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Sample records for postradiation malignant fibrous

  1. Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of The Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Garvey, J. F. W.; Ng, A.; England, J. F.

    1989-01-01

    A case of fibrous histiocytoma of low grade malignancy arising from the uncinate lobe of the pancreas is reported. This is an unusual site for these extremely rare tumours. Survival up to 4 years has been achieved in our patient following surgical resection. PMID:2562132

  2. Malignant Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Scalp.

    PubMed

    Shirley, Brett M; Kang, David R; Sakamoto, Aya Hamao

    2016-07-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors are an uncommon slow growing benign neoplasm originally described as a pleural neoplasm but can also be found in the lung, mediastinum, peritoneum, or any other sites including the head and neck. Malignant solitary fibrous tumors (MSFT) are extremely rare and only few cases have been published in the literature. There have been 19 cases reported of MSFT in the head and neck, but there are no reports of MSFT located within the scalp in the English language literature. We present a case of MSFT arising in the scalp and describe our experience with the clinical presentation, surgical management, and outcome in this pathological condition. PMID:27408445

  3. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the lung.

    PubMed

    Aoe, Keisuke; Hiraki, Akio; Maeda, Tadashi; Onoda, Tetsuya; Makihata, Kiyoshi; Takao, Kazushi; Fujii, Makoto; Murakami, Kazuo; Moriyama, Michihiko; Eda, Ryosuke; Takeyama, Hiroyasu

    2003-01-01

    Primary malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of the lung is very rare. To date, only 32 reports of 63 cases of primary MFH of the lung have appeared in English, excluding tumors arising from the pulmonary arteries and pleura. We describe a patient with primary MFH of the lung who developed brain metastasis and involvement of pulmonary great vessels. In addition, we reviewed previously reported cases to establish the clinical characteristics and most appropriate management of primary pulmonary MFH. When disease is sufficiently limited, complete resection remains the mainstay of treatment. PMID:12926092

  4. General Information about Osteosarcoma and Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of Bone

    MedlinePlus

    ... Histiocytoma of Bone Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Osteosarcoma and Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of Bone ... the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  5. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the spleen: an extremely rare entity.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Leelavathi; Gupta, Oneal; Garg, Ketan

    2012-01-01

    Primary malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of the spleen is extremely rare. Since the first description of primary splenic MFH reported by Govoni et al in 1982, to the best of our knowledge, only twelve cases of MFH of the spleen have been reported in the literature. We herein report a rare case of primary splenic MFH in a 30-year-old Indian male who presented with abdominal pain with a history of recurrent hydatid cyst of liver and spleen. A computed tomography (CT) scan was performed and a diagnosis of splenic hydatid cyst was made. Splenectomy was done. On histopathological examination, a diagnosis of malignant mesenchymal tumor, possibly storiform variant of malignant fibrous histiocytoma, was made. On immunohistochemistry, the tumor was positive for vimentin and CD68. The post operative period was uneventful. Compared with the twelve previously cases of MFH of the spleen, our patient is the youngest case reported so far. PMID:22531528

  6. Myxoid Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma with Multiple Primary Sites

    PubMed Central

    Muler, Jeffrey H.; Paulino, Augusto F.; Roulston, Diane

    2002-01-01

    Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is one of the most common types of soft tissue sarcomas in adults. The most common location of MFH are the extremities and the trunk, with the most common site for distant metastases being the lung. We describe a case with multiple synchronous sites of myxoid MFH but no lung metastases and presence of abnormalities of 19p13. PMID:18521346

  7. Recurrent Intrapulmonary Solitary Fibrous Tumor With Malignant Transformation.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takuya; Owada, Yuki; Watanabe, Yuzuru; Muto, Satoshi; Okabe, Naoyuki; Yonechi, Atsushi; Kanno, Ryuzo; Suzuki, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    Intrapulmonary solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the pleura; the so-called inverted pattern, which appears to grow into the lung parenchyma, is extremely rare. We experienced a 66-year-old woman with an intrapulmonary SFT that recurred locally with malignant transformation 2 years after wedge resection of the left upper lobe for the primary tumor. Subsequently, she underwent a lobectomy of the residual left upper lobe. Six years after the second operation she was well, without rerecurrence. Complete excision and long-term follow-up of intrapulmonary SFTs of the pleura are important, even when the primary tumor displays benign histopathologic features. PMID:27343529

  8. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma developing in irradiated sacral chordoma

    SciTech Connect

    Halpern, J.; Kopolovic, J.; Catane, R.

    1984-06-15

    Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH), arising at the site of a sacral chordoma 8 years after massive radiotherapy, is described. Initially, the patient received 7000 rad to the sacral area and, on recurrence, 5 years later, an additional 4000 rad. Two years later, a sacral mass was noted again. Biopsy then revealed MFH; chest x-ray showed multiple lung metastases. A combination chemotherapy, consisting of cyclophosphamide, vincristine, adriamycin (doxorubicin), and DTIC, resulted in a 6 month partial response. Subsequently, the patient died because of progressive metastatic disease. At autopsy, 8 years after diagnosis, both the sacral lesion and the lung metastases proved to be MFH, and no residual chordoma was found.

  9. Two different types of malignant fibrous histiocytomas from pet dogs

    PubMed Central

    Do, Sun Hee; Hong, Il-Hwa; Park, Jin-Kyu; Ji, Ae-Ri; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kwak, Dong-Mi

    2009-01-01

    We describe 2 cases of malignant fibrous histiocytomas (MFHs) that spontaneously developed in young pet dogs. To classify these tumors, we applied a panel of antibodies (vimentin, desmin, α-SMA, and ED1) and Azan staining for collagen. The MFHs were most consistent with osteoclast-like giant and inflammatory cell types. The first case had positive staining for ED1 and vimentin, and given the osteoclast-like giant cells, calcification sites accompanying peripheral giant cell infiltrates. The latter case, the inflammatory cell type, exhibited a storiform-pleomorphic variant of neoplastic cells, including an ossifying matrix. MFHs are among the most highly aggressive tumors occurring in soft tissue sarcomas in elderly dogs; however, MFHs have been poorly studied from a diagnostic point of view. Herein, we describe the histologic and immunohistologic features of MFHs in detail, thus classifying the subtypes of these tumors. PMID:19461215

  10. Metachronous Malignant Solitary Fibrous Tumor of Kidney: Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Felix; Talanki, Varun R; Liu, Jingxuan; Davis, James E; Waltzer, Wayne C; Corcoran, Anthony T

    2016-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors are well described in the pleura, but rare extra-pleural neoplasms have been reported. We describe a patient with a solitary left renal fibrous tumor who after undergoing a nephrectomy, presented 8 years later with a contralateral metachronous solitary fibrous tumor. Malignant metastatic extra-pleural solitary fibrous tumors are extremely rare, and to our knowledge, this is the first case of contralateral recurrence of solitary renal fibrous tumor. The patient underwent a robotic assisted partial nephrectomy of the right renal mass. Both tumors showed overlapping histopathology. PMID:26793578

  11. Metachronous Malignant Solitary Fibrous Tumor of Kidney: Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Felix; Talanki, Varun R.; Liu, Jingxuan; Davis, James E.; Waltzer, Wayne C.; Corcoran, Anthony T.

    2015-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors are well described in the pleura, but rare extra-pleural neoplasms have been reported. We describe a patient with a solitary left renal fibrous tumor who after undergoing a nephrectomy, presented 8 years later with a contralateral metachronous solitary fibrous tumor. Malignant metastatic extra-pleural solitary fibrous tumors are extremely rare, and to our knowledge, this is the first case of contralateral recurrence of solitary renal fibrous tumor. The patient underwent a robotic assisted partial nephrectomy of the right renal mass. Both tumors showed overlapping histopathology. PMID:26793578

  12. An unresectable retroperitoneal malignant fibrous histiocytoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    HSIAO, PO-JEN; CHEN, GUANG-HENG; CHANG, YI-HUEI; CHANG, CHAO-HSIANG; CHANG, HAN; BAI, LI-YUAN

    2016-01-01

    Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is most commonly observed in the extremities and the trunk but rarely in retroperitoneum. The present case report documents a 64-year-old man who was admitted with an abdominal palpable mass for 6 months. After a thorough investigation, a tumor of the retroperitoneum was identified adhered to adjacent organs and vessels. The patient experienced mild hydronephrosis and hydroureter as a result of the tumor compression. A number of previous surgeons considered the tumor unresectable and suggested palliative treatment. En bloc resection of the tumor was attempted but incomplete surgery was performed initially as the tumor was friable and prone to bleeding. Therefore, a biopsy of the tumor was performed and a double J ureteral stent was set for hydronephrosis. Histopathological examination confirmed the tumor was an MFH. The patient received neo-adjuvant chemotherapy with 4 cycles of mesna, doxorubicin, ifosfamide, and dacarbazine (MAID). A computed tomography scan demonstrated that the tumor had reduced in size following chemotherapy. En bloc resection of the tumor was arranged again 6 months later. The tumor exhibited a complete response to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy after the formal pathological evaluation. The patient survives without tumor recurrence >5 years without recurrence. PMID:27073487

  13. Bone Scintigraphy in a Patient With Giant Malignant Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Pleura.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Long; Liu, JinJun; Li, Qiang; Wang, Huo-Qiang

    2016-06-01

    Chest radiograph performed in a 61-year-old woman to evaluate cough showed a large mass in the right lung. On chest CT images, the mass was measured approximately 8.5 cm. Malignancy was considered, and bone scintigraphy was performed to assess possible osseous metastases. The bone scan images demonstrated increased tracer uptake by the lung mass. The mass was surgically resected, and the pathologic examination confirmed the rare diagnosis of a malignancy solitary fibrous tumors of the pleura. PMID:26914570

  14. Postoperative Radiotherapy for the Treatment of Solitary Fibrous Tumor With Malignant Transformation of the Pelvic

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Chao; Zhang, Yong; Jing, Ming; Qu, Wei; Li, Jia; Zhao, Xiang-Rong; Yu, Yong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Solitary fibrous tumor of the pelvic is an uncommon neoplasm with nonspecific symptoms. Reports of malignant transformation are especially rare. We report a case of solitary fibrous tumor in pelvic. A unique feature of our case compared with previously reported is that this patient relapsed with malignant transformation and had significant response to radiotherapy. The patient was initially treated with surgery, followed by postoperative dimensional conformal intensity modulated radiation therapy (dynamic MLC VRIAN 23EX Linac, inversely optimized by the Eclipse system) to provide a radical cure for residual tumor. In this case, there were no signs of recurrence after six and a half years of further follow-up, indicating that postoperation radiotherapy may be an effective treatment for SFT with malignant transformation in pelvic. PMID:26765426

  15. Cytological patterns of primary malignant uterine fibrous histiocytoma. A case report.

    PubMed

    Torrisi, A; Giorgino, F; Onnis, G L; Minucci, D

    1990-01-01

    The Authors have reported the cytological patterns of malignant primitive uterine fibrous histiocytoma of a 57 year old woman. The endometrial cytological sampling was performed by an aspiration technique using a feeding-tube; a necrotic-haemorrhagic background filled with hymphocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and a mixture of highly anaplastic histiocytic and fibroblastic type cells, associated with undifferentiated small round cells, has been described. The result of the histological examination performed on the surgical specimen was the following: polymorphic malignant neoplasia characterized by spindle-like and giant plurinucleated cells, phagocytosis features, endoluminal polypoid growth, wide infiltration of the miometrium two thirds deep, vascular space invasion of the uterine wall and the hilus of the ovaries. The histological features and immunohistochemical analysis were consistent with malignant fibrous histiocytoma in the pleomorphic variety. PMID:1965802

  16. Postradiation sarcoma of bone: review of 78 Mayo Clinic cases

    SciTech Connect

    Weatherby, R.P.; Dahlin, D.C.; Ivins, J.C.

    1981-05-01

    Postradiation sarcoma of bone is an uncommon but serious sequela of radiation therapy. Seventy-eight Mayo Clinic patients have been treated for sarcomas arising in irradiated bones. They received their initial radiotherapy for a wide variety of nonneoplastic and neoplastic conditions, both benign and malignant. Thirty-five sarcomas arose in bone that was normal at the time of radiotherapy, and 43 arose in irradiated preexisting osseous lesions. The latent period between radiotherapy and diagnosis of sarcoma averaged 14.3 years. Ninety percent of the postradiation sarcomas were either osteosarcomas or fibrosarcomas; chondrosarcoma, malignant (fibrous) histiocytoma, malignant lymphoma, Ewing's tumor, and metastasizing chondroblastoma also occurred. Prompt radical surgery, when feasible, is usually the treatment of choice for the sarcoma. About 30% of patients with sarcomas of the extremities or craniofacial bones survived 5 years without recurrence; there were no disease-free survivors among patients with tumors of the vertebral column, pelvis, or shoulder girdle. The low risk of sarcoma following radiotherapy for the treatment of cancer should not be a contraindication to its use in these patients; however, radiation therapy for benign bone tumors should be reserved for lesions that are not amenable to surgical treatment. An unusual case is also reported herein in which a fibrosarcoma was discovered in the humerus of a patient who had received radiotherapy 55 years previously for a verified osteosarcoma in the same site.

  17. Most malignant fibrous histiocytomas developed in the retroperitoneum are dedifferentiated liposarcomas: a review of 25 cases initially diagnosed as malignant fibrous histiocytoma.

    PubMed

    Coindre, Jean-Michel; Mariani, Odette; Chibon, Frédéric; Mairal, Aline; De Saint Aubain Somerhausen, Nicolas; Favre-Guillevin, Elizabeth; Bui, Nguyen Binh; Stoeckle, Eberhard; Hostein, Isabelle; Aurias, Alain

    2003-03-01

    Forty-four samples from 25 cases of retroperitoneal sarcoma initially diagnosed as malignant fibrous histiocytoma were histologically reviewed. Immunohistochemistry for mdm2 and cdk4 was performed on 20 cases. Comparative genomic hybridization was performed on 18 samples from 13 patients. Seventeen cases were reclassified as dedifferentiated liposarcoma. Twenty-one of 32 samples from these patients showed areas of well-differentiated liposarcoma, allowing the diagnosis of dedifferentiated liposarcoma. Immunohistochemistry performed in 15 of these cases showed positivity for mdm2 and cdk4. Comparative genomic hybridization analysis performed on 15 samples from 11 of these patients showed an amplification of the 12q13-15 region. Eight cases were reclassified as poorly differentiated sarcoma. Twelve samples from these patients showed no area of well-differentiated liposarcoma. Immunohistochemistry showed positivity for mdm2 and cdk4 in one of six of these patients and showed positivity for CD34 in another one. Comparative genomic hybridization analysis performed on three samples from two of these patients showed no amplification of the 12q13-15 region but showed complex profiles. This study shows that most so-called malignant fibrous histiocytomas developed in the retroperitoneum are dedifferentiated liposarcoma and that a poorly differentiated sarcoma in this area should prompt extensive sampling to demonstrate a well-differentiated liposarcoma component, immunohistochemistry for mdm2 and cdk4, and if possible, a cytogenetic or a molecular biology analysis. PMID:12640106

  18. [Pulmonary malignant fibrous histiocytoma (inflammatory type) showing intracavitary fungus ball-like shadow].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, T; Takenaka, M; Kido, T; Tanio, Y

    1999-02-01

    We report a rare case of primary malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the lung showing intracavitary fungus ball-like shadows. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed no visible tumor, but adenocarcinoma cells were detected in samples of lavage fluid from the cavitary lesion. Staging procedures (T 2 N 0 M 0) confirmed that there were no metastatic lesions. A complete resection of the left lower lobe was performed. The tumor showed polypoid growth that obstructed a small peripheral bronchus, and formed a cavitary lesion. It was histologically diagnosed as an inflammatory type of malignant fibrous histiocytoma, and consisted of atypical histiocyte-like cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, foamy cells, and fibroblast-like cells in a storiform pattern. The patient has been in complete remission for 3 years after surgery. PMID:10214047

  19. Primary giant cell malignant fibrous histiocytoma-associated with renal calculus

    PubMed Central

    Altunkol, Adem; Savas, Murat; Ciftci, Halil; Gulum, Mehmet; Yagmur, Ismail; Bitiren, Muharrem

    2014-01-01

    Malignant fibrous histiocytomas (MFH) are the most commonly seen soft tissue sarcomas in adults. It is rarely seen in some visceral organs. Kidneys are the parenchymal organs in which MFHs are most frequently seen. More than 50 cases of primary renal MFH have been reported. Among these cases, only 1 was reported as primary giant cell subtype in association with urolithiasis. This case report is the second such case with the these characteristics. PMID:24678364

  20. Localized malignant pleural sarcomatoid mesothelioma misdiagnosed as benign localized fibrous tumor

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Hong-Phuc

    2016-01-01

    Localized malignant pleural mesothelioma (LMPM) is a rare tumor with good prognosis by surgical resection. We report an atypical case of malignant pleural sarcomatoid mesothelioma (SM) in an asymptomatic 65-year-old woman, who had no history of exposure to asbestos. She presented with a small pleural mass without pleural effusion and was misdiagnosed as a benign localized fibrous tumor (BLFT) on pathologic examination through a surgical tumor specimen. However, seven months later, the patient returned with serious cancerous symptoms. A large recurrent tumor mass was found within the chest wall invading at the old surgical resection site. SM, a subtype of LMPM, was confirmed with histopathogy and immunohistochemisty. In conclusion, malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) can present with typical radiologic finding similar to a BLFT, and has a wide histopathologic presentation in biopsy specimen. A thorough pathologic investigation should be attempted even when a pleural mass resembles benign, localized, and small on radiologic studies. PMID:27293862

  1. Localized malignant pleural sarcomatoid mesothelioma misdiagnosed as benign localized fibrous tumor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwan-Chang; Vo, Hong-Phuc

    2016-06-01

    Localized malignant pleural mesothelioma (LMPM) is a rare tumor with good prognosis by surgical resection. We report an atypical case of malignant pleural sarcomatoid mesothelioma (SM) in an asymptomatic 65-year-old woman, who had no history of exposure to asbestos. She presented with a small pleural mass without pleural effusion and was misdiagnosed as a benign localized fibrous tumor (BLFT) on pathologic examination through a surgical tumor specimen. However, seven months later, the patient returned with serious cancerous symptoms. A large recurrent tumor mass was found within the chest wall invading at the old surgical resection site. SM, a subtype of LMPM, was confirmed with histopathogy and immunohistochemisty. In conclusion, malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) can present with typical radiologic finding similar to a BLFT, and has a wide histopathologic presentation in biopsy specimen. A thorough pathologic investigation should be attempted even when a pleural mass resembles benign, localized, and small on radiologic studies. PMID:27293862

  2. Pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytoma/undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma of the glans penis

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Ill Young; Oh, Tae Hoon; Chuluun, Sarantulga; Choi, Keum Ha

    2013-01-01

    Primary sarcoma of the penis has an extremely low incidence, and its diagnosis and treatment are unclear. A 55-year-old man presented with an oval-shaped mass of the glans penis, which was treated by a wide excision. The pathologic result revealed an undifferentiated high-grade sarcoma, which was diagnosed as a pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytoma/undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma based on the World Health Organization classification. There was no recurrence at the12-months postoperative follow-up. PMID:24475005

  3. A recurrent solitary fibrous tumor of the thigh with malignant transformation: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Yasuo; Sano, Kenji; Isobe, Ken-ichi; Aoki, Kaoru; Kito, Munehisa; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We describe an unusual case of a uniformly high-grade malignant solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the thigh with recurrence after wide resection in a 31-year-old man. Presentation of case Our current case showed a long-term benign course before the operation, although the subcutaneous tumor was larger than 10 cm at presentation. The SFT was diagnosed by needle biopsy, and wide resection was performed. Histological findings showed proliferation of capillaries surrounded by masses of spindle-shaped cells without any cytologic atypia, and the percentage of MIB-1-positive nuclei was 2.1%. However, a rapidly enlarging recurrent tumor was observed 11 months after the operation. A second wide resection for the recurrent tumor was performed. Histologically, the tumor cells uniformly displayed significant cytologic atypia and pleomorphism, and had 40–50 mitoses per 10 high-power fields. The proportion of MIB-1-positive nuclei was 48%. Consequently, the tumor was diagnosed as a SFT with malignant transformation. Discussion The malignant transformation described in past studies showed high-grade areas within benign, low-grade, or intermediate-grade SFTs. Therefore, in contrast to our case, uniformly high-grade malignant histological findings at recurrence were not described. Conclusion Even if a tumor is non-malignant during the clinical course, as confirmed by tissue biopsy, the possibility of tumor progression to high-grade sarcoma at recurrence should be considered, and the treatment strategy should be determined carefully. PMID:26967903

  4. Malignant transformation in monostotic fibrous dysplasia: clinical features, imaging features, outcomes in 10 patients, and review.

    PubMed

    Qu, Nan; Yao, Weiwu; Cui, Xiaojiang; Zhang, Huizhen

    2015-01-01

    Malignant transformation in fibrous dysplasia (FD) is uncommon. The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical and imaging features, and outcomes of malignant transformation in monostotic FD.Data for 10 pathologically confirmed malignant transformations in monostotic FD from January 2005 to December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Patient data were recorded, and radiographs (n = 10), computed tomography (CT) (n = 5), magnetic resonance (MR) (n = 4), and bone scintigrams (n = 10) were evaluated for lesion location, margin, cortical destruction, marrow involvement, periosteal reaction, and soft tissue mass by 2 musculoskeletal radiologists with agreement by consensus. Clinical features, management, and prognosis were also analyzed for each of the 10 cases.There were 8 male and 2 female patients (mean age 46.5 ± 15.9 years). The affected sites were the femur (n = 4), humerus (n = 2), tibia (n = 3), and ilium (n = 1). Five cases had received previous surgery and 5 cases had no history of surgery. No patients had been given prior irradiation treatment. For the 5 cases with surgery, radiographs and CT showed purely osteolytic lesions with poor margination in the curettage area (n = 5), cortical destruction (n = 5), obvious soft tissue mass (n = 1), and mineralization (n = 2). For the 5 cases without surgery, radiographs and CT identified poorly marginated, osteolytic lesions within or near the area with "ground-glass" opacity (n = 4), cortical erosion (n = 4), and mineralization (n = 2). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) also identified lesions with heterogeneous signal intensity and pronounced enhancement. Bone scintigraphy revealed eccentric increased uptake of radionuclide in monostotic lesion (n = 10). Pathology reports revealed osteosarcoma (n = 7), fibrosarcoma (n = 2), and malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) (n = 1). At the end of the study, 1 patient died from tumors, 1

  5. Primary hepatic solitary fibrous tumor with histologically benign and malignant areas.

    PubMed

    Silvanto, Anna; Karanjia, Nariman D; Bagwan, Izhar N

    2015-12-01

    Extrapleural solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is an uncommon mesenchymal neoplasm, presenting most commonly in the intrathoracic sites but which has been reported at numerous extrathoracic locations. The majority of intra-thoracic SFTs are benign, but 10%-15% behave aggressively. We report a case of primary hepatic SFT with histologically benign and malignant areas. A 65-year-old man underwent an abdominal CT scan following a cerebrovascular accident, which demonstrated a sharply demarcated large liver mass with a heterogenous enhancing area and occupying most of the left lobe of the liver. Histological examination following a hemihepatectomy showed an SFT with morphological patterns ranging from benign to malignant areas, including pleomorphism, increased cellularity, herringbone pattern, necrosis and a raised mitotic count. On review of the literature, only an occasional case report with malignant areas in a hepatic SFT was identified. This case highlights that SFT should be included in the differential diagnosis of a hepatic spindle cell lesion, and that on rare occasions, malignant areas can occur in this already uncommon neoplasm. PMID:26663016

  6. A phase I trial of erlotinib in patients with nonprogressive glioblastoma multiforme postradiation therapy, and recurrent malignant gliomas and meningiomas†

    PubMed Central

    Raizer, Jeffrey J.; Abrey, Lauren E.; Lassman, Andrew B.; Chang, Susan M.; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Kuhn, John G.; Yung, W.K. Alfred; Gilbert, Mark R.; Aldape, Kenneth D.; Wen, Patrick Y.; Fine, Howard A.; Mehta, Minesh; DeAngelis, Lisa M.; Lieberman, Frank; Cloughesy, Timothy F.; Robins, H. Ian; Dancey, Janet; Prados, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this phase I study was to determine the maximal tolerated dose (MTD) of erlotinib in patients with recurrent malignant gliomas (MGs) or recurrent meningiomas on enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs (EIAEDs). Dose escalation was by a standard 3 × 3 design. The initial starting dose of erlotinib was 150 mg daily. If no dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was observed, then dose escalation occurs as follows: 200 mg/day, 275 mg/day, and then increased in 125 mg increments until the MTD was reached. The MTD was defined as the dose where ≤1 of 6 patients experienced a DLT and the dose above had 2 or more DLTs. The MTD was 650 mg/day; the observed DLTs were grade 3 rash in 2 patients at 775 mg/day. Pharmacokinetic analysis showed a significant influence of EIAEDs on the metabolism of erlotinib when compared with our phase II data published separately. Primary toxicities were rash and diarrhea. The MTD of erlotinib in patients receiving EIAEDs is substantially higher than the standard dose of 150 mg. This has important implications for further development of this drug in the treatment of MG as well as the optimal management of patients with other malignancies such as NSCLC who are on enzyme-inducing drugs. PMID:20150371

  7. A phase I trial of erlotinib in patients with nonprogressive glioblastoma multiforme postradiation therapy, and recurrent malignant gliomas and meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Raizer, Jeffrey J; Abrey, Lauren E; Lassman, Andrew B; Chang, Susan M; Lamborn, Kathleen R; Kuhn, John G; Yung, W K Alfred; Gilbert, Mark R; Aldape, Kenneth D; Wen, Patrick Y; Fine, Howard A; Mehta, Minesh; Deangelis, Lisa M; Lieberman, Frank; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Robins, H Ian; Dancey, Janet; Prados, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this phase I study was to determine the maximal tolerated dose (MTD) of erlotinib in patients with recurrent malignant gliomas (MGs) or recurrent meningiomas on enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs (EIAEDs). Dose escalation was by a standard 3 x 3 design. The initial starting dose of erlotinib was 150 mg daily. If no dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was observed, then dose escalation occurs as follows: 200 mg/day, 275 mg/day, and then increased in 125 mg increments until the MTD was reached. The MTD was defined as the dose where < or = 1 of 6 patients experienced a DLT and the dose above had 2 or more DLTs. The MTD was 650 mg/day; the observed DLTs were grade 3 rash in 2 patients at 775 mg/day. Pharmacokinetic analysis showed a significant influence of EIAEDs on the metabolism of erlotinib when compared with our phase II data published separately. Primary toxicities were rash and diarrhea. The MTD of erlotinib in patients receiving EIAEDs is substantially higher than the standard dose of 150 mg. This has important implications for further development of this drug in the treatment of MG as well as the optimal management of patients with other malignancies such as NSCLC who are on enzyme-inducing drugs. PMID:20150371

  8. Injection-site malignant fibrous histiocytomas in a pegvisomant carcinogenicity study in SD rats.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, Phillip M; Kreeger, John M; Morton, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    In a 2-year rat carcinogenicity study, pegvisomant injected subcutaneously on a daily basis at doses of 0, 2, 8, or 20 mg/kg/day produced malignant fibrous histiocytomas (MFHs) at the injection sites of 3 male rats (5%) given 8 mg/kg/day and 5 males (8%) given 20 mg/kg/day. MFH was characterized by unencapsulated dermal and subcutaneous sheets of fusiform and spindle-shaped cells sometimes with areas of round and/or irregular, pleomorphic cells and variable numbers of large multinucleated giant cells. Some regions of MFH had a fibroblastic appearance with streaming cells forming storiform patterns, while other areas consisted primarily of round to plump irregular cells with more giant cells. Pegvisomant did not increase the incidence of MFH in female rats and did not produce any other neoplastic responses in rats. In the dermis and subcutis at the injection sites of many males and females, pegvisomant produced dose-related increased incidences and severity of histiocytic infiltrates consisting of vacuolated macrophages with variable mature or immature fibrous tissue. Neoplasms at injection sites did not result in marketing restrictions or a label warning for human cancer risk, highlighting that injection-site neoplasms in rats have low relevance for human risk assessment. PMID:24487355

  9. A rare type of secondary cancer in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: malignant fibrous histiocytoma.

    PubMed

    Incesoy Özdemir, Sonay; Balkaya, Eda; Ören, Ayşe C; Bozkurt, Ceyhun; Sahin, Gürses; Ünlü, Ramazan E; Ertem, Ayşe U

    2014-03-01

    Secondary cancers which are related with treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a significant problem with longer term. For development of secondary cancer after treatment, the latency period varies between 5 and 10 years. In this case, a 13 year-old-boy diagnosed as high-risk ALL was treated with chemotherapy and prophylactic cranial radiotherapy at a dose of 1800 cGy. Six years after the end of treatment he developed a 5 × 5 × 4 cm mass at the right temporal region of the cranium. The mass was excised totally with clear surgical margin. Pathology of mass has been diagnosed as malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH), recently referred to as an undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS). After treatment of childhood ALL, reported cases of secondary MFH is extremely rare in the literature. Herein we present a case of MFH/UPS that developed as a secondary cancer 6 years after the end of ALL treatment. PMID:24096378

  10. Successful treatment of advanced malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the right forearm with apatinib: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Guanghui; Hong, Liu; Yang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is the most common soft-tissue sarcoma in late adult life. Unfortunately, advanced MFH has a poor prognosis due to a lack of effective drugs. We present here a case of advanced MFH with partial response to apatinib, a new potent oral small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting the intracellular domain of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report using apatinib for MFH. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed high expression of VEGFR-2 mRNA, suggesting that apatinib leads to clinical response by inhibiting VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase activity and the crucial role of VEGFR-2 for MFH. Apatinib could be a new option for the treatment of MFH. Further studies are needed to optimize the treatment. PMID:26917971

  11. A phase II trial of erlotinib in patients with recurrent malignant gliomas and nonprogressive glioblastoma multiforme postradiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Raizer, Jeffrey J; Abrey, Lauren E; Lassman, Andrew B; Chang, Susan M; Lamborn, Kathleen R; Kuhn, John G; Yung, W K Alfred; Gilbert, Mark R; Aldape, Kenneth A; Wen, Patrick Y; Fine, Howard A; Mehta, Minesh; Deangelis, Lisa M; Lieberman, Frank; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Robins, H Ian; Dancey, Janet; Prados, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    Patients with (a) recurrent malignant glioma (MG): glioblastoma (GBM) or recurrent anaplastic glioma (AG), and (b) nonprogressive (NP) GBM following radiation therapy (RT) were eligible. Primary objective for recurrent MG was progression-free survival at 6 months (PFS-6) and overall survival at 12 months for NP GBM post-RT. Secondary objectives for recurrent MGs were response, survival, assessment of toxicity, and pharmacokinetics (PKs). Treatment with enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs was not allowed. Patients received 150 mg/day erlotinib. Patients requiring surgery were treated 7 days prior to tumor removal for PK analysis and effects of erlotinib on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and intracellular signaling pathways. Ninety-six patients were evaluable (53 recurrent MG and 43 NP GBM); 5 patients were not evaluable for response. PFS-6 in recurrent GBM was 3% with a median PFS of 2 months; PFS-6 in recurrent AG was 27% with a median PFS of 2 months. Twelve-month survival was 57% in NP GBMs post-RT. Primary toxicity was dermatologic. The tissue-to-plasma ratio normalized to nanograms per gram dry weight for erlotinib and OSI-420 ranged from 25% to 44% and 30% to 59%, respectively, for pretreated surgical patients. No effect on EGFR or intratumoral signaling was seen. Patients with NP GBM post-RT who developed rash in cycle 1 had improved survival (P < .001). Single-agent activity of erlotinib is minimal for recurrent MGs and marginally beneficial following RT for NP GBM patients. Development of rash in cycle 1 correlates with survival in patients with NP GBM after RT. PMID:20150372

  12. A phase II trial of erlotinib in patients with recurrent malignant gliomas and nonprogressive glioblastoma multiforme postradiation therapy†

    PubMed Central

    Raizer, Jeffrey J.; Abrey, Lauren E.; Lassman, Andrew B.; Chang, Susan M.; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Kuhn, John G.; Yung, W.K. Alfred; Gilbert, Mark R.; Aldape, Kenneth A.; Wen, Patrick Y.; Fine, Howard A.; Mehta, Minesh; DeAngelis, Lisa M.; Lieberman, Frank; Cloughesy, Timothy F.; Robins, H. Ian; Dancey, Janet; Prados, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Patients with (a) recurrent malignant glioma (MG): glioblastoma (GBM) or recurrent anaplastic glioma (AG), and (b) nonprogressive (NP) GBM following radiation therapy (RT) were eligible. Primary objective for recurrent MG was progression-free survival at 6 months (PFS-6) and overall survival at 12 months for NP GBM post-RT. Secondary objectives for recurrent MGs were response, survival, assessment of toxicity, and pharmacokinetics (PKs). Treatment with enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs was not allowed. Patients received 150 mg/day erlotinib. Patients requiring surgery were treated 7 days prior to tumor removal for PK analysis and effects of erlotinib on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and intracellular signaling pathways. Ninety-six patients were evaluable (53 recurrent MG and 43 NP GBM); 5 patients were not evaluable for response. PFS-6 in recurrent GBM was 3% with a median PFS of 2 months; PFS-6 in recurrent AG was 27% with a median PFS of 2 months. Twelve-month survival was 57% in NP GBMs post-RT. Primary toxicity was dermatologic. The tissue-to-plasma ratio normalized to nanograms per gram dry weight for erlotinib and OSI-420 ranged from 25% to 44% and 30% to 59%, respectively, for pretreated surgical patients. No effect on EGFR or intratumoral signaling was seen. Patients with NP GBM post-RT who developed rash in cycle 1 had improved survival (P < .001). Single-agent activity of erlotinib is minimal for recurrent MGs and marginally beneficial following RT for NP GBM patients. Development of rash in cycle 1 correlates with survival in patients with NP GBM after RT. PMID:20150372

  13. Pure sarcomatoid carcinoma of maxillary sinus and nasal cavity simulating malignant fibrous histiocytoma.

    PubMed

    Terada, Tadashi

    2011-01-01

    Although a few cases of sinonasal carcinoma with focal sarcomatous differentiation have been reported, pure sarcomatoid carcinoma has not been reported in the English literature. Imaging studies and gross inspection in a 60-year-old man with left-sided face pain revealed a mass in the left maxillary sinus and nasal cavity. A large incisional biopsy specimen from the nasal cavity revealed proliferation of malignant spindle and round cells with a malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) pattern. Tumor giant cells were scattered, and there were areas of a vague storiform pattern. Mitotic figures were numerous. Carcinomatous component was not recognized. The histologic diagnosis was storiform-pleomorphic MFH. Tumor cells were positive for pancytokeratins AE1/3, KL-1, and CAM5.2 and cytokeratin (CK) 18, vimentin, CD68, p53, Ki-67 (labeling, 90%), α₁-antitrypsin, and α₁-antichymotrypsin and negative for pancytokeratin WSS, CK 34βE14, CK7, CK8, CK14, CK19, CK20, epithelial membrane antigen, S-100 protein, desmin, α-smooth muscle actin, CD34, HMB45, chromogranin, synaptophysin, myoglobin, CD45, CD30, and CD15. Because keratins were positive in tumor cells, a diagnosis of sarcomatoid carcinoma simulating MFH was made. The patient was treated with chemoradiation without significant effect and died 9 months after initial examination. PMID:21173134

  14. Radiation-induced malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the occipital: a case report.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-Bin; Li, Jian; Zhang, Peng-Fei; Han, Li-Jiang; Zhang, Jun-Ting

    2014-01-01

    Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is a rare neoplasm exhibiting a propensity for aggressive clinical behavior. Effective treatment modality is surgical resection with wide margins, but its rate of recurrence and metastasis is still high. Early detection and complete excision of the tumor is necessary. A MFH of the occipital developed in a 51-year-old woman eight years after surgery and radiation for medulloblastoma of the cerebellar vermis. The secondary neoplasm arose at the site of tumor resection within the irradiated field, and was resected. The development of sarcomas is a recognized complication of radiation therapy. The final diagnosis after the operation was MFH. Radiation-induced sarcoma (RIS) is well known, but radiation-induced MFH is relatively rare in the head and neck region, especially in the occipital. The imaging findings are not diagnosis specific, but strict follow-up within the radiation field by computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and appreciation of the expected latency period may help in providing the diagnosis of RIS. PMID:24742094

  15. Primary malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the colon: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    JI, WUYANG; ZHONG, MINER; YOU, YAN; HU, KE; WU, BIN

    2016-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman was admitted to the Peking Union Medical College Hospital with a 6-week history of fever of undetermined origin. The computed tomography scan revealed a space-occupying lesion in the ascending colon and colonic endoscopy revealed a protrusive lesion in the initial segment of the ascending colon, occupying 3/5 of the lumen. Pathological examination of a biopsy specimen revealed malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH). The patient then underwent a laparotomy for right hemicolectomy and en bloc lymph node dissection. The histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of MFH and administration of adjuvant radiotherapy was decided. MFH is a high-grade sarcoma that rarely arises in the alimentary tract. To the best of our knowledge, there has only been one case of primary colorectal MFH treated by radiotherapy recorded to date, which makes our case the second trial. We herein present a case of MFH in the ascending colon and a review of previous case reports of patients presenting with this unusual type of MFH. PMID:27284436

  16. Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of the Maxillary Sinus in a Spray Painter from an Automobile Repair Shop

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We report a case of a spray painter who developed malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of the maxillary sinus following long-term exposure to chromium, nickel, and formaldehyde, implying that these agents are probable causal agents of MFH. Case report The patient developed right-sided prosopalgia that began twenty months ago. The symptom persisted despite medical treatment. After two months, he was diagnosed with MFH through imaging studies, surgery, and pathological microscopic findings at a university hospital in Seoul. His social, medical, and family history was unremarkable. The patient had worked for about 18 years at an automobile repair shop as a spray painter. During this period, he had been exposed to various occupational agents, such as hexavalent chromium, nickel, and formaldehyde, without appropriate personal protective equipment. He painted 6 days a week and worked for about 8 hours a day. Investigation of the patient’s work environment detected hexavalent chromium, chromate, nickel, and formaldehyde. Conclusions The study revealed that the patient had been exposed to hexavalent chromium, formaldehyde, and nickel compounds through sanding and spray painting. The association between paranasal cancer and exposure to the aforementioned occupational human carcinogens has been established. We suggest, in this case, the possibility that the paint spraying acted as a causal agent for paranasal cancer. PMID:24472378

  17. The RB1 gene is the target of chromosome 13 deletions in malignant fibrous histiocytoma.

    PubMed

    Chibon, F; Mairal, A; Fréneaux, P; Terrier, P; Coindre, J M; Sastre, X; Aurias, A

    2000-11-15

    Forty-four malignant fibrous histiocytomas (MFHs) were studied by comparative genomic hybridization. Among the observed imbalances, losses of the 13q14-q21 region were observed in almost all tumors (78%), suggesting that a gene localized in this region could act as a tumor suppressor gene and that its inactivation could be relevant for MFH oncogenesis and/or progression. We determined by CA repeat analyses a consensus region of deletion focusing on the RB1 region. The RB1 gene was then analyzed by protein truncation test, direct sequencing, fluorescence in situ hybridization, Southern blotting, and immunohistochemistry. RB1 mutations and/or homozygous deletions were found in 7 of the 34 tumors analyzed (20%). Among the 35 tumors with comparative genomic hybridization imbalances analyzed by immunohistochemistry, 30 (86%) did not exhibit significant nuclear labeling. The high correlation between chromosome 13 losses and absence of RB1 protein expression and the mutations detected strongly suggest that RB1 gene inactivation is a pivotal event in MFH oncogenesis. Moreover, the observation of a high incidence of MFH in patients previously treated for hereditary retinoblastoma fits well this hypothesis. PMID:11103795

  18. Postradiation multicentric osteosarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Tillotson, C.; Rosenberg, A.; Gebhardt, M.; Rosenthal, D.I.

    1988-07-01

    The oncogenic effects of radiation are well-established. Osteosarcomas and fibrosarcomas are the two most common histologic types of secondary sarcoma. In this article a case of postradiation osteosarcoma is presented in which four discrete foci of sarcomatous transformation have occurred in the tibia and fibula after irradiation for a rhabdomyosarcoma of the calf 8 years earlier. A review of the literature reveals no similar case. Although synchronous, multifocal osteosarcoma without prior radiation has been described, this case differs in clinical, radiographic, and pathologic features; it best fits the description of postradiation multicentric osteosarcoma.

  19. Comparative genomic hybridization of malignant fibrous histiocytoma reveals a novel prognostic marker.

    PubMed Central

    Larramendy, M. L.; Tarkkanen, M.; Blomqvist, C.; Virolainen, M.; Wiklund, T.; Asko-Seljavaara, S.; Elomaa, I.; Knuutila, S.

    1997-01-01

    DNA sequence copy number changes were studied by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) along all chromosomes in 58 samples of malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH). The material consisted of 43 primary tumors (9 of myxoid and 34 of storiform-pleomorphic subtype), 13 local recurrences (2 myxoid and 11 storiform-pleomorphic), and 2 metastases (1 myxoid and 1 storiform-pleomorphic). Genetic aberrations, with a mean of 5.5 changes per sample (range, 0 to 22), were detected in 47 of 58 samples (81%). The minimal common regions of the most frequent gains were 1p31 (33%), 9q31 (29%), 5p14-pter (26%), 7q32 (24%), and 7p15-pter (22%). High-level amplifications were detected in 16 of the 58 samples (28%). High-level amplification of 13q31-qter was seen in four tumors (7%); other high-level amplifications were more sporadic. Losses of DNA sequences were less frequent than gains. The minimal common regions of the most common losses were 13q21 (21%) and 13q22 (21%). Statistically significant correlation was found between gain of 7q32 and the rates of worse metastasis-free survival (P = 0.01) and overall survival (P = 0.004). The gain of 7q32 retained its prognostic significance also in a multivariate analysis with tumor size and grade. Gain of 1p31 was associated with a trend to decreased overall survival. Gains of 5p14-pter and 9q31 and losses of 13q21 and/or 13q22 did not have any prognostic value; neither did the total number of aberrations, total number of gains, or total number of losses per sample. PMID:9327749

  20. Myxoid malignant fibrous histiocytoma and pleomorphic liposarcoma share very similar genomic imbalances.

    PubMed

    Idbaih, Ahmed; Coindre, Jean-Michel; Derré, Josette; Mariani, Odette; Terrier, Philippe; Ranchère, Dominique; Mairal, Aline; Aurias, Alain

    2005-02-01

    Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma. Nevertheless, the validity of this heterogeneous pathological entity has been recurrently questioned by pathologists. Recently, analyses by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) of a large series of MFHs suggested that MFHs consist of morphologic modulation of other poorly differentiated sarcomas like leiomyosarcomas (LMS) or dedifferentiated liposarcomas (DLPS). We report here an analysis by CGH of 22 myxoid MFHs (mMFH), one of the five histological subtypes of MFH, and of nine pleomorphic liposarcomas (pLPS), a rare poorly differentiated LPS. The chromosome imbalances encountered in the series of mMFH were very similar to those observed in the series of pLPS studied in the laboratory and in the series of 14 pLPS published in the literature. The most frequent gains involved chromosome subregions: pericentromeric regions of 1, 5p, 19p, 19q and 20q. Losses found in the chromosomal arms 1q, 2q, 3p, 4q, 10q, 11q and 13q were also recurrent. The use of a clustering software did not separate the two pathological groups (mMFH and pLPS) on the basis of genomic data. Moreover, pLPS-mMFH represented, according to the clustering software results, an entity clearly distinguished from other soft tissue sarcomas, LMS in particular, with which they share common genetic aberrations. Additional studies are needed to identify genes targeted by these genomic aberrations, and implicated in the oncogenesis of these tumor subtypes. The characterization of common gene alterations in both tumor groups would suggest a closer relationship between these two types of soft tissue sarcomas. PMID:15702084

  1. Chemically induced transplantable malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the rat. Analyses with immunohistochemistry, immunoelectron microscopy and (3H)thymidine autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, T.; Takeya, M.; Takagi, K.; Takahashi, K. )

    1990-05-01

    Malignant fibrous histiocytoma was produced in rats by injection of 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene into their knee joints. The original tumors consisted mainly of fibroblast-like cells and histiocyte-like cells, often intermixed with bizarre giant cells, and they frequently showed the storiform-pleomorphic pattern. By immunohistochemistry, anti-rat macrophage monoclonal antibodies, TRPM-3, RM-1, and Ki-M2R, and anti-rat leukocyte common antigen reacted to the histiocyte-like cells but not to the fibroblast-like cells. By the single cell cloning method, we established six tumor cell lines, none of which reacted with the anti-rat macrophage monoclonal antibodies, possessed any Fc receptors, or conducted immune phagocytosis and Latex particle phagocytosis. The ultrastructure of the cloned tumor cells resembled that of long-term cultured dermal fibroblasts. Collagen production by the tumor cells was demonstrated immunohistochemically with a monoclonal antibody for type I collagen. Inoculation of the cloned tumor cells into rats produced tumors with the histology of malignant fibrous histiocytoma and induced prominent macrophage infiltration. In the rat tumors produced by the inoculation of (3H)thymidine labeled cells, no reactivity of tumor cells with the anti-rat macrophage monoclonal antibodies was observed. Transplantation of the cultured rat tumor cells into nude mice produced tumors similar in histology to the original rat malignant fibrous histiocytoma. Tumor cells in nude mice induced marked macrophage infiltration as detected by immunohistochemistry with the anti-mouse macrophage monoclonal antibody F4/80. No differentiation of tumor cells into macrophages was detected, since no cells were stained with biotinylated anti-rat macrophage monoclonal antibody TRPM-3.

  2. The use of clustering software for the classification of comparative genomic hybridization data. an analysis of 109 malignant fibrous histiocytomas.

    PubMed

    Chibon, Frédéric; Mariani, Odette; Mairal, Aline; Derré, Josette; Coindre, Jean-Michel; Terrier, Philippe; Lagacé, Réal; Sastre, Xavier; Aurias, Alain

    2003-02-01

    Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is considered the most frequent soft-tissue sarcoma of late adult life. Nevertheless, the validity of this entity has been recurrently questioned by pathologists. Preliminary analyses by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) of series of MFH have suggested that this tumor group is heterogeneous at the genomic level, and that at least two main genetic subgroups exist. We report an analysis by CGH of a large series of 109 MFH and on the use of clustering software for an objective classification of these tumors. We confirm our preliminary CGH results and demonstrate that two main clusters of tumors are present in the series analyzed. PMID:12581902

  3. Double primary malignant fibrous histiocytoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx treated with laser laryngeal conservation surgery

    PubMed Central

    Karkos, PD; Dova, S; Sotiriou, S; Markou, K; Kostopoulos, I

    2016-01-01

    Βackground Synchronous multiple malignancies of the larynx are rare. We present a case here of synchronous primary laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) in a patient with hoarseness though with no history of exposure to radiation. Clinical, intraoperative, and histopathological findings in this patient are discussed. Methods Wide laser excision of the left supraglottic lesion and laser cordectomy of the right true vocal cord were performed. Results The patient presented with a recurrence of the ΜFH alone (with no recurrence of the SCC) two months after the first operation and was managed with an extended second look laser cordectomy. The patient is under regular follow-up and remained disease-free nine months from diagnosis. Conclusions Our results show that early-stage simultaneous tumours of the larynx and particularly MFH and SCC can be treated efficiently with endoscopic laryngeal surgery alone. Close follow-up is of paramount importance because of the aggressive nature of MFH. PMID:27170836

  4. Primary inflammatory malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the breast: a case report of an unusual variant and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tashjian, Randy; Gilani, Syed M; Falk, Jeffery; Kelly, Michael J; Ockner, Daniel; Danforth, Robert

    2013-08-01

    Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of adults, but its presence in the breast is rare. We report a case of primary inflammatory MFH in a 72-year-old Caucasian female with no previous medical history and no prior radiation exposure. She presented with a palpable mass that was suspicious for malignancy on mammography. Histologic evaluation of the core needle biopsy revealed sheets of large, pleomorphic neoplastic cells within a dense background of acute and chronic inflammatory cells. The neoplastic cells exhibited a moderate to abundant amount of finely vacuolated cytoplasm and atypical nuclei with vesicular nuclear chromatin and prominent nucleoli. Mitotic activity was readily identified, and foci of necrosis were noted. The neoplastic cells were immunoreactive with CD68, alpha 1-antitrypsin, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, and vimentin. The diagnosis of MFH was rendered after thorough microscopic examination of the entire mass following mastectomy. MFH of the breast is a diagnosis of exclusion. The definitive treatment of MFH is surgical, either with wide local excision or total mastectomy. The roles of sentinel lymph node biopsy, axillary lymph node dissection, chemotherapy, and radiation have yet to be definitively clarified. The prognosis of MFH of the breast is generally poor. PMID:23827212

  5. Postoperative Radiotherapy for the Treatment of Solitary Fibrous Tumor With Malignant Transformation of the Pelvic: A Rare Case Report With Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chao; Zhang, Yong; Jing, Ming; Qu, Wei; Li, Jia; Zhao, Xiang-Rong; Yu, Yong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor of the pelvic is an uncommon neoplasm with nonspecific symptoms. Reports of malignant transformation are especially rare. We report a case of solitary fibrous tumor in pelvic. A unique feature of our case compared with previously reported is that this patient relapsed with malignant transformation and had significant response to radiotherapy. The patient was initially treated with surgery, followed by postoperative dimensional conformal intensity modulated radiation therapy (dynamic MLC VRIAN 23EX Linac, inversely optimized by the Eclipse system) to provide a radical cure for residual tumor.In this case, there were no signs of recurrence after six and a half years of further follow-up, indicating that postoperation radiotherapy may be an effective treatment for SFT with malignant transformation in pelvic. PMID:26765426

  6. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of visceral organs: clinicopathologic features and diagnostic value of ezrin and HMG-CoA reductase

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Jinyang; Zhang, Shu; Wu, Xingyu; Shi, Jiong; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Xiaoqi; Yang, Jun; Obulkasim, Halmurat; Duan, Fei; Deng, Chao; He, Jing; Zou, Xiaoping; Ding, Yitao

    2015-01-01

    Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of the breast and visceral organs is extremely rare. There is an incomplete understanding of the clinical pathology of the primary MFH originating from the breast and visceral organs, especially in comparison with other soft tissue sarcomas. As a consequence we searched and analyzed the clinical and pathological records of all the nine patients with diagnosed breast and visceral MFH in our hospital. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for ezrin and HMG-CoA reductase in these MFH cases and relevant mesenchymal sarcomas. The 9 MFH cases presented with nonspecific symptoms and imaging manifestations. 6 cases were classified as storiform-pleomorphic MFH, 2 cases as inflammatory MFH, and the remaining 1 case as giant cell MFH. The results showed that ezrin expression, as well as HMG-CoA reductase expression, was significantly stronger in MFH cases than other non-MFH sarcomas. Poor prognosis seemed to be associated with younger age. Certain characteristics and clinicopathologic features can help us making the diagnosis of MFH. In conclusion, our study provided the potential value of ezrin and HMG-CoA reductase for diagnosis and differential diagnosis of MFH located in the breast and visceral organs. More accurate prognostic information of this rare disease needed to be further investigated. PMID:26045796

  7. Postradiation sarcoma involving the spine

    SciTech Connect

    Sundaresan, N.; Huvos, A.G.; Krol, G.; Hughes, J.E.; Cahan, W.G.

    1986-06-01

    Postradiation sarcomas arising many years after treatment of cancer are long term sequelae of therapy. We describe the clinical features, radiographic findings, and results of treatment in 13 patients with such sarcomas encountered over a 6-year period. Of these patients, 9 had bone sarcomas and the remaining 4 had paraspinal tumors arising from adjacent soft tissue and nerve. The primary cancer for which radiation was given included Hodgkin's disease (4 patients), breast cancer (2 patients), cervix cancer (2 patients), and a variety of others (5 patients). The latent interval to the occurrence of the second neoplasm varied from 6 to 30 years (median, 10 years) after treatment of the original tumor. Despite aggressive treatment, the overall prognosis was poor. The median survival was 8 months, with only 3 surviving more than 2 years. Although rare, postradiation sarcoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with late onset of spinal pain or neurological symptoms after clinical remission of an original cancer.

  8. Diagnostic pitfalls in the preoperative 18F-FDG PET/CT evaluation of a case of giant malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura.

    PubMed

    Lococo, F; Rapicetta, C; Ricchetti, T; Cavazza, A; Filice, A; Treglia, G; Tenconi, S; Paci, M; Sgarbi, G

    2014-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura (SFTP) is an uncommon entity, generally with an indolent behavior. Nevertheless, some malignant forms have been rarely reported. These, often have an aggressive biological behavior with pathological findings of invasiveness. The preoperative diagnosis and evaluation of the grade of malignancy are extremely challenging. Herein we report a case of a 64-year-old man who presented with a left giant intra-thoracic mass imaged with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG/PET-CT) and sampled via fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). Imaging and FNAB findings showed suspicion of a benign form of SFTP. Surgical radical resection of the giant mass was performed. The definitive histological diagnosis showed a malignant SFTP. Based on this report, we take the opportunity to briefly discuss the insidious pitfalls concerning the radiological and (18)F-FDG/PET-CT features as well as cyto/histological findings in the pre-operative diagnostic work-up examination of this rare entity. PMID:24079956

  9. Indium-111-labeled leukocyte and technetium-99m-sulfur colloid uptake by a malignant fibrous histiocytoma: phagocytosis by tumor cells?

    PubMed

    Palestro, C J; Klein, M; Kim, C K; Swyer, A J; Goldsmith, S J

    1990-09-01

    Indium-111-labeled leukocyte imaging, performed on a patient with a calcified mass in the right thigh, demonstrated labeled leukocyte accumulation in this mass. Technetium-99m-sulfur colloid imaging was performed to differentiate labeled leukocyte uptake in heterotopic bone marrow from uptake in a focus of infection. Leukocyte and sulfur colloid images were virtually identical, and the study was interpreted as without evidence of infection. Excision of the mass revealed an angiomatoid malignant fibrous histiocytoma with metaplastic bone formation. While no marrow elements were present in either the tumor or the metaplastic bone, phagocytosis of leukocytes by tumor cells was identified. Phagocytosis of leukocytes by tumor cells may be another cause of white cell accumulation in uninfected neoplasms. PMID:2168475

  10. Establishment of a human malignant fibrous histiocytoma cell line, COMA. Characterization By conventional cytogenetics, comparative genomic hybridization, and multiplex fluorescence In situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Mairal, A; Chibon, F; Rousselet, A; Couturier, J; Terrier, P; Aurias, A

    2000-09-01

    The human COMA cell line has been established from a storiform pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH). As expected for this tumor type, a very complex karyotype was observed after R-banding analysis. An extensive analysis by 24-color painting, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed. Twelve complex marker chromosomes recurrently observed were clearly identified; among them, three were systematically present in all analyzed metaphases. Amplifications detected by CGH were refined by FISH with probes specific for various candidate loci. A significant aneuploidy and numerous micronuclei were observed, which could be related to the anomalies of centriole numbers detected in a proportion of cells. Such an analysis, performed on a series of MFH cell lines, would allow the delineation of the genomic alterations specific for the oncogenesis or progression of this complex tumor type or both. PMID:11063793

  11. Loss of chromosome 13 is the most frequent genomic imbalance in malignant fibrous histiocytomas. A comparative genomic hybridization analysis of a series of 30 cases.

    PubMed

    Mairal, A; Terrier, P; Chibon, F; Sastre, X; Lecesne, A; Aurias, A

    1999-06-01

    Regional chromosome localizations of DNA copy number imbalances were studied by comparative genomic hybridization in 30 malignant fibrous histiocytomas: 13 primary tumors (2 myxoid, 9 storiform pleomorphic, and 2 with more undifferentiated phenotype) and 17 local recurrences (2 myxoid, 11 storiform pleomorphic, and 4 with more undifferentiated phenotype). Abnormal comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) profiles were observed in 25 tumors (83%). The most frequent gains (ratio > 1.2) corresponded, by order of frequency, to entire Xp, and bands 1q21, 19q13.1, 19p13, 5p13-p14, 1p31, 17p, 18p, 20q, 1p35, 17q23, and 22q12. High levels of gains (ratio > 1.5) were recurrently detected for Xp (10 cases), and in bands 1q21-q22 (8 cases), 3q27 (4 cases), 5p13-p14 (3 cases), 13q32-q34 (3 cases), 15q22-q26 (3 cases), and 17p11-p12 (3 cases). Losses of 13q12-q14 or 13q21 were observed in a large proportion of tumors (17 cases), suggesting that a gene localized in this region could act as a tumor suppressor gene. Losses of 11q23, 2q32, 11p13, 10p, 1q4, 9p2, 16q12, 4q3, 10q25, 3p23, 2p24, and 12p were also recurrently observed. Taken together, these results provide an overview of chromosome imbalances present in MFH, which could be of use for diagnostic purposes. They point to various chromosome regions which may harbor genes important for malignant fibrous histiocytomas (MFH) oncogenesis and progression. PMID:10347550

  12. Paratesticular Fibrous Pseudotumors

    PubMed Central

    Turkan, Sadi; Kalkan, Mehmet; Ekmekcioglu, Ozan; Haltas, Hacer; Sahin, Coskun

    2016-01-01

    Paratesticular fibrous pseudotumors (PFPs) are rare pathologies with quite wide and variable topographic-morphological features. It is difficult to distinguish PFPs from malignant masses. Treatment can be done by resection of the mass. We reported a young patient’s findings about this rare pathology. PMID:27441080

  13. Postradiation leiomyosarcoma of the orbit complicating bilateral retinoblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Font, R.L.; Jurco, S.; Brechner, R.J.

    1983-10-01

    A 31-year-old woman had bilateral retinoblastoma diagnosed in early childhood. The right eye was enucleated at the age of 1 year, and the left eye was treated with radiation therapy (a total dose of 16,000 rad). Twenty-three years later, in 1975, a subcutaneous mass was noted in the left periorbital region. A biopsy specimen of the mass was taken and a diagnosis of pleomorphic postradiation sarcoma was made. Electron microscopic studies of the periorbital mass confirmed the diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma. After additional radiation therapy, the residual mass was surgically excised. Five years later, a right renal mass, which histologically proved to be a renal cell carcinoma, was discovered. She was treated with nephrectomy, radiation, and chemotherapy. A recent follow-up examination disclosed that the patient is alive and apparently without any evidence of metastatic disease, 30 years after the diagnosis of bilateral retinoblastoma was made. The literature is reviewed regarding postradiation sarcomas and the occurrence of second malignant neoplasms in patients with retinoblastoma.

  14. ASK1 (MAP3K5) as a potential therapeutic target in malignant fibrous histiocytomas with 12q14-q15 and 6q23 amplifications.

    PubMed

    Chibon, Frédéric; Mariani, Odette; Derré, Josette; Mairal, Aline; Coindre, Jean-Michel; Guillou, Louis; Sastre, Xavier; Pédeutour, Florence; Aurias, Alain

    2004-05-01

    Malignant fibrous histiocytomas (MFHs) are aggressive tumors without any definable line of differentiation. We recently demonstrated that about 20% of them are characterized by high-level amplifications of the 12q14-q15 chromosome region, associated with either 1p32 or 6q23 band amplification. This genetic finding, very similar to that in well-differentiated liposarcomas, strongly suggests that these tumors actually correspond to undifferentiated liposarcomas. It also suggests that the lack of differentiation could be the consequence of amplification of target genes localized in the 1p32 or 6q23 bands. We report here the characterization by array CGH of the 6q23 minimal region of amplification. Our findings demonstrate that amplification and overexpression of ASK1 (MAP3K5), a gene localized in the 6q23 band and encoding a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase of the JNK-MAPK signaling pathway, could inhibit the adipocytic differentiation process of the tumor cells. Treatment of a cell line with specific inhibitors of ASK1 protein resulted in the bypass of the differentiation block and induction of a strong adipocytic differentiation. These observations indicate that ASK1 is a target for new therapeutic management of these aggressive tumors. PMID:15034865

  15. Fibrous dysplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... page, please enable JavaScript. Fibrous dysplasia is a bone disease that destroys and replaces normal bone with fibrous ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Bone Diseases Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  16. Leiomyosarcomas and most malignant fibrous histiocytomas share very similar comparative genomic hybridization imbalances: an analysis of a series of 27 leiomyosarcomas.

    PubMed

    Derré, J; Lagacé, R; Nicolas, A; Mairal, A; Chibon, F; Coindre, J M; Terrier, P; Sastre, X; Aurias, A

    2001-02-01

    Twenty-seven tumor samples with a diagnosis of leiomyosarcomas (LMS) were characterized by comparative genomic hybridization. The results were compared with immunohistochemical analysis of the smooth muscle profile of the tumors and expression of the RB1 gene protein. The comparative genomic hybridization profiles suggested that 7 of the 27 tumors might have been misclassified. High levels of DNA amplification were detected in 20 different small regions and recurrently involved bands 1p34, q21, 12q13-15, 17p, and 22q. Most recurrent simple gains were noted at sites such as 1p3, 1q21, 15q12-15, 16p, 17p and 17q, 19, 20q, 22q, and Xp. Significant losses of chromosome 13 were detected in 19 of the 27 tumors with a putative common region of loss in bands 13q14-21. Losses of chromosomes 1q, 2p and 2q, 4q, 9p, 10p and 10q, 11p and 11q23, and 16q were also highly recurrent. A comparative analysis between the most frequent genomic imbalances observed in this study of LMS and the genomic imbalances observed in a large proportion of malignant fibrous histiocytomas (MFH) from a previous study demonstrated that both types of tumors had similar recurrent imbalances. Although MFH were once thought to be a separate member of the soft tissue sarcoma family, our observations support the hypothesis that MFH are a morphologic modulation in the tumoral progression of other sarcomas, particularly LMS. PMID:11232643

  17. Interleukin-6/Soluble Interleukin-6 Receptor Signaling Attenuates Proliferation and Invasion, and Induces Morphological Changes of a Newly Established Pleomorphic Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Hirofumi; Yoshioka, Kiyoko; Joyama, Susumu; Araki, Nobuhito; Myoui, Akira; Ishiguro, Shingo; Ueda, Takafumi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Itoh, Kazuyuki

    2004-01-01

    Pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is occasionally associated with inflammatory paraneoplastic syndrome (PNS). Recently, we reported that interleukin (IL)-6, one of the candidate cytokines, which induces such systemic inflammatory reaction, may be a tumor-associated factor involved in the pathogenesis and its clinical manifestations of MFH. In the local microenvironment, tumor-induced inflammatory reaction may play a role favoring tumor progression. To clarify the biological relevance of IL-6 in MFH, we established a human MFH cell line, named MIPS-2, derived from a resected specimen of a patient presenting with PNS. In this patient, the serum IL-6 level ran parallel to the disease course: elevated serum IL-6 concentration normalized immediately after radical surgery, and re-elevation occurred on tumor recurrence. MIPS-2 presented pleomorphic appearance, severe nuclear abnormalities with prominent nucleoli, and tumorigenesis in nude mice. MIPS-2 expressed IL-6, IL-6 receptor (IL-6R), and glycoprotein 130 (gp130) but lacked the soluble form of IL-6R (sIL-6R), as determined by flow cytometry and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analyses. Stimulation of MIPS-2 with IL-6 combined with exogenous sIL-6R induced phosphorylation of both signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), decreased cell proliferation, attenuated invasion, and induced morphological changes. Collectively, these data suggested that the IL-6/sIL-6R signaling pathway plays a pivotal role for proliferation, invasion, and morphology of MFH via STAT3 and MAPK pathway as autocrine and/or paracrine manner, and proposed the therapeutic potential for the use of both anti-growth factor and proinflammatory cytokine-targeting strategies to combat devastating MFH. PMID:15277221

  18. Loss of H3K27 trimethylation distinguishes malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors from histologic mimics.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Inga-Marie; Fletcher, Christopher Dm; Hornick, Jason L

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor is challenging, particularly in the sporadic setting. Inactivation of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), resulting from inactivating mutations of its constituents SUZ12 or EED1, has recently been identified in 70-90% of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Homozygous PRC2 inactivation results in loss of histone H3K27 trimethylation (H3K27me3). PRC2 inactivation promotes tumor progression and may render patients sensitive to epigenetic-based targeted therapies. H3K27me3 loss has not yet been validated as a diagnostic marker. We evaluated immunohistochemistry for H3K27me3 in 100 malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (70 sporadic, 10 neurofibromatosis type 1-associated, 10 radiation-associated, 10 epithelioid) and 200 other spindle cell neoplasms representing potential mimics (20 each monophasic synovial sarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, dedifferentiated liposarcoma, malignant solitary fibrous tumor, low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma, cellular schwannoma, spindle cell melanoma, unclassified postradiation sarcoma; 10 each atypical neurofibroma, spindle cell rhabdomyosarcoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumor, fibrosarcomatous dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans). In total, 51 (51%) malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, including 34 (49%) sporadic, 7 (70%) neurofibromatosis type 1-associated, and 10 (100%) radiation-associated, but no epithelioid malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, were negative for H3K27me3. An additional 6 (6%) tumors showed heterogeneous H3K27me3 expression. Among the 90 sporadic, neurofibromatosis type 1-associated, and radiation-associated malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, complete H3K27me3 loss was observed in 29% of low-grade, 59% of intermediate-grade, and 83% of high-grade tumors (low vs intermediate/high grade, P=0.0003). Among other tumor types, 4 (20%) unclassified postradiation sarcomas were negative for H3K27me3, whereas all other neoplasms were positive. Loss of H3K27me

  19. Fibrous dysplasia and cherubism

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Surajit; Mishra, RK

    2015-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a non-malignant fibro-osseous bony lesion in which the involved bone/bones gradually get converted into expanding cystic and fibrous tissue. The underlying defect in FD is post-natal mutation of GNAS1 gene, which leads to the proliferation and activation of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells arresting the bone development in woven phase and ultimately converting them into fibro-osseous cystic tissue. Cherubism is a hereditary form of fibrous dysplasia in which the causative factor is transmission of autosomal dominant SH3BP2 gene mutation. The disease may present in two distinct forms, a less severe and limited monostotic form, and a more aggressive and more widespread polyostotic form. Polyostotic form may be associated with various endocrine abnormalities, which require active management apart from the management of FD. Management of FD is not free from controversies. While total surgical excision of the involved area and reconstruction using newer micro-vascular technique is the only definitive treatment available from the curative point of view, but this can be only offered to monostotic and very few polyostotic lesions. In polyostotic varieties on many occasions these radical surgeries are very deforming in these slow growing lesions and so their indication is highly debated. The treatment of cranio-facial fibrous dysplasia should be highly individualized, depending on the fact that the clinical behavior of lesion is variable at various ages and in individual patients. A more conservative approach in the form of aesthetic recontouring of deformed bone, orthodontic occlusal correction, and watchful expectancy may be the more accepted form of treatment in young patients. Newer generation real-time imaging guidance during recontouring surgery adds to accuracy and safety of these procedures. Regular clinical and radiological follow up is required to watch for quiescence, regression or reactivation of the disease process. Patients must be

  20. Fibrous dysplasia and cherubism.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Surajit; Mishra, R K

    2015-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a non-malignant fibro-osseous bony lesion in which the involved bone/bones gradually get converted into expanding cystic and fibrous tissue. The underlying defect in FD is post-natal mutation of GNAS1 gene, which leads to the proliferation and activation of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells arresting the bone development in woven phase and ultimately converting them into fibro-osseous cystic tissue. Cherubism is a hereditary form of fibrous dysplasia in which the causative factor is transmission of autosomal dominant SH3BP2 gene mutation. The disease may present in two distinct forms, a less severe and limited monostotic form, and a more aggressive and more widespread polyostotic form. Polyostotic form may be associated with various endocrine abnormalities, which require active management apart from the management of FD. Management of FD is not free from controversies. While total surgical excision of the involved area and reconstruction using newer micro-vascular technique is the only definitive treatment available from the curative point of view, but this can be only offered to monostotic and very few polyostotic lesions. In polyostotic varieties on many occasions these radical surgeries are very deforming in these slow growing lesions and so their indication is highly debated. The treatment of cranio-facial fibrous dysplasia should be highly individualized, depending on the fact that the clinical behavior of lesion is variable at various ages and in individual patients. A more conservative approach in the form of aesthetic recontouring of deformed bone, orthodontic occlusal correction, and watchful expectancy may be the more accepted form of treatment in young patients. Newer generation real-time imaging guidance during recontouring surgery adds to accuracy and safety of these procedures. Regular clinical and radiological follow up is required to watch for quiescence, regression or reactivation of the disease process. Patients must be

  1. Benign Post-Radiation Rectal Stricture Treated with Endoscopic Balloon Dilation and Intralesional Triamcinolone Injection

    PubMed Central

    Karanikas, Michael; Touzopoulos, Panagiotis; Mitrakas, Alexandros; Zezos, Petros; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Efremidou, Eleni; Liratzopoulos, Nikolaos; Polychronidis, Alexandros; Kouklakis, George

    2012-01-01

    Post-radiation stricture is a rare complication after pelvis irradiation, but must be in the mind of the clinician evaluating a lower gastrointestinal obstruction. Endoscopy has gained an important role in chronic radiation proctitis with several therapeutic options for management of intestinal strictures. The treatment of rectal strictures has been limited to surgery with high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, a less invasive therapeutic approach for benign rectal strictures, endoscopic balloon dilation with or without intralesional steroid injection, has become a common treatment modality. We present a case of benign post-radiation rectal stricture treated successfully with balloon dilation and adjuvant intralesional triamcinolone injection. A 70-year-old woman presented to the emergency room complaining for 2 weeks of diarrhea and meteorism, 11 years after radiation of the pelvis due to adenocarcinoma of the uterus. Colonoscopy revealed a stricture at the rectum and multiple endoscopic biopsies were obtained from the stricture. The stricture was treated with endoscopic balloon dilation and intralesional triamcinolone injection. The procedure appears to have a high success rate and a very low complication rate. Histologic examination of the biopsies revealed non-specific inflammatory changes of the rectal mucosa and no specific changes of the mucosa due to radiation. All biopsies were negative for malignancy. The patient is stricture-free 12 months post-treatment. PMID:23271987

  2. Mesothelioma - benign-fibrous

    MedlinePlus

    Mesothelioma - benign; Mesothelioma - fibrous; Pleural fibroma; Solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura ... other reasons. Other tests that may show benign mesothelioma include: CT scan of the chest Open lung ...

  3. Late recurrence of a malignant hypoglycemia-inducing pelvic solitary fibrous tumor secreting high-molecular-weight insulin-like growth factor-II: A case report with protein analysis

    PubMed Central

    ISHIHARA, HIROKI; OMAE, KENJI; IIZUKA, JUNPEI; KOBAYASHI, HIROHITO; FUKUDA, IZUMI; KONDO, TSUNENORI; HIZUKA, NAOMI; NAGASHIMA, YOJI; TANABE, KAZUNARI

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports a case of recurrent malignant pelvic solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) that induced non-islet cell tumor hypoglycemia via high-molecular-weight insulin-like growth factor-II in a 72-year-old male patient. The tumor recurred ~12 years after the complete resection of the original mass. The recurrent tumor, which had directly invaded the left ureter and perirectal fat tissue, could not be completely excised due to its fragility and adhesiveness. At 13 days post-surgery, the patient presented with rectal perforation, and an urgent rectal resection and colostomy was performed. Neither recurrence of the tumor nor hypoglycemic symptoms were observed 9 months after the surgery. High molecular weight insulin-like growth factor-II was detected in the serum and tumor specimens by western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. The present case report suggests that certain SFTs can relapse even ≥10 years after a presumed complete resection of the primary tumor, and that performing a safe and complete resection of these tumors can be challenging, due to their adhesiveness or physical presentation; therefore, the indications for surgery should be considered with caution. PMID:27347168

  4. Diabetic fibrous mastopathy. Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Foschini, M P; Cavazza, A; Macedo Pinto, I M; Eusebi, V

    1990-01-01

    Two cases of a characteristic form of fibrous mastopathy associated with type I diabetes mellitus are described. Well-circumscribed nests of mature lymphocytes in a hyaline stroma are the hallmark of this condition. In one case mastectomy was performed, as the lesion had been interpreted as malignant on frozen section. It appears that this form of "idiopathic mastopathy" deserves wider recognition. PMID:2125392

  5. Postradiation astrocytoma. Report of two cases

    SciTech Connect

    Kitanaka, C.; Shitara, N.; Nakagomi, T.; Nakamura, H.; Genka, S.; Nakagawa, K.; Akanuma, A.; Aoyama, H.; Takakura, K.

    1989-03-01

    The authors describe two cases of malignant astrocytomas associated with previous radiation therapy in childhood for intracranial germinoma and craniopharyngioma. In both patients, there was no recurrence at the primary tumor site. Because of a geometric coincidence between the tumor location and the radiation field, radiotherapy was strongly implicated as a cause of these two astrocytomas.33 references.

  6. Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Jhamb, Aakarsh; Mohanty, Sujata; Jhamb, Parul A

    2012-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia can present clinically in varied forms which may appear as collision of different pathologic processes. We report a rare case of craniofacial fibrous dysplasia with coexisting epithelial lined cyst and superimposed osteomyelitis with sequestrum formation. Its clinical features and management with possible hypotheses are described along with the post operative course. Pertinent literature has been reviewed with emphasis on pathogenesis of this unique occurrence. PMID:23248490

  7. Postradiation biopsy and histological effects in early-stage prostatic cancer treated with 125iodine implants

    SciTech Connect

    Kandzari, S.J.; Riley, R.S.; Belis, J.A.; Jain, P.R.

    1986-01-01

    One hundred twenty patients with adenocarcinoma of the prostate were treated with /sup 125/I irradiation to the prostate and pelvic lymphadenectomy. Clinical stages were A-2 (13 pts), B-1 (34 pts), B-2 (49 pts), and C-1 (24 pts). The tumors were well differentiated in 44%, moderately differentiated in 39% and poorly differentiated in 17%. Nineteen of 22 patients with positive lymph nodes had either moderately or poorly differentiated tumors. A total radiation dosage between 15,000 and 24,000 rads per year were given to all patients. Seventy-six patients had been rebiopsied at 1 year, and 26 were positive for malignancy (34%). Thirty-eight patients had rebiopsy at 2 years, and 16 were positive (42%). Forty-four percent of the postradiation biopsies were of a different histologic grade from the primary lesion. Radiation injury was identified in 95% of the posttreatment biopsies and were moderate or severe in 71%. One hundred one patients are living from 1 to 9 years. Eight patients have died of metastatic carcinoma, and 11 have died of cardiovascular problems.

  8. Mesothelioma - benign-fibrous

    MedlinePlus

    ... fibroma; Solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura Images Respiratory system References Broaddus VC, Robinson BWS. Tumors of the pleura. In: Mason RJ, Broaddus VC, Martin TR, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2010: ...

  9. The nature of fibrous dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia has been regarded as a developmental skeletal disorder characterized by replacement of normal bone with benign cellular fibrous connective tissue. It has now become evident that fibrous dysplasia is a genetic disease caused by somatic activating mutation of the Gsα subunit of G protein-coupled receptor resulting in upregulation of cAMP. This leads to defects in differentiation of osteoblasts with subsequent production of abnormal bone in an abundant fibrous stroma. In addition there is an increased production of IL-6 by mutated stromal fibrous dysplastic cells that induce osteoclastic bone resorption. PMID:19895712

  10. Intraperitoneal Solitary Fibrous Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Benabdejlil, Youssef; Kouach, Jaouad; Babahabib, Abdellah; Elhassani, Moulay Elmehdi; Rharassi, Issam; Boudhas, Adil; Bakkali, Hicham; Elmarjany, Mohammed; Moussaoui, Driss; Dehayni, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors of the pelvis are rare. We report the case of a 32-years-old patient who presented with abdominopelvic mass. The imaging studies showed a right adnexal mass of more than 10 cm. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a 20 cm mass at the Douglas pouch which was adhered to the posterior wall of the uterus. Complete resection of the mass was performed. Histological analysis showed a spindle cell undifferentiated tumor whose morphological and immunohistochemical profile are consistent with solitary fibrous tumor. It is important to know that although these tumors are rare, their evolution can be pejorative. Therefore, long-term followup should be recommended. PMID:25276449

  11. Intraperitoneal solitary fibrous tumor.

    PubMed

    Benabdejlil, Youssef; Kouach, Jaouad; Babahabib, Abdellah; Elhassani, Moulay Elmehdi; Rharassi, Issam; Boudhas, Adil; Bakkali, Hicham; Elmarjany, Mohammed; Moussaoui, Driss; Dehayni, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors of the pelvis are rare. We report the case of a 32-years-old patient who presented with abdominopelvic mass. The imaging studies showed a right adnexal mass of more than 10 cm. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a 20 cm mass at the Douglas pouch which was adhered to the posterior wall of the uterus. Complete resection of the mass was performed. Histological analysis showed a spindle cell undifferentiated tumor whose morphological and immunohistochemical profile are consistent with solitary fibrous tumor. It is important to know that although these tumors are rare, their evolution can be pejorative. Therefore, long-term followup should be recommended. PMID:25276449

  12. [About a case of calcifying fibrous tumor of the pleura].

    PubMed

    Rocas, Delphine; Thivolet-Béjui, Françoise; Tronc, François; Chalabreysse, Lara

    2015-12-01

    Calcifying fibrous tumor is a rare soft tissue benign tumor (OMS 2002). Some pleural localisations are described, which affect slightly older individuals than the other soft tissue forms. The calcifying fibrous tumor is included in the 2004 World Health Organization classification of pleural tumors. A pleural tumor located in the right inferior pulmonary lobe is diagnosed in a 59-year-old man. This pleural tumor is macroscopically well-circumscribed. Histologically, the rare spindle tumoral cells are located between bundles of a collagenous tissue, sometimes hyalinized, with psammomatous or dystrophic calcifications. The tumoral cells have a fibrohistiocytic origin. They stain positively for antibodies against vimentin, factor XIIIa, CD68, CD163, CD34. Antibodies against smooth muscle actin, desmin, PS100, ALK1 and EBV are negative. Main differencial diagnoses are other benign pleural tumors (solitary fibrous tumor, inflammatory myofibroblastique tumor), some malignant tumors (desmoplastic malignant pleural mesothelioma) and pleural pseudotumors (calcified pleural plaques, chronic fibrous pleuritis, amylose, hyalinizing granuloma). Our case is the 15th pleural calcifying fibrous tumor being reported. PMID:26608111

  13. Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Ricalde, Pat; Magliocca, Kelly R; Lee, Janice S

    2012-08-01

    Despite recent advances in the understanding of the natural history and molecular abnormalities, many questions remain surrounding the progression and management of fibrous dysplasia (FD). In the absence of comorbidities, the expected behavior of craniofacial FD (CFD) is to be slow growing and without functional consequence. Understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms contributing to the various phenotypes of this condition, as well as the predictors of the different behaviors of FD lesions, must be improved. Long-term follow-up of patients with CFD is vital because spontaneous recovery is unlikely, and the course of disease can be unpredictable. PMID:22771278

  14. Post-radiation memory correction using differential subtraction for Phenix

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, C.L. Jr.; Wintenberg, A.L.; Womac, M.; Kennedy, E.J.; Smith, R.S.; Young, G.R.; Awes, T.C.

    1995-06-01

    In colliders such as RHIC, the radiation levels are well below those of colliders such as LHC. The problem is that there can be enough radiation at the inner detector (Multiplicity-Vertex Detector or MVD) to significantly affect a low-priced, nonradiation-hard CMOS process. If the radiation affects the entire analog memory in a uniform fashion, then a real-time correction should be able to be performed to correct any changes seen in the memory and also the induced correlated noise from detector pickup thus precluding the need for a more expensive rad-hard process. This paper will present testing on memories fabricated in a `soft` process and exposed to ionizing radiation. We used a single pipeline as a reference to be subtracted in a cell-by-cell basis from each pipe during read out and investigated the spatial effects of using different pipes for the reference. Use of this method reduced the noise which was common to all pipes (common-mode noise) and thus reduced both common-mode input noise and pattern noise generated from address lines being exercised on the AMU. The correlation across the memories (6-, 8-, and 16-channel AMUs fabricated in the Orbit 1.2{mu} CMOS process) vs. radiation dose was found to be quite good. Both pre-and post-radiation results are presented on systems designed for PHENIX and WA98 at CERN as well as measured results on the minimization of the effects of injected systematic noise.

  15. Pagetoid polyostotic fibrous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Hosalkar, Rashmi Maruti; Pathak, Jigna; Swain, Niharika; Mohanty, Neeta

    2015-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a benign skeletal lesion occurring due to mutation of Gs α gene and involves one or multiple bones. We present a case of a 30-year-old female patient, with a 1-year history of swelling under her right eye that had gradually increased in size. Extraoral examination revealed a diffuse swelling extending anteroposteriorly from preauricular region to nasolabial fold, frontonasal region and superoinferiorly from zygoma to body of mandible, causing ipsilateral proptosis and contralateral deviation of nose. Intraoral examination showed obliteration of right upper and lower buccal vestibule. CT disclosed expansile lytic lesions involving multiple skull bones, jaws, sternum, rib and thoracic vertebrae. Histopathology displayed broad and interconnected trabeculae connected to the host bone exhibiting reversal lines resembling the mosaic pattern of Paget's disease. These features suggested pagetoid polyostotic FD. The patient underwent cosmetic recontouring and is under regular follow-up postoperatively. PMID:25969488

  16. Adipose veno-lymphatic transfer for management of post-radiation lymphedema

    SciTech Connect

    Pho, R.W.; Bayon, P.; Tan, L.

    1989-01-01

    In a patient who had post-radiation lymphedema after excision of liposarcoma, a method is described that is called adipose veno-lymphatic transfer. The technique involves transferring adipose tissue containing lymphatic vessels that surround the long saphenous vein, from the normal, healthy leg to the irradiated leg, with the creation of an arteriovenous fistula.

  17. Solitary fibrous tumor of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Andrew R; Newman, Elliot; Hajdu, Cristina H

    2015-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms of fibroblastic origin. Most commonly they affect the pleura but they been described in other viscera. SFT of the pancreas is extremely rare, and only eight cases have been reported to date. We perform a literature review and report a ninth case. The patient is a 54-year-old African-American female who presented with several months of abdominal pain. Abdominal radiography demonstrated a lesion in the head of the pancreas, and she underwent a Whipple operation. Pathology demonstrated SFT of the pancreas. She is alive and well 1 year post-operatively. SFT of the pancreas predominately affects middle-aged women. These tumors are difficult to distinguish radiologically from neuroendocrine tumors. While SFT of the pancreas tend to have an indolent course, there is the potential for malignancy. We recommend complete surgical excision. PMID:26628714

  18. Solitary fibrous tumor of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Andrew R.; Newman, Elliot; Hajdu, Cristina H.

    2015-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms of fibroblastic origin. Most commonly they affect the pleura but they been described in other viscera. SFT of the pancreas is extremely rare, and only eight cases have been reported to date. We perform a literature review and report a ninth case. The patient is a 54-year-old African-American female who presented with several months of abdominal pain. Abdominal radiography demonstrated a lesion in the head of the pancreas, and she underwent a Whipple operation. Pathology demonstrated SFT of the pancreas. She is alive and well 1 year post-operatively. SFT of the pancreas predominately affects middle-aged women. These tumors are difficult to distinguish radiologically from neuroendocrine tumors. While SFT of the pancreas tend to have an indolent course, there is the potential for malignancy. We recommend complete surgical excision. PMID:26628714

  19. Calcifying Fibrous Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Chorti, Angeliki; Papavramidis, Theodossis S.; Michalopoulos, Antonios

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Calcifying fibrous tumor (CFT) is a benign lesion characterized by its specific histological findings and is found as solitary or multiple lesions in several locations of the human body. The aim of the present systematic review is to give a detailed account of all reported cases of CFT in the literature and to analyze the available data, to completely characterize the entity from epidemiological, medical, and surgical aspects. A bibliographic research was performed from 1988 until 2015. A database with the patients’ characteristics was made, including sex, age, location of the tumor, symptoms, symptoms duration, size of the tumor, diagnostic methods, treatment, metastasis, and follow-up. A total of 104 articles were identified, reporting 157 cases of CFT. Mean age of patients was 33.58 years and the ratio between men and women was 1:1.27. The most common locations of CFT were stomach (18%), small intestine (8.7%), pleura (9.9%), mesentery (5%), and peritoneum (6.8%). Mean diameter of the tumor was estimated 4.6 cm. The correlations proceeded showed that as age increases, size decreases (P = 0.001) and that the tumor is larger in females (P = 0.027). Kruskal-Wallis test showed that the larger tumors appear in the neck and adrenal gland (P = 0.001). The percentage of asymptomatic patients was 30.57%. Computed tomography and biopsy were the most common tests for the diagnosis of CFT. Open surgical procedure was performed in the majority of cases. The median hospitalization was 6.06 days and the mean follow-up period was 29.97 months. Recurrences were mentioned in 10 of 96 patients with available data. No deaths owing to CFT were mentioned in the literature. CFT should be included in the differential diagnosis of enlarging mass revealed by clinical or imaging examination either incidentally or after specific acute or chronic symptomatology. PMID:27196478

  20. Is a Short-Interval Postradiation Mammogram Necessary After Conservative Surgery and Radiation in Breast Cancer?

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Kevin Eradat, Jilbert B.S.; Mehta, Niraj H.; Bent, Chris; Lee, Steve P.; Apple, Sophia K.; Bassett, Lawrence W.

    2008-11-15

    Purpose: To examine, in a retrospective study, whether the initial posttreatment mammogram offers any benefit to patients. Methods and Materials: Patients were selected who had radiation after breast-conservation therapy from 1995 through 2005 and had follow-up mammography at University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA) within 1 year of completing radiotherapy. Results of the initial follow-up mammogram were analyzed to determine the yield of this initial mammogram. Results: Between 1995 and 2005, 408 patients treated with breast-conserving therapy and radiation had follow-up mammograms at UCLA within 1 year of completion of radiation. Median age at radiation completion was 56.9 years. Median interval between radiation and the initial mammogram was 3.1 months. Ten patients were found to have suspicious findings on the initial postradiation mammogram, prompting biopsy, but only 2 were found to have recurrent cancer. None of those lesions were palpable. In both cases the recurrences were ductal carcinoma in situ. Thus, the yield of the initial postoperative mammogram as compared with physical examination findings is estimated at 0.49 recurrences detected per 100 mammograms performed (95% confidence interval 0.059-1.759). Conclusions: The yield of the initial postradiation mammography at UCLA seems to be low, and only noninvasive carcinomas were found. Our data support the rationale to avoid the initial short-interval postradiation mammography and evaluate patients at 12 months.

  1. Retroperitoneal calcifying fibrous tumor mimicking an adrenal tumor.

    PubMed

    Prochaska, Erica C; Sciallis, Andrew P; Miller, Barbra S

    2016-01-01

    Establishing the etiology of a retroperitoneal tumor may be difficult due to close proximity of multiple organs. Evaluation of retroperitoneal tumors often leads to surgery, many times to obtain a definitive diagnosis and rule out malignancy. Calcifying fibrous tumors (CFT) are very rare soft tissue tumors occurring most often in young patients. They are most often found arising in the thoracic cavity, mediastinum, abdominal cavity and extremities and usually have a benign clinical course. Macrocscopically, the tumors are well circumscribed and firm with a white-tan appearance. Histologically, CFT comprised a hypocellular proliferation of bland spindle cells, densely hyalinized collagen, chronic lymphoplasmacytic inflammation and dystrophic calcifications. Other considerations in the pathologic differential diagnosis include solitary fibrous tumor and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. PMID:27252518

  2. Clinical guidelines for the management of craniofacial fibrous dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a non-malignant condition caused by post-zygotic, activating mutations of the GNAS gene that results in inhibition of the differentiation and proliferation of bone-forming stromal cells and leads to the replacement of normal bone and marrow by fibrous tissue and woven bone. The phenotype is variable and may be isolated to a single skeletal site or multiple sites and sometimes is associated with extraskeletal manifestations in the skin and/or endocrine organs (McCune-Albright syndrome). The clinical behavior and progression of FD may also vary, thereby making the management of this condition difficult with few established clinical guidelines. This paper provides a clinically-focused comprehensive description of craniofacial FD, its natural progression, the components of the diagnostic evaluation and the multi-disciplinary management, and considerations for future research. PMID:22640797

  3. Clinical guidelines for the management of craniofacial fibrous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Lee, J S; FitzGibbon, E J; Chen, Y R; Kim, H J; Lustig, L R; Akintoye, S O; Collins, M T; Kaban, L B

    2012-05-24

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a non-malignant condition caused by post-zygotic, activating mutations of the GNAS gene that results in inhibition of the differentiation and proliferation of bone-forming stromal cells and leads to the replacement of normal bone and marrow by fibrous tissue and woven bone. The phenotype is variable and may be isolated to a single skeletal site or multiple sites and sometimes is associated with extraskeletal manifestations in the skin and/or endocrine organs (McCune-Albright syndrome). The clinical behavior and progression of FD may also vary, thereby making the management of this condition difficult with few established clinical guidelines. This paper provides a clinically-focused comprehensive description of craniofacial FD, its natural progression, the components of the diagnostic evaluation and the multi-disciplinary management, and considerations for future research. PMID:22640797

  4. Retroperitoneal calcifying fibrous tumor mimicking an adrenal tumor

    PubMed Central

    Prochaska, Erica C.; Sciallis, Andrew P.; Miller, Barbra S.

    2016-01-01

    Establishing the etiology of a retroperitoneal tumor may be difficult due to close proximity of multiple organs. Evaluation of retroperitoneal tumors often leads to surgery, many times to obtain a definitive diagnosis and rule out malignancy. Calcifying fibrous tumors (CFT) are very rare soft tissue tumors occurring most often in young patients. They are most often found arising in the thoracic cavity, mediastinum, abdominal cavity and extremities and usually have a benign clinical course. Macrocscopically, the tumors are well circumscribed and firm with a white-tan appearance. Histologically, CFT comprised a hypocellular proliferation of bland spindle cells, densely hyalinized collagen, chronic lymphoplasmacytic inflammation and dystrophic calcifications. Other considerations in the pathologic differential diagnosis include solitary fibrous tumor and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. PMID:27252518

  5. Cutting Guide for Fibrous Sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, A., D.

    1985-01-01

    Tool facilitates repetitive cutting of fibrous sheets. Flexible aluminum tape allows metal strips folded back on themselves, exposing fresh material for cutting. More than one strip folded back, and cutting width therefore increased in multiples of strip width. Developed for cutting strips of alumina-fiber matting, tool also used on such materials as felts, textiles, and sheet metals.

  6. Solitary fibrous tumor of the greater omentum mimicking an ovarian tumor in a young woman.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Tarrega, Elisabet; Hidalgo Mora, Juan Jose; Paya Amate, Vicente; Vega Oomen, Olivia

    2016-08-01

    We report a case of solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of greater omentum in a young woman. SFT arising from the greater omentum can mimic a gynecologic neoplasm. SFTs are generally benign but some of them are malignant and have uncertain prognosis. An adequate follow-up is essential in these patients. PMID:27354994

  7. Spinal polyostotic fibrous dysplasia in two adults: Does only biopsy unravel the mystery?

    PubMed Central

    Gundgurthi, Abhay; Garg, M. K.; Bhardwaj, Reena; Kharb, Sandeep; Pandit, Aditi; Brar, Karninder S.; Kumar, Ravi; Pandit, A. G.

    2013-01-01

    Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia is a rare non-inheritable genetic disease due to mutation in GNAS gene. Here we present two adults who were accidentally detected lytic lesions in spine and after extensive evaluation for malignancies; was diagnosed on biopsy. Current concept of the disease and management is discussed. PMID:24381894

  8. Treatment Option Overview (Osteosarcoma and Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of Bone)

    MedlinePlus

    ... tomography, computerized tomography, or computerized axial tomography. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) : A procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves , ... the body. This procedure is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI). A biopsy is done to diagnose osteosarcoma. ...

  9. Solitary Fibrous Tumour of the Clavicle: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Dileep Krishnamoorty; Ballal, Arjun; Pai, Mukta; Subbiah, Kushalappa; Rai, H Ravindranath

    2016-06-01

    A Solitary Fibrous Tumour (SFT) is the preferred term by most of the pathologists than "haemangiopericytoma". SFT is a heterogeneous group of benign and malignant neoplasms along a morphologic continuum. Here we report a case of SFT of the clavicle in a 26-year-old male patient, who presented to us with complaints of pain and swelling over the dominant shoulder. No signs of metastasis were noted clinically and radiologically. He underwent surgical resection of swelling. At 6 months after resection and after 22 cycles of radiotherapy, he was noted to have excellent prognosis with satisfactory shoulder function. PMID:27504363

  10. Solitary Fibrous Tumour of the Clavicle: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Srinivas, Dileep Krishnamoorty; Pai, Mukta; Subbiah, Kushalappa; Rai, H. Ravindranath

    2016-01-01

    A Solitary Fibrous Tumour (SFT) is the preferred term by most of the pathologists than “haemangiopericytoma”. SFT is a heterogeneous group of benign and malignant neoplasms along a morphologic continuum. Here we report a case of SFT of the clavicle in a 26-year-old male patient, who presented to us with complaints of pain and swelling over the dominant shoulder. No signs of metastasis were noted clinically and radiologically. He underwent surgical resection of swelling. At 6 months after resection and after 22 cycles of radiotherapy, he was noted to have excellent prognosis with satisfactory shoulder function. PMID:27504363

  11. Fibrous dysplasia of the orbit.

    PubMed Central

    Bibby, K; McFadzean, R

    1994-01-01

    Twelve patients with fibrous dysplasia of the orbit are reviewed and the ophthalmic findings described. Three case histories are presented in detail. Six patients were managed conservatively; four have shown radiological progression of the disease. Six patients underwent surgery. A conservative procedure, comprising debulking dysplastic bone, was carried out in four--all required further surgery including radical excision in two patients. Two subjects had primary radical operations. No recurrence was encountered in the four patients who had undergone radical surgery. It would appear that fibrous dysplasia is not a disease confined to adolescence but may continue into adulthood, and even middle age. Patients may never require surgery, but require follow up for late progression. If surgical intervention is deemed necessary, an attempt should be made to excise all dysplastic bone, since progression of the disease after conservative surgery is relatively common. Images PMID:8199111

  12. Protease degradable electrospun fibrous hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Ryan J.; Bassin, Ethan J.; Rodell, Christopher B.; Burdick, Jason A.

    2015-01-01

    Electrospun nanofibers are promising in biomedical applications to replicate features of the natural extracellular matrix (ECM). However, nearly all electrospun scaffolds are either non-degradable or degrade hydrolytically, whereas natural ECM degrades proteolytically, often through matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Here, we synthesize reactive macromers that contain protease-cleavable and fluorescent peptides and are able to form both isotropic hydrogels and electrospun fibrous hydrogels through a photoinitiated polymerization. These biomimetic scaffolds are susceptible to protease-mediated cleavage in vitro in a protease dose dependent manner and in vivo in a subcutaneous mouse model using transdermal fluorescent imaging to monitor degradation. Importantly, materials containing an alternate and non-protease-cleavable peptide sequence are stable in both in vitro and in vivo settings. To illustrate the specificity in degradation, scaffolds with mixed fiber populations support selective fiber degradation based on individual fiber degradability. Overall, this represents a novel biomimetic approach to generate protease-sensitive fibrous scaffolds for biomedical applications. PMID:25799370

  13. Efficacy of needle biopsy in postradiation thyroid disease

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, I.B.; Palmer, J.A.; Bain, J.; Strawbridge, H.; Walfish, P.G.

    1983-12-01

    Retrospective review was carried out of 124 patients with nodular disease of the thyroid gland and a history of radiation exposure who had undergone needle aspiration biopsy. Latency period from time of radiation varied from 2 to 50 years; but in 92 patients it exceeded 2 decades. Our patient group included those with occupational exposure and a past history of radiation for cancer. Incidence of cancer in the entire group was 49% but, for solitary lesions, this was increased to 56%, while only a 30% incidence of cancer was found in cases of multinodular goiters. Accuracy of needle aspiration biopsy overall was 74%: for the group with cancer--90%, for the group with adenomas--65%, and for the group with ''benign'' tumors--83%. Further assessment of needle technique indicated a sensitivity of 70%, specificity of 90%, positive predictive value of 90%, and negative predictive value of 83% to 65%. The accuracy could be increased to 84% if all adenomas were considered as possible malignancies. Eighteen percent of our patients had second tumors in the head and neck or breast area. Near-total thyroidectomy was considered to be the preferred procedure without accidental nerve injury and was done in one case of hypoparathyroidism after excision of an extensive tracheal invasive cancer. No evidence of death, recurrence, or metastasis as a result of thyroid cancer has been noted. While needle biopsy is indispensable to intelligent management, the history of radiation to the head and neck area must be preeminent in the selection of patients for surgical treatment. Conservative management appears to be reasonable in those patients with ''benign'' cytology, a less than 1 cm nodule, multinodularity, a functioning thyroid scan result, but persistence in the face of a lack of response to conservative management does not appear to be warranted.

  14. Solitary fibrous tumour of the supraglottic larynx.

    PubMed

    Grammatica, A; Bolzoni Villaret, A; Ravanelli, M; Nicolai, P

    2016-06-01

    Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is a rare, benign, mesenchymal neoplasm that usually arises in the pleura, but rarely involves other sites outside the serosal space (mediastinum, lung, liver, thyroid gland); larynx involvement is very rare with only sporadic cases reported in the literature. We report a case of SFT in a 41-year-old woman with supraglottic laryngeal invovlement; symptoms included dysphonia and mild odynophagia lasting 2 years, and fibre-optic laryngeal evaluation showed a sub-mucosal mass involving the left supraglottis and medial wall of the pyriform sinus. MRI represents the gold standard tool for differential diagnosis (with schwannoma, paraganglioma and haemangioma) and correct staging, while immunohistochemical and cytomorphologic analysis (bcl-2 and CD34 positivity in 90% of cases) is needed for definitive diagnosis. Surgery is the main treatment (endoscopic and open conservative technique), and its goal is a balance between safe oncological resection and good preservation of laryngeal functions; in this particular case an open laryngeal approach was scheduled due to the size of the tumour. Prognosis is good and in only a few cases (especially in pleural SFT) does the biological behaviour take a malignant course. PMID:27070539

  15. Life span and tumor incidence in rats receiving postradiation treatment with ATP-AET-mexamine mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Benova, D.K.; Kiradzhiev, G.D.; Troitskaya, M.N.; Anisimov, V.N.

    1985-01-01

    Rat females were exposed to a single 4.0-Gy ..gamma..-ray dose and treated postradiation with a mixture of ATP-AET-mexamine at daily doses of 24, 12, and 3 mg/kg body wt, respectively, in drinking water throughout the period of their survival. With the radiation dose used, life shortening appeared primarily attributable to nonstochastic effects. The mixture of chemical protectors failed to show modification of long-term radiation effects with regard to either life span or tumor incidence.

  16. Life span and tumor incidence in rats receiving postradiation treatment with ATP-AET-mexamine mixture.

    PubMed

    Benova, D K; Kiradzhiev, G D; Troitskaya, M N; Anisimov, V N

    1985-01-01

    Rat females were exposed to a single 4.0-Gy gamma-ray dose and treated postradiation with a mixture of ATP-AET-mexamine at daily doses of 24, 12, and 3 mg/kg body wt, respectively, in drinking water throughout the period of their survival. With the radiation dose used, life shortening appeared primarily attributable to nonstochastic effects. The mixture of chemical protectors failed to show modification of long-term radiation effects with regard to either life span or tumor incidence. PMID:3855570

  17. Postradiation Metabolic Tumor Volume Predicts Outcome in Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, James D.; La, Trang H.; Chu, Karen; Quon, Andrew; Fischbein, Nancy J.; Maxim, Peter G.; Graves, Edward E.; Loo, Billy W.; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2011-06-01

    Purpose: To explore the prognostic value of metabolic tumor volume measured on postradiation {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in patients with head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Forty-seven patients with head-and-neck cancer who received pretreatment and posttreatment PET/computed tomography (CT) imaging along with definitive chemoradiotherapy were included in this study. The PET/CT parameters evaluated include the maximum standardized uptake value, metabolic tumor volume (MTV{sub 2.0}-MTV{sub 4.0}; where MTV{sub 2.0} refers to the volume above a standardized uptake value threshold of 2.0), and integrated tumor volume. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models were used to test for association between PET endpoints and disease-free survival and overall survival. Results: Multiple postradiation PET endpoints correlated significantly with outcome; however, the most robust predictor of disease progression and death was MTV{sub 2.0}. An increase in MTV{sub 2.0} of 21cm{sup 3} (difference between 75th and 25th percentiles) was associated with an increased risk of disease progression (hazard ratio [HR]= 2.5, p = 0.0001) and death (HR = 2.0, p = 0.003). In patients with nonnasopharyngeal carcinoma histology (n = 34), MTV{sub 2.0} <18 cm{sup 3} and MTV{sub 2.0} {>=}18 cm{sup 3} yielded 2-year disease-free survival rates of 100% and 63%, respectively (p = 0.006) and 2-year overall survival rates of 100% and 81%, respectively (p = 0.009). There was no correlation between MTV{sub 2.0} and disease-free survival or overall survival with nasopharyngeal carcinoma histology (n = 13). On multivariate analysis, only postradiation MTV{sub 2.0} was predictive of disease-free survival (HR = 2.47, p = 0.0001) and overall survival (HR = 1.98, p = 0.003). Conclusions: Postradiation metabolic tumor volume is an adverse prognostic factor in head-and-neck cancer. Biomarkers such as MTV are important for risk stratification and will be valuable in

  18. Effect of temperature on post-radiation survival of Artemia salina

    SciTech Connect

    Radchenko, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    The postradiative survival rate was studied in one-day Artemia nauplii ..gamma..-irradiation in doses equal to 2.5; 5; 7.5; 10 Gy at medium temperatures of 15, 22, 25, 27/sup 0/C, respectively. A relationship is established between the irradiation effect (stimulation or inhibition) and temperature of the medium. The analysis of Artemia survival rate for stages of development shows that age contributes to the Artemia survival rate, relative to control, dependences on temperature (direct) and on the irradiation dose (inverse). 2 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  19. Solitary fibrous tumor of the breast: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Sun Jung; Ryu, Jung Kyu; Han, Sang-Ah; Won, Kyu Yeoun

    2016-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms that can be benign or malignant. SFTs have been most often documented in the pleura. Recently, involvement of extrapleural sites such as the abdomen, musculoskeletal soft tissue, upper respiratory tract, mediastinum, and head and neck were reported. Less than 15 cases of SFT of the breast have been reported. Here, we report a case of a pathologically proven SFT of the breast and review the literature on the radiologic findings. US imaging showed an oval, well-circumscribed, hypoechoic solid mass. A solitary fibrous tumor of the breast is a very rare lesion. PMID:26703178

  20. Fibrous Pseudotumor of the Penis - An Unusual Finding During Repair of Fractured Penis.

    PubMed

    Nalavenkata, Sunny; Winter, Matthew; Pickett, Justine; Dias, Maxwell; Chalasani, Venu

    2014-01-01

    Fibrous pseudotumors of the testis and penis are a rare phenomenon, forming a spectrum of heterogeneous lesions. To the best of our knowledge, there has been only 1 previous report arising from the penis. We present a case of fibrous pseudotumor of the penis, incidentally found during the surgical repair of a fractured penis. These benign lesions have been described in the literature and are most commonly referred to as pseudotumors. They should be distinguished from potentially malignant lesions, including fibrosarcomas, squamous cell carcinoma, and polypoid urothelial carcinoma. Being aware of this pathology is important to prevent unnecessary radical surgery. PMID:26955535

  1. Herpes simplex virus in postradiation cervical smears. A morphologic and immunocytochemical study

    SciTech Connect

    Longatto Filho, A.; Maeda, M.Y.; Oyafuso, M.S.; Kanamura, C.T.; Alves, V.A. )

    1990-09-01

    From January 1987 to August 1988, cytomorphologic criteria of both herpes simplex virus (HSV) and radiation effects were observed in Papanicolaou smears from 3 of 1,340 patients who had received radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase staining, using a rabbit IgG polyclonal HSV antibody, confirmed the presence of HSV antigen in those three postradiation smears. Both multinucleated molded cells and epithelial cells that lacked cytopathic effects were positive for HSV. Three other postradiation smears from these cases were similarly positive for HSV antigen; the one preradiation smear was negative. In situ hybridization and immunoperoxidase studies on sections from the preradiation biopsies were negative: severely altered neoplastic cells showed no reactivity. The absence of HSV markers in the preradiation specimens suggests that the HSV infections were secondary to the radiotherapy; further studies are needed to prove this association and to assess the possible mechanisms. These cases clearly indicate that the overlapping features of radiation and viral effects (such as multinucleation) may be present simultaneously.

  2. Artificial fibrous proteins: a review.

    PubMed

    Heslot, H

    1998-01-01

    Several kinds of natural fibrous proteins have been chosen as models: silk fibroin from Bombyx mori, silks from various species of spiders and collagens. The dragline silk of the spider Nephila clavipes is able to stretch by 30% before breaking and has a high tensile strength. It is stronger per unit weight than high tensile steel. Although the partial sequence of the two components of dragline silk is known, its molecular structure is still far from being clearly established. It is however demonstrated that it contains beta-sheet crystals composed of polyalanine residues. Artificial fibrous proteins have been prepared in vivo using either Escherichia coli or the yeast Pichia pastoris. As these proteins contain repetitive sequences, there is a risk of deletion at the DNA level. This difficulty has been solved by making use of the genetic code degeneracy. One group has successfully synthesized silk-like polymers; prolastin polymers containing both silk-like and elastin-like blocks; proNectin polymers containing the RGD triplet coming from fibronectin and able to fix numerous mammalian cell types; and synthetic collagen analogs. Some of these polymers have been spun into fibers that, up-to-now, do not display any measurable molecular orientation. Another group has studied artificial fibrous proteins able to form beta-sheet crystals of defined thickness and bearing functional groups at their surface, for instance Glu residues, selenomethionine or p-fluorophenylalanine. Apart from university laboratories, a venture capital society, an industrial research center and a US army research center are quite active in this field. A number of patents has been deposited. PMID:9587659

  3. Modelling fracture in fibrous microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Beyerlein, I.

    1998-04-01

    This work describes some complementary studies directed towards micromechanical modeling and simulation of the statistical fracture process in composites with fibrous microstructures. A few studies involve combining efficient computational stress analyses and piezospectroscopic measurement techniques to quantify interface deformation around a single break in model composites. It is shown how estimated interface parameters can be used to predict activity around more complex break arrangement in much larger composites. The final studies involve incorporating these experimentally refined stress analyses into large scale simulation for statistical predictions and subsequent analytical modeling of composite fracture.

  4. Osteogenic sarcoma and soft tissue myxoma in a patient with fibrous dysplasia and hemoglobins JBaltimore and S.

    PubMed

    Witkin, G B; Guilford, W B; Siegal, G P

    1986-03-01

    A 41-year-old man with recognized polyostotic fibrous dysplasia since late childhood developed fibroblastic osteogenic sarcoma in the left tibia. Four months after the initial diagnosis, an intramuscular myxoma was discovered in the left thigh. Twenty years previously he had been found to be heterozygous for hemoglobins JBaltimore and S. Malignant transformation in fibrous dysplasia is unusual and may be associated in some individuals with prior irradiation. Soft tissue myxomas associated with fibrous dysplasia are even rarer. To the best of the authors' knowledge the occurrence of both of these lesions in a patient with fibrous dysplasia has been reported only once before. Patients with both fibrous dysplasia and myxomas may be at greater risk for malignant transformation than are individuals with only one of these lesions. There is no well-recognized association between hemoglobinopathies and either fibrous dysplasia or bone tumors. It is therefore probable that the rare constellation of findings is in this patient a stochastic event. PMID:3456858

  5. A Rare Case of Monostotic Spinal Fibrous Dysplasia Mimicking Solitary Metastatic Lesion of Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sharifudin, Mohd Ariff; Zakaria, Zamzuri; Awang, Mohamed Saufi; Mohamed Amin, Mohamed Azril; Abd Aziz, Azian

    2016-01-01

    Monostotic fibrous dysplasia of the vertebra is a rare entity. A case of a 53-year-old lady who presented with an 8 months history of pain in the thoracic spine region with paraparesis is discussed. She had a history of papillary thyroid carcinoma and had undergone total thyroidectomy one year prior to her current problem. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed isolated osteolytic lesion over the posterior element of the T12 vertebra with narrowing of the spinal canal causing compression of the cord. The diagnosis of fibrous dysplasia was made histologically. Fibrous dysplasia rarely occurs in axial bones compared with peripheral bones. This case illustrates that osteolytic lesion of the vertebrae should be evaluated with detailed radiological and histopathological examination before an empirical diagnosis of spinal metastasis is made in an adult with a background history of primary malignancy well-known to spread to the bone. PMID:27540330

  6. Rigid fibrous ceramics for entry systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banas, Ronald P.

    1993-01-01

    The topics addressed are: (1) high payoff areas with reusable surface insulation; (2) technology opportunities/gap; (3) coatings for rigid fibrous ceramics; (4) challenges for reusable rigid fibrous ceramics - Lunar/Mars aerobraking heatshield; (5) comparison of LI-900 and HTP properties; and (6) comparison of microstructures.

  7. Infiltration kinetics of fibrous preform

    SciTech Connect

    Yamauchi, Toshio; Nishida, Yoshinori

    1994-12-31

    The infiltration kinetics of fibrous preform was investigated in the case of aluminum matrix composites by pressure infiltration method. Pressure was applied mechanically by a punch, and the pressure change and the punch speed were measured during the infiltration of molten aluminum into SiC whisker preforms. To analyze the correlation between applied pressure and infiltration front in the preform, the distribution of hardness along the infiltration direction in the composites was measured and the distribution of volume fraction was calculated from the hardness. A theoretical expression is derived to describe fluid flow in the preform during the infiltration, on the condition that the pressure on the preform surface starts to rise from zero and when the applied pressure exceeds the compressive strength of preform, deformation starts. The starting point of deformation and the distribution of volume fraction in the composites can be calculated by the theory and proved by experiments.

  8. Systemic therapy for selected skull base sarcomas: Chondrosarcoma, chordoma, giant cell tumour and solitary fibrous tumour/hemangiopericytoma.

    PubMed

    Colia, Vittoria; Provenzano, Salvatore; Hindi, Nadia; Casali, Paolo G; Stacchiotti, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    This review highlights the data currently available on the activity of systemic therapy in chondrosarcoma, chordoma, giant cell tumour of the bone (GCTB) and solitary fibrous tumour, i.e., four rare sarcomas amongst mesenchymal malignancy arising from the skull base. PMID:27330421

  9. Fibrous-Ceramic/Aerogel Composite Insulating Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Susan M.; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    Fibrous-ceramic/aerogel composite tiles have been invented to afford combinations of thermal-insulation and mechanical properties superior to those attainable by making tiles of fibrous ceramics alone or aerogels alone. These lightweight tiles can be tailored to a variety of applications that range from insulating cryogenic tanks to protecting spacecraft against re-entry heating. The advantages and disadvantages of fibrous ceramics and aerogels can be summarized as follows: Tiles made of ceramic fibers are known for mechanical strength, toughness, and machinability. Fibrous ceramic tiles are highly effective as thermal insulators in a vacuum. However, undesirably, the porosity of these materials makes them permeable by gases, so that in the presence of air or other gases, convection and gas-phase conduction contribute to the effective thermal conductivity of the tiles. Other disadvantages of the porosity and permeability of fibrous ceramic tiles arise because gases (e.g., water vapor or cryogenic gases) can condense in pores. This condensation contributes to weight, and in the case of cryogenic systems, the heat of condensation undesirably adds to the heat flowing to the objects that one seeks to keep cold. Moreover, there is a risk of explosion associated with vaporization of previously condensed gas upon reheating. Aerogels offer low permeability, low density, and low thermal conductivity, but are mechanically fragile. The basic idea of the present invention is to exploit the best features of fibrous ceramic tiles and aerogels. In a composite tile according to the invention, the fibrous ceramic serves as a matrix that mechanically supports the aerogel, while the aerogel serves as a low-conductivity, low-permeability filling that closes what would otherwise be the open pores of the fibrous ceramic. Because the aerogel eliminates or at least suppresses permeation by gas, gas-phase conduction, and convection, the thermal conductivity of such a composite even at

  10. The "pirate sign" in fibrous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Singnurkar, Amit; Rush, Chris

    2006-11-01

    Fibrous dysplasia commonly involves the skull in both its monostotic and polyostotic variants. We present two cases of fibrous dysplasia involving the sphenoid wing, which were strikingly similar in their bone scan appearance. Both patients demonstrated intense increased uptake of Tc-99m MDP in a pattern reminding us of a "pirate wearing an eyepatch." We propose that this characteristic appearance of fibrous dysplasia of the sphenoid wing be called the "pirate sign." A review of the literature revealed several other pathologic conditions that have been reported to involve the sphenoid bone and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of abnormal bone tracer uptake in this region. PMID:17053398

  11. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Kidney Developing Local Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Usuba, Wataru; Sasaki, Hideo; Yoshie, Hidekazu; Kitajima, Kazuki; Kudo, Hiroya; Nakazawa, Ryuto; Sato, Yuichi; Takagi, Masayuki; Chikaraishi, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the kidney is a rare entity and usually displays a favorable prognosis. We herein report a second case of renal SFT developing local recurrence. A 50-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of a left renal mass. An abdominal CT detected a large renal tumor and radical nephrectomy was performed with a possible diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma. The resected tumor size was measured at 17 × 11 × 8 cm. Grossly, necrosis was observed in central lesion of the tumor but hemorrhage was not observed. Microscopically, the tumor consisted of spindle-shaped cells with scant cytoplasm accompanied by hyalinized collagenous tissue, which displayed hemangiopericytomatous patterns. The cellularity was normal and nuclear pleomorphism was not observed. Ki-67 labeling index was less than 3%. The pathological diagnosis of SFT was made without obvious malignant findings. Three years after the surgery, a follow-up CT scan detected a mass lesion in the tumor bed. Surgical resection was performed and the resected tumor was compatible with local recurrence of the SFT without obvious malignant findings. Renal SFT should be carefully monitored even in the absence of obvious malignant findings. PMID:27239363

  12. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Kidney Developing Local Recurrence.

    PubMed

    Usuba, Wataru; Sasaki, Hideo; Yoshie, Hidekazu; Kitajima, Kazuki; Kudo, Hiroya; Nakazawa, Ryuto; Sato, Yuichi; Takagi, Masayuki; Chikaraishi, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the kidney is a rare entity and usually displays a favorable prognosis. We herein report a second case of renal SFT developing local recurrence. A 50-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of a left renal mass. An abdominal CT detected a large renal tumor and radical nephrectomy was performed with a possible diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma. The resected tumor size was measured at 17 × 11 × 8 cm. Grossly, necrosis was observed in central lesion of the tumor but hemorrhage was not observed. Microscopically, the tumor consisted of spindle-shaped cells with scant cytoplasm accompanied by hyalinized collagenous tissue, which displayed hemangiopericytomatous patterns. The cellularity was normal and nuclear pleomorphism was not observed. Ki-67 labeling index was less than 3%. The pathological diagnosis of SFT was made without obvious malignant findings. Three years after the surgery, a follow-up CT scan detected a mass lesion in the tumor bed. Surgical resection was performed and the resected tumor was compatible with local recurrence of the SFT without obvious malignant findings. Renal SFT should be carefully monitored even in the absence of obvious malignant findings. PMID:27239363

  13. Fibrous capsule formation around titanium and copper.

    PubMed

    Suska, Felicia; Emanuelsson, Lena; Johansson, Anna; Tengvall, Pentti; Thomsen, Peter

    2008-06-15

    Previous studies suggest that implant material properties influence the quality and quantity of fibrous capsule around the implant. However, the precise relation between material surface chemistry, early inflammatory response, and fibrous subsequent repair outcome is still unknown. Titanium (Ti) and copper (Cu), surfaces with different inflammatory potential, were implanted subcutaneously in rats and retrieved fibrous capsules were analyzed after 28 and 56 days. Histological examinations show pronounced differences in capsule morphology. The fibrous capsule around Ti was thinner than that around Cu, with less number of the inflammatory cells in the layer close to the implant surface, and less and smaller blood vessels. The capsule around Cu was thick, with a large number of the inflammatory cells, particularly macrophages and giant cells, and increased number of blood vessels. Our study suggests that material surface properties, which initiate early, multiple cellular inflammatory events, are also associated with increased fibrosis and angiogenesis during repair phase. PMID:17896778

  14. Variable Solitary Fibrous Tumor Locations

    PubMed Central

    Zhanlong, Ma; Haibin, Shi; Xiangshan, Fang; Jiacheng, Song; Yicheng, Ni

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study is to describe the radiological imaging features of different solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) locations and present histopathological correlations. From 2007 to 2013, 20 cases of histologically confirmed that SFTs were retrospectively analyzed with computed tomography (CT; 9/20), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; 5/20), or both CT and MRI (6/20). All 20 SFTs were well defined, lobular, soft-tissue masses, and 60% were located outside of the pleura. One pleural case invaded to the 10th thoracic vertebra and had lung metastases. Images revealed 11 heterogeneous lesions that exceeded 3.0 ± 0.203 cm along the greatest axis with patchy necrotic foci, and 9 homogeneous lesions <3.0 ± 0.203. Microscopically, all SFTs were proliferative spindle cells with varying degrees of fibrosis and interspersed vessel branching. Cells were strongly immunopositive for CD34. Here we review variable imaging findings of SFTs, which can be within the pleura as well as within other serosal tissues such as the meninges and postperitoneum. SFTs > 3.0 ± 0.203 cm along the greatest axis appeared to be mixed patterns, whereas SFTs < 3.0 ± 0.203 cm had isodense appearances. SFTs cells were CD34 immunopositive and surgery was a first-line treatment choice. PMID:27043668

  15. Denosumab Treatment for Fibrous Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, AM; Chong, WH; Yao, J; Gafni, RI; Kelly, MH; Chamberlain, CE; Bassim, C; Cherman, N; Ellsworth, M; Kasa-Vubu, JZ; Farley, FA; Molinolo, AA; Bhattacharyya, N; Collins, MT

    2012-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a skeletal disease caused by somatic activating mutations of the cAMP-regulating protein, Gsα. These mutations lead to replacement of normal bone by proliferative osteogenic precursors, resulting in deformity, fracture, and pain. Medical treatment has been ineffective in altering the disease course. RANK ligand (RANKL) is a cell surface protein involved in many cellular processes, including osteoclastogenesis, and is reported to be overexpressed in FD-like bone cells. Denosumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody to RANKL approved for treatment of osteoporosis and prevention of skeletal-related events from bone metastases. We present the case of a 9-year-old boy with severe FD who was treated with denosumab for a rapidly expanding femoral lesion. Immunohistochemical staining on a pre-treatment bone biopsy specimen revealed marked RANKL expression. He was started on monthly denosumab, with an initial starting dose of 1 mg/kg and planned 0.25 mg/kg dose escalations every three months. Over seven months of treatment he showed marked reduction in pain, bone turnover markers, and tumor growth rate. Denosumab did not appear to impair healing of a femoral fracture that occurred while on treatment. With initiation of treatment he developed hypophosphatemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism, necessitating supplementation with phosphorus, calcium and calcitriol. Bone turnover markers (BTM) showed rapid and sustained suppression. With discontinuation there was rapid and dramatic rebound of BTM) with CTX (reflecting osteoclast activity) exceeding pre-treatment levels, and accompanied by severe hypercalcemia. In this child, denosumab lead to dramatic reduction of FD expansion and FD-related bone pain. Denosumab was associated with clinically significant disturbances of mineral metabolism both while on treatment and after discontinuation. Denosumab treatment of FD warrants further study to confirm efficacy and determine potential morbidity, as well as

  16. Role of Early Postradiation Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scans in Children With Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, Christine; Kaushal, Aradhana; Hammoud, Dima A.; Steffen-Smith, Emilie A.; Bent, Robyn; Citrin, Deborah; Camphausen, Kevin; Warren, Katherine E.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To determine optimal timing of assessing postradiation radiographic response on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in pediatric patients with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG). Methods and Materials: Patients were treated on a prospective study at the National Cancer Institute (Protocol no. 06-C-0219) evaluating the effects of radiotherapy (RT). Standard RT was administered in standard fractionation over 6 weeks. Postradiation MRI scans were performed at 2 and 6-8 weeks. Results: Eleven patients with DIPG were evaluated. Median age was 6 years (range, 4-13 years). Patients were treated with external-beam RT to 55.8 Gy (n = 10) or 54 Gy (n = 1), with a gross tumor volume to planning target volume expansion of 1.8-2.0 cm. All patients received prescribed dose and underwent posttreatment MRI scans at 2 and 6-8 weeks. Pretreatment imaging revealed compression of fourth ventricle (n = 11); basilar artery encasement (n = 9); tumor extension outside the pons (n = 11); and tumor hemorrhage (n = 2). At the 2-week scan, basilar artery encasement improved in 7 of 9 patients, and extent of tumor was reduced in 5 of 11 patients. Fourth ventricle compression improved in 6 of 11 patients but worsened in 3 of 11 patients. Presumed necrosis was observed in 5 of 11 patients at 2 weeks and in 1 additional patient at 6-8 weeks. There was no significant difference in mean anteroposterior and transverse diameters of tumor between the 2- and 6-8-week time points. Six of 11 patients had increasing ventricular size, with no evidence of obstruction. Conclusions: There is no significant difference in tumor size of DIPG patients who have received standard RT when measured at 2 weeks vs. 6-8 weeks after RT. The majority of patients had the largest change in tumor size at the 2-week post-RT scan, with evolving changes documented on the 6-8-week scan. Six of 11 patients had progressive ventriculomegaly without obstruction, suggestive of communicating hydrocephalus. To the best

  17. Antibody against CD44s Inhibits Pancreatic Tumor Initiation and Post-Radiation Recurrence in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling; Hao, Xinbao; Qin, Jun; Tang, Wenhua; He, Fengtian; Smith, Amber; Zhang, Min; Simeone, Diane M.; Qiao, Xiaotan T.; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Xu, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims CD44s is a surface marker of tumor-initiating cells (TICs); high tumor levels correlate with metastasis and recurrence, as well as poor outcomes of patients. Monoclonal antibodies against CD44s might eliminate TICs with minimal toxicity. This strategy is unclear for treatment of pancreatic cancer, and little is known about how anti-CD44s affect pancreatic cancer initiation or recurrence after radiotherapy. Methods 192 pairs of human pancreatic adenocarcinoma and adjacent non-tumor pancreatic tissues were collected from patients undergoing surgery. We measured CD44s levels in tissue samples and pancreatic cancer cell lines by immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR and immunoblot; levels were correlated with patient survival times. We studied the effects of anti-CD44s in mice with human pancreatic tumor xenografts, and used flow cytometry to determine effects on TICs. Changes in CD44s signaling were examined by real-time PCR, immunoblot, reporter assay, and in vitro tumorsphere formation assays. Results Levels of CD44s were significantly higher in pancreatic cancer than adjacent non-tumor tissues. Patients whose tumors expressed high levels of CD44s had a median survival of 10 months, compared to 43 months for those with low levels. Anti-CD44s reduced growth, metastasis, and post-radiation recurrence of pancreatic xenograft tumors in mice. The antibody reduced the number of TICs in cultured pancreatic cancer cells and in xenograft tumors, as well as their tumorigenicity. In cultured pancreatic cancer cell lines, anti-CD44s downregulated the stem cell self-renewal genes Nanog, Sox-2, and Rex-1 and inhibited STAT3-mediated cell proliferation and survival signaling. Conclusions The TIC marker CD44s is upregulated in human pancreatic tumors and associated with patient survival time. CD44s is required for initiation, growth, metastasis, and post-radiation recurrence of xenograft tumors in mice. Anti-CD44s eliminated bulk tumor cells as well as TICs from the

  18. Recurrent Monostotic Fibrous Dysplasia in the Mandible.

    PubMed

    Alves, Nilton; de Oliveira, Reinaldo José; Takehana, Denise; Deana, Naira Figueiredo

    2016-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a condition in which normal bone marrow is replaced by an abnormal proliferation of new fibrous connective tissue. Female patient, white, 20 years old, attended the dental clinic reporting a slow increase in volume in the right mandible region over the last 5 years. She was examined by imaging: the panoramic X-ray revealed a lesion with the appearance of ground glass while the cone-beam computed tomography showed an extensive lesion in the region of the right hemimandible. The histopathological examination was compatible with fibrous dysplasia. Bone gammagraphy was indicated, plus an endocrinological study to eliminate polyostotic forms, which produced a negative result. Monostotic fibrous dysplasia in the right hemimandible was diagnosed. Conservative surgery was carried out and after 1 year recurrence of the tumour was observed. We may conclude that conservative surgery might not be the best choice for treatment for monostotic fibrous dysplasia in the mandible and that other options must be considered, such as radical surgery or the use of bisphosphonates. In our study, we may also conclude that it is very important to explain to the patient the possibility of recurrence of the lesion and the need for monitoring with periodic imaging studies. PMID:27340572

  19. Recurrent Monostotic Fibrous Dysplasia in the Mandible

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Reinaldo José; Takehana, Denise; Deana, Naira Figueiredo

    2016-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a condition in which normal bone marrow is replaced by an abnormal proliferation of new fibrous connective tissue. Female patient, white, 20 years old, attended the dental clinic reporting a slow increase in volume in the right mandible region over the last 5 years. She was examined by imaging: the panoramic X-ray revealed a lesion with the appearance of ground glass while the cone-beam computed tomography showed an extensive lesion in the region of the right hemimandible. The histopathological examination was compatible with fibrous dysplasia. Bone gammagraphy was indicated, plus an endocrinological study to eliminate polyostotic forms, which produced a negative result. Monostotic fibrous dysplasia in the right hemimandible was diagnosed. Conservative surgery was carried out and after 1 year recurrence of the tumour was observed. We may conclude that conservative surgery might not be the best choice for treatment for monostotic fibrous dysplasia in the mandible and that other options must be considered, such as radical surgery or the use of bisphosphonates. In our study, we may also conclude that it is very important to explain to the patient the possibility of recurrence of the lesion and the need for monitoring with periodic imaging studies. PMID:27340572

  20. A rare solitary fibrous tumour of kidney.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Tilak Bahadur; Nepal, Umesh

    2013-01-01

    A solitary fibrous tumour is an unusual spindle cell neoplasm. It frequently arises from the serosal surface of pleural cavity but has recently been described in diverse extrapleural sites. Urogenital localization is rare and only 36 cases of solitary fibrous tumours of the kidney have been described on published report. We report a case of a large solitary fibrous tumour clinically and radiologically thought to be renal cell carcinoma arising in the kidney of a 30 year old female. The radical nephrectomy was performed. The tumour was a well- circumscribed, solid mass attached to the renal pelvis without necrosis and haemorrhage. Histopathologically, a spindle cell neoplasia with alternating hypo and hypercellular areas, storiform, fascicular and hemangipericytoma like growth pattern and less cellular dense collagen deposits were observed. Immunohistochemical studies revealed reactivity for CD34, CD99 and Bcl-2 protein. PMID:24362666

  1. Solitary fibrous tumor of the orbit.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sumiti; Verma, Renuka; Sen, Rajeev; Singh, Ishwar; Marwah, Nisha; Kohli, Rachneet

    2016-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare spindle-cell neoplasm originating from the mesenchyme. It was originally thought to occur exclusively in the intrathoracic region but has been recently described in extrapleural sites including the orbit. SFT of the orbit is a rare lesion, which can be misdiagnosed as hemangiopericytoma, fibrous histiocytoma, meningioma, or neurofibroma. Immunohistochemistry plays an important role. We report an orbital SFT in a 39-year-old female presented with painless, progressive proptosis, and diminished vision in the right eye for the duration of 6 months. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated well-defined enhancing mass lesion. The patient underwent complete tumor removal through a right fronto-orbital approach, and a pathological diagnosis of the solitary fibrous tumor was made. Postoperatively, the patient was symptom-free. Clinical and pathological findings including immunohistochemistry are presented along with a brief discussion of literature. PMID:26889300

  2. Solitary fibrous tumor of the orbit

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sumiti; Verma, Renuka; Sen, Rajeev; Singh, Ishwar; Marwah, Nisha; Kohli, Rachneet

    2016-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare spindle-cell neoplasm originating from the mesenchyme. It was originally thought to occur exclusively in the intrathoracic region but has been recently described in extrapleural sites including the orbit. SFT of the orbit is a rare lesion, which can be misdiagnosed as hemangiopericytoma, fibrous histiocytoma, meningioma, or neurofibroma. Immunohistochemistry plays an important role. We report an orbital SFT in a 39-year-old female presented with painless, progressive proptosis, and diminished vision in the right eye for the duration of 6 months. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated well-defined enhancing mass lesion. The patient underwent complete tumor removal through a right fronto-orbital approach, and a pathological diagnosis of the solitary fibrous tumor was made. Postoperatively, the patient was symptom-free. Clinical and pathological findings including immunohistochemistry are presented along with a brief discussion of literature. PMID:26889300

  3. Chemically-bound xenon in fibrous silica.

    PubMed

    Kalinowski, Jaroslaw; Räsänen, Markku; Gerber, R Benny

    2014-06-21

    High-level quantum chemical calculations reported here predict the existence and remarkable stability, of chemically-bound xenon atoms in fibrous silica. The results may support the suggestion of Sanloup and coworkers that chemically-bound xenon and silica account for the problem of "missing xenon" (by a factor of 20!) from the atmospheres of Earth and Mars. So far, the host silica was assumed to be quartz, which is in contradiction with theory. The xenon-fibrous silica molecule is computed to be stable well beyond room temperature. The calculated Raman spectra of the species agree well with the main features of the experiments by Sanloup et al. The results predict computationally the existence of a new family of noble-gas containing materials. The fibrous silica species are finite molecules, their laboratory preparation should be feasible, and potential applications are possible. PMID:24807740

  4. Enzymes in bast fibrous plant processing.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, Ryszard; Batog, Jolanta; Konczewicz, Wanda; Mackiewicz-Talarczyk, Maria; Muzyczek, Malgorzata; Sedelnik, Natalia; Tanska, Bogumila

    2006-05-01

    The program COST Action 847 Textile Quality and Biotechnology (2000-2005) has given an excellent chance to review the possibilities of the research, aiming at development of the industrial application of enzymes for bast fibrous plant degumming and primary processing. The recent advancements in enzymatic processing of bast fibrous plants (flax, hemp, jute, ramie and alike plants) and related textiles are given. The performance of enzymes in degumming, modification of bast fibres, roving, yarn, related fabrics as well as enzymatic bonding of lignocellulosic composites is provided. PMID:16791732

  5. Maxillofacial fibrous dysplasia: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Markov, Peter; Syed, Ali Zakir; Markova, Christiana; Mendes, Rui Amaral

    2016-01-01

    A 30-year-old woman presented for orthodontic treatment, with a chief symptom of a 'shifting bite' and concurrent facial asymmetry with aesthetic concerns. The patient had previously received treatment from several general dentists and several specialists, without accurate diagnosis. Radiological investigation coupled with biopsy confirmed a diagnosis of fibrous dysplasia. Proper diagnosis led to changes in the treatment plan and gave the patient realistic expectations about the options she had for the outcome of treatment. Prompt diagnosis by dental practitioners is critical to patient satisfaction and successful outcome; therefore, it is important to familiarise ourselves with the signs, symptoms and proper course of management of fibrous dysplasia. PMID:27358102

  6. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Orbit: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Genc, Ali; Toktas, Zafer; Azman, Coruh; Bozkurt, Suheyla Uyar; Kilic, Turker

    2015-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare, benign, spindle cell tumor that is most commonly found in the visceral pleura. The orbit is one of the most common extrapleural sites of occurrence. Though they can be seen in any age, they typically present in adults with proptosis as the prominent symptom. They show no significant gender predominance. Orbital solitary fibrous tumors routinely exhibit a benign course, but malignant forms with an increased propensity for local recurrence have been reported. Histopathologically, they share similar features with hemangiopericytoma, which is much more common. The diagnosis of SFT depends on the diffuse and intense positivity of CD34 staining by immunohistochemistry (14). Here, we report a case of SFT, which presented with proptosis and double vision on lateral gaze. We describe the clinical, radiographic, histopathological, and immunohistochemical findings. We also provide a discussion on its origin and differential diagnosis in the light of relevant literature. PMID:26617156

  7. Consolidation and densification methods for fibrous monolith processing

    DOEpatents

    Sutaria, Manish P.; Rigali, Mark J.; Cipriani, Ronald A.; Artz, Gregory J.; Mulligan, Anthony C.

    2006-06-20

    Methods for consolidation and densification of fibrous monolith composite structures are provided. Consolidation and densification of two- and three-dimensional fibrous monolith components having complex geometries can be achieved by pressureless sintering. The fibrous monolith composites are formed from filaments having at least a first material composition generally surrounded by a second material composition. The composites are sintered at a pressure of no more than about 30 psi to provide consolidated and densified fibrous monolith composites.

  8. Giant solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura. Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Crnjac, Anton; Veingerl, Bojan; Vidovic, Damjan; Kavalar, Rajko; Hojski, Aljaz

    2015-01-01

    Background Solitary fibrous tumours of the pleura (SFTP) are rare tumours. They are mostly benign. Only around 12% of them are malign ant. In the initial stage they are mostly asymptomatic and by growing they cause chest pain, irritating cough and dyspnoea on account of the pressure created on the surrounding structures. Rare giant tumours have compression symptoms on the mediastinal structures. The condition requires tiered diagnostic radiology. Preoperative biopsy is not successful in most cases. The therapy of choice is radical surgical tumour removal. Malignant or non-radically removed benign solitary fibrous tumours of the pleura additionally require neoadjuvant therapy. Case report A 68-year old patient was hospitalized for giant solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura in the right pleural cavity. With its expansive growth the tumour caused the shift of the mediastinum by compressing the lower vena cava, right cardiac auricle as well as the intermediate and lower lobe bronchus. Due to cardiac inflow obstruction and right lung collapse, the patient’s life was endangered with signs of cardio-respiratory failure. After preoperative diagnostic radiology, the tumour was surgically removed. Postoperatively, the patient’s condition improved. No disease recurrence was diagnosed after a year. Conclusions Giant solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura may cause serious and life-threatening conditions by causing compression of the pleural cavity with its expansive growth. Early diagnosis of the condition enables less aggressive as well as video-assisted thoracic surgery in patients with significantly better state of health. Large tumour surgeries in cardio-respiratory affected patients are highly risk-associated procedures. PMID:26834527

  9. Steam Reformer With Fibrous Catalytic Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed steam-reforming reactor derives heat from internal combustion on fibrous catalyst. Supplies of fuel and air to combustor controlled to meet demand for heat for steam-reforming reaction. Enables use of less expensive reactor-tube material by limiting temperature to value safe for material yet not so low as to reduce reactor efficiency.

  10. The fibrous epulis in the dog.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, A M; O'Brien, F V

    1975-09-01

    The pathology of the fibrous epulis in the dog is described and found to be comparable to that seen in humans. Emphasis is placed on the apparent relationship between the hyperplasia of the covering epithelium and calcification of the connective tissue component, and a theory to explain this relationship is proposed. PMID:809554

  11. Fibrous mineral sorbents for concentration of radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Luneva, N.K.; Rat`ko, A.I.; Petushok, I.A.

    1995-03-01

    The sorption properties of fibrous mineral sorbents prepared from modified clinoptilolite and an acidic cellulose ester containing hexacyanoferrates are studied. The sorbents can be used to purify liquid radioactive wastes with a total specific activity of (4.9-7){center_dot}10{sup {minus}6} Ci/liter.

  12. CONVERSION OF CORN FIBROUS MATERIAL INTO ETHANOL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 1.7 billion gallons of fuel ethanol were produced in the U.S. (2001), over 90% of which was produced from corn. Corn is prepared for ethanol fermentation by either wet milling or dry grinding in approximately equal volumes. In both processes, the fibrous components of the kernel are folded in...

  13. Research priorities for advanced fibrous composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, K. J.; Swedlow, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Priorities for research in advanced laminated fibrous composite materials are presented. Supporting evidence is presented in two bodies, including a general literature survey and a survey of aerospace composite hardware and service experience. Both surveys were undertaken during 1977-1979. Specific results and conclusions indicate that a significant portion of contemporary published research diverges from recommended priorites.

  14. Development of oxide fibrous monolith systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Goretta, K. C.

    1999-03-02

    Fibrous monolithic ceramics generally have a cellular structure that consists of a strong cell surrounded by a weaker boundary phase [1-5]. Fibrous monoliths (FMs) are produced from powders by conventional ceramic fabrication techniques, such as extrusion [1,2]. When properly engineered, they exhibit fail gracefully [3-5]. Several compositions of ceramics and cermets have been processed successfully in fibrous monolithic form [4]. The most thoroughly investigated fibrous monolith consists of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} cells and a BN cell-boundary phase [3-5]. Through appropriate selection of initial powders and extrusion and hot-pressing parameters, very tough final products have been produced. The resultant high toughness is due primarily to delamination during fracture along textured platelike BN grains. The primary objectives of our program are to develop: (1) Oxide-based FMs, including new systems with improved properties; (2) FMs that can be pressureless sintered rather than hot-pressed; (3) Techniques for continuous extrusion of FM filaments, including solid freeform fabrication (SFF) for net-shape fabrication of FMs; (4) Predictive micromechanical models for FM design and performance; and (5) Ties with industrial producers and users of FMs.

  15. Malignant mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Alastair J; Parker, Robert J; Wiggins, John

    2008-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a fatal asbestos-associated malignancy originating from the lining cells (mesothelium) of the pleural and peritoneal cavities, as well as the pericardium and the tunica vaginalis. The exact prevalence is unknown but it is estimated that mesotheliomas represent less than 1% of all cancers. Its incidence is increasing, with an expected peak in the next 10–20 years. Pleural malignant mesothelioma is the most common form of mesothelioma. Typical presenting features are those of chest pain and dyspnoea. Breathlessness due to a pleural effusion without chest pain is reported in about 30% of patients. A chest wall mass, weight loss, sweating, abdominal pain and ascites (due to peritoneal involvement) are less common presentations. Mesothelioma is directly attributable to occupational asbestos exposure with a history of exposure in over 90% of cases. There is also evidence that mesothelioma may result from both para-occupational exposure and non-occupational "environmental" exposure. Idiopathic or spontaneous mesothelioma can also occur in the absence of any exposure to asbestos, with a spontaneous rate in humans of around one per million. A combination of accurate exposure history, along with examination radiology and pathology are essential to make the diagnosis. Distinguishing malignant from benign pleural disease can be challenging. The most helpful CT findings suggesting malignant pleural disease are 1) a circumferential pleural rind, 2) nodular pleural thickening, 3) pleural thickening of > 1 cm and 4) mediastinal pleural involvement. Involvement of a multidisciplinary team is recommended to ensure prompt and appropriate management, using a framework of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, surgery and symptom palliation with end of life care. Compensation issues must also be considered. Life expectancy in malignant mesothelioma is poor, with a median survival of about one year following diagnosis. PMID:19099560

  16. Solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura – analysis of 18 cases

    PubMed Central

    Pryt, Łukasz; Szlachcińska, Aleksandra; Walczak-Pasz, Grażyna; Jesionek-Kupnicka, Dorota; Kozak, Józef

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Solitary fibrous tumors of the pleura (SFTP) are primary tumors arising from mesenchymal cells. Immunohistochemical studies have demonstrated that the origin of these tumors is mesenchymal rather than mesothelial. The aim of this study is to present our experience with diagnosing and treating patients with SFTP. Material and methods We analyzed 18 patients treated at the Department of Thoracic Surgery of the Medical University of Lodz. The patients’ medical histories and the results of postoperative histopathological investigation of the tumors were analyzed. Postoperative histopathological samples were evaluated with regard to the current criteria of malignancy. Results In 17 patients, the tumors were surgically removed. Benign and small lesions (less than 3 cm in size) were removed by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). In 5 cases, malignant tumors were found in the postoperative material. Conclusions Solitary fibrous tumors of the pleura is a tumor with frequently asymptomatic clinical course. Treatment consists in resection which includes the adjacent structures, especially if the tumor is malignant. PMID:26702276

  17. Hematologic malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Hoogstraten, B.

    1986-01-01

    The principle aim of this book is to give practical guidelines to the modern treatment of the six important hematologic malignancies. Topics considered include the treatment of the chronic leukemias; acute leukemia in adults; the myeloproliferative disorders: polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and idiopathic myelofibrosis/agnogenic myeloid metaplasia; Hodgkin's Disease; non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; and Multiple Myeloma.

  18. [Pleural solitary fibrous tumor from diaphragm, being suspected of liver invasion; report of a case].

    PubMed

    Kita, Yusuke

    2012-04-01

    We report a case of solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) from diaphragmatic pleura. A 71-year-old female was admitted to our hospital because of an abnormal shadow on chest X-ray. A preoperative imaging study revealed a mass on her right diaphragm. At thoracoscopic exploration, the tumor was found to originate from diaphragm and was suspected of liver invasion. The conversion to open thoracotomy was introduced to perform appropriate surgical procedure. Pathological examination revealed proliferation of spindle cells and collagen fibers. Immuno-histochemical findings showed positive immunostaining for cell differentiation (CD) 34 and vimentin. The tumor was diagnosed as SFT with malignant potential. PMID:22485041

  19. Fibrocartilaginous Dysplasia of the Bone: A Rare Variant of Fibrous Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Vaishya, Raju; Gupta, Nishint; Vijay, Vipul

    2016-01-01

    Fibrocartilaginous dysplasia (FCD) is a rare variant of fibrous dysplasia (FD) which frequently involves the long bones, and the proximal femur is the most commonly affected site. This benign, lytic, and expansile bone lesion causes progressive deformity in the bones and may lead to pathological fracture. Radiologically, this lesion may mimic cartilaginous benign and malignant bone tumors. Therefore, histopathological differentiation of FCD from other cartilaginous tumors is of the utmost importance. The treatment is often surgical, in the form of curettage and bone grafting or corrective osteotomy, to treat progressive deformity in the long bones. The risk of pathological fracture is high in FCD with bony deformity and often requires surgery. PMID:26918216

  20. Solitary fibrous tumor arising in the mons pubis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, D H

    2016-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms of fibroblastic origin that mainly arise from the pleura. Although SFTs arising at numerous extrapleural locations have been reported, extrapleural soft tissue SFTs are extremely rare. The diagnosis of SFTs is based on histologic findings. However, given the histological variability of SFTs, immunohistochemical examination becomes important in their diagnosis. Complete surgical resection is the only and a very important prognostic factor and is recommended for the treatment of both benign and malignant SFTs with a curative intent. Here, the author reports what he believes to be the first case of an SFT originating in the mons pubis. PMID:27352579

  1. Reactive Nodular Fibrous Pseudotumor: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Salihi, Rawand; Moerman, Philippe; Timmerman, Dirk; Van Schoubroeck, Dominique; Op de beeck, Katya; Vergote, Ignace

    2014-01-01

    We will describe a case of a patient diagnosed with a rare identity of a benign lesion, “reactive nodular fibrous pseudotumor” (RNFP). It is a tumor which preoperatively can present as a malignant tumor and is only reported in 19 cases. According to the very limited amount of information on this tumor in the literature it is mostly seen after trauma or intraperitoneal inflammation. Our case is the second one of RNFP associated with endometriosis, which is a frequently seen intraperitoneal inflammation process in women. Knowledge that these large pseudotumoral lesions can occur is important to direct the management of these patients. PMID:24800089

  2. Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes for Solitary Fibrous Tumor (SFT): A Single Center Experience.

    PubMed

    DeVito, Nicholas; Henderson, Evita; Han, Gang; Reed, Damon; Bui, Marilyn M; Lavey, Robert; Robinson, Lary; Zager, Jonathan S; Gonzalez, Ricardo J; Sondak, Vernon K; Letson, G Douglas; Conley, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a mesenchymal neoplasm of fibrous origin. The 2013 WHO classification of soft tissue tumors defines malignant forms as hypercellular, mitotically active (>4 mitosis/10 high-power fields), with cytological atypia, tumor necrosis, and/or infiltrative margins. With an IRB-approved protocol, we investigated patient records and clinicopathologic data from our Sarcoma Database to describe the clinical characteristics of both benign and malignant SFT. All pathology specimens were reviewed by two pathologists. Descriptive statistics and univariate/multivariate survival analysis were performed. Patient records and Social Security Death Index were used to evaluate vital status. Of 82 patients, 47 (57%) were women and 73 (89%) were Caucasian. Median age was 62 years (range, 20 to 89). Thirty-two (39%) patients succumbed to the disease. Primary tumor site was lung/pleura in 28 (34%), abdomen/pelvis in 23 (28%), extremity in 13 (16%), and head/neck in 9 (11%) patients. Pathology was described as benign in 42 (51%) and malignant in 40 (49%) patients. Compared to benign SFT, malignant histology is associated with larger tumor size, higher mitotic counts, metastatic disease at diagnosis, and greater use of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Gender, age, and tumor site were not significantly different between benign and malignant subtypes. By univariate analysis, only benign vs. malignant variant and complete resection positively impacted overall survival (P = 0.02 and P<0.0001, respectively). In the multivariable analysis of overall survival, receiving chemotherapy or not receiving surgery were two variables significantly associated with higher failure rate in overall survival: patients with chemotherapy vs. no chemotherapy (P = 0.003, HR = 4.55, with 95% CI: 1.68-12.34) and patients without surgery vs. with surgery (P = 0.005, HR = 25.49, with 95% CI: 2.62-247.57). Clear survival differences exist between benign and malignant SFT. While surgery

  3. Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes for Solitary Fibrous Tumor (SFT): A Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    DeVito, Nicholas; Henderson, Evita; Han, Gang; Reed, Damon; Bui, Marilyn M.; Lavey, Robert; Robinson, Lary; Zager, Jonathan S.; Gonzalez, Ricardo J.; Sondak, Vernon K.; Letson, G. Douglas; Conley, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a mesenchymal neoplasm of fibrous origin. The 2013 WHO classification of soft tissue tumors defines malignant forms as hypercellular, mitotically active (>4 mitosis/10 high-power fields), with cytological atypia, tumor necrosis, and/or infiltrative margins. With an IRB-approved protocol, we investigated patient records and clinicopathologic data from our Sarcoma Database to describe the clinical characteristics of both benign and malignant SFT. All pathology specimens were reviewed by two pathologists. Descriptive statistics and univariate/multivariate survival analysis were performed. Patient records and Social Security Death Index were used to evaluate vital status. Of 82 patients, 47 (57%) were women and 73 (89%) were Caucasian. Median age was 62 years (range, 20 to 89). Thirty-two (39%) patients succumbed to the disease. Primary tumor site was lung/pleura in 28 (34%), abdomen/pelvis in 23 (28%), extremity in 13 (16%), and head/neck in 9 (11%) patients. Pathology was described as benign in 42 (51%) and malignant in 40 (49%) patients. Compared to benign SFT, malignant histology is associated with larger tumor size, higher mitotic counts, metastatic disease at diagnosis, and greater use of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Gender, age, and tumor site were not significantly different between benign and malignant subtypes. By univariate analysis, only benign vs. malignant variant and complete resection positively impacted overall survival (P = 0.02 and P<0.0001, respectively). In the multivariable analysis of overall survival, receiving chemotherapy or not receiving surgery were two variables significantly associated with higher failure rate in overall survival: patients with chemotherapy vs. no chemotherapy (P = 0.003, HR = 4.55, with 95% CI: 1.68–12.34) and patients without surgery vs. with surgery (P = 0.005, HR = 25.49, with 95% CI: 2.62–247.57). Clear survival differences exist between benign and malignant SFT. While

  4. Protease-degradable electrospun fibrous hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Ryan J.; Bassin, Ethan J.; Rodell, Christopher B.; Burdick, Jason A.

    2015-03-01

    Electrospun nanofibres are promising in biomedical applications to replicate features of the natural extracellular matrix (ECM). However, nearly all electrospun scaffolds are either non-degradable or degrade hydrolytically, whereas natural ECM degrades proteolytically, often through matrix metalloproteinases. Here we synthesize reactive macromers that contain protease-cleavable and fluorescent peptides and are able to form both isotropic hydrogels and electrospun fibrous hydrogels through a photoinitiated polymerization. These biomimetic scaffolds are susceptible to protease-mediated cleavage in vitro in a protease dose-dependent manner and in vivo in a subcutaneous mouse model using transdermal fluorescent imaging to monitor degradation. Importantly, materials containing an alternate and non-protease-cleavable peptide sequence are stable in both in vitro and in vivo settings. To illustrate the specificity in degradation, scaffolds with mixed fibre populations support selective fibre degradation based on individual fibre degradability. Overall, this represents a novel biomimetic approach to generate protease-sensitive fibrous scaffolds for biomedical applications.

  5. Toughened uni-piece fibrous insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiser, Daniel B (Inventor); Smith, Marnell (Inventor); Churchward, Rex A. (Inventor); Katvala, Victor W. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A porous body of fibrous, low density silica-based insulation material is at least in part impregnated with a reactive boron oxide containing borosilicate glass frit, a silicon tetraboride fluxing agent and a molybdenum silicide emittance agent. The glass frit, fluxing agent and emittance agent are separately milled to reduce their particle size, then mixed together to produce a slurry in ethanol. The slurry is then applied to the insulation material and sintered to produce the porous body.

  6. Monostotic fibrous dysplasia with Raynaud's phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, K. V. S. Hari; Aravinda, K.; Narayanan, K.

    2015-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a benign bone disorder characterized by alteration in bone morphology. Monostotic FD is the commonest variant and affects the craniofacial bones. Raynaud's phenomenon is recurrent vasospasm of the fingers and toes due to cold exposure. The disease is usually idiopathic or secondary to connective tissue disorders. Raynaud's phenomenon is not described previously with FD. We recently encountered two interesting patients of craniofacial monostotic FD with Raynaud's phenomenon and report the same in this report. PMID:26283854

  7. Monostotic fibrous dysplasia of the lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Avimadje, A M; Goupille, P; Zerkak, D; Begnard, G; Brunais-Besse, J; Valat, J P

    2000-01-01

    Monostotic fibrous dysplasia is exceedingly rare. We report a case in a 61-year-old woman with a history of recurrent low back pain and sciatica since 35 years of age. While walking, she suddenly experienced pain in her right thigh. The pain spread gradually to the buttock and calf on the same side, becoming increasingly severe. The time pattern was mechanical, with exacerbation during straining. Paresthesia developed over the dorsal aspect of the right foot. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs were ineffective. Radiographs of the spine showed an expansile and heterogeneous lesion in the body of L2. Hyperactivity of L3 and L4 was seen on the bone scan. Computed tomography demonstrated heterogeneity of L2, L3, and L4, as well as hypertrophy of the neural arch of L3 and of the right posterior lamina and spinous process of L4. Alterations in L2, L3, and L4 were noted on the magnetic resonance imaging study, which showed no evidence of epidural involvement. Laboratory tests were normal. A surgical biopsy of L3 established the diagnosis of fibrous dysplasia. Since the seminal description of fibrous dysplasia in 1891, only 21 cases of monostotic spinal involvement have been published. The spinal lesions can remain clinically silent or cause spinal pain with or without neurological symptoms. Radiographic findings are variable (heterogeneity, osteolysis, expansion without cortical violation or soft tissue involvement). Calcium and phosphate levels are normal. The diagnosis depends on examination of a vertebral biopsy specimen. PMID:10773971

  8. Fibrous zinc anodes for high power batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. Gregory

    This paper introduces newly developed solid zinc anodes using fibrous material for high power applications in alkaline and large size zinc-air battery systems. The improved performance of the anodes in these two battery systems is demonstrated. The possibilities for control of electrode porosity and for anode/battery design using fibrous materials are discussed in light of experimental data. Because of its mechanical integrity and connectivity, the fibrous solid anode has good electrical conductivity, mechanical stability, and design flexibility for controlling mass distribution, porosity and effective surface area. Experimental data indicated that alkaline cells made of such anodes can have a larger capacity at high discharging currents than commercially available cells. It showed even greater improvement over commercial cells with a non-conventional cell design. Large capacity anodes for a zinc-air battery have also been made and have shown excellent material utilization at various discharge rates. The zinc-air battery was used to power an electric bicycle and demonstrated good results.

  9. Permeability of Rigid Fibrous Refractory Insulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marschall, J.; Milos, F. S.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Rigid fibrous refractory insulations (TPS tiles) are integral components of many spacecraft thermal protection systems. These materials are composed of refractory fibers With diameters on the order of 1 to 15 micrometers. They are lightweight and have an open, highly porous microstructure. Typical densities are less than 500 kilograms per cubic meters, and porosities generally exceed 0.8. Because of their open porosity, these materials are permeable to gas glow. There are numerous instances in which internal gas transport in a thermal protection system could be important; examples include the penetration of hot boundary-layer gases into the insulation, the flow of decomposition (pyrolysis) products from the interior, the use of convective flows to mitigate ice formation caused by cryopumping, and the design of refractory vents for pressure equilibration during atmospheric entry. Computational analysis of gas flow through porous media requires values of permeability which have not previously been available for the rigid fibrous insulations used in thermal protection systems. This paper will document measurements of permeability for a variety of insulations from NASA's LI, FRCI, and AETB families of lightweight ceramic ablators. The directional anisotropy of permeability and its dependence on gas pressure and material density will be presented. It will be shown that rarified-flow effects are significant in the flow through such materials. Connections will be drawn between the insulation microstructure and permeability. The paper will also include representative computations of flow through rigid fibrous insulations.

  10. Low-grade central osteosarcoma of distal femur, resembling fibrous dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Vasiliadis, Haris S; Arnaoutoglou, Christina; Plakoutsis, Sotiris; Doukas, Michalis; Batistatou, Anna; Xenakis, Theodoros A

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a 32 year-old male, admitted for a lytic lesion of the distal femur. One month after the first X-ray, clinical and imaging deterioration was evident. Open biopsy revealed fibrous dysplasia. Three months later, the lytic lesion had spread to the whole distal third of the femur reaching the articular cartilage. The malignant clinical and imaging features necessitated excision of the lesion and reconstruction with a custom-made total knee arthroplasty. Intra-operatively, no obvious soft tissue infiltration was evident. Nevertheless, an excision of the distal 15.5 cm of the femur including 3.0 cm of the surrounding muscles was finally performed. The histological examination of the excised specimen revealed central low-grade osteosarcoma. Based on the morphological features of the excised tumor, allied to the clinical findings, the diagnosis of low-grade central osteosarcoma was finally made although characters of a fibrous dysplasia were apparent. Central low-grade osteosarcoma is a rare, well-differentiated sub-type of osteosarcoma, with clinical, imaging, and histological features similar to benign tumours. Thus, initial misdiagnosis is usual with the condition commonly mistaken for fibrous dysplasia. Central low-grade osteosarcoma is usually treated with surgery alone, with rare cases of distal metastases. However, regional recurrence is quite frequent after close margin excision. PMID:24147271

  11. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Lower Leg: A Rare and Difficult Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    D'Arpa, Salvatore; Rossi, Matteo; Montesano, Luigi; Florena, Ada Maria; Moschella, Francesco; Cordova, Adriana

    2015-10-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare neoplasm that commonly originates in the pleura. Extrapleural locations are rare and for this reason sometimes difficult to diagnose. Malignant forms with local recurrence or distant metastases have been reported, also as a consequence of inappropriate treatment. In this article, we report the case of an SFT of the lower leg in a 37-year-old man. Leg SFT is a rare occurrence, and differential diagnosis may be difficult because they can mimic a variety of benign and malignant mesenchymal tumors; immunohistochemical analysis for CD34, CD99, vimentin, and Bcl-2 is necessary. Misdiagnosis carries a significant risk of inadequate removal with subsequent increased risk of recurrence and distant metastases. PMID:26579334

  12. Integrally calcified solitary fibrous tumor in the retroperitoneum: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Maki, Takehiro; Fujino, Syotaro; Misu, Kenjiro; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Inomata, Hitoshi; Omi, Makoto; Tateno, Masatoshi; Nihei, Kazuyoshi

    2016-12-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare stromal neoplasm and usually occurs in the thoracic cavity. We here report a case of retroperitoneal SFT with prominent calcification. A 64-year-old man presented with an incidentally detected retroperitoneal mass in the right upper abdomen. Imaging tests indicated an integrally calcified mass. The lesion was observed for 2 years and laparoscopically resected according to the patient's wish. Microscopically, the mass was mostly occupied by calcification and proliferous spindle cells were scattered with positive CD34 expression. We diagnosed morphologically benign SFT and the patient remained disease-free 1 year after the excision. There has been no report of such integrally calcified SFT. Retroperitoneal SFT is difficult to make a preoperative diagnosis, and careful follow-up after the excision is recommended because morphological malignancy does not always correspond to clinical malignancy. PMID:26943690

  13. Consolidation and densification methods for fibrous monolith processing

    DOEpatents

    Sutaria, Manish P.; Rigali, Mark J.; Cipriani, Ronald A.; Artz, Gregory J.; Mulligan, Anthony C.

    2004-05-25

    Methods for consolidation and densification of fibrous monolith composite structures are provided. Consolidation and densification of two- and three-dimensional fibrous monolith components having complex geometries can be achieved by pressureless sintering. The fibrous monolith composites are formed from filaments having at least a first material composition generally surrounded by a second material composition. The composites are sintered in an inert gas or nitrogen gas at a pressure of no more than about 30 psi to provide consolidated and densified fibrous monolith composites.

  14. Fibrous composites comprising carbon nanotubes and silica

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Huisheng; Zhu, Yuntian Theodore; Peterson, Dean E.; Jia, Quanxi

    2011-10-11

    Fibrous composite comprising a plurality of carbon nanotubes; and a silica-containing moiety having one of the structures: (SiO).sub.3Si--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--NR.sub.1R.sub.2) or (SiO).sub.3Si--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--NCO; where n is from 1 to 6, and R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are each independently H, CH.sub.3, or C.sub.2H.sub.5.

  15. Neurofibromatosis type 1 and malignancy in childhood.

    PubMed

    Varan, A; Şen, H; Aydın, B; Yalçın, B; Kutluk, T; Akyüz, C

    2016-03-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant hereditary neurocutaneous syndrome characterized by multi-system involvement and an increased incidence of both benign and malignant tumors. In this study, we evaluated the clinical presentation and prognosis of NF1 and malignancy. Between 1975 and 2013, 26 (5%) of the 473 patients with NF1 at our center developed non-neurofibroma neoplasms. The patient files of 26 subjects with tumors, other than optic glioma, were analyzed retrospectively to evaluate clinical features and treatment results. The age at diagnosis of NF1 ranged from 3 months to 16 years (median 5.5 years). The age range at tumor diagnosis was 1.5-33 years (median 8 years) in these 26 patients. The tumor histological subtypes included the following: 12 soft-tissue tumors (6 malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST), 5 rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS) and 1 malignant fibrous histiocytoma), 11 brain tumors (6 low-grade gliomas, 3 high-grade gliomas, and 2 medulloblastoma), 2 neuroblastomas and 1 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Twelve of 26 patients were alive at the time of the study. Although benign brain tumors with NF1 are more common, high-grade brain tumors also occur. Thus, careful and regular follow-up is crucial for early detection of malignancy in NF1 patients. PMID:26073032

  16. Solitary fibrous tumor surrounding the carotid sheath.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Oliveira, Guillermo; Alvarez-Flores, Modesto; Arribas-García, Ignacio; Martínez-Gimeno, Carlos

    2010-03-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are rare spindle cell neoplasms that are mostly found arising from the pleura. Although SFTs recently have been reported in other regions, they are rare in the head and neck and have often been misdiagnosed due to their rarity. SFTs are benign in most cases. Clinically, SFTs usually manifest as well-circumscribed, slow-growing, smooth and painless masses. Symptoms are often minimal, although they may include sore throat, difficulty in swallowing, change of voice or trismus. CT-Scan and MRI are the most sensitive imaging procedures used. The treatment of choice is complete surgical excision of the lesion. Because recurrences have been noted up to 30 years after surgery, long-term follow up is mandatory. In this article, we present a case of a Solitary Fibrous Tumor arising in the parapharyngeal space in a 20-year-old man, involving the carotid sheath, treated by surgical excision with no recurrence after 1 year. The clinical presentation, surgical management and pathological findings are described. PMID:19767703

  17. Elasticity of fibrous networks under uniaxial prestress.

    PubMed

    Vahabi, Mahsa; Sharma, Abhinav; Licup, Albert James; van Oosten, Anne S G; Galie, Peter A; Janmey, Paul A; MacKintosh, Fred C

    2016-06-14

    We present theoretical and experimental studies of the elastic response of fibrous networks subjected to uniaxial strain. Uniaxial compression or extension is applied to extracellular networks of fibrin and collagen using a shear rheometer with free water in/outflow. Both uniaxial stress and the network shear modulus are measured. Prior work [van Oosten, et al., Sci. Rep., 2015, 6, 19270] has shown softening/stiffening of these networks under compression/extension, together with a nonlinear response to shear, but the origin of such behaviour remains poorly understood. Here, we study how uniaxial strain influences the nonlinear mechanics of fibrous networks. Using a computational network model with bendable and stretchable fibres, we show that the softening/stiffening behaviour can be understood for fixed lateral boundaries in 2D and 3D networks with comparable average connectivities to the experimental extracellular networks. Moreover, we show that the onset of stiffening depends strongly on the imposed uniaxial strain. Our study highlights the importance of both uniaxial strain and boundary conditions in determining the mechanical response of hydrogels. PMID:27174568

  18. Malignant thymoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, L S; Huang, M H; Lin, T S; Huang, B S; Chien, K Y

    1992-07-15

    Sixty-one patients underwent operations for malignant thymomas between 1961 and 1989. Twenty-three patients had associated myasthenia gravis (MG), an incidence of 37.7%. Upon being admitted to the hospital, the patients' most common symptoms included chest pain, MG, cough, and dyspnea. Only 7 of 61 (11.5%) patients had no symptom. Tumor staging of 58 patients with invasive thymomas was performed according to Masaoka classification. The patients were classified as follows: Stage II disease, 5; Stage III, 41; Stage IVa, 8; and Stage IVb, 4. In addition, thymic carcinoma was present in three patients. The series had a resection rate of 55.7%. The incidence of operative complications was 16.3%. Only one patient died of myocardial infarction; the incidence of operative mortality was 1.6%. The patients with MG had a higher rate of resection (69.6%) and a higher incidence of complete thymectomy (14 of 23 patients; 60.9%). Mixed lymphoepithelial tumors and epithelial cell predominant tumors were the most frequent histologic patterns (45.9% and 34.4%, respectively). Fifty-two patients had postoperative radiation therapy, and 10 patients had chemotherapy. The overall cumulative survival rates in the series were 59% and 34% at 5 and 10 years, respectively. The results demonstrated that the factors affecting the prognosis may include resectability, postoperative irradiation or chemotherapy, MG, and tumor staging. The influence of histologic variation on survival rates could not be clearly defined in the series. Surgical resection, particularly complete thymectomy, followed by irradiation is the primary option of therapeutic management for malignant thymoma. PMID:1617594

  19. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Uterus Presenting With Lung Metastases: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Kyle C; Nucci, Marisa R; Esselen, Katharine M; Muto, Michael G; Chopra, Sameer; George, Suzanne; Howitt, Brooke E

    2016-01-01

    We describe the case of an 81-yr-old woman who presented with bilateral pulmonary nodules in the setting of a large uterine mass, concerning for a gynecologic malignancy such as leiomyosarcoma. However, fine-needle aspiration of a lung nodule revealed a spindle cell neoplasm consistent with solitary fibrous tumor (SFT), a rare mesenchymal neoplasm characterized by a patternless architecture of spindle cells and branching ectatic vessels. Total abdominal hysterectomy demonstrated a primary SFT of the uterus. Both the lung lesion and uterine mass were positive for STAT6, a sensitive and specific biomarker for SFT. SFT infrequently metastasizes and only rarely occurs in the uterus. These tumors are considered to have uncertain malignant potential, and the diagnosis of "malignant" SFT requires the presence of >4 mitoses per 10 high-power fields. The uterine SFT we report did not meet this criterion for malignancy, emphasizing that this entity can behave aggressively even without increased mitoses or atypical histology. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a uterine SFT with metastasis to the lung. We discuss the differential diagnosis for the finding of multiple pulmonary spindle cell lesions in the setting of a uterine mass. PMID:26107564

  20. Ceramic-Fibrous-Insulation Thermal-Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiser, Daniel; Churchward, Rex; Katvala, Victor; Stewart, David; Balter, Aliza

    1992-01-01

    New composite thermal-protection system developed in which glass-ceramic impregnated into surface of fibrous insulation. Called TUFI for toughened unipiece fibrous insulation developed as replacement for tiles with reaction-cured-glass (RCG) coating. Impregnation of glass-ceramic results in thermal protection system with insulating properties comparable to existing system but with 20 to 100 times more resistance to impact.

  1. Fibrous microcapsules and methods of assembly and use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Stupp, Samuel; Rozkiewicz, Dorota

    2015-01-27

    The present invention relates to assembly of peptide amphiphiles and biopolymers into fibrous microcapsules, and uses thereof. In particular, the present invention provides devices, compositions, and methods for interfacial self-assembly of peptide amphiphiles and biopolyments into fibrous microcapsules, and uses thereof.

  2. Fibrous monoliths: Economic ceramic matrix composites from powders [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rigali, Mark; Sutaria, Manish; Mulligan, Anthony; Creegan, Peter; Cipriani, Ron

    1999-05-26

    The project was to develop and perform pilot-scale production of fibrous monolith composites. The principal focus of the program was to develop damage-tolerant, wear-resistant tooling for petroleum drilling applications and generate a basic mechanical properties database on fibrous monolith composites.

  3. Lightweight Fibrous Ni Electrodes For Ni/H2 Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1991-01-01

    Fibrous nickel plaque electrode material reduces weight of nickel/hydrogen batteries by 40 percent. Discharge voltage and discharge time of fibrous electrode greater than those of equivalent standard sintered-powder electrode. Expected to lead to improvements in performances, increases in energy densities, and decreases in costs of nickel electrodes.

  4. Electrospun nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte for secondary lithium battery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmaraj, O.; Rao, B. Nageswara; Jena, Paramananda; Venkateswarlu, M.; Satyanarayana, N.

    2014-04-01

    Hybrid nanocomposite [poly(vinylidene fluoride -co- hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-co-HFP)/magnesium aluminate (MgAl2O4)] fibrous polymer membranes were prepared by electrospinning method. The prepared pure and nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte membranes were soaked into the liquid electrolyte 1M LiPF6 in EC: DEC (1:1,v/v). XRD and SEM are used to study the structural and morphological studies of nanocomposite electrospun fibrous polymer membranes. The nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte membrane with 5 wt.% of MgAl2O4 exhibits high ionic conductivity of 2.80 × 10-3 S/cm at room temperature. The charge-discharge capacity of Li/LiCoO2 coin cells composed of the newly prepared nanocomposite [(16 wt.%) PVdF-co-HFP+(5 wt.%) MgAl2O4] fibrous polymer electrolyte membrane was also studied and compared with commercial Celgard separator.

  5. Fibrous calcite from the Middle Ordovician Holston Formation (east Tennessee)

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, K.J.; Walker, K.R. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    Fibrous calcite from buildups, which occur near the top of the Middle Ordovician Holston Formation, were examined from two localities near Knoxville, TN (Alcoa Highway and Deanne Quarry). Buildups at these localities were deposited under open-marine conditions, slightly down-slope from the platform edge. Fibrous calcite (mainly radiaxial fibrous) occur most commonly as cements in mainly stromatactis structures present in bioherms and intergranular porosity in beds that flank bioherms. Fibrous calcite is interpreted to have been precipitated in a marine setting. Fibrous calcite is uniformly turbid or banded with interlayered turbid and clearer cement. Fibrous calcite most commonly shows patchy or blotchy dull-non-luminescence under cathodoluminescence. Bands of uniformly non-luminescent and relatively bright luminescent calcite are present. [delta][sup 13]C compositions of fibrous calcite vary little (0.6 to 1.0%) but [delta][sup 18]O values are highly variable ([minus]4.8 to [minus]7.1%). Post-marine cement consists of ferroan and non-ferroan, dull luminescent equant calcite ([delta][sup 13]C = 0.3 to 0.8; [delta][sup 18]O = [minus]8.6 to [minus]11.5) and is interpreted as precipitated in a deep meteoric or burial setting. Depleted [delta][sup 18]O compositions of fibrous calcite reflect addition of post-depositional calcite during stabilization. Most enriched [delta][sup 13]C and [delta][sup 18]O fibrous calcite composition are similar to enriched values from other Middle Ordovician southern Appalachian buildups (other localities of Holston (TN) and Effna (VA) formations) ([delta][sup 13]C = 0.3 to 0.8; [delta][sup 18]O = [minus]3.9 to [minus]4.8) and may reflect fibrous calcite precipitated in isotopic equilibrium with Middle Ordovician sea water.

  6. What Is Malignant Mesothelioma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... up the remaining 30% to 40% of mesotheliomas. Benign tumors of the mesothelium Benign (non-cancerous) tumors can ... fibrous tumor of the pleura This type of benign tumor can form in the pleura surrounding the lungs. ...

  7. Malignant hyperpyrexia

    PubMed Central

    Isaacs, Hyam; Barlow, M. B.

    1973-01-01

    The history, clinical presentation, and management of malignant hyperpyrexia are presented. The aetiology seems to be associated with some inherited abnormality which affects the movement and binding of calcium ions in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, sarcoplasm, and mitochondria. Whether this is a primary muscular defect or secondary to some trophic neural influence is yet to be established. The subjects carrying the abnormal trait show evidence of a myopathy which is subclinical in most instances and revealed only by estimation of serum CPK or biopsy. In some families where the myopathy is clinically obvious there may be, in addition, a variety of musculoskeletal abnormalities. A plea is made for routine monitoring of temperature during anaesthesia and for procainamide or procaine to be readily available in all operating theatres. A history of anaesthetic deaths in a family calls for special care, and, if the serum CPK is elevated, suxamethonium and halothane are to be avoided. Families with orthopaedic and muscular abnormalities are at increased risk and should have estimation of serum CPK before surgery. As a bonus of this study it is suggested that serum CPK estimations be used to screen pigs for selective breeding and so eliminate the disease, which causes soft exudative pork. Images PMID:4708457

  8. Acoustical properties of highly porous fibrous materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    Highly porous, fibrous bulk sound absorbing materials are studied with a view toward understanding their acoustical properties and performance in a wide variety of applications including liners of flow ducts. The basis and criteria for decoupling of acoustic waves in the pores of the frame and compressional waves in the frame structure are established. The equations of motion are recast in a form that elucidates the coupling mechanisms. The normal incidence surface impedance and absorption coefficient of two types of Kevlar 29 and an open celled foam material are studied. Experimental values and theoretical results are brought into agreement when the structure factor is selected to provide a fit to the experimental data. A parametric procedure for achieving that fit is established. Both a bulk material quality factor and a high frequency impedance level are required to characterize the real and imaginary part of the surface impedance and absorption coefficient. A derivation of the concepts of equivalent density and dynamic resistance is presented.

  9. [Non-ossifying fibroma (metaphyseal fibrous defect)].

    PubMed

    Rogozhin, D V; Konovalov, D M; Kozlov, A S; Talalaev, A G; Ektova, A P

    2016-01-01

    Non-ossifying fibroma (NOF) or metaphyseal fibrous defect (MFD) is benign fibroblast proliferation with the presence of osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells. The most cases of NOF/MFD occur in the metaphysis of the long tubular bones of the lower extremities, more commonly in the metaphysis of the femur and in the proximal metaphysis of the tibia. This lesion has a characteristic X-ray pattern and requires no surgical intervention, except for cases of a pathologic fracture or a risk for the latter. The paper analyzes 35 NOF/MFD cases in children and adolescents. It has been found that one and all patients have undergone surgery, suggesting the low awareness of this abnormality among radiodiagnosticians, pathologists, and surgeons. PMID:27070773

  10. Method of manufacturing fibrous hemostatic bandages

    DOEpatents

    Larsen, Gustavo; Spretz, Ruben; Velarde-Ortiz, Raffet

    2012-09-04

    A method of manufacturing a sturdy and pliable fibrous hemostatic dressing by making fibers that maximally expose surface area per unit weight of active ingredients as a means for aiding in the clot forming process and as a means of minimizing waste of active ingredients. The method uses a rotating object to spin off a liquid biocompatible fiber precursor, which is added at its center. Fibers formed then deposit on a collector located at a distance from the rotating object creating a fiber layer on the collector. An electrical potential difference is maintained between the rotating disk and the collector. Then, a liquid procoagulation species is introduced at the center of the rotating disk such that it spins off the rotating disk and coats the fibers.

  11. [Fibrous dysplasia of the skull. Radiologic diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Amato, C; Moschini, M; Colavita, N; Tagliaferri, G

    1993-09-01

    The authors examined 11 patients with fibrous dysplasia of the skull pointing out its radiologic features and preferential sites. Conventional radiology, CT and MR imaging were used. As for conventional radiology, tangential scans which of great value to depict the most typical morphologic patterns. Lesions of the skull base were most frequent in the sphenoid (7 of 11 cases), where 5 of 7 exhibited a sclerotic pattern. Bone changes in the skull vault were: mixed (3 cases), pagetoid (2 cases), "ground glass" (1 case) and lytic (1 case): none of these cases was of the sclerotic type. A typical feature of vault lesions was the widening of diploic space associated with expansion of the outer bone and integrity of the inner bone. Radiologic findings, often associated with suggestive clinical manifestations, always allowed a diagnostic hypothesis; histopathologic confirmation was needed only in a few cases (4 of 11 patients). PMID:8210526

  12. Numerical modeling of experimental human fibrous cap delamination.

    PubMed

    Leng, Xiaochang; Davis, Lindsey A; Deng, Xiaomin; Sutton, Michael A; Lessner, Susan M

    2016-06-01

    Fibrous cap delamination is a critical process during the rupture of atherosclerotic plaque, which often leads to severe life-threatening clinical consequences such as myocardial infarction or stroke. In this study a finite element modeling and simulation approach is presented that enables the study of fibrous cap delamination experiments for the purpose of understanding the fibrous cap delamination process. A cohesive zone model (CZM) approach is applied to simulate delamination of the fibrous cap from the underlying plaque tissue. A viscoelastic anisotropic (VA) model for the bulk arterial material behavior is extended from existing studies so that the hysteresis phenomenon observed in the fibrous cap delamination experiments can be captured. A finite element model is developed for the fibrous cap delamination experiments, in which arterial layers (including the fibrous cap and the underlying plaque tissue) are represented by solid elements based on the VA model and the fibrous cap-underlying plaque tissue interface is characterized by interfacial CZM elements. In the CZM, the delamination process is governed by an exponential traction-separation law which utilizes critical energy release rates obtained directly from the fibrous cap delamination experiments. A set of VA model parameter values and CZM parameter values is determined based on values suggested in the literature and through matching simulation predictions of the load vs. load-point displacement curve with one set of experimental measurements. Using this set of parameter values, simulation predictions for other sets of experimental measurements are obtained and good agreement between simulation predictions and experimental measurements is observed. Results of this study demonstrate the applicability of the viscoelastic anisotropic model and the CZM approach for the simulation of diseased arterial tissue failure processes. PMID:26897094

  13. Biopersistence and potential adverse health impacts of fibrous nanomaterials: what have we learned from asbestos?

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Vanesa C.; Pietruska, Jodie R.; Miselis, Nathan R.; Hurt, Robert H.; Kane, Agnes B.

    2010-01-01

    Human diseases associated with exposure to asbestos fibers include pleural fibrosis and plaques, pulmonary fibrosis (asbestosis), lung cancer, and diffuse malignant mesothelioma. The critical determinants of fiber bioactivity and toxicity include not only fiber dimensions, but also shape, surface reactivity, crystallinity, chemical composition, and presence of transition metals. Depending on their size and dimensions, inhaled fibers can penetrate the respiratory tract to the distal airways and into the alveolar spaces. Fibers can be cleared by several mechanisms, including the mucociliary escalator, engulfment, and removal by macrophages, or through splitting and chemical modification. Biopersistence of long asbestos fibers can lead to inflammation, granuloma formation, fibrosis, and cancer. Exposure to synthetic carbon nanomaterials, including carbon nanofibers and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), is considered a potential health hazard because of their physical similarities with asbestos fibers. Respiratory exposure to CNTs can produce an inflammatory response, diffuse interstitial fibrosis, and formation of fibrotic granulomas similar to that observed in asbestos-exposed animals and humans. Given the known cytotoxic and carcinogenic properties of asbestos fibers, toxicity of fibrous nanomaterials is a topic of intense study. The mechanisms of nanomaterial toxicity remain to be fully elucidated, but recent evidence suggests points of similarity with asbestos fibers, including a role for generation of reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress, and genotoxicity. Considering the rapid increase in production and use of fibrous nanomaterials, it is imperative to gain a thorough understanding of their biologic activity to avoid the human health catastrophe that has resulted from widespread use of asbestos fibers. PMID:20049814

  14. Reflective Coating on Fibrous Insulation for Reduced Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hass, Derek D.; Prasad, B. Durga; Glass, David E.; Wiedemann, Karl E.

    1997-01-01

    Radiative heat transfer through fibrous insulation used in thermal protection systems (TPS) is significant at high temperatures (1200 C). Decreasing the radiative heat transfer through the fibrous insulation can thus have a major impact on the insulating ability of the TPS. Reflective coatings applied directly to the individual fibers in fibrous insulation should decrease the radiative heat transfer leading to an insulation with decreased effective thermal conductivity. Coatings with high infrared reflectance have been developed using sol-gel techniques. Using this technique, uniform coatings can be applied to fibrous insulation without an appreciable increase in insulation weight or density. Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy, and ellipsometry have been performed to evaluate coating performance.

  15. Failure Analysis and Mechanisms of Failure of Fibrous Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, A. K. (Compiler); Shuart, M. J. (Compiler); Starnes, J. H., Jr. (Compiler); Williams, J. G. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    The state of the art of failure analysis and current design practices, especially as applied to the use of fibrous composite materials in aircraft structures is discussed. Deficiencies in these technologies are identified, as are directions for future research.

  16. Localised fibrous mesothelioma arising in an intralobar pulmonary sequestration.

    PubMed Central

    Paksoy, N; Demircan, A; Altiner, M; Artvinli, M

    1992-01-01

    A localised fibrous mesothelioma arising from an intralobar lung sequestration occurred in a 64 year old Turkish woman. This appears to be the first report of a mesothelioma occurring within a pulmonary sequestration. Images PMID:1481189

  17. Method for distributing chemicals through a fibrous material using low-headspace dielectric heating

    DOEpatents

    Banerjee, Sujit; Malcolm, Earl

    2002-01-01

    System and method for diffusing chemicals rapidly and evenly into and through fibrous material, such as wood. Chemicals are introduced into the fibrous material by applying the chemicals to the fibrous material. After treating the fibrous material with the chemicals, the fibrous material is maintained under low-headspace conditions. Thermal energy or dielectric heating, such as microwave or radio frequency energy, is applied to the fibrous material. As a result, the chemicals are able to distribute evenly and quickly throughout the fibrous material.

  18. Potentially disseminated solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Tomoyuki; Endo, Shunsuke; Tsubochi, Hiroyoshi; Tetsuka, Kenji; Nokubi, Mitsuhiro

    2015-10-01

    We report a case involving a female patient with frequent relapse, pleural dissemination, and port site recurrence (PSR) of a pleural solitary fibrous tumor (SFT). At the age of 55 years, she underwent tumor resection via video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). The tumor arose from the mediastinal pleura; it was 7 cm in diameter and well demarcated. Histological examination showed neither hemorrhage nor necrosis, but moderate cellularity was present, and the Ki-67 labeling index was 15%. Despite complete resection, the tumor relapsed in the ipsilateral thoracic cavity 3 years postoperatively, and thoracoscopic complete tumor resection was performed; however, pleural lavage cytology (PLC) showed the presence of tumor cells. Multiple pleural dissemination and PSR developed 7 years after the initial surgery. The port site recurrent tumor was resected with the intercostal muscle via VATS. This case illustrates that a SFT may disseminate despite the fact that histological examination shows no evidence of malignancy. PMID:26623132

  19. Fibrous Dysplasia Presenting as a Cold Spot in 18F-FLT PET/CT Imaging.

    PubMed

    Rehak, Zdenek; Bencsikova, Beatrix; Zambo, Iva; Kazda, Tomas

    2016-06-01

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a benign bone lesion in which normal bone marrow is replaced by fibro-osseous tissue. The usual high fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) uptake in FD may lead to the misdiagnosis of bone malignancy. Herein, we describe the case of a 42-year old man with histologically verified FD of the pubic bone, which has been subsequently examined during follow-up for rectal cancer, using both F-FDG and fluorothymidine (F-FLT) PET/CT imaging. The FD lesion was characterized by a high uptake of F-FDG (hot spot) but very low uptake of F-FLT (cold spot) as compared with the contralateral unaffected pubic bone. PMID:27055128

  20. Is a Solitary Fibrous Tumor in the External Auditory Canal Benign?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Ju

    2016-01-01

    A solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is an extremely rare, distinct otological soft-tissue tumor. Only two such tumors in the external auditory canal have been reported. A SFT related to hemangiopericytomas (HPC), which commonly arise in the central nervous system. HPCs act malignant in many cases, while SFTs at other sites are mainly benign. A 25-year-old female presented with highly vascular tumor at the right external auditory meatus and bleeding from the mass when a crust was removed from its surface. After excisional biopsy followed by pre-operative embolization, this tumor confirmed with SFT. The recurrence rate of SFT is very low after complete resection, with a slightly increased risk of recurrence with extrathoracic tumors. We describe the third case of SFT in the external auditory canal and review the literature. PMID:27626087

  1. Is a Solitary Fibrous Tumor in the External Auditory Canal Benign?

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi-Kyou; Lee, Hyun Ju

    2016-09-01

    A solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is an extremely rare, distinct otological soft-tissue tumor. Only two such tumors in the external auditory canal have been reported. A SFT related to hemangiopericytomas (HPC), which commonly arise in the central nervous system. HPCs act malignant in many cases, while SFTs at other sites are mainly benign. A 25-year-old female presented with highly vascular tumor at the right external auditory meatus and bleeding from the mass when a crust was removed from its surface. After excisional biopsy followed by pre-operative embolization, this tumor confirmed with SFT. The recurrence rate of SFT is very low after complete resection, with a slightly increased risk of recurrence with extrathoracic tumors. We describe the third case of SFT in the external auditory canal and review the literature. PMID:27626087

  2. Hierarchically engineered fibrous scaffolds for bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Sachot, Nadège; Castaño, Oscar; Mateos-Timoneda, Miguel A.; Engel, Elisabeth; Planell, Josep A.

    2013-01-01

    Surface properties of biomaterials play a major role in the governing of cell functionalities. It is well known that mechanical, chemical and nanotopographic cues, for example, influence cell proliferation and differentiation. Here, we present a novel coating protocol to produce hierarchically engineered fibrous scaffolds with tailorable surface characteristics, which mimic bone extracellular matrix. Based on the sol–gel method and a succession of surface treatments, hollow electrospun polylactic acid fibres were coated with a silicon–calcium–phosphate bioactive organic–inorganic glass. Compared with pure polymeric fibres that showed a completely smooth surface, the coated fibres exhibited a nanostructured topography and greater roughness. They also showed improved hydrophilic properties and a Young's modulus sixfold higher than non-coated ones, while remaining fully flexible and easy to handle. Rat mesenchymal stem cells cultured on these fibres showed great cellular spreading and interactions with the material. This protocol can be transferred to other structures and glasses, allowing the fabrication of various materials with well-defined features. This novel approach represents therefore a valuable improvement in the production of artificial matrices able to direct stem cell fate through physical and chemical interactions. PMID:23985738

  3. Preconcentration of phenols by fibrous sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Andreeva, I.Yu.; Kuvaldina, L.L.

    1995-01-01

    Phenols are among the most toxic contaminants of natural and waste waters. There are standard procedures for determining them in low concentrations. However, the samples cannot be preserved at phenol concentrations of 50 {mu}g/L or lower, and the determination of phenols must be performed no later than 2 h after sampling. This is not always possible. Because of this, the preconcentration of phenols at the site of sampling, followed by analysis of the concentrate in a stationary chemical laboratory after a time, is of interest. The technique of phenol preconcentration with active carbon, recommended in the standard procedure, is unsuitable for these purposes because the adsorption and desorption of phenols are too prolonged. At the same time, a fibrous carbon sorbent provides for a high rate of adsorption and desorption of some organic substances (humic acids, fulvic acids, and surfactants) it can be easily regenerated and repeatedly used. In this work, the authors investigated the possibility of using two fibers-namely, a carbon fiber and a polyethylene-polyamine-modified polyacrylonitrile-based fiber (PAN-PEA) containing amino groups with different numbers of substituents-for the preconcentration of phenols.

  4. Solitary fibrous tumour of the chest wall.

    PubMed

    Mohtarrudin, N; Nor Hanipah, Z; Mohd Dusa, N

    2016-04-01

    Extrapleural solitary fibrous tumours (SFTs) are rare tumours characterized by patternless spindle cells with haemangiopericytoma-like vascular spaces. Previously the tumours have been classified as haemangiopericytoma, an entity that is now considered obsolete. We report a case of extrapleural SFT arising in the soft tissue of the chest wall. The patient was a 31-year-old Malay lady presenting with a mobile swelling of the right chest wall for more than five years. During excision the tumour was noted to be well-circumscribed and yellowish in colour, giving an impression of lipoma. Microscopically, the tumour had patternless architecture, characterized by hypocellular and hypercellular areas. It was composed of uniform, spindle-shaped cells displaying oval nuclei, inconspicuous nucleoli, pale cytoplasm and indistinct cell borders. The mitotic count was 2 per 10 HPF. Branching, medium-sized thin-walled blood vessels in a haemangiopericytomatous growth pattern, some with hyalinised wall were identified. The neoplastic cells were immunoreactive to CD99 and CD34 and were non-immunoreactive to Desmin, Smooth Muscle Actin, S100 protein and EMA. We elucidate the challenges in diagnosing this tumour in this unusual location. PMID:27126667

  5. Solitary fibrous tumor of the submandibular region

    PubMed Central

    SHI, WANG; WEI, ZHENG

    2015-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are a rare type of neoplasm that originate from the pleura. Although SFTs may occur in a variety of extrathoracic regions, they are considered to be rare in the submandibular region. The current study presents the case of a 39-year-old female with a 3×4-cm, fibro-elastic, movable, painless nodule in the right side of the submandibular region. The patient exhibited no other clinical manifestations in the head and neck region. A computed tomography scan demonstrated the presence of a well-defined, slightly low-density nodular shadow measuring 2.6×3.3×3.8 cm, in proximity to the right submandibular gland, with mild contrast enhancement and no association with the adjacent lymph nodes. The lesion was surgically excised, and following histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis, immunohistochemical staining determined that the lesion was positive for cluster of differentiation (CD)34, CD99 and vimentin, and negative for desmin, CD31 and S-100; therefore, a diagnosis of an SFT was determined. The patient has so far been followed up for 22 months, with no signs of recurrence or metastases. The present study also discusses the clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical features, treatment strategies and potential clinical outcomes of SFTs. The study proposes that, although rare, SFTs of the submandibular region should be included in the differential diagnosis of soft-tissue tumors in the submandibular region. PMID:25621075

  6. Treating Fibrous Insulation to Reduce Thermal Conductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zinn, Alfred; Tarkanian, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    A chemical treatment reduces the convective and radiative contributions to the effective thermal conductivity of porous fibrous thermal-insulation tile. The net effect of the treatment is to coat the surfaces of fibers with a mixture of transition-metal oxides (TMOs) without filling the pores. The TMO coats reduce the cross-sectional areas available for convection while absorbing and scattering thermal radiation in the pores, thereby rendering the tile largely opaque to thermal radiation. The treatment involves a sol-gel process: A solution containing a mixture of transition-metal-oxide-precursor salts plus a gelling agent (e.g., tetraethylorthosilicate) is partially cured, then, before it visibly gels, is used to impregnate the tile. The solution in the tile is gelled, then dried, and then the tile is fired to convert the precursor salts to the desired mixed TMO phases. The amounts of the various TMOs ultimately incorporated into the tile can be tailored via the concentrations of salts in the solution, and the impregnation depth can be tailored via the viscosity of the solution and/or the volume of the solution relative to that of the tile. The amounts of the TMOs determine the absorption and scattering spectra.

  7. Morphogenesis of the fibrous sheath in the marsupial spermatozoon

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, M; Breed, WG

    2005-01-01

    The spermatozoon fibrous sheath contains longitudinal columns and circumferential ribs. It surrounds the axoneme of the principal piece of the mammalian sperm tail, and may be important in sperm stability and motility. Here we describe its assembly during spermiogenesis in a marsupial, the brush-tail possum, and compare its structural organization with that of eutherian mammals, birds and reptiles. Transmission electron microscopy showed that possum fibrous sheath assembly is a multistep process extending in a distal-to-proximal direction along the axoneme from steps 4 to 14 of spermiogenesis. For the most part, assembly of the longitudinal columns occurs before that of the circumferential ribs. Immunohistochemical and immunogold labelling showed that fibrous sheath proteins are first present in the spermatid cytoplasm; at least some of the proteins of the sheath precursors differ from those in the mature fibrous sheath. That immunoreactivity develops after initiation of chromatin condensation suggests that fibrous sheath proteins, or their mRNAs, are stored within the spermatid cytoplasmic lobule prior to their assembly along the axoneme. These findings are similar to those in laboratory rats, and thus suggests that the mode of fibrous sheath assembly evolved in a common ancestor over 125 million years ago, prior to the divergence of marsupial and eutherian lineages. PMID:16050902

  8. Postradiation imaging changes in the CNS: how can we differentiate between treatment effect and disease progression?

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Amanda J; Ruzevick, Jake; Malayeri, Ashkan A; Rigamonti, Daniele; Lim, Michael; Redmond, Kristin J; Kleinberg, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    A familiar challenge for neuroradiologists and neuro-oncologists is differentiating between radiation treatment effect and disease progression in the CNS. Both entities are characterized by an increase in contrast enhancement on MRI and present with similar clinical signs and symptoms that may occur either in close temporal proximity to the treatment or later in the disease course. When radiation-related imaging changes or clinical deterioration are mistaken for disease progression, patients may be subject to unnecessary surgery and/or a change from otherwise effective therapy. Similarly, when disease progression is mistaken for treatment effect, a potentially ineffective therapy may be continued in the face of progressive disease. Here we describe the three types of radiation injury to the brain based on the time to development of signs and symptoms – acute, subacute and late – and then review specific imaging changes after intensity-modulated radiation therapy, stereotactic radiosurgery and brachytherapy. We provide an overview of these phenomena in the treatment of a wide range of malignant and benign CNS illnesses. Finally, we review the published data regarding imaging techniques under investigation to address this well-known problem. PMID:24947265

  9. A call to expand regulation to all carcinogenic fibrous minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, F.; Steele, I.; Ambrosi, J.; Carbone, M.

    2013-05-01

    The regulatory term "asbestos" groups only the six fibrous minerals that were commercially used among approximately 400. The carcinogenicity of these six regulated minerals has been largely demonstrated and is related to fiber structure, fiber length/diameter ratio, and bio-persistence. From a public perception, the generic term "asbestos" refers to the fibrous minerals that cause asbestosis, mesothelioma and other cancers. However, other non-regulated fibrous minerals are potentially as dangerous as the regulatory asbestos because they share similar physical and chemical properties, epidemiological studies have demonstrated their relationship with asbestos-related diseases, and both in vitro and in vivo experiments have established the toxicity of these minerals. For example, the non-regulated asbestiform winchite and richterite minerals that contaminated the vermiculite mined from Libby, Montana, (USA) were associated with mesothelioma, lung cancer and asbestosis observed among the area's residents and miners. Many other examples of non-regulated carcinogenic fibrous minerals include, but are not limited to, antigorite, arfvedsonite, balangeroite, carlosturanite, erionite, fluoro-edenite, hornblende, mordenite, palygorskite, and sepiolite. To propose a regulatory definition that would provide protection from all carcinogenic fibers, we have conducted an interdisciplinary literature review to compare the characteristics of "asbestos" and of non-regulated mineral fibers that relate to carcinogenicity. We specifically studied two non-regulated fibrous minerals that are associated with asbestos-related diseases: the serpentine antigorite and the zeolite erionite. Both examples underscore the problem of regulation based on commercial, rather than scientific principles: 1) the occurrence of fibrous antigorite in materials used to pave roads has been correlated with high mesothelioma rates in New Caledonia. Antigorite was also the cause of asbestosis in Poland, and in

  10. Rare case of an abdominal mass: Reactive nodular fibrous pseudotumor of the stomach encroaching on multiple abdominal organs

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Xiao-Jiang; Chen, Chuang-Qi; Li, Yin; Ma, Jin-Ping; Li, Zhi-Xun; Cai, Shi-Rong; He, Yu-Long

    2014-01-01

    Reactive nodular fibrous pseudotumor (RNFP), which presents abdominal clinical manifestations and malignant radiographic results, usually requires radical resection as the treatment. However, RNFP has been recently described as an extremely rare benign post-inflammatory lesion of a reactive nature, which typically arises from the sub-serosal layer of the digestive tract or within the surrounding mesentery in association with local injury or inflammation. In addition, a postoperative diagnosis is necessary to differentiate it from the other reactive processes of the abdomen. Furthermore, RNFP shows a good prognosis without signs of recurrence or metastasis. A 16-year-old girl presented with a 3-mo history of epigastric discomfort, and auxiliary examinations suggested a malignant tumor originating from the stomach; postoperative pathology confirmed RNFP, and after a 2-year follow-up period, the patient did not display any signs of recurrence. This case highlights the importance of preoperative pathology for surgeons who may encounter similar cases. PMID:24749124

  11. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH). A comparison of MFH in man and animals. A critical review.

    PubMed

    Schneider, P; Busch, U; Meister, H; Qasem, Q; Wünsch, P H

    1999-07-01

    This review gives information about localization and types of MFH in man and animals such as mouse, rat, cat, dog, opossum, cattle, horse and birds [e.g. mallard (a wild duck)]. Furthermore, this paper reports about cell culture dealing with MFH. The aim of this publication is to show that MFH originates from a primitive mesenchymal stem cell, fibroblastoid cell and fibroblasts. Histiocytes are, according to the literature in a small amount constituents of MFH and are reactive cells or without any meaning. In our own studies using rats [strain: Chbb: THOM (SPF)] the characteristic storiform or cartwheel pattern of tumour cells were evident. The cells were elongated, rich in endoplasmic reticulum and possessed no or very few lysosomes. The cells were predominantly fibroblasts and fibroblastoid cells. These cells were intermingled with giant cells. In other species mentioned above, the MFH showed very similar histological features. Our own results and findings obtained from the literature support our concept that the MFH represents a primitive phenotype or pleomorphic sarcoma which may differentiate in one or more directions. Histiocytes are not a neoplastic component. PMID:10425555

  12. Novel cell lines established from a human myxoid malignant fibrous histiocytoma arising in the uterus.

    PubMed

    Kiyozuka, Y; Nakagawa, H; Uemura, Y; Senzaki, H; Yamamoto, A; Noguchi, T; Mizuta, H; Nakanishi, K; Nakano, S; Tsubura, A

    2001-05-01

    Two cell lines (Nara-H and Nara-F) with different phenotypes were established from a myxoid MFH of the uterus. In vitro, Nara-F grew in sheets showing a storiform arrangement and Nara-H in raised colonies. Although tumors generated in nude mice shared similar morphological features of abundant myxoid tumor in Nara-H and -F, the pleomorphic component was conspicuous in Nara-F. Both cell lines produced hyaluronic-acid but CD44 was expressed only in Nara-H. Estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha) and progesterone receptor (PgR) were detected in Nara-H. Nara-F was positive for ER beta and PgR. Among hormonal agents, the response to the anti-estrogen tamoxifen was more sensitive than progesterone agents. This report illustrates the characteristics of these newly established cell lines, and presents the possibility of an adjuvant hormonal therapy for MFH. PMID:11408058

  13. Malignant teratoma (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A malignant teratoma is a type of cancer consisting of cysts that contain one or more of the three primary embryonic germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. Because malignant teratomas have usually spread by the time of diagnosis, ...

  14. Pediatric Salivary Gland Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ord, Robert A; Carlson, Eric R

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric malignant salivary gland tumors are extremely rare. The percentage of malignant tumors is higher than that seen in adults, although the outcomes in terms of survival are better in pediatric patients. The mainstay of treatment is surgical excision with negative margins. This article reviews current concepts in demographics, etiology, management, and outcomes of malignant salivary tumors in children. PMID:26614703

  15. Stress transfer through fibrous materials in wicking experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaenkova, Daria; Andrukh, Taras; Kornev, Konstantin

    2009-11-01

    Due to the recent progress in preparation of fibers and nanofibers with different properties, the idea of smart textiles attracts much attention. In many situations the probes and sensors are designed for bio fluid detection. The liquid penetration in fibrous materials causes their deformations including stretching, twisting, wrinkling, buckling etc. The most of researches on wicking properties of textiles are focused on determination of media permeability and ignore the specific features of fibrous materials. On the other hand the theoretical works on quantitative analysis of the deformation effects in porous materials filled with liquids are mostly focused on deformation of fully saturated samples. The fundamental understanding of the stress transfer through the fiber network is crucial for sensors development, but to the best of our knowledge, the stress analysis in the fibrous materials absorbing liquids has never been discussed in the literature. This paper sets a physical basis for analysis of absorption processes in nanotubular and nanofibrous materials. We study absorption of droplets by yarns and webs made of fibers, develop a theory which explains the stress distribution in fibrous materials and checked this theory on wicking experiments. The reported theory and experiments propose a new area of research on absorption-induced deformations of fibrous materials.

  16. Computed tomographic features of fibrous dysplasia of maxillofacial region

    PubMed Central

    Karjodkar, Freny R; Umarji, Hemant R

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study was to find the computed tomographic features of fibrous dysplasia of the maxillofacial region. Materials and Methods All eight cases included in the study reported either to Government Dental College and Hospital or Nair Hospital Dental College, Mumbai between 2003 and 2009. The patients were prescribed computed tomogram in addition to conventional radiographs of maxillofacial region which were studied for characteristic features of fibrous dysplasia. The diagnosis of fibrous dysplasia was confirmed by histopathological report. Results All cases showed the ill-defined margins of lesions except in the region where the lesions were extending to cortex of the involved bone. Internal structure of all cases showed ground glass appearance. Four cases of maxillary lesion showed the displacement of maxillary sinus maintaining the shape of maxillary sinus. Two cases showed complete obliteration of maxillary sinus. Displacement of inferior alveolar canal did not follow any typical pattern in any of the cases but was displaced in different directions. Conclusion The craniofacial type of fibrous dysplasia is as common as fibrous dysplasia of jaw. The margins, extent, internal structure and effect on surrounding structure are well detected on computed tomographic images. PMID:21977470

  17. Electrospun nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte for secondary lithium battery applications

    SciTech Connect

    Padmaraj, O.; Rao, B. Nageswara; Jena, Paramananda; Satyanarayana, N.; Venkateswarlu, M.

    2014-04-24

    Hybrid nanocomposite [poly(vinylidene fluoride -co- hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-co-HFP)/magnesium aluminate (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4})] fibrous polymer membranes were prepared by electrospinning method. The prepared pure and nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte membranes were soaked into the liquid electrolyte 1M LiPF{sub 6} in EC: DEC (1:1,v/v). XRD and SEM are used to study the structural and morphological studies of nanocomposite electrospun fibrous polymer membranes. The nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte membrane with 5 wt.% of MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} exhibits high ionic conductivity of 2.80 × 10{sup −3} S/cm at room temperature. The charge-discharge capacity of Li/LiCoO{sub 2} coin cells composed of the newly prepared nanocomposite [(16 wt.%) PVdF-co-HFP+(5 wt.%) MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}] fibrous polymer electrolyte membrane was also studied and compared with commercial Celgard separator.

  18. Lorentz force infiltration of fibrous preforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Richard M.; Mortensen, Andreas

    1991-12-01

    A new process for the production of metal matrix composites, whereby molten metal is forced into the interstices of a fibrous preform using electromagnetic body forces, is presented. These forces are created by subjecting the molten matrix to a concentrated transient magnetic field which, in turn, induces intense eddy currents in the melt. This gives rise to Lorentz forces which propel the metal into the preform. Equations governing the mechanics of Lorentz force infiltration of an axisymmetric preform surrounded by molten metal are solved numerically. A finite difference algorithm is applied to solve Maxwell's equation of electromagnetic field propagation and to determine the flux density as a function of radial position. The resulting Lorentz force is then calculated and balanced with the inertial, fluid friction and capillary forces, taking preform compression into account, to predict infiltration velocity and cumulative infiltration distance. Apparatuses were designed and constructed to infiltrate cylindrical preforms of 24 vol pct 3-μm-diameter chopped alumina fiber preforms with commercial purity aluminum. Two capacitor banks were charged from 1 to 4 kV and rapidly discharged to produce magnetic pulses of up to 4 tesla peak, at frequencies of 2 to 3 kHz in the infiltrating furnace. A commercial MAGNEFORM unit was also used to produce fields of up to 5 tesla at 5.6 kHz.-Sound composite samples were produced, to a depth of 1.8 mm into the preforms, with little or no breakage of fibers. Good agreement between theoretical model predictions and experimentally measured infiltration depths was demonstrated. Primary process variables for a given matrix-preform system, were the number of discharges, the magnetic pulse intensity and frequency, and the melt ring thickness. The model predicts a pulse frequency below which infiltration does not occur and an optimum frequency for maximum infiltration depth. Successive pulses are predicted to produce only slightly

  19. Water-related absorption in fibrous diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zedgenizov, D. A.; Shiryaev, A. A.; Kagi, H.; Navon, O.

    2003-04-01

    Cubic and coated diamonds from several localities (Brasil, Canada, Yakutia) were investigated using spectroscopic techniques. Special emphasis was put on investigation of water-related features of transmission Infra-red and Raman spectra. Presence of molecular water is inferred from broad absorption bands in IR at 3420 and 1640 cm-1. These bands were observed in many of the investigated samples. It is likely that molecular water is present in microinclusions in liquid state, since no clear indications of solid H_2O (ice VI-VII, Kagi et al., 2000) were found. Comparison of absorption by HOH and OH vibrations shows that diamonds can be separated into two principal groups: those containing liquid water (direct proportionality of OH and HOH absorption) and those with stronger absorption by OH group. Fraction of diamonds in every group depends on their provenance. There might be positive correlation between internal pressure in microinclusions (determined using quartz barometer, Navon et al., 1988) and affiliation with diamonds containing liquid water. In many cases absorption by HOH vibration is considerably lower than absorption by hydroxyl (OH) group. This may be explained if OH groups are partially present in mineral and/or melt inclusions. This hypothesis is supported by following fact: in diamonds with strong absorption by silicates and other minerals shape and position of the OH band differs from that in diamonds with low absorption by minerals. Moreover, in Raman spectra of individual inclusions sometimes the broad band at 3100 cm-1 is observed. This band is OH-related. In some samples water distribution is not homogeneous. Central part of the diamond usually contains more water than outer parts, but this is not a general rule for all the samples. Water absorption usually correlated with absorption of other components (carbonates, silicates and others). At that fibrous diamonds with relatively high content of silicates are characterized by molecular water. OH

  20. Hyper-Echoic Rim in Thyroid Nodules: A New Ultrasonographic Feature for Malignancy Prediction.

    PubMed

    Dong, YiJie; Zhan, WeiWei; Zhou, JianQiao; Song, LinLin; Ni, XiaoFeng; Zhang, BenYan

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this study was to verify the ultrasound features of hyper-echoic rims in thyroid nodules and to evaluate their diagnostic value in predicting thyroid malignancies. We retrospectively analyzed 228 pathologically proven thyroid nodules (137 malignant and 91 benign nodules). Forty-eight thyroid nodules had a hyper echogenic rim. All malignant nodules (137) were papillary carcinomas, which were studied to identify the correlation between the hyper-echoic rim (detected by ultrasound) and other histologic features. Presence of a hyper-echoic rim had high specificity (94.51%), but low sensitivity (31.39%) in predicting malignancy (p < 0.05). Thirty-seven of 43 malignant nodules had boundary zones of mixed structure (apparent fibrous stroma bands or dense collagenous border with a mixed population of cancerous cells) under microscopic examination. In conclusion, the hyper-echogenic rim could be one additional ultrasound parameter in the diagnosis of thyroid lesions. PMID:27339761

  1. Segmental neurofibromatosis and malignancy.

    PubMed

    Dang, Julie D; Cohen, Philip R

    2010-01-01

    Segmental neurofibromatosis is an uncommon variant of neurofibromatosis type I characterized by neurofibromas and/or café-au-lait macules localized to one sector of the body. Although patients with neurofibromatosis type I have an associated increased risk of certain malignancies, malignancy has only occasionally been reported in patients with segmental neurofibromatosis. The published reports of patients with segmental neurofibromatosis who developed malignancy were reviewed and the characteristics of these patients and their cancers were summarized. Ten individuals (6 women and 4 men) with segmental neurofibromatosis and malignancy have been reported. The malignancies include malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (3), malignant melanoma (2), breast cancer (1), colon cancer (1), gastric cancer (1), lung cancer (1), and Hodgkin lymphoma (1). The most common malignancies in patients with segmental neurofibromatosis are derived from neural crest cells: malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and malignant melanoma. The incidence of malignancy in patients with segmental neurofibromatosis may approach that of patients with neurofibromatosis type I. PMID:21137621

  2. Fibrous minerals from Somma-Vesuvius volcanic complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Manuela; Nestola, Fabrizio; Ghiara, Maria R.; Capitelli, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    A survey on fibrous minerals coming from the densely populated area of Campania around the Somma-Vesuvius volcanic complex (Italy) was performed by means of a multi-methodological approach, based on morphological analyses, EMPA/WDS and SEM/EDS applications, and unit-cell determination through X-ray diffraction data. Such mineralogical investigation aims to provide suitable tools to the identification of fibrous natural phases, to improve the knowledge of both geochemical, petrogenetic and regional mineralogy of Somma-Vesuvius area, and to emphasize the presence of minerals with fibrous habit in all volcanic environments. The survey also fits well in the calls of health and environment of Horizon 2020 program of the European Commission (Climate Action, Environment, Resource Efficiency and Raw Materials).

  3. Structural characteristics, dispersion, and modification of fibrous brucite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xi; Chuan, Xiu-yun

    2014-01-01

    Fibrous brucite has very unique structure and physical properties. Brucite fibers were exfoliated into single nanofibers by using dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT) as a dispersant through mechanical agitation and ultrasonic dispersion; and then, the nanofibers were modified by stearic acid and (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (γ-APS) compound modification agent. The nanofibers were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermal gravimetric analysis. It is found that AOT has good effect on the dispersion. The single fiber has a consistent morphology, and fibrous brucite is dispersed and modified without destroying the crystal structure. Infrared and thermal analysis shows that the surface modification of fibrous brucite is achieved by forming chemical bonds between the coupling agent and magnesium hydroxide.

  4. Primary solitary fibrous tumor of the bronchus: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wenyong; Xu, Xiao; Hu, Jiali; Cheng, Gongwen; Xie, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors are ubiquitous tumors of fibroblastic type and may be found at any location, but primary solitary fibrous tumors of the bronchus were rarely reported. Here, we reported the case of a 46-year-old woman whose main stem bronchus was partly occluded by a 1.0×0.8×0.7 cm endobronchial mass. The mass was completely resected with lung preservation. The tumor was well circumscribed and consisted of a mixture of bland spindle cells and dense collagen bands. Immunohistochemical staining showed that tumor cells were positive for CD34, bcl-2 and vimentin, but negative for S-100, SMA and cytokeratin AE1/AE3. The tumor was diagnosed as a solitary fibrous tumor of the bronchus, which has been rarely reported to date. PMID:26722581

  5. Two-stage, combined, three-level en bloc spondylectomy for a recurrent post-radiation sarcoma of the lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Casadei, Roberto; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; De Paolis, Massimiliano; Ruggieri, Pietro

    2013-07-01

    En bloc or extralesional resection means resection of the tumor in one piece together with a layer of healthy tissue: the margin is either marginal or wide. The prerequisite for an en bloc or extralesional spondylectomy is a tumor involvement of no more than one side of the posterior structures, so that a corridor can be created through which the spinal cord is released. This article presents a two-stage, combined anterior and posterolateral, three-level en bloc spondylectomy, and local flap wound coverage for a patient with a recurrent post-radiation sarcoma of the lumbar spine and infected wound after intralesional treatment. The patient had radiation therapy for an L4 Hodgkin's lymphoma 5 years before the development of the post-radiation sarcoma. Two-stage, three-level en bloc spondylectomy was done through a combined anterior and posterolateral approach. The resection margins were microscopically negative. Dural tear occurred intraoperatively because of tightly adherent dense scar tissue. Two years after spondylectomy, there was no evidence of tumor or infection recurrence; however, the patient died from her lymphoma. In surgically difficult spinal resections, we recommend the two-stage, combined anterior and posterolateral approach for en bloc spondylectomy. The staged procedure may provide for reduced perioperative complications and mortality, and meticulous dissection in the irradiated area, especially if infected. The combined approach provides for easier and safer dissection of the tumor and the spine from the anterior elements under direct visual control, and wide tumor resection. PMID:23412305

  6. Heat Transfer in High-Temperature Fibrous Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran

    2002-01-01

    The combined radiation/conduction heat transfer in high-porosity, high-temperature fibrous insulations was investigated experimentally and numerically. The effective thermal conductivity of fibrous insulation samples was measured over the temperature range of 300-1300 K and environmental pressure range of 1.33 x 10(exp -5)-101.32 kPa. The fibrous insulation samples tested had nominal densities of 24, 48, and 72 kilograms per cubic meter and thicknesses of 13.3, 26.6 and 39.9 millimeters. Seven samples were tested such that the applied heat flux vector was aligned with local gravity vector to eliminate natural convection as a mode of heat transfer. Two samples were tested with reverse orientation to investigate natural convection effects. It was determined that for the fibrous insulation densities and thicknesses investigated no heat transfer takes place through natural convection. A finite volume numerical model was developed to solve the governing combined radiation and conduction heat transfer equations. Various methods of modeling the gas/solid conduction interaction in fibrous insulations were investigated. The radiation heat transfer was modeled using the modified two-flux approximation assuming anisotropic scattering and gray medium. A genetic-algorithm based parameter estimation technique was utilized with this model to determine the relevant radiative properties of the fibrous insulation over the temperature range of 300-1300 K. The parameter estimation was performed by least square minimization of the difference between measured and predicted values of effective thermal conductivity at a density of 24 kilograms per cubic meters and at nominal pressures of 1.33 x 10(exp -4) and 99.98 kPa. The numerical model was validated by comparison with steady-state effective thermal conductivity measurements at other densities and pressures. The numerical model was also validated by comparison with a transient thermal test simulating reentry aerodynamic heating

  7. Solitary Fibrous Tumor in a Female Urinary Bladder.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Hiba J; Menon, Sharifa

    2016-07-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors of the bladder are extremely rare especially in the females. This is the third case of SFT in a female urinary bladder. We are presenting a case of 36-years-old female who underwent a procedure for what thought to be cervical myoma. Cystectomy and bilateral ureteral re-implantation were performed. Mass showed to be solitary fibrous tumor of the urinary bladder. These tumors are rarely occur in extrapleural spaces. Only few cases had been reported in the urinary bladder including 2 in the female and 10 in the male bladder. PMID:27335777

  8. Kinetics of adsorption with granular, powdered, and fibrous activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Shmidt, J.L.; Pimenov, A.V.; Lieberman, A.I.; Cheh, H.Y.

    1997-08-01

    The properties of three different types of activated carbon, fibrous, powdered, and granular, were investigated theoretically and experimentally. The adsorption rate of the activated carbon fiber was found to be two orders of magnitude higher than that of the granular activated carbon, and one order of magnitude higher than that of the powdered activated carbon. Diffusion coefficients of methylene blue in the fibrous, powdered, and granular activated carbons were determined experimentally. A new method for estimating the meso- and macropore surface areas in these carbons was proposed.

  9. Interfacial Micromechanics in Fibrous Composites: Design, Evaluation, and Models

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Zhenkun; Li, Xuan; Qin, Fuyong; Qiu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances of interfacial micromechanics in fiber reinforced composites using micro-Raman spectroscopy are given. The faced mechanical problems for interface design in fibrous composites are elaborated from three optimization ways: material, interface, and computation. Some reasons are depicted that the interfacial evaluation methods are difficult to guarantee the integrity, repeatability, and consistency. Micro-Raman study on the fiber interface failure behavior and the main interface mechanical problems in fibrous composites are summarized, including interfacial stress transfer, strength criterion of interface debonding and failure, fiber bridging, frictional slip, slip transition, and friction reloading. The theoretical models of above interface mechanical problems are given. PMID:24977189

  10. LAMTOR1-PRKCD and NUMA1-SFMBT1 fusion genes identified by RNA sequencing in aneurysmal benign fibrous histiocytoma with t(3;11)(p21;q13).

    PubMed

    Panagopoulos, Ioannis; Gorunova, Ludmila; Bjerkehagen, Bodil; Lobmaier, Ingvild; Heim, Sverre

    2015-11-01

    RNA sequencing of an aneurysmal benign fibrous histiocytoma with the karyotype 46,XY,t(3;11)(p21;q13),del(6)(p23)[17]/46,XY[2] showed that the t(3;11) generated two fusion genes: LAMTOR1-PRKCD and NUMA1-SFMBT1. RT-PCR together with Sanger sequencing verified the presence of fusion transcripts from both fusion genes. In the LAMTOR1-PRKCD fusion, the part of the PRKCD gene coding for the catalytic domain of the serine/threonine kinase is under control of the LAMTOR1 promoter. In the NUMA1-SFMBT1 fusion, the part of the SFMBT1 gene coding for two of four malignant brain tumor domains and the sterile alpha motif domain is controlled by the NUMA1 promoter. The data support a neoplastic genesis of aneurysmal benign fibrous histiocytoma and indicate a pathogenetic role for LAMTOR1-PRKCD and NUMA1-SFMBT1. PMID:26432191

  11. Nuclear expression of STAT6 distinguishes solitary fibrous tumor from histologic mimics.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Leona A; Vivero, Marina; Fletcher, Christopher Dm; Mertens, Fredrik; Hornick, Jason L

    2014-03-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is composed of spindled to ovoid cells in a patternless architecture with prominent stromal collagen and hemangiopericytoma-like vessels. Some tumors show hypercellularity, nuclear atypia, and significant mitotic activity; the latter feature in particular often portends an aggressive clinical course. SFT can sometimes be difficult to distinguish from other benign mesenchymal tumors and sarcomas. The most characteristic (albeit nonspecific) immunohistochemical finding in SFT is CD34 expression. A NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion, resulting in a chimeric protein in which a repressor domain of NGFI-A binding protein 2 (EGR1 binding protein 2) (NAB2) is replaced with a carboxy-terminal transactivation domain from signal transducer and activator of transcription 6, interleukin-4 induced (STAT6), was recently identified as a consistent finding in SFT. However, as these genes are located in close proximity on 12q13, this fusion can only rarely be detected by conventional chromosomal banding or fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. Nuclear expression of the carboxy terminal part of STAT6 is a consistent finding in SFT of the meninges (so-called 'meningeal hemangiopericytoma'). We investigated STAT6 expression by immunohistochemistry in SFTs and other soft tissue tumors arising outside the central nervous system to validate the diagnostic utility of this novel marker. Whole-tissue sections of 231 tumors were evaluated, including 60 cases of SFT as well as other benign and malignant mesenchymal neoplasms and sarcomatoid mesotheliomas. Fifty-nine of 60 SFT cases (98%) showed nuclear expression of STAT6, which was usually diffuse and intense. All other tumor types were negative for STAT6, except for three dedifferentiated liposarcomas and one deep fibrous histiocytoma, which showed weak staining. In conclusion, STAT6 is a highly sensitive and almost perfectly specific immunohistochemical marker for SFT and can be helpful to distinguish this tumor type

  12. Malignant Vagal Paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Hamersley, Erin R S; Barrows, Amy; Perez, Angel; Schroeder, Ashley; Castle, James T

    2016-06-01

    Paragangliomas are rare, typically benign neuroendocrine tumors that represent a small portion of head and neck tumors. A small percentage of these are known to have malignant potential. They arise from the carotid body, jugular bulb or vagus nerves. There is limited literature discussing the management of malignant vagal paragangliomas. We present a case of a 25 year old female with a left malignant vagal paraganglioma. The following case presentation will describe the presentation, classic radiologic findings, and management of a malignant vagal paraganglioma along with a review of the literature. PMID:25712400

  13. Physical properties of collagen fibrous networks derived from bovine hides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hides and leather industry has been facing a serious challenge in the disposal of solid wastes such as trimmings and lime-splits. One strategy to solve this problem is to convert these wastes into useful fibrous products and green composites. Therefore research is needed to investigate the pre...

  14. Fabrication of Multi-Ply Birefringent Fibrous Composite Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, I.; Niiro, T.

    1984-01-01

    Fabrication method produces unidirectional, multi-ply, transparent birefringent fibrous composite laminates for use in macromechanical stress analysis conducted by means of anisotropic photoelasticity. New laminates glass-fiber-reinforced plastics for which matrix and fibers have same index of refraction. Method utilized in structural applications of composites.

  15. Electrospinning of caseinates to create protective fibrous mats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    JUSTIFICATION Electrospinning is a nonthermal process that produces fibers with diameters on the micron- or nano-scales from a polymer solution. If produced by electrospinning of biopolymer solutions, fibrous mats may be created for protecting foods, improving food quality and allowing for the prese...

  16. Torsion of omental fibrous pseudotumour mimicking acute appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Pennington, Thomas E.; Ozmen, John; Fenton-Lee, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Unusual pathologies are occasionally found at laparoscopy when appendicitis is suspected. We present a case of strangulated inflammatory fibrous pseudotumour of the omentum presenting in a similar fashion to appendicitis. The infarcted omentum was excised, facilitating prompt resolution of symptoms. PMID:26811304

  17. DEVELOPMENT AND FABRICATION OF A PROTOTYPE FIBROUS AEROSOL MONITOR (FAM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a program whose objective was to develop, design, fabricate and laboratory-test two prototype instruments capable of real-time selective detection and measurement of airborne fibrous-shaped particles. The selective detection of the fibers is effected by sync...

  18. Electrospinning of caseinates to create protective fibrous mats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electrospinning is a nonthermal process that produces fibers on the micron- or nano-scale from a polymer solution. If produced by electrospinning of biopolymer solutions, fibrous mats may be created for protecting foods and allowing for the preservation and controlled release of bioactives for healt...

  19. An improved automotive brake lining using fibrous potassium titanate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansfield, J. A.; Halberstadt, M. L.; Riccitiello, S. R.; Rhee, S. K.

    1976-01-01

    Simultaneous fade reduction and wear improvement of a commercial automotive brake lining were achieved by adding fibrous potassium titanate. The dependence of friction and wear characteristics on quantitative variations in potassium titanate, asbestos, phenolic binder, and organic and inorganic modifiers was evaluated.

  20. Direct Numerical Simulation of Liquid Transport Through Fibrous Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palakurthi, Nikhil Kumar

    Fluid flow through fibrous media occurs in many industrial processes, including, but not limited, to fuel cell technology, drug delivery patches, sanitary products, textile reinforcement, filtration, heat exchangers, and performance fabrics. Understanding the physical processes involved in fluid flow through fibrous media is essential for their characterization as well as for the optimization and development of new products. Macroscopic porous-media equations require constitutive relations, which account for the physical processes occurring at the micro-scale, to predict liquid transport at the macro-scale. In this study, micro-scale simulations were conducted using conventional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique (finite-volume method) to determine the macroscopic constitutive relations. The first part of this thesis deals with the single-phase flow in fibrous media, following which multi-phase flow through fibrous media was studied. Darcy permeability is an important parameter that characterizes creeping flow through a fibrous porous medium. It has a complex dependence on the medium's properties such as fibers' in-plane and through-plane orientation, diameter, aspect ratio, curvature, and porosity. A suite of 3D virtual fibrous structures with a wide range of geometric properties were constructed, and the permeability values of the structures were calculated by solving the 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The through-plane permeability was found to be a function of only the fiber diameter, the fibers' through-plane orientation, and the porosity of the medium. The numerical results were used to extend a permeability-porosity relation, developed in literature for 3D isotropic fibrous media, to a wide range of fibers' through-plane orientations. In applications where rate of capillary penetration is important, characterization of porous media usually involves determination of either the effective pore radius from capillary penetration experiments

  1. Malignancy after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Zeier, Martin; Hartschuh, Wolfgang; Wiesel, Manfred; Lehnert, Thomas; Ritz, Eberhard

    2002-01-01

    Malignancy following renal transplantation is an important medical problem during the long-term follow-up. The overall incidence of malignancy at this time is 3 to 5 times higher than in the general population. The most common malignancies are lymphoproliferative disorders (early after transplantation) and skin carcinomas (late after transplantation). The type of malignancy is different in various countries and dependent on genetic and environmental factors. Another important confounder for risk of malignancy after renal transplantation is the type of immunosuppression. Previous use of cytotoxic drugs (eg, cyclophosphamide) or a history of analgesic abuse are additional risk factors. Malignancy may even be transplanted by the graft. Previous cancer treatment in a uremic patient on the transplant waiting list is of great importance in relation to waiting time and postmalignancy screening. Finally, every dialysis patient on the waiting list should undergo a regular screening program before and after renal transplantation to detect a potentially malignant tumor in an early stage. In addition to specific oncological treatment, managing a malignancy after renal transplantation should include modification of immunosuppression. PMID:11774131

  2. Primary malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Mısır, A. Ferhat; Durmuşlar, Mustafa C.; Zerener, Tamer; Gün, Banu D.

    2016-01-01

    Malignant melanomas (MM) of the oral cavity are extremely rare, accounting for 0.2% to 8.0% of all malignant melanomas. Malignant melanomas is more frequently seen at the level of the hard palate and gingiva. Early diagnosis and treatment are important for reducing morbidity. Malignant melanoma cells stain positively with antibodies to human melanoma black 45, S-100 protein, and vimentin; therefore, immunohistochemistry can play an important role in evaluating the depth of invasion and the location of metastases. A 76-year-old man developed an oral malignant melanoma, which was originally diagnosed as a bluish reactive denture hyperplasia caused by an ill-fitting lower denture. The tumor was removed surgically, and histopathological examination revealed a nodular-type MM. There was no evidence of recurrence over a 4-year follow-up period. PMID:27052289

  3. Drugs Approved for Malignant Mesothelioma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Malignant Mesothelioma This page lists cancer ... in malignant mesothelioma that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Malignant Mesothelioma Alimta (Pemetrexed Disodium) Pemetrexed ...

  4. Solitary fibrous tumor of the breast: report of a case with emphasis on diagnostic role of STAT6 immunostaining.

    PubMed

    Magro, Gaetano; Angelico, Giuseppe; Leone, Giorgia; Palazzo, Juan

    2016-05-01

    We herein report the clinical, radiological, and pathological findings of a rare case of a solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) occurring in the breast parenchyma of a 62-year-old female. The tumor was incidentally detected at a mammographic screening, and, ultrasonographically, presented as a single, well-circumscribed nodule. On needle core biopsy, the diagnosis of SFT was suggested based on a proliferation of CD34-positive spindly cells set in a fibrous stroma containing medium-sized blood vessels with hyalinization of their walls and branching configuration. The diagnosis was confirmed in the excised specimen, which exhibited a tumor with an immunohistochemical profile consistent with SFT, including diffuse expression of CD34, CD99 and bcl2. As STAT6 nuclear immunoexpression is the result of the inv12(q13q13)-derived NAB2-STAT6 fusion, which characterizes SFT, we analyzed immunohistochemically our case with a commercially available anti-STAT6 antibody. We showed that mammary SFT exhibits a diffuse nuclear STAT6 immunoreactivty, suggesting its potential diagnostic role. The present case emphasizes that the diagnosis of SFT can be confidentially rendered on needle core biopsy. Although SFT is suspected on characteristic morphologic features, immunohistochemistry, revealing immunoreactivity for CD34, bcl-2, CD99 and STAT6, is crucial in the differential diagnosis of potential benign and malignant mimics. PMID:26778386

  5. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of kidney—A case report☆

    PubMed Central

    Alharbi, Badr

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are very rare soft-tissue tumors. These tumors originate from Schwann cells or pluripotent perineural cells of the neural crest. An isolated MPNST of the kidney is extremely rare and has been reported in only six cases to date. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 30-year-old female with an unremarkable past medical and surgical history presented with an enlarging, right-sided abdominal mass for the last 3 months. A CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis showed a large exophytic mass arising from the right kidney. A metastatic work-up was negative, so a right radical nephrectomy was performed. Histopathological and immunohistochemical studies confirmed the diagnosis of an MPNST. DISCUSSION MPNSTs are rare and aggressive soft-tissue sarcomas that are usually associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) but that also occur post-radiation and sporadically. These tumors are highly malignant neoplasms with a high recurrence rate and distant metastases. Complete surgical excision remains the mainstay of treatment due to the limited response of MPNSTs to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. CONCLUSION MPNSTs arising from the kidney are very rare. Complete surgical resection provides the only hope for cure. Postoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy are still controversial, although postoperative radiotherapy is currently recommended by an oncology consensus group. PMID:23995478

  6. Malignant melanoma maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Devi, Seema; Sinha, Richi; Singh, Rakesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    A malignant melanoma is a highly lethal melanocytic neoplasm. A neoplasm usually affects the skin. Malignant melanomas in the head and neck region are rare, accounting for less than 1% of all melanomas. Malignant melanoma of the nose and paranasal sinuses is an aggressive disease typically presenting at an advanced stage, with a 5-year survival rate ranging 20-30%. Melanomas are tumors arising from melanocytes, which are neuroectodermally derived cells located in the basal layers of the skin. This is a case report of a 35-year-old male, who presented with very aggressive disease and developed liver metastasis. PMID:26668467

  7. Procaine in Malignant Hyperpyrexia

    PubMed Central

    Moulds, R. F. W.; Denborough, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    The caffeine contracture of normal human muscle, which has been used as a model for malignant hyperpyrexia, is greatly potentiated by halothane. Prior administration of procaine markedly reduces the halothane-potentiated caffeine contracture, and procaine given at the height of the contracture induces relaxation. Lignocaine, on the other hand, produces a variable response and sometimes increases the contracture. The muscle from a patient with an inherited susceptibility to malignant hyperpyrexia contracted spontaneously with halothane alone, and this contracture was reversed by procaine. These experiments support the therapeutic use of procaine in malignant hyperpyrexia. PMID:4642792

  8. Development of flame resistant treatment for Nomex fibrous structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toy, M. S.

    1977-01-01

    Flame resistant fibrous materials for space shuttle application were developed through chemical modification of commercially available aromatic polyamide fibrous products. The new surface treatment was achieved in the laboratory by ultraviolet activation of the fabric in the presence of fluoroolefin monomers and a diluent gas. The monomers grafted under these conditions provide the improved properties of the fabric in flame resistance, chemical inertness, and nonwettability without the sacrifice of color or physical properties. The laboratory reaction vessel was scaled-up to a batch continuous process, which treats ten yards of the commercial width textiles. The treated commercial width Nomex (HT-10-41) from the scaled-up reactor is self-extinguishing in an oxygen-enriched environment, water-repellent, soft, silky, and improved in chemical resistance. Unlike most textile processes, the grafting unit operates under dry conditions and no chemical by-products have to be washed out of the finished product.

  9. Fibrous Ankylosis of the Temporomandibular Joint in a Young Child.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Nigel R; Meena, Manoj; Dinkar, Ajit D; Khorate, Manisha M

    2015-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis is an intracapsular union of the disccondyle complex to the temporal articular surface that restricts mandibular movements, including fibrous adhesions or bony fusion between the condyle, disc, glenoid fossa, and articular eminence. The leading causes include trauma and infection. It can be a serious and disabling condition that leads to difficulties in mastication, swallowing, speaking, esthetics and oral hygiene. Disturbances of facial and mandibular growth and acute compromise of the airway invariably result in physical and psychological disability. Treatment should be initiated as soon as the condition is recognized, with the main objective of re-establishing joint function and harmonious jaw function. The purpose of this report is to describe a case of unilateral fibrous ankylosis of the right TMJ in a three-year-old girl. PMID:26349799

  10. An endochronic theory for transversely isotropic fibrous composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pindera, M. J.; Herakovich, C. T.

    1981-01-01

    A rational methodology of modelling both nonlinear and elastic dissipative response of transversely isotropic fibrous composites is developed and illustrated with the aid of the observed response of graphite-polyimide off-axis coupons. The methodology is based on the internal variable formalism employed within the text of classical irreversible thermodynamics and entails extension of Valanis' endochronic theory to transversely isotropic media. Applicability of the theory to prediction of various response characteristics of fibrous composites is illustrated by accurately modelling such often observed phenomena as: stiffening reversible behavior along fiber direction; dissipative response in shear and transverse tension characterized by power-laws with different hardening exponents; permanent strain accumulation; nonlinear unloading and reloading; and stress-interaction effects.

  11. Electrospun Fibrous Membranes with Super-large-strain Electric Superhydrophobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hua; Wang, Hongxia; Niu, Haitao; Lin, Tong

    2015-10-01

    Large-strain elastic superhydrophobicity is highly desirable for its enhanced use performance and functional reliability in mechanically dynamic environments, but remains challenging to develop. Here we have, for the first time, proven that an elastic fibrous membrane after surface hydrophobization can maintain superhydrophobicity during one-directional (uniaxial) stretching to a strain as high as 1500% and two-direction (biaxial) stretching to a strain up to 700%. The fibrous membrane can withstand at least 1,000 cycles of repeated stretching without losing the superhydrophobicity. Stretching slightly increases the membrane air permeability and reduces water breakthrough pressure. It is highly stable in acid and base environments. Such a permeable, highly-elastic superhydrophobic membrane may open up novel applications in membrane separation, healthcare, functional textile and energy fields.

  12. Electrospun Fibrous Membranes with Super-large-strain Electric Superhydrophobicity

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hua; Wang, Hongxia; Niu, Haitao; Lin, Tong

    2015-01-01

    Large-strain elastic superhydrophobicity is highly desirable for its enhanced use performance and functional reliability in mechanically dynamic environments, but remains challenging to develop. Here we have, for the first time, proven that an elastic fibrous membrane after surface hydrophobization can maintain superhydrophobicity during one-directional (uniaxial) stretching to a strain as high as 1500% and two-direction (biaxial) stretching to a strain up to 700%. The fibrous membrane can withstand at least 1,000 cycles of repeated stretching without losing the superhydrophobicity. Stretching slightly increases the membrane air permeability and reduces water breakthrough pressure. It is highly stable in acid and base environments. Such a permeable, highly-elastic superhydrophobic membrane may open up novel applications in membrane separation, healthcare, functional textile and energy fields. PMID:26511520

  13. Fibrous random materials: From microstructure to macroscopic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdchi, K.; Luding, S.

    2013-06-01

    Fibrous porous materials are involved in a wide range of applications including composite materials, fuel cells, heat exchangers and (biological)filters. Fluid flow through these materials plays an important role in many engineering applications and processes, such as textiles and paper manufacturing or transport of (under)ground water and pollutants. While most porous materials have complex geometry, some can be seen as two-dimensional particulate/fibrous systems, in which we introduce several microscopic quantities, based on Voronoi and Delaunay tessellations, to characterize their microstructure. In particular, by analyzing the topological properties of Voronoi polygons, we observe a smooth transition from disorder to order, for increasing packing fraction. Using fully resolved finite element (FE) simulations of Newtonian, incompressible fluid flow perpendicular to the fibres, the macroscopic permeability is calculated in creeping flow regimes. The effect of fibre arrangement and local crystalline regions on the macroscopic permeability is discussed and the macroscopic property is linked to the microscopic structural quantities.

  14. A Rare Case of a Recurrent Giant Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Ciliary Body of the Orbit.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Arvind; Singh, Shirley Sundar; Majhi, Urmila; Ramshankar, Vijayalakshmi; Krishnamurthy, Arvind

    2016-07-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are uncommon spindle-cell tumors of mesenchymal origin initially described in the pleura and subsequently in other extra-pleural sites. These tumors are categorized as tumors of 'intermediate malignancy' under the World Health Organization classification of soft tissue tumors. SFT was virtually non-existent or misdiagnosed until its characteristic features, particularly the strong and diffuse immuno-reactivity to CD 34 were described. Extra-pleural manifestations of SFT, particularly in the head and neck region are rare. Although a number of isolated case reports of orbital SFTs have been described ever since its initial description in 1994, cases of recurrent SFTs have been very few. Recurrences of these tumors following surgery are considered unusual and metastasis exceptional. We describe clinical presentation and the management challenges of recurrent giant orbital SFT in a 15-year old girl along with a brief review of literature. PMID:27408474

  15. A Solitary Fibrous Tumor (Cellular Form) of the Ankle.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Yong; Kim, Dong-Hwi; Seo, Kyung-Jin; Jung, Sung-No

    2016-01-01

    A solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare type of mesenchymal tumor composed of uniform spindle cells that is classically described as a patternless feature. SFT normally originates from the pleura, with an SFT originating from skin rarely reported. We report what we believe to be the first case of an SFT arising from the ankle. Our case was confirmed histopathologically with immunohistochemical staining. PMID:25979291

  16. Wearable double-twisted fibrous perovskite solar cell.

    PubMed

    Li, Ru; Xiang, Xi; Tong, Xiao; Zou, Jingyun; Li, Qingwen

    2015-07-01

    Wearable double-twisted fibrous perovskite solar cells are developed based on flexible carbon nanotube fiber electrodes, which exhibit a maximum power conversion efficiency of 3.03% and bending stability larger than 1000 cycles, and maintain 89% efficiency after 96 h in ambient conditions if sealed by a transparent polymer layer. The obtained superior performance can shed light on future self-powering e-textiles. PMID:25989248

  17. Localized fibrous mesothelioma of the mediastinum devoid of pleural connections.

    PubMed Central

    Balassiano, M.; Reichert, N.; Rosenman, Y.; Hertcheg, E.; Lieberman, Y.; Yellin, A.

    1989-01-01

    Localized fibrous mesothelioma of the pleura is an uncommon neoplasm. Very rarely (there have been three previous cases) it may occur as an isolated mediastinal tumour. Such a tumour was present for at least 3 years in a 47 year old man, causing shortness of breath and superior vena cava syndrome. A mass weighing over 600 g was completely resected through a median sternotomy. The pertinent literature is reviewed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:2616410

  18. Localized fibrous mesothelioma of the mediastinum devoid of pleural connections.

    PubMed

    Balassiano, M; Reichert, N; Rosenman, Y; Hertcheg, E; Lieberman, Y; Yellin, A

    1989-10-01

    Localized fibrous mesothelioma of the pleura is an uncommon neoplasm. Very rarely (there have been three previous cases) it may occur as an isolated mediastinal tumour. Such a tumour was present for at least 3 years in a 47 year old man, causing shortness of breath and superior vena cava syndrome. A mass weighing over 600 g was completely resected through a median sternotomy. The pertinent literature is reviewed. PMID:2616410

  19. Elastic-plastic behavior of non-woven fibrous mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silberstein, Meredith N.; Pai, Chia-Ling; Rutledge, Gregory C.; Boyce, Mary C.

    2012-02-01

    Electrospinning is a novel method for creating non-woven polymer mats that have high surface area and high porosity. These attributes make them ideal candidates for multifunctional composites. Understanding the mechanical properties as a function of fiber properties and mat microstructure can aid in designing these composites. Further, a constitutive model which captures the membrane stress-strain behavior as a function of fiber properties and the geometry of the fibrous network would be a powerful design tool. Here, mats electrospun from amorphous polyamide are used as a model system. The elastic-plastic behavior of single fibers are obtained in tensile tests. Uniaxial monotonic and cyclic tensile tests are conducted on non-woven mats. The mat exhibits elastic-plastic stress-strain behavior. The transverse strain behavior provides important complementary data, showing a negligible initial Poisson's ratio followed by a transverse:axial strain ratio greater than -1:1 after an axial strain of 0.02. A triangulated framework has been developed to emulate the fibrous network structure of the mat. The micromechanically based model incorporates the elastic-plastic behavior of single fibers into a macroscopic membrane model of the mat. This representative volume element based model is shown to capture the uniaxial elastic-plastic response of the mat under monotonic and cyclic loading. The initial modulus and yield stress of the mat are governed by the fiber properties, the network geometry, and the network density. The transverse strain behavior is linked to discrete deformation mechanisms of the fibrous mat structure including fiber alignment, fiber bending, and network consolidation. The model is further validated in comparison to experiments under different constrained axial loading conditions and found to capture the constraint effect on stiffness, yield, post-yield hardening, and post-yield transverse strain behavior. Due to the direct connection between

  20. Analysis of effective thermal conductivity of fibrous materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Futschik, Michael W.; Witte, Larry C.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this research is to gain a better understanding of the various mechanisms of heat transfer through fibrous materials and to gain insight into how fill-gas pressure influences the effective thermal conductivity. By way of first principles and some empiricism, two mathematical models are constructed to correlate experimental data. The data are obtained from a test series measuring the effective thermal conductivity of Nomex using a two-sided guarded hot-plate heater apparatus. Tests are conducted for certain mean temperatures and fill-gases over a range of pressures varying from vacuum to atmospheric conditions. The models are then evaluated to determine their effectiveness in representing the effective thermal conductivity of a fibrous material. The models presented herein predict the effective thermal conductivity of Nomex extremely well. Since the influence of gas conduction is determined to be the most influential component in predicting the effective thermal conductivity of a fibrous material, an improved representation of gas conduction is developed. Finally, some recommendations for extension to other random-oriented fiber materials are made concerning the usefulness of each model depending on their advantages and disadvantages.

  1. Erosive separation of organic coatings from fibrous substrates.

    PubMed

    Weiss, M; Momber, A W

    2004-11-01

    The separation of organic coatings from fibrous substrates is a key problem in recycling processes. This problem applies to carpets, technical textiles and automotive interior components. This paper reports about results of laboratory studies involving the application of high-speed liquid jets to solve this problem. Results from high-speed video images are used to qualify the principal erosion process. It is shown that the coating material is first ground by the jet; the generated erosion debris is then pushed through the permeable fibrous fabric of the substrate. It is also found that threshold conditions exist for the coating grinding process and for the debris transportation. These threshold conditions depend on target composition and process parameters. A phenomenological separation model is introduced. The influence of key process parameters, namely jet velocity, exposure time, stand-off distance and impact angle, is also investigated. It is found that high-speed liquid jets are suitable tools for separating organic coatings completely and selectively from fibrous substrates. Recommendations on how to optimise the erosion process are derived from the results. PMID:15474739

  2. Geometric characterization and simulation of planar layered elastomeric fibrous biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Carleton, James B.; D'Amore, Antonio; Feaver, Kristen R.; Rodin, Gregory J.; Sacks, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    Many important biomaterials are composed of multiple layers of networked fibers. While there is a growing interest in modeling and simulation of the mechanical response of these biomaterials, a theoretical foundation for such simulations has yet to be firmly established. Moreover, correctly identifying and matching key geometric features is a critically important first step for performing reliable mechanical simulations. The present work addresses these issues in two ways. First, using methods of geometric probability we develop theoretical estimates for the mean linear and areal fiber intersection densities for two-dimensional fibrous networks. These densities are expressed in terms of the fiber density and the orientation distribution function, both of which are relatively easy-to-measure properties. Secondly, we develop a random walk algorithm for geometric simulation of two-dimensional fibrous networks which can accurately reproduce the prescribed fiber density and orientation distribution function. Furthermore, the linear and areal fiber intersection densities obtained with the algorithm are in agreement with the theoretical estimates. Both theoretical and computational results are compared with those obtained by post-processing of SEM images of actual scaffolds. These comparisons reveal difficulties inherent to resolving fine details of multilayered fibrous networks. The methods provided herein can provide a rational means to define and generate key geometric features from experimentally measured or prescribed scaffold structural data. PMID:25311685

  3. The Current Status of Solitary Fibrous Tumor: Diagnostic Features, Variants, and Genetics.

    PubMed

    Thway, Khin; Ng, Wen; Noujaim, Jonathan; Jones, Robin L; Fisher, Cyril

    2016-06-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a fibroblastic mesenchymal tumor originally described in the pleura but now shown at almost every anatomic site. Histopathologically, SFT is characteristically a circumscribed neoplasm composed of variably cellular and patternless distributions of bland spindle and ovoid cells within prominent collagenous stroma and shows diffuse expression of CD34, but it has a broad spectrum of both morphology and of biologic behavior. Many different names (particularly hemangiopericytoma) were previously used in the course of our understanding of this neoplasm but are now subsumed under the term "SFT," and the putative cell of origin was debated. However, it is now recognized that SFT is a translocation-associated neoplasm, consistently associated with NAB2-STAT6 gene fusions arising from recurrent intrachromosomal rearrangements on chromosome 12q, and this translocation is a likely major contributor to its pathogenesis. While most SFT with classical morphologic features behave in an indolent manner and those with overtly malignant histologic features tend to be aggressive neoplasms that behave as high-grade sarcomas, the behavior of SFT is unpredictable, and it is important to be aware of the propensity for aggressive behavior in a minority of histologically classical SFT and to ensure adequate clinical follow-up. Surgical excision remains the treatment gold standard; while radiotherapy and conventional chemotherapeutic agents have only shown limited efficacy, further understanding of the molecular events underlying tumorigenesis may allow the development of novel targeted treatments. We review SFT, discussing the morphologic spectrum and variants, including malignant and dedifferentiated subtypes, clinicopathological aspects, recent molecular genetic findings, and the differential diagnosis. PMID:26811389

  4. Panuveal malignant mesenchymoma.

    PubMed

    Pe'er, J; Neudorfer, M; Ron, N; Anteby, I; Lazar, M; Rosenmann, E

    1995-09-01

    Intraocular malignant mesenchymal tumors are very rare, and only a few case reports of such primary and metastatic tumors have been reported. We report a case of a malignant mesenchymoma involving the entire uveal tract. A 21-year-old woman presented with a tumor on the whole iris of the right eye, which caused intractable glaucoma. Upon enucleation of the eye, a very anaplastic tumor was found to occupy the whole uveal tract; its features were compatible with a tumor of mesenchymal origin, including rhabdomyosarcomatous and liposarcomatous characteristics. Choroidal osteoma was a coincidental finding. The histologic findings of the tumor were of two types of malignant mesenchymal tumors, and therefore the diagnosis of malignant mesenchymoma was made. This is to our knowledge the first tumor of its kind to be reported intraocularly. PMID:7668945

  5. [Rheumatoid arthritis and malignancy].

    PubMed

    Kameda, Tomohiro; Dobashi, Hiroaki

    2016-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with excess mortality. Especially, malignancy is a major cause of mortality. According to previous reports, the overall incidence of malignancies in RA patients has been reported to be comparable or slightly higher than that in general population. The increased incidence of malignant lymphoma and lung cancer has been reported to be consistent in most studies. The use of some csDMARD was also reported as risk factors for malignancy. Recently, MTX associated lymphoproliferative disorder(MTX-LPD) is one of the important complications in RA treatment. We revealed the mean MTX dose was demonstrated to be an independent risk factor regarding MTX-LPD onset in RA patients. This data suggest that the treatment with higher MTX dose promotes LPD onset in Japanese RA patients. PMID:27311195

  6. Gynecologic malignancy in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yong Il

    2013-01-01

    Gynecologic malignancy during pregnancy is a stressful problem. For the diagnosis and treatment of malignancy during pregnancy, a multidisciplinary approach is needed. Patients should be advised about the benefits and risk of treatment. When selecting a treatment for malignancy during pregnancy, the physiologic changes that occur with the pregnancy should be considered. Various diagnostic procedures that do not harm the fetus can be used. Laparoscopic surgery or laparotomy may be safely performed. The staging approach and treatment should be standard. Systemic chemotherapy during the first trimester should be delayed if possible. Radiation therapy should preferably start postpartum. Although delivery should be delayed preferably until after 35 weeks of gestation, termination of pregnancy may be considered when immediate treatment is required. Subsequent pregnancies do not increase the risk of malignancy recurrence. PMID:24328018

  7. Chemoembolization of hepatic malignancy.

    PubMed

    Gonsalves, Carin F; Brown, Daniel B

    2009-01-01

    Treatment of primary and secondary hepatic malignancies with transarterial chemoembolization represents an essential component of interventional oncology. This article discusses patient selection, procedure technique, results, and complications associated with transarterial chemoembolization. PMID:18668189

  8. The Malignant Protein Puzzle.

    PubMed

    Walker, Lary C; Jucker, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    When most people hear the words malignant and brain, cancer immediately comes to mind. But our authors argue that proteins can be malignant too, and can spread harmfully through the brain in neurodegenerative diseases that include Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, CTE, and ALS. Studying how proteins such as PrP, amyloid beta, tau, and others aggregate and spread, and kill brain cells, represents a crucial new frontier in neuroscience. PMID:27408676

  9. NAB2-STAT6 Gene Fusion in Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma and Solitary Fibrous Tumor.

    PubMed

    Fritchie, Karen J; Jin, Long; Rubin, Brian P; Burger, Peter C; Jenkins, Sarah M; Barthelmeß, Sarah; Moskalev, Evgeny A; Haller, Florian; Oliveira, Andre M; Giannini, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    Meningeal solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) and hemangiopericytoma (HPC) are considered to be distinct entities in the WHO Classification of CNS Tumours (2007). They harbor NAB2-STAT6 fusions similar to their soft tissue counterparts, supporting the view that they are part of a tumor continuum. We examined 30 meningeal-based tumors originally diagnosed as either SFT or HPC. These showed a spectrum of morphologic features and were diagnosed as SFTs, malignant SFTs, HPCs, or tumors with "intermediate" features. All of the tumors showed nuclear expression of STAT6. SFTs consistently expressed diffuse CD34, while HPCs and intermediate tumors had heterogeneous staining. NAB2-STAT6 fusions were identified in 20 cases, including 7 with exon 4-exon 3, 9 with exon 6-exon 17, and 4 with exon 6-exon 18 fusions. NAB2 exon 4-STAT6 exon 3 fusion correlated with classic SFT morphology and older age and showed a trend toward less mitotic activity; there was also a trend toward more aggressive behavior in tumors lacking NAB2 exon 4-STAT6 exon 3. Thus, despite their clinical and morphologic differences, meningeal-based SFTs, HPCs, and tumors with intermediate features, similar to their soft tissue counterparts, form a histopathologic spectrum unified by STAT6 immunoexpression and NAB2-STAT6 fusion. PMID:26883114

  10. Solitary fibrous tumor of the pancreas: Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Paramythiotis, Daniel; Kofina, Konstantinia; Bangeas, Petros; Tsiompanou, Fani; Karayannopoulou, Georgia; Basdanis, George

    2016-06-27

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a mesenchymal tumor typically located in the pleura, but can also be found as an asymptomatic mass in other areas, including the liver, peritoneum, kidney and salivary glands. However, SFT rarely locates in the pancreas. We present such a case of pancreatic SFT, along with a review of all reported cases. A 55-year-old man was treated surgically for an asymptomatic pancreatic mass after a rigorous preoperative control. Histologic examination of the resected specimen showed characteristics of an SFT. As only 15 cases of pancreatic SFT have been reported so far, an attempt to compare the cases was considered intriguing. We found that patients with pancreatic SFT were mainly women (81.25%), with a median age of 54 years at the time of diagnosis and a median tumor size of 5.83 cm. Pancreatic SFTs were revealed incidentally in 50% of cases, and all of them showed an enhancement through arterial computed tomography. All tumors were positive for CD34, ten were positive for Bcl-2, and twelve were negative for S100. The diagnosis of this pancreatic tumor is established by a combination of clinical suspicion, imaging procedures and histological findings, and is confirmed by immunohistochemical staining. Although the behavior of SFTs is rather benign, close clinical follow-up is recommended due to a potentially malignant nature. PMID:27358679

  11. Solitary fibrous tumor of the pancreas: Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Paramythiotis, Daniel; Kofina, Konstantinia; Bangeas, Petros; Tsiompanou, Fani; Karayannopoulou, Georgia; Basdanis, George

    2016-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a mesenchymal tumor typically located in the pleura, but can also be found as an asymptomatic mass in other areas, including the liver, peritoneum, kidney and salivary glands. However, SFT rarely locates in the pancreas. We present such a case of pancreatic SFT, along with a review of all reported cases. A 55-year-old man was treated surgically for an asymptomatic pancreatic mass after a rigorous preoperative control. Histologic examination of the resected specimen showed characteristics of an SFT. As only 15 cases of pancreatic SFT have been reported so far, an attempt to compare the cases was considered intriguing. We found that patients with pancreatic SFT were mainly women (81.25%), with a median age of 54 years at the time of diagnosis and a median tumor size of 5.83 cm. Pancreatic SFTs were revealed incidentally in 50% of cases, and all of them showed an enhancement through arterial computed tomography. All tumors were positive for CD34, ten were positive for Bcl-2, and twelve were negative for S100. The diagnosis of this pancreatic tumor is established by a combination of clinical suspicion, imaging procedures and histological findings, and is confirmed by immunohistochemical staining. Although the behavior of SFTs is rather benign, close clinical follow-up is recommended due to a potentially malignant nature. PMID:27358679

  12. Sorafenib Tosylate in Treating Patients With Malignant Mesothelioma.

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-04

    Epithelial Mesothelioma; Recurrent Malignant Mesothelioma; Sarcomatous Mesothelioma; Stage IA Malignant Mesothelioma; Stage IB Malignant Mesothelioma; Stage II Malignant Mesothelioma; Stage III Malignant Mesothelioma; Stage IV Malignant Mesothelioma

  13. Malignant Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Min-Yuen Cynthia; Shahed, Joohi; Jankovic, Joseph

    2007-09-15

    The aim of this work was to draw attention to potentially life-threatening symptoms associated with Tourette syndrome (TS) and to explore their relationship to TS comorbidities. Medical records of all patients with TS evaluated at our Movement Disorders Clinic between July 2003 and July 2006 were reviewed. Data on patients with malignant TS, defined as >or=2 emergency room (ER) visits or >or=1 hospitalizations for TS symptoms or its associated behavioral comorbidities, were entered into a dataset and analyzed. Five illustrative cases are described. Of 333 TS patients evaluated during the 3-year period, 17 (5.1%) met the criteria for malignant TS. Hospital admission or ER visits were for tic-related injuries, self-injurious behavior (SIB), uncontrollable violence and temper, and suicidal ideation/attempts. Compared with patients with nonmalignant TS, those with malignant TS were significantly more likely to have a personal history of obsessive compulsive behavior/disorder (OCB/OCD), complex phonic tics, coprolalia, copropraxia, SIB, mood disorder, suicidal ideation, and poor response to medications. Although TS is rarely a disabling disorder, about 5% of patients referred to a specialty clinic have life-threatening symptoms. Malignant TS is associated with greater severity of motor symptoms and the presence of >or=2 behavioral comorbidities. OCD/OCB in particular may play a central role in malignant TS; obsessive compulsive qualities were associated with life-threatening tics, SIB, and suicidal ideation. Malignant TS is more refractory to medical treatment than nonmalignant TS. PMID:17566119

  14. The surgical treatment of fibrous dysplasia. With emphasis on recent contributions from cranio-maxillo-facial surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Edgerton, M T; Persing, J A; Jane, J A

    1985-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia is a congenital, metabolic, nonfamilial disturbance that occurs in one or more bones, at times in association with skin pigmentations or endocrine abnormalities. The authors report on a large personal series of 23 patients with fibrous dysplasia involving the craniofacial skeleton. The etiology, clinical findings, pathology, and differential diagnosis of this condition are reviewed and a working hypothesis is offered for the pathophysiology of this disorder. Approximately one-third of patients with fibrous dysplasia have involvement of the cranial or facial bones. The authors describe how new techniques in craniofacial surgery have opened up additional options for this group of patients. Deformity, diplopia, proptosis, sinus infection, deafness, and loss of vision, are some of the clinical features that may require early surgical management. Evidence is given to support more complete resection of bony lesions with immediate reconstruction by several techniques. The removal, remodeling, and replacement of the dysplastic bone is advanced as a promising new method for the management of these complex problems. Successful use of this technique in four patients is reported. In a separate group of patients, continuing good experience is reported with cranio-orbital reconstruction by means of large methyl-methacrylate implants. Both of these surgical approaches eliminate donor site morbidity that results from the grafting of large amounts of autogenous bone. Both techniques also avoid the problems associated with postoperative absorption of bone grafting. Several patients are reported in whom serious disturbances in visual function appear to have been prevented or reversed by early treatment. Factors leading to malignant change in patients with fibrous dysplasia are reviewed. Images FIG. 1A. FIG. 1B. FIG. 1C. FIG. 1D. FIG. 1E. FIG. 1F. FIG. 2A. FIG. 2B. FIG. 2C. FIG. 2D. FIG. 2E. FIG. 2F. FIG. 2G. FIG. 2H. FIGS. 2I and J. FIG. 3A. FIG. 3B. FIG. 3C. FIG. 3

  15. Recent Advances on Fractal Modeling of Permeability for Fibrous Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jianchao; Luo, Liang; Ye, Ran; Zeng, Xiangfeng; Hu, Xiangyun

    2015-03-01

    Permeability is an important hydraulic parameter for characterizing heat and mass transfer properties of fibrous porous media. However, it is difficult to be quantitatively predicted due to the complex and irregular pore structure of fibrous porous media. Fractal geometry has been verified to be an effective method for determining the permeability of fibrous porous media. In this study, recent works on the permeability of fibrous porous media by means of fractal geometry are reviewed, the advances for each presented fractal model are analyzed and summarized, parameter equations used in available fractal permeability models are also briefly compared and reviewed. Future work for more generalized permeability model of fibrous porous media need to conducted by considering the special characters of fibrous materials, uniform pore structure parameter model and the influence factor of capillary pressure, electrokinetic phenomena, etc.

  16. Fibrous proteins: At the crossroads of genetic engineering and biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Yigit, Sezin; Dinjaski, Nina; Kaplan, David L

    2016-05-01

    Fibrous proteins, such as silk, elastin and collagen are finding broad impact in biomaterial systems for a range of biomedical and industrial applications. Some of the key advantages of biosynthetic fibrous proteins compared to synthetic polymers include the tailorability of sequence, protein size, degradation pattern, and mechanical properties. Recombinant DNA production and precise control over genetic sequence of these proteins allows expansion and fine tuning of material properties to meet the needs for specific applications. We review current approaches in the design, cloning, and expression of fibrous proteins, with a focus on strategies utilized to meet the challenges of repetitive fibrous protein production. We discuss recent advances in understanding the fundamental basis of structure-function relationships and the designs that foster fibrous protein self-assembly towards predictable architectures and properties for a range of applications. We highlight the potential of functionalization through genetic engineering to design fibrous protein systems for biotechnological and biomedical applications. PMID:26332660

  17. Simulants of Malignant Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Delvenne, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    During the recent period, dermoscopy has yielded improvement in the early disclosure of various atypical melanocytic neoplasms (AMN) of the skin. Beyond this clinical procedure, AMN histopathology remains mandatory for establishing their precise diagnosis. Of note, panels of experts in AMN merely report moderate agreement in various puzzling cases. Divergences in opinion and misdiagnosis are likely increased when histopathological criteria are not fine-tuned and when facing a diversity of AMN types. Furthermore, some AMN have been differently named in the literature including atypical Spitz tumor, metastasizing Spitz tumor, borderline and intermediate melanocytic tumor, malignant Spitz nevus, pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma or animal-type melanoma. Some acronyms have been further suggested such as MELTUMP (after melanocytic tumor of uncertain malignant potential) and STUMP (after Spitzoid melanocytic tumor of uncertain malignant potential). In this review, such AMN at the exclusion of cutaneous malignant melanoma (MM) variants, are grouped under the tentative broad heading skin melanocytoma. Such set of AMN frequently follows an indolent course, although they exhibit atypical and sometimes worrisome patterns or cytological atypia. Rare cases of skin melanocytomas progress to loco regional clusters of lesions (agminate melanocytomas), and even to regional lymph nodes. At times, the distinction between a skin melanocytoma and MM remains puzzling. However, multipronged immunohistochemistry and emerging molecular biology help profiling any malignancy risk if present. PMID:26779311

  18. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Kidney: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Derrick, Edward; O'Dell, Matthew C; Vuyyuru, Swetha; Burt, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors are neoplasms of mesenchymal origin that may occur virtually in any body part, most commonly arising from the pleura. Solitary fibrous tumor of the kidney is exceptionally rare, and limited clinical knowledge regarding its behavior makes prognosis of the neoplasm difficult. We report a case of solitary fibrous tumor of the left kidney and describe its clinical, imaging, and pathological features. PMID:27014524

  19. A fibrous band associated with the non-coronary aortic valve cusp in a dog.

    PubMed

    Ajithdoss, Dharani K; Arenas-Gamboa, Angela M; Edwards, John F

    2011-06-01

    A fibrous band connecting the middle of the free edge (nodulus Arantii) of the non-coronary aortic valve cusp to the ascending aorta just above the level of the non-coronary sinus of Valsalva was observed in an asymptomatic, 11-year-old, male Border Collie. The fibrous band was unrelated to the cause of the death in this dog. Such fibrous bands are usually reported in humans with congenital bicuspid aortic valves. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a fibrous band in the aortic valve in a domestic animal. PMID:21641896

  20. Three-dimensional multilayered fibrous constructs for wound healing applications.

    PubMed

    Reis, Tiago C; Castleberry, Steven; Rego, Ana M B; Aguiar-Ricardo, Ana; Hammond, Paula T

    2016-02-01

    Electrospun materials are promising scaffolds due to their light-weight, high surface-area and low-cost fabrication, however, such scaffolds are commonly obtained as ultrathin two-dimensional non-woven meshes, lacking on topographical specificity and surface side-dependent properties. Herein, it is reported the production of three-dimensional fibrous materials with an asymmetrical inner structure and engineered surfaces. The manufactured constructs evidence fibrous-based microsized conical protrusions [length: (10 ± 3) × 10(2) μm; width: (3.8 ± 0.8) × 10(2) μm] at their top side, with a median peak density of 73 peaks per cm(2), while their bottom side resembles to a non-woven mesh commonly observed in the fabrication of two-dimensional electrospun materials. Regarding their thickness (3.7 ± 0.1 mm) and asymmetric fibrous inner architecture, such materials avoid external liquid absorption while promoting internal liquid uptake. Nevertheless, such constructs also observed the high porosity (89.9%) and surface area (1.44 m(2) g(-1)) characteristic of traditional electrospun mats. Spray layer-by-layer assembly is used to effectively coat the structurally complex materials, allowing to complementary tailor features such as water vapor transmission, swelling ratio and bioactive agent release. Tested as wound dressings, the novel constructs are capable of withstanding (11.0 ± 0.3) × 10(4) kg m(-2) even after 14 days of hydration, while actively promote wound healing (90 ± 0.5% of wound closure within 48 hours) although avoiding cell adhesion on the dressings for a painless removal. PMID:26584183

  1. Recurrent carpal tunnel syndrome, epineural fibrous fixation, and traction neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Hunter, J M

    1991-08-01

    This article has reviewed recurrent carpal tunnel syndrome, epineural fibrous fixation, and traction neuropathy of the median nerve. The problems surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of recurrent CTS have been discussed at length. The percent of failures from traditional open ligament surgery is observed to be high, and will become more prevalent as more casual treatments are carried out. This article makes a positive statement with reference to mobilization of the median nerve and anatomic restoration of the transverse carpal ligament. Fibrous fixation of the median nerve is a product of life and function. All cases are different, reflecting the strength, abilities, and personalities of the patients. A bottom line is drawn on these patients, where the summation of the problems of life become symptomatic and disabling. Epineural fibrous fixations induce median nerve traction, governed by hand, wrist, and forearm movements. Traction and tension suggest the intermittent disturbance of nerve nutrition and nerve conduction as the elastic limits of the nerve are approached. These factors accumulate and, in time, cause traction neuropathies with pain. This is followed by a reduced work capability. This impairment can be reversed by surgical nerve mobilization followed by functional nerve gliding therapy. A background history injury to the hand and wrist may be significant, as well as factors such as overuse and misuse of the hand and extremity. Prior to surgery, the careful application of diagnostic stress tests are essential, for the differential diagnosis of fixation traction and positional peripheral neuropathies. Nerve mobilization supported by magnification and the techniques of hand surgery has been successful by the methods discussed and has permitted, importantly, the restoration of the anatomic retinaculum for the flexor tendon system. This can be restored in carpal tunnel surgery and reconstructed with basic ligament material in recurrent carpal tunnel

  2. Three-Dimensional Multilayered Fibrous Constructs for Wound Healing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Tiago C.; Castleberry, Steven; Rego, Ana M. B.

    2015-01-01

    Electrospun materials are promising scaffolds due to their light-weight, high surface-area and low-cost fabrication, however, such scaffolds are commonly obtained as ultrathin two-dimensional non-woven meshes, lacking on topographical specificity and surface side-dependent properties. Herein, it is reported the production of three-dimensional fibrous materials with an asymmetrical inner structure and engineered surfaces. The manufactured constructs evidence fibrous-based microsized conical protrusions [length: (9.5 ± 2.9)×102 μm; width: (3.8 ± 0.8)×102 μm] at their top side, with a median peak density of 73 peaks.cm−2, while their bottom side resembles to a non-woven mesh commonly observed in the fabrication of two-dimensional electrospun materials. Regarding their thickness (3.7 ± 0.1 mm) and asymmetric fibrous inner architecture, such materials avoid external liquid absorption while promoting internal liquid uptake. Nevertheless, such constructs also observed the high porosity (89.9%) and surface area (1.44 m2.g−1) characteristic of traditional electrospun mats. Spray layer-by-layer assembly is used to effectively coat the structurally complex materials, allowing to complementary tailor features such water vapor transmission, swelling ratio and bioactive agent release. Tested as wound dressings, the novel constructs are capable of withstanding (11.0 ± 0.3)×104 kg.m−2 even after 14 days of hydration, while actively promote wound healing (90 ± 0.5 % of wound closure within 48 hours) although avoiding cell adhesion on the dressings for a painless removal. PMID:26584183

  3. Design of sintered, tough, oxide laminate and fibrous monolithic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Kyu

    Tough, oxide, laminated and fibrous monolithic composites were fabricated by using tape casting and co-extrusion technique, respectively. Mullite (3Al 2O3·2SiO2), alumina (Al2O 3), 50 vol% alumina · 50 vol% YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet, Y 3Al5O12) in situ composite, 50 vol% alumina · 50 vol% mullite in situ composite, zirconia (ZrO 2), and nickel aluminate (NiAl2O4) were used as matrix materials. Aluminum phosphate (AlPO4), alumina platelets, and 50 vol% alumina · 50 vol% leucite (KAlSi2O6) were chosen as high temperature applicable interphase materials. ICP (Inductively coupled plasma) data indicated no extensive decomposition of AlPO4 heat treated at 1600 and 1800°C. The AlPO4 worked as a stable, porous, weak, crack deflecting interphase material with three point bending strength of 1.5 MPa and 61% of theoretical density after heat treatment at 1600°C for 10h. The 50 vol% alumina · 50 vol% YAG in situ composite had a bending strength of 361 MPa after sintering at the condition of 1700°C/5h. A : B (C) : D (E) bimodal designs were proposed to increase the toughness of the laminated composites. 1 : 5 (6) : 12 (1) bimodal laminated composite had a bending strength and a work of fracture of 142 MPa and 0.51 KJ/m2, respectively. Fibrous monolithic composites with different interphase thickness and interphase composition were fabricated. 2-, 3- and mixed-layer fibrous monolithic composites were made.

  4. Development of flame resistant treatment for nomex fibrous structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toy, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    Technology which renders aramid fibrous structures flame resistant through chemical modification was developed. The project scaled up flame resistant treatment from laboratory fabric swatches of a few inches to efficiently producing ten yards of commercial width (41 inches) aromatic polyamide. The radiation intensity problem of the processor was resolved. Further improvement of the processor cooling system was recommended for two reasons: (1) To advance current technology of flame proofing Nomex fabric to higher oxygen enriched atmospheres; and (2) To adapt the processor for direct applicability to low cost commercial fabrics.

  5. Growth performance and behaviour in grouped pigs fed fibrous diet.

    PubMed

    Bakare, A G; Madzimure, J; Ndou, S P; Chimonyo, M

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of feeding fibrous diets on growth performance and occurrence of aggressive behaviours in growing pigs. Sixty healthy castrated pigs (initial body weight: 46.7±4.35 kg) were used. A basal diet was diluted with maize cobs to two levels (0 and 160 g/kg dry matter). Behavioural activities were observed using video cameras for three weeks, 8 h/d starting at 0800 h. Pigs subjected to control diet gained more weight compared to pigs receiving fibrous diet in week 1 (0.47 vs 0.15 kg, respectively) and 2 (1.37 vs 1.04, respectively) (p<0.05). Average daily gain was not affected by treatment diet in the third week. Pigs on high fibrous spent more time eating, lying down, standing, walking and fighting (p<0.05) compared to pigs on control diet. Time spent eating increased as the weeks progressed whilst time spent lying down decreased. Time of day had an effect on time spent on different behavioural activities exhibited by all pigs on different treatment diet (p<0.05). Inactivity was greatest in 5th (1200 to 1300 h) hour of the day for all the pigs on different dietary treatments. Skin lesions appeared the most on neck and shoulder region followed by chest, stomach and hind leg region, and finally head region (p<0.05). Pigs on high fibre diet had more skin lesions in all body regions compared to pigs on control diet (p<0.05). It can be concluded that the high fibrous diet with maize cobs did not affect growth performance and also did not reduce aggressive behaviours. Aggressive behaviours emanated out of frustration when queuing on the feeder. The findings of this study suggest that maize cobs can be included at a level of 160 g/kg in diets of pigs. However, to reduce the level of aggression more feeding space should be provided. PMID:25083116

  6. Direction of fluid flow and the properties of fibrous filters

    SciTech Connect

    Pich, J.; Spurny, K.

    1991-01-01

    The influence of the fluid flow direction (downflow and upflow) on the filtration properties of filters that have a fibrous structure is investigated. It is concluded that selectivity of these filters (dependence of the filter efficiency on the particle size) in the case of upflow is changed - in comparison with the case of downflow - in three ways: the position of the minimum of this dependence is shifted to larger particle sizes, and the whole selectivity is decreased and simultaneously deformed. Corresponding equations for this shift and changes are derived and analyzed. Theoretical predictions are compared with available experimental data. In all cases qualitative agreement and in some cases quantitative agreement is found.

  7. Natal tooth associated with fibrous hyperplasia - a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Harsimran Singh; Munjal, Deepti; Dhingra, Renuka; Malik, Narender Singh; Sidhu, Gagandeep Kaur

    2015-04-01

    Eruption of tooth at about 6 months of age is a significant stage in child's life and is an emotional event for parents. However, a tooth present in the oral cavity of newborn can lead to a lot of delusions. Natal and neonatal teeth are of utmost importance not only for a dentist but also for a paediatrician due to parent's anxiety, folklore superstitions and numerous associated complications with it. This paper reports a rare case, wherein a natal tooth has led to the development of a reactive fibrous hyperplasia in an 8-week-old infant. PMID:26023656

  8. Development of fibrous monoliths from mullite, alumina, and zirconia powders

    SciTech Connect

    Polzin, B. J.; Cruse, T. A.; Singh, D.; Picciolo, J. J.; Tsaliagos, R. N.; Phelan, P. J.; Goretta, K. C.

    2000-06-29

    Fibrous monoliths (FMs) based on mullite combined with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized ZrO{sub 2} have been produced. These FMs incorporate duplex cells in which compressive residual stresses were engineered into the surfaces of the cells. The residual stresses should increase average cell strength, which may allow them to achieve mechanical properties comparable to those of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/BN FMs. The expected residual stresses have been calculated, and data on sintering and thermal expansion have been gathered. Prototype FMs were produced and their microstructure examined.

  9. Modeling Ablation of Fibrous Materials from Bulk to Knudsen Regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lachaud, Jean; Mansour, Nagi N.

    2008-01-01

    Material-environment interactions are analyzed at microscopic scale to explain the lower than expected density observed by post-flight analysis of the char layer on the Stardust shield. Mass transfer, ablation (oxidation), and surface recession of fibrous material is simulated in 3D using a Monte-Carlo simulation tool. Ablation is found to occur either at the surface or in volume depending on Knudsen and Thiele number values. This study supports the idea of volume ablation followed by possible carbon fiber spallation that may explain post-flight analyses.

  10. Infiltration kinetics of fibrous preforms by aluminum with solidification

    SciTech Connect

    Yamauchi, T.; Nishida, Y.

    1995-04-01

    The infiltration mechanism of molten aluminum in a fibrous preform was investigated both experimentally and theoretically by using SiC whisker preforms which were deformed during infiltration. To analyze the correlation between applied pressure and infiltration front in the preform, the distribution of hardness along the infiltration direction in the deformed preform were measured and the distribution of volume fraction was calculated. There was a limit in the infiltration distance when pre-heat temperature of the preform was lower than the melting point of aluminum. A theoretical expression was derived to describe fluid flow including solidification in the preform and good agreement with experimental results was obtained.

  11. Massive chest wall resection and reconstruction for malignant disease

    PubMed Central

    Foroulis, Christophoros N; Kleontas, Athanassios D; Tagarakis, George; Nana, Chryssoula; Alexiou, Ioannis; Grosomanidis, Vasilis; Tossios, Paschalis; Papadaki, Elena; Kioumis, Ioannis; Baka, Sofia; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Anastasiadis, Kyriakos

    2016-01-01

    Objective Malignant chest wall tumors are rare neoplasms. Resection with wide-free margins is an important prognostic factor, and massive chest wall resection and reconstruction are often necessary. A recent case series of 20 consecutive patients is reported in order to find any possible correlation between tumor histology, extent of resection, type of reconstruction, and adjuvant treatment with short- and long-term outcomes. Methods Twenty patients were submitted to chest wall resection and reconstruction for malignant chest wall neoplasms between 2006 and 2014. The mean age (ten males) was 59±4 years. The size and histology of the tumor, the technique of reconstruction, and the short- and long-term follow-up records were noted. Results The median maximum diameter of tumors was 10 cm (5.4–32 cm). Subtotal sternal resection was performed in nine cases, and the resection of multiple ribs was performed in eleven cases. The median area of chest wall defect was 108 cm2 (60–340 cm2). Histology revealed soft tissue, bone, and cartilage sarcomas in 16 cases (80%), most of them chondrosarcomas. The rest of the tumors was metastatic tumors in two cases and localized malignant pleural mesothelioma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in one case. The chest wall defect was reconstructed by using the “sandwich technique” (propylene mesh/methyl methacrylate/propylene mesh) in nine cases of large anterior defects or by using a 2 mm polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) mesh in nine cases of lateral or posterior defects. Support from a plastic surgeon was necessary to cover the full-thickness chest wall defects in seven cases. Adjuvant oncologic treatment was administered in 13 patients. Local recurrences were observed in five cases where surgical reintervention was finally necessary in two cases. Recurrences were associated with larger tumors, histology of malignant fibrous histiocytoma, and initial incomplete resection or misdiagnosis made by nonthoracic surgeons. Three patients died

  12. A subset of solitary fibrous tumors express nuclear PAX8 and PAX2: a potential diagnostic pitfall.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Andrew S; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Smith, Steven C; Robinson, Dan R; Wu, Yi-Mi; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; McHugh, Jonathan B; Greenson, Joel K; Kunju, Lakshmi P

    2016-02-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT), a mesenchymal neoplasm with widespread anatomic distribution, can be diagnostically challenging in limited samples. We recently encountered an aspirate of a pancreatic mass, incorrectly interpreted as metastatic renal cell carcinoma based on strong PAX8 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC). After resection, morphologic features with additional IHC (CD34 positivity) correctly identified this lesion as a SFT. PAX8 and PAX2 are commonly used as renal tumor markers; however, no series has investigated PAX8 or PAX2 expression in SFT. IHC for PAX8 and PAX2 was performed on 41 SFTs (biopsy and resections) from varying sites. Eight were histologically malignant and eight were recurrences of previous resections. PAX8 staining was observed at least focally in 26.8% (11 of 41) SFT cases; additionally, PAX2 was positive in 12.2% (5 of 41 cases) of SFTs. For PAX8 and PAX2 positive cases 45.6% and 40%, respectively, showed diffuse expression. No correlation was found between PAX8/PAX2 positivity and age, tumor size, site, malignancy, or recurrence. In conclusion, a substantial minority of SFTs express PAX8 and PAX2 via IHC. This presents a diagnostic pitfall when evaluating possible metastases from the kidney, particularly when primary tumors show sarcomatoid or spindle cell morphologies. PMID:26404914

  13. Bone sarcomas as second malignant neoplasms following childhood cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, W.A. Jr.; Meadows, A.T.; Shimada, H.; Bunin, G.R.; Vawter, G.F. )

    1991-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between histologic variants of bone sarcomas and previous therapy in patients in whom an unrelated malignant neoplasm had been diagnosed during childhood. Sarcomas of bone were the most common second malignant neoplasm (SMN) reported to the Late Effects Study Group, a 13-institution consortium consisting of pediatric oncology centers from western Europe, Canada, and the United States. The authors attempted to relate the histologic subtypes of the 91 bone tumors to clinical factors such as previous therapy and genetic predisposition because morphologic variants have been shown to have biologic significance in other tumors and may have etiologic import. The literature concerning the subtypes of bone tumors, clinical and experimental, is also reviewed. The authors also investigated the effect of several factors on the time interval from the first diagnosis to the SMN (i.e., the bone sarcoma). Anthracyclines significantly shortened the interval by about 3 years. The primary diagnosis also significantly affected the interval, with leukemia/lymphomas having the shortest interval and retinoblastoma the longest. The authors could not demonstrate any significant relationship between morphologic characteristics of the osteosarcoma and predisposing conditions. However, lesions diagnosed as chondrosarcoma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma occurred almost exclusively in patients who had received radiation therapy to the site in which the SMN developed.

  14. Malignant Catarrhal Fever

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a frequently fatal viral disease of ruminant species, particularly cattle, bison, and deer. Clinical signs vary between species. Two major epidemiologic types of MCF exist, and are defined by the ruminant species that serve as natural reservoir hosts for infection...

  15. [Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma].

    PubMed

    Scripcariu, V; Dajbog, Elena; Lefter, L; Ferariu, D; Pricop, Adriana; Grigoraş, M; Dragomir, Cr

    2006-01-01

    Mesothelioma is a neoplasm originating from the mesothelial surface lining cells of the serous human cavities. It may involve the pleura, less frequently the peritoneum rarely, the pericardium, the tunica vaginalis testis and ovarian epithelium. Asbestos has been widely used in industry. A causal relationship between asbestos exposure and pleural, peritoneal and pericardial malign mesothelioma was suggested, the risk of cancer being correlated to cumulate exposure. Studies from National Cancer Institute, USA, show that the malignant mesothelioma is a rare and aggressive asbestos related malignancy. The symptomatology is insidious and poses difficult problems in diagnosis and treatment. This paper presents the case of a 59 year old patient with malignant peritoneal mesothelioma who worked almost 40 years as an electrician, exposed to asbestos fibers. He was hospitalized for important weight loss, abdominal pain and tiredness being diagnosed after imaging tests with a giant tumor, localized at the abdominal upper level, which seems to originate from the spleen's superior pole. During surgery we discovered a tumor with cystic parts, intense vascularized, which turn to be adherent in the upper side to the lower face of the left midriff cupola, to the spleen superior pole and 1/3 middle level of the great gastric curve. It was performed surgical ablation of the tumor, splenectomy with favorable postoperative evolution, the patient being now under chemotherapy treatment. PMID:17283842

  16. Immunotherapy for malignant glioma

    PubMed Central

    Suryadevara, Carter M.; Verla, Terence; Sanchez-Perez, Luis; Reap, Elizabeth A.; Choi, Bryan D.; Fecci, Peter E.; Sampson, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Malignant gliomas (MG) are the most common type of primary malignant brain tumor. Most patients diagnosed with glioblastoma (GBM), the most common and malignant glial tumor, die within 12–15 months. Moreover, conventional treatment, which includes surgery followed by radiation and chemotherapy, can be highly toxic by causing nonspecific damage to healthy brain and other tissues. The shortcomings of standard-of-care have thus created a stimulus for the development of novel therapies that can target central nervous system (CNS)-based tumors specifically and efficiently, while minimizing off-target collateral damage to normal brain. Immunotherapy represents an investigational avenue with the promise of meeting this need, already having demonstrated its potential against B-cell malignancy and solid tumors in clinical trials. T-cell engineering with tumor-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) is one proven approach that aims to redirect autologous patient T-cells to sites of tumor. This platform has evolved dramatically over the past two decades to include an improved construct design, and these modern CARs have only recently been translated into the clinic for brain tumors. We review here emerging immunotherapeutic platforms for the treatment of MG, focusing on the development and application of a CAR-based strategy against GBM. PMID:25722935

  17. Fibrous Hydrogels for Cell Encapsulation: A Modular and Supramolecular Approach

    PubMed Central

    Włodarczyk-Biegun, Małgorzata K.; Farbod, Kambiz; Werten, Marc W. T.; Slingerland, Cornelis J.; de Wolf, Frits A.; van den Beucken, Jeroen J. J. P.; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C. G.; Cohen Stuart, Martien A.; Kamperman, Marleen

    2016-01-01

    Artificial 3-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems, which mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM), hold great potential as models to study cellular processes under controlled conditions. The natural ECM is a 3D structure composed of a fibrous hydrogel that provides both mechanical and biochemical cues to instruct cell behavior. Here we present an ECM-mimicking genetically engineered protein-based hydrogel as a 3D cell culture system that combines several key features: (1) Mild and straightforward encapsulation meters (1) ease of ut I am not so sure.encapsulation of the cells, without the need of an external crosslinker. (2) Supramolecular assembly resulting in a fibrous architecture that recapitulates some of the unique mechanical characteristics of the ECM, i.e. strain-stiffening and self-healing behavior. (3) A modular approach allowing controlled incorporation of the biochemical cue density (integrin binding RGD domains). We tested the gels by encapsulating MG-63 osteoblastic cells and found that encapsulated cells not only respond to higher RGD density, but also to overall gel concentration. Cells in 1% and 2% (weight fraction) protein gels showed spreading and proliferation, provided a relative RGD density of at least 50%. In contrast, in 4% gels very little spreading and proliferation occurred, even for a relative RGD density of 100%. The independent control over both mechanical and biochemical cues obtained in this modular approach renders our hydrogels suitable to study cellular responses under highly defined conditions. PMID:27223105

  18. Fibrous Fillers to Manufacture Ultra High Ash/Performance Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. VIjay K. Mathur

    2009-04-30

    The paper industry is one of the largest users of energy and emitters of CO2 in the US manufacturing industry. In addition to that, it is facing tremendous financial pressure due to lower cost imports. The fine paper industry has shrunk from 15 million tons per year production to 10 million tons per year in the last 5 years. This has resulted in mill closures and job loses. The AF&PA and the DOE formed a program called Agenda 2020 to help in funding to develop breakthrough technologies to provide help in meeting these challenges. The objectives of this project were to optimize and scale-up Fibrous Fillers technology, ready for commercial deployment and to develop ultra high ash/high performance paper using Fibrous Fillers. The goal was to reduce energy consumption, carbon footprint, and cost of manufacturing paper and related industries. GRI International (GRI) has been able to demonstrate the techno - economic feasibility and economic advantages of using its various products in both handsheets as well as in commercial paper mills. GRI has also been able to develop sophisticated models that demonstrate the effect of combinations of GRI's fillers at multiple filler levels. GRI has also been able to develop, optimize, and successfully scale-up new products for use in commercial paper mills.

  19. Heat Transfer Modeling for Rigid High-Temperature Fibrous Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Cunnington, George R.; Knutson, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Combined radiation and conduction heat transfer through a high-temperature, high-porosity, rigid multiple-fiber fibrous insulation was modeled using a thermal model previously used to model heat transfer in flexible single-fiber fibrous insulation. The rigid insulation studied was alumina enhanced thermal barrier (AETB) at densities between 130 and 260 kilograms per cubic meter. The model consists of using the diffusion approximation for radiation heat transfer, a semi-empirical solid conduction model, and a standard gas conduction model. The relevant parameters needed for the heat transfer model were estimated from steady-state thermal measurements in nitrogen gas at various temperatures and environmental pressures. The heat transfer modeling methodology was evaluated by comparison with standard thermal conductivity measurements, and steady-state thermal measurements in helium and carbon dioxide gases. The heat transfer model is applicable over the temperature range of 300 to 1360 K, pressure range of 0.133 to 101.3 x 10(exp 3) Pa, and over the insulation density range of 130 to 260 kilograms per cubic meter in various gaseous environments.

  20. A Micromechanics Finite-Strain Constitutive Model of Fibrous Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huan; Liu, Yi; Zhao, Xuefeng; Lanir, Yoram; Kassab, Ghassan S.

    2011-01-01

    Biological tissues have unique mechanical properties due to the wavy fibrous collagen and elastin microstructure. In inflation, a vessel easily distends under low pressure but becomes stiffer when the fibers are straightened to take up the load. The current microstructural models of blood vessels assume affine deformation; i.e., the deformation of each fiber is assumed to be identical to the macroscopic deformation of the tissue. This uniform-field (UF) assumption leads to the macroscopic (or effective) strain energy of the tissue that is the volumetric sum of the contributions of the tissue components. Here, a micromechanics-based constitutive model of fibrous tissue is developed to remove the affine assumption and to take into consideration the heterogeneous interactions between the fibers and the ground substance. The development is based on the framework of a recently developed second-order homogenization theory, and takes into account the waviness, orientations, and spatial distribution of the fibers, as well as the material nonlinearity at finite-strain deformation. In an illustrative simulation, the predictions of the macroscopic stress-strain relation, and the statistical deformation of the fibers are compared to the UF model, as well as finite-element (FE) simulation. Our predictions agree well with the FE results, while the UF predictions significantly overestimate. The effects of fiber distribution and waviness on the macroscopic stress-strain relation are also investigated. The present mathematical model may serves as a foundation for native as well as for engineered tissues and biomaterials. PMID:21927506

  1. Nano-Fibrous Biopolymer Hydrogels via Biological Conjugation for Osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huinan; Xing, Xiaodong; Jia, Yang; Mao, Jiahui; Zhang, Ziwei; Tan, Huaping

    2016-06-01

    Nanostructured biopolymer hydrogels have great potential in the field of drug delivery and regenerative medicine. In this work, a nano-fibrous (NF) biopolymer hydrogel was developed for cell growth factors (GFs) delivery and in vitro osteogenesis. The nano-fibrous hydrogel was produced via biological conjugation of streptavidin functionalized hyaluronic acid (HA-Streptavidin) and biotin terminated star-shaped poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-Biotin). In the present work, in vitro gelation, mechanical properties, degradation and equilibrium swelling of the NF hydrogel were examined. The potential application of this NF gel scaffold in bone tissue engineering was confirmed by encapsulation behavior of osteoblasts. Osteoblasts seeded directly in NF gel scaffold containing cell growth factor, e.g. bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), was to mimic the in vivo microenvironment in which cells interface biomaterials and interact with BMP-2. In combination with BMP-2, the NF hydrogel exhibited beneficial effects on osteoblast activity and differentiation, which suggested a promising future for local treatment of pathologies involving bone loss. PMID:27427597

  2. Fibrous Hydrogels for Cell Encapsulation: A Modular and Supramolecular Approach.

    PubMed

    Włodarczyk-Biegun, Małgorzata K; Farbod, Kambiz; Werten, Marc W T; Slingerland, Cornelis J; de Wolf, Frits A; van den Beucken, Jeroen J J P; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C G; Cohen Stuart, Martien A; Kamperman, Marleen

    2016-01-01

    Artificial 3-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems, which mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM), hold great potential as models to study cellular processes under controlled conditions. The natural ECM is a 3D structure composed of a fibrous hydrogel that provides both mechanical and biochemical cues to instruct cell behavior. Here we present an ECM-mimicking genetically engineered protein-based hydrogel as a 3D cell culture system that combines several key features: (1) Mild and straightforward encapsulation meters (1) ease of ut I am not so sure.encapsulation of the cells, without the need of an external crosslinker. (2) Supramolecular assembly resulting in a fibrous architecture that recapitulates some of the unique mechanical characteristics of the ECM, i.e. strain-stiffening and self-healing behavior. (3) A modular approach allowing controlled incorporation of the biochemical cue density (integrin binding RGD domains). We tested the gels by encapsulating MG-63 osteoblastic cells and found that encapsulated cells not only respond to higher RGD density, but also to overall gel concentration. Cells in 1% and 2% (weight fraction) protein gels showed spreading and proliferation, provided a relative RGD density of at least 50%. In contrast, in 4% gels very little spreading and proliferation occurred, even for a relative RGD density of 100%. The independent control over both mechanical and biochemical cues obtained in this modular approach renders our hydrogels suitable to study cellular responses under highly defined conditions. PMID:27223105

  3. Thermoviscoplastic analysis of fibrous periodic composites using triangular subvolumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Kevin P.; Freed, Alan D.; Jordan, Eric H.

    1993-01-01

    The nonlinear viscoplastic behavior of fibrous periodic composites is analyzed by discretizing the unit cell into triangular subvolumes. A set of these subvolumes can be configured by the analyst to construct a representation for the unit cell of a periodic composite. In each step of the loading history, the total strain increment at any point is governed by an integral equation which applies to the entire composite. A Fourier series approximation allows the incremental stresses and strains to be determined within a unit cell of the periodic lattice. The nonlinearity arising from the viscoplastic behavior of the constituent materials comprising the composite is treated as fictitious body force in the governing integral equation. Specific numerical examples showing the stress distributions in the unit cell of a fibrous tungsten/copper metal matrix composite under viscoplastic loading conditions are given. The stress distribution resulting in the unit cell when the composite material is subjected to an overall transverse stress loading history perpendicular to the fibers is found to be highly heterogeneous, and typical homogenization techniques based on treating the stress and strain distributions within the constituent phases as homogeneous result in large errors under inelastic loading conditions.

  4. A micromechanics finite-strain constitutive model of fibrous tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huan; Liu, Yi; Zhao, Xuefeng; Lanir, Yoram; Kassab, Ghassan S.

    2011-09-01

    Biological tissues have unique mechanical properties due to the wavy fibrous collagen and elastin microstructure. In inflation, a vessel easily distends under low pressure but becomes stiffer when the fibers are straightened to take up the load. The current microstructural models of blood vessels assume affine deformation, i.e., the deformation of each fiber is assumed to be identical to the macroscopic deformation of the tissue. This uniform-field (UF) assumption leads to the macroscopic (or effective) strain energy of the tissue that is the volumetric sum of the contributions of the tissue components. Here, a micromechanics-based constitutive model of fibrous tissue is developed to remove the affine assumption and to take into consideration the heterogeneous interactions between the fibers and the ground substance. The development is based on the framework of a recently developed second-order homogenization theory, and takes into account the waviness, orientations and spatial distribution of the fibers, as well as the material nonlinearity at finite-strain deformation. In an illustrative simulation, the predictions of the macroscopic stress-strain relation and the statistical deformation of the fibers are compared to the UF model, as well as finite-element (FE) simulation. Our predictions agree well with the FE results, while the UF predictions significantly overestimate. The effects of fiber distribution and waviness on the macroscopic stress-strain relation are also investigated. The present mathematical model may serves as a foundation for native as well as for engineered tissues and biomaterials.

  5. Malignant Melanoma of the Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... Javascript in your browser. Malignant Melanoma of the Foot What is Malignant Melanoma? Melanoma is a cancer ... age groups, even the young. Melanoma in the Foot Melanoma that occurs in the foot or ankle ...

  6. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR FIBROUS AMPHIBOLE IN VERMICULITE ATTIC INSULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has developed a test method for the analysis of fibrous amphibole in vermiculite attic insulation. This method was developed to provide the Agency with monitoring tools to study the occurrence and potential for exposure to fibrous amphibo...

  7. Low level hydrogen peroxide generation from a nonwoven fibrous pectin-cellulose blend

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fibrous pectic-cellulose (FPC) (cellulose blended with primary cell wall pectin at 2 percent by weight of pectin) is product made from naturally occurring plant fibers. FPC is a fibrous mixture of polysaccharides with a low percent by weight of pectin-based primary cell wall and lipid components att...

  8. Fibrous illite controls productivity in frontier gas sandstones, Moxa Arch, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Luffel, D.L. ); Herrington. K.L. ); Harrison, C.W. )

    1992-12-01

    This paper reports that core, log, and well-test analyses from two wells recently completed in the Frontier sandstone in the Moxa Arch area of Wyoming revealed that fibrous illite severely reduced gas productivity. In this study area, presence of fibrous illite currently cannot be predicted and effects can be recognized only through laboratory tests on preserved cores.

  9. Nodular and diffuse fibrous proliferation of the penis and tunica vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Musulen, Eva; Carvia-Ponsaille, Rafael Esteban; Fernandez-Figueras, Maria Teresa; Barranco-Garcia, Juan de Dios; Ariza, Aurelio

    2008-04-01

    Fibrous benign proliferations of the testis and paratesticular tissues are an uncommon and heterogeneous group of lesions that can mimic true neoplasms. Among them, those considered to be reactive proliferations have been included in the category of fibrous pseudotumors and are often associated with trauma, hydrocele, or infection. We report 2 cases of nodular and diffuse fibrous proliferation. This condition is part of the spectrum of reactive benign fibrous lesions and has previously been described in the testicular tunics and paratesticular region only. One of our 2 cases had the peculiarity of being located in the penile shaft, whereas the other involved the tunica vaginalis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a diffuse and nodular fibrous tumor involving the penis. PMID:18360130

  10. Diffuse malignant pleural mesothelioma in an urban hospital: Clinical spectrum and trend in incidence over time

    SciTech Connect

    Shepherd, K.E.; Oliver, L.C.; Kazemi, H. )

    1989-01-01

    This retrospective analysis reviews the clinical experience of a major urban referral hospital with diffuse malignant pleural mesothelioma during the 14-year period from 1973 through 1986. Seventy-five cases of definite or equivocal mesothelioma were identified. There were four cases of primary malignant peritoneal mesothelioma, seven cases of benign fibrous mesothelioma, and 64 cases of diffuse malignant pleural mesothelioma. In 43 cases (67%) of diffuse malignant pleural mesothelioma, there was historic evidence of asbestos exposure. In 21 cases (33%), there was no known history of asbestos exposure. An increase in annual incidence of diffuse malignant pleural mesothelioma was observed over the study period, from three cases in 1973 to ten cases in 1986. Despite greater awareness of this disease, the diagnosis remains a difficult one to establish given the nonspecific symptoms, signs and radiographic appearance, variable histologic appearance, and poor diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of thoracentesis and closed pleural biopsy. Thoracotomy, thoracoscopy, and CT-guided needle biopsies gave higher yields and are the diagnostic measures of choice when diffuse malignant pleural mesothelioma is suspected.

  11. STAT6 immunohistochemistry is helpful in the diagnosis of solitary fibrous tumors.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Akihiko; Tsuta, Koji; Ohno, Makoto; Yoshida, Masayuki; Narita, Yoshitaka; Kawai, Akira; Asamura, Hisao; Kushima, Ryoji

    2014-04-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is an uncommon fibroblastic neoplasm. Although histologic characteristics and frequent CD34 expression allow for an accurate diagnosis in the majority of SFT cases, a wide histologic spectrum and an occasional unexpected immunophenotype may pose diagnostic challenges. Molecular analyses have discovered that almost all SFTs harbor an NAB2-STAT6 fusion gene, which is considered specific to this tumor type. Recent studies have suggested that STAT6 immunohistochemistry is a reliable surrogate for detection of the fusion gene. Our aim was to validate these findings by examining a large number of SFT cases and a broad array of 30 different types of non-SFT tumors. A total of 49 SFTs with a range of histologic characteristics and 159 benign or malignant tumors that can mimic SFTs were retrieved and stained for STAT6. All 49 SFTs (100%) showed STAT6 expression that was restricted in the nucleus, mostly in a diffuse and strong manner, irrespective of the tumor sites and histologic patterns. The staining was uniform in most cases but was heterogenous in about 20% of the cases in which zonal staining attenuation was observed, likely reflecting variability in fixation or tissue ischemia. In contrast, only 4 non-SFT tumors (2.5%) exhibited weak nuclear STAT6 expression, whereas the remaining 155 cases showed no staining or often weak reactivity in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Therefore, nuclear STAT6 immunoreactivity is a highly sensitive and specific marker of SFTs and can be helpful when diagnosis is inconclusive by conventional methods. PMID:24625420

  12. Microbiome and Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Plottel, Claudia S.; Blaser, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Current knowledge is insufficient to explain why only a proportion of individuals exposed to environmental carcinogens or carrying a genetic predisposition to cancer develop disease. Clearly, other factors must be important and one such element that has recently received attention is the human microbiome, the residential microbes including Bacteria, Archaea, Eukaryotes, and viruses that colonize humans. Here, we review principles and paradigms of microbiome-related malignancy, as illustrated by three specific microbial-host interactions. We review the effects of the microbiota on local and adjacent-neoplasia, present the estrobolome model of distant effects, and discuss the complex interactions with a latent virus leading to malignancy. These are separate facets of a complex biology interfacing all the microbial species we harbor from birth onward toward early reproductive success and eventual senescence. PMID:22018233

  13. Lymphoscintigraphy in malignant melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, C.G.; Norman, J.; Cruse, C.W.; Reintgen, D.S.; Clark, R.A. )

    1992-01-01

    The development and rationale for the use of lymphoscintigraphy in the preoperative evaluation of patients with malignant melanoma being considered for elective lymph node dissection is reviewed. This overview is updated by an analysis of 135 patients with early stage malignant melanoma involving the head, neck, shoulders, and trunk at Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute at the University of South Florida (Tampa, FL). High discordancy rates (overall, 41%) were seen between drainage patterns predicted from historical anatomical guidelines and those revealed by the lymphoscintigraphic examination. The high discordancy rate was most pronounced in the head (64%) and the neck (73%). Surgical management was changed in 33% of the patients, overall. A preoperative lymphoscintigram is recommended for all patients with melanoma with head, neck, and truncal lesions evaluated for elective lymph node dissection as the lymphatic drainage patterns are often unpredictable and variable.

  14. Hyaluronan in human malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Sironen, R.K.; Tammi, M.; Tammi, R.; Auvinen, P.K.; Anttila, M.; Kosma, V-M.

    2011-02-15

    Hyaluronan, a major macropolysaccharide in the extracellular matrix of connective tissues, is intimately involved in the biology of cancer. Hyaluronan accumulates into the stroma of various human tumors and modulates intracellular signaling pathways, cell proliferation, motility and invasive properties of malignant cells. Experimental and clinicopathological evidence highlights the importance of hyaluronan in tumor growth and metastasis. A high stromal hyaluronan content is associated with poorly differentiated tumors and aggressive clinical behavior in human adenocarcinomas. Instead, the squamous cell carcinomas and malignant melanomas tend to have a reduced hyaluronan content. In addition to the stroma-cancer cell interaction, hyaluronan can influence stromal cell recruitment, tumor angiogenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Hyaluronan receptors, hyaluronan synthases and hyaluronan degrading enzymes, hyaluronidases, are involved in the modulation of cancer progression, depending on the tumor type. Furthermore, intracellular signaling and angiogenesis are affected by the degradation products of hyaluronan. Hyaluronan has also therapeutic implications since it is involved in multidrug resistance.

  15. Pembrolizumab in Treating Patients With Malignant Mesothelioma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-10

    Biphasic Mesothelioma; Epithelioid Mesothelioma; Peritoneal Malignant Mesothelioma; Pleural Biphasic Mesothelioma; Pleural Epithelioid Mesothelioma; Pleural Malignant Mesothelioma; Pleural Sarcomatoid Mesothelioma; Recurrent Peritoneal Malignant Mesothelioma; Recurrent Pleural Malignant Mesothelioma; Sarcomatoid Mesothelioma

  16. Treatment of Malignant Pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Ajallé, R.; Plouin, P. F.; Pacak, K.; Lehnert, H.

    2013-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma (PCC) is a rare disease, mainly sporadic, but also associated with some familial disorders, with a malignancy frequency of approximately 10%. Only the presence of distant metastases, derived from large pleomorphic chromaffin cells, is widely accepted as a criterion of malignancy. Variable symptoms may be caused by production and release of catecholamines. Since there is no curative treatment for malignant PCC and due to its unfavorable prognosis, assuring quality of life is one of the main therapeutic objectives. Besides a long-term medical treatment of symptoms using selective α-1 blockers and nonselective, noncompetitive α- and / or β-blockers, debulking surgery is the first treatment step. In case of a sufficient uptake of 123I-MIBG treatment with targeted radiation therapy, use of 131I-MIBG is an option as an adjuvant therapy, following debulking surgery. Chemotherapy should be applied to patients without positive MIBG-scan, with no response to 131I-MIBG or progression after radionuclide treatment, and especially in cases with high proliferation index. The most effective chemotherapy regimen appears to be the CVD-scheme, including cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine. The so-called targeted molecular therapies with treatment combinations of temozolomide and thalidomide, or sunitinib monotherapy, and novel therapeutic somatostatin analogues have shown promising results and should thus encourage clinical trials to improve the prognosis of metastatic PCC. Within this review the current treatment modalities and novel molecular strategies in the management of this disease are discussed and a treatment algorithm is suggested. PMID:19672813

  17. Malignant Catatonia Mimicking Pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dailin

    2013-01-01

    Malignant catatonia is an unusual and highly fatal neuropsychiatric condition which can present with clinical and biochemical manifestations similar to those of pheochromocytoma. Differentiating between the two diseases is essential as management options greatly diverge. We describe a case of malignant catatonia in a 20-year-old male who presented with concurrent psychotic symptoms and autonomic instability, with markedly increased 24-hour urinary levels of norepinephrine at 1752 nmol/day (normal, 89–470 nmol/day), epinephrine at 1045 nmol/day (normal, <160 nmol/day), and dopamine at 7.9 μmol/day (normal, 0.4–3.3 μmol/day). The patient was treated with multiple sessions of electroconvulsive therapy, which led to complete clinical resolution. Repeat urine collections within weeks of this presenting event revealed normalization or near normalization of his catecholamine and metanephrine levels. Malignant catatonia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the hypercatecholamine state, particularly in a patient who also exhibits concurrent catatonic features. PMID:24251048

  18. [Malignant biliary obstruction].

    PubMed

    Hucl, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer and cholangiocarcinoma are the most common causes of malignant biliary obstruction. They are diseases of increasing incidence and unfavorable prognosis. Only patients with localized disease indicated for surgery have a chance of long-term survival. These patients represent less than 20 % of all patients, despite the progress in our diagnostic abilities.Locally advanced and metastatic tumors are treated with palliative chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy; the results of such treatments are unsatisfactory. The average survival of patients with unresectable disease is 6 months and only 5-10 % of patients survive 5 years.Biliary drainage is an integral part of palliative treatment. Endoscopically or percutaneosly placed stents improve quality of life, decrease cholestasis and pruritus, but do not significantly improve survival. Biliary stents get occluded over time, possibly resulting in acute cholangitis and require repeated replacement.Photodynamic therapy and radiofrequency ablation, locally active endoscopic methods, have been increasingly used in recent years in palliative treatment of patients with malignant biliary obstruction. In photodynamic therapy, photosensitizer accumulates in tumor tissue and is activated 48 hours later by light of a specific wave length. Application of low voltage high frequency current during radiofrequency ablation results in tissue destruction by heat. Local ablation techniques can have a significant impact in a large group of patients with malignant biliary obstruction, leading to improved prognosis, quality of life and stent patency. PMID:26898789

  19. Endometriosis-associated Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Krawczyk, N.; Banys-Paluchowski, M.; Schmidt, D.; Ulrich, U.; Fehm, T.

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common condition in women of reproductive age. According to several epidemiological studies endometriosis may be associated with increased risk of various malignancies. However, endometriosis-associated malignancy (EAM) is defined by certain histological criteria. About 80 % of EAM have been found in the ovary, whereas 20 % are localized in extragonadal sites like intestine, rectovaginal septum, abdominal wall, pleura and others. Some authors suggest that EAM arise from atypical endometriosis as an intermediate lesion between endometriosis and cancer. Moreover, a number of genetic alterations, like loss of heterozygosity (LOH), PTEN, ARID1 A and p53 mutations have been found in both endometriosis and EAM. Endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer (EAOC) is mostly a well or intermediately differentiated tumor of endometrioid or clear cell histological sub-type. Women affected by EAOC are on average five to ten years younger than non-EAOC patients; in most of the cases EAOC is a low stage disease with favorable clinical outcome. Since EAM is a rare condition systematic data on EAM are still missing. A systematic retrospective study on endometriosis-associated malignancies (EAM study) is currently being conducted by the Endometriosis Research Foundation together with the study groups on ovarian and uterine tumors of the working group for gynecological oncology (AGO) (gyn@mlk-berlin.de). PMID:26941451

  20. Asbestos-related malignancy

    SciTech Connect

    Talcott, J.A.; Antman, K.H.

    1988-05-01

    Asbestos-associated malignancies have received significant attention in the lay and medical literature because of the increasing frequency of two asbestos-associated tumors, lung carcinoma and mesothelioma; the wide distribution of asbestos; its status as a prototype environmental carcinogen; and the many recent legal compensation proceedings, for which medical testimony has been required. The understanding of asbestos-associated carcinogenesis has increased through study of animal models, human epidemiology, and, recently, the application of modern molecular biological techniques. However, the detailed mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain unknown. A wide variety of malignancies have been associated with asbestos, although the strongest evidence for a causal association is confined to lung cancer and mesothelioma. Epidemiological studies have provided evidence that both the type of asbestos fiber and the industry in which the exposure occurs may affect the rates of asbestos-associated cancers. It has been shown that asbestos exerts a carcinogenic effect independent of exposure to cigarette smoking that, for lung cancers, is synergistically enhanced by smoking. Other questions remain controversial, such as whether pulmonary fibrosis necessarily precedes asbestos-associated lung cancer and whether some threshold level of exposure to asbestos (including low-dose exposures that may occur in asbestos-associated public buildings) may be safe. Mesothelioma, the most closely asbestos-associated malignancy, has a dismal natural history and has been highly resistant to therapy. However, investigational multi-modality therapy may offer benefit to some patients. 179 references.

  1. Epigenetics in the hematologic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Chun Yew; Morison, Jessica; Dawson, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    A wealth of genomic and epigenomic data has identified abnormal regulation of epigenetic processes as a prominent theme in hematologic malignancies. Recurrent somatic alterations in myeloid malignancies of key proteins involved in DNA methylation, post-translational histone modification and chromatin remodeling have highlighted the importance of epigenetic regulation of gene expression in the initiation and maintenance of various malignancies. The rational use of targeted epigenetic therapies requires a thorough understanding of the underlying mechanisms of malignant transformation driven by aberrant epigenetic regulators. In this review we provide an overview of the major protagonists in epigenetic regulation, their aberrant role in myeloid malignancies, prognostic significance and potential for therapeutic targeting. PMID:25472952

  2. Dose-response relationship of fibrous dusts in intraperitoneal studies.

    PubMed Central

    Roller, M; Pott, F; Kamino, K; Althoff, G H; Bellmann, B

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between the number of fibers injected intraperitoneally and the occurrence of peritoneal mesotheliomas in rats was investigated using data from a series of carcinogenicity studies with several fibrous dusts. Based on observed tumor incidences ranging between 10 and 90%, the hypothesis of a common slope of dose-response relationships (parallel probit lines in probit analysis) cannot be rejected. In general, parallelism of probit lines is considered an indication of a common mode of action. Analysis of the shape of the dose-response relationship, with one apparent exception, shows virtually linear or superlinear behavior, i.e., from these data, there is no indication of a decrease in carcinogenic potency of an elementary carcinogenic unit at lower doses. PMID:9400733

  3. Determination of physical properties of fibrous thermal insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilioua, A.; Libessart, L.; Joulin, A.; Lassue, S.; Monod, B.; Jeandel, G.

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study is to characterize both experimentally and theoretically, conductive and radiative heat transfer within polyester batting. This material is derived from recycled bottles (PET) with fibres of constant diameters. Two other mineral and plant fibrous insulation materials, (glass wool and hemp wool) are also characterized for comparative purposes. To determine the overall thermophysical properties of the tested materials, heat flux measurement are carried out using a device developed in house. The radiative properties of the material are determined by an inverse method based on measurements of transmittance and reflectance using a FTIR spectrometer and by solving the equation of radiative heat transfer. These measures are compared to results of numerical simulations.

  4. Solitary fibrous tumors of the prostate: A case report

    PubMed Central

    YANG, WENYAN; SUN, FUGUANG; LIU, HONGJUN; WANG, GUANGJIAN; SHI, PEIQING; SHAO, ZHIQIANG; GUO, FENGFU

    2015-01-01

    Increasing numbers of extrapleural solitary fibrous tumours (SFTs), including the prostate SFT, have been reported over the last 10-years. Prostate SFT is relatively uncommon, with <20 cases reported in the literature worldwide. In the present study, a prostate SFT case, which was initially misdiagnosed as benign prostatic hyperplasia, is presented. The patient was subjected to three surgeries (cystoscopy and per urethra lithocystotomy, transurethral resection of the prostate and nerve-sparing retropubic radical prostatectomy) prior to SFT diagnosis. It was demonstrated that histopathological and immunohistochemical factors (positive staining for CD34 and B cell lyphoma-2 expression) were of significant diagnostic value. Thus, nerve-sparing retropubic radical prostatectomy for total resection may be the best therapeutic strategy to treat prostate SFT, allowing the preservation of sexual function and reducing the risk of locoregional recurrence. PMID:26622720

  5. Olfactory dysfunction as first presenting symptom of cranial fibrous dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Tsakiropoulou, Evangelia; Konstantinidis, Iordanis; Chatziavramidis, Angelos; Constantinidis, Jannis

    2013-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a benign bone disorder presenting with a variety of clinical manifestations. This is the first reported case of anosmia as presenting symptom of FD. We present the case of a 72-year-old female patient with a progressive olfactory dysfunction. Clinical examination revealed evidence of chronic rhinosinusitis; therefore the patient was treated with a course of oral corticosteroids. The patient had no improvement in her olfactory ability and imaging studies were ordered. Bony lesions characteristic of craniofacial FD were found, causing obstruction of the central olfactory pathway. This case emphasises the need to conduct further investigations in patients with rhinosinusitis and olfactory dysfunction especially when they present no response to oral steroid treatment. PMID:23893286

  6. Nonlinear analysis of laminated fibrous composites. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renieri, G. D.; Herakovich, C. T.

    1976-01-01

    A computerized analysis of the nonlinear behavior of fibrous composite laminates including axial loading, thermal loading, temperature dependent properties, and edge effects is presented. Ramberg-Osgood approximations are used to represent lamina stress-strain behavior and percent retention curves are employed to model the variation of properties with temperature. Balanced, symmetric laminates comprised of either boron/epoxy, graphite/epoxy, or borsic-aluminum are analyzed using a quasi-three-dimensional finite element analysis. Results are presented for the interlaminar stress distributions in cross-ply, angle-ply, and more complex laminates. Nonlinear stress-strain curves for a variety of composite laminates in tension and compression are obtained and compared to other existing theories and experimental results.

  7. Lightweight fibrous nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is currently developing nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen batteries. These electrodes are lighter in weight and have higher energy densities than the heavier state-of-the-art sintered nickel electrodes. Lightweight fibrous materials or plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These materials are commercial products that are fabricated into nickel electrodes by electrochemically impregnating them with active material. Evaluation is performed in half cells structured in the bipolar configuration. Initial performance tests include capacity measurements at five discharge levels, C/2, 1.0C, 1.37C, 2.0C, and 2.74C. The electrodes that pass the initial tests are life cycle-tested in a low Earth orbit regime at 80 percent depth of discharge.

  8. Fracture behavior of low-density fibrous ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, D. J.; Ritter, J. E., Jr.; Lange, F. F.

    1982-01-01

    A study has been carried out to characterize the fracture behavior of a particular class of silica tiles used in the thermal protection system of the Space Shuttle with emphasis on the strength distribution and time dependence of strength. The approach adopted is based on fracture mechanics concepts developed in recent years for the design of brittle materials. The study confirms that proof-testing and tile densification should lead to improved reliability of the thermal protection system. The research also suggests that the subcritical crack growth behavior of the fibrous tiles is similar to that observed in bulk glass of similar composition and that failure occurs by the tensile fracture and fragmentation of individual fibers.

  9. Biocompatibility assessment of fibrous nanomaterials in mammalian embryos.

    PubMed

    Munk, Michele; Camargo, Luiz S A; Quintão, Carolina C R; Silva, Saulo R; Souza, Eliza D; Raposo, Nádia R B; Marconcini, Jose M; Jorio, Ado; Ladeira, Luiz O; Brandão, Humberto M

    2016-07-01

    Currently there is a growing interest in the use of nanotechnology in reproductive medicine and reproductive biology. However, their toxic effects on mammalian embryos remain poorly understood. In this work, we evaluate the biocompatibility of two fibrous nanomaterials (NMs): cotton cellulose nanofibers (CNF) and carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT-COOH), by performing an investigation of the embryonic development, gene expression (biomarkers focused on cell stress, apoptosis and totipotency) and in situ apoptosis in bovine embryos. Exposure to NMs did not interfere in preimplantation development or in the incidence of apoptosis in the bovine embryo, but they did affect the gene expression. The results presented are important for an understanding of the toxicity of cotton CNF and MWCNT-COOH on mammalian embryos. To our knowledge, we report the first evaluation of biocompatibility between these NMs on preimplantation embryos, which may open a new window for reproductive biomedical applications. PMID:26949162

  10. Fabrication and characterization of oxide fibrous monoliths produced by coextrusion.

    SciTech Connect

    Polzin, B. J.

    1999-05-19

    Unidirectional fibrous monoliths (FMs) based on dense, strong ZrSiO{sub 4} cells that were surrounded by a porous, weaker ZrSiO{sub 4} cell-boundary phase were fabricated. A duplex filament was coextruded, sectioned, bundled, and the resulting bundle was extruded to form a new filament. This filament was cut and packed into plate and bar dies to produce FM test specimens. Four-point flexural tests were conducted on the cell material, cell-boundary material, and FMs. After testing, fracture surfaces and cross sections were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The FMs exhibited graceful failure in flexural testing, and the fracture surfaces exhibited clear evidence of crack deflection and delamination.

  11. Alumina composites for oxide/oxide fibrous monoliths

    SciTech Connect

    Cruse, T. A.; Polzin, B. J.; Picciolo, J. J.; Singh, D.; Tsaliagos, R. N.; Goretta, K. C.

    2000-03-01

    Most work on ceramic fibrous monoliths (FMs) has focused on the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/BN system. In an effort to develop oxidation-resistant FMs, several oxide systems have recently been examined. Zirconia-toughened alumina and alumina/mullite appear to be good candidates for the cell phase of FMs. These composites offer higher strength and toughness than pure alumina and good high-temperature stability. By combining these oxides, possibly with a weaker high-temperature oxide as the cell-boundary phase, it should be possible to product a strong, resilient FM that exhibits graceful failure. Several material combinations have been examined. Results on FM fabrication and microstructural development are presented.

  12. Engineering the Microstructure of Electrospun Fibrous Scaffolds by Microtopography

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Qian; Lee, Benjamin L.-P.; Komvopoulos, Kyriakos; Li, Song

    2013-01-01

    Controlling the structure and organization of electrospun fibers is desirable for fabricating scaffolds and materials with defined microstructures. However, the effects of microtopography on the deposition and, in turn, the organization of the electrospun fibers are not well understood. In this study, conductive polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) templates with different micropatterns were fabricated by combining photolithography, silicon wet etching, and PDMS molding techniques. The fiber organization was varied by fine-tuning the microtopography of the electrospinning collector. Fiber conformity and alignment were influenced by the depth and the slope of microtopography features, resulting in scaffolds comprising either an array of microdomains with different porosity and fiber alignment or an array of microwells. Microtopography affected the fiber organization for hundreds of micrometers below the scaffold surface, resulting in scaffolds with distinct surface properties on each side. In addition, the fiber diameter was also affected by the fiber conformity. The effects of the fiber arrangement in the scaffolds on the morphology, migration, and infiltration of cells were examined by in vitro and in vivo experiments. Cell morphology and organization were guided by the fibers in the microdomains, and cell migration was enhanced by the aligned fibers and the three-dimensional scaffold structure. Cell infiltration was correlated with the microdomain porosity. Microscale control of the fiber organization and the porosity at the surface and through the thickness of the fibrous scaffolds, as demonstrated by the results of this study, provides a powerful means of engineering the three-dimensional structure of electrospun fibrous scaffolds for cell and tissue engineering. PMID:23534553

  13. Configuration of Fibrous and Adipose Tissues in the Cavernous Sinus

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Liang; Gao, Fei; Xu, Qunyuan; Zhang, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Objective Three-dimensional anatomical appreciation of the matrix of the cavernous sinus is one of the crucial necessities for a better understanding of tissue patterning and various disorders in the sinus. The purpose of this study was to reveal configuration of fibrous and adipose components in the cavernous sinus and their relationship with the cranial nerves and vessels in the sinus and meningeal sinus wall. Materials and Methods Nineteen cadavers (8 females and 11 males; age range, 54–89 years; mean age, 75 years) were prepared as transverse (6 sets), coronal (3 sets) and sagittal (10 sets) plastinated sections that were examined at both macroscopic and microscopic levels. Results Two types of the web-like fibrous networks were identified and localized in the cavernous sinus. A dural trabecular network constituted a skeleton-frame in the sinus and contributed to the sleeves of intracavernous cranial nerves III, IV, V1, V2 and VI. A fine trabecular network, or adipose tissue, was the matrix of the sinus and was mainly distributed along the medial side of the intracavernous cranial nerves, forming a dumbbell-shaped adipose zone in the sinus. Conclusions This study revealed the nature, fine architecture and localization of the fine and dural trabecular networks in the cavernous sinus and their relationship with intracavernous cranial nerves and vessels. The results may be valuable for better understanding of tissue patterning in the cranial base and better evaluation of intracavernous disorders, e.g. the growth direction and extent of intracavernous tumors. PMID:24586578

  14. Creation of Hybrid Nanorods From Sequences of Natural Trimeric Fibrous Proteins Using the Fibritin Trimerization Motif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanikolopoulou, Katerina; van Raaij, Mark J.; Mitraki, Anna

    Stable, artificial fibrous proteins that can be functionalized open new avenues in fields such as bionanomaterials design and fiber engineering. An important source of inspiration for the creation of such proteins are natural fibrous proteins such as collagen, elastin, insect silks, and fibers from phages and viruses. The fibrous parts of this last class of proteins usually adopt trimeric, β-stranded structural folds and are appended to globular, receptor-binding domains. It has been recently shown that the globular domains are essential for correct folding and trimerization and can be successfully substituted by a very small (27-amino acid) trimerization motif from phage T4 fibritin. The hybrid proteins are correctly folded nanorods that can withstand extreme conditions. When the fibrous part derives from the adenovirus fiber shaft, different tissue-targeting specificities can be engineered into the hybrid proteins, which therefore can be used as gene therapy vectors. The integration of such stable nanorods in devices is also a big challenge in the field of biomechanical design. The fibritin foldon domain is a versatile trimerization motif and can be combined with a variety of fibrous motifs, such as coiled-coil, collagenous, and triple β-stranded motifs, provided the appropriate linkers are used. The combination of different motifs within the same fibrous molecule to create stable rods with multiple functions can even be envisioned. We provide a comprehensive overview of the experimental procedures used for designing, creating, and characterizing hybrid fibrous nanorods using the fibritin trimerization motif.

  15. Improvement of hydrophilic properties of electrospun polyamide-imide fibrous mats by atmospheric-pressure plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Soo-Jin; Yop Rhee, Kyong; Jin, Fan-Long

    2015-03-01

    Polyamide-imide (PAI) fibrous mats were fabricated through electrospinning and further treated with atmospheric-pressure plasma. The surface characteristics of the PAI fibrous mats were examined to determine the effect of plasma treatment on the hydrophilic properties. FT-IR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and contact-angle analysis indicated that the hydrophilicity of the PAI fibrous mats increased upon the introduction of hydrophilic groups by plasma treatment. The concentration of functional groups, including oxygen, and the surface roughness of the PAI fibrous mats increased with increasing treatment time. The optimum plasma treatment time for surface modification of the PAI fibrous mats under atmospheric pressure was 120 s.

  16. Intraoral malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Babburi, Suresh; Subramanyam, R. V.; Aparna, V.; Sowjanya, P.

    2013-01-01

    Primary oral mucosal melanoma is a rare aggressive neoplasm and accounts for only 0.2-8% of all reported melanomas. It is a malignant neoplasm of melanocytes that may arise from a benign melanocytic lesion or de novo from melanocytes within normal skin or mucosa. It is considered to be the most deadly and biologically unpredictable of all human neoplasms, having the worst prognosis. In this article, we report a case of oral melanoma in a 52-year-old female patient with a chief complaint of black discolouration of the maxillary gingiva and palate. PMID:24249959

  17. Urethral Solitary Fibrous Tumor: A Rare Pathologic Diagnosis of a Periurethral Mass

    PubMed Central

    Semerjian, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) may occur at any site in the body. SFTs can only be conclusively diagnosed based on histopathologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of the tumor. The presence of SFTs in the abdomen and pelvis is extremely rare. To our knowledge no cases of urethral solitary fibrous tumor in the literature have been reported so far. We present a case of a solitary fibrous tumor arising from the urethra in a twenty-three-year-old female presenting with vaginal mass. PMID:27579199

  18. Fibrous myopathy as a complication of repeated intramuscular injections for chronic headache

    PubMed Central

    Burnham, R; McNeil, S; Hegedus, C; Gray, DS

    2006-01-01

    Two cases of fibrous myopathy associated with repeated, long-term intramuscular injections for treatment of chronic temporomandibular joint pain and chronic headache, respectively, are described. Both patients developed severe, function-limiting contractures in upper and lower extremity muscles used as injection sites. In one of the cases, the contractures were painful. Electrophysiological testing, magnetic resonance imaging and muscle biopsy results were all consistent with myopathy and replacement of skeletal muscle with noncontractile fibrous tissue. These cases are presented to increase awareness of fibrous myopathy and to promote surveillance for this serious potential complication of long-term intramuscular injections in chronic headache and other pain patients. PMID:17149458

  19. Urethral Solitary Fibrous Tumor: A Rare Pathologic Diagnosis of a Periurethral Mass.

    PubMed

    Moawad, Gaby N; Abi Khalil, Elias D; Silverbrook, Cheryl; Barak, Stephanie; Semerjian, Alice; Phillips, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) may occur at any site in the body. SFTs can only be conclusively diagnosed based on histopathologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of the tumor. The presence of SFTs in the abdomen and pelvis is extremely rare. To our knowledge no cases of urethral solitary fibrous tumor in the literature have been reported so far. We present a case of a solitary fibrous tumor arising from the urethra in a twenty-three-year-old female presenting with vaginal mass. PMID:27579199

  20. NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion and STAT6 immunoexpression in extrathoracic solitary fibrous tumors: the association between fusion variants and locations.

    PubMed

    Chuang, I-Chieh; Liao, Kuan-Cho; Huang, Hsuan-Ying; Kao, Yu-Chien; Li, Chien-Feng; Huang, Shih-Chiang; Tsai, Jen-Wei; Chen, Ko-Chin; Lan, Jui; Lin, Po-Chun

    2016-05-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm harboring NAB2-STAT6 fusion, which drives STAT6 nuclear relocation. For extrathoracic SFTs, the clinical relevance of this molecular hallmark remains obscure. We assessed STAT6 immunoexpression for 61 extrathoracic SFTs exclusive of the meninges and head and neck, and 25 had analyzable RNAs to distinguish fusion variants by RT-PCR. The immunohistochemical and molecular findings were correlated with clincopathological features and disease-free survival (DFS). Twenty-eight males and 33 females had SFTs in the body cavities (n = 31), extremities (n = 17), and trunk (n = 13), categorized into 53 non-malignant and 8 malignant tumors. The vast majority (n = 57, 93%) exhibited distinctive STAT6 nuclear expression, including malignant ones. The common fusion variants were NAB2ex6-STAT6ex16/17 in 13 SFTs and NAB2ex4-STAT6ex2 in 8, while miscellaneous variants were detected only in 4 SFTs in the limbs and trunk but not in any body cavity-based cases (P = 0.026). The worse DFS was univariately associated with malignant histology (P = 0.04) but unrelated to tumor size, location, or fusion variant. Conclusively, extrathoracic SFTs mostly harbor NAB2ex6-STAT6ex16/17, followed by NAB2ex4-STAT6ex2. Miscellaneous variants are significantly rare in SFTs within the body cavities. The clinical aggressiveness of extrathoraic SFTs is associated with malignant histology but unrelated to the NAB2-STAT6 fusion variants. PMID:27039712

  1. Meurigite, a new fibrous iron phosphate resembling kidwellite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birch, W.D.; Pring, A.; Self, P.G.; Gibbs, R.B.; Keck, E.; Jensen, M.C.; Foord, E.E.

    1996-01-01

    Meurigite is a new hydrated potassium iron phosphate related to kidwellite and with structural similarities to other late-stage fibrous ferric phosphate species. It has been found at four localities so far - the Santa Rita mine, New Mexico, U.S.A.; the Hagendorf-Sud pegmatite in Bavaria, Germany; granite pegmatite veins at Wycheproof, Victoria. Australia; and at the Gold Quarry Mine, Nevada, U.S.A. The Santa Rita mine is the designated type locality. Meurigite occurs as tabular, elongated crystals forming spherical and hemispherical clusters and drusy coatings. The colour ranges from creamy white to pale yellow and yellowish brown. At the type locality, the hemispheres may reach 2 mm across, but the maximum diameter reached in the other occurrences is usually less than 0.5 mm. A wide variety of secondary phosphate minerals accompanies meurigite at each locality, with dufrenite, cyrilovite. beraunite, rockbridgeite and leucophosphite amongst the most common. Vanadates and uranates occur with meurigite at the Gold Quarry mine. Electron microprobe analysis and separate determination of H2O and CO2 on meurigite from the type locality gave a composition for which several empirical formulae could be calculated. The preferred formula, obtained on the basis of 35 oxygen atoms, is (K0.85Na0.03)??0.88(Fe7.013+Al0.16Cu0.02)??7.19 (PO4)5.11(CO3)0.20(OH) 6.7??7-7.25H2O, which simplifies to KFe73+(PO4)5(OH) 7??8H2O. Qualitative analyses only were obtained for meurigite from the other localities, due to the softness and openness of the aggregates. Because of the fibrous nature of meurigite, it was not possible to determine the crystal structure, hence the exact stoichiometry remains uncertain. The lustre of meurigite varies from vitreous to waxy for the Santa Rita mine mineral, to silky for the more open sprays and internal surfaces elsewhere. The streak is very pale yellow to cream and the estimated Mohs hardness is about 3. Cleavage is perfect on {001] and fragments from the

  2. FIBROUS MONOLITH WEAR RESISTANT COMPONENTS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Mark J. Rigali

    2001-10-01

    Published mechanical and thermal properties data on a variety of materials was gathered, with focus on materials that have potential with respect to developing wear resistant and damage tolerant composite for mining industry applications. Preliminary core materials of interest include but are not limited to: Diamond, Tungsten Carbide and Cemented Tungsten Carbides, Carbides of Boron, Silicon, Titanium and Aluminum, Diboride of Titanium and Aluminum, Nitrides of Aluminum, Silicon, Titanium, and Boron, Aluminum Oxide, Tungsten, Titanium, Iron, Cobalt and Metal Alloys. Preliminary boundary materials of interest include but are not limited to: W metal, WC-Co, W-Co, WFeNi, and Mo metal and alloys. Several FM test coupons were fabricated with various compositions using the above listed materials. These coupons were consolidated to varying degrees by uniaxial hot pressing, then cut and ground to expose the FM cell structure. One promising system, WC-Co core and WFeNi boundary, was consolidated to 97% of theoretical density, and demonstrates excellent hardness. Data on standard mechanical tests was gathered, and tests will begin on the consolidated test coupons during the upcoming reporting period. The program statements of work for ACR Inc. and its subcontractors, as well as the final contract negotiations, were finalized during the current reporting period. The program start date was February 22nd, 2001. In addition to the current subcontractors, Kennametal Inc., a major manufacturer of cutting tools and wear resistant tooling for the mining industry, expressed considerable interest in ACR's Fibrous Monolith composites for both machine and mining applications. At the request of Kennametal, ARC Inc fabricated and delivered several Fibrous Monolith coupons and components for testing and evaluation in the mining and machine tool applications. Additional samples of Diamond/Tungsten Carbide-6%Cobalt Fibrous Monolith were fabricated and delivered for testing Kennametal's Rapid

  3. Radioimmunotherapy of malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, R.M. )

    1991-05-01

    The critical issues in radioimmunotherapy are highlighted, and novel ways of improving the therapeutic indexes of radioimmunotherapeutic agents are outlined. The use of radioactively labeled monoclonal antibodies to treat malignant tumors has been investigated in animals and humans. Radionuclides suitable for labeling antibodies for such use include iodine 125, iodine 131, yttrium 90, rhenium 188, and copper 67. Radiobiological factors to be considered in radioimmunotherapy include the size and density of the tumor and the ability of a radiolabeled antibody to penetrate the tumor nodule. The dose of radiation required to destroy a tumor varies; however, the whole-body dose must not exceed 200 rads to avoid irreversible toxicity to the bone marrow. Despite the theoretical inadequacy of radiation doses to tumors indicated by conventional dosimetry, responses have been observed in animals and humans. More reliable and accurate dosimetric methods are under development. The induction of human antimouse antibodies can alter the pharmacokinetics of radiolabeled antibodies. Improving the therapeutic index of radioimmunotherapeutic agents may be achieved through regional therapy, administering a secondary antibody to improve clearance, combining radioimmunotherapy with external-beam irradiation, using an avidin-biotin conjugate system to deliver the radiolabeled antibodies, and addressing the problem of tumor antigen heterogeneity. Researchers are working to reduce or eliminate the clinical problems associated with radioimmunotherapy. Hematologic malignancies, such as lymphomas, are more likely than solid tumors to respond satisfactorily. 110 refs.

  4. Pleural malignancies including mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Hillerdal, G

    1995-07-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is caused almost exclusively by occupational exposure to asbestos. During the past few years, however, increasing evidence has mounted that background exposure to asbestos could be sufficient to cause mesothelioma. Treatment of malignant mesothelioma remains a big problem. Some new approaches are on their way, and the most exciting ones are local immunotherapy in very early cases. Some success has been reported with local interferon treatment. As for treatment of metastatic pleural disease, the main purpose is symptomatic relief of dyspnea caused by fluid accumulation. The best way to achieve a lasting palliation is pleurodesis, and the most common way to do this, is by chemical means. The drug of choice in the United States has for many years been tetracycline, but since injectable tetracycline is no longer available, some substitute must be found. The substance that will "win" is not yet clear, but the two leading contestants are talc and doxycycline. Bleomycin also has its supporters, and a dark horse is quinacrine, which although not easily available in the United States, has been used in many European centers for decades. PMID:9363074

  5. Radiotherapy of malignant melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.S.

    1985-04-01

    The role of radiotherapy in the treatment of malignant melanoma is limited, and surgery generally forms the mainstay of medical practice. However, there are some circumstances in which radiotherapy should be considered the treatment of choice. Symptomatic metastatic lesions in bone or brain can effectively be palliated in a substantial proportion of instances. At the current stage of our knowledge, conventionally fractionated treatment of such lesions forms the standard against which other treatments should be measured. In contrast, metastatic lesions to skin or lymph nodes that do not overlie critical normal structures probably are better treated by high-dose-per-fraction techniques. Radiotherapy may play a definitive role in the treatment of lentigo maligna. The precise optimal energy of the beam to be used remains to be defined. Slightly more penetrating radiation appears to be required for lentigo maligna melanomas. Here, too, the optimal energy remains to be defined. The treatment of nonlentigenous melanomas primarily by radiotherapy is unproved in my opinion. Certainly, the data from the Princess Margaret Hospital is exciting, but I believe it must be corroborated by a well-designed trial before it can be accepted without question. Future directions in treatment of malignant melanoma are likely to include further trials of unconventional fractionation and the use of radiosensitizing agents in conjunction with radiotherapy. The time for dermatologists and radiation therapists to cooperate in such studies is at hand.

  6. Fibrous nanocomposites of carbon nanotubes and graphene-oxide with synergetic mechanical and actuative performance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ranran; Sun, Jing; Gao, Lian; Xu, Chaohe; Zhang, Jing

    2011-08-14

    Fibrous nanocomposites of carbon nanotubes, graphene-oxide or graphene were prepared by a simple coagulation spinning technique exhibiting synergetic enhancement of mechanical strength, electronic conductivity and electrical actuation performance. PMID:21725531

  7. Intracranial benign fibrous histiocytoma mimicking parasagittal meningioma: report of two cases and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Baoshi; Wang, Zheng; Liu, Yanwei; You, Gan; Wang, Jiangfei; Wang, Junmei; Jiang, Zhongli; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Primary benign fibrous histiocytoma involving the central nervous system is an exceedingly rare tumor with most cases originating from the dura or parenchymal tissue. Diagnosis of primary benign fibrous histiocytoma is difficult due to its confusing histopathological characteristics. Two cases of primary intracranial benign fibrous histiocytoma mimicking parasagittal meningioma are presented in this report. Both tumors were gross totally resected and the patients showed no evidence of recurrence at follow-up of 12 months. The clinical features and prognosis of this rare tumor that were reported previously in the literature were also reviewed. Histopathological examination coupled with immunohistochemical staining is proved to be the convincing diagnostic method for the primary benign fibrous histiocytoma. Surgical resection is the recommendation for the therapy of the tumor. PMID:26617915

  8. Benign fibrous histiocytoma of parietal bone: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lili; Feng, Yan; Yan, Xu; Li, Yanhui; Bie, Li

    2015-01-01

    A benign fibrous histiocytoma with primary site of origin in the parietal bone has not yet been reported in the literature. We report here a case concerning a 12-year-old girl with a 14-month history of an enlarging parietal bone mass. The tumor was excised after removal of the cortical bone and resection of the tumor surrounding the cortical bone erosion using pre-plasticity titanium repair. Both postoperative histopathological examination and immunohistochemical analysis were consistent with a benign fibrous histiocytoma. No clinical or computed tomography (CT) radiological signs of tumor recurrence and/or metastasis were observed at 12 months. Although a primary benign fibrous histiocytoma of the parietal bone is a rare tumor, it should be considered as a potential diagnosis for any cranial tumor. Surgical intervention is the most effective treatment technique for a benign fibrous histiocytoma. PMID:25951848

  9. Fuel pellet and process for making it by shaping under pressure an organic fibrous material

    SciTech Connect

    Gunnerman, R.W.

    1981-12-29

    An organic fibrous material such as bagasse, tree bark, sawdust, straw, peat moss, tree twigs and the like is mixed with a waxy material which is compatible with natural waxy substances contained by the organic fibrous material. The mixture is shaped into a substantially symmetrical pellet having a density of at least about 62.5 pounds per cubic foot with a maximum dimension in section of one-half inch or less in a pelletizing mill under an applied pressure whereby the natural waxy substance contained by the organic fibrous material are exuded to the surface of the resulting pellet and mixed with the added waxy materials to form a substantially uniform continuous coating over the surfaces of an organic fibrous core. The coated pellet releases more energy at a faster rate than the uncoated core when burned alone.

  10. Alternating magnetic field heat behaviors of PVDF fibrous mats filled with iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jinu; Choi, Jung-Su; Yang, Heejae; Ko, Frank K.; Kim, Ki Hyeon

    2016-05-01

    To study the magnetic heat behaviors, iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) and the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) fibrous mats filled with IONPs were prepared by using coprecipitaion method and the electrospinning technique. The synthesized IONPs exhibited a magnetization of about 72 emu/g with average diameter of about 10 nm. The magnetizations of PVDF fibrous mats filled with IONPs showed 2.6 emu/g, 5.5 emu/g and 9.9 emu/g for 5 wt.%, 10 wt.% and 20 wt.% IONPs concentration, respectively. The heat of the magnetic fibrous mats were measured under various alternating magnetic fields (90, 128, and 167 Oe), frequencies (190, 250 and 355 kHz). The maximum saturated temperature showed up to 62 °C for 20 wt.% IONPs filled in PVDF fibrous mat under 167 Oe and 355 kHz.

  11. Carbon nanotube counter electrode for high-efficient fibrous dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    High-efficient fibrous dye-sensitized solar cell with carbon nanotube (CNT) thin films as counter electrodes has been reported. The CNT films were fabricated by coating CNT paste or spraying CNT suspension solution on Ti wires. A fluorine tin oxide-coated CNT underlayer was used to improve the adherence of the CNT layer on Ti substrate for sprayed samples. The charge transfer catalytic behavior of fibrous CNT/Ti counter electrodes to the iodide/triiodide redox pair was carefully studied by electrochemical impedance and current-voltage measurement. The catalytic activity can be enhanced by increasing the amount of CNT loading on substrate. Both the efficiencies of fibrous dye-sensitized solar cells using paste coated and sprayed CNT films as counter electrodes are comparative to that using Pt wires, indicating the feasibility of CNT/Ti wires as fibrous counter electrode for superseding Pt wires. PMID:22507398

  12. 14-Year-Old Boy With Mild Antecedent Neck Pain in Setting of Acute Trauma: A Rare Case of Benign Fibrous Histiocytoma of the Spine.

    PubMed

    Skunda, Raymond; Puckett, Timothy; Martin, Michael; Sanclement, Jose; Peterson, Jo Elle

    2016-01-01

    A 14-year-old boy presented to the emergency department with neck pain after a football accident. Imaging revealed a discrete, expansile, lytic, radiolucent mass extending anterior from the left C2 vertebral body. The differential diagnosis for this mass is broad and includes both benign and malignant lesions. A thorough history and physical examination, along with selective imaging and a tissue sample, are essential in making the correct diagnosis. We report a case of benign fibrous histiocytoma (BFH) in the cervical spine of a pediatric patient, present the diagnostic dilemma involved in diagnosing BFH, and review the literature to compare the characteristics of BFH with those of other benign bone lesions. To our knowledge, this is only the second reported case of BFH in the cervical spine of a pediatric patient. PMID:26991583

  13. Preparation of poly(ethylene glycol)/polylactide hybrid fibrous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Ni, PeiYan; Fu, ShaoZhi; Fan, Min; Guo, Gang; Shi, Shuai; Peng, JinRong; Luo, Feng; Qian, ZhiYong

    2011-01-01

    Polylactide (PLA) electrospun fibers have been reported as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering application, however, the great hydrophobicity limits its broad application. In this study, the hybrid amphiphilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)/hydrophobic PLA fibrous scaffolds exhibited improved morphology with regular and continuous fibers compared to corresponding blank PLA fiber mats. The prepared PEG/PLA fibrous scaffolds favored mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) attachment and proliferation by providing an interconnected porous extracellular environment. Meanwhile, MSCs can penetrate into the fibrous scaffold through the interstitial pores and integrate well with the surrounding fibers, which is very important for favorable application in tissue engineering. More importantly, the electrospun hybrid PEG/PLA fibrous scaffolds can enhance MSCs to differentiate into bone-associated cells by comprehensively evaluating the representative markers of the osteogenic procedure with messenger ribonucleic acid quantitation and protein analysis. MSCs on the PEG/PLA fibrous scaffolds presented better differentiation potential with higher messenger ribonucleic acid expression of the earliest osteogenic marker Cbfa-1 and mid-stage osteogenic marker Col I. The significantly higher alkaline phosphatase activity of the PEG/PLA fibrous scaffolds indicated that these can enhance the differentiation of MSCs into osteoblast-like cells. Furthermore, the higher messenger ribonucleic acid level of the late osteogenic differentiation markers OCN (osteocalcin) and OPN (osteopontin), accompanied by the positive Alizarin red S staining, showed better maturation of osteogenic induction on the PEG/PLA fibrous scaffolds at the mineralization stage of differentiation. After transplantation into the thigh muscle pouches of rats, and evaluating the inflammatory cells surrounding the scaffolds and the physiological characteristics of the surrounding tissues, the PEG/PLA scaffolds presented good

  14. Towards formation of fibrous woven memory devices from all-carbon electronic fibers.

    PubMed

    Li, Ru; Sun, Rui; Sun, Yanyan; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Yongyi; Zeng, Zhongming; Li, Qingwen

    2015-03-21

    Fibrous all-carbon woven memory devices have been formed by using reduced acid graphene oxide as a switching material, and flexible carbon nanotube fibers as electrodes. The as prepared fibrous all-carbon woven memory devices exhibited an ultra-high ON/OFF current ratio of 10(9), a fast switching speed of 3 ms, and a long life time of at least 500 cycles that could pave the way for future e-textiles. PMID:25705030

  15. Improvement of propeller blades used for handling liquids containing fibrous solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernauer, Jan; Wittekindt, Widu; Stark, Mathias

    1987-03-01

    The entrapment of long fibrous solids on the leading edge of axial centrifugal pump impeller blades was studied. These materials may increase the power drawn from the pump to the extent that, for example, a flood control pumping station may have to be shut down. Experiments studied the parameters fostering the entrapment of fibrous solids. A propeller blade eliminating entrapment was designed. The effectiveness of the design is demonstrated by experiments and field application.

  16. The effect of marangoni convection on fibrous monotectic growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratke, L.

    2003-03-01

    Directional solidification of monotectic alloys can lead, under certain conditions of growth velocity and temperature gradient in the melt, to composite microstructures with a rodlike appearance. For a theoretical description, most often the Jackson and Hunt model of rod eutectic growth is used. A relation between the mean rod distance R and the solidification velocity v, similar to eutectics, is generally observed in experiments. A comparison between theory and experiments always led to discrepancies not yet fully resolved. In the approach presented here, we propose an additional mode of mass transport ahead of the monotectic solidification front, namely, Marangoni convection. The main difference between monotectic and eutectic solidification seems to be the liquid phase state of the (rod) L2 phase growing simultaneously within a nearly perfectly pure solid matrix. We assume that the thermocapillary effect causes convection at the interface of the fibrous liquid phase. This Marangoni convection induces a flow field in the matrix and has an influence on the solute transport if the fluid flow Peclet number is large enough. First, an analytical model is described using a suitably modified convective diffusion equation for the concentration field; and, second, a numerical model is presented. The main result of both models is a new functional relation between fiber spacing and solidification velocity being explicitly dependent on the temperature gradient ahead of the solidification front.

  17. Chronic fibrous sheath mistaken for retained pacemaker product.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Sheraz A; Hudsmith, Lucy; Newton, James D; Betts, Tim R

    2009-03-01

    A 71-year-old man underwent implantation of a single-chamber system in 1988 for sinoatrial disease, which was then upgraded to dual-chamber 7 years later following recurrent syncope. He presented with pacemaker erosion but without clinical or laboratory evidence of infective endocarditis. The pacemaker system was uneventfully extracted 5 days later via a transfemoral approach using a needle-eye snare. A post-procedure trans-thoracic echocardiogram was performed, which demonstrated an echogenic structure in the right atrium-this was initially felt to be a retained fragment of pacing lead. A short-axis view of the tricuspid valve with a bright linear echo crossing is shown in Figure 1. However, a post-procedural chest X-ray confirmed the absence of any retained intra-cardiac lead. The reverberant cast-like structure noted is a heavily calcified fibrous sheath as the pacing leads were confirmed to be intact at the time of removal. PMID:19147697

  18. A Study of Failure Criteria of Fibrous Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, Federico; Jackson, Karen E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The research described in this paper is focused on two areas: (1) evaluation of existing composite failure criteria in the nonlinear, explicit transient dynamic finite element code, MSC.Dytran, and (2) exploration of the possibilities for modification of material and failure models to account for large deformations, progressive failure, and interaction of damage accumulation with stress/strain response of laminated composites. Following a review of the MSC.Dytran user manual, a bibliographical review of existing failure criteria of composites was performed. The papers considered most interesting for the objective of this report are discussed in section 2. The failure criteria included in the code under consideration are discussed in section 3. A critical summary of the present procedures to perform analysis and design of composites is presented in section 4. A study of the most important historical failure criteria for fibrous composite materials and some of the more recent modifications proposed were studied. The result of this analysis highlighted inadequacies in the existing failure criteria and the need to perform some numerical analyses to elucidate the answer to questions on which some of the proposed criteria are based. A summary of these ideas, which is a proposal of studies to be developed, is presented in section 5. Finally, some ideas for future developments are summarized in section 6.

  19. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of Central Nervous System: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jang Hoon; Yoon, Pyeong Ho; Kie, Jeong Hae

    2015-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare neoplasm of mesenchymal origin, especially in the central nervous system (CNS). Reported herein is a case of SFT of CNS in a 63-year-old female patient who had confused mentality, without other neurological deficit. The brain MRI showed an ovoid mass in the right frontal lobe. The tumor was surgically removed grossly and totally, and the pathologic diagnosis was SFT. At 55 months after the surgery, the tumor recurred at the primary site and at an adjacent area. A second operation was thus done, and the tumor was again surgically removed grossly and totally. The pathologic diagnosis was the same as the previous, but the Ki-67 index was elevated. Ten months later, two small recurring tumors in the right frontal skull base were found in the follow-up MRI. It was decided that radiation therapy be done, and MRI was done again 3 months later. In the follow-up MRI, the size of the recurring mass was found to have decreased, and the patient did not manifest any significant symptom. Follow-up will again be done 18 months after the second surgery. PMID:26605270

  20. Nanoscale dynamics and aging of fibrous peptide-based gels

    SciTech Connect

    Dudukovic, Nikola A.; Zukoski, Charles F.

    2014-10-28

    Solutions of the aromatic dipeptide derivative molecule fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-diphenylalanine (Fmoc-FF) in dimethyl sulfoxide produce fibrous gels when mixed with water. We study the evolution of density fluctuations of this three-component system using X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) and compare these results to the macroscopic rheology of the gels and optical observations of the microstructure evolution. At the investigated scattering angles, the intensity autocorrelation functions do not follow behavior expected for simple diffusion of individual Fmoc-FF molecules localized within cages of nearest neighbors. Instead, the dynamics are associated with density fluctuations on length scales of ∼10–100 nm arising from disaggregation and reformation of fibers, leading to an increasingly uniform network. This process is correlated with the growth of the elastic modulus, which saturates at long times. Autocorrelation functions and relaxation times acquired from XPCS measurements are consistent with relaxation rates of structures at dynamic equilibrium. This study provides further support to the concept of exploring peptide-based gelators as valence-limited patchy particles capable of forming equilibrium gels.

  1. Applications of fibrous substrates containing insolubilized phase change polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vigo, Tyrone L.; Bruno, Joseph S.

    1993-01-01

    Incorporation of polyethylene glycols into fibrous substrates produces several improved functional properties when they are insolubilized by crosslinking with a methylolamide resin or by polyacetal formation by their reaction with glyoxal. The range of molecular weights of polyols that may be insolubilized is broad as are the curing conditions (0.25-10 min at 80-200C). Most representative fiber types and blends (natural and synthetic) and all types of fabric constructions (woven, nonwoven and knit) have been modified by incorporation of the bound polyols. The most novel property is the thermal adaptability of the modified substrates to many climatic conditions. This adaptability is due to the high latent heat of the crosslinked polyols that function as phase change materials, the hydrophilic nature of the crosslinked polymer and its enhanced thermal conductivity. Other enhanced properties imparted to fabrics include flex and flat abrasion, antimicrobial activity, reduced static charge, resistance to oily soils, resiliency, wind resistance and reduced lint loss. Applications commercialized in the U.S. and Japan include sportswear and skiwear. Several examples of electric sets of properties useful for specific end uses are given. In addition, other uses are biomedical horticultural, aerospace, indoor insulation, automotive interiors and components and packaging material.

  2. A parametric study of fracture toughness of fibrous composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poe, C. C., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Impacts to fibrous composite laminates by objects with low velocities can break fibers giving crack-like damage. The damage may not extend completely through a thick laminate. The tension strength of these damage laminates is reduced much like that of cracked metals. The fracture toughness depends on fiber and matrix properties, fiber orientations, and stacking sequence. Accordingly, a parametric study was made to determine how fiber and matrix properties and fiber orientations affect fracture toughness and notch sensitivity. The values of fracture toughness were predicted from the elastic constants of the laminate and the failing strain of the fibers using a general fracture toughness parameter developed previously. For a variety of laminates, values of fracture toughness from tests of center-cracked specimens and values of residual strength from tests of thick laminates with surface cracks were compared to the predictions to give credibility to the study. In contrast to the usual behavior of metals, it is shown that both ultimate tensile strength and fracture toughness of composites can be increased without increasing notch sensitivity.

  3. Multiportal Combined Transorbital and Transnasal Endoscopic Resection of Fibrous Dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Tham, Tristan; Costantino, Peter; Bruni, Margherita; Langer, David; Boockvar, John; Singh, Prabhjyot

    2015-11-01

    Introduction Historically, access to the anterior skull base was achieved with open procedures. The paradigms to this approach were challenged with the advent of minimally disruptive endoscopic surgical techniques and supporting technology. The next step in the evolution of minimally disruptive surgery was the combination of multiportal endoscopic surgery. Results The patient was an 18-year-old man who presented with right-sided proptosis. Further diagnostic tests revealed a fibrous dysplasia (FD) occupying the skull base and orbit. The lesion was successfully resected. Conclusions The location of the tumor in this case was challenging, in which surgeons at some centers would have opted to have performed as an open procedure instead of endoscopically. The combined transnasal/transorbital approach is an uncommonly used technique that we have used to remove this tumor successfully. The patient also had a unique disease (FD) in a unique location that was treated without complications. This case report highlights how surgeons may use an expanded armamentarium in dealing with complex pathologies. PMID:26623245

  4. Multiportal Combined Transorbital and Transnasal Endoscopic Resection of Fibrous Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Tham, Tristan; Costantino, Peter; Bruni, Margherita; Langer, David; Boockvar, John; Singh, Prabhjyot

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Historically, access to the anterior skull base was achieved with open procedures. The paradigms to this approach were challenged with the advent of minimally disruptive endoscopic surgical techniques and supporting technology. The next step in the evolution of minimally disruptive surgery was the combination of multiportal endoscopic surgery. Results The patient was an 18-year-old man who presented with right-sided proptosis. Further diagnostic tests revealed a fibrous dysplasia (FD) occupying the skull base and orbit. The lesion was successfully resected. Conclusions The location of the tumor in this case was challenging, in which surgeons at some centers would have opted to have performed as an open procedure instead of endoscopically. The combined transnasal/transorbital approach is an uncommonly used technique that we have used to remove this tumor successfully. The patient also had a unique disease (FD) in a unique location that was treated without complications. This case report highlights how surgeons may use an expanded armamentarium in dealing with complex pathologies. PMID:26623245

  5. Imaging of the Fibrous Cap in Atherosclerotic Carotid Plaque

    SciTech Connect

    Saba, Luca; Potters, Fons; Lugt, Aad van der; Mallarini, Giorgio

    2010-08-15

    In the last two decades, a substantial number of articles have been published to provide diagnostic solutions for patients with carotid atherosclerotic disease. These articles have resulted in a shift of opinion regarding the identification of stroke risk in patients with carotid atherosclerotic disease. In the recent past, the degree of carotid artery stenosis was the sole determinant for performing carotid intervention (carotid endarterectomy or carotid stenting) in these patients. We now know that the degree of stenosis is only one marker for future cerebrovascular events. If one wants to determine the risk of these events more accurately, other parameters must be taken into account; among these parameters are plaque composition, presence and state of the fibrous cap (FC), intraplaque haemorrhage, plaque ulceration, and plaque location. In particular, the FC is an important structure for the stability of the plaque, and its rupture is highly associated with a recent history of transient ischaemic attack or stroke. The subject of this review is imaging of the FC.

  6. Cellular forces and matrix assembly coordinate fibrous tissue repair

    PubMed Central

    Sakar, Mahmut Selman; Eyckmans, Jeroen; Pieters, Roel; Eberli, Daniel; Nelson, Bradley J.; Chen, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    Planar in vitro models have been invaluable tools to identify the mechanical basis of wound closure. Although these models may recapitulate closure dynamics of epithelial cell sheets, they fail to capture how a wounded fibrous tissue rebuilds its 3D architecture. Here we develop a 3D biomimetic model for soft tissue repair and demonstrate that fibroblasts ensconced in a collagen matrix rapidly close microsurgically induced defects within 24 h. Traction force microscopy and time-lapse imaging reveal that closure of gaps begins with contractility-mediated whole-tissue deformations. Subsequently, tangentially migrating fibroblasts along the wound edge tow and assemble a progressively thickening fibronectin template inside the gap that provide the substrate for cells to complete closure. Unlike previously reported mechanisms based on lamellipodial protrusions and purse-string contraction, our data reveal a mode of stromal closure in which coordination of tissue-scale deformations, matrix assembly and cell migration act together to restore 3D tissue architecture. PMID:26980715

  7. FIBROUS MONOLITH WEAR RESISTANT COMPONENTS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Mark J. Rigali; Kenneth L. Knittel; Mike L. Fulcher

    2002-03-01

    During this reporting period, work continued on development of formulations using the materials identified as contenders for the fibrous monolith wear resistant components. The FM structures fabricated were: diamond/WC-Co, B{sub 4}C/WC-Co, TiB{sub 2}/WC-Co, WC-Co/Co, WC-Co/WC-Co. Results of our consolidation densification studies on these systems lead to the down-selection of WC-Co/WC-Co, WC-Co/Co and diamond/WC-Co for further development for mining applications including drill bit inserts, roof bit inserts, radial tools conical tools and wear plates (WC-Co based system only) for earth moving equipment. Prototype component fabrication focused on the fabrication of WC-Co/WC-Co FM conical tools, diamond/WC-Co coated drill bit insert prototypes. Fabrication of WC-Co/WC-Co FM insert prototypes for a grader blade is also underway. ACR plans to initiate field-testing of the drill bit insert prototypes and the grader blade insert this summer (2002). The first WC-Co/WC-Co FM conical tool prototypes were sent to Kennametal for evaluation towards the end of the current reporting period.

  8. Nanoscale dynamics and aging of fibrous peptide-based gels.

    PubMed

    Dudukovic, Nikola A; Zukoski, Charles F

    2014-10-28

    Solutions of the aromatic dipeptide derivative molecule fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-diphenylalanine (Fmoc-FF) in dimethyl sulfoxide produce fibrous gels when mixed with water. We study the evolution of density fluctuations of this three-component system using X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) and compare these results to the macroscopic rheology of the gels and optical observations of the microstructure evolution. At the investigated scattering angles, the intensity autocorrelation functions do not follow behavior expected for simple diffusion of individual Fmoc-FF molecules localized within cages of nearest neighbors. Instead, the dynamics are associated with density fluctuations on length scales of ~10-100 nm arising from disaggregation and reformation of fibers, leading to an increasingly uniform network. This process is correlated with the growth of the elastic modulus, which saturates at long times. Autocorrelation functions and relaxation times acquired from XPCS measurements are consistent with relaxation rates of structures at dynamic equilibrium. This study provides further support to the concept of exploring peptide-based gelators as valence-limited patchy particles capable of forming equilibrium gels. PMID:25362339

  9. Nanoscale dynamics and aging of fibrous peptide-based gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudukovic, Nikola A.; Zukoski, Charles F.

    2014-10-01

    Solutions of the aromatic dipeptide derivative molecule fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-diphenylalanine (Fmoc-FF) in dimethyl sulfoxide produce fibrous gels when mixed with water. We study the evolution of density fluctuations of this three-component system using X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) and compare these results to the macroscopic rheology of the gels and optical observations of the microstructure evolution. At the investigated scattering angles, the intensity autocorrelation functions do not follow behavior expected for simple diffusion of individual Fmoc-FF molecules localized within cages of nearest neighbors. Instead, the dynamics are associated with density fluctuations on length scales of ˜10-100 nm arising from disaggregation and reformation of fibers, leading to an increasingly uniform network. This process is correlated with the growth of the elastic modulus, which saturates at long times. Autocorrelation functions and relaxation times acquired from XPCS measurements are consistent with relaxation rates of structures at dynamic equilibrium. This study provides further support to the concept of exploring peptide-based gelators as valence-limited patchy particles capable of forming equilibrium gels.

  10. FIBROUS MONOLITH WEAR RESISTANT COMPONENTS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Mark J. Rigali; Mike L. Fulcher; Kenneth L. Knittel

    2002-10-01

    During the reporting period, work continued on development of formulations using the materials down-selected from the initially identified contenders for the fibrous monolith wear resistant components. The FM systems studied were: WC-Co/WC-Co, WC-Co/Co, diamond/WC-Co, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiCN. Extrudable formulations for the materials listed were developed during the first twelve months of this effort, and work during the reporting period was focused on the development of optimized binder removal processes. A two stage binder removal process was developed that resulted in prototype parts free of voids and other internal defects. In addition, changes in the binder removal atmosphere resulted in the apparent elimination of residual carbon, an important consideration when consolidating WC-Co containing systems. Using the improved binder removal processes, parts were consolidated by both sintering and hot pressing to >99% theoretical density. Samples of these materials were sent to Kyocera for mechanical evaluations. Fabrication of drill bit inserts was begun, and binder removal begun during the reporting period. A total of 24 green inserts were fabricated, and will be consolidated and delivered for field testing during the upcoming reporting period.

  11. Electrospinning Growth Factor Releasing Microspheres into Fibrous Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, Tonya J.; Sundararaghavan, Harini G.

    2014-01-01

    This procedure describes a method to fabricate a multifaceted substrate to direct nerve cell growth. This system incorporates mechanical, topographical, adhesive and chemical signals. Mechanical properties are controlled by the type of material used to fabricate the electrospun fibers. In this protocol we use 30% methacrylated Hyaluronic Acid (HA), which has a tensile modulus of ~500 Pa, to produce a soft fibrous scaffold. Electrospinning on to a rotating mandrel produces aligned fibers to create a topographical cue. Adhesion is achieved by coating the scaffold with fibronectin. The primary challenge addressed herein is providing a chemical signal throughout the depth of the scaffold for extended periods. This procedure describes fabricating poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres that contain Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and directly impregnating the scaffold with these microspheres during the electrospinning process. Due to the harsh production environment, including high sheer forces and electrical charges, protein viability is measured after production. The system provides protein release for over 60 days and has been shown to promote primary nerve cell growth. PMID:25178038

  12. A single fracture toughness parameter for fibrous composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poe, C. C., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A general fracture toughness parameter Qc was previously derived and verified to be a material constant, independent of layup, for centrally cracked boron aluminum composite specimens. The specimens were made with various proportions of 0 and + or - 45 degree plies. A limited amount of data indicated that the ratio Qc/epsilon tuf' where epsilon tuf is the ultimate tensile strain of the fibers, might be a constant for all composite laminates, regardless of material and layup. In that case, a single value of Qc/epsilon tuf could be used to predict the fracture toughness of all fibrous composite laminates from only the elastic constants and epsilon tuf. Values of Qc/epsilon tuf were calculated for centrally cracked specimens made from graphite/polyimide, graphite/epoxy, E glass/epoxy, boron/epoxy, and S glass graphite/epoxy materials with numerous layups. Within ordinary scatter, the data indicate that Qc/epsilon tuf is a constant for all laminates that did not split extensively at the crack tips or have other deviate failure modes.

  13. [A case of solitary fibrous tumor in the sella turcica].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Kiyoharu; Tominaga, Atsushi; Kinoshita, Yasuyuki; Usui, Satoshi; Sugiyama, Kazuhiko; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2013-10-01

    A 64-year-old male presented with an incidental tumor in the sella turcica during a brain medical checkup. Because he lacked any neurological symptoms or signs of pituitary dysfunction, the patient did not undergo surgery. Three years later, visual disturbances developed, including poor eyesight and visual field defects. The response to the growth hormone(GH)releasing peptide-2 demonstrated severe GH deficiency. MRI revealed an enlarged tumor appearing as a mosaic pattern of high and very low intensity on T2-weighted imaging. The region of very low intensity on T2-weighted imaging exhibited enhancement after T1 gadolinium-DTPA administration. The tumor was totally removed via the microscopic trans-sphenoidal approach in combination with endoscopic observation. The hard tumor adhered to the dura of the sella turcica and the medial wall of the left cavernous sinus. Histological verification confirmed a solitary fibrous tumor(SFT). Fourteen months after the operation, MRI revealed no recurrent tumors. SFT infrequently occurs in the sella turcica; however it should be included in the differential diagnosis in cases of enhanced tumors with marked low intensity on T2-weighted imaging. PMID:24091460

  14. Fibrous adsorbent for removal of aqueous aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yong-Jun; Kiso, Yoshiaki; Oguchi, Tatsuo; Yamada, Toshiro; Takagi, Hiroo; Nishimura, Kazuyuki

    2007-01-01

    Bundles of a strongly hydrophobic fibrous material (p-phenylene-2,6-benzobisoxazole; PBO; Zylon) were employed as an adsorbent for the removal of aqueous aromatic compounds, because the PBO fibers are too rigid to be woven and did not entrap suspended solids. The removal performance for nine kinds of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was evaluated. PAHs and DEHP at initial concentrations of 50 microg L(-1) were removed at 72.5-99.9% and ca. 95%, respectively, although the removal efficiencies were affected by the phase ratio (fiber weight/solution volume). The logarithm of the partition coefficient (log K) for planar PAHs was linearly correlated with the logarithm of the n-octanol/water partition coefficient (log P), but nonplanar PAHs, such as cis-stilbene, p-terphenyl, and o-terphenyl, showed significantly lower adsorption performance. The adsorbed PAHs were not desorbed effectively with CH3CN, CH2Cl2, and toluene. On the other hand, DEHP was effectively desorbed with methanol. PMID:17585293

  15. A unifying strain criterion for fracture of fibrous composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poe, C. C., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Fibrous composite materials, such as graphite/epoxy, are light, stiff, and strong. They have great potential for reducing weight in aircraft structures. However, for a realization of this potential, designers will have to know the fracture toughness of composite laminates in order to design damage tolerant structures. In connection with the development of an economical testing procedure, there is a great need for a single fracture toughness parameter which can be used to predict the stress-intensity factor (K(Q)) for all laminates of interest to the designer. Poe and Sova (1980) have derived a general fracture toughness parameter (Qc), which is a material constant. It defines the critical level of strains in the principal load-carryng plies. The present investigation is concerned with the calculation of values for the ratio of Qc and the ultimate tensile strain of the fibers. The obtained data indicate that this ratio is reasonably constant for layups which fail largely by self-similar crack extension.

  16. Cellular forces and matrix assembly coordinate fibrous tissue repair.

    PubMed

    Sakar, Mahmut Selman; Eyckmans, Jeroen; Pieters, Roel; Eberli, Daniel; Nelson, Bradley J; Chen, Christopher S

    2016-01-01

    Planar in vitro models have been invaluable tools to identify the mechanical basis of wound closure. Although these models may recapitulate closure dynamics of epithelial cell sheets, they fail to capture how a wounded fibrous tissue rebuilds its 3D architecture. Here we develop a 3D biomimetic model for soft tissue repair and demonstrate that fibroblasts ensconced in a collagen matrix rapidly close microsurgically induced defects within 24 h. Traction force microscopy and time-lapse imaging reveal that closure of gaps begins with contractility-mediated whole-tissue deformations. Subsequently, tangentially migrating fibroblasts along the wound edge tow and assemble a progressively thickening fibronectin template inside the gap that provide the substrate for cells to complete closure. Unlike previously reported mechanisms based on lamellipodial protrusions and purse-string contraction, our data reveal a mode of stromal closure in which coordination of tissue-scale deformations, matrix assembly and cell migration act together to restore 3D tissue architecture. PMID:26980715

  17. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of Central Nervous System: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jang Hoon; Yang, Kook Hee; Yoon, Pyeong Ho; Kie, Jeong Hae

    2015-10-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare neoplasm of mesenchymal origin, especially in the central nervous system (CNS). Reported herein is a case of SFT of CNS in a 63-year-old female patient who had confused mentality, without other neurological deficit. The brain MRI showed an ovoid mass in the right frontal lobe. The tumor was surgically removed grossly and totally, and the pathologic diagnosis was SFT. At 55 months after the surgery, the tumor recurred at the primary site and at an adjacent area. A second operation was thus done, and the tumor was again surgically removed grossly and totally. The pathologic diagnosis was the same as the previous, but the Ki-67 index was elevated. Ten months later, two small recurring tumors in the right frontal skull base were found in the follow-up MRI. It was decided that radiation therapy be done, and MRI was done again 3 months later. In the follow-up MRI, the size of the recurring mass was found to have decreased, and the patient did not manifest any significant symptom. Follow-up will again be done 18 months after the second surgery. PMID:26605270

  18. Sunburn and malignant melanoma.

    PubMed Central

    Green, A.; Siskind, V.; Bain, C.; Alexander, J.

    1985-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between cutaneous malignant melanoma and multiple sunburns in the Queensland population. Interview data were gathered from 236 case-control pairs concerning their lifetime experience of severe sunburns, their occupational and recreational sun exposure, and their skin type. Excluding the lentigo maligna melanoma subtype, an association between multiple sunburns and melanoma was evident. After controlling for other major risk factors there was a significant dose-response relationship (P less than 0.05): the estimated relative risk associated with 2-5 sunburns in life was 1.5, and with 6 or more was 2.4. This observation extends the hitherto circumstantial evidence of a causal relationship between exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation and melanoma, and suggests that precautionary measures could prevent the development of this disease in a proportion of cases in fair-skinned populations. PMID:3970815

  19. Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Anne S.; Wistuba, Ignacio; Roth, Jack A.; Kindler, Hedy Lee

    2009-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a deadly disease that occurs in 2,000 to 3,000 people each year in the United States. Although MPM is an extremely difficult disease to treat, with the median overall survival ranging between 9 and 17 months regardless of stage, there has been significant progress over the last few years that has reshaped the clinical landscape. This article will provide a comprehensive discussion of the latest developments in the treatment of MPM. We will provide an update of the major clinical trials that impact mesothelioma treatment in the resectable and unresectable settings, discuss the impact of novel therapeutics, and provide perspective on where the clinical research in mesothelioma is moving. In addition, there are controversial issues, such as the role of extrapleural pneumonectomy, adjuvant radiotherapy, and use of intensity-modulated radiotherapy versus hemithoracic therapy that will also be addressed in this manuscript. PMID:19255316

  20. Atypical neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

    PubMed

    Collins, Ann; Davies, Drew; Menon, Sharmila

    2016-01-01

    A 57-year-old man was admitted to a psychiatric ward in a confused state. He had a 30-year history of lately stable schizophrenia and antipsychotic medication had recently been reduced. The clinical picture was characterised by confusion, agitation, autonomic instability, muscle rigidity and elevated creatine kinase. Despite no other identifiable cause, physicians were reluctant to accept a diagnosis of neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) due to the absence of fever. Despite acute renal failure, the patient was repeatedly transferred between medical and psychiatric wards; diagnosis and management were delayed, with potentially catastrophic consequences. NMS is a rare, life-threatening neurological disorder that can present atypically and requires emergency medical rather than psychiatric care. Clinicians must proactively distinguish between medical emergencies (including acute confusional states/delirium) and mental illness. Prompt, accurate diagnosis, management on the appropriate ward and effective teamwork between specialties are essential to improve patient outcomes in this potentially fatal condition. PMID:27298291

  1. Investigation of fibrous cap stresses on vulnerable plaques leading to heart attacks.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Hao-Ming; Wu, Yi-Yu; Tsai, Bo-Chian; Chen, Yung-Chi; Cheng, Yu-Han

    2015-01-01

    Rupture-prone plaques in the coronary arteries, called ``vulnerable plaques'', are recognized as the key factor in acute myocardial infarction. Vulnerable plaques have a thin fibrous cap over a large fatty core and are highly susceptible to rupture. In general, this type of plaque rupture is mainly associated with stress concentrated on the fibrous cap. Fibrous cap stresses are counted among the most important factors in the plaque rupture process and must be taken into consideration when assessing the plaque vulnerability leading to heart attacks. The objective of this paper was to investigate the effects of nitinol stent deployment on the morphological changes of vulnerable plaques and then to propose a new stent design concept for effectively reducing fibrous cap stresses and the associated rupture risk. The deployment of a self-expanding nitinol stent was modeled, and the resulting stress distribution on the fibrous cap was investigated. The fibrous cap stresses were more uniformly distributed and the maximum stress was reduced by 13% when the crown number of the stent was increased. This study demonstrates an excellent approach to stent design that could effectively reduce the risk of a vulnerable plaque rupturing and causing a heart attack. PMID:26684564

  2. FDG-PET/CT and CT Findings of a Benign Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Kidney; Correlation with Pathology.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Reiko; Abe, Koichiro; Kondo, Tsunenori; Nagashima, Yoji; Kimura, Ken; Fukushima, Kenji; Momose, Mitsuru; Kondo, Chisato; Tanabe, Kazunari; Sakai, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report the F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) findings of a benign solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the kidney. The patient was a 63-year-old woman with a mass in the right kidney (10×9.7 cm), incidentally found on CT images. The CT scan showed a lobulated tumor arising from the hilum of the right kidney. The tumor consisted of two components with different patterns of enhancement. Most of the tumor demonstrated moderate enhancement from the corticomedullary to nephrographic phase. A small nodular component at the caudal portion of the tumor showed avid enhancement in the corticomedullary phase and rapid washout in the nephrographic phase in contrast-enhanced CT. FDG-PET/CT was performed and showed weak FDG accumulation (SUVmax=2.30 and 1.91 in the main and small caudal components). Although renal cell carcinoma was preoperatively diagnosed, histopathological examination revealed renal SFT, with no malignant potential. Therefore, when a renal tumor with contrast-medium enhancement and low FDG accumulation is demonstrated, SFT should be considered as a differential diagnosis in addition to renal cell carcinoma. PMID:27408891

  3. FDG-PET/CT and CT Findings of a Benign Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Kidney; Correlation with Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Reiko; Abe, Koichiro; Kondo, Tsunenori; Nagashima, Yoji; Kimura, Ken; Fukushima, Kenji; Momose, Mitsuru; Kondo, Chisato; Tanabe, Kazunari; Sakai, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report the F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) findings of a benign solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the kidney. The patient was a 63-year-old woman with a mass in the right kidney (10×9.7 cm), incidentally found on CT images. The CT scan showed a lobulated tumor arising from the hilum of the right kidney. The tumor consisted of two components with different patterns of enhancement. Most of the tumor demonstrated moderate enhancement from the corticomedullary to nephrographic phase. A small nodular component at the caudal portion of the tumor showed avid enhancement in the corticomedullary phase and rapid washout in the nephrographic phase in contrast-enhanced CT. FDG-PET/CT was performed and showed weak FDG accumulation (SUVmax=2.30 and 1.91 in the main and small caudal components). Although renal cell carcinoma was preoperatively diagnosed, histopathological examination revealed renal SFT, with no malignant potential. Therefore, when a renal tumor with contrast-medium enhancement and low FDG accumulation is demonstrated, SFT should be considered as a differential diagnosis in addition to renal cell carcinoma. PMID:27408891

  4. Primary intrahepatic malignant epithelioid mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Perysinakis, Iraklis; Nixon, Alexander M.; Spyridakis, Ioannis; Kakiopoulos, George; Zorzos, Charalampos; Margaris, Ilias

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Primary malignant hepatic mesotheliomas are extremely rare. We report the case of a patient with primary intrahepatic malignant mesothelioma who was treated in our department. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 66-year old male patient was admitted to our department for the evaluation of anemia. An abdominal computed tomography scan revealed a large space occupying lesion in the right liver lobe. DISCUSSION The tumor was subsequently resected and a diagnosis of primary intrahepatic malignant mesothelioma was made after pathologic examination. The patient did not receive adjuvant therapy and is currently alive and free of disease, 36 months after the resection. CONCLUSION To our knowledge this is the eighth adult case of primary intrahepatic malignant mesothelioma reported in the literature. These tumors are rarely diagnosed preoperatively. Absence of previous asbestos exposure does not exclude malignant mesothelioma from the differential diagnosis. Proper surgical treatment may offer prolonged survival to the patient, without adjuvant therapy. PMID:25460485

  5. Importance of Local Control in Early-Stage Prostate Cancer: Outcomes of Patients With Positive Post-Radiation Therapy Biopsy Results Treated in RTOG 9408

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, Daniel J.; Hu, Chen; Bahary, Jean-Paul; Souhami, Luis; Gore, Elizabeth M.; Chafe, Susan Maria Jacinta; Leibenhaut, Mark H.; Narayan, Samir; Torres-Roca, Javier; Michalski, Jeff; Zeitzer, Kenneth L.; Donavanik, Viroon; Sandler, Howard; McGowan, David G.; Jones, Christopher U.; Shipley, William U.

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the association between positive post-radiation therapy (RT) biopsy results and subsequent clinical outcomes in males with localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group study 94-08 analyzed 1979 males with prostate cancer, stage T1b-T2b and prostate-specific antigen concentrations of ≤20 ng/dL, to investigate whether 4 months of total androgen suppression (TAS) added to RT improved survival compared to RT alone. Patients randomized to receive TAS received flutamide with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist. According to protocol, patients without evidence of clinical recurrence or initiation of additional endocrine therapy underwent repeat prostate biopsy 2 years after RT completion. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of positive post-RT biopsy results on clinical outcomes. Results: A total of 831 patients underwent post-RT biopsy, 398 were treated with RT alone and 433 with RT plus TAS. Patients with positive post-RT biopsy results had higher rates of biochemical failure (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-2.1) and distant metastasis (HR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.3-4.4) and inferior disease-specific survival (HR = 3.8; 95% CI = 1.9-7.5). Positive biopsy results remained predictive of such outcomes after correction for potential confounders such as Gleason score, tumor stage, and TAS administration. Prior TAS therapy did not prevent elevated risk of adverse outcome in the setting of post-RT positive biopsy results. Patients with Gleason score ≥7 with a positive biopsy result additionally had inferior overall survival compared to those with a negative biopsy result (HR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.04-2.35). Conclusions: Positive post-RT biopsy is associated with increased rates of distant metastases and inferior disease-specific survival in patients treated with definitive RT and was associated with inferior overall

  6. NAB2-STAT6 fusion types account for clinicopathological variations in solitary fibrous tumors.

    PubMed

    Tai, Hui-Chun; Chuang, I-Chieh; Chen, Tse-Ching; Li, Chien-Feng; Huang, Shih-Chiang; Kao, Yu-Chien; Lin, Po-Chun; Tsai, Jen-Wei; Lan, Jui; Yu, Shih-Chen; Yen, Shao-Lun; Jung, Shih-Ming; Liao, Kuan-Cho; Fang, Fu-Min; Huang, Hsuan-Ying

    2015-10-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is characterized by the inv12(q13q13)-derived NAB2-STAT6 fusion, which exhibits variable breakpoints and drives STAT6 nuclear expression. The implications of NAB2-STAT6 fusion variants in pathological features and clinical behavior remain to be characterized in a large cohort of SFTs. We investigated the clinicopathological correlates of this genetic hallmark and analyzed STAT6 immunoexpression in 28 intrathoracic, 37 extrathoracic, and 23 meningeal SFTs. These 88 tumors were designated as histologically nonmalignant in 75 cases and malignant in 13, including 1 dedifferentiated SFT. Eighty cases had formalin-fixed and/or fresh samples to extract assessable RNAs for RT-PCR assay, which revealed NAB2-STAT6 fusion variants comprising 12 types of junction breakpoints in 73 fusion-positive cases, with 65 (89%) falling into 3 major types. The predominant NAB2ex4-STAT6ex2 (n=33) showed constant breakpoints at the ends of involved exons, whereas the NAB2ex6-STAT6ex16 (n=16) and NAB2ex6-STAT6ex17 (n=16) might exhibit variable breakpoints and incorporate NAB2 or STAT6 intronic sequence. Including 73 fusion-positive and 7 CD34-negative SFTs, STAT6 distinctively labeled 87 (99%) SFTs in nuclei, exhibited diffuse reactivity in 73, but did not decorate 98 mimics tested. In seven fusion-negative cases, 6 were STAT6-positive, suggesting rare fusion variants not covered by RT-PCR assay. Regardless of histological subtypes, intrathoracic SFTs affected older patients (P=0.035) and tended to be larger in size (P=0.073). Compared with other variants, NAB2ex4-STAT6ex2/4 fusions were significantly predominant in the SFTs characterised by intrathoracic location (P<0.001), older age (P=0.005), decreased mitoses (P=0.0028), and multifocal or diffuse STAT6 staining (P=0.013), but not found to correlate with disease-free survival. Conclusively, STAT6 nuclear expression was distinctive in the vast majority of SFTs, including all fusion-positive tumors, and

  7. Malignant eroticized countertransference.

    PubMed

    Chessick, R D

    1997-01-01

    Gabbard (1994) divided the pathology of therapists, both male and female, who commit sexual boundary violations into those who are psychotic, those who are predatory psychopaths, those engaging in masochistic surrender, and those called "the lovesick therapist." Lovesick therapists are the most common type and manifest crucial narcissistic themes of "a desperate need for validation by their patients, a hunger to be loved and idealized, and a tendency to use patients to regulate their own self-esteem" (p. 127). Among the psychodynamic aspects of this curiously circumscribed area of loss of reality testing that makes it difficult for the therapist to see how self-destructive and harmful such enactment is, are an unconscious reenactment of incestuous longings, a misperception of the patient's wish for maternal nurturance as a sexual overture, enactments of rescue fantasies, a projected idealization of the self of the therapist, a confusion of the therapist's needs with the patient's needs, a fantasy that love is curative, acting out disavowed rage at the patient, or rage at an organization, an institute, or one's training analyst, a manic defense against mourning, a narcissistic fantasy that their sexual affair is an exception, insecurity regarding masculine identity, and assorted primitive preoedipal themes. Gabbard's (1991) erotized countertransference is one variety of what I have termed malignant eroticized countertransference. His variety is a development that occurs under the pressure of the patient's preemptive and compelling expressions of lust and love, the patient's erotic transference. But malignant eroticized countertransference can also occur without the patient having offered any such expressions; it can even occur on first meeting the patient when he or she walks into the office! This is akin to the romantic "love-at-first-sight" theme so favored in the movies and by novelists, but it is always pathological when it occurs in the therapeutic situation

  8. FIBROUS MONOLITH WEAR RESISTANT COMPONENTS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Mark J. Rigali; Mike L. Fulcher

    2003-03-25

    During the reporting period, work continued on development of formulations using the materials down-selected from the initially identified contenders for the fibrous monolith wear resistant components. In the previous reporting period, a two-stage binder removal process was developed that resulted in prototype parts free of voids and other internal defects. During the current reporting period, work was performed to characterize the two-stage binder removal process for WC-Co based FM material systems. Use of this process has resulted in the fabrication of defect free sintered WC-Co FM bodies, with minimal free carbon porosity and densities approaching 100% theoretical. With the elimination of free carbon porosity and other binder removal process related defects, development work focused on optimizing the densification and eliminating defects observed in WC-Co based FM consolidated by pressureless sintering. Shrinkage of the monolithic core and shell materials used in the WC-Co based FM system was measured, and differences in material shrinkage were identified as a potential cause of cell boundary cracking observed in sintered parts. Re-formulation of material blends for this system was begun, with the goal of eliminating mechanical stresses during sintering by matching the volumetric shrinkage of the core and shell materials. Thirty-three 7/8 inch drill bit inserts (WC-Co(6%)/WC-Co(16%) FM) were hot pressed during the reporting period. Six of these inserts were delivered for field-testing by Superior Rock Bit during the upcoming reporting period. In addition, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiCN FM cutting tool inserts were fabricated, and cutting tests performed.

  9. Radiaxial-fibrous calcites of shallow subsurface diagenetic origin

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzullo, S.J.; Bischoff, W.D.; Lobitzer, H.

    1989-03-01

    Radiaxial-fibrous calcites (RFC) in marine carbonates are generally considered syndepositional cements. In Upper Triassic and basal Liassic reef and platform limestones in Austria (Steinplatte complex), however, isopachous RFC is demonstrably a postdepositional diagenetic component that precipitated in shallow-burial phreatic environments during a time of periodic meteoric exposure. Isopachous RFC occurs solely within solution cavities and is interlayered with internal red sediment; discontinuities due to leaching separate sequential generations of RFC in the rocks. Accordingly, one possibility is that the RFC was originally low-magnesium calcite that precipitated in the meteoric phreatic zone during lowstands. Such calcites contain relatively low magnesium concentrations (average 0.87 mole % MgCO/sub 3/) and are /sup 18/O depleted (average - 5.81 /per thousand/ PDB). However, most other RFC cements in the sequence average slightly higher magnesium comparable to crinoidal calcites (1.13 mole % MgCO/sub 3/), are less depleted in /sup 18/O (average - 1.88 /per thousand/ PDB), and are partly dolomitized. Additionally, all the RFC cements are enriched in /sup 13/C to values similar to that of Triassic and Jurassic seawater (+ 2.86 /per thousand/ PDB) and are nonluminescent. Trace element studies indicate alteration of the rocks in partly closed, rock-dominated diagenetic systems. By these facts, the authors favor a precursor high-magnesium calcite mineralogy for the RFC cements, which possibly precipitated during highstands when meteoric pore waters were replaced by marine fluids. Thus, the geochemical trends observed are likely due to variations in the degree of meteoric alteration of high-magnesium calcite RFC rather than to differences in original mineralogy.

  10. Analysis of progressive damage in fibrous composite laminates

    SciTech Connect

    Kaveh-Ahangar, A.

    1990-01-01

    A model of a cracked laminate which consisted of three layers of fibrous composite materials where the middle layer is a 90 degree ply and contains an infinite row of equally spaced transverse cracks and the outer layers have arbitrary fiber orientations was proposed to study the progressive transverse cracking phenomena in multi-layered laminates. It was assumed that a microcrack which resembles a slit crack exists in the ply undergoing cracking. The constructed admissible stress field in the tiplet at dilute crack density was utilized to calculate the energy release rate of the microcrack. The thickness of the ply undergoing cracking, fiber orientation, and thickness of its adjacent plies were included in the analysis. Then, linear elastic fracture mechanics was used to predict the strength of a typical ply. The residual thermal stresses were also included in the analysis. The classical laminated plate theory was used to calculate the complementary energy of the cracked triplet in terms of its unknown effective thermoelastic properties and those of its damaged middle layer. The complementary energy of the triplet was also calculated in terms of the local properties of each layer of the triplet, from the constructed admissible stress fields. After calculating the thermoelastic properties of the damaged triplet, the thermoelastic properties of the damaged middle layer of the triplet were extracted from the relations between them which was obtained through the classical laminated plate theory. The energy release rate of a microcrack in the ligament between two existing cracks was calculated based on the constructed admissible stress fields. The effect of the crack density in the ply undergoing progressive cracking, the location of the microcrack, and fiber orientation of the adjacent plies were included in the analysis.

  11. Meningeal Solitary Fibrous Tumors with Delayed Extracranial Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Nayoung; Kim, Hannah; Min, Soo Kee; Paek, Sun-Ha; Park, Chul-Kee; Choi, Seung-Hong; Chae, U-Ri; Park, Sung-Hye

    2016-01-01

    Background: The term solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is preferred over meningeal hemangiopericytoma (HPC), because NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion has been observed in both intracranial and extracranial HPCs. HPCs are now considered cellular variants of SFTs. Methods: This study analyzes 19 patients with STAT6-confirmed SFTs, who were followed for over 11 years in a single institution. Ten patients (10/19, 56.2%) had extracranial metastases (metastatic group), while the remainder (9/19) did not (non-metastatic group). These two groups were compared clinicopathologically. Results: In the metastatic group, the primary metastatic sites were the lungs (n = 6), bone (n = 4), and liver (n = 3). There was a mean lag time of 14.2 years between the diagnosis of the initial meningeal tumor to that of systemic metastasis. The median age at initial tumor onset was 37.1 years in the metastatic group and 52.5 in the non-metastatic group. The 10-year survival rates of the metastatic- and non-metastatic groups were 100% and 33%, respectively. The significant prognostic factors for poor outcomes on univariate analysis included advanced age (≥45 years) and large initial tumor size (≥5 cm). In contrast, the patients with higher tumor grade, high mitotic rate (≥5/10 high-power fields), high Ki-67 index (≥5%), and the presence of necrosis or CD34 positivity showed tendency of poor prognosis but these parameters were not statistically significant poor prognostic markers. Conclusions: Among patients with SFTs, younger patients (<45 years) experienced longer survival times and paradoxically had more frequent extracranial metastases after long latent periods than did older patients. Therefore, young patients with SFTs require careful surveillance and follow-up for early detection of systemic metastases. PMID:26657311

  12. Childhood ovarian malignancy.

    PubMed

    Mahadik, Kalpana; Ghorpade, Kanchanmala

    2014-04-01

    Objective of this article is to appraise diagnostic aspects and treatment modalities in childhood ovarian tumor in background of available evidence. Literature search on Pubmed revealed various aspects of epidemiology, histopathological diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric ovarian tumor. 85 % of childhood tumors are germ cell tumors. The varied histopathological picture in germ cell tumors poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Immunohistochemistry and newer genetic markers like SALL4 and karyopherin-2 (KPNA2) have been helpful in differentiating ovarian yolk sac tumor from dysgerminoma, teratomas, and other pictures of hepatoid, endometrioid, clear cell carcinomatous, and adenocarcinomatous tissues with varied malignant potential. Before platinum therapy, these tumors were almost fatal in children. Fertility-conserving surgery with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin has dramatically changed the survival rates in these patients. This modality gives cancer cure with healthy offspring to female patients with childhood ovarian tumor. Evidence also supports this protocol resulting in successful pregnancy rates and safety of cytotoxic drugs in children born to these patients. PMID:24757335

  13. [Malignant Pleural Mesotheliomas].

    PubMed

    Biancosino, C; Redwan, B; Krüger, M; Eberlein, M; Bölükbas, S

    2016-09-01

    Malignant pleural mesotheliomas (MPM) are very aggressive tumors, which originate from the mesothelial cells of the pleural surface. The main risk factor associated with MPM is exposure to asbestos. The latency period between asbestos exposure and MPM can be 30-60 years. Clinical symptoms and signs are often nonspecifc. The diagnosis of MPM requires an adequate tissue specimen for pathological examination, and video assisted thoracoscopic surgey (VATS) is associated with the highest diagnostic yield. MPM are histologically classified into epitheloid, sacromatoid and biphasic (mixed) sub-types. Accurate staging with invasive tests, if needed, is an important step before an interdisciplinary team can decide on an optimal (multi-modal) treatment approach. A multi-modal treatment approach (surgery, radiation oncology and chemotherapy) is superior to all approaches relying only on a single modality, if the patient qualifies for it from an oncological and functional standpoint. The goal of the surgical therapy is to achieve macroscopic complete resection. There are two competing surgical approaches and philosophies: extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) and radical pleurectomy (RP). Over the last years a paradigm shift from EPP to RP occurred and RP is now often the preferred surgical option. PMID:27612329

  14. Primary malignant lymphoma arising in postmastectomy lymphedema. Another facet of the Stewart-Treves syndrome.

    PubMed

    d'Amore, E S; Wick, M R; Geisinger, K R; Frizzera, G

    1990-05-01

    In rare cases, primary malignant lymphomas may arise in the soft tissues. Only one previous case has arisen in the context of chronic lymphedema. Because of the clinical appearance of such lesions, which resemble violaceous nodular or plaquelike tumors, they may be confused clinically with lymphedema-associated angiosarcomas occurring after radical mastectomy (Stewart-Treves syndrome). Furthermore, the histologic appearance of some lymphomas and angiosarcomas may also be similar. We studied two women with primary postmastectomy lymphedema-related malignant lymphoma in the soft tissues of the upper arm. These tumors arose 11 and 30 years, respectively, after radical removal of ductal mammary carcinomas. Histologically, one neoplasm mimicked metastatic carcinoma or epithelioid angiosarcoma; whereas the other was initially confused with a variety of pathologic entities, including vasculitis, epithelioid hemangioma, and malignant fibrous histiocytoma. The lymphoid nature of both lesions was confirmed by immunoreactivity for leukocyte common antigen in addition to the B-lymphocyte marker, L26. Conversely, vascular and epithelial determinants were absent. One patient's disease pursued an indolent course; she died of unknown causes but with no evidence of lymphoma at last follow-up. The second patient is currently in remission on chemotherapy. Awareness of the existence of lymphedema-related malignant lymphoma and familiarity with methods used for its distinction from epithelioid vascular sarcomas should prevent unnecessary surgery. PMID:2327551

  15. Trace-element patterns of fibrous and monocrystalline diamonds: Insights into mantle fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rege, S.; Griffin, W. L.; Pearson, N. J.; Araujo, D.; Zedgenizov, D.; O'Reilly, S. Y.

    2010-08-01

    During their growth diamonds may trap micron-scale inclusions of the fluids from which they grew, and these "time capsules" provide insights into the metasomatic processes that have modified the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. LAM-ICPMS analysis of trace elements in > 500 fibrous and monocrystalline diamonds worldwide has been used to understand the nature of these fluids. Analyses of fibrous diamonds define two general types of pattern, a "fibrous-high" (FH) one with high contents of LREE, Ba and K, and a "fibrous-low" (FL) pattern characterized by depletion in LREE/MREE, Ba and K, negative anomalies in Sr and Y, and subchondritic Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta. Both types may be found in fibrous diamonds from single deposits, and in three Yakutian pipes some diamonds show abrupt transitions from inclusion-rich cores with FH patterns to clearer rims with FL patterns. Most monocrystalline diamonds show FL-type patterns, but some have patterns that resemble those of FH fibrous diamonds. Peridotitic and eclogitic monocrystalline diamonds may show either patterns with relatively flat REE, or patterns with more strongly depleted LREE. Kimberlites that contain peridotitic diamonds with "high" patterns also contain eclogitic diamonds with "high" patterns. Strong similarities in the patterns of these two groups of diamonds may suggest high fluid/rock ratios. Many diamonds of the "superdeep" paragenesis have trace-element patterns similar to those of other monocrystalline diamonds. This may be evidence that the trace-element compositions of deep-seated fluids are generally similar to those that form diamonds in the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. The element fractionations observed between the FH and FL patterns are consistent with the immiscible separation of a silicic fluid from a carbonatite-silicate fluid, leaving a residual carbonatitic fluid strongly enriched in LREE, Ba and alkalies. This model would suggest that most monocrystalline diamonds crystallized from the more

  16. Creating Hierarchical Topographies on Fibrous Platforms Using Femtosecond Laser Ablation for Directing Myoblasts Behavior.

    PubMed

    Jun, Indong; Chung, Yong-Woo; Heo, Yun-Hoe; Han, Hyung-Seop; Park, Jimin; Jeong, Hongsoo; Lee, Hyunjung; Lee, Yu Bin; Kim, Yu-Chan; Seok, Hyun-Kwang; Shin, Heungsoo; Jeon, Hojeong

    2016-02-10

    Developing an artificial extracellular matrix that closely mimics the native tissue microenvironment is important for use as both a cell culture platform for controlling cell fate and an in vitro model system for investigating the role of the cellular microenvironment. Electrospinning, one of the methods for fabricating structures that mimic the native ECM, is a promising technique for creating fibrous platforms. It is well-known that align or randomly distributed electrospun fibers provide cellular contact guidance in a single pattern. However, native tissues have hierarchical structures, i.e., topographies on the micro- and nanoscales, rather than a single structure. Thus, we fabricated randomly distributed nanofibrous (720 ± 80 nm in diameter) platforms via a conventional electrospinning process, and then we generated microscale grooves using a femtosecond laser ablation process to develop engineered fibrous platforms with patterned hierarchical topographies. The engineered fibrous platforms can regulate cellular adhesive morphology, proliferation, and distinct distribution of focal adhesion proteins. Furthermore, confluent myoblasts cultured on the engineered fibrous platforms revealed that the direction of myotube assembly can be controlled. These results indicate that our engineered fibrous platforms may be useful tools in investigating the roles of nano- and microscale topographies in the communication between cells and ECM. PMID:26771693

  17. Highly Elastic and Suturable Electrospun Poly(Glycerol Sebacate) Fibrous Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Jeffries, Eric M.; Allen, Robert A.; Gao, Jin; Pesce, Matt; Wang, Yadong

    2015-01-01

    Poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) is a thermally-crosslinked elastomer suitable for tissue regeneration due to its elasticity, degradability, and pro-regenerative inflammatory response. Pores in PGS scaffolds are typically introduced by porogen leaching, which compromises strength. Methods for producing fibrous PGS scaffolds are very limited. Electrospinning is the most widely used method for laboratory scale production of fibrous scaffolds. Electrospinning PGS by itself is challenging, necessitating a carrier polymer which can affect material properties if not removed. We report a simple electrospinning method to produce distinct PGS fibers while maintaining the desired mechanical and cytocompatibility properties of thermally crosslinked PGS. Fibrous PGS demonstrated 5 times higher tensile strength and increased suture retention compared to porous PGS foams. Additionally, similar modulus and elastic recovery were observed. A final advantage of fibrous PGS sheets is the ability to create multi-laminate constructs due to fiber bonding that occurs during thermal crosslinking. Taken together, these highly elastic fibrous PGS scaffolds will enable new approaches in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:25686558

  18. Highly elastic and suturable electrospun poly(glycerol sebacate) fibrous scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, Eric M; Allen, Robert A; Gao, Jin; Pesce, Matt; Wang, Yadong

    2015-05-01

    Poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) is a thermally-crosslinked elastomer suitable for tissue regeneration due to its elasticity, degradability, and pro-regenerative inflammatory response. Pores in PGS scaffolds are typically introduced by porogen leaching, which compromises strength. Methods for producing fibrous PGS scaffolds are very limited. Electrospinning is the most widely used method for laboratory scale production of fibrous scaffolds. Electrospinning PGS by itself is challenging, necessitating a carrier polymer which can affect material properties if not removed. We report a simple electrospinning method to produce distinct PGS fibers while maintaining the desired mechanical and cytocompatibility properties of thermally crosslinked PGS. Fibrous PGS demonstrated 5 times higher tensile strength and increased suture retention compared to porous PGS foams. Additionally, similar modulus and elastic recovery were observed. A final advantage of fibrous PGS sheets is the ability to create multi-laminate constructs due to fiber bonding that occurs during thermal crosslinking. Taken together, these highly elastic fibrous PGS scaffolds will enable new approaches in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:25686558

  19. Apatite-coated three-dimensional fibrous scaffolds and their osteoblast response.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yanwei; Zhao, Yan; Wong, Cynthia S; Wang, Xungai; Lin, Tong

    2013-03-01

    Apatite was applied onto the fiber surface of an interbonded three-dimensional polycaprolactone fibrous scaffold through a vacuum nitrogen plasma pretreatment followed by immersion in a simulated body fluid. The plasma pretreatment improved the wettability and accelerated apatite deposition on the fiber surface. The apatite coating was proven to be biocompatible to fibroblast cells without any cytotoxicity. Two osteoblast cell lines, human fetal osteoblast cells (hFOB1.19) and human osteosarcoma cells (Saos-2), were used for evaluating the cell response of the fibrous matrices. The apatite coating showed enhanced cell attachment for both hFOB1.19 and Saos-2 cells. In comparison to the uncoated fibrous scaffolds, the apatite-coated fibrous matrix had an improved hFOB1.19 cell proliferation for at least 2 weeks. Enhanced cell differentiation was also observed on the apatite-coated fibrous matrix primarily on the third, 10th, and 14th days of culture. Saos-2 cells showed improved proliferation in the apatite-coated matrix mainly on days 3 and 14, but the differentiation was increased only on the third day of culture. PMID:22941867

  20. Experimental investigation of sedimentation of LOCA - generated fibrous debris and sludge in BWR suppression pools

    SciTech Connect

    Souto, F.J.; Rao, D.V.

    1995-12-01

    Several tests were conducted in a 1:2.4 scale model of a Mark I suppression pool to investigate the behavior of fibrous insulation and sludge debris under LOCA conditions. NUKON{trademark} shreds, manually cut and tore up in a leaf shredder, and iron oxide particles were used to simulate fibrous and sludge debris, respectively. The suppression pool model included four downcomers fitted with pistons to simulate the steam-water oscillations during chugging expected during a LOCA. The study was conducted to provide debris settling velocity data for the models used in the BLOCKAGE computer code, developed to estimate the ECCS pump head loss due to clogging of the strainers with LOCA generated debris. The tests showed that the debris, both fibrous and particulate, remains fully mixed during chugging; they also showed that, during chugging, the fibrous debris underwent fragmentation into smaller sizes, including individual fibers. Measured concentrations showed that fibrous debris settled slower than the sludge, and that the settling behavior of each material is independent of the presence of the other material. Finally, these tests showed that the assumption of considering uniform debris concentration during strainer calculations is reasonable. The tests did not consider the effects of the operation of the ECCS on the transport of debris in the suppression pool.

  1. PIV-based investigation of the skin friction of the flow over random fibrous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirbod, Parisa; Gheisari, Reza

    2015-11-01

    Finite Reynolds number (Re<20) flow over fibrous medium inside a rectangular duct was studied using a planar 2D PIV system. Three different fibrous materials with different porosities were used. Fibrous material lined the bottom wall of the duct along the length of the duct. The flow regime for all tests was laminar, and measurements were all done when the flow reached a steady state. Error and uncertainty sources in the experiments were also discussed. Shear rates were estimated at the surface of the fibrous media. As a conclusion to this study skin friction factor were calculated at the interface of all fibrous media at selected Reynolds number. Then using power function, curve fits with the Cf = a/Re form were found which could closely correlate skin friction and Reynolds number. To weaken the effect of near-wall errors in estimated shear rates and consequently skin friction, an average of shear rate estimation in a layer with thickness of 5 mm was calculated which was used to calculate an average skin friction. Correlations of average skin friction with average Reynolds number were also presented.

  2. Bile duct malignancies.

    PubMed

    Tucek, S; Tomasek, J; Halámkova, J; Kiss, I; Andrasina, T; Hemmelová, B; Adámková-Krákorová, D; Vyzula, R

    2010-01-01

    Bile duct malignancies include intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECC), gall bladder carcinoma (GC) and carcinoma of Vater's ampulla (ampulloma). Bile duct neoplasms are rare tumours with overall poor prognosis. The overall incidence affects up to 12.5 per 100,000 persons in the Czech Republic. The mortality rate has risen recently to 9.5 per 100,000 persons. The incidence and mortality have been remarkably stable over the past 3 decades. The survival rate of patients with these tumours is poor, usually not exceeding 12 months. The diagnostic process is complex, uneasy and usually late. Most cases are diagnosed when unresectable, and palliative treatment is the main approach of medical care for these tumours. The treatment remains very challenging. New approaches have not brought much improvement in this field. Standards of palliative care are lacking and quality of life assessments are surprisingly not common. From the scarce data it seems, however, that multimodal individually tailored treatment can prolong patients'survival and improve the health-related quality of life. The care in specialized centres offers methods of surgery, interventional radiology, clinical oncology and high quality supportive care. These methods are discussed in the article in greater detail. Improvements in this field can be sought in new diagnostic methods and new procedures in surgery and interventional radiology. Understanding the tumour biology on the molecular level could shift the strategy to a more successful one, resulting in more cured patients. Further improvements in palliative care can be sought by defining new targets and new drug development. The lack of patients with bile duct neoplasms has been the limiting factor for any improvements. A new design of larger randomized international multicentric clinical trials with prompt data sharing could help to overcome this major problem. Defining standards of palliative care is a necessity

  3. Malignant hyperthermia: a review.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Henry; Pollock, Neil; Schiemann, Anja; Bulger, Terasa; Stowell, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a pharmacogenetic disorder of skeletal muscle that presents as a hypermetabolic response to potent volatile anesthetic gases such as halothane, sevoflurane, desflurane, isoflurane and the depolarizing muscle relaxant succinylcholine, and rarely, in humans, to stressors such as vigorous exercise and heat. The incidence of MH reactions ranges from 1:10,000 to 1: 250,000 anesthetics. However, the prevalence of the genetic abnormalities may be as great as one in 400 individuals. MH affects humans, certain pig breeds, dogs and horses. The classic signs of MH include hyperthermia, tachycardia, tachypnea, increased carbon dioxide production, increased oxygen consumption, acidosis, hyperkalaemia, muscle rigidity, and rhabdomyolysis, all related to a hypermetabolic response. The syndrome is likely to be fatal if untreated. An increase in end-tidal carbon dioxide despite increased minute ventilation provides an early diagnostic clue. In humans the syndrome is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, while in pigs it is autosomal recessive. Uncontrolled rise of myoplasmic calcium, which activates biochemical processes related to muscle activation leads to the pathophysiologic changes. In most cases, the syndrome is caused by a defect in the ryanodine receptor. Over 400 variants have been identified in the RYR1 gene located on chromosome 19q13.1, and at least 34 are causal for MH. Less than 1 % of variants have been found in CACNA1S but not all of these are causal. Diagnostic testing involves the in vitro contracture response of biopsied muscle to halothane, caffeine, and in some centres ryanodine and 4-chloro-m-cresol. Elucidation of the genetic changes has led to the introduction of DNA testing for susceptibility to MH. Dantrolene sodium is a specific antagonist and should be available wherever general anesthesia is administered. Increased understanding of the clinical manifestation and pathophysiology of the syndrome, has lead to the

  4. Malignant external otitis: CT evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Curtin, H.D.; Wolfe, P.; May, M.

    1982-11-01

    Malignant external otitis is an aggressive infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa that most often occurs in elderly diabetics. Malignant external otitis often spreads inferiorly from the external canal to involve the subtemporal area and progresses medially towards the petrous apex leading to multiple cranial nerve palsies. The computed tomographic (CT) findings in malignant external otitis include obliteration of the normal fat planes in the subtemporal area as well as patchy destruction of the bony cortex of the mastoid. The point of exit of the various cranial nerves can be identified on CT scans, and the extent of the inflammatory mass correlates well with the clinical findings. Four cases of malignant external otitis are presented. In each case CT provided a good demonstration of involvement of the soft tissues at the base of the skull.

  5. AMG 319 Lymphoid Malignancy FIH

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-20

    Cancer; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Hematologic Malignancies; Hematology; Leukemia; Low Grade Lymphoma; Lymphoma; Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Oncology; Oncology Patients; T Cell Lymphoma; Tumors

  6. Drugs Approved for Malignant Mesothelioma

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for malignant mesothelioma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  7. Ibrutinib for B cell malignancies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Research over the role of Bruton’s agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase (BTK) in B-lymphocyte development, differentiation, signaling and survival has led to better understanding of the pathogenesis of B-cell malignancies. Down-regulation of BTK activity is an attractive novel strategy for treating patients with B-cell malignancies. Ibrutinib (PCI-32765), a potent inhibitor of BTK induces impressive responses in B-cell malignancies through irreversible bond with cysteine-481 in the active site of BTK (TH/SH1 domain) and inhibits BTK phosphorylation on Tyr223. This review discussed in details the role of BTK in B-cell signaling, molecular interactions between B cell lymphoma/leukemia cells and their microenvironment. Clinical trials of the novel BTK inhibitor, ibrutinib (PCI-32765), in B cell malignancies were summarized. PMID:24472371

  8. Self-assembly studies of native and recombinant fibrous proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Donna Lucille

    The structure of silk proteins consists of alternating amorphous (glycine-rich) and ordered crystalline regions (poly(alanine) and poly(glycine-alanine) repeats), where the organized regions are typically beta-sheet assemblies. In collagen, the basic helical repeat (glycine-proline-hydroxyproline and variants on this repeat) drives hierarchical assembly. Three polypeptide chains form left-handed poly-proline II-like helices, these three chains then self-assemble to form a right-handed triple helix. The focus of this thesis is on these proteins and defined variations thereof to reveal features of fibrous protein self-assembly. The amino acid sequences of native silk and collagen and their respective assembly environments have been systematically manipulated. Spider silk protein, based on the consensus sequence of Nephila clavipes dragline-silk, was genetically engineered to include methionines flanking the beta-sheet forming polyalanine regions. These methionines could be selectively oxidized and reduced, altering the bulkiness and charge of a methionine-based sulfoxide group to control beta-sheet formation by steric hindrance. A second version of the sterical trigger included a recognition site for Protein Kinase A allowing for the selective phosphorylation of a serine. Patterning a monolayer of precursor "director" molecules on length scales ranging from nanometer- to micrometer-length scales simplifies the interpretation of supramolecular assembly. Utilizing the atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based technique of dip-pen nanolithography, thiolated collagen and a collagen-like peptide were patterned at 30--50 nm line widths on evaporated gold surfaces. These are the largest molecules thus far positively printed on a surface at such small-length scales. The method preserved the triple helical structure and biological activity of collagen and even fostered the formation of characteristic higher-levels of structural organization. Nanopatterns were also achieved for

  9. A New Approach to Fibrous Composite Laminate Strength Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart-Smith, L. J.

    1990-01-01

    A method of predicting the strength of cross-plied fibrous composite laminates is based on expressing the classical maximum-shear-stress failure criterion for ductile metals in terms of strains. Starting with such a formulation for classical isotropic materials, the derivation is extended to orthotropic materials having a longitudinal axis of symmetry, to represent the fibers in a unidirectional composite lamina. The only modification needed to represent those same fibers with properties normalized to the lamina rather than fiber is a change in axial modulus. A mirror image is added to the strain-based lamina failure criterion for fiber-dominated failures to reflect the cutoffs due to the presence of orthogonal fibers. It is found that the combined failure envelope is now identical with the well-known maximum-strain failure model in the tension-tension and compression-compression quadrants but is truncated in the shear quadrants. The successive application of this simple failure model for fibers in the 0/90 degree and +/- 45 degree orientations, in turn, is shown to be the necessary and sufficient characterization of the fiber-dominated failures of laminates made from fibers having the same tensile and compressive strengths. When one such strength is greater than the other, the failure envelope is appropriately truncated for the lesser direct strain. The shear-failure cutoffs are now based on the higher axial strain to failure since they occur at lower strains than and are usually not affected by such mechanisms as microbuckling. Premature matrix failures can also be covered by appropriately truncating the fiber failure envelope. Matrix failures are excluded from consideration for conventional fiber/polymer composites but the additional features needed for a more rigorous analysis of exotic materials are covered. The new failure envelope is compared with published biaxial test data. The theory is developed for unnotched laminates but is easily shrunk to incorporate

  10. FIBROUS MONOLITH WEAR RESISTANT COMPONENTS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Mark J. Rigali

    2001-08-15

    A set of materials property data for potential wear resistant materials was collected. These materials are designated for use as the ''core'' materials in the Fibrous Monolith structure. The material properties of hardness, toughness, thermal conductivity and cost were selected as determining factors for material choice. Data for these four properties were normalized, and weighting factors were assigned for each property to establish priority and evaluate the effects of priority fluctuation. Materials were then given a score based on the normalized parameters and weighting values. Using the initial estimates for parameter priority, the highest ranking material was tungsten carbide, with diamond as the second ranked material. Several materials were included in the trade study, and five were selected as promising ''core'' materials to include in this effort. These materials are tungsten carbide, diamond, boron carbide, titanium diboride and silicon carbide. Work was initiated on a trade study to evaluate ''shell'' materials. These materials will require the investigation of different material properties, including ultimate tensile strength, ductility, toughness, thermal expansion, thermal conductivity and compatibility during consolidation with the ''core'' materials. Kyocera Industrial Ceramics in Kyoto, Japan was visited, with the purpose of negotiating and signing the subcontract for Kyocera's participation on this program. An assessment was made on the testing and manufacturing capabilities of Kyocera and how such capabilities can be integrated into our development effort. Tours were conducted of Kyocera's machine tool production plant in Sendai, Japan, as well as their research and development facilities in Kagoshima, Japan. Kyocera's facilities include substantial materials characterization and testing capabilities at room and elevated temperatures, and manufacturing capabilities of thousands of parts/hr, all of which will be made available to us for use on

  11. Optical reflectance in fibrous tissues and skeletal muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranasinghesagara, Janaka C.

    We studied two biological tissues with optically anisotropic structures: high moisture soy protein extrudates and skeletal muscles. High moisture extrusion has been used to produce vegetable meat analogs that resemble real animal meat and have significant health benefits. Since visual and textural properties are key factors for consumer acceptance, assessing fiber formation in the extruded soy protein product is important for quality control purpose. A non-destructive method based on photon migration was developed to measure fiber formation in extruded soy proteins. The measured fiber formation index in intact samples showed good agreement with that obtained from image analysis on peeled samples. By implementing this new method in a fast laser scanning system, we have acquired two dimensional mappings of fiber formation and orientation in the entire sample in real time. In addition to fibrous structures, skeletal muscles have a unique periodic sarcomere structure which produces strong light diffractions. However, inconsistent experimental results have been reported in single fiber diffraction studies. By applying the three-dimensional coupled wave theory in a physical sarcomere model, we found that a variety of experimental observations can be explained if inhomogeneous muscle morphological profiles are considered. We also discovered that the sarcomere structure produced a unique optical reflectance pattern in whole muscle. None of the existing light propagation theories are able to describe this pattern. We developed a Monte Carlo model incorporating the sarcomere diffraction effect. The simulated results quantitatively resemble the unique patterns observed in experiments. We used a set of parameters to quantify the optical reflectance profiles produced by a point incident light in whole muscle. Two parameters, q and B, were obtained by numerically fitting the equi-intensity contours of the reflectance pattern. Two spatial gradients were calculated along the

  12. Telomerase Activation in Hematological Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ropio, Joana; Merlio, Jean-Philippe; Soares, Paula; Chevret, Edith

    2016-01-01

    Telomerase expression and telomere maintenance are critical for cell proliferation and survival, and they play important roles in development and cancer, including hematological malignancies. Transcriptional regulation of the rate-limiting subunit of human telomerase reverse transcriptase gen (hTERT) is a complex process, and unveiling the mechanisms behind its reactivation is an important step for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Here, we review the main mechanisms of telomerase activation and the associated hematologic malignancies. PMID:27618103

  13. Microwave Ablation of Hepatic Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Lubner, Meghan G.; Brace, Christopher L.; Ziemlewicz, Tim J.; Hinshaw, J. Louis; Lee, Fred T.

    2013-01-01

    Microwave ablation is an extremely promising heat-based thermal ablation modality that has particular applicability in treating hepatic malignancies. Microwaves can generate very high temperatures in very short time periods, potentially leading to improved treatment efficiency and larger ablation zones. As the available technology continues to improve, microwave ablation is emerging as a valuable alternative to radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of hepatic malignancies. This article reviews the current state of microwave ablation including technical and clinical considerations. PMID:24436518

  14. Cryptococcus neoformans infection in malignancy.

    PubMed

    Schmalzle, Sarah A; Buchwald, Ulrike K; Gilliam, Bruce L; Riedel, David J

    2016-09-01

    Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic invasive fungal infection that is well described and easily recognised when it occurs as meningitis in HIV-infected persons. Malignancy and its treatment may also confer a higher risk of infection with Cryptococcus neoformans, but this association has not been as well described. A case of cryptococcosis in a cancer patient is presented, and all cases of coincident C. neoformans infection and malignancy in adults published in the literature in English between 1970 and 2014 are reviewed. Data from these cases were aggregated in order to describe the demographics, type of malignancy, site of infection, clinical manifestations, treatment and outcomes of cryptococcosis in patients with cancer. Haematologic malignancies accounted for 82% of cases, with lymphomas over-represented compared to US population data (66% vs. 53% respectively). Cryptococcosis was reported rarely in patients with solid tumours. Haematologic malignancy patients were more likely to have central nervous system (P < 0.001) or disseminated disease (P < 0.001), receive Amphotericin B as part of initial therapy (P = 0.023), and had higher reported mortality rates than those with solid tumours (P = 0.222). Providers should have heightened awareness of the possibility of cryptococcosis in patients with haematologic malignancy presenting with infection. PMID:26932366

  15. Clinical outcome and prognosis of carbon ion radiotherapy on thoracic malignant tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sha

    Objective To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and side-response of high-LET carbon ion radiotherapy on thoracic malignant tumors. Methods Ten patients with pathological confirmed thoracic malignant tumors received treatment using heavy ion accelerator, which included 6 cases with non-small lung cancer, one case with small lung cancer, 2 cases with metastatic sarcomas and one case with invasive thymoma. The applied regimen included fractioned dose (5.5-6.8GyE/Fraction), one faction/day, and 7 fractions/week. The total dose ranged from 55 to 70 GyE. Results The short-term results showed that the response rate (the complete response (CR) rate +the partial response (PR) rate) was 10% at the first month, 40% at the third month and 90% at the sixth month. The overall response rate was 90% and the rate of stable disease was 10%. There was no relation between the response rate and tumor pathology (P>0.05) while significance between the response rate and the tumor volume.At median follow-up of 27 months (range, 6 to 36 months), the local control rate and free-disease rate were respectively 100% an 90% at the first year, 90% and 80% at the secondary year, 80% and 70% at the third year. The death rate due to disease progression was 20% and the non-specific death rate was 10%. Side and toxicity effects: Grade I skin effect occurred in three cases and Grade I lung effect occurred in two cases. The blood counts didn’t reach significance among pre-radiation course, peri-radiation course and post-radiation course (P>0.05). The subgoups of T cells detected in humoral immunity and cytoimmunity didn’t change between pre-radiation and post radiation(P>0.05). Conclusions Carbon ion radiotherapy is effective and safe in the management of patients with thoracic malignant tumors. There were no obvious side effects. The long term of clinical outcome and the late effect need to be further observed.

  16. Histochemical identification of malignant and premalignant lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebow, Charles; Maloney, M. J.

    1991-06-01

    Malignant and transforming cells can be identified by biochemical parameters which can be used to localize lesions in situ for laser surgery. These cells express unique proteins, proteins in unusual quantities, or other biochemical alterations which can be utilized to image lesions of such cells. Several methods have been identified, both in vitro and in vivo, to identify such lesions. Several antibodies were examined for their properties of tissue identification, including CEA, F36/22, and AE1/AE3. F36/22, an antibody developed by M. T. Chu against human breast cancer cells, associated with two lines of oral cancer (KB and HCPC), and against two naturally occurring human oral squamous cell cancers. CEA, an antibody developed against human colon cancer, also reacted against both cell lines and both pathological samples. AE1/AE3, developed against normal fibrous components, also reacted against the samples, but in a much less regular manner. F36/22 associated with the histologically identifiably most dedifferentiated cells at the leading edge of the invading cancer. CEA, on the other hand, associated with more quiescent, older, established cancer cells. This demonstrates that antibodies developed against cancers of different organs can be used to identify a wide variety of cancers, and may have prognostic value. F36/22 coupled to fluorescein was used to identify oral cancer cells. Other properties of cancers and developing cancers can also be exploited to identify cancers, including their over-expression of tyrosine kinase and tyrosine kinase stimulating hormones such as Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF). A model of premalignant lesion produced in the hamster buccal cheek pouch with 6 week application of DMBA over-expresses constitutive tyrosine kinase which can be demonstrated biochemically. This initiated lesion can be promoted to frank cancer by growth factors released in response to laser surgery. Preliminary results suggest that these lesions can be identified by

  17. Superhydrophobic coating to delay drug release from drug-loaded electrospun fibrous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Botao; Xu, Shichen; Shi, Suqing; Jia, Pengxiang; Xu, Qing; Hu, Gaoli; Zhang, Hongxin; Wang, Cuiyu

    2015-12-01

    The drug-loaded electrospun fibrous materials showed attractive applications in biomedical fields; however, the serve burst release of drug from this kind of drug carrier limited its further applications. In this study, inspired by water strong repellency of superhydrophobic surface, the drug-loaded electrospun fibrous mat coated with superhydrophobic layer was constructed to retard and control drug release. The results indicated that the superhydrophobic coating could be simply fabricated on the drug-loaded electrospun mat by the electrospray approach, and the thickness of the superhydrophobic coating could be finely controlled by varying the deposition time. It was further found that, as compared with drug-loaded electrospun mats, drug released sustainably from the samples coated with superhydrophobic layer, and the drug release rate could be controlled by the thickness of superhydrophobic layer. In summary, the current approach of coating a superhydrophobic layer on the drug-loaded electrospun fibrous materials offered a fundament for drug sustained release.

  18. Electrospinning polyvinylidene fluoride fibrous membranes containing anti-bacterial drugs used as wound dressing.

    PubMed

    He, Ting; Wang, Jingnan; Huang, Peilin; Zeng, Baozhen; Li, Haihong; Cao, Qingyun; Zhang, Shiying; Luo, Zhuo; Deng, David Y B; Zhang, Hongwu; Zhou, Wuyi

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to synthesis drug-loaded fibrous membrane scaffolds for potential applications as wound dressing. Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) fibrous membranes were loaded with enrofloxacin (Enro) drugs by using an electrospinning process, and their mechanical strength, drug release profile and anti-bacterial properties were evaluated. Enro drug-loaded PVDF membranes exhibited good elasticity, flexibility and excellent mechanical strength. The electrospinning Enro/PVDF membranes showed a burst drug release in the initial 12h, followed by sustained release for the next 3 days, which was an essential property for antibiotic drugs applied for wound healing. The drug-loaded PVDF fibrous membranes displayed excellent anti-bacterial activity toward Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The results suggest that electrospinning PVDF membrane scaffolds loaded with drugs can be used as wound dressing. PMID:25936562

  19. Solitary fibrous tumour of the cheek: An unusual presentation of a rare soft tissue tumour

    PubMed Central

    Jones, JL; Jones, AV; Drage, NA; Bhatia, S; Hourihan, MD

    2014-01-01

    This case report discusses the unusual presentation and ultrasound features of a solitary fibrous tumour of the face. Solitary fibrous tumour is an uncommon form of soft tissue tumour which, although seen predominantly within the lung pleura, can occur throughout the body in sites such as the peritoneum, mediastinum and head and neck. Ultrasound is an excellent imaging modality in the assessment of soft tissue masses in the head and neck. The ultrasound features demonstrated by this example of solitary fibrous tumour are reviewed. This report also highlights that ultrasound alone is ultimately limited in reaching a definitive diagnosis. The roles of other investigations such as ultrasound-guided biopsy and cross-sectional imaging are discussed.

  20. Fibrous Dysplasia of the Spine – A Case Involving Three Levels of Thoracic Spine

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Kenneth M; O’hEireamhoin, Sven; Sheng, Michael Tan Chien; Devitt, Aiden

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Involvement of the spinal column in either monostotic or polyostotic form is rare, with fewer than thirty-five cases discussed in the literature. Most of the cases of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia of spine have involvement of the appendicular skeleton. Case Report: We report a case of a 74-year-old Irish man with a two month history of back pain. Investigations revealed a diagnosis of fibrous dysplasia involving three levels of the thoracic spine in isolation. The patient underwent T2-T9 stabilization and bone grafting. Conclusion: A case of fibrous dysplasia involving three levels of the thoracic spine in isolation has never previously been reported. The extreme rarity of this type of presentation can pose a diagnostic dilemma, and in cases with spinal involvement, a consensus of management has not yet been achieved. PMID:27298965

  1. Anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and cytotoxic activity of fibrous clays.

    PubMed

    Cervini-Silva, Javiera; Nieto-Camacho, Antonio-; Ramírez-Apan, María Teresa; Gómez-Vidales, Virginia; Palacios, Eduardo; Montoya, Ascención; Ronquillo de Jesús, Elba

    2015-05-01

    Produced worldwide at 1.2m tons per year, fibrous clays are used in the production of pet litter, animal feed stuff to roof parcels, construction and rheological additives, and other applications needing to replace long-fiber length asbestos. To the authors' knowledge, however, information on the beneficial effects of fibrous clays on health remains scarce. This paper reports on the anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and cytotoxic activity by sepiolite (Vallecas, Spain) and palygorskite (Torrejon El Rubio, Spain). The anti-inflammatory activity was determined using the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) methods. Histological cuts were obtained for quantifying leukocytes found in the epidermis. Palygorkite and sepiolite caused edema inhibition and migration of neutrophils ca. 68.64 and 45.54%, and 80 and 65%, respectively. Fibrous clays yielded high rates of infiltration, explained by cleavage of polysomes and exposure of silanol groups. Also, fibrous clays showed high inhibition of myeloperoxidase contents shortly after exposure, but decreased sharply afterwards. In contrast, tubular clays caused an increasing inhibition of myeloperoxidase with time. Thus, clay structure restricted the kinetics and mechanism of myeloperoxidase inhibition. Fibrous clays were screened in vitro against human cancer cell lines. Cytotoxicity was determined using the protein-binding dye sulforhodamine B (SRB). Exposing cancer human cells to sepiolite or palygorskite showed growth inhibition varying with cell line. This study shows that fibrous clays served as an effective anti-inflammatory, limited by chemical transfer and cellular-level signals responding exclusively to an early exposure to clay, and cell viability decreasing significantly only after exposure to high concentrations of sepiolite. PMID:25819359

  2. IL-4 gene expression in adventitial layer (fibrous layer) of hepatic ovine and bovine hydatid cysts.

    PubMed

    Dorosti, Zahra; Tolouei, Sepideh; Khanahmad, Hossein; Jafari, Rasool; Jafaee, Fereshteh; Sharafi, Seyedeh Marayam; Darani, Hossein Yousofi

    2016-09-01

    Cystic Echinococcosis is a parasitic disease with cosmopolitan distribution caused by the tape worm Echinococcus granulosus. Fibrous layer is developed around the cyst as a host immune response reaction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of IL-4 gene expression in fibrous layer of bovine and ovine hepatic hydatid cysts using quantitative technique of Real-Time PCR. In this descriptive study the samples of hydatid cyst fibrous layer were taken from 6 bovine and 6 ovine hepatic hydatid cysts. Samples of normal liver tissue close to the cyst were also taken as controls. Total RNA from each sample was extracted and then converted to cDNA. Afterward, the rate of IL-4 gene expression for each sample was evaluated using real-time PCR technique. Data were analyzed by REST software (version 2.0.13, 2009). In sheep the rate of IL-4 gene expression in the fibrous layer of hepatic hydatid cysts was 1.98 times more than the rate of IL4 gene expression in control samples, but the difference was not significant (P = 0.561). In cattle the rate of IL-4 gene expression in the fibrous layer of hepatic hydatid cysts was 9.84 times more than that of control samples which was statistically significant (P < 0.001). With high rate of IL4 expression especially in fibrous layer of bovine hydatid cyst, it can be concluded that this interleukin may play an important role in host parasite relationship. PMID:27605798

  3. Water-stable three-dimensional ultrafine fibrous scaffolds from keratin for cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Xu, Helan; Cai, Shaobo; Xu, Lan; Yang, Yiqi

    2014-07-22

    Intrinsically water-stable scaffolds composed of ultrafine keratin fibers oriented randomly and evenly in three dimensions were electrospun for cartilage tissue engineering. Keratin has been recognized as a biomaterial that could substantially support the growth and development of multiple cell lines. Besides, three-dimensional (3D) ultrafine fibrous structures were preferred in tissue engineering due to their structural similarity to native extracellular matrices in soft tissues. Recently, we have developed a nontraditional approach to developing 3D fibrous scaffolds from alcohol-soluble corn protein, zein, and verified their structural advantages in tissue engineering. However, keratin with highly cross-linked molecular structures could not be readily dissolved in common solvents for fiber spinning, which required the remarkable drawability of solution. So far, 3D fibrous scaffolds from pure keratin for biomedical applications have not been reported. In this research, the highly cross-linked keratin from chicken feathers was de-cross-linked and disentangled into linear and aligned molecules with preserved molecular weights, forming highly stretchable spinning dope. The solution was readily electrospun into scaffolds with ultrafine keratin fibers oriented randomly in three dimensions. Due to the highly cross-linked molecular structures, keratin scaffolds showed intrinsic water stability. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells could penetrate much deeper, proliferate, and chondrogenically differentiate remarkably better on the 3D keratin scaffolds than on 2D PLA fibrous scaffolds, 3D soy protein fibrous scaffolds, or 3D commercial nonfibrous scaffolds. In summary, the electrospun 3D ultrafine fibrous scaffolds from keratin could be promising candidates for cartilage tissue engineering. PMID:25010870

  4. Basic and clinical aspects of malignant melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Nathanson, L. )

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the following 10 chapters: The role of oncogenes in the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma; Laminin and fibronectin modulate the metastatic activity of melanoma cells; Structure, function and biosynthesis of ganglioside antigens associated with human tumors derived from the neuroectoderm; Epidemiology of ocular melanoma; Malignant melanoma: Prognostic factors; Endocrine influences on the natural history of human malignant melanoma; Psychosocial factors associated with prognostic indicators, progression, psychophysiology, and tumor-host response in cutaneous malignant melanoma; Central nervous system metastases in malignant melanoma; Interferon trials in the management of malignant melanoma and other neoplasms: an overview; and The treatment of malignant melanoma by fast neutrons.

  5. Lungs and subcutaneous metastases from a solitary fibrous tumour of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Tesfom, Meron F.; Caldwell, Carole; Hanasoge, Raveesh; Bramhall, Simon R.

    2015-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumour is an uncommon mesenchymal neoplasm previously thought to only originate from the pleura; it is seen only rarely in an extra-pleural location. We report the first case of pancreatic solitary fibrous tumour in an 87-year-old woman that has metastasized to the lungs and subcutaneous tissue. We have identified a solitary mass excised from the groin region, which is positive for CD34 and vimentic marker with high proliferative rate, nuclear atypia and cellular necrosis. Imaging studies confirmed a slow-growing solitary mass in the uncinate lobe of the pancreas with evidence of lung metastasis. PMID:26612261

  6. Calcifying fibrous tumor of the small intestine associated with Castleman-like lymphadenopathy.

    PubMed

    Valladolid, Genaro; Weisenberg, Elliot; Sundaresan, Ramamoorthy; Maker, Ajay V

    2014-06-01

    Calcifying fibrous tumor is a rare mesenchymal tumor that most commonly presents in younger individuals. We report the case of a 25-year-old woman that presented with severe abdominal pain and a small bowel mass at the site of an ileocolic intussusception with associated mesenteric lymphadenopathy. Surgical resection was performed, and pathologic analysis revealed that the mass was a calcifying fibrous tumor associated with Castleman-like adenopathy. This case intends to support a possible association between these two entities. PMID:24452381

  7. Solitary fibrous tumour of gluteus: a case report about an uncommon localization of a rare neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Occhionorelli, Savino; Pigato, Ilaria; Malvicini, Enzo; Pascale, Giovanni; Stano, Rocco; Rinaldi, Rosa; Vasquez, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is a rare benign tumour that occurs most frequently in the pleura. It is considered rare in soft tissues. We report a case of a middle-aged woman that presented a solitary fibrous tumor of gluteus. The tumour was composed of mesenchymal spindle-shaped cells positive for CD34 and bcl-2. Although rare, SFT should be included in the differential diagnosis of mesenchymal soft tissue tumours. The clinical presentation and imaging can be helpful for a better pre-operative diagnosis. PMID:27333919

  8. Solitary fibrous tumour of gluteus: a case report about an uncommon localization of a rare neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Occhionorelli, Savino; Pigato, Ilaria; Malvicini, Enzo; Pascale, Giovanni; Stano, Rocco; Rinaldi, Rosa; Vasquez, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is a rare benign tumour that occurs most frequently in the pleura. It is considered rare in soft tissues. We report a case of a middle-aged woman that presented a solitary fibrous tumor of gluteus. The tumour was composed of mesenchymal spindle-shaped cells positive for CD34 and bcl-2. Although rare, SFT should be included in the differential diagnosis of mesenchymal soft tissue tumours. The clinical presentation and imaging can be helpful for a better pre-operative diagnosis. PMID:27333919

  9. Nanoscale Piezoelectric Properties of Self-Assembled Fmoc-FF Peptide Fibrous Networks.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Kate; Beirne, Jason; Redmond, Gareth; Kilpatrick, Jason I; Guyonnet, Jill; Buchete, Nicolae-Viorel; Kholkin, Andrei L; Rodriguez, Brian J

    2015-06-17

    Fibrous peptide networks, such as the structural framework of self-assembled fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl diphenylalanine (Fmoc-FF) nanofibrils, have mechanical properties that could successfully mimic natural tissues, making them promising materials for tissue engineering scaffolds. These nanomaterials have been determined to exhibit shear piezoelectricity using piezoresponse force microscopy, as previously reported for FF nanotubes. Structural analyses of Fmoc-FF nanofibrils suggest that the observed piezoelectric response may result from the noncentrosymmetric nature of an underlying β-sheet topology. The observed piezoelectricity of Fmoc-FF fibrous networks is advantageous for a range of biomedical applications where electrical or mechanical stimuli are required. PMID:25994251

  10. Monostostic fibrous dysplasia with nonspecific cystic degeneration: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Nadaf, Afreen; Radhika, MB; Paremala, K; Srinath, N

    2013-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) has been regarded as a developmental skeletal disorder characterized by replacement of normal bone with benign cellular fibrous connective tissue. It has now become evident that FD is a genetic disease caused by somatic activating mutation of the Gsα subunit of G protein-coupled receptor. Here we report a case of bilateral monostotic FD in a middle-aged female showing a classic histological picture, but radiologically presenting as a mixed radiolucent radiopaque lesion showing nonspecific cystic degeneration. PMID:24250093

  11. Fibrous materials for selective line emission application in a thermal-electrical energy conversion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zheng; Adair, Peter L.; Rose, M. Frank

    1997-01-01

    Fibrous rare earth composite emitters were developed for the application of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion to increase the energy conversion efficiency of the system. In this paper, the authors demonstrated that fibrous composite emitters, with higher selective efficiency and good mechanical properties, were fabricated using a unique material processing technology. The spectra of the emitters, as well as their mechanical properties, were investigated. Some observations in this research have indicated that by using our current technology, we are able to tailor the spectrum by designing the emitter materials. Therefore, in order to achieve high energy conversion efficiency the designed emitters can be matched to the energy bandgap of new developing photovoltaic cells.

  12. Non-marine radiaxial fibrous calcites—examples of speleothems proved by electron backscatter diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuser, R. D.; Richter, D. K.

    2007-02-01

    The occurrence of radiaxial fibrous calcites (RFC) in speleothems is documented for the first time using the new electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) method. Up to now, in speleothems these precipitates have only been observed as Mg-containing calcites in close association with aragonite, in caves of the temperate to cool Central European regions with mean annual temperatures between 4 and 16 °C. As the four studied occurrences are located in caves in dolomitic and/or ankeritic host rocks, magnesium is considered to be of particular importance for triggering the formation of radiaxial fibrous (Mg-) calcite.

  13. Near-Net-Shape Processing of Sintered Fibrous Ceramics Achieved

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angel, Paul W.

    2000-01-01

    A variety of sintered fibrous ceramic (SFC) materials have been developed over the last 50 years as thermal barrier materials for reentry applications. SFC materials typically exhibit very low thermal conductivities combined with low densities and good thermal stability up to 2500 F. These materials have flown successfully on the space shuttle orbiters since the 1960's. More recently, the McDonnell Douglas Corporation successfully used SFC tiles as a heat shield on the underside of its DC X test vehicle. For both of these applications, tiles are machined from blocks of a specific type of SFC called an alumina-enhanced thermal barrier (AETB). The sizes of these blocks have been limited by the manufacturing process. In addition, as much as 80 to 90 percent of the material can be lost during the machining of tiles with significant amounts of curvature. To address these problems, the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field entered a cooperative contract with the Boeing Company to develop a vacuum-assisted forming process that can produce large (approximately 4 square feet), severely contoured panels of AETB while saving costs in comparison to the conventional cast-and-machine billet process. For shuttle use, AETB is slurry cast, drained, and fired to form square billets conforming to the shape of the filtration box. The billets are then cut into tiles of the appropriate size for thermally protecting the space shuttle. Processing techniques have limited the maximum size of AETB billets to 21.5 square inches by 6.5-in. thick, but the space shuttles use discrete heat shield tiles no more than 8 to 12 square inches. However, in other applications, large, complex shapes are needed, and the tiling approach is undesirable. For such applications, vacuum-assisted forming can produce large parts with complex shapes while reducing machining waste and eliminating cemented joints between bonded billets. Because it allows contoured shapes to be formed, material utilization is

  14. Cytology of canine malignant histiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Diane E.; Thrall, Mary Anna; Getzy, David M.; Weiser, M. Glade; Ogilvie, Gregory K.

    1994-01-01

    Cytologic features of bone marrow, tissue, and abdominal fluid in seven cases of malignant histiocytosis in dogs are described, and histopathology, hematology, and serum biochemistry of the cases are reviewed. Diagnosis of malignant histiocytosis was confirmed by tissue morphology and immunohistochemistry; neoplastic cells in all cases had positive immunoreactivity to lysozyme. This stain can be used to definitively establish the diagnosis of malignant histiocytosis on cytology specimens as well as tissue sections. Cytologic findings included numerous pleomorphic, large, discrete mononuclear cells with abundant, lightly basophilic, vacuolated, granular cytoplasm. Nuclei were round to oval to reniform with marked anisocytosis and anisokaryosis; nucleoli were prominent. Mitotic figures, often bizarre, were occasionally seen. Multinucleated giant cells and phagocytosis of erythrocytes and leukocytes were prominent features in cytologic preparations in four cases. Four dogs were anemic, five dogs were thrombocytopenic, and three dogs were hypercalcemic. Breeds affected included Doberman Pinscher (1), Golden Retriever (2), Flat Coated Retriever (3), and mixed-breed dog (1). PMID:12666013

  15. Gastrointestinal malignancy and the microbiome.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Maria T; Peek, Richard M

    2014-05-01

    Microbial species participate in the genesis of a substantial number of malignancies-in conservative estimates, at least 15% of all cancer cases are attributable to infectious agents. Little is known about the contribution of the gastrointestinal microbiome to the development of malignancies. Resident microbes can promote carcinogenesis by inducing inflammation, increasing cell proliferation, altering stem cell dynamics, and producing metabolites such as butyrate, which affect DNA integrity and immune regulation. Studies in human beings and rodent models of cancer have identified effector species and relationships among members of the microbial community in the stomach and colon that increase the risk for malignancy. Strategies to manipulate the microbiome, or the immune response to such bacteria, could be developed to prevent or treat certain gastrointestinal cancers. PMID:24406471

  16. [Genodermatoses with malignant skin tumors].

    PubMed

    Hübinger, L; Frank, J

    2014-06-01

    Cutaneous malignancies can manifest as isolated and sporadic tumors as well as multiple and disseminated tumors. In the latter case they often point to a genetic disease, which either can be restricted to the skin exclusively or also involve extracutaneous organs in the context of a hereditary tumor syndrome. Such hereditary tumor syndromes are clinically and genetically very heterogeneous. Therefore, the prevailing specific skin tumors play an important diagnostic role in the case of complex symptom constellations. Elucidation of the genetic basis of rare monogenetically inherited disorders and syndromes can contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of frequently occurring cutaneous malignancies because the mutated genes often encode proteins, which have a key position in metabolic signaling pathways that are of high significance for the development of targeted therapies. Here we provide an overview of genodermatoses, which are associated with basal cell carcinomas, sebaceous carcinomas, keratoacanthomas, squamous cell carcinomas and malignant melanomas. PMID:24898507

  17. Campomelic dysplasia and malignant hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Andreia; Teixeira, Filomena; Camacho, Maria Carmo; Alves, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Campomelic dysplasia (CD) is a rare clinical entity, usually fatal in the first year of life. It is characterised by bowing and angulations of long bones, along with other congenital anomalies. The occurrence of malignant hyperthermia is rare, but it has been associated with skeletal dysplasias. The authors present the case of a boy, born at 40 weeks of gestational age, with multiple congenital anomalies and subsequently diagnosed with CD, who died at 16 months of age as a consequence of malignant hyperthermia. PMID:22691592

  18. Dyskeratosis congenita with malignant transformation

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Jay Gopal; Swain, Niharika; Ghosh, Ranjan; Richa; Pattanayak (Mohanty), Sweta

    2011-01-01

    Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is a rare genodermatosis characterised by a classic triad of dystrophic nails, reticular skin pigmentation and mucous membrane leukoplakic patches, which have a high rate of malignant transformation. The case report presented here deals with a sporadic case of DC without similar clinical presentation in the first-degree and second-degree relatives. Of note in this case, there was rapid malignant transformation in the non-homogeneous nodulo-speckled leukoplakic patch on the dorsum of the tongue. PMID:22715219

  19. Stenting in Malignant Biliary Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Almadi, Majid A; Barkun, Jeffrey S; Barkun, Alan N

    2015-10-01

    Decompression of the biliary system in patients with malignant biliary obstruction has been widely accepted and implemented as part of the care. Despite a wealth of literature, there remains a significant amount of uncertainty as to which approach would be most appropriate in different clinical settings. This review covers stenting of the biliary system in cases of resectable or palliative malignant biliary obstruction, potential candidates for biliary drainage, technical aspects of the procedure, as well as management of biliary stent dysfunction. Furthermore, periprocedural considerations including proper mapping of the location of obstruction and the use of antibiotics are addressed. PMID:26431598

  20. Measurement of fibrous cap thickness in atherosclerotic plaques by spatiotemporal analysis of laser speckle images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadkarni, Seemantini K.; Bilenca, Alberto; Bouma, Brett E.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2006-03-01

    Necrotic-core fibroatheromas (NCFA) with thin, mechanically weak fibrous caps overlying lipid cores comprise the majority of plaques that rupture and cause acute myocardial infarction. Laser speckle imaging (LSI) has been recently demonstrated to enable atherosclerotic plaque characterization with high accuracy. We investigate spatio-temporal analysis of LSI data, in conjunction with diffusion theory and Monte Carlo modeling of light transport, to estimate fibrous cap thickness in NCFAs. Time-varying laser speckle images of 20 NCFAs are selected for analysis. Spatio-temporal intensity fluctuations are analyzed by exponential fitting of the windowed normalized cross-correlation of sequential laser speckle patterns to obtain the speckle decorrelation time constant, τ(ρ), as a function of distance ρ from the source entry location. The distance, ρ‧, at which τ(ρ) dropped to 65% of its maximum value is recorded. Diffusion theory and Monte Carlo models are utilized to estimate the maximum photon penetration depth, zmax(ρ‧), for a distance equal to ρ‧, measured from LSI. Measurements of zmax(ρ‧) correlate well with histological measurements of fibrous cap thickness (R=0.78,p<0.0001), and paired t-tests show no significant difference between the groups (p=0.4). These results demonstrate that spatio-temporal LSI may allow the estimation of fibrous cap thickness in NCFAs, which is an important predictor of plaque stability.

  1. Silk fibroin/sodium alginate fibrous hydrogels regulated hydroxyapatite crystal growth.

    PubMed

    Ming, Jinfa; Jiang, Zhijuan; Wang, Peng; Bie, Shiyu; Zuo, Baoqi

    2015-06-01

    Use of organic templates for controlling the growth of inorganic crystals is one of the research topics in biomimetic field. In particular, oriented growth of hydroxyapatite (HAp) in organic fibrous matrix is provided a new view angle to study biomineralization of bone and its potential biomedical applications. The crystallization of HAp in fibrous hydrogels could mimic such biomineralization. In this paper, we report HAp nanorod crystal synthesized successfully by a biomimetic method using calcium chloride and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate as reagents in the presence of silk fibroin/sodium alginate (SF/SA) fibrous hydrogels. The effects of influence factors such as mineral times, pH, and temperature on controlling HAp nanorod crystals are discussed. The elongated HAp nanorods with rectangular column are grown with the increase of mineral times in biomimetic process. By changing pH, HAp nanorod crystals are obtained at alkaline condition in fibrous hydrogels. Moreover, compared to other temperatures, rod-shaped HAp crystals were formed at 20°C. The results imply this to be an effective method for preparing HAp crystals with controllable morphology for bone repair application. PMID:25842137

  2. Highly-Effective Purification of Air on the Fibrous Filtering Nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galtseva, O. V.; Bordunov, S. V.; Torgaev, S. N.

    2016-02-01

    A series of experiments by air purification on fibrous filtering nozzles was made. It is experimentally shown that the fibrous filter can operate in a wide rate range. The degree of trapping of fine aerosols of glass was 99% at a linear rate of 0.01 m/s. the degree of capture decreased to 85% at the increasing of filtration rate up to 0.06 m/s. Dustiness of the air ranged from 3 to 5 g/m3 at the course of the experiment. Hydraulic resistance changed from 5 to 25 mm of water column. The calculated data of resistance and falling of pressure on fibrous filters are given; these data were received on the equations from various sources in comparison with experimentally obtained data. According to the results of series of experiments the amendment of the well-known Fuchsian equation is calculated for calculation of the resistance of fibrous air filter. This amendment considers a form and defects of surface of the fibers received by centrifugal-spinneret method.

  3. Non-contact ultrasonic technique for rapid and advanced analysis of fibrous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Periyaswamy, T.; Lerch, T. P.; Balasubramanian, K.

    2012-05-01

    Fibrous ensembles are, typically, multi-scale flexible assemblies with unique physical and rheological properties, unlike continuum materials. Macroscopic behaviors of these materials are greatly the result of non-linear interactions at the micro levels. These micro-scale interactions can be assessed by capturing the material behavior under low mechanical stress conditions. While ultrasonic based non-destructive testing was suitably implemented for continuum materials, their application to fibrous structures was limited primarily due to the inherent structural arrangements of these unique assemblies. Discontinuities, non-uniform orientations and multi-phase components make these ensembles difficult to study using the existing scan-based methods. This work presents a novel rapid and advanced analysis tool for complex fibrous systems using a noncontact air-coupled ultrasonic system. Five characteristic features of ultrasound signals transmitted through fibrous structures were studied, i.e., dampness in signal flight, signal velocity, power spectral density, signal power and rate of amplitude attenuation. Analysis of these features under two different acoustic frequencies, 500 kHz and 1 MHz, allowed us to study the componentized behavior of these materials for three of the key mechanical properties including bending rigidity, shear rigidity and low stress tensile stress. A material response index (MRI) was also derived using the signal features.

  4. Cell alignment induced by anisotropic electrospun fibrous scaffolds alone has limited effect on cardiomyocyte maturation

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jingjia; Wu, Qingling; Xia, Younan; Wagner, Mary B; Xu, Chunhui

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing the maturation of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) will facilitate their applications in disease modeling and drug discovery. Previous studies suggest that cell alignment could enhance hPSC-CM maturation; however, the robustness of this approach has not been well investigated. To this end, we examined if the anisotropic orientation of hPSC-CMs imposed by the underlying aligned fibers within a 3D microenvironment could improve the maturation of hPSC-CMs. Enriched hPSC-CMs were cultured for two weeks on Matrigel-coated anisotropic (aligned) and isotropic (random) polycaprolactone (PCL) fibrous scaffolds, as well as tissue culture polystyrenes (TCPs) as a control. As expected, hPSC-CMs grown on the two types of fibrous scaffolds exhibited anisotropic and isotropic orientations, respectively. Similar to cells on TCPs, hPSC-CMs cultured on these scaffolds expressed CM-associated proteins and were pharmacologically responsive to adrenergic receptor agonists, a muscarinic agonist, and a gap junction uncoupler in a dose-dependent manner. Although hPSC-CMs grown on anisotropic fibrous scaffolds displayed the highest expression of genes encoding a number of sarcomere proteins, calcium handling proteins and ion channels, their calcium transient kinetics were slower than cells grown on TCPs. These results suggest that electrospun anisotropic fibrous scaffolds, as a single method, have limited effect on improving the maturation of hPSC-CMs. PMID:27131761

  5. Cell alignment induced by anisotropic electrospun fibrous scaffolds alone has limited effect on cardiomyocyte maturation.

    PubMed

    Han, Jingjia; Wu, Qingling; Xia, Younan; Wagner, Mary B; Xu, Chunhui

    2016-05-01

    Enhancing the maturation of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) will facilitate their applications in disease modeling and drug discovery. Previous studies suggest that cell alignment could enhance hPSC-CM maturation; however, the robustness of this approach has not been well investigated. To this end, we examined if the anisotropic orientation of hPSC-CMs imposed by the underlying aligned fibers within a 3D microenvironment could improve the maturation of hPSC-CMs. Enriched hPSC-CMs were cultured for two weeks on Matrigel-coated anisotropic (aligned) and isotropic (random) polycaprolactone (PCL) fibrous scaffolds, as well as tissue culture polystyrenes (TCPs) as a control. As expected, hPSC-CMs grown on the two types of fibrous scaffolds exhibited anisotropic and isotropic orientations, respectively. Similar to cells on TCPs, hPSC-CMs cultured on these scaffolds expressed CM-associated proteins and were pharmacologically responsive to adrenergic receptor agonists, a muscarinic agonist, and a gap junction uncoupler in a dose-dependent manner. Although hPSC-CMs grown on anisotropic fibrous scaffolds displayed the highest expression of genes encoding a number of sarcomere proteins, calcium handling proteins and ion channels, their calcium transient kinetics were slower than cells grown on TCPs. These results suggest that electrospun anisotropic fibrous scaffolds, as a single method, have limited effect on improving the maturation of hPSC-CMs. PMID:27131761

  6. Flight Performance of an Advanced Thermal Protection Material: Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiser, Daniel B.; Gordon, Michael P.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The flight performance of a new class of low density, high temperature thermal protection materials (TPM) is described and compared to "standard" Space Shuttle TPM. This new functionally gradient material designated as Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation (TUFI), was bonded on a removable panel attached to the base heat shield of Orbiter 105, Endeavour.

  7. Flight Performance of an Advanced Thermal Protection Material: Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiser, Daniel B.; Gordon, Michael P.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The flight performance of a new class of low density, high temperature, thermal protection materials (TPM), is described and compared to "standard" Space Shuttle TPM. This new functionally gradient material designated as Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation (TUFI), was bonded on a removable panel attached to the base heatshield of Orbiter 105, Endeavor.

  8. Ninth DOD/NASA/FAA Conference on Fibrous Composites in Structural Design, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderquist, Joseph R. (Compiler); Neri, Lawrence M. (Compiler); Bohon, Herman L. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    This publication contains the proceedings of the Ninth DOD/NASA/FAA conference on Fibrous Composites in structural Design. Presentations were made in the following areas of composite structural design: perspectives in composites; design methodology; design applications; design criteria; supporting technology; damage tolerance; and manufacturing.

  9. Effects of Milling on the Fibrous Structure and Mechanical Behaviors of a Collagen Material--Leather

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leather, a fibrous collagen material, is a high value coproduct of the meat industry. Milling is being practiced in the tannery to mechanically tumble and therefore soften leather for adequate stiffness and feel. However, there is no report regarding its effects on the structure change and physica...

  10. Calcifying Fibrous Pseudotumor of the Posterior Mediastinum With Encapsulation of the Thoracic Duct.

    PubMed

    Dissanayake, Sumudu N; Hagen, Jeffrey; Fedenko, Alexander; Lee, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    We report the first case of calcifying fibrous pseudotumor (CFPT) to arise in the posterior mediastinum with encapsulation of the thoracic duct. This exceedingly rare lesion was incidentally discovered in an asymptomatic young woman and treated with surgical resection, requiring ligation and excision of the thoracic duct. There has been no evidence of tumor recurrence or postoperative complication. PMID:27343527

  11. Ninth DOD/NASA/FAA Conference on Fibrous Composites in Structural Design, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderquist, Joseph R. (Compiler); Neri, Lawrence M. (Compiler); Bohon, Herman L. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    This publication contains the proceedings of the Ninth DOD/NASA/FAA Conference on Fibrous Composites in Structural Design held at Lake Tahoe, Nevada, during 4-7 Nov. 1991. Presentations were made in the following areas of composite structural design: perspectives in composites, design methodology, design applications, design criteria, supporting technology, damage tolerance, and manufacturing.

  12. Interfacial sliding stress in Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/BN fibrous monoliths.

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D.; Goretta, K. C.; Richardson,, J. W., Jr.; de Arellano-Lopez, A. R.; Energy Technology; Univ. de Sevilla

    2002-05-24

    Pushout tests of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} cells in Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/BN fibrous monoliths yielded values for debond and sliding stresses of 45{+-}8 and 25{+-}7 MPa, respectively. The sliding stress was consistent with estimates of residual stresses and the interfacial friction coefficient.

  13. Biodegradable Fibrous Scaffolds with Diverse Properties by Electrospinning Candidates from a Combinatorial Macromer Library

    PubMed Central

    Metter, Robert B.; Ifkovits, Jamie L.; Hou, Kevin; Vincent, Ludovic; Hsu, Benjamin; Wang, Louis; Mauck, Robert L.; Burdick, Jason A.

    2009-01-01

    The properties of electrospun fibrous scaffolds, including degradation, mechanics and cellular interactions, are important for their use in tissue engineering applications. Although some diversity has been obtained previously in fibrous scaffolds, optimization of scaffold properties relies on iterative techniques in both polymer synthesis and processing. Here, we electrospun candidates from a combinatorial library of biodegradable and photopolymerizable poly(β-amino ester)s (PBAEs) to show that the diversity in properties found in this library is retained when processed into fibrous scaffolds. Specifically, three PBAE macromers were electrospun into scaffolds and possessed similar initial mechanical properties, but exhibited mass loss ranging from rapid (complete degradation within ∼2 weeks) to moderate (complete degradation within ∼ 3 months) to slow (only partial degradation after 3 months). These trends in mechanics and degradation mimicked what was previously observed in the bulk polymers. Although cellular adhesion was dependent on the polymer composition in films, adhesion to scaffolds that were electrospun with gelatin was similar on all formulations and controls. To further illustrate the diverse properties that are attainable in these systems, the fastest and slowest degrading polymers were electrospun together into one scaffold, but as distinct fiber populations. This dual-polymer scaffold exhibited behavior in mass loss and mechanics with time that fell between the single-polymer scaffolds. In general, this work indicates that combinatorial libraries may be an important source of information and specific polymer compositions for the fabrication of electrospun fibrous scaffolds with tunable properties. PMID:19853066

  14. Hydrogen peroxide production from fibrous pectic cellulose analogs and effect on dermal fibroblasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Naturally derived products with folklore remedies have in recent years been reconsidered for their benefit to wound healing i.e., honey’s application to chronic wound dressing products. Similarly, we have undertaken an evaluation of Fibrous pectin-cellulose (FPC) (cellulose blended with primary cel...

  15. Rn for treatment of periocular fibrous connective tissue sarcomas in the horse

    SciTech Connect

    Frauenfelder, H.C.; Blevins, W.E.; Page, E.H.

    1982-02-01

    Twelve periocular fibrous connective tissue sarcomas in 11 horses were treated with 222Rn. Follow-up periods ranged from 1 to 6 years; the overall nonrecurrence rate at 12 months after therapy was 92%. Two lesions recurred 2 years after treatment, and 1 after 3 years. One of the former lesions has not recurred after a 2nd 222Rn treatment.

  16. Ninth DOD/NASA/FAA Conference on Fibrous Composites in Structural Design, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderquist, Joseph R. (Compiler); Neri, Lawrence M. (Compiler); Bohon, Herman L. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    This publication contains the proceedings of the Ninth DOD/NASA/FAA Conference on Fibrous Composites in Structural Design held at Lake Tahoe, Nevada, during 4-7 Nov. 1991. Presentations were made in the following areas of composite structural design: perspectives in composites, design methodology, design applications, design criteria, supporting technology, damage tolerance, and manufacturing.

  17. Malignant mesothelioma induced by asbestos and zeolite in the mouse peritonenal cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Y.; Kohyama, N.

    1984-10-01

    The carcinogenicity of asbestos (amosite and chrysotile) and zeolite (fibrous erionite, mordenite, and synthetic zeolite 4A) were studied in the peritoneum of 586 BALB/C male mice after a single intraperitoneal or intraabdominal wall injection. Tumors developed in 93 of 394 animals (23.6%) treated with asbestos or fibrous erionite 7 months or more after administration. All of the induced peritoneal tumors were intimately associated with marked peritoneal fibrosis, in which asbestos or erionite fibers were regularly detected. Histopathologically, 83 of 93 were consistent with malignant mesotheliomas. Other tumors consisted of 6 plasmacytomas, 1 histiocytoma, 1 liposarcoma, 1 osteosarcoma, and 1 adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Two of the cases of mesotheliomas were associated with plasmacytoma. In many instances, the primary site of the mesotheliomas seemed to be multiple, the favorite sites being the omentum, mesentery, serosae of the gastrointestinal and genital organs, the diaphragm, the capsule of the liver and spleen, and the abdominal wall peritoneum. In addition to the 93 peritoneal tumors, 3 extraperitoneal tumors (1 fibrosarcoma and 2 rhabdomyosarcomas) were induced by amosite which was probably accidentally injected into the extraperitoneal connective tissue and the striated muscle tissue of the abdominal wall, respectively. These three tumors were also intimately associated with focal fibrosis in which amosite fibers were detected. Among the three different types of zeolite, only fibrous erionite showed striking carcinogenicity and marked fibrogenicity. The erionite-induced mesotheliomas were similar to those induced by asbestos in exhibiting long latency, in gross appearance, in histology, and in close association with fibrosis.

  18. Electrochemical characterization of electrospun nanocomposite polymer blend electrolyte fibrous membrane for lithium battery.

    PubMed

    Padmaraj, O; Rao, B Nageswara; Venkateswarlu, M; Satyanarayana, N

    2015-04-23

    Novel hybrid (organic/inorganic) electrospun nanocomposite polymer blend electrolyte fibrous membranes with the composition poly(vinylidene difluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) [P(VdF-co-HFP)]/poly(methyl methacrylate) [P(MMA)]/magnesium aluminate (MgAl2O4)/LiPF6 were prepared by the electrospinning technique. All of the prepared electrospun P(VdF-co-HFP), PMMA blend [90% P(VdF-co-HFP)/10% PMMA], and nanocomposite polymer blend [90% P(VdF-co-HFP)/10% PMMA/x wt % MgAl2O4 (x = 2, 4, 6, and 8)] fibrous membranes were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and scanning electron microscopy. The fibrous nanocomposite separator-cum-polymer blend electrolyte membranes were obtained by soaking the nanocomposite polymer blend membranes in an electrolyte solution containing 1 M LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate (EC)/diethyl carbonate (DEC) (1:1, v/v). The newly developed fibrous nanocomposite polymer blend electrolyte [90% P(VdF-co-HFP)/10% PMMA/6 wt % MgAl2O4/LiPF6] membrane showed a low crystallinity, low average fiber diameter, high thermal stability, high electrolyte uptake, high conductivity (2.60 × 10(-3) S cm(-1)) at room temperature, and good potential stability above 4.5 V. The best properties of the fibrous nanocomposite polymer blend electrolyte (NCPBE) membrane with a 6 wt % MgAl2O4 filler content was used for the fabrication of a Li/NCPBE/LiCoO2 CR 2032 coin cell. The electrochemical performance of the fabricated CR 2032 cell was evaluated at a current density of 0.1 C-rate. The fabricated CR 2032 cell lithium battery using the newly developed NCPBE membrane delivered an initial discharge capacity of 166 mAh g(-1) and a stable cycle performance. PMID:25867205

  19. Combined Heat Transfer in High-Porosity High-Temperature Fibrous Insulations: Theory and Experimental Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Cunnington, George R.; Miller, Steve D.; Knutson, Jeffry R.

    2010-01-01

    Combined radiation and conduction heat transfer through various high-temperature, high-porosity, unbonded (loose) fibrous insulations was modeled based on first principles. The diffusion approximation was used for modeling the radiation component of heat transfer in the optically thick insulations. The relevant parameters needed for the heat transfer model were derived from experimental data. Semi-empirical formulations were used to model the solid conduction contribution of heat transfer in fibrous insulations with the relevant parameters inferred from thermal conductivity measurements at cryogenic temperatures in a vacuum. The specific extinction coefficient for radiation heat transfer was obtained from high-temperature steady-state thermal measurements with large temperature gradients maintained across the sample thickness in a vacuum. Standard gas conduction modeling was used in the heat transfer formulation. This heat transfer modeling methodology was applied to silica, two types of alumina, and a zirconia-based fibrous insulation, and to a variation of opacified fibrous insulation (OFI). OFI is a class of insulations manufactured by embedding efficient ceramic opacifiers in various unbonded fibrous insulations to significantly attenuate the radiation component of heat transfer. The heat transfer modeling methodology was validated by comparison with more rigorous analytical solutions and with standard thermal conductivity measurements. The validated heat transfer model is applicable to various densities of these high-porosity insulations as long as the fiber properties are the same (index of refraction, size distribution, orientation, and length). Furthermore, the heat transfer data for these insulations can be obtained at any static pressure in any working gas environment without the need to perform tests in various gases at various pressures.

  20. Malignant haemangioendothelioma involving the liver

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Stella M.; Millward-Sadler, G. H.

    1974-01-01

    The features of four cases of malignant haemangioendothelioma involving the liver and other organs are described. Two cases were associated with a microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia. The nature of the tumours and possible pathogenesis for the anaemias are discussed. Images PMID:4832301

  1. Malignant transformation of uterine leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Al Ansari, Afaf A.; Al Hail, Fatima A.; Abboud, Emad

    2012-01-01

    A rare case of malignant transformation of uterine leiomyoma is reported. A 54 year old lady, nulliparous and 2 years postmenopausal presented to gynecology clinic with a pelvi – abdominal mass and ultrasound scan suggestive of multiple uterine fibroid. Total abdominal hysterectomy performed. Histopathology report showed leiomyosarcomative changes from benign leiomyoma within the huge mass. PMID:25003044

  2. The Origin of Malignant Malaria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plasmodium falciparum is the causative agent of malignant malaria, which is among the most severe human infectious diseases. Despite its overwhelming significance to human health, the parasite’s origins remain unclear. The favored origin hypothesis holds that P. falciparum and its closest known rel...

  3. Do We Know What Causes Malignant Mesothelioma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Next Topic Can malignant mesothelioma be prevented? Do we know what causes malignant mesothelioma? Researchers have found ... genes – the instructions for how our cells function. We usually look like our parents because they are ...

  4. PELVIC ACTINOMYCOSIS MIMICKING A LOCALLY ADVANCED PELVIC MALIGNANCY--CASE REPORT.

    PubMed

    Velenciuc, Natalia; Velenciuc, I; Makkai Popa, S; Roată, C; Ferariu, D; Luncă, S

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a former user of an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) for 10 years, diagnosed with a bulky, fixed pelvic tumor involving the internal genital organs and the recto sigmoid, causing luminal narrowing of the rectum, interpreted as locally advanced pelvic malignancy, probably of genital origin. Intraoperatively, a high index of suspicion made us collect a sample from the fibrous wall of the tumor mass, large Actinomyces colonies were thus identified. Surgery consisted in debridement, removal of a small amount of pus and appendectomy, thus avoiding a mutilating and useless surgery. Specific antibiotic therapy was administered for 3 months, with favorable postoperative and long-term outcomes. Pelvic actinomycosis should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of pelvic tumors in women using an IUD. The association of long-term antibiotic treatment is essential to eradicate the infection and prevent relapses. PMID:27483724

  5. Malignant phylloides tumor in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Blaker, Kristen M; Sahoo, Sunati; Schweichler, Maria R; Chagpar, Anees B

    2010-03-01

    Malignant phylloides tumors are exceedingly rare with few cases being reported in pregnancy. We describe the first case ever reported of a malignant phylloides tumor presenting in the first trimester of pregnancy and provide insight into the complexities of management as well as a review of the known literature. An extensive PubMed literature search for "cystosarcoma," "phylloides," and "pregnancy" was performed. References of each citation were reviewed. Only six previous cases of phylloides tumor in pregnancy were found, none of which were in the first trimester. Medical records of a patient presenting to our institution at 9 weeks gestation with a malignant phylloides tumor were reviewed. We further provide a review of the current literature of the management of phylloides tumor in pregnancy. A 27-year-old white G2P0SA1 woman with no family history of breast cancer presented with a right breast mass at her first prenatal examination at 9 weeks of pregnancy. Ultrasound confirmed a solid mass measuring 24 mm. Core needle biopsy demonstrated a malignant phylloides tumor. She previously had a fibroadenoma removed from the same breast 7 years previously. The current tumor was excised to clear margins. Histopathological examination revealed a 4-cm fibroepithelial tumor with marked stromal cellularity and a high mitotic count (five to seven mitoses/high-power field), confirming the diagnosis of malignant phylloides tumor. The patient continued her pregnancy without complications. Six other cases of phylloides tumor presenting in pregnancy have been reported in the literature, one of which had bilateral disease. Of these, the average patient age was 32 years (range, 28 to 35 years). The majority of these patients presented in their third trimester (mean, 29 weeks; range, 20 to 36 weeks) and often had large tumors (mean, 15 cm; range, 5 to 21 cm). Four of the seven tumors (57%) required a mastectomy. Previous cases have shown phylloides tumors to present in the third

  6. Anisotropy of Fibrous Tissues in Relation to the Distribution of Tensed and Buckled Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Ateshian, Gerard A.

    2009-01-01

    Fibrous tissues are characterized by a much higher stiffness in tension than compression. This study uses microstructural modeling to analyze the material symmetry of fibrous tissues undergoing tension and compression, to better understand how material symmetry relates to the distribution of tensed and buckled fibers. The analysis is also used to determine whether the behavior predicted from a microstructural model can be identically described by phenomenological continuum models. The analysis confirms that in the case when all the fibers are in tension in the current configuration, the material symmetry of a fibrous the tissue in the corresponding reference configuration is dictated by the symmetry of its fiber angular distribution in that configuration. However, if the strain field exhibits a mix of tensile and compressive principal normal strains, the fibrous tissue is represented by a material body which consists only of those fibers which are in tension; the material symmetry of this body may be deduced from the superposition of the planes of symmetry of the strain and the planes of symmetry of the angular fiber distribution. Thus the material symmetry is dictated by the symmetry of the angular distribution of only those fibers which are in tension. Examples are provided for various fiber angular distribution symmetries. In particular, it is found that a fibrous tissue with isotropic fiber angular distribution exhibits orthotropic symmetry when subjected to a mix of tensile and compressive principal normal strains, with the planes of symmetry normal to the principal directions of the strain. This anisotropy occurs even under infinitesimal strains and is distinct from the anisotropy induced from the finite rotation of fibers. It is also noted that fibrous materials are not stable under all strain states due to the inability of fibers to sustain compression along their axis; this instability can be overcome by the incorporation of a ground matrix. It is

  7. X-ray diffraction study of the mineralogy of microinclusions in fibrous diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Evan; Kopylova, Maya; Dubrovinksy, Leonid

    2010-05-01

    Fibrous diamond, occurring both as cuboids and as coatings over non-fibrous diamond nuclei, is translucent due to the presence of millions of sub-micron-sized mineral and fluid inclusions. Diamond is strong and relatively inert, making it an excellent vessel to preserve trapped materials. These microinclusions represent direct samples of natural diamond-forming mantle fluids, and are critical for our understanding of diamond genesis. Traditionally, infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, electron microprobe, and FIB-TEM techniques have proven to be effective for the study of microinclusions in diamond. The abundance and random orientation of included minerals in fibrous diamond make them amenable to a powder-type X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. This technique provides an accurate way to identify included minerals. It also has the advantage of analyzing thousands of inclusions simultaneously, rather than analyzing one inclusion at a time, as with common FIB-TEM techniques. XRD provides a bulk analysis, giving a superior measure of relative abundances of included minerals, as well as potentially accounting for small quantities of minerals that might otherwise be overlooked. We studied fibrous cuboid diamonds with microinclusions from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) (23 samples), Brazil (4 samples), Jericho (1 sample), and Wawa conglomerates (9 samples). XRD analysis was performed at the Bayerisches Geoinstitut (BGI), University of Bayreuth, Germany. The unique XRD setup consists of a RIGAKU FR-D high-brilliance source, OSMIC Inc. Confocal Max-Flux optics, and a SMART APEX 4K CCD area detector. Preliminary XRD studies of microinclusions 8 fibrous diamonds from the DRC showed a prevalence of silicates with structural and coordinated H2O. Sheet silicates constituted 9 out of 13 detected minerals, with phlogopite-biotite micas being present in 4 out of 8 samples. Other detected minerals were 2 chlorite minerals, 2 clay

  8. [Histological spectrum of malignant melanoma].

    PubMed

    Brenn, T

    2015-02-01

    The diagnosis of melanocytic tumors is one of the most problematic areas in dermatology and diagnostic pathology. Melanoma is a malignant melanocytic tumor and the risk for metastasis and associated mortality is mainly dependent on tumor thickness and depth of invasion. Early recognition and correct diagnosis is therefore important for successful and effective treatment. The correct diagnosis of melanoma is, however, challenging due to the wide morphological spectrum. Historically, the disease was subdivided into superficial spreading, nodular, lentigo maligna and acral lentiginous melanoma but many more subtypes have subsequently been added. Some of these melanoma variants also show differences relating to the genetic background, clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment and may be associated with a specific differential diagnosis. In this article four of these melanoma variants, desmoplastic melanoma, nevoid melanoma, malignant blue nevus and pigment synthesizing melanoma will be discussed in more detail. PMID:25589353

  9. Gastrointestinal Malignancy and the Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Maria T.; Peek, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial species participate in the genesis of a substantial number of malignancies—in conservative estimates, at least 15% of all cancer cases are attributable to infectious agents. Little is known about the contribution of the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome to the development of malignancies. Resident microbes can promote carcinogenesis by inducing inflammation, increasing cell proliferation, altering stem cell dynamics, and producing metabolites such as butyrate, which affect DNA integrity and immune regulation. Studies in humans and rodent models of cancer have identified effector species and relationships among members of the microbial community in the stomach and colon that increase the risk for malignancy. Strategies to manipulate the microbiome, or the immune response to such bacteria, could be developed to prevent or treat certain GI cancers. PMID:24406471

  10. Malignant change in dermatitis artefacta.

    PubMed Central

    Alcolado, J. C.; Ray, K.; Baxter, M.; Edwards, C. W.; Dodson, P. M.

    1993-01-01

    Dermatitis artefacta is a chronic skin lesion produced by self-trauma. Avoidance of further trauma, topical steroids and psychological therapy all play a part in the treatment of such lesions. Unresolved lesions may become large and disfiguring and subject to infection. We report a case of one such lesion in an elderly woman who persistently excoriated a cholecystectomy scar over 40 years. Malignant transformation occurred in a manner analogous to the neoplastic change observed in other types of chronic ulcer (Marjolin's ulcer). The squamous cell carcinoma presented with widespread metastases from which the patient eventually died. Recent literature concerning Marjolin's ulcers is reviewed and it is noted that this is the first reported case of death caused by malignant change in dermatitis artefacta. Images Figure 1 PMID:8234114

  11. Tumor Metabolism of Malignant Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Ru, Peng; Williams, Terence M.; Chakravarti, Arnab; Guo, Deliang

    2013-01-01

    Constitutively activated oncogenic signaling via genetic mutations such as in the EGFR/PI3K/Akt and Ras/RAF/MEK pathways has been recognized as a major driver for tumorigenesis in most cancers. Recent insights into tumor metabolism have further revealed that oncogenic signaling pathways directly promote metabolic reprogramming to upregulate biosynthesis of lipids, carbohydrates, protein, DNA and RNA, leading to enhanced growth of human tumors. Therefore, targeting cell metabolism has become a novel direction for drug development in oncology. In malignant gliomas, metabolism pathways of glucose, glutamine and lipid are significantly reprogrammed. Moreover, molecular mechanisms causing these metabolic changes are just starting to be unraveled. In this review, we will summarize recent studies revealing critical gene alterations that lead to metabolic changes in malignant gliomas, and also discuss promising therapeutic strategies via targeting the key players in metabolic regulation. PMID:24217114

  12. Immunological Aspects of Malignant Gliomas.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Inbar, Or; Zaaroor, Menashe

    2016-07-01

    Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant primary brain neoplasm having a mean survival time of <24 months. This figure remains constant, despite significant progress in medical research and treatment. The lack of an efficient anti-tumor immune response and the micro-invasive nature of the glioma malignant cells have been explained by a multitude of immune-suppressive mechanisms, proven in different models. These immune-resistant capabilities of the tumor result in a complex interplay this tumor shares with the immune system. We present a short review on the immunology of GBM, discussing the different unique pathological and molecular features of GBM, current treatment modalities, the principles of cancer immunotherapy and the link between GBM and melanoma. Current knowledge on immunological features of GBM, as well as immunotherapy past and current clinical trials, is discussed in an attempt to broadly present the complex and formidable challenges posed by GBM. PMID:27324313

  13. IRF4: Immunity. Malignancy! Therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Arthur L.; Tolga Emre, N. C.; Romesser, Paul B.; Staudt, Louis M.

    2009-01-01

    IRF4, a member of the IRF family of transcription factors, is expressed in cells of the immune system where it transduces signals from various receptors to activate or repress gene expression. IRF4 expression is a key regulator of several steps in lymphoid, myeloid and dendritic cell differentiation, including the differentiation of mature B cells into antibody-secreting plasma cells. IRF4 expression is also associated with many lymphoid malignancies, with recent evidence pointing to an essential role in multiple myeloma, a malignancy of plasma cells. Interference with IRF4 expression is lethal to multiple myeloma cells, irrespective of their genetic etiology, making IRF4 an “Achilles’ heel” that may be exploited therapeutically. PMID:19383829

  14. [Malignant wounds in palliative care].

    PubMed

    Fromantin, Isabelle; Rollot, Florence; Nicodeme, Marguerite; Kriegel, Iréne

    2015-01-01

    In the alsence of effective cancer treatment, malignant wounds evolve. The decisions taken by the multi-disciplinary team with regard to their care vary depending on whether the patient is in the initial, advanced or terminal phase of palliative care. Modern dressings can be used to control bleeding, odours and drainage. The aim is to control the symptoms and improve the quality of life, until its end. PMID:26027186

  15. Endobronchial metastases from extrathoracic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Akoglu, Sebahat; Uçan, Eyüp S; Celik, Gülperi; Sener, Gülper; Sevinç, Can; Kilinç, Oğuz; Itil, Oya

    2005-01-01

    Endobronchial metastases (EBM) from extrapulmonary malignant tumors are rare. The most common extrathoracic malignancies associated with EBM are breast, renal and colorectal carcinomas. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the clinical, radiographic and bronchoscopic aspects of patients with EBM who were diagnosed between 1992 and 2002. Data about patients' clinical conditions, symptoms, radiographic and endoscopic findings, and histopathological examination results were investigated. EBM was defined as bronchoscopically visible lesions histopathologically identical to the primary tumor in patients with extrapulmonary malignancies. We found 15 cases with EBM. Primary tumors included breast (3), colorectal (3), and renal (2) carcinomas; Malignant Melanoma (2); synovial sarcoma (1), ampulla of Vater adenocarcinoma (1), pheochromocytoma (1), hypernephroma (1), and Hodgkin's Disease (1). The most common symptoms were dyspnea (80%), cough (66.6%) and hemoptysis (33.3%). Multiple (40%) or single (13.3%) pulmonary nodules, mediastinal or hilar lymphadenopathy (40%), and effusion (40%) were the most common radiographic findings. The mean interval from initial diagnosis to diagnosis of EBM was 32.8 months (range, 0-96 months) and median survival time was 18 months (range, 4-84). As a conclusion, various extrapulmonary tumors can metastasize to the bronchus. Symptoms and radiographic findings are similar with those in primary lung cancer. Therefore, EBM should be discriminated from primary lung cancer histopathologically. Although mean survival time is usually short, long-term survivors were reported. Consequently, treatment must be planned according to the histology of the primary tumor, evidence of metastasis to other sites and medical status of the patient. PMID:16475029

  16. Transcatheter therapy for malignant neoplasms.

    PubMed Central

    Coldwell, D M; Mortimer, J E

    1989-01-01

    Interventional radiology has developed into a subspecialty with application in the treatment and palliation of patients with advanced malignant diseases. A directed catheter delivers high concentrations of chemotherapy directly into the tumor bed. Embolic particles may be injected to stop hemorrhage or to occlude the blood supply of a cancer, resulting in pain relief or tumor shrinkage. These techniques can be incorporated into a multidisciplinary approach to cancer. Images PMID:2686168

  17. Molecular biology of malignant gliomas.

    PubMed

    Belda-Iniesta, Cristóbal; de Castro Carpeño, Javier; Casado Sáenz, Enrique; Cejas Guerrero, Paloma; Perona, Rosario; González Barón, Manuel

    2006-09-01

    Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumours. In keeping with the degree of aggressiveness, gliomas are divided into four grades, with different biological behaviour. Furthermore, as different gliomas share a predominant histological appearance, the final classification includes both, histological features and degree of malignancy. For example, gliomas of astrocytic origin (astrocytomas) are classified into pilocytic astrocytoma (grade I), astrocytoma (grade II), anaplastic astrocytoma (grade III) and glioblastoma multiforme (GMB) (grade IV). Tumors derived from oligodendrocytes include grade II (oliogodendrogliomas) and grade III neoplasms (oligoastrocytoma). Each subtype has a specific prognosis that dictates the clinical management. In this regard, a patient diagnosed with an oligodendroglioma totally removed has 10-15 years of potential survival. On the opposite site, patients carrying a glioblastoma multiforme usually die within the first year after the diagnosis is made. Therefore, different approaches are needed in each case. Obviously, prognosis and biological behaviour of malignant gliomas are closely related and supported by the different molecular background that possesses each type of glioma. Furthermore, the ability that allows several low-grade gliomas to progress into more aggressive tumors has allowed cancer researchers to elucidate several pathways implicated in molecular biology of these devastating tumors. In this review, we describe classical pathways involved in human malignant gliomas with special focus with recent advances, such as glioma stem-like cells and expression patterns from microarray studies. PMID:17005465

  18. Management of Inoperable Malignant Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Kiess, Ana P; Quon, Harry

    2016-01-01

    For patients with inoperable salivary gland malignancy, radiation therapy has significant limitations but has been the mainstay of treatment. With standard photon radiation (X-rays), the 10-year loco-regional control (LRC) and overall survival rates are only ∼25%. Neutron radiation has potential biological advantages over photon radiation because it causes increased DNA damage, and studies of patients with inoperable salivary gland malignancy have shown improved 6-year LRC and overall survival of ∼60%. However, neutron radiation may also increase the risk of late toxicities, especially central nervous system toxicities after treatment of tumors involving the base of the skull. Proton radiation has potential physical advantages due to minimal exit dose through normal tissues, and a recent study has demonstrated 90% 5-year LRC after combined proton/photon radiation for adenoid cystic carcinoma involving the base of the skull. Stereotactic radiosurgery has also been used in combination with neutrons or standard photons as a technique to boost the skull base. The use of concurrent chemotherapy as a radiosensitizer has been considered based on extrapolation of data on squamous cell carcinomas, but further data are needed on inoperable salivary gland malignancies. Newer targeted therapies are also under investigation, and clinical trial enrollment is encouraged. PMID:27093559

  19. Comparative effectiveness in hepatic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Page, Andrew J; Cosgrove, David; Pawlik, Timothy M

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of applying comparative effectiveness research (CER) strategies to the management of cancer are important. As the incidence of cancer increases both in the United States and worldwide, accurate analysis of which tests and treatments should be applied in which situations is critical, both in terms of measurable and meaningful clinical outcomes and health care costs. In the last 20 years alone, multiple controversies have arisen in the diagnosis and treatment of primary and metastatic tumors of the liver, making the management of liver malignancies a prime example of CER. Contributing factors to the development of these controversies include improvements in molecular characterization of these diseases and technological advances in surgery and radiology. The relative speed of these advances has outpaced data from clinical trials, in turn making robust data to inform clinical practice lacking. Indeed, many of the current treatment recommendations for the management of liver malignancies are based primarily on retrospective data. We herein review select CER issues concerning select decision-making topics in the management of liver malignancies. PMID:25677025

  20. Malignant cancer and invasive placentation

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Alaric W.; Wagner, Günter P.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer metastasis is an invasive process that involves the transplantation of cells into new environments. Since human placentation is also invasive, hypotheses about a relationship between invasive placentation in eutherian mammals and metastasis have been proposed. The relationship between metastatic cancer and invasive placentation is usually presented in terms of antagonistic pleiotropy. According to this hypothesis, evolution of invasive placentation also established the mechanisms for cancer metastasis. Here, in contrast, we argue that the secondary evolution of less invasive placentation in some mammalian lineages may have resulted in positive pleiotropic effects on cancer survival by lowering malignancy rates. These positive pleiotropic effects would manifest themselves as resistance to cancer cell invasion. To provide a preliminary test of this proposal, we re-analyze data from Priester and Mantel (Occurrence of tumors in domestic animals. Data from 12 United States and Canadian colleges of veterinary medicine. J Natl Cancer Inst 1971;47:1333-44) about malignancy rates in cows, horses, cats and dogs. From our analysis we found that equines and bovines, animals with less invasive placentation, have lower rates of metastatic cancer than felines and canines in skin and glandular epithelial cancers as well as connective tissue sarcomas. We conclude that a link between type of placentation and species-specific malignancy rates is more likely related to derived mechanisms that suppress invasion rather than different degrees of fetal placental aggressiveness. PMID:25324490

  1. Influence of fibrous encapsulation on electro-chemical properties of TiN electrodes.

    PubMed

    Meijs, Suzan; Fjorback, Morten; Jensen, Carina; Sørensen, Søren; Rechendorff, Kristian; Rijkhoff, Nico J M

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the electrochemical properties of porous titanium nitride stimulation electrode are affected by fibrous encapsulation in vivo. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry and voltage transient (VT) measurements were performed in vivo and in phosphate buffered saline, where the encapsulation process is absent. EIS was used as a non-invasive measurement to follow the inflammation, healing and encapsulation process. EIS showed that the healing and encapsulation process lasted 3-4 weeks. The VTs increased during the first 3-4 weeks, after which they stabilized. The charge storage capacity (CSC) decreased most during the first 3-4 weeks. The increasing VTs and decreasing CSC during the first 3-4 weeks after implantation of the in vivo electrodes seem related to healing and fibrous encapsulation. It is suggested that the charge injection pathway during the encapsulation process changes, which implies that charge injection limits are underestimated with conventional methods. PMID:26997562

  2. Biot theory and acoustical properties of high porosity fibrous materials and plastic foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allard, J.; Aknine, A.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental values of acoustic wave propagation constant and characteristic impedance in fibrous materials, and normal absorption for two plastic foams, were compared to theoretical predictions obtained with Biot's theory. The best agreement was observed for fibrous materials between Biot's theory and Delany and Bazley experiments for a nearly zero mass coupling parameter. For foams, the lambda/4 structure resonance effect on absorption was calculated by using four-pole modelling of the medium. A significant mass coupling parameter is then necessary for obtaining agreement between the behavior of the measured absorption coefficients and the theoretical predictions. It is shown how the formalism used for predicting foams absorption coefficients may be used for studying the acoustic behavior of multi-layered media.

  3. Cooperative, reversible self-assembly of covalently pre-linked proteins into giant fibrous structures.

    PubMed

    Averick, Saadyah; Karácsony, Orsolya; Mohin, Jacob; Yong, Xin; Moellers, Nicholas M; Woodman, Bradley F; Zhu, Weipu; Mehl, Ryan A; Balazs, Anna C; Kowalewski, Tomasz; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof

    2014-07-28

    We demonstrate a simple bioconjugate polymer system that undergoes reversible self-assembling into extended fibrous structures, reminiscent of those observed in living systems. It is comprised of green fluorescent protein (GFP) molecules linked into linear oligomeric strands through click step growth polymerization with dialkyne poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). Confocal microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and dynamic light scattering revealed that such strands form high persistence length fibers, with lengths reaching tens of micrometers, and uniform, sub-100 nm widths. We ascribe this remarkable and robust form of self-assembly to the cooperativity arising from the known tendency of GFP molecules to dimerize through localized hydrophobic patches and from their covalent pre-linking with flexible PEO. Dissipative particle dynamics simulations of a coarse-grained model of the system revealed its tendency to form elongated fibrous aggregates, suggesting the general nature of this mode of self-assembly. PMID:25044628

  4. On the Calculation of Anisotropic Extinction Coefficients for Rigid Fibrous Ceramic Insulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Jochen; Milos, Frank

    1995-01-01

    The specific anisotropic extinction coefficient e* couples the effective Radiative properties of a fibrous insulation into the radiation diffusion equation. This coefficient can be calculated using Mie scattering theory if fiber diameters, refractive indices and fiber orientation distributions are known. In general, fiber orientation distributions are not readily accessible and past calculations have considered fibers as either randomly distributed or normal to the heat flow direction. In certain rigid fibrous ceramic insulations neither of these cases apply well and a simple procedure is described for approximating e* from values calculated for the random and normal orientation cases. The intrinsic error associated with this scaling procedure is investigated. Numerical computations for several test structures and fiber materials show the average error to be less than 5% for net heat flux and radiation conductivity calculations.

  5. A Network Model for the Effective Thermal Conductivity of Rigid Fibrous Refractory Insulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marschall, Jochen; Cooper, D. M. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A procedure is described for computing the effective thermal conductivity of a rigid fibrous refractory insulation. The insulation is modeled as a 3-dimensional Cartesian network of thermal conductance. The values and volume distributions of the conductance are assigned to reflect the physical properties of the insulation, its constituent fibers, and any permeating gas. The effective thermal conductivity is computed by considering the simultaneous energy transport by solid conduction, gas conduction and radiation through a cubic volume of model insulation; thus the coupling between heat transfer modes is retained (within the simplifications inherent to the model), rather than suppressed by treating these heat transfer modes as independent. The model takes into account insulation composition, density and fiber anisotropy, as well as the geometric and material properties of the constituent fibers. A relatively good agreement, between calculated and experimentally derived thermal conductivity values, is obtained for a variety of rigid fibrous insulations.

  6. Potential health risks from the use of fibrous mineral absorption granulates.

    PubMed

    Rödelsperger, K; Brückel, B; Manke, J; Woitowitz, H J; Pott, F

    1987-05-01

    Attapulgite (palygorskite) and sepiolite are fibrous clay minerals used commercially as components in a wide variety of products including oil and grease adsorbents, carriers for pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and pesticides. They are also components of drilling muds and animal litter and they are used as paint thickeners. The current annual worldwide production of these minerals exceeds one million tons. Although fibrous in nature, the fibre length may vary greatly depending on the location of the geological deposits. American attapulgite is short (0.1-2.5 micron in length, median of 0.4 micron) but palygorskite from other parts of the world is much longer (30% longer than 5 micron). Several samples of these materials have been submitted to scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). This paper reports the results of microscopic evaluations and makes a comparison with the data from experimental carcinogenicity studies and it is concluded that fibre length is a most important carcinogenic property. PMID:2954581

  7. Murine Mueller cells are progenitor cells for neuronal cells and fibrous tissue cells

    SciTech Connect

    Florian, Christian; Langmann, Thomas; Weber, Bernhard H.F.; Morsczeck, Christian

    2008-09-19

    Mammalian Mueller cells have been reported to possess retinal progenitor cell properties and generate new neurons after injury. This study investigates murine Mueller cells under in vitro conditions for their capability of dedifferentiation into retinal progenitor cells. Mueller cells were isolated from mouse retina, and proliferating cells were expanded in serum-containing medium. For dedifferentiation, the cultured cells were transferred to serum-replacement medium (SRM) at different points in time after their isolation. Interestingly, early cell passages produced fibrous tissue in which extracellular matrix proteins and connective tissue markers were differentially expressed. In contrast, aged Mueller cell cultures formed neurospheres in SRM that are characteristic for neuronal progenitor cells. These neurospheres differentiated into neuron-like cells after cultivation on laminin/ornithine cell culture substrate. Here, we report for the first time that murine Mueller cells can be progenitors for both, fibrous tissue cells and neuronal cells, depending on the age of the cell culture.

  8. Potential health risks from the use of fibrous mineral absorption granulates.

    PubMed Central

    Rödelsperger, K; Brückel, B; Manke, J; Woitowitz, H J; Pott, F

    1987-01-01

    Attapulgite (palygorskite) and sepiolite are fibrous clay minerals used commercially as components in a wide variety of products including oil and grease adsorbents, carriers for pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and pesticides. They are also components of drilling muds and animal litter and they are used as paint thickeners. The current annual worldwide production of these minerals exceeds one million tons. Although fibrous in nature, the fibre length may vary greatly depending on the location of the geological deposits. American attapulgite is short (0.1-2.5 micron in length, median of 0.4 micron) but palygorskite from other parts of the world is much longer (30% longer than 5 micron). Several samples of these materials have been submitted to scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). This paper reports the results of microscopic evaluations and makes a comparison with the data from experimental carcinogenicity studies and it is concluded that fibre length is a most important carcinogenic property. Images PMID:2954581

  9. Development of advanced fibrous monoliths - final report for project of 1998-2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Goretta, K. C.; Singh, D.; Cruse, T. A.; Ellingson, W. A.; Picciolo, J. J.; Polzin, B. J.; Spohnholtz, T. W.; Zok, F. W.; McNulty, J. C.; He, M.; Kriven, W. M.; Lee, S. J.; Kim, D. K.; Hilmas, G.; Mercer, A. J.; Begley, M. R.; de Arellano-Lopez, A. R.

    2001-05-10

    Efforts to develop fibrous ceramic monoliths for primarily structural applications are described. Fibrous monoliths (FMs) are relatively insensitive to flaws and can exhibit graceful failure and large work-of-fracture values. They can be inexpensively produced in a wide variety of forms by conventional ceramic processing methods such as extrusion. The FM project that is the subject of this report involved investigations to (1) develop FMs that can be pressureless sintered rather than hot pressed, (2) develop technologies to continuously extrude FM filaments and inexpensively fabricate FM components, (3) evaluate the performance of commercial and new, prototype FMs, (4) develop micromechanical models to guide the design of new FMs and predict their properties, and (5) forge collaborations with industry to produce useful parts.

  10. Solitary Fibrous Tumour of the Kidney: Case Report with Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, Sulata Manjunath; Nagaraj, HK; Mysorekar, Vijaya V; Patil, Geeta V; Gowri, Mangala

    2013-01-01

    Solitary Fibrous Tumour (SFT) is an unusual spindle cell tumour that usually occurs in the pleura, but has recently also been reported to be extra-pleural in origin. A renal presentation is very rare. Upto 90% of the tumours have benign characteristics. It is difficult to differentiate it from renal cell carcinoma by using imaging techniques. A definitive diagnosis can be made by doing a detailed pathological examination, which includes immunohistochemistry. We are reporting a case of a large solitary fibrous tumour of the kidney which here occurred in a 70-years-old male. Histological examination of the resected specimen confirmed the diagnosis, by revealing strongly positive reactions of the neoplastic cells for CD34, bcl-2, vimentin and negativity for Epithelial Membrane Antigen (EMA), Smooth Muscle Actin (SMA), S-100 protein and Ki-67. The patient suffered a cardiac arrest and died on the seventh day after his surgery. PMID:24551694

  11. Biocidal efficacy, biofilm-controlling function, and controlled release effect of chloromelamine-based bioresponsive fibrous materials

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhaobin; Luo, Jie; Sun, Yuyu

    2007-01-01

    In this study, 2-amino-4-chloro-6-hydroxy-s-triazine (ACHT) was synthesized through controlled hydrolysis of 2-amino-4,6-dichloro-s-triazine (ADCT). A simple paddry-cure approach was employed to immobilize ACHT onto cellulosic fibrous materials. After treatment with diluted chlorine bleach, the covalently bound ACHT moieties were transformed into chloromelamines. The structures of the samples were fully characterized with NMR, UV/VIS, DSC, TG, iodometric titration and elemental analyses. The chloromelamine-based fibrous materials provided potent, durable, and rechargeable biocidal functions against bacteria (including multi-drug resistant species), yeasts, viruses, and bacterial spores. SEM studies demonstrated that the new fibrous materials could effectively prevent the formation of biofilms, and controlled release investigations in vitro suggested that the biocidal activities were bioresponsive. Biocidal mechanisms of the chloromelamine-based fibrous materials were further discussed. PMID:17184837

  12. Epidermal nevus syndrome associated with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, CNS lipoma, and aplasia cutis.

    PubMed

    Cabanillas, Miguel; Aneiros, Angel; Monteagudo, Benigno; Santos-García, Diego; Suárez-Amor, Oscar; Ramírez-Santos, Aquilina

    2009-01-01

    Epidermal nevus syndrome is a rare congenital sporadic neurocutaneous disorder characterized by an epidermal nevus and various developmental abnormalities of the skin, eyes, nervous, cardiovascular and urogenital systems. We describe a patient with an extensive epidermal nevus associated with various organ abnormalities, particularly polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, central nervous system lipoma, and aplasia cutis. Our patient demonstrates the polymorphic spectrum of involvement in epidermal nevus syndrome. PMID:19951625

  13. PTHrP regulates the modeling of cortical bone surfaces at fibrous insertion sites during growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meina; VanHouten, Joshua N; Nasiri, Ali R; Johnson, Randy L; Broadus, Arthur E

    2013-03-01

    The sites that receive ligament and tendon insertions (entheses) on the cortical surfaces of long bones are poorly understood, particularly regarding modeling and regulation. Entheses are classified as either fibrocartilaginous or fibrous based on their structures. Fibrous entheses typically insert into the metaphysis or diaphysis of a long bone, bear a periosteal component, and are modeled during long-bone growth. This modeling forms a root system by which the insertions attach to the cortical surface. In the case of the medial collateral ligament, modeling drives actual migration of the ligament along the cortical surface in order to accommodate linear growth, whereas in other sites modeling may excavate a deep cortical root system (eg, the teres major insertion) or a shallow root system with a large footprint (eg, the latissimus dorsi insertion). We report here that conditionally deleting parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) in fibrous entheses via Scleraxis-Cre targeting causes modeling to fail in these three iterations of osteoclast-driven enthesis excavation or migration. These iterations appear to represent formes frustes of a common modeling strategy, presumably differing from each other as a consequence of differences in biomechanical control. In sites in which PTHrP is not induced, either physiologically or because of conditional deletion, modeling does not take place and fibrocartilage is induced. These findings represent the initial genetic evidence that PTHrP regulates periosteal/intramembranous bone cell activity on cortical bone surfaces and indicate that PTHrP serves as a load-induced modeling tool in fibrous insertion sites during linear growth. PMID:23109045

  14. Methods for modifying monofilaments, bundles of monofilaments, and fibrous structural material

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Charles A.; Argyle, Mark D.; Fox, Robert V.; Ginosar, Daniel M.; Janikowski, Stuart K.; Miller, David L.; Propp, W. Alan; Toth, William J.

    2002-12-17

    The present invention is related to the modifying of substrates such as monofilaments, bundles of monofilaments, and fibrous structural material with a modifying agent. The modifying agent is suspended or dissolved in a supercritical fluid, near-critical fluid, superheated fluid, superheated liquid, or a liquified gas and is deposited by rapidly altering the pressure in a chamber to deposit the modifying material onto the substrate.

  15. Biological augmentation of rotator cuff repair using bFGF-loaded electrospun poly(lactide-co-glycolide) fibrous membranes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Song; Zhao, Jingwen; Dong, Shikui; Huangfu, Xiaoqiao; Li, Bin; Yang, Huilin; Zhao, Jinzhong; Cui, Wenguo

    2014-01-01

    Clinically, rotator cuff tear (RCT) is among the most common shoulder pathologies. Despite significant advances in surgical techniques, the re-tear rate after rotator cuff (RC) repair remains high. Insufficient healing capacity is likely the main factor for reconstruction failure. This study reports on a basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-loaded electrospun poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) fibrous membrane for repairing RCT. Implantable biodegradable bFGF-PLGA fibrous membranes were successfully fabricated using emulsion electrospinning technology and then characterized and evaluated with in vitro and in vivo cell proliferation assays and repairs of rat chronic RCTs. Emulsion electrospinning fabricated ultrafine fibers with a core-sheath structure which secured the bioactivity of bFGF in a sustained manner for 3 weeks. Histological observations showed that electrospun fibrous membranes have excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability. At 2, 4, and 8 weeks after in vivo RCT repair surgery, electrospun fibrous membranes significantly increased the area of glycosaminoglycan staining at the tendon-bone interface compared with the control group, and bFGF-PLGA significantly improved collagen organization, as measured by birefringence under polarized light at the healing enthesis compared with the control and PLGA groups. Biomechanical testing showed that the electrospun fibrous membrane groups had a greater ultimate load-to-failure and stiffness than the control group at 4 and 8 weeks. The bFGF-PLGA membranes had the highest ultimate load-to-failure, stiffness, and stress of the healing enthesis, and their superiority compared to PLGA alone was significant. These results demonstrated that electrospun fibrous membranes aid in cell attachment and proliferation, as well as accelerating tendon-bone remodeling, and bFGF-loaded PLGA fibrous membranes have a more pronounced effect on tendon-bone healing. Therefore, augmentation using bFGF-PLGA electrospun fibrous

  16. Regulating inflammation using acid-responsive electrospun fibrous scaffolds for skin scarless healing.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ziming; Zhao, Jingwen; Chen, Yigang; Yang, Zhili; Cui, Wenguo; Zheng, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Skin injury in adult mammals brings about a series of events and inflammation in the wounded area is initiated first and provides lots of inflammatory factors, which is critical for the final scar formation. While the postinjured skin of fetus and nude mice heals scarlessly owing to the absence of inflammation or immunodeficient, we designed a feasible acid-responsive ibuprofen-loaded poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) fibrous scaffolds via doping sodium bicarbonate to prevent excessive inflammation and achieve scarless healing finally. The morphological results of in vivo experiments revealed that animals treated with acid-responsive ibuprofen-loaded PLLA fibrous scaffolds exhibited alleviative inflammation, accelerated healing process, and regulated collagen deposition via interference in the collagen distribution, the α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) expression. The lower ratios of collagen I/collagen III and TGF-β1/TGF-β3 and higher ratio of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1)/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in acid-responsive ibuprofen-loaded PLLA fibrous scaffolds group were confirmed by real-time qPCR as well. These results suggest that inhibiting the excessive inflammation will result in regular collagen distribution and appropriate ratio between the factors, which promote or suppress the scar formation, then decrease the scar area, and finally achieve the scarless healing. PMID:24795507

  17. Fibrous Dysplasia of the Temporal Bone with External Auditory Canal Stenosis and Secondary Cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu Hsi; Chang, Kuo Ping

    2016-04-01

    Fibrous dysplasia is a slowly progressive benign fibro-osseous disease, rarely occurring in temporal bones. In these cases, most bony lesions developed from the bony part of the external auditory canals, causing otalgia, hearing impairment, otorrhea, and ear hygiene blockade and probably leading to secondary cholesteatoma. We presented the medical history of a 24-year-old woman with temporal monostotic fibrous dysplasia with secondary cholesteatoma. The initial presentation was unilateral conductive hearing loss. A hard external canal tumor contributing to canal stenosis and a near-absent tympanic membrane were found. Canaloplasty and type I tympanoplasty were performed, but the symptoms recurred after 5 years. She received canal wall down tympanomastoidectomy with ossciculoplasty at the second time, and secondary cholesteatoma in the middle ear was diagnosed. Fifteen years later, left otorrhea recurred again and transcanal endoscopic surgery was performed for middle ear clearance. Currently, revision surgeries provide a stable auditory condition, but her monostotic temporal fibrous dysplasia is still in place. PMID:27340999

  18. Micro-poromechanics model of fluid-saturated chemically active fibrous media

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Anil; Parthasarathy, Ranganathan; Singh, Viraj; Spencer, Paulette

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a micromechanics based model for chemically active saturated fibrous media that incorporates fiber network microstructure, chemical potential driven fluid flow, and micro-poromechanics. The stress-strain relationship of the dry fibrous media is first obtained by considering the fiber behavior. The constitutive relationships applicable to saturated media are then derived in the poromechanics framework using Hill’s volume averaging. The advantage of this approach is that the resultant continuum model accounts for the discrete nature of the individual fibers while retaining a form suitable for porous materials. As a result, the model is able to predict the influence of micro-scale phenomena, such as the fiber pre-strain caused by osmotic effects and evolution of fiber network structure with loading, on the overall behavior and in particular, on the poromechanics parameters. Additionally, the model can describe fluid-flow related rate-dependent behavior under confined and unconfined conditions and varying chemical environments. The significance of the approach is demonstrated by simulating unconfined drained monotonic uniaxial compression under different surrounding fluid bath molarity, and fluid-flow related creep and relaxation at different loading-levels and different surrounding fluid bath molarity. The model predictions conform to the experimental observations for saturated soft fibrous materials. The method can potentially be extended to other porous materials such as bone, clays, foams and concrete. PMID:25755301

  19. Fibrous hybrid of graphene and sulfur nanocrystals for high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guangmin; Yin, Li-Chang; Wang, Da-Wei; Li, Lu; Pei, Songfeng; Gentle, Ian Ross; Li, Feng; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2013-06-25

    Graphene-sulfur (G-S) hybrid materials with sulfur nanocrystals anchored on interconnected fibrous graphene are obtained by a facile one-pot strategy using a sulfur/carbon disulfide/alcohol mixed solution. The reduction of graphene oxide and the formation/binding of sulfur nanocrystals were integrated. The G-S hybrids exhibit a highly porous network structure constructed by fibrous graphene, many electrically conducting pathways, and easily tunable sulfur content, which can be cut and pressed into pellets to be directly used as lithium-sulfur battery cathodes without using a metal current-collector, binder, and conductive additive. The porous network and sulfur nanocrystals enable rapid ion transport and short Li(+) diffusion distance, the interconnected fibrous graphene provides highly conductive electron transport pathways, and the oxygen-containing (mainly hydroxyl/epoxide) groups show strong binding with polysulfides, preventing their dissolution into the electrolyte based on first-principles calculations. As a result, the G-S hybrids show a high capacity, an excellent high-rate performance, and a long life over 100 cycles. These results demonstrate the great potential of this unique hybrid structure as cathodes for high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries. PMID:23672616

  20. Electrospun fibrous scaffold of hydroxyapatite/poly (ε-caprolactone) for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Li, Lingli; Li, Guang; Jiang, Jianming; Liu, Xiaona; Luo, Li; Nan, Kaihui

    2012-02-01

    Development of fibrous scaffold of hydroxyapatite/biopolymer nanocomposite offers great potential in the field of bone regeneration and tissue engineering. Hydroxyapatite (HA)/poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) fibrous scaffolds were successfully prepared by electrospinning dopes containing HA and PCL in this work. It was found that pre-treating HA with γ-glycioxypropyltrimethoxysilane (A-187) was effective in improving HA dispersion both in solutions and in a PCL matrix. Mechanical properties of the scaffolds were greatly enhanced by the filling of A187-HA. The bioactivity of PCL was remarkably improved by the addition of HA and A187-HA. Fibroblasts and osteoblasts were seeded on scaffolds to evaluate the effect of A-187 on biocompatibility of HA/PCL composites. Based on this study, good dispersion of HA in PCL matrix was granted by pretreatment of HA with A-187 and A187-HA/PCL fibrous scaffolds were obtained by electrospinning. These results demonstrated that the scaffolds may possess improved mechanical performance and good bioactivity due to A187-HA incorporation. PMID:22143907

  1. Cellulose nanocrystal-filled poly(acrylic acid) nanocomposite fibrous membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ping; Hsieh, You-Lo

    2009-10-01

    Nanocomposite fibrous membranes have been fabricated by electrospinning cellulose nanocrystal (CNC)-loaded poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) ethanol mixtures. Incorporating CNC in PAA significantly reduced fiber diameters and improved fiber uniformity. The average diameters of the as-spun nanocomposite fibers were significantly reduced from 349 nm to 162 nm, 141 nm, 90 nm and 69 nm at 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% CNC loading (by weight of a constant 4% PAA solution), respectively. CNC was well dispersed in the fibers as isolated rods oriented along the fiber axis and as spheres in the PAA matrix. The Young modulus and stress of the PAA/CNC nanocomposite fibers were significantly improved with increasing CNC loadings by up to 35-fold and 16-fold, respectively. Heat-induced esterification between the CNC surface hydroxyls and PAA carboxyl groups produced covalent crosslinks at the CNC-PAA interfaces, rendering the nanocomposite fibrous membranes insoluble in water, more thermally stable and far more superior in tensile strength. With 20% CNC, the crosslinked nanocomposite fibrous membrane exhibited a very impressive 77-fold increase in modulus and 58-fold increase in stress.

  2. Electrospun bilayer fibrous scaffolds for enhanced cell infiltration and vascularization in vivo.

    PubMed

    Pu, Juan; Yuan, Falei; Li, Song; Komvopoulos, Kyriakos

    2015-02-01

    Bilayer poly(L-lactic acid) fibrous scaffolds consisting of a thin aligned-fiber layer (AFL) and a relatively thick random-fiber layer (RFL) were fabricated by an electrospinning technique, which uses two slowly rotating parallel disks as the collector. The morphology and structure of the bilayer scaffolds were examined by high-magnification scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. The bilayer scaffolds demonstrated a gradual variation in through-thickness porosity and fiber alignment and an average porosity much higher than that of conventionally electrospun scaffolds (controls) with randomly distributed fibers. The biocompatibility and biological performance of the bilayer fibrous scaffolds were evaluated by in vivo experiments involving subcutaneous scaffold implantation in Sprague-Dawley rats, followed by histology and immunohistochemistry studies. The results illustrate the potential of the bilayer scaffolds to overcome major limitations of conventionally electrospun scaffolds associated with intrinsically small pores, low porosity and, consequently, poor cell infiltration. The significantly higher porosity and larger pore size of RFL enhances cell motility through the scaffold thickness, whereas the relatively dense structure of AFL provides the scaffold with the necessary mechanical strength. The bilayer scaffolds show more than two times higher cell infiltration than controls during implantation in vivo. The unique structure of the bilayer scaffolds promotes collagen fiber deposition, cell proliferation, and ingrowth of smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells in vivo. The results of this study illustrate the high prospect of the fabricated bilayer fibrous scaffolds in tissue engineering and regeneration. PMID:25463495

  3. Type VIII Collagen Mediates Vessel Wall Remodeling after Arterial Injury and Fibrous Cap Formation in Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Joshua; Adiguzel, Eser; Gu, Steven; Liu, Shu-Lin; Hou, Guangpei; Heximer, Scott; Assoian, Richard K.; Bendeck, Michelle P.

    2014-01-01

    Collagens in the atherosclerotic plaque signal regulation of cell behavior and provide tensile strength to the fibrous cap. Type VIII collagen, a short-chain collagen, is up-regulated in atherosclerosis; however, little is known about its functions in vivo. We studied the response to arterial injury and the development of atherosclerosis in type VIII collagen knockout mice (Col8−/− mice). After wire injury of the femoral artery, Col8−/− mice had decreased vessel wall thickening and outward remodeling when compared with Col8+/+ mice. We discovered that apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is an endogenous repressor of the Col8a1 chain, and, therefore, in ApoE knockout mice, type VIII collagen was up-regulated. Deficiency of type VIII collagen in ApoE−/− mice (Col8−/−;ApoE−/−) resulted in development of plaques with thin fibrous caps because of decreased smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation and reduced accumulation of fibrillar type I collagen. In contrast, macrophage accumulation was not affected, and the plaques had large lipid-rich necrotic cores. We conclude that in atherosclerosis, type VIII collagen is up-regulated in the absence of ApoE and functions to increase smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration. This is an important mechanism for formation of a thick fibrous cap to protect the atherosclerotic plaque from rupture. PMID:23567639

  4. Mapping local orientation of aligned fibrous scatterers for cancerous tissues using backscattering Mueller matrix imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Honghui; Sun, Minghao; Zeng, Nan; Du, E.; Liu, Shaoxiong; Guo, Yihong; Wu, Jian; He, Yonghong; Ma, Hui

    2014-10-01

    Polarization measurements are sensitive to the microstructure of tissues and can be used to detect pathological changes. Many tissues contain anisotropic fibrous structures. We obtain the local orientation of aligned fibrous scatterers using different groups of the backscattering Mueller matrix elements. Experiments on concentrically well-aligned silk fibers and unstained human papillary thyroid carcinoma tissues show that the m22, m33, m23, and m32 elements have better contrast but higher degeneracy for the extraction of orientation angles. The m12 and m13 elements show lower contrast, but allow us to determine the orientation angle for the fibrous scatterers along all directions. Moreover, Monte Carlo simulations based on the sphere-cylinder scattering model indicate that the oblique incidence of the illumination beam introduces some errors in the orientation angles obtained by both methods. Mapping the local orientation of anisotropic tissues may not only provide information on pathological changes, but can also give new leads to reduce the orientation dependence of polarization measurements.

  5. Regulating Inflammation Using Acid-Responsive Electrospun Fibrous Scaffolds for Skin Scarless Healing

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ziming; Zhao, Jingwen; Chen, Yigang; Yang, Zhili; Zheng, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Skin injury in adult mammals brings about a series of events and inflammation in the wounded area is initiated first and provides lots of inflammatory factors, which is critical for the final scar formation. While the postinjured skin of fetus and nude mice heals scarlessly owing to the absence of inflammation or immunodeficient, we designed a feasible acid-responsive ibuprofen-loaded poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) fibrous scaffolds via doping sodium bicarbonate to prevent excessive inflammation and achieve scarless healing finally. The morphological results of in vivo experiments revealed that animals treated with acid-responsive ibuprofen-loaded PLLA fibrous scaffolds exhibited alleviative inflammation, accelerated healing process, and regulated collagen deposition via interference in the collagen distribution, the α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) expression. The lower ratios of collagen I/collagen III and TGF-β1/TGF-β3 and higher ratio of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1)/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in acid-responsive ibuprofen-loaded PLLA fibrous scaffolds group were confirmed by real-time qPCR as well. These results suggest that inhibiting the excessive inflammation will result in regular collagen distribution and appropriate ratio between the factors, which promote or suppress the scar formation, then decrease the scar area, and finally achieve the scarless healing. PMID:24795507

  6. A structure-based extracellular matrix expansion mechanism of fibrous tissue growth

    PubMed Central

    Kalson, Nicholas S; Lu, Yinhui; Taylor, Susan H; Starborg, Tobias; Holmes, David F; Kadler, Karl E

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic growth occurs predominately by an increase in cell number; little is known about growth mechanisms later in development when fibrous tissues account for the bulk of adult vertebrate mass. We present a model for fibrous tissue growth based on 3D-electron microscopy of mouse tendon. We show that the number of collagen fibrils increases during embryonic development and then remains constant during postnatal growth. Embryonic growth was explained predominately by increases in fibril number and length. Postnatal growth arose predominately from increases in fibril length and diameter. A helical crimp structure was established in embryogenesis, and persisted postnatally. The data support a model where the shape and size of tendon is determined by the number and position of embryonic fibroblasts. The collagen fibrils that these cells synthesise provide a template for postnatal growth by structure-based matrix expansion. The model has important implications for growth of other fibrous tissues and fibrosis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05958.001 PMID:25992598

  7. Collagen immunostains can distinguish capsular fibrous tissue from septal fibrosis and may help stage liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Rock, Jonathan B; Yearsley, Martha M; Hanje, A James; Frankel, Wendy L

    2014-01-01

    Core-needle biopsy remains essential for diagnosis of cirrhosis; however, evaluation of fibrosis in such biopsies is often challenging due to the fragmented nature of cirrhotic liver specimens. It is also common to see portions of liver capsules present in the biopsy which adds to the diagnostic challenge. The distinction between capsular/subcapsular fibrous tissue and septal fibrosis is critical to avoid potential overstaging of liver fibrosis. We compared the differential immunostaining in liver capsular and septal areas for collagens III, IV, V, VI, vitronectin, laminin, Orcein, and Trichrome in 15 whole sections of explanted cirrhotic livers and 5 simulated liver biopsies. Collagens III, IV, V, VI, Trichrome, and Orcein show distinct staining patterns in capsular fibrous tissue and septal fibrosis. Collagen IV shows strong diffuse septal staining and consistently weak to negative capsular staining. Collagens III and VI stain similar to IV for septal fibrosis, whereas collagen V, Trichrome, and Orcein show strong staining in both areas. Collagen IV, possibly with III or VI in addition to the routine Trichrome and hematoxylin and eosin stain, is useful in differentiating capsular fibrous tissue from septal fibrosis on challenging and fragmented liver biopsies. PMID:25046231

  8. Surface biofunctional drug-loaded electrospun fibrous scaffolds for comprehensive repairing hypertrophic scars.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Liying; Sun, Xiaoming; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Lan; Yu, Jia; Pan, Guoqing; Li, Bin; Yang, Huilin; Zhang, Yuguang; Cui, Wenguo

    2016-03-01

    Incorporation of bioactive drugs and biofunctionalization of polyester fibrous scaffolds are essential means to improve their bio-functions and histocompatibility for regenerative medicine. However, it is still a challenge to biofunctionalize such drug carriers via traditional biochemical methods while maintaining their properties without changes in drug activity and loading ratio. Here, we demonstrated a facile approach for biofunctionalization of PLGA fibrous scaffolds with various molecules (i.e., PEG polymer, RGD peptide and bFGF growth factor for cell repellent, adhesion and proliferation, respectively) via mussel-Inspired poly(dopamine) (PDA) coating in aqueous solution. By virtue of the mild and efficient nature of this approach, the drug-loaded PLGA fibers could be easily biofunctionalized and showed negligible effects on the scaffold properties, especially drug activity and loading ratio. Further, in vivo study showed that, a ginsenoside-Rg3-loaded fibrous scaffold functionalized with bFGF growth factor could not only promote the early-stage wound healing in rabbit ear wounds (bio-signal from bFGF), but also inhibit later-stage hypertrophic scars formation (release of Rg3 drug). Therefore, the mussel-inspired method for bio-modification provides a facile and effective strategy to combine drug and bio-function in one system, thus facilitating a synergistic effect of drug-therapy and bio-signal when such biomaterial is used for regenerative medicine. PMID:26774564

  9. Controlled antiseptic/eosin release from chitosan-based hydrogel modified fibrous substrates.

    PubMed

    Romano, Ilaria; Ayadi, Farouk; Rizzello, Loris; Summa, Maria; Bertorelli, Rosalia; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Brandi, Fernando; Bayer, Ilker S; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2015-10-20

    Fibers of cellulose networks were stably coated with N-methacrylate glycol chitosan (MGC) shells using subsequent steps of dip coating and photo-curing. The photo-crosslinked MGC-coated cellulose networks preserved their fibrous structure. A model hydrophilic antiseptic solution containing eosin, chloroxylenol and propylene glycol was incorporated into the shells to study the drug release dynamics. Detailed drug release mechanism into phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solutions from coated and pristine fibers loaded with the antiseptic was investigated. The results show that the MGC-coated cellulose fibers enable the controlled gradual release of the drug for four days, as opposed to fast, instantaneous release from eosin coated pristine fibers. This release behavior was found to affect the antibacterial efficiency of the fibrous cellulose sheets significantly against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. In the case of the MGC-eosin functionalized system the antibacterial efficiency was as high as 85% and 90%, respectively, while for the eosin coated pristine cellulose system the efficiency was negative, indicating bacterial proliferation. Furthermore, the MGC-eosin system was shown to be efficacious in a model of wound healing in mice, reducing the levels of various pro-inflammatory cytokines that modulate early inflammatory phase responses. The results demonstrate good potential of these coated fibers for wound dressing and healing applications. Due to its easy application on common passive commercial fibrous dressings such as gauzes and cotton fibers, the method can render them active dressings in a cost effective way. PMID:26256189

  10. Monostotic fibrous dysplasia involving occipital bone: a case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Basaran, Recep; Kaksi, Mustafa; Gur, Erdal; Efendioglu, Mustafa; Balkuv, Ece; Sav, Aydin

    2014-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a progressive systemic bone tumour of young and it can be seen on cranial bones. FD is divided into three types according to radiological features. The second most common subtype is polyostotic subtype. With this article, we aimed to review and present clinical features, radiological examination, differential diagnosis and treatment management of a case of solitary monostotic fibrous dysplasia of occipital bone. 15 years old female patient admitted to our hospital for a bump and in the back of his head that she noticed 1 month ago. Her physical and neurological examination was normal. On cranial CT examination we detected a bony defect. Her gadolinium enhanced cranial MRI revealed bony defect along with massive gadolinium enhancement in adjacent tissue. On histopathologic examination; PANCK, CD68, CD1a were found negative and CD45, S-100, Vimentine were found positive. Ki-67 was 4,8%. In conclusion, fibrous dysplasia is a progressive bone disease of the young patients. Despite its resemblance to a benign lesion by not being symptomatic it can progress and cause severe bony defects and skin lesions. Total surgical resection is necessary and sufficient for total treatment. PMID:25745531

  11. Efficient treatment of garbage slurry in methanogenic bioreactor packed by fibrous sponge with high porosity.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kengo; Sasaki, Daisuke; Morita, Masahiko; Hirano, Shin-Ichi; Matsumoto, Norio; Ohmura, Naoya; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2010-05-01

    Adding a supporting material to a methanogenic bioreactor treating garbage slurry can improve efficiency of methane production. However, little is known on how characteristics (e.g., porosity and hydrophobicity) of the supporting material affect the bioreactor degrading garbage slurry. We describe the reactor performances and microbial communities in bioreactors containing hydrophilic or hydrophobic sheets, or fibrous hydrophilic or hydrophobic sponges. The porosity affected the efficiency of methane production and solid waste removal more than the hydrophilic or hydrophobic nature of the supporting material. When the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism technique was used at a lower organic loading rate (OLR), microbial diversities in the suspended fraction were retained on the hydrophobic, but not the hydrophilic, sheets. Moreover, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) performed at a higher OLR revealed that the excellent performance of reactors containing fibrous sponges with high porosity (98%) was supported by a clear increase in the numbers of methanogens on these sponges, resulting in larger total numbers of methanogens in the reactors. In addition, the bacterial communities in fractions retained on both the hydrophobic and hydrophilic fibrous sponges differed from those in the suspended fraction, thus increasing bacterial diversity in the reactor. Thus, higher porosity of the supporting material improves the bioreactor performance by increasing the amount of methanogens and bacterial diversity; surface hydrophobicity contributes to maintaining the suspended microbial community. PMID:20162271

  12. Fibrous-glass aerosols: a literature review. Special report. [On nuclear submarines

    SciTech Connect

    Laverty, B.R.

    1987-10-02

    The submarine atmospheric is a topic of interest, considering that once submerged, the craft relies on its own electrostatic precipitators (ESP's), scrubbers, and filters to create, ideally, an environment with minimal aerosolized toxic materials and other by-products. Historically, atmosphere sampling aboard nuclear submarines has shown contaminants. Other contaminants include: ozone, (major source: by-product of the ESP's); freon, (major source: ship's refrigeration system and air-conditioning plants); hydrogen, (major source: ship's batteries); carbon dioxide, (major source: human respiration); and carbon monoxide, (major source: cigarette smoking). Contaminants tested for but not found were elemental mercury and asbestos. Considering that asbestos is no longer recommended for use, secondary to its carcinogenic and co-carcinogenic qualities, fibrous glass has become a common substitute. One use of fibrous glass aboard the Ohio class submarine is acoustic and thermal insulation around perforated ducting, which runs through many exposed, high traffic spaces, i.e. crew's berthing spaces. Although the raw fibrous glass is protected from the environment it is possible, through natural wear and tear of the housing material, that at some time the insulating material may become exposed and mechanically aerosolized. Obvious questions then are: a) do submarine aerosols contain fiber glass, and b) are there health hazards related to the inhalation of these fibers. This paper reviews the current knowledge as to the health hazard of exposure.

  13. Characterization of fibrous residues from agrowastes and the production of nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Fung, Wai-Yee; Yuen, Kah-Hay; Liong, Min-Tze

    2010-07-14

    Oil palm trunk (OPT), oil palm frond (OPF), and okara are agrowastes generated abundantly by the palm oil and soy industries. There are vast potentials for these fibrous biomass rather than disposal at landfills or incineration. Fibrous materials (FM) and alkali-treated fibrous residues (FR) were produced from the selected wastes and subsequently characterized. Functional properties such as emulsifying properties, mineral-binding capacity, and free radical scavenging activity were also evaluated for possible development of functional products. Supernatants (FS) generated from the alkaline treatment contained soluble fractions of fibers and were also characterized and used for the production of nanofibers. Okara FM had the highest (P < 0.05) protein (31.5%) and fat (12.2%) contents, which were significantly reduced following alkali treatment. The treatment also increased total dietary fiber (TDF) in okara by 107.9%, in OPT by 67.2%, and in OPF by 25.1%. The increased fiber fractions in FR enhanced functional properties such as water-holding capacities and oil-holding capacities. Okara displayed the highest (P < 0.05) emulsifying properties compared to OPT and OPF. High IDF content of OPT and OPF contributed to high antioxidant activities (377.2 and 367.8% higher than that of okara, respectively; P < 0.05). The soluble fraction from alkali treatment of fibers was successfully electrospun into nanofibers, which can be further developed into nanoencapsulants for bioactive compound or drug delivery. PMID:20568772

  14. Biodegradable fibrous scaffolds composed of gelatin coated poly(epsilon-caprolactone) prepared by coaxial electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Pengcheng; Jiang, Hongliang; Pan, Hui; Zhu, Kangjie; Chen, Weiliam

    2007-11-01

    A facile coaxial electrospinning technique was devised to prepare biodegradable core-shell fibrous scaffolds with poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) comprising the core structure and gelatin forming the coating of the fibers. The effect of the feed rate of the inner dope on the electrospinning process and fiber morphology was investigated. The results indicated that core-shell fibers with narrow size distribution and smooth surface morphology could be obtained when the feed rate was below 8 mL/h. An increase of the feed rate resulted in analogous increase in the diameters of both the inner PCL fiber core and the entire core-shell fibers. XPS analyses revealed that the surface of the core-shell fibers was tainted with a small amount of PCL. The outer gelatin layer in the core-shell fibers was crosslinked with glutaraldehyde. By optimizing the glutaraldehyde/gelatin feed ratio, crosslinked scaffolds with high porosity were obtained. The mechanic strength of the hydrated, crosslinked core-shell fibrous scaffolds was significantly enhanced because of the presence of hydrophobic PCL in the core region of the fibers. Results of cell culture studies suggested that the crosslinked, core-shell fibrous scaffold were nontoxic and capable of supporting fibroblast adhesion and proliferation. PMID:17450578

  15. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor -A Rare Malignancy in Mandible

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Sumit; Kotina, Sreekanth; Uppala, Divya; Kumar, Singam Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor (MPNST) is biologically an aggressive tumor that is usually found in the extremities, trunk and infrequently found in the head and neck area particularly in the jaws, arising from the cells allied with nerve sheath. Mandibular MPNST may either arise from a preexisting neurofibroma or develop de novo. Because of the greater variability from case to case in overall appearance both clinically and histologically, a case of MPNST of the mandible in a 25-year-old female patient is reported. The lesion was excised and immunohistological studies (S-100 & Neuron specific enolase) were conducted to confirm the neural origin. PMID:27504425

  16. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor -A Rare Malignancy in Mandible.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Sumit; Kotina, Sreekanth; Mahesh, Nirujogi; Uppala, Divya; Kumar, Singam Praveen

    2016-06-01

    Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor (MPNST) is biologically an aggressive tumor that is usually found in the extremities, trunk and infrequently found in the head and neck area particularly in the jaws, arising from the cells allied with nerve sheath. Mandibular MPNST may either arise from a preexisting neurofibroma or develop de novo. Because of the greater variability from case to case in overall appearance both clinically and histologically, a case of MPNST of the mandible in a 25-year-old female patient is reported. The lesion was excised and immunohistological studies (S-100 & Neuron specific enolase) were conducted to confirm the neural origin. PMID:27504425

  17. Micromechanism of the transition of fibrous cracking to cleavage of C-Mn base and weld steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. H.; Wang, G. Z.

    1994-07-01

    In this present work, crack opening displacement (COD), four-point bending (4PB), Charpy V, and three-point bending (3NB) tests of specimens of C-Mn base and weld steel were carried out in the brittle-ductile transition temperature region. Some specimens were fractured and some specimens were unloaded prior to fracture after fibrous cracking occurred and extended to variouslengths. Through detailed observation of the variation in the shapes of microcavities located at the tip or on the two sides of fibrous cracks in unloaded specimens and the variations of shapes of dimples located at various lengths of cracks on fracture surfaces, the micromechanism of the change from fibrous cracking to cleavage was analyzed. It was revealed that no matter whether a specimen was notched or precracked, as long as a fibrous crack initiated and propagated in it, the critical event for cleavage fracture is the unstable extension of a ferrite grainsized crack. The main factor promoting the transition from the fibrous crack to cleavage was the increase of the local tensile stress ahead of the crack which was caused by the increase of the triaxiality of stress and the apparent normal stress in the remaining ligament. The considerable scattering of toughness values in the transition temperature region is due to the random variation of the widths of the tips of the fibrous cracks during their extension and the random distribution of the weakest constituents in the microstructure.

  18. Micromechanism of the transition of fibrous cracking to cleavage to C-Mn base and weld steel

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.H.; Wang, G.Z. )

    1994-07-01

    In this present work, crack opening displacement (COD), four-point bending (4PB), Charpy V, and three-point bending (3NB) tests of specimens of C-Mn base and weld steel were carried out in the brittle-ductile transition temperature region. Some specimens were fractured and some specimens were unloaded prior to fracture after fibrous cracking occurred and extended to various lengths. Through detailed observation of the variation in the shapes of microcavities located at the tip or on the two sides of fibrous cracks in unloaded specimens and the variations of shapes of dimples located at various lengths of cracks on fracture surfaces, the micromechanism of the change from fibrous cracking to cleavage was analyzed. It was revealed that no matter whether a specimen was notched or precracked, as long as a fibrous crack initiated and propagated in it, the critical event for cleavage fracture is the unstable extension of a ferrite grainsized crack. The main factor promoting the transition from the fibrous crack to cleavage was the increase of the local tensile stress ahead of the crack which was caused by the increase of the triaxiality of stress and the apparent normal stress in the remaining ligament. The considerable scattering of toughness values in the transition temperature region is due to the random variation of the widths of the tips of the fibrous cracks during their extension and the random distribution of the weakest constituents in the microstructure.

  19. Polydopamine Inter-Fiber Networks: New Strategy for Producing Rigid, Sticky, 3D Fluffy Electrospun Fibrous Polycaprolactone Sponges.

    PubMed

    Choi, Wuyong; Lee, Slgirim; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Jang, Jae-Hyung

    2016-06-01

    Designing versatile 3D interfaces that can precisely represent a biological environment is a prerequisite for the creation of artificial tissue structures. To this end, electrospun fibrous sponges, precisely mimicking an extracellular matrix and providing highly porous interfaces, have capabilities that can function as versatile physical cues to regenerate various tissues. However, their intrinsic features, such as sheet-like, thin, and weak structures, limit the design of a number of uses in tissue engineering applications. Herein, a highly facile methodology capable of fabricating rigid, sticky, spatially expanded fluffy electrospun fibrous sponges is proposed. A bio-inspired adhesive material, poly(dopamine) (pDA), is employed as a key mediator to provide rigidity and stickiness to the 3D poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) fibrous sponges, which are fabricated using a coaxial electrospinning with polystyrene followed by a selective leaching process. The iron ion induced oxidation of dopamine into pDA networks interwoven with PCL fibers results in significant increases in the rigidity of 3D fibrous sponges. Furthermore, the exposure of catecholamine groups on the fiber surfaces promotes the stable attachment of the sponges on wet organ surfaces and triggers the robust immobilization of biomolecules (e.g., proteins and gene vectors), demonstrating their potential for 3D scaffolds as well as drug delivery vehicles. Because fibrous structures are ubiquitous in the human body, these rigid, sticky, 3D fibrous sponges are good candidates for powerful biomaterial systems that functionally mimic a variety of tissue structures. PMID:26855375

  20. Simple synthesis of smart magnetically driven fibrous films for remote controllable oil removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Nü; Zhao, Yong; Jiang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by the marine mussel adhesive protein, smart, magnetically controllable, oil adsorption nanofibrous materials were successfully fabricated in this research. Taking advantage of the properties of dopamine whose molecular structure mimics the single unit of the marine mussel adhesive protein and can be polymerized in alkaline solution forming a ``glue'' layer on many kinds of material surfaces, magnetic iron(ii, iii) oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were easily and robustly anchored on to electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride) fibrous films. After fluorination, the as-prepared hierarchical structured films exhibited superhydrophobicity, superoleophilicity and an excellent oil adsorption capacity from water. Importantly, because of the magnetically controllable property endowed by the Fe3O4 nanoparticles, such fibrous films act as a ``smart magnetically controlled oil removal carrier'', which effectively overcome the drawbacks of other in situ oil adsorbant materials and can also be easily recovered. This work provides a simple strategy to fabricate magnetic responsive intelligent oil removal materials, which will find broad applications in complex environment oil-water separation.Inspired by the marine mussel adhesive protein, smart, magnetically controllable, oil adsorption nanofibrous materials were successfully fabricated in this research. Taking advantage of the properties of dopamine whose molecular structure mimics the single unit of the marine mussel adhesive protein and can be polymerized in alkaline solution forming a ``glue'' layer on many kinds of material surfaces, magnetic iron(ii, iii) oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were easily and robustly anchored on to electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride) fibrous films. After fluorination, the as-prepared hierarchical structured films exhibited superhydrophobicity, superoleophilicity and an excellent oil adsorption capacity from water. Importantly, because of the magnetically controllable property endowed by the Fe3