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Sample records for posterior por toxoplasma

  1. TOXOPLASMA GONDII

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii is a coccidian parasite with cats as the definitive host, and warm-blooded animals as intermediate hosts (Frenkel et al., 1970). It is one of the most important parasites of animals. There is only one species of Toxoplasma, T. gondii. Unlike many other microorganisms, and in spite ...

  2. [Toxoplasma uveitis in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis].

    PubMed

    Deveci, Hülya; Kobak, Şenol

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a posterior uveitis case was reported in a patient who was being followed and under treatment for Ankylosing Spondylitis. Toxoplasma antibodies were investigated and anti-toxoplasma IgG was positive. Systematic treatment (Sulfamethoxazole/Trimethoprim and Clindamycin) was started. Despite medical treatment, reduction in visual acuity and development of dense membranous condensation in vitreous occurred. Surgical vitrectomy was performed. When posterior uveitis develops in patients who undergo immunosuppressive treatment, toxoplasma is among the first infectious agents that we should consider. A delay in diagnosis and treatment may result in failure in obtaining the desired outcome from medical treatment and a shift to surgical treatment. PMID:24192627

  3. Toxoplasma gondii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is one of the most common parasitic infections of humans and other warmblooded animals. It has been found worldwide, and nearly one third of humans have been exposed to the parasite. Congenital infection occurs when a woman becomes infected during pregnanc...

  4. Toxoplasma gondii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii is perhaps the most widespread protozoan parasite affecting humans with an estimated 1-2 billion of the world’s population currently infected. T. gondii, which is the only species of this genus, also infects virtually all warm blooded animals including humans, livestock, birds, an...

  5. Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma infection) Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Parasites - Toxoplasmosis ( Toxoplasma infection) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Toxoplasmosis General Information Toxoplasmosis FAQs Toxoplasmosis & Pregnancy FAQs Epidemiology & ...

  6. Toxoplasma Serotype Is Associated With Development of Ocular Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Shobab, Leila; Pleyer, Uwe; Johnsen, Joerdis; Metzner, Sylvia; James, Erick R.; Torun, N.; Fay, Michael P.; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Grigg, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Worldwide, ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) is the principal cause of posterior uveitis, a severe, life-altering disease. A Toxoplasma gondii enzyme-linked immunoassay that detects strain-specific antibodies present in serum was used to correlate serotype with disease. Methods. Toxoplasma serotypes in consecutive serum samples from German uveitis patients with OT were compared with non-OT seropositive patients with noninfectious autoimmune posterior uveitis. OT patients were tested for association of parasite serotype with age, gender, location, clinical onset, size, visual acuity, or number of lesions (mean follow-up, 3.8 years) to determine association with recurrences. Results. A novel, nonreactive (NR) serotype was detected more frequently in serum samples of OT patients (50/114, 44%) than in non-OT patients (4/56, 7%) (odds ratio, 10.0; 95% confidence interval 3.4–40.8; P < .0001). Non-OT patients were predominantly infected with Type II strains (39/56; 70%), consistent with expected frequencies in Central Europe. Among OT patients, those with NR serotypes experienced more frequent recurrences (P = .037). Polymerase chain reaction detected parasite DNA in 8/60 OT aqueous humor specimens but failed to identify Type II strain alleles. Conclusions. Toxoplasma NR and Type II serotypes predominate in German OT patients. The NR serotype is associated with OT recurrences, underscoring the value of screening for management of disease. PMID:23878321

  7. Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma infection) Disease Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Parasites - Toxoplasmosis ( Toxoplasma infection) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Toxoplasmosis General Information Toxoplasmosis FAQs Toxoplasmosis & Pregnancy FAQs Epidemiology & ...

  8. Toxoplasma gondii and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Yolken, Robert H.

    2003-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies indicate that infectious agents may contribute to some cases of schizophrenia. In animals, infection with Toxoplasma gondii can alter behavior and neurotransmitter function. In humans, acute infection with T. gondii can produce psychotic symptoms similar to those displayed by persons with schizophrenia. Since 1953, a total of 19 studies of T. gondii antibodies in persons with schizophrenia and other severe psychiatric disorders and in controls have been reported; 18 reported a higher percentage of antibodies in the affected persons; in 11 studies the difference was statistically significant. Two other studies found that exposure to cats in childhood was a risk factor for the development of schizophrenia. Some medications used to treat schizophrenia inhibit the replication of T. gondii in cell culture. Establishing the role of T. gondii in the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia might lead to new medications for its prevention and treatment. PMID:14725265

  9. Lytic Cycle of Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Black, Michael W.; Boothroyd, John C.

    2000-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular pathogen within the phylum Apicomplexa. This protozoan parasite is one of the most widespread, with a broad host range including many birds and mammals and a geographic range that is nearly worldwide. While infection of healthy adults is usually relatively mild, serious disease can result in utero or when the host is immunocompromised. This sophisticated eukaryote has many specialized features that make it well suited to its intracellular lifestyle. In this review, we describe the current knowledge of how the asexual tachyzoite stage of Toxoplasma attaches to, invades, replicates in, and exits the host cell. Since this process is closely analogous to the way in which viruses reproduce, we refer to it as the Toxoplasma “lytic cycle.” PMID:10974128

  10. [Itraconazole action on Toxoplasma gondii].

    PubMed

    Jamra, L M; Amato Neto, V; Braz, L M; Camargo, M E

    1992-01-01

    With the purpose to increase our knowledge about the spectrum of therapeutic action of itraconazole, the activity of a new triazolic derivative against Toxoplasma gondii was studied in vivo and in vitro with the aid of an experimental infection model in mice. The trial also aimed at a possible improvement of the therapy of toxoplasmosis in regard to safety and dosing easiness. The present study has not shown significant activity of itraconazole against Toxoplasma gondii, differing from a previous observation that showed it's activity against Trypanosoma cruzi. PMID:1339150

  11. Toxoplasma gondii and Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Ayaz, Erol; Türkoğlu, Şule Aydın; Orallar, Hayriye

    2016-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite can be seen in all the vital organ; in the acute phase, it can be found in the blood, cerebrospinal fluid, semen, tears, saliva, urine, and in almost all body fluids. Transplasental infection can lead to fetal damage and miscarriage. Its last hosts are felines and intermediate hosts are all mammals, including humans. People infected by the ingestion of meat containing cysts in undercooked or raw, are thrown oocysts with cat felines By taking in water and food, from mother to fetus transplacental way, the infected organ transplantation, blood transfusion, laboratory accidents and kaprofaj transmitted by mechanical vectors of the invertebrates. Suppression of the immune system is being transformed to the shape and texture of the cysts with bradyzoite. The parasite settles in the cells of the tissue cysts and causes change in the cellular mechanisms, such as cytokinin task. Depending on changes and type of neurotransmitter (GABA, glutamate, serotonin, dopamine) levels in CSF in ions (Ca, K, Cl, Mg), it is believed that there is a change in their concentration. In this review, literature about the relationship between T. gondii and epilepsy and epileptiform activity the importance of parasites, which settle in the brain, will be highlighted. PMID:27594290

  12. Salicylanilide inhibitors of Toxoplasma gondii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an apicomplexan parasite that can cause eye disease, brain disease, and death, especially in congenitally infected and immunocompromised people. Novel medicines effective against both active and latent forms of the parasite are greatly needed. The current study foc...

  13. Identification of three novel Toxoplasma gondii rhoptry proteins

    PubMed Central

    Camejo, Ana; Gold, Daniel A.; Lu, Diana; McFetridge, Kiva; Julien, Lindsay; Yang, Ninghan; Jensen, Kirk D. C.; Saeij, Jeroen P.J

    2013-01-01

    The rhoptries are key secretory organelles from apicomplexan parasites that contain proteins involved in invasion and modulation of the host cell. Some rhoptry proteins are restricted to the posterior bulb (ROPs) and others to the anterior neck (RONs). As many rhoptry proteins have been shown to be key players in Toxoplasma invasion and virulence, it is important to identify, understand and characterize the biological function of the components of the rhoptries. In this report, we identified putative novel rhoptry candidate genes by identifying Toxoplasma genes with similar cyclical expression profiles as known rhoptry protein encoding genes across its cell cycle. Using this approach we identified two new rhoptry bulb (ROP47 and ROP48) and one new rhoptry neck protein (RON12). ROP47 is secreted and traffics to the host cell nucleus, RON12 was not detected at the moving junction during invasion. Deletion of ROP47 or ROP48 in a type II strain did not show major influence in in vitro growth or virulence in mice. PMID:24070999

  14. Toxoplasma secretory granules: one population or more?

    PubMed

    Mercier, Corinne; Cesbron-Delauw, Marie-France

    2015-02-01

    In Toxoplasma gondii, dense granules are known as the storage secretory organelles of the so-called GRA proteins (for dense granule proteins), which are destined to the parasitophorous vacuole (PV) and the PV-derived cyst wall. Recently, newly annotated GRA proteins targeted to the host cell nucleus have enlarged this view. Here we provide an update on the latest developments on the Toxoplasma secreted proteins, which to date have been mainly studied at both the tachyzoite and bradyzoite stages, and we point out that recent discoveries could open the issue of a possible, yet uncharacterized, distinct secretory pathway in Toxoplasma. PMID:25599584

  15. [Posterior capsule opacification].

    PubMed

    Milazzo, S; Grenot, M; Benzerroug, M

    2014-12-01

    Posterior capsule opacification (PCO) is the most common complication after cataract surgery, with an incidence of 30%. It tends to be considered a normal event in the natural history of cataract surgery. Better understanding of its pathophysiology and advancement of intraocular lens material and design along with the improvement of phacoemulsification technique have contributed to decrease the incidence of PCO. Although treatment by Nd: YAG laser posterior capsulotomy is quick and non-invasive, the opening of the posterior capsule may be associated with numerous complications. Prevention remains the best measure for controlling this pathology. PMID:25455552

  16. Posterior fossa tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the posterior fossa, it can block the flow of spinal fluid and cause increased pressure on the brain and ... the cancer early. A total blockage in the flow of spinal fluid can be life threatening. If tumors are found ...

  17. Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... when the posterior tibial tendon becomes inflamed or torn. As a result, the tendon may not be ... repetitive use. Once the tendon becomes inflamed or torn, the arch will slowly fall (collapse) over time. ...

  18. Posterior ankle impingement syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maquirriain, Javier

    2005-10-01

    Posterior ankle impingement syndrome is a clinical disorder characterized by posterior ankle pain that occurs in forced plantar flexion. The pain may be acute as a result of trauma or chronic from repetitive stress. Pathology of the os trigonum-talar process is the most common cause of this syndrome, but it also may result from flexor hallucis longus tenosynovitis, ankle osteochondritis, subtalar joint disease, and fracture. Patients usually report chronic or recurrent posterior ankle pain caused or exacerbated by forced plantar flexion or push-off maneuvers, such as may occur during dancing, kicking, or downhill running. Diagnosis of posterior ankle impingement syndrome is based primarily on clinical history and physical examination. Radiography, scintigraphy, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging depict associated bone and soft-tissue abnormalities. Symptoms typically improve with nonsurgical management, but surgery may be required in refractory cases. PMID:16224109

  19. Salicylanilide Inhibitors of Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Fomovska, Alina; Wood, Richard D.; Mui, Ernest; Dubey, Jitenter P.; Ferriera, Leandra R.; Hickman, Mark R.; Lee, Patricia J.; Leed, Susan E.; Auschwitz, Jennifer M.; Welsh, William J.; Sommerville, Caroline; Woods, Stuart; Roberts, Craig; McLeod, Rima

    2012-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii(T. gondii) is an apicomplexan parasite that can cause eye disease, brain disease, and death, especially in congenitally infected and immune-compromised people. Novel medicines effective against both active and latent forms of the parasite are greatly needed. The current study focused on the discovery of such medicines by exploring a family of potential inhibitors whose anti-apicomplexan activity has not been previously reported. Initial screening efforts revealed that niclosamide, a drug approved for anthelmintic use, possessed promising activity in vitro against T. gondii. This observation inspired the evaluation of the activity of a series of salicylanilides and derivatives. Several inhibitors with activities in the nanomolar range with no appreciable in vitro toxicity to human cells were identified. An initial structure-activity relationship was explored. Four compounds were selected for evaluation in an in vivo model of infection, and two derivatives with potentially enhanced pharmacological parameters demonstrated the best activity profiles. PMID:22970937

  20. Bilateral posterior sternoclavicular dislocation.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Matthias; Vogel, Tobias; Weise, Kuno; Muratore, Tim; Trobisch, Per

    2010-07-01

    Posterior sternoclavicular dislocations are a rare injury, representing <5% of all sternoclavicular dislocations and 1 in 1600 shoulder girdle injuries. Proper imaging with computed tomography and prompt diagnosis are essential steps in preventing potentially lethal complications observed in approximately 3% of all posterior sternoclavicular dislocations. Surgical treatment is necessary if closed reduction fails. With the medial clavicular epiphysis being the last to close (between ages 22 and 25), children and adolescents typically present with epiphyseal fractures rather than joint dislocations. If closed reduction fails, open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) should be considered in fractures, whereas complex reconstructions with tendon graft procedures have been recommended for joint dislocations. This article presents a case of a traumatic bilateral posterior sternoclavicular dislocation due to an epiphyseal fracture in a 15-year-old boy. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a bilateral posterior sternoclavicular dislocation. Attempted closed reduction failed with redislocation after 2 days. The patient subsequently required ORIF. This article describes our technique with anterior retraction of the medial clavicle, closure of the posterior periosteum, and ORIF using nonabsorbable sutures. Postoperative shoulder mobilization was started on day 1. At final follow-up, the patient was completely asymptomatic. PMID:20608625

  1. Tibialis Posterior Tendon Entrapment Within Posterior Malleolar Fracture Fragment.

    PubMed

    Fantry, Amanda; Lareau, Craig; Vopat, Bryan; Blankenhorn, Brad

    2016-01-01

    Management of posterior malleolus fractures continues to be controversial, with respect to both need for fixation and fixation methods. Fixation methods include an open posterior approach to the ankle as well as percutaneous reduction and fixation with or without arthroscopy for visualization of the articular surface. Plain radiographs are unreliable in identifying fracture pattern and intraoperative reduction, making arthroscopy a valuable adjunct to posterior malleolus fracture management. In this article, we report a case of tibialis posterior tendon entrapment within a posterior malleolus fracture, as identified by arthroscopy and managed with open reduction. Tibialis posterior tendon entrapment within a posterior malleolus has not been previously reported. Ankle arthroscopy for posterior malleolus fractures provides an opportunity to identify soft-tissue or tendinous entrapment, articular surface reduction, and articular cartilage injuries unlikely to be identified with fluoroscopy alone and should be considered in reduction and fixation of posterior malleolus fractures. PMID:26991573

  2. Toxoplasma

    EPA Science Inventory

    T. gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that can infect all warm blooded animals ranging from: humans, pets, livestock, to marine aquatic animals. The definitive host is the feline species (both domestic and wild cats), where the sexual stage of the life cycle o...

  3. RESEARCH NOTE: AUTOFLUORESCENCE OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII OOCYSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is the first report of a blue autofluorescence as a useful characteristic in the microscopic identification of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts. This autofluorescence appears to be of high intensity. Similar to the autofluorescence of related coccidia, the oocysts glow pale blue ...

  4. Mechanics of the Toxoplasma gondii oocyst wall

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of microorganisms to survive under extreme conditions is closely related to the physicochemical properties of their wall. In the ubiquitous protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, the oocyst stage possesses a bilayered wall that protects the dormant but potentially infective parasites from...

  5. Impact of the Toxoplasma gondii genome project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this review is to provide some assessment of the extent to which the promise of Toxoplasma gondii genomics yet been realized. To do so, I will first describe the available genomic resources. I then provide an overview of those aspects of toxoplasmosis research that have grown most (...

  6. Experimental Models of Ocular Infection with Toxoplasma Gondii

    PubMed Central

    Dukaczewska, Agata; Tedesco, Roberto; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Ocular toxoplasmosis is a vision-threatening disease and the major cause of posterior uveitis worldwide. In spite of the continuing global burden of ocular toxoplasmosis, many critical aspects of disease including the therapeutic approach to ocular toxoplasmosis are still under debate. To assist in addressing many aspects of the disease, numerous experimental models of ocular toxoplasmosis have been established. In this article, we present an overview on in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models of ocular toxoplasmosis available to date. Experimental studies on ocular toxoplasmosis have recently focused on mice. However, the majority of murine models established so far are based on intraperitoneal and intraocular infection with Toxoplasma gondii. We therefore also present results obtained in an in vivo model using peroral infection of C57BL/6 and NMRI mice that reflects the natural route of infection and mimics the disease course in humans. While advances have been made in ex vivo model systems or larger animals to investigate specific aspects of ocular toxoplasmosis, laboratory mice continue to be the experimental model of choice for the investigation of ocular toxoplasmosis. PMID:26716018

  7. Posterior Urethral Strictures.

    PubMed

    Gelman, Joel; Wisenbaugh, Eric S

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic fracture urethral injuries are typically partial and more often complete disruptions of the most proximal bulbar and distal membranous urethra. Emergency management includes suprapubic tube placement. Subsequent primary realignment to place a urethral catheter remains a controversial topic, but what is not controversial is that when there is the development of a stricture (which is usually obliterative with a distraction defect) after suprapubic tube placement or urethral catheter removal, the standard of care is delayed urethral reconstruction with excision and primary anastomosis. This paper reviews the management of patients who suffer pelvic fracture urethral injuries and the techniques of preoperative urethral imaging and subsequent posterior urethroplasty. PMID:26691883

  8. Posterior Tibial Tendon Transfer.

    PubMed

    Shane, Amber M; Reeves, Christopher L; Cameron, Jordan D; Vazales, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    When performed correctly with the right patient population, a tibialis posterior muscle/tendon transfer is an effective procedure. Many different methods have been established for fixating the tendon, each of which has its' own indications. Passing through the interosseous membrane is the preferred and recommended method and should be used unless this is not possible. Good surgical planning based on patient needs and expectations, along with excellent postoperative care including early range of motion and physical therapy minimizes risk of complications and allows for the optimal outcome to be achieved. PMID:26590722

  9. Posterior Urethral Strictures

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Joel; Wisenbaugh, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic fracture urethral injuries are typically partial and more often complete disruptions of the most proximal bulbar and distal membranous urethra. Emergency management includes suprapubic tube placement. Subsequent primary realignment to place a urethral catheter remains a controversial topic, but what is not controversial is that when there is the development of a stricture (which is usually obliterative with a distraction defect) after suprapubic tube placement or urethral catheter removal, the standard of care is delayed urethral reconstruction with excision and primary anastomosis. This paper reviews the management of patients who suffer pelvic fracture urethral injuries and the techniques of preoperative urethral imaging and subsequent posterior urethroplasty. PMID:26691883

  10. Posterior Cortical Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Crutch, Sebastian J; Lehmann, Manja; Schott, Jonathan M; Rabinovici, Gil D; Rossor, Martin N; Fox, Nick C

    2013-01-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome that is characterized by a progressive decline in visuospatial, visuoperceptual, literacy and praxic skills. The progressive neurodegeneration affecting parietal, occipital and occipito-temporal cortices which underlies PCA is attributable to Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the majority of patients. However, alternative underlying aetiologies including Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB), corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and prion disease have also been identified, and not all PCA patients have atrophy on clinical imaging. This heterogeneity has led to diagnostic and terminological inconsistencies, caused difficulty comparing studies from different centres, and limited the generalizability of clinical trials and investigations of factors driving phenotypic variability. Significant challenges remain in identifying the factors associated with both the selective vulnerability of posterior cortical regions and the young age of onset seen in PCA. Greater awareness of the syndrome and agreement over the correspondence between syndrome-and disease-level classifications are required in order to improve diagnostic accuracy, research study design and clinical management. PMID:22265212

  11. Novel posterior fixation keratoprosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacombe, Emmanuel

    1992-08-01

    The keratoprosthesis is the last solution for corneally blind patients that cannot benefit from corneal transplants. Keratoprostheses that have been designed to be affixed anteriorly usually necessitate multi-step surgical procedures and are continuously subjected to the extrusion forces generated by the positive intraocular pressure; therefore, clinical results in patients prove inconsistent. We proposed a novel keratoprosthesis concept that utilizes posterior corneal fixation which `a priori' minimizes the risk of aqueous leakage and expulsion. This prosthesis is implanted in a single procedure thereby reducing the number of surgical complications normally associated with anterior fixation devices. In addition, its novel design makes this keratoprosthesis implantable in phakic eyes. With an average follow-up of 13 months (range 3 to 25 months), our results on 21 cases are encouraging. Half of the keratoprostheses were implanted in severe burn cases, with the remainder in cases of pseudo- pemphigus. Good visual results and cosmetic appearance were obtained in 14 of 21 eyes.

  12. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in dingoes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A M; Phillips, P; Jenkins, D

    1990-07-01

    Serum samples from 62 dingoes (Canis familiaris dingo) trapped in five areas of southeastern New South Wales, Australia were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii. Six (10%) of the dingoes had direct agglutination test titers for T. gondii of greater than or equal to 1:64, and four of these animals had T. gondii-specific IgM, suggesting recent exposure. PMID:2388361

  13. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats from Colombo, Sri Lanka

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cats are essential in the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that can excrete the environmentally-resistant oocysts in nature. Nothing is known of the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats from Sri Lanka. Serum samples from 86 cats from Colombo, Sri Lanka were tested f...

  14. Contribution of the Residual Body in the Spatial Organization of Toxoplasma gondii Tachyzoites within the Parasitophorous Vacuole

    PubMed Central

    Muñiz-Hernández, S.; González del Carmen, M.; Mondragón, M.; Mercier, C.; Cesbron, M. F.; Mondragón-González, S. L.; González, S.; Mondragón, R.

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii proliferates and organizes within a parasitophorous vacuole in rosettes around a residual body and is surrounded by a membranous nanotubular network whose function remains unclear. Here, we characterized structure and function of the residual body in intracellular tachyzoites of the RH strain. Our data showed the residual body as a body limited by a membrane formed during proliferation of tachyzoites probably through the secretion of components and a pinching event of the membrane at the posterior end. It contributes in the intravacuolar parasite organization by the membrane connection between the tachyzoites posterior end and the residual body membrane to give place to the rosette conformation. Radial distribution of parasites in rosettes favors an efficient exteriorization. Absence of the network and presence of atypical residual bodies in a ΔGRA2-HXGPRT knock-out mutant affected the intravacuolar organization of tachyzoites and their exteriorization. PMID:22190852

  15. Gossypiboma mimicking posterior urethral stricture

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Bindey; Kumar, Prem; Sinha, Sanjay Kumar; Sinha, Neelam; Hasan, Zaheer; Thakur, Vinit Kumar; Anand, Utpal; Priyadarshi, Rajiv Nayan; Mandal, Manish

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Foreign bodies in the urogenital tract are not uncommon. Hairpins, glass rods, umbilical tapes, ball point pen are described in lower urogenital tract. Retained gauze piece (gossypiboma) in posterior urethra may cause diagnostic dilemma. Symptoms and investigations may mimic stricture of posterior urethra. PRESENTATION OF CASE Two cases of retained gauze pieces in the urethra are described here. The micturating cystourethrogram was suggestive of posterior urethral stricture. DISCUSSION Two cases described here had retained gauze piece as a cause of filling defect and abnormal appearance in the micturating cystourethrogram. Gossypiboma may be a possibility where posterior urethral stricture are seen after previous surgery in paediatric age group. CONCLUSION In the setting of previous urogenital surgery gossypiboma should be kept in the differential diagnosis where posterior urethral stricture are seen in the paediatric age group. PMID:23500749

  16. TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN MESOCARNIVORES IN CANADA SEROPREVALENCE OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN MESOCARNIVORE OF THE CANADIAN PRAIRIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The protozoon Toxoplasma gondii has a worldwide distribution and affects many species of warm-blooded animals. In the Canadian prairies, mesocarnivores such as striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) have experienced an increase in density and distribution and are in close c...

  17. The life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii: In Toxoplasma - Molecular and Cellular biology.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infections by the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, are widely prevalent worldwide in animals and human beings. Cats are the only definitive hosts for T. gondii and all other warm-blooded animals are intermediate hosts. Cats excrete the environmentally-resistant oocysts after ingesting any of ...

  18. [Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome].

    PubMed

    Fischer, M; Schmutzhard, E

    2016-06-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome refers to a neurological disorder characterized by headache, disorders of consciousness, visual disturbances, epileptic seizures, and subcortical vasogenic edema. About two thirds of patients develop neurological symptoms, which are associated with blood pressure fluctuations. One hypothesis is that hypertensive episodes cause autoregulatory failure, and values above the upper limit of cerebral autoregulation result in a breakthrough followed by hyperperfusion and blood-brain barrier dysfunction. In another hypothesis, endothelial dysfunction triggered by numerous factors including preeclampsia, immunosuppressive agents, chemotherapeutics, sepsis, or autoimmune disorders is thought to be the key pathomechanism. Endo- or exogenic toxic agents including pharmacological substances, cytokines, or bacterial toxins are supposed to trigger endothelial activation and dysfunction resulting in the release of vasoconstrictors, pro-inflammatory mediators, and vascular leakage. Diagnosis is usually based on clinical and neuroimaging findings that frequently show a bilateral, symmetric, and parietooccipital pattern. However, the diagnosis can often only be confirmed during the course of disease after excluding important differential diagnoses. Currently, there is no specific treatment available. Lowering of arterial blood pressure and eliminating the underlying cause usually leads to an improvement of clinical and neuroradiological findings. Admission to a critical care unit is required in about 40 % of patients due to complicating conditions including status epilepticus, cerebral vasoconstriction, ischemia, or intracerebral hemorrhage. Prognosis is favorable; in the majority of patients neurological deficits and imaging findings resolve completely. PMID:27272329

  19. NLRP1 Is an Inflammasome Sensor for Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Ewald, Sarah E.; Chavarria-Smith, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii is able to infect nearly all nucleated cell types of warm-blooded animals. This is achieved through the injection of hundreds of parasite effectors into the host cell cytosol, allowing the parasite to establish a vacuolar niche for growth, replication, and persistence. Here we show that Toxoplasma infection actives an inflammasome response in mice and rats, an innate immune sensing system designed to survey the host cytosol for foreign components leading to inflammation and cell death. Oral infection with Toxoplasma triggers an inflammasome response that is protective to the host, limiting parasite load and dissemination. Toxoplasma infection is sufficient to generate an inflammasome response in germfree animals. Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) secretion by macrophage requires the effector caspases 1 and 11, the adapter ASC, and NLRP1, the sensor previously described to initiate the inflammasome response to Bacillus anthracis lethal factor. The allele of NLRP1b derived from 129 mice is sufficient to enhance the B6 bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMDM) inflammasome response to Toxoplasma independent of the lethal factor proteolysis site. Moreover, N-terminal processing of NLRP1b, the only mechanism of activation known to date, is not observed in response to Toxoplasma infection. Cumulatively, these data indicate that NLRP1 is an innate immune sensor for Toxoplasma infection, activated via a novel mechanism that corresponds to a host-protective innate immune response to the parasite. PMID:24218483

  20. Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep and cattle.

    PubMed

    Esteban-Redondo, I; Innes, E A

    1997-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that can infect all warm-blooded animals. Sheep and cattle show different susceptibilities to T. gondii infection. Primary infection in pregnant sheep can result in abortion or the birth of weak lambs but they are then protected against further challenge by the development of an effective immunity. Cattle on the other hand can be readily infected, but abortion or perinatal mortality have not been recorded. The evidence suggests that cattle develop a more effective immune response to T. gondii infection than sheep. Potential mechanisms to explain these differences are discussed in this paper. PMID:9208205

  1. Toxoplasma oocysts as a public health problem.

    PubMed

    Torrey, E Fuller; Yolken, Robert H

    2013-08-01

    Waterborne outbreaks of Toxoplasma gondii have focused attention on the importance of oocysts shed in the feces of infected cats. Cat feces deposited annually into the environment in the United States total approximately 1.2 million metric tons. The annual oocyst burden measured in community surveys is 3 to 434 oocysts per square foot and is greater in areas where cats selectively defecate. Because a single oocyst can possibly cause infection, this oocyst burden represents a major potential public health problem. The proper disposal of cat litter, keeping cats indoors, reducing the feral cat population, and protecting the play areas of children might potentially reduce the oocyst burden. PMID:23849140

  2. Transmission of toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii) by foods.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Karen Signori; Franco, Regina M B; Leal, Diego A G

    2010-01-01

    Protozoan foodborne diseases are generally underrecognized. Toxoplasma gondii is the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, one of the most prevalent parasitic infections to humans and domestic animals. The most likely source of T. gondii occurring through food is the consumption of raw or undercooked meat contaminated with tissue cysts. Sporulated T. gondii oocysts, from the feces of infected cats, present in the environment are a potential source of infection. The ingestion of water contaminated with oocysts and the eating of unwashed raw vegetables or fruits were identified as an important risk factor in most epidemiological studies. This review presents information and data to show the importance of T. gondii transmission by foods. PMID:20691951

  3. Detection Method of TOXOPLASMA GONDII Tachyzoites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eassa, Souzan; Bose, Chhanda; Alusta, Pierre; Tarasenko, Olga

    2011-06-01

    Tachyzoites are considered to be the most important stage of Toxoplasma gondii which causes toxoplasmosis. T. gondii is, an obligate intracellular parasite which infects a wide range of cells. The present study was designed to develop a method for an early detection of T. gondii tachyzoites. The method comprised of a binding assay which was analyzed using principal component and cluster analysis. Our data showed that glycoconjugates GC1, GC2, GC3 and GC10 exhibit a significantly higher binding affinity for T. gondii tachyzoites as compared to controls (T. gondii only, PAA only, GC 1, 2, 3, and 10 only).

