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Sample records for posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease

  1. FDG-PET/CT in abdominal post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease.

    PubMed

    Metser, Ur; Lo, Glen

    2016-01-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality following both solid organ and haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PTLD has a broad range of manifestations with extranodal involvement more common in the abdomen than nodal involvement. Fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT (FDG-PET/CT) is sensitive and specific to detect PTLD and can upstage or detect occult PTLD compared with conventional CT imaging. As functional imaging, FDG-PET/CT also has a role in monitoring treatment response. In this pictorial essay, we will discuss the role of FDG-PET/CT in the diagnosis and staging of abdominal PTLD and describe the advantages of functional imaging in assessing response to therapy. PMID:26544161

  2. How Should We Treat Early Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disease After Heart Transplantation?

    PubMed

    Nitta, Daisuke; Kinugawa, Koichiro; Imamura, Teruhiko; Hatano, Masaru; Ono, Minoru; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Kurokawa, Mineo; Komuro, Issei

    2015-12-01

    Although post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is one of the major fatal complications encountered several years after heart transplant (HTx), little is known about early-PTLD emerging within the first year. We here describe the rare case of a 24-year-old female patient who suffered from early-PTLD (DLBCL: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma) associated with an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, that developed around the jejunum at 7 months after HTx. She suffered from acute abdominal peritonitis due to perforation of the jejunum soon after the first chemotherapy. She was treated successfully by emergent partial resection of the jejunum and colostomy after the discontinuation of everolimus (EVL) and successive low-dose chemotherapy under careful monitoring and adjustment of intravenous immunosuppressant including cyclosporine (CyA) and prednisolone to avoid a rejection reaction. Prophylactic strategies for early-PTLD in HTx recipients should be undertaken with caution. PMID:26549285

  3. High incidence of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease in pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, A H; Sweet, S C; Mendeloff, E; Mallory, G B; Huddleston, C B; Kraus, M; Kelly, M; Hayashi, R; DeBaun, M R

    2000-04-01

    A major cause of morbidity and mortality following lung transplantation is posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD). In a retrospective cohort analysis of pediatric patients, we evaluated the risk factors associated with PTLD in 128 first-time lung transplant recipients from 1990 to 1997. The greatest risk factor for PTLD was a diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF). Of the 16 patients in our analysis who had PTLD, 13 had a diagnosis of CF (odds ratio [OR]: 5.8; confidence interval 95% [CI]: 1.6 to 21.4). Because of the high frequency of PTLD in patients with CF (13 of 61; 23%), we performed a retrospective cohort analysis in which patients with CF and PTLD were designated as cases and patients with CF and without PTLD served as controls. In patients with CF, the only risk factor associated with PTLD was two or more episodes of acute rejection within 3 mo after transplantation (OR: 11.0; 95% CI: 2.7 to 55.7). Age, recipient Epstein-Barr virus or cytomegalovirus status, induction with antilymphocyte globulin or antithymocyte globulin (ATG), or use of ATG or OKT3 for acute rejection episodes were not risk factors for PTLD. The high frequency of PTLD in the subgroup of patients with two or more episodes of graft rejection within 2 mo after lung transplantation was unexpected, and warrants further investigation in prospective clinical studies and basic laboratories. PMID:10764320

  4. Retinochoroidal toxoplasmosis in a patient with cerebral post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease of Hodgkin's type: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Ruchi; Thumann, Gabrielle; Souteyrand, George; Kuerten, David; Coupland, Sarah E

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a relatively rare complication in renal transplant patients and can pose diagnostic challenges, especially when it manifests as an ocular inflammation. Authors hereby report an unusual case of a 57-year-old male who developed retinochoroidal toxoplasmosis after 15 years of renal transplant, the diagnoses of which were challenging as the patient was also a known case of cerebral post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) of Hodgkin's type, which misled the ophthalmologists towards a clinical diagnosis of ocular PTLD. Histopathology examination of the enucleated eye revealed numerous toxoplasmosis cysts within the retina and choroid. No ocular PTLD was observed. PMID:26239296

  5. Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders following liver transplantation: Where are we now?

    PubMed Central

    Dierickx, Daan; Cardinaels, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Liver transplantation has emerged as a life-saving treatment for several patients with acute liver failure, end stage liver disease and primary hepatic malignancies. However, long term immunosuppressive therapy aiming to reduce the risk of transplant rejection increases the incidence of several complications including malignancies. This is illustrated by the observation of a high ratio between observed and expected cases of lymphoproliferative disorders following liver transplantation. Despite a huge heterogeneity in morphological appearance of these disorders ranging from reactive-like lesions to real lymphomas, they are collectively termed posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders. In this review we will provide an overview of this rare but challenging disorder as a complication of liver transplantation. PMID:26494960

  6. Plasmacytoma-like post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder, a rare subtype of monomorphic B-cell post-transplant lymphoproliferation, is associated with a favorable outcome in localized as well as in advanced disease: a prospective analysis of 8 cases

    PubMed Central

    Trappe, Ralf; Zimmermann, Heiner; Fink, Susanne; Reinke, Petra; Dreyling, Martin; Pascher, Andreas; Lehmkuhl, Hans; Gärtner, Barbara; Anagnostopoulos, Ioannis; Riess, Hanno

    2011-01-01

    Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) with plasmacellular differentiation has been reported as a rare subtype of monomorphic B-cell post-transplant lympho-proliferation with histological and immunophenotypical features of plasmacytoma in the non-transplant population. Here we present clinical, laboratory and histopathological features, treatment and outcome of 8 patients from the German prospective PTLD registry. Clinically, extranodal manifestations were common while osteolytic lesions were rare and none of the patients had bone marrow involvement. Immunohistochemistry showed light chain restriction and expression of CD138 without CD20 expression in all samples. An association with Epstein-Barr virus was found in 3 out of 8 cases. We suggest that the Ann Arbor classification is most useful for this disease entity and report a generally good response to treatment including reduction of immuno-suppression, surgery and irradiation in localized disease and systemic chemotherapy analogous to plasmacell myeloma in advanced disease. PMID:21719885

  7. High-flux hemodialysis after administering high-dose methotrexate in a patient with posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease and impaired renal function

    PubMed Central

    Reshetnik, Alexander; Scheurig-Muenkler, Christian; van der Giet, Markus; Tölle, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message A young patient develops cerebral posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Despite concurrent significantly impaired transplant kidney function use of add-on high-flux hemodialysis for additional clearance made the administration of high-dose methotrexate feasible in this patient without occurence of acute chronic kidney failure and significant hematological toxicity. PMID:26576275

  8. Epstein-Barr virus load in whole blood is associated with immunosuppression, but not with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease in stable adult heart transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Doesch, Andreas O; Konstandin, Mathias; Celik, Sultan; Kristen, Arnt; Frankenstein, Lutz; Sack, Falk-Udo; Schnabel, Philipp; Schnitzler, Paul; Katus, Hugo A; Dengler, Thomas J

    2008-10-01

    Development of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is a serious complication following heart transplantation (HTX). This study investigates EBV DNA load in adult heart transplant recipients, its association with immunosuppression, and its potential as a marker for development of PTLD. EBV DNA load was measured prospectively by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 172 stable HTX patients. Sixty-seven patients (39.0% of total) had a positive EBV PCR at initial examination [median 4.9 (range 1.1-16.9) years post-HTX]. In follow-up testing of 67 positive patients 6 months later, 36 patients continued to have a positive EBV PCR. Overall incidence of EBV DNA was significantly associated with calcineurin inihibitors, azathioprine medication, and with the absence of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) treatment. In patients with positive EBV DNA levels at initial examination and negative levels at retesting, cyclosporine A levels were found to be significantly higher at initial examination (148.4 +/- 70.2 vs. 119.6 +/- 53.5 ng/ml, P < 0.05). Three patients (1.7%, 3/172) were diagnosed with PTLD during the course of the study (mean follow up 4.0 years). EBV DNA viral load determination does not appear to be useful for risk prediction or early diagnosis of PTLD in adults after HTX, but an association of EBV DNA load with qualitative and quantitative immunosuppression is demonstrated. PMID:18564989

  9. Intracranial involvement of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Wilberger, Adam C; Prayson, Richard A

    2015-11-01

    We report a 61-year-old man with intracranial multiple myeloma (MM) presenting as a posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) following a kidney transplant. Two months after his transplant, the man developed acute rejection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) viremia, requiring aggressive immunosuppression. Twenty months following transplantation, the patient presented with multiple neurologic deficits. Imaging revealed numerous lytic lesions in the skull, most conspicuously a 4.1cm right frontal skull mass with prominent intracranial extension. Histologic sections of the frontal bone lesion showed sheets of atypical plasma cells that were positive for CD138 and kappa immunoglobulin light chains. Chromogenic in situ hybridization for EBV-encoded small RNA was also positive. Plasma cell neoplasms, either as MM or a plasmacytoma, are one of the least common forms of PTLD, and their rarity limits the possibility of major studies to detail their behavior. Most often seen after renal transplantation, the majority are EBV-driven, similarly to other PTLD. While studies have demonstrated several risk factors, behavior and optimal management of PTLD plasma cell neoplasms are unknown. Plasma cell neoplasms affect the nervous system in a variety of ways but rarely via intracranial disease. MM usually presents initially with several classic signs and symptoms, but our patient's presentation was typical of a localized brain tumor with generalized and focal gross neurologic defects. PMID:26375326

  10. Isolated Upper Extremity Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Halula, Sarah E.; Leino, Daniel G.; Patel, Manish N.; Racadio, John M.; Lungren, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a well-described complication of solid organ and bone marrow transplants. The most common presentation is intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy or single or multiple intraparenchymal masses involving the liver, spleen, or kidneys. Here we describe the imaging and pathology findings of an unusual case of PTLD appearing as an intramuscular forearm lesion in a pediatric male. The manifestation of PTLD as an isolated upper extremity mass in a pediatric patient has to our knowledge not been described. PMID:26167324

  11. Yttrium Y 90 Ibritumomab Tiuxetan and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-24

    Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  12. Treatment of Recurrent Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder with Autologous Blood Stem Cell Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Bharat; Rahal, Ahmad K.; Farhoud, Hussam; Moore, Dennis F.; Kallail, K. James

    2015-01-01

    Background. Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) occur after solid organ transplantation. Treatment guidelines include reduction in immunosuppression (RIS), radiation, rituximab, chemotherapy, and immunological agents. We present a rare case of recurrent diffuse large B-cell lymphoma presenting as a PTLD in a heart transplant patient treated with autologous blood stem cell transplant (ASCT) after failure of conventional therapy. Case Presentation. A 66-year-old male presented with a neck mass. He has a history of Hodgkin's disease status after staging laparotomy with splenectomy and heart transplantation due to dilated nonischemic cardiomyopathy 8 years prior to the development of PTLD. His examination was remarkable for right submandibular swelling. An excisional biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell NHL. Patient received RIS, rituximab, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy with a complete remission. His lymphoma relapsed and he subsequently was treated with RICE salvage chemotherapy and consolidative high-dose chemotherapy with BEAC regimen followed by ASCT resulting in a complete remission. Conclusion. Patients with PTLD present a difficult therapeutic challenge. In this case, the patient's prior history of Hodgkin's disease, splenectomy, and a heart transplant appear to be unique features, the significance of which is unclear. ASCT might be a promising therapy for patients with relapsed or refractory PTLD. PMID:26688773

  13. Primary pleural effusion posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder: Distinction from secondary involvement and effusion lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Ohori, N P; Whisnant, R E; Nalesnik, M A; Swerdlow, S H

    2001-07-01

    Pleural effusion presentation of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is relatively uncommon. Most examples of effusion-based PTLD have been secondary to widespread solid organ involvement, and are associated with an aggressive clinical course. We report on a case of primary effusion PTLD in a 70-yr-old male liver transplant recipient with a history of hepatitis B infection. Cytomorphologically, the pleural fluid specimen showed a monomorphous population of intermediate to large-sized transformed lymphoid cells, with irregular multilobated nuclear contours and readily identifiable mitotic figures. Flow cytometric immunophenotypic studies revealed a CD5-negative, CD10-negative, lambda immunoglobulin light chain-positive, monoclonal B-lymphocyte (CD19-positive/CD20-positive) population. The immunocytochemical stain for CD30 antigen was negative. In situ hybridization study for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) early RNA (EBER) and Southern blot analysis for EBV terminal repeat sequences were both positive. Southern blot analysis for human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8) was negative. No solid-organ PTLD was identified, and the cytologic results supported the diagnosis of primary effusion PTLD. Immunosuppression was decreased, and 8 mo following the diagnosis of pleural fluid PTLD, the patient was stable and his pleural effusion had markedly diminished. Recognition of primary effusion PTLD and its distinction from PTLD secondarily involving the body fluids and from other lymphomas is important, since the behavior and prognosis appear different. PMID:11466813

  14. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders: From epidemiology to pathogenesis-driven treatment.

    PubMed

    Petrara, Maria Raffaella; Giunco, Silvia; Serraino, Diego; Dolcetti, Riccardo; De Rossi, Anita

    2015-12-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) represent the most severe complication of both solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is the main driver of PTLD, particularly those occurring early after transplantation. EBV-driven malignancies are associated with selective expression of latent viral proteins, but uncontrolled lytic replication may favor early phases of cell transformation. Besides immunodepression, persistent immune activation and chronic inflammation play an important role in both virus reactivation and expansion of EBV-infected B cells. EBV-induced immortalization requires the expression of telomerase. TERT, the rate-limiting component of the telomerase complex, is central in the switch from the lytic to the latent viral program, and TERT inhibition induces the EBV lytic cycle and cell death. Immunotherapy and combination of EBV lytic cycle inducers with antiviral drugs are promising strategies to improve the treatment of PTLD patients. This review is aimed at providing an update on the intriguing association between EBV and PTLD, mainly focusing on cases arising after kidney and liver transplantation, which account for the vast majority of transplants. PMID:26279520

  15. X-Linked Lymphoproliferative Disease (XLP)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Main Content Area X-Linked Lymphoproliferative Disease (XLP) Epstein-Barr virus (green dots) is shown inside B cells ( ... is characterized by a life-long vulnerability to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a common type of herpesvirus that ...

  16. Primary CNS lymphoproliferative disease, mycophenolate and calcineurin inhibitor usage.

    PubMed

    Crane, Genevieve M; Powell, Helen; Kostadinov, Rumen; Rocafort, Patrick Tim; Rifkin, Dena E; Burger, Peter C; Ambinder, Richard F; Swinnen, Lode J; Borowitz, Michael J; Duffield, Amy S

    2015-10-20

    Immunosuppression for solid organ transplantation increases lymphoproliferative disease risk. While central nervous system (CNS) involvement is more rare, we noticed an increase in primary CNS (PCNS) disease. To investigate a potential association with the immunosuppressive regimen we identified all post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) cases diagnosed over a 28-year period at our institution (174 total, 29 PCNS) and all similar cases recorded in a United Network for Organ Sharing-Organ Procurement and Transplant Network (UNOS-OPTN) datafile. While no PCNS cases were diagnosed at our institution between 1986 and 1997, they comprised 37% of PTLD cases diagnosed from 2011-2014. PCNS disease was more often associated with renal vs. other organ transplant, Epstein-Barr virus, large B-cell morphology and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) as compared to PTLD that did not involve the CNS. Calcineurin inhibitors were protective against PCNS disease when given alone or in combination with MMF. A multivariate analysis of a larger UNOS-OPTN dataset confirmed these findings, where both MMF and lack of calcineurin inhibitor usage were independently associated with risk for development of PCNS PTLD. These findings have significant implications for the transplant community, particularly given the introduction of new regimens lacking calcineurin inhibitors. Further investigation into these associations is warranted. PMID:26460822

  17. A Case Series of Primary Central Nervous System Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder: Imaging and Clinical Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Lake, Wendell; Chang, Julie E.; Kennedy, Tabassum; Morgan, Adam; Salamat, Shahriar; Ba?kaya, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Background Primary central nervous system post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PCNS-PTLD) is a rare complication following solid organ transplantation (SOT). With increasing rates of SOT, PCNS-PTLD incidence is increasing. Objective Describe the characteristics of PCNS-PTLD patients requiring neurosurgical intervention. Methods From 2000-2011 ten patients with prior SOT underwent biopsy for evaluation of brain lesions and were diagnosed with PCNS-PTLD. Data collected included imaging characteristics, pathology, treatments administered, and survival outcomes. Results All patients had kidney transplantation, and 3 had concurrent pancreas transplantation. Median age at diagnosis was 49 years, with a median of 4.5 years from SOT to diagnosis (range 1.8-11.4 years). Presenting symptoms most often included focal neurologic deficits (n=6), although several patients had non-specific symptoms of headache and altered mental status. Brain lesions were generally multiple (n=7), supratentorial (n=8), and lobar or periventricular in distribution with ring-enhancement. Diagnosis was established by stereotactic (n=4) and open surgical biopsy (n=6). Treatments most frequently administered included reduction of immunosuppression (n=10), dexamethasone (n=10), rituximab (n=8), high-dose methotrexate (n=3), and whole-brain radiotherapy (n=6). Six patients remain alive without PCNS-PTLD relapse, including 4 patients who have sustained remissions beyond 2 years from diagnosis of PCNS-PTLD. Of 4 observed deaths, 1 was related to progressive PCNS-PTLD. Conclusion PCNS-PTLD must be considered in the differential diagnosis of any patient with prior SOT presenting with an intracranial lesion. Histologic diagnosis with brain biopsy is imperative given the risk for opportunistic infections that may have similar imaging findings and presentation. Prognosis is variable, although long-term survival has been reported. PMID:23685504

  18. Identification of lymphoproliferative disease virus in wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Viral-associated lymphoproliferative neoplasia in domestic poultry is caused by infection with a herpesvirus (Marek’s disease virus) or three species of retroviruses [Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), Avian leukosis/sarcoma virus, lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV)]. Previously, retroviral n...

  19. Epstein-Barr virus-related post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder occurring after bone marrow transplantation for aplastic anemia in Down's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Aya; Ishida, Mitsuaki; Hodohara, Keiko; Yoshii, Miyuki; Okuno, Hiroko; Horinouchi, Akiko; Nakanishi, Ryota; Harada, Ayumi; Iwai, Muneo; Yoshida, Keiko; Kagotani, Akiko; Yoshida, Takashi; Okabe, Hidetoshi

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that Down's syndrome exhibits a predisposition to development of leukemia, however, association between aplastic anemia and Down's syndrome is exceptional. Herein, we describe a case of aplastic anemia occurring in Down's syndrome following post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). A 27-year-old Japanese male with Down's syndrome presented with a headache. Laboratory tests revealed severe pancytopenia, and bone marrow biopsy demonstrated hypocellular bone marrow with decrease of trilineage cells, which led to a diagnosis of aplastic anemia. One year after diagnosis, he was incidentally found to have an anterior mediastinal tumor, which was histopathologically diagnosed as seminoma. Subsequently, he received BMT from a female donor, and engraftment was observed. Three months after transplantation, he experienced cough and high fever. Biopsy specimen from the lung revealed diffuse proliferation of large-sized lymphoid cells expressing CD20 and EBER. These lymphoid cells had XY chromosomes. Thus, a diagnosis of EBV-associated PTLD was made. This is the seventh documented case of aplastic anemia occurring in Down's syndrome. Association between aplastic anemia and Down's syndrome has not been established, therefore, additional clinicopathological studies are needed. Moreover, this is the first case to undergo BMT for aplastic anemia in Down's syndrome. Although engraftment was observed, he developed EBV-positive PTLD. The neoplastic cells of the present case were considered to be of recipient origin, although the majority of PTLD cases with BMT are of donor origin. PMID:24427369

  20. [Acquired A hemophilia and lymphoproliferative diseases: A literature review].

    PubMed

    Le Cam-Duchez, V

    2015-12-01

    Acquired A haemophilia is a rare but severe autoimmune disease. It is caused by autoantibodies against the coagulation factor VIII. These autoantibodies could have different consequences: no effect, inhibition of factor VIII or factor VIII activity hydrolyzing. In about half of the cases, no cause is associated with the disorder [idiopathic acquired A haemophilia]. But in remaining 50% of the patients, some circumstances could be associated with acquired hemophilia: post-partum, autoimmune disorders, cancer and sometimes malignant blood disorders. The objective of this article was to review the literature about acquired A hemophilia associated with lymphoproliferative diseases. PMID:26481810

  1. Epstein-Barr virus-related post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder occurring after bone marrow transplantation for aplastic anemia in Down’s syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Furuya, Aya; Ishida, Mitsuaki; Hodohara, Keiko; Yoshii, Miyuki; Okuno, Hiroko; Horinouchi, Akiko; Nakanishi, Ryota; Harada, Ayumi; Iwai, Muneo; Yoshida, Keiko; Kagotani, Akiko; Yoshida, Takashi; Okabe, Hidetoshi

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that Down’s syndrome exhibits a predisposition to development of leukemia, however, association between aplastic anemia and Down’s syndrome is exceptional. Herein, we describe a case of aplastic anemia occurring in Down’s syndrome following post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). A 27-year-old Japanese male with Down’s syndrome presented with a headache. Laboratory tests revealed severe pancytopenia, and bone marrow biopsy demonstrated hypocellular bone marrow with decrease of trilineage cells, which led to a diagnosis of aplastic anemia. One year after diagnosis, he was incidentally found to have an anterior mediastinal tumor, which was histopathologically diagnosed as seminoma. Subsequently, he received BMT from a female donor, and engraftment was observed. Three months after transplantation, he experienced cough and high fever. Biopsy specimen from the lung revealed diffuse proliferation of large-sized lymphoid cells expressing CD20 and EBER. These lymphoid cells had XY chromosomes. Thus, a diagnosis of EBV-associated PTLD was made. This is the seventh documented case of aplastic anemia occurring in Down’s syndrome. Association between aplastic anemia and Down’s syndrome has not been established, therefore, additional clinicopathological studies are needed. Moreover, this is the first case to undergo BMT for aplastic anemia in Down’s syndrome. Although engraftment was observed, he developed EBV-positive PTLD. The neoplastic cells of the present case were considered to be of recipient origin, although the majority of PTLD cases with BMT are of donor origin. PMID:24427369

  2. EBV Lymphoproliferative Disease after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Rouce, Rayne H; Louis, Chrystal U; Heslop, Helen E

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW EBV reactivation can cause significant morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (SCT). Delays in reconstitution of EBV-specific T lymphocyte activity can lead to life-threatening EBV lymphoproliferative disease (EBV-PTLD). This review highlights recent advances in the understanding of pathophysiology, risk factors, diagnosis, and management of EBV viremia and PTLD. RECENT FINDINGS During the past decade, early detection strategies, such as serial measurement of EBV-DNA load, have helped to identify high-risk patients and to diagnose early lymphoproliferation. The most significant advances have come in the form of innovative treatment options, including manipulation of the balance between outgrowing EBV-infected B cells and the EBV cytotoxic T lymphocyte (EBV-CTL) response, and targeting infected B cells with monoclonal antibodies, chemotherapy, unmanipulated donor lymphocytes, and donor or more recently third party EBV-CTLs. Defining criteria for preemptive therapy and remains a challenge. SUMMARY EBV reactivation is a significant complication after SCT. Continued improvements in risk-stratification and treatment options are required to improve the morbidity and mortality caused by EBV associated diseases. Current approaches use Rituximab to deplete B cells or adoptive transfer of EBV-CTL to reconstitute immunity. The availability of rapid EBV specific T cell products offers the possibility of improved outcomes. PMID:25159713

  3. Avian oncogenesis induced by lymphoproliferative disease virus: a neglected or emerging retroviral pathogen?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV) is an exogenous oncogenic retrovirus that induces lymphoid tumors in some galliform species of birds. Historically, outbreaks of LPDV have been reported from Europe and Israel. Although the virus has previously never been detected in North America, herein we ...

  4. A Novel and Likely Inherited Lymphoproliferative Disease in British Shorthair Kittens.

    PubMed

    Aberdein, D; Munday, J S; Fairley, R A; Vernau, W; Thompson, K G

    2015-11-01

    An unusual lymphoproliferative disease was identified in multiple closely related British Shorthair (BSH) kittens, suggesting an inherited predisposition to disease. Affected kittens typically developed rapidly progressive and marked generalized lymphadenopathy, moderate splenomegaly, and regenerative and likely hemolytic anemia from 6 weeks of age. Microscopic findings were suggestive of multicentric T-cell lymphoma, but additional testing revealed a polyclonal population of CD3+/CD4-/CD8- "double negative" T cells (DNT cells). This is a novel disease presentation with similarities to the human disorder autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), a rare inherited disease causing lymphoproliferation and variable manifestations of autoimmunity. The human disease is most commonly due to the presence of Fas gene mutations causing defective lymphocyte apoptosis, and further investigations of both the mode of inheritance and genetic basis for disease in affected cats are currently in progress. PMID:26041772

  5. Deregulation of Fas ligand expression as a novel cause of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome-like disease.

    PubMed

    Nabhani, Schafiq; Ginzel, Sebastian; Miskin, Hagit; Revel-Vilk, Shoshana; Harlev, Dan; Fleckenstein, Bernhard; Hönscheid, Andrea; Oommen, Prasad T; Kuhlen, Michaela; Thiele, Ralf; Laws, Hans-Jürgen; Borkhardt, Arndt; Stepensky, Polina; Fischer, Ute

    2015-09-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome is frequently caused by mutations in genes involved in the Fas death receptor pathway, but for 20-30% of patients the genetic defect is unknown. We observed that treatment of healthy T cells with interleukin-12 induces upregulation of Fas ligand and Fas ligand-dependent apoptosis. Consistently, interleukin-12 could not induce apoptosis in Fas ligand-deficient T cells from patients with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome. We hypothesized that defects in the interleukin-12 signaling pathway may cause a similar phenotype as that caused by mutations of the Fas ligand gene. To test this, we analyzed 20 patients with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome of unknown cause by whole-exome sequencing. We identified a homozygous nonsense mutation (c.698G>A, p.R212*) in the interleukin-12/interleukin-23 receptor-component IL12RB1 in one of these patients. The mutation led to IL12RB1 protein truncation and loss of cell surface expression. Interleukin-12 and -23 signaling was completely abrogated as demonstrated by deficient STAT4 phosphorylation and interferon ? production. Interleukin-12-mediated expression of membrane-bound and soluble Fas ligand was lacking and basal expression was much lower than in healthy controls. The patient presented with the classical symptoms of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome: chronic non-malignant, non-infectious lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, elevated numbers of double-negative T cells, autoimmune cytopenias, and increased levels of vitamin B12 and interleukin-10. Sanger sequencing and whole-exome sequencing excluded the presence of germline or somatic mutations in genes known to be associated with the autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome. Our data suggest that deficient regulation of Fas ligand expression by regulators such as the interleukin-12 signaling pathway may be an alternative cause of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome-like disease. PMID:26113417

  6. Impairment of neutrophil chemotaxis by serum from patients with chronic lymphoproliferative disease.

    PubMed Central

    Jayaswal, U; Roper, S; Roath, S

    1983-01-01

    The sera of 74 individuals with chronic lymphoproliferative disease were screened for the presence of inhibitory activity against neutrophil chemotaxis. This was present in more than half the patients with IgA myeloma and Hodgkin's disease but was less common in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, lymphocytic lymphoma and non-IgA paraproteinaemia. Heating the sera prior to testing frequently enhanced inhibitory activity particularly in myeloma and lymphoma. PMID:6833512

  7. Rituximab-induced Cytokine Storm in the Absence of Overt Lymphoproliferative Disease.

    PubMed

    Williams, Mark; Khalid, Tasneem; Hughes, Stephen; Bonney, Denise; Wynn, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Rituximab is a monoclonal antibody that first demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of lymphoma but has since seen a dramatic growth in its use for other conditions. Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) is a rare but potentially fatal complication of rituximab infusion that has been described in patients with bulky lymphoproliferative disease. Here we report a convincing case of CRS occurring in a patient with no demonstrable lymphoproliferation. This case has implications for our understanding of the pathogenesis of CRS, our attempts to define an at-risk population and the design of future monoclonal antibodies. PMID:26583621

  8. Characterization of three overlapping deletions causing X-linked lymphoproliferative disease

    SciTech Connect

    Skare, J.; Bailin Wu; Wyandt, H.; Milunsky, A. ); Madan, S.; Pulijaal, V.; Nitowsky, H. ); Purtilo, D.; Grierson, H. ); Haber, D.; Wissink, J.; Housman, D. ); Nelson, D. ); Sylla, B.; Lenoir, G. ); Glaser, J. ); White, B. ); Holden, J. )

    1993-04-01

    Blot hybridization was used to find DNA sequences missing in a male who lacked two-thirds of Xq25. The probes were used to discover two additional males with deletions resulting in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP). All three deletions have a region in common, and DXS739 is within this candidate region. The new deletions were also detectable using chromosome banding, and the smallest removes only one-third of Xq25. XLP is the only consequence of the deletions. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Severe Puumala virus infection in a patient with a lymphoproliferative disease treated with icatibant.

    PubMed

    Laine, Outi; Leppänen, Ilona; Koskela, Sirpa; Antonen, Jaakko; Mäkelä, Satu; Sinisalo, Marjatta; Vaheri, Antti; Mustonen, Jukka

    2015-02-01

    Early identification of patients at risk of a severe course of hantaviral disease and lack of effective medication represent a global challenge in the treatment of this emerging infection. We describe a 67-year-old female patient with a history of chronic lymphoproliferative disease involving the spleen and an extremely severe acute Puumala hantavirus infection. She was treated with the bradykinin receptor antagonist icatibant and recovered. She is the second patient with a spleen abnormality and severe Puumala infection treated with icatibant in our hospital. We suggest that patients with spleen abnormalities may be more susceptible to severe hantavirus disease. The activation of the kinin-kallikrein system and the formation of bradykinin in hantavirus-infected endothelial cells indicate that the role of bradykinin receptor antagonist icatibant in the treatment of hantavirus disease is worth studying. PMID:25496418

  10. Adult systemic Epstein-Barr virus-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disease: A case report

    PubMed Central

    WANG, YOUPING; LIU, XINYUE; CHEN, YAN

    2015-01-01

    Systemic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disease (EBV+ T-LPD) occurs mainly in Asia and South America and is extremely rare in adults. The disease is characterized by a clonal proliferation of EBV-infected T cells with a cytotoxic immunophenotype and is associated with a poor clinical outcome and can be life-threatening. The majority of the patients have evidence of systemic disease, often with lymph node, liver and spleen involvement. The present study describes a case of adult systemic EBV+ T-LPD with high fever, systemic lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, nose-pharynx neoplasm, pancytopenia, EB virus infection and proliferative bone marrow, with the aim of improving the understanding of the condition.

  11. Lymphoproliferative disorders in inflammatory bowel disease patients on immunosuppression: Lessons from other inflammatory disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Grace Y; Halloran, Brendan P; Peters, Anthea C; Fedorak, Richard N

    2015-01-01

    Immunosuppressive agents, such as thiopurines, methotrexate, and biologics, have revolutionized the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, a number of case reports, case control studies and retrospective studies over the last decade have identified a concerning link between immunosuppression and lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs), the oncological phenomenon whereby lymphocytes divide uncontrollably. These LPDs have been associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in which the virus provides the impetus for malignant transformation while immunosuppression hampers the immune system’s ability to detect and clear these malignant cells. As such, the use of immunosuppressive agents may come at the cost of increased risk of developing LPD. While little is known about the LPD risk in IBD, more is known about immunosuppression in the post-transplantation setting and the development of EBV associated post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD). In review of the PTLD literature, evidence is available to demonstrate that certain immune suppressants such as cyclosporine and T-lymphocyte modulators in particular are associated with an increased risk of PTLD development. As well, high doses of immunosuppressive agents and multiple immunosuppressive agent use are also linked to increased PTLD development. Here, we discuss these findings in context of IBD and what future studies can be taken to understand and reduce the risk of EBV-associated LPD development from immunosuppression use in IBD. PMID:26600976

  12. Repeated detection of gas in the portal vein after liver transplantation: A sign of EBV-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferation?

    PubMed

    Wallot, Michael A; Klepper, Jörg; Clapuyt, Philippe; Dirsch, Olaf; Malagó, Max; Reding, Raymond; Otte, Jean Bernard; Sokal, Etienne M

    2002-08-01

    A 1-yr-old child presented with intractable right sided pleural effusion and progressive clinical deterioration 3 weeks after liver transplantation for Alagille Syndrome. He had been treated successfully for severe acute rejection before. Ultrasound and Doppler mode studies repeatedly demonstrated air in the portal vein. Intra-abdominal and intra-thoracic lymphoproliferation was detected, and EBV virus load and serology were suggestive of primary EBV infection. Liver biopsy revealed blast-like infiltrates of B-cells, considered diagnostic for post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease. The disease resolved upon reduction of immunosuppression. We suggest that the detection of portal vein gas in pediatric liver transplant recipients beyond the early post-operative period may be a sign of intra-abdominal post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease. PMID:12234275

  13. Lentivirus-induced lymphoproliferative disease. Comparative pathogenicity of phenotypically distinct ovine lentivirus strains.

    PubMed Central

    Lairmore, M. D.; Poulson, J. M.; Adducci, T. A.; DeMartini, J. C.

    1988-01-01

    For investigation of the pathogenicity of lentivirus strains, which have distinctly different cytopathic phenotypes in synovial membrane cell culture, plaque-purified, lytic, and nonlytic ovine lentivirus (OvLV) isolates were inoculated intratracheally into two groups of neonatal lambs. Twelve lambs were inoculated with a lytic OvLV isolate and 3 lambs each with two nonlytic OvLV isolates. Five control lambs were inoculated with either virus-free medium or were left uninoculated. In 8 of 12 lambs inoculated with a lytic OvLV isolate mild to severe lesions of lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP) and pulmonary lymphoid hyperplasia developed, 6 of 12 lambs had lesions of pulmonary lymph node follicular hyperplasia, 3 of 9 female lambs had lesions of lymphoproliferative mastitis, 3 of 10 lambs had lesions of lymphocytic/plasmacytic synovitis, and 3 lambs had no lesions. In 3 of 6 lambs inoculated with nonlytic OvLV isolates only mild LIP lesions developed, without concurrent mammary gland or joint lesions. Bronchoalveolar lavage samples from OvLV-diseased lambs contained on average 1.5-fold more numbers of total leukocytes, and 4-fold more numbers of lymphocytes, compared with bronchoalveolar lavage samples of normal lambs. Monoclonal antibodies to ovine lymphocyte surface markers showed that the SBU-T8+ lymphocyte (CD 8 equivalent) was the predominant lymphocyte subset (mean of 65% of total lavaged lymphocytes) in bronchoalveolar lavage samples of 3 diseased lambs. Ovine lentivirus was reisolated from multiple tissues of both groups of OvLV-inoculated lambs, but the percentage of individual tissues infected was greater in lambs inoculated with the lytic viral isolate. Control lambs had no lesions and failed to produce OvLV-specific antibodies or yield OvLV from tissues. All OvLV-inoculated lambs produced either low or undetectable serum virus neutralizing antibodies. In contrast, lambs inoculated with either lytic or nonlytic OvLV produced precipitating antibodies to OvLV glycoprotein and group-specific protein. However, initial detection of precipitating antibodies to OvLV glycoprotein was earlier (mean, 5.8 weeks after inoculation) in OvLV-infected lambs in which severe lymphoproliferative disease developed and delayed (mean, 10.2 weeks after inoculation) in OvLV-infected lambs with mild or no lesions. Together, these results suggest that lentivirus isolates produced disease in a virus strain-dependent manner and suggest that humoral immune responses against OvLV failed to prevent lesion development in lentivirus-infected lambs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:3337213

  14. Molecular Surveillance for Lymphoproliferative Disease Virus in Wild Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) from the Eastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jesse M.; Allison, Andrew B.; Holmes, Edward C.; Phillips, Jamie E.; Bunting, Elizabeth M.; Yabsley, Michael J.; Brown, Justin D.

    2015-01-01

    Lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV) is a poorly understood, oncogenic avian retrovirus of domestic turkeys that has historically been restricted to Europe and Israel. However, a recent study reported LPDV in multiple wild turkey diagnostic cases from throughout the eastern United States of America (USA). To better understand the distribution of LPDV in the eastern USA, we surveyed 1,164 reportedly asymptomatic hunter-harvested wild turkeys from 17 states for the presence of LPDV proviral DNA by PCR. In total, 564/1,164 (47%) turkeys were positive for LPDV. Wild turkeys from each state had a relatively high prevalence of LPDV, although statewide prevalence varied from 26 to 83%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two major clades of LPDV in the USA, although one was at a low frequency suggesting restricted transmission, as well as significant clustering by state of isolation. To determine the best tissue to target for diagnostic purposes, liver, spleen, and bone marrow were tested from a subset of 15 hunter-harvested wild turkeys and 20 wild turkey diagnostic cases. Overall, bone marrow provided the highest level of detection for both hunter-harvested turkeys and diagnostic cases. The sensitivity of LPDV detection between tissues was not significantly different for diagnostic cases, but was for hunter-harvested birds. These results indicate that LPDV infection is common and widespread in wild turkey populations throughout the eastern USA, even without overt signs of disease. PMID:25897755

  15. DIAGNOSING LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE DISEASE VIRUS IN LIVE WILD TURKEYS (MELEAGRIS GALLOPAVO) USING WHOLE BLOOD.

    PubMed

    Alger, Katrina; Bunting, Elizabeth; Schuler, Krysten; Jagne, Jarra; Whipps, Christopher M

    2015-12-01

    Lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV) is a retrovirus that infects wild and domestic turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo ). The first cases of LPDV in the United States were diagnosed in 2009, and subsequent surveillance has revealed the virus to be widespread in wild turkey populations throughout the eastern half of the country. More research is needed to determine whether LPDV is having a negative effect on turkey populations, but progress has been impeded by the lack of a simple method for diagnosing the virus in living birds. Infected animals may appear asymptomatic, and diagnostics currently rely on tissue or bone marrow, which can be difficult to obtain. This study investigated the reliability of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect LPDV in whole blood, compared with previous methods using buffy coat (concentrated white blood cells) and bone marrow. Paired samples of whole blood and buffy coat were collected from 137 live turkeys and paired samples of whole blood and bone marrow were collected from 32 turkeys postmortem. Compared with buffy coat, whole blood had 97% sensitivity and 100% specificity. When compared with bone marrow, whole blood had 100% sensitivity and 89% specificity. Both comparisons had a high degree of agreement using Cohen's kappa statistic. Based on these results, PCR of whole blood provides detection of LPDV in living birds that is on par with both buffy coat and bone marrow. PMID:26667537

  16. Lymphoproliferative disease and autoimmunity in mice with elevated miR-17?92 expression in lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Changchun; Srinivasan, Lakshmi; Calado, Dinis Pedro; Patterson, Heide Christine; Zhang, Baochun; Wang, Jing; Henderson, Joel M; Kutok, Jeffrey L; Rajewsky, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    The genomic region encoding the miR-17?92 microRNA (miRNA) cluster is often amplified in lymphoma and other cancers, and miRNAs within this cluster are expressed in high amounts in cancer cells carrying this amplification. Retroviral expression of miR-17?92 accelerates cMyc-induced lymphoma development, but precisely how elevated miR-17?92 expression promotes lymphomagenesis remains unclear. Here we generated mice with elevated miR-17?92 expression in lymphocytes. These mice developed lymphoproliferative disease and autoimmunity, and died prematurely. Lymphocytes from these mice showed increased proliferation and reduced activation-induced cell death. miR-17?92 miRNAs suppressed expression of the tumor suppressor Pten and the pro-apoptotic protein Bim. This mechanism likely contributed to the lymphoproliferative disease and autoimmunity observed in miR-17?92 transgenic mice, and to lymphoma development in patients carrying amplifications of the miR-17?92 coding region. PMID:18327259

  17. Pre-transplant comorbidity burden and post-transplant chronic graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Jennifer E; Gooley, Ted; Maziarz, Richard T; Pulsipher, Michael A; Bhatia, Smita; Maloney, David G; Sandmaier, Brenda M; Flowers, Mary E; Storb, Rainer; Sorror, Mohamed L

    2015-11-01

    The Haematopoietic Cell Transplantation-Comorbidity Index (HCT-CI) was designed as a predictor of non-relapse mortality after HCT. Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) contributes to mortality after HCT. Here, we investigated whether the HCT-CI could predict development of chronic GVHD or post-chronic GVHD mortality. We retrospectively analysed data from 2909 patients treated with allogeneic HCT for malignant and non-malignant haematological conditions at four institutions. In Cox regression models adjusted for potential confounders, increasing HCT-CI was not statistically significantly associated with the development of chronic GVHD [hazard ratio (HR) = 1·02, P = 0·34]. Yet, the index was associated with an increased risk of non-relapse mortality (HR = 1·29, P < 0·0001) as well as overall mortality (HR = 1·25, P < 0·001) following the development of chronic GVHD. The association between HCT-CI and post-chronic GVHD mortality was similar regardless of donor type or stem cell source. HCT-CI scores could be incorporated in the design of clinical trials for treatment of chronic GVHD. PMID:26194447

  18. Study Provides Insights into Diagnosis, Treatment of Rare Immune Disease: Autoimmmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome ...

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Study Provides Insights Into Diagnosis, Treatment of Rare Immune Disease NIH Scientists Report Findings From 20 Years ... easy-to-measure biomarker for diagnosing this rare immune disease, identifies the major causes of death among ...

  19. Disclosing the CXCR4 expression in lymphoproliferative diseases by targeted molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Wester, Hans Jürgen; Keller, Ulrich; Schottelius, Margret; Beer, Ambros; Philipp-Abbrederis, Kathrin; Hoffmann, Frauke; Šime?ek, Jakub; Gerngross, Carlos; Lassmann, Michael; Herrmann, Ken; Pellegata, Natalia; Rudelius, Martina; Kessler, Horst; Schwaiger, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Chemokine ligand-receptor interactions play a pivotal role in cell attraction and cellular trafficking, both in normal tissue homeostasis and in disease. In cancer, chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) expression is an adverse prognostic factor. Early clinical studies suggest that targeting CXCR4 with suitable high-affinity antagonists might be a novel means for therapy. In addition to the preclinical evaluation of [(68)Ga]Pentixafor in mice bearing human lymphoma xenografts as an exemplary CXCR4-expressing tumor entity, we report on the first clinical applications of [(68)Ga]Pentixafor-Positron Emission Tomography as a powerful method for CXCR4 imaging in cancer patients. [(68)Ga]Pentixafor binds with high affinity and selectivity to human CXCR4 and exhibits a favorable dosimetry. [(68)Ga]Pentixafor-PET provides images with excellent specificity and contrast. This non-invasive imaging technology for quantitative assessment of CXCR4 expression allows to further elucidate the role of CXCR4/CXCL12 ligand interaction in the pathogenesis and treatment of cancer, cardiovascular diseases and autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. PMID:25825601

  20. Disclosing the CXCR4 Expression in Lymphoproliferative Diseases by Targeted Molecular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wester, Hans Jürgen; Keller, Ulrich; Schottelius, Margret; Beer, Ambros; Philipp-Abbrederis, Kathrin; Hoffmann, Frauke; Šime?ek, Jakub; Gerngross, Carlos; Lassmann, Michael; Herrmann, Ken; Pellegata, Natalia; Rudelius, Martina; Kessler, Horst; Schwaiger, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Chemokine ligand-receptor interactions play a pivotal role in cell attraction and cellular trafficking, both in normal tissue homeostasis and in disease. In cancer, chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) expression is an adverse prognostic factor. Early clinical studies suggest that targeting CXCR4 with suitable high-affinity antagonists might be a novel means for therapy. In addition to the preclinical evaluation of [68Ga]Pentixafor in mice bearing human lymphoma xenografts as an exemplary CXCR4-expressing tumor entity, we report on the first clinical applications of [68Ga]Pentixafor-Positron Emission Tomography as a powerful method for CXCR4 imaging in cancer patients. [68Ga]Pentixafor binds with high affinity and selectivity to human CXCR4 and exhibits a favorable dosimetry. [68Ga]Pentixafor-PET provides images with excellent specificity and contrast. This non-invasive imaging technology for quantitative assessment of CXCR4 expression allows to further elucidate the role of CXCR4/CXCL12 ligand interaction in the pathogenesis and treatment of cancer, cardiovascular diseases and autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. PMID:25825601

  1. Inherited CHST11/MIR3922 deletion is associated with a novel recessive syndrome presenting with skeletal malformation and malignant lymphoproliferative disease

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Sameer S; Leshchiner, Ignaty; Duzkale, Hatice; McLaughlin, Heather; Giovanni, Monica; Zhang, Chengsheng; Stitziel, Nathan; Fingeroth, Joyce; Joyce, Robin M; Lebo, Matthew; Rehm, Heidi; Vuzman, Dana; Maas, Richard; Sunyaev, Shamil R; Murray, Michael; Cassa, Christopher A

    2015-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) such as chondroitin are ubiquitous disaccharide carbohydrate chains that contribute to the formation and function of proteoglycans at the cell membrane and in the extracellular matrix. Although GAG-modifying enzymes are required for diverse cellular functions, the role of these proteins in human development and disease is less well understood. Here, we describe two sisters out of seven siblings affected by congenital limb malformation and malignant lymphoproliferative disease. Using Whole-Genome Sequencing (WGS), we identified in the proband deletion of a 55 kb region within chromosome 12q23 that encompasses part of CHST11 (encoding chondroitin-4-sulfotransferase 1) and an embedded microRNA (MIR3922). The deletion was homozygous in the proband but not in each of three unaffected siblings. Genotyping data from the 1000 Genomes Project suggest that deletions inclusive of both CHST11 and MIR3922 are rare events. Given that CHST11 deficiency causes severe chondrodysplasia in mice that is similar to human limb malformation, these results underscore the importance of chondroitin modification in normal skeletal development. Our findings also potentially reveal an unexpected role for CHST11 and/or MIR3922 as tumor suppressors whose disruption may contribute to malignant lymphoproliferative disease. PMID:26436107

  2. HLA-haploidentical bone marrow transplantation with posttransplant cyclophosphamide expands the donor pool for patients with sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Ephraim J.; Luznik, Leo; Lanzkron, Sophie M.; Gamper, Christopher J.; Jones, Richard J.; Brodsky, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Allogeneic marrow transplantation can cure sickle cell disease; however, HLA-matched donors are difficult to find, and the toxicities of myeloablative conditioning are prohibitive for most adults with this disease. We developed a nonmyeloablative bone marrow transplantation platform using related, including HLA-haploidentical, donors for patients with sickle cell disease. The regimen consisted of antithymocyte globulin, fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and total body irradiation, and graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis with posttransplantation high-dose cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate mofetil, and tacrolimus or sirolimus. After screening 19 patients, we transplanted 17, 14 from HLA-haploidentical and 3 from HLA-matched related donors. Eleven patients engrafted durably. With a median follow-up of 711 days (minimal follow up 224 days), 10 patients are asymptomatic, and 6 patients are off immunosupression. Only 1 patient developed skin-only acute graft-versus-host disease that resolved without any therapy; no mortality was seen. Nonmyeloablative conditioning with posttransplantation high-dose cyclophosphamide expands the donor pool, making marrow transplantation feasible for most patients with sickle cell disease, and is associated with a low risk of complications, even with haploidentical related donors. Graft failure, 43% in haploidentical pairs, remains a major obstacle but may be acceptable in a fraction of patients if the majority can be cured without serious toxicities. PMID:22955919

  3. Loss-of-function mutations within the IL-2 inducible kinase ITK in patients with EBV-associated lymphoproliferative diseases.

    PubMed

    Linka, R M; Risse, S L; Bienemann, K; Werner, M; Linka, Y; Krux, F; Synaeve, C; Deenen, R; Ginzel, S; Dvorsky, R; Gombert, M; Halenius, A; Hartig, R; Helminen, M; Fischer, A; Stepensky, P; Vettenranta, K; Köhrer, K; Ahmadian, M R; Laws, H-J; Fleckenstein, B; Jumaa, H; Latour, S; Schraven, B; Borkhardt, A

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was the appraisal of the clinical and functional consequences of germline mutations within the gene for the IL-2 inducible T-cell kinase, ITK. Among patients with Epstein-Barr virus-driven lymphoproliferative disorders (EBV-LPD), negative for mutations in SH2D1A and XIAP (n=46), we identified two patients with R29H or D500T,F501L,M503X mutations, respectively. Human wild-type (wt) ITK, but none of the mutants, was able to rescue defective calcium flux in murine Itk(-/-) T cells. Pulse-chase experiments showed that ITK mutations lead to varying reductions of protein half-life from 25 to 69% as compared with wt ITK (107?min). The pleckstrin homology domain of wt ITK binds most prominently to phosphatidylinositol monophosphates (PI(3)P, PI(4)P, PI(5)P) and to lesser extend to its double or triple phosphorylated derivates (PIP2, PIP3), interactions which were dramatically reduced in the patient with the ITK(R29H) mutant. ITK mutations are distributed over the entire protein and include missense, nonsense and indel mutations, reminiscent of the situation in its sister kinase in B cells, Bruton's tyrosine kinase. PMID:22289921

  4. De novo post-transplant thrombotic microangiopathy localized only to the graft in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease with thrombophilia

    PubMed Central

    Rolla, Davide; Fontana, Iris; Ravetti, Jean Louis; Marsano, Luigina; Bellino, Diego; Panaro, Laura; Ansaldo, Francesca; Mathiasen, Lisa; Storace, Giulia; Trezzi, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a serious complication of renal transplantation and is mostly related to the prothrombotic effect of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs). A subset of TMA (29%-38%) is localized only to the graft. Case 1: A young woman suffering from autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) underwent kidney transplant. After 2 months, she showed slow renal deterioration (serum creatinine from 1.9 to 3.1 mg/dl), without hematological signs of hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS); only LDH enzyme transient increase was detected. Renal biopsy showed TMA: temporary withdraw of tacrolimus and plasmapheresis was performed. The renal function recovered (serum creatinine 1.9 mg/dl). From screening for thrombophilia, we found a mutation of the Leiden factor V gene. Case 2: A man affected by ADPKD underwent kidney transplantation, with delay graft function; first biopsy showed acute tubular necrosis, but a second biopsy revealed TMA, while no altered hematological parameters of HUS was detected. We observed only a slight increase of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. The tacrolimus was halved and plasmapheresis was performed: LDH levels normalized within 10 days and renal function improved (serum creatinine from 9 to 2.9 mg/dl). We found a mutation of the prothrombin gene. Only a renal biopsy clarifies the diagnosis of TMA, but it is necessary to pay attention to light increasing level of LDH. Conclusion: Prothrombotic effect of CNIs and mTOR inhibitor, mutation of genes encoding factor H or I, anticardiolipin antibodies, vascular rejection, cytomegalovirus infection are proposed to trigger TMA; we detected mutations of factor II and Leiden factor V, as facilitating conditions for TMA in patients affected by ADPKD. PMID:26693501

  5. Wildebeest-associated malignant catarrhal fever: perspectives for integrated control of a lymphoproliferative disease of cattle in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Wambua, Lillian; Wambua, Peninah Nduku; Ramogo, Allan Maurice; Mijele, Domnic; Otiende, Moses Yongo

    2016-01-01

    Wildebeest-associated malignant catarrhal fever (WA-MCF), an acute lymphoproliferative disease of cattle caused by alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1), remains a significant constraint to cattle production in nomadic pastoralist systems in eastern and southern Africa. The transmission of WA-MCF is dependent on the presence of the wildlife reservoir, i.e. wildebeest, belonging to the species Connochaetes taurinus and Connochaetes gnou; hence, the distribution of WA-MCF is largely restricted to Kenya, Tanzania and the Republic of South Africa, where wildebeest are present. WA-MCF is analogous to sheep-associated MCF (SA-MCF) in many aspects, with the latter having sheep as its reservoir host and a more global distribution, mainly in developed countries with intensive livestock production systems. However, unlike SA-MCF, the geographic seclusion of WA-MCF may have contributed to an apparent neglect in research efforts aimed at increased biological understanding and control of the disease. This review aims to highlight the importance of WA-MCF and the need for intensified research towards measures for its integrated control. We discuss current knowledge on transmission and geographical distribution in eastern and southern Africa and the burden of WA-MCF in affected vulnerable pastoral communities in Africa. Recent findings towards vaccine development and pertinent knowledge gaps for future research efforts on WA-MCF are also considered. Finally, integrated control of WA-MCF based on a logical three-pronged framework is proposed, contextualizing vaccine development, next-generation diagnostics, and diversity studies targeted to the viral pathogen and cattle hosts. PMID:26446889

  6. Outcome of Rapamycin Therapy for Post-Transplant-Lymphoproliferative Disorder after Kidney Transplantation: Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafi, Farzaneh; Shahidi, Shahrzad; Mortazavi, Mojgan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are a complication of chronic immunosuppressive therapy in solid organ transplantation with a high mortality rate. Alternative treatments such as rapamycin have been explored. Methods: A detailed retrospective analysis was performed according to data collected from 13 patients with PTLD. At the time of PTLD diagnosis, immunosuppressive therapy was decreased and rapamycin administered. Overall survival, disease-free survival of patients and graft survival were determined. Results: Among 590 kidney transplant recipients, 13 adult patients with PTLD were included in this study. The mean age of the patients was 42.15 (range: 25–58) years at the time of PTLD diagnosis, and 9 patients were male. Histology was distributed in 9 diffuse large B cell, 1 Malt lymphoma, 1 Burkitt lymphoma, 2 Hodgkin-like PTLD. The response rate to rapamycin alone was 30.8%. The mean overall survival period was 23.38 months and 11 patients are still alive. In total, 10 patients (76.9%) achieved a complete remission with functioning graft in 11 (84.6%) patients. Conclusion: Despite the retrospective focus and limited number of patients, this study provides promising results regarding the effectiveness of stopping calcineurin inhibitors and switching to rapamycin for patients with PTLD. PMID:25802698

  7. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Other Lymphoproliferative Disorders.

    PubMed

    Wall, Sarah; Woyach, Jennifer A

    2016-02-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia affects less than 1% of US adults but is the most common leukemia and primarily affects older patients. Non-Hodgkin lymphomas are the seventh most common cancers in the United States and also primarily affect older patients. In general, older patients should be treated differently than their younger, fitter counterparts. Fitness level and comorbidities should be taken into account when planning treatment. First-line treatment of most of these B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders consists of chemoimmunotherapy. In relapsed and refractory disease, there is a growing role for therapies targeting the B-cell receptor signaling pathway. PMID:26614867

  8. Characterization of Primary Cutaneous CD8+/CD30+ Lymphoproliferative Disorders.

    PubMed

    Martires, Kathryn J; Ra, Seong; Abdulla, Farah; Cassarino, David S

    2015-11-01

    CD30 primary cutaneous lymphoproliferative diseases include both lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP) and primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (PCALCL). The neoplastic cell of most primary CD30 lymphoproliferative disorders is CD4 positive. The terminology LyP "type D" has been used to describe a growing number of cases of LyP with a predominantly CD8 infiltrate. PCALCL with a CD8 phenotype has also been described, which presents a particularly difficult diagnostic and management challenge, given the difficulty in distinguishing it histologically from other cytotoxic lymphomas such as primary cutaneous aggressive epidermotropic CD8 cytotoxic T-cell lymphoma and CD8 gamma/delta and natural killer/T-cell lymphoma. We report 7 additional cases of these rare cutaneous CD8/CD30 lymphoproliferative disorders. We also present a unique case of CD8/CD30 LyP with histologic similarities to LyP type B. In all 7 of our cases of CD8 LyP and CD8 anaplastic large cell lymphoma, we found focal to diffuse MUM-1 positivity. We propose that MUM-1 may represent an adjunctive marker for CD8 lymphoproliferative disease. Finally, we review the current literature on cases of CD8 LyP and PCALCL. For the 106 cases examined, we found similar clinical and histologic features to those reported for traditional CD4CD30 LyP and PCALCL. PMID:26485239

  9. Epstein–Barr virus-positive T/NK-cell lymphoproliferative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Qingqing; Chen, Kailin; Young, Ken H

    2015-01-01

    Epstein–Barr virus, a ubiquitous human herpesvirus, can induce both lytic and latent infections that result in a variety of human diseases, including lymphoproliferative disorders. The oncogenic potential of Epstein–Barr virus is related to its ability to infect and transform B lymphocytes into continuously proliferating lymphoblastoid cells. However, Epstein–Barr virus has also been implicated in the development of T/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases. Epstein–Barr virus encodes a series of products that mimic several growth, transcription and anti-apoptotic factors, thus usurping control of pathways that regulate diverse homeostatic cellular functions and the microenvironment. However, the exact mechanism by which Epstein–Barr virus promotes oncogenesis and inflammatory lesion development remains unclear. Epstein–Barr virus-associated T/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases often have overlapping clinical symptoms as well as histologic and immunophenotypic features because both lymphoid cell types derive from a common precursor. Accurate classification of Epstein–Barr virus-associated T/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases is a prerequisite for appropriate clinical management. Currently, the treatment of most T/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases is less than satisfactory. Novel and targeted therapies are strongly required to satisfy clinical demands. This review describes our current knowledge of the genetics, oncogenesis, biology, diagnosis and treatment of Epstein–Barr virus-associated T/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases. PMID:25613730

  10. De novo cancers and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder in adult liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Aseni, Paolo; Vertemati, Maurizio; De Carlis, Luciano; Sansalone, Cosimo Vincenzo; Bonacina, Edgardo; Minola, Ernesto; Oreste, Pierluigi; Vizzotto, Laura; Rondinara, Gianfranco

    2006-11-01

    De novo cancer is one of the most serious complications after organ transplantation. Chronic immunosuppression, viral agents, pretransplant chronic alcohol-induced and other addictive behavior-induced injury are important conditions associated with the development of de novo cancers in solid organ transplants. The aim of the study was to evaluate types and clinical course of de novo cancers in adult liver transplant recipients. Data regarding 502 adult patients who underwent to 554 liver transplantations have been collected. Sex, age at transplantation, immunosuppressive regimen, time from transplantation to diagnosis of cancer, cancer type, surgical and non-surgical treatments and follow-up time have been analyzed as well as acute rejection episodes and viral status. Thirty patients developed 31 de novo cancers. The predominant tumors were carcinoma of the skin, lymphomas and Kaposi's sarcoma. Kaposi's sarcoma and lung cancer were associated with greater mortality. In lymphomas and Kaposi's sarcoma, a high rate of graft involvement was observed. In liver transplant recipients, de novo cancers demand strategies focusing on prophylactic and careful long-term screening protocols. Lymphomas and Kaposi's sarcoma should be ruled out in all patients with clinical manifestations of chronic biliary obstruction. PMID:17040297

  11. Transformation of hematopoietic cell lines to growth-factor independence and induction of a fatal myelo- and lymphoproliferative disease in mice by retrovirally transduced TEL/JAK2 fusion genes.

    PubMed Central

    Schwaller, J; Frantsve, J; Aster, J; Williams, I R; Tomasson, M H; Ross, T S; Peeters, P; Van Rompaey, L; Van Etten, R A; Ilaria, R; Marynen, P; Gilliland, D G

    1998-01-01

    Recent reports have demonstrated fusion of the TEL gene on 12p13 to the JAK2 gene on 9p24 in human leukemias. Three variants have been identified that fuse the TEL pointed (PNT) domain to (i) the JAK2 JH1-kinase domain, (ii) part of and (iii) all of the JH2 pseudokinase domain. We report that all of the human TEL/JAK2 variants, and a human/mouse chimeric hTEL/mJAK2(JH1) fusion gene, transform the interleukin-3 (IL-3)-dependent murine hematopoietic cell line Ba/F3 to IL-3-independent growth. Transformation requires both the TEL PNT domain and JAK2 kinase activity. Furthermore, all TEL/JAK2 variants strongly activated STAT 5 by phosphotyrosine Western blots and by electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA). Mice (n = 40) transplanted with bone marrow infected with the MSCV retrovirus containing either the hTEL/mJAK2(JH1) fusion or its human counterpart developed a fatal mixed myeloproliferative and T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder with a latency of 2-10 weeks. In contrast, mice transplanted with a TEL/JAK2 mutant lacking the TEL PNT domain (n = 10) or a kinase-inactive TEL/JAK2(JH1) mutant (n = 10) did not develop the disease. We conclude that all human TEL/JAK2 fusion variants are oncoproteins in vitro that strongly activate STAT 5, and cause lethal myelo- and lymphoproliferative syndromes in murine bone marrow transplant models of leukemia. PMID:9736611

  12. Post-transplant Adjustment – The Later Years

    PubMed Central

    Fredericks, Emily M.; Zelikovsky, Nataliya; Aujoulat, Isabelle; Hames, Anna; Wray, Jo

    2014-01-01

    As survival rates for pediatric solid organ transplantation have continued to improve, researchers and health care providers have increasingly focused on understanding and enhancing the health related quality of life (HRQOL) and psychosocial functioning of their patients. This manuscript reviews the psychosocial functioning of pediatric transplant recipients during the “later years”, defined as more than 3 years post-transplant, and focuses on the day-to-day impact of living with a transplant after the immediate period of adjustment and early years after surgery. Key topics reviewed include health-related quality of life, cognitive functioning, impact on the family, regimen adherence, and transition of responsibility for self-management tasks. Overall, pediatric transplant recipients evidence impairment in HRQOL, neuropsychological outcomes, and family functioning as compared to non-transplant recipients. However, the degree of impairment is influenced by a variety of factors including, disease severity, age, solid organ type, and study methodologies. Studies are limited by small samples, cross-sectional design, and the lack of universal assessment battery to allow for comparisons across solid organ populations. Areas for future research are discussed. PMID:25220845

  13. Increased Risk of Post-Transplant Malignancy and Mortality in Transplant Tourists

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Mu-Chi; Wu, Ming-Ju; Chang, Chao-Hsiang; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Yu, Tung-Min; Ho, Hao-Chung; Shu, Kuo-Hsiung; Chung, Chi-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Information on post-transplant malignancy and mortality risk in kidney transplant tourists remains controversial and is an important concern. The present study aimed to evaluate the incidence of post-transplant malignancy and mortality risk between tourists and domestic transplant recipients using the claims data from Taiwan's universal health insurance. A retrospective study was performed on 2394 tourists and 1956 domestic recipients. Post-transplant malignancy and mortality were defined from the catastrophic illness patient registry by using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision. Cox proportional hazard regression and Kaplan–Meier curves were used for the analyses. The incidence for post-transplant de novo malignancy in the tourist group was 1.8-fold higher than that of the domestic group (21.8 vs 12.1 per 1000 person-years). The overall cancer recurrence rate was approximately 11%. The top 3 post-transplant malignancies, in decreasing order, were urinary tract, kidney, and liver cancers, regardless of the recipient type. Compared with domestic recipients, there was significant higher mortality risk in transplant tourists (adjusted hazard ratio?=?1.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.0–1.5). In addition, those with either pre-transplant or post-transplant malignancies were associated with increased mortality risk. We suggest that a sufficient waiting period for patients with pre-transplant malignancies should be better emphasized to eliminate recurrence, and transplant tourists should be discouraged because of the possibility of higher post-transplant de novo malignancy occurrence and mortality. PMID:25546686

  14. ?-HHVs and HHV-8 in Lymphoproliferative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Quadrelli, C.; Barozzi, P.; Riva, G.; Vallerini, D.; Zanetti, E.; Potenza, L.; Forghieri, F.; Luppi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Similarly to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), the human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) is a ?-herpesvirus, recently recognized to be associated with the occurrence of rare B cell lymphomas and atypical lymphoproliferations, especially in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected subjects. Moreover, the human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6), a ?-herpesvirus, has been shown to be implicated in some non-malignant lymph node proliferations, such as the Rosai Dorfman disease, and in a proportion of Hodgkin’s lymphoma cases. HHV-6 has a wide cellular tropism and it might play a role in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of human diseases, but given its ubiquity, disease associations are difficult to prove and its role in hematological malignancies is still controversial. The involvement of another ?-herpesvirus, the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), has not yet been proven in human cancer, even though recent findings have suggested its potential role in the development of CD4+ large granular lymphocyte (LGL) lymphocytosis. Here, we review the current knowledge on the pathogenetic role of HHV-8 and human ?-herpesviruses in human lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:22110893

  15. [Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome: a case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Sun, J P; Lu, X T; Zhao, W H; Hua, Y

    2015-12-18

    We described 1 case of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), first diagnosed in our hospital, and reviewed the recent literature. The 11-month old male patient presented with a history of splenomegaly and hepatomegaly since 1 month after birth. He suffered recurrent infectious diseases including cytomegalovirus infection, parvovirus B19 infection and chronic diarrhea disease. Besides, his symptoms included hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. The laboratory abnormality indicated an expanded population of alpha/beta double-negative T cells (DNTs) (27.18% of lymphocytes, 35.16% of CD3+ T lymphocytes) in peripheral blood, and autoantibodies including antinuclear antibody, double-stranded DNA and rheumatic factor were positive. Hyper gamma globulinemia and positive direct Coombs tests were seen in the patient. His parents were both healthy and denied autoimmune diseases. We identified a heterozygous point mutation in exon 3 of the FAS gene carrying c.309 A>C, resulting in a single base pair substitution in exon 3 of FAS gene which changed the codon of Arg103 to Ser103. Unfortunately, we were unable to obtain the gene results of the child's parents. The patient was treated with glucocorticoids in our hospital and with mycophenolatemofetil in other hospital. And we were informed that his anemia condition relieved through the telephone follow-up, but he still suffered recurrent infections, hepatomegaly and splenomegaly still existed. As we all know ALPS is characterized by defective lymphocyte apoptosis, and thus cause lymphoproliferative disease and autoimmune disease, and increase the risk of lymphoma. It is more likely to be misdiagnosed as other diseases. ALPS should be suspected in the case of chronic lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly and autoimmune features. Flow cytometry approach is helpful for the diagnosis. Immunosuppressive drugs are the necessary treatment. PMID:26679669

  16. Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome: an update and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Shaili; Wu, Eveline; Rao, V. Koneti

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is characterized by immune dysregulation due to a defect in lymphocyte apoptosis. The clinical manifestations may be noted in multiple family members and include lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, increased risk of lymphoma and autoimmune disease, which typically involve hematopoietic cell lines manifesting as multilineage cytopenias. Since the disease was first characterized in the early 1990s, there have been many advances in the diagnosis and management of this syndrome. The inherited genetic defect of many ALPS patients has involved (FAS) pathway signaling proteins, but there remain those patients who carry undefined genetic defects. Despite ALPS having historically been considered a primary immune defect presenting in early childhood, adult onset presentation is increasingly becoming recognized, and more so in genetically undefined patients and those with somatic FAS mutations. Thus, future research may identify novel pathways and/or regulatory proteins important in lymphocyte activation and apoptosis. PMID:25086580

  17. Pathological Findings in Human Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Megan S.; Straus, Stephen E.; Dale, Janet K.; Fleisher, Thomas A.; Stetler-Stevenson, Maryalice; Strober, Warren; Sneller, Michael C.; Puck, Jennifer M.; Lenardo, Michael J.; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo S. J.; Lin, Albert Y.; Raffeld, Mark; Jaffe, Elaine S.

    1998-01-01

    The defects in lymphocyte apoptosis that underlie the autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) are usually attributable to inherited mutations of the CD95 (Fas) gene. In this report, we present the histopathological and immunophenotypic features seen in the lymph nodes (n = 16), peripheral blood (n = 10), bone marrow (n = 2), spleen (n = 3), and liver (n = 2) from 10 patients with ALPS. Lymph nodes showed marked paracortical hyperplasia. Interfollicular areas were expanded and populated by T cell receptor-?? CD3+ CD4?CD8? (double-negative, DN) T cells that were negative for CD45RO. CD45RA+ T cells were increased in all cases studied. The paracortical infiltrate was a result of both reduced apoptosis and increased proliferation, as measured by in situ detection of DNA fragmentation and staining with MIB-1, respectively. The paracortical proliferation may be extensive enough to suggest a diagnosis of malignant lymphoma. Many of the paracortical lymphocytes expressed markers associated with cytotoxicity, such as perforin, TIA-1, and CD57. CD25 was negative. In addition, most lymph nodes exhibited florid follicular hyperplasia, often with focal progressive transformation of germinal centers; in some cases, follicular involution was seen. A polyclonal plasmacytosis also was present. The spleens were markedly enlarged, more than 10 times normal size. There was expansion of both white pulp and red pulp, with increased DN T cells. DN T cells also were observed in liver biopsies exhibiting portal triaditis. In the peripheral blood, the T cells showed increased expression of HLA-DR and CD57 but not CD25. CD45RA+ T cells were increased in the four cases studied. Polyclonal B cell lymphocytosis with expansion of CD5+ B cells was a characteristic finding. Taken together, the histopathological and immunophenotypic findings, particularly in lymph nodes and peripheral blood, are sufficiently distinctive to suggest a diagnosis of ALPS. Of note, two affected family members of one proband developed lymphoma (T-cell-rich B-cell lymphoma and nodular lymphocyte predominance Hodgkin’s disease, respectively). PMID:9811346

  18. An overview of the pathogenesis and natural history of post-transplant T-cell lymphoma (corrected and republished article originally printed in Leukemia & Lymphoma, June 2007; 48(6): 1237 - 1241).

    PubMed

    Jamali, Faek R; Otrock, Zaher K; Soweid, Assaad M; Al-Awar, Ghassan N; Mahfouz, Rami A; Haidar, Ghassan R; Bazarbachi, Ali

    2007-09-01

    Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) are well recognized complications of solid organ transplantation. The vast majority of early PTLDs are B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas. PTLDs of T-cell origin occur much less frequently and account for only a minority of cases. T-cell PTLDs have been reported to occur primarily at extranodal sites, commonly affecting bone marrow or splenic tissues. The small bowel is an uncommon site of origin of these tumors with only seven cases of primary intestinal post-transplant T-cell lymphomas reported in the literature. We hereby report a new case of primary intestinal post-transplant T-cell lymphoma, arising 18 years following renal transplantation, along with a literature review of all published cases. PMID:17786714

  19. Bridge to lung transplantation and rescue post-transplant: the expanding role of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Gulack, Brian C.; Hirji, Sameer A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last several decades, the growth of lung transplantation has been hindered by a much higher demand for donor lungs than can be supplied, leading to considerable waiting time and mortality among patients waiting for transplant. This has led to the search for an alternative bridging strategy in patients with end-stage lung disease. The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as a bridge to lung transplantation as well as a rescue strategy post-transplant for primary graft dysfunction (PGD) has been studied previously, however due to initially poor outcomes, its use was not heavily instituted. In recent years, with significant improvement in technologies, several single and multi-center studies have shown promising outcomes related to the use of ECMO as a bridging strategy as well as a therapy for patients suffering from PGD post-transplant. These results have challenged our current notion on ECMO use and hence forced us to reexamine the utility, efficacy and safety of ECMO in conjunction with lung transplantation. Through this review, we will address the various aspects related to ECMO use as a bridge to lung transplantation as well as a rescue post-transplant in the treatment of PGD. We will emphasize newer technologies related to ECMO use, examine recent observational studies and randomized trials of ECMO use before and after lung transplantation, and reflect upon our own institutional experience with the use of ECMO in these difficult clinical situations. PMID:25132974

  20. Familial Aggregation of Lymphoproliferative Disorders from the Scandinavian Family Cancer Database

    Cancer.gov

    Familial aggregation of lymphoproliferative disorders from the Scandinavian family cancer database Print This Page Familial Aggregation of Lymphoproliferative Disorders from the Scandinavian Family Cancer Database Our Research

  1. Urinary Calprotectin and Posttransplant Renal Allograft Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bistrup, Claus; Marcussen, Niels; Pagonas, Nikolaos; Seibert, Felix S.; Arndt, Robert; Zidek, Walter; Westhoff, Timm H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Current methods do not predict the acute renal allograft injury immediately after kidney transplantation. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of urinary calprotectin for predicting immediate posttransplant allograft injury. Methods In a multicenter, prospective-cohort study of 144 incipient renal transplant recipients, we postoperatively measured urinary calprotectin using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) after 4 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. Results We observed a significant inverse association of urinary calprotectin concentrations and eGFR 4 weeks after transplantation (Spearman r?=??0.33; P<0.001). Compared to the lowest quartile, patients in the highest quartile of urinary calprotectin had an increased risk for an eGFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 four weeks after transplantation (relative risk, 4.3; P<0.001; sensitivity, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.98; specificity, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.66). Higher urinary calprotectin concentrations predicted impaired kidney function 4 weeks after transplantation, as well as 6 months and 12 months after transplantation. When data were analyzed using the urinary calprotectin/creatinine-ratio similar results were obtained. Urinary calprotectin was superior to current use of absolute change of plasma creatinine to predict allograft function 12 months after transplantation. Urinary calprotectin predicted an increased risk both in transplants from living and deceased donors. Multivariate linear regression showed that higher urinary calprotectin concentrations and older donor age predicted lower eGFR four weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after transplantation. Conclusions Urinary calprotectin is an early, noninvasive predictor of immediate renal allograft injury after kidney transplantation. PMID:25402277

  2. Practical Management of CD30? Lymphoproliferative Disorders.

    PubMed

    Hughey, Lauren C

    2015-10-01

    Primary cutaneous CD30? lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) account for approximately 25% of cutaneous lymphomas. Although these LPDs are clinically heterogeneous, they can be indistinguishable histologically. Lymphomatoid papulosis rarely requires systemic treatment; however, multifocal primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell cutaneous lymphoma and large cell transformation of mycosis fungoides are typically treated systemically. As CD30? LPDs are rare, there is little published evidence to support a specific treatment algorithm. Most studies are case reports, small case series, or retrospective reviews. This article discusses various treatment choices for each of the CD30? disorders and offers practical pearls to aid in choosing an appropriate regimen. PMID:26433852

  3. Comparison of Non-myeloablative Conditioning Regimens for Lymphoproliferative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sanghee; Le-Rademacher, Jennifer; Artz, Andrew; McCarthy, Philip L.; Logan, Brent R.; Pasquini, Marcelo C.

    2014-01-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) with non-myeloablative conditioning (NMA) for lymphoproliferative diseases (LD) includes fludarabine with and without low-dose total body irradiation (TBI). Transplant outcomes were compared among patients ?40 years with LD who received a HCT with TBI (N=382) and no-TBI (N=515) NMA from 2001 to 2011. The groups were comparable except for donor, graft, prophylaxis for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), disease status and year of HCT. Cumulative incidences of grades II–IV GVHD at 100 days, were 29% and 20% (p=0.001), and chronic GVHD at 1 year were 54% and 44% (p=0.004) for TBI and no-TBI, respectively. Multivariate analysis of progression/relapse, treatment failure and mortality showed no outcome differences by conditioning. Full donor chimerism at day 100 was observed in 82% vs. 64% in the TBI and no-TBI groups, respectively (p=0.006). Subset of four most common conditioning/ GVHD prophylaxis combinations demonstrated higher rates of grades II–IV acute (p<0.001) and chronic GVHD (p<0.001) among recipients of TBI-mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) compared to other combinations. TBI-based NMA conditioning induces faster full donor chimerism but overall survival outcomes are comparable to no-TBI regimens. Combination of TBI and MMF are associated with higher rates of GVHD without impact on survival outcomes in patients with LD. PMID:25437248

  4. Sirolimus for Autoimmune Disease of Blood Cells

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-20

    Autoimmune Pancytopenia; Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS); Evans Syndrome; Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura; Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune; Autoimmune Neutropenia; Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic; Inflammatory Bowel Disease; Rheumatoid Arthritis

  5. DiGeorge syndrome who developed lymphoproliferative mediastinal mass.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyu Yeun; Hur, Ji Ae; Kim, Ki Hwan; Cha, Yoon Jin; Lee, Mi Jung; Kim, Dong Soo

    2015-03-01

    DiGeorge syndrome is an immunodeficient disease associated with abnormal development of 3rd and 4th pharyngeal pouches. As a hemizygous deletion of chromosome 22q11.2 occurs, various clinical phenotypes are shown with a broad spectrum. Conotruncal cardiac anomalies, hypoplastic thymus, and hypocalcemia are the classic triad of DiGeorge syndrome. As this syndrome is characterized by hypoplastic or aplastic thymus, there are missing thymic shadow on their plain chest x-ray. Immunodeficient patients are traditionally known to be at an increased risk for malignancy, especially lymphoma. We experienced a 7-year-old DiGeorge syndrome patient with mediastinal mass shadow on her plain chest x-ray. She visited Severance Children's Hospital hospital with recurrent pneumonia, and throughout her repeated chest x-ray, there was a mass like shadow on anterior mediastinal area. We did full evaluation including chest computed tomography, chest ultrasonography, and chest magnetic resonance imaging. To rule out malignancy, video assisted thoracoscopic surgery was done. Final diagnosis of the mass which was thought to be malignancy, was lymphoproliferative lesion. PMID:25861334

  6. Management and prevention of post-transplant malignancies in kidney transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Stallone, Giovanni; Infante, Barbara; Grandaliano, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The central issue in organ transplantation remains suppression of allograft rejection. Thus, the development of immunosuppressive drugs has been the key to successful allograft function. The increased immunosuppressive efficiency obtained in the last two decades in kidney transplantation dramatically reduced the incidence of acute rejection. However, the inevitable trade-off was an increased rate of post-transplant infections and malignancies. Since the incidence of cancer in immunosuppressed transplant recipients becomes greater over time, and the introduction of new immunosuppressive strategies are expected to extend significantly allograft survival, the problem might grow exponentially in the near future. Thus, cancer is becoming a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients otherwise successfully treated by organ transplantation. There are at least four distinct areas requiring consideration, which have a potentially serious impact on recipient outcome after transplantation: (i) the risk of transmitting a malignancy to the recipient within the donor organ; (ii) the problems of previously diagnosed and treated malignancy in the recipient; (iii) the prevention of de novo post-transplant malignant diseases and (iv) the management of these complex and often life-threatening clinical problems. In this scenario, the direct and indirect oncogenic potential of immunosuppressive therapy should be always carefully considered. PMID:26413294

  7. How I treat autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, João Bosco

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) represents a failure of apoptotic mechanisms to maintain lymphocyte homeostasis, permitting accumulation of lymphoid mass and persistence of autoreactive cells that often manifest in childhood with chronic nonmalignant lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and recurring multilineage cytopenias. Cytopenias in these patients can be the result of splenic sequestration as well as autoimmune complications manifesting as autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, and autoimmune neutropenia. More than 300 families with hereditary ALPS have now been described; nearly 500 patients from these families have been studied and followed worldwide over the last 20 years by our colleagues and ourselves. Some of these patients with FAS mutations affecting the intracellular portion of the FAS protein also have an increased risk of B-cell lymphoma. The best approaches to diagnosis, follow-up, and management of ALPS, its associated cytopenias, and other complications resulting from infiltrative lymphoproliferation and autoimmunity are presented. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrial.gov as #NCT00001350. PMID:21885601

  8. Metabolic Serum Profiles for Patients Receiving Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation: The Pretransplant Profile Differs for Patients with and without Posttransplant Capillary Leak Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Reikvam, Håkon; Grønningsæter, Ida-Sofie; Ahmed, Aymen Bushra; Hatfield, Kimberley; Bruserud, Øystein

    2015-01-01

    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is commonly used in the treatment of younger patients with severe hematological diseases, and endothelial cells seem to be important for the development of several posttransplant complications. Capillary leak syndrome is a common early posttransplant complication where endothelial cell dysfunction probably contributes to the pathogenesis. In the present study we investigated whether the pretreatment serum metabolic profile reflects a risk of posttransplant capillary leak syndrome. We investigated the pretransplant serum levels of 766 metabolites for 80 consecutive allotransplant recipients. Patients with later capillary leak syndrome showed increased pretherapy levels of metabolites associated with endothelial dysfunction (homocitrulline, adenosine) altered renal regulation of fluid and/or electrolyte balance (betaine, methoxytyramine, and taurine) and altered vascular function (cytidine, adenosine, and methoxytyramine). Additional bioinformatical analyses showed that capillary leak syndrome was also associated with altered purine/pyrimidine metabolism (i.e., metabolites involved in vascular regulation and endothelial functions), aminoglycosylation (possibly important for endothelial cell functions), and eicosanoid metabolism (also involved in vascular regulation). Our observations are consistent with the hypothesis that the pretransplant metabolic status can be a marker for posttransplant abnormal fluid and/or electrolyte balance. PMID:26609191

  9. Hematologic malignancies of the liver: spectrum of disease.

    PubMed

    Tomasian, Anderanik; Sandrasegaran, Kumar; Elsayes, Khaled M; Shanbhogue, Alampady; Shaaban, Akram; Menias, Christine O

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of hematologic malignancies and their extranodal manifestations is continuously increasing. Previously unsuspected hepatic involvement in hematologic malignancies such as Hodgkin disease and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder, myeloid sarcoma (chloroma), multiple myeloma, Castleman disease, and lymphohistiocytosis may be seen by radiologists. Although the imaging features of more common hepatic diseases such as hepatocellular carcinoma, metastases, and infection may overlap with those of hepatic hematologic malignancies, combining the imaging features with clinical manifestations and laboratory findings can facilitate correct diagnosis. Clinical features that suggest a hematologic neoplasm as the cause of liver lesions include a young patient (<40 years of age), no known history of cancer, abnormal bone marrow biopsy results, fever of unknown origin, and night sweats. Imaging features that suggest hematologic malignancy include hepatosplenomegaly or splenic lesions, vascular encasement by a tumor without occlusion or thrombosis, an infiltrating mass at the hepatic hilum with no biliary obstruction, and widespread adenopathy above and below the diaphragm. Familiarity with the imaging features of hepatic hematologic malignancies permits correct provisional diagnosis and may influence therapeutic management. For example, when biopsy is performed, core biopsy may be needed in addition to fine-needle aspiration so that the tissue architecture of the neoplasm can be discerned. The predominant treatment of hematologic malignancies is chemotherapy or radiation therapy rather than surgery. Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:25590389

  10. Chemoselection of Allogeneic HSC After Murine Neonatal Transplantation Without Myeloablation or Post-transplant Immunosuppression

    PubMed Central

    Falahati, Rustom; Zhang, Jianqing; Flebbe-Rehwaldt, Linda; Shi, Yimin; Gerson, Stanton L; Gaensler, Karin ML

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of allogeneic transplantation, without myeloablation or post-transplant immunosuppression, was tested using in vivo chemoselection of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) after transduction with a novel tricistronic lentiviral vector (MGMTP140K-2A-GFP-IRES-TK (MAGIT)). This vector contains P140K-O6-methylguanine-methyltransferase (MGMTP140K), HSV-thymidine kinase (TKHSV), and enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) enabling (i) in vivo chemoselection of HSC by conferring resistance to benzylguanine (BG), an inhibitor of endogenous MGMT, and to chloroethylating agents such as 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)nitrosourea (BCNU) and, (ii) depletion of proliferating cells such as malignant clones or transduced donor T cells mediating graft versus host disease (GVHD), by expression of the suicide gene TKHSV and Ganciclovir (GCV) administration. Non-myeloablative transplantation of transduced, syngeneic, lineage-depleted (Lin?) BM in neonates resulted in 0.67% GFP+ mononuclear cells in peripheral blood. BG/BCNU chemoselection, 4 and 8 weeks post-transplant, produced 50-fold donor cell enrichment. Transplantation and chemoselection of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched MAGIT-transduced Lin? BM also produced similar expansion for >40 weeks. The efficacy of this allotransplant approach was validated in Hbbth3 heterozygous mice by correction of ?-thalassemia intermedia, without toxicity or GVHD. Negative selection, by administration of GCV resulted in donor cell depletion without graft ablation, as re-expansion of donor cells was achieved with BG/BCNU treatment. These studies show promise for developing non-ablative allotransplant approaches using in vivo positive/negative selection. PMID:22871662

  11. Single-Fraction Radiotherapy for CD30+ Lymphoproliferative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Michelle S.; Martinez-Escala, Maria Estela; Thomas, Tarita O.; Guitart, Joan; Rosen, Steven; Kuzel, Timothy; Mittal, Bharat B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorder is a rare variant of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Sustained complete response following first-line treatments is rare. This retrospective review evaluates the response of refractory or recurrent lesions to palliative radiation therapy. Methods. The records of 6 patients with 12 lesions, treated with radiation therapy, were reviewed. All patients received previous first-line treatments. Patients with clinical and pathological evidence of symptomatic CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorder, with no history of other cutaneous T-cell lymphoma variants, and with no prior radiation therapy to the index site were included. Results. The median age of patients was 50.5 years (range, 15–83 years). Median size of the treated lesions was 2.5?cm (range, 2–7?cm). Four sites were treated with a single fraction of 750–800?cGy (n = 3) and 8 sites were treated with 4000–4500?cGy in 200–250?cGy fractions (n = 3). Radiation therapy was administered with electrons and bolus. Median follow-up was 113 months (range, 16–147 months). For all sites, there was 100% complete response with acute grade 1-2 dermatitis. Conclusions. For recurrent and symptomatic radiation-naïve CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorder lesions, palliative radiation therapy shows excellent response. A single fraction of 750–800?cGy is as effective as a multifractionated course and more convenient. PMID:26504818

  12. Prompt diagnosis and management of Epstein-Barr virus-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder and hemophagocytosis: A dreaded complication in a post-liver transplant child.

    PubMed

    Jha, Bhawna; Mohan, Neelam; Gajendra, Smeeta; Sachdev, Ritesh; Goel, Shalini; Sahni, Tushar; Raina, Vimarsh; Soin, A

    2015-11-01

    EBV-associated PTLD is increasingly recognized as an important cause of morbidity and mortality in both solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Mortality rates due to PTLD and virus-induced HLH are reported to be quite high. We report a case of EBV-associated PTLD and HLH in a child after liver transplantation who was successfully managed due to timely intervention. This case highlights that measurement of EBV load by quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays is an important aid in the surveillance and diagnosis of PTLD and early detection of EBV-induced PTLD, and aggressive treatment with rituximab is a key to survival in patients who have undergone liver transplantation. PMID:26184957

  13. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked lymphoproliferative disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (11 links) The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a ...

  14. Autoimmune phenomena and hepatitis C virus in lymphoproliferative and connective tissue disorders.

    PubMed

    Caligaris-Cappio, F; De Leo, A M; Bertero, M T

    1997-12-01

    Since hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is frequently detected in patients with lymphoproliferative or autoimmune disorders and since the virus may infect lymphocytes, the question is raised whether malignant transformation and autoimmune manifestations in the presence of HCV are HCV-related or merely fortuitous. A close association has been firmly established between HCV infection and essential type II mixed cryoglobulinemia (ECM), an indolent lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by cryoprecipitable immune-complexes (IC) that may evolve into classical non Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) retaining the ability to produce cryoprecipitable rheumatoid factor (RF). It is reasonable to consider HCV as one cofactor in lymphomagenesis, even if the precise pathogenetic relationship between HCV infection, the chronic presence of cryoprecipitable IC and the development of NHL have not been established yet. Several epidemiological studies have documented the ability of chronic HCV infection to favour the production of autoAb. It is not clear why only some patients with HCV infection develop autoAb, nor why the most frequent autoAb detected in HCV-infected subjects are cryoglobulins. Though a high prevalence of anti-HCV has been found in a variety of systemic and organ-specific autoimmune diseases, it is likely that several of these associations are fortuitous with the notable exception of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. As HCV can provoke or exacerbate inflammatory signs and cause the production of RF, it is reasonable to suspect that HCV infection may be able to trigger the development of some connective tissue diseases or to exacerbate their clinical course. Nonetheless, it is clinically prudent to conclude that the pathogenetic relationships of Sjögren syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis and polyarthritis with HCV infection are more likely to be regarded as mediated via the intermediate development of ECM. PMID:9498704

  15. Related Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) for Genetic Diseases of Blood Cells

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-29

    Stem Cell Transplantation; Bone Marrow Transplantation; Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Allogeneic Transplantation,; Genetic Diseases; Thalassemia; Pediatrics; Diamond-Blackfan Anemia; Combined Immune Deficiency; Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; X-linked Lymphoproliferative Disease; Metabolic Diseases

  16. Antibody levels and in vitro lymphoproliferative responses to Streptococcus pyogenes erythrogenic toxin A and mitogen of patients with rheumatic fever.

    PubMed Central

    Bahr, G M; Yousof, A M; Behbehani, K; Majeed, H A; Sakkalah, S; Souan, K; Jarrad, I; Geoffroy, C; Alouf, J E

    1991-01-01

    We investigated the in vitro lymphoproliferative responses to a streptococcal mitogen and erythrogenic toxin A of children with acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and patients with chronic rheumatic heart disease (CRHD). Antibody levels to the streptococcal products were also analyzed in the sera of those with ARF or chronic rheumatic heart disease as well as in the sera of children with streptococcal pharyngitis or poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. Our results demonstrated that the individuals had depressed lymphoproliferative responses during the active stage of rheumatic fever. The depressed responses were not found either to be induced by time-sensitive mitogen-specific suppressor cells or to be related to a dose-response phenomenon. On the other hand, antibody levels to the extracellular mitogens were significantly elevated in the sera of children with ARF compared with the levels in the rest of the groups. The hyperresponsiveness noted among children with ARF was found to be at a quantitative level and was not due to recognition of more epitopes, as determined by Western blotting (immunoblotting). The profile of immune responsiveness in children with ARF to the streptococcal extracellular mitogens is discussed in relation to the pathogenesis of disease. Images PMID:1774298

  17. Sirolimus, Tacrolimus, Thymoglobulin and Rituximab as Graft-versus-Host-Disease Prophylaxis in Patients Undergoing Haploidentical and HLA Partially Matched Donor Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-10-22

    Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Graft Versus Host Disease; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

  18. Hematopoietic Neoplasias in Horses: Myeloproliferative and Lymphoproliferative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    MUÑOZ, Ana; RIBER, Cristina; TRIGO, Pablo; CASTEJÓN, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Leukemia, i.e., the neoplasia of one or more cell lines of the bone marrow, although less common than in other species, it is also reported in horses. Leukemia can be classified according to the affected cells (myeloproliferative or lymphoproliferative disorders), evolution of clinical signs (acute or chronic) and the presence or lack of abnormal cells in peripheral blood (leukemic, subleukemic and aleukemic leukemia). The main myeloproliferative disorders in horses are malignant histiocytosis and myeloid leukemia, the latter being classified as monocytic and myelomonocytic, granulocytic, primary erythrocytosis or polycythemia vera and megakaryocytic leukemia. The most common lymphoproliferative disorders in horses are lymphoid leukemia, plasma cell or multiple myeloma and lymphoma. Lymphoma is the most common hematopoietic neoplasia in horses and usually involves lymphoid organs, without leukemia, although bone marrow may be affected after metastasis. Lymphoma could be classified according to the organs involved and four main clinical categories have been established: generalized-multicentric, alimentary-gastrointestinal, mediastinal-thymic-thoracic and cutaneous. The clinical signs, hematological and clinical pathological findings, results of bone marrow aspirates, involvement of other organs, prognosis and treatment, if applicable, are presented for each type of neoplasia. This paper aims to provide a guide for equine practitioners when approaching to clinical cases with suspicion of hematopoietic neoplasia. PMID:24833969

  19. X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein deficiency: more than an X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Claire; Latour, Sylvain

    2015-05-01

    X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) deficiency (also known as X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome type 2, XLP-2) is a rare primary immunodeficiency. Since the disease was first described in 2006, more than 70 patients suffering from XIAP-deficiency have been reported, thus extending the clinical presentations of the disease. The main clinical features of XLP-2 are (i) elevated susceptibility to hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH, frequently in response to infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)), (ii) recurrent splenomegaly and (iii) inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with the characteristics of Crohn's disease. XIAP deficiency is now considered to be one of the genetic causes of IBD in infancy. Although XIAP is an anti-apoptotic molecule, it is also involved in many other pathways, including the regulation of innate immunity and inflammation. XIAP is required for signaling through the Nod-like receptors NOD1 and 2, which are intracellular sensors of bacterial infection. XIAP-deficient T cells (including innate natural killer T cells and mucosal-associated invariant T cells) are overly sensitive to apoptosis. NOD2 function is impaired in XIAP-deficient monocytes. However, the physiopathological mechanisms underlying the clinical phenotypes in XIAP deficiency, notably the HLH and the EBV susceptibility, are not well understood. Here, we review the clinical aspects, molecular etiology and physiopathology of XIAP deficiency. PMID:25737324

  20. Approaches to Managing Autoimmune Cytopenias in Novel Immunological Disorders with Genetic Underpinnings Like Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rao, V. Koneti

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a rare disorder of apoptosis. It is frequently caused by mutations in FAS (TNFRSF6) gene. Unlike most of the self-limiting autoimmune cytopenias sporadically seen in childhood, multi lineage cytopenias due to ALPS are often refractory, as their inherited genetic defect is not going to go away. Historically, more ALPS patients have died due to overwhelming sepsis following splenectomy to manage their chronic cytopenias than due to any other cause, including malignancies. Hence, current recommendations underscore the importance of avoiding splenectomy in ALPS, by long-term use of corticosteroid-sparing immunosuppressive agents like mycophenolate mofetil and sirolimus. Paradigms learnt from managing ALPS patients in recent years is highlighted here and can be extrapolated to manage refractory cytopenias in patients with as yet undetermined genetic bases for their ailments. It is also desirable to develop international registries for children with rare and complex immune problems associated with chronic multilineage cytopenias in order to elucidate their natural history and long-term comorbidities due to the disease and its treatments. PMID:26258116

  1. Epstein-Barr Virus-associated lymphoproliferative disorders: experimental and clinical developments

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Lingyun; Wang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), the first human virus related to oncogenesis, was initially identified in a Burkitt lymphoma cell line in 1964. EBV infects over 90% of the world’s population. Most infected people maintain an asymptomatic but persistent EBV infection lifelong. However, in some individuals, EBV infection has been involved in the development of cancer and autoimmune disease. Nowadays, oncogenic potential of EBV has been intensively studied in a wide range of human neoplasms, including Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL), non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL), nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), gastric carcinoma (GC), etc. EBV encodes a series of viral protein and miRNAs, promoting its persistent infection and the transformation of EBV-infected cells. Although the exact role of EBV in the oncogenesis remains to be clarified, novel diagnostic and targeted therapeutic approaches are encouraging for the management of EBV-related malignancies. This review mainly focuses on the experimental and clinical advances of EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:26628948

  2. [Chronic B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders with hairy cells].

    PubMed

    Troussard, Xavier; Cornet, Édouard

    2015-01-01

    The standardized blood smear examination is the first step in the diagnosis of a B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorder and can guide further investigations. In the laboratory, the identification of hairy cells on blood smear is a matter of daily practice. Hairy cell proliferations represent heterogeneous entities and their respective diagnoses can be difficult. If hairy cell leukemia (HCL) and splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) represent separate entities, the variant form of HCL (HCLv) and splenic diffuse red pulp small B-cell lymphoma (SDRPL) remain provisional entities in the 2008 WHO classification. We discuss the main clinical and biological characteristics of these four entities and appropriate means to characterize, identify and distinguish from each other; standardized blood smear examination, multiparameter flow cytometry analysis, analysis of the repertoire of immunoglobulins heavy chains genes and their mutational status (mutated or unmutated profile), molecular analyses: BRAF gene V600E mutation in HCL and MAP2K1 gene mutations in HCLv. We also discuss the main therapeutic aspects with emphasis on the new targeted drugs that enter into force in the therapeutic arsenal. PMID:25858127

  3. Chronic Disease and Childhood Development: Kidney Disease and Transplantation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Susan D.; Simmons, Roberta G.

    As part of a larger study of transplantation and chronic disease and the family, 124 children (10-18 years old) who were chronically ill with kidney disease (n=72) or were a year or more post-transplant (n=52) were included in a study focusing on the effects of chronic kidney disease and transplantation on children's psychosocial development. Ss…

  4. The ambiguous boundary between EBV-related hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and systemic EBV-driven T cell lymphoproliferative disorder.

    PubMed

    Smith, Megan C; Cohen, Daniel N; Greig, Bruce; Yenamandra, Ashwini; Vnencak-Jones, Cindy; Thompson, Mary Ann; Kim, Annette S

    2014-01-01

    Epstein Barr virus (EBV)-related hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (EBV-HLH) is a form of acquired, infection-related HLH which typically represents a fulminant presentation of an acute EBV infection of CD8+ T cells with 30-50% mortality rate. Systemic EBV-positive lymphoproliferative disease of childhood (SE-LPD) is a rare T cell lymphoproliferative disorder predominantly arising in the setting of acute EBV infection, often presenting with HLH. Since both entities have been associated with clonal T cell populations, the discrimination between these diseases is often ambiguous. We report a unique case of a 21 years old female who presented with clinical and laboratory findings of florid HLH in the setting of markedly elevated EBV titers (>1 million) and an aberrant T cell population shown to be clonal by flow cytometry, karyotype, and molecular studies. This case raises the differential of EBV-HLH versus SE-LPD. Review of the literature identified 74 cases of reported EBV-HLH and 21 cases of SE-LPD with associated HLH in 25 studies. Of those cases with available outcome data, 62 of 92 cases (67%) were fatal. Of 60 cases in which molecular clonality was demonstrated, 37 (62%) were fatal, while all 14 cases (100%) demonstrating karyotypic abnormalities were fatal. Given the karyotypic findings in this sentinel case, a diagnosis of SE-LPD was rendered. The overlapping clinical and pathologic findings suggest that EBV-HLH and SE-LPD are a biologic continuum, rather than discrete entities. The most clinically useful marker of mortality was an abnormal karyotype rather than other standards of clonality assessment. PMID:25337215

  5. What is the impact of immunosuppressive treatment on the post-transplant renal osteopathy?

    PubMed

    Blaslov, Kristina; Katalinic, Lea; Kes, Petar; Spasovski, Goce; Smalcelj, Ruzica; Basic-Jukic, Nikolina

    2014-05-01

    Although glucocorticoid therapy is considered to be the main pathogenic factor, a consistent body of evidence suggests that other immunosuppressants might also play an important role in the development of the post-transplant renal osteopathy (PRO) through their pleiotropic pharmacological effects. Glucocorticoids seem to induce osteoclasts' activity suppressing the osteoblasts while data regarding other immunosuppressive drugs are still controversial. Mycophenolate mofetil and azathioprine appear to be neutral regarding the bone metabolism. However, the study analyzing any independent effect of antimetabolites on bone turnover has not been conducted yet. Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) induce trabecular bone loss in rodent, with contradictory results in renal transplant recipients. Suppression of vitamin D receptor is probably the underlying mechanism of renal calcium wasting in renal transplant recipients receiving CNI. In spite of an increased 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D level, the kidney is not able to reserve calcium, suggesting a role of vitamin D resistance that may be related to bone loss. More efforts should be invested to determine the role of CNI in PRO. In particular, data regarding the role of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTORi), such as sirolimus and everolimus, in the PRO development are still controversial. Rapamycin markedly decreases bone longitudinal growth as well as callus formation in experimental models, but also lowers the rate of bone resorption markers and glomerular filtration in clinical studies. Everolimus potently inhibits primary mouse and human osteoclast activity as well as the osteoclast differentiation. It also prevents the ovariectomy-induced loss of cancellous bone by 60 %, an effect predominantly associated with a decreased osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, resulting in a partial preservation of the cancellous bone. At present, there is no clinical study analyzing the effect of everolimus on bone turnover in renal transplant recipients or comparing sirolimus versus everolimus impact on bone, so only general conclusions could be drawn. Hence, the use of mTORi might be useful in patients with PRO due to their possible potential to inhibit osteoclast activity which might lead to a decreased rate of bone resorption. In addition, it should be also emphasized that they might inhibit osteoblast activity which may lead to a decreased bone formation and adynamic bone disease. Further studies are urgently needed to solve these important clinical dilemmas. PMID:24217803

  6. Interleukin-12 stimulation of lymphoproliferative responses in Trypanosoma cruzi infection

    PubMed Central

    Galvão da Silva, Ana Paula; de Almeida Abrahamsohn, Ises

    2001-01-01

    The cytokine interleukin-12 (IL-12) is essential for resistance to Trypanosoma cruzi infection because it stimulates the synthesis of interferon-? (IFN-?), a major activator of the parasiticidal effect of macrophages. A less studied property of IL-12 is its ability to amplify the proliferation of T or natural killer (NK) lymphocytes. We investigated the role of endogenously produced IL-12 in the maintenance of parasite antigen (T-Ag)-specific lymphoproliferative responses during the acute phase of T. cruzi infection. We also studied whether treatment with recombinant IL-12 (rIL-12) would stimulate T-Ag-specific or concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated lymphoproliferation and abrogate the suppression that is characteristic of the acute phase of infection. Production of IL-12 by spleen-cell cultures during T. cruzi infection increased in the first days of infection (days 3–5) and decreased as infection progressed beyond day 7. The growth-promoting activity of endogenous IL-12 on T-Ag-specific proliferation was observed on day 5 of infection. Treatment of cultures with rIL-12 promoted a significant increase in Con A-stimulated proliferation by spleen cells from normal or infected mice. Enhanced T-Ag-specific proliferation by rIL-12 was seen in spleen cell cultures from infected mice providing that nitric oxide production was inhibited by treatment with the competitive inhibitor NG-monomethyl-l-arginine (NMMA). Enhancement of proliferation promoted by IL-12 occurred in the presence of neutralizing anti-interleukin-2 (IL-2) antibody, suggesting that this activity of IL-12 was partly independent of endogenous IL-2. Thymidine incorporation levels achieved with rIL-12 treatment of the cultures were ? 50% of those stimulated by rIL-2 in the same cultures. PMID:11722650

  7. Posttransplant Complex Inferior Venacava Balloon Dilatation After Hepatic Vein Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Kohli, Vikas; Wadhawan, Manav; Gupta, Subhash; Roy, Vipul

    2010-02-15

    Orthotopic and living related liver transplantation is an established mode of treatment of end-stage liver disease. One of the major causes of postoperative complications is vascular anastomotic stenosis. One such set of such complications relates to hepatic vein, inferior vena cava (IVC), or portal vein stenosis, with a reported incidence of 1-3%. The incidence of vascular complications is reported to be higher in living donor versus cadaveric liver transplants. We encountered a patient with hepatic venous outflow tract obstruction, where the hepatic vein had been previously stented, but the patient continued to have symptoms due to additional IVC obstruction. The patient required double-balloon dilatation of the IVC simultaneously from the internal jugular vein and IVC.

  8. Molecular and cytogenetic characterization of expanded B-cell clones from multiclonal versus monoclonal B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Henriques, Ana; Rodríguez-Caballero, Arancha; Criado, Ignacio; Langerak, Anton W.; Nieto, Wendy G.; Lécrevisse, Quentin; González, Marcos; Cortesão, Emília; Paiva, Artur; Almeida, Julia; Orfao, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Chronic antigen-stimulation has been recurrently involved in the earlier stages of monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders. The expansion of two or more B-cell clones has frequently been reported in individuals with these conditions; potentially, such coexisting clones have a greater probability of interaction with common immunological determinants. Here, we analyzed the B-cell receptor repertoire and molecular profile, as well as the phenotypic, cytogenetic and hematologic features, of 228 chronic lymphocytic leukemia-like and non-chronic lymphocytic leukemia-like clones comparing multiclonal (n=85 clones from 41 cases) versus monoclonal (n=143 clones) monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders. The B-cell receptor of B-cell clones from multiclonal cases showed a slightly higher degree of HCDR3 homology than B-cell clones from mono clonal cases, in association with unique hematologic (e.g. lower B-lymphocyte counts) and cytogenetic (e.g. lower frequency of cytogenetically altered clones) features usually related to earlier stages of the disease. Moreover, a subgroup of coexisting B-cell clones from individual multiclonal cases which were found to be phylogenetically related showed unique molecular and cytogenetic features: they more frequently shared IGHV3 gene usage, shorter HCDR3 sequences with a greater proportion of IGHV mutations and del(13q14.3), than other unrelated B-cell clones. These results would support the antigen-driven nature of such multiclonal B-cell expansions, with potential involvement of multiple antigens/epitopes. PMID:24488564

  9. EBV-driven B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders: from biology, classification and differential diagnosis to clinical management

    PubMed Central

    Ok, Chi Young; Li, Ling; Young, Ken H

    2015-01-01

    Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous herpesvirus, affecting >90% of the adult population. EBV targets B-lymphocytes and achieves latent infection in a circular episomal form. Different latency patterns are recognized based on latent gene expression pattern. Latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1) mimics CD40 and, when self-aggregated, provides a proliferation signal via activating the nuclear factor-kappa B, Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription, phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways to promote cellular proliferation. LMP-1 also induces BCL-2 to escape from apoptosis and gives a signal for cell cycle progression by enhancing cyclin-dependent kinase 2 and phosphorylation of retinoblastoma (Rb) protein and by inhibiting p16 and p27. LMP-2A blocks the surface immunoglobulin-mediated lytic cycle reactivation. It also activates the Ras/PI3K/Akt pathway and induces Bcl-xL expression to promote B-cell survival. Recent studies have shown that ebv-microRNAs can provide extra signals for cellular proliferation, cell cycle progression and anti-apoptosis. EBV is well known for association with various types of B-lymphocyte, T-lymphocyte, epithelial cell and mesenchymal cell neoplasms. B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders encompass a broad spectrum of diseases, from benign to malignant. Here we review our current understanding of EBV-induced lymphomagenesis and focus on biology, diagnosis and management of EBV-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:25613729

  10. Idiopathic Pneumonia Syndrome and Thrombotic Microangiopathy Following Nonmyeloablative Haploidentical Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation and Posttransplant Cyclophosphamide

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei-Hsin; Chen, Wei-Ting; Fang, Li-Hua; Chen, Rong-Long

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Posttransplant high-dose cyclophosphamide (pT-HDCy) following T-cell-replete haploidentical bone marrow (BM) transplantation has been successfully utilized to control alloreactivity, mainly in ameliorating graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and graft rejection. Recently, peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) have also been suggested to be a feasible and effective graft alternative to BM in the same setting. We report a case with refractory Hodgkin lymphoma treated with haploidentical PBSC transplantation with nonmyeloablative conditioning and pT-HDCy. Although engraftment with complete donor chimerism was achieved without classical GVHD, the patient suffered from idiopathic pneumonia syndrome followed by thrombotic microangiopathy. Although idiopathic pneumonia syndrome and thrombotic microangiopathy improved after treatment, the patient's lymphoma rapidly progressed nonetheless. This outcome may suggest that the alloreactivity against the classical GVHD targets is successfully eradicated by pT-HDCy, but alloreactivity against the lungs and endothelial cells is differentially preserved when utilizing granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized PBSCs as the graft source. The graft-versus-Hodgkin lymphoma effect was not observed in our patient. PMID:26200635

  11. STAT3 mutations unify the pathogenesis of chronic lymphoproliferative disorders of NK cells and T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Jerez, Andres; Clemente, Michael J.; Makishima, Hideki; Koskela, Hanna; LeBlanc, Francis; Peng Ng, Kwok; Olson, Thomas; Przychodzen, Bartlomiej; Afable, Manuel; Gomez-Segui, Ines; Guinta, Kathryn; Durkin, Lisa; Hsi, Eric D.; McGraw, Kathy; Zhang, Dan; Wlodarski, Marcin W.; Porkka, Kimmo; Sekeres, Mikkael A.; List, Alan; Mustjoki, Satu; Loughran, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic lymphoproliferative disorders of natural killer cells (CLPD-NKs) and T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemias (T-LGLs) are clonal lymphoproliferations arising from either natural killer cells or cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). We have investigated for distribution and functional significance of mutations in 50 CLPD-NKs and 120 T-LGL patients by direct sequencing, allele-specific PCR, and microarray analysis. STAT3 gene mutations are present in both T and NK diseases: approximately one-third of patients with each type of disorder convey these mutations. Mutations were found in exons 21 and 20, encoding the Src homology 2 domain. Patients with mutations are characterized by symptomatic disease (75%), history of multiple treatments, and a specific pattern of STAT3 activation and gene deregulation, including increased expression of genes activated by STAT3. Many of these features are also found in patients with wild-type STAT3, indicating that other mechanisms of STAT3 activation can be operative in these chronic lymphoproliferative disorders. Treatment with STAT3 inhibitors, both in wild-type and mutant cases, resulted in accelerated apoptosis. STAT3 mutations are frequent in large granular lymphocytes suggesting a similar molecular dysregulation in malignant chronic expansions of NK and CTL origin. STAT3 mutations may distinguish truly malignant lymphoproliferations involving T and NK cells from reactive expansions. PMID:22859607

  12. Research update: Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory avian tumor viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomics and Immunogenetics Use of genomics to identify QTL, genes, and proteins associated with resistance to Marek’s disease. Marek’s disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease caused by the highly oncogenic herpesvirus Marek's disease virus (MDV), continues to be a major disease concern to the p...

  13. Spontaneous Post-Transplant Disorders in NOD.Cg- Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Sug/JicTac (NOG) Mice Engrafted with Patient-Derived Metastatic Melanomas

    PubMed Central

    Omodho, Lorna; Francis, Annick; Vander Borght, Sara; Marine, Jean-Christophe; van den Oord, Joost; Amant, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDTX) approach is nowadays considered a reliable preclinical model to study in vivo cancer biology and therapeutic response. NOD scid and Il2rg-deficient mice represent the “gold standard” host for the generation of PDTXs. Compared to other immunocompromised murine lines, these mice offers several advantages including higher engraftment rate, longer lifespan and improved morphological and molecular preservation of patient-derived neoplasms. Here we describe a spectrum of previously uncharacterized post-transplant disorders affecting 14/116 (12%) NOD.Cg- Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Sug/JicTac (NOG) mice subcutaneously engrafted with patient-derived metastatic melanomas. Affected mice exhibited extensive scaling/crusting dermatitis (13/14) associated with emaciation (13/14) and poor/unsuccessful tumor engraftment (14/14). In this context, the following pathological conditions have been recognized and characterized in details: (i) immunoinflammatory disorders with features of graft versus host disease (14/14); (ii) reactive lymphoid infiltrates effacing xenografted tumors (8/14); (iii) post-transplant B cell lymphomas associated with Epstein-Barr virus reactivation (2/14). We demonstrate that all these entities are driven by co-transplanted human immune cells populating patient-derived tumor samples. Since the exploding interest in the utilization of NOD scid and Il2rg-deficient mice for the establishment of PDTX platforms, it is of uppermost importance to raise the awareness of the limitations associated with this model. The disorders here described adversely impact tumor engraftment rate and animal lifespan, potentially representing a major confounding factor in the context of efficacy and personalized therapy studies. The occurrence of these conditions in the NOG model reflects the ability of this mouse line to promote efficient engraftment of human immune cells. Co-transplanted human lymphoid cells have indeed the potential to colonize the recipient mouse initiating the post-transplant conditions here reported. On the other hand, the evidence of an immune response of human origin against the xenotransplanted melanoma opens intriguing perspectives for the establishment of suitable preclinical models of anti-melanoma immunotherapy. PMID:25996609

  14. Marek's disease virus induced transient paralysis--a closer look

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s Disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens caused by a highly cell-associated alpha herpesvirus, Marek’s disease virus (MDV). Clinical signs of MD include depression, crippling, weight loss, and transient paralysis (TP). TP is a disease of the central nervous system...

  15. Research update: Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory avian tumor viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomics and Immunogenetics Marek’s disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease caused by the highly oncogenic herpesvirus Marek's disease virus (MDV), continues to be a major disease concern to the poultry industry. The fear of MD is further enhanced by unpredictable vaccine breaks that result in ...

  16. High Serum Level of ?2-Microglobulin in Late Posttransplant Period Predicts Subsequent Decline in Kidney Allograft Function: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Trailin, Andriy V.; Pleten, Marina V.; Ostapenko, Tatiana I.; Iefimenko, Nadiia F.; Nikonenko, Olexander S.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Identification of patients at risk for kidney allograft (KAG) failure beyond the first posttransplant year is an unmet need. We aimed to determine whether serum beta-2-microglobulin (?2MG) in the late posttransplant period could predict a decline in KAG function. Methods. We assessed a value of single measurement of serum ?2MG at one to seventeen years after transplantation in predicting the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and the decline in eGFR over a period of two years in 79 recipients of KAG. Results. At baseline serum ?2MG concentration was higher (P = 0.011) in patients with allograft dysfunction: 8.67 ± 2.48?µg/mL versus those with satisfactory graft function: 6.67 ± 2.13?µg/mL. Higher ?2MG independently predicted the lower eGFR, the drop in eGFR by ?25% after one and two years, and the value of negative eGFR slope. When combined with proteinuria and acute rejection, serum ?2MG had excellent power in predicting certain drop in eGFR after one year (AUC = 0.910). In conjunction with posttransplant time serum ?2MG had good accuracy in predicting certain eGFR drop after two years (AUC = 0.821). Conclusions. Elevated serum ?2MG in the late posttransplant period is useful in identifying patients at risk for rapid loss of graft function. PMID:26633915

  17. Genetic bases for Marek's disease resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek's disease (MD) is a highly contagious lymphoproliferative disease of chickens caused by MD virus (MDV). Therefore, the control of MD is of particular concern to the poultry industry. The poultry industry has been heavily relying on biosecurity and vaccination to control the spread and occurren...

  18. Chicks and SNPs--an entree into identifying genes conferring disease resistance in chicken

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With high-density chicken rearing, control of infectious diseases are critical for economic viability and maintaining public confidence in poultry products. Among poultry diseases, Marek’s disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease caused by the highly oncogenic herpesvirus Marek's disease virus (M...

  19. Spectrum of Epstein-Barr virus-associated T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder in adolescents and young adults in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ren-Ching; Chang, Sheng-Tsung; Hsieh, Yen-Chuan; Huang, Wan-Ting; Hsu, Jeng-Dong; Tseng, Chih-En; Wang, Ming-Chung; Hwang, Wei-Shou; Wang, John; Chuang, Shih-Sung

    2014-01-01

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is a herpesvirus usually infecting B-cells but may occasionally infect T- or natural killer (NK)-cells. EBV-associated T- or NK-cell lymphoproliferations represent a continuous spectrum of diseases ranging from asymptomatic infection, infectious mononucleosis (IM), to clonal and malignant lymphoproliferations including systemic EBV-positive T/NK-cell lymphoproliferative disease (EBV-T/NK-LPD) of childhood and hydroa-vacciniforme-like lymphoma of the skin. The clonal diseases are more prevalent in East Asia and exhibit overlapping clinical and pathological features with chronic active EBV infection. Here we report our experience on 10 cases of EBV-associated T-cell lymphoproliferation from Taiwan including five males and five females with a median age of 18 years old (range, 15-28). The most common clinical symptoms were fever, neck mass and hepatosplenomegaly. Eight of these patients showed elevated lactate dehydrogenase level and half of the patients had cytopenia. All patients had either elevated EBV antibody titers or increased serum EBV DNA levels. Five cases were clinically IM-like with polyclonal (3 cases) or clonal (2 cases) T-cell lymphoproliferation. Two patients each had chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). One patient had both CAEBV and HLH. One of the HLH patients with marrow infiltration by intra-sinusoidal large atypical lymphocytes experienced a fulminant course. In a median follow-up time of 21.5 months, seven patients were free of disease, one was alive with disease, and two died of disease in 31 and 3 months, respectively, despite chemotherapy. We confirmed a wide clinicopathological range of EVB-associated T-cell lymphoproliferation in Taiwan. Furthermore, monomorphic LPD and the single case with fulminant course as defined by Ohshima et al (Pathol Int 2018) as categories A3 and B, respectively, died of disease despite chemotherapy. Our report, the largest series in the recent decade from Taiwan, adds to the understanding of these rare diseases with variable clinical and histopathological presentations. PMID:24966953

  20. Marek's disease virus induces Th-2 activity during cytolytic infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of chickens that is caused by a highly cell-associated oncogenic alpha-herpesvirus, Marek’s disease virus (MDV). The role of cytokines and other related proteins in MD pathogenesis and immunity is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to...

  1. Immunological Basis for Resistance and Susceptibility to Marek's Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a contagious lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens caused by a highly cell-associated alpha-herpesvirus, Marek’s disease virus (MDV). MDV replicates in chicken lymphocytes and establishes a latent infection within CD4+ T cells. Mechanisms of viral pathogenesis, r...

  2. Correlation between Marek’s disease virus pathotype and replication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease virus (MDV) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes Marek’s disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease in chickens. Pathotyping has become an increasingly important assay for monitoring shifts in virulence of field strains, however, it is time-consuming and expensive and alternatives are...

  3. 'A post-transplant person': Narratives of heart or lung transplantation and intensive care unit delirium.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Katy; Daiches, Anna; Malpus, Zoey; Yonan, Nizar; Sanchez, Melissa

    2014-07-01

    Exploring patients' narratives can lead to new understandings about perceived illness states. Intensive Care Unit delirium is when people experience transitory hallucinations, delusions or paranoia in the Intensive Care Unit and little is known about how this experience affects individuals who have had a heart or lung transplant. A total of 11 participants were recruited from two heart and lung transplant services and were invited to tell their story of transplant and Intensive Care Unit delirium. A narrative analysis was conducted and the findings were presented as a shared story. This shared story begins with death becoming prominent before the transplant: 'you live all the time with Mr Death on your shoulder'. Following the operation, death permeates all aspects of dream worlds, as dreams in intensive care 'tunes into the subconscious of your fears'. The next part of the shared story offers hope of restitution; however, this does not last as reality creeps in: 'I thought it was going to be like a miracle cure'. Finally, the restitution narrative is found to be insufficient and individuals differ in the extent to which they can achieve resolution. The societal discourse of a transplant being a 'gift', which gives life, leads to internalised responsibility for the 'success' or 'failure' of the transplant. Participants describe how their experiences impact their sense of self: 'a post-transplant person'. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24026357

  4. Temporal transcriptome changes induced by MDV in Marek's disease-resistant and -susceptible inbred chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mareks disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease in chickens caused by Marek's disease virus (MDV) and characterized by T cell lymphoma and infiltration of lymphoid cells into various organs such as liver, spleen, peripheral nerves and muscle. Resistance to MD and disease risk have long been tho...

  5. Multicentric Castleman disease presenting with fever.

    PubMed

    Smith, Christiana; Lee-Miller, Cathy; Dishop, Megan K; Cost, Carrye; Wang, Michael; Asturias, Edwin J

    2014-12-01

    Multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder that usually manifests with nonspecific symptoms, including fever and lymphadenopathy. Treatment of pediatric MCD varies greatly. A 21-month-old child was diagnosed with MCD after presenting with fever. He had incomplete response to initial therapy directed at interleukin-6, but improved with subsequent chemotherapy. PMID:25282064

  6. Association of Extrarenal Adverse Effects of Posttransplant Immunosuppression With Sex and ABCB1 Haplotypes

    PubMed Central

    Venuto, Rocco C.; Meaney, Calvin J.; Chang, Shirley; Leca, Nicolae; Consiglio, Joseph D.; Wilding, Gregory E.; Brazeau, Daniel; Gundroo, Aijaz; Nainani, Neha; Morse, Sarah E.; Cooper, Louise M.; Tornatore, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Extrarenal adverse effects (AEs) associated with calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) and mycophenolic acid (MPA) occur frequently but are unpredictable posttransplant complications. AEs may result from intracellular CNI accumulation and low activity of P-glycoprotein, encoded by the ABCB1 gene. Since ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and sex influence P-glycoprotein, we investigated haplotypes and extrarenal AEs. A prospective, cross-sectional study evaluated 149 patients receiving tacrolimus and enteric coated mycophenolate sodium or cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil. Immunosuppressive AE assessment determined individual and composite gastrointestinal, neurologic, aesthetic, and cumulative AEs. Lipids were quantitated after 12-hour fast. ABCB1 SNPs: c.1236C>T (rs1128503), c.2677G>T/A (rs2032582), and c.3435C>T (rs1045642) were determined with haplotype associations computed using the THESIAS program, and evaluated by immunosuppression, sex and race using multivariate general linear models. Tacrolimus patients exhibited more frequent and higher gastrointestinal AE scores compared with cyclosporine with association to CTT (P?=?0.018) and sex (P?=?0.01). Aesthetic AE score was 3 times greater for cyclosporine with TTC haplotype (P?=?0.005). Females had higher gastrointestinal (P?=?0.022), aesthetic (P?

  7. Association of Extrarenal Adverse Effects of Posttransplant Immunosuppression With Sex and ABCB1 Haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Venuto, Rocco C; Meaney, Calvin J; Chang, Shirley; Leca, Nicolae; Consiglio, Joseph D; Wilding, Gregory E; Brazeau, Daniel; Gundroo, Aijaz; Nainani, Neha; Morse, Sarah E; Cooper, Louise M; Tornatore, Kathleen M

    2015-09-01

    Extrarenal adverse effects (AEs) associated with calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) and mycophenolic acid (MPA) occur frequently but are unpredictable posttransplant complications. AEs may result from intracellular CNI accumulation and low activity of P-glycoprotein, encoded by the ABCB1 gene. Since ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and sex influence P-glycoprotein, we investigated haplotypes and extrarenal AEs. A prospective, cross-sectional study evaluated 149 patients receiving tacrolimus and enteric coated mycophenolate sodium or cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil. Immunosuppressive AE assessment determined individual and composite gastrointestinal, neurologic, aesthetic, and cumulative AEs. Lipids were quantitated after 12-hour fast. ABCB1 SNPs: c.1236C>T (rs1128503), c.2677G>T/A (rs2032582), and c.3435C>T (rs1045642) were determined with haplotype associations computed using the THESIAS program, and evaluated by immunosuppression, sex and race using multivariate general linear models. Tacrolimus patients exhibited more frequent and higher gastrointestinal AE scores compared with cyclosporine with association to CTT (P?=?0.018) and sex (P?=?0.01). Aesthetic AE score was 3 times greater for cyclosporine with TTC haplotype (P?=?0.005). Females had higher gastrointestinal (P?=?0.022), aesthetic (P?

  8. Crystal-storing histiocytosis involving the kidney in a low-grade B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Sanjeev; Cuiffo, Barry P; Pinkus, Geraldine S; Rennke, Helmut G

    2002-01-01

    Intracellular crystal formation in histiocytes in multiple myeloma and other lymphoproliferative disorders is an uncommon presentation. In all cases, crystal formation is associated with accumulation of histiocytes containing light chain or immunoglobulin inclusions, and the disorder has been termed crystal-storing histiocytosis. We report a case of crystal-storing histiocytosis affecting the kidney with prominent infiltration of the mesangium by large mononuclear and multinuclear cells that contained eosinophilic crystalline material in the setting of a low-grade B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder. The interstitium did not contain similar crystal-containing histiocytes. On electron microscopy, the mononuclear and multinuclear cells in the mesangium were filled with rhomboid and needle-shaped crystals. Immunofluorescence studies showed the material to be positive for lambda light chains but negative for kappa light chains. To our knowledge, this is the first report of crystal-storing histiocytosis involving the kidney in a low-grade B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder with an immunophenotype of a marginal zone lymphoma and of exclusive expansion of the mesangium by infiltrating histiocytes containing needle-shaped and rhomboid crystals that were positive for lambda light chains. We report this case to illustrate an unusual finding of mesangial infiltration by crystal-storing histiocytes, and we review the literature of renal involvement by crystal-storing histiocytosis and crystal deposition in lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:11774118

  9. Lymphoproliferative Disease and Hepatitis B Reactivation: Challenges in the Era of Rapidly Evolving Targeted Therapy.

    PubMed

    Phipps, Colin; Chen, Yunxin; Tan, Daryl

    2016-01-01

    Reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a known complication that occurs in patients receiving chemotherapy especially for malignant lymphoma. The increased risk in lymphoma patients parallels the potency of the immunosuppressive treatment regimens that are provided. B-cell-depleting therapy such as anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies, especially when combined with conventional chemotherapy, significantly increases the risk of HBV reactivation, even in patients with resolved HBV infection. The first reports of HBV reactivation with anti-CD20 therapy emerged only 4 years after its US Food and Drug Administration approval. Today, these drugs carry alert warnings on the risk of hepatic dysfunction and reactivation of HBV infection. Many other new/novel agents active against lymphoma have emerged since then, targeting the different pathways involved in lymphoma pathogenesis, including histone deacetylase inhibitors, antibody-drug conjugates, and proteasome inhibitors. These various drugs have differing depths and mechanisms of immunosuppression, necessitating due diligence when administrating these compounds to prevent infective complications such as HBV reactivation, which can lead to liver failure and death. This review focuses on HBV reactivation with non-Hodgkin lymphoma treatment, in particular with the various approved novel agents. We also discuss the current recommendations for screening non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients for HBV and the role of prophylactic antiviral therapy during and after immunosuppressive treatment. PMID:26705677

  10. Transcriptional profiling of chicken gene expression during cytolytic infection of Marek's disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease of chicken is caused by a highly cell-associated alpha-herpesvirus, Marek’s disease virus (MDV). MDV replicates in chicken lymphocytes and establishes a latent infection within CD4+ T cells. The expression analysis of limited viral and host transc...

  11. Marek's Disease Virus-Induced Immunosuppression: Array Analysis of Chicken Immune Response Gene Expression Profiling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of chickens induced by a highly cell-associated oncogenic alpha-herpesvirus, Marek’s disease virus (MDV). MDV replicates in chicken lymphocytes and establishes a latency infection within CD4+ T cells. Host-virus interaction, immune responses to...

  12. Mortality of one-week-old chickens during naturally occurring Marek's disease virus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a serious economic disease of chickens which occurs worldwide. MD can present as one of several forms, with the most commonly occurring forms being the lymphoproliferative diseases. Under experimental conditions, an early mortality syndrome has been recognized following infec...

  13. Transcriptional profiling of Marek's disease virus genes during cytolytic and latent infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease of chicken is caused by a highly cell-associated alpha-herpesvirus, Marek’s disease virus (MDV). MDV replicates in chicken lymphocytes and establishes a latent infection within CD4+ T cells. The expression analysis of limited viral transcripts ha...

  14. Global gene expression profiling of Marek's disease virus during cytolytic and latency infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens, is caused by an avian alpha-herpesvirus, Marek’s disease virus (MDV). MDV causes an early cytolytic infection in B cells followed by a latency infection in CD4+ T cells. The transcriptional analysis of a limited number of MD...

  15. Marek’s disease virus-induced transient cecal tonsil atrophy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens that is caused by a highly cell-associated oncogenic '-herpesvirus, Marek’s disease virus (MDV). MDV replicates in chicken lymphocytes and establishes a latent infection within CD4+ T cells. MD is characterized by bursal/th...

  16. Dynamic equilibrium of Marek’s disease genomes during in vitro serial passage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of chickens caused by gallid herpesvirus type 2 (GaHV-2). The disease is controlled through mass vaccination with live-attenuated strains. Attenuation of oncogenic GaHV-2 involves the serial passage of a virulent field isolate in avian embryo fib...

  17. Identification of Marek's disease virus genes mutated during serial passage-induced attenuation.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of chickens caused by gallid herpesvirus type 2 (GaHV-2). The disease is controlled through mass vaccination with live-attenuated strains. Attenuation of oncogenic GaHV-2 involves the serial passage of a virulent field isolate in avian embryo fib...

  18. Fax +41 61 306 12 34 E-Mail karger@karger.ch

    E-print Network

    Rockwell, Robert F.

    .Intervirology 2006;49:133­143134 in sub-Saharan Africa and among Haitians and African- Americans, subtype CKSisKaposi'ssarcoma-associatedherpesvirus(KSHV) or human herpesvