are obtaining good pain relief and improved function despite a lower rate of fusion than previously reported. This was a Level III study.

Lavelle, William; McLain, Robert F.; Rufo-Smith, Candace; Gurd, David P.

2014-01-01

62

Expert's comment concerning Grand Rounds case entitled "Minimal access bilateral transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for high-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis" (by Nasir A. Quraishi and Y. Raja Rampersaud; doi:10.1007/s00586-012-2623-2).  

PubMed

This Expert's Comment discusses the Grand Rounds Case entitled "Minimal Access Bilateral Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion for High-Grade Isthmic Spondylolisthesis" by Nasir A Quraishi and Raja Y Rampersaud. It puts a technically elegant surgical method for minimally invasive reduction and arthrodesis of isthmic spondylolistheses into the context of short and long term outcomes and questions the motivations for performing such minimally invasive procedures in the absence of any proven mid or long term advantages over more traditional techniques. In addition, the use of BMP in spinal arthrodesis is discussed on the background of recently published IPD metaanalyses from the Infuse spinal FDA trials. PMID:23868222

Birkenmaier, Christof

2013-08-01

63

K-Wire fracture during minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion: Report of six cases and recommendations for avoidance and management  

PubMed Central

Background: Although rare, minimally invasive spine techniques do have the risk of intraoperative device failure. Kirschner wire (K-wire) fractures during minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF) have not been previously reported. This report focuses on the incidence of k-wire fractures following MI-TLIF and describes techniques to help avoid and treat these fractures when they occur. Methods: Inclusion criteria: (i) patients underwent 1, 2, or 3 level MI-TLIF over a 10-year period and (ii) had a k-wire fracture leading to a retained fragment. Exclusion criteria included: >10° coronal curves, significant sagittal malalignment, infection, and preoperative instrumentation failure. Results: Of 513 patients undergoing MI-TLIF, 6 (1.2%) sustained k-wire fracture (3 males, 3 females, mean age 43 ± 13 years). Complications included k-wire fracture alone (4 patients), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak (1 patient), and both ileus and revision for hardware removal (1 patient). All six patients went home postoperatively. The mean follow-up duration was 27.7 ± 37.4 months. All retained k-wire fragments were located in the vertebral bodies at the tip of the pedicle screws; none breached the anterior cortex of the vertebral bodies. None of the k-wires migrated at final follow-up 7.8 years (93.7 months) postoperatively. Furthermore, no complications were attributed to retained k-wires. Conclusions: K-wire fractures during MI-TLIF are rare (incidence of 1.2%) and retained k-wire segments led to no postoperative complications (e.g. no migration). PMID:25593770

Scheer, Justin K.; Harvey, Michael J.; Dahdaleh, Nader S.; Smith, Zachary A.; Fessler, Richard G.

2014-01-01

64

Multilevel extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) and osteotomies for 3-dimensional severe deformity: 25 consecutive cases  

PubMed Central

Background This is a retrospective review of 25 patients with severe lumbar nerve root compression undergoing multilevel anterior retroperitoneal lumbar interbody fusion and posterior instrumentation for deformity. The objective is to analyze the outcomes and clinical results from anterior interbody fusions performed through a lateral approach and compare these with traditional surgical procedures. Methods A consecutive series of 25 patients (78 extreme lateral interbody fusion [XLIF] levels) was identified to illustrate the primary advantages of XLIF in correcting the most extreme of the 3-dimensional deformities that fulfilled the following criteria: (1) a minimum of 40° of scoliosis; (2) 2 or more levels of translation, anterior spondylolisthesis, and lateral subluxation (subluxation in 2 planes), causing symptomatic neurogenic claudication and severe spinal stenosis; and (3) lumbar hypokyphosis or flat-back syndrome. In addition, the majority had trunks that were out of balance (central sacral vertical line ?2 cm from vertical plumb line) or had sagittal imbalance, defined by a distance between the sagittal vertical line and S1 of greater than 3 cm. There were 25 patients who had severe enough deformities fulfilling these criteria that required supplementation of the lateral XLIF with posterior osteotomies and pedicle screw instrumentation. Results In our database, with a mean follow-up of 24 months, 85% of patients showed evidence of solid arthrodesis and no subsidence on computed tomography and flexion/extension radiographs. The complication rate remained low, with a perioperative rate of 2.4% and postoperative rate of 12.2%. The lateral listhesis and anterior spondylolisthetic subluxation were anatomically reduced with minimally invasive XLIF. The main finding in these 25 cases was our isolation of the major indication for supplemental posterior surgery: truncal decompensation in patients who are out of balance by 2 cm or more, in whom posterior spinal osteotomies and segmental pedicle screw instrumentation were required at follow up. No patients were out of sagittal balance (sagittal vertical line <3 cm from S1) postoperatively. Segmental instrumentation with osteotomies was also more effective for restoration of physiologic lumbar lordosis compared with anterior stand-alone procedures. Conclusions This retrospective study supports the finding that clinical outcomes (coronal/sagittal alignment) improve postoperatively after minimally invasive surgery with multilevel XLIF procedures and are improved compared with larger extensile thoracoabdominal anterior scoliosis procedures.

McAfee, Paul C.; Shucosky, Erin; Chotikul, Liana; Salari, Ben; Chen, Lun; Jerrems, Dan

2013-01-01

65

Symmetry of paraspinal muscle denervation in clinical lumbar spinal stenosis: Support for a hypothesis of posterior primary ramus stretching?  

PubMed Central

Introduction Denervation of the paraspinal muscles in spinal disorders is frequently attributed to radiculopathy. Therefore, persons with lumbar spinal stenosis causing asymmetrical symptoms should have asymmetrical paraspinal denervation. Methods 73 persons with clinical lumbar spinal stenosis, aged 55 to 85, completed a pain drawing and underwent masked electrodiagnostic testing including bilateral paraspinal mapping and testing of 6 muscles on the most symptomatic (or randomly chosen) limb. Results With the exception of 10 subjects with unilateral thigh pain (p=0.043), there was no relationship between side of pain and paraspinal mapping score for any subgroups (symmetrical pain, pain into one calf only). Among those with positive limb EMG (tested on one side), no relationship between side of pain and paraspinal EMG score was found. Discussion The evidence suggests that paraspinal denervation in spinal stenosis may not be due to radiculopathy, but rather due to stretch or damage to the posterior primary ramus. PMID:23813584

Haig, Andrew J.; London, Zachary; Sandella, Danielle E.; Yamakawa, Karen S.J.

2014-01-01

66

Load-bearing evaluation of spinal posterior column by measuring surface strain from lumbar pedicles. An in vitro study.  

PubMed

An understanding of the load transfer within spinal posterior column of lumbar spine is necessary to determine the influence of mechanical factors on potential mechanisms of the motion-sparing implant such as artificial intervertebral disc and the dynamic spine stabilization systems. In this study, a new method has been developed for evaluating the load bearing of spinal posterior column by the surface strain of spinal pedicle response to the loading of spinal segment. Six cadaveric lumbar spine segments were biomechanically evaluated between levels L1 and L5 in intact condition and the strain gauges were pasted to an inferior surface of L2 pedicles. Multidirectional flexibility testing used the Panjabi testing protocol; pure moments for the intact condition with overall spinal motion and unconstrained intact moments of ±8 Nm were used for flexion-extension and lateral bending testing. High correlation coefficient (0.967-0.998) indicated a good agreement between the load of spinal segment and the surface strain of pedicle in all loading directions. Principal compressive strain could be observed in flexion direction and tensile strain in extension direction, respectively. In conclusion, the new method seems to be effective for evaluating posterior spinal column loads using pedicles' surface strain data collected during biomechanical testing of spine segments. PMID:22742495

Sun, Peidong; Zhao, Weidong; Bi, Zhenyu; Wu, Changfu; Ouyang, Jun

2012-01-01

67

Lumbar Laminectomy and Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... precursor molecule to making bone. It derives the cells, it brings the cells from the tissues and the blood to the ... analogous process to healing of a fracture, where cells will come into the area, blood cells, basic ...

68

Continuous somatosensory evoked potentials monitoring is highly sensitive to intraoperative occlusion of iliac artery during anterior lumbar interbody fusion: case report.  

PubMed

We report a case of thrombotic occlusion of the left common iliac artery during an L5-S1 anterior interbody fusion exposed via a retroperitoneal approach. The loss of distal blood flow was detected by loss of cortical and peripheral somatosensory evoked potentials on the left lower extremity. Restoration of the blood flow resulted in gradual return of evoked potentials of the involved extremity. The neurophysiological and pulse oximetry monitoring of the lower extremities are extremely sensitive for an early detection of thrombotic occlusions and vascular complications. PMID:19694209

Haghighi, S S; Zhang, R; Raiszadeh, R; Chammas, J; Bench, G; Raiszadeh, K; Terramanis, T T

2009-01-01

69

Time-sequential changes of differentially expressed miRNAs during the process of anterior lumbar interbody fusion using equine bone protein extract, rhBMP-2 and autograft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The precise mechanism of bone regeneration in different bone graft substitutes has been well studied in recent researches. However, miRNAs regulation of the bone formation has been always mysterious. We developed the anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) model in pigs using equine bone protein extract (BPE), recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) on an absorbable collagen sponge (ACS), and autograft as bone graft substitute, respectively. The miRNA and gene expression profiles of different bone graft materials were examined using microarray technology and data analysis, including self-organizing maps, KEGG pathway and Biological process GO analyses. We then jointly analyzed miRNA and mRNA profiles of the bone fusion tissue at different time points respectively. Results showed that miRNAs, including let-7, miR-129, miR-21, miR-133, miR-140, miR-146, miR-184, and miR-224, were involved in the regulation of the immune and inflammation response, which provided suitable inflammatory microenvironment for bone formation. At late stage, several miRNAs directly regulate SMAD4, Estrogen receptor 1 and 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 2C for bone formation. It can be concluded that miRNAs play important roles in balancing the inflammation and bone formation.

Chen, Da-Fu; Zhou, Zhi-Yu; Dai, Xue-Jun; Gao, Man-Man; Huang, Bao-Ding; Liang, Tang-Zhao; Shi, Rui; Zou, Li-Jin; Li, Hai-Sheng; Bünger, Cody; Tian, Wei; Zou, Xue-Nong

2014-03-01

70

Fixed lumbar apical vertebral rotation predicts spinal decompensation in Lenke type 3C adolescent idiopathic scoliosis after selective posterior thoracic correction and fusion.  

PubMed

Retrospective radiographic review of surgically treated double major curves (Lenke type 3C) in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. To evaluate the role of selective posterior thoracic correction and fusion in double major curves with third generation instrumentation and to identify preoperative radiographic parameters that predict postoperative coronal spinal decompensation. Traditionally the surgical treatment of double major curves consists of fusion of both the thoracic and the lumbar curve. Few attempt to perform selective thoracic fusion in this curve pattern because of the potential to create spinal imbalance. Thirty-six patients with Lenke type 3C curves underwent a selective posterior thoracic correction and fusion with either Cotrel-Dubousset instrumentation or the Universal Spine System. Radiographs were evaluated to assess coronal and sagittal balance, curve flexibility, and curve correction at a minimum follow up of 2 years. Postoperative coronal spinal decompensation was investigated with respect to preoperative radiographic parameters on standing anteroposterior (AP), standing lateral radiographs, thoracic and lumbar supine side-bending radiographs. Coronal spinal decompensation was defined as plumbline deviation of C7 of more than 2 cm with respect to the centre sacral vertical line (CSVL) within 2 years of surgery. Twenty-six patients (72%) showed satisfactory frontal plane alignment patients (28%) showed coronal spinal decompensation. Significant group differences, however, were identified for lumbar apical vertebral rotation, measured according to Perdriolle (La scoliose. Son êtude tridimensionnelle. Maloine, Paris, pp 179, 1979) (A 16 degrees , B 22 degrees , P = 0.02), percentage correction (derotation) of lumbar apical vertebrae in lumbar supine side-bending films in comparison to standing AP radiographs (A 49%, B 27%, P = 0.002) and thoracic curve flexibility (A 43%, B 25%, P = 0.03). High correlation was noted between postoperative decompensation and derotation of lumbar apical vertebrae in pre-operative lumbar supine side-bending films with a critical value of 40% (Pearson correlation coefficient; P = 0.62, P < 0.001). Ten of 36 patients (28%) with Lenke type 3C adolescent idiopathic scoliosis showed coronal spinal decompensation of more than 2 cm after selective posterior thoracic correction and fusion. Lumbar apical vertebral derotation of less than 40% provided the radiographic prediction of postoperative coronal spinal imbalance. We advise close scrutiny of the transverse plane in the lumbar supine bending film when planning surgical strategy. PMID:17520294

Behensky, Hannes; Cole, Ashley A; Freeman, Brian J C; Grevitt, Michael P; Mehdian, Hossein S; Webb, John K

2007-10-01

71

Fixed lumbar apical vertebral rotation predicts spinal decompensation in lenke type 3c adolescent idiopathic scoliosis after selective posterior thoracic correction and fusion  

PubMed Central

Retrospective radiographic review of surgically treated double major curves (Lenke type 3C) in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. To evaluate the role of selective posterior thoracic correction and fusion in double major curves with third generation instrumentation and to identify preoperative radiographic parameters that predict postoperative coronal spinal decompensation. Traditionally the surgical treatment of double major curves consists of fusion of both the thoracic and the lumbar curve. Few attempt to perform selective thoracic fusion in this curve pattern because of the potential to create spinal imbalance. Thirty-six patients with Lenke type 3C curves underwent a selective posterior thoracic correction and fusion with either Cotrel–Dubousset instrumentation or the Universal Spine System. Radiographs were evaluated to assess coronal and sagittal balance, curve flexibility, and curve correction at a minimum follow up of 2 years. Postoperative coronal spinal decompensation was investigated with respect to preoperative radiographic parameters on standing anteroposterior (AP), standing lateral radiographs, thoracic and lumbar supine side-bending radiographs. Coronal spinal decompensation was defined as plumbline deviation of C7 of more than 2 cm with respect to the centre sacral vertical line (CSVL) within 2 years of surgery. Twenty-six patients (72%) showed satisfactory frontal plane alignment patients (28%) showed coronal spinal decompensation. Significant group differences, however, were identified for lumbar apical vertebral rotation, measured according to Perdriolle (La scoliose. Son êtude tridimensionnelle. Maloine, Paris, pp 179, 1979) (A 16°, B 22°, P = 0.02), percentage correction (derotation) of lumbar apical vertebrae in lumbar supine side-bending films in comparison to standing AP radiographs (A 49%, B 27%, P = 0.002) and thoracic curve flexibility (A 43%, B 25%, P = 0.03). High correlation was noted between postoperative decompensation and derotation of lumbar apical vertebrae in pre-operative lumbar supine side-bending films with a critical value of 40% (Pearson correlation coefficient; P = 0.62, P < 0.001). Ten of 36 patients (28%) with Lenke type 3C adolescent idiopathic scoliosis showed coronal spinal decompensation of more than 2 cm after selective posterior thoracic correction and fusion. Lumbar apical vertebral derotation of less than 40% provided the radiographic prediction of postoperative coronal spinal imbalance. We advise close scrutiny of the transverse plane in the lumbar supine bending film when planning surgical strategy. PMID:17520294

Cole, Ashley A.; Freeman, Brian J. C.; Grevitt, Michael P.; Mehdian, Hossein S.; Webb, John K.

2007-01-01

72

Lateral retroperitoneal transpsoas interbody fusion in a patient with achondroplastic dwarfism.  

PubMed

The authors present the first reported use of the lateral retroperitoneal transpsoas approach for interbody arthrodesis in a patient with achondroplastic dwarfism. The inherent anatomical abnormalities of the spine present in achondroplastic dwarfism predispose these patients to an increased incidence of spinal deformity as well as neurogenic claudication and potential radicular symptoms. The risks associated with prolonged general anesthesia and intolerance of significant blood loss in these patients makes them ideal candidates for minimally invasive spinal surgery. The patient in this case was a 51-year-old man with achondroplastic dwarfism who had a history of progressive claudication and radicular pain despite previous extensive lumbar laminectomies. The lateral retroperitoneal transpsoas approach was used for placement of interbody cages at L1/2, L2/3, L3/4, and L4/5, followed by posterior decompression and pedicle screw instrumentation. The patient tolerated the procedure well with no complications. Postoperatively his claudicatory and radicular symptoms resolved and a CT scan revealed solid arthrodesis with no periimplant lucencies. PMID:25415482

Staub, Blake N; Holman, Paul J

2015-02-01

73

Characteristics of Back Muscle Strength in Patients with Scheduled for Lumbar Fusion Surgery due to Symptomatic Lumbar Degenerative Diseases  

PubMed Central

Study Design Cross sectional study. Purpose To evaluate characteristics of back muscle strength in patients scheduled for lumbar fusion surgery. Overview of Literature Little is known regarding muscle strength in patients with symptomatic lumbar degenerative diseases who require fusion surgery. Methods Consecutive 354 patients scheduled for posterior lumbar interbody fusion due to symptomatic degenerative diseases were approached for participation. 316 patients were enrolled. Before surgery, muscle strength was assessed by measuring maximal isometric extension strength at seven angular positions (0°, 12°, 24°, 36°, 48°, 60°, and 72°) and mean isometric strength was calculated. The Oswestry Disability Index (0-100) and visual analogue scale (0-100) for back pain were recorded. Muscle strength was compared according to gender, age (<60, 60-70, and ?70 years) and scheduled fusion level (short, <3; long, ?3). Results Isometric strength was significantly decreased compared with previously reported results of healthy individuals, particularly at extension positions (0°-48°, p<0.05). Mean isometric strength was significantly lower in females (p<0.001) and older patients (p<0.05). Differences of isometric strength between short and long level fusion were not significantly different (p>0.05). Isometric strengths showed significant, but weak, inverse correlations with age and Oswestry Disability Index (r<0.4, p<0.05). Conclusions In patients with symptomatic lumbar degenerative diseases, back muscle strength significantly decreased, particularly at lumbar extension positions, and in females and older patients. PMID:25346820

Park, Won Hah; Lee, Chong Suh; Kang, Kyung Chung

2014-01-01

74

Unstable burst fractures of the thoraco-lumbar junction: treatment by posterior bisegmental correction\\/fixation and staged anterior corpectomy and titanium cage implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Background. Controversy exists about the best treatment of unstable thoraco-lumbar (TL) burst fractures. Kyphosis correction and canal\\u000a decompression in case of a neurological deficit are recognized treatment objectives, and various conservative and surgical\\u000a strategies have been proposed. This prospective observational study evaluates the benefits and risks of a posterior bisegmental\\u000a transpedicular correction\\/fixation and staged anterior corpectomy and titanium cage implantation

M. Payer

2006-01-01

75

[Anesthetic management of posterior lumbar spinal fusion in a patient suspected of having acute exacerbation of chronic interstitial pneumonia].  

PubMed

A patient complicated with interstitial pneumonia required emergency posterior lumbar spinal fusion. The blood gas analysis showed relatively benign values (PaO2 81 torr, PaCO2 44 torr, under room air), but the honeycombing lungs were noted in the bilateral lung fields on CT, and the KL-6 level was high (1,000 U x ml(-1)), for which the acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia was suspected. Sivelestat sodium administration was initiated during the surgery and continued postoperatively. During surgery, setting the FIO2 at 0.34, the P/F ratio and intra-airway pressure could be maintained at 500 and 25 mmHg, respectively. To reduce postoperative respiratory complication, anesthesia was maintained with desflurane, which is dissipated easily, and 0.5% ropivacaine 15 ml was subcutaneously injected to the surgical field at the time of wound closure to reduce the total doses of intraoperative fentanyl and postoperative analgesics. After the completion of surgery, the endotracheal tube was removed with head elevated position, and the patient was transported back to the ward. No acute exacerbation occurred thereafter, and the patient was discharged 67 days after surgery. The prediction of acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia is difficult. Moreover, there is no established preventive method, although the mortality is high. Therefore, physicians should be thoroughly informed about the currently available evidence, including developmental factors. PMID:24601111

Sakai, Mayuko; Takenami, Tamie; Otsuka, Tomohisa; Hayashi, Norito; Yoshino, Kazuhisa; Matsumoto, Shigehiro; Okamoto, Hirotsugu

2014-02-01

76

Minimally invasive trans-sacral approach to L5-S1 interbody fusion: Preliminary results from 1 center and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background Lumbar interbody fusion has long been used for the treatment of painful degenerative spinal conditions. The anterior approach is not feasible in some patients, and the posterior approach is associated with a risk of neural complications and possibly muscle injury. A trans-sacral technique was developed that allows access to the L5-S1 disc space. The purposes of this study were to investigate the clinical outcome of trans-sacral interbody fusion in a consecutive series of patients from 1 center and to perform a comprehensive review of the literature on this procedure. Methods A literature search using PubMed was performed to identify articles published on trans-sacral axial lumbar interbody fusion (AxiaLIF). Articles reviewed included biomechanical testing, feasibility of the technique, and clinical results. The data from our center were collected retrospectively from charts for the consecutive series, beginning with the first case, of all patients undergoing fusion using the AxiaLIF technique. In most cases, posterior instrumentation was also used. A total of 41 patients with at least 6 months’ follow-up were included (mean follow-up, 22.2 months). The primary clinical outcome measures were visual analog scales separately assessing back and leg pain and the Oswestry Disability Index. Radiographic assessment of fusion was also performed. Results In the group of 28 patients undergoing single-level AxiaLIF combined with posterior fusion, the visual analog scale scores assessing back and leg pain and mean Oswestry Disability Index scores improved significantly (P < .01). In the remaining 13 patients, back pain improved significantly with a trend for improvement in leg pain. Reoperation occurred in 19.5% of patients; in half of these, reoperation was not related to the anterior procedure. Conclusions A review of the literature found that the AxiaLIF technique was similar to other fusion techniques with respect to biomechanical properties and produced acceptable clinical outcomes, although results varied among studies. Clinical relevance The AxiaLIF approach allows access to the L5-S1 interspace without violating the annulus or longitudinal ligaments and with minimal risk to dorsal neural elements. It may be a viable alternative to other approaches to interbody fusion at the L5-S1 level. It is important that the patients be selected carefully and surgeons are familiar with the presacral anatomy and the surgical approach.

Bradley, W. Daniel; Hisey, Michael S.; Verma-Kurvari, Sunita; Ohnmeiss, Donna D.

2012-01-01

77

Single-level lumbar pyogenic spondylodiscitis treated with minimally invasive anterior debridement and fusion combined with posterior fixation via Wiltse approach.  

PubMed

The effect and safety of anterior debridement and fusion with a minimally invasive approach combined with posterior fixation via the Wiltse approach were assessed in the single-level lumbar pyogenic spondylodiscitis. Seventeen patients from 2007 to 2009 underwent anterior debridement and fusion with a minimally invasive approach combined with posterior fixation via the Wiltse approach. Postoperative follow-up time was 24-41 months. Data included the patients' general information, microbiology, operative time, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative complications, intervertebral fusion rate, and preoperative and final follow-up scores for American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) impairment, visual analogue scale (VAS), and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Ten patients had undergone a prior spinal invasive procedure, and 7 had hematogenous infection. The infected segments included L1-2, L2-3, L3-4, and L4-5 in 1, 2, 5, and 9 cases, respectively. Thirteen bacterial cultures were positive for Staphylococcus aureus (5 cases), Staphylococcus epidermidis (4), Streptococcus (3), and Escherichia coli (1). The operative time was 213.8±45.6 min, and the intraoperative blood loss was 180.6±88.1 mL. Postoperative complications consisted of urinary retention (2 cases), constipation (3), and deep vein thrombosis (2). On the final follow-up, VAS scores and ODIs were significantly lower than those of preoperation, while the ASIA grades improved. All the cases achieved good intervertebral bony fusion. Anterior debridement and fusion with a minimally invasive approach combined with posterior fixation via the Wiltse approach can successfully treat single-level lumbar pyogenic spondylodiscitis, with less trauma and reliable immobilization. It is a viable option for clinical application. PMID:24142724

Lin, Yang; Chen, Wen-jian; Zhu, Wen-tao; Li, Feng; Fang, Huang; Chen, An-min; Xiong, Wei

2013-10-01

78

Biomechanics of Lateral Interbody Spacers: Going Wider for Going Stiffer  

PubMed Central

This study investigates the biomechanical stability of a large interbody spacer inserted by a lateral approach and compares the biomechanical differences with the more conventional transforaminal interbody fusion (TLIF), with and without supplemental pedicle screw (PS) fixation. Twenty-four L2-L3 functional spinal units (FSUs) were tested with three interbody cage options: (i) 18?mm XLIF cage, (ii) 26?mm XLIF cage, and (iii) 11?mm TLIF cage. Each spacer was tested without supplemental fixation, and with unilateral and bilateral PS fixation. Specimens were subjected to multidirectional nondestructive flexibility tests to 7.5?N·m. The range of motion (ROM) differences were first examined within the same group (per cage) using repeated-measures ANOVA, and then compared between cage groups. The 26?mm XLIF cage provided greater stability than the 18?mm XLIF cage with unilateral PS and 11?mm TLIF cage with bilateral PS. The 18?mm XLIF cage with unilateral PS provided greater stability than the 11?mm TLIF cage with bilateral PS. This study suggests that wider lateral spacers are biomechanically stable and offer the option to be used with less or even no supplemental fixation for interbody lumbar fusion. PMID:23213284

Pimenta, Luiz; Turner, Alexander W. L.; Dooley, Zachary A.; Parikh, Rachit D.; Peterson, Mark D.

2012-01-01

79

Comparison of the effects of bilateral posterior dynamic and rigid fixation devices on the loads in the lumbar spine: a finite element analysis  

PubMed Central

A bilateral dynamic stabilization device is assumed to alter favorable the movement and load transmission of a spinal segment without the intention of fusion of that segment. Little is known about the effect of a posterior dynamic fixation device on the mechanical behavior of the lumbar spine. Muscle forces were disregarded in the few biomechanical studies published. The aim of this study was to determine how the spinal loads are affected by a bilateral posterior dynamic implant compared to a rigid fixator which does not claim to maintain mobility. A paired monosegmental posterior dynamic implant was inserted at level L3/L4 in a validated finite element model of the lumbar spine. Both a healthy and a slightly degenerated disc were assumed at implant level. Distraction of the bridged segment was also simulated. For comparison, a monosegmental rigid fixation device as well as the effect of implant stiffness on intersegmental rotation were studied. The model was loaded with the upper body weight and muscle forces to simulate the four loading cases standing, 30° flexion, 20° extension, and 10° axial rotation. Intersegmental rotations, intradiscal pressure and facet joint forces were calculated at implant level and at the adjacent level above the implant. Implant forces were also determined. Compared to an intact spine, a dynamic implant reduces intersegmental rotation at implant level, decreases intradiscal pressure in a healthy disc for extension and standing, and decreases facet joint forces at implant level. With a rigid implant, these effects are more pronounced. With a slightly degenerated disc intersegmental rotation at implant level is mildly increased for extension and axial rotation and intradiscal pressure is strongly reduced for extension. After distraction, intradiscal pressure values are markedly reduced only for the rigid implant. At the adjacent level L2/L3, a posterior implant has only a minor effect on intradiscal pressure. However, it increases facet joint forces at this level for axial rotation and extension. Posterior implants are mostly loaded in compression. Forces in the implant are generally higher in a rigid fixator than in a dynamic implant. Distraction strongly increases both axial and shear forces in the implant. A stiffness of the implant greater than 1,000 N/mm has only a minor effect on intersegmental rotation. The mechanical effects of a dynamic implant are similar to those of a rigid fixation device, except after distraction, when intradiscal pressure is considerably lower for rigid than for dynamic implants. Thus, the results of this study demonstrate that a dynamic implant does not necessarily reduce axial spinal loads compared to an un-instrumented spine. PMID:17206401

Burra, Nagananda K.; Zander, Thomas; Bergmann, Georg

2007-01-01

80

Clinical and Radiological Outcomes of Unilateral Facetectomy and Interbody Fusion Using Expandable Cages for Lumbosacral Foraminal Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Objective Surgical treatment of lumbosacral foraminal stenosis requires an understanding of the anatomy of the lumbosacral area in individual patients. Unilateral facetectomy has been used to completely decompress entrapment of the L5 nerve root, followed in some patients by posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with stand-alone cages. Methods We assessed 34 patients with lumbosacral foraminal stenosis who were treated with unilateral facetectomy and PLIF using stand-alone cages in our center from January 2004 to September 2007. All the patients underwent follow-up X-rays, including a dynamic view, at 3, 6, 12, 24 months, and computed tomography (CT) at 24 months postoperatively. Clinical outcomes were analyzed with the mean numeric rating scale (NRS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Odom's criteria. Radiological outcomes were assessed with change of disc height, defined as the average of anterior, middle, and posterior height in plain X-rays. In addition, lumbosacral fusion was also assessed with dynamic X-ray and CT. Results Mean NRS score, which was 9.29 prior to surgery, was 1.5 at 18 months after surgery. The decrease in NRS was statistically significant. Excellent and good groups with regard to Odom's criteria were 31 cases (91%) and three cases (9%) were fair. Pre-operative mean ODI of 28.4 decreased to 14.2 at post-operative 24 months. In 30 patients, a bone bridge on CT scan was identified. The change in disc height was 8.11 mm, 10.02 mm and 9.63 mm preoperatively, immediate postoperatively and at 24 months after surgery, respectively. Conclusion In the treatment of lumbosacral foraminal stenosis, unilateral facetectomy and interbody fusion using expandable stand-alone cages may be considered as one treatment option to maintain post-operative alignment and to obtain satisfactory clinical outcomes. PMID:21430975

Park, Jin Hoon; Bae, Chae Wan; Jeon, Sang Ryong; Rhim, Seung Chul; Kim, Chang Jin

2010-01-01

81

A Novel Approach to the Surgical Treatment of Lumbar Disc Herniations: Indications of Simple Discectomy and Posterior Transpedicular Dynamic Stabilization Based on Carragee Classification  

PubMed Central

Surgery of lumbar disc herniation is still a problem since Mixter and Barr. Main trouble is dissatisfaction after the operation. Today there is a debate on surgical or conservative treatment despite spending great effort to provide patients with satisfaction. The main problem is segmental instability, and the minimally invasive approach via microscope or endoscope is not necessarily appropriate solution for all cases. Microsurgery or endoscopy would be appropriate for the treatment of Carragee type I and type III herniations. On the other hand in Carragee type II and type IV herniations that are prone to develop recurrent disc herniation and segmental instability, the minimal invasive techniques might be insufficient to achieve satisfactory results. The posterior transpedicular dynamic stabilization method might be a good solution to prevent or diminish the recurrent disc herniation and development of segmental instability. In this study we present our experience in the surgical treatment of disc herniations. PMID:23653862

Ozer, A. F.; Keskin, F.; Oktenoglu, T.; Suzer, T.; Ataker, Y.; Gomleksiz, C.; Sasani, M.

2013-01-01

82

A new lumbar posterior fixation system, the memory metal spinal system: an in-vitro mechanical evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background Spinal systems that are currently available for correction of spinal deformities or degeneration such as lumbar spondylolisthesis or degenerative disc disease use components manufactured from stainless steel or titanium and typically comprise two spinal rods with associated connection devices (for example: DePuy Spines Titanium Moss Miami Spinal System). The Memory Metal Spinal System of this study consists of a single square spinal rod made of a nickel titanium alloy (Nitinol) used in conjunction with connecting transverse bridges and pedicle screws made of Ti-alloy. Nitinol is best known for its shape memory effect, but is also characterized by its higher flexibility when compared to either stainless steel or titanium. A higher fusion rate with less degeneration of adjacent segments may result because of the elastic properties of the memory metal. In addition, the use of a single, unilateral rod may be of great value for a TLIF procedure. Our objective is to evaluate the mechanical properties of the new Memory Metal Spinal System compared to the Titanium Moss Miami Spinal System. Methods An in-vitro mechanical evaluation of the lumbar Memory Metal Spinal System was conducted. The test protocol followed ASTM Standard F1717-96, “Standard Test Methods for Static and Fatigue for Spinal Implant Constructs in a Corpectomy Model.” 1. Static axial testing in a load to failure mode in compression bending, 2. Static testing in a load to failure mode in torsion, 3. Cyclical testing to estimate the maximum run out load value at 5.0 x 10^6 cycles. Results In the biomechanical testing for static axial compression bending there was no statistical difference between the 2% yield strength and the stiffness of the two types of spinal constructs. In axial compression bending fatigue testing, the Memory Metal Spinal System construct showed a 50% increase in fatigue life compared to the Titanium Moss Miami Spinal System. In static torsional testing the Memory Metal Spinal System constructs showed an average 220% increase in torsional yield strength, and an average 30% increase in torsional stiffness. Conclusions The in-vitro mechanical evaluation of the lumbar Memory Metal Spinal System showed good results when compared to a currently available spinal implant system. Throughout testing, the Memory Metal Spinal System showed no failures in static and dynamic fatigue. PMID:24047109

2013-01-01

83

Posterolateral lumbar spine fusion with INFUSE bone graft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background contextINFUSE has been proven effective in conjunction with threaded cages and bone dowels for single-level anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF). The published experience with posterolateral fusion, although encouraging, utilizes a significantly higher dose and concentration of recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) and a different carrier than the commercially available INFUSE.

Steven D. Glassman; Leah Carreon; Mladen Djurasovic; Mitchell J. Campbell; Rolando M. Puno; John R. Johnson; John R. Dimar

2007-01-01

84

The Extended Posterior Circumferential Decompression Technique in the Management of Tubercular Spondylitis with and without Paraplegia  

PubMed Central

Study Design Retrospective clinical series. Purpose To study the clinical, functional and radiological results of patients with tuberculous spondylitis with and without paraplegia, treated surgically using the "Extended Posterior Circumferential Decompression (EPCD)" technique. Overview of Literature With the increasing possibility of addressing all three columns by a single approach, posterior and posterolateral approaches are gaining acceptance. A single exposure for cases with neurological deficit and kyphotic deformity requiring circumferential decompression, anterior column reconstruction and posterior instrumentation is helpful. Methods Forty-one patients with dorsal/dorsolumbar/lumbar tubercular spondylitis who were operated using the EPCD approach between 2006 to 2009 were included. Postoperatively, patients were started on nine-month anti-tuberculous treatment. They were serially followed up to thirty-six months and both clinical measures (including pain, neurological status and ambulatory status) and radiological measures (including kyphotic angle correction, loss of correction and healing status) were used for assessment. Results Disease-healing with bony fusion (interbody fusion) was seen in 97.5% of cases. Average deformity (kyphosis) correction was 54.6% in dorsal spine and 207.3% in lumbar spine. Corresponding loss of correction was 3.6 degrees in dorsal spine and 1.9 degrees in the lumbar spine. Neurological recovery in Frankel B and C paraplegia was 85.7% and 62.5%, respectively. Conclusions The EPCD approach permits all the advantages of a single or dual session anterior and posterior surgery, with significant benefits in terms of decreased operative time, reduced hospital stay and better kyphotic angle correction.

Rathinavelu, Barani; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Amritanand, Rohit; Sundararaj, Gabriel David

2014-01-01

85

Cost effectiveness of disc prosthesis versus lumbar fusion in patients with chronic low back pain: randomized controlled trial with 2-year follow-up.  

PubMed

This randomized controlled health economic study assesses the cost-effectiveness of the concept of total disc replacement (TDR) (Charité/Prodisc/Maverick) when compared with the concept of instrumented lumbar fusion (FUS) [posterior lumbar fusion (PLF) /posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF)]. Social and healthcare perspectives after 2 years are reported. In all, 152 patients were randomized to either TDR (n = 80) or lumbar FUS (n = 72). Cost to society (total mean cost/patient, Swedish kronor = SEK, standard deviation) for TDR was SEK 599,560 (400,272), and for lumbar FUS SEK 685,919 (422,903) (ns). The difference was not significant: SEK 86,359 (-45,605 to 214,332). TDR was significantly less costly from a healthcare perspective, SEK 22,996 (1,202 to 43,055). Number of days on sick leave among those who returned to work was 185 (146) in the TDR group, and 252 (189) in the FUS group (ns). Using EQ-5D, the total gain in quality adjusted life years (QALYs) over 2 years was 0.41 units for TDR and 0.40 units for FUS (ns). Based on EQ-5D, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of using TDR instead of FUS was difficult to analyze due to the "non-difference" in treatment outcome, which is why cost/QALY was not meaningful to define. Using cost-effectiveness probabilistic analysis, the net benefit (with CI) was found to be SEK 91,359 (-73,643 to 249,114) (ns). We used the currency of 2006 where 1 EURO = 9.26 SEK and 1 USD = 7.38 SEK. It was not possible to state whether TDR or FUS is more cost-effective after 2 years. Since disc replacement and lumbar fusion are based on different conceptual approaches, it is important to follow these results over time. PMID:21053028

Fritzell, Peter; Berg, Svante; Borgström, Fredrik; Tullberg, Tycho; Tropp, Hans

2011-07-01

86

Cerebral Palsy Spasticity. Selective Posterior Rhizotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have performed selective posterior rhizotomies on 60 children with cerebral palsy. The procedure involves lumbar laminectomy with stimulation of the rootlets (fascicles) of the second lumbar to the first sacral posterior roots bilaterally; those rootlets associated with an abnormal motor response, as evidenced by sustained or diffused muscular contraction, are divided leaving intact rootlets associated with a brief localized

Warwick J. Peacock; Leila J. Arens; Barbara Berman

1987-01-01

87

Spine interbody implants: material selection and modification, functionalization and bioactivation of surfaces to improve osseointegration.  

PubMed

The clinical outcome of lumbar spinal fusion is correlated with achievement of bony fusion. Improving interbody implant bone on-growth and in-growth may enhance fusion, limiting pseudoarthrosis, stress shielding, subsidence and implant failure. Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and titanium (Ti) are commonly selected for interbody spacer construction. Although these materials have desirable biocompatibility and mechanical properties, they require further modification to support osseointegration. Reports of extensive research on this topic are available in biomaterial-centric published reports; however, there are few clinical studies concerning surface modification of interbody spinal implants. The current article focuses on surface modifications aimed at fostering osseointegration from a clinician's point of view. Surface modification of Ti by creating rougher surfaces, modifying its surface topography (macro and nano), physical and chemical treatment and creating a porous material with high interconnectivity can improve its osseointegrative potential and bioactivity. Coating the surface with osteoconductive materials like hydroxyapatite (HA) can improve osseointegration. Because PEEK spacers are relatively inert, creating a composite by adding Ti or osteoconductive materials like HA can improve osseointegration. In addition, PEEK may be coated with Ti, effectively bio-activating the coating. PMID:24890288

Rao, Prashanth J; Pelletier, Matthew H; Walsh, William R; Mobbs, Ralph J

2014-05-01

88

Allograft Cellular Bone Matrix in Extreme Lateral Interbody Fusion: Preliminary Radiographic and Clinical Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) is a minimally disruptive alternative for anterior lumbar interbody fusion. Recently, synthetic and allograft materials have been increasingly used to eliminate donor-site pain and complications secondary to autogenous bone graft harvesting. The clinical use of allograft cellular bone graft has potential advantages over autograft by eliminating the need to harvest autograft while mimicking autograft's biologic function. The objective of this study was to examine 12-month radiographic and clinical outcomes in patients who underwent XLIF with Osteocel Plus, one such allograft cellular bone matrix. Methods. Forty (40) patients were treated at 61 levels with XLIF and Osteocel Plus and included in the analysis. Results. No complications were observed. From preoperative to 12-month postoperative followup, ODI improved 41%, LBP improved 55%, leg pain improved 43.3%, and QOL (SF-36) improved 56%. At 12 months, 92% reported being “very” or “somewhat” satisfied with their outcome and 86% being either “very” or “somewhat likely” to choose to undergo the procedure again. Complete fusion was observed in 90.2% (55/61) of XLIF levels. Conclusions. Complete interbody fusion with Osteocel Plus was shown in 90.2% of XLIF levels, with the remaining 9.8% being partially consolidated and progressing towards fusion at 12 months. PMID:23251099

Tohmeh, Antoine G.; Watson, Blake; Tohmeh, Mirna; Zielinski, Xavier J.

2012-01-01

89

Fixed lumbar apical vertebral rotation predicts spinal decompensation in lenke type 3c adolescent idiopathic scoliosis after selective posterior thoracic correction and fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retrospective radiographic review of surgically treated double major curves (Lenke type 3C) in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.\\u000a To evaluate the role of selective posterior thoracic correction and fusion in double major curves with third generation instrumentation\\u000a and to identify preoperative radiographic parameters that predict postoperative coronal spinal decompensation. Traditionally\\u000a the surgical treatment of double major curves consists of fusion of both

Hannes Behensky; Ashley A. Cole; Brian J. C. Freeman; Michael P. Grevitt; Hossein S. Mehdian; John K. Webb

2007-01-01

90

Minimally invasive 360° instrumented lumbar fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective preliminary study was undertaken of combined minimally invasive instrumented lumbar fusion utilizing the BERG (balloon-assisted endoscopic retroperitoneal gasless) approach ¶anteriorly, and a posterior small-incision approach with translaminar screw fixation and posterolateral ¶fusion. The study aimed to quantify the clinical and radiological results using this combined technique. The traditional minimally invasive approach to the anterior lumbar spine involves gas

John S. Thalgott; Albert K. Chin; John A. Ameriks; Frank T. Jordan; James M. Giuffre; Kay Fritts; Marcus Timlin

2000-01-01

91

ISASS Policy Statement - Cervical Interbody  

PubMed Central

Morgan Lorio, MD, FACS, Chair, ISASS Task Force on Coding & Reimbursement In 2011, CPT code 22551 was revised to combine or bundle CPT codes 63075 and 22554 when both procedures were performed at the same site/same surgical session. The add on code +22552 is used to report each additional interspace. 2014 heralded a downward pressure on this now prime target code (for non-coverage?) 22551 through an egregious insurer attempt to redefine cervical arthrodesis, effectively removing spine surgeon choice and altering best practice without clinical evidence. Currently, spine surgeons are equally split on the use of allograft versus cages for cervical arthrodesis. Structural allograft, CPT code 20931, is reported once per same surgical session, regardless of the number of allografts used. CPT code 22851 which is designated solely for cage use, has a higher reimbursement than structural allograft, and may be reported for each inner space. Hence, the rationale behind why some payers wrongly consider “spine cages NOT medically necessary for cervical fusion.” A timely consensus paper summarizing spine surgeon purview on the logical progressive evolution of cervical interbody fusion for ISASS/IASP membership was strategically identified as an advocacy focus by the ISASS Task Force. ISASS appreciates the authors’ charge with gratitude. This article has both teeth and transparent clinical real-world merit.

Singh, Kern; Qureshi, Sheeraz

2014-01-01

92

Construct Rigidity after Fatigue Loading in Pedicle Subtraction Osteotomy with or without Adjacent Interbody Structural Cages  

PubMed Central

Introduction?Studies document rod fracture in pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) settings where disk spaces were preserved above or adjacent to the PSO. This study compares the multidirectional bending rigidity and fatigue life of PSO segments with or without interbody support. Methods?Twelve specimens received bilateral T12–S1 posterior fixation and L3 PSO. Six received extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) cages in addition to PSO at L2–L3 and L3–L4; six had PSO only. Flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation (AR) tests were conducted up to 7.5 Newton-meters (Nm) for groups: (1) posterior fixation, (2) L3 PSO, (3) addition of cages (six specimens). Relative motion across the osteotomy (L2–L4) and entire fixation site (T12–S1) was measured. All specimens were then fatigue tested for 35K cycles. Results?Regardingmultiaxial bending, there was a significant 25.7% reduction in AR range of motion across L2–L4 following addition of cages. Regarding fatigue bending, dynamic stiffness, though not significant (p?=?0.095), was 22.2% greater in the PSO?+?XLIF group than in the PSO-only group. Conclusions?Results suggest that placement of interbody cages in PSO settings has a potential stabilizing effect, which is modestly evident in the acute setting. Inserting cages in a second-stage surgery remains a viable option and may benefit patients in terms of recovery but additional clinical studies are necessary to confirm this. PMID:24353970

Deviren, Vedat; Tang, Jessica A.; Scheer, Justin K.; Buckley, Jenni M.; Pekmezci, Murat; McClellan, R. Trigg; Ames, Christopher P.

2012-01-01

93

Lumbar spine curvature during office chair sitting.  

PubMed

Prolonged sitting is generally accepted as a high risk factor in low back pain and it is frequently suggested that a lordotic posture of the lumbar spine should be maintained during sitting. We asked whether the sagittal curvature of the lumbar spine during sitting is affected by the seat tilt, backrest and the direction of the synchronised mechanism of the back and seat tilt (synchro tilt). Two office chairs were tested by multibody analysis interfacing a human model with a chair model. Results indicate that a synchronised mechanism of an office chair representing a posterior tilt of the seat while the backrest is reclined maintains an evenly distributed lumbar lordosis. The segmental angles are between 3.1 and 3.6 degrees at the lumbar vertebrae 1/2-4/5 (L1/2-L4/5). These lumbar spine segmental angles are not sensitive to the backrest height. In contrast, a synchro tilt concept with a reduction of the seat's posterior tilt while the backrest is reclined causes a strong reduction of the lumbar lordosis in backrest recline with a maximum reduction from 11.7 to 2.8 degrees in L4/5. As a consequence of these results, a synchro tilt concept with a posterior tilt of the seat while the backrest is reclined is preferable from the lumbar spine kinematics point of view. PMID:11259935

Lengsfeld, M; Frank, A; van Deursen, D L; Griss, P

2000-11-01

94

Single level Lumbar Fusion for Degenerative Disc Disease is Associated with Worse outcomes compared to Fusion for Spondylolisthesis in a Workers' Compensation Setting.  

PubMed

Study Design. Retrospective cohort studyObjective. Compare lumbar fusion outcomes, return to work (RTW) status in particular, between workers' compensation (WC) subjects undergoing single level posterolateral fusion for either spondylolisthesis or degenerative disc disease (DDD)Summary of Background Data. Lumbar fusion for spondylolisthesis tends to yield more consistent outcomes than fusion for DDD and discogenic low back pain. Within the clinically distinct WC population, relatively few studies exist which evaluate lumbar fusion outcomes.Methods. 869 Ohio WC subjects were identified that underwent single level posterolateral lumbar fusion with or without posterior interbody fusion between 1993-2010 using CPT procedural and ICD-9 diagnostic codes. 269 underwent fusion for spondylolisthesis, and 620 of underwent fusion for DDD.Subjects were considered returned to work within a reasonable timeline if they made a stable RTW within 2 years of fusion and remained working for greater than 6 months of the following year. To determine predictors of RTW status, we performed a multivariate logistic regression analysis. We measured a number of secondary outcomes.Results. Fusion for spondylolisthesis was positively associated with RTW status (p = 0.050; OR 1.42,CI 1.00-2.00). 36.4% of the spondylolisthesis cohort and 24.4% of the DDD cohort returned to work in a reasonable timeline postoperatively.Other negative predictors included: age >50 at fusion (OR 0.66,CI 0.45-0.95), >2 years between injury and index fusion (OR 0.59,CI 0.41-0.84), permanent disability (OR 0.61,CI 0.43-0.86), legal representation (OR 0.67,CI 0.46-0.97), and psychological comorbidity before fusion (OR 0.30,CI 0.14-0.62).Subjects in the DDD cohort were prescribed opioid analgesics for an average of 294 of additional days postoperatively (p<0.001), which equated to 24,759 additional milligrams of morphine equivalents (p<0.001).Conclusions. Our study is supportive of the conclusion that DDD is a questionable indication for spinal fusion. Given the generally poor outcomes of this study, future studies should determine if lumbar fusion surgery is an effective treatment modality in similar WC patients. PMID:25494321

Anderson, Joshua T; Haas, Arnold R; Percy, Rick; Woods, Stephen T; Ahn, Uri M; Ahn, Nicholas U

2014-12-01

95

The effect of sagittal alignment on adjacent joint mobility after lumbar instrumentation––a biomechanical study of lumbar vertebrae in a porcine model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The mechanisms and changes in range of motion of neighboring mobile segment (adjacent level) after the instrumented posterior stabilization are not completely understood. This study aims to investigate the effect of sagittal alignment on the adjacent joint mobility after lumbar instrumentation.Methods. Eight fresh porcine lumbar spines were instrumented with pedicle screw implants from L2 to L4. Each specimen was

Wen-Jer Chen; Po-Liang Lai; Ching-Lung Tai; Lih-Huei Chen; Chi-Chien Niu

2004-01-01

96

Instrumentation in lumbar fusion improves back pain but not quality of life 2 years after surgery  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Instrumented and non-instrumented methods of fusion have been compared in several studies, but the results are often inconsistent and conflicting. We compared the 2-year results of 3 methods of lumbar fusion when used in degenerative disc disease (DDD), using the Swedish Spine Register (SWESPINE). Methods All patients registered in SWESPINE for surgical treatment of DDD between January 1, 2000 and October 1, 2007 were eligible for the study. Patients who had completed the 2-year follow-up were included in the analysis. The outcomes of 3 methods of surgical fusion were assessed. Results Of 1,310 patients enrolled, 115 had undergone uninstrumented fusion, 620 instrumented posterolateral fusion, and 575 instrumented interbody fusion. Irrespective of the surgical procedure, quality of life (QoL) improved and back pain diminished. Change in QoL and functional disability and return to work was similar in the 3 groups. Patients who had undergone uninstrumented fusion had more back pain than the patients with instrumented interbody fusion at the 2-year follow-up (p = 0.02), although the difference was only 7 visual analog scale (VAS) units (95% CI: 1–13) on a 100-point scale. Moreover, 83% of the patients with uninstrumented fusion used analgesics at the end of follow-up as compared to 68% of the patients who had undergone surgery with one of the 2 instrumented fusion techniques. Interpretation In comparison with instrumented interbody fusion, uninstrumented fusion was associated with higher levels of back pain 2 years after surgery. We found no evidence for differences in QoL between uninstrumented fusion and instrumented interbody fusion. PMID:23368746

2013-01-01

97

Posterior Hip Pain in an Athletic Population  

PubMed Central

Context: Posterior hip pain is a relatively uncommon but increasingly recognized complaint in the orthopaedic community. Patient complaints and presentations are often vague or nonspecific, making diagnosis and subsequent treatment decisions difficult. The purposes of this article are to review the anatomy and pathophysiology related to posterior hip pain in the athletic patient population. Evidence Acquisition: Data were collected through a thorough review of the literature via a MEDLINE search of all relevant articles between 1980 and 2010. Results: Many patients who complain of posterior hip pain actually have pain referred from another part of the body—notably, the lumbar spine or sacroiliac joint. Treatment options for posterior hip pain are typically nonoperative; however, surgery is warranted in some cases. Conclusions: Recent advancements in the understanding of hip anatomy, pathophysiology, and treatment options have enabled physicians to better diagnosis athletic hip injuries and select patients for appropriate treatment. PMID:23015944

Frank, Rachel M.; Slabaugh, Mark A.; Grumet, Robert C.; Virkus, Walter W.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Nho, Shane J.

2010-01-01

98

Spectrum of magnetic resonance imaging findings in congenital lumbar spinal stenosis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate whether congenital lumbar spinal stenosis (CLSS) is associated with a specific degenerative changes of the lumbar spine. METHODS: The lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging studies of 52 subjects with CLSS and 48 control subjects were retrospectively evaluated. In each examination, the five lumbar levels were assessed for the presence or absence of circumferential or shallow annular bulges, annular tears, anterior or posterior disc herniations, epidural lipomatosis, Schmorl’s nodes, spondylolisthesis, pars defects, and stress reactions of the posterior vertebral elements. RESULTS: Compared to control individuals, subjects with CLSS exhibited increased incidence of circumferential and shallow annular bulges, annular tears, disc herniations and spondylolisthesis (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: CLSS is associated with increased incidence of degenerative changes in specific osseous and soft-tissue elements of the lumbar spine. PMID:25516864

Soldatos, Theodoros; Chalian, Majid; Thawait, Shrey; Belzberg, Alan J; Eng, John; Carrino, John A; Chhabra, Avneesh

2014-01-01

99

Predictability of the spontaneous lumbar curve correction after selective thoracic fusion in idiopathic scoliosis  

PubMed Central

In this study we tried to achieve a better understanding of the biodynamic mechanism of balance in the scoliotic spine. Therefore we focused on the pre- and postoperative spine of patients with idiopathic scoliosis with a primary thoracic curve and a secondary lumbar curve. Several studies showed that the lumbar curve spontaneously corrects and improves after selective thoracic fusion. We try to understand and describe this spontaneous compensatory lumbar curve correction after selective thoracic correction and fusion. We performed a retrospective examination of pre- and postoperative radiographs of the spine of 38 patients with idiopathic scoliosis King type II and III. Frontal Cobb angles of the thoracic and lumbar curves were assessed on pre- and postoperative antero-posterior and side bending radiographs. We determined the postoperative corrections of the thoracic and lumbar curves. Relative (%) corrections and correlations of the postoperative corrections were calculated. The group was divided in three subgroups, depending on lumbar curve modifier, according to Lenkes classification system. The calculations were done for the whole group as for each subgroup. As expected, significant correlations were present between the relative correction of the main thoracic and the lumbar curve (mean R = 0.590; P = 0.001). The relation between relative thoracic and lumbar correction decreased with the lumbar modifier type. This study shows a highly significant correlation between the relative corrections of the main thoracic curve and the lumbar curve after selective thoracic fusion in idiopathic scoliosis. This correlation depends on lumbar curve modifier type. This new classification system seems to be of great predictable value for the spontaneous correction of the lumbar curve. Depending on the curve-type, a different technique for predicting the outcome should be used. The lumbar curve correction does not occur throughout the whole lumbar curve. Most correction is achieved in the upper part of the curve. The distal lumbar curve seems to be more rigid and less important in the spontaneous curve correction. PMID:17294054

van Rhijn, Lodewijk W.; Duinkerke, Eric; van Ooij, André

2007-01-01

100

Diagnostic Lumbar Puncture.  

PubMed

Diagnostic Lumbar Puncture is one of the most commonly performed invasive tests in clinical medicine. Evaluation of an acute headache and investigation of inflammatory or infectious disease of the nervous system are the most common indications. Serious complications are rare, and correct technique will minimise diagnostic error and maximise patient comfort. We review the technique of diagnostic Lumbar Puncture including anatomy, needle selection, needle insertion, measurement of opening pressure, Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) specimen handling and after care. We also make some quality improvement suggestions for those designing services incorporating diagnostic Lumbar Puncture. PMID:25075138

Doherty, Carolynne M; Forbes, Raeburn B

2014-05-01

101

Herniated Lumbar Disc  

MedlinePLUS

... 50. A herniated lumbar disc may also cause back pain, although back pain alone (without leg pain) can have many causes ... 90% success); surgery is less effective in relieving back pain. Nonsurgical treatment Your doctor may prescribe nonsurgical treatments ...

102

Structural and mechanical evaluations of a topology optimized titanium interbody fusion cage fabricated by selective laser melting process.  

PubMed

A topology optimized lumbar interbody fusion cage was made of Ti-Al6-V4 alloy by the rapid prototyping process of selective laser melting (SLM) to reproduce designed microstructure features. Radiographic characterizations and the mechanical properties were investigated to determine how the structural characteristics of the fabricated cage were reproduced from design characteristics using micro-computed tomography scanning. The mechanical modulus of the designed cage was also measured to compare with tantalum, a widely used porous metal. The designed microstructures can be clearly seen in the micrographs of the micro-CT and scanning electron microscopy examinations, showing the SLM process can reproduce intricate microscopic features from the original designs. No imaging artifacts from micro-CT were found. The average compressive modulus of the tested caged was 2.97+/-0.90 GPa, which is comparable with the reported porous tantalum modulus of 3 GPa and falls between that of cortical bone (15 GPa) and trabecular bone (0.1-0.5 GPa). The new porous Ti-6Al-4V optimal-structure cage fabricated by SLM process gave consistent mechanical properties without artifactual distortion in the imaging modalities and thus it can be a promising alternative as a porous implant for spine fusion. PMID:17415762

Lin, Chia-Ying; Wirtz, Tobias; LaMarca, Frank; Hollister, Scott J

2007-11-01

103

The cortical and cerebellar representation of the lumbar spine.  

PubMed

Eight decades after Penfield's discovery of the homunculus only sparse evidence exists on the cortical representation of the lumbar spine. The aim of our investigation was the description of the lumbar spine's cortical representation in healthy subjects during the application of measured manual pressure. Twenty participants in the prone position were investigated during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). An experienced manual therapist applied non-painful, posterior-to-anterior (PA) pressure on three lumbar spinous processes (L1, L3, and L5). The pressure (30 N) was monitored and controlled by sensors. The randomized stimulation protocol consisted of 68 pressure stimuli of 5 s duration. Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses were analyzed in relation to the lumbar stimulations. The results demonstrate that controlled PA pressure on the lumbar spine induced significant activation patterns. The major new finding was a strong and consistent activation bilaterally in the somatosensory cortices (S1 and S2). In addition, bilateral activation was located medially in the anterior cerebellum. The activation pattern also included other cortical areas probably related to anticipatory postural adjustments. These revealed stable somatosensory maps of the lumbar spine in healthy subjects can subsequently be used as a baseline to investigate cortical and subcortical reorganization in low back pain patients. PMID:24464423

Boendermaker, Bart; Meier, Michael L; Luechinger, Roger; Humphreys, B Kim; Hotz-Boendermaker, Sabina

2014-08-01

104

Current strategies for the restoration of adequate lordosis during lumbar fusion  

PubMed Central

Not restoring the adequate lumbar lordosis during lumbar fusion surgery may result in mechanical low back pain, sagittal unbalance and adjacent segment degeneration. The objective of this work is to describe the current strategies and concepts for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery. Theoretical lordosis can be evaluated from the measurement of the pelvic incidence and from the analysis of spatial organization of the lumbar spine with 2/3 of the lordosis given by the L4-S1 segment and 85% by the L3-S1 segment. Technical aspects involve patient positioning on the operating table, release maneuvers, type of instrumentation used (rod, screw-rod connection, interbody cages), surgical sequence and the overall surgical strategy. Spinal osteotomies may be required in case of fixed kyphotic spine. AP combined surgery is particularly efficient in restoring lordosis at L5-S1 level and should be recommended. Finally, not one but several strategies may be used to achieve the need for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery. PMID:25621216

Barrey, Cédric; Darnis, Alice

2015-01-01

105

Current strategies for the restoration of adequate lordosis during lumbar fusion.  

PubMed

Not restoring the adequate lumbar lordosis during lumbar fusion surgery may result in mechanical low back pain, sagittal unbalance and adjacent segment degeneration. The objective of this work is to describe the current strategies and concepts for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery. Theoretical lordosis can be evaluated from the measurement of the pelvic incidence and from the analysis of spatial organization of the lumbar spine with 2/3 of the lordosis given by the L4-S1 segment and 85% by the L3-S1 segment. Technical aspects involve patient positioning on the operating table, release maneuvers, type of instrumentation used (rod, screw-rod connection, interbody cages), surgical sequence and the overall surgical strategy. Spinal osteotomies may be required in case of fixed kyphotic spine. AP combined surgery is particularly efficient in restoring lordosis at L5-S1 level and should be recommended. Finally, not one but several strategies may be used to achieve the need for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery. PMID:25621216

Barrey, Cédric; Darnis, Alice

2015-01-18

106

Higher risk of dural tears and recurrent herniation with lumbar micro-endoscopic discectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing studies on micro-endoscopic lumbar discectomy report similar outcomes to those of open and microdiscectomy and conflicting\\u000a results on complications. We designed a randomised controlled trial to investigate the hypothesis of different outcomes and\\u000a complications obtainable with the three techniques. 240 patients aged 18–65 years affected by posterior lumbar disc herniation\\u000a and symptoms lasting over 6 weeks of conservative management were randomised

Marco Teli; Alessio Lovi; Marco Brayda-Bruno; Antonino Zagra; Andrea Corriero; Fabrizio Giudici; Leone Minoia

2010-01-01

107

The lumbar spine in backward bending.  

PubMed

Cadaveric lumbar motion segments were loaded to simulate backward bending (extension) movements of the lumbar spine. The motion segments' resistance was measured initially, and after the spinous processes and apophyseal joints had been cut through in turn. Compression tests were then performed on the discs while they were wedged in full extension. The results showed that extension is resisted mainly by the disc and spinous processes, and that, in hyperextension, damage usually occurs first in the spinous processes (or the soft tissue squashed between them). However, if the spinous processes are particularly widely spaced, then the apophyseal joints can become damaged first. The protection offered the disc by the neural arch is greater in young people, and after the disc height has been reduced by creep loading. The disc can be damaged in hyperextension if the spine is subjected to high compressive forces at the same time. A sudden application of compressive force can cause an anterior disc prolapse, while a cyclic (fatigue) compressive force can increase the posterior bulging of the lamellas in the posterior annulus. PMID:3206295

Adams, M A; Dolan, P; Hutton, W C

1988-09-01

108

The lumbar multifidus muscle and patterns of pain.  

PubMed

This paper describes the patterns of pain induced by injecting hypertonic saline into the lumbar multifidus muscle opposite the L5 spinous process in 15 healthy adult volunteers. All subjects experienced local pain while referred pain was reported by 13 subjects in one of two regions of the thigh; anterior (n=5) or posterior (n=8). These results confirm that the multifidus muscle may be a source of local and referred pain. Comparison of these maps with pain maps following stimulation of the L4 medial dorsal rami and L4-5 interspinous ligaments shows that pain arising from the band of multifidus innervated by the L4 dorsal ramus has a segmental distribution. In addition patterns of pain arising from multifidus clearly overlap those reported for other lumbar structures. These findings highlight the difficulty of using pain distribution to accurately identify specific lumbar structures as the source of pain. PMID:16242376

Cornwall, Jon; John Harris, A; Mercer, Susan R

2006-02-01

109

The lateral transpsoas approach to the lumbar and thoracic spine: A review  

PubMed Central

Background: In the last several years, the lateral transpsoas approach to the thoracic and lumbar spine, also known as extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) or direct lateral interbody fusion (DLIF), has become an increasingly common method to achieve fusion. Several recent large series describe several advantages to this approach, including less tissue dissection, smaller incisions, decreased operative time, blood loss, shorter hospital stay, reduced postoperative pain, enhanced fusion rates, and the ability to place instrumentation through the same incision. Indications for this approach have expanded and now include degenerative disease, tumor, deformity, and infection. Methods: A lateral X-ray confirms that the patient is in a truly lateral position. Next, a series of tubes and dilators are used, along with fluoroscopy, to identify the mid-position of the disk to be incised. After continued dilation, the optimal site to enter the disk space is the midpoint of the disk, or a position slightly anterior to the midpoint of the disk. XLIF typically allows for a larger implant to be inserted compared to TLIF or PLIF, and, if necessary, instrumentation can be inserted percutaneously, which would allow for an overall minimally invasive procedure. Results: Fixation techniques appear to be equal between XLIF and more traditional approaches. Some caution should be exercised because common fusion levels of the lumbar spine, including L4-5 and L4-S1, are often inaccessible. In addition, XLIF has a unique set of complications, including neural injuries, psoas weakness, and thigh numbness. Conclusion: Additional studies are required to further evaluate and monitor the short and long-term safety, efficacy, outcomes, and complications of XLIF procedures. PMID:22905326

Arnold, Paul M.; Anderson, Karen K.; McGuire, Robert A.

2012-01-01

110

Osteoinductive activity of ErhBMP-2 after anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion with a ß-TCP interbody cage in a goat model.  

PubMed

Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 induces bone and cartilage tissue formation. Large amounts of BMP-2 are difficult to purify or to produce in vitro using eukaryotic cells. The goal of the present study was to assess the clinical use of Escherichia coli-derived recombinant human BMP-2 (ErhBMP-2) on bone fusion after cervical and lumbar spine surgery in a goat model, compared with the standard autogenous iliac bone grafting. Thirty-six goats were randomized to 3 groups: (A) autogenous iliac bone grafting, (B) cervical interbody fusion cage containing ß-tricalcium phosphate (ß-TCP), or (C) cervical interbody fusion cage containing ß-TCP+ErhBMP-2 (2.5 mg). Cervical bone repair was evaluated using radiographs and computed tomography scans at 0, 3, and 6 months. Histological analyses were performed on cervical samples. Two goats died from infection. The differences in intervertebral height among the groups were not significant 3 months postoperatively but became significant after 6 months between groups A vs B and C (P=.04); there was no difference between groups B and C at 6 months. Adding ErhBMP-2 significantly increased cervical fusion at 6 months (P=.04). Histological examinations showed that ß-TCP+ErhBMP-2 increased new bone area, material degradation rate, and depth of tissue penetration and decreased residual material area, all in a time-dependent manner. Escherichia coli-derived rhBMP-2 combined with an enhanced fusion cage containing ß-TCP induced bone formation in a goat model. Furthermore, its ability to promote bone fusion was similar to autogenous iliac bone grafting. PMID:24679197

Wang, Hongli; Zhang, Fan; Lv, Feizhou; Jiang, Jianyuan; Liu, Dayong; Xia, Xinlei

2014-02-01

111

Durotomy is associated with pseudoarthrosis following lumbar fusion.  

PubMed

Pseudoarthrosis is a known complication following lumbar fusion, and although several risk factors have been established, the association of durotomy and pseudoarthrosis has not been studied to our knowledge. A retrospective review was performed to identify all adult patients who underwent lumbar posterolateral fusion (without interbody fusion) for degenerative spine disease over a 20year period at a single institution. Patients were divided into durotomy and no durotomy cohorts. Patients were included if they had at least 1year of follow-up. The main outcome variable was development of pseudoarthrosis. A total of 327 patients were identified, of whom 17 (5.19%) had a durotomy. Pseudoarthrosis rates were significantly higher in the durotomy group (35.29%) when compared to the no durotomy group (13.87%), with the difference being statistically significant (p=0.016). Univariate analysis revealed that durotomy (p=0.003) and the number of levels fused (p=0.015) were the only two significant risk factors for pseudoarthrosis. After controlling for the number of levels fused, the adjusted relative risk (RR) revealed that patients with a durotomy were 2.23 times more likely to develop pseudoarthrosis (RR 2.23; 95% confidence interval 1.05-4.75) when compared to patients without durotomy. The findings in the present study suggest an association between durotomy and pseudoarthrosis development. Patients with a durotomy were 2.2 times more likely to develop pseudoarthrosis compared to patients without a durotomy. Future and larger studies are required to corroborate our findings. PMID:25532509

Bydon, Mohamad; De la Garza-Ramos, Rafael; Abt, Nicholas B; Macki, Mohamed; Sciubba, Daniel M; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Bydon, Ali; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Witham, Timothy F

2015-03-01

112

The effect of a lumbar support pillow on lumbar posture and comfort during a prolonged seated task  

PubMed Central

Background Several risk factors exist for the development of low back pain, including prolonged sitting and flexed spinal curvature. Several investigators have studied lumbar support devices and spinal curvatures in sitting, however few have investigated a pain population and reported a quantitative measure of comfort. The purpose of the current project was to determine whether a lumbar support pillow, outfitted with a cut-out to accommodate the bulk of posterior pelvic soft tissue volume, is more effective than a standard chair in promoting a neutral spinal posture and improving subjective and objective measures of comfort in healthy individuals and patients with low back pain. Methods Twenty eight male participants with and without a history of low back pain sat in a standard office chair and in a chair with the lumbar support pillow for 30 minutes. Lumbar and thoracolumbar postures were measured through electromagnetic markers. Comfort was determined based on the least squares radius of centre of pressure shifting, measured at the buttock-chair interface as well as reported discomfort through visual analog scales. Chair support effects were assessed through ANOVA methods. The study was approved by the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College research ethics board. Results There was a main effect of condition on lumbar posture (p?=?0.006) and thoracolumbar posture (p?=?0.014). In the lumbar region, the support and standard chair differed by 2.88° (95% CI; 1.01-4.75), with the lumbar support being closer to neutral than the standard chair. In the thoracolumbar region, the support and standard chair differed by -2.42° (95% CI; -4.22 to -0.62), with the standard chair being closer to neutral than the support device. The centre of pressure measure was significantly improved with the pillow (p?=?0.017), however there were no subjective changes in comfort. Conclusions A lumbar support pillow with a cut-out for the posterior pelvic tissues improved an objective measure of comfort in healthy individuals and patients with low back pain. Lumbar flattening was decreased and thoracolumbar curvature was increased. However, angular changes were small and future work is required to determine clinical relevance over the long term. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00754585 PMID:23826832

2013-01-01

113

Posterior fossa malformations.  

PubMed

Understanding embryologic development of the cerebellum and the 4th ventricle is essential for understanding posterior fossa malformations. Posterior fossa malformations can be conveniently classified into those that have a large posterior fossa and those with normal or small posterior fossa. Disorders associated with a large posterior fossa include classic Dandy-Walker malformation, Blake's pouch cyst, mega cisterna magna, and posterior fossa arachnoid cyst. Disorders associated with normal or small posterior fossa include Dandy-Walker variant, Joubert syndrome, tecto-cerebellar dysraphia, rhombencephalosynapsis, the neocerebellar hypoplasias, and cerebellar atrophy. Neuro-imaging features should enable the imager to provide the referring physician a logical approach to these complex posterior fossa malformations. PMID:21596278

Shekdar, Karuna

2011-06-01

114

Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 16: bone graft extenders and substitutes as an adjunct for lumbar fusion.  

PubMed

In an attempt to enhance the potential to achieve a solid arthrodesis and avoid the morbidity of harvesting autologous iliac crest bone (AICB) for a lumbar fusion, numerous alternatives have been investigated. The use of these fusion adjuncts has become routine despite a lack of convincing evidence demonstrating a benefit to justify added costs or potential harm. Potential alternatives to AICB include locally harvested autograft, calcium-phosphate salts, demineralized bone matrix (DBM), and the family of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). In particular, no option has created greater controversy than the BMPs. A significant increase in the number of publications, particularly with respect to the BMPs, has taken place since the release of the original guidelines. Both DBM and the calciumphosphate salts have demonstrated efficacy as a graft extender or as a substitute for AICB when combined with local autograft. The use of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) as a substitute for AICB, when performing an interbody lumbar fusion, is considered an option since similar outcomes have been observed; however, the potential for heterotopic bone formation is a concern. The use of rhBMP-2, when combined with calcium phosphates, as a substitute for AICB, or as an extender, when used with local autograft or AICB, is also considered an option as similar fusion rates and clinical outcomes have been observed. Surgeons electing to use BMPs should be aware of a growing body of literature demonstrating unique complications associated with the use of BMPs. PMID:24980593

Kaiser, Michael G; Groff, Michael W; Watters, William C; Ghogawala, Zoher; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Dailey, Andrew T; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Eck, Jason C; Sharan, Alok; Wang, Jeffrey C; Dhall, Sanjay S; Resnick, Daniel K

2014-07-01

115

Revision Surgery Following Operations for Lumbar Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Background: For carefully selected patients with lumbar stenosis, decompression surgery is more efficacious than nonoperative treatment. However, some patients undergo repeat surgery, often because of complications, the failure to achieve solid fusion following arthrodesis procedures, or persistent symptoms. We assessed the probability of repeat surgery following operations for the treatment of lumbar stenosis and examined its association with patient age, comorbidity, previous surgery, and the type of surgical procedure. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of Medicare claims. The index operation was performed in 2004 (n = 31,543), with follow-up obtained through 2008. Operations were grouped by complexity as decompression alone, simple arthrodesis (one or two disc levels and a single surgical approach), or complex arthrodesis (more than two disc levels or combined anterior and posterior approach). Reoperation rates were calculated for each follow-up year, and the time to reoperation was analyzed with proportional hazards models. Results: The probability of repeat surgery fell with increasing patient age or comorbidity. Aside from age, the strongest predictor was previous lumbar surgery: at four years the reoperation rate was 17.2% among patients who had had lumbar surgery prior to the index operation, compared with 10.6% among those with no prior surgery (p < 0.001). At one year, the reoperation rate for patients who had been managed with decompression alone was slightly higher than that for patients who had been managed with simple arthrodesis, but by four years the rates for these two groups were identical (10.7%) and were lower than the rate for patients who had been managed with complex arthrodesis (13.5%) (p < 0.001). This difference persisted after adjusting for demographic and clinical features (hazard ratio for complex arthrodesis versus decompression 1.56, 95% confidence interval, 1.26 to 1.92). A device-related complication was reported at the time of 29.2% of reoperations following an initial arthrodesis procedure. Conclusions: The likelihood of repeat surgery for spinal stenosis declined with increasing age and comorbidity, perhaps because of concern for greater risks. The strongest clinical predictor of repeat surgery was a lumbar spine operation prior to the index operation. Arthrodeses were not significantly associated with lower rates of repeat surgery after the first postoperative year, and patients who had had complex arthrodeses had the highest rate of reoperations. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:22048092

Deyo, Richard A.; Martin, Brook I.; Kreuter, William; Jarvik, Jeffrey G.; Angier, Heather; Mirza, Sohail K.

2011-01-01

116

Effects on inadvertent endplate fracture following lateral cage placement on range of motion and indirect spine decompression in lumbar spine fusion constructs: A cadaveric study  

PubMed Central

Background The lateral transpsoas approach to interbody fusion is gaining popularity. Existing literature suggests that perioperative vertebra-related complications include endplate breach owing to aggressive enedplate preparation and poor bone quality. The acute effects of cage subsidence on stabilization and indirect decompression at the affected level are unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare the kinematics and radiographic metrics of indirect decompression in lumbar spines instrumented with laterally placed cages in the presence of inadvertent endplate fracture, which was determined radiographically, to specimens instrumented with lateral cages with intact endplates. Methods Five levels in 5 specimens sustained endplate fracture during lateral cage implantation followed by supplementary fixation (pedicle screw/rod [PSR]: n = 1; anterolateral plate [ALP]: n = 4), as part of a larger laboratory-based study. Range of motion (ROM) in these specimens was compared with 13 instrumented specimens with intact endplates. All specimens were scanned using computed tomography (CT) in the intact, noninstrumented condition and after 2-level cage placement with internal fixation under a 400-N follower load. Changes in disc height, foraminal area, and canal area were measured and compared between specimens with intact endplates and fractured endplates. Results Subsidence in the single PSR specimen and 4 ALP specimens was 6.5 mm and 4.3 ± 2.7 mm (range: 2.2–8.3 mm), respectively. ROM was increased in the PSR and ALP specimens with endplate fracture when compared with instrumented specimens with intact endplates. In 3 ALP specimens with endplate fracture, ROM in some motion planes increased relative to the intact, noninstrumented spine. These increases in ROM were paralleled by increase in cage translations during cyclic loading (up to 3.3 mm) and an unpredictable radiographic outcome with increases or decreases in posterior disc height, foraminal area, and canal area when compared with instrumented specimens with intact endplates. Conclusions Endplate fracture and cage subsidence noted radiographically intraoperatively or in the early postoperative period may be indicative of biomechanical instability at the affected level concomitant with a lack of neurologic decompression, which may require revision surgery.

Santoni, Brandon G.; Alexander, Gerald E.; Nayak, Aniruddh; Cabezas, Andres; Marulanda, German A.; Murtagh, Ryan; Castellvi, Antonio E.

2013-01-01

117

Acute Lumbar Burst Fracture Treated by Minimally Invasive Lateral Corpectomy  

PubMed Central

Burst fractures in acute spinal traumas are a difficult problem to solve. Different approaches and techniques have been utilized, but with high incidence of morbidity and mortality, besides unsatisfactory clinical and radiological results. Mini-open approaches recently emerged and have been shown to be safe and effective in the treatment of several spinal conditions. Here we report a case of acute lumbar burst fracture at L2 treated by minimally invasive true lateral approach posteriorly instrumented with percutaneous pedicle screws. The minimum disruptive access in addition to a rigid construction allowed a lumbar corpectomy without the morbidity of standard open approaches, lowering surgery costs and accelerating the patient recovery with successfully clinical and radiological results. PMID:23634314

Amaral, Rodrigo; Marchi, Luis; Oliveira, Leonardo; Coutinho, Thiago

2013-01-01

118

Early postoperative dislocation of the anterior Maverick lumbar disc prosthesis: report of 2 cases.  

PubMed

The authors report on 2 cases of anterior dislocation of the Maverick lumbar disc prosthesis, both occurring in the early postoperative period. These cases developed after experience with more than 50 uneventful cases and were therefore thought to be unrelated to the surgeon's learning curve. No similar complications have been previously reported. The anterior Maverick device has a ball-and-socket design made of cobalt-chromium-molybdenum metal plates covered with hydroxyapatite. The superior and inferior endplates have keels to resist translation forces. The patient in Case 1 was a 52-year-old man with severe L4-5 discogenic pain; and in Case 2, a 42-year-old woman with disabling L4-5 and L5-S1 discogenic back pain. Both patients were without medical comorbidities and were nonsmokers with no risk factors for osteoporosis. Both had undergone uneventful retroperitoneal approaches performed by a vascular access surgeon. Computed tomography studies on postoperative Day 2 confirmed excellent prosthesis placement. Initial recoveries were uneventful. Two weeks postoperatively, after stretching (extension or hyperextension) in bed at home, each patient suffered the sudden onset of severe abdominal pain with anterior dislocation of the Maverick prosthesis. The patients were returned to the operating room and underwent surgery performed by the same spinal and vascular surgeons. Removal of the Maverick prosthesis and anterior interbody fusion with a separate cage and plate were performed. Both patients had recovered well with good clinical and radiological recovery at the 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Possible causes of the anterior dislocation of the Maverick prosthesis include the following: 1) surgeon error: In both cases the keel cuts were neat, and early postoperative CT confirmed good placement of the prosthesis; 2) equipment problem: The keel cuts may have been too large because the cutters were worn, which led to an inadequate press fit of the implants; 3) prosthesis fault: Both plates of the dislocated implants looked normal and manufacturer analysis reported no fault; 4) patient factors: Both dislocations happened early in the postoperative period, after hyperextension of the spine while the patient was supine in bed. Bracing would not have reduced hyperextension. Dislocation of a lumbar spinal implant represents a life-threatening complication and should therefore be considered and recognized early. Radiographic and CT studies of both the lumbar spine (for prosthesis) and the abdomen (for hematoma) should be performed, as should CT angiography (for vessel damage or occlusion). Any anterior lumbar revision surgery is hazardous, and it is strongly advisable to have a vascular surgeon scrubbed. In cases of dislocation or extrusion of a lumbar interbody prosthesis, the salvage revision strategy is fusing the segment via the same anterior approach. Surgeons should be aware of the risk of anterior dislocation of the Maverick prosthesis. Keel cutters should be regularly checked for sharpness, as they may be implicated in the loosening of implants. Patients and their physical therapists should also avoid lumbar hyperextension in the early postoperative period. PMID:23768025

Gragnaniello, Cristian; Seex, Kevin A; Eisermann, Lukas G; Claydon, Matthew H; Malham, Gregory M

2013-08-01

119

Non-fusion stabilization of the lumbar spine in the case of degenerative diseases with a dynamic pedicle screw rod Estabilização dinâmica da coluna lombar no tratamento das doenças degenerativas ARTIGO ORIGINAL \\/ ORIGINAL ARTICLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare the results of the posterior non-fusion stabilizations and fusion in the treatment of painful degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine. Methods: Cosmic is a dynamic non-fusion pedicle screw rod system for the stabilization of the lumbar vertebral column. The hinged pedicle screw provides for the load being shared between the implant and the vertebral column and allows

Archibald von Strempel; Christoph Stoss; Dieter Moosmann; Arno Martin

120

Lumbar Spine: Reliability of MR Imaging Findings  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To characterize the inter- and intraobserver variability of qualitative, non–disk contour degenerative findings of the lumbar spine at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods: The case accrual method used to perform this institutional review board–approved, HIPAA-compliant retrospective study was the random selection of 111 interpretable MR examination cases of subjects from the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial. The subjects were aged 18–87 years (mean, 53 years ± 16 [standard deviation]). Four independent readers rated the cases according to defined criteria. A subsample of 40 MR examination cases was selected for reevaluation at least 1 month later. The following findings were assessed: spondylolisthesis, disk degeneration, marrow endplate abnormality (Modic changes), posterior anular hyperintense zone (HIZ), and facet arthropathy. Inter- and intraobserver agreement in rating the data was summarized by using weighted ? statistics. Results: Interobserver agreement was good (? = 0.66) in rating disk degeneration and moderate in rating spondylolisthesis (? = 0.55), Modic changes (? = 0.59), facet arthropathy (? = 0.54), and posterior HIZ (? = 0.44). Interobserver agreement in rating the extent of Modic changes was moderate: ? Values were 0.43 for determining superior anteroposterior extent, 0.47 for determining superior craniocaudal extent, 0.57 for determining inferior anteroposterior extent, and 0.48 for determining inferior craniocaudal extent. Intraobserver agreement was good in rating spondylolisthesis (? = 0.66), disk degeneration (? = 0.74), Modic changes (? = 0.64), facet arthropathy (? = 0.69), and posterior HIZ (? = 0.67). Intraobserver agreement in rating the extent of Modic changes was moderate, with ? values of 0.54 for superior anteroposterior, 0.60 for inferior anteroposterior, 0.50 for superior craniocaudal, and 0.60 for inferior craniocaudal extent determinations. Conclusion: The interpretation of general lumbar spine MR characteristics has sufficient reliability to warrant the further evaluation of these features as potential prognostic indicators. Supplemental material: http://radiology.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/2493071999/DC1 © RSNA, 2008 PMID:18955509

Carrino, John A.; Lurie, Jon D.; Tosteson, Anna N. A.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Carragee, Eugene J.; Kaiser, Jay; Grove, Margaret R.; Blood, Emily; Pearson, Loretta H.; Weinstein, James N.; Herzog, Richard

2009-01-01

121

Pullout of a lumbar plate with varying screw lengths  

PubMed Central

Background Screw length pertains to stability in various orthopedic fixation devices. There is little or no information on the relationship between plate pullout strength and screw length in anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) plate constructs in the literature. Such a description may prove useful, especially in the treatment of osteoporotic patients where maximizing construct stability is of utmost importance. Our purpose is to describe the influence of screw length on ALIF plate stability in severely and mildly osteoporotic bone foam models. Methods Testing was performed on polyurethane foam blocks with densities of 0.08 g/cm3 and 0.16 g/cm3. Four-screw, single-level ALIF plate constructs were secured to the polyurethane foam blocks by use of sets of self-tapping cancellous bone screws that were 20, 24, 28, 32, and 36 mm in length and 6.0 mm in diameter. Plates were pulled out at 1 mm/min to failure, as defined by consistently decreasing load despite increasing displacement. Results Pullout loads in 0.08-g/cm3 foam for 20-, 24-, 28-, 32-, and 36-mm screws averaged 303, 388, 479, 586, and 708 N, respectively, increasing at a mean of 25.2 N/mm. In 0.16-g/cm3 foam, pullout loads for 20-, 24-, 28-, 32-, and 36-mm screws averaged 1004, 1335, 1569, 1907, and 2162 N, respectively, increasing at a mean of 72.2 N/mm. Conclusions The use of longer screws in ALIF plate installation is expected to increase construct stability. Stabilization from screw length in osteoporotic patients, however, is limited.

Palmer, Daniel Kyle; Rios, David; Patacxil, Wyzscx Merfil; Williams, Paul A.; Cheng, Wayne K.; ?nceo?lu, Serkan

2012-01-01

122

Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) is characterized by subacute onset of headache, decreased alertness,\\u000a vomiting, seizures, visuoperceptual disturbances, together with bilateral white matter lesions in posterior brain regions\\u000a on brain imaging. The most frequently associated conditions related to RPLS are arterial hypertension and the use of immunosuppressive\\u000a or cytotoxic treatment. T2-, Fluid Attenuation Inversion Recovery (FLAIR), and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient

Dimitri Renard; Pierre Labauge; Rik Vandenberghe

2010-01-01

123

Horizontal posterior hamstring harvest.  

PubMed

Harvesting of the gracilis and semi-tendinosus (ST) hamstring tendons is usually performed by anteromedial approach. Harvesting by a horizontal posterior approach is possible. Based on a series of 90 patients, this technical note describes the perioperative difficulties and the characteristics of the harvested tendon(s) as well as any complications. Only one unsuccessful harvest was reported. Posterior harvesting of the gracilis and ST hamstring tendons is a reliable, reproducible surgical technique with a low rate of complications. PMID:25453925

Letartre, R; Isida, R; Pommepuy, T; Miletic, B

2014-12-01

124

Outcome of Salvage Lumbar Fusion after Lumbar Arthroplasty  

PubMed Central

Study Design Retrospective review. Purpose This study aims to define the role of lumbar fusion for persistent back pains after the lumbar disc replacement. Overview of Literature Little is written about lumbar fusion after optimally placed lumbar arthroplasty in patients with persistent lower back pains. Methods Retrospective review of cases of lumbar artificial disc requiring subsequent fusion because of persistent back pains despite optimally placed artificial discs. Outcomes were evaluated using Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and visual analogue scale (VAS). Clinical improvements indicated 25% improvement in ODI and VAS values. Results Five patients met the study criteria. The mean baseline ODI for the five patients was 52. The mean baseline VAS scores for back and leg pains were 76 and 26, respectively. All the five patients had optimally placed prosthesis. The indication for surgery was the constant low back pains found in all the patients. Revision surgery involved disc explantation and fusion in two of the patients and posterolateral fusion without removing the prosthesis in three. None of the patients achieved adequate pain control after the revision surgery despite the solid bony fusion documented by postoperative computed tomography. The mean ODI value after the fusion was 55. The mean values for back and leg pains VAS were 72 and 30, respectively. Conclusions Lack of good pain relief after successful lumbar artifical disc replacements may indicate different etiology for the back pains. The spine-treating surgeons should have a high threshold level to perform salvage fusion at that level. PMID:24596600

Deutsch, Harel

2014-01-01

125

Intraspinal arachnoiditis and hydrocephalus after lumbar myelography using methylglucamine iocarmate.  

PubMed Central

A 35 year old woman developed a severe meningeal reaction after lumbar myelography using the water-soluble contrast medium methylglucamine iocarmate. Three months after myelography the findings were a transverse spinal cord syndrome corresponding to the middle thoracic segments resulting from well developed leptomeningeal adhesions. This was combined with a noncommunicating hydrocephalus, probably the result of leptomeningeal fibrosis in the posterior fossa. After treatment with a ventriculoatrial shunt the patient is almost free of symptoms. A possible pathogenetic relationship between the contrast medium, the chronic leptomeningeal changes, and the symptoms of our patient is discussed on the basis of the literature. Images PMID:305466

Jensen, T S; Hein, O

1978-01-01

126

JAMA Patient Page: Lumbar Puncture  

MedlinePLUS

... multiple sclerosis, neuropathy, or recurrent seizures • Fever of unknown origin Lumbar puncture is also done by anesthesiologists to administer spinal anesthesia (also known as subarachnoid block) for some types of surgery. ...

127

Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Minimally Invasive Treatment with Bilateral Transpedicular Facet Augmentation System  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new pedicle screw-based posterior dynamic stabilization device PDS Percudyn System Trade-Mark-Sign Anchor and Stabilizer (Interventional Spine Inc., Irvine, CA) as alternative minimally invasive treatment for patients with lumbar spine stenosis. Methods. Twenty-four consecutive patients (8 women, 16 men; mean age 61.8 yr) with lumbar spinal stenosis underwent implantation of the minimally invasive pedicle screw-based device for posterior dynamic stabilization. Inclusion criteria were lumbar stenosis without signs of instability, resistant to conservative treatment, and eligible to traditional surgical posterior decompression. Results. Twenty patients (83 %) progressively improved during the 1-year follow-up. Four (17 %) patients did not show any improvement and opted for surgical posterior decompression. For both responder and nonresponder patients, no device-related complications were reported. Conclusions. Minimally invasive PDS Percudyn System Trade-Mark-Sign has effectively improved the clinical setting of 83 % of highly selected patients treated, delaying the need for traditional surgical therapy.

Masala, Salvatore, E-mail: salva.masala@tiscali.it [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy, University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging (Italy); Tarantino, Umberto [University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology (Italy); Nano, Giovanni, E-mail: gionano@gmail.com [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy, University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging (Italy); Iundusi, Riccardo [University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology (Italy); Fiori, Roberto, E-mail: fiori.r@libero.it; Da Ros, Valerio, E-mail: valeriodaros@hotmail.com; Simonetti, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy, University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging (Italy)

2013-06-15

128

Changes in Neuroforaminal Height with 2 Level Axial Presacral Lumbar Interbody Fusion at L4-S1  

PubMed Central

Background The objective was to examine the changes in neuroforaminal height at L4-L5 and L5-S1 after insertion and graduated foraminal distraction using the 2 level transsacral implant in a cadaveric model. Methods Discectomy and transsacral instrumentation was performed in six fresh human cadavers at L4-S1. The neuroforaminal height was measured at L4-L5 and L5-S1 before and after insertion of the implant and then at each stage of manual distraction. Results Mean L4-5 neuroforaminal height increased from 18.2 ± 3.1mm to 20.3± 2.9mm (11%) on the left and from 18.8±2.8mm to 20.6± 2.3mm (12%) on the right (P<0.05). Mean L5-S1 neuroforaminal height increased from 15.7±3.0mm to 18.4 ±2.8mm (17%) on the left and from 15.6 ±2.1mm to 18.3 ±1.8mm (17%) on the right (P<0.05). When the neuroforaminal height was plotted against amount of rotation of the screw driver it was found that the neuroforaminal height at L5-S1 increased by 1mm on average for every complete revolution of the screw driver. At least 2 full rotations of the screw driver were achieved in all cadavers. Conclusions The transsacral screw construct distracted the disc space and neuroforaminal height in a cadaveric spine model without soft tissue envelope. During the initial process, manual control of disc space distraction predictably correlated with the increase in the neuroforaminal height to a maximum. However, further research is needed to look at variables affecting disc space pliability, implant subsidence, in vivo application, and clinical benefit of this procedure.

Marawar, Satyajit; Jung, Jin; Sun, Mike

2014-01-01

129

Percutaneous minimally invasive instrumentation for traumatic thoracic and lumbar fractures: a prospective analysis.  

PubMed

Open posterior instrumentation is still the standard procedure for unstable traumatic thoracic and lumbar fractures. There is a general tendency towards minimally invasive approaches in various surgical disciplines. The Sextant II Rod Insertion system is one of these. The authors prospectively studied this system in 51 patients with thoracic and lumbar fractures, between October 2007 and January 2011. Most fractures (31/51) were situated at the lumbar level. In 7 older patients the technique was combined with kyphoplasty and/or cement augmentation of the pedicle screws. The median operative time was 61 minutes (range: 26-130). The median fluoroscopy time was 132 seconds (range: 24-414). Most pedicle screws were correctly placed: 197 out of 204 screws. All fractures showed bony union after 6 weeks, but the multiaxial pedicle screws were not able to conserve the slight correction obtained peroperatively via positioning and longitudinal traction. Percutaneous minimally invasive stabilization of the spine needs further improvement. PMID:22822580

Krüger, Antonio; Rammler, Katharina; Ziring, Ewgeni; Zettl, Ralph; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Frangen, Thomas M

2012-06-01

130

The Effects on the Pain Index and Lumbar Flexibility of Obese Patients with Low Back Pain after PNF Scapular and PNF Pelvic Patterns.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether exercises using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) scapular and pelvic patterns might decrease the pain index and increase the lumbar flexibility of obese patients with low back pain. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty obese patients with low back pain were randomly assigned to an experimetal group (n=15) and a control group (n=15). The exercise program of the experimental group consisted of scapular patterns (anterior depression - posterior elevation) and pelvic patterns (anterior elevation - posterior depression). The control group performed neutral back muscle strengthening exercises. Over the course of four weeks, the groups participated in PNF or performed strengthening exercises for 30 minutes, three times per week. Subjects were assessed a pre-test and post-test using measurements of pain and lumbar flexibility. [Results] The results show that lumbar flexion and lumbar extension significantly improved in the experimental group, had significant improvement and that the Oswestry Disability index (ODI) significantly decreased. However, there were no significant changes in the control group. The experimental group also showed significant differences in the pain index and lumbar flexibility from the control group. [Conclusion] This study showed that PNF can be used to improve pain index rating and lumbar flexibility. The findings indicate that the experimental group experienced greater improvement than the control group by participating in the PNF lumbar stabilization program. PMID:25364115

Park, KwangYong; Seo, KyoChul

2014-10-01

131

The Effects on the Pain Index and Lumbar Flexibility of Obese Patients with Low Back Pain after PNF Scapular and PNF Pelvic Patterns  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether exercises using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) scapular and pelvic patterns might decrease the pain index and increase the lumbar flexibility of obese patients with low back pain. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty obese patients with low back pain were randomly assigned to an experimetal group (n=15) and a control group (n=15). The exercise program of the experimental group consisted of scapular patterns (anterior depression ? posterior elevation) and pelvic patterns (anterior elevation ? posterior depression). The control group performed neutral back muscle strengthening exercises. Over the course of four weeks, the groups participated in PNF or performed strengthening exercises for 30 minutes, three times per week. Subjects were assessed a pre-test and post-test using measurements of pain and lumbar flexibility. [Results] The results show that lumbar flexion and lumbar extension significantly improved in the experimental group, had significant improvement and that the Oswestry Disability index (ODI) significantly decreased. However, there were no significant changes in the control group. The experimental group also showed significant differences in the pain index and lumbar flexibility from the control group. [Conclusion] This study showed that PNF can be used to improve pain index rating and lumbar flexibility. The findings indicate that the experimental group experienced greater improvement than the control group by participating in the PNF lumbar stabilization program. PMID:25364115

Park, KwangYong; Seo, KyoChul

2014-01-01

132

Incidental Dural Tears During Lumbar Spine Surgery: A Retrospective Case Study of 84 Degenerative Lumbar Spine Patients  

PubMed Central

Study Design A retrospective case study. Purpose To retrospectively review all incidental dural tears (DTs) that occurred at a single institution, classify them anatomically and evaluate the clinical significance of each subgroup. Overview of Literature Dural tears are considered the most commonly encountered complication during lumbar spine surgery. In contrast to the high frequency of DTs, reports on the characteristic location and mechanism are sparse. Methods We retrospectively retrieved all cases of degenerative lumbar spine surgery performed over a 9-year period and classified all identified DTs according to two independent planes. The coronal plane was divided into lower, middle and upper surgical fields, and the sagittal plane into posterior, lateral and ventral occurring tears. Demographic and clinical variables were retrieved and analyzed to search for significant associations. Results From 2003 to 2011, 1,235 cases of degenerative lumbar spine conditions were treated surgically at our institution. In 84 operations (6.8%), an incidental DT was either identified intraoperatively or suspected retrospectively. The most commonly involved location was the lower surgical field (n=39, 46.4%; p=0.002), followed equally by the middle and upper fields (n=16, 19%). In the sagittal plane, the most commonly involved locations were those in close proximity to the nerve root (n=35, 41.6%), followed by the dorsal aspect of the dural sac (n=24, 28.6%). None of the variables recorded was found to be associated with a particular location. Conclusions In our series, incidental DTs were found to occur most commonly in the lower surgical field. We hypothesize that local anatomic feature, such as the lordotic and broadening lumbar dura, may play a role in the observed DT tendency to occur in the lower surgical field. In light of the high frequency and potentially substantial resulting morbidity of incidental DTs, a better characterization of its location and mechanism may optimize both prevention and management. PMID:25346817

Anekstein, Yoram; Mirovsky, Yigal

2014-01-01

133

Chylothorax following anterior thoraco-lumbar spine exposure. A case report and review of literature.  

PubMed

Pleural effusion is a possible complication of the thoraco-abdominal approach to the spine. It is more commonly a reactive effusion, but it also may be caused by hemothorax, empyema or, less commonly, a chylothorax. The case of a chylothorax is reported as a late onset complication of a double anterior and posterior instrumented fusion of the lumbar spine. Its management and clinical outcome, and a review of the literature is presented. PMID:24794096

Mora de Sambricio, A; Garrido Stratenwerth, E

2014-05-01

134

[Locked posterior shoulder dislocation].  

PubMed

Posterior shoulder dislocations are diagnosed rarely in every-day practice. Although the methods of radiological imaging have been developing and becoming commonly available, the cases of late diagnosis are still happening. Proper clinical examination and properly conducted and interpretated radiographs allow for identification and implementation of appropriate medical procedures. In spite of fact that such cases are identified expectionally rarely, a few types of procedural have been analised and numerous therapeutic methods have been described. The choice of an appropriate treatment is complicated and requires in-depth theoretical knowledge as well as the knowledge of specific conditions within the shoulder surgery. Based on an algorithm, proposed by Griggs, between 2000-2006 seven patients with locked posterior instability were treated, for all of them defect of the proximal humerus did not exceed 30%. In all these cases the goals of improving stability and range of motion were obtained. PMID:18853661

Gadek, Artur; Slusarski, Jakub; Kasprzyk, Marcin; Ciszek, Elzbieta

2008-01-01

135

Posterior calf injury.  

PubMed

Acute injuries of the Achilles tendon are common among athletes and non-athletes alike. Injuries of other posterior calf muscles are far less common but should be considered in the differential, to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment of patients with calf injuries. This article focuses on these calf injuries, including injuries of the gastrocnemius, plantaris, soleus, and flexor hallucis longus, which may occasionally be mistaken for Achilles tendon disorders. PMID:19857847

Campbell, John T

2009-12-01

136

Symptomatic lumbar disc protrusion causing progressive myelopathy in a low-lying cord.  

PubMed

Low-lying cord is an uncommon entity, and cord compression due lumbar disc disease is rarely encountered. We discuss our experience with a case of lumbar cord compression secondary to a large disc protrusion, which caused myelopathy in a low-lying/tethered cord. A 77-year-old woman with known spina bifida occulta presented with 6-week history of severe low back pain and progressive paraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a low-lying tethered cord and a large disc prolapse at L2/3 causing cord compression with associated syringomyelia. Medical comorbidities precluded her from anterior decompression, and therefore a posterior decompression was performed. She recovered full motor power in her lower limbs and could eventually walk unaided. She had a deep wound infection, which was successfully treated with debridement, negative pressure therapy (vacuum-assisted closure pump), and antibiotics. Six months after surgery, her Oswestry Disability Index improved from 55% preoperatively to 20%. Posterior spinal cord decompression for this condition has been successful in our case, and we believe that the lumbar lordosis may have helped indirectly decompress the spinal cord by posterior decompression alone. PMID:24353956

Srinivas, Shreya; Shetty, Rohit; Collins, Iona

2012-06-01

137

Lumbar spine disc heights and curvature: upright posture vs. supine compression harness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

INTRODUCTION: Spinal lengthening in microgravity is thought to cause back pain in astronauts. A spinal compression harness can compress the spine to eliminate lengthening but the loading condition with harness is different than physiologic conditions. Our purpose was to compare the effect of spine compression with a harness in supine position on disk height and spinal curvature in the lumbar spine to that of upright position as measured using a vertically open magnetic resonance imaging system. METHODS: Fifteen healthy subjects volunteered. On day 1, each subject lay supine for an hour and a baseline scan of the lumbar spine was performed. After applying a load of fifty percent of body weight with the harness for thirty minutes, the lumbar spine was scanned again. On day 2, after a baseline scan, a follow up scan was performed after kneeling for thirty minutes within the gap between two vertically oriented magnetic coils. Anterior and posterior disk heights, posterior disk bulging, and spinal curvature were measured from the baseline and follow up scans. RESULTS: Anterior disk heights increased and posterior disk heights decreased compared with baseline scans both after spinal compression with harness and upright posture. The spinal curvature increased by both loading conditions of the spine. DISCUSSION: The spinal compression with specially designed harness has the same effect as the physiologic loading of the spine in the kneeling upright position. The harness shows some promise as a tool to increase the diagnostic capabilities of a conventional MR system.

Lee, Shi-Uk; Hargens, Alan R.; Fredericson, Michael; Lang, Philipp K.

2003-01-01

138

Lumbar discography: an update.  

PubMed

Discogenic pain most commonly affects the low back, buttocks, and hips and is thought to be a byproduct of internal disk degeneration. It is postulated that progressive annular breakdown and tearing results in biomechanical and/or biochemical stimulation of the pain fibers that reside in the outer one third of the annulus. Although multiple imaging modalities, most notably MRI, can show morphologic abnormalities of the spine, discography remains the only test that provides physiologic information regarding what role a given intervertebral disk plays in a patient's symptom complex. The controversy surrounding discography is here to stay until more definitive, well-designed studies are performed. In the meantime, there are certain things that can help the discographer maximize the accuracy of the test: 1. Always try to inject one "normal" disk as a "control level." 2. Be alert for factors that are associated with an increased false-positive rate (abnormal non-anatomic pain maps, a history of chronic pain of spinal or nonspinal origin, abnormal psychometric testing, and prior surgery at the injected disk level). In these cases, special attention should be directed to both the patient's verbal and nonverbal cues during disk injection. 3. Do not give any audible clues as to what level is being injected or when the injection is starting or finishing. In this regard, we find it very helpful to have one of our personnel talk with the patient during this portion of the procedure while closely observing the patient for any nonverbal cues regarding their pain response. This distraction is preferable to a silent room where the patient is intensely focused on what is going on with the injections. We also find that music playing during the procedure helps to relax and often distract the patient as well. 4. If the results are equivocal at a level (i.e., you are unable to determine whether or not the patient's pain response was truly concordant), go on to inject another disk level and then come back to reinject more contrast into the disk in question. As radiologists, we tend to focus on the technical aspects of a procedure and the anatomic/morphologic information it provides. However, it cannot be emphasized enough that when performing lumbar discography, the assessment of the patient's pain response during the injection is the most important component of the procedure, and requires not only technical skills, but an understanding of how best to avoid some of the pitfalls that can lead to inaccurate results. PMID:14976837

Anderson, Mark W

2004-01-01

139

Activity of thoracic and lumbar epaxial extensors during postural responses in the cat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study examined the role of trunk extensor muscles in the thoracic and lumbar regions during postural adjustments in the freely standing cat. The epaxial extensor muscles participate in the rapid postural responses evoked by horizontal translation of the support surface. The muscles segregate into two regional groups separated by a short transition zone, according to the spatial pattern of the electromyographic (EMG) responses. The upper thoracic muscles (T5-9) respond best to posteriorly directed translations, whereas the lumbar muscles (T13 to L7) respond best to anterior translations. The transition group muscles (T10-12) respond to almost all translations. Muscles group according to vertebral level rather than muscle species. The upper thoracic muscles change little in their response with changes in stance distance (fore-hindpaw separation) and may act to stabilize the intervertebral angles of the thoracic curvature. Activity in the lumbar muscles increases along with upward rotation of the pelvis (iliac crest) as stance distance decreases. Lumbar muscles appear to stabilize the pelvis with respect to the lumbar vertebrae (L7-sacral joint). The transition zone muscles display a change in spatial tuning with stance distance, responding to many directions of translation at short distances and focusing to respond best to contralateral translations at the long stance distance.

Macpherson, J. M.; Fung, J.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

140

The effect of anterior-posterior shear on the wear of Charité TDR  

PubMed Central

Study Design An in-vitro study of the wear rates of the Charité lumbar total disc replacement. Objective To investigate the effect of anterior-posterior shear on the in-vitro wear rates of the Charité lumbar total disc replacement. Summary of Background Data Current standards prescribe only 4 degree of freedom (DOF) inputs for evaluating the in-vitro wear of total disc replacements, despite the functional spinal unit incorporating 6DOF. Anterior-posterior shear has been highlighted as a significant load, particularly in the lumbar spine. A previous study investigated the effect of an anterior-posterior shear on the ProDisc-L, finding that wear rates were not significantly different from 4DOF wear tests. Methods 6 Charité lumbar discs were mounted in a 5 active DOF spine wear simulator and tested under 4DOF (ISO18192) conditions. 6 further Charité lumbar discs were tested under 5DOF conditions, consisting of 4DOF conditions plus an anterior-posterior shear displacement of +2/-1.5mm. The displacement was decreased and then increased by a factor of 2, to investigate the effect of the magnitude of displacement. µCT scans were taken of the discs before and after wear testing, and the height loss of the discs calculated. These were compared to the same measurements taken from explanted Charite discs, µCT scanned at another institution. Results 4DOF wear rates (12.2±1.0mg/MC) were not significantly different from 4DOF tests on the ProDisc-L. Wear rates were significantly increased (p<0.01) for ‘standard’ 5DOF conditions (22.3±2.0 mg/MC), decreased 5DOF (24.3±4.9 mg/MC) and increased 5DOF (29.1±7.6mg/MC). The height loss of the explants and in-vitro tested discs were not significantly different (p>0.05). Conclusion The addition of anterior-posterior shear to wear testing inputs of the Charité lumbar total disc replacement increases the wear rate significantly, which is in direct contrast to the previous 5DOF testing on the ProDisc. This study highlights the importance of clinically relevant testing regimens, and that test inputs may be different for dissimilar design philosophies. PMID:22037530

Vicars, R; Prokopovich, P; Brown, T D; Tipper, JL; Ingham, E; Fisher, J; Hall, RM

2011-01-01

141

The effect of minimally invasive posterior cervical approaches versus open anterior approaches on neck pain and disability  

PubMed Central

Background The choice of surgical approach to the cervical spine may have an influence on patient outcome, particularly with respect to future neck pain and disability. Some surgeons suggest that patients with myelopathy or radiculopathy and significant axial pain should be treated with an anterior interbody fusion because a posterior decompression alone may exacerbate the patients’ neck pain. To date, the effect of a minimally invasive posterior cervical decompression approach (miPCD) on neck pain has not been compared with that of an anterior cervical diskectomy or corpectomy with interbody fusion (ACF). Methods A retrospective review was undertaken of 63 patients undergoing either an miPCD (n = 35) or ACF (n = 28) for treatment of myelopathy or radiculopathy who had achieved a minimum of 6 months’ follow-up. Clinical outcomes were assessed by a patient-derived neck visual analog scale (VAS) score and the neck disability index (NDI). Outcomes were analyzed by use of (1) a threshold in which outcomes were classified as success (NDI < 40, VAS score < 4.0) or failure (NDI > 40, VAS score > 4.0) and (2) perioperative change in which outcomes were classified as success (?NDI ? – 15, ?VAS score ? – 2.0) or failure (?NDI < – 15, ?VAS score < –2.0). Groups were compared by use of ?2 tests with significance taken at P < .05. Results At last follow-up, the percentages of patients classified as successful using the perioperative change criteria were as follows: 42% for miPCD group versus 63% for ACF group based on neck VAS score (P = not significant [NS]) and 33% for miPCD group versus 50% for ACF group based on NDI (P < .05). At last follow-up, the percentages of patients classified as successful using the threshold criteria were as follows: 71% for miPCD group versus 82% for ACF group based on neck VAS score (P = NS) and 69% for miPCD group versus 68% for ACF group based on NDI (P = NS). Conclusions In this small retrospective analysis, miPCD was associated with similar neck pain and disability to ACF. Given the avoidance of cervical instrumentation and interbody fusion in the miPCD group, these results suggest that further comparative effectiveness study is warranted.

Steinberg, Jeffrey A.; German, John W.

2012-01-01

142

Case report and review of lumbar hernia.  

PubMed

Lumbar hernias are uncommon and about 300 cases have been reported till date. They commonly occur due to trauma, surgery and infection. They are increasingly being reported after motor vehicle collision injuries. However, spontaneous lumbar hernias are rare and are reported infrequently. It is treated with different surgical approaches and methods. We report a case of primary spontaneous lumbar hernia which was repaired by transperitonial laparoscopic approach using Vypro (polypropylene/polyglactin) mesh and covered with a peritoneal flap. PMID:25555145

Walgamage, Thilan B; Ramesh, B S; Alsawafi, Yaqoob

2015-01-01

143

Functional morphology of indrid lumbar vertebrae.  

PubMed

Indrids are primarily vertical clingers and leapers but also engage to various extents in climbing, suspensory postures, bimanual movement, bipedal hopping, and quadrupedalism. It has been demonstrated that these behaviors are well reflected in the appendicular anatomy of these primates, while indrid vertebral anatomy has received relatively little attention. In this morphometric study, biomechanically relevant aspects of the lumbar vertebrae of Indri indri, Propithecus diadema, and Propithecus verreauxi were compared to those of Varecia variegata, a large-bodied predominantly pronograde and quadrupedal lemur. Results indicate that, compared to Varecia, the indrids have relatively shorter lumbar vertebral bodies, shorter lumbar regions, more dorsally projecting lumbar spinous processes, and more dorsally positioned lumbar transverse process tips. In addition, indrid lumbar spinous and transverse processes are oriented differently than those of Varecia. Overall, indrid lumbar vertebral morphology converges with that of hominoids, atelines, and possibly lorids, suggesting a lumbar adaptation to upright or "antipronograde" postures that require a reduction in spinal flexibility. The dorsally projecting spinous processes may be related to back muscle extensor power during leaping and/or the maintenance of upright postures. By contrast, the lumbar vertebrae of Varecia resemble those of primates and other mammals that have habitually pronograde postures and emphasize spinal flexibility in the sagittal plane during locomotion. PMID:8572156

Shapiro, L

1995-11-01

144

Minimally invasive surgery through endoscopic laminotomy and foraminotomy for the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis  

PubMed Central

Background Lumbar spinal stenosis is a common cause of radicular and generalized back pain among older adults. Endoscopic minimally invasive surgery, in contrast to open decompression, may provide the opportunity for a less invasive surgical intervention. Thus, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety (operative complications, estimated blood loss, operative room time) and effectiveness (pre- versus postoperative level of disability and pain severity) of minimally invasive surgery using endoscopic laminotomy and foraminotomy among a large sample of patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. Methods This study is composed of 320 consecutive patients with lumbar spinal stenosis who underwent posterior lumbar laminotomy and foraminotomy between 2008 and 2011. Outcome measures consisted of perioperative complications, estimated blood loss, operative room time, level of disability, and pain severity. Pain severity and level of disability were prospectively analyzed to an average of 18 months (12–36 months) post-surgery. Results There was an average estimated blood loss of 39.3 cc and a mean operative room time of 74 min. Seven patients experienced minor operative complications. All patients were discharged the same day as surgery and reported a significantly lower level of disability (p = 0.00) and pain severity (p = 0.00) postoperative compared to preoperative. Conclusions Minimally invasive surgery using endoscopy for the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis has a short operative time, a low operative complication rate, and minimal estimated blood loss. This study also indicates that MIS for the treatment of LSS can significantly reduce pain and disability level. Thus, minimally invasive surgery using endoscopic laminotomy and foraminotomy appears to be a safe and effective alternative surgical treatment for open decompression surgery in adult patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. PMID:24403742

Polikandriotis, John A.; Hudak, Elizabeth M.; Perry, Michael W.

2013-01-01

145

Solitary Epidural Lipoma with Ipsilateral Facet Arthritis Causing Lumbar Radiculopathy  

PubMed Central

A 55-year-old obese man (body mass index, 31.6 kg/m2) presented radiating pain and motor weakness in the left leg. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an epidural mass posterior to the L5 vertebral body, which was isosignal to subcutaneous fat and it asymmetrically compressed the left side of the cauda equina and the exiting left L5 nerve root on the axial T1 weighted images. Severe arthritis of the left facet joint and edema of the bone marrow regarding the left pedicle were also found. As far as we know, there have been no reports concerning a solitary epidural lipoma combined with ipsilateral facet arthorsis causing lumbar radiculopathy. Solitary epidural lipoma with ipsilateral facet arthritis causing lumbar radiculopathy was removed after the failure of conservative treatment. After decompression, the neurologic deficit was relieved. At a 2 year follow-up, motor weakness had completely recovered and the patient was satisfied with the result. We recommend that a solitary epidural lipoma causing neurologic deficit should be excised at the time of diagnosis. PMID:22977701

Kim, Hong Kyun; Koh, Sung Hye

2012-01-01

146

Automated quantification of lumbar vertebral kinematics from dynamic fluoroscopic sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We hypothesize that the vertebra-to-vertebra patterns of spinal flexion and extension motion of persons with lower back pain will differ from those of persons who are pain-free. Thus, it is our goal to measure the motion of individual lumbar vertebrae noninvasively from dynamic fluoroscopic sequences. Two-dimensional normalized mutual information-based image registration was used to track frame-to-frame motion. Software was developed that required the operator to identify each vertebra on the first frame of the sequence using a four-point "caliper" placed at the posterior and anterior edges of the inferior and superior end plates of the target vertebrae. The program then resolved the individual motions of each vertebra independently throughout the entire sequence. To validate the technique, 6 cadaveric lumbar spine specimens were potted in polymethylmethacrylate and instrumented with optoelectric sensors. The specimens were then placed in a custom dynamic spine simulator and moved through flexion-extension cycles while kinematic data and fluoroscopic sequences were simultaneously acquired. We found strong correlation between the absolute flexionextension range of motion of each vertebra as recorded by the optoelectric system and as determined from the fluoroscopic sequence via registration. We conclude that this method is a viable way of noninvasively assessing twodimensional vertebral motion.

Camp, Jon; Zhao, Kristin; Morel, Etienne; White, Dan; Magnuson, Dixon; Gay, Ralph; An, Kai-Nan; Robb, Richard

2009-02-01

147

The effects of single-level instrumented lumbar laminectomy on adjacent spinal biomechanics.  

PubMed

Study Design?Biomechanical study. Objective?Posterior instrumentation is used to stabilize the spine after a lumbar laminectomy. However, the effects on the adjacent segmental stability are unknown. Therefore, we studied the range of motion (ROM) and stiffness of treated lumbar spinal segments and cranial segments after a laminectomy and after posterior instrumentation in flexion and extension (FE), lateral bending (LB), and axial rotation (AR). These outcomes might help to better understand adjacent segment disease (ASD), which is reported cranial to the level on which posterior instrumentation is applied. Methods?We obtained 12 cadaveric human lumbar spines. Spines were axially loaded with 250?N for 1 hour. Thereafter, 10 consecutive load cycles (4 Nm) were applied in FE, LB, and AR. Subsequently, a laminectomy was performed either at L2 or at L4. Thereafter, load-deformation tests were repeated, after similar preloading. Finally, posterior instrumentation was added to the level treated with a laminectomy before testing was repeated. The ROM and stiffness of the treated, the cranial adjacent, and the control segments were calculated from the load-displacement data. Repeated-measures analyses of variance used the spinal level as the between-subject factor and a laminectomy or instrumentation as the within-subject factors. Results?After the laminectomy, the ROM increased (+19.4%) and the stiffness decreased (-18.0%) in AR. The ROM in AR of the adjacent segments also increased (+11.0%). The ROM of treated segments after instrumentation decreased in FE (-74.3%), LB (-71.6%), and AR (-59.8%). In the adjacent segments after instrumentation, only the ROM in LB was changed (-12.9%). Conclusions?The present findings do not substantiate a biomechanical pathway toward or explanation for ASD. PMID:25649753

Bisschop, Arno; Holewijn, Roderick M; Kingma, Idsart; Stadhouder, Agnita; Vergroesen, Pieter-Paul A; van der Veen, Albert J; van Dieën, Jaap H; van Royen, Barend J

2015-02-01

148

Spontaneous hemorrhage into a lumbar synovial cyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lumbar synovial cysts frequently present with back pain, chronic radiculopathy and\\/or progressive symptoms of spinal canal\\u000a compromise. These cysts generally appear in the context of degenerative lumbar spinal disease. Few cases of spontaneous hemorrhage\\u000a into synovial cysts have been reported in the literature.

Marta CicuendezJose; Jose F. Alen; Ana Ramos; Ramiro D. Lobato; Alfonso Lagares

2010-01-01

149

Anterolateral Approach to the Lumbar Spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An anterolateral approach to achieve decompression for a far-lateral disc lesion in the lumbar spine or removal of paravertebral neurinoma without disrupting the facet is described. This new surgical technique is presented in detail, and the results of a surgical trial are reviewed. The incidence of lumbar disc herniation lateral to the facet has been reported to be between 0.7%

Shinichi Kusano; Akira Dezawa; Kiyoshi Yoshihara; Koh Katoh

150

Lumbar spine curvature during office chair sitting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prolonged sitting is generally accepted as a high risk factor in low back pain and it is frequently suggested that a lordotic posture of the lumbar spine should be maintained during sitting. We asked whether the sagittal curvature of the lumbar spine during sitting is affected by the seat tilt, backrest and the direction of the synchronised mechanism of the

M. Lengsfeld; A. Frank; D. L. van Deursen; P. Griss

2000-01-01

151

Investigation of biomechanical behavior of lumbar vertebral segments with dynamic stabilization device using finite element approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Degenerative disc disease is a major source of lower back pain and significantly alters the biomechanics of the lumbar spine. Dynamic stabilization device is a remedial technique which uses flexible materials to stabilize the affected lumbar region while preserving the natural anatomy of the spine. The main objective of this research work is to investigate the stiffness variation of dynamic stabilization device under various loading conditions under compression, axial rotation and flexion. Three dimensional model of the two segment lumbar spine is developed using computed tomography (CT) scan images. The lumbar structure developed is analyzed in ANSYS workbench. Two types of dynamic stabilization are considered: one with stabilizing device as pedicle instrumentation and second with stabilization device inserted around the inter-vertebral disc. Analysis suggests that proper positioning of the dynamic stabilization device is of paramount significance prior to the surgery. Inserting the device in the posterior region indicates the adverse effects as it shows increase in the deformation of the inter-vertebral disc. Analysis executed by positioning stabilizing device around the inter-vertebral disc yields better result for various stiffness values under compression and other loadings. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

Deoghare, Ashish B.; Kashyap, Siddharth; Padole, Pramod M.

2013-03-01

152

A Comparison of Radiostereometric Analysis and Computed Tomography for the Assessment of Lumbar Spinal Fusion in a Sheep Model  

PubMed Central

Study Design?Prospective animal study. Objective?The aim of this animal study is to evaluate the accuracy of radiostereometric analysis (RSA) compared with computed tomographic (CT) scan in the assessment of spinal fusion after anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) using histology as a gold standard. Methods?Three non-adjacent ALIFs (L1–L2, L3–L4, and L5–L6) were performed in nine sheep. The sheep were divided into three groups of three sheep. All the animals were humanely killed immediately after having the last scheduled RSA. The lumbar spine was removed and in vitro fine cut CT and histopathology were performed. Results?Using histological assessment as the gold standard for assessing fusion, RSA demonstrated better results (100% sensitivity and 66.7% specificity; positive predictive value [PPV]?=?27.3%, negative predictive value [NPV] =100.0%) compared with CT (66.7% sensitivity and 60.0% specificity [PPV?=?16.7%, NPV?=?93.8%]). Conclusions?RSA demonstrated higher sensitivity and specificity when compared with CT. Furthermore, RSA has the advantage of much lower radiation exposure compared with fine cut CT. Further studies are required to see if RSA remains superior to CT scan for the assessment spinal fusion in the clinical setting. Assessment of Class of Evidence (CoE) for individual studies of diagnostic test evaluation Methodological principle Study design  Prospective cohort design X  Retrospective cohort design  Case–control design Broad spectrum of patients with expected condition a Appropriate reference standard used X Adequate description of test and reference for replication X Blinded comparison with appropriate reference X Reference standard performed independently of test X Evidence level II Note: Blank box indicates criterion not met, could not be determined, or information not reported by author or was not reported. aThis study contained nine animal subjects. PMID:24436705

Humadi, Ali; Freeman, Brian J. C.; Moore, Rob J.; Callary, Stuart; Halldin, Klas; David, Vikram; Maclaurin, William; Tauro, Paul; Schoenwaelder, Mark

2013-01-01

153

Dynamic Stabilization for Challenging Lumbar Degenerative Diseases of the Spine: A Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Fusion and rigid instrumentation have been currently the mainstay for the surgical treatment of degenerative diseases of the spine over the last 4 decades. In all over the world the common experience was formed about fusion surgery. Satisfactory results of lumbar spinal fusion appeared completely incompatible and unfavorable within years. Rigid spinal implants along with fusion cause increased stresses of the adjacent segments and have some important disadvantages such as donor site morbidity including pain, wound problems, infections because of longer operating time, pseudarthrosis, and fatigue failure of implants. Alternative spinal implants were developed with time on unsatisfactory outcomes of rigid internal fixation along with fusion. Motion preservation devices which include both anterior and posterior dynamic stabilization are designed and used especially in the last two decades. This paper evaluates the dynamic stabilization of the lumbar spine and talks about chronologically some novel dynamic stabilization devices and thier efficacies. PMID:23662211

Kaner, Tuncay; Ozer, Ali Fahir

2013-01-01

154

Surgical treatment of lumbar vertebral collapse in a patient with Parkinson's disease: a case report.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) frequently develops postural abnormalities including extreme neck flexion and trunk flexion. Patients with PD sometimes have osteopenia and vertebral deformity due to the destruction of fragile bone can be also associated with the spinal deformity. Surgical treatment for these patients is very difficult. We encountered a patient with PD presenting severe trunk sagittal and frontal deformity. The patient had cauda equina syndrome due to progressive vertebral collapse of the lumbar spine. We performed anterior reconstruction surgery at first in order to achieve improved lordotic alignment of the lumbar spine. Then, we performed 2 posterior surgeries, resulting in total long fusion from T4 to S1. The clinical findings of this patient were presented, and the treatment options were discussed. PMID:23412270

Kawaguchi, Yoshiharu; Nakano, Masato; Seki, Shoji; Yasuda, Taketoshi; Hori, Takeshi; Tanaka, Kortarou; Kimura, Tomoatsu

2013-11-01

155

Posterior sampling with improved efficiency  

SciTech Connect

The Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique provides a means to generate a random sequence of model realizations that sample the posterior probability distribution of a Bayesian analysis. That sequence may be used to make inferences about the model uncertainties that derive from measurement uncertainties. This paper presents an approach to improving the efficiency of the Metropolis approach to MCMC by incorporating an approximation to the covariance matrix of the posterior distribution. The covariance matrix is approximated using the update formula from the BFGS quasi-Newton optimization algorithm. Examples are given for uncorrelated and correlated multidimensional Gaussian posterior distributions.

Hanson, K.M.; Cunningham, G.S.

1998-12-01

156

Posterior spinal artery aneurysm rupture after 'Ecstasy' abuse.  

PubMed

Posterior spinal artery (PSA) aneurysms are a rare cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The commonly abused street drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or 'Ecstasy' has been linked to both systemic and neurological complications. A teenager presented with neck stiffness, headaches and nausea after ingesting 'Ecstasy'. A brain CT was negative for SAH but a CT angiogram suggested cerebral vasculitis. A lumbar puncture showed SAH but a cerebral angiogram was negative. After a spinal MR angiogram identified abnormalities on the dorsal surface of the cervical spinal cord, a spinal angiogram demonstrated a left PSA 2?mm fusiform aneurysm. The patient underwent surgery and the aneurysmal portion of the PSA was excised without postoperative neurological sequelae. 'Ecstasy' can lead to neurovascular inflammation, intracranial hemorrhage, SAH and potentially even de novo aneurysm formation and subsequent rupture. PSA aneurysms may be treated by endovascular proximal vessel occlusion or open surgical excision. PMID:24994748

Johnson, Jeremiah; Patel, Shnehal; Saraf-Lavi, Efrat; Aziz-Sultan, Mohammad Ali; Yavagal, Dileep R

2014-01-01

157

Posterior spinal artery aneurysm rupture after 'Ecstasy' abuse.  

PubMed

Posterior spinal artery (PSA) aneurysms are a rare cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The commonly abused street drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or 'Ecstasy' has been linked to both systemic and neurological complications. A teenager presented with neck stiffness, headaches and nausea after ingesting 'Ecstasy'. A brain CT was negative for SAH but a CT angiogram suggested cerebral vasculitis. A lumbar puncture showed SAH but a cerebral angiogram was negative. After a spinal MR angiogram identified abnormalities on the dorsal surface of the cervical spinal cord, a spinal angiogram demonstrated a left PSA 2?mm fusiform aneurysm. The patient underwent surgery and the aneurysmal portion of the PSA was excised without postoperative neurological sequelae. 'Ecstasy' can lead to neurovascular inflammation, intracranial hemorrhage, SAH and potentially even de novo aneurysm formation and subsequent rupture. PSA aneurysms may be treated by endovascular proximal vessel occlusion or open surgical excision. PMID:25006043

Johnson, Jeremiah; Patel, Shnehal; Saraf-Lavi, Efrat; Aziz-Sultan, Mohammad Ali; Yavagal, Dileep R

2014-07-01

158

Surgical treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis with microdecompression and interspinous distraction device insertion. A case series  

PubMed Central

Background Interspinous distraction devices (IPDD) are indicated as stand-alone devices for the treatment of spinal stenosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the results of patients undergoing surgery for spinal stenosis with a combination of unilateral microdecompression and interspinous distraction device insertion. Methods This is a prospective clinical and radiological study of minimum 2 years follow-up. Twenty-two patients (average age 64.5 years) with low-back pain and unilateral sciatica underwent decompressive surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis. Visual Analogue Scale, Oswestry Disability Index and walking capacity plus radiologic measurements of posterior disc height of the involved level and lumbar lordosis Cobb angle were documented both preoperatively and postoperatively. One-sided posterior subarticular and foraminal decompression was conducted followed by dynamic stabilization of the diseased level with an IPDD (X-STOP). Results The average follow-up time was 27.4 months. Visual Analogue Scale and Oswestry Disability Index improved statistically significantly (p < 0.001) in the last follow-up exam. Also, the walking distance increased in all patients but two. Posterior intervertebral disc height of the diseased level widened average 1.8 mm in the postoperative radiograph compared to the preoperative. No major complication, including implant failure or spinous process breakage, has been observed. Conclusions The described surgical technique using unilateral microdecompression and IPDD insertion is a clinically effective and radiologically viable treatment method for symptoms of spinal stenosis resistant to non-operative treatment. PMID:23107358

2012-01-01

159

A morphometric study of the lumbar spinous process in the Chinese population.  

PubMed

Our goal was to analyze the anatomical parameters of the lumbar spine spinous process for an interspinous stabilization device designed for the Chinese population and to offer an anatomical basis for its clinical application. The posterior lumbar spines (T12-S1) of 52 adult cadavers were used for measuring the following: distance between two adjacent spinous processes (DB), distance across two adjacent spinous processes (DA), thickness of the central spinous processes (TC), thickness of the superior margin of the spinous processes (TS), thickness of the inferior margin of the spinous processes (TI), and height of the spinous processes (H). Variance and correlation analyses were conducted for these data, and the data met the normal distribution and homogeneity of variance. DB decreased gradually from L1-2 to L5-S1. DA increased from T12-L1 to L2-3 and then decreased from L2-3 to L4-5. The largest H in males was noted at L3 (25.45±5.96 mm), whereas for females the largest H was noted at L4 (18.71±4.50 mm). Usually, TS of the adjacent spinous process was lower than TI. Based on the anatomical parameters of the lumbar spinous processes obtained in this study, an "H"-shaped coronal plane (posterior view) was proposed as an interspinous stabilization device for the Chinese population. This study reports morphometric data of the lumbar spinous processes in the Chinese population, which provides an anatomical basis for future clinical applications. PMID:25351240

Cai, B; Ran, B; Li, Q; Li, Z H; Li, F N; Li, M; Yan, W J

2014-10-24

160

A morphometric study of the lumbar spinous process in the Chinese population.  

PubMed

Our goal was to analyze the anatomical parameters of the lumbar spine spinous process for an interspinous stabilization device designed for the Chinese population and to offer an anatomical basis for its clinical application. The posterior lumbar spines (T12-S1) of 52 adult cadavers were used for measuring the following: distance between two adjacent spinous processes (DB), distance across two adjacent spinous processes (DA), thickness of the central spinous processes (TC), thickness of the superior margin of the spinous processes (TS), thickness of the inferior margin of the spinous processes (TI), and height of the spinous processes (H). Variance and correlation analyses were conducted for these data, and the data met the normal distribution and homogeneity of variance. DB decreased gradually from L1-2 to L5-S1. DA increased from T12-L1 to L2-3 and then decreased from L2-3 to L4-5. The largest H in males was noted at L3 (25.45±5.96 mm), whereas for females the largest H was noted at L4 (18.71±4.50 mm). Usually, TS of the adjacent spinous process was lower than TI. Based on the anatomical parameters of the lumbar spinous processes obtained in this study, an "H"-shaped coronal plane (posterior view) was proposed as an interspinous stabilization device for the Chinese population. This study reports morphometric data of the lumbar spinous processes in the Chinese population, which provides an anatomical basis for future clinical applications. PMID:25493388

Cai, B; Ran, B; Li, Q; Li, Z H; Li, F N; Li, M; Yan, W J

2015-01-01

161

A morphometric study of the lumbar spinous process in the Chinese population  

PubMed Central

Our goal was to analyze the anatomical parameters of the lumbar spine spinous process for an interspinous stabilization device designed for the Chinese population and to offer an anatomical basis for its clinical application. The posterior lumbar spines (T12-S1) of 52 adult cadavers were used for measuring the following: distance between two adjacent spinous processes (DB), distance across two adjacent spinous processes (DA), thickness of the central spinous processes (TC), thickness of the superior margin of the spinous processes (TS), thickness of the inferior margin of the spinous processes (TI), and height of the spinous processes (H). Variance and correlation analyses were conducted for these data, and the data met the normal distribution and homogeneity of variance. DB decreased gradually from L1-2 to L5-S1. DA increased from T12-L1 to L2-3 and then decreased from L2-3 to L4-5. The largest H in males was noted at L3 (25.45±5.96 mm), whereas for females the largest H was noted at L4 (18.71±4.50 mm). Usually, TS of the adjacent spinous process was lower than TI. Based on the anatomical parameters of the lumbar spinous processes obtained in this study, an “H”-shaped coronal plane (posterior view) was proposed as an interspinous stabilization device for the Chinese population. This study reports morphometric data of the lumbar spinous processes in the Chinese population, which provides an anatomical basis for future clinical applications. PMID:25493388

Cai, B.; Ran, B.; Li, Q.; Li, Z.H.; Li, F.N.; Li, M.; Yan, W.J.

2014-01-01

162

Treatment of idiopathic scoliosis with CD-instrumentation: lumbar pedicle screws versus laminar hooks in 66 patients.  

PubMed

We studied whether the pedicle screw is better than laminar hooks for fixation of the lumbar spine in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. 66 consecutive patients with idiopathic scoliosis (King I and II) were studied retrospectively. Group S included 33 patients (25 females) treated with pedicle screws. Their mean age at operation was 17 (13-54) years. Group H included 33 patients (30 females) treated exclusively with hooks. Their mean age at operation was 16 (1140) years. The preoperative mean angles of the thoracic curve in group S was 66 (42.115) degrees, and in group H 65 (42-121) degrees. The lumbar curve averaged 46 (20-85) degrees in group H and 53 (33-86) degrees in group S. All patients were fused only posteriorly with Cotrel-Dubousset instrumentation and an autogenic bone graft. The mean follow-up time was 4 (2-7) years. Mean correction of the thoracic curve was 45% in group S and 50% in group H. The lumbar curve was corrected by 50% in group S and 51% in group H. Loss of correction of the thoracic curve occurred in 5% in group S and 6% in group H and of the lumbar curve in 3% in group S and 10% in group H (p = 0.04). Group S better maintained the correction of the lateral tilt of the uninstrumented segment adjacent to the fusion (p = 0.04). Derotation, according to Perdriolle, in the distal segment adjacent to the fusion was 6% in group S and 2% in group H. We found no difference between correction of the thoracic and lumbar curves using pedicle screws and laminar hooks in the lumbar spine. Pedicle screws better maintained the correction of the lumbar curve and the lateral tilt in the distal segment adjacent to fusion. PMID:11817877

Wimmer, C; Gluch, H; Nogler, M; Walochnik, N

2001-12-01

163

In vivo range of motion of the lumbar spinous processes  

PubMed Central

The study design included an in vivo laboratory study. The objective of the study is to quantify the kinematics of the lumbar spinous processes in asymptomatic patients during un-restricted functional body movements with physiological weight bearing. Limited data has been reported on the motion patterns of the posterior spine elements. This information is necessary for the evaluation of traumatic injuries and degenerative changes in the posterior elements, as well as for improving the surgical treatment of spinal diseases using posterior procedures. Eight asymptomatic subjects with an age ranging from 50 to 60 years underwent MRI scans of their lumbar segments in a supine position and 3D models of L2–5 were constructed. Next, each subject was asked to stand and was positioned in the following sequence: standing, 45° flexion, maximal extension, maximal left and right twisting, while two orthogonal fluoroscopic images were taken simultaneously at each of the positions. The MRI models were matched to the osseous outlines of the images from the two orthogonal views to quantify the position of the vertebrae in 3D at each position. The data revealed that interspinous process (ISP) distance decreased from L2 to L3 to L4 to L5 when measured in the supine position; with significantly higher values at L2–3 and L3–4 compared with L4–5. These differences were not seen with weight-bearing conditions. During the maximal extension, the ISP distance at the L2–3 motion segment was significantly reduced, but no significant changes were detected at L3–4 and L4–5. During flexion the ISP distances were not significantly different than those measured in the MRI position at all segments. Going from the left to right twist positions, the L4–5 segment had greater amounts of ISP rotation, while all segments had similar ranges of translation in the transverse plane. The interspinous process distances were dependent on body posture and vertebral level. PMID:19543753

Xia, Qun; Wang, Shaobai; Passias, Peter G.; Kozanek, Michal; Li, Gang; Grottkau, Brian E.; Wood, Kirkham B.

2009-01-01

164

Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction (PTTD)  

MedlinePLUS

... ACFAS | Información en Español Advanced Search Home » Foot & Ankle Conditions » Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction (PTTD) Text Size ... the arch, and an inward rolling of the ankle. As the condition progresses, the symptoms will change. ...

165

Jogging Kinematics After Lumbar Paraspinal Muscle Fatigue  

PubMed Central

Abstract Context: Isolated lumbar paraspinal muscle fatigue causes lower extremity and postural control deficits. Objective: To describe the change in body position during gait after fatiguing lumbar extension exercises in persons with recurrent episodes of low back pain compared with healthy controls. Design: Case-control study. Setting: Motion analysis laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-five recreationally active participants with a history of recurrent episodes of low back pain, matched by sex, height, and mass with 25 healthy controls. Intervention(s): We measured 3-dimensional lower extremity and trunk kinematics before and after fatiguing isometric lumbar paraspinal exercise. Main Outcome Measure(s): Measurements were taken while participants jogged on a custom-built treadmill surrounded by a 10-camera motion analysis system. Results: Group-by-time interactions were observed for lumbar lordosis and trunk angles (P < .05). A reduced lumbar spine extension angle was noted, reflecting a loss of lordosis and an increase in trunk flexion angle, indicating increased forward trunk lean, in healthy controls after fatiguing lumbar extension exercise. In contrast, persons with a history of recurrent low back pain exhibited a slight increase in spine extension, indicating a slightly more lordotic position of the lumbar spine, and a decrease in trunk flexion angles after fatiguing exercise. Regardless of group, participants experienced, on average, greater peak hip extension after lumbar paraspinal fatigue. Conclusions: Small differences in response may represent a necessary adaptation used by persons with recurrent low back pain to preserve gait function by stabilizing the spine and preventing inappropriate trunk and lumbar spine positioning. PMID:19771285

Hart, Joseph M.; Kerrigan, D. Casey; Fritz, Julie M.; Ingersoll, Christopher D.

2009-01-01

166

Posterior skull surgery in craniosynostosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1984, two young infants with unusual “clover-leaf” patterns of skull deformity were treated by posterior skull-releasing surgery that dramatically improved their overall skull shape, to the extent that further operative intervention was not required. This focused our attention on the posterior skull and its role in craniosynostosis. In cases of multi-suture craniosynostosis and craniofacial syndromes severely raised intracranial pressure

S. Sgouros; J. H. Goldin; A. D. Hockley; M. J. C. Wake

1996-01-01

167

Cerebriform connective tissue nevus of lumbar.  

PubMed

Connective tissue nevi represents a kind of hamartoma, and coalescence of the lesions in a cerebriform mode in the lumbar region without Proteus syndrome is rarely seen. Here, we report a 26-year-old woman presenting with nodules and plaques in her left lumbar region of 26 years in duration. Histopathological examination and Masson-trichrome stain showed increased dermal collagen bundles in a haphazard array. The diagnosis of connective tissue nevi was made. This is the first case report on cerebriform connective tissue nevi without Proteus syndrome in the lumbar region. PMID:25512235

Chen, Jinbo; Chen, Liuqing; Duan, Yiqun; Li, Dongsheng; Dong, Bilin

2015-02-01

168

The importance of the anterior longitudinal ligament in lumbar disc arthroplasty: 36-Month follow-up experience in extreme lateral total disc replacement  

PubMed Central

Background Current total disc replacement (TDR) for lumbar spine requires an anterior approach for implantation but presents inherent limitations, including risks to the abdominal structures, as well as resection of the anterior longitudinal ligament. By approaching the spine laterally, it is possible to preserve the stabilizing ligaments, which are a natural restraint to excessive rotations and translations, and thereby help to minimize facet stresses. This less invasive approach also offers a biomechanical advantage of placement of the device over the ring apophysis bilaterally; importantly, it also offers a greater opportunity for safer revision surgery, if necessary, by avoiding scarring of the anterior vasculature. We present the clinical and radiologic results of a lateral TDR device from a prospective single-center study. Methods A new metal-on-metal TDR device designed for implantation through a true lateral, retroperitoneal, transpsoatic approach (extreme lateral interbody fusion) was implanted in 36 patients with discography-confirmed 1- or 2-level degenerative disc disease. Clinical (pain and function) and radiographic (range of motion) outcome assessments were prospectively collected preoperatively, postoperatively, and serially up to a minimum of 36 months’ follow-up. Results Between December 2005 and December 2006, 36 surgeries were performed in 16 men and 20 women (mean age, 42.6 years). These included 15 single-level TDR procedures at L3-4 or L4-5, 3 2-level TDR procedures spanning L3-4 and L4-5, and 18 hybrid procedures (anterior lumbar interbody fusion) at L5-S1 and TDR at L4-5 (17) or L3-4 (1). Operative time averaged 130 minutes, with mean blood loss of 60 mL and no intraoperative complications. Postoperative X-rays showed good device placement, with restoration of disc height, foraminal volume, and sagittal balance. All patients were up and walking within 12 hours of surgery, and all but 9 were discharged the next day (7 of those 9 were hybrid TDR–anterior lumbar interbody fusion cases). Postoperatively, 5 of 36 patients (13.8%) had psoas weakness and 3 of 36 (8.3%) had anterior thigh numbness, with both symptoms resolving within 2 weeks. Of the 36 patients, 4 (11%) had postoperative facet joint pain, all in hybrid cases. Visual analog scale pain scores and Oswestry Disability Index scores improved by 74.5% and 69.2%, respectively, from preoperatively to 3-year follow-up. Range of motion at 3 years postoperatively averaged 8.1°. Signals of heterotopic ossification were present in 5 patients (13.9%), and 2 patients (5.5%) were considered to have fusion after 36 months. Conclusions The clinical and radiographic results of a laterally placed TDR have shown maintenance of pain relief and functional improvement over a long-term follow-up period. The benefits of the lateral access—minimal morbidity, avoidance of mobilization of the great vessels, preservation of the anterior longitudinal ligament, biomechanically stable orientation, and broader revision options—promote a new option for motion-preservation procedures.

Marchi, Luis; Oliveira, Leonardo; Coutinho, Etevaldo; Pimenta, Luiz

2012-01-01

169

Pedicle subtraction osteotomy in the lumbar spine: indications, technical aspects, results and complications.  

PubMed

Pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) consists of creating posteriorly trapezoidal shape of a vertebra, usually L3 or L4, in order to recreate lordosis in the lumbar spine. It is usually indicated to treat rigid kyphotic lumbar spine associated with sagittal imbalance and due to degenerative changes or to iatrogenic flat back. PSO is technically demanding with high rates of complications and should be performed by experienced teams. We presently report our experience about PSO performed in the lumbar spine (below L1) through a series of 25 cases with a special focus on technical aspects and complications associated with the surgical procedure. Mean age was 64 ± 11 years old. PSO was performed at L4 in the majority of cases. Mean blood loss was 1,070 ± 470 ml, and mean duration of the surgery was 241 ± 44 min. VAS decreased from 7.5 ± 2 preoperatively to 3.2 ± 2.5 at 1 year, and ODI decreased from 64 ± 12 preoperatively to 32 ± 18 at 1 year, p < 0.05. Mean gain of lordosis after PSO varies from 20° to 40° and was measured to 27° ± 10° on average. Lumbar lordosis (T12-S1) was measured to 21° ± 10° preoperatively to 50° ± 11° postoperatively at 1 year, p < 0.05. A total of five major complications (20 %) were observed (two mechanical, one neurological and two infections) necessitating five reoperations. In conclusion, PSO was highly efficient to restore lumbar lordosis and correct sagittal imbalance. It was associated with a non-negligible, but acceptable rate of complications. To limit the risk of mechanical complications, we recommend fusing the adjacent disks whatever the approach (PLIF/TLIF/XLIF). Most complications can be reduced with adequate environment, informed anesthesiologists and experienced surgical team. PMID:24801680

Barrey, Cedric; Perrin, Gilles; Michel, Frederic; Vital, Jean-Marc; Obeid, Ibrahim

2014-07-01

170

[Occupation and lumbar disk prolapse].  

PubMed

All Danish occupational groups were screened for an increased risk of hospitalization due to a prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disc (PLID) (ICD-8: 725.11). A cohort of all gainfully employed Danes aged 20 to 59 years in 1981 was followed-up for 10 years for first hospitalization with PLID. A Standardized Hospitalization Ratio was calculated using all economically active persons as the reference group. Male groups with an elevated risk were found in building and construction, the iron and metal industry, in the food and nutrition sector and in occupational driving. Almost all groups of professional drivers had an elevated risk. Female groups with an elevated risk were mainly found in the same industries, but home helps, service workers in the private sector and sewing machine operators also had an elevated risk. We conclude that there are significant and systematic differences between occupational groups as concerns the risk of hospital admission due to PLID. PMID:7725550

Jensen, M V; Tüchsen, F

1995-03-13

171

Cauda equina syndrome resulting from lumbar arachnoiditis after intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage: a case report.  

PubMed

Spinal arachnoiditis is a known but very rare late complication of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Since 1943, 17 cases of spinal arachnoiditis after intracranial hemorrhage have been reported internationally. The vast majority of these cases were related to aneurysmal SAH. All previously published cases have involved spinal arachnoiditis at the cervical and thoracic levels. In this report, we present an adult woman with lumbar spinal arachnoiditis causing cauda equina syndrome as a result of posterior circulation aneurysmal SAH. We believe this is the first reported case of this specific condition causing cauda equina syndrome. PMID:23790823

Whetstone, Kirk E; Crane, Deborah A

2013-06-01

172

Transforaminal Decompression and Interbody Fusion in the Treatment of Thoracolumbar Fracture and Dislocation with Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Study Design A retrospective clinical study. Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of transforaminal decompression and interbody fusion in the treatment of thoracolumbar fracture and dislocation with spinal cord injury. Methods Twenty-six spinal cord injured patients with thoracolumbar fracture and dislocation were treated by transforaminal decompression and interbody fusion. The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, and complications were recorded; the Cobb angle and compressive rate (CR) of the anterior height of two adjacent vertebrae were measured; and the nerve injury was assessed according to sensory scores and motor scores of the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) standards for neurological classification of spinal cord injury. Results The operative time was 250±57 min, and intraoperative blood loss was 440±168 ml. Cerebrospinal leakage was detected and repaired during the operation in two patients. A total of 24 of 26 patients were followed up for more than 2 years. ASIA sensory scores and motor scores were improved significantly at 3 months and 6 months after operation; the Cobb angle and CR of the anterior height of two adjacent vertebrae were corrected and showed a significant difference at post-operation; and the values were maintained at 3 months after operation and the last follow-up. Conclusion We showed that transforaminal decompression together with interbody fusion is an alternative method to treat thoracolumbar fracture and dislocation. PMID:25148221

Wu, Ai-Min; Zheng, Yi-Jing; Lin, Yan; Wu, Yao-Sen; Mao, Fang-Min; Ni, Wen-Fei; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Xu, Hua-Zi

2014-01-01

173

Spontaneous resolution of lumbar vertebral eosinophilic granuloma.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic granuloma (EG) is a rare disease but is more common in adults than children. It's often self-limiting. Spinal involvement is rare. It is the localized and most benign form of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (previously known as histiocytosis X), characterised by lytic lesions in one or more bones. Spontaneous resolution of vertebral body lesions is very rare. In this case, the patient had one EG in a cervical vertebra and a similar lesion in a lumbar vertebra. This case is important because it featured a symptomatic lesion in the cervical spine accompanied by an asymptomatic lesion in a lumbar vertebra. We treated the cervical lesion by surgical fusion and followed the lumbar lesion up conservatively, with the patient in a corset. After 8 years of follow-up, control MRI showed that the lumbar lesion had spontaneously resolved. PMID:14963750

Bavbek, M; Atalay, B; Altinörs, N; Caner, H

2004-02-01

174

Lumbar Epidural Varix Mimicking Perineural Cyst  

PubMed Central

Lumbar epidural varices are rare and usually mimick lumbar disc herniations. Back pain and radiculopathy are the main symptoms of lumbar epidural varices. Perineural cysts are radiologically different lesions and should not be confused with epidural varix. A 36-year-old male patient presented to us with right leg pain. The magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic lesion at S1 level that was compressing the right root, and was interpreted as a perineural cyst. The patient underwent surgery via right L5 and S1 hemilaminectomy, and the lesion was coagulated and removed. The histopathological diagnosis was epidural varix. The patient was clinically improved and the follow-up magnetic resonance imaging showed the absence of the lesion. Lumbar epidural varix should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of the cystic lesions which compress the spinal roots. PMID:23741553

Pusat, Serhat; Kural, Cahit; Aslanoglu, Atilla; Kurt, Bulent

2013-01-01

175

The effect of complex training on the children with all of the deformities including forward head, rounded shoulder posture, and lumbar lordosis  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of complex training on children with the deformities including forward head, rounded shoulder posture, and lumbar lordosis. The complex training program was performed for 6 month three times per week. The complex training improved posture as measured by forward head angle (FHA), forward shoulder angle (FSA), and angle between anterior superior iliac spine and posterior superior iliac spine (APA). In the present results, complex training might overcome vertebral deformity through decreasing forward head, rounded shoulder posture, and lumbar lordosis and increasing flexibility in the children. PMID:25061597

Park, Hae-Chan; Kim, Yang-Soo; Seok, Sang-Hun; Lee, Soo-Kyung

2014-01-01

176

Enhanced prolylhydroxylase activity in the posterior annulus fibrosus of canine intervertebral discs following long-term running exercise.  

PubMed

The effect of long-term excercise on the intervertebral disc collagen concentration (hydroxyproline), collagen-synthesizing enzymes (prolyl-4-hydroxylase, PH, and galactosyl-hydroxylysyl glucosyltransferase, GGT) and hydroxypyridinium crosslinks was studied in ten female beagle dogs. The dogs were run on a treadmill for 1 year starting at the age of 15 weeks. The daily running distance was gradually increased to 40km, which distance the dogs ran for the final 15 weeks. Ten untrained dogs from the same breeding colony served as controls. The nucleus pulposus and anterior and posterior halves of the annulus fibrosus of C2-3, T10-12, L4-5 disc segments were analysed. Crosslinks were measured from the anterior annulus fibrosus of the T10-11 disc. Hydroxyproline and hydroxypyridinium concentrations remained similar in both groups. PH and GGT were significantly elevated by running in the posterior annulus fibrosus of the thoracic and lumbar discs and in the lumbar nucleus pulposus. In the thoracic nucleus pulposus GGT was reduced significantly. The results suggest activated collagen metabolism in the posterior annulus fibrosus of the thoracic and lumbar discs as a result of locally increased strains on the spine. PMID:20058463

Puustjärvi, K; Takala, T; Wang, W; Tammi, M; Helminen, H J; Kovanen, V

1993-10-01

177

Posteroanterior versus anteroposterior lumbar spine radiology  

SciTech Connect

The posteroanterior view of the lumbar spine has important features including radiation protection and image quality; these have been studied by various investigators. Investigators have shown that sensitive tissues receive less radiation dosage in the posteroanterior view of the spine for scoliosis screening and intracranial tomography without altering the image quality. This paper emphasizes the importance of the radiation safety aspect of the posteroanterior view and shows the improvement in shape distortion in the lumbar vertebrae.

Tsuno, M.M.; Shu, G.J. (Cleveland Chiropractic College, Los Angeles, CA (USA))

1990-03-01

178

Decisive factor in increase of loading at adjacent segments after lumbar fusion: operative technique, pedicle screws, or fusion itself: biomechanical analysis using finite element  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to investigate the change in biomechanical milieu following removal of pedicle screws or removal of spinous process with posterior ligament complex in instrumented single level lumbar arthrodesis. We developed and validated a finite element model (FEM) of the intact lumbar spine (L2-4). Four scenarios of L3-4 lumbar fusion were simulated: posterolateral fusion (PLF) at L3-4 using pedicle screw system with preservation of PLC (Pp WiP), L3-4 lumbar posterolateral fusion state after removal of pedicle screw system with preservation of PLC (Pp WoP), L3-4 using pedicle screw system without preservation PLC (Sp WiP), L3-4 lumbar posterolateral fusion state after removal of pedicle screw system without preservation of PLC (Sp WoP). For these models, we investigated the range of motion and maximal Von mises stress of disc in all segments under various moments. All fusion models demonstrated increase in range of motion at adjacent segments compared to the intact model.For the four fusion models, the WiP model s P had the largest increase in range of motion at each adjacent segment. This study demonstrated that removal of pedicle screw system and preservation of PLC after complete lumbar spinal fusion could reduce the stress of adjacent segments synergistically and might have beneficial effects in preventing ASD.

Park, Joon-Hee; Kim, Ho-Joong; Kang, Kyoung-Tak; Kim, Ka-yeon; Chun, Heoung-Jae; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Lee, Hwan-Mo

2010-03-01

179

Decisive factor in increase of loading at adjacent segments after lumbar fusion: operative technique, pedicle screws, or fusion itself: biomechanical analysis using finite element  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to investigate the change in biomechanical milieu following removal of pedicle screws or removal of spinous process with posterior ligament complex in instrumented single level lumbar arthrodesis. We developed and validated a finite element model (FEM) of the intact lumbar spine (L2-4). Four scenarios of L3-4 lumbar fusion were simulated: posterolateral fusion (PLF) at L3-4 using pedicle screw system with preservation of PLC (Pp WiP), L3-4 lumbar posterolateral fusion state after removal of pedicle screw system with preservation of PLC (Pp WoP), L3-4 using pedicle screw system without preservation PLC (Sp WiP), L3-4 lumbar posterolateral fusion state after removal of pedicle screw system without preservation of PLC (Sp WoP). For these models, we investigated the range of motion and maximal Von mises stress of disc in all segments under various moments. All fusion models demonstrated increase in range of motion at adjacent segments compared to the intact model.For the four fusion models, the WiP model s P had the largest increase in range of motion at each adjacent segment. This study demonstrated that removal of pedicle screw system and preservation of PLC after complete lumbar spinal fusion could reduce the stress of adjacent segments synergistically and might have beneficial effects in preventing ASD.

Park, Joon-Hee; Kim, Ho-Joong; Kang, Kyoung-Tak; Kim, Ka-Yeon; Chun, Heoung-Jae; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Lee, Hwan-Mo

2009-12-01

180

Posterior polar cataract: A review.  

PubMed

Posterior polar cataract is a rare form of congenital cataract. It is usually inherited as an autosomal dominant disease, yet it can be sporadic. Five genes have been attributed to the formation of this disease. It is highly associated with complications during surgery, such as posterior capsule rupture and nucleus drop. The reason for this high complication rate is the strong adherence of the opacity to the weak posterior capsule. Different surgical strategies were described for the handling of this challenging entity, most of which emphasized the need for gentle maneuvering in dealing with these cases. It has a unique clinical appearance that should not be missed in order to anticipate, avoid, and minimize the impact of the complications associated with it. PMID:23960967

Kalantan, Hatem

2012-01-01

181

[Treatment of posterior positional plagiocephaly].  

PubMed

In 1992, the American academy of paediatrics has recommended that infants be placed on their backs to sleep, because prone sleeping has been correlated with sudden infant death syndrome. Following this article, medical paediatric community has documented an exponential increase in the diagnosis of posterior cranial deformities, which were considered as the consequence of unrelieved pressure onto the occiput during infant sleep. These last 15 years, management of posterior positional plagiocephaly has evolved but is still not standardized; it varies according to local specificities, and medical or parental preferences. Treatment of deformational plagiocephaly includes preventive counseling, repositioning adjustments and exercises, physiotherapy, osteopathy, treatment by dynamic cranial orthosis. On extremely rare occasions, corrective surgery is proposed. This article aims at reviewing the epidemiologic, diagnostic, and various therapeutic options of posterior positional plagiocephaly. PMID:18952411

Vernet, O; de Ribaupierre, S; Cavin, B; Rilliet, B

2008-12-01

182

Co-occurrence of lumbar spondylolysis and lumbar disc herniation with lumbosacral nerve root anomaly  

PubMed Central

Lumbosacral nerve root anomalies are the leading cause of lumbar surgery failures. Although co-occurrence of lumbar spondylolysis and disc herniation is common, it is very rare to observe that a nerve root anomaly accompanies these lesions. A 49-year-old male patient presented with sudden-onset right leg pain. Examinations revealed L5/S1 lumbar spondylolysis and disc herniation. At preoperative period, he was also diagnosed with lumbosacral root anomaly. Following discectomy and root decompression, stabilization was performed. The complaints of the patient diagnosed with lumbosacral root anomaly at intraoperative period were improved at postoperative period. It should be remembered that in patients with lumbar disc herniation and spondylolysis, lumbar root anomalies may coexist when clinical and neurological picture is severe. Preoperative and perioperative assessments should be made meticulously to prevent neurological injury. PMID:25210343

Y?lmaz, Tevfik; Turan, Yahya; Gül?en, ?smail; Dalbayrak, Sedat

2014-01-01

183

Decreased posterior tibial slope increases strain in the posterior cruciate ligament following total knee arthroplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to measure the strain in the posterior cruciate ligament as a function of knee flexion angle and posterior tibial slope following total knee arthroplasty with a posterior cruciate ligament-retaining design. Posterior cruciate ligament strain was measured in seven fresh-frozen cadavers for posterior tibial slopes of 10°, 8°, and 5°. For all three levels of

Robert Singerman; John C. Dean; Hector D. Pagan; Victor M. Goldberg

1996-01-01

184

Predictable Factors for Dural Tears in Lumbar Burst Fractures with Vertical Laminar Fractures  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of the present study was to determine the incidence of dural tears and predictable factors suggesting dural tears in patients who had lumbar burst fractures with vertical laminar fractures. Methods A retrospective review was done on thirty-one patients who underwent operative treatment for lumbar burst fractures with vertical laminar fractures between January 2003 and December 2008. All patients were divided into two groups according to existence of dural tears, which were surgically confirmed; 21 patients with dural tears and 10 patients without dural tears. Clinical and radiographic findings were analyzed for their association with dural tears. Results Among a total of 31 patients, dural tears were detected in 21 (67%) patients. A preoperative neurological deficits and mean separation distances of the edges in laminar fractures were found to be the reliable factors of dural tears (p=0.001 and 0.002, respectively). Decreased ratio of the central canal diameter and interpedicular distance were also the reliable factors suggesting dural tears (p=0.006 and 0.015, respectively). However, dural tears showed no significant association with age, sex, level of injury, absence of a posterior fat pad signal, the angle of retropulsed segment, or site of laminar fracture. Conclusion Our study of lumbar burst fracture combined laminar fracture revealed that dural tears should be ruled out in cases of a preoperative neurological deficits, wide separation of the laminar fracture, severe canal encroachment, and wider interpedicular distance. PMID:21892398

Park, Jin-Kyu; Park, Jin-Woo; Sung, Joo-Kyung

2011-01-01

185

Stereolithography for Posterior Fossa Cranioplasty  

PubMed Central

Posterior fossa cranioplasty has been suggested for improvement of neurological symptoms following craniectomy. However, there is no particular recommendation in the literature about techniques for prosthesis manufacture and implantation. We report our experience using rapid prototyping technology and stereolithography for pre-surgical implant design and production of cranioplasties. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:17171056

Agner, Celso; Dujovny, Manuel; Evenhouse, Raymond; Charbel, Fady T.; Sadler, Lewis

1998-01-01

186

49 CFR 572.115 - Lumbar spine and pelvis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Side Impact Hybrid Dummy 50th Percentile Male § 572.115 Lumbar spine and pelvis. The specifications and test procedure for the lumbar...

2010-10-01

187

Minimally invasive procedures on the lumbar spine.  

PubMed

Degenerative disease of the lumbar spine is a common and increasingly prevalent condition that is often implicated as the primary reason for chronic low back pain and the leading cause of disability in the western world. Surgical management of lumbar degenerative disease has historically been approached by way of open surgical procedures aimed at decompressing and/or stabilizing the lumbar spine. Advances in technology and surgical instrumentation have led to minimally invasive surgical techniques being developed and increasingly used in the treatment of lumbar degenerative disease. Compared to the traditional open spine surgery, minimally invasive techniques require smaller incisions and decrease approach-related morbidity by avoiding muscle crush injury by self-retaining retractors, preventing the disruption of tendon attachment sites of important muscles at the spinous processes, using known anatomic neurovascular and muscle planes, and minimizing collateral soft-tissue injury by limiting the width of the surgical corridor. The theoretical benefits of minimally invasive surgery over traditional open surgery include reduced blood loss, decreased postoperative pain and narcotics use, shorter hospital length of stay, faster recover and quicker return to work and normal activity. This paper describes the different minimally invasive techniques that are currently available for the treatment of degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. PMID:25610845

Skovrlj, Branko; Gilligan, Jeffrey; Cutler, Holt S; Qureshi, Sheeraz A

2015-01-16

188

Minimally invasive procedures on the lumbar spine  

PubMed Central

Degenerative disease of the lumbar spine is a common and increasingly prevalent condition that is often implicated as the primary reason for chronic low back pain and the leading cause of disability in the western world. Surgical management of lumbar degenerative disease has historically been approached by way of open surgical procedures aimed at decompressing and/or stabilizing the lumbar spine. Advances in technology and surgical instrumentation have led to minimally invasive surgical techniques being developed and increasingly used in the treatment of lumbar degenerative disease. Compared to the traditional open spine surgery, minimally invasive techniques require smaller incisions and decrease approach-related morbidity by avoiding muscle crush injury by self-retaining retractors, preventing the disruption of tendon attachment sites of important muscles at the spinous processes, using known anatomic neurovascular and muscle planes, and minimizing collateral soft-tissue injury by limiting the width of the surgical corridor. The theoretical benefits of minimally invasive surgery over traditional open surgery include reduced blood loss, decreased postoperative pain and narcotics use, shorter hospital length of stay, faster recover and quicker return to work and normal activity. This paper describes the different minimally invasive techniques that are currently available for the treatment of degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. PMID:25610845

Skovrlj, Branko; Gilligan, Jeffrey; Cutler, Holt S; Qureshi, Sheeraz A

2015-01-01

189

Successful operative management of an upper lumbar spinal canal stenosis resulting in multilevel lower nerve root radiculopathy.  

PubMed

Lumbar stenosis is a common disorder, usually characterized clinically by neurogenic claudication with or without lumbar/sacral radiculopathy corresponding to the level of stenosis. We present a case of lumbar stenosis manifesting as a multilevel radiculopathy inferior to the nerve roots at the level of the stenosis. A 55-year-old gentleman presented with bilateral lower extremity pain with neurogenic claudication in an L5/S1 distribution (posterior thigh, calf, into the foot) concomitant with dorsiflexion and plantarflexion weakness. Imaging revealed grade I spondylolisthesis of L3 on L4 with severe spinal canal stenosis at L3-L4, mild left L4-L5 disc herniation, no stenosis at L5-S1, and no instability. EMG revealed active and chronic L5 and S1 radiculopathy. The patient underwent bilateral L3-L4 hemilaminotomy with left L4-L5 microdiscectomy for treatment of his L3-L4 stenosis. Postoperatively, he exhibited significant improvement in dorsiflexion and plantarflexion. The L5-S1 level was not involved in the operative decompression. Patients with radiculopathy and normal imaging at the level corresponding to the radiculopathy should not be ruled out for operative intervention should they have imaging evidence of lumbar stenosis superior to the expected affected level. PMID:25552866

McClelland, Shearwood; Kim, Stefan S

2015-01-01

190

Successful operative management of an upper lumbar spinal canal stenosis resulting in multilevel lower nerve root radiculopathy  

PubMed Central

Lumbar stenosis is a common disorder, usually characterized clinically by neurogenic claudication with or without lumbar/sacral radiculopathy corresponding to the level of stenosis. We present a case of lumbar stenosis manifesting as a multilevel radiculopathy inferior to the nerve roots at the level of the stenosis. A 55-year-old gentleman presented with bilateral lower extremity pain with neurogenic claudication in an L5/S1 distribution (posterior thigh, calf, into the foot) concomitant with dorsiflexion and plantarflexion weakness. Imaging revealed grade I spondylolisthesis of L3 on L4 with severe spinal canal stenosis at L3-L4, mild left L4-L5 disc herniation, no stenosis at L5-S1, and no instability. EMG revealed active and chronic L5 and S1 radiculopathy. The patient underwent bilateral L3-L4 hemilaminotomy with left L4-L5 microdiscectomy for treatment of his L3-L4 stenosis. Postoperatively, he exhibited significant improvement in dorsiflexion and plantarflexion. The L5-S1 level was not involved in the operative decompression. Patients with radiculopathy and normal imaging at the level corresponding to the radiculopathy should not be ruled out for operative intervention should they have imaging evidence of lumbar stenosis superior to the expected affected level. PMID:25552866

McClelland, Shearwood; Kim, Stefan S.

2015-01-01

191

Lumbar shape characterization of the neural arch and vertebral body in spondylolysis: A comparative skeletal study.  

PubMed

The lumbar vertebral shape is an important causative factor in spondylolysis (SP). However, a complete characterization of this shape, that would shed light on its pathophysiology enhance its earlier diagnosis, is still missing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the shape distinctiveness of the lumbar (L1-L5) vertebral body (VB) and neural arch (isthmus, lamina, vertebral canal, spinous, and transverse processes) in SP. Using a three-dimensional (3D) digitizer, the VB length, width, height, and sagittal wedging as well as the lengths of the isthmus, lamina spinous, and transverse processes of all lumbar vertebrae (L1-L5) were measured from 115 male skeletons with bilateral SP at L5 and compared with 120 normal ones. Compared with the normal group, the following results were indicated in SP [analysis of variance (ANOVA), P < 0.05]: the VB's are significantly longer at the superior surfaces of L1-L4 and inferior surfaces of L1-L3 (total mean difference = 7.61 mm and 3.94 mm, respectively), and wider at the superior surfaces of L1-L4 and inferior surfaces of L1-L5 (total mean difference = 10.06 mm and 12.90 mm, respectively); The L5 VB is significantly shorter posteriorly (mean difference = 3.05 mm) and more lordotic (+1° of dorsal wedging); L5 is manifested with longer lamina (mean difference = 1.85-2.18 mm), longer isthmus (mean difference = 3.24-4.69 mm), and longer and wider vertebral canal (mean differences = 3.64 mm and 1.13 mm, respectively); The L2-L5 spinous processes are significantly longer (total mean difference = 7.45 mm). Clinically, detecting the aforementioned unique lumbar vertebral morphometric features in individuals suffering from chronic low back pain may facilitate the early diagnosis of SP. PMID:21647967

Masharawi, Y

2012-03-01

192

Arthroscopic discectomy and interbody fusion of the thoracic spine: A report of ipsilateral 2-portal approach  

PubMed Central

Background The standard approach to the thoracic disc is through thoracotomy. The video-assisted thoracoscopic approach has been used as an alternative to the open approach for nearly 20 years, and more recently, extracavitary, posterolateral approaches have been introduced. Both the transthoracic procedures involve deflating the lung for access to the spine, and postoperative thoracic drainage is necessary; postoperative morbidity can be significant. The retropleural procedures are in their infancy, but the published results are promising. The purpose of this study is to introduce the posterolateral arthroscopic thoracic decompression and fusion procedure, which is extrapleural, less disruptive to normal anatomy, and cost-effective. Methods Fifteen consecutive patients who underwent arthroscopic decompression and interbody fusion of the thoracic spine were prospectively studied according to the hospital's institutional review board protocol. The Short Form 36 and visual analog scale questionnaires were completed preoperatively and postoperatively. Paired t tests were used for statistical analysis. The patient was placed in the prone position on a radiolucent table, and instrumentation was performed under fluoroscopic control. Two portals were developed ipsilaterally (one for the arthroscope and the other for instruments) on the side of disc herniation, and a single portal was used on the contralateral side. Various instruments were used for disc excision and exploration of the spinal canal. Fusion was accomplished with bilateral corticocancellous dowels obtained from the iliac crests. Infiltration of the access channel and facet injections of the contiguous joints were performed with bupivacaine, for immediate postoperative pain control. Results Fifteen patients with a mean age of 54 years were followed up for 28 months postoperatively. The overall back pain score decreased from 7.2 (SD, 1.5) to 3 (SD, 2) after the procedure (P < .005). Eleven patients were satisfied with their current lifestyle postoperatively as opposed to one preoperatively. Two patients had reoccurrences. Hospital stay averaged 18.5 hours. The operating room cost and the cost of hospital stay was 51.9% of the cost of anterior open discectomy. Conclusions The extrapleural, biportal, ipsilateral arthroscopic approach for the decompression and interbody fusion of the thoracic spine is feasible, cost-effective, less traumatic, and associated with minimal complications. The best results were obtained in patients with single-level thoracic disc herniation. The technique is applicable for most thoracic disc herniations.

Osman, Said G.; Schwartz, Jeremy A.; Marsolais, E. B.

2012-01-01

193

Anterior and posterior variations in mechanical properties of human vertebrae measured by nanoindentation.  

PubMed

Osteoporotic spinal fractures are a significant global public health issue affecting more than 200 million people. Local degradation of the mechanical properties of bone and changes in global spine curvature increase fracture risk. However, a gap in knowledge exists relating material properties of trabecular bone in different regions of the spine. The purpose of our project was to measure the intrinsic mechanical properties of the anterior and posterior regions of human vertebral bodies in the thoracic and lumbar spine. Nanoindentation was used to evaluate Young's modulus (E) and hardness (H) of anterior and posterior trabecular bone regions from each vertebra (T7, T8 and L4). One-way ANOVA and the Turkey-Kramer test were used to analyze significance between vertebrae and t-test was used to test for significance within vertebrae. There was no difference in (E) and (H) within vertebrae. Young's modulus in the anterior regions of T7 (19.8±1.3) and T8 (19.6±1.4) were statistically greater than that in L4 (17.6±0.5). There was no difference between the posterior regions of all the vertebrae. There was a statistical significant difference in hardness between the anterior regions of T7 and T8 compared to L4, while the posterior regions demonstrated no difference. The results presented in this study, for the first time, reveal the differences in bone properties between the kyphotic thoracic spine and lordotic lumbar spine regions. This information will be helpful in understanding vertebral body remodeling and adaption in different regions of the spine which may be associated with spinal curvature and loading conditions. PMID:23182219

Giambini, Hugo; Wang, Hua-Jun; Zhao, Chunfeng; Chen, Qingshan; Nassr, Ahmad; An, Kai-Nan

2013-02-01

194

Anterior and Posterior Variations in Mechanical Properties of Human Vertebrae Measured by Nanoindentation  

PubMed Central

Osteoporotic spinal fractures are a significant global public health issue affecting more than 200 million people. Local degradation of the mechanical properties of bone and changes in global spine curvature increase fracture risk. However, a gap in knowledge exists relating material properties of trabecular bone in different regions of the spine. The purpose of our project was to measure the intrinsic mechanical properties of the anterior and posterior regions of human vertebral bodies in the thoracic and lumbar spine. Nanoindentation was used to evaluate Young’s modulus (E) and hardness (H) of anterior and posterior trabecular bone regions from each vertebra (T7, T8 and L4). One-way ANOVA and the Turkey-Kramer test were used to analyze significance between vertebrae and t-test was used to test for significance within vertebrae. There was no difference in (E) and (H) within vertebrae. Young’s modulus in the anterior regions of T7 (19.8 ± 1.3) and T8 (19.6 ± 1.4) were statistically greater than that in L4 (17.6 ± 0.5). There was no difference between the posterior regions of all vertebrae. There was a statistical significant difference in hardness between the anterior regions of T7 and T8 compared to L4, while the posterior regions demonstrated no difference. The results presented in this study, for the first time, reveal the differences in bone properties between the kyphotic thoracic spine and lordotic lumbar spine regions. This information will be helpful in understanding vertebral body remodeling and adaption in different regions of the spine which may be associated with spinal curvature and loading conditions. PMID:23182219

Giambini, Hugo; Wang, Hua-Jun; Zhao, Chunfeng; Chen, Qingshan; Nassr, Ahmad; An, Kai-Nan

2012-01-01

195

Diagnostic value of the lumbar extension-loading test in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The gait-loading test is a well known, important test with which to assess the involved spinal level in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. The lumbar extension-loading test also functions as a diagnostic loading test in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis; however, its efficacy remains uncertain. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic value of the lumbar extension-loading test with that of the gait-loading test in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. Methods A total of 116 consecutive patients (62 men and 54 women) diagnosed with lumbar spinal stenosis were included in this cross-sectional study of the lumbar extension-loading test. Subjective symptoms and objective neurological findings (motor, sensory, and reflex) were examined before and after the lumbar extension-loading and gait-loading tests. The efficacy of the lumbar extension-loading test for establishment of a correct diagnosis of the involved spinal level was assessed and compared with that of the gait-loading test. Results There were no significant differences between the lumbar extension-loading test and the gait-loading test in terms of subjective symptoms, objective neurological findings, or changes in the involved spinal level before and after each loading test. Conclusions The lumbar extension-loading test is useful for assessment of lumbar spinal stenosis pathology and is capable of accurately determining the involved spinal level. PMID:25080292

2014-01-01

196

Iatrogenic lumbar meningocoele: report of three cases  

PubMed Central

We have reported three cases of iatrogenic lumbar meningocoeles after surgery for herniated lumbar intervertebral discs. We reject the term spurious, pseudo, or false as given by earlier writers. We feel that, in reality, these sacs are true meningocoeles, with complete arachnoidal lining and freely communicating with the intraspinal subarachnoid space. We have also given a brief outline of the clinical features, elucidated the mechanisms operative in the production of symptoms, and suggested the cardinal features of radiographic diagnosis. Prevention is, of course, the best way to avoid this complication. If a dural tear does occur, every effort should be made to suture it in a watertight manner. Images PMID:4918460

Rinaldi, Italo; Hodges, Thomas O.

1970-01-01

197

Posterior cruciate ligament of the knee (image)  

MedlinePLUS

The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is a powerful ligament extending from the top-rear surface of the tibia to the bottom-front surface of the femur. The ligament prevents the knee joint from posterior instability.

198

Short anterior correction of the thoracolumbar/lumbar curve in King 1 idiopathic scoliosis: the behaviour of the instrumented and non-instrumented curves and the trunk balance  

PubMed Central

This is a retrospective clinical, radiological and patient outcome assessment of 21 consecutive patients with King 1 idiopathic adolescent scoliosis treated by short anterior selective fusion of the major thoracolumbar/lumbar (TL/L) curve. Three-dimensional changes of both curves, changes in trunk balance and rib hump were evaluated. The minimal follow-up was 24 months (max. 83). The Cobb angle of the TL/L curve was 52° (45–67°) with a flexibility of 72% (40–100%). The average length of the main curve was 5 (3–8) segments. An average of 3 (2–4) segments was fused using rigid single rod implants with side-loading screws. The Cobb angle of the thoracic curve was 33° (18–50°) with a flexibility of 69% (29–100%). The thoracic curve in bending was less than 20° in 17 patients, and 20–25° in 4 patients. In the TL/L curve there was an improvement of the Cobb angle of 67%, of the apex vertebral rotation of 51% and of the apex vertebral translation of 74%. The Cobb angle of the thoracic curve improved 29% spontaneously. Shoulder balance improved significantly from an average preoperative imbalance of 14.5–3.1 mm at the last follow-up. Seventy-five percent of the patients with preoperative positive shoulder imbalance (higher on the side of the thoracic curve) had levelled shoulders at the last follow-up. C7 offset improved from a preoperative 19.8 (0–40) to 4.8 (0–18) mm at the last follow-up. There were no significant changes in rotation, translation of the thoracic curve and the clinical rib hump. There were no significant changes in thoracic kyphosis or lumbar lordosis. The average score of the SRS-24 questionnaire at the last follow-up was 91 points (max. 120). We conclude that short anterior selective fusion of the TL/L curve in King 1 scoliosis with a thoracic curve bending to 25° or less (Type 5 according to Lenke classification) results in a satisfactory correction and a balanced spine. Short fusions leave enough mobile lumbar segments for the establishment of global spinal balance. A positive shoulder imbalance is not a contraindication for this procedure. Structural interbody grafts are not necessary to maintain lumbar lordosis. PMID:16544158

Hahn, Frederik; Ziebarth, Kai

2006-01-01

199

Nanotherapy for posterior eye diseases.  

PubMed

It is assumed that more than 50% of the most enfeebling ocular diseases have their origin in the posterior segment. Furthermore, most of these diseases lead to partial or complete blindness, if left untreated. After cancer, blindness is the second most dreaded disease world over. However, treatment of posterior eye diseases is more challenging than the anterior segment ailments due to a series of anatomical barriers and physiological constraints confronted for delivery to this segment. In this regard, nanostructured drug delivery systems are proposed to defy ocular barriers, target retina, and act as permeation enhancers in addition to providing a controlled release. Since an important step towards developing effective treatment strategies is to understand the course or a route a drug molecule needs to follow to reach the target site, the first part of the present review discusses various pathways available for effective delivery to and clearance from the posterior eye. Promise held by nanocarrier systems, viz. liposomes, nanoparticles, and nanoemulsion, for effective delivery and selective targeting is also discussed with illustrative examples, tables, and flowcharts. However, the applicability of these nanocarrier systems as self-administration ocular drops is still an unrealized dream which is in itself a huge technological challenge. PMID:24862316

Kaur, Indu Pal; Kakkar, Shilpa

2014-11-10

200

An optimization study of the screw orientation on the interfacial strength of the anterior lumbar plate system using neurogenetic algorithms and experimental validation.  

PubMed

Anterior lumbar plate (ALP) systems have been widely used as an effective interbody fusion device for treating spinal cord compression. However, clinical complications, such as implant loosening and breakage, still occur. Past studies have investigated the effects of the screw orientation on the interfacial strength, but these studies were inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to identify an ALP system with excellent interfacial strength by varying the screw orientation. Three-dimensional finite element models of L4-L5 segments with an ALP system were first constructed. A neurogenetic algorithm, which combines artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms, was subsequently developed to discover the optimum plate design. Finally, biomechanical tests were conducted to validate the results of the finite element models and the engineering algorithm. The results indicated that the interfacial strength of the optimum plate design obtained using the neurogenetic algorithm was excellent compared with the other designs and that all of the locking screws should be inserted divergently. Both the numerical and experimental outcomes can provide clinical suggestions to surgeons and help them to understand the interfacial strength of ALP systems in terms of the screw orientation. PMID:25162521

Lee, Chian-Her; Hsu, Ching-Chi; Huy, Dinh Cong

2014-11-01

201

Midsagittal Anatomy of Lumbar Lordosis in Adult Egyptians: MRI Study  

PubMed Central

Despite the increasing recognition of the functional and clinical importance of lumbar lordosis, little is known about its description, particularly in Egypt. At the same time, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been introduced as a noninvasive diagnostic technique. The aim of this study was to investigate the anatomy of the lumbar lordosis using midsagittal MRIs. Normal lumbar spine MRIs obtained from 93 individuals (46 males, 47 females; 25–57 years old) were evaluated retrospectively. The lumbar spine curvature and its segments “vertebrae and discs” were described and measured. The lumbar lordosis angle (LLA) was larger in females than in males. Its mean values increased by age. The lumbar height (LH) was longer in males than in females. At the same time, the lumbar breadth (LB) was higher in females than in males. Lumbar index (LI?=?LB/LH?×?100) showed significant gender differences (P < 0.0001). Lordosis was formed by wedging of intervertebral discs and bodies of lower lumbar vertebrae. In conclusion, MRI might clearly reveal the anatomy of the lumbar lordosis. Use of LI in association with LLA could be useful in evaluation of lumbar lordosis. PMID:25210630

Hegazy, Abdelmonem A.; Hegazy, Raafat A.

2014-01-01

202

Anterior cervical interbody constructs: effect of a repetitive compressive force on the endplate.  

PubMed

Graft subsidence following anterior cervical reconstruction can result in the loss of sagittal balance and recurring foraminal stenosis. This study examined the implant-endplate interface using a cyclic fatigue loading protocol in an attempt to model the subsidence seen in vivo. The superior endplate from 30 cervical vertebrae (C3 to T1) were harvested and biomechanically tested in axial compression with one of three implants: Fibular allograft; titanium mesh cage packed with cancellous chips; and trabecular metal. Each construct was cyclically loaded from 50 to 250?N for 10,000 cycles. Nondestructive cyclic loading of the cervical endplate-implant construct resulted in a stiffer construct independent of the type of the interbody implant tested. The trabecular metal construct demonstrated significantly more axial stability and significantly less subsidence in comparison to the titanium mesh construct. Although the allograft construct resulted in more subsidence than the trabecular metal construct, the difference was not significant and no difference was found when comparing axial stability. For all constructs, the majority of the subsidence during the cyclic testing occurred during the first 500 cycles and was followed by a more gradual settling in the remaining 9,500 cycles. PMID:22002745

Ordway, Nathaniel R; Rim, Byeong Cheol; Tan, Rong; Hickman, Rebecca; Fayyazi, Amir H

2012-04-01

203

Lumbar Morphometry: A Study of Lumbar Vertebrae from a Pakistani Population Using Computed Tomography Scans  

PubMed Central

Study Design A cross-sectional study. Purpose To describe the characteristics of lumbar vertebrae of Pakistani patients reporting at a tertiary care hospital and compare with studies from other populations. Overview of Literature Several studies have been conducted to determine morphometry of lumbar vertebrae. Most of the studies involve Caucasian populations, still data on other populations still sparse. This is the first study describing lumbar morphometry of a Pakistani population. Methods An observational study was conducted based on a review of thin-cut (3 mm) computed topographic images of lumbar vertebrae. Two-hundred and twenty vertebrae from forty-nine patients were studied, and various dimensions were analyzed. Results Generally, the size of the vertebrae, vertebral canals and recesses were found to be greater in male patients. The difference was statistically significant for transverse and anteroposterior diameters of the vertebral bodies and sagittal diameter of pedicles on the left side (p<0.05). Comparison of populations revealed statistically significant differences in pedicle dimensions between Pakistani population and others. Conclusions This study provides anatomical knowledge of the lumbar region in a sample population of Pakistan. There were significant differences in various dimensions of lumbar vertebrae between female and male patients. This would prove to be critical for performing a safe operation. PMID:25187858

Alam, Muhammad M; Waqas, Muhammad; Shallwani, Hussain

2014-01-01

204

Developing skilled performance of lumbar spine manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To quantify elements of spinal manipulation therapy performance and to test the strategy of combined rehearsal and quantitative feedback as a means of enhancing student skill development. Design: Randomized, controlled study. Setting: Chiropractic college. Subjects: Thirty-nine chiropractic student volunteers entering the manipulation technique training course participated after providing informed consent. Methods: Student performance of lumbar spinal manipulation therapy was

John J. Triano; Carolyn M. Rogers; Sarah Combs; David Potts; Kenneth Sorrels

2002-01-01

205

Ontogeny of Androgen Receptor Immunoreactivity in Lumbar  

E-print Network

Ontogeny of Androgen Receptor Immunoreactivity in Lumbar Motoneurons and in the Sexually Dimorphic, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1527 ABSTRACT We documented the ontogeny of androgen retrodorsolat- eral nucleus (RDLN). We also assessed the ontogeny of AR immunoreactivity in the rat sexually

Breedlove, Marc

206

Partial Facetectomy for Lumbar Foraminal Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Background. Several different techniques exist to address the pain and disability caused by isolated nerve root impingement. Failure to adequately decompress the lumbar foramen may lead to failed back surgery syndrome. However, aggressive treatment often causes spinal instability or may require fusion for satisfactory results. We describe a novel technique for decompression of the lumbar nerve root and demonstrate its effectiveness in relief of radicular symptoms. Methods. Partial facetectomy was performed by removal of the medial portion of the superior facet in patients with lumbar foraminal stenosis. 47 patients underwent the procedure from 2001 to 2010. Those who demonstrated neurogenic claudication without spinal instability or central canal stenosis and failed conservative management were eligible for the procedure. Functional level was recorded for each patient. These patients were followed for an average of 3.9 years to evaluate outcomes. Results. 27 of 47 patients (57%) reported no back pain and no functional limitations. Eight of 47 patients (17%) reported moderate pain, but had no limitations. Six of 47 patients (13%) continued to experience degenerative symptoms. Five of 47 patients (11%) required additional surgery. Conclusions. Partial facetectomy is an effective means to decompress the lumbar nerve root foramen without causing spinal instability. PMID:25110591

Kang, Kevin; Rodriguez-Olaverri, Juan Carlos; Razi, Afshin; Farcy, Jean Pierre

2014-01-01

207

Nonoperative Treatment in Lumbar Spondylolysis and Spondylolisthesis  

PubMed Central

Context: Both spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis can be diagnosed across the life span of sports-participating individuals. Determining which treatments are effective for these conditions is imperative to the rehabilitation professional. Data Sources: A computer-assisted literature search was completed in MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBASE databases (1966-April 2012) utilizing keywords related to nonoperative treatment of spondylolysis and/or spondylolisthesis. Reference lists were also searched to find all relevant articles that fit our inclusion criteria: English language, human, lumbar pain with diagnosed spondylolysis and/or spondylolisthesis, inclusion of at least 1 nonoperative treatment method, and use of a comparative study design. Data Extraction: Data were independently extracted from the selected studies by 2 authors and cross-referenced. Any disagreement on relevant data was discussed and resolved by a third author. Results: Ten studies meeting the criteria were rated for quality using the GRADE scale. Four studies found surgical intervention more successful than nonoperative treatment for treating pain and functional limitation. One study found no difference between surgery and nonoperative treatment with regard to future low back pain. Improvement was found in bracing, bracing and exercises emphasizing lumbar extension, range of motion and strengthening exercises focusing on lumbar flexion, and strengthening specific abdominal and lumbar muscles. Conclusion: No consensus can be reached on the role of nonoperative versus surgical care because of limited investigation and heterogeneity of studies reported. Studies of nonoperative care options suffered from lack of blinding assessors and control groups and decreased patient compliance with exercise programs. PMID:24427393

Garet, Matthew; Reiman, Michael P.; Mathers, Jessie; Sylvain, Jonathan

2013-01-01

208

[Spontaneous regression of symptomatic lumbar disc herniation].  

PubMed

Lumbar disc herniation is very common, sometimes leading to disability of the patient, and in a significant number of cases can only be solved with surgery. This paper reports a case with a large symptomatic disc herniation, which suffered spontaneous regression, and no surgery was necessary. The case is documented on serial MRI, consistent with the clinical improvement of the patient. PMID:22472931

Ribeiro, R Pimenta; Matos, R Milheiro; Vieira, A; Costa, J M; Proença, R; Pinto, R

2011-01-01

209

Approaches to a posterior polar cataract  

PubMed Central

Posterior polar cataracts present special challenges to the cataract surgeon. These are often associated with weakness/dehiscence of the posterior capsule and thus have a higher rate of intraoperative posterior capsule rupture. The surgeon needs to adhere to special surgical strategies to minimize the risk of a posterior capsule rupture. These include, adhering to the principles of closed chamber technique, avoiding hydrodissection – instead performing ‘inside-out’ hydrodelineation and using modest to low phaco parameters and reducing these stepwise. This article provides important pearls on how to approach a posterior polar cataract. PMID:23960968

Vasavada, Abhay R.; Vasavada, Viraj A.; Raj, Shetal M.

2011-01-01

210

Anterior lumbar interbody fusion with carbon fiber cage loaded with bioceramics and platelet-rich plasma. An experimental study on pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autogenous source of growth factor and has been shown to enhance bone healing both in clinical and experimental studies. PRP in combination with porous hydroxyapatite has been shown to increase the bone ingrowth in a bone chamber rat model. The present study investigated whether the combination of beta tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) and PRP may enhance

Haisheng Li; Xuenong Zou; Qingyun Xue; Niels Egund; Martin Lind; Cody Bünger

2004-01-01

211

Decompressive lumbar laminectomy for spinal stenosis.  

PubMed

A total of 258 consecutive decompressive lumbar laminectomies performed on 244 individuals presenting with spinal stenosis were analyzed retrospectively. Spinal fusion was avoided in all but two patients. Outcome in terms of pain relief and return to normal activity was evaluated in two stages, one derived from patient charts and having a relatively short-term follow-up time (mean 8.4 months) and a second derived from patient responses to a questionnaire (which also scored for satisfaction with the results of surgery), which had a longer follow-up time (mean 4.7 years). More than 20 clinical and operative parameters were analyzed. Overall, a high degree of success (93% pain relief, 95% return to normal activity) was achieved in the short term, which was supported by the longer-term follow-up data (64% pain relief, 56% activity return, 75% satisfaction). The following factors were not significantly correlated with outcome: patient age; sex; worker's compensation or no-fault insurance status; employed versus not employed; a history of back surgery prior to the laminectomy studied; existence of degenerative spondylolisthesis or scoliosis; complete versus incomplete myelographic block; or the level of the lumbar spine undergoing surgery. The major conclusions arising from these data are: 1) for all age groups through at least the eighth decade of life, decompressive lumbar laminectomy is a relatively safe operation having a high medium-to-long-term success rate; 2) lumbar instability following laminectomy is rare, even in individuals presenting prior to surgery with degenerative instability conditions; and 3) lumbar fusion in addition to the decompressive laminectomy procedure is rarely required for degenerative spinal stenosis. PMID:8468598

Silvers, H R; Lewis, P J; Asch, H L

1993-05-01

212

Inflammatory Changes of the Lumbar Spine in Children and Adolescents With Enthesitis-Related Arthritis: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe and profile abnormalities of the lumbar spine in a cohort of patients with enthesitis-related arthritis (ERA) as compared to a control group of adolescents with mechanical back pain. Methods We performed a retrospective review of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lumbar spine scans of 79 patients (58 cases, 21 controls). The study was covered by institutional review board approval and informed consent was obtained for review of all clinical investigations. Images were reviewed by an expert MRI reader who was blinded to clinical details. The presence or absence of morphologic features of enthesitis, apophyseal joint synovitis, and inflammation of posterior elements was assessed at each lumbar vertebral level. The apophyseal joint inflammation was graded from 0 to 3 using a grading system that was adapted from one used in adults with inflammatory facet osteoarthropathy. STATA software was used for data analysis. Results One or more abnormalities of the lumbar spine were found in 39 (67%) of 58 cases and sacroiliitis was present in 45 (78%) of the cases. Apophyseal joint synovitis was seen in 22 (38%) cases and in 1 (5%) control patient. This difference was highly significant (P = 0.004). Inflammatory changes in the interspinous ligaments were seen in a higher percentage of cases than controls and this observation was of statistical significance (P = 0.04). Conclusion Statistically significant inflammation of the lumbar apophyseal joints and interspinous ligaments was seen in our cohort of ERA patients, most of whom have concurrent sacroiliitis. This could be contributing to back pain in these patients. PMID:24127385

Vendhan, Kanimozhi; Sen, Debajit; Fisher, Corinne; Ioannou, Yiannis; Hall-Craggs, Margaret A

2014-01-01

213

Minimally invasive surgery with spotlight work channel system in the treatment of lumbar disc herniation: a retrospective study of 21 cases.  

PubMed

A group of lumbar discherniation cases was treated with posterior discectomy and decompression with Spotlight working channel. We retrospectively studied these patients. To study and analyze the clinical efficacy and technical features of discectomy which is carried out with the Spotlight channel technology. The development of the minimally invasive spine surgery technology promotes new instruments and materials. For minimally invasive spine surgery in channel technology, the newly launched DepuySpine working channel-Spotlight, which is a new generation of wide viewing angle, single-hole device for minimally invasive spine operations, has good prospects for clinical application. From March 2011 to March 2012, 21 patients who were diagnosed with lumbar disc herniation were treated with posterior discectomy and decompression with Spotlight working channel, then the lumbar and leg pain visual analogue scale (VAS) scores of before and after surgery and that of the follow-ups and the Oswestry Disability Index were analyzed. All patients were successfully operated, and also they received follow-ups for more than 1 year. The postoperative lumbar and leg pain VAS scores improved significantly compared with the preoperative ones (P < 0.05) and can effectively maintain (P > 0.05). The three time points of lumbar pain VAS were 7.80 ± 0.49, 1.51 ± 0.52 and 1.47 ± 0.59. The leg pain VAS were 7.53 ± 0.50, 1.58 ± 0.58 and 1.49 ± 0.67. During the follow-ups of the cases in this group, no case of disc herniation relapsed. Patients were satisfied with that. The Spotlight channel system is one of the surgical approaches to "minimally invasive spine technology with direct vision". It has a good range of surgical indications. It can be carried out flexibly and used widely, which means it will be easier for the surgeons to master. PMID:25129385

Xu, Haidong; Jia, Fengyu; Liu, Yanbin; Fu, Qiang

2015-01-01

214

Density of lumbar muscles 4 years after decompressive spinal surgery.  

PubMed

Results of decompressive surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis vary. We evaluated the density of lumbar muscles by computed tomography (CT) at the L2-L4 levels in patients 4 years after they had undergone surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis. Twenty of these patients had an excellent outcome clinically, and 16 patients had very poor outcome. The residual stenosis and density of lumbar muscles in Hounsfield units were measured on CT images. The clinical evaluation of outcome also included the Oswestry questionnaire and a walking test. The density of lumbar flexors was higher in the group with excellent results than in the group with poor results. The density of lumbar extensors showed a marked decrease in the operated area. These results suggest that the decrease of muscular density can be partially explained by disuse or inactivity. The decrease in the operated area probably reflects muscular atrophy caused by muscle denervation. PMID:8831123

Airaksinen, O; Herno, A; Kaukanen, E; Saari, T; Sihvonen, T; Suomalainen, O

1996-01-01

215

Lumbar spinal stenosis: therapeutic options review.  

PubMed

Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) functionally impacts significant numbers of Americans per year. Current estimates place the number of Americans suffering from senescent lumbar spinal stenosis at 400,000. The prevalence of this disorder in patients ranging from 60 to 69 years of age is very high. Forty-seven percent of this age group have mild to moderate stenosis, and 19.7% have severe stenosis. As the baby boomer generation gets older, 10,000 individuals attain the age of 65 years every day in United States. LSS is becoming very common and will be a major healthcare issue as the population ages. Although LSS is not life threatening, it can cause substantial disability with limitations to performing daily activities, and thus, the associated negative impact on quality of life (QOL). This article reviews the pathophysiology and current treatment options for LSS, focusing on evidence-based treatment options. PMID:24725422

Costandi, Shrif; Chopko, Bohdan; Mekhail, Mena; Dews, Teresa; Mekhail, Nagy

2015-01-01

216

Hemophilic pseudotumor of the first lumbar vertebra.  

PubMed

Hemophilic pseudotumor involving the spine is extremely uncommon and presents a challenging problem. Preoperative planning, angiography, intra and perioperative monitoring with factor VIII cover and postoperative care for hemophilic pseudotumor is vital. Recognition of the artery of Adamkiewicz in the thoracolumbar junction helps to avoid intraoperative neurological injury. We report the case of a 26-year-old male patient with hemophilia A, who presented with a massive pseudotumor involving the first lumbar vertebra and the left iliopsoas. Preoperative angiography revealed the artery of Adamkiewicz arising from the left first lumbar segmental artery. Excision of pseudotumor was successfully carried out with additional spinal stabilization. At 2 years followup, there was no recurrence and the patient was well stabilized with a satisfactory functional status. Surgical excision gives satisfactory outcome in such cases. PMID:25404776

Nachimuthu, Gurusamy; Arockiaraj, Justin; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Sundararaj, Gabriel David

2014-11-01

217

Posterior Lamellar Keratoplasty in Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Posterior lamellar keratoplasty (PLK) offers many substantial benefits compared to penetrating keratoplasty (PK) including:\\u000a closed eye surgery elimination of both regular and irregular postoperative astigmatism leading to full visual rehabilitation\\u000a with spectacles within 3–6 months, elimination of postoperative corneal anaesthesia, and a reduced risk of postoperative globe\\u000a rupture.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Disadvantages of PLK compared to PK include: corneal stromal scarring

F Arnalich-Montiel; JKG Dart

218

Minimally Invasive Posterior Hamstring Harvest  

PubMed Central

Autogenous hamstring harvesting for knee ligament reconstruction is a well-established standard. Minimally invasive posterior hamstring harvest is a simple, efficient, reproducible technique for harvest of the semitendinosus or gracilis tendon or both medial hamstring tendons. A 2- to 3-cm longitudinal incision from the popliteal crease proximally, in line with the semitendinosus tendon, is sufficient. The deep fascia is bluntly penetrated, and the tendon or tendons are identified. Adhesions are dissected. Then, an open tendon stripper is used to release the tendon or tendons proximally; a closed, sharp tendon stripper is used to release the tendon or tendons from the pes. Layered, absorbable skin closure is performed, and the skin is covered with a skin sealant, bolster dressing, and plastic adhesive bandage for 2 weeks. PMID:24266003

Wilson, Trent J.; Lubowitz, James H.

2013-01-01

219

Retroperitoneoscopic tension-free repair of lumbar hernia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lumbar hernia is an infrequent pathology that is difficult to treat through open surgery. A 65-year-old man presented with\\u000a a right-sided lumbar mass responsible for pain. This was a fatty mass of 10×15 cm, located in the lumbar fossa. A CT scan\\u000a showed the hernia and the defect. Through a small incision in the flank, dissection was initiated with one

E. Habib

2003-01-01

220

Design concepts in lumbar total disc arthroplasty  

PubMed Central

The implantation of lumbar disc prostheses based on different design concepts is widely accepted. This paper reviews currently available literature studies on the biomechanics of TDA in the lumbar spine, and is targeted at the evaluation of possible relationships between the aims of TDA and the geometrical, mechanical and material properties of the various available disc prostheses. Both theoretical and experimental studies were analyzed, by a PUBMED search (performed in February 2007, revised in January 2008), focusing on single level TDA. Both semi-constrained and unconstrained lumbar discs seem to be able to restore nearly physiological IAR locations and ROM values. However, both increased and decreased ROM was stated in some papers, unrelated to the clinical outcome. Segmental lordosis alterations after TDA were reported in most cases, for both constrained and unconstrained disc prostheses. An increase in the load through the facet joints was documented, for both semi-constrained and unconstrained artificial discs, but with some contrasting results. Semi-constrained devices may be able to share a greater part of the load, thus protecting the surrounding biological structure from overloading and possible early degeneration, but may be more susceptible to wear. The next level of development will be the biomechanical integration of compression across the motion segment. All these findings need to be supported by long-term clinical outcome studies. PMID:18946684

Bellini, Chiara M.; Zweig, Thomas; Ferguson, Stephen; Raimondi, Manuela T.; Lamartina, Claudio; Brayda-Bruno, Marco; Fornari, Maurizio

2008-01-01

221

Minimally Invasive Laminectomy in Spondylolisthetic Lumbar Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Background Degenerative lumbar stenosis associated with spondylolisthesis is common in elderly patients. The most common symptoms are those of neurogenic claudication with leg pain. Surgery is indicated for those who fail conservative management. The generally accepted recommendation is to perform a laminectomy and a fusion at the involved level. Methods We reviewed our results for minimally invasive single-level decompression without fusion performed by the senior author in patients with symptomatic lumbar stenosis with spondylolisthesis with no dynamic instability from 2008 to 2011 at a single institution. Outcomes were measured using the visual analog scale (VAS), Prolo Economic Functional Rating Scale, and revised Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) at initial presentation and at 3-month, 6-month, and 1-year follow-up time points. Results Records for 28 patients (19 males, 9 females) were reviewed. The success rate, defined as improvement in pain and functional outcome without the need for surgical fusion, was 86%. VAS scores decreased by 6.3 points, Prolo scores increased by 3.5 points, and the ODI decreased by 31% at 1 year. All changes were statistically significant. Conclusion Minimally invasive decompression alone can be a reasonable alternative to decompression and fusion for patients with spondylolisthetic lumbar stenosis and neurogenic claudication with leg pain. Decompression without fusion should be considered for older patients and for patients who are not ideal fusion candidates. PMID:24688331

Caralopoulos, Ilias N.; Bui, Cuong J.

2014-01-01

222

Variability of manual lumbar spine segmentation  

PubMed Central

Background The application of kinematic data acquired during biomechanical testing to specimen-specific, three-dimensional models of the spine has emerged as a useful tool in spine biomechanics research. However, the development of these models is subject to segmentation error because of complex morphology and pathologic changes of the spine. This error has not been previously characterized. Methods Eight cadaveric lumbar spines were prepared and underwent computed tomography (CT) scanning. After disarticulation and soft-tissue removal, 5 individual vertebrae from these specimens were scanned a second time. The CT images of the full lumbar specimens were segmented twice each by 2 operators, and the images of the individual vertebrae with soft tissue removed were segmented as well. The solid models derived from these differing segmentation sessions were registered, and the distribution of distances between nearest neighboring points was calculated to evaluate the accuracy and precision of the segmentation technique. Results Manual segmentation yielded root-mean-square errors below 0.39 mm for accuracy, 0.33 mm for intrauser precision, and 0.35 mm for interuser precision. Furthermore, the 95th percentile of all distances was below 0.75 mm for all analyses of accuracy and precision. Conclusions These findings indicate that such models are highly accurate and that a high level of intrauser and interuser precision can be achieved. The magnitude of the error presented here should inform the design and interpretation of future studies using manual segmentation techniques to derive models of the lumbar spine.

Cook, Daniel J.; Gladowski, David A.; Acuff, Heather N.; Yeager, Matthew S.; Cheng, Boyle C.

2012-01-01

223

Lumbar-pelvic range and coordination during lifting tasks  

E-print Network

Page 1 of 22 Lumbar-Pelvic Range and Coordination During Lifting Tasks A. Maduri, M.S. 1 B.L. Pearson, B.S. 2 S.E. Wilson, Ph.D. 3 1 National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV 2 Burns and Mc... flexion postures as well as the possibility that lumbar 4 posture could be adjusted with training [Scannell et al.,2003]. 5 Lumbar-pelvic coordination experiments measure the relationship between 6 lumbar curvature and torso flexion in various tasks. A...

Maduri, Anupama; Pearson, Bethany L.; Wilson, Sara E.

2008-01-01

224

The Effects of Stretching with Lumbar Traction on VAS and Oswestry Scales of Patients with Lumbar 4–5 Herniated Intervertebral Disc  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study investigated the effect of stretching with lumbar traction on VAS and Oswestry scale scores of lumbar 4–5 herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD) patients. [Subjects] We recruited 20 lumbar 4–5 HIVD patients. [Methods] We performed stretching with lumbar traction for lumbar 4–5 HIVD patients during 4 weeks. The VAS and Oswestry scales were measured before and 4 weeks after the intervention. [Results] The results showed a significant decrease in VAS scale scores for stretching with lumbar traction in lumbar 4–5 HIVD patients, from 18±1.29 to 2.1±1.35. The Oswestry scale scores also decreased significantly, from 20.35±2.01 to 3.5±2.84, after stretching with lumbar traction. [Conclusion] Thus, we suggest stretching with lumbar traction for lumbar 4–5 HIVD patients. PMID:25140094

Yang, Hae-sun; Yoo, Won-gyu

2014-01-01

225

Effect of orientation on measured failure strengths of thoracic and lumbar spine segments.  

PubMed

Substantial research has been performed over many years to determine the compressive failure limits of spinal motion segments. However, the majority of studies have not considered the natural alignment of the spine, testing only for pure compression loads. This study tested 27 motion segments, ranging from the T6/T7 to L4/L5 levels, from 13 human cadaveric spines. The segments were oriented in either the neutral position, based on Harrison posterior tangent angles, or in-line axially. Load was applied at a low rate, reducing dynamic effects and in contrast to previous studies, until failure was observed. Force and deformation were measured during testing, with the normalized parameters of stress and strain calculated post-test. Failure forces, adjusted for bone mineral density, were found to decrease by 11% in lumbar segments when oriented while thoracic segment adjusted failure force also decreased by 4.5%. Similarly, orientation decreased failure stress by 12% for lumbar segments and increased it by 25% for thoracic segments. Some correlation was found between failure strength and bone mineral density. After testing, all segments were visually examined to determine the failure mode, and DXA and radiographic scans were performed. Oriented segments exhibited different fracture characteristics than non-oriented segments. The results indicate that segment orientation has a significant effect on failure strength, stress, and strain, and should be considered when determining appropriate load limits. PMID:21396604

Campbell-Kyureghyan, Naira H; Yalla, Sai Vikas; Voor, Michael; Burnett, David

2011-05-01

226

Intradural schwannoma complicated by lumbar disc herniation at the same level: A case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Intradural tumours of the spine are usually benign and have a good prognosis, if they are diagnosed and removed early. Lumbar disc herniation is a common cause of chronic, acute, or recurrent lumbar radiculopathy. However, to date, there have been no reports of progressive neurological deficiencies due to the co-existence of two significant pathologies contributing to intradural and extradural compression. The current study reports the rare case of a patient with simultaneous extradural and intradural compression of the nerve root due to co-existent intervertebral disc herniation and an intradural schwannoma at the same level. A 71-year-old female suffering from lower back pain and radiating pain of the right lower extremities was admitted to Busan Korea Hospital (Busan, Korea). Magnetic resonance imaging revealed lumbar disc herniation at L4–5 and a mass occupying the intradural space at the same level of the compressed dural sac. Using the posterior approach, surgical excision of the two pathologies was performed. Pathological diagnosis confirmed schwannoma and the symptoms markedly improved. PMID:25013519

BAEK, SEUNG-WOOK; KIM, CHEOL; CHANG, HAN

2014-01-01

227

Management of Unstable Thoraco-Lumbar Fractures with Pedicular Screw Instrumentation: A Series of 30 cases  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Trauma to spine is one of the grave injuries. They cause infinite morbidity and disability to the patient. Lately consensus is evolving across the world for stabilization of unstable spines with fusion and instrumentation even though most authors agree that neurological recovery is independent of treatment modality. Objectives of this study are to evaluate effectiveness of spinal stabilization with pedicular instrumentation in the management of thoraco-lumbar fractures to restore structural stability, early ambulation and improving neurological status of the patient Material and Methods: During the period from October 2009 to September 2010, 33 cases of thoraco-lumbar spine fractures were treated operatively with posterior decompression and pedicular screw instrumentation. Of these, 3 cases were lost to follow up. Hence the results of 30 cases were evaluated. All patients were treated by posterior decompression and pedicular screw instrumentation. Neurological and radiological parameters were assessed during serial follow-ups. Observation and Results: The mean duration of follow-up was 11 months. Of the 30 patients 24 showed neurological improvement by at least 1 grade and average grade of improvement was 1.5 grades. Mean pre-operative sagittal angle (SA) was 19.9 degrees and sagittal index (SI) was 0.54. Mean post-operative SA was 9.3 degrees and SI was 0.72. Mean SA and SI during the final follow-up were 10.9 degrees and 0.69 respectively. Discussion and Conclusion: Neurological recovery and maintenance of radiological correction in our study were comparable to other studies. The results in our short series of 30 cases have been encouraging. But there is need for more cases and longer follow-ups to come to categorical conclusion. PMID:24392401

Hegde, Atmananda; Babu, Rajan; Shetty, Abhishek

2013-01-01

228

Segmental Quantitative MR Imaging Analysis of Diurnal Variation of Water Content in the Lumbar Intervertebral Discs  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the changes in water content in the lumbar intervertebral discs by quantitative T2 MR imaging in the morning after bed rest and evening after a diurnal load. Materials and Methods Twenty healthy volunteers were separately examined in the morning after bed rest and in the evening after finishing daily work. T2-mapping images were obtained and analyzed. An equally-sized rectangular region of interest (ROI) was manually placed in both, the anterior and the posterior annulus fibrosus (AF), in the outermost 20% of the disc. Three ROIs were placed in the space defined as the nucleus pulposus (NP). Repeated-measures analysis of variance and paired 2-tailed t tests were used for statistical analysis, with p < 0.05 as significantly different. Results T2 values significantly decreased from morning to evening, in the NP (anterior NP = -13.9 ms; central NP = -17.0 ms; posterior NP = -13.3 ms; all p < 0.001). Meanwhile T2 values significantly increased in the anterior AF (+2.9 ms; p = 0.025) and the posterior AF (+5.9 ms; p < 0.001). T2 values in the posterior AF showed the largest degree of variation among the 5 ROIs, but there was no statistical significance (p = 0.414). Discs with initially low T2 values in the center NP showed a smaller degree of variation in the anterior NP and in the central NP, than in discs with initially high T2 values in the center NP (10.0% vs. 16.1%, p = 0.037; 6.4% vs. 16.1%, p = 0.006, respectively). Conclusion Segmental quantitative T2 MRI provides valuable insights into physiological aspects of normal discs.

Zhu, Tingting; Ai, Tao; Zhang, Wei; Li, Tao

2015-01-01

229

Posterior Instrumentation for Occipitocervical Fusion  

PubMed Central

Since 1995, 29 consecutive patients with craniocervical spine instability due to several pathologies were managed with posterior occipitocervical instrumentation and fusion. Laminectomy was additionally performed in nineteen patients. The patients were divided in two groups: Group A which included patients managed with screw-rod instrumentation, and Group B which included patients managed with hook-and-screw-rod instrumentation. The patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically using the following parameters: spine anatomy and reconstruction, sagittal profile, neurologic status, functional level, pain relief, complications and status of arthrodesis. The follow-up was performed immediately postoperatively and at 2, 6, 12 months after surgery, and thereafter once a year. Fusion was achieved in all but one patient. One case of infection was the only surgery related complication. Neurological improvement and considerable pain relief occurred in the majority of patients postoperatively. There were neither intraoperative complications nor surgery related deaths. However, the overall death rate was 37.5% in group A, and 7.7% in group B. There were no instrument related failures. The reduction level was acceptable and was maintained until the latest follow-up in all of the patients. No statistical difference between the outcomes of screw-rod and hook-and-screw-rod instrumentation was detected. Laminectomy did not influence the outcome in either group. Screw-rod and hook-and-screw-rod occipitocervical fusion instrumentations are both considered as safe and effective methods of treatment of craniocervical instability. PMID:21772931

Sapkas, George; Papadakis, Stamatios A; Segkos, Dimitrios; Kateros, Konstantinos; Tsakotos, George; Katonis, Pavlos

2011-01-01

230

Giant cell tumour of the sacrum: function-preserving surgery with extended curettage and ilio-lumbar fusion.  

PubMed

Giant cell tumours of the sacrum pose a unique therapeutic challenge due to the inaccessibility of the tumour, significant intra-operative blood loss from extensive vascularity, high rate of local recurrence with conservative surgery, and loss of neurological function and mechanical instability with en-bloc excision. We present a case where successful outcome was achieved by tailoring treatment in consideration of the above issues. A 28 year old male diagnosed on biopsy to have giant cell tumour of the sacrum presented to us with low-back pain, left-sided S1 radiculopathy, ankle weakness and urinary incontinence. MRI showed a tumour involving the S1 and S2 vertebral segments, breaching the posterior cortex and compressing the neural elements. An angiographic tumour embolization was performed followed by surgery through a posterior approach whereby an extended curettage was done, carefully freeing the sacral nerve roots and abrading the bone using high-speed burr. An ilio-sacro-lumbar fusion was done employing iliolumbar instrumentation and bone grafting. Post-operatively, within a week the patient was ambulated with a lumbar corset. At 9 months follow-up, the patient was completely pain free, had no ankle weakness, and had normal continence. This treatment approach resulted in preservation of neurologic function and maintenance of spinal stability, thus the patient returned to full function. PMID:25226752

Lakdawala, Riaz H; Ahmad, Tashfeen; Enam, Syed A

2013-01-01

231

Factors associated with lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration in the elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background contextLumbar intervertebral disc degeneration (DD) precedes degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine. Various factors in addition to normal aging are reported to be associated with DD, and recently atherosclerosis and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (cardiovascular risk factors) have received much attention; however, the links between these risk factors and DD are unclear.

Mika Hangai; Koji Kaneoka; Shinya Kuno; Shiro Hinotsu; Masataka Sakane; Naotaka Mamizuka; Shinsuke Sakai; Naoyuki Ochiai

2008-01-01

232

Lumbar epidural brucellar abscess causing nerve root compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To evaluate the usefulness of MR sequences for the differential diagnosis of spinal brucellar abscesses which mimic lumbar disc herniation. Methods: We analyzed six patients with brucellar abscesses who had symptoms mimicking lumbar disc herniation. The study group consisted of three women and three men who were 15–67 (mean=37) years old. Patients were imaged in the axial and sagittal

M Ozates; Ü Özkan; Y Bükte; A Ceviz; I Sari; M Simsek

1999-01-01

233

Quality criteria implementation for brain and lumbar spine CT examinations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was undertaken to implement the quality criteria proposed by the European Commission for brain general and lumbar spine (disc herniation) CT examinations. The proposed criteria were evaluated for samples including 93 brain and 86 lumbar spine CT examinations, with special emphasis on the diagnostic and radiation dose requirements. The extent to which the image criteria had been achieved

A CALZADO; R RODRIGUEZ; A MUNOZ; Fisica Medica

2000-01-01

234

Spine imaging after lumbar disc replacement: pitfalls and current recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Most lumbar artificial discs are still composed of stainless steel alloys, which prevents adequate postoperative diagnostic imaging of the operated region when using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thus patients with postoperative radicular symptoms or claudication after stainless steel implants often require alternative diagnostic procedures. METHODS: Possible complications of lumbar total disc replacement (TDR) are reviewed from the available literature

Yohan Robinson; Bengt Sandén

2009-01-01

235

49 CFR 572.9 - Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis.  

...the thorax, lumbar spine, pelvic, and...pelvis to the pelvic instrument cavity rear face at...perpendicular to the thorax instrument cavity rear face...record the force with an instrument mounted to the thorax...assembled thorax, lumbar spine and pelvic...

2014-10-01

236

49 CFR 572.9 - Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the thorax, lumbar spine, pelvic, and...pelvis to the pelvic instrument cavity rear face at...perpendicular to the thorax instrument cavity rear face...record the force with an instrument mounted to the thorax...assembled thorax, lumbar spine and pelvic...

2012-10-01

237

49 CFR 572.9 - Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the thorax, lumbar spine, pelvic, and...pelvis to the pelvic instrument cavity rear face at...perpendicular to the thorax instrument cavity rear face...record the force with an instrument mounted to the thorax...assembled thorax, lumbar spine and pelvic...

2010-10-01

238

49 CFR 572.9 - Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the thorax, lumbar spine, pelvic, and...pelvis to the pelvic instrument cavity rear face at...perpendicular to the thorax instrument cavity rear face...record the force with an instrument mounted to the thorax...assembled thorax, lumbar spine and pelvic...

2013-10-01

239

49 CFR 572.9 - Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the thorax, lumbar spine, pelvic, and...pelvis to the pelvic instrument cavity rear face at...perpendicular to the thorax instrument cavity rear face...record the force with an instrument mounted to the thorax...assembled thorax, lumbar spine and pelvic...

2011-10-01

240

49 CFR 572.43 - Lumbar spine and pelvis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lumbar spine and pelvis. 572.43 Section 572...50th Percentile Male § 572.43 Lumbar spine and pelvis. (a) When the pelvis...more than 60g. The acceleration-time curve for the test shall be unimodal and...

2011-10-01

241

49 CFR 572.43 - Lumbar spine and pelvis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lumbar spine and pelvis. 572.43 Section 572...50th Percentile Male § 572.43 Lumbar spine and pelvis. (a) When the pelvis...more than 60g. The acceleration-time curve for the test shall be unimodal and...

2010-10-01

242

Does lumbar spinal degeneration begin with the anterior structures? A study of the observed epidemiology in a community-based population  

PubMed Central

Background- Prior studies that have concluded that disk degeneration uniformly precedes facet degeneration have been based on convenience samples of individuals with low back pain. We conducted a study to examine whether the view that spinal degeneration begins with the anterior spinal structures is supported by epidemiologic observations of degeneration in a community-based population. Methods- 361 participants from the Framingham Heart Study were included in this study. The prevalences of anterior vertebral structure degeneration (disk height loss) and posterior vertebral structure degeneration (facet joint osteoarthritis) were characterized by CT imaging. The cohort was divided into the structural subgroups of participants with 1) no degeneration, 2) isolated anterior degeneration (without posterior degeneration), 3) combined anterior and posterior degeneration, and 4) isolated posterior degeneration (without anterior structure degeneration). We determined the prevalence of each degeneration pattern by age group < 45, 45-54, 55-64, ?65. In multivariate analyses we examined the association between disk height loss and the response variable of facet joint osteoarthritis, while adjusting for age, sex, BMI, and smoking. Results- As the prevalence of the no degeneration and isolated anterior degeneration patterns decreased with increasing age group, the prevalence of the combined anterior/posterior degeneration pattern increased. 22% of individuals demonstrated isolated posterior degeneration, without an increase in prevalence by age group. Isolated posterior degeneration was most common at the L5-S1 and L4-L5 spinal levels. In multivariate analyses, disk height loss was independently associated with facet joint osteoarthritis, as were increased age (years), female sex, and increased BMI (kg/m2), but not smoking. Conclusions- The observed epidemiology of lumbar spinal degeneration in the community-based population is consistent with an ordered progression beginning in the anterior structures, for the majority of individuals. However, some individuals demonstrate atypical patterns of degeneration, beginning in the posterior joints. Increased age and BMI, and female sex may be related to the occurrence of isolated posterior degeneration in these individuals. PMID:21914197

2011-01-01

243

Totally cystic schwannoma of the lumbar spine.  

PubMed

A schwannoma is a benign tumor arising from a schwann cell and occurs mainly in the nerve sheath in the intradural extramedullary region. Schwannomas have been well described as occurring in the lumbar spine, but total cystic degeneration of schwannomas is rarely reported. The authors describe the clinical and radiographic evaluations and treatment of a rare case of an intraextradural totally cystic schwannoma on the lumbar spine.Two patients reported a history of 6 to 12 months of pain accompanied by weakness in the lower extremities. On examination, 1 patient had bilateral lower-extremity muscle strength graded at 4/5, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic schwannoma (1.5 × 2.0 cm in the sagittal dimension) at L2-L3. The other patient had a right lower-extremity muscle strength graded at 3/5, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic schwannoma (2.0 × 3.0 cm in the sagittal dimension) at L4-L5. The patients underwent operative treatment, and the tumors were completely removed, as were the filum terminale adhered to the tumor. Pedicle screws were used to maintain stability of the lumbar spine. Gross examination of the tumors showed yellowish-white soft contents. Histologic examination confirmed that they were benign totally cystic schwannomas. Postoperatively, the patients' neurologic symptoms completely resolved.Cystic schwannomas can be diagnosed using preoperative magnetic resonance imaging. The filum terminale cut off the tumor walls did not cause the clinical symptoms in the 2 patients. PMID:23672923

Wu, Desheng; Ba, Zhaoyu; Huang, Yufeng; Zhao, Weidong; Shen, Bin; Kan, Heng

2013-05-01

244

Primary leptomeningeal lymphoma of the lumbar spine.  

PubMed

This report describes primary leptomeningeal lymphoma (PLML) of the spine in a 58-year-old female. LML is rare, especially in the immunocompetent, and it is almost always secondary in origin. To our knowledge, there have been very few cases of PLML of the lumbar spine reported in the literature and even fewer reports using recent MR imaging (MRI) technology to aid with diagnosis. MRI is useful in differentiating CNS lesions and may be helpful in the diagnosis of this extremely rare primary lymphoma. PLML is briefly reviewed. PMID:14585565

Carlson, Christian L; Hartman, Robert; Ly, Justin Q; Beall, Douglas P

2003-01-01

245

High posterior density ellipsoids of quantum states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regions of quantum states generalize the classical notion of error bars. High posterior density (HPD) credible regions are the most powerful of region estimators. However, they are intractably hard to construct in general. This paper reports on a numerical approximation to HPD regions for the purpose of testing a much more computationally and conceptually convenient class of regions: posterior covariance ellipsoids (PCEs). The PCEs are defined via the covariance matrix of the posterior probability distribution of states. Here it is shown that PCEs are near optimal for the example of Pauli measurements on multiple qubits. Moreover, the algorithm is capable of producing accurate PCE regions even when there is uncertainty in the model.

Ferrie, Christopher

2014-02-01

246

Cumulative occupational lumbar load and lumbar disc disease – results of a German multi-center case-control study (EPILIFT)  

PubMed Central

Background The to date evidence for a dose-response relationship between physical workload and the development of lumbar disc diseases is limited. We therefore investigated the possible etiologic relevance of cumulative occupational lumbar load to lumbar disc diseases in a multi-center case-control study. Methods In four study regions in Germany (Frankfurt/Main, Freiburg, Halle/Saale, Regensburg), patients seeking medical care for pain associated with clinically and radiologically verified lumbar disc herniation (286 males, 278 females) or symptomatic lumbar disc narrowing (145 males, 206 females) were prospectively recruited. Population control subjects (453 males and 448 females) were drawn from the regional population registers. Cases and control subjects were between 25 and 70 years of age. In a structured personal interview, a complete occupational history was elicited to identify subjects with certain minimum workloads. On the basis of job task-specific supplementary surveys performed by technical experts, the situational lumbar load represented by the compressive force at the lumbosacral disc was determined via biomechanical model calculations for any working situation with object handling and load-intensive postures during the total working life. For this analysis, all manual handling of objects of about 5 kilograms or more and postures with trunk inclination of 20 degrees or more are included in the calculation of cumulative lumbar load. Confounder selection was based on biologic plausibility and on the change-in-estimate criterion. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated separately for men and women using unconditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for age, region, and unemployment as major life event (in males) or psychosocial strain at work (in females), respectively. To further elucidate the contribution of past physical workload to the development of lumbar disc diseases, we performed lag-time analyses. Results We found a positive dose-response relationship between cumulative occupational lumbar load and lumbar disc herniation as well as lumbar disc narrowing among men and women. Even past lumbar load seems to contribute to the risk of lumbar disc disease. Conclusion According to our study, cumulative physical workload is related to lumbar disc diseases among men and women. PMID:19422710

Seidler, Andreas; Bergmann, Annekatrin; Jäger, Matthias; Ellegast, Rolf; Ditchen, Dirk; Elsner, Gine; Grifka, Joachim; Haerting, Johannes; Hofmann, Friedrich; Linhardt, Oliver; Luttmann, Alwin; Michaelis, Martina; Petereit-Haack, Gabriela; Schumann, Barbara; Bolm-Audorff, Ulrich

2009-01-01

247

Thoracolumbar Junction Syndrome Causing Pain around Posterior Iliac Crest: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Thoracolumbar junction syndrome is characterized by referred pain which may originate at the thoracolumbar junction, which extends from 12th thoracic vertebra to 2nd lumbar vertebra, due to functional abnormalities. Clinical manifestations include back pain, pseudo-visceral pain and pseudo-pain on the posterior iliac crest, as well as irritable bowel symptoms. During clinical examination, pain can be demonstrated by applying pressure on the facet joints or to the sides of the spinous processes. Radiological studies show only mild and insignificant degenerative changes in most cases. We report a 42-year-old female patient with osteogenesis imperfecta who suffered from chronic low back pain. Under the diagnosis of thoracolumbar junction syndrome, she was treated with an epidural block and a sympathetic nerve block, which improved her symptoms. PMID:23560215

Kim, Soo-Ryu; Lee, Min-Ji; Lee, Seung-Jun; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Hong, Ji-Hee

2013-01-01

248

Thoracolumbar Junction Syndrome Causing Pain around Posterior Iliac Crest: A Case Report.  

PubMed

Thoracolumbar junction syndrome is characterized by referred pain which may originate at the thoracolumbar junction, which extends from 12th thoracic vertebra to 2nd lumbar vertebra, due to functional abnormalities. Clinical manifestations include back pain, pseudo-visceral pain and pseudo-pain on the posterior iliac crest, as well as irritable bowel symptoms. During clinical examination, pain can be demonstrated by applying pressure on the facet joints or to the sides of the spinous processes. Radiological studies show only mild and insignificant degenerative changes in most cases. We report a 42-year-old female patient with osteogenesis imperfecta who suffered from chronic low back pain. Under the diagnosis of thoracolumbar junction syndrome, she was treated with an epidural block and a sympathetic nerve block, which improved her symptoms. PMID:23560215

Kim, Soo-Ryu; Lee, Min-Ji; Lee, Seung-Jun; Suh, Young-Sung; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Hong, Ji-Hee

2013-03-01

249

Coronal deformity correction in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients using the fulcrum-bending radiograph: a prospective comparative analysis of the proximal thoracic, main thoracic, and thoracolumbar\\/lumbar curves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the prospective, comparative radiographic analysis was to determine the role of the fulcrum-bending radiograph\\u000a (FBR) for the assessment of the proximal thoracic (PT), main thoracic (MT), and the thoracolumbar\\/lumbar (TL\\/L) curves in\\u000a patients undergoing posterior spinal pedicle screw fixation and fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). The FBR\\u000a demonstrated statistically better correction than other preoperative methods for

Jingfeng Li; Mark L. Dumonski; Dino Samartzis; Joseph Hong; Shisheng He; Xiaodong Zhu; Chuanfeng Wang; Alexander R. Vaccaro; Todd J. Albert; Ming Li

2011-01-01

250

Outcome of symptomatic upper lumbar disc herniation.  

PubMed

"Upper" lumbar disc herniations (LDH) are different from the "lower" and possess increased chance of neural compromise and cauda equina syndrome that necessitates operative management despite of contradictory surgical outcome. We underwent the study to assess the clinical and functional outcome of symptomatic upper LDH surgery from July 2003 to June 2012 in BSMMU, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The records of 123 patients (age range, 30-69 years), 56 men and 67 women (mean 52 years) having upper lumbar discectomy were reviewed. The surgical time, intra-operative blood loss, self evaluated back pain and thigh and/or groin pain status [using Visual Analogue Score (VAS)] and the disability status [using Oswestry disability (ODI) questionnaire] was analyzed. Radiological stability (using Posner's criteria), functional outcome [using Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) Score] and overall outcome (using MacNab`s criteria), was calculated. Chi-squared test and z-test using SPSS revealed mean operative time and mean blood loss had no significant (p>0.05) difference. Pain, sensory, motor and reflex status as well as VAS, ODI and all the components of JOA questionnaire had significant (p<0.05) improvement. In spite of intra-operative complications in 20.32% cases, overall satisfactory outcome was achieved in 83.74% cases. The postoperative complications (08.13%) could be managed conservatively. However, carefully decided surgical alternatives resulted in satisfactory clinical and functional outcome in upper LDH surgery. PMID:25481595

Awwal, M A; Ahsan, M K; Sakeb, N

2014-10-01

251

Unilateral posterior arch fractures of the atlas.  

PubMed

Unilateral posterior arch fractures of the atlas are discussed with two clinical examples and an experimental study of their mechanism. Laboratory fracturing of posterior arches of atlas specimens with a specially adapted universal testing machine produced nonsimultaneous fractures of the two sides in four of six specimens. In three of these specimens, a complete fracture on one side was temporarily displaced because the orientation of the leverage acting on the other side changed from sagittal to oblique. The consequent increase in the effective length of the lever arm reduced the angular deformation and strain on the second side. The second fracture occurred only after additional deflection of the posterior tubercle by up to 3 mm reproduced on the second side about the same angle of deformation that had caused the first fracture. A posterior arch fracture occurring by this mechanism will remain unilateral if the deflection is arrested before failure of the second side. PMID:6437181

Suss, R A; Bundy, K J

1984-01-01

252

Meibomian Gland Dysfunction and Treatment (Posterior Blepharitis)  

MedlinePLUS

... Meibomian Gland Dysfunction and Treatment What are Meibomian (Oil) Glands? Meibomian glands are glands that are arranged ... lashes. The force of an eyelid blink causes oil to be excreted onto the posterior lid margin. ...

253

Posterior odds ratios for selected regression hypotheses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Bayesian posterior odds ratios for frequently encountered hypotheses about parameters of the normal linear multiple regression\\u000a model are derived and discussed. For the particular prior distributions utilized, it is found that the posterior odds ratios\\u000a can be well approximated by functions that are monotonic in usual sampling theoryF statistics. Some implications of this finding and the relation of our work

A. Zellner; A. Siow

1980-01-01

254

Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction: a review.  

PubMed

Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is a progressive deformity that can result in the development of a pathologic flatfoot deformity. Numerous publications have studied the effects of clinical interventions at specific stages of progression of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction, but there is still uncertainty regarding the clinical identification of the condition. It is clear that more information regarding the etiology, progression, and risk factors of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is required. Clear evidence exists that suggests that the quality of life for patients with posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is significantly affected. Furthermore, evidence suggests that early conservative intervention can significantly improve quality of life regarding disability, function, and pain. This would suggest that significant cost burden reductions could be made by improving awareness of the condition, which would improve early diagnosis. Early conservative intervention may help reduce the number of patients requiring surgery. This review focuses on the etiologic factors, epidemiologic features, and pathogenesis of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. It aims to analyze, discuss, and debate the current understanding of this condition using the available literature. In addition, there is a discussion of the evidence base surrounding disease characteristics associated with the different clinical stages of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. PMID:21406702

Durrant, Beverley; Chockalingam, Nachiappan; Hashmi, Farina

2011-01-01

255

Predicting Lumbar Central Canal Stenosis – A Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Low back pain is a common complaint among adults, worldwide. Lumbar canal stenosis is frequently diagnosed as a cause for low back pain. In this study we evaluate morphometric measures using MRI sections to predict the occurrence of lumbar central canal stenosis. Settings and Design: One hundred and fifty four lumbar spinal MRI sagital and axial section images, 77 males and females each were evaluated from the Department of Radiology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Manipal University. The study design was a prospective study. Materials and Methods: Various measurements were taken and two constant ratios were calculated. The Canal Body Ratio and the Ratio between the area of the dural sac and the vertebral body was evaluated. Statistical analysis: Unpaired t-test analysis was conducted using SPSS software. Results: A canal body ratio less than 0.6 from L1 to L3 levels and less than 0.5 at L4 and L5 levels were found. The ratio between area of dural sac and vertebral body was found to be a constant at 0.2 at all levels. It was found that maximum central canal stenosis occurred at the L5 lumbar vertebral level in 15.6% males and 13% females. This was followed by stenosis at the L4 and L3 lumbar vertebral levels with 5.1% males having stenosis at both levels and 3.9% and 5.1% females in L4 and L3 lumbar levels respectively. Conclusion: These morphometrical findings of the lumbar vertebrae could be of use in evaluating the possible cases of lumbar canal stenosis.

Premchandran, Divya; Mahale, Ajith

2014-01-01

256

Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis and its imposters: three case studies  

PubMed Central

Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis causing neurogenic claudicaton is a common condition impacting walking ability in older adults. There are other highly prevalent conditions in this patient population that have similar signs and symptoms and cause limited walking ability. The purpose of this study is to highlight the diagnostic challenges using three case studies of older adults who present with limited walking ability who have imaging evidence of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. PMID:25202160

Ammendolia, Carlo

2014-01-01

257

Giant epidermoid cyst of the posterior neck.  

PubMed

A 49-year-old man was presented for evaluation of a painless mass on his right posterior neck. The mass had gradually enlarged for a 25-year period without inflammation or rupture. On physical examination, a round, nontender, soft-tissue mass, 8 cm in diameter, was noted on the right posterior neck. The neck is a common site of epidermoid cysts, but a mass more than 5 cm in diameter is rare. A contrast-enhanced neck computed tomographic (CT) scan revealed a 7.6 × 6.5 × 5.7 cm unilocular hypodense mass adjacent to the posterior neck muscles.The mass was completely excised under general anesthesia. A histopathologic examination of the excised specimen resulted in a diagnosis of an epidermoid cyst. The patient was discharged from the hospital on the third postoperative day. There were no recurrences in a 2-year follow-up period. PMID:21586972

Kim, Cheesun; Park, Myong Chul; Seo, Seung Jo; Yoo, Young Moon; Jang, Yu Jin; Lee, Il Jae

2011-05-01

258

Percutaneous Decompression of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis with a New Interspinous Device  

SciTech Connect

Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of the implantation of a new interspinous device (Falena) in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. The clinical outcomes and imaging results were assessed by orthostatic MR during an up to 6-month follow-up period. Methods: Between October 2008 and February 2010, the Falena was implanted at a single level in 26 patients (17 men; mean age, 69 (range, 54-82) years) who were affected by degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. All of the patients were clinically evaluated before the procedure and at 1 and 3 months. Furthermore, 20 patients have completed a 6-month follow-up. Pain was assessed before and after the intervention using the Visual Analogue Scale score and the Oswestry Disability Index questionnaire. Orthostatic MR imaging was performed before the implantation and at 3 months to assess the correlation with the clinical outcome. Results: The mean ODI score decreased from 48.9 before the device implantation to 31.2 at 1 month (p < 0.0001). The mean VAS score decreased from 7.6 before to 3.9 (p < 0.0001) at 1 month and 3.6 at 3 months after the procedure (p = 0.0115). These values were stable at 6 months evaluation. No postimplantation major complications were recorded. MRI evaluation documented in most cases an increased size of the spinal canal area. Similarly a bilateral foraminal area improvement was found. The variation of the intervertebral space height measured on the posterior wall was not significant. Conclusions: In our preliminary experience with the Falena in a small cohort of patients, we obtained clinical and imaging results aligned to those reported with similar interspinous devices.

Masala, Salvatore; Fiori, Roberto; Bartolucci, Dario Alberto, E-mail: bartolucci.md@gmail.com; Volpi, Tommaso; Calabria, Eros [University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Interventional Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Therapy (Italy); Novegno, Federica [University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Department of Neurosurgery (Italy); Simonetti, Giovanni [University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Interventional Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Therapy (Italy)

2012-04-15

259

Biomechanical effect of altered lumbar lordosis on intervertebral lumbar joints during the golf swing: a simulation study.  

PubMed

Although the lumbar spine region is the most common site of injury in golfers, little research has been done on intervertebral loads in relation to the anatomical-morphological differences in the region. This study aimed to examine the biomechanical effects of anatomical-morphological differences in the lumbar lordosis on the lumbar spinal joints during a golf swing. The golf swing motions of ten professional golfers were analyzed. Using a subject-specific 3D musculoskeletal system model, inverse dynamic analyses were performed to compare the intervertebral load, the load on the lumbar spine, and the load in each swing phase. In the intervertebral load, the value was the highest at the L5-S1 and gradually decreased toward the T12. In each lumbar spine model, the load value was the greatest on the kypholordosis (KPL) followed by normal lordosis (NRL), hypolordosis (HPL), and excessive lordosis (EXL) before the impact phase. However, results after the follow-through (FT) phase were shown in reverse order. Finally, the load in each swing phase was greatest during the FT phase in all the lumbar spine models. The findings can be utilized in the training and rehabilitation of golfers to help reduce the risk of injury by considering individual anatomical-morphological characteristics. PMID:25162173

Bae, Tae Soo; Cho, Woong; Kim, Kwon Hee; Chae, Soo Won

2014-11-01

260

Pedicle screw-based posterior dynamic stabilisation of the lumbar spine: in vitro cadaver investigation and a finite element study.  

PubMed

Pedicle screw-based dynamic constructs either benefit from a dynamic (flexible) interconnecting rod or a dynamic (hinged) screw. Both types of systems have been reported in the literature. However, reports where the dynamic system is composed of two dynamic components, i.e. a dynamic (hinged) screw and a dynamic rod, are sparse. In this study, the biomechanical characteristics of a novel pedicle screw-based dynamic stabilisation system were investigated and compared with equivalent rigid and semi-rigid systems using in vitro testing and finite element modelling analysis. All stabilisation systems restored stability after decompression. A significant decrease in the range of motion was observed for the rigid system in all loadings. In the semi-rigid construct the range of motion was significantly less than the intact in extension, lateral bending and axial rotation loadings. There were no significant differences in motion between the intact spine and the spine treated with the dynamic system (P>0.05). The peak stress in screws was decreased when the stabilisation construct was equipped with dynamic rod and/or dynamic screws. PMID:24708377

Oktenoglu, T; Erbulut, D U; Kiapour, A; Ozer, A F; Lazoglu, I; Kaner, T; Sasani, M; Goel, V K

2015-08-01

261

Molecular MR imaging for the evaluation of the effect of dynamic stabilization on lumbar intervertebral discs  

PubMed Central

The dynamic stabilization of lumbar spine is a non-fusion stabilization system that unloads the disc without the complete loss of motion at the treated motion segment. Clinical outcomes are promising but still not definitive, and the long-term effect on instrumented and adjacent levels is still a matter of discussion. Several experiments have been devised in order to gain a better understanding of the effect of the device on the intervertebral disc. One of the hypotheses was that while instrumented levels are partially relieved from loading, adjacent levels suffer from the increased stress. But this has not been proved yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effect of dynamic stabilization in vivo, through the quantification of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) concentration within instrumented and adjacent levels by means of the delayed Gadolinium-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cartilage (dGEMRIC) protocol. Ten patients with low back pain, unresponsive to conservative treatment and scheduled for Dynesys implantation at one to three lumbar spine levels, underwent the dGEMRIC protocol to quantify GAG concentration before and 6 months after surgery. Each patient was also evaluated with visual analog scale (VAS), Oswestry, Prolo, Modic and Pfirrmann scales, both at pre-surgery and at follow-up. Six months after implantation, VAS, Prolo and Oswestry scales had improved in all patients. Pfirrmann scale could not detect any change, while dGEMRIC data already showed a general improvement in the instrumented levels: GAG was increased in 61% of the instrumented levels, while 68% of the non-instrumented levels showed a decrease in GAG, mainly in the posterior disc portion. In particular, seriously GAG-depleted discs seemed to have the greatest benefit from the Dynesys implantation, whereas less degenerated discs underwent a GAG depletion. dGEMRIC was able to visualize changes in both instrumented and non-instrumented levels. Our results suggest that the dynamic stabilization of lumbar spine is able to stop and partially reverse the disc degeneration, especially in seriously degenerated discs, while incrementing the stress on the adjacent levels, where it induces a matrix suffering and an early degeneration. PMID:19396475

Brayda-Bruno, M.; Perona, F.; Fornari, M.; Raimondi, M. T.; Petruzzi, M.; Grava, G.; Costa, F.; Caiani, E. G.; Lamartina, C.

2009-01-01

262

Outcomes of Fluoroscopically Guided Lumbar Transforaminal Epidural Steroid Injections in Degenerative Lumbar Spondylolisthesis Patients  

PubMed Central

Study Design A prospective cohort. Purpose To report the short and long term outcomes of fluoroscopically guided lumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI) in degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis (DLS) patients. Overview of Literature TFESI has been widely used for the treatment of lumbosacral radicular pains. However, to our knowledge, there has been no study which has evaluated the outcomes of TFESI in patients with DLS. Methods The DLS patients received fluoroscopically guided lumbar TFESI with 80 mg of methylprednisolone and 2 mL of 1% lidocaine hydrochloride. Patients were evaluated by an independent observer before the initial injection, at 2 weeks, at 6 weeks, at 3 months, and at 12 months after the injections. Visual analog scale (VAS), Roland 5-point pain scale, standing tolerance, walking tolerance, and patient satisfaction scale were evaluated for outcomes. Results Thirty three DLS patients treated with TFESI, who were completely followed up, were included in this study. The average number of injections per patient was 1.9 (range from 1 to 3 injections per patient). Significant improvements in VAS and Roland 5-point pain scale were observed over the follow up period from 2 weeks to 12 months. However, the standing and walking tolerance were not significantly improved after 2 weeks. At 2 weeks, the patient satisfaction scale was highest, although, these outcomes declined with time. The DLS patients with one level of spinal stenosis showed significantly better outcome than the DLS patients with two levels of spinal stenosis. Five patients (13%) underwent surgical treatment during the 3 to 12 months follow up. Conclusions TFESI provides short term improvements in VAS and Roland 5-point pain scale, standing tolerance, walking tolerance and patient satisfaction scale in DLS patients. In the long term, it improves VAS but limits the improvements in Roland 5-point pain scale, standing tolerance, walking tolerance and patient satisfaction scale. PMID:24761192

Wechmongkolgorn, Supaporn; Chatriyanuyok, Bangon; Woratanarat, Patarawan; Udomsubpayakul, Umaporn; Chanplakorn, Pongsathorn; Keorochana, Gun; Wajanavisit, Wiwat

2014-01-01

263

Comparison of lumbar repositioning error according to different lumbar angles in a flexion pattern (FP) subgroup of patients with non-specific chronic low back pain  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study determined the change in lumbar position sense according to lumbar angles in a flexion pattern (FP) subgroup of patients with non-specific chronic low back pain (NCSLBP). [Subjects] Thirteen subjects with FP low back pain participated. [Methods] The lumbar repositioning error (RE) of subjects was measured between a neutral starting position and re-position phases at three angles, in sitting and standing upright positions. [Results] Lumbar RE was significantly greater during lumbar flexion at a 30° angle in the sitting position than in the other tasks. [Conclusion] In the flexion-related subgroup, the lumbar RE measurement may be a more sensitive evaluation method using a lumbar flexion angle of 30° while in the sitting position, compared with other angles in sitting or standing positions. PMID:25642094

Noh, Kyung-Hee; Oh, Jae-Seop; Yoo, Won-Gyu

2015-01-01

264

Posterior arch defects of the cervical spine  

SciTech Connect

Spondylolysis and absence of the pedicle are congenital anomalies of the posterior cervical spine. Their roentgenographic changes may be confused with other more serious entities which may necessitate either emergent therapy or require extensive diagnostic testing and treatment. Four cases are present and the literature is reviewed. A hypothesis for the embryologic etiology of these entities is proposed.

Schwartz, A.M.; Wechsler, R.J.; Landy, M.D.; Wetzner, S.M.; Goldstein, S.A.

1982-05-01

265

Posterior predictive Bayesian phylogenetic model selection.  

PubMed

We present two distinctly different posterior predictive approaches to Bayesian phylogenetic model selection and illustrate these methods using examples from green algal protein-coding cpDNA sequences and flowering plant rDNA sequences. The Gelfand-Ghosh (GG) approach allows dissection of an overall measure of model fit into components due to posterior predictive variance (GGp) and goodness-of-fit (GGg), which distinguishes this method from the posterior predictive P-value approach. The conditional predictive ordinate (CPO) method provides a site-specific measure of model fit useful for exploratory analyses and can be combined over sites yielding the log pseudomarginal likelihood (LPML) which is useful as an overall measure of model fit. CPO provides a useful cross-validation approach that is computationally efficient, requiring only a sample from the posterior distribution (no additional simulation is required). Both GG and CPO add new perspectives to Bayesian phylogenetic model selection based on the predictive abilities of models and complement the perspective provided by the marginal likelihood (including Bayes Factor comparisons) based solely on the fit of competing models to observed data. PMID:24193892

Lewis, Paul O; Xie, Wangang; Chen, Ming-Hui; Fan, Yu; Kuo, Lynn

2014-05-01

266

Posterior plagiocephaly: craniosynostosis or skull molding?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surgical indication in posterior plagiocephaly has been and still is a subject of discussion. Unlike other types of craniosynostosis, this particular type of cranial deformity does not show the typical radiological findings that are encountered in cases of prematurely fused cranial sutures. Furthermore, in most cases even the inspective evaluation during the surgical operation fails to demonstrate the actual

Concezio Di Rocco; Antonio Scogna; Franceso Velardi; Helder J. L. Zambelli

1998-01-01

267

Subspecialization in the human posterior medial cortex.  

PubMed

The posterior medial cortex (PMC) is particularly poorly understood. Its neural activity changes have been related to highly disparate mental processes. We therefore investigated PMC properties with a data-driven exploratory approach. First, we subdivided the PMC by whole-brain coactivation profiles. Second, functional connectivity of the ensuing PMC regions was compared by task-constrained meta-analytic coactivation mapping (MACM) and task-unconstrained resting-state correlations (RSFC). Third, PMC regions were functionally described by forward/reverse functional inference. A precuneal cluster was mostly connected to the intraparietal sulcus, frontal eye fields, and right temporo-parietal junction; associated with attention and motor tasks. A ventral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) cluster was mostly connected to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and middle left inferior parietal cortex (IPC); associated with facial appraisal and language tasks. A dorsal PCC cluster was mostly connected to the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, anterior/posterior IPC, posterior midcingulate cortex, and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; associated with delay discounting. A cluster in the retrosplenial cortex was mostly connected to the anterior thalamus and hippocampus. Furthermore, all PMC clusters were congruently coupled with the default mode network according to task-unconstrained but not task-constrained connectivity. We thus identified distinct regions in the PMC and characterized their neural networks and functional implications. PMID:25462801

Bzdok, Danilo; Heeger, Adrian; Langner, Robert; Laird, Angela R; Fox, Peter T; Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola; Vogt, Brent A; Zilles, Karl; Eickhoff, Simon B

2015-02-01

268

Congenital orbital teratoma up to posterior fossa  

PubMed Central

Congenital orbital teratoma is a rare condition which presents as marked proptosis of eyeball in a newborn. It is rapidly progressive with secondary damage to eyeball due to pressure effect. This case presented by us is of interest due to radiological features and rarity of this tumor extending into posterior fossa. PMID:25250083

Kharosekar, Hrushikesh U.; Jasmit, S.; Velho, V.; Palande, D. A.

2014-01-01

269

UNIFORM STABILITY OF POSTERIORS Sanjib Basu  

E-print Network

UNIFORM STABILITY OF POSTERIORS by Sanjib Basu Northern Illinois University DeKalb, IL 60115, USA E M of probability measures. Stability then amounts to checking if these functions satisfy Lipschitz condition of order 1. For parametric prior families, an intuitive criterion of p--stability is proposed

Basu, Sanjib

270

Hepatocellular Carcinoma Supplied by the Right Lumbar Artery  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluated the clinical features of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) supplied by the right lumbar artery. Eleven patients with HCC supplied by the right lumbar artery were treated with chemoembolization. The patients' medical records were retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent 6.7 {+-} 3.7 (mean {+-} SD) chemoembolization sessions, and the hepatic arterial branches were noted as being attenuated. The right inferior phrenic artery (IPA) was also embolized in 10 patients. The interval between initial chemoembolization and chemoembolization of the lumbar artery supply was 53.2 {+-} 26.9 months. Mean tumor diameter was 3.1 {+-} 2.4 cm and was located at the surface of S7 and S6. The feeding-branch arose proximal to the bifurcation of the dorsal ramus and muscular branches (n = 8) or from the muscular branches (n = 3) of the right first (n = 10) or second lumbar artery (n = 1). The anterior spinal artery originated from the tumor-feeding lumbar artery in one patient. All feeders were selected, and embolization was performed after injection of iodized oil and anticancer drugs (n = 10) or gelatin sponge alone in a patient with anterior spinal artery branching (n = 1). Eight patients died from tumor progression 10.1 {+-} 4.6 months later, and two patients survived 2 and 26 months, respectively. The remaining patient died of bone metastases after 32 months despite liver transplantation 10 months after chemoembolization. The right lumbar artery supplies HCC located in the bare area of the liver, especially in patients who undergo repeated chemoembolization, including chemoembolization by way of the right IPA. Chemoembolization by way of the right lumbar artery may be safe when the feeder is well selected.

Miyayama, Shiro, E-mail: s-miyayama@fukui.saiseikai.or.jp; Yamashiro, Masashi; Okuda, Miho; Yoshie, Yuichi; Sugimori, Natsuki; Igarashi, Saya; Nakashima, Yoshiko [Fukuiken Saiseikai Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan); Matsui, Osamu [Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Department of Radiology (Japan)

2010-02-15

271

Bias in the physical examination of patients with lumbar radiculopathy  

PubMed Central

Background No prior studies have examined systematic bias in the musculoskeletal physical examination. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of bias due to prior knowledge of lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging findings (MRI) on perceived diagnostic accuracy of the physical examination for lumbar radiculopathy. Methods This was a cross-sectional comparison of the performance characteristics of the physical examination with blinding to MRI results (the 'independent group') with performance in the situation where the physical examination was not blinded to MRI results (the 'non-independent group'). The reference standard was the final diagnostic impression of nerve root impingement by the examining physician. Subjects were recruited from a hospital-based outpatient specialty spine clinic. All adults age 18 and older presenting with lower extremity radiating pain of duration ? 12 weeks were evaluated for participation. 154 consecutively recruited subjects with lumbar disk herniation confirmed by lumbar spine MRI were included in this study. Sensitivities and specificities with 95% confidence intervals were calculated in the independent and non-independent groups for the four components of the radiculopathy examination: 1) provocative testing, 2) motor strength testing, 3) pinprick sensory testing, and 4) deep tendon reflex testing. Results The perceived sensitivity of sensory testing was higher with prior knowledge of MRI results (20% vs. 36%; p = 0.05). Sensitivities and specificities for exam components otherwise showed no statistically significant differences between groups. Conclusions Prior knowledge of lumbar MRI results may introduce bias into the pinprick sensory testing component of the physical examination for lumbar radiculopathy. No statistically significant effect of bias was seen for other components of the physical examination. The effect of bias due to prior knowledge of lumbar MRI results should be considered when an isolated sensory deficit on examination is used in medical decision-making. Further studies of bias should include surgical clinic populations and other common diagnoses including shoulder, knee and hip pathology. PMID:21118558

2010-01-01

272

Lumbar puncture preferences among Swedish neurologists.  

PubMed

Lumbar puncture (LP) with cerebrospinal fluid analysis is a common diagnostic tool in neurology, and may be complicated by post-LP headache (PLPHA). The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) has published guidelines for performing diagnostic LPs with the aim to reduce PLPHA risk, but our clinical hands-on experience suggests that these are not followed. We performed a questionnaire study among Swedish neurologists to investigate the acceptance and implementation of the AAN guidelines. Only one-eighth (22/174) of the respondents performed their LPs according to the AAN guidelines. The poor adherence to the AAN guidelines among Swedish neurologists may be due to perceived low credibility, as the current guidelines cite only one study to support the recommendation to use atraumatic needles, and only one study to support the recommendation to replace the stylet before needle withdrawal. An international survey has been posted ( https://www.surveymonkey.com/s/lumbarpuncturesurvey ) to investigate whether the results of this Swedish questionnaire are representative of neurologists worldwide. PMID:25213597

Salzer, Jonatan; Sundström, Peter; Vågberg, Mattias; Svenningsson, Anders

2015-01-01

273

Posterior cruciate ligament-retaining and posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty: differences in surgical technique  

PubMed Central

Summary The debate over the relative merits of substituting or retaining the posterior cruciate ligament in total knee arthroplasty is still ongoing. This article discusses the differences between the two procedures, considering the biomechanics and the surgical techniques involved.

D’Anchise, Roberto; Andreata, Mauro; Balbino, Cristiana; Manta, Nicola

2013-01-01

274

Posterior Pole Sparing Laser Photocoagulation Combined with Intravitreal Bevacizumab Injection in Posterior Retinopathy of Prematurity  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To report the results of the posterior pole sparing laser photocoagulation combined with intravitreal bevacizumab injection (IVB) in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Methods. A retrospective chart review of premature babies with ROP, all of whom received laser photocoagulation with IVB. Eleven eyes of 6 infants with advanced zone I ROP underwent laser ablation sparing posterior pole with concurrent IVB. The results were compared with those of full-laser treatment combined with IVB to 8 eyes of 5 infants with advanced ROP without involvement of the posterior pole. Results. The posterior pole sparing laser with IVB was performed with zone I, stage 3+ ROP at the mean postmenstrual age of 36 weeks and 5 days. The plus sign decreased significantly at postoperative day 1, the neovascular proliferation regressed by postoperative week 1, and the normal vascularization started at postoperative day 32 on the average. Two months after treatment, vascularization of the spared avascular area was completed. There was no macular dragging, tractional retinal detachment, foveal destruction by laser scars, or any other adverse event. No significant anatomical differences were identified from those of full-laser ablation combined with IVB. Conclusions. Posterior pole sparing laser with IVB can give favorable results without destruction of posterior pole retina. PMID:25614828

Kim, Rebecca; Kim, Yu Cheol

2014-01-01

275

Choroid plexus papilloma in the posterior fossa.  

PubMed

Choroid plexus papillomas in the posterior fossa can present with different clinical signs and symptoms. The tumors in the patients we discuss in this article originated from different sites of the choroid plexus. One patient, who had a fourth ventricle papilloma, experienced unsteady gait and episodes of dizziness over many years. The tumor was cystic an calcified, and adherent to the brain-stem. The second patient had only signs of increased intracranial pressure. A soft tumor was located in the cerebellomedullary cistern. The third patient, with a papilloma in the cerebellopontine angle, complained of hearing loss. This tumor was firmly adherent to the dura mater and looked exactly like a meningioma. The appearance on computed tomography scan, the macroscopic aspect, and the vascular supply of a papilloma in the posterior fossa can vary considerably. PMID:3496674

van Swieten, J C; Thomeer, R T; Vielvoye, G J; Bots, G T

1987-08-01

276

Pseudoexfoliation material on posterior chamber intraocular lenses  

PubMed Central

The presence of pseudoexfoliation material on the surface of an intraocular lens (IOL) is a rare finding. We report a series of seven cases with different patterns of pseudoexfoliation material deposition on the posterior chamber IOLs, recognized 2–20 years after cataract surgery. Six patients had an IOL implanted in the capsular bag and one in the ciliary sulcus. Two patients had undergone posterior capsulotomy. Although the pathophysiological mechanisms and clinical significance of this finding remain unknown, the careful follow-up of pseudophakic patients with known or suspected pseudoexfoliation syndrome is essential to monitor the development or progression of glaucoma, since deposition of pseudoexfoliation material continues even after cataract surgery. PMID:25143707

da Rocha-Bastos, Ricardo António; Silva, Sérgio Estrela; Prézia, Flávio; Falcão-Reis, Fernando; Melo, António B

2014-01-01

277

Acute spinal pain during an attempted lumbar epidural blood patch in congenital lumbar spinal stenosis and epidural lipomatosis.  

PubMed

Congenital lumbar spinal stenosis is an uncommon condition that is often asymptomatic in young adults. Herein, we document the first reported occurrence of acute radicular back pain and associated congenital lumbar spinal stenosis in a healthy 24-year-old woman undergoing an epidural blood patch for treatment of a post-dural puncture headache related to an accidental dural puncture sustained during placement of a labor epidural catheter. The acute pain symptoms were elicited twice with injection of less than 1 mL of fluid into the epidural space during the fluoroscopically assisted epidural blood patch. Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine demonstrated shortened pedicle length consistent with severe congenital lumbar spinal stenosis and prominent epidural fat. We speculate that the transient increase in pressure within the epidural compartment following injection of a small amount of fluid could have compressed neural structures resulting in severe radicular pain. The prominent epidural fat could have prevented rapid disbursement of the injected fluid which could have further served to propagate the pressure increase throughout the epidural compartment. The unique radiographic features of congenital spinal stenosis could predispose some patients with this unrecognized condition to develop acute pain upon injection of a small amount of fluid into the epidural compartment. Unrecognized congenital lumbar spinal stenosis is an important addition to the differential diagnosis of acute radicular pain elicited during an epidural blood patch in previously asymptomatic patients. PMID:18196174

Hooten, W Michael; Hogan, Michael S; Sanemann, Thomas C; Maus, Timothy J

2008-01-01

278

Sex Determination by Discriminant Function Analysis of Lumbar Vertebrae.  

PubMed

Sex determination is critical for developing the biological profile of unidentified skeletal remains. When more commonly used elements (os coxa, cranium) for sexing are not available, methods utilizing other skeletal elements are needed. This study aims to assess the degree of sexual dimorphism of the lumbar vertebrae and develop discriminant functions for sex determination from them, using a sample of South African blacks from the Raymond A. Dart Collection (47 males, 51 females). Eleven variables at each lumbar level were subjected to univariate and multivariate discriminant function analyses. Univariate equations produced classification rates ranging from 57.7% to 83.5%, with the highest accuracies associated with dimensions of the vertebral body. Multivariate stepwise analysis generated classification rates ranging from 75.9% to 88.7%. These results are comparable to other methods for sexing the skeleton and indicate that measures of the lumbar vertebrae can be used as an effective tool for sex determination. PMID:25382679

Ostrofsky, Kelly R; Churchill, Steven E

2014-11-01

279

Low back pain and lumbar angles in Turkish coal miners  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to assess the incidence of low back pain among Turkish coal miners and to investigate the relationship between angles of the lumbar spine and low back pain in coal miners. Fifty underground workers (Group I) and 38 age-matched surface workers (Group II) were included in the study. All the subjects were asked about low back pain in the past 5 years. The prevalence of low back pain was higher in Group I than in Group II (78.0%, 32.4%, respectively, P {lt} 0.001). The results of the study showed that low back pain occurred in 78.0% of Turkish coal miners. Although the nature of the occupation may have influenced coal miners' lumbar spinal curvature, lumbar angles are not a determinant for low back pain in this population. Further extensive studies involving ergonomic measurements are needed to validate our results for Turkish coal mining industry.

Sarikaya, S.; Ozdolap, S.; Gumustas, S.; Koc, U. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey). Faculty of Medicine

2007-02-15

280

Material Properties of the Posterior Human Sclera?  

PubMed Central

To characterize the material properties of posterior and peripapillary sclera from human donors, and to investigate the macro- and micro-scale strains as potential control mechanisms governing mechanical homeostasis. Posterior scleral shells from 9 human donors aged 57–90 years were subjected to IOP elevations from 5 to 45 mmHg and the resulting full-field displacements were recorded using laser speckle interferometry. Eye-specific finite element models were generated based on experimentally measured scleral shell surface geometry and thickness. Inverse numerical analyses were performed to identify material parameters for each eye by matching experimental deformation measurements to model predictions using a microstructure-based constitutive formulation that incorporates the crimp response and anisotropic architecture of scleral collagen fibrils. The material property fitting produced models that fit both the overall and local deformation responses of posterior scleral shells very well. The nonlinear stiffening of the sclera with increasing IOP was well reproduced by the uncrimping of scleral collagen fibrils, and a circumferentially-aligned ring of collagen fibrils around the scleral canal was predicted in all eyes. Macroscopic in-plane strains were significantly higher in peripapillary region then in the mid-periphery. In contrast, the meso- and micro-scale strains at the collagen network and collagen fibril level were not significantly different between regions. The elastic response of the posterior human sclera can be characterized by the anisotropic architecture and crimp response of scleral collagen fibrils. The similar collagen fibril strains in the peripapillary and mid-peripheral regions support the notion that the scleral collagen architecture including the circumpapillary ring of collagen fibrils evolved to establish optimal load bearing conditions at the collagen fibril level. PMID:23684352

Grytz, Rafael; Fazio, Massimo A.; Girard, Michael J.A.; Libertiaux, Vincent; Bruno, Luigi; Gardiner, Stuart; Girkin, Christopher A.; Downs, J. Crawford

2013-01-01

281

Material properties of the posterior human sclera.  

PubMed

To characterize the material properties of posterior and peripapillary sclera from human donors, and to investigate the macro- and micro-scale strains as potential control mechanisms governing mechanical homeostasis. Posterior scleral shells from 9 human donors aged 57-90 years were subjected to IOP elevations from 5 to 45mmHg and the resulting full-field displacements were recorded using laser speckle interferometry. Eye-specific finite element models were generated based on experimentally measured scleral shell surface geometry and thickness. Inverse numerical analyses were performed to identify material parameters for each eye by matching experimental deformation measurements to model predictions using a microstructure-based constitutive formulation that incorporates the crimp response and anisotropic architecture of scleral collagen fibrils. The material property fitting produced models that fit both the overall and local deformation responses of posterior scleral shells very well. The nonlinear stiffening of the sclera with increasing IOP was well reproduced by the uncrimping of scleral collagen fibrils, and a circumferentially aligned ring of collagen fibrils around the scleral canal was predicted in all eyes. Macroscopic in-plane strains were significantly higher in peripapillary region then in the mid-periphery. In contrast, the meso- and micro-scale strains at the collagen network and collagen fibril level were not significantly different between regions. The elastic response of the posterior human sclera can be characterized by the anisotropic architecture and crimp response of scleral collagen fibrils. The similar collagen fibril strains in the peripapillary and mid-peripheral regions support the notion that the scleral collagen architecture including the circumpapillary ring of collagen fibrils evolved to establish optimal load bearing conditions at the collagen fibril level. PMID:23684352

Grytz, Rafael; Fazio, Massimo A; Girard, Michaël J A; Libertiaux, Vincent; Bruno, Luigi; Gardiner, Stuart; Girkin, Christopher A; Downs, J Crawford

2014-01-01

282

Indocyanine green angiography in posterior uveitis  

PubMed Central

Literature review for indocyanine green angiography and evaluate the role of indocyanine green angiogram (ICGA) in patients with posterior uveitis seen at a tertiary referral eye care centre. Detailed review of the literature on ICGA was performed. Retrospective review of medical records of patients with posterior uveitis and dual fundus and ICGA was done after institutional board approval. Eighteen patients (26 eyes) had serpiginous choroiditis out of which 12 patients had active choroiditis and six patients had healed choroiditis, six patients (12 eyes) had ampiginous choroiditis, six patients (12 eyes) had acute multifocal posterior placoid pigment epitheliopathy, eight patients (10 eyes) had multifocal choroiditis, four patients (eight eyes) had presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome, four patients (eight eyes) had presumed tuberculous choroiditis, two patients (four eyes) had multiple evanescent white dot syndrome and two patients (four eyes) had Vogt Koyanagi Harada (VKH) syndrome. The most characteristic feature noted on ICGA was the presence of different patterns of hypofluorescent dark spots, which were present at different stages of the angiogram. ICGA provides the clinician with a powerful adjunctive tool in choroidal inflammatory disorders. It is not meant to replace already proven modalities such as the fluorescein angiography, but it can provide additional information that is useful in establishing a more definitive diagnosis in inflammatory chorioretinal diseases associated with multiple spots. It still needs to be determined if ICGA can prove to be a follow up parameter to evaluate disease progression. PMID:23685486

Agrawal, Rupesh V; Biswas, Jyotirmay; Gunasekaran, Dinesh

2013-01-01

283

Posterior mini-incision hamstring harvest.  

PubMed

Many orthopedists looking for alternatives to autograft bone-patellar-tendon-bone grafts are uncertain of their ability to harvest a hamstring graft of adequate length. They may use an allograft instead for this reason despite recent reports of high failure rates. This article presents step-by-step instructions for a posterior mini-incision hamstring harvest that offers a safe and simple method of reliably harvesting sufficient hamstring for 4 or 6 strand repair, while using tiny incisions for excellent cosmesis and minimal pain. Access from the posterior mini-incision allows easy identification and differentiation of the semitendinosus and gracilis (Gr) tendons, as well as precise placement of the anterior mini-incision for tibial tunnel drilling and fixation. Most importantly sectioning of the intertendinous cross-connections is performed under easy direct vision posteriorly, instead of at a distance from the typical anterior incision under retractors. This prevents the tendons from being cut too short by the tendon stripper and is particularly useful in large patients. In addition to the surgical procedure, details on the required equipment are presented. PMID:20160624

Prodromos, Chadwick C

2010-03-01

284

Effects of external trunk loads on lumbar spine stability.  

PubMed

Stability of the lumbar spine is an important factor in determining spinal response to sudden loading. Using two different methods, this study evaluated how various trunk load magnitudes and directions affect lumbar spine stability. The first method was a quick release procedure in which effective trunk stiffness and stability were calculated from trunk kinematic response to a resisted-force release. The second method combined trunk muscle EMG data with a biomechanical model to calculate lumbar spine stability. Twelve subjects were tested in trunk flexion, extension, and lateral bending under nine permutations of vertical and horizontal trunk loading. The vertical load values were set at 0, 20, and 40% of the subject's body weight (BW). The horizontal loads were 0, 10, and 20% of BW. Effective spine stability as obtained from quick release experimentation increased significantly (p<0.01) with increased vertical and horizontal loading. It ranged from 785 (S.D.=580) Nm/rad under no-load conditions to 2200 (S.D.=1015) Nm/rad when the maximum horizontal and vertical loads were applied to the trunk simultaneously. Stability of the lumbar spine achieved prior to force release and estimated from the biomechanical model explained approximately 50% of variance in the effective spine stability obtained from quick release trials in extension and lateral bending (0.53lumbar spine stability increased with increased trunk load magnitude to the extent that this load brought about an increase in trunk muscle activation. Indirectly, our data suggest that muscle reflex response to sudden loading can augment the lumbar spine stability level achieved immediately prior to the sudden loading event. PMID:10940396

Cholewicki, J; Simons, A P; Radebold, A

2000-11-01

285

Genetic Association Studies in Lumbar Disc Degeneration: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Objective Low back pain is associated with lumbar disc degeneration, which is mainly due to genetic predisposition. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review to evaluate genetic association studies in lumbar disc degeneration as defined on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in humans. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, SCOPUS, ISI Web of Science, The Genetic Association Database and The Human Genome Epidemiology Network for information published between 1990–2011 addressing genes and lumbar disc degeneration. Two investigators independently identified studies to determine inclusion, after which they performed data extraction and analysis. The level of cumulative genetic association evidence was analyzed according to The HuGENet Working Group guidelines. Results Fifty-two studies were included for review. Forty-eight studies reported at least one positive association between a genetic marker and lumbar disc degeneration. The phenotype definition of lumbar disc degeneration was highly variable between the studies and replications were inconsistent. Most of the associations presented with a weak level of evidence. The level of evidence was moderate for ASPN (D-repeat), COL11A1 (rs1676486), GDF5 (rs143383), SKT (rs16924573), THBS2 (rs9406328) and MMP9 (rs17576). Conclusions Based on this first extensive systematic review on the topic, the credibility of reported genetic associations is mostly weak. Clear definition of lumbar disc degeneration phenotypes and large population-based cohorts are needed. An international consortium is needed to standardize genetic association studies in relation to disc degeneration. PMID:23185509

Eskola, Pasi J.; Lemmelä, Susanna; Kjaer, Per; Solovieva, Svetlana; Männikkö, Minna; Tommerup, Niels; Lind-Thomsen, Allan; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Cheung, Kenneth M. C.; Chan, Danny

2012-01-01

286

Characteristics of lumbar scoliosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis  

PubMed Central

Background Although a substantial percentage of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) experience low back pain, the characteristics of lumbar spine pathology in RA patients has been poorly investigated. In our institutions, lumbar spine radiographs indicated scoliosis in 26 patients. The present study aimed to clarify the characteristics of lumbar scoliosis in RA patients. Methods This is a retrospective study of 26 RA patients with lumbar scoliosis. Patient characteristics such as disease duration, disease stage and class according to Steinbrocker's classification, and medication for RA and osteoporosis were reviewed. Radiologic evaluation of scoliosis was performed at two different time points by measuring Cobb angles. The progression of scoliosis per year was calculated by dividing the change in Cobb angles by the number of years. Apical vertebral rotation, lateral listhesis, and the level of the intercrestal line at the first observation were also measured. The correlation between different factors and changes in the Cobb angles per year was analyzed. Results Majority of the patients had a long disease duration and were classified as stage 3 or 4 according to Steinbrocker's classification. During the observation period, most patients were treated with glucocorticoids. Unlike the previous studies on degenerative scoliosis, apical vertebral rotation, lateral listhesis, and the level of the intercrestal line at initial observation were not significantly related to the progression of scoliosis. Initial Cobb angles were inversely related to the progression of scoliosis. Patients who were treated with bisphosphonates showed slower progression of scoliosis. Conclusions Our results indicate that the characteristics of lumbar scoliosis in RA patients differ from those of degenerative lumbar scoliosis. Bone fragility due to the long disease duration, poor control of disease activity, and osteoporosis is possibly related to its progression. PMID:24767138

2014-01-01

287

Posterior semicircular canal dehiscence following endolymphatic sac surgery.  

PubMed

Posterior semicircular canal dehiscence is a rare otologic entity that presents with third window signs and symptoms. Petrous apex cholesteatoma, fibrous dysplasia, high riding jugular bulb, and eosinophilic granuloma have been reported to be associated with posterior semicircular canal dehiscence. Here we report a case of development of posterior semicircular canal dehiscence following an endolymphatic sac surgery for the first time. PMID:22689472

Kiumehr, Saman; Mahboubi, Hossein; Djalilian, Hamid R

2012-09-01

288

Bayesian Posterior Comprehension via Message from Monte Carlo  

E-print Network

Bayesian Posterior Comprehension via Message from Monte Carlo Leigh J. Fitzgibbon, David L. Dowe Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. The Message from Monte Carlo methodology is illustrated for binary Length, MML, MCMC, RJMCMC, Message from Monte Carlo, MMC, posterior summary, epitome, Bayesian Posterior

Allison, Lloyd

289

Posterior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence Following Endolymphatic Sac Surgery  

PubMed Central

Posterior semicircular canal dehiscence is a rare otologic entity which presents with third window signs and symptoms. Petrous apex cholesteatoma, fibrous dysplasia, high riding jugular bulb, and eosinophilic granuloma have been reported to be associated with posterior semicircular canal dehiscence. Here we report a case of development of posterior semicircular canal dehiscence following an endolymaphatic sac surgery for the first time. PMID:22689472

Kiumehr, Saman; Mahboubi, Hossein; Djalilian, Hamid R.

2012-01-01

290

Controversies in posterior composite resin restorations.  

PubMed

The use of posterior composites is riddled with so many controversies that the puzzled practitioner must step warily among them. This modality is a minefield, where one careless movement can bring disaster. All composite restorations are subject to three big destructive forces--moisture, polymerization shrinkage, and clinical wear--forces that can eventually produce both microleakage and deterioration of the silane coupling agent linking filler particles to resin matrix. Despite the extreme technique sensitivity of posterior composite resins, knowledge of resin technology, sound operative dentistry principles and foresight in case selection can be effective in producing durable cosmetic restorations. Posterior composite resin restorations bonded to enamel and dentin reputedly strengthen teeth in both conventional and adhesive types of preparations provided polymerization shrinkage can be controlled. It is imperative that a knowledge of occlusal contacts be used to influence cavity outline, confining the trauma or occlusal forces away from the tooth-resin interface and helping to minimize occlusal wear. With the increased use of posterior resins, the trend in cavity preparations should break away from the traditional Black preparation toward the adhesive type preparation. If the Black Class II preparation is used, it is suggested that bevels be confined to the facial and lingual margins of the proximal box. Prewedging helps to maintain a conservative Class II preparation. Shade selection must be made prior to rubber dam isolation for greater accuracy and to help prevent postinsertion discoloration. The enamel should be pumiced to present a clean substrate for acid etching. The smear layer should be removed. The type of pulp protection applied before acid etching is dependent on the material used. After etching, the enamel should be washed with a 1 per cent potassium chloride solution. It is a more universally chemically stable solution than additive-laden local water supplies. The potassium chloride solution lowers the electrostatic forces on the enamel that would interfere with the flow of enamel bonding agents. Furthermore, tests have shown that the use of potassium chloride washes increase the strength of the enamel body by 40 per cent. Because of the depth of most posterior cavities, an incremental filling technique must be used to ensure a thorough polymerization of the resin and to forestall a massive polymerization shrinkage. When finished and contoured, the margins of the restoration should be re-etched, washed, and dried and then covered with an application of unfilled resin to discourage microleakage. Traditional operative dentistry technique must become flexible enough to meet the new demands of resin technology.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2403943

Wilson, E G; Mandradjieff, M; Brindock, T

1990-01-01

291

Intradural solitary fibrous tumor of the lumbar spine: a distinctive case report.  

PubMed

Background. Solitary fibrous tumors are ubiquitous mesenchymal neoplasms of putative fibroblastic origin. They were originally described in the pleura but subsequently have been reported in many extraserosal sites. Solitary fibrous tumors may also occur in the meninges, central nervous system parenchyma, and spinal cord. Case. A 67-year-old male patient with progressive lower extremity weakness, urinary urgency, and sexual dysfunction has been admitted to our hospital. On his lumbar MRI, we detected an intradural lesion posterior to the L3 vertebral corpus. We resected the lesion by L3 total laminectomy. Immunohistological findings revealed strong and diffuse immunopositivity with vimentin, CD34, and bcl-2. Ki-67 proliferation index was 5-8%. We did not detect any recurrence 12 months after his operation. Conclusion. SFT is mostly seen in young and middle-aged patients and should be considered among differential diagnosis in cases suffering from pain, hypoesthesia, and urinary dysfunction. Gross total resection should be primary treatment. Tumors that have high Ki-67 labeling should be followed up for potential recurrences. PMID:25648160

Basaran, Recep; Kaksi, Mustafa; Onoz, Mustafa; Balkuv, Ece; Sav, Aydin

2015-01-01

292

Intradural Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Lumbar Spine: A Distinctive Case Report  

PubMed Central

Background. Solitary fibrous tumors are ubiquitous mesenchymal neoplasms of putative fibroblastic origin. They were originally described in the pleura but subsequently have been reported in many extraserosal sites. Solitary fibrous tumors may also occur in the meninges, central nervous system parenchyma, and spinal cord. Case. A 67-year-old male patient with progressive lower extremity weakness, urinary urgency, and sexual dysfunction has been admitted to our hospital. On his lumbar MRI, we detected an intradural lesion posterior to the L3 vertebral corpus. We resected the lesion by L3 total laminectomy. Immunohistological findings revealed strong and diffuse immunopositivity with vimentin, CD34, and bcl-2. Ki-67 proliferation index was 5–8%. We did not detect any recurrence 12 months after his operation. Conclusion. SFT is mostly seen in young and middle-aged patients and should be considered among differential diagnosis in cases suffering from pain, hypoesthesia, and urinary dysfunction. Gross total resection should be primary treatment. Tumors that have high Ki-67 labeling should be followed up for potential recurrences. PMID:25648160

Kaksi, Mustafa; Onoz, Mustafa; Sav, Aydin

2015-01-01

293

Fluoroscopic lumbar interlaminar epidural injections in managing chronic lumbar axial or discogenic pain  

PubMed Central

Among the multiple causes of chronic low back pain, axial and discogenic pain are common. Various modalities of treatments are utilized in managing discogenic and axial low back pain including epidural injections. However, there is a paucity of evidence regarding the effectiveness, indications, and medical necessity of any treatment modality utilized for managing axial or discogenic pain, including epidural injections. In an interventional pain management practice in the US, a randomized, double-blind, active control trial was conducted. The objective was to assess the effectiveness of lumbar interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids for managing chronic low back pain of discogenic origin. However, disc herniation, radiculitis, facet joint pain, or sacroiliac joint pain were excluded. Two groups of patients were studied, with 60 patients in each group receiving either local anesthetic only or local anesthetic mixed with non-particulate betamethasone. Primary outcome measures included the pain relief-assessed by numeric rating scale of pain and functional status assessed by the, Oswestry Disability Index, Secondary outcome measurements included employment status, and opioid intake. Significant improvement or success was defined as at least a 50% decrease in pain and disability. Significant improvement was seen in 77% of the patients in Group I and 67% of the patients in Group II. In the successful groups (those with at least 3 weeks of relief with the first two procedures), the improvement was 84% in Group I and 71% in Group II. For those with chronic function-limiting low back pain refractory to conservative management, it is concluded that lumbar interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids may be an effective modality for managing chronic axial or discogenic pain. This treatment appears to be effective for those who have had facet joints as well as sacroiliac joints eliminated as the pain source. PMID:23055773

Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Cash, Kimberly A; McManus, Carla D; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Benyamin, Ramsin

2012-01-01

294

Effectiveness of posterior tension band fixation in the thoracolumbar seat-belt type injuries of the young population.  

PubMed

We report results in the surgical treatment of thoracolumbar flexion-distraction fractures, both associated or not with neurological impairment. Items in the present study include function, pain (back pain rating scale) and neurological recovery (Asia Score). A prospective series of 19 consecutive flexion-extension thoracolumbar injuries (T11-L2), occurred in young patients (20-33 years) due to motor vehicle crashes wearing the 3-point safety belts, includes 2 Chance and 17 seat-belt fractures, with different amount of vertebral dislocation and neurological impairment. Fractures have been evaluated according to the Magerl's classification. All patients were operated via posterior approach using hybrid instrumentation or short pedicular fixation to reduce dislocation and to obtain spinal fusion. Posterior decompression was performed in all patients with neurological deficit. Posterior instrumented arthodesis was performed by wide constructs that preferably include 2 levels above and below the dislocated vertebra. Most of them were instrumented using thoracic hooks and lumbar pedicular screws. One postoperative vascular complication was successfully treated by selective embolization. All neurological patients were submitted to a postoperative rehabilitation program. Posterior procedure allows proper reduction and realignment. In our experience, the use of laminar hooks one level above the dislocation seems to reduce the potential risk of neurological and /or vascular damage during the intraoperative maneuvers on the dislocated pedicles. At follow-up, fusion was achieved in all patients. The clinical condition was totally satisfactory due to the absence of significant pain, confirming mechanical stability of the implants. In terms of neurological outcomes, patients presenting as ASIA A-B or ASIA E, maintained their preoperative neurological condition. Surgical treatment, together with an early postoperative rehabilitation program, can be of paramount importance in neurological patients' quality of life. PMID:19390871

Ramieri, Alessandro; Domenicucci, Maurizio; Cellocco, Paolo; Raco, Antonino; Costanzo, Giuseppe

2009-06-01

295

Radicular Pain due to Subsidence of the Nitinol Shape Memory Loop for Stabilization after Lumbar Decompressive Laminectomy.  

PubMed

A number of dynamic stabilization systems have been used to overcome the problems associated with spinal fusion with rigid fixation recently and the demand for an ideal dynamic stabilization system is greater for younger patients with multisegment disc degeneration. Nitinol, a shape memory alloy of nickel and titanium, is flexible at low temperatures and regains its original shape when heated, and the Nitinol shape memory loop (SML) implant has been used as a posterior tension band mostly in decompressive laminectomy cases because the Nitinol implant has various characteristics such as high elasticity and a tensile force, flexibility, and biological compatibility. The reported short-term outcomes of the application of SMLs as posterior column supporters in cervical and lumbar decompressive laminectomies seem to be positive, and complications are minimal except for the rare occurrence of pullout and fracture of the SML. However, there was no report of neurological complications related to neural compression in spite of the use of the loop of SML in the epidural space. The authors report a case of delayed development of radiating pain caused by subsidence of the SML resulting epidural compression. PMID:25674347

Son, Byung-Chul; Kim, Deog-Ryeong

2015-01-01

296

Radicular Pain due to Subsidence of the Nitinol Shape Memory Loop for Stabilization after Lumbar Decompressive Laminectomy  

PubMed Central

A number of dynamic stabilization systems have been used to overcome the problems associated with spinal fusion with rigid fixation recently and the demand for an ideal dynamic stabilization system is greater for younger patients with multisegment disc degeneration. Nitinol, a shape memory alloy of nickel and titanium, is flexible at low temperatures and regains its original shape when heated, and the Nitinol shape memory loop (SML) implant has been used as a posterior tension band mostly in decompressive laminectomy cases because the Nitinol implant has various characteristics such as high elasticity and a tensile force, flexibility, and biological compatibility. The reported short-term outcomes of the application of SMLs as posterior column supporters in cervical and lumbar decompressive laminectomies seem to be positive, and complications are minimal except for the rare occurrence of pullout and fracture of the SML. However, there was no report of neurological complications related to neural compression in spite of the use of the loop of SML in the epidural space. The authors report a case of delayed development of radiating pain caused by subsidence of the SML resulting epidural compression. PMID:25674347

Kim, Deog-ryeong

2015-01-01

297

A Classification System for the Assessment of Lumbar Pain in Athletes  

PubMed Central

Objective: To present a lumbar pain classification system and its rationale as an alternative to pathology-based diagnosis for athletes. Background: Lumbar pain is a common problem in both athletes and in the general population. Although common, the etiology of lumbar pain cannot be identified in 80% to 90% of patients. Lumbar injuries are often evaluated using a pathology-based model. This approach attempts to pinpoint the cause of the pain, making lumbar pain evaluation difficult. Description: We developed a 4-level classification system that groups athletes based on signs and symptoms. It does not necessarily attempt to determine the cause of pain. We use this classification system for referral, participation, and rehabilitation decisions. Clinical Technique: This assessment technique eliminates much of the ambiguity associated with lumbar pain. Athletic trainers can use this technique on all athletes presenting with lumbar symptoms. ImagesFigure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6. PMID:16558632

Heck, Jonathan F.; Sparano, Jeana M.

2000-01-01

298

Diagnostic imaging of posterior fossa anomalies in the fetus and neonate: part 2, posterior fossa disorders.  

PubMed

This second portion of a two-part review illustrates examples of posterior fossa disorders detectable on prenatal ultrasound and MRI, with postnatal or pathology correlation where available. These disorders are discussed in the context of an anatomic classification scheme described in Part 1 of this posterior fossa anomaly review. Assessment of the size and formation of the cerebellar hemispheres and vermis is critical. Diagnoses discussed here include arachnoid cyst, Blake's pouch cyst, Dandy-Walker malformation, vermian agenesis, Joubert syndrome, rhombencephalosynapsis, Chiari II malformation, ischemia, and tumors. PMID:25457569

Chapman, Teresa; Mahalingam, Sowmya; Ishak, Gisele E; Nixon, Jason N; Siebert, Joseph; Dighe, Manjiri K

2014-10-22

299

Effects of vision and lumbar posture on trunk neuromuscular control.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to determine the effects of vision and lumbar posture on trunk neuromuscular control. Torso perturbations were applied with a pushing device while the subjects were restrained at the pelvis in a kneeling-seated position. Torso kinematics and the muscle activity of the lumbar part of the M. Longissimus were recorded for 14 healthy subjects. Four conditions were included: a flexion, extension and neutral lumbar posture with eyes closed and the neutral posture with eyes open. Frequency response functions of the admittance and reflexes showed that there was no significant difference between the eyes open and eyes closed conditions, thereby confirming that vision does not play a role in the stabilization of the trunk during small-amplitude trunk perturbations. In contrast, manipulating posture did lead to significant differences. In particular, the flexed condition led to a lower admittance and lower reflex contribution compared to the neutral condition. Furthermore, the muscle pre-activation (prior to the onset of the perturbation) was significantly lower in the flexed posture compared to neutral. This confirms that flexing the lumbar spine increases the passive tissue stiffness and decreases the contribution of reflex activity to trunk control. PMID:25498916

Maaswinkel, Erwin; van Drunen, Paul; Veeger, Dirk-Jan H E J; van Dieën, Jaap H

2015-01-21

300

Hemilaminoplasty for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of the hemilaminoplasty technique for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation (LDH). Forty-three cases of single-level LDH underwent a discectomy and hemilaminoplasty procedure. The preoperative JOA score and VAS of lower back and leg pain were 10.4±1.3, 7.8±2.1, and 8.6±1.7, respectively. The Cobb angle of lumbar sagittal alignment was 10.1±2.0. Twenty-five patients who agreed to lumbar discectomy through fenestration were enrolled as the control group. The postoperative JOA score and VAS of low back and leg pain of the hemilaminoplasty group were 19.4±1.3, 1.4±0.4, and 2.1±0.5, respectively. The Cobb angle was 29.2±1.9 degrees. There was no epidural scar observed in any of the patients. The Cobb angle of the hemilaminoplasty group was higher than that of the control group (p?lumbar spine. PMID:18636258

Xinyu, Liu; Jianmin, Li; Liangtai, Gong

2008-01-01

301

Spinal Stenosis after Total Lumbar Laminectomy for Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of long-term outcome and complications of selective dorsal rhizotomy is limited due to the relatively recent introduction of the procedure. We describe 2 patients with cerebral palsy who developed lumbar spinal stenosis several years after selective dorsal rhizotomy. These patients also had substantial lateral trunk sway during gait and walked for several years with limited assistive devices. This abnormal

Judith L. Gooch; Marion L. Walker

1996-01-01

302

Spine imaging after lumbar disc replacement: pitfalls and current recommendations  

PubMed Central

Background Most lumbar artificial discs are still composed of stainless steel alloys, which prevents adequate postoperative diagnostic imaging of the operated region when using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thus patients with postoperative radicular symptoms or claudication after stainless steel implants often require alternative diagnostic procedures. Methods Possible complications of lumbar total disc replacement (TDR) are reviewed from the available literature and imaging recommendations given with regard to implant type. Two illustrative cases are presented in figures. Results Access-related complications, infections, implant wear, loosening or fracture, polyethylene inlay dislodgement, facet joint hypertrophy, central stenosis, and ankylosis of the operated segment can be visualised both in titanium and stainless steel implants, but require different imaging modalities due to magnetic artifacts in MRI. Conclusion Alternative radiographic procedures should be considered when evaluating patients following TDR. Postoperative complications following lumbar TDR including spinal stenosis causing radiculopathy and implant loosening can be visualised by myelography and radionucleotide techniques as an adjunct to plain film radiographs. Even in the presence of massive stainless steel TDR implants lumbar radicular stenosis and implant loosening can be visualised if myelography and radionuclide techniques are applied. PMID:19619332

Robinson, Yohan; Sandén, Bengt

2009-01-01

303

Successful lumbar epidural catheter placement through a lower back lipoma  

PubMed Central

Structural abnormalities of the lumbar spine or the overlying structures may represent a relative contraindication or technical difficulty to neuraxial anesthesia. We report a case of successful epidural catheter placement through a lower back lipoma for vascular bypass surgery of the lower extremity. PMID:23717239

Saied, Nahel N.; Helwani, Mohammad

2013-01-01

304

Bilateral Horner's syndrome and hoarseness complicating lumbar epidural anesthesia.  

PubMed

A case of bilateral Horner's syndrome associated with hoarseness resulting from single-dose lumbar epidural analgesia for relief of low back pain in a 57-year-old man is reported. The pathophysiology of Horner's syndrome and hoarseness is discussed. PMID:2535019

Tabatabia, M; Mazloomdoost, M; Kirimli, B

1989-01-01

305

“en-bloc” vertebrectomy in the mobile lumbar spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND Primary tumors of the vertebral bodies have previously been treated with total or subtotal excision in a piecemeal fashion (intralesional excision). Radiation therapy has been used to help control tumor growth. Recurrence rates with an intralesional, piecemeal removal of vertebral tumors have been unacceptably high. This study describes a method to excise a lumbar vertebra “en-bloc,” and in the

Robert F. Heary; Alexander R. Vaccaro; Joseph Benevenia; Jerome M. Cotler

1998-01-01

306

Minimally Invasive Oxygen-Ozone Therapy for Lumbar Disk Herniation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Oxygen-ozone therapy is a minimally invasive treatment for lumbar disk herniation that exploits the biochemical properties of a gas mixture of oxygen and ozone. We assessed the therapeutic outcome of oxygen-ozone therapy and compared the outcome of administering medical ozone alone with the outcome of medical ozone followed by injection of a corticosteroid and an anesthetic at

Cosma F. Andreula; Luigi Simonetti; Fabio de Santis; Raffaele Agati; Renata Ricci; Marco Leonardi

307

The effect of breast shielding during lumbar spine radiography  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of the study was to determine the influence of lead shielding on the dose to female breasts in conventional x-ray lumbar spine imaging. The correlation between the body mass index and the dose received by the breast was also investigated. Materials and methods Breast surface dose was measured by thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). In the first phase measurements of breast dose with and without shielding from lumbar spine imaging in two projections were conducted on an anthropomorphic phantom. In the second stage measurements were performed on 100 female patients, randomly divided into two groups of 50, with breast shielding only used in one group. Results On average, breast exposure dose in lumbar spine imaging in both projections (anteroposterior (AP) and lateral) was found reduced by approximately 80% (p < 0,001) when shielding with 0.5 mm lead equivalent was used (from 0.45±0.25 mGy to 0.09±0.07 mGy on the right and from 0.26±0.14 mGy to 0.06±0.04 mGy on the left breast). No correlation between the body mass index (BMI) and the breast surface radiation dose was observed. Conclusions Although during the lumbar spine imaging breasts receive low-dose exposure even when shielding is not used, the dose can be reduced up to 80% by breast shielding with no influence on the image quality. PMID:23450158

Mekis, Nejc; Zontar, Dejan; Skrk, Damijan

2013-01-01

308

Lumbar Spine Disc Herniation Diagnosis with a Joint Shape Model  

E-print Network

Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA, gdhillon@proscan.com, Abstract. Lower Back Pain (LBP) is the second most common. Keywords: Lumbar Spine Diagnosis, MRI, Disc Degenerative Disease 1 Introduction Low Back Pain has a major Alomari et al. for Low Back Pain [2]. Low back Pain has high societal impact as it disrupts individ- uals

Corso, Jason J.

309

A method for quantitative measurement of lumbar intervertebral disc structures: an intra- and inter-rater agreement and reliability study  

PubMed Central

Background There is a shortage of agreement studies relevant for measuring changes over time in lumbar intervertebral disc structures. The objectives of this study were: 1) to develop a method for measurement of intervertebral disc height, anterior and posterior disc material and dural sac diameter using MRI, 2) to evaluate intra- and inter-rater agreement and reliability for the measurements included, and 3) to identify factors compromising agreement. Methods Measurements were performed on MRIs from 16 people with and 16 without lumbar disc herniation, purposefully chosen to represent all possible disc contours among participants in a general population study cohort. Using the new method, MRIs were measured twice by one rater and once by a second rater. Agreement on the sagittal start- and end-slice was evaluated using weighted Kappa. Length and volume measurements were conducted on available slices between intervertebral foramens, and cross-sectional areas (CSA) were calculated from length measurements and slice thickness. Results were reported as Bland and Altman’s limits of agreement (LOA) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Results Weighted Kappa (Kw (95% CI)) for start- and end-slice were: intra-: 0.82(0.60;0.97) & 0.71(0.43;0.93); inter-rater: 0.56(0.29;0.78) & 0.60(0.35;0.81). For length measurements, LOA ranged from [?1.0;1.0] mm to [?2.0;2.3] mm for intra-; and from [?1.1; 1.4] mm to [?2.6;2.0] mm for inter-rater. For volume measurements, LOA ranged from [?293;199] mm3 to [?582;382] mm3 for intra-, and from [?17;801] mm3 to [?450;713] mm3 for inter-rater. For CSAs, LOA ranged between [?21.3; 18.8] mm2 and [?31.2; 43.7] mm2 for intra-, and between [?10.8; 16.4] mm2 and [?64.6; 27.1] mm2 for inter-rater. In general, LOA as a proportion of mean values gradually decreased with increasing size of the measured structures. Agreement was compromised by difficulties in identifying the vertebral corners, the anterior and posterior boundaries of the intervertebral disc and the dural sac posterior boundary. With two exceptions, ICCs were above 0.81. Conclusions Length measurements and calculated CSAs of disc morphology and dural sac diameter from MRIs showed acceptable intra- and inter-rater agreement and reliability. However, caution should be taken when measuring very small structures and defining anatomical landmarks. PMID:23953197

2013-01-01

310

Trigeminal neuralgia secondary to posterior fossa tumor  

PubMed Central

Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is by no means an uncommon entity presenting as typical or atypical pain syndrome with a standard treatment protocol consisting of medical and surgical therapies. The diagnosis of TN is mainly dependent on the characteristics of symptoms conveyed by the patient and the clinical presentation. Careful history taking, proper interpretation of the signs and symptoms and cranial nerve assessment are necessary for proper diagnosis. Here, we report a case of TN, treated for dental problems and then for neuralgia with only short-term relief. Subsequently, the patient underwent neuroimaging and was found to be having an uncommon space-occupying lesion in the posterior cranial fossa. PMID:22442556

Agrawal, Mamta; Agrawal, Vikrant; Agrawal, Rajiv; Pramod, D.S.R.

2010-01-01

311

Complications of posterior cruciate ligament surgery.  

PubMed

In addition to standard risks associated with all orthopedic surgical procedures, posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction poses some relatively unique potential complications. These complications arise from a combination of several factors: the relative infrequency of PCL injuries, the lack of knowledge and experience in treating them, the proximity of neurovascular structures to the PCL, and the technically demanding nature of reconstructive procedures. This article discusses the anatomy, pathogenesis, and prevention of intraoperative and postoperative complications of PCL surgery including neurovascular injury, osteonecrosis, fracture, motion loss, and persistent laxity. PMID:21079507

Zawodny, Sarah R; Miller, Mark D

2010-12-01

312

Reduced Quadriceps Activation After Lumbar Paraspinal Fatiguing Exercise  

PubMed Central

Context: Although poor paraspinal muscle endurance has been associated with less quadriceps activation (QA) in persons with a history of low back pain, no authors have addressed the acute neuromuscular response after lumbar paraspinal fatiguing exercise. Objective: To compare QA after lumbar paraspinal fatiguing exercise in healthy individuals and those with a history of low back pain. Design: A 2 × 4 repeated-measures, time-series design. Setting: Exercise and Sport Injury Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Sixteen volunteers participated (9 males, 7 females; 8 controls and 8 with a history of low back pain; age = 24.1 ± 3.1 years, height = 173.4 ± 7.1 cm, mass = 72.4 ± 12.1 kg). Intervention(s): Subjects performed 3 sets of isometric lumbar paraspinal fatiguing muscle contractions. Exercise sets continued until the desired shift in lumbar paraspinal electromyographic median power frequency was observed. Baseline QA was compared with QA after each exercise set. Main Outcome Measure(s): An electric burst was superimposed while subjects performed a maximal quadriceps contraction. We used the central activation ratio to calculate QA = (FMVIC/[FMVIC + FBurst])* 100, where F = force and MVIC = maximal voluntary isometric contractions. Quadriceps electromyographic activity was collected at the same time as QA measurements to permit calculation of median frequency during MVIC. Results: Average QA decreased from baseline (87.4% ± 8.2%) after the first (84.5% ± 10.5%), second (81.4% ± 11.0%), and third (78.2% ± 12.7%) fatiguing exercise sets. On average, the group with a history of low back pain showed significantly more QA than controls. No significant change in quadriceps median frequency was noted during the quadriceps MVICs. Conclusions: The quadriceps muscle group was inhibited after lumbar paraspinal fatiguing exercise in the absence of quadriceps fatigue. This effect may be different for people with a history of low back pain compared with healthy controls. PMID:16619099

Hart, Joseph M; Fritz, Julie M; Kerrigan, D. Casey; Saliba, Ethan N; Gansneder, Bruce M; Ingersoll, Christopher D

2006-01-01

313

[The lumbar vein at L2 and the reno-azygo-lumbar arch: anatomic and radiologic studies].  

PubMed

The lumbar vein at L2 was described by C. Gillot and B. Singer (1974). On the right side, after drawing off the 12th intercostal vein, it forms the lateral root of the azygos vein. Its way is as a frame, transverse going along the body of the 2nd lumbar vertebra, then upward along the spine after having integrated the veins of the L2-L3 intervertebral foramen. In its typical form, the vein is at L2 but it can be at L1 or L3. It takes the name of lateral root of the azygos vein only after receiving the 12th intercostal vein. Because of its diameter (5 mm), it forms a cavo-caval anastomosis via the azygos vein. The renal azygo-lumbar arch of Lejars is the equivalent on the left side of the right vein at L2. This arch contributes to the formation of the lateral root of the hemi-azygos vein. The right vein at L2 and the reno-azygo-lumbar arch were studied by dissections and by radiologic protocols. The radiologic studies (CT, MRI, 3D reconstructions) were carried out after injections of gelatin-gadolinium-minimum and altufix-minimum mixtures. The results showed the numerous variations of origin of the azygos system. The use of multiple and complementary technics are very helpful to describe these variations. PMID:10418002

Plaisant, O; Uhl, J F; Orvoen, G; Sarrazin, J L; Gillot, C; Verdeille, S; Martin-Bouyer, Y; Sourice, S; Mercier, P

1999-03-01

314

Partial posterior hyaloidectomy for macular disorders  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the effect of partial posterior hyaloidectomy (PPH) in preventing iatrogenic retinal breaks related to the induction of a posterior vitreous detachment (IPVD) Methods Fifty-nine patients who necessitated IPVD for an epiretinal membrane or macular hole were included in this prospective, interventional case series. Extensive removal of vitreous gel, close to the retina, was conducted before IPVD under 23?G (gauge)-vitrectomy system. The PPH involved the limited extent of IPVD and limited removal of the outermost vitreous cortex to an area slightly beyond the margin of the temporal major vascular arcade. The incidence of retinal breaks related to the surgery was compared with 57 eyes that had undergone conventional 23-G total vitrectomy accompanied by extensive IPVD using ?2-test. Results Patients were followed-up for a mean of 14.3 months (6–30 months) after the surgery. The incidence of peripheral retinal breaks after the PPH was 3.4% (2/59 eyes), which was significantly lower than that in the eyes that underwent conventional 23?G vitrectomy (15.8%, 9/57 eyes, P=0.023) for the same disorders that required an IPVD. No patient complained of postoperative floaters, postoperatively. Conclusions PPH would be an efficient procedure to prevent iatrogenic peripheral retinal breaks related to an IPVD. PMID:23743531

Kim, J H; Kang, S W; Kim, Y T; Kim, S J; Chung, S E

2013-01-01

315

Sampling Networks from Their Posterior Predictive Distribution  

PubMed Central

Recent research indicates that knowledge about social networks can be leveraged to increase efficiency of interventions (Valente, 2012). However, in many settings, there exists considerable uncertainty regarding the structure of the network. This can render the estimation of potential effects of network-based interventions difficult, as providing appropriate guidance to select interventions often requires a representation of the whole network. In order to make use of the network property estimates to simulate the effect of interventions, it may be beneficial to sample networks from an estimated posterior predictive distribution, which can be specified using a wide range of models. Sampling networks from a posterior predictive distribution of network properties ensures that the uncertainty about network property parameters is adequately captured. The tendency for relationships among network properties to exhibit sharp thresholds has important implications for understanding global network topology in the presence of uncertainty; therefore, it is essential to account for uncertainty. We provide detail needed to sample networks for the specific network properties of degree distribution, mixing frequency, and clustering. Our methods to generate networks are demonstrated using simulated data and data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. PMID:25339990

Goyal, Ravi; De Gruttola, Victor; Blitzstein, Joseph

2014-01-01

316

Posterior consistency in conditional distribution estimation  

PubMed Central

A wide variety of priors have been proposed for nonparametric Bayesian estimation of conditional distributions, and there is a clear need for theorems providing conditions on the prior for large support, as well as posterior consistency. Estimation of an uncountable collection of conditional distributions across different regions of the predictor space is a challenging problem, which differs in some important ways from density and mean regression estimation problems. Defining various topologies on the space of conditional distributions, we provide sufficient conditions for posterior consistency focusing on a broad class of priors formulated as predictor-dependent mixtures of Gaussian kernels. This theory is illustrated by showing that the conditions are satisfied for a class of generalized stick-breaking process mixtures in which the stick-breaking lengths are monotone, differentiable functions of a continuous stochastic process. We also provide a set of sufficient conditions for the case where stick-breaking lengths are predictor independent, such as those arising from a fixed Dirichlet process prior. PMID:25067858

Pati, Debdeep; Dunson, David B.; Tokdar, Surya T.

2014-01-01

317

Posterior Interosseous Nerve Syndrome from Thermal Injury  

PubMed Central

Background. Due to anatomical proximity to bone, the radial nerve is the most frequently injured major nerve of the upper extremity, frequently secondary to fractures (Li et al. (2013)). We describe an incidence when a branch of the radial nerve is injured as a result of a thermal injury. Observation. Radial nerve injury can occur anywhere along the anatomical course with varied etiologies, but commonly related to trauma. The most frequent site is in the proximal forearm involving the posterior interosseous branch. However, problems can occur at the junction of the middle and proximal thirds of the humerus and wrist radially. When the radial nerve is injured by a burn, a new rehabilitation dynamic arises. Not only does one agonize about the return of nerve function but also fret about the skin grafts that replaced the devitalized tissue housing that compartment. Discussion. Although posterior interosseous nerve syndrome has been described in the context of many different etiologies, it has not previously been discussed in relation to burn injuries. In this case, not only did the patient's rehabilitation involve aggressive therapy for return of sensation and function of the arm, but also prevention of contracture normally seen in replacement of full thickness burns. PMID:24707432

Singh, Vijay A.; Michael, Rami E.; Dinh, Duy-Bao P.; Bloom, Scott; Cooper, Michael

2014-01-01

318

Postero-Lateral Disc Prosthesis Combined With a Unilateral Facet Replacement Device Maintains Quantity and Quality of Motion at a Single Lumbar Level  

PubMed Central

Background Mechanically replacing one or more pain generating articulations in the functional spinal unit (FSU) may be a motion preservation alternative to arthrodesis at the affected level. Baseline biomechanical data elucidating the quantity and quality of motion in such arthroplasty constructs is non-existent. Purpose The purpose of the study was to quantify the motion-preserving effect of a posterior total disc replacement (PDR) combined with a unilateral facet replacement (FR) system at a single lumbar level (L4-L5). We hypothesized that reinforcement of the FSU with unilateral FR to replace the resected, native facet joint following PDR implantation would restore quality and quantity of motion and additionally not change biomechanics at the adjacent levels. Study Design In-vitro study using human cadaveric lumbar spines. Methods Six (n = 6) cadaveric lumbar spines (L1-S1) were evaluated using a pure-moment stability testing protocol (±7.5 Nm) in flexion-extension (F/E), lateral bending (LB) and axial rotation (AR). Each specimen was tested in: (1) intact; (2) unilateral FR; and (3) unilateral FR + PDR conditions. Index and adjacent level ROM (using hybrid protocol) were determined opto-electronically. Interpedicular travel (IPT) and instantaneous center of rotation (ICR) at the index level were radiographically determined for each condition. ROM, ICR, and IPT measurements were compared (repeated measures ANOVA) between the three conditions. Results Compared to the intact spine, no significant changes in F/E, LB or AR ROM were identified as a result of unilateral FR or unilateral FR + PDR. No significant changes in adjacent L3-L4 or L5-S1 ROM were identified in any loading mode. No significant differences in IPT were identified between the three test conditions in F/E, LB or AR at the L4-L5 level. The ICRs qualitatively were similar for the intact and unilateral FR conditions and appeared to follow placement (along the anterior-posterior (AP) direction) of the PDR in the disc space Conclusion Biomechanically, quantity and quality of motion are maintained with combined unilateral FR + PDR at a single lumbar spinal level.

Nayak, Aniruddh N.; Doarn, Michael C.; Gaskins, Roger B.; James, Chris R.; Cabezas, Andres F.; Castellvi, Antonio E.

2014-01-01

319

The Surgical Treatment of Single Level Multi-Focal Subarticular and Paracentral and/or Far-Lateral Lumbar Disc Herniations: The Single Incision Full Endoscopic Approach  

PubMed Central

Background Surgery for same level multi-focal extruded lumbar disc herniations is technically challenging and the optimal method controversial. The subarticular disc herniation may pose the most challenging subtype requiring partial or complete facetectomy with or without fusion. The far-lateral disc herniation, often treated using a Wiltse approach, can also be difficult to access especially in the obese patient. When both the subarticular and far-lateral subtypes are simultaneously present at the same level with or without a paracentral disc herniation, a total facetectomy and interbody fusion (TLIF) or a total disc replacement (TDR) may be necessary. Endoscopic surgical techniques may reduce the need for these more invasive methods. Methods Fifteen patients (6 male and 9 female) who had same level multi-focal (subarticular as well as far-lateral and/or paracentral) extruded disc herniations underwent single incision unilateral endoscopic disc excision by the same surgeon at a single institution. Patients were prospectively followed for an average of 15.3 months (range 14-18 months) and outcomes were evaluated radiographically and clinically (Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Results The mean operative time was 52 minutes with minimal blood loss in all cases. Fourteen of the 15 patients were discharged to home on the day of their surgery. The mean ODI and leg VAS scores improved from 22.9 ± 3.2 to 12.9 ± 2.7 (p < 0.005), and from 8.6 ± 1.6 to 2.1 + 0.4 (p < 0.005), respectively. Conclusions After an average of 15.3 months of follow-up, the clinical and radiographic results of full endoscopic surgical treatment of single level multi-focal (subarticular as well as far-lateral and/or paracentral) disc herniations are excellent. This study is a case series with mid-term follow-up (Level IV). Clinical Relevance Foraminal and extra-foraminal full endoscopic decompression appears to offer a safe minimally invasive solution to a complex pathologic problem. PMID:25694941

Scott, David L.; Han, Xiao; Yacob, Alem

2014-01-01

320

Segmental in vivo vertebral motion during functional human lumbar spine activities  

PubMed Central

Quantitative data on the range of in vivo vertebral motion is critical to enhance our understanding of spinal pathology and to improve the current surgical treatment methods for spinal diseases. Little data have been reported on the range of lumbar vertebral motion during functional body activities. In this study, we measured in vivo 6 degrees-of-freedom (DOF) vertebral motion during unrestricted weightbearing functional body activities using a combined MR and dual fluoroscopic imaging technique. Eight asymptomatic living subjects were recruited and underwent MRI scans in order to create 3D vertebral models from L2 to L5 for each subject. The lumbar spine was then imaged using two fluoroscopes while the subject performed primary flexion-extension, left-right bending, and left-right twisting. The range of vertebral motion during each activity was determined through a previously described imaging-model matching technique at L2-3, L3-4, and L4-5 levels. Our data revealed that the upper vertebrae had a higher range of flexion than the lower vertebrae during flexion-extension of the body (L2-3, 5.4 ± 3.8°; L3-4, 4.3 ± 3.4°; L4-5, 1.9 ± 1.1°, respectively). During bending activity, the L4-5 had a higher (but not significant) range of left-right bending motion (4.7 ± 2.4°) than both L2-3 (2.9 ± 2.4°) and L3-4 (3.4 ± 2.1°), while no statistical difference was observed in left-right twisting among the three vertebral levels (L2-3, 2.5 ± 2.3°; L3-4, 2.4 ± 2.6°; and L4-5, 2.9 ± 2.1°, respectively). Besides the primary rotations reported, coupled motions were quantified in all DOFs. The coupled translation in left-right and anterior-posterior directions, on average, reached greater than 1 mm, while in the proximal-distal direction this was less than 1 mm. Overall, each vertebral level responds differently to flexion-extension and left-right bending, but similarly to the left-right twisting. This data may provide new insight into the in vivo function of human spines and can be used as baseline data for investigation of pathological spine kinematics. PMID:19301040

Wang, Shaobai; Passias, Peter; Xia, Qun; Li, Gang; Wood, Kirkham

2009-01-01

321

Quantifying the centre of rotation pattern in a multi-body model of the lumbar spine.  

PubMed

Understanding the kinematics of the spine provides paramount knowledge for many aspects of the clinical analysis of back pain. More specifically, visualisation of the instantaneous centre of rotation (ICR) enables clinicians to quantify joint laxity in the segments, avoiding a dependence on more inconclusive measurements based on the range of motion and excessive translations, which vary in every individual. Alternatively, it provides motion preserving designers with an insight into where a physiological ICR of a motion preserving prosthesis can be situated in order to restore proper load distribution across the passive and active elements of the lumbar region. Prior to the use of an unconstrained dynamic musculoskeletal model system, based on multi-body models capable of transient analysis, to estimate segmental loads, the model must be kinematically evaluated for all possible sensitivity due to ligament properties and the initial locus of intervertebral disc (IVD). A previously calibrated osseoligamentous model of lumbar spine was used to evaluate the changes in ICR under variation of the ligament stiffness and initial locus of IVD, when subjected to pure moments from 0 to 15 Nm. The ICR was quantified based on the closed solution of unit quaternion that improves accuracy and prevents coordinate singularities, which is often observed in Euler-based methods and least squares principles. The calculation of the ICR during flexion/extension revealed complexity and intrinsic nonlinearity between flexion and extension. This study revealed that, to accommodate a good agreement between in vitro data and the multi-body model predictions, in flexion more laxity is required than in extension. The results showed that the ICR location is concentrated in the posterior region of the disc, in agreement with previous experimental studies. However, the current multi-body model demonstrates a sensitivity to the initial definition of the ICR, which should be recognised as a limitation of the method. Nevertheless, the current simulations suggest that, due to the constantly evolving path of the ICR across the IVD during flexion-extension, a movable ICR is a necessary condition in multi-body modelling of the spine, in the context of whole body simulation, to accurately capture segmental kinematics and kinetics. PMID:22439815

Abouhossein, Alireza; Weisse, Bernhard; Ferguson, Stephen J

2013-01-01

322

Trends, Major Medical Complications, and Charges Associated with Surgery for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Context In recent decades, the fastest growth in lumbar surgery occurred in older patients with spinal stenosis. Trials indicate that for selected patients, decompressive surgery offers an advantage over non-operative treatment, but surgeons often recommend more invasive fusion procedures. Comorbidity is common in elderly patients, so benefits and risks must be carefully weighed in the choice of surgical procedure. Objective Examine trends in use of different types of stenosis operations and the association of complications and resource use with surgical complexity. Design, Setting, and Patients Retrospective cohort analysis of Medicare claims for 2002–2007, focusing on 2007 to assess complications and resource use in U.S. hospitals. Operations for Medicare recipients undergoing surgery for lumbar stenosis (n=32,152 in the first 11 months of 2007) were grouped into 3 gradations of invasiveness: decompression alone, simple fusion (one or two disc levels, single surgical approach) or complex fusion (more than 2 disc levels or combined anterior and posterior approach). Main Outcome Measures Rates of the 3 types of surgery, major complications, postoperative mortality, and resource use. Results Overall, surgical rates declined slightly from 2002–2007, but the rate of complex fusion procedures increased 15-fold, from 1.3 to 19.9 per 100,000 beneficiaries. Life-threatening complications increased with increasing surgical invasiveness, from 2.3% among patients having decompression alone to 5.6% among those having complex fusions. After adjustment for age, comorbidity, previous spine surgery, and other features, the odds ratio (OR) of life-threatening complications for complex fusion compared to decompression alone was 2.95 (95% CI 2.50–3.49). A similar pattern was observed for rehospitalization within 30 days, which occurred for 7.8% of patients undergoing decompression and 13.0% having a complex fusion (adjusted OR 1.94; 95% CI 1.74–2.17). Adjusted mean hospital charges for complex fusion procedures were $80,888 compared to $23,724 for decompression alone. Conclusions Among Medicare recipients, between 2002 and 2007, the frequency of complex fusion procedures for spinal stenosis increased, while the frequency of decompression surgery and simple fusions decreased. In 2007, compared with decompression, simple fusion and complex fusion were associated with increased risk of major complications, 30-day mortality, and resource use. PMID:20371784

Deyo, Richard A.; Mirza, Sohail K.; Martin, Brook I.; Kreuter, William; Goodman, David C.; Jarvik, Jeffrey G.

2010-01-01

323

Amyloid deposits derived from transthyretin in the ligamentum flavum as related to lumbar spinal canal stenosis.  

PubMed

Amyloidosis is a protein conformational disorder with the distinctive feature of extracellular accumulation of amyloid fibrils that come from different proteins. In the ligamentum flavum of the lumbar spine, amyloid deposits were frequently found in elderly patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis and were at least partially formed by wild-type transthyretin. However, how amyloid deposits in the ligamentum flavum affect lumbar spinal canal stenosis has remained unclear. In this study, we analyzed clinical, pathologic, and radiologic findings of patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis who had amyloid deposits in the ligamentum flavum. We studied 95 ligamentum flavum specimens obtained from 56 patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis and 21 ligamentum flavum specimens obtained from 19 patients with lumbar disk herniation. We evaluated histopathologic findings and clinicoradiologic manifestations, such as thickness of the ligamentum flavum and lumbar spinal segmental instability. We found that all 95 ligamentum flavum specimens resected from patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis had amyloid deposits, which we classified into two types, transthyretin-positive and transthyretin-negative, and that transthyretin amyloid formation in the ligamentum flavum of patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis was an age-associated phenomenon. The amount of amyloid in the ligamentum flavum was related to clinical manifestations of lumbar spinal canal stenosis, such as thickness of the ligamentum flavum and lumbar spinal segmental instability, in the patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis with transthyretin-positive amyloid deposits. To our knowledge, this report is the first to show clinicopathologic correlations in transthyretin amyloid deposits of the ligamentum flavum. In conclusion, transthyretin amyloid deposits in the ligamentum flavum may be related to the pathogenesis of lumbar spinal canal stenosis in elderly patients. PMID:25189643

Yanagisawa, Akihiro; Ueda, Mitsuharu; Sueyoshi, Takanao; Okada, Tatsuya; Fujimoto, Toru; Ogi, Yasuhiro; Kitagawa, Keisuke; Tasaki, Masayoshi; Misumi, Yohei; Oshima, Toshinori; Jono, Hirofumi; Obayashi, Konen; Hirakawa, Kei; Uchida, Hitoshi; Westermark, Per; Ando, Yukio; Mizuta, Hiroshi

2015-02-01

324

Isolated posterior femoral cutaneous neuropathy following intragluteal injection.  

PubMed

Isolated posterior femoral cutaneous nerve lesions are rarely encountered. Electrophysiological documentation has only been made in a few cases. In this study we evaluated a 22-year-old woman with sensory loss and pain in the lower buttock and posterior thigh after left gluteal intramuscular injection. We assessed the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve using an accepted conduction technique. The results showed a normal response on the asymptomatic side, but no response on the symptomatic side. PMID:19623639

Kim, Jee-Eun; Kang, Ji-Hoon; Choi, Jay Chol; Lee, Jung Seok; Kang, Sa-Yoon

2009-11-01

325

Late posterior failure after mitral valve repair in degenerative disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Little is known regarding the mechanisms, the feasibility and the long-term results of re-repair in 'posterior failure' of a previous mitral valve repair performed for severe degenerative mitral regurgitation. We report our 16-year experience in redo surgery for late posterior failureofmitralvalverepairindegenerativedisease.Methods:From1991to2004,13consecutivepatients(10males;medianage:65years)were reoperated for late posterior failure of mitral valve repair. All patients had grade 3+ mitral regurgitation. Repair was

Rachid Zegdi; Ghassan Sleilaty; Ziad Khabbaz; Milena Noghin; Christian Latremouille; Alain Carpentier; Alain Deloche; Jean-Noel Fabiani

326

Stage IV posterior tibial tendon rupture.  

PubMed

Adult acquired flatfoot deformity progresses through well defined stages as set out by Johnson and Strom. Myerson modified this classification system with the addition of a fourth, more advanced stage of the disease. This stage describes the involvement of the tibiotalar joint in addition to the hindfoot malalignment seen in stages II and III. This most advanced stage is comprised of a hindfoot valgus deformity, resulting from degeneration of the posterior tibial tendon, with associated valgus tilting of the talus within the mortise. The deformity at the tibiotalar joint may or may not be rigid. Although rigid deformities are still best treated with fusions of the ankle and hindfoot, supple tibiotalar deformity may be treated with joint sparing procedures involving reconstructive procedures of the foot and deltoid ligaments. PMID:17561206

Bluman, Eric M; Myerson, Mark S

2007-06-01

327

Ectomesenchymal chondromyxoid tumour of the posterior tongue.  

PubMed

Ectomesenchymal chondromyxoid tumor (ECMT) is a rare benign neoplasm arising in the tongue. With only 45 cases reported in the literature, there are several unique features defining this lesion. Firstly, almost all patients present with an asymptomatic slow growing mass on the anterior dorsum of the tongue. At the microscopic level, it is recognizable as a well-circumscribed unencapsulated proliferation of uniform round to fusiform cells embedded in a chondromyxoid matrix. Lastly, the immunohistochemistry profile is characterised by positivity for glial fibrillary acidic protein and frequent positivity for S-100 and cytokeratins. We report a case of a mass located on the posterior dorsum of the tongue and meeting the aforementioned morphological and immunohistochemical criteria of ECMT. PMID:24288100

Cardin, Marie-Josée; Fiset, Pierre Olivier; Zeitouni, Anthony G; Caglar, Derin

2014-09-01

328

[Epidural hematomas in the posterior cranial fossa].  

PubMed

In the course of twenty years 92 patients with intracranial epidural haematomas (EH) were operated. In five these patients, i.e. 5.4%, the EH was in the posterior cranial fossa (EHPF). Focal symptoms of compression of the cerebellum and the lower cranial nerves developed only in subacute EHPF. In acute EHPF it was masked by manifestations of an affection of the brain stem. Direct evidence of EHPF was produced by AG. The best diagnostic method is computed tomography. Attention to EHPF can be however, drawn also clinical sings of injury of the bask of the skull or the finding of a fracture of the occipital bone on an X-ray picture of the skull. Evacuation of the EHPF provides favourable perspectives of a normal future life even on patients who are in a poor condition incl. signs of and impaired respiration. PMID:2237649

Steno, J; Fröhlich, J; Bízik, I

1990-06-01

329

Posterior Cruciate Ligament: Focus on Conflicting Issues  

PubMed Central

There is little consensus on how to optimally reconstruct the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) and the natural history of injured PCL is also unclear. The graft material (autograft vs. allograft), the type of tibial fixation (tibial inlay vs. transtibial tunnel), the femoral tunnel position within the femoral footprint (isometric, central, or eccentric), and the number of bundles in the reconstruction (1 bundle vs. 2 bundles) are among the many decisions that a surgeon must make in a PCL reconstruction. In addition, there is a paucity of information on rehabilitation after reconstruction of the PCL and posterolateral structures. This article focused on the conflicting issues regarding the PCL, and the scientific rationales behind some critical points are discussed. PMID:24340144

Lee, Yong Seuk

2013-01-01

330

Allocentric spatial neglect with posterior cortical atrophy.  

PubMed

Patients with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) have been reported to have neglect in the egocentric/ body-centered reference frame. This report describes a woman with PCA who had a right-sided stimulus-based form of allocentric visual neglect on cancellation, reading, and drawing tests. Her brain imaging revealed left parietal atrophy. The pathophysiology of this disorder may be related to an impairment of the ventral "what" stream's ability to interact with the dorsal "where" stream that mediates the allocation of spatial attention, or a deficit in the systems that allocate contralateral focal attention. Further research is needed to better understand the mechanisms of this disorder and to optimally treat it. PMID:24679168

Zilli, Eduardo M; Heilman, Kenneth M

2015-04-01

331

The Neuropsychiatric Profile of Posterior Cortical Atrophy.  

PubMed

We analyzed scores obtained at the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) by 20 patients with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) and contrasted it with 20 patients having Alzheimer disease (AD). Patients with hallucinations and delusions were not included due to the high probability of a diagnosis of Lewy body disease. Prevalence of behavioral and psychological symptoms (BPSD) was 95% in the PCA group, the most frequent being apathy and anxiety. Cluster analysis on NPI subscales highlighted a behavioral subsyndrome characterized by agitated temper and irritability. Depression, anxiety, and apathy did not cluster with any other BPSD nor with each other. The PCA group showed a significantly higher proportion of anxious patients and worse anxiety score than patients with AD. No correlation was found between NPI data and demographic, clinical, or neuropsychological features nor were there significant differences for the same variables between anxious and nonanxious cases with PCA. In agreement with anecdotal reports, anxiety seems particularly relevant in PCA. PMID:25330926

Isella, Valeria; Villa, Giulia; Mapelli, Cristina; Ferri, Francesca; Appollonio, Ildebrando Marco; Ferrarese, Carlo

2014-10-20

332

Lumbar puncture opening pressure is not a reliable measure of intracranial pressure in children.  

PubMed

There is very little data correlating lumbar puncture pressures to formal intracranial pressure monitoring despite the widespread use of both procedures. The hypothesis was that lumbar puncture is a single-point measurement and hence it may not be a reliable evaluation of intracranial pressure. The study was therefore carried out to compare lumbar puncture opening pressures with the Camino(®) bolt intracranial pressure monitor in children. Twelve children with a mean age of 8.5 years who had both lumbar puncture and intracranial pressure monitoring were analyzed. The mean lumbar puncture opening pressure was 22.4 mm Hg versus a mean Camino bolt intracranial pressure of 7.8 mm Hg (P < .0001). Lumbar puncture therefore significantly overestimates the intracranial pressure in children. There were no complications from the intracranial pressure monitoring, and the procedure changed the treatment of all 12 children avoiding invasive operative procedures in most of the patients. PMID:24799366

Cartwright, Cathy; Igbaseimokumo, Usiakimi

2015-02-01

333

Finite Element Analysis for Comparison of Spinous Process Osteotomies Technique with Conventional Laminectomy as Lumbar Decompression Procedure  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the biomechanical behavior of the lumbar spine after posterior decompression with the spinous process osteotomy (SPiO) technique or the conventional laminectomy (CL) technique using a finite element (FE) model. Materials and Methods Three validated lumbar FE models (L2-5) which represented intact spine and two decompression models using SPiO and CL techniques at the L3-4 segment were developed. In each model, the ranges of motion, the maximal von Mises stress of the annulus fibrosus, and the intradiscal pressures at the index segment (L3-4) and adjacent segments (L2-3 and L4-5) under 7.5 Nm moments were analyzed. Facet contact forces were also compared among three models under the extension and torsion moments. Results Compared to the intact model, the CL and SPiO models had increased range of motion and annulus stress at both the index segment (L3-4) and the adjacent segments under flexion and torsion. However, the SPiO model demonstrated a reduced range of motion and annulus stress than the CL model. Both CL and SPiO models had an increase of facet contact force at the L3-4 segment under the torsion moment compared to that of the intact model. Under the extension moment, however, three models demonstrated a similar facet contact force even at the L3-4 model. Conclusion Both decompression methods lead to postoperative segmental instability compared to the intact model. However, SPiO technique leads to better segmental stability compared to the CL technique. PMID:25510758

Kim, Ho-Joong; Chun, Heoung-Jae; Kang, Kyoung-Tak; Lee, Hwan-Mo; Chang, Bong-Soon; Lee, Choon-Ki

2015-01-01

334

Lumbar spinal stenosis: who should be fused? An updated review.  

PubMed

Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is mostly caused by osteoarthritis (spondylosis). Clinically, the symptoms of patients with LSS can be categorized into two groups; regional (low back pain, stiffness, and so on) or radicular (spinal stenosis mainly presenting as neurogenic claudication). Both of these symptoms usually improve with appropriate conservative treatment, but in refractory cases, surgical intervention is occasionally indicated. In the patients who primarily complain of radiculopathy with an underlying biomechanically stable spine, a decompression surgery alone using a less invasive technique may be sufficient. Preoperatively, with the presence of indicators such as failed back surgery syndrome (revision surgery), degenerative instability, considerable essential deformity, symptomatic spondylolysis, refractory degenerative disc disease, and adjacent segment disease, lumbar fusion is probably recommended. Intraoperatively, in cases with extensive decompression associated with a wide disc space or insufficient bone stock, fusion is preferred. Instrumentation improves the fusion rate, but it is not necessarily associated with improved recovery rate and better functional outcome. PMID:25187873

Omidi-Kashani, Farzad; Hasankhani, Ebrahim Ghayem; Ashjazadeh, Amir

2014-08-01

335

Early adolescent lumbar intervertebral disc injury: a case study  

PubMed Central

This article describes and discusses the case of an adolescent male with lumbar intervertebral disc injury characterized by chronic low back pain (LBP) and antalgia. A 13-year-old boy presented for care with a complaint of chronic LBP and subsequent loss of quality of life. The patient was examined and diagnosed by means of history, clinical testing and use of imaging. He had showed failure in natural history and conservative management relief in both symptomatic and functional improvement, due to injury to the intervertebral joints of his lower lumbar spine. Discogenic LBP in the young adolescent population must be considered, particularly in cases involving even trivial minor trauma, and in those in which LBP becomes chronic. More research is needed regarding long-term implications of such disc injuries in young people, and how to best conservatively manage these patients. A discussion of discogenic LBP pertaining to adolescent disc injury is included. PMID:23621900

2013-01-01

336

Alternative approach to evaluating lumbar lordosis on direct roentgenograms: projection area per length squared  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several methods have been described to evaluate the degree of lumbar lordosis. However, suggested methods have used non-standardized\\u000a terminology and landmarks to measure the degree of lumbar lordosis. In the present study a practical method for evaluating\\u000a the degree of lumbar lordosis is described and, for this purpose, 24 lateral roentgenograms were obtained retrospectively\\u000a from the archive of Department of

Omer Kuru; Bunyamin Sahin; Suleyman Kaplan

2008-01-01

337

Vertebral Bodies or Discs: Which Contributes More to Humanlike Lumbar Lordosis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The attainment of upright posture, with its requisite lumbar lordosis, was a major turning point in human evolution. Nonhuman\\u000a primates have small lordosis angles, whereas the human spine exhibits distinct lumbar lordosis (30°–80°). We assume the lumbar\\u000a spine of the pronograde ancestors of modern humans was like those of extant nonhuman primates, but which spinal components\\u000a changed in the transition

Ella Been; Alon Barash; Assaf Marom; Patricia A. Kramer

2010-01-01

338

Kinematics of the lumbar spine in elderly subjects with decreased bone mineral density  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lumbar spine kinematics was studied in subjects with normal bone mineral density, osteopenia and osteoporosis to determine\\u000a the effect of bone mineral density and morphology on the flexion–extension movement patterns of the lumbar spine. Lateral\\u000a radiographs and skin-mounted electromagnetic motion tracking sensors were employed to study lumbar spine kinematics using\\u000a a Bayesian Belief Network model. The predicted angular displacement of

Heather Ting Ma; James F. Griffith; Zhengyi Yang; Anthony Wai Leung Kwok; Ping Chung Leung; Raymond Y. W. Lee

2009-01-01

339

The clinical effect of lumbar puncture in normal pressure hydrocephalus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Owing to all the difficulties involved in selecting patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus for shunt-operation, a cerebrospinal fluid-tap-test (CSF-TT) is introduced. Psychometric and motor capacities of the patients are measured before and after lumbar puncture and removal of 40-50 ml CSF. Patients fulfilling criteria for normal pressure hydrocephalus were compared to patients with dementia and atrophy shown by computed tomography.

C Wikkelsø; H Andersson; C Blomstrand; G Lindqvist

1982-01-01

340

MR imaging of lumbar facet joint synovial cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The increasing application of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the spine has raised the awareness of lumbar facet synovial\\u000a cysts (LFSC). This well recognised, yet uncommon condition, presents with low back pain and radiculopathy due to the presence\\u000a of an extradural mass. The commonest affected level is L4\\/5 with a mild degenerative spondylolisthesis a frequent associated\\u000a finding. MR imaging

E. Apostolaki; A. M. Davies; N. Evans; V. N. Cassar-Pullicino

2000-01-01

341

A novel classification system of lumbar disc degeneration.  

PubMed

The Pfirrmann and modified Pfirrmann grading systems are currently used to classify lumbar disc degeneration. These systems, however, do not incorporate variables that have been associated with lumbar disc degeneration, including Modic changes, a high intensity zone, and a significant reduction in disc height. A system that incorporates these variables that is easy to apply may be useful for research and clinical purposes. A grading system was developed that incorporates disc structure and brightness, presence or absence of Modic changes, presence or absence of a high intensity zone, and reduction in disc height (disc height less than 5mm). MRI of 300 lumbar discs in 60 patients were analyzed twice by two neurosurgeons. Intra and inter-observer reliabilities were assessed by calculating Cohen's ? values. There were 156 grade zero ("normal"), 50 grade one, 57 grade two, 26 grade three, 10 grade four, and one grade five ("worst") discs. Inter-observer reliability was substantial (?=0.66 to 0.77) for disc brightness/structure, Modic changes, and disc height. Inter-observer reliability was moderate (?=0.41) for high intensity zone. Intra-observer reliability was moderate to excellent (?=0.53 to 0.94) in all categories. Agreement on the total grade between reviewers occurred 71% of the time and a difference of one grade occurred in an additional 25% of cases. Lumbar disc degeneration can be graded reliably by this novel system. The advantage of this system is that it incorporates disc brightness/structure, Modic changes, high intensity zone, and a rigid definition of loss of disc height. This system might be useful in research studies evaluating disc degeneration. Further studies are required to demonstrate possible clinical utility in predicting outcomes after spinal treatments such as fusion. PMID:25443079

Riesenburger, Ron I; Safain, Mina G; Ogbuji, Richard; Hayes, Jackson; Hwang, Steven W

2015-02-01

342

Dumb-bell-type teratoma in the lumbar spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of a lumbar teratoma in a 50-year-old woman. The teratoma showed a dumb-bell-type expansion at the level\\u000a of the left L3\\/4 foramen with massive erosion of the L3 vertebral body. MRI revealed inhomogeneous signal changes in the tumor,\\u000a which were histologically compatible with a mixture of bone, muscle, fat, and cyst containing sebaceous material. Complete\\u000a resection

Koichiro Okuyama; Eiji Abe; Naoto Hoshi; Akiko Misawa; Yasuki Tamura; Mitsuho Chiba

2000-01-01

343

Lumbar spine radiology: analysis of the posteroanterior projection  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The use of the posteroanterior (PA) technique as a means of dose reduction has been used effectively in radiology departments\\u000a for chest and abdominal examinations. The aim of this investigation was to establish if the PA lumbar spine projection offers\\u000a any advantages over the traditional anteroposterior (AP) view in terms of radiation dose and image quality. The contribution\\u000a of

P. C. Brennan; E. Madigan

2000-01-01

344

Lumbar artery branch injury secondary to ureteroscopic manipulation  

PubMed Central

Iatrogenic vascular injury in ureteroscopy is relatively uncommon and typically presents as a subcapsular hematoma. We report the case of an injury to a branch of the lumbar artery secondary to ureteral trauma during ureteroscopy. In the immediate postoperative period, the patient became hypotensive and tachycardic, prompting a workup that revealed an active hemorrhage. The patient then underwent subsequent angiogram and successful coil embolization. PMID:25024804

Rothberg, Michael B.; Monga, Manoj; Gupta, Mantu

2014-01-01

345

Abdominal subcutaneous emphysema: an unusual complication of lumbar epidural block  

Microsoft Academic Search

To the Editor: Subcutaneous emphysema is a rare complication of epidural anaesthesia. Laman and McLeskey first reported a case of cervical and supraclavieular subcutaneous emphysema associated with lumbar epidural block in a parturient. We recently anaesthetized a healthy 20-year-old male who was admitted to the hospital atter a road traffic accident. No signs of abdominal trauma were noted. The patient

Beno Rozenberg; Serio Tischler; Aldo Glick

1988-01-01

346

Protesi di ginocchio a stabilizzazione posteriore e a conservazione del legamento crociato posteriore. Esame comparativo  

Microsoft Academic Search

L’artroprotesi totale di ginocchio si è oramai dimostrata un presidio efficace nel ridurre l’entità del dolore ed incrementare\\u000a le capacità funzionali. Dati ottenuti da studi eseguiti sia su artroprotesi postero-stabilizzate (PS) che su quelle a conservazione\\u000a del crociato posteriore (PCR) hanno messo in evidenza risultati rilevanti anche a lungo termine. Ancora oggi esiste, tuttavia,\\u000a notevole controversia su quale sia il

G. Cerulli; A. Caraffa; P. Antinolfi; G. Zamarra

347

Analysis of Efficacy Differences between Caudal and Lumbar Interlaminar Epidural Injections in Chronic Lumbar Axial Discogenic Pain: Local Anesthetic Alone vs. Local Combined with Steroids  

PubMed Central

Study Design: Comparative assessment of randomized controlled trials of caudal and lumbar interlaminar epidural injections in chronic lumbar discogenic pain. Objective: To assess the comparative efficacy of caudal and lumbar interlaminar approaches of epidural injections in managing axial or discogenic low back pain. Summary of Background Data: Epidural injections are commonly performed utilizing either a caudal or lumbar interlaminar approach to treat chronic lumbar axial or discogenic pain, which is pain exclusive of that associated with a herniated intervertebral disc, or that is due to degeneration of the zygapophyseal joints, or due to dysfunction of the sacroiliac joints, respectively. The literature on the efficacy of epidural injections in managing chronic axial lumbar pain of presumed discogenic origin is limited. Methods: The present analysis is based on 2 randomized controlled trials of chronic axial low back pain not caused by disc herniation, radiculitis, or facet joint pain, utilizing either a caudal or lumbar interlaminar approach, with a total of 240 patients studied, and a 24-month follow-up. Patients were assigned to receive either local anesthetic only or local anesthetic with a steroid in each 60 patient group. Results: The primary outcome measure was significant improvement, defined as pain relief and functional status improvement of at least 50% from baseline, which was reported at 24-month follow-ups in 72% who received local anesthetic only with a lumbar interlaminar approach and 54% who received local anesthetic only with a caudal approach. In patients receiving local anesthetic with a steroid, the response rate was 67% for those who had a lumbar interlaminar approach and 68% for those who had a caudal approach at 12 months. The response was significantly better in the lumbar interlaminar group who received local anesthetic only, 77% versus 56% at 12 months and 72% versus 54% at 24 months. Conclusion: This assessment shows that in patients with axial or discogenic pain in the lumbar spine after excluding facet joint and SI Joint pain, epidural injections of local anesthetic by the caudal or lumbar interlaminar approach may be effective in managing chronic low back pain with a potential superiority for a lumbar interlaminar approach over a caudal approach.

Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Benyamin, Ramsin M.; Boswell, Mark V.

2015-01-01

348

Decompression of idiopathic symptomatic epidural lipomatosis of the lumbar spine.  

PubMed

Epidural lipomatosis has been implicated as a cause or contributor of symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis. Symptomatic spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) of the lumbar spine is a rare disease, often associated with steroid overload. Idiopathic lipomatosis is even much less frequent. Signs and symptoms depend upon the level and degree of nerve root compression. Diagnosis is best based on MRI. Weight reduction can be curative, however, after failure of medical treatment or in severe cases surgical decompression should be performed. A 70-year-old man with both lower limb severe paresthesia and radicular symptoms unrelieved with conservative treatments such as medications and physical therapy was treated by surgical decompression. Obesity, endocrinopathic disease, and chronic steroid therapy were excluded. Interlaminar fenestration, lateral recess decompression and fat debulking were applied at all levels through the L2-S1. After surgery there was a gradual improvement in symptoms. We report a rare case of idiopathic SEL which has shown entire evolvement of lumbar spine with specific increase of radiological and clinical severity from L2-3 to L5-S1 in a non-obese patient. PMID:17681857

Min, Woo-Kie; Oh, Chang-Wug; Jeon, In-Ho; Kim, Shin-Yoon; Park, Byung-Chul

2007-10-01

349

Hyperlipidemia and statins affect neurological outcome in lumbar spine injury.  

PubMed

The disabling pathophysiologic effects of lipid and neuroprotective effects of statins have recently been demonstrated for acute spinal cord injuries in animal models. This large scale population-based study aimed to investigate the effect hyperlipidemia and the use of statins in patients with lumbar spine injury. The National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan was used to identify patients with lumbar spine injury. A total of 2844 patients were grouped into three: no hyperlipidemia, hyperlipidemia using low-dose of statins (?90 of the defined daily dosage (DDD)), and severe hyperlipidemia using high-dose of statins (>90 DDD). A Cox multiple regression model was used to compare the incidence rates of disability among the three groups. The results showed that patients with hyperlipidemia appeared a higher risk of permanent disability (adjusted HR = 1.38, p = 0.28). In subgroup analysis, patients with severe hyperlipidemia had a higher risk of disability (adjusted HR = 3.1, p < 0.004), whereas hyperlipidemia using low-dose statins had a similar risk of permanently disability (adjusted HR = 0.83, p = 0.661). Hyperlipidemia adversely affected the neurological outcomes of lumbar spinal injury. Statins may have the potential to reverse this higher risk of disability. However, this beneficiary effect of statins only existed in patients using a lower dose (?90 DDD). PMID:25568970

Chung, Wu-Fu; Liu, Shih-Wei; Chang, Peng-Yuan; Lin, Feng-Shu; Chen, Li-Fu; Wu, Jau-Ching; Chen, Yu-Chun; Liu, Laura; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Cheng, Henrich; Lo, Su-Shun

2015-01-01

350

Hyperlipidemia and Statins Affect Neurological Outcome in Lumbar Spine Injury  

PubMed Central

The disabling pathophysiologic effects of lipid and neuroprotective effects of statins have recently been demonstrated for acute spinal cord injuries in animal models. This large scale population-based study aimed to investigate the effect hyperlipidemia and the use of statins in patients with lumbar spine injury. The National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan was used to identify patients with lumbar spine injury. A total of 2844 patients were grouped into three: no hyperlipidemia, hyperlipidemia using low-dose of statins (?90 of the defined daily dosage (DDD)), and severe hyperlipidemia using high-dose of statins (>90 DDD). A Cox multiple regression model was used to compare the incidence rates of disability among the three groups. The results showed that patients with hyperlipidemia appeared a higher risk of permanent disability (adjusted HR = 1.38, p = 0.28). In subgroup analysis, patients with severe hyperlipidemia had a higher risk of disability (adjusted HR = 3.1, p < 0.004), whereas hyperlipidemia using low-dose statins had a similar risk of permanently disability (adjusted HR = 0.83, p = 0.661). Hyperlipidemia adversely affected the neurological outcomes of lumbar spinal injury. Statins may have the potential to reverse this higher risk of disability. However, this beneficiary effect of statins only existed in patients using a lower dose (?90 DDD). PMID:25568970

Chung, Wu-Fu; Liu, Shih-Wei; Chang, Peng-Yuan; Lin, Feng-Shu; Chen, Li-Fu; Wu, Jau-Ching; Chen, Yu-Chun; Liu, Laura; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Cheng, Henrich; Lo, Su-Shun

2015-01-01

351

Instability in lumbar spondylolisthesis: a radiologic study of several concepts.  

PubMed

An attempt was made to define more precisely the notion of spine instability in lumbar spondylolisthesis. By means of lateral radiographs in flexion and extnsion, the axes of movement and the degree of mobility at the L3--L4, L4--L5, and L5--S1 levels were determined in 24 cases of true (spondylolytic) spondylolisthesis. Axes of movement at the spondylolisthetic levels showed a somewhat larger spread in and around the discs than at the normal levels, but instability in the form of parallel displacement of vertebral endplates was not observed. Hypermobility at the spondylolisthetic level proved to be a regular finding. The still current concept of "instability" as presented by Knutsson in 1944 was critically reviewed and denied as valid. Imprecision in the literature regarding instability may partly be attributed to insufficient discrimination between vertebral displacement as anatomic relationship and as abnormal type of movement. By designing a two-dimensional model other movements than flexion-extension could be studied; a special form of instability at the spondylolisthetic level was shown to appear during forward and backward movement of the lumbar spine above it. This detailed analysis facilitates understanding of the effect of different surgical procedures on vertebral movement and instability in lumbar spondylolisthesis. PMID:6766236

Penning, L; Blickman, J R

1980-02-01

352

Usefulness of Posterolateral Transforaminal Approach in Lumbar Radicular Pain  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the short-term effects and advantages of transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI) performed using the conventional (CL) and posterolateral (PL) approaches. Method Fifty patients with lumbar radicular pain from lumbar spinal stenosis and herniated lumbar disc were enrolled. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two groups (CL or PL group). All procedures were performed using a C-arm (KMC 950, KOMED, Kwangju, Kyunggi, Korea). We compared the frequency of complications during the procedure and the effects of the pain block between the two groups at 2, 4, and 12 weeks after the procedure. Results There were no significant differences in the demographic data, initial VNS (Visual numeric scale), or ODI (Oswestry disability index) between the CL group (n=26) and the PL group (n=24). There was no statistically significant difference in the outcome measures (VNS and ODI) between the groups at 2, 4, or 12 weeks. Symptoms of nerve root irritation occurred in 1 case of the CL group and in 7 cases of the PL group (p<0.05). Pricking of spinal nerve during the procedure and transient weakness after the procedure occurred in 6 cases and 3 cases, respectively in the CL group, but did not occur in the PL group. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the posterolateral approach represents an alternative TFESI method in cases with difficult needle tip positioning in the anterior epidural space, and could lower the risk of target nerve root irritation and nerve penetration. PMID:22506150

Park, Ji Woong; Nam, Hee-Seung

2011-01-01

353

Variation in the lumbar spine of the mature ewe: a descriptive study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this descriptive study was to characterize the variation in the lumbar spine of the mature ewe. Ventrodorsal and lateral radiographs of the lumbar spine from 216 mature (4-7-year-old) Rambouillet-Columbia cross ewes were examined. Criteria evaluated included the number and orientation of lumbar vertebrae and transverse processes. Observations for fusion of the last lumbar vertebrae with the sacrum and any visible variability seen in transverse processes and ribs were also included. Forty-one percent of the mature ewes had six and 59% had seven lumbar vertebrae. In addition, 7% had abnormal formations at either the first or last lumbar vertebra. Variations seen were the first lumbar vertebra having one rib and one transverse process (7/216, 3%), apparent fusion of the last lumbar vertebra to the sacrum (5/216, 2%) or apparent fusion of one or both of the transverse processes of the last lumbar vertebra to the pelvis (2/216, 1%). PMID:15869152

Lori, David N; MacLeay, Jennifer M; Turner, A Simon

2005-01-01

354

Treatment of lumbar disc herniation by percutaneous laser disc decompression (PLDD) and modified PLDD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective: To study the micro-invasive operative method and to compare the effect of treatment of PLDD and modified PLDD for Lumbar Disc Herniation. Method: Vaporized part of the nucleus pulposus in single or multiple point after acupuncture into lumbar disc, to reach the purpose of the decompression of the lumbar disc. Result: Among the 19 cases of the regular PLDD group, the excellent and good rate was 63.2%, and among the 40 cases of the modified PLDD group, the excellent and good rate was 82.5%. Conclusion: The modified PLDD has good effect on the treatment for lumbar disc herniation.

Chi, Xiao fei; Li, Hong zhi; Wu, Ru zhou; Sui, Yun xian

2005-07-01

355

Decline in lumbar extensor muscle strength the older adults: correlation with age, gender and spine morphology  

PubMed Central

Background Muscle morphology, age and gender may be determinants of muscle strength in older adults. However, very few research studies have directly examined such correlation in the ageing spine. The aim of the study was to examine the correlation between lumbar extensor muscle strength, its muscle fibre angles, thoracolumbar curvature, age and gender in the older and younger adults. Methods Muscle fibre angles of lumbar extensor muscles, thoracolumbar curvature and lumbar extensor muscle strength were examined in 26 young (mean age 27.9, SD 5.2) and 26 older (mean age 72.1, SD 5.9) participants. Pearson’s correlation was employed to determine the association among lumbar extensor muscle fibre angle, thoracolumbar curvature, age, gender and lumbar extensor muscle strength. Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis was used to identify significant determinants of lumbar extensor muscle strength. Results The results demonstrated a significant correlation between lumbar extensor muscle strength, muscle fibre angle, age and gender. In the step wise regression analysis, both gender and age were identified as the most robust determinant for lumbar extensor muscle strength in older adults. However, gender was the only determinant of muscle strength in the young. Conclusion These results suggest that the decline in the lumbar extensor muscle strength in older adults was more dependent on age when compared to younger adults. PMID:23875830

2013-01-01

356

Lumbar Spondylolysis and Spondylolytic Spondylolisthesis: Who Should Be Have Surgery? An Algorithmic Approach  

PubMed Central

Lumbar spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis are common spinal disorders that most of the times are incidental findings or respond favorably to conservative treatment. In a small percentage of the patients, surgical intervention becomes necessary. Because too much attention has been paid to novel surgical techniques and new modern spinal implants, some of fundamental concepts have been forgotten. Identifying that small but important number of patients with lumbar spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis who would really benefit from lumbar surgery is one of those forgotten concepts. In this paper, we have developed an algorithmic approach to determine who is a good candidate for surgery due to lumbar spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis.

Ebrahimzadeh, Mohamad Hossein; Salari, Saman

2014-01-01

357

Facet-sparing lumbar decompression with a minimally invasive flexible MicroBlade Shaver® versus traditional decompression: quantitative radiographic assessment  

PubMed Central

Background Laminectomy/laminotomy and foraminotomy are well established surgical techniques for treatment of symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis. However, these procedures have significant limitations, including limited access to lateral and foraminal compression and postoperative instability. The purpose of this cadaver study was to compare bone, ligament, and soft tissue morphology following lumbar decompression using a minimally invasive MicroBlade Shaver® instrument versus hemilaminotomy with foraminotomy (HL). Methods The iO-Flex® system utilizes a flexible over-the-wire MicroBlade Shaver instrument designed for facet-sparing, minimally invasive “inside-out” decompression of the lumbar spine. Unilateral decompression was performed at 36 levels in nine human cadaver specimens, six with age-appropriate degenerative changes and three with radiographically confirmed multilevel stenosis. The iO-Flex system was utilized on alternating sides from L2/3 to L5/S1, and HL was performed on the opposite side at each level by the same investigator. Spinal canal, facet joint, lateral recess, and foraminal morphology were assessed using computed tomography. Results Similar increases in soft tissue canal area and decreases in ligamentum flavum area were noted in nondiseased specimens, although HL required removal of 83% more laminar area (P < 0.01) and 95% more bone resection, including the pars interarticularis and facet joints (P < 0.001), compared with the iO-Flex system. Similar increases in lateral recess diameter were noted in nondiseased specimens using each procedure. In stenotic specimens, the increase in lateral recess diameter was significantly (P = 0.02) greater following use of the iO-Flex system (43%) versus HL (7%). The iO-Flex system resulted in greater facet joint preservation in nondiseased and stenotic specimens. In stenotic specimens, the iO-Flex system resulted in a significantly greater increase in foraminal width compared with HL (24% versus 4%, P = 0.01), with facet joint preservation. Conclusion The iO-Flex system resulted in significantly better decompression of the lateral recess and foraminal areas compared with HL, while preserving posterior spinal elements, including the facet joint. PMID:22879740

Lauryssen, Carl; Berven, Sigurd; Mimran, Ronnie; Summa, Christopher; Sheinberg, Michael; Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

2012-01-01

358

Posterior regeneration in Isodiametra pulchra (Acoela, Acoelomorpha)  

PubMed Central

Introduction Regeneration is a widespread phenomenon in the animal kingdom, but the capacity to restore damaged or missing tissue varies greatly between different phyla and even within the same phylum. However, the distantly related Acoelomorpha and Platyhelminthes share a strikingly similar stem-cell system and regenerative capacity. Therefore, comparing the underlying mechanisms in these two phyla paves the way for an increased understanding of the evolution of this developmental process. To date, Isodiametra pulchra is the most promising candidate as a model for the Acoelomorpha, as it reproduces steadily under laboratory conditions and is amenable to various techniques, including the silencing of gene expression by RNAi. In order to provide an essential framework for future studies, we report the succession of regeneration events via the use of cytochemical, histological and microscopy techniques, and specify the total number of cells in adult individuals. Results Isodiametra pulchra is not capable of regenerating a new head, but completely restores all posterior structures within 10 days. Following amputation, the wound closes via the contraction of local muscle fibres and an extension of the dorsal epidermis. Subsequently, stem cells and differentiating cells invade the wound area and form a loosely delimited blastema. After two days, the posterior end is re-patterned with the male (and occasionally the female) genital primordium being apparent. Successively, these primordia differentiate into complete copulatory organs. The size of the body and also of the male and female copulatory organs, as well as the distance between the copulatory organs, progressively increase and by nine days copulation is possible. Adult individuals with an average length of 670 ?m consist of approximately 8100 cells. Conclusion Isodiametra pulchra regenerates through a combination of morphallactic and epimorphic processes. Existing structures are “re-modelled” and provide a framework onto which newly differentiating cells are added. Growth proceeds through the intercalary addition of structures, mirroring the embryonic and post-embryonic development of various organ systems. The suitability of Isodiametra pulchra for laboratory techniques, the fact that its transcriptome and genome data will soon be available, as well as its small size and low number of cells, make it a prime candidate subject for research into the cellular mechanisms that underlie regeneration in acoelomorphs. PMID:24160844

2013-01-01

359

LOCAL SENSITIVITY, FUNCTIONAL DERIVATIVES AND NONLINEAR POSTERIOR QUANTITIES  

E-print Network

LOCAL SENSITIVITY, FUNCTIONAL DERIVATIVES AND NONLINEAR POSTERIOR QUANTITIES by Sanjib Basu 1 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 February, 1994 Abstract The local sensitivity of a posterior quantities are established under these definitions. Local sensitivity is measured by maxi­ mizing

Basu, Sanjib

360

Accurate Approximations for Posterior Moments and Marginal Densities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes approximations to the posterior means and variances of positive functions of a real or vector-valued parameter, and to the marginal posterior densities of arbitrary (i.e., not necessarily positive) parameters. These approximations can also be used to compute approximate predictive densities. To apply the proposed method, one only needs to be able to maximize slightly modified likelihood functions

Luke Tierney; Joseph B. Kadane

1986-01-01

361

Investigation of occiput posterior delivery by intrapartum sonography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To investigate if occiput posterior delivery is the consequence of persistence of an initial occiput posterior position or malrotation from an initial occiput anterior or transverse position. Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving transabdominal sonography to determine fetal occipital position in 918 singleton pregnancies with cephalic presentation in active labor at 37-42 weeks of gestation. The relationship between

S. Akmal; E. Tsoi; R. Howard; E. Osei; K. H. Nicolaides

2004-01-01

362

Pig Lumbar Spine Anatomy and Imaging Guided Lateral Lumbar Puncture: A New Large Animal Model for Intrathecal Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

Intrathecal (IT) administration is an important route of drug delivery. Its modeling in a large animal species is a critical step. Although domestic swine is presently a preferred species in preclinical pharmacology, no proven minimally invasive method has been established to deliver agents into the pig IT space. While a “blind” lumbar puncture (LP) can sample cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), it is unreliable for drug delivery in pigs. Using computed tomography (CT) we determined the underlying anatomical reasons. The pig spinal cord was visualized terminating at the S2-S3 level. The lumbar region contained only small amounts of CSF visualized in the lateral recesses. Additional anatomical constraints identified were ossification of the midline ligaments; overlapping lamina with small interlaminar spaces; and a large bulk of epidural adipose tissue. Accommodating the pig CT anatomy, we developed an injection technique termed lateral LP (LLP) that employs advance planning of the needle path and monitoring of the IT injection progress. Key features of the LLP procedure were choosing a vertebral level without overlapping lamina or spinal ligament ossification; a needle trajectory crossing the midline; and entering the IT space in its lateral recess. Effective IT delivery was validated by injection of contrast media thereby obtaining a CT myelogram. LLP represents a safe and reliable method to deliver agents to the lumbar pig IT space, which can be implemented in a straightforward way by any laboratory with access to CT equipment and is therefore an attractive large animal model for preclinical studies of IT therapies. PMID:23518340

Pleticha, Josef; Maus, Timothy P.; Jeng-Singh, Christian; Marsh, Michael P.; Al-Saiegh, Fadi; Christner, Jodie A.; Lee, Kendall H.; Beutler, Andreas S.

2014-01-01

363

Pig lumbar spine anatomy and imaging-guided lateral lumbar puncture: a new large animal model for intrathecal drug delivery.  

PubMed

Intrathecal (IT) administration is an important route of drug delivery, and its modelling in a large animal species is of critical value. Although domestic swine is the preferred species for preclinical pharmacology, no minimally invasive method has been established to deliver agents into the IT space. While a "blind" lumbar puncture (LP) can sample cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), it is unreliable for drug delivery in pigs. Using computed tomography (CT), we determined the underlying anatomical reasons for this irregularity. The pig spinal cord was visualised terminating at the S2-S3 level. The lumbar region contained only small amounts of CSF found in the lateral recess. Additional anatomical constraints included ossification of the midline ligaments, overlapping lamina with small interlaminar spaces, and a large bulk of epidural adipose tissue. Accommodating the the pig CT anatomy, we developed a lateral LP (LLP) injection technique that employs advanced planning of the needle path and monitoring of the IT injection progress. The key features of the LLP procedure involved choosing a vertebral level without overlapping lamina or spinal ligament ossification, a needle trajectory crossing the midline, and entering the IT space in its lateral recess. Effective IT delivery was validated by the injection of contrast media to obtain a CT myelogram. LLP represents a safe and reliable method to deliver agents to the lumbar pig IT space, which can be implemented in a straightforward way by any laboratory with access to CT equipment. Therefore, LLP is an attractive large animal model for preclinical studies of IT therapies. PMID:23518340

Pleticha, Josef; Maus, Timothy P; Jeng-Singh, Christian; Marsh, Michael P; Al-Saiegh, Fadi; Christner, Jodie A; Lee, Kendall H; Beutler, Andreas S

2013-05-30

364

Automatic quantification of posterior capsule opacification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After Cataract surgery where a plastic implant lens is implanted into the eye to replace the natural lens, many patients suffer from cell growth across a membrane situated at the back of the lens which degrades their vision. The cell growth is known as Posterior Capsule Opacification (or PCO). It is important to be able to quantify PCO so that the effect of different implant lens types and surgical techniques may be evaluated. Initial results obtained using a neural network to detect PCO from implant lenses are compared to an established but less automated method of detection, which segments the images using texture segmentation in conjunction with co- occurrence matrices. Tests show that the established method performs well in clinical validation and repeatability trials. The requirement to use a neural network to analyze the implant lens images evolved from the analysis of over 1000 images using the established co-occurrence matrix segmentation method. The work shows that a method based on neural networks is a promising tool to automate the procedure of calculating PCO.

Barman, Sarah A.; Uyyanonvara, Bunyarit; Boyce, James F.; Sanguinetti, Giorgia; Hollick, Emma J.; Meacock, William R.; Spalton, David J.; Paplinski, Andrew P.

2000-06-01

365

Alexia and agraphia in posterior cortical atrophy.  

PubMed

A 65-year-old woman with progressive visuospatial dysfunction for 2 years complained of later-onset associated memory impairment. MRI revealed diffuse cerebrocortical atrophy, which was especially severe in both parieto-occipital regions but spared the calcarine and pericalcarine cortices. Examination 5 years after onset revealed left visual hemi-neglect, oculomotor apraxia, optic ataxia, simultanagnosia, verbal alexia, lexical and spatial agraphia, and anterograde amnesia. This patient's disorder is considered in the context of previous reports on the array of cognitive disturbances associated with posterior cortical atrophy (pCA). Special emphasis is made on her reading and writing disturbances, because their prevalence and range of individual variability have not been established in pCA. This array of neuropsychological manifestations may help to distinguish among different clinical and etiological types of pCA, and to elucidate the pathophysiology of a syndrome that has been associated with conditions as diverse as Alzheimer's disease, subcortical gliosis, and prion diseases. The parameters described in our case may thus help to address these issues in clinico-pathological studies with large numbers of patients with pCA. PMID:9118197

Ardila, A; Rosselli, M; Arvizu, L; Kuljis, R O

1997-01-01

366

Composite resection of posterior pelvic malignancy.  

PubMed

Advanced pelvic cancer is a formidable challenge to surgical resection. These tumors commonly invade the bony pelvis, may involve other viscera, and usually have been irradiated previously. The authors are presenting experience with 76 patients who had composite resection of posterior or lateral pelvic malignancy. Fifty-eight patients had secondary cancers involving the musculoskeletal pelvis. This included 47 patients with advanced carcinoma of the rectum (41 curative, 6 palliative), 10 epidermoid cancers of the anorectum (8) or cervix (2), and 1 bladder cancer. Among the 18 patients with primary pelvic tumors were three patients with chordomas, six with bone tumors (osteosarcoma chondrosarcoma, grade III giant cell tumor), and nine with soft tissue tumors. All required major resection of the sacrum or pelvic side walls, and one half had an additional exenterative procedure. The overall mortality rate was 7.9%. Long-term estimated survival was 24% in patients having curative resection of recurrent rectal cancer, and 22.5% in 10 patients with advanced epidermoid cancer. Fifty per cent of patients with primary bone or soft tissue tumors survived from 13 to 88 months. Most patients had reasonable return of function, and were able to return to work or resume their normal previous lifestyle. PMID:1632689

Wanebo, H J; Koness, R J; Turk, P S; Cohen, S I

1992-06-01

367

A rare posterior cranial fossa tumor.  

PubMed

Among tumors of the central nervous system, tumors of the mixed glioneuronal type form an important recognized subset. Some of the examples for mixed glioneuronal tumors include gangliocytoma, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT), ganglioglioma, anaplastic ganglioglioma, and central neurocytoma. The rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor (RGNT) of the fourth ventricle is a new entity that has only slowly emerged in the literature due to its prior classification with other low-grade mixed glial and neuronal tumors. These tumors are relatively infrequent lesions, and therefore, they can be challenging to diagnose for the practicing pathologist. This is a rare biphasic tumor with clearly defined neurocytic and glial components. The tumor is found exclusively in the posterior fossa, where it arises in the midline, usually occupying a substantial fraction of the fourth ventricle, and it is observed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a circumscribed, solid mass with heterogeneous contrast enhancement. We describe here a case of RGNT occurring in a 22-year-old male. PMID:23361291

Nandeesh, Bevinahalli N; Chabra, Manmeet Singh; Babu, Manjaly K; Chand, Ashish K

2012-01-01

368

Representation of numerosity in posterior parietal cortex  

PubMed Central

Humans and animals appear to share a similar representation of number as an analog magnitude on an internal, subjective scale. Neurological and neurophysiological data suggest that posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is a critical component of the circuits that form the basis of numerical abilities in humans. Patients with parietal lesions are impaired in their ability to access the deep meaning of numbers. Acalculiac patients with inferior parietal damage often have difficulty performing arithmetic (2 + 4?) or number bisection (what is between 3 and 5?) tasks, but are able to recite multiplication tables and read or write numerals. Functional imaging studies of neurologically intact humans performing subtraction, number comparison, and non-verbal magnitude comparison tasks show activity in areas within the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). Taken together, clinical cases and imaging studies support a critical role for parietal cortex in the mental manipulation of numerical quantities. Further, responses of single PPC neurons in non-human primates are sensitive to the numerosity of visual stimuli independent of low-level stimulus qualities. When monkeys are trained to make explicit judgments about the numerical value of such stimuli, PPC neurons encode their cardinal numerical value; without such training PPC neurons appear to encode numerical magnitude in an analog fashion. Here we suggest that the spatial and integrative properties of PPC neurons contribute to their critical role in numerical cognition. PMID:22666194

Roitman, Jamie D.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.; Platt, Michael L.

2012-01-01

369

A new in vivo screening model for posterior spinal bone formation: comparison of ten calcium phosphate ceramic material treatments.  

PubMed

This study presents a new screening model for evaluating the influence of multiple conditions on the initial process of bone formation in the posterior lumbar spine of a large animal. This model uses cages designed for placement on the decorticated transverse process of the goat lumbar spine. Five conduction channels per cage, each be defined by a different material treatment, are open to both the underlying bone and overlying soft tissue. The model was validated in ten adult Dutch milk goats, with each animal implanted with two cages containing a total of ten calcium phosphate material treatments according to a randomized complete block design. The ten calcium phosphate ceramic materials were created through a combination of material chemistry (BCP, TCP, HA), sintering temperature (low, medium, high), calcination and surface roughness treatments. To monitor the bone formation over time, fluorochrome markers were administered at 3, 5 and 7 weeks and the animals were sacrificed at 9 weeks after implantation. Bone formation in the conduction channels was investigated by histology and histomorphometry of non-decalcified sections using traditional light and epifluorescent microscopy. According to both observed and measured bone formation parameters, materials were ranked in order of increasing magnitude as follows: low sintering temperature BCP (rough and smooth) approximately medium sintering temperature BCP approximately = TCP > calcined low sintering temperature HA > non-calcined low sintering temperature HA > high sintering temperature BCP (rough and smooth) > high sintering temperature HA (calcined and non-calcined). These results agree closely with those obtained in previous studies of osteoconduction and bioactivity of ceramics thereby validating the screening model presented in this study. PMID:16111745

Wilson, Clayton E; Kruyt, Moyo C; de Bruijn, Joost D; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Oner, F Cumhur; Verbout, Abraham J; Dhert, Wouter J A

2006-01-01

370

Positioning of the posterior cruciate ligament.  

PubMed

The isometric position in ligament reconstruction is the one in which there is little or no change in the length of the graft with range of motion of the joint. It varies according to the positions of the tunnels that will become the attachment sites of whatever graft is being used. Better understanding of this concept that greatly improved the surgical results of intra-articular reconstructions of the anterior cruciate ligament. Unfortunately, the results of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstructions have lagged behind. A better understanding of the isometry of the PCL and how it relates to the positioning of a graft at the time of reconstruction should help improve the situation. The current scientific studies on the PCL as they relate to isometry are evaluated and summarised in this paper. The tibial isometric point was universally less sensitive to changes in position than was the femoral isometric point. However, all the points that were evaluated for the tibia fell within the normal insertion area of the PCL. This has important ramifications when extrapolating these laboratory studies to the operating room, where it is imperative to get the tibial tunnel or attachment site distal enough on the tibia so that it will be in the usual anatomic location of the PCL. There is less uniformity when it comes to the femoral isometric point, but once again the isometric point from each of the studies fell within the normal anatomic femoral attachment site. The differences between the selected points may be explained by the different study designs. PMID:7584194

Juergensen, K; Edwards, J C; Jakob, R P

1994-01-01

371

Posterior Urethral Valves; A single Center Experience  

PubMed Central

Objective Posterior urethral valves (PUV) are the most common cause of bladder outlet obstruction in infancy that impair renal and bladder function. This study was planned to evaluate and record the various clinical presentations and management, complications, and surgical management and long-term outcome of PUV. Methods In a retrospective study, 98 patients who have been treated for PUV are evaluated in Mofid Children's Hospital from January 2007 to December 2012. Detailed history taken and paraclinical examinations were performed in each patient and diagnosis was confirmed by voiding-cysto-urethrography (VCUG). PUV had been ablated in 62 patients by electric hook, and diversion was performed in 42 (42.85%) cases. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version18. Findings Totally 98 patients with mean age at diagnosis 62 (±13) days were included in this study. Fifty seven cases had been catheterized within one to 6 days of life (mean age one day), PUV was ablated in 62 patients by electric hook, and diversion was performed in 42 cases. The most common symptom in our group was dribbling poor stream 51% and urinary tract infection (UTI) 40.8%. There was vesico-ureteral-reflux (VUR) in 61.2%, and hydronephrosis in 82.6%. Most common associated anomaly was kidney anomalies (multicystic kidney disease and renal agenesis/dysplasia) in 8 (8.2%) patients. Twenty patients had prenatal diagnosis of PUV. Complication occurred in three (3.1%) patients. Mortality occurred in 5 (5.1%) patients. Mean follow-up period was 3.4±1.2 years (1.5 months to 5 years). Conclusion Urinary drainage by feeding tube in early days of infancy, followed by valve ablation is the best treatment in PUV, and urinary diversion improves the outcome. VCUG is still the gold-standard imaging modality for documenting PUVs. The factors like renal dysplasia and UTI have their role in final outcome. PMID:24800012

Mirshemirani, Alireza; Khaleghnejad, Ahmad; Rouzrokh, Mohsen; Sadeghi, Afsaneh; Mohajerzadeh, Leila; Sharifian, Mustafa

2013-01-01

372

Endovascular exclusion of iliac artery to iliac vein fistula after lumbar disk surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iliac arteriovenous (AV) fistula is rare after lumbar disk surgery. Traditionally, open repair through the arterial lumen was performed. We report endovascular exclusion of an iliac AV fistula in a 41-year-old woman 8 years after lumbar diskectomy. An angiogram showed an AV fistula connecting the right common iliac artery and vein. This was repaired with placement of two covered wall

J. P. Hart; F. Wallis; B. Kenny; B. O'Sullivan; P. E. Burke; P. A. Grace

2003-01-01

373

Rare ligamentum flavum cyst causing incapacitating lumbar spinal stenosis: Experience with 3 Chinese patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three Chinese patients suffered from severe lumbar spinal stenosis with debilitating symptoms due to a rare condition of ligamentum flavum cysts in the midline of the lumbar spine. This disease is distinct from synovial cyst of the facet joints or ganglion cysts, both intraoperatively and histopathologically. Magnetic Resonance imaging features of the ligamentum flavum cyst are also demonstrated. We share

Alexander Pak-Hin Chan; Tsz Cheung Wong; Koon-Man Sieh; Simon Siu-Man Leung; Kai-Yin Cheung; Kwai-Yau Fung

2010-01-01

374

A different type of congenital lumbar hernia associated with the lumbocostovertebral syndrome.  

PubMed

Congenital lumbar hernia is rare in infancy and childhood, and its association with the lumbocostovertebral syndrome is even more unusual. Only 20 cases have been reported in the English literature. We present the case of a child with multiple costovertebral anomalies, undescended testis, and lateral abdominal wall hernia that is not within the anatomical boundaries of traditional lumbar hernias. PMID:18206440

Akçora, Bülent; Temiz, Adulkerim; Babayi?it, Cenk

2008-01-01

375

Assessment of loads in the lumbar spine during frontal collision sled tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultimate goal of this study is to understand the loading of a cadaveric lumbar spine in a full body cadaver subjected to a frontal impact sled test. In order to accomplish this, a series of experiments have been designed to determine the rate sensitive mechanical response of the isolated lumbar spine. First, the low rate mechanical responses of the

Constantine Kyriakos Demetropoulos

2001-01-01

376

Full-Endoscopic Interlaminar and Transforaminal Lumbar Discectomy Versus Conventional Microsurgical Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Design. Prospective, randomized, controlled study of patients with lumbar disc herniations, operated either in a full-endoscopic or microsurgical technique. Objective. Comparison of results of lumbar discecto- mies in full-endoscopic interlaminar and transforaminal technique with the conventional microsurgical technique. Summary of Background Data. Even with good re- sults, conventional disc operations may result in subse- quent damage due to trauma.

Sebastian Ruetten; Martin Komp; Harry Merk; Georgios Godolias

377

Posttraumatic lumbar cerebrospinal fluid leak: detection by retrograde In-111-DTPA myeloscintography  

SciTech Connect

A case of lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) extravasation with an unsuspected traumatic meningocele after a gunshot wound was detected by means of retrograde myeloscintography using isobaric In-111-DTPA. Our experience and a review of the literature have provided evidence retrograde myeloscintography may be useful for detecting and delineating significant traumatic thoracic and lumbar CSF leaks.

Colletti, P.M.; Siegel, M.E.

1981-09-01

378

Posterior mediastinal mass diagnosed as schwanomma with concomittant tuberculosis.  

PubMed

A 21-year-old non-smoker, non-hypertensive male without diabetes was referred to our pulmonary medicine department with suspected malignant intrathoracic mass. The clinicoradiological evaluation revealed that it could be a posterior mediastinal mass. The same diagnosis was confirmed on performing CT and MRI. Benign posterior mediastinal schwanomma was suspected as it is the most common posterior mediastinal mass. It was completely resected. Histopathological examination confirmed the same. The mass was also sent for culture for mycobacterium which came out to be positive. The patient recovered from the surgery and postoperative X-ray showed complete clearance. He was treated with antitubercular treatment and responded very well. PMID:25246469

Tripathi, Surya Kant; Mishra, Ashwini Kumar; Verma, Ajay Kumar; Prakash, Ved

2014-01-01

379

Congenital Lumbar Hernia with Lumbocostovertebral Syndrome: A Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Congenital lumbar hernia is one of the rare types of hernias. Anomalies of the ribs, spine, and muscles which constitute the lumbocostovertebral syndrome in association with congenital lumbar hernia make it the rarest of entities. In addition, a multitude of other organ systems may be involved. Case Report. A case of congenital lumbar hernia associated with lumbocostovertebral syndrome is presented in view of its rarity and diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Discussion. Anatomical background of congenital lumbar hernia associated with various other anomalies especially of the musculoskeletal structures is discussed. All cases of congenital lumbar hernia should be investigated for other congenital anomalies. Both open and laparoscopic approaches have been described for surgical treatment. Conclusion. Open surgical intervention is the mainstay of treatment taking into consideration the technical challenges posed by distorted anatomy due to the associated congenital anomalies. PMID:24159401

Vagholkar, Ketan; Dastoor, Khojasteh

2013-01-01

380

Conservative management of recurrent lumbar disk herniation with epidural fibrosis: a case report  

PubMed Central

Objective A retrospective case report of a 24-year-old man with recurrent lumbar disk herniation and epidural fibrosis is presented. Recurrent lumbar disk herniation and epidural fibrosis are common complications following lumbar diskectomy. Clinical Features A 24-year-old patient had a history of lumbar diskectomy and new onset of low back pain and radiculopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed recurrent herniation at L5/S1, left nerve root displacement, and epidural fibrosis. Intervention and Outcomes The patient received a course of chiropractic care including lumbar spinal manipulation and rehabilitation exercises with documented subjective and objective functional and symptomatic improvement. Conclusion This case report describes chiropractic management including spinal manipulative therapy and rehabilitation exercises and subsequent objective and subjective functional and symptomatic improvement. PMID:23843756

Welk, Aaron B.; Werdehausen, Destiny N.; Kettner, Norman W.

2012-01-01

381

Surgical vs Nonoperative Treatment for Lumbar Disk Herniation  

PubMed Central

Context Lumbar diskectomy is the most common surgical procedure performed for back and leg symptoms in US patients, but the efficacy of the procedure relative to nonoperative care remains controversial. Objective To assess the efficacy of surgery for lumbar intervertebral disk herniation. Design, Setting, and Patients The Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial, a randomized clinical trial enrolling patients between March 2000 and November 2004 from 13 multidisciplinary spine clinics in 11 US states. Patients were 501 surgical candidates (mean age, 42 years; 42% women) with imaging-confirmed lumbar intervertebral disk herniation and persistent signs and symptoms of radiculopathy for at least 6 weeks. Interventions Standard open diskectomy vs nonoperative treatment individualized to the patient. Main Outcome Measures Primary outcomes were changes from baseline for the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey bodily pain and physical function scales and the modified Oswestry Disability Index (American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons MODEMS version) at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 and 2 years from enrollment. Secondary outcomes included sciatica severity as measured by the Sciatica Bothersomeness Index, satisfaction with symptoms, self-reported improvement, and employment status. Results Adherence to assigned treatment was limited: 50% of patients assigned to surgery received surgery within 3 months of enrollment, while 30% of those assigned to nonoperative treatment received surgery in the same period. Intent-to-treat analyses demonstrated substantial improvements for all primary and secondary outcomes in both treatment groups. Between-group differences in improvements were consistently in favor of surgery for all periods but were small and not statistically significant for the primary outcomes. Conclusions Patients in both the surgery and the nonoperative treatment groups improved substantially over a 2-year period. Because of the large numbers of patients who crossed over in both directions, conclusions about the superiority or equivalence of the treatments are not warranted based on the intent-to-treat analysis. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00000410 PMID:17119140

Weinstein, James N.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Lurie, Jon D.; Tosteson, Anna N. A.; Hanscom, Brett; Skinner, Jonathan S.; Abdu, William A.; Hilibrand, Alan S.; Boden, Scott D.; Deyo, Richard A.

2008-01-01

382

Massive psoas haematoma causing lumbar plexus palsy: a case report.  

PubMed

An 84-year-old man who was receiving oral anticoagulation therapy presented with complete lumbar plexus palsy caused by a massive psoas haematoma. Conservative treatment rather than drainage of the haematoma was undertaken, because of the risk of bleeding complications and mortality. At the one-year follow-up, the patient had no clinical signs of neurological recovery. The patient died 2 months later due to his concurrent medical problems. A high degree of suspicion is needed for the diagnosis because of the insidiously developing neurological deficit. PMID:22535820

Conesa, Xavier; Ares, Oscar; Seijas, Roberto

2012-04-01

383

Extradural chondroma presenting as lumbar mass with compressive neuropathy  

PubMed Central

The identification of a soft tissue chondroma within the spine represents a rarity and is typically not included within the differential diagnosis for patients with sensory complaints of the leg. The authors describe 46-year-old female presenting with 3-week history of decreased sensation and paresthesias of the left leg. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine demonstrated an L3 extradural soft tissue mass. She underwent an uncomplicated excision through an L3 laminectomy and exhibited complete resolution of symptoms. Pathologic examination revealed benign cartilaginous tissue; however, the authors recommend long-term follow-up for such lesions as the potential for malignant transformation is unknown. PMID:25336836

Pace, Jonathan; Lozen, Andrew M.; Wang, Marjorie C.; Cochran, Elizabeth J.

2014-01-01

384

Haemorrhagic Lumbar Juxtafacet Cyst with Ligamentum Flavum Involvement  

PubMed Central

Juxtafacet cysts are an uncommon cause of radiculopathy. They occur most frequently in the lumbar region, and their distribution across the spine correlates with mobility. Haemorrhagic complications are rare and may occur in the absence of any provocation, although there is some association with anticoagulation and trauma. We present a case of acute radiculopathy due to an L5/S1 juxtafacet cyst with unprovoked haemorrhage which was found to extend into ligamentum flavum. The patient underwent uncomplicated microscope assisted decompression with excellent results. The demographics, presentation, aetiology, and management of juxtafacet cysts are discussed.

Ghent, Finn; Davidson, Trent; Mobbs, Ralph Jasper

2014-01-01

385

Dumb-bell-type teratoma in the lumbar spine.  

PubMed

We report a case of a lumbar teratoma in a 50-year-old woman. The teratoma showed a dumb-bell-type expansion at the level of the left L3/4 foramen with massive erosion of the L3 vertebral body. MRI revealed inhomogeneous signal changes in the tumor, which were histologically compatible with a mixture of bone, muscle, fat, and cyst containing sebaceous material. Complete resection of the tumor and spinal arthrodesis with pedicle screw fixation was necessary to obtain stability of the affected spinal segment. PMID:10741501

Okuyama, K; Abe, E; Hoshi, N; Misawa, A; Tamura, Y; Chiba, M

2000-02-01

386

Tumoral calcinosis and epidural lipomatosis of the lumbar spine.  

PubMed

Lumbar spinal tumoral calcinosis and spinal epidural lipomatosis are rare conditions. We present a 70-year-old female patient with serology negative spondyloarthropathy who developed paresis due to tumoral calcinosis in the left facet joint between L5 and S1 levels and spinal epidural lipomatosis at L5 and S1 levels. Surgery was performed to excise the lesions en bloc. Neural decompression was provided. Neurological symptoms improved after surgery. Here, we report the first serology negative spondyloarthropathy case that had concomitant development of tumoral calcinosis and spinal epidural lipomatosis. PMID:21294103

Emon, Selin Tural; Bozkurt, Suheyla Uyar; Gercek, Arzu; Ozgen, Serdar

2011-01-01

387

Oblique lumbar spine radiographs: importance in young patients  

SciTech Connect

Spondylolysis is a direct precursor of spondylolisthesis and can lead to crippling back pain. Of 1,743 patients surveyed, including 936 who were asymptomatic and 807 with back pain, 165 (including 91 who were asymptomatic and 74 with back pain) had spondylolysis, which was seen only on oblique lumbar views in 20% of cases. Because of the high false-negative rate of AP and lateral views, oblique views are essential in children and young adults. As spondylolysis is rare above L3, radiographs can be limited to L3-S1. Significantly less spondylolysis was seen in persons older than 30 with back pain usually caused by disk degeneration.

Libson, E.; Bloom, R.A.; Dinari, G.; Robin, G.C.

1984-04-01

388

21 CFR 872.3900 - Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert. 872.3900 Section 872...3900 Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert. (a) Identification. A posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert is a porcelain device with...

2010-04-01

389

[The design, preparation and compressive strength testing of interbody fusion cages made from a composite of multi-amino acid copolymer/tri-calcium phosphate].  

PubMed

This research was to design and prepare interbody fusion cages using composite materials of multi-amino acid copolymer/tri-calcium phosphate (MAACP/TCP) and to test compressive strength of the cages. 16 specimens of C3-4 segments from female adult goats were scanned by X-ray to exclude disease of cervical spine, and then anatomical data were measured, i. e. disc space height of C3-4 segment (DSH), sagittal diameter of C3 lower endplate (SDLE3), sagittal diameter of C4 upper endplate (SDUE4), coronary diameter of C3 lower endplate (CDLE3), and coronary diameter of C4 upper endplate (CDUE4). According to the anatomical data, we designed and prepared the interbody fusion cage using the composite of MAACP/TCP and titanium with the same sizes. The MAACP/TCP Cages were made with the method of injection molding and finish machining, and titanium Cages were made with machining. In the testing of compressive strength of Cages, the specimens were divided into three groups, tricortical iliac crest bone group (isolated from goats), MAACP/TCP Cage group and titanium Cage group. There were 8 specimens in every group with the same sizes, the length of 12 mm, the width of 10 mm, and the height of 6 mm. The compressive strength of all specimens was tested on a universal testing machine. The values of DSH, SDLE3, SDUE4, CDLE3 and CDUE4 were (4.78 +/- 0.17) mm, (15.06 +/- 0.53) mm, (12.46 +/- 0.44) mm, (14.47 +/- 0.51) mm and (12.15 +/- 0.65) mm, respectively. MAACP/TCP Cage was successfully designed and made with a compressive strength of 76.34 MPa, which was much higher than that of tricortical iliac crest bone (18.41 MPa). The maximal loading of universal testing machine was 50 000 N, so the compressive strength of titanium Cages, whose value should be more than 541.35 MPa, could not be tested precisely. It is feasible to make cages with MAACP/TCP composite, and the compressive strength of MAACP/TCP Cages was much higher than that of tricortical iliac crest bone isolated from goats. PMID:22295701

Zhou, Chungnang; Song, Yueming; Tu, Chongqi; Pei, Fuxing; Duan, Hong; Liu, Limin; Li, Hong

2011-12-01

390

Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 13: injection therapies, low-back pain, and lumbar fusion.  

PubMed

The medical literature continues to fail to support the use of lumbar epidural injections for long-term relief of chronic back pain without radiculopathy. There is limited support for the use of lumbar epidural injections for shortterm relief in selected patients with chronic back pain. Lumbar intraarticular facet injections are not recommended for the treatment of chronic lower-back pain. The literature does suggest the use of lumbar medial nerve blocks for short-term relief of facet-mediated chronic lower-back pain without radiculopathy. Lumbar medial nerve ablation is suggested for 3-6 months of relief for chronic lower-back pain without radiculopathy. Diagnostic medial nerve blocks by the double-injection technique with an 80% improvement threshold are an option to predict a favorable response to medial nerve ablation for facet-mediated chronic lower-back pain without radiculopathy, but there is no evidence to support the use of diagnostic medial nerve blocks to predict the outcomes in these same patients with lumbar fusion. There is insufficient evidence to support or refute the use of trigger point injections for chronic lowerback pain without radiculopathy. PMID:24980590

Watters, William C; Resnick, Daniel K; Eck, Jason C; Ghogawala, Zoher; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Dailey, Andrew T; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Sharan, Alok; Groff, Michael W; Wang, Jeffrey C; Dhall, Sanjay S; Kaiser, Michael G

2014-07-01

391

Magnetic source imaging in posterior cortex epilepsies.  

PubMed

Posterior cortex epilepsies (PCE) are characterized by less satisfying postoperative results than temporal lobe epilepsies and are thus challenging for non-invasive presurgical investigations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of magnetic source imaging (MSI) in PCE, validating the results by the SEEG (stereoelectroencephalography) definition of irritative and epileptogenic zones (IZ and EZ). Fourteen PCE surgery candidates were investigated using MSI and SEEG. LCMV (Linearly Constrained Minimum Variance) and MUSIC algorithms were used. IZ was quantified using a semi-automatic detection of interictal spikes. EZ was quantified using the epileptogenicity index (EI) method that accounts for both the propensity of a brain area to generate rapid discharges and the time for this area to get involved in the seizure. EI values range from 0 (no epileptogenicity) to 1 (maximal epileptogenicity). Levels of concordance between MSI and IZ, MSI and EZ were determined as follows: A = localized on MSI and SEEG for the site of value 1 (IZ and EZ qu