  4. Toxoplasma gondii and the blood-brain barrier

    PubMed Central

    Feustel, Sabrina M.; Meissner, Markus; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Infection with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is characterized by asymptomatic latent infection in the central nervous system and skeletal muscle tissue in the majority of immunocompentent individuals. Life-threatening reactivation of the infection in immunocompromized patients originates from rupture of Toxoplasma cysts in the brain. While major progress has been made in our understanding of the immunopathogenesis of infection the mechanism(s) of neuroinvasion of the parasite remains poorly understood. The present review presents the current understanding of blood-brain barrier (patho)physiology and the interaction of Toxoplasma gondii with cells of the blood-brain barrier. PMID:22460645

  5. [Cyst-forming Coccidia: Toxoplasma, Neospora, Sarcocystis].

    PubMed

    Gottstein, B

    1995-05-01

    The most important cyst-forming coccidian parasites in human and veterinary medicine belong the genera of Toxoplasma, Neospora and Sarcocystis. Toxoplasma gondii shows its clinical relevance in congenital infections and opportunistic infections in immunodeficient patients. In veterinary medicine the parasite is predominantly the cause of important economic loss in livestock production. Neospora causes diseases resembling toxoplasmosis; neosporosis is one of the most important causes of bovine abortion in the US. Neospora caninum leads to myositis and paralysis in dogs. The potential implication of Neospora in toxoplasmosis-like diseases in humans is not yet known. Sarcocystis is usually a relatively harmless intestinal parasite in humans. Recent data from tropical areas suggest that man can also become an intermediate host for certain Sarcocystis species, which potentially represents a source of opportunistic infection and disease in areas with increasing HIV prevalence. In veterinary medicine, Sarcocystis causes muscle diseases and also abortion or myeloencephalitis with lethal outcome in certain animal species. Molecular-epidemiological investigations have resulted in a new understanding of biological and population-genetic mechanisms relevant to the disease. Recently developed molecular techniques, such as transfection in protozoan parasites, are presently used not only to elucidate molecular-pathogenetic events in the course of disease, but also to prepare potential new immuno-therapeutic tools for future vaccination against infection or disease. PMID:7770750

  6. Targeting tumors with nonreplicating Toxoplasma gondii uracil auxotroph vaccines.

    PubMed

    Fox, Barbara A; Sanders, Kiah L; Chen, Shan; Bzik, David J

    2013-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite that has evolved to actively control its invaded host cells. Toxoplasma triggers then actively regulates host innate interleukin-12 (IL-12) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) responses that elicit T cell control of infection. A live, nonreplicating avirulent uracil auxotroph vaccine strain (cps) of Toxoplasma triggers novel innate immune responses that stimulate amplified CD8(+) T cell responses and life-long immunity in vaccinated mice. Here, we review recent reports showing that intratumoral treatment with cps activated immune-mediated regression of established solid tumors in mice. We speculate that a better understanding of host-parasite interaction at the molecular level and applying improved genetic models based on Δku80 Toxoplasma strains will stimulate development of highly effective immunotherapeutic cancer vaccine strategies using engineered uracil auxotrophs. PMID:23928100

  7. Targeting tumors with nonreplicating Toxoplasma gondii uracil auxotroph vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Barbara A.; Sanders, Kiah L.; Chen, Shan; Bzik, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite that has evolved to actively control its invaded host cells. Toxoplasma triggers then actively regulates host innate IL-12 and interferon-γ responses that elicit T cell control of infection. A live, nonreplicating avirulent uracil auxotroph vaccine strain (cps) of Toxoplasma triggers novel innate immune responses that stimulate amplified CD8+ T cell responses and life-long immunity in vaccinated mice. Here, we review recent reports showing that intratumoral treatment with cps activated immune-mediated regression of established solid tumors in mice. We speculate that a better understanding of host-parasite interaction at the molecular level and applying improved genetic models based on Δku80 Toxoplasma strains will stimulate development of highly effective immunotherapeutic cancer vaccine strategies using engineered uracil auxotrophs. PMID:23928100

  8. Toxoplasma histone acetylation remodelers as novel drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Vanagas, Laura; Jeffers, Victoria; Bogado, Silvina S; Dalmasso, Maria C; Sullivan, William J; Angel, Sergio O

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a leading cause of neurological birth defects and a serious opportunistic pathogen. The authors and others have found that Toxoplasma uses a unique nucleosome composition supporting a fine gene regulation together with other factors. Post-translational modifications in histones facilitate the establishment of a global chromatin environment and orchestrate DNA-related biological processes. Histone acetylation is one of the most prominent post-translational modifications influencing gene expression. Histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases have been intensively studied as potential drug targets. In particular, histone deacetylase inhibitors have activity against apicomplexan parasites, underscoring their potential as a new class of antiparasitic compounds. In this review, we summarize what is known about Toxoplasma histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases, and discuss the inhibitors studied to date. Finally, the authors discuss the distinct possibility that the unique nucleosome composition of Toxoplasma, which harbors a nonconserved H2Bv variant histone, might be targeted in novel therapeutics directed against this parasite. PMID:23199404

  9. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii with a DNA molecular beacon probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Cun; Xu, Shichao; Yang, Juan; Zhang, Jimei; Dai, Zhao; Zheng, Guo; Sun, Bo; Sun, Shuqing; Feng, Teilin; Zi, Yan; Liang, Chu; Luo, Hao

    2009-07-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a kind of microscopic parasite that may infect humans, and there are increasing concerns on the early detection of latent Toxoplasma gondii infection in recent years. This research highlights a new type of molecular beacon (MB) fluorescent probe for Toxoplasma DNA testing. We combined high-efficiency fluorescent inorganic core-shell quantum dots-CdTe/ZnS (as fluorescent energy donor) and BHQ-2 (energy acceptor) to the single-strand DNA of Toxoplasma gondii, and a molecular beacon sensing system based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was achieved. Core-shell quantum dots CdTe/ZnS was firstly prepared in aqueous solution, and the influencing factor of its fluorescent properties, including CdTe/Na2S/Zn(CH3COO)2 (v/v), dependence of reaction time, temperature, and pH, is investigated systematically. The synthesized quantum dots and molecular beacon were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer (UV-vis), fluorescent spectrophotometer (FS), respectively. The TEM results showed that CdTe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots is ~11nm in size, and the quantum dots is water-soluble well. The sensing ability of target DNA of assembled MB was investigated, and results showed that the target Toxoplasma gonddi DNA can be successfully detected by measuring the change of fluorescence intensity. The results showed that the current sensing probe will be a useful and convenient tool in Toxoplasma gondii early detection.

  10. Isolated Posterior Fossa Involvement in Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Yukie; Tha, Khin Khin; Iguchi, Akihiro; Cho, Yuko; Yoshida, Atsushi; Fujima, Noriyuki; Tsukahara, Akiko; Shirato, Hiroki; Terae, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Summary Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is characterized by reversible vasogenic edema affecting the subcortical white matter of bilateral occipital and parietal lobes. We describe a case of isolated posterior fossa involvement of PRES which occurred during remission induction chemotherapy for T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Both the brainstem and cerebellum were extensively involved, but the supratentorial structures were completely spared. The follow-up magnetic resonance images revealed reversibility of most lesions. The knowledge of atypical radiological features of PRES is essential for prompt diagnosis. PMID:24199811

  11. Rethinking "posterior" tongue-tie.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Pamela Sylvia

    2013-12-01

    Currently, many clinicians who help with breastfeeding problems are diagnosing "posterior" tongue-tie in infants and performing or referring for frenotomy. In this "Speaking Out" article, I argue that the diagnosis of "posterior" tongue-tie has successfully raised awareness of the importance of impaired tongue function in breastfeeding difficulty. However, the diagnosis of "posterior" tongue-tie also applies a reductionist, medicalized theoretical frame to the complex problem of impaired tongue function, risking unintended outcomes. Impaired tongue function arises out of multiple interacting and co-evolving factors, including the interplay between social behaviors concerning breastfeeding and mother-infant biology. Consideration of theoretical frames is vital if we are to build an evidence base through efficient use of the scarce resources available for clinical breastfeeding research and minimize unintended outcomes. PMID:24143939

  12. Posterior polar cataract: A review

    PubMed Central

    Kalantan, Hatem

    2011-01-01

    Posterior polar cataract is a rare form of congenital cataract. It is usually inherited as an autosomal dominant disease, yet it can be sporadic. Five genes have been attributed to the formation of this disease. It is highly associated with complications during surgery, such as posterior capsule rupture and nucleus drop. The reason for this high complication rate is the strong adherence of the opacity to the weak posterior capsule. Different surgical strategies were described for the handling of this challenging entity, most of which emphasized the need for gentle maneuvering in dealing with these cases. It has a unique clinical appearance that should not be missed in order to anticipate, avoid, and minimize the impact of the complications associated with it. PMID:23960967

  13. Reduction of the abortion rate due to Toxoplasma in 3 goat herds following administration of sulfadimidine

    PubMed Central

    Giadinis, Nektarios D.; Lafi, Shawkat Q.; Ioannidou, Evi; Papadopoulos, Elias; Terpsidis, Konstantinos; Karanikolas, George; Petridou, Evanthia J.; Brozos, Christos; Karatzias, Harilaos

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of sulfadimidine (4 doses of 33 mg/kg body weight, IM, q48h) against Toxoplasma abortion was assessed in 3 dairy goat herds suffering from Toxoplasma abortions during the 4th month of gestation. This protocol was very effective for the control of Toxoplasma abortions (P < 0.01). PMID:24179245

  14. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in raccoons.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Hamir, A N; Hanlon, C A; Rupprecht, C E

    1992-02-15

    Serum samples from 427 raccoons (93 from Pennsylvania, 45 from New Jersey, 72 from South Carolina, 68 from Virginia, 30 from Iowa, and 119 from Ohio) were evaluated for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in dilutions of 1:25, 1:50, and 1:500. The distribution of T gondii antibody titers was less than 1:25 for 212 raccoons (49.6%), 1:25 for 34 raccoons (7.9%), 1:50 for 117 raccoons (27.4%), and greater than or equal to 1:500 for 64 raccoons (14.9%). Tissue cysts were seen in the liver, and tachyzoites were in the brain of a raccoon with abnormal neurologic signs and concurrent infection with canine distemper virus. Organisms in the liver were stained with anti-T gondii serum, and the raccoon had a T gondii titer of 1:160 in the agglutination test. PMID:1559896

  15. Development of forward genetics in Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Sibley, L David

    2009-07-01

    The development of forward genetics as a functional system in Toxoplasma gondii spanned more than three decades from the mid-1970s until now. The initial demonstration of experimental genetics relied on chemically induced drug-resistant mutants that were crossed by co-infecting cats, collecting oocysts, sporulating and hatching progeny in vitro. To capitalise on this, genetic markers were employed to develop linkage maps by tracking inheritance through experimental crosses. In all, three generations of genetic maps were developed to define the chromosomes, estimate recombination rates and provide a system for linkage analysis. Ultimately this genetic map would become the foundation for the assembly of the T. gondii genome, which was derived from whole genome shotgun sequencing, into a chromosome-centric view. Finally, application of forward genetics to multigenic biological traits showed the potential to map and identify specific genes that control complex phenotypes including virulence. PMID:19254720

  16. [Advances in epigenetic researches of Toxoplasma gondii].

    PubMed

    Yang, Pei-Liang; Chen, Xiao-Guang

    2012-06-30

    Toxoplasma gondii undergoes a complex life cycle that involves multiple development stages, hosts and environments. The ability to transform from one stage to another and adapt to changing environments demands precise regulation of gene expression. Bioinformatic surveys of the sequenced genomes of T. gondii revealed a peculiar absence of DNA-binding transcription factors that are well-conserved from yeast through humans, but a wealth of epigenetic machinery present in T. gondii. Evidence from reports demonstrates that remodeling of the chromatin structure particularly through post-translational modifications of histones, such as acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation, is potentially a major process that coordinates regulation of its gene expression. In addition, no-coding RNAs may play an important role in modulating gene expression of T. gondii. These results provide reliable foundations for prevention of toxoplasmosis by revealing its pathogenic mechanism. PMID:23072142

  17. Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans in China

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic infection of humans and animals, caused by the opportunistic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite belonging to the phylum Apicomplexa. Infection in pregnant women may lead to abortion, stillbirth or other serious consequences in newborns. Infection in immunocompromised patients can be fatal if not treated. On average, one third of people are chronically infected worldwide. Although very limited information from China has been published in the English journals, T. gondii infection is actually a significant human health problem in China. In the present article, we reviewed the clinical features, transmission, prevalence of T. gondii infection in humans in China, and summarized genetic characterizations of reported T. gondii isolates. Educating the public about the risks associated with unhealthy food and life style habits, tracking serological examinations to special populations, and measures to strengthen food and occupational safety are discussed. PMID:21864327

  18. Stereolithography for Posterior Fossa Cranioplasty

    PubMed Central

    Agner, Celso; Dujovny, Manuel; Evenhouse, Raymond; Charbel, Fady T.; Sadler, Lewis

    1998-01-01

    Posterior fossa cranioplasty has been suggested for improvement of neurological symptoms following craniectomy. However, there is no particular recommendation in the literature about techniques for prosthesis manufacture and implantation. We report our experience using rapid prototyping technology and stereolithography for pre-surgical implant design and production of cranioplasties. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:17171056

  19. Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction (PTTD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACFAS | Información en Español Advanced Search Home » Foot & Ankle Conditions » Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction (PTTD) Text Size ... the arch, and an inward rolling of the ankle. As the condition progresses, the symptoms will change. ...

  20. 4-Bromophenacyl Bromide Specifically Inhibits Rhoptry Secretion during Toxoplasma Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Ravindran, Sandeep; Lodoen, Melissa B.; Verhelst, Steven H. L.; Bogyo, Matthew; Boothroyd, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a eukaryotic parasite of the phylum Apicomplexa that is able to infect a wide variety of host cells. During its active invasion process it secretes proteins from discrete secretory organelles: the micronemes, rhoptries and dense granules. Although a number of rhoptry proteins have been shown to be involved in important interactions with the host cell, very little is known about the mechanism of secretion of any Toxoplasma protein into the host cell. We used a chemical inhibitor of phospholipase A2s, 4-bromophenacyl bromide (4-BPB), to look at the role of such lipases in the secretion of Toxoplasma proteins. We found that 4-BPB was a potent inhibitor of rhoptry secretion in Toxoplasma invasion. This drug specifically blocked rhoptry secretion but not microneme secretion, thus effectively showing that the two processes can be de-coupled. It affected parasite motility and invasion, but not attachment or egress. Using propargyl- or azido-derivatives of the drug (so-called click chemistry derivatives) and a series of 4-BPB-resistant mutants, we found that the drug has a very large number of target proteins in the parasite that are involved in at least two key steps: invasion and intracellular growth. This potent compound, the modified “click-chemistry” forms of it, and the resistant mutants should serve as useful tools to further study the processes of Toxoplasma early invasion, in general, and rhoptry secretion, in particular. PMID:19956582

  1. 4-Bromophenacyl bromide specifically inhibits rhoptry secretion during Toxoplasma invasion.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, Sandeep; Lodoen, Melissa B; Verhelst, Steven H L; Bogyo, Matthew; Boothroyd, John C

    2009-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a eukaryotic parasite of the phylum Apicomplexa that is able to infect a wide variety of host cells. During its active invasion process it secretes proteins from discrete secretory organelles: the micronemes, rhoptries and dense granules. Although a number of rhoptry proteins have been shown to be involved in important interactions with the host cell, very little is known about the mechanism of secretion of any Toxoplasma protein into the host cell. We used a chemical inhibitor of phospholipase A2s, 4-bromophenacyl bromide (4-BPB), to look at the role of such lipases in the secretion of Toxoplasma proteins. We found that 4-BPB was a potent inhibitor of rhoptry secretion in Toxoplasma invasion. This drug specifically blocked rhoptry secretion but not microneme secretion, thus effectively showing that the two processes can be de-coupled. It affected parasite motility and invasion, but not attachment or egress. Using propargyl- or azido-derivatives of the drug (so-called click chemistry derivatives) and a series of 4-BPB-resistant mutants, we found that the drug has a very large number of target proteins in the parasite that are involved in at least two key steps: invasion and intracellular growth. This potent compound, the modified "click-chemistry" forms of it, and the resistant mutants should serve as useful tools to further study the processes of Toxoplasma early invasion, in general, and rhoptry secretion, in particular. PMID:19956582

  2. Posterior cruciate ligament of the knee (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is a powerful ligament extending from the top-rear surface of the tibia to the bottom-front surface of the femur. The ligament prevents the knee joint from posterior instability.

  3. Anti-Toxoplasma activity and impact evaluation of lyophilization, hot molding process, and gamma-irradiation techniques on CLH-PLGA intravitreal implants.

    PubMed

    Fernandes-Cunha, Gabriella M; Rezende, Cíntia M F; Mussel, Wagner N; da Silva, Gisele R; de L Gomes, Elionai C; Yoshida, Maria I; Fialho, Sílvia L; Goes, Alfredo M; Gomes, Dawison A; de Almeida Vitor, Ricardo W; Silva-Cunha, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Intraocular delivery systems have been developed to treat many eye diseases, especially those affecting the posterior segment of the eye. However, ocular toxoplasmosis, the leading cause of infectious posterior uveitis in the world, still lacks an effective treatment. Therefore, our group developed an intravitreal polymeric implant to release clindamycin, a potent anti-Toxoplasma antibiotic. In this work, we used different techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy to investigate drug/polymer properties while manufacturing the delivery system. We showed that the lyophilization, hot molding process, and sterilization by gamma irradiation did not change drug/polymer physical-chemistry properties. The drug was found to be homogeneously dispersed into the poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) chains and the profile release was characterized by an initial burst followed by prolonged release. The drug profile release was not modified after gamma irradiation and non-covalent interaction was found between the drug and the PLGA. We also observed the preservation of the drug activity by showing the potent anti-Toxoplasma effect of the implant, after 24-72 h in contact with cells infected by the parasite, which highlights this system as an alternative to treat toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. PMID:26676856

  4. Bilateral posterior cerebral artery infarction.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Davinia; Murphy, Sinead M; Hennessey, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    We report the case of a 70-year-old man who presented with short-term memory impairment and a homonymous left inferior quadrantanopia secondary to simultaneous bilateral posterior cerebral artery (PCA) territory infarction. As in more than a quarter of cases of PCA infarction, no aetiological cause was identified. Unlike the transient nature of symptoms in some cases following unilateral infarction, his deficits persisted on 2-month follow-up. PMID:22798298

  5. Spinal hemianesthesia: Unilateral and posterior

    PubMed Central

    Imbelloni, Luiz Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The injection of a non-isobaric local anesthetic should induce a unilateral spinal anesthesia in patients in a lateral decubitus position. The posterior spinal hemianesthesia only be obtained with hypobaric solutions injected in the jackknife position. The most important factors to be considered when performing a spinal hemianesthesia are: type and gauge of the needle, density of the local anesthetic relative to the CSF, position of the patient, speed of administration of the solution, time of stay in position, and dose/concentration/volume of the anesthetic solution. The distance between the spinal roots on the right-left sides and anterior-posterior is, approximately, 10-15 mm. This distance allows performing unilateral spinal anesthesia or posterior spinal anesthesia. The great advantage of obtaining spinal hemianesthesia is the reduction of cardiovascular changes. Likewise, both the dorsal and unilateral sensory block predominates in relation to the motor block. Because of the numerous advantages of producing spinal hemianesthesia, anesthesiologists should apply this technique more often. This review considers the factors which are relevant, plausible and proven to obtain spinal hemianesthesia. PMID:25886320

  6. Hypernatremia in a Cat with Toxoplasma-Induced Panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Weingart, Christiane; Gruber, Achim D; Brunnberg, Mathias; Kohn, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    A 12 yr old female neutered Carthusian crossbreed cat was presented due to progressive neurological signs. Clinical signs included dehydration, stupor, and anisocoria. Laboratory examination revealed severe hypernatremia, azotemia, hyperglobulinemia, and an erythrocytosis. Clinical signs and hypernatremia suggested an intracranial process. Imaging studies revealed a loss of structure in the cerebrum, hypothalamus, and pituitary gland. Due to a poor prognosis, the cat was euthanatized. Histopathological examination revealed a subacute granulomatous and necrotizing panencephalitis with Toxoplasma-typical protozoa. The Toxoplasma-induced dysfunction of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland led to diabetes insipidus, which was, in combination with insufficient water intake, the most likely cause for the hypernatremia. PMID:26606207

  7. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Canadian pinnipeds.

    PubMed

    Measures, Lena N; Dubey, J P; Labelle, P; Martineau, D

    2004-04-01

    Sera (n = 328) collected from phocids (1995-97) from the east coast of Canada, including harp seals (Phoca groenlandica), hooded seals (Cystophora cristata), grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), and harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), were diluted 1:25, 1:50, and 1:500 and tested by a modified agglutination test for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii. Titers equal to or greater than 1:25 were considered evidence of exposure. Grey seal (11/122, 9%), harbor seal (3/34, 9%), and hooded seal (1/60, 2%) had titers of 1:25 and 1:50. Harp seals (n = 112) were seronegative. Probable maternal antibody transfer was observed in one harbor and one grey seal pup at 10 and 14 day of age, respectively. Transmission of T gondii in the marine environment is not understood. The discovery of T. gondii in marine mammals might indicate natural infections unknown because of lack of study or might indicate recent contamination of the marine environment from the terrestrial environment by natural or anthropogenic activities. PMID:15362830

  8. Recently Acquired Toxoplasma gondii Infection, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Muccioli, Cristina; Belfort, Rubens; Holland, Gary N.; Roberts, Jacquelin M.; Silveira, Claudio

    2006-01-01

    The city of Erechim, Brazil, has a 17% prevalence of ocular toxoplasmosis, and type 1 Toxoplasma gondii predominates. To examine risk factors for acute T. gondii infection in this area, we administered a questionnaire to recently infected persons (n = 131) and seronegative controls (n = 110). Eating undercooked meat; having a garden; working in the garden or yard more than once per week; eating rare meat; eating cured, dried, or smoked meat; eating frozen lamb; and being male increased risk for T. gondii infection in univariate analysis. Risk factors independently associated with acute T. gondii infection in multivariate analysis were working in the garden (odds ratio [OR] 2.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27–4.33) and eating frozen lamb (OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.15–3.67). Among women (n = 86), having had children markedly increased the risk for T. gondii infection (OR 14.94, 95% CI 3.68–60.73). PMID:16704805

  9. Toxoplasma gondii Chitinase Induces Macrophage Activation

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Fausto; Sardinha-Silva, Aline; da Silva, Thiago Aparecido; Pessoni, André Moreira; Pinzan, Camila Figueiredo; Alegre-Maller, Ana Claudia Paiva; Cecílio, Nerry Tatiana; Moretti, Nilmar Silvio; Damásio, André Ricardo Lima; Pedersoli, Wellington Ramos; Mineo, José Roberto; Silva, Roberto Nascimento; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite found worldwide that is able to chronically infect almost all vertebrate species, especially birds and mammalians. Chitinases are essential to various biological processes, and some pathogens rely on chitinases for successful parasitization. Here, we purified and characterized a chitinase from T. gondii. The enzyme, provisionally named Tg_chitinase, has a molecular mass of 13.7 kDa and exhibits a Km of 0.34 mM and a Vmax of 2.64. The optimal environmental conditions for enzymatic function were at pH 4.0 and 50°C. Tg_chitinase was immunolocalized in the cytoplasm of highly virulent T. gondii RH strain tachyzoites, mainly at the apical extremity. Tg_chitinase induced macrophage activation as manifested by the production of high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, a pathogenic hallmark of T. gondii infection. In conclusion, to our knowledge, we describe for the first time a chitinase of T. gondii tachyzoites and provide evidence that this enzyme might influence the pathogenesis of T. gondii infection. PMID:26659253

  10. Tracking transmission of the zoonosis Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Smith, Judith E

    2009-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a highly successful parasite that infects many host species and has colonised a wide range of habitats. Review of the parasite's life cycle demonstrates that it has become adapted to exploit multiple routes of transmission through a sexual cycle in the definitive host and asexually, through carnivory, and by vertical transmission. These alternative routes may operate synergistically to enhance transmission, but they might also provide a vehicle for selection leading to partitioning of strains in the environment. Genetic analysis has shown that parasite population structure varies globally. In South America, there is high strain diversity while in North America, Europe and Africa three clonal strain types predominate. This may imply a shift from sexual to asexual transmission. Mapping of the parasite genome has provided a wealth of markers for strain characterisation. Close genotyping of isolates gives evidence of multiple infection and recombination in natural populations and reveals differences in both the distribution and the phenotype of strains. More intensive epidemiological studies are now required to unravel the networks of transmission operating within defined habitats. PMID:19289193

  11. Recent Advances in Toxoplasma gondii Immunotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Rofina Yasmin

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an opportunistic infection caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. T. gondii is widespread globally and causes severe diseases in individuals with impaired immune defences as well as congenitally infected infants. The high prevalence rate in some parts of the world such as South America and Africa, coupled with the current drug treatments that trigger hypersensitivity reactions, makes the development of immunotherapeutics intervention a highly important research priority. Immunotherapeutics strategies could either be a vaccine which would confer a pre-emptive immunity to infection, or passive immunization in cases of disease recrudescence or recurrent clinical diseases. As the severity of clinical manifestations is often greater in developing nations, the development of well-tolerated and safe immunotherapeutics becomes not only a scientific pursuit, but a humanitarian enterprise. In the last few years, much progress has been made in vaccine research with new antigens, novel adjuvants, and innovative vaccine delivery such as nanoparticles and antigen encapsulations. A literature search over the past 5 years showed that most experimental studies were focused on DNA vaccination at 52%, followed by protein vaccination which formed 36% of the studies, live attenuated vaccinations at 9%, and heterologous vaccination at 3%; while there were few on passive immunization. Recent progress in studies on vaccination, passive immunization, as well as insights gained from these immunotherapeutics is highlighted in this review. PMID:25548409

  12. Molecular detection of Toxoplasma gondii in snakes.

    PubMed

    Nasiri, Vahid; Teymurzadeh, Shohreh; Karimi, Gholamreza; Nasiri, Mehdi

    2016-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, is responsible for one of the most common zoonotic parasitic diseases in almost all warm-blooded vertebrates worldwide, and it is estimated that about one-third of the world human population is chronically infected with this parasite. Little is known about the circulation of T. gondii in snakes and this study for the first time aimed to evaluate the infection rates of snakes by this parasite by PCR methods. The brain of 68 Snakes, that were collected between May 2012 and September 2015 and died after the hold in captivity, under which they were kept for taking poisons, were examined for the presence of this parasite. DNA was extracted and Nested-PCR method was carried out with two of pairs of primers to detect the 344 bp fragment of T. gondii GRA6 gene. Five positive nested-PCR products were directly sequenced in the forward and reverse directions by Sequetech Company (Mountain View, CA). T. gondii GRA6 gene were detected from 55 (80.88%) of 68 snakes brains. Sequencing of the GRA6 gene revealed 98-100% of similarity with T. gondii sequences deposited in GenBank. To our knowledge, this is the first study of molecular detection of T. gondii in snakes and our findings show a higher frequency of this organism among them. PMID:27522027

  13. Posterior ankyloglossia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chu, Michael W; Bloom, David C

    2009-06-01

    Ankyloglossia, or tongue-tie, refers to an abnormally short lingual frenulum. Ankyloglossia is a recognized but poorly defined condition and has been reported to cause feeding difficulties, dysarthria, dyspnea, and social or mechanical problems. In infants, the most concerning symptoms are feeding difficulties and inability to breastfeed. While a recent trend toward breastfeeding has brought frenulectomy back into favor, the literature regarding treatment remains inconclusive. We report a case of posterior ankyloglossia with anterior mucosal hooding and a simple, safe, and effective way to treat it to improve breastfeeding. PMID:19303646

  14. Isolated posterior cruciate ligament calcification.

    PubMed

    Koukoulias, Nikolaos E; Papastergiou, Stergios G

    2011-01-01

    The authors present a case of calcified posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). A 61-year-old female presented in our department reporting 12 months history of knee pain that was getting worse during the night. The patient was under medication for epileptic seizure, osteoporosis and hyperthyroidism. X-rays demonstrated calcification of the PCL. CT and MRI excluded any other intra-articular and extra-articular pathology. Arthroscopic debridement of the calcium deposits was performed and the symptoms resolved immediately, while the postoperative x-rays were normal. Histological examination confirmed the calcium nature of the lesion. Two years postoperatively the patient remains asymptomatic. PMID:22669889

  15. Isolated posterior cruciate ligament calcification

    PubMed Central

    Koukoulias, Nikolaos E; Papastergiou, Stergios G

    2011-01-01

    The authors present a case of calcified posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). A 61-year-old female presented in our department reporting 12 months history of knee pain that was getting worse during the night. The patient was under medication for epileptic seizure, osteoporosis and hyperthyroidism. X-rays demonstrated calcification of the PCL. CT and MRI excluded any other intra-articular and extra-articular pathology. Arthroscopic debridement of the calcium deposits was performed and the symptoms resolved immediately, while the postoperative x-rays were normal. Histological examination confirmed the calcium nature of the lesion. Two years postoperatively the patient remains asymptomatic. PMID:22669889

  16. Foraminotomia cervical posterior en el tratamiento de conflictos foraminales

    PubMed Central

    Campero, Álvaro; Barrera, Ramiro; Ajler, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: La foraminomotima cervical posterior es un procedimiento utilizado para la descompresion radicular por via posterior y constituye una alternativa a la via clásica anterior. En este trabajo evaluamos nuestra serie de pacientes tratados por esta via. Método: Desde enero de 2008 a diciembre de 2011, 17 pacientes (18 foraminotomías) fueron operados por presentar cervicobraquialgia a causa de un conflicto foraminal, realizando un foraminotomía cervical posterior. Los pacientes fueron evaluados en el postoperatorio inmediato, al mes y a los 3 meses de la cirugía. Los parámetros para valorar los resultados fueron la Escala Análoga del Dolor (VAS), la Neck Disability Index y los criterios de Odom. Resultados: El dolor radicular por conflicto foraminal secundario a hernia de disco cervical fue el síntoma y la patología predominante. El nivel más afectado fue C5-C6. La resolución completa del dolor radicular se observó en casi todos los pacientes. La VAS preoperatoria en promedio fue de 8.8 (mínimo 8 – máximo 10), con una franca mejoría en todos los casos (0.4 en el último control). La media en la Neck Disability Index al inicio fue de 35.3 (mínimo 32 – máximo 45), con una evolución favorable en la evaluación final (0.6). Los Criterios de Odom para la evaluación de pacientes operados de columna cervical fueron satisfactorios con un promedio de 1.17. Se observaron complicaciones en 4 pacientes (23%), todas tuvieron una evolución favorable. No hubo infecciones, discitis ni empeoramiento de los síntomas preexistentes en ningún paciente. Conclusión: La foraminotomía cervical posterior es un procedimiento efectivo para el tratamiento del dolor radicular en los conflictos foraminales PMID:23596556

  17. The neurotropic parasite Toxoplasma gondii increases dopamine metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The common parasite Toxoplasma gondii induces behavioral alterations in its hosts including phenotypes increasing the likelihood of its transmission in rodents and reports of psychobehavioral alterations in humans. We have found that elevated levels of dopamine are associated with the encysted stage...

  18. Toxoplasma Co-opts Host Cells It Does Not Invade

    PubMed Central

    Koshy, Anita A.; Dietrich, Hans K.; Christian, David A.; Melehani, Jason H.; Shastri, Anjali J.; Hunter, Christopher A.; Boothroyd, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Like many intracellular microbes, the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii injects effector proteins into cells it invades. One group of these effector proteins is injected from specialized organelles called the rhoptries, which have previously been described to discharge their contents only during successful invasion of a host cell. In this report, using several reporter systems, we show that in vitro the parasite injects rhoptry proteins into cells it does not productively invade and that the rhoptry effector proteins can manipulate the uninfected cell in a similar manner to infected cells. In addition, as one of the reporter systems uses a rhoptry:Cre recombinase fusion protein, we show that in Cre-reporter mice infected with an encysting Toxoplasma-Cre strain, uninfected-injected cells, which could be derived from aborted invasion or cell-intrinsic killing after invasion, are actually more common than infected-injected cells, especially in the mouse brain, where Toxoplasma encysts and persists. This phenomenon has important implications for how Toxoplasma globally affects its host and opens a new avenue for how other intracellular microbes may similarly manipulate the host environment at large. PMID:22910631

  19. New description of Toxoplasma gondii genotypes from French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Yera, Hélène; Ajzenberg, Daniel; Lesle, Florence; Eyrolle-Guignot, Dominique; Besnard, Marianne; Baud, Alain; Georges, Amandine; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Dardé, Marie Laure

    2014-06-01

    We report here the first isolation and genotyping of two human Toxoplasma gondii strains from French Polynesia. The parasites had new and atypical genotypes, and were responsible for asymptomatic congenital toxoplasmosis. Both genotypes were divergent from the common strains isolated in Europe, North America, South America, Africa and China. PMID:24560965

  20. Genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii in animals and humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most common parasites of domestic, wild, and companion animals, and it also infects approximately 25% of the world’s human population. T. gondii has a complex life cycle. Sexual development occurs only in the cat gut, while asexual replication and transmission occur i...

  1. Chitosan and silver nanoparticles: promising anti-toxoplasma agents.

    PubMed

    Gaafar, M R; Mady, R F; Diab, R G; Shalaby, Th I

    2014-08-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide infection caused by obligate intracellular protozoan parasite which is Toxoplasma gondii. Chitosan and silver nanoparticles were synthesized to be evaluated singly or combined for their anti-toxoplasma effects as prophylaxis and as treatment in the experimental animals. Results were assessed through studying the parasite density and the ultrastructural parasite changes, and estimation of serum gamma interferon. Weight of tissue silver was assessed in different organs. Results showed that silver nanoparticles used singly or combined with chitosan have promising anti-toxoplasma potentials. The animals that received these compounds showed statistically significant decrease in the mean number of the parasite count in the liver and the spleen, when compared to the corresponding control group. Light microscopic examination of the peritoneal exudates of animals receiving these compounds showed stoppage of movement and deformity in shape of the tachyzoites, whereas, by scanning electron microscope, the organisms were mutilated. Moreover, gamma interferon was increased in the serum of animals receiving these compounds. All values of silver detected in different tissues were within the safe range. Thus, these nanoparticles proved their effectiveness against the experimental Toxoplasma infection. PMID:24852215

  2. SPORULATION AND SURVIVAL OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII OOCYSTS IN SEA WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since 1992, we have been collaborating in studies on southern sea otters (Enhdyra lutris nereis) as part of a program to define factors which may be responsible for limiting the growth of the southern sea otter population. We previously demonstrated Toxoplasma gondii in sea otter...

  3. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild carnivores from Spain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serum samples from 282 wild carnivores from different regions of Spain were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by the modified agglutination test using a cut-off value of 1:25. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 22 of 27 (81.5%) of Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), three of six European wildc...

  4. SEROPREVALENCE OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII ANTIBODIES IN CATS FROM PENNSLYVANIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was determined in sera from 122 domestic cats from Bensalem, Pennsylvania. Using a modified agglutination test, antibodies to this parasite were found in 25 (20.4%) of the 122 cats with titers of 1:25 in 1, 1:50 in 4, 1:100 in 6, 1:200 in 3, 1:400...

  5. Toxoplasma gondii: The changing paradigm of congenital toxoplasmosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers have learned much concerning the population biology of Toxoplasma gondii over the past two decades. It is now apparent that many atypical genotypes exist besides the typical 3 genotypes (type I, type II & type III) first described from samples from Europe and the United States. These gen...

  6. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII ISOLATES FROM CHICKENS FROM BRAZIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Until recently, Toxoplasma gondii was considered clonal with very little genetic variability. Recent studies indicate that T. gondii isolates from Brazil are genetically and biologically different from T. gondii isolates from USA and Europe. In the present study, we retyped 151 free range chicken is...

  7. Toxoplasma co-opts host cells it does not invade.

    PubMed

    Koshy, Anita A; Dietrich, Hans K; Christian, David A; Melehani, Jason H; Shastri, Anjali J; Hunter, Christopher A; Boothroyd, John C

    2012-01-01

    Like many intracellular microbes, the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii injects effector proteins into cells it invades. One group of these effector proteins is injected from specialized organelles called the rhoptries, which have previously been described to discharge their contents only during successful invasion of a host cell. In this report, using several reporter systems, we show that in vitro the parasite injects rhoptry proteins into cells it does not productively invade and that the rhoptry effector proteins can manipulate the uninfected cell in a similar manner to infected cells. In addition, as one of the reporter systems uses a rhoptry:Cre recombinase fusion protein, we show that in Cre-reporter mice infected with an encysting Toxoplasma-Cre strain, uninfected-injected cells, which could be derived from aborted invasion or cell-intrinsic killing after invasion, are actually more common than infected-injected cells, especially in the mouse brain, where Toxoplasma encysts and persists. This phenomenon has important implications for how Toxoplasma globally affects its host and opens a new avenue for how other intracellular microbes may similarly manipulate the host environment at large. PMID:22910631

  8. Non-replicating Toxoplasma gondii reverses tumor-associated immunosuppression

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Barbara A; Sanders, Kiah L; Bzik, David J

    2013-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of using attenuated non-replicating Toxoplasma gondii uracil auxotrophs that can be safely delivered as anticancer immunotherapeutics. This strategy exerted remarkable therapeutic activity in murine models of melanoma and ovarian carcinoma, and holds broad potential for the development of novel, highly effective anticancer vaccines. PMID:24353916

  9. Non-replicating Toxoplasma gondii reverses tumor-associated immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Fox, Barbara A; Sanders, Kiah L; Bzik, David J

    2013-11-01

    We examined the efficacy of using attenuated non-replicating Toxoplasma gondii uracil auxotrophs that can be safely delivered as anticancer immunotherapeutics. This strategy exerted remarkable therapeutic activity in murine models of melanoma and ovarian carcinoma, and holds broad potential for the development of novel, highly effective anticancer vaccines. PMID:24353916

  10. The history and life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infections by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are widely prevalent in humans and other animals on all continents. There are many thousands of references to this parasite in the literature, and it is not possible to give equal treatment to all authors and discoveries. The objective of this c...

  11. ISOLATION OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM BOTTLENOSE DOLPHINS (TURSIOPS TRUNCATUS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals is intriguing and indicative of contamination of the ocean environment and coastal waters with oocysts. In previous serological surveys > 90% of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the coasts of Florida, South Carolina, and California had antib...

  12. Identification of a sporozoite-specific antigen from Toxoplasma gondii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan parasite that causes the disease toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasmosis results in the loss of life, sight, cognitive and motor function, and hearing in congenitally infected individuals. While the sources of T. gondii infection have been established, the factors influen...

  13. ISOLATION OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM ANIMALS IN DURANGO, MEXICO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known concerning the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in people and animals in rural Mexico. Serum samples and tissues from 150 dogs, 150 cats, 65 opossums (Didelphis virginianus), 249 rats (Rattus spp.), 127 mice (Mus musculus), and 69 squirrels (Spermophilus variegatus) from t...

  14. Population genetics, diversity and spread of virulence in Toxoplasma gondii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Globally, an estimated third of the human population harbors infection with Toxoplasma gondii, a single-celled eukaryotic parasite belonging to the phylum Apicomplexa (Dubey, 2010). Most infected persons are unaware of, and evidently unharmed by, the parasite cysts established in their muscles and/...

  15. Experimental toxoplasma gondii infection in striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-three striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) without demonstrable antibodies in 1:25 serum dilution in the modified agglutination test (MAT) were fed sporulated Toxoplasma gondii oocysts (9 skunks) or tissue cysts (10 skunks), and 4 skunks (controls) were not given T. gondii. Skunks were bled be...

  16. Toxoplasma gondii infection in Blanford's fox (Vulpes cana)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatal toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a Blanford's fox (Vulpes cana) from the United Arab Emirates. Toxoplasma gondii-like tachyzoites were found associated with necrosis in intestine, spleen, liver, kidneys, lungs, skeletal muscle, brain and heart. Protozoal tachyzoites reacted positively with T. go...

  17. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in pigs from Vietnam

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigs are considered an important source of Toxoplasma gondii infection for humans. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in serum samples from 587 pigs from different sources and different ages using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Sera were diluted two fold 1:25 1:3200. Antibodies were fou...

  18. Toxoplasma Encephalitis in Atypical Hosts at an Academic Cancer Center

    PubMed Central

    Morjaria, Sejal; Epstein, David J.; Romero, Fabian A.; Taur, Ying; Seo, Susan K.; Papanicolaou, Genovefa A.; Hatzoglou, Vaios; Rosenblum, Marc; Perales, Miguel-Angel; Scordo, Michael; Kaltsas, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma encephalitis is a well recognized complication of acquired immune deficiency syndrome, solid organ transplantation, and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, patients with hematologic malignancies not treated with allogeneic HSCT may also develop this condition, which requires high clinical suspicion and consideration for prophylactic therapy. PMID:27096140

  19. Toxoplasma gondii: epidemiology, feline clinical aspects, and prevention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite of birds and mammals. Cats are the only definitive host and thus the only source of infective oocysts, but other mammals and birds can develop tissue cysts. While feline infections are typically asymptomatic, infection during human pregnancy can cause severe disease i...

  20. Genetic diversity among sea otter isolates of Toxoplasma gondii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) have been reported to become infected with Toxoplasma gondii and at times succumb to clinical disease. The mode of marine contamination has been the subject of recent papers. Because of their susceptibility these animals can serve as a sentinel for contamination of marine...

  1. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals is important because they are considered as a sentinel for contamination of seas with T. gondii oocysts, and toxoplasmosis causes mortality in these animals, particularly sea otters. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was determined in 75 captive mari...

  2. Detection of toxoplasma gondii with a DNA molecular beacon probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shichao; Yao, Cuicui; Wei, Shuoming; Zhang, Jimei; Sun, Bo; Zheng, Guo; Han, Qing; Hu, Fei; Zhou, Hongming

    2008-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a microscopic parasite that may infect humans, so there is an increasing concern on the early detection of latent Toxoplasma gondii infection in recent years. We currently report a rapid and sensitive method for Toxoplasma gondii based on molecular beacon (MB) probe. The probe based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) with a stem-loop DNA oligonucleotide was labeled with CdTe/ZnS quantum dots (energy donor) at 5' end and BHQ-2 (energy acceptor) at 3' end, respectively. The probe was synthesized in PBS buffer at pH 8.2, room temperature for 24 h. Then target DNA was injected under the condition of 37°C, hybridization for 2 h, in Tris-HCl buffer. The data from fluorescence spectrum (FS) showed that ca 65% of emitted fluorescence was quenched, and about 50% recovery of fluorescence intensity was observed after adding target DNA, which indicated that the target DNA was successfully detected by MB probe. The detecting limitation was determined as ca 5 nM. Moreover, specificity of the probe was investigated by adding target DNA with one-base-pair mismatch, the low fluorescence recovery indicated the high specificity. The results showed that the current sensing probe will be a useful and convenient tool in Toxoplasma gondii early detection.

  3. ISOLATION OF PURIFIED OOCYST WALLS AND SPOROCYSTS FROM TOXOPLASMA GONDII

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii oocysts are environmentally resistant and can infect virtually all warm-blooded hosts, including humans and livestock. Little is known about the biochemical basis for this resistance of oocysts, and mechanism for excystation of T. gondii sporozoites. The objective of the present...

  4. Huge interparietal posterior fontanel meningohydroencephalocele

    PubMed Central

    Dos Santos, Manuel Filipe Dias; de Santa Barbara, Rita de Cassia

    2015-01-01

    Congenital encephalocele is a neural tube defect characterized by a sac-like protrusion of the brain, meninges, and other intracranial structures through the skull, which is caused by an embryonic development abnormality. The most common location is at the occipital bone, and its incidence varies according to different world regions. We report a case of an 1-month and 7-day-old male child with a huge interparietal-posterior fontanel meningohydroencephalocele, a rare occurrence. Physical examination and volumetric computed tomography were diagnostic. The encephalocele was surgically resected. Intradural and extradural approaches were performed; the bone defect was not primarily closed. Two days after surgery, the patient developed hydrocephaly requiring ventriculoperitoneal shunting. The surgical treatment of the meningohydroencephalocele of the interparietal-posterior fontanel may be accompanied by technical challenges and followed by complications due to the presence of large blood vessels under the overlying skin. In these cases, huge sacs herniate through large bone defects including meninges, brain, and blood vessels. The latter present communication with the superior sagittal sinus and ventricular system. A favorable surgical outcome generally follows an accurate strategy taking into account individual features of the lesion. PMID:26484324

  5. Longevity of Posterior Composite Restorations

    PubMed Central

    Opdam, N.J.M.; van de Sande, F.H.; Bronkhorst, E.; Cenci, M.S.; Bottenberg, P.; Pallesen, U.; Gaengler, P.; Lindberg, A.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; van Dijken, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis, based on individual participant data from several studies, was to investigate the influence of patient-, materials-, and tooth-related variables on the survival of posterior resin composite restorations. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we conducted a search resulting in 12 longitudinal studies of direct posterior resin composite restorations with at least 5 years’ follow-up. Original datasets were still available, including placement/failure/censoring of restorations, restored surfaces, materials used, reasons for clinical failure, and caries-risk status. A database including all restorations was constructed, and a multivariate Cox regression method was used to analyze variables of interest [patient (age; gender; caries-risk status), jaw (upper; lower), number of restored surfaces, resin composite and adhesive materials, and use of glass-ionomer cement as base/liner (present or absent)]. The hazard ratios with respective 95% confidence intervals were determined, and annual failure rates were calculated for subgroups. Of all restorations, 2,816 (2,585 Class II and 231 Class I) were included in the analysis, of which 569 failed during the observation period. Main reasons for failure were caries and fracture. The regression analyses showed a significantly higher risk of failure for restorations in high-caries-risk individuals and those with a higher number of restored surfaces. PMID:25048250

  6. Cats and Toxoplasma: implications for public health.

    PubMed

    Dabritz, H A; Conrad, P A

    2010-02-01

    Cats are popular as pets worldwide because they are easy to care for and provide companionship that enriches the lives of human beings. Little attention has been focused on their potential to contaminate the environment with zoonotic pathogens. One such pathogen, the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, rarely causes clinical manifestations in cats or immunocompetent humans; however, it can have serious adverse effects on human foetuses and immunocompromised patients. Many human infections are believed to be acquired from eating undercooked or raw meat, such as pork and lamb (Tenter et al. Int. J. Parasitol., 30, 2000, 1217; Dubey et al. J. Parasitol. 91, 2005, 1082). However, the prevalence of T. gondii infection in human populations that do not consume meat or eat it well-cooked suggests that the acquisition of infection from the environment, via oocysts in soil, water or on uncooked vegetables, is also important (Rawal. Trans. Royal Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 53, 1959, 61; Roghmann et al. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 60, 1999, 790; Chacin-Bonilla et al. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 65, 2001, 131). In the past 20 years, two changes occurred that significantly increased the size of the cat population in the USA. Pet cat ownership grew from 50 million to 90 million animals, and animal welfare activists created feeding stations for abandoned and free-roaming cats. As many cat owners allow their cats to deposit faeces outside and cats maintained in colonies always defecate outside, ample opportunity exists for T. gondii oocysts to enter the environment and be transmitted to humans. Prevention efforts should focus on educating cat owners about the importance of collecting cat faeces in litter boxes, spaying owned cats to reduce overpopulation, reducing the numbers of feral cats and promoting rigorous hand hygiene after gardening or soil contact. PMID:19744306

  7. Toxoplasma gondii: from animals to humans

    PubMed Central

    Tenter, Astrid M.; Heckeroth, Anja R.; Weiss, Louis M.

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the more common parasitic zoonoses world-wide. Its causative agent, Toxoplasma gondii, is a facultatively heteroxenous, polyxenous protozoon that has developed several potential routes of transmission within and between different host species. If first contracted during pregnancy, T. gondii may be transmitted vertically by tachyzoites that are passed to the foetus via the placenta. Horizontal transmission of T. gondii may involve three life-cycle stages, i.e. ingesting infectious oocysts from the environment or ingesting tissue cysts or tachyzoites which are contained in meat or primary offal (viscera) of many different animals. Transmission may also occur via tachyzoites contained in blood products, tissue transplants, or unpasteurised milk. However, it is not known which of these routes is more important epidemiologically. In the past, the consumption of raw or undercooked meat, in particular of pigs and sheep, has been regarded as a major route of transmission to humans. However, recent studies showed that the prevalence of T. gondii in meat-producing animals decreased considerably over the past 20 years in areas with intensive farm management. For example, in several countries of the European Union prevalences of T. gondii in fattening pigs are now <1%. Considering these data it is unlikely that pork is still a major source of infection for humans in these countries. However, it is likely that the major routes of transmission are different in human populations with differences in culture and eating habits. In the Americas, recent outbreaks of acute toxoplasmosis in humans have been associated with oocyst contamination of the environment. Therefore, future epidemiological studies on T. gondii infections should consider the role of oocysts as potential sources of infection for humans, and methods to monitor these are currently being developed. This review presents recent epidemiological data on T. gondii, hypotheses on the major routes of

  8. Biology of Toxoplasma gondii, its survival in body tissues and liquids, risks for the pregnant woman.

    PubMed

    Zardi, O; Soubotian, B

    1979-01-01

    After briefly outlining the biology of Toxoplasma gondii the authors discuss the resistance of the parasite in body liquids and tissues under certain environmental conditions. Parasite resistance and its consequent risk of human infection, particularly for the pregnant woman, is emphasized. Toxoplasma oocysts, the sexual expression of the parasite, and the cyst facilitate the diffusion of Toxoplasma, as they are much more resistant than the trophozoite. PMID:552276

  9. TOXOPLASMA AND VIRAL ANTIBODIES AMONG HIV PATIENTS AND INMATES IN CENTRAL JAVA, INDONESIA.

    PubMed

    Sari, Yulia; Haryati, Sri; Raharjo, Irvan; Prasetyo, Afiono Agung

    2015-11-01

    In Indonesia, Toxoplasma and its associations with blood-borne viruses have been poorly studied. In order to study the association between anti-Toxoplasma antibodies and blood-borne viral antibodies, blood samples from 497 participants (375 inmates from four prisons in Central Java, Indonesia and 122 HIV patients at a Voluntary Counseling and Testing Clinic in Surakarta, Indonesia) were tested for serological markers of Toxoplasma, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D virus (HDV) and human T-lymphotropic virus types I and II (HTLV-1/2). Anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM positivity rates were 41.6% and 3.6%, respectively. One point two percent of participants was positive for both anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies. Sixteen point five percent, 11.3%, 2.6% and 2.8% of participants were positive for anti- Toxoplasma IgG combined with anti-HCV antibodies, anti-Toxoplasma IgG combined with anti-HIV antibodies, anti-Toxoplasma IgM combined with anti-HIV antibodes and anti-Toxoplasma IgG combined with both anti-HIV and anti-HCV antibodies, respectively. Anti-Toxoplasma IgM seropositivity was associated with anti-HIV (aOR = 4.3; 95% CI: 1.112-16.204, p = 0.034). Anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies were associated with anti-HCV (aOR = 2.8; 95% CI: 1.749-4.538, p < 0.001) and history of injection drug use (aOR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.905-5.093, p < 0.001). In conclusion, we recommend patients with HIV, HCV infection and injection drug users should be screened for Toxoplasma infection in Indonesia. PMID:26867355

  10. Early detection of Toxoplasma gondii-infected cats by interferon-gamma release assay.

    PubMed

    Yin, Qing; El-Ashram, Saeed; Liu, Xian-Yong; Suo, Xun

    2015-10-01

    Felines, the only definitive hosts that shed the environmentally-durable oocysts, are the key in the transmission of Toxoplasma gondii to all warm-blooded animals. They seroconvert as late as the third week and begin to shed oocysts as early as 3-8 days after being fed tissue cysts. Early detection of Toxoplasma-infected cats is crucial to evaluate Toxoplasma-contaminated environment and potential risks to public health. Moreover, it is fundamental for Toxoplasma infection control. Interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) is a blood-based test assessing the presence of IFN-γ released by the T-lymphocytes directed against specific antigens, which is an ideal assay for early detection of Toxoplasma-infected cats. Here, cats were orally infected with the tissue cysts and blood was collected for toxoplasmic antigen stimulation, and the released IFN-γ was measured by ELISA. Results showed that Toxoplasma-infection was detected by IGRA as early as 4 days post-infection (dpi); while serum Toxoplasma IgM and IgG were detected by ELISA at 10 dpi and 14 dpi, respectively. Our findings demonstrated that IGRA-positive and ELISA-negative samples revealed an early Toxoplasma infection in cats, indicating a new strategy for the early diagnosis of Toxoplasma infection by combining IGRA and ELISA. Therefore, IGRA could emerge as a reliable diagnostic tool for the exploration of cat toxoplasmosis prevalence and its potential risks to public health. PMID:26297953

  11. Minimally invasive posterior hamstring harvest.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Trent J; Lubowitz, James H

    2013-01-01

    Autogenous hamstring harvesting for knee ligament reconstruction is a well-established standard. Minimally invasive posterior hamstring harvest is a simple, efficient, reproducible technique for harvest of the semitendinosus or gracilis tendon or both medial hamstring tendons. A 2- to 3-cm longitudinal incision from the popliteal crease proximally, in line with the semitendinosus tendon, is sufficient. The deep fascia is bluntly penetrated, and the tendon or tendons are identified. Adhesions are dissected. Then, an open tendon stripper is used to release the tendon or tendons proximally; a closed, sharp tendon stripper is used to release the tendon or tendons from the pes. Layered, absorbable skin closure is performed, and the skin is covered with a skin sealant, bolster dressing, and plastic adhesive bandage for 2 weeks. PMID:24266003

  12. Primary Burkitt lymphoma in the posterior mediastinum.

    PubMed

    Chaari, Zied; Charfi, Slim; Hentati, Abdessalem; Ayadi, Ines; Abid, Hanene; Frikha, Imed

    2015-11-01

    A 13-year-old boy was admitted to our hospital with complaints of posterior chest pain and dyspnea. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the chest revealed a mass in the posterior mediastinum, extending from T8 to T11 with intraspinal involvement. A percutaneous core needle biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of Burkitt lymphoma. He was treated according to the Lymphoma Malignancy B protocol 2001 arm C3, but he presented with liver and brain relapses and died 7.5 months after admission. Although lymphoma is rarely localized in the posterior mediastinum, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of posterior mediastinal masses in children. PMID:26038605

  13. Concentrating Toxoplasma gondii and Cyclospora cayetanensis from Surface Water and Drinking Water by Continuous Separation Channel Centrifugation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aims: To evaluate the effectiveness of continuous separation channel centrifugation for concentrating Toxoplasma gondii and Cyclospora cayetanensis from drinking water and environmental waters. Methods and Results: Ready-to-seed vials with known quantities of Toxoplasma gondii a...

  14. Toxoplasma gondii DNA detection with a magnetic molecular beacon probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shichao; Yao, Cuicui; Wei, Shuoming; Zhang, Jimei; Dai, Zhao; Zheng, Guo; Sun, Bo; Han, Qing; Hu, Fei; Zhou, Hongming

    2008-12-01

    Toxoplasma Gondii infection is widespread in humans worldwide and reported infection rates range from 3%-70%, depending on the populations or geographic areas, and it has been recognized as a potential food safety hazard in our daily life. A magnetic molecular beacon probe (mMBP), based on theory of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), was currently reported to detect Toxoplasma Gondii DNA. Nano-sized Fe3O4 were primarily prepared by coprecipitation method in aqueous phase with NaOH as precipitator, and was used as magnetic core. The qualified coreshell magnetic quantum dots (mQDs), i.e. CdTe(symbol)Fe3O4, were then achieved by layer-by-layer method when mol ratio of Fe3O4/CdTe is 1/3, pH at 6.0, 30 °C, and reactant solution was refluxed for 30 min, the size of mQDs were determined to be 12-15 nm via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Over 70% overlap between emission spectrum of mQDs and absorbance spectrum of BHQ-2 was observed, this result suggests the synthesized mQDs and BHQ-2 can be utilized as energy donor and energy acceptor, respectively. The sensing probe was fabricated and a stem-loop Toxoplasma Gondii DNA oligonucleotide was labeled with mQDs at the 5' end and BHQ-2 at 3' end, respectively. Target Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected under conditions of 37 °C, hybridization for 2h, at pH8.0 in Tris-HCl buffer. About 30% recovery of fluorescence intensity was observed via fluorescence spectrum (FS) after the Toxoplasma gondii DNA was added, which suggested that the Toxoplasma Gondii DNA was successfully detected. Specificity investigation of the mMBP indicated that relative low recovery of fluorescence intensity was obtained when the target DNA with one-base pair mismatch was added, this result indicated the high specificity of the sensing probe. Our research simultaneously indicated that mMBP can be conveniently separated from the unhybridized stem-loop DNA and target DNA, which will be meaningful in DNA sensing and purification process.

  15. Pseudoaneurysm of the Posterior Tibial Artery After Posterior Tibial Tendon Transfer.

    PubMed

    Elabdi, Monsef; Roukhsi, Redouane; Tijani, Youssef; Chtata, Hassan; Jaafar, Abdeloihab

    2016-01-01

    Pseudoaneurysm of the posterior tibial artery is an uncommon condition that, left untreated, can lead to hemorrhage, thrombosis, or emboli. We present the case of a 54-year-old male who developed pseudoaneurysm of the posterior tibial artery 4 months after undergoing tibialis posterior tendon transfer for management of peroneal nerve palsy, which had developed as a complication of hip arthroplasty. PMID:26972754

  16. Consistently inconsistent, the posterior vaginal wall.

    PubMed

    Hale, Douglass S; Fenner, Dee

    2016-03-01

    Posterior vaginal wall prolapse is one of the most common prolapses encountered by gynecological surgeons. What appears to be a straightforward condition to diagnose and treat surgically for physicians has proven to be frustratingly unpredictable with regard to symptom relief for patients. Functional disorders such as dyssynergic defecation and constipation are often attributed to posterior vaginal wall prolapse. Little scientific evidence supports this assumption, emphasizing that structure and function are not synonymous when treating posterior vaginal wall prolapse. Rectoceles, enteroceles, sigmoidoceles, peritoneoceles, rectal and intraanal intussusception, rectal prolapse, and descending perineal syndrome are all conditions that have an impact on the posterior vaginal wall. All too often these different anatomic conditions are treated with the same surgical approach, addressing a posterior vaginal wall bulge with a traditional posterior colporrhaphy. Studies that examine the correlation between stage of posterior wall prolapse and patient symptoms have failed to reliably do so. Surgical outcomes measured by prolapse staging appear successful, yet patient expectations are often not met. As increasing attention is being placed on patient satisfaction outcomes concerning surgical treatments, this fact will need to be addressed. Surgeons will have to clearly communicate what can and what cannot be expected with surgical repair of posterior vaginal wall prolapse. PMID:26348375

  17. Posterior Cervical Foraminotomy: Indications, Technique, and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dodwad, Shah-Jahan M; Dodwad, Shah-Nawaz M; Prasarn, Mark L; Savage, Jason W; Patel, Alpesh A; Hsu, Wellington K

    2016-06-01

    Cervical radiculopathy presents with upper extremity pain, decreased sensation, and decreased strength caused by irritation of specific nerve root(s). After failure of conservative management, surgical options include anterior cervical decompression and fusion, disk arthroplasty, and posterior cervical foraminotomy. In this review, we discuss indications, techniques, and outcomes of posterior cervical laminoforaminotomy. PMID:27187617

  18. Toxoplasma gondii prevalence in farm animals in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hill, D E; Dubey, J P

    2013-02-01

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is one of the most common parasitic infections of humans and other warmblooded animals. It has been found worldwide and nearly one-third of humans have been exposed to the parasite. Congenital infection occurs when a woman becomes infected during pregnancy and transmits the parasite to the foetus. Besides congenital infection, humans become infected by ingesting food or water contaminated with sporulated oocysts from infected cat faeces or through ingestion of tissue cysts in undercooked or uncooked meat. Food animals (pigs, chickens, lambs and goats) become infected by the same routes, resulting in meat products containing tissue cysts, which can then infect consumers. Toxoplasma infection is common in food animals in the United States. Implementation of management factors such as biosecure confinement housing are important in reducing the levels of infection in animals destined for human consumption. PMID:23201235

  19. In vivo anti-Toxoplasma activity of aripiprazole

    PubMed Central

    Saraei, Mehrzad; Samadzadeh, Nafiseh; Khoeini, Javad; Shahnazi, Mojtaba; Nassiri-Asl, Marjan; Jahanihashemi, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): There are supportive evidences about the possible role of latent Toxoplasma. gondii infections on the behavior and neurologic functions, such as increased dopamine levels in the brain. The aim of this study was to examine anti-toxoplasma activity of aripiprazole that is an atypical anti-psychotic drug in mice. Materials and Methods: Mice were randomly divided into four groups, including; control, vehicle, aripiprazole 10 mg/kg, and aripiprazole 20 mg/kg. The mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with mice brain suspension containing tissue cysts. At the end of second month, the number of cysts was counted in smears prepared from brain homogenate by optical microscope. Results: There was no significant difference between mean logarithms of brain cyst numbers of aripiprazole groups compared with control. Conclusion: Results indicate that in aripiprazole groups, the brain cystogenesis was not decrease. Further study needs to investigate the role of anti-psychotic drugs on T. gondii. PMID:26523226

  20. The secreted kinase ROP18 defends Toxoplasma's border.

    PubMed

    Fentress, Sarah J; Sibley, L David

    2011-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a highly successful parasite capable of infecting virtually all warm-blooded animals by actively invading nucleated host cells and forming a modified compartment where it replicates within the cytosol. The parasite-containing vacuole provides a safe haven, even in professional phagocytes such as macrophages, which normally destroy foreign microbes. In an effort to eliminate the parasite, the host up-regulates a family of immunity-related p47 GTPases (IRGs), which are recruited to the parasite-containing vacuole, resulting in membrane rupture and digestion of the parasite. To avoid this fate, highly virulent strains of Toxoplasma coat the external surface of their vacuole with a secretory serine/threonine kinase, known as ROP18. At this host-pathogen interface, ROP18 phosphorylates and inactivates IRGs, thereby protecting the parasite from killing. These findings reveal a novel molecular mechanism by which the parasite disarms host innate immunity. PMID:21773979

  1. Purification of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts by cesium chloride gradient.

    PubMed

    Dumètre, Aurélien; Dardé, Marie-Laure

    2004-03-01

    We describe the use of a cesium chloride (CsCl) gradient as an improvement for the purification of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts from concentrated suspensions. After concentration by sucrose flotation, this technique gives a > 96% recovery of very pure unsporulated or sporulated oocysts, but requires "fresh" oocysts (< or = 10 weeks of age). This material is suitable for biochemical and immunological analyses of environmentally resistant T. gondii oocysts. PMID:14967234

  2. Prevalence of encysted Toxoplasma gondii in raptors from Alabama.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, D S; Smith, P C; Hoerr, F J; Blagburn, B L

    1993-12-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of encysted Toxoplasma gondii in wild birds. We examined the hearts and breast muscles from 101 raptors for encysted T. gondii. All of the raptors had been submitted for necropsy to the State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Auburn, Alabama. Tissues were digested in acid-pepsin solution and inoculated into groups of 3-5 laboratory mice. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from 27 of 101 (26.7%) raptors: 8 of 12 (66.7%) red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus), 13 of 27 (41.1%) red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), 1 of 4 (25%) Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperi), 1 of 5 (20%) great horned owls (Bubo virginianus), 4 of 15 (26.7%) barred owls (Strix varia), and 1 of 3 (33.3%) kestrels (Falco sparverius). Toxoplasma gondii was not isolated from 3 broad-winged hawks (Buteo platypterus), 3 sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus), 6 barn owls (Tyto alba), 9 screech owls (Asio otus), a Mississippi kite (Ictinia misisippiensis), 2 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), 4 ospreys (Pandion haliaetus), 4 turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), or 2 black vultures (Coragyps atratus). No significant difference (P > 0.05) in prevalence was detected based on sex using chi-square analysis. Chi-square analysis of the data demonstrated that adult raptors had encysted stages of T. gondii significantly (P < 0.05) more often than did immature raptors. PMID:8277379

  3. Virus-Like Nanoparticle Vaccine Confers Protection against Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Hun; Lee, Su Hwa; Kim, Ah Ra; Quan, Fu Shi

    2016-01-01

    The inner membrane complex (IMC) of Toxoplasma gondii as a peripheral membrane system has unique and critical roles in parasite replication, motility and invasion. Disruption of IMC sub-compartment protein produces a severe defect in T. gondii endodyogeny, the form of internal cell budding. In this study, we generated T. gondii virus-like particle particles (VLPs) containing proteins derived from IMC, and investigated their efficacy as a vaccine in mice. VLP vaccination induced Toxoplasma gondii-specific total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a antibody responses in the sera and IgA antibody responses in the feces. Upon challenge infection with a lethal dose of T. gondii (ME49), all vaccinated mice survived, whereas all naïve control mice died. Vaccinated mice showed significantly reduced cyst load and cyst size in the brain. VLP vaccination also induced IgA and IgG antibody responses in feces and intestines, and antibody-secreting plasma cells, mixed Th1/Th2 cytokines and CD4+/CD8+ T cells from spleen. Taken together, these results indicate that non-replicating VLPs containing inner membrane complex of T. gondii represent a promising strategy for the development of a safe and effective vaccine to control the spread of Toxoplasma gondii infection. PMID:27548677

  4. Women infected with parasite Toxoplasma have more sons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaňková, Š.; Šulc, J.; Nouzová, K.; Fajfrlík, K.; Frynta, D.; Flegr, J.

    2007-02-01

    The boy-to-girl ratio at birth (secondary sex ratio) is around 0.51 in most populations. The sex ratio varies between societies and may be influenced by many factors, such as stress and immunosuppression, age, primiparity, the sex of the preceding siblings and the socioeconomic status of the parents. As parasite infection affects many immunological and physiological parameters of the host, we analyzed the effect of latent toxoplasmosis on sex ratios in humans. Clinical records of 1,803 infants born from 1996 to 2004 contained information regarding the mother’s age, concentration of anti- Toxoplasma antibodies, previous deliveries and abortions and the sex of the newborn. The results of our retrospective cohort study suggest that the presence of one of the most common parasites (with a worldwide prevalence from 20 to 80%), Toxoplasma gondii, can influence the secondary sex ratio in humans. Depending on the antibody concentration, the probability of the birth of a boy can increase up to a value of 0.72, C.I.95 = (0.636, 0.805), which means that for every 260 boys born, 100 girls are born to women with the highest concentration of anti- Toxoplasma antibodies. The toxoplasmosis associated with immunosuppression or immunomodulation might be responsible for the enhanced survival of male embryos. In light of the high prevalence of latent toxoplasmosis in most countries, the impact of toxoplasmosis on the human population might be considerable.

  5. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dairy goats in Michoacan, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats in Michoacán, Mexico is largely unknown. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 341 dairy goats in Michoacán, Mexico using the modified agglutination test. Goats were raised in 9 farms in 6 municipalities. Overall, antibodies to Toxoplasma w...

  6. Seroprevalence and correlates of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic pigs in Veracruz State, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs has epidemiological concern for its contributing role in human infections. We determined seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 402 domestic pigs raised in backyards in Veracruz State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut off 1:25); 182...

  7. Congenital basis of posterior fossa anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Cotes, Claudia; Bonfante, Eliana; Lazor, Jillian; Jadhav, Siddharth; Caldas, Maria; Swischuk, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    The classification of posterior fossa congenital anomalies has been a controversial topic. Advances in genetics and imaging have allowed a better understanding of the embryologic development of these abnormalities. A new classification schema correlates the embryologic, morphologic, and genetic bases of these anomalies in order to better distinguish and describe them. Although they provide a better understanding of the clinical aspects and genetics of these disorders, it is crucial for the radiologist to be able to diagnose the congenital posterior fossa anomalies based on their morphology, since neuroimaging is usually the initial step when these disorders are suspected. We divide the most common posterior fossa congenital anomalies into two groups: 1) hindbrain malformations, including diseases with cerebellar or vermian agenesis, aplasia or hypoplasia and cystic posterior fossa anomalies; and 2) cranial vault malformations. In addition, we will review the embryologic development of the posterior fossa and, from the perspective of embryonic development, will describe the imaging appearance of congenital posterior fossa anomalies. Knowledge of the developmental bases of these malformations facilitates detection of the morphological changes identified on imaging, allowing accurate differentiation and diagnosis of congenital posterior fossa anomalies. PMID:26246090

  8. Morbid attraction to leopard urine in Toxoplasma-infected chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Poirotte, Clémence; Kappeler, Peter M; Ngoubangoye, Barthelemy; Bourgeois, Stéphanie; Moussodji, Maick; Charpentier, Marie J E

    2016-02-01

    Parasites are sometimes capable of inducing phenotypic changes in their hosts to improve transmission [1]. Toxoplasma gondii, a protozoan that infects a broad range of warm-blooded species, is one example that supports the so-called 'parasite manipulation hypothesis': it induces modifications in rodents' olfactory preferences, converting an innate aversion for cat odor into attraction and probably favoring trophic transmission to feline species, its only definitive hosts [2]. In humans, T. gondii induces behavioral modifications such as personality changes, prolonged reaction times and decreased long-term concentration [3]. However, modern humans are not suitable intermediate hosts because they are no longer preyed upon by felines. Consequently, behavioral modifications in infected people are generally assumed to be side effects of toxoplasmosis or residual manipulation traits that evolved in appropriate intermediate hosts. An alternative hypothesis, however, states that these changes result from parasite manipulative abilities that evolved when human ancestors were still under significant feline predation [3,4]. As such, T. gondii also alters olfactory preferences in humans; infected men rate cat urine, but not tiger urine, as pleasant while non-infected men do not [5]. To unravel the origin of Toxoplasma-induced modifications in humans, we performed olfactory tests on a living primate still predated by a feline species. We found in our closest relative, the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes), that Toxoplasma-infected (TI) animals lost their innate aversion towards the urine of leopards (Panthera pardus), their only natural predator. By contrast, we observed no clear difference in the response of TI and Toxoplasma-non-infected (TN) animals towards urine collected from other definitive feline hosts that chimpanzees do not encounter in nature. Although the adaptive value of parasitically induced behavior should be assessed carefully, we suggest that the

  9. Sickle cell disease and posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Geevasinga, Nimeshan; Cole, Catherine; Herkes, Geoffrey K; Barnett, Yael; Lin, Jamie; Needham, Merrilee

    2014-08-01

    Sickle cell disease can present with neurological manifestations. One such presentation is with posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy also known as reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy. The condition is classically described as reversible over time; it commonly presents with oedematous changes involving the white matter of the occipital and parietal regions. Only a few patients with the association between sickle cell disease and posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy have been described in the adult literature. We present two patients from our institutions to emphasise the association between the two conditions and summarise the published cases in the literature. PMID:24656986

  10. Posterior Hip Pain in an Athletic Population

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Rachel M.; Slabaugh, Mark A.; Grumet, Robert C.; Virkus, Walter W.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Nho, Shane J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Posterior hip pain is a relatively uncommon but increasingly recognized complaint in the orthopaedic community. Patient complaints and presentations are often vague or nonspecific, making diagnosis and subsequent treatment decisions difficult. The purposes of this article are to review the anatomy and pathophysiology related to posterior hip pain in the athletic patient population. Evidence Acquisition: Data were collected through a thorough review of the literature via a MEDLINE search of all relevant articles between 1980 and 2010. Results: Many patients who complain of posterior hip pain actually have pain referred from another part of the body—notably, the lumbar spine or sacroiliac joint. Treatment options for posterior hip pain are typically nonoperative; however, surgery is warranted in some cases. Conclusions: Recent advancements in the understanding of hip anatomy, pathophysiology, and treatment options have enabled physicians to better diagnosis athletic hip injuries and select patients for appropriate treatment. PMID:23015944

  11. Cryptorchidism in boys with posterior urethral valves.

    PubMed

    Krueger, R P; Hardy, B E; Churchill, B M

    1980-07-01

    A review of 207 male children with poterior urethral valves revealed an over-all incidence of cryptorchidism of 12 per cent. This association of cryptorchidism in boys with posterior urethral valves has not been described previously. PMID:6106069

  12. Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is located inside your knee joint and connects the bones of your upper and ... such as a knee dislocation , you will need knee surgery to repair the joint. For milder injuries, you may not need surgery. ...

  13. Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome in ALL.

    PubMed

    Millichap, J Gordon

    2015-07-01

    Investigators from Soochow University, Suzhou, China, studied the possible pathogenetic mechanisms and treatment of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) observed in 11 cases of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) after induction chemotherapy. PMID:26933594

  14. The FIKK kinase of Toxoplasma gondii is not essential for the parasite's lytic cycle.

    PubMed

    Skariah, S; Walwyn, O; Engelberg, K; Gubbels, M-J; Gaylets, C; Kim, N; Lynch, B; Sultan, A; Mordue, D G

    2016-05-01

    FIKK kinases are a novel family of kinases unique to the Apicomplexa. While most apicomplexans encode a single FIKK kinase, Plasmodium falciparum expresses 21 and piroplasms do not encode a FIKK kinase. FIKK kinases share a conserved C-terminal catalytic domain, but the N-terminal region is highly variable and contains no known functional domains. To date, FIKK kinases have been primarily studied in P. falciparum and Plasmodium berghei. Those that have been studied are exported from the parasite and associate with diverse locations in the infected erythrocyte cytosol or membrane. Deletion of individual P. falciparum FIKK kinases indicates that they may play a role in modification of the infected erythrocyte. The current study characterises the single FIKK gene in Toxoplasma gondii to evaluate the importance of the FIKK kinase in an apicomplexan that has a single FIKK kinase. The TgFIKK gene encoded a protein of approximately 280kDa. Endogenous tagging of the FIKK protein with Yellow Fluorescent Protein showed that the FIKK protein exclusively localised to the posterior end of tachyzoites. A Yellow Fluorescent Protein-tagged FIKK and a Ty-tagged FIKK both co-localised with T. gondii membrane occupation and recognition nexus protein to the basal complex and were localised apical to inner membrane complex protein-5 and Centrin2. Deletion of TgFIKK, surprisingly, had no detectable effect on the parasite's lytic cycle in vitro in human fibroblast cells or in acute virulence in vivo. Thus, our results clearly show that while the FIKK kinase is expressed in tachyzoites, it is not essential for the lytic cycle of T. gondii. PMID:26859096

  15. Oval capsulorhexis for phacoemulsification in posterior polar cataract with preexisting posterior capsule rupture.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kiranjit; Mittal, Vikas; Kaur, Harmit

    2011-07-01

    We describe use of an oval capsulorhexis rather than the conventional circular capsulorhexis for phacoemulsification in posterior polar cataract with preexisting posterior capsule rupture. An oval capsulorhexis minimizes the turbulence in the capsular bag by increasing the area available for efflux of fluid. It also enables end-to-end nuclear sculpting, removal of the nuclear fragment from the bag, intraocular lens (IOL) implantation, and vitrectomy without stretching the capsular bag. The smaller axis of the oval capsulorhexis facilitates optic capture of a sulcus-fixated IOL. The oval capsulorhexis can be used safely for phacoemulsification of all grades of nuclear sclerosis in posterior polar cataract with preexisting posterior capsule rupture. PMID:21700098

  16. Detection of Acanthamoeba and Toxoplasma in River Water Samples by Molecular Methods in Iran

    PubMed Central

    MAHMOUDI, Mohammad Reza; KAZEMI, Bahram; HAGHIGHI, Ali; KARANIS, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Background: Free-living amoebae such as Acanthamoeba species may act as carriers of Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma oocysts, thus, may play an important role in the water-borne transmission of these parasites. In the present study, a loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for detection of Toxoplasma and a PCR assay were developed for investigation of Acanthamoeba in environmental water samples. Methods: A total of 34 samples were collected from the surface water in Guilan Province. Water samples were filtrated with membrane filters and followed by DNA extraction. PCR and LAMP methods used for detection of the protozoan parasites Acanthamoeba and Toxoplasma respectively. Results: Totally 30 and 2 of 34 samples were positive for Acanthamoeba and Toxoplasma oocysts respectively. Two samples were positive for both investigated parasites. Conclusion: The investigated water supplies, are contaminated by Toxoplasma and Acanthamoeba (oo)cystes. Acanthamoeba may play an important role in water-borne transmission of Toxoplasma in the study area. For the first time in Iran, protocol of LAMP method was used effectively for the detection of Toxoplasma in surface water samples in Iran. PMID:26246823

  17. GENETIC POLYMORPHISM OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM RECENTLY INFECTED ABORTED EGYPTIAN WOMEN.

    PubMed

    Badr, Mohamed S; Attia, Samar S; El-Sherbiny, Walid S; Abd-Allah M A, El Ebidi; Hefny, Hesham M; Salem, Ahmed N M

    2016-04-01

    Toxoplasmosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases in human beings. Human toxoplasmosis can be associated with serious clinical manifestations, particularly in developing fetus. The aim of the current study was to identify the possible lineage type of Toxoplasma gondii, molecularly detected in placental samples of women whose pregnancies were spontaneously terminated in the first trimester. Preliminary detection of Toxoplasma genomic materials was done by a SYBR green qPCR technology. Subsequent identification of Toxoplasma strain was done for the positive samples using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) at the SAG2 loci of T. gondii using restriction enzymes HhaI and Sau3AI. Out of 72 tested samples, Toxoplasma B1 gene was detected in 9 cases. Toxoplasma genotypes I and II in addition to unknown type were identified in 4, 3 and 2 cases respectively, while type III was not detected in our samples, hence excluded as a leading cause of abortion in humans in our preliminary study. Nevertheless, it remains uncertain to what extent the genotype of the parasite directly contributes to the clinical severity of human toxoplasmosis. Certainly, advanced molecular techniques targeting different Toxoplasma strains are crucial for better understanding of human toxoplasmosis. For more elucidation, additional studies are recommended intended for genetic characterization of such serious parasitic infection using larger number of samples. PMID:27363040

  18. Characterization of Posterior Glenoid Bone Loss

    PubMed Central

    Yanke, Adam Blair; Frank, Rachel M.; Shin, Jason J.; Van Thiel, Geoffrey S.; Verma, Nikhil N.; Cole, Brian J.; Romeo, Anthony A.; Provencher, Matthew T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to characterize the morphology and location of posterior glenoid bone loss in pat ients with posterior instability instability utilizing computed tomography (CT). Methods: Clinical data was selected for patients with posterior shoulder instability that had undergone posterior stabilization (open or arthroscopic) or posterior osseous augmentation (distal tibia or iliac crest). Three fellowship-trained surgeons from two institutions contributed patients. Pre-operative CT data was collected for all patients. The axial cuts were segmented and reformatted in three-dimensions for glenoid analysis using Osirix. From this three-dimensional model, the following was calculated: percent bone loss (Nobuhara), total arc of the defect (degrees), and a clock-face description (start point, stop point, and average or direction). Pearson correlation coefficients were performed using significance of p<0.05. Results: Fifty shoulders from 50 patients were reviewed. Fourteen patients (average age 30 years; 93% male) had evidence of posterior glenoid bone loss and were included for evaluation. Defects on average involved 13.7±8.6% of the glenoid (range, 2-35%). The average start time (assuming all right shoulders) on the clock face was 10 o’clock ± 40 minutes and stopped at 6:30 ± 25 minutes. The average direction of the defect pointed toward 8:15 ± 25 minutes. The percent bone loss correlated with the total arc of the defect (Pearson: 0.93, p<0.05, R2: 0.86) and the direction of the bone loss (Pearson: 0.64, p<0.05, R2: 0.40). The direction of bone loss significantly moved more posterosuperior the larger the defect became (Pearson: 0.63, p<0.05, R2: 0.40). Conclusion: Posterior bone loss associated with posterior glenohumeral instability is typically directed posteriorly at 8:15 on the clock. As defect get bigger, this direction moves more posterosuperior. This information will help guide clinicians in understanding the typical location of

  19. [Study of the effect of thiosemicarbazones against Toxoplasma gondii].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Marco Antônio G B; Carreira, Gabriela M; Souza, Daniela P V; Nogueira, Paulo Marcos R; de Melo, Edésio J T; Maria, Edmilson J

    2013-04-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a neglected disease, with an estimated occurrence of one-third of the population worldwide. Research in medicinal chemistry has for some years been pursuing the development of new drugs against toxoplasmosis, because current treatments cause serious side effects in the patient. The use of thiosemicarbazones as an alternative option for the treatment of various diseases has been published in recent years, due to their, among others, anticancer, antimalarial, antitrypanosomal, antibacterial, and antitoxoplasmosis activities, the latter being the subject of this study, which is based upon biological analyses and tests of the response of Toxoplasma gondii in the presence of thiosemicarbazones. PMID:23849723

  20. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in free-living African mammals.

    PubMed

    Riemann, G P; Burridge, M J; Behymer, D E; Franti, C E

    1975-10-01

    Twelve species of free-living African mammals from Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii using the indirect hemagglutination test. Of 157 animals sampled, 20 (13%) were seropositive. T. gondii antibodies were detected in Burchell's zebra, (Equus burchelli), hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), African elephant (Loxodonta africana), defassa waterbuck (Kobus defassa), lion (Panthera leo), and rock hyrax (Procavia capensis), The highest titers were found in elephants, two having titers of 1:4096 and one of 1:8192. These results are discussed in relation to the maintenance of T. gondii among African wildlife. PMID:1195497

  1. Biological and molecular characterizations of Toxoplasma gondii strains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, R.A.; Lindsay, D.S.; Howe, D.K.; Roderick, Constance L.; Dubey, J.P.; Thomas, N.J.; Baeten, L.A.

    2000-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from brain or heart tissue from 15 southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) in cell cultures. These strains were used to infect mice that developed antibodies to T. gondii as detected in the modified direct agglutination test and had T. gondii tissue cysts in their brains at necropsy. Mouse brains containing tissue cysts from 4 of the strains were fed to 4 cats. Two of the cats excreted T. gondii oocysts in their feces that were infectious for mice. Molecular analyses of 13 strains indicated that they were all type II strains, but that they were genetically distinct from one another.

  2. Posterior Predictive Bayesian Phylogenetic Model Selection

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Paul O.; Xie, Wangang; Chen, Ming-Hui; Fan, Yu; Kuo, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    We present two distinctly different posterior predictive approaches to Bayesian phylogenetic model selection and illustrate these methods using examples from green algal protein-coding cpDNA sequences and flowering plant rDNA sequences. The Gelfand–Ghosh (GG) approach allows dissection of an overall measure of model fit into components due to posterior predictive variance (GGp) and goodness-of-fit (GGg), which distinguishes this method from the posterior predictive P-value approach. The conditional predictive ordinate (CPO) method provides a site-specific measure of model fit useful for exploratory analyses and can be combined over sites yielding the log pseudomarginal likelihood (LPML) which is useful as an overall measure of model fit. CPO provides a useful cross-validation approach that is computationally efficient, requiring only a sample from the posterior distribution (no additional simulation is required). Both GG and CPO add new perspectives to Bayesian phylogenetic model selection based on the predictive abilities of models and complement the perspective provided by the marginal likelihood (including Bayes Factor comparisons) based solely on the fit of competing models to observed data. [Bayesian; conditional predictive ordinate; CPO; L-measure; LPML; model selection; phylogenetics; posterior predictive.] PMID:24193892

  3. Identification and expression analysis of ABC protein-encoding genes in Toxoplasma gondii. Toxoplasma gondii ATP-binding cassette superfamily.

    PubMed

    Sauvage, Virginie; Millot, Jean-Marc; Aubert, Dominique; Visneux, Vincent; Marle-Plistat, Maggy; Pinon, Jean-Michel; Villena, Isabelle

    2006-06-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are one of the largest evolutionarily conserved families of proteins. They are characterized by the presence of nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs), which are highly conserved among organisms. In the present study, we used human and protozoan ABC sequences, and ATP-binding consensus motifs to screen the Toxoplasma gondii TwinScan2 predicted proteins database. We identified 24 ABC open reading frames (ORFs), whose deduced amino acid sequences exhibited all the typical biochemical features of the ABC family members. Fifteen of them clustered into five of the seven families of human ABC proteins: six ABCBs (drug, peptides and lipid export), two ABCCs (organic anion conjugates and drug export), one ABCE (Rnase L inhibitor, RLI, antibiotic resistance and translation regulation), one ABCF (drug resistance and regulation of gene expression) and five ABCGs (drug export and resistance). The nine other ORFs were represented by four ABCHs (energy-generating subunits), four SMCs (structural maintenance of chromosomes) and one member of unclear origin, whose closest homologue was the yeast Elf1 protein (mRNA export factor). A notable feature of the Toxoplasma ABC superfamily seems to be the absence of genes encoding ABCA and ABCD members. Expression analysis of ABC genes in tachyzoite and bradyzoite stages revealed the presence of ABC transcripts for all genes studied. Further research on the implication of these ABC proteins will increase our knowledge of the basic biology of Toxoplasma and provide the opportunity to identify novel therapeutic targets. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ABC transporters in T. gondii. PMID:16600400

  4. Pig and herd level prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Ontario finisher pigs in 2001, 2003, and 2004.

    PubMed

    Poljak, Zvonimir; Dewey, Catherine E; Friendship, Robert M; Martin, S Wayne; Christensen, Jette; Ojkic, Davor; Wu, John; Chow, Eva

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the apparent and true prevalence of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in Ontario finisher pigs. During the study period (2001 to 2004), sera from 6048 pigs were tested with a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); 103 farms were included 1 to 3 times in the study. True prevalence was estimated using a Bayesian approach. Apparent prevalence at the pig level was 1.59% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.45, 2.99] in 2001, 0.06% (95% CI: 0.00, 0.46) in 2003, and 0.26% (95% CI: 0.00, 0.82) in 2004. Apparent prevalence at the herd-level was 13.7% (95% CI: 7.5, 22.3) in 2001; 1.25% (95% CI: 0.03, 6.77) in 2003, and 3.75% (95% CI: 0.78, 10.6) in 2004. Similarly, posterior Bayesian estimates of true prevalence at the pig level were 1.7% [95% probability interval (PI): 1.2, 2.2] in 2001, 0.2% (95% PI: 0.04, 0.4) in 2003, and 0.3% (95% PI: 0.1, 0.7) in 2004. At the herd level, posterior estimates of prevalence were 11.6% (95% PI: 7.4, 16.8) in 2001, 0% (95% PI: 0.0, 2.5) in 2003, and 1.2% (95% PI: 0.0, 5.0) in 2004 when a herd cut-point > or = 1 was used. Exposure to T. gondii in finishing pig farms in Ontario appears to be infrequent. PMID:18783018

  5. Posterior osseous bridging of C1.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Serkan; Yigitkanli, Kazim; Comert, Ayhan; Acar, Halil I; Seckin, Hakan; Er, Uygur; Belen, Deniz; Tekdemir, Ibrahim; Elhan, Alaittin

    2008-06-01

    The sulcus of the vertebral artery is located behind the lateral mass of the atlas and in some cases is converted into a foramen by anomalous ossification known as the posterior ponticulus (osseous bridge). This study involved anatomical observations of 158 isolated anatomical specimens of dry C1 vertebrae. The incidence and types of posterior osseous bridging were identified for the 158 dry samples of atlas vertebrae. In nine (5.6%) dry C1 vertebrae, partial osseous bridging was detected (bilaterally in eight vertebrae and unilaterally on the left in one). Complete osseous bridging (arcuate foramen) was observed in six (3.8%) dry C1 vertebrae (bilaterally in one vertebra, unilaterally on the left in three, and on the right in two). Awareness of the types of posterior osseous bridging of C1 in craniocervical junction surgery is essential, and may be helpful in surgical interventions in this region. PMID:18378457

  6. Posterior predictive checking of multiple imputation models.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Cattram D; Lee, Katherine J; Carlin, John B

    2015-07-01

    Multiple imputation is gaining popularity as a strategy for handling missing data, but there is a scarcity of tools for checking imputation models, a critical step in model fitting. Posterior predictive checking (PPC) has been recommended as an imputation diagnostic. PPC involves simulating "replicated" data from the posterior predictive distribution of the model under scrutiny. Model fit is assessed by examining whether the analysis from the observed data appears typical of results obtained from the replicates produced by the model. A proposed diagnostic measure is the posterior predictive "p-value", an extreme value of which (i.e., a value close to 0 or 1) suggests a misfit between the model and the data. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the posterior predictive p-value as an imputation diagnostic. Using simulation methods, we deliberately misspecified imputation models to determine whether posterior predictive p-values were effective in identifying these problems. When estimating the regression parameter of interest, we found that more extreme p-values were associated with poorer imputation model performance, although the results highlighted that traditional thresholds for classical p-values do not apply in this context. A shortcoming of the PPC method was its reduced ability to detect misspecified models with increasing amounts of missing data. Despite the limitations of posterior predictive p-values, they appear to have a valuable place in the imputer's toolkit. In addition to automated checking using p-values, we recommend imputers perform graphical checks and examine other summaries of the test quantity distribution. PMID:25939490

  7. Toxoplasma gondii infection in pork produced in France.

    PubMed

    Djokic, V; Blaga, R; Aubert, D; Durand, B; Perret, C; Geers, R; Ducry, T; Vallee, I; Djurkovic Djakovic, O; Mzabi, A; Villena, I; Boireau, P

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of the Toxoplasma gondii parasite in pork produced in France, and to determine infection risk factors. An innovative survey was designed based on annual numbers of slaughtered pigs from intensive and outdoor farms in France. A total of 1549 samples of cardiac fluids were collected from pig hearts to determine seroprevalence using a Modified Agglutination Test. Of those, 160 hearts were bio-assayed in mice to isolate live parasites. The overall seroprevalence among fattening pigs was 2·9%. The adjusted seroprevalence in pigs from intensive farms was 3·0%; the highest in sows (13·4%); 2·9% in fattening pigs and 2·6% in piglets. Adjusted seroprevalence in fattening animals from outdoor farms was 6·3%. Strains were isolated from 41 animals and all were genotyped by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism as type II. Risk-factor analysis showed that the risk of infection was more than three times higher for outdoor pigs, and that sows' risk was almost five times higher than that of fattening animals. This study provides further evidence of extensive pork infection with T. gondii regardless of breeding systems, indicating that farm conditions are still insufficient to guarantee 'Toxoplasma-free pork'. PMID:26928081

  8. Genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii in animals and humans

    PubMed Central

    Sibley, L. David; Khan, Asis; Ajioka, James W.; Rosenthal, Benjamin M.

    2009-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most widespread parasites of domestic, wild, and companion animals, and it also commonly infects humans. Toxoplasma gondii has a complex life cycle. Sexual development occurs only in the cat gut, while asexual replication occurs in many vertebrate hosts. These features combine to create an unusual population structure. The vast majority of strains in North America and Europe fall into three recently derived, clonal lineages known as types I, II and III. Recent studies have revealed that South American strains are more genetically diverse and comprise distinct genotypes. These differences have been shaped by infrequent sexual recombination, population sweeps and biogeography. The majority of human infections that have been studied in North America and Europe are caused by type II strains, which are also common in agricultural animals from these regions. In contrast, several diverse genotypes of T. gondii are associated with severe infections in humans in South America. Defining the population structure of T. gondii from new regions has important implications for transmission, immunogenicity and pathogenesis. PMID:19687043

  9. ToxoDB: accessing the Toxoplasma gondii genome.

    PubMed

    Kissinger, Jessica C; Gajria, Bindu; Li, Li; Paulsen, Ian T; Roos, David S

    2003-01-01

    ToxoDB (http://ToxoDB.org) provides a genome resource for the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Several sequencing projects devoted to T. gondii have been completed or are in progress: an EST project (http://genome.wustl.edu/est/index.php?toxoplasma=1), a BAC clone end-sequencing project (http://www.sanger.ac.uk/Projects/T_gondii/) and an 8X random shotgun genomic sequencing project (http://www.tigr.org/tdb/e2k1/tga1/). ToxoDB was designed to provide a central point of access for all available T. gondii data, and a variety of data mining tools useful for the analysis of unfinished, un-annotated draft sequence during the early phases of the genome project. In later stages, as more and different types of data become available (microarray, proteomic, SNP, QTL, etc.) the database will provide an integrated data analysis platform facilitating user-defined queries across the different data types. PMID:12519989

  10. Surface properties of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts and surrogate microspheres.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Karen; Largier, John; Mazet, Jonna A K; Bernt, William; Ell, John R; Melli, Ann C; Conrad, Patricia A

    2009-02-01

    The physical properties that govern the waterborne transmission of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts from land to sea were evaluated and compared to the properties of carboxylated microspheres, which could serve as surrogates for T. gondii oocysts in transport and water treatment studies. The electrophoretic mobilities of T. gondii oocysts, lightly carboxylated Dragon Green microspheres, and heavily carboxylated Glacial Blue microspheres were determined in ultrapure water, artificial freshwater with and without dissolved organic carbon, artificial estuarine water, and artificial seawater. The surface wettabilities of oocysts and microspheres were determined using a water contact angle approach. Toxoplasma gondii oocysts and microspheres were negatively charged in freshwater solutions, but their charges were neutralized in estuarine water and seawater. Oocysts, Glacial Blue microspheres, and unwashed Dragon Green microspheres had low contact angles, indicating that they were hydrophilic; however, once washed, Dragon Green microspheres became markedly hydrophobic. The hydrophilic nature and negative charge of T. gondii oocysts in freshwater could facilitate widespread contamination of waterways. The loss of charge observed in saline waters may lead to flocculation and subsequent accumulation of T. gondii oocysts in locations where freshwater and marine water mix, indicating a high risk of exposure for humans and wildlife in estuarine habitats with this zoonotic pathogen. While microspheres did not have surface properties identical to those of T. gondii, similar properties shared between each microsphere type and oocysts suggest that their joint application in transport and fate studies could provide a range of transport potentials in which oocysts are likely to behave. PMID:19060174

  11. Identification of new palmitoylated proteins in Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Marina C; Alonso, Andrés M; Deng, Bin; Attias, Marcia; de Souza, Wanderley; Corvi, María M

    2016-04-01

    Protein palmitoylation has been shown to be an important post-translational modification in eukaryotic cells. This modification alters the localization and/or the function of the targeted protein. In recent years, protein palmitoylation has risen in importance in apicomplexan parasites as well. In Toxoplasma gondii, some proteins have been reported to be modified by palmitate. With the development of new techniques that allow the isolation of palmitoylated proteins, this significant post-translational modification has begun to be studied in more detail in T. gondii. Here we describe the palmitoylome of the tachyzoite stage of T. gondii using a combination of the acyl-biotin exchange chemistry method and mass spectrometry analysis. We identified 401 proteins found in multiple cellular compartments, with a wide range of functions that vary from metabolic processes, gliding and host-cell invasion to even regulation of transcription and translation. Besides, we found that more rhoptry proteins than the ones already described for Toxoplasma are palmitoylated, suggesting an important role for this modification in the invasion mechanism of the host-cell. This study documents that protein palmitoylation is a common modification in T. gondii that could have an impact on different cellular processes. PMID:26825284

  12. Nucleotide variation in the Toxoplasma gondii micronemal protein 8 gene.

    PubMed

    Li, Z Y; Song, H Q; Wang, C R; Zhu, X Q

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a successful opportunistic protozoan distributed worldwide, which can infect all vertebrates, leading to serious infection, blindness, and abortion. Micronemal (MIC) proteins are critically important for T. gondii infection, as they participate in various stages of the Toxoplasma life cycle, including invasion and attachment to host cells. MIC8 secretion relies on the concentration of intracellular calcium, and can mediate the invasion of T. gondii by interacting with soluble MIC3. To investigate genetic diversity of the MIC8 gene, 16 T. gondii strains from different hosts and geographical locations, and two reference isolates (ToxoDB: TGME49_245490 and TGVEG_245490) were examined in this study. The results showed that all the examined MIC8 genes are 2055 bp, with an A+T content ranging from 50.2 to 50.6%. Conversely, lower levels of variation were detected within their nucleotide and amino acid sequences. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that three classical genotypes of T. gondii and the ToxoDB#9 genotype did not group exclusively via Bayesian inference, maximum parsimony, neighbor joining, and/or maximum likelihood assays based on the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the MIC8 gene. In summary, the T. gondii MIC8 gene is not a suitable marker for population genetic studies of this parasite. PMID:27173337

  13. Identification of new Palmitoylated Proteins in Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Caballero, Marina C.; Alonso, Andrés M.; Deng, Bin; Attias, Marcia; de Souza, Wanderley; Corvi, María M.

    2016-01-01

    Protein palmitoylation has been shown to be an important post-translational modification in eukaryotic cells. This modification alters the localization and/or the function of the targeted protein. In the recent years protein palmitoylation has risen in importance in apicomplexan parasites as well. In Toxoplasma gondii, some proteins have been reported to be modified by palmitate. With the development of new techniques that allow the isolation of palmitoylated proteins, this significant post-translational modification has begun to be studied in more detail in T. gondii. Here we describe the palmitoylome of the tachyzoite stage of T. gondii using a combination of the acyl-biotin exchange chemistry method and mass spectrometry analysis. We identified 401 proteins found in multiple cellular compartments, with a wide range of functions that vary from metabolic processes, gliding and host-cell invasion to even regulation of transcription and translation. Besides, we found that more rhoptry proteins than the ones already described for Toxoplasma are palmitoylated, suggesting an important role for this modification in the invasion mechanism of the host-cell. This study documents that protein palmitoylation is a common modification in T. gondii that could have an impact on different cellular processes. PMID:26825284

  14. Arthroscopic Approach to Posterior Ankle Impingement.

    PubMed

    Theodoulou, Michael H; Bohman, Laura

    2016-10-01

    Posterior ankle pain can occur for many reasons. If it is produced by forced plantarflexion of the foot, it is often a result of impingement from an enlarged posterior talar process or an os trigonum. This condition may present in an acute or chronic state. Management is initially nonoperative, but surgical treatments are available. This condition is often seen in athletes, so procedures that limit surgical trauma and allow early return to activity are ideal. An arthroscopic approach for this disorder produces good outcomes with limited complications. Understanding the indications, local anatomy, and surgical technique, allows good, reproducible outcomes. PMID:27599438

  15. Imaging the posterior mediastinum: a multimodality approach

    PubMed Central

    Occhipinti, Mariaelena; Heidinger, Benedikt H.; Franquet, Elisa; Eisenberg, Ronald L.; Bankier, Alexander A.

    2015-01-01

    The posterior mediastinum contains several structures that can produce a wide variety of pathologic conditions. Descending thoracic aorta, esophagus, azygos and hemiazygos veins, thoracic duct, lymph nodes, adipose tissue, and nerves are all located in this anatomical region and can produce diverse abnormalities. Although chest radiography may detect many of these pathologic conditions, computed tomography and magnetic resonance are the imaging modalities of choice for further defining the relationship of posterior mediastinal lesions to neighboring structures and showing specific imaging features that narrow the differential diagnosis. This review emphasizes modality-related answers to morphologic questions, which provide precise diagnostic information. PMID:25993732

  16. Imaging the posterior mediastinum: a multimodality approach.

    PubMed

    Occhipinti, Mariaelena; Heidinger, Benedikt H; Franquet, Elisa; Eisenberg, Ronald L; Bankier, Alexander A

    2015-01-01

    The posterior mediastinum contains several structures that can produce a wide variety of pathologic conditions. Descending thoracic aorta, esophagus, azygos and hemiazygos veins, thoracic duct, lymph nodes, adipose tissue, and nerves are all located in this anatomical region and can produce diverse abnormalities. Although chest radiography may detect many of these pathologic conditions, computed tomography and magnetic resonance are the imaging modalities of choice for further defining the relationship of posterior mediastinal lesions to neighboring structures and showing specific imaging features that narrow the differential diagnosis. This review emphasizes modality-related answers to morphologic questions, which provide precise diagnostic information. PMID:25993732

  17. Transplacental transmission in cattle: is Toxoplasma gondii less potent than Neospora caninum?

    PubMed

    Wiengcharoen, Jitbanjong; Thompson, R C Andrew; Nakthong, Chawalit; Rattanakorn, Parntep; Sukthana, Yaowalark

    2011-05-01

    We compared the transplacental-transmission ability of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in cattle. One uninfected pregnant heifer served as control, while three were inoculated with N. caninum K9WA strain and four with T. gondii RH strain at their midgestational period. Both infected groups showed clinical signs and antibodies either to N. caninum or T. gondii, while the control animal was normal. Two (50%) Toxoplasma dams aborted on days 6 and 11 postinoculation. T. gondii tachyzoites were found in various organs of those dams that had abortions but not in their fetuses. Two Neospora dams did not abort but gave birth to subclinically infected calves. The remaining two Toxoplasma dams and one from Neospora group became recumbent. Those two dams and their fetuses showed disseminated Toxoplasma DNA, but no Neospora DNA was found. Our findings suggest that maternal toxoplasmosis could be a cause of abortion and congenital toxoplasmosis in cattle, especially when they are infected by virulent strains. PMID:21203773

  18. Obtaining Highly Purified Toxoplasma gondii Oocysts by a Discontinuous Cesium Chloride Gradient

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan pathogen that commonly infects humans. It is a well characterized apicomplexan associated with causing food- and water-borne disease outbreaks. The definitive host is the feline species where sexual replication occurs res...

  19. Environmental Exposures Are Important Risk Factors for Infection Toxoplasma gondii and Helicobacter pylori

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: An estimated 70% of Americans suffer chronic infections. Helicobacter pylori and Toxoplasma gondii affect an estimated 35% and 15% of Americans, respectively. Despite their heavy burden, environmental transmission of these infections is not well understood. Object...

  20. Toxoplasma gondii infection and abdominal hernia: evidence of a new association

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We performed a retrospective, observational study in 1156 adult subjects from the general population of Durango City, Mexico, Fifty five subjects with a history of abdominal hernia repair and 1101 subjects without hernia were examined with enzyme-linked immunoassays for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies. Results The seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies and IgG titers was significantly higher in subjects with abdominal hernia repair than those without hernia. There was a tendency for subjects with hernia repair to have a higher seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies than subjects without hernia. The seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies in subjects with hernia repair was significantly higher in subjects ≥ 50 years old than those < 50 years old. Further analysis in subjects aged ≥ 50 years showed that the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies was also significantly higher in individuals with hernia repair than those without hernia (OR = 2.72; 95% CI: 1.10-6.57). Matching by age and sex further showed that the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma infection was significantly higher in patients with hernia repair than those without hernia (OR: 4.50; 95% CI: 1.22-17.33). Conclusions Results indicate that infection with Toxoplasma is associated with abdominal hernia. The contributing role of infection with Toxoplasma in abdominal hernia was observed mainly in subjects aged ≥ 50 years old. Our results might have clinical, prevention and treatment implications and warrant for further investigation. PMID:21682896

  1. Molecular and Serological Evaluation of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Reared Turkeys in Fars Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sarkari, Bahador; Asgari, Qasem; Bagherian, Neda; Ashkani Esfahani, Soheil; Kalantari, Mohsen; Mohammadpour, Iraj; Ashrafmansori, Majid; Amerinia, Maryam; Sabet Sarvestani, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. This parasite infects most of warm-blooded animals, including birds. Turkeys are one of these animals which might be infected by this parasite. Little is known about the prevalence of T. gondii in turkeys in Iran. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate the rate of Toxoplasma infection in turkeys in Fars Province, Southern Iran. Materials and Methods: Sera and tissues (brain, neck and tongue) of 54 turkeys were collected from Shiraz slaughterhouse in Fars province. Anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were assessed in the collected sera using modified agglutination test (MAT), while tissues were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and bioassay methods. Results: T. gondii antibodies (MAT titer: ≥ 1:40) were found in 89.8% of turkeys. T. gondii DNA was detected in 61.6% of turkey tissues and brain had the highest rate of infection. Brain tissues from each animal were bioassayed and Toxoplasma tissue cysts were found in 11.5% and Toxoplasma DNA in 62% of inoculated mice. Conclusions: Results of this study validated a relatively high level of Toxoplasma infection in reared turkeys and turkey meat might be considered as an infection sources for human. PMID:25368800

  2. Posterior instability caused by batter's shoulder.

    PubMed

    Kang, Richard W; Mahony, Gregory T; Harris, Thomas C; Dines, Joshua S

    2013-10-01

    In summary, batter’s shoulder is a rare and only recently recognized entity. This condition is posterior shoulder instability caused by a missed attempt at hitting a pitch, especially with an outside pitch. The lack of counterforce from hitting a ball produces increased forces imparted on the posterior capsulolabral complex of the lead shoulder during batting. If the player fails conservative management, she or he can undergo an arthroscopic posterior labral repair instead of debridement. After treatment, the player can expect to return to play after approximately 6 to 7 months. Initial results from a small, retrospective series demonstrate greater than 90% excellent results. These findings are similar to current literature for arthroscopic treatment of posterior instability, which reports success rates that range from 75% to 91%. Longer-term follow-up will be needed to determine the natural history and prognosis or batter’s shoulder. Based on initial results, the authors predict good to excellent results for most players with batter’s shoulder who undergo proper treatment. Additionally, with the exception of switch hitters, the nonthrowing arm is affected. This can also improve the athlete’s return to play. PMID:24079435

  3. [Therapy of posterior and posterolateral knee instability].

    PubMed

    Jakob, R P; Rüegsegger, M

    1993-11-01

    The natural course after posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) tear is a slow process of degeneration starting in the medial compartment. Functional disability is mainly present in those instabilities that are combined with posterolateral insufficiency. The surgical treatment at present mainly addresses these combined types of posterior-posterolateral instability. It is generally agreed that suture of the torn PCL alone is insufficient and augmentation with autologous structures, such as the patellar ligament, are mandatory. Synthetic augmentation to facilitate after treatment is another adjunct. Because of the difficulty of precise tibial tunnel placement a two-stage procedure is advocated, an anterior approach with the patient supine being used for femoral graft placement. If a posterior approach with the patient prone is used, a straight posterior incision is made between the two heads of the gastrocnemius and the neuromuscular bundle. With this approach the tibial bone block is placed in a trough. The accuracy of graft placement and the immediate functional aftertreatment facilitated by the use of osseous fixation of a synthetic augmentation device at both ends have made better results of surgical reconstruction of the PCL possible. PMID:8309701

  4. Subspecialization in the human posterior medial cortex

    PubMed Central

    Bzdok, Danilo; Heeger, Adrian; Langner, Robert; Laird, Angela R.; Fox, Peter T.; Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola; Vogt, Brent A.; Zilles, Karl; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2014-01-01

    The posterior medial cortex (PMC) is particularly poorly understood. Its neural activity changes have been related to highly disparate mental processes. We therefore investigated PMC properties with a data-driven exploratory approach. First, we subdivided the PMC by whole-brain coactivation profiles. Second, functional connectivity of the ensuing PMC regions was compared by task-constrained meta-analytic coactivation mapping (MACM) and task-unconstrained resting-state correlations (RSFC). Third, PMC regions were functionally described by forward/reverse functional inference. A precuneal cluster was mostly connected to the intraparietal sulcus, frontal eye fields, and right temporo-parietal junction; associated with attention and motor tasks. A ventral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) cluster was mostly connected to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and middle left inferior parietal cortex (IPC); associated with facial appraisal and language tasks. A dorsal PCC cluster was mostly connected to the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, anterior/posterior IPC, posterior midcingulate cortex, and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; associated with delay discounting. A cluster in the retrosplenial cortex was mostly connected to the anterior thalamus and hippocampus. Furthermore, all PMC clusters were congruently coupled with the default mode network according to task-constrained but not task-unconstrained connectivity. We thus identified distinct regions in the PMC and characterized their neural networks and functional implications. PMID:25462801

  5. Posterior Probabilities for a Consensus Ordering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fligner, Michael A.; Verducci, Joseph S.

    1990-01-01

    The concept of consensus ordering is defined, and formulas for exact and approximate posterior probabilities for consensus ordering are developed under the assumption of a generalized Mallows' model with a diffuse conjugate prior. These methods are applied to a data set concerning 98 college students. (SLD)

  6. An Unusual Cause of Posterior Elbow Impingement: Detachment of a Hypertrophied Posterior Fat Pad

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Daisuke; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Sugiura, Kosuke; Higuchi, Tadahiro; Suzue, Naoto; Goto, Tomohiro; Tsutsui, Takahiko; Wada, Keizo; Fukuta, Shoji; Sairyo, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a 47-year-old woman who developed posterior impingement of the elbow due to detachment of a hypertrophied posterior fat pad. She reported acute left elbow pain after leaning back onto a hard object with her hand and subsequently experienced a “catching” sensation. Comparison with the magnetic resonance images of a normal elbow revealed a hypertrophied posterior fat pad interposed between the olecranon and olecranon fossa in both elbows, with the fat pad in the left elbow located more inferiorly than that in the right elbow. Elbow arthroscopy showed the olecranon fossa covered by the fat pad, a portion of which was detached from the rest of the pad. Debridement of the detached portion was performed until no impingement was evident. Postoperatively, full extension of the elbow did not elicit pain. Clinicians should include this pathology among the differential diagnoses for posterior elbow pain. PMID:26613057

  7. An Unusual Cause of Posterior Elbow Impingement: Detachment of a Hypertrophied Posterior Fat Pad.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Daisuke; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Sugiura, Kosuke; Higuchi, Tadahiro; Suzue, Naoto; Goto, Tomohiro; Tsutsui, Takahiko; Wada, Keizo; Fukuta, Shoji; Sairyo, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a 47-year-old woman who developed posterior impingement of the elbow due to detachment of a hypertrophied posterior fat pad. She reported acute left elbow pain after leaning back onto a hard object with her hand and subsequently experienced a "catching" sensation. Comparison with the magnetic resonance images of a normal elbow revealed a hypertrophied posterior fat pad interposed between the olecranon and olecranon fossa in both elbows, with the fat pad in the left elbow located more inferiorly than that in the right elbow. Elbow arthroscopy showed the olecranon fossa covered by the fat pad, a portion of which was detached from the rest of the pad. Debridement of the detached portion was performed until no impingement was evident. Postoperatively, full extension of the elbow did not elicit pain. Clinicians should include this pathology among the differential diagnoses for posterior elbow pain. PMID:26613057

  8. Posterior cruciate-retaining versus posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bercik, Michael J; Joshi, Ashish; Parvizi, Javad

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis was to compare outcomes of posterior cruciate-retaining and posterior stabilized prostheses. A computerized literature search was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials comparing the clinical outcomes of cruciate-retaining and posterior-stabilized designs. The table of contents of four major Orthopaedic journals and the references section of two arthroplasty text books were reviewed to identify other relevant studies. Ultimately, 1114 patients (1265 knees) were compared. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference in flexion and range of motion in favor of posterior-stabilized knees, but no difference in complication rates. The clinical importance of this remains unknown. The decision to use one design versus the other should rest with the surgeon's preference and comfort with a particular design. PMID:23433255

  9. Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii in captive Neotropical felids from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ullmann, Leila Sabrina; da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; de Moraes, Wanderlei; Cubas, Zalmir Silvino; dos Santos, Leonilda Correia; Hoffmann, Juliano Leônidas; Moreira, Nei; Guimaraes, Ana Marcia Sa; Montaño, Patrícia; Langoni, Helio; Biondo, Alexander Welker

    2010-08-27

    Toxoplasma gondii is the causative intracellular protozoan of toxoplasmosis in human being and animals. Members of the Felidae family are considered the single definitive host for the infection; both wild and domestic cats are able to excrete oocysts in the environment. Wild cats maintained in captivity may serve as source of infection for other clinically susceptible animals in the same environment. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of T. gondii IgG antibodies in 57 neotropical felids (1 Leopardus geoffroyi; 3 Puma yagouaroundi; 17 Leopardus wiedii; 22 Leopardus tigrinus; and 14 Leopardus pardalis) kept at the Bela Vista Biological Sanctuary, Itaipu Binacional, Southern Brazil, by the modified agglutination test (MAT) using titer 16 as cut-off point. Seropositivity was observed in 38/57 (66.67%; 95% CI 53.66-77.51%) samples, with higher frequency in ocelots (71.43%). Wild-caught felids were three times more likely to be infected when compared to zoo-born animals (P=0.05) and age of wild-caught animals (P=0.6892; 95% CI=0.7528-1.66) was not significant as a risk factor for the infection, the same occurring with zoo-born animals (P=0.05; 95% CI=0.6267-24.052). These results suggest that, despite efforts to control T. gondii infection in zoo facilities, such as individual pens, hygiene monitoring, veterinary care and pre-frozen meat offered as food, non-domestic felids kept in captivity, particularly the wild-caught specimens, may be invariably exposed to infection due to other environmental sources. PMID:20472340

  10. A Cadaveric Study of Bilateral Configuration of Posterior Bifurcation of Posterior Communicating Artery in Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Anubha; Mandal, Shyamash

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Various studies have been done regarding variations of circle of Willis, but few literatures are available about the detail configurations on Indian population. Posterior communicating artery is the main collateral channel between the vertebrobasilar and carotid system. It may act as a main source of blood flow via posterior cerebral artery if fetal configuration is present. Aim of the study is to see the bilateral configurations to compare the blood supply of both cerebral hemispheres via posterior cerebral artery in human cadavers. Materials and Methods: Fifty six formalin fixed brains were used for study. The specimens were classified into 3 types and 21 subtypes according to the configuration of the vessel of both hemispheres. As hemodynamic balance is dependent on the calibre of the vessel, the diameter of the arteries were also taken into consideration. Pearson’s correlation had been done. Result: In present study type I is 57.2%, type II is 37.5% and type III is 5.4%. Incidence of unilateral fetal type posterior cerebral artery is in high percentage (33.9%). Greatest diameter of posterior communicating artery is 3.8mm on right and 3.6mm on left side. Significant correlations also have been found between arterial segments of different types. Conclusion: It is expected that the study will help to enrich the knowledge about the arterial predominance of origin of posterior cerebral artery of both cerebral hemispheres in normal or variant cases and its effect on perfusion images. PMID:25954608

  11. Posterior Wnts Have Distinct Roles in Specification and Patterning of the Planarian Posterior Region

    PubMed Central

    Sureda-Gómez, Miquel; Pascual-Carreras, Eudald; Adell, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The wnt signaling pathway is an intercellular communication mechanism essential in cell-fate specification, tissue patterning and regional-identity specification. A βcatenin-dependent signal specifies the AP (Anteroposterior) axis of planarians, both during regeneration of new tissues and during normal homeostasis. Accordingly, four wnts (posterior wnts) are expressed in a nested manner in central and posterior regions of planarians. We have analyzed the specific role of each posterior wnt and the possible cooperation between them in specifying and patterning planarian central and posterior regions. We show that each posterior wnt exerts a distinct role during re-specification and maintenance of the central and posterior planarian regions, and that the integration of the different wnt signals (βcatenin dependent and independent) underlies the patterning of the AP axis from the central region to the tip of the tail. Based on these findings and data from the literature, we propose a model for patterning the planarian AP axis. PMID:26556349

  12. Arthroscopic approach to the posterior compartment of the knee using a posterior transseptal portal

    PubMed Central

    Ohishi, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Masaaki; Suzuki, Daisuke; Matsuyama, Yukihiro

    2015-01-01

    Arthroscopic surgery of the posterior compartment of the knee is difficult when only two anterior portals are used for access because of the inaccessibility of the back of the knee. Since its introduction, the posterior transseptal portal has been widely employed to access lesions in the posterior compartment. However, special care should be taken to avoid neurovascular injuries around the posteromedial, posterolateral, and transseptal portals. Most importantly, popliteal vessel injury should be avoided when creating and using the transseptal portal during surgery. Purpose of the present study is to describe how to avoid the neurovascular injuries during establishing the posterior three portals and to introduce our safer technique to create the transseptal portal. To date, we have performed arthroscopic surgeries via the transseptal portal in the posterior compartments of 161 knees and have not encountered nerve or vascular injury. In our procedure, the posterior septum is perforated with a 1.5-3.0-mm Kirschner wire that is protected by a sheath inserted from the posterolateral portal and monitored from the posteromedial portal to avoid popliteal vessel injury. PMID:26301179

  13. Posterior Wnts Have Distinct Roles in Specification and Patterning of the Planarian Posterior Region.

    PubMed

    Sureda-Gómez, Miquel; Pascual-Carreras, Eudald; Adell, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The wnt signaling pathway is an intercellular communication mechanism essential in cell-fate specification, tissue patterning and regional-identity specification. A βcatenin-dependent signal specifies the AP (Anteroposterior) axis of planarians, both during regeneration of new tissues and during normal homeostasis. Accordingly, four wnts (posterior wnts) are expressed in a nested manner in central and posterior regions of planarians. We have analyzed the specific role of each posterior wnt and the possible cooperation between them in specifying and patterning planarian central and posterior regions. We show that each posterior wnt exerts a distinct role during re-specification and maintenance of the central and posterior planarian regions, and that the integration of the different wnt signals (βcatenin dependent and independent) underlies the patterning of the AP axis from the central region to the tip of the tail. Based on these findings and data from the literature, we propose a model for patterning the planarian AP axis. PMID:26556349

  14. Structure of Toxoplasma gondii fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Lauren E; Bosch, Jürgen

    2014-09-01

    The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii must invade host cells to continue its lifecycle. It invades different cell types using an actomyosin motor that is connected to extracellular adhesins via the bridging protein fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase. During invasion, aldolase serves in the role of a structural bridging protein, as opposed to its normal enzymatic role in the glycolysis pathway. Crystal structures of the homologous Plasmodium falciparum fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase have been described previously. Here, T. gondii fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase has been crystallized in space group P22121, with the biologically relevant tetramer in the asymmetric unit, and the structure has been determined via molecular replacement to a resolution of 2.0 Å. An analysis of the quality of the model and of the differences between the four chains in the asymmetric unit and a comparison between the T. gondii and P. falciparum aldolase structures is presented. PMID:25195889

  15. [Cloning and Bioinformatics Analysis of Toxoplasma gondii ROP21 Gene].

    PubMed

    Shi, Shi-jun; Cui, Yong; Li, Jin; Wang, Hong-fa; Yin, Kun; Wei, Qing-kuan; Huang, Bing-cheng; Sun, Hui; Liu, Gong-zhen

    2015-08-01

    The full-length gene sequence of Toxoplasma gondii ROP21 (TgROP21) gene was amplified with PCR. The signaling peptide and transmembrane domain of TgROP21 protein were predicted by SignaIP and TMHMM online predictive sites, and the hydrophilicity and antigenic index of this protein were ananlyzed with DNAStar software. Meanwhile, the functional domains and tertiary structure were modeled by combined use of ExPASY and PRODATA online sites. As expected, the PCR results revealed one band at 2,022 bp. The signaling peptide, transmembrane domain, hydrophilicity, antigen index, functional domain and 3D structure of TgROP21 were successfully predicted. This work may provide a theoretical foundation for further verification of TgROP21 function. PMID:26672223

  16. Is it toxoplasma encephalitis, HIV encephalopathy or brain tuberculoma?

    PubMed Central

    Nimir, Amal Rashad; Osman, Emilia; Ibrahim, Ibrahim Abdel Aziz; Saliem, Ahmed M

    2013-01-01

    A 31-year-old Malaysian man was presented with an episode of seizures by the roadside, after having been recently diagnosed as HIV positive accompanied with miliary tuberculosis. On physical examination, he was oriented to person, but not to time or place. There was no neck stiffness or papilloedema. The other systemic examination was unremarkable. Chest examination revealed crepitations at the upper zone of the right lung. After diagnosis suspicion, the case was confirmed as toxoplasma encephalitis by MRI and serological tests. Patient was treated with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole 480–2400 mg/day with folinic acid supplement for 60 days. Two months later, a repeat brain MRI showed resolution of the cerebral lesions. PMID:23580678

  17. Serial monoxenous transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in cats.

    PubMed

    Awobode, H O; Paul, A J; Sengoku-Graham, H; Clem, R W; Mateus-Pinilla, N E; McAllister, M M

    2013-12-01

    Abstract :  Oral administration of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts to cats (i.e., monoxenous transmission) typically induces patent infections in fewer than half of test subjects. In the present study, oral administration of T. gondii oocysts to 5 kittens induced a patent infection in 2 of them, but only 1 kitten shed enough oocysts to enable further study. Those monoxenously-produced oocysts were administered to another kitten, which produced a second generation of monoxenous oocysts, and then those were used to induce a third generation of monoxenous oocysts. These results provide a rationale to develop a strain of T. gondii that has efficient direct transmission. The isolate of T. gondii that was able to be passaged in this manner has been designated the Dubey strain and cultured tachyzoites have been donated to a repository. PMID:23869752

  18. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in wildlife from Alabama, USA.

    PubMed

    Yu, Li; Shen, Jilong; Su, Chunlei; Sundermann, Christine A

    2013-03-01

    The genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii circulating in wildlife is of interest to understand the transmission of this parasite in the environment. In the present study, we genetically characterized five T. gondii isolates from different wild animals including two isolates from a bobcat (Lynx rufus), one from a red-shouldered hawk (Buteo lineatus), one from a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and one from a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Genotyping of these samples using 11 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism markers (SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico) revealed two types, including type I (ToxoDB#10) and type 12 (ToxoDB#5). This is the first report of genetic characterization of T. gondii strains in wildlife from Alabama and from a red-shouldered hawk. PMID:23160892

  19. The impact of Toxoplasma gondii on the mammalian genome.

    PubMed

    Müller, Urs B; Howard, Jonathan C

    2016-08-01

    Nobody doubts that infections have imposed specialisations on the mammalian genome. However sufficient information is usually missing to attribute a specific genomic modification to pressure from a specific pathogen. Recent studies on mechanisms of mammalian resistance against the ubiquitous protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, have shown that the small rodents presumed to be largely responsible for transmission of the parasite to its definitive host, the domestic cat, possess distinctive recognition proteins, and interferon-inducible effector proteins (IRG proteins) that limit the potential virulence of the parasite. The phylogenetic association of the recognition proteins, TLR11 and TLR12, with T. gondii resistance is weak, but there is evidence for reciprocal polymorphism between parasite virulence proteins and host IRG proteins that strongly suggests current or recent coevolution. PMID:27128504

  20. Toxoplasma gondii dissemination: a parasite's journey through the infected host.

    PubMed

    Harker, K S; Ueno, N; Lodoen, M B

    2015-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a highly successful global pathogen that is remarkable in its ability to infect nearly any nucleated cell in any warm-blooded animal. Infection with T. gondii typically occurs through the ingestion of contaminated food or water, but the parasite then breaches the intestinal epithelial barrier and spreads from the lamina propria to a large variety of other organs in the body. A key feature of T. gondii pathogenesis is the parasite's ability to cross formidable biological barriers in the infected host and enter tissues such as the brain, eye and placenta. The dissemination of T. gondii into these organs underlies the severe disease that accompanies human toxoplasmosis. In this review, we will focus on seminal studies as well as exciting recent findings that have shaped our current understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which T. gondii journeys throughout the host and enters organs to cause disease. PMID:25408224

  1. Clinically Available Medicines Demonstrating Anti-Toxoplasma Activity.

    PubMed

    Neville, Andrew J; Zach, Sydney J; Wang, Xiaofang; Larson, Joshua J; Judge, Abigail K; Davis, Lisa A; Vennerstrom, Jonathan L; Davis, Paul H

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan parasite of humans and other mammals, including livestock and companion animals. While chemotherapeutic regimens, including pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine regimens, ameliorate acute or recrudescent disease such as toxoplasmic encephalitis or ocular toxoplasmosis, these drugs are often toxic to the host. Moreover, no approved options are available to treat infected women who are pregnant. Lastly, no drug regimen has shown the ability to eradicate the chronic stage of infection, which is characterized by chemoresistant intracellular cysts that persist for the life of the host. In an effort to promote additional chemotherapeutic options, we now evaluate clinically available drugs that have shown efficacy in disease models but which lack clinical case reports. Ideally, less-toxic treatments for the acute disease can be identified and developed, with an additional goal of cyst clearance from human and animal hosts. PMID:26392504

  2. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Donkeys (Equus asinus) in Italy

    PubMed Central

    MACHACOVA, Tereza; BARTOVA, Eva; DI LORIA, Antonio; SEDLAK, Kamil; MARIANI, Ugo; FUSCO, Giovanna; FULGIONE, Domenico; VENEZIANO, Vincenzo; DUBEY, Jitender P.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Toxoplasmosis, an important zoonosis, can be transmitted by eating meat or drinking milk of animals infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Samples were collected from 238 donkeys in the year 2010 in Italy, which included 207 females and 31 males of five breeds and crossbreeds with the average age 9 years (1 month−24 years). Sera were tested for T. gondii antibodies using a latex agglutination test and the indirect fluorescent antibody test; 5 and 8% seropositivity were recorded, respectively. We found significant correlation between the presence of T. gondii antibodies and sex, age, grazing and presence of cats on the farms and their access to donkey feed. This is the first detection of T. gondii antibodies in donkeys in Italy. PMID:24107428

  3. Clinically Available Medicines Demonstrating Anti-Toxoplasma Activity

    PubMed Central

    Neville, Andrew J.; Zach, Sydney J.; Wang, Xiaofang; Larson, Joshua J.; Judge, Abigail K.; Davis, Lisa A.; Vennerstrom, Jonathan L.

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan parasite of humans and other mammals, including livestock and companion animals. While chemotherapeutic regimens, including pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine regimens, ameliorate acute or recrudescent disease such as toxoplasmic encephalitis or ocular toxoplasmosis, these drugs are often toxic to the host. Moreover, no approved options are available to treat infected women who are pregnant. Lastly, no drug regimen has shown the ability to eradicate the chronic stage of infection, which is characterized by chemoresistant intracellular cysts that persist for the life of the host. In an effort to promote additional chemotherapeutic options, we now evaluate clinically available drugs that have shown efficacy in disease models but which lack clinical case reports. Ideally, less-toxic treatments for the acute disease can be identified and developed, with an additional goal of cyst clearance from human and animal hosts. PMID:26392504

  4. Fatal Toxoplasma gondii infection in the giant panda

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hongyu; Wang, Zedong; Wang, Chengdong; Li, Caiwu; Wei, Feng; Liu, Quan

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii can infect nearly all warm-blooded animals. We report an acute fatal T. gondii infection in the endangered giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in a zoo in China, characterized by acute gastroenteritis and respiratory symptoms. T. gondii infection was confirmed by immunological and molecular methods. Multilocus nested PCR-RFLP revealed clonal type I at the SAG1 and c29-2 loci, clonal type II at the SAG2, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, and L358 loci, and clonal type III at the alternative SAG2 and SAG3 loci, thus, a potential new genotype of T. gondii in the giant panda. Other possible pathogens were not detected. To our knowledge, this is the first report of clinical toxoplasmosis in a giant panda. PMID:26514595

  5. Bartonella and Toxoplasma Infections in Stray Cats from Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Switzer, Alexandra D.; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Stuckey, Matthew J.; Kass, Philip H.; Chomel, Bruno B.

    2013-01-01

    Because of overpopulation, stray/feral cats were captured on military bases in Iraq as part of the US Army Zoonotic Disease Surveillance Program. Blood samples were collected from 207 cats, mainly in Baghdad but also in North and West Iraq, to determine the prevalence of Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections. Nine (4.3%) cats, all from Baghdad, were bacteremic with B. henselae type I. Seroprevalence was 30.4% for T. gondii, 15% for B. henselae, and 12.6% for B. clarridgeiae. Differences in Bartonella prevalence by location were statistically significant, because most of the seropositive cats were from Baghdad. There was no association between T. gondii seropositivity and either of the two Bartonella species surveyed. This report is the first report on the prevalence of Bartonella and T. gondii among stray cats in Iraq, which allows for better evaluation of the zoonotic risk potential to the Iraqi people and deployed military personnel by feral cat colonies. PMID:24062480

  6. Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections in stray cats from Iraq.

    PubMed

    Switzer, Alexandra D; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C; Kasten, Rickie W; Stuckey, Matthew J; Kass, Philip H; Chomel, Bruno B

    2013-12-01

    Because of overpopulation, stray/feral cats were captured on military bases in Iraq as part of the US Army Zoonotic Disease Surveillance Program. Blood samples were collected from 207 cats, mainly in Baghdad but also in North and West Iraq, to determine the prevalence of Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections. Nine (4.3%) cats, all from Baghdad, were bacteremic with B. henselae type I. Seroprevalence was 30.4% for T. gondii, 15% for B. henselae, and 12.6% for B. clarridgeiae. Differences in Bartonella prevalence by location were statistically significant, because most of the seropositive cats were from Baghdad. There was no association between T. gondii seropositivity and either of the two Bartonella species surveyed. This report is the first report on the prevalence of Bartonella and T. gondii among stray cats in Iraq, which allows for better evaluation of the zoonotic risk potential to the Iraqi people and deployed military personnel by feral cat colonies. PMID:24062480

  7. Fatal Toxoplasma gondii infection in the giant panda.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongyu; Wang, Zedong; Wang, Chengdong; Li, Caiwu; Wei, Feng; Liu, Quan

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii can infect nearly all warm-blooded animals. We report an acute fatal T. gondii infection in the endangered giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in a zoo in China, characterized by acute gastroenteritis and respiratory symptoms. T. gondii infection was confirmed by immunological and molecular methods. Multilocus nested PCR-RFLP revealed clonal type I at the SAG1 and c29-2 loci, clonal type II at the SAG2, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, and L358 loci, and clonal type III at the alternative SAG2 and SAG3 loci, thus, a potential new genotype of T. gondii in the giant panda. Other possible pathogens were not detected. To our knowledge, this is the first report of clinical toxoplasmosis in a giant panda. PMID:26514595

  8. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Belgian house cats.

    PubMed

    De Craeye, Stéphane; Francart, Aurelie; Chabauty, Julie; De Vriendt, Veerle; Van Gucht, Steven; Leroux, Ingrid; Jongert, Erik

    2008-10-20

    Five hundred and sixty seven sera of healthy house cats aged 3 months to 7 years, were examined for the presence of anti-toxoplasma antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence assay and compared to SAG1 and TLA enzyme linked immunosorbent assays as alternative test. Twenty-five percent of cats tested positive for IgG and/or IgM. Seroprevalence increased with age from 2% below 12 months of age up to 44% at age 7. Sensitivities of SAG1 and TLA ELISA were 84.1% and 88.6%, respectively. Peak levels in seroprevalence were correlated to increased IgG titers in TLA ELISA. Our results suggest that T. gondii infections are common in house cats and that there is a high chance for a negative cat to seroconvert in its second life-year. PMID:18707811

  9. Toxoplasma gondii in an African crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata).

    PubMed

    Harrison, Tara M; Moorman, Jamee Black; Bolin, Steven R; Grosjean, Nicole L; Lim, Ailam; Fitzgerald, Scott D

    2007-03-01

    An adult female crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata) was evaluated for acute onset of neurologic signs including head tilt, circling, and ataxia. She was found dead in her holding area 2 days after initially exhibiting clinical signs. Necropsy was unremarkable. Histopathology of brain tissue revealed the presence of protozoal cysts associated with inflammation as the underlying cause of clinical signs and death. Immunohistochemical staining of brain tissue for Toxoplasma gondii was strongly positive. PCR on fresh brain confirmed T. gondii as the causative organism. An adult male in the same enclosure has demonstrated similar neurologic signs over the past 3 years and has failed to respond to various medical treatments. Clinical disease associated with T. gondii has not been previously reported in this porcupine species or any other Old World porcupines, although there are several reports of clinical toxoplasmosis involving New World porcupine species. PMID:17402616

  10. Recent advances in developing vaccines against Toxoplasma gondii: an update.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nian-Zhang; Wang, Meng; Xu, Ying; Petersen, Eskild; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, a significant public health risk, is able to infect almost all warm-blooded animals including humans, and it results in economic losses in production animals. In the last three years, a large number of vaccination experiments have been performed to control T. gondii infection, with the target of limiting the acute infection and reducing or eliminating tissue cysts in the intermediate hosts. In this paper, we summarize the latest results of the veterinary vaccines against T. gondii infection since 2013. Immunization with live-attenuated whole organisms of non-reverting mutants has been shown to induce remarkably potent immune responses associated with control of acute and chronic toxoplasmosis. The non-cyst-forming mutants are promising new tools for the development of veterinary vaccines against T. gondii infection. PMID:26467840

  11. The known and missing links between Toxoplasma gondii and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Elsheikha, Hany M; Büsselberg, Dietrich; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-08-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular protozoan parasite, has a striking predilection for infecting the Central Nervous System and has been linked to an increased incidence of a number of psychiatric diseases. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that T. gondii infection can affect the structure, bioenergetics and function of brain cells, and alters several host cell processes, including dopaminergic, tryptophan-kynurenine, GABAergic, AKT1, Jak/STAT, and vasopressinergic pathways. These mechanisms underlying the neuropathology of latent toxoplasmosis seem to operate also in schizophrenia, supporting the link between the two disorders. Better understanding of the intricate parasite-neuroglial communications holds the key to unlocking the mystery of T. gondii-mediated schizophrenia and offers substantial prospects for the development of disease-modifying therapies. PMID:27041387

  12. Keratoconjunctivitis associated with Toxoplasma gondii in a dog.

    PubMed

    Swinger, Robert L; Schmidt, Karl A; Dubielzig, Richard R

    2009-01-01

    A 12-year-old Pug presented with a 3-mm corneal mass OD. The dog was currently being treated for keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) and pigmentary keratitis OU. A superficial keratectomy followed by cryotherapy was performed OD. A histopathologic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia and suppurative keratitis was made and the lesion resolved. Two months later, a yellow/tan conjunctival mass, diffuse chemosis and conjunctival thickening was discovered OD. Necrotizing conjunctivitis with protozoal parasites was diagnosed with histopathology. Complete blood count and a serum biochemistry panel were normal. Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii titers were negative. The conjunctivitis resolved after a 6-week course of oral clindamycin. Two months later, the patient presented with a similar conjunctival mass OS. Toxoplasma gondii was confirmed as the etiologic agent with immunohistochemical staining. Repeat T. gondii titers were negative. Oral clindamycin was re-instituted. The corneal biopsy was re-reviewed and protozoal organisms were discovered. Three months later, a recurrence was suspected and oral ponazuril was initiated for 28 days. There has been no evidence of recurrence since this treatment. Ocular toxoplasmosis is rare in the dog but reports have included episcleritis, scleritis, retinitis, anterior uveitis, ciliary epithelium hyperplasia, optic neuritis and polymyositis. To our knowledge, this is the first confirmed report of toxoplasmosis causing only corneal and conjunctival disease in the dog. We hypothesize that these localized lesions may be associated with topical immunomodulating therapy for KCS. Toxoplasmosis should be considered as a differential for canine conjunctivitis and corneal disease and has the potential to manifest in one or both eyes. PMID:19152600

  13. GITR Activation Positively Regulates Immune Responses against Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Frederico R. C.; Mota, Caroline M.; Santiago, Fernanda M.; Silva, Murilo V.; Ferreira, Marcela D.; Fonseca, Denise M.; Silva, João S.; Mineo, José R.; Mineo, Tiago W. P.

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread parasite responsible for causing clinical diseases especially in pregnant and immunosuppressed individuals. Glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor (GITR), which is also known as TNFRS18 and belongs to the TNF receptor superfamily, is found to be expressed in various cell types of the immune system and provides an important costimulatory signal for T cells and myeloid cells. However, the precise role of this receptor in the context of T. gondii infection remains elusive. Therefore, the current study investigated the role of GITR activation in the immunoregulation mechanisms induced during the experimental infection of mice with T. gondii. Our data show that T. gondii infection slightly upregulates GITR expression in Treg cells and B cells, but the most robust increment in expression was observed in macrophages and dendritic cells. Interestingly, mice infected and treated with an agonistic antibody anti-GITR (DTA-1) presented a robust increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine production at preferential sites of parasite replication, which was associated with the decrease in latent brain parasitism of mice under treatment with DTA-1. Several in vivo and in vitro analysis were performed to identify the cellular mechanisms involved in GITR activation upon infection, however no clear alterations were detected in the phenotype/function of macrophages, Tregs and B cells under treatment with DTA-1. Therefore, GITR appears as a potential target for intervention during infection by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, even though further studies are still necessary to better characterize the immune response triggered by GITR activation during T. gondii infection. PMID:27027302

  14. Nitric oxide production increases during Toxoplasma gondii encephalitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Dincel, Gungor Cagdas; Atmaca, Hasan Tarik

    2015-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite with the potential of causing severe encephalitis among immunocompromised human and animals. The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the immunomodulatory and immunopathological role of nitric oxide (NO) in central nervous systems and to identify any correlation between toxoplasmosis neuropathology and investigate the consequences of the cellular responses protect against T. gondii. Mice were infected with ME49 strain T. gondii and levels of endothelial, neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, nNOS, iNOS), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and neurofilament (NF) were examined in brain tissues by immunohistochemistry, during the development and establishment of a chronic infection at 10 30 and 60 days post infection. Results of the study revealed that the levels of eNOS (p < 0.05), nNOS (p < 0.05), iNOS (p < 0.005), GFAP (p < 0.005) and NF (p < 0.005) were remarkably higher in T. gondii-infected mice than in uninfected control. The most prominent finding from our study was 10 and 30 days after inoculation data indicating that increased levels of NO not only a potential neuroprotective role for immunoregulatory and immunopathological but also might be a molecular trigger of bradyzoite development. Furthermore, this findings were shown that high expressed NO origin was not only inducible nitric oxide synthase but also endothelial and neuronal. We demonstrated that activation of astrocytes and microglia/macrophages is a significant event in toxoplasma encephalitis (TE). The results also clearly indicated that increased levels of NO might contribute to neuropathology related with TE. Furthermore, expression of NF might gives an idea of the progress and critical for diagnostic significance of this disease. PMID:26115941

  15. Toxoplasma gondii Actively Inhibits Neuronal Function in Chronically Infected Mice

    PubMed Central

    Haroon, Fahad; Händel, Ulrike; Angenstein, Frank; Goldschmidt, Jürgen; Kreutzmann, Peter; Lison, Holger; Fischer, Klaus-Dieter; Scheich, Henning; Wetzel, Wolfram; Schlüter, Dirk; Budinger, Eike

    2012-01-01

    Upon infection with the obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii, fast replicating tachyzoites infect a broad spectrum of host cells including neurons. Under the pressure of the immune response, tachyzoites convert into slow-replicating bradyzoites, which persist as cysts in neurons. Currently, it is unclear whether T. gondii alters the functional activity of neurons, which may contribute to altered behaviour of T. gondii–infected mice and men. In the present study we demonstrate that upon oral infection with T. gondii cysts, chronically infected BALB/c mice lost over time their natural fear against cat urine which was paralleled by the persistence of the parasite in brain regions affecting behaviour and odor perception. Detailed immunohistochemistry showed that in infected neurons not only parasitic cysts but also the host cell cytoplasm and some axons stained positive for Toxoplasma antigen suggesting that parasitic proteins might directly interfere with neuronal function. In fact, in vitro live cell calcium (Ca2+) imaging studies revealed that tachyzoites actively manipulated Ca2+ signalling upon glutamate stimulation leading either to hyper- or hypo-responsive neurons. Experiments with the endoplasmatic reticulum Ca2+ uptake inhibitor thapsigargin indicate that tachyzoites deplete Ca2+ stores in the endoplasmatic reticulum. Furthermore in vivo studies revealed that the activity-dependent uptake of the potassium analogue thallium was reduced in cyst harbouring neurons indicating their functional impairment. The percentage of non-functional neurons increased over time In conclusion, both bradyzoites and tachyzoites functionally silence infected neurons, which may significantly contribute to the altered behaviour of the host. PMID:22530040

  16. Toxoplasma gondii actively inhibits neuronal function in chronically infected mice.

    PubMed

    Haroon, Fahad; Händel, Ulrike; Angenstein, Frank; Goldschmidt, Jürgen; Kreutzmann, Peter; Lison, Holger; Fischer, Klaus-Dieter; Scheich, Henning; Wetzel, Wolfram; Schlüter, Dirk; Budinger, Eike

    2012-01-01

    Upon infection with the obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii, fast replicating tachyzoites infect a broad spectrum of host cells including neurons. Under the pressure of the immune response, tachyzoites convert into slow-replicating bradyzoites, which persist as cysts in neurons. Currently, it is unclear whether T. gondii alters the functional activity of neurons, which may contribute to altered behaviour of T. gondii-infected mice and men. In the present study we demonstrate that upon oral infection with T. gondii cysts, chronically infected BALB/c mice lost over time their natural fear against cat urine which was paralleled by the persistence of the parasite in brain regions affecting behaviour and odor perception. Detailed immunohistochemistry showed that in infected neurons not only parasitic cysts but also the host cell cytoplasm and some axons stained positive for Toxoplasma antigen suggesting that parasitic proteins might directly interfere with neuronal function. In fact, in vitro live cell calcium (Ca(2+)) imaging studies revealed that tachyzoites actively manipulated Ca(2+) signalling upon glutamate stimulation leading either to hyper- or hypo-responsive neurons. Experiments with the endoplasmatic reticulum Ca(2+) uptake inhibitor thapsigargin indicate that tachyzoites deplete Ca(2+) stores in the endoplasmatic reticulum. Furthermore in vivo studies revealed that the activity-dependent uptake of the potassium analogue thallium was reduced in cyst harbouring neurons indicating their functional impairment. The percentage of non-functional neurons increased over time In conclusion, both bradyzoites and tachyzoites functionally silence infected neurons, which may significantly contribute to the altered behaviour of the host. PMID:22530040

  17. Isolation of Toxoplasma gondii from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Fair, P A; Sundar, N; Velmurugan, G; Kwok, O C H; McFee, W E; Majumdar, D; Su, C

    2008-08-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals is intriguing and indicative of contamination of the ocean environment and coastal waters with oocysts. In previous serological surveys, >90% of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the coasts of Florida, South Carolina, and California had antibodies to T. gondii by the modified agglutination test (MAT). In the present study, attempts were made to isolate T. gondii from dead T. truncatus. During 2005, 2006, and 2007, serum or blood clot, and tissues (brain, heart, skeletal muscle) of 52 T. truncatus stranded on the coasts of South Carolina were tested for T. gondii. Antibodies to T. gondii (MAT 1:25 or higher) were found in 26 (53%) of 49 dolphins; serum was not available from 3 animals. Tissues (heart, muscle, and sometimes brain) of 32 dolphins (26 seropositive, 3 seronegative, and 3 without accompanying sera) were bioassayed for T. gondii in mice, or cats, or both. Tissues of the recipient mice were examined for T. gondii stages. Feces of recipient cats were examined for shedding of T. gondii oocysts, but none excreted oocysts. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from hearts of the 3 dolphins (2 with MAT titers of 1:200, and 1 without accompanied serum) by bioassay in mice. Genotyping of these 3 T. gondii isolates (designated TgDoUs1-3) with the use of 10 PCR-RFLP markers (SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico) revealed 2 genotypes. Two of the 3 isolates have Type II alleles at all loci and belong to the clonal Type II lineage. One isolate has a unique genotype. This is the first report of isolation of viable T. gondii from T. truncatus. PMID:18576793

  18. The Crystal Structure of Toxoplasma gondii Pyruvate Kinase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Bakszt, R.; Wernimont, A; Allali-Hassani, A; Mok, M; Hills, T; Hui, R; Pizarro, J

    2010-01-01

    Pyruvate kinase (PK), which catalyzes the final step in glycolysis converting phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate, is a central metabolic regulator in most organisms. Consequently PK represents an attractive therapeutic target in cancer and human pathogens, like Apicomplexans. The phylum Aplicomplexa, a group of exclusively parasitic organisms, includes the genera Plasmodium, Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma, the etiological agents of malaria, cryptosporidiosis and toxoplasmosis respectively. Toxoplasma gondii infection causes a mild illness and is a very common infection affecting nearly one third of the world's population. We have determined the crystal structure of the PK1 enzyme from T. gondii, with the B domain in the open and closed conformations. We have also characterized its enzymatic activity and confirmed glucose-6-phosphate as its allosteric activator. This is the first description of a PK enzyme in a closed inactive conformation without any bound substrate. Comparison of the two tetrameric TgPK1 structures indicates a reorientation of the monomers with a concomitant change in the buried surface among adjacent monomers. The change in the buried surface was associated with significant B domain movements in one of the interacting monomers. We hypothesize that a loop in the interface between the A and B domains plays an important role linking the position of the B domain to the buried surface among monomers through two {alpha}-helices. The proposed model links the catalytic cycle of the enzyme with its domain movements and highlights the contribution of the interface between adjacent subunits. In addition, an unusual ordered conformation was observed in one of the allosteric binding domains and it is related to a specific apicomplexan insertion. The sequence and structural particularity would explain the atypical activation by a mono-phosphorylated sugar. The sum of peculiarities raises this enzyme as an emerging target for drug discovery.

  19. Posterior fossa lesions associated with neuropsychiatric symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Pollak, L; Klein, C; Rabey, J M; Schiffer, J

    1996-11-01

    We reviewed 7 cases with posterior fossa structural abnormalities (3 tumors, 2 megacisterna magna and 2 Dandy-Walker syndrome) presenting with neuropsychiatric symptomatology. Derangement in the balance of dopamine, serotonin and noradrenergic networks has been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, affective and even personality disorders. Disruption of the cerebellar output to mesial dopaminergic areas, locus coeruleus and raphe nuclei, or deafferentation of the thalamolimbic circuits by a cerebellar lesion may lead to behavioral changes. Seven patients (pts) (comprising 4 men and 3 women with mean age 22 years) were diagnosed as suffering from psychosis (2 pts), major depression (1 pt), personality disorders (2 pts) and somatoform disorders (2 pts) (DSM-IV criteria). Brain CT scan (7 pts) and MRI (4 pts) revealed tumors of the posterior fossa (2 pts), megacisterna magna (2 pts) and Dandy-Walker variant (2 pts). In one patient a IVth ventricle tumor was removed in childhood. PMID:9003973

  20. Fractures of posterior teeth in adults.

    PubMed

    Eakle, W S; Maxwell, E H; Braly, B V

    1986-02-01

    Examined in this study were 191 patients with 206 complete or incomplete fractures of posterior teeth. The patients ranged in age from 14 to 76 years, with 66.5% younger than 40 years. The number of fractures occurring in each arch was almost equal. The mandibular first molar was the most frequently fractured posterior tooth. The lingual cusps of mandibular molars fractured more often than did the buccal cusps of mandibular molars by a ratio of 2 to 1. In maxillary molars, buccal and lingual cusps fractured with almost equal frequency, but, in maxillary premolars, the lingual cusps fractured slightly more often than buccal cusps. Data gathered on the widths of the isthmuses of restorations in 109 teeth showed that fewer fractures occurred in teeth with more conservative restorations, with widths of isthmuses a quarter of the inter-cusp distance, and intact marginal ridges. PMID:3456380

  1. MicroRNA-132 dysregulation in Toxoplasma gondii infection has implications for dopamine signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jianchun; Li, Ye; Prandovszky, Emese; Karuppagounder, Senthilkumar S.; Talbot, C. Conover; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.; Yolken, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Congenital toxoplasmosis and toxoplasmic encephalitis can be associated with severe neuropsychiatric symptoms. However, which host cell processes are regulated and how Toxoplasma gondii affects these changes remain unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA sequences critical to neurodevelopment and adult neuronal processes by coordinating the activity of multiple genes within biological networks. We examined the expression of over 1000 miRNAs in human neuroepithelioma cells in response to infection with Toxoplasma. MiR-132, a cyclic AMP-responsive element binding (CREB)-regulated miRNA, was the only miRNA that was substantially upregulated by all three prototype Toxoplasma strains. The increased expression of miR-132 was also documented in mice following infection with Toxoplasma. To identify cellular pathways regulated by miR-132, we performed target prediction followed by pathway enrichment analysis in the transcriptome of Toxoplasma-infected mice. This led us to identify 20 genes and dopamine receptor signaling was their strongest associated pathway. We then examined myriad aspects of the dopamine pathway in the striatum of Toxoplasma infected mice 5 days after infection. Here we report decreased expression of D1-like dopamine receptors (DRD1, DRD5), metabolizing enzyme (MAOA) and intracellular proteins associated with the transduction of dopamine-mediated signaling (DARPP-32 phosphorylation at Thr34 and Ser97). Increased concentrations of dopamine and its metabolites, serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were documented by HPLC analysis; however, the metabolism of dopamine was decreased and serotonin metabolism was unchanged. Our data show that miR-132 is upregulated following infection with Toxoplasma and is associated with changes in dopamine receptor signaling. Our findings provide a possible mechanism for how the parasite contributes to the neuropathology of infection. PMID:24657774

  2. Chronic Toxoplasma Infection Modifies the Structure and the Risk of Host Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Afonso, Cristina; Paixão, Vitor B.; Costa, Rui M.

    2012-01-01

    The intracellular parasite Toxoplasma has an indirect life cycle, in which felids are the definitive host. It has been suggested that this parasite developed mechanisms for enhancing its transmission rate to felids by inducing behavioral modifications in the intermediate rodent host. For example, Toxoplasma-infected rodents display a reduction in the innate fear of predator odor. However, animals with Toxoplasma infection acquired in the wild are more often caught in traps, suggesting that there are manipulations of intermediate host behavior beyond those that increase predation by felids. We investigated the behavioral modifications of Toxoplasma-infected mice in environments with exposed versus non-exposed areas, and found that chronically infected mice with brain cysts display a plethora of behavioral alterations. Using principal component analysis, we discovered that most of the behavioral differences observed in cyst-containing animals reflected changes in the microstructure of exploratory behavior and risk/unconditioned fear. We next examined whether these behavioral changes were related to the presence and distribution of parasitic cysts in the brain of chronically infected mice. We found no strong cyst tropism for any particular brain area but found that the distribution of Toxoplasma cysts in the brain of infected animals was not random, and that particular combinations of cyst localizations changed risk/unconditioned fear in the host. These results suggest that brain cysts in animals chronically infected with Toxoplasma alter the fine structure of exploratory behavior and risk/unconditioned fear, which may result in greater capture probability of infected rodents. These data also raise the possibility that selective pressures acted on Toxoplasma to broaden its transmission between intermediate predator hosts, in addition to felid definitive hosts. PMID:22431975

  3. Cervical disc hernia operations through posterior laminoforaminotomy

    PubMed Central

    Yolas, Coskun; Ozdemir, Nuriye Guzin; Okay, Hilmi Onder; Kanat, Ayhan; Senol, Mehmet; Atci, Ibrahim Burak; Yilmaz, Hakan; Coban, Mustafa Kemal; Yuksel, Mehmet Onur; Kahraman, Umit

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The most common used technique for posterolateral cervical disc herniations is anterior approach. However, posterior cervical laminotoforaminomy can provide excellent results in appropriately selected patients with foraminal stenosis in either soft disc prolapse or cervical spondylosis. The purpose of this study was to present the clinical outcomes following posterior laminoforaminotomy in patients with radiculopathy. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 35 patients diagnosed with posterolateral cervical disc herniation and cervical spondylosis with foraminal stenosis causing radiculopathy operated by the posterior cervical keyhole laminoforaminotomy between the years 2010 and 2015. Results: The file records and the radiographic images of the 35 patients were assessed retrospectively. The mean age was 46.4 years (range: 34-66 years). Of the patients, 19 were males and 16 were females. In all of the patients, the neurologic deficit observed was radiculopathy. The posterolaterally localized disc herniations and the osteophytic structures were on the left side in 18 cases and on the right in 17 cases. In 10 of the patients, the disc level was at C5-6, in 18 at C6-7, in 2 at C3-4, in 2 at C4-5, in 1 at C7-T1, in 1 patient at both C5-6 and C6-7, and in 1 at both C4-5 and C5-6. In 14 of these 35 patients, both osteophytic structures and protruded disc herniation were present. Intervertebral foramen stenosis was present in all of the patients with osteophytes. Postoperatively, in 31 patients the complaints were relieved completely and four patients had complaints of neck pain and paresthesia radiating to the arm (the success of operation was 88.5%). On control examinations, there was no finding of instability or cervical kyphosis. Conclusion: Posterior cervical laminoforaminotomy is an alternative appropriate choice in both cervical soft disc herniations and cervical stenosis. PMID:27217655

  4. Ciprofloxacin-associated posterior reversible encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Al Bu Ali, Waleed Hammad

    2013-01-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinico-neuroradiological syndrome characterised by numerous symptoms and of no specific aetiology. Headache, confusion, seizures, cortical visual disturbances or blindness are the key symptoms. As this syndrome is reversible and readily treated by interrupting or discontinuing the aetiology, it should sharply be acknowledged. Ciprofloxacin was associated with PRES in an adolescent male treated from chest infection. It was managed in a hospital intensive care unit and was observed until disappearance. PMID:23585504

  5. The mechanism of continence after posterior urethroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Bagga, Herman S.; Angermeier, Kenneth W.

    2015-01-01

    The standard of care after a pelvic fracture urethral injury is a repair via a one-stage anastomotic posterior urethroplasty using a step-wise perineal approach. The initial injury, immediate postoperative management, and surgical repair can all affect urinary continence in these patients. Proximal continence mechanisms, particularly the bladder neck, are particularly important in maintaining urinary continence in these patients. Patients with bladder neck dysfunction should be counselled about the greater risk of urinary incontinence. PMID:26019981

  6. The diagnostic dilemma of the posterior mediastinal thymus: CT manifestations

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.D.; Weber, T.R.; Sequeira, F.W.; Vane, D.W.; King, H.

    1983-03-01

    Extension of the normal thymus into the posterior mediastinum is rare. The CT appearance of this anomaly in an infant is presented. A mass of soft-tissue density extended from the anterior mediastinum to the posterior chest wall. The absence of any tissue-cleavage plane in the lesion and a smooth continuous lateral margin are signs of posterior extension of the thymus, and they help to distinguish this from a normal anterior thymus being present with a posterior tumor.

  7. Indocyanine green angiography in posterior uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Rupesh V; Biswas, Jyotirmay; Gunasekaran, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    Literature review for indocyanine green angiography and evaluate the role of indocyanine green angiogram (ICGA) in patients with posterior uveitis seen at a tertiary referral eye care centre. Detailed review of the literature on ICGA was performed. Retrospective review of medical records of patients with posterior uveitis and dual fundus and ICGA was done after institutional board approval. Eighteen patients (26 eyes) had serpiginous choroiditis out of which 12 patients had active choroiditis and six patients had healed choroiditis, six patients (12 eyes) had ampiginous choroiditis, six patients (12 eyes) had acute multifocal posterior placoid pigment epitheliopathy, eight patients (10 eyes) had multifocal choroiditis, four patients (eight eyes) had presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome, four patients (eight eyes) had presumed tuberculous choroiditis, two patients (four eyes) had multiple evanescent white dot syndrome and two patients (four eyes) had Vogt Koyanagi Harada (VKH) syndrome. The most characteristic feature noted on ICGA was the presence of different patterns of hypofluorescent dark spots, which were present at different stages of the angiogram. ICGA provides the clinician with a powerful adjunctive tool in choroidal inflammatory disorders. It is not meant to replace already proven modalities such as the fluorescein angiography, but it can provide additional information that is useful in establishing a more definitive diagnosis in inflammatory chorioretinal diseases associated with multiple spots. It still needs to be determined if ICGA can prove to be a follow up parameter to evaluate disease progression. PMID:23685486

  8. Electrocardiographic diagnosis of remote posterior wall myocardial infarction using unipolar posterior lead V9

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, M.W.; Imburgia, M.; King, T.R.; Fischer, K.C.; Kovach, K.L. )

    1989-09-01

    The accuracy of four electrocardiographic criteria for diagnosing remote posterior myocardial infarction was assessed prospectively in 369 patients undergoing exercise treadmill testing with thallium scintigraphy. Criteria included the following: (1) R-wave width greater than or equal to 0.04 s and R-wave greater than or equal to S-wave in V1; (2) R-wave greater than or equal to S-wave in V2; (3) T-wave voltage in V2 minus V6 greater than or equal to 0.38 mV (T-wave index); (4) Q-wave greater than or equal to 0.04 s in left paraspinal lead V9. Twenty-seven patients (7.3 percent) met thallium criteria for posterior myocardial infarction, defined as a persistent perfusion defect in the posterobase of the left ventricle. Sensitivities for the four criteria ranged from 4 to 56 percent, and specificities ranged from 64 to 99 percent. Posterior paraspinal lead V9 provided the best overall predictive accuracy (94 percent), positive predictive value (58 percent), and ability to differentiate patients with and without posterior myocardial infarction of any single criterion (p less than .0001). Combining the T-wave index with lead V9 further enhanced the diagnostic yield: the sensitivity for detecting posterior infarction by at least one of these criteria was 78 percent, and when both criteria were positive, specificity was 98.5 percent. It is concluded that a single, unipolar posterior lead in the V9 position is superior to standard 12-lead electrocardiographic criteria in diagnosing remote posterior myocardial infarction, and that combining V9 with the T-wave index maximizes the diagnostic yield.

  9. CONCENTRATING TOXOPLASMA GONDII AND CYCLOSPORA CAYETANENSIS FROM SURFACE WATER AND DRINKING WATER BY CONTINUOUS SEPARATION CHANNEL CENTRIFUGATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: To evaluate the effectiveness of continuous separation channel centrifugation for concentrating Toxoplasma gondii and Cyclospora cayetanensis from drinking water and environmental waters.Methods and Results: Ready-to-seed vials with known quantities of Toxoplasma gondii and Cyclospora cayetane...

  10. RH: DUBEY ET AL.-TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM CATS IN PUERTO RICO MOUSE VIRULENT TOXOPLASMA GONDII ISOLATED FROM FERALCATS IN MONA ISLAND, PUERTO RICO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cats are essential in the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that can excrete the environmentally-resistant oocysts. Samples of serum, feces, and tissues from cats from Mona, a remote island off the coast of Puerto Rico were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies t...

  11. Oxidative stress generated during monensin treatment contributes to altered Toxoplasma gondii mitochondrial function

    PubMed Central

    Charvat, Robert A.; Arrizabalaga, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    The ionophore monensin displays potent activities against several coccidian parasites of veterinary and medical importance including the opportunistic pathogen of humans, Toxoplasma gondii. While monensin is used widely in animals, toxicity impedes its use in humans. Nonetheless, given its potency, understanding its mode of action would reveal vulnerable aspects of the parasite that can be exploited for drug development. We previously established that monensin induces Toxoplasma to undergo cell cycle arrest and an autophagy-like cell death. Interestingly, these effects are dependent on the mitochondrion-localized TgMSH-1 protein, suggesting that monensin disrupts mitochondrial function. We demonstrate that monensin treatment results in decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and altered morphology. These effects are mitigated by the antioxidant compound N-acetyl-cysteine suggesting that monensin causes an oxidative stress, which was indeed the case based on direct detection of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, over-expression of the antioxidant proteins glutaredoxin and peroxiredoxin 2 protect Toxoplasma from the deleterious effects of monensin. Thus, our studies show that the effects of monensin on Toxoplasma are due to a disruption of mitochondrial function caused by the induction of an oxidative stress and implicate parasite redox biology as a viable target for the development of drugs against Toxoplasma and related pathogenic parasites. PMID:26976749

  12. Organisation and sequence determination of glutamine-dependent carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II in Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Fox, Barbara A; Bzik, David J

    2003-01-01

    Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II encodes the first enzymic step of de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis. Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II is essential for Toxoplasma gondii replication and virulence. In this study, we characterised the primary structure of a 28kb gene encoding Toxoplasma gondii carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II. The carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II gene was interrupted by 36 introns. The predicted protein encoded by the 37 carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II exons was a 1,687 amino acid polypeptide with an N-terminal glutamine amidotransferase domain fused with C-terminal carbamoyl phosphate synthetase domains. This bifunctional organisation of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II is unique, so far, to protozoan parasites from the phylum Apicomplexa (Plasmodium, Babesia, Toxoplasma) or zoomastigina (Trypanosoma, Leishmania). Apicomplexan parasites possessed the largest carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II enzymes due to insertions in the glutamine amidotransferase and carbamoyl phosphate synthetase domains that were not present in the corresponding gene segments from bacteria, plants, fungi and mammals. The C-terminal allosteric regulatory domain, the carbamoyl phosphate synthetase linker domain and the oligomerisation domain were also distinct from the corresponding domains in other species. The novel C-terminal regulatory domain may explain the lack of activation of Toxoplasma gondii carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II by the allosteric effector 5-phosphoribosyl 1-pyrophosphate. Toxoplasma gondii growth in vitro was markedly inhibited by the glutamine antagonist acivicin, an inhibitor of glutamine amidotransferase activity typically associated with carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II, guanosine monophosphate synthetase, or CTP synthetase. PMID:12547350

  13. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among patients with non-schizophrenic neurodevelopmental disorders in Alexandria, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Amany I; Hassanein, Faika I; Abdul-Ghani, Rashad

    2016-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic parasite with neurotropic characteristics that can mediate neurodevelopmental disorders, including mental, behavioral and personality aspects of their hosts. Therefore, the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies has been studied in patients with different neurological disorders from different localities. On searching online databases, however, we could not find published studies on the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies among patients with neurodevelopmental disorders in Egypt. Therefore, the present preliminary study was conducted to determine the serological profile of T. gondii infection among patients with non-schizophrenic neurodevelopmental disorders in Alexandria, Egypt. Data and blood samples were collected from 188 patients recruited for the study from four mental rehabilitation centers in the period from July 2014 to March 2015. The overall seropositivity rates of IgM and IgG among patients were 16.5% (31/188) and 50.0% (94/188), respectively. Of the studied patients' characteristics, only age was significantly associated with anti-Toxoplasma IgG seropositivity, with older patients being about twice more likely exposed to infection. However, no statistically significant association was found with IgM. In addition, seropositivity of anti-Toxoplasma IgG, but not IgM, was significantly associated with non-schizophrenic neurodevelopmental disorders; however, neither IgG nor IgM showed a significant association with cognitive impairment as indicated by the intelligence quotient scores. PMID:26656562

  14. Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity and cognitive functions in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Mendy, A; Vieira, E R; Albatineh, A N; Gasana, J

    2015-08-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infects one-third of the world population, but its association with cognitive functions in school-aged children is unclear. We examined the relationship between Toxoplasma seropositivity and neuropsychological tests scores (including math, reading, visuospatial reasoning and verbal memory) in 1755 school-aged children 12-16 years old who participated to the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, using multiple linear regressions adjusted for covariates. Toxoplasma seroprevalence was 7·7% and seropositivity to the parasite was associated with lower reading skills (regression coefficient [β] = -5·86, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -11·11, -0·61, P = 0·029) and memory capacities (β = -0·86, 95% CI: -1·58, -0·15, P = 0·017). The interaction between T. gondii seropositivity and vitamin E significantly correlated with memory scores. In subgroup analysis, Toxoplasma-associated memory impairment was worse in children with lower serum vitamin E concentrations (β = -1·61, 95% CI: -2·44, -0·77, P < 0·001) than in those with higher values (β = -0·12, 95% CI: -1·23, 0·99, P = 0·83). In conclusion, Toxoplasma seropositivity may be associated with reading and memory impairments in school-aged children. Serum vitamin E seems to modify the relationship between the parasitic infection and memory deficiency. PMID:25990628

  15. Optimization of the cryopreservation of biological resources, Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites, using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Mzabi, Alexandre; Escotte-Binet, Sandie; Le Naour, Richard; Ortis, Naïma; Audonnet, Sandra; Dardé, Marie-Laure; Aubert, Dominique; Villena, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    The conservation of Toxoplasma gondii strains isolated from humans and animals is essential for conducting studies on Toxoplasma. Conservation is the main function of the French Biological Toxoplasma Resource Centre (BRC Toxoplasma, France, http://www.toxocrb.com/). In this study, we have determined the suitability of a standard cryopreservation methodology for different Toxoplasma strains using the viability of tachyzoites assayed by flow cytometry with dual fluorescent labelling (calcein acetoxymethyl ester and propidium iodide) of tachyzoites. This method provides a comparative quantitative assessment of viability after thawing. The results helped to define and refine quality criteria before tachyzoite cryopreservation and optimization of the cryopreservation parameters. The optimized cryopreservation method uses a volume of 1.0 mL containing 8 × 10(6) tachyzoites, in Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Medium (IMDM) containing 10% foetal calf serum (FCS). The cryoprotectant additive is 10% v/v Me2SO without incubation. A cooling rate of ∼1 °C/min to -80 °C followed, after 48 h, by storage in liquid nitrogen. Thawing was performed using a 37 °C water bath that produced a warming rate of ∼100 °C/min, and samples were then diluted 1:5 in IMDM with 5% FCS, and centrifuged and resuspended for viability assessment. PMID:26408852

  16. Oxidative stress generated during monensin treatment contributes to altered Toxoplasma gondii mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Charvat, Robert A; Arrizabalaga, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    The ionophore monensin displays potent activities against several coccidian parasites of veterinary and medical importance including the opportunistic pathogen of humans, Toxoplasma gondii. While monensin is used widely in animals, toxicity impedes its use in humans. Nonetheless, given its potency, understanding its mode of action would reveal vulnerable aspects of the parasite that can be exploited for drug development. We previously established that monensin induces Toxoplasma to undergo cell cycle arrest and an autophagy-like cell death. Interestingly, these effects are dependent on the mitochondrion-localized TgMSH-1 protein, suggesting that monensin disrupts mitochondrial function. We demonstrate that monensin treatment results in decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and altered morphology. These effects are mitigated by the antioxidant compound N-acetyl-cysteine suggesting that monensin causes an oxidative stress, which was indeed the case based on direct detection of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, over-expression of the antioxidant proteins glutaredoxin and peroxiredoxin 2 protect Toxoplasma from the deleterious effects of monensin. Thus, our studies show that the effects of monensin on Toxoplasma are due to a disruption of mitochondrial function caused by the induction of an oxidative stress and implicate parasite redox biology as a viable target for the development of drugs against Toxoplasma and related pathogenic parasites. PMID:26976749

  17. Effects of (+)-usnic acid and (+)-usnic acid-liposome on Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Si, Kaiwei; Wei, Linlin; Yu, Xiaozhuo; Wu, Feng; Li, Xiaoqi; Li, Chen; Cheng, Yanbin

    2016-07-01

    Toxoplasma gondii pathogen is a threat to human health that results in economic burden. Unfortunately, there are very few high-efficiency and low-toxicity drugs for toxoplasmosis in the clinic. (+)-Usnic acid derived from lichen species has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-parasitology, and even anti-cancer activities. Herein, the systematic effect of (+)-usnic acid and (+)-usnic acid-liposome on toxoplasma were studied in vitro and in vivo. The viability of toxoplasma tachyzoite was assayed with trypan blue and Giemsa staining; while the invasive capability of tachyzoite to cardiofibroblasts was detected using Giemsa staining. The survival time of mice and the changes in tachyzoite ultrastructure were studied in vivo. The results showed that (+)-usnic acid inhibited the viability of tachyzoite; pretreatment with (+)-usnic acid significantly decreased the invasion of tachyzoite to cardiofibroblasts in vitro; (+)-usnic acid and (+)-usnic acid-liposome extensively prolonged the survival time of mice about 90.9% and 117%, respectively; and improved the ultrastructural changes of tachyzoite, especially in dense granules, rhoptries, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and other membrane organelles. In summary, these results demonstrate that (+)-usnic acid and (+)-usnic acid-liposome with low toxicity have an inhibitory effect on the viability of toxoplasma tachyzoite, and mainly destructed membrane organelles which are connected with the virulence of toxoplasma. These findings provide the basis for further study and development of usnic acid as a potential agent for treating toxoplasmosis. PMID:27004468

  18. Anterior and posterior fixation for delayed treatment of posterior atlantoaxial dislocation without fracture.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hai Ming; Malhotra, Karan; Butler, Joseph S; Wu, Shi Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Posterior atlantoaxial dislocation (PAAD) without fracture of the odontoid process is a rare injury. Authors have variously reported closed or open reduction, followed by either anterior or posterior fixation, but there is no consensus on best treatment. We present a particularly unstable case of PAAD. Open reduction through a retropharyngeal approach with odontoidectomy was required for reduction. Anterior fixation with transarticular lag screws was required prior to posterior fixation with pedicle screws. Despite non-compliance with postoperative immobilisation, imaging at 20-month follow-up confirmed solid fusion. The patient is pain-free with a good range of movement of the neck and has returned to a manual job. Our case had a greater degree of instability than was previously reported, which necessitated 360° fixation. This is the first reported case of this treatment strategy, which provided a very stable fixation allowing fusion despite early movement and without causing undue stiffness. PMID:26516249

  19. Usefulness of three posterior chest leads for the detection of posterior wall acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Aqel, Raed A; Hage, Fadi G; Ellipeddi, Pavani; Blackmon, Linda; McElderry, Hugh T; Kay, G Neal; Plumb, Vance; Iskandrian, Ami E

    2009-01-15

    A significant proportion of patients with myocardial infarction are missed upon initial presentation to the emergency department. The 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) has a low sensitivity for the detection of acute myocardial infarction, especially if the culprit lesion is in the left circumflex artery (LCA). This study was designed to evaluate the benefit of adding 3 posterior chest leads on top of the 12-lead ECG to detect ischemia resulting from LC disease, using a model of temporary balloon occlusion to produce ischemia. We studied 53 consecutive patients who underwent clinically indicated coronary interventions. At the time of coronary angiography, the balloon was inflated to produce complete occlusion of the proximal LCA. We recorded and analyzed the changes noted on the 15-lead ECG, which included 3 posterior leads in addition to the standard 12 leads. In response to acute occlusion of the LCA, the posterior chest leads showed more ST elevation than the other leads, and more patients had ST elevation in the posterior leads than in any other lead. The 15-lead ECG was able to detect>or=0.5 mm (74% vs 38%, p<0.0001) and >or=1 mm (62% vs 34%, p<0.0001) ST elevation in any 2 contiguous leads more frequently than the 12-lead ECG. In conclusion, the 15-lead ECG identified more patients with posterior myocardial wall ischemia because of temporary balloon occlusion of the LC than the 12-lead ECG. This information may enhance the detection of posterior MI in the emergency department and potentially facilitate early institution of reperfusion therapy. PMID:19121429

  20. Surgical options for posterior tibial plateau fracture

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongwei; Wu, Lijun

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate surgical methods and clinical effectiveness of posteromedial and posterolateral approaches for the posterior tibial plateau fracture. Method: 21 cases who received surgery through posterior approaches for the treatment of posterior tibial plateau fractures (PTPFs) were included. Results: 21 cases were subject to follow-up for 12-24 months (an average of 16.2 months). No cases developed incision inflammation, neurovascular injury, internal fixation loosening and breakage. All fractures were healed. No cases developed knee varus and valgus deformity and fracture dislocation. After surgery, Rasmussen score for knee joint functions was 13-30 points (a mean of 24.2). The results were excellent in 12 cases, good in 7 cases and fair in 2 cases. The percentage of excellent and good results was 90.5%. Rasmussen radiology score was 10-18 points (a mean of 15.6 points). The results were excellent in 13 cases, good in 7 cases and fair in 1 cases. The percentage of excellent and good results was 95.2%. 1 case had significant limited range of knee flexion and extension, which was improved after phase II release under arthroscopy combined with function exercise. 2 cases developed traumatic arthritis, which was relieved after intra-articular injection with sodium hyaluronate and oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Conclusion: The posteromedial and posterolateral approaches for PTPF is good for reduction and fixation of PTPF. The approaches have benefits such as clear exposure, convenient placement of internal fixation, less trauma and good clinical outcome. PMID:26885086

  1. Complications when augmenting the posterior maxilla.

    PubMed

    Fugazzotto, Paul; Melnick, Philip R; Al-Sabbagh, Mohanad

    2015-01-01

    The maxillary posterior edentulous region presents a challenge when planning for restoring missing teeth with a dental implant. The available bone in such cases is often not dense and not adequate for the placement of a properly sized implant because of maxillary sinus pneumatization and alveolar bone loss. Maxillary sinus lift is a predictable procedure to provide adequate bone height for the purpose of implant placement. However, complications are encountered during or after the execution of the sinus lift procedure. In this article, the prevention and management of maxillary sinus complications are discussed. PMID:25434561

  2. Trigeminal neuralgia secondary to posterior fossa tumor.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Mamta; Agrawal, Vikrant; Agrawal, Rajiv; Pramod, D S R

    2010-01-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is by no means an uncommon entity presenting as typical or atypical pain syndrome with a standard treatment protocol consisting of medical and surgical therapies. The diagnosis of TN is mainly dependent on the characteristics of symptoms conveyed by the patient and the clinical presentation. Careful history taking, proper interpretation of the signs and symptoms and cranial nerve assessment are necessary for proper diagnosis. Here, we report a case of TN, treated for dental problems and then for neuralgia with only short-term relief. Subsequently, the patient underwent neuroimaging and was found to be having an uncommon space-occupying lesion in the posterior cranial fossa. PMID:22442556

  3. [Toxoplasma infection, a rare but life-threatening complication after kidney transplantation: report of two cases].

    PubMed

    Jugant, Sébastien; Pernin, Vincent; Vetromile, Fernando; Garrigue, Valérie; Delmas, Sylvie; Szwarc, Ilan; Sterkers, Yvon; Mourad, Georges

    2013-02-01

    Toxoplasma infection is uncommon after renal transplantation. As a result, Toxoplasma gondii is often missed from the list of microbial agents which may be responsible of an infectious complication after renal transplantation. However, establishing this diagnosis is very important because toxoplasmosis can be life-threatening in an immunocompromised host, particularly when the diagnosis is too delayed. Here we report two cases of severe toxoplasmosis after renal transplantation. In the first case, primary infection transmitted by a cat developed in a seronegative recipient five years after renal transplantation. In the second case, reactivation of latent infection developed in a seropositive recipient 9 months after transplantation. In both cases, systematic screening for Toxoplasma gondii using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in biological fluids was essential to suggest the diagnosis. Both recipients rapidly recovered after institution of antiparasitic therapy. PMID:23059352

  4. The metabolic roles of the endosymbiotic organelles of Toxoplasma and Plasmodium spp.

    PubMed Central

    Sheiner, Lilach; Vaidya, Akhil B.; McFadden, Geoffrey I.

    2013-01-01

    The apicoplast and the mitochondrion of Apicomplexa cooperate in providing essential metabolites. Their co-evolution during the ancestral acquisition of a plastid and subsequent loss of photosynthesis resulted in divergent metabolic pathways compared with mammals and plants. This is most evident in their chimerical haem synthesis pathway. Toxoplasma and Plasmodium mitochondria operate canonical TCA cycles and electron transport chains, although the roles differ between Toxoplasma tachyzoites and Plasmodium erythrocytic stages. Glutamine catabolism provides TCA intermediates in both parasites. Isoprenoid precursor synthesis is the only essential role of the apicoplast in Plasmodium erythrocytic stages. An apicoplast-located fatty acid synthesis is dispensable in these stages, which instead predominantly salvage fatty acids, while in Plasmodium liver stages and in Toxoplasma tachyzoites fatty acid synthesis is an essential role of the plastid. PMID:23927894

  5. A novel multifunctional oligonucleotide microarray for Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Microarrays are invaluable tools for genome interrogation, SNP detection, and expression analysis, among other applications. Such broad capabilities would be of value to many pathogen research communities, although the development and use of genome-scale microarrays is often a costly undertaking. Therefore, effective methods for reducing unnecessary probes while maintaining or expanding functionality would be relevant to many investigators. Results Taking advantage of available genome sequences and annotation for Toxoplasma gondii (a pathogenic parasite responsible for illness in immunocompromised individuals) and Plasmodium falciparum (a related parasite responsible for severe human malaria), we designed a single oligonucleotide microarray capable of supporting a wide range of applications at relatively low cost, including genome-wide expression profiling for Toxoplasma, and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genotyping of both T. gondii and P. falciparum. Expression profiling of the three clonotypic lineages dominating T. gondii populations in North America and Europe provides a first comprehensive view of the parasite transcriptome, revealing that ~49% of all annotated genes are expressed in parasite tachyzoites (the acutely lytic stage responsible for pathogenesis) and 26% of genes are differentially expressed among strains. A novel design utilizing few probes provided high confidence genotyping, used here to resolve recombination points in the clonal progeny of sexual crosses. Recent sequencing of additional T. gondii isolates identifies >620 K new SNPs, including ~11 K that intersect with expression profiling probes, yielding additional markers for genotyping studies, and further validating the utility of a combined expression profiling/genotyping array design. Additional applications facilitating SNP and transcript discovery, alternative statistical methods for quantifying gene expression, etc. are also pursued at pilot scale to inform

  6. Plasticity between MyoC- and MyoA-Glideosomes: An Example of Functional Compensation in Toxoplasma gondii Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Frénal, Karine; Marq, Jean-Baptiste; Jacot, Damien; Polonais, Valérie; Soldati-Favre, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    The glideosome is an actomyosin-based machinery that powers motility in Apicomplexa and participates in host cell invasion and egress from infected cells. The central component of the glideosome, myosin A (MyoA), is a motor recruited at the pellicle by the acylated gliding-associated protein GAP45. In Toxoplasma gondii, GAP45 also contributes to the cohesion of the pellicle, composed of the inner membrane complex (IMC) and the plasma membrane, during motor traction. GAP70 was previously identified as a paralog of GAP45 that is tailored to recruit MyoA at the apical cap in the coccidian subgroup of the Apicomplexa. A third member of this family, GAP80, is demonstrated here to assemble a new glideosome, which recruits the class XIV myosin C (MyoC) at the basal polar ring. MyoC shares the same myosin light chains as MyoA and also interacts with the integral IMC proteins GAP50 and GAP40. Moreover, a central component of this complex, the IMC-associated protein 1 (IAP1), acts as the key determinant for the restricted localization of MyoC to the posterior pole. Deletion of specific components of the MyoC-glideosome underscores the installation of compensatory mechanisms with components of the MyoA-glideosome. Conversely, removal of MyoA leads to the relocalization of MyoC along the pellicle and at the apical cap that accounts for residual invasion. The two glideosomes exhibit a considerable level of plasticity to ensure parasite survival. PMID:25393004

  7. Comparison of Four Commercially Available Avidity Tests for Toxoplasma gondii-Specific IgG Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Breit, L.; Cimon, B.; Franck, J.; Fricker-Hidalgo, H.; Godineau, N.; Houze, S.; Paris, L.; Pelloux, H.; Villena, I.

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women may cause congenital toxoplasmosis. Diagnosis of infection is based on serological tests aimed at detecting IgM and IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. However, IgM antibodies are not an accurate marker for discriminating between acute and latent infection. Detection of residual or persistent IgM may occur months or even years after primary infection, while the IgG avidity test is a rapid means of identifying latent infections in pregnant women who exhibit both IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma antibodies on initial testing during pregnancy. In this study, we assessed and compared the performances of four commercially available Toxoplasma IgG avidity tests in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients with acute and latent toxoplasmosis. The positive predictive value of high avidity to confirm latent toxoplasmosis was 100% for all the assays, indicating that high avidity is a hallmark of latent infection. However, the negative predictive value of high avidity ranged from 99.2% (bioMérieux) to 95.3% (Abbott), indicating that acute toxoplasmosis could not be reliably diagnosed based on low IgG avidity alone. Thus, the avidity test provides a rapid means for identifying latent Toxoplasma infection in immunocompetent pregnant women presenting both IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma antibodies on initial testing. In terms of cost-effectiveness, avidity testing is a powerful tool that optimizes screening and follow-up of pregnant women while minimizing the costs of screening by avoiding subsequent costly maternal and fetal investigation and unnecessary treatment. The cheapest assay, Vidas Toxo IgG Avidity, also had the best performance for the diagnosis of latent toxoplasmosis. PMID:23239801

  8. Comparison of four commercially available avidity tests for Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgG antibodies.

    PubMed

    Villard, O; Breit, L; Cimon, B; Franck, J; Fricker-Hidalgo, H; Godineau, N; Houze, S; Paris, L; Pelloux, H; Villena, I; Candolfi, E

    2013-02-01

    Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women may cause congenital toxoplasmosis. Diagnosis of infection is based on serological tests aimed at detecting IgM and IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. However, IgM antibodies are not an accurate marker for discriminating between acute and latent infection. Detection of residual or persistent IgM may occur months or even years after primary infection, while the IgG avidity test is a rapid means of identifying latent infections in pregnant women who exhibit both IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma antibodies on initial testing during pregnancy. In this study, we assessed and compared the performances of four commercially available Toxoplasma IgG avidity tests in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients with acute and latent toxoplasmosis. The positive predictive value of high avidity to confirm latent toxoplasmosis was 100% for all the assays, indicating that high avidity is a hallmark of latent infection. However, the negative predictive value of high avidity ranged from 99.2% (bioMérieux) to 95.3% (Abbott), indicating that acute toxoplasmosis could not be reliably diagnosed based on low IgG avidity alone. Thus, the avidity test provides a rapid means for identifying latent Toxoplasma infection in immunocompetent pregnant women presenting both IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma antibodies on initial testing. In terms of cost-effectiveness, avidity testing is a powerful tool that optimizes screening and follow-up of pregnant women while minimizing the costs of screening by avoiding subsequent costly maternal and fetal investigation and unnecessary treatment. The cheapest assay, Vidas Toxo IgG Avidity, also had the best performance for the diagnosis of latent toxoplasmosis. PMID:23239801

  9. The correlation between Toxoplasma gondii infection and Parkinson's disease: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Mahami Oskouei, Mahmoud; Hamidi, Faezeh; Talebi, Mahnaz; Farhoudi, Mehdi; Taheraghdam, Ali Akbar; Kazemi, Tohid; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Fallah, Esmaeil

    2016-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that infects all nucleate cells of vertebrates. Human infected by vertical transmission and also using raw or undercooked meat or food and water that contaminated with mature oocysts. Parkinson's disease as neurodegenerative disease affects people above 60 years. Due to high prevalence of toxoplasmosis in Iran and evidence about effects of T. gondii on neurodegenerative diseases, this study has been conducted to investigate possible correlation between Toxoplasma and Parkinson's disease in Iran. Seventy five Parkinson's patients and equal healthy volunteers were enrolled. After obtaining informed consent and sociodemographic features, 5 ml blood sample were collected and then anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM levels were examined by ELISA method. Data was analyzed with Chi-squre and Fisher's test by usig stata 11 software. Binary logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis in assessing the correlation between toxoplasmosis and Parkinson. Eighty five percent of Parkinson's group and 90.3 % of control group were positive for anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibody. In this investigation no statically differences were observed between groups and age, gender, residency and using raw or undercooked meat. There is no significant association between IgG positive titer and Parkinson's disease. However, statistically significant association was found between Parkinson and keeping cat (P = 0.03) as well as the using of undercooked egg (P = 0.004). Although there is high level of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibody in Parkinson's patients which reflects chronic Toxoplasma infection; we couldn't detect any statistical association between T. gondii infection and Parkinson's disease. PMID:27605800

  10. Management of an Uncomplicated Posterior Elbow Dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Blackard, Douglas; Sampson, Jo-Ann

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To present a case of an uncomplicated posterior elbow dislocation in a US World Cup athlete and discuss her rehabilitation. Background: Traditional protocol for management of this injury has been splint immobilization for several weeks, but research suggests a shortened duration of immobilization and early active motion. Differential Diagnosis: Elbow dislocation with possible fracture. Treatment: The dislocation was reduced and a compression bandage and sling were applied. The sports medicine staff and athlete determined that rehabilitation would involve limited immobilization with a posterior splint. Also, active range-of- motion exercises were to be incorporated early in the range-of- motion program to decrease pain at the articulation. Uniqueness: The athlete was not immobilized and her aggressive five-phase rehabilitation program progressed according to decrease in inflammation and increase in range of motion and strength. Conclusions: Shortened immobilization and return to World Championship competition 6 weeks postinjury had no longterm adverse effects on the athlete. ImagesFig 1.Fig 2.Fig 3.Fig 4.Fig. 5. PMID:16558436

  11. Traumatic posterior dislocation of hip in children.

    PubMed

    Kutty, S; Thornes, B; Curtin, W A; Gilmore, M F

    2001-02-01

    Traumatic posterior dislocation of the hip joint in children is an uncommon injury. It constitutes a true orthopedic emergency. It makes up over 80% of pediatric hip dislocations. In children, it can occur as a result of minimal trauma, which is attributed to a soft pliable acetabulum and ligamentous laxity. In skeletally mature adolescents, a greater force is required to dislocate the hip joint. Delay in reduction is associated with long-term complications such as avascular necrosis and degenerative arthritis. Avascular necrosis is related to the duration of dislocation. A poorer prognosis is associated with delay in reduction beyond 6 hours, advanced skeletal maturity, or multiple traumas. Prompt reduction minimizes complications. We report two cases of traumatic posterior dislocation of hip in children aged 3 and 14 years. Both were reduced within 6 hours of dislocation, and review at 6 months revealed normal examination and no evidence of any post-traumatic changes. Post-reduction treatment remains without a consensus. This review highlights the clinical presentation, management, and time-sensitive complications of the injury. PMID:11265904

  12. Hydatidosis of the liver and posterior mediastinum

    PubMed Central

    Quail, Jacob F; Gramins, Daniel L; Dutton, William D

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cystic echinococcus (CE) is an endemic zoonosis secondary to infection by the larval form of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus. An intermediate host, humans enter the organism’s life cycle by exposure to infected canid feces. The liver is the most common location of CE while mediastinal hydatid cysts are rarely reported. Presentation of case We report a case of synchronous CE of the liver and posterior mediastinum treated sequentially using chemotherapy, percutaneous aspiration with injection of a scolicidal agent and re-aspiration (PAIR) and then staged minimally-invasive surgeries. Discussion Synchronous CE involving the liver and posterior mediastinum is rare. The treatment of hydatid liver and mediastinal disease is multimodal including chemotherapy, percutaneous and laparoscopic or open surgical interventions. One option for controlled puncture of hepatic and mediastinal CE includes PAIR followed by surgery. Conclusion The sequential use of chemotherapy and PAIR followed by surgery provides another treatment strategy for management of CE. We believe this strategy may be used safely in locations without endemic CE, including most regions of the United States. PMID:25562598

  13. Mycophenolate-Induced Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Khajuria, Bhavik; Khajuria, Mansi; Agrawal, Yashwant

    2016-01-01

    A 29-year-old woman presented with diffuse anasarca and shortness of breath. Workup revealed a creatinine of 3.3 and a glomerular filtration rate of 17. The patient was also found to be pancytopenic with evidence of hemolytic anemia. A renal biopsy showed evidence of stage IV lupus nephritis with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. Her lupus was further classified as ANA negative and anti-dsDNA positive. Mycophenolate and triweekly hemodialysis were started along with a steroid burst of methylprednisolone 1 g for 3 days followed by prednisone 60 mg daily. Four days after discharge, the patient represented with a witnessed 3-minute seizure involving bowel incontinence, altered mental status, and tongue biting. She was given 2 mg intravenous lorazepam and loaded with 1000 mg levetiracetam for seizure prophylaxis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the head revealed bilateral posterior hemispheric subcortical edema, and the diagnosis of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome was made. Mycophenolate was immediately discontinued and replaced with cyclophosphamide. Strict blood pressure control below 140/90 mm Hg was maintained initially with intravenous nicardipine drip and then transitioned to oral nifedipine, clonidine, losartan, and minoxidil. A repeat head magnetic resonance imaging 8 days later showed resolved subcortical edema consistent with the patient's improved mental status. No permanent neurologic sequelae were recorded as a result of this hospital episode. PMID:25933141

  14. The posterior calf fascial free flap.

    PubMed

    Walton, R L; Matory, W E; Petry, J J

    1985-12-01

    Six posterior calf fascial free flaps were employed to reconstruct defects of the upper and lower extremities. One flap failed due to a constricting dressing. Two flaps sustained partial loss secondary to bleeding and hematoma formation. One flap dehisced at the distal suture line due to mobility of an underlying fracture. All surviving flaps eventually healed and resulted in stable, thin coverage. Donor-site morbidity has been minimal. Shortcomings of this flap model have been defined in the peculiarities of its thinness, diffuse vascular oozing, the extent of the vascular territory, and in postoperative monitoring. These problems are analyzed and recommendations for their resolution are presented. Fascia represents a unique tissue which offers an exciting new dimension in the reconstruction of certain defects--particularly those in which thinness is a desirable option. In the posterior calf model, the inclusion of fat represents an alternative modification that allows the surgeon to tailor the design to a variety of problems where fascia alone is too thin and a cutaneous flap is too thick. This concept may find its greatest application in wounds involving the hand or foot. We believe that this and other fascial flap prototypes may offer an ideal solution for reconstruction of major wounds of the extremities. PMID:3906718

  15. Transient Transfection and Expression in the Obligate Intracellular Parasite Toxoplasma gondii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldati, Dominique; Boothroyd, John C.

    1993-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan pathogen that produces severe disease in humans and animals. This obligate intracellular parasite provides an excellent model for the study of how such pathogens are able to invade, survive, and replicate intracellularly. DNA encoding chloramphenicol acetyltransferase was introduced into T. gondii and transiently expressed with the use of three vectors based on different Toxoplasma genes. The ability to introduce genes and have them efficiently and faithfully expressed is an essential tool for understanding the structure-function relation of genes and their products.

  16. Prehension Movements in a Patient (AC) with Posterior Parietal Cortex Damage and Posterior Callosal Section

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frak, Victor; Paulignan, Yves; Jeannerod, Marc; Michel, Francois; Cohen, Henri

    2006-01-01

    Prehension movements of the right hand were recorded in a right-handed man (AC), with an injury to the left posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and with a section of the left half of the splenium. The kinematic analysis of AC's grasping movements in direct and perturbed conditions was compared to that of five control subjects. A novel effect in…

  17. Phosphatidylinositol 3-monophosphate is involved in toxoplasma apicoplast biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tawk, Lina; Dubremetz, Jean-François; Montcourrier, Philippe; Chicanne, Gaëtan; Merezegue, Fabrice; Richard, Véronique; Payrastre, Bernard; Meissner, Markus; Vial, Henri J; Roy, Christian; Wengelnik, Kai; Lebrun, Maryse

    2011-02-01

    Apicomplexan parasites cause devastating diseases including malaria and toxoplasmosis. They harbour a plastid-like, non-photosynthetic organelle of algal origin, the apicoplast, which fulfils critical functions for parasite survival. Because of its essential and original metabolic pathways, the apicoplast has become a target for the development of new anti-apicomplexan drugs. Here we show that the lipid phosphatidylinositol 3-monophosphate (PI3P) is involved in apicoplast biogenesis in Toxoplasma gondii. In yeast and mammalian cells, PI3P is concentrated on early endosomes and regulates trafficking of endosomal compartments. Imaging of PI3P in T. gondii showed that the lipid was associated with the apicoplast and apicoplast protein-shuttling vesicles. Interference with regular PI3P function by over-expression of a PI3P specific binding module in the parasite led to the accumulation of vesicles containing apicoplast peripheral membrane proteins around the apicoplast and, ultimately, to the loss of the organelle. Accordingly, inhibition of the PI3P-synthesising kinase interfered with apicoplast biogenesis. These findings point to an unexpected implication for this ubiquitous lipid and open new perspectives on how nuclear encoded proteins traffic to the apicoplast. This study also highlights the possibility of developing specific pharmacological inhibitors of the parasite PI3-kinase as novel anti-apicomplexan drugs. PMID:21379336

  18. Caspase-11 Modulates Inflammation and Attenuates Toxoplasma gondii Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Coutermarsh-Ott, Sheryl L.; Doran, John T.; Campbell, Caroline; Williams, Tere M.; Lindsay, David S.; Allen, Irving C.

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that is the etiologic agent responsible for toxoplasmosis. Infection with T. gondii results in activation of nucleotide binding domain and leucine rich repeat containing receptors (NLRs). NLR activation leads to inflammasome formation, the activation of caspase-1, and the subsequent cleavage of IL-1β and IL-18. Recently, a noncanonical inflammasome has been characterized which functions through caspase-11 and appears to augment many biological functions previously considered to be dependent upon the canonical inflammasome. To better elucidate the function of this noncanonical inflammasome in toxoplasmosis, we utilized Asc−/− and Casp11−/− mice and infected these animals with T. gondii. Our data indicates that caspase-11 modulates the innate immune response to T. gondii through a mechanism which is distinct from that currently described for the canonical inflammasome. Asc−/− mice demonstrated increased disease pathogenesis during the acute phase of T. gondii infection, whereas Casp11−/− mice demonstrated significantly attenuated disease pathogenesis and reduced inflammation. This attenuated host response was associated with reduced local and systemic cytokine production, including diminished IL-1β. During the chronic phase of infection, caspase-11 deficiency resulted in increased neuroinflammation and tissue cyst burden in the brain. Together, our data suggest that caspase-11 functions to protect the host by enhancing inflammation during the early phase of infection in an effort to minimize disease pathogenesis during later stages of toxoplasmosis. PMID:27378827

  19. A Unique Dual Activity Amino Acid Hydroxylase in Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Gaskell, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Judith E.; Pinney, John W.; Westhead, Dave R.; McConkey, Glenn A.

    2009-01-01

    The genome of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii was found to contain two genes encoding tyrosine hydroxylase; that produces l-DOPA. The encoded enzymes metabolize phenylalanine as well as tyrosine with substrate preference for tyrosine. Thus the enzymes catabolize phenylalanine to tyrosine and tyrosine to l-DOPA. The catalytic domain descriptive of this class of enzymes is conserved with the parasite enzyme and exhibits similar kinetic properties to metazoan tyrosine hydroxylases, but contains a unique N-terminal extension with a signal sequence motif. One of the genes, TgAaaH1, is constitutively expressed while the other gene, TgAaaH2, is induced during formation of the bradyzoites of the cyst stages of the life cycle. This is the first description of an aromatic amino acid hydroxylase in an apicomplexan parasite. Extensive searching of apicomplexan genome sequences revealed an ortholog in Neospora caninum but not in Eimeria, Cryptosporidium, Theileria, or Plasmodium. Possible role(s) of these bi-functional enzymes during host infection are discussed. PMID:19277211

  20. The Neurotropic Parasite Toxoplasma Gondii Increases Dopamine Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Prandovszky, Emese; Gaskell, Elizabeth; Martin, Heather; Dubey, J. P.; Webster, Joanne P.; McConkey, Glenn A.

    2011-01-01

    The highly prevalent parasite Toxoplasma gondii manipulates its host's behavior. In infected rodents, the behavioral changes increase the likelihood that the parasite will be transmitted back to its definitive cat host, an essential step in completion of the parasite's life cycle. The mechanism(s) responsible for behavioral changes in the host is unknown but two lines of published evidence suggest that the parasite alters neurotransmitter signal transduction: the disruption of the parasite-induced behavioral changes with medications used to treat psychiatric disease (specifically dopamine antagonists) and identification of a tyrosine hydroxylase encoded in the parasite genome. In this study, infection of mammalian dopaminergic cells with T. gondii enhanced the levels of K+-induced release of dopamine several-fold, with a direct correlation between the number of infected cells and the quantity of dopamine released. Immunostaining brain sections of infected mice with dopamine antibody showed intense staining of encysted parasites. Based on these analyses, T. gondii orchestrates a significant increase in dopamine metabolism in neural cells. Tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme for dopamine synthesis, was also found in intracellular tissue cysts in brain tissue with antibodies specific for the parasite-encoded tyrosine hydroxylase. These observations provide a mechanism for parasite-induced behavioral changes. The observed effects on dopamine metabolism could also be relevant in interpreting reports of psychobehavioral changes in toxoplasmosis-infected humans. PMID:21957440

  1. Toxoplasma gondii in wild and domestic animals from New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Roqueplo, C; Halos, L; Cabre, O; Davoust, B

    2011-11-01

    Samples (serum or meat juice) collected from 205 animals in New Caledonia in April 2009 were tested for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii by ELISA using the multi-species ID Screen® Toxoplasmosis Indirect kit (IDVET, Montpellier). Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 2% (1/49) of the pigs, in 3.3% (1/30) of the cattle, in 13.8% (4/29) of Rusa deers, in 16% (4/25) of the horses, in 32.8% (21/64) of the dogs, and in 50% (4/8) of cats. Statistically, no significant difference was observed between T. gondii seroprevalence and age or sex. No survey on the prevalence of T. gondii in animals has ever been conducted in New Caledonia and this is the first serological evidence of T. gondii in Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa). These results indicate an important circulation of T. gondii exists in the animal populations of New Caledonia. In view of humans being exposed, it is advisable to insist on sanitary education and on respect for good hygienic and food practice. PMID:22091467

  2. Toxoplasma gondii in wild and domestic animals from New Caledonia

    PubMed Central

    Roqueplo, C.; Halos, L.; Cabre, O.; Davoust, B.

    2011-01-01

    Samples (serum or meat juice) collected from 205 animals in New Caledonia in April 2009 were tested for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii by ELISA using the multi-species ID Screen® Toxoplasmosis Indirect kit (IDVET, Montpellier). Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 2% (1/49) of the pigs, in 3.3% (1/30) of the cattle, in 13.8% (4/29) of Rusa deers, in 16% (4/25) of the horses, in 32.8% (21/64) of the dogs, and in 50% (4/8) of cats. Statistically, no significant difference was observed between T. gondii seroprevalence and age or sex. No survey on the prevalence of T. gondii in animals has ever been conducted in New Caledonia and this is the first serological evidence of T. gondii in Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa). These results indicate an important circulation of T. gondii exists in the animal populations of New Caledonia. In view of humans being exposed, it is advisable to insist on sanitary education and on respect for good hygienic and food practice. PMID:22091467

  3. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in dogs in Trinidad and Tobago.

    PubMed

    Ali, C N; Harris, J A; Watkins, J D; Adesiyun, A A

    2003-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii agglutinins and to investigate the relationship between various risk factors and occurrence of toxoplasmosis in dogs in Trinidad. Of a total 250 dogs, comprising domestic, hunting and stray dogs, 80 (32.0%) were positive for T. gondii agglutinins at a titre of > or =1:32 using a latex agglutination test. Stray dogs (60.5%) had statistically significantly higher (P<0.001) seroprevalence for toxoplasmosis than hunting dogs (30.5%) and domestic dogs (25.5%). Amongst dogs whose ages were known, the prevalence of toxoplasmosis was significantly highest (P=0.037) in dogs in the >2-3 years age group compared with other age groups. Dogs that consumed home-cooked foods had a seroprevalence of 32.9% compared with those fed commercial dog foods (17.2%) and dogs fed both home-cooked and commercial foods (21.0%). However, the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05; chi(2)). The rather high prevalence of toxoplasmosis in stray dogs is a good indication of the extent of the infection in the environment. PMID:12719132

  4. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild kangaroos using an ELISA

    PubMed Central

    Parameswaran, N.; O'Handley, RM.; Grigg, ME.; Fenwick, SG.; Thompson, RCA.

    2009-01-01

    Infection with Toxoplasma gondii is a significant problem in Australian marsupials, and can lead to devastating disease and predispose animals to predation. T. gondii infection in kangaroos is also of public health significance due to the kangaroo meat trade. A moderate seroprevalence of T. gondii was observed in a study of western grey kangaroos located in the Perth metropolitan area in Western Australia. Of 219 kangaroos tested, 15.5% (95%CI: 10.7-20.3) were positive for T. gondii antibodies using an ELISA developed to detect T. gondii IgG in macropod marsupials. When compared with the commercially available MAT (modified agglutination test), the ELISA developed was in absolute agreement and yielded a κ coefficient of 1.00. Of 18 kangaroos tested for the presence of T. gondii DNA by PCR, the 9 ELISA positive kangaroos tested PCR positive and the 9 ELISA negative kangaroos tested PCR negative indicating the ELISA protocol was both highly specific and sensitive and correlated 100% with the more labour intensive PCR assay. PMID:19567231

  5. First record of Toxoplasma gondii in Chaetophractus villosus in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Kin, Marta S; Fort, Marcelo; Giménez, Hugo D; Casanave, Emma B

    2014-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasite that causes abortion and reproductive disorder in domestic animals. T. gondii is a common worldwide disease in homeothermic animals, including birds and humans. The aim of the present study was to determine the presence of antibodies against T. gondii in the armadillo Chaetophractus villosus in the province of La Pampa, Argentina. Serum samples were collected from 150 individuals (70 males and 80 females). For serological detection of T. gondii, a latex agglutination test was first performed and then positive sera were confirmed with an indirect hemagglutination test, using 1:4 to 1:64 dilutions. Results showed that 27% (41) of the samples presented titers for antibodies against T. gondii. There were not significant differences between the presence of antibodies against T. gondii and age or sexes of the armadillos. Results show that presence of T. gondii antibodies in armadillos were associated with presence of pigs, and sheep, however there was not association with chickens and dairy cattle in capture site. T. gondii has an important presence in C. villosus population, suggesting a potential zoonotic risk for humans and wildlife animals when C. villosus meats are consumed raw or undercooked. This is the first record of the presence of antibodies against T. gondii in C. villosus. PMID:26204031

  6. Structure of Toxoplasma gondii fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase

    SciTech Connect

    Boucher, Lauren E.; Bosch, Jürgen

    2014-08-29

    The structure of T. gondii fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, a glycolytic enzyme and structural component of the invasion machinery, was determined to a resolution of 2.0 Å. The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii must invade host cells to continue its lifecycle. It invades different cell types using an actomyosin motor that is connected to extracellular adhesins via the bridging protein fructose-1,6-@@bisphosphate aldolase. During invasion, aldolase serves in the role of a structural bridging protein, as opposed to its normal enzymatic role in the glycolysis pathway. Crystal structures of the homologous Plasmodium falciparum fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase have been described previously. Here, T. gondii fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase has been crystallized in space group P22{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with the biologically relevant tetramer in the asymmetric unit, and the structure has been determined via molecular replacement to a resolution of 2.0 Å. An analysis of the quality of the model and of the differences between the four chains in the asymmetric unit and a comparison between the T. gondii and P. falciparum aldolase structures is presented.

  7. Functional characterization of X-prolyl aminopeptidase from Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mingfa; Zheng, Jun; Jia, Honglin; Song, Mingxin

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, a recombinant aminopeptidase P (rTgAPP) from Toxoplasma gondii was expressed in Escherichia coli to evaluate its enzyme parameters. The rTgAPP showed strong activity against a synthetic substrate for aminopeptidase P at pH 8·0 with a K m value of 0·255 µ m and a k cat value of 35·6 s-1. The overall catalytic efficiency (k cat/K m) of the rTgAPP was 139·6 × 105 M-1 s-1. The activity of rTgAPP was enhanced by the addition of divalent cations and inhibited by bestatin. Deletion of TgAPP gene in the parasite through a CRISPR/Cas9 system resulted in inhibition of growth indicating the importance of TgAPP. Thus our findings reveal that TgAPP is an active enzyme in T. gondii and provide an insight into the function of TgAPP. PMID:27220680

  8. Identification of Toxoplasma gondii infections by BI gene amplification.

    PubMed Central

    van de Ven, E; Melchers, W; Galama, J; Camps, W; Meuwissen, J

    1991-01-01

    The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in congenitally infected children or in immunocompromised patients can be difficult; serology is not reliable, and the diagnosis must be based on the combination of symptomatology and the direct demonstration of the parasite in clinical specimens by microscopy, antigen detection, or inoculation of samples into mice or tissue cultures. These techniques are either insensitive or time-consuming. To determine the value of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infections, we compared this technique with conventional detection techniques, such as microscopy, tissue culturing, and mouse inoculation. We were able to detect T. gondii by PCR in clinical specimens and tissue samples that were obtained postmortem from a bone marrow recipient with cerebral toxoplasmosis and from three congenitally infected children. The presence of T. gondii was demonstrated in brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, the heart, and skeletal muscle tested fresh or after fixation in Formalin. In only one sample was T. gondii isolated by mouse inoculation but not detected by PCR. Because it is a sensitive, relatively rapid, and specific method and because it can be applied to a variety of different clinical samples, PCR can be considered a valuable additional tool for the identification of T. gondii infections. Images PMID:1939564

  9. First report of genotype #65 of Toxoplasma gondii in pigs.

    PubMed

    Samico-Fernandes, Erika Fernanda Torres; de Melo, Renata Pimentel Bandeira; de Cássia Peixoto Kim, Pomy; de Almeida, Jonatas Campos; de Barros, Luiz Daniel; Garcia, João Luis; da Silva, Jean Carlos Ramos; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to isolate and genotype Toxoplasma gondii from pigs slaughtered for human consumption in northeastern Brazil. Indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) was used to screen positive pigs. Tissues samples of animals with antibody titers ≥64 were submitted to bioassay in mice. One isolate of T. gondii was obtained, and the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique, using 11 markers (SAG1, SAG2, altSAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c228, c292, L358, PK1, and APICO), was applied to evaluate the genetic variability. DNA from reference strains was used as a positive control. By means of genetic analysis, genotype ToxoDB #65 was identified, which is considered an atypical strain. This is the first record of genotype #65 in pigs. Thus, further studies in this region are necessary to determine the genetic variability of T. gondii in pigs and possible impact on public health. PMID:26268568

  10. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Dogs in Zhanjiang, Southern China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hai-Hai; Li, Ming-Wei; Xu, Min-Jun; Cong, Wei; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-08-01

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is a parasitic zoonosis with worldwide distribution. The present study investigated the prevalence of T. gondii in dogs in Zhanjiang city, southern China, using both serological and molecular detection. A total of 364 serum samples and 432 liver tissue samples were collected from the slaughter house between December 2012 and January 2013 and were examined for T. gondii IgG antibody by ELISA and T. gondii DNA by semi-nested PCR based on B1 gene, respectively. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii IgG antibody was 51.9%, and T. gondii DNA was detected in 37 of 432 (8.6%) liver tissue samples. These positive DNA samples were analyzed by PCR-RFLP at 3'- and 5'-SAG2. Only 8 samples gave the PCR-RFLP data, and they were all classified as type I, which may suggest that the T. gondii isolates from dogs in Zhanjiang city may represent type I or type I variant. This study revealed the high prevalence of T. gondii infection in dogs in Zhanjiang city, southern China. Integrated measures should be taken to prevent and control toxoplasmosis in dogs in this area for public health concern. PMID:26323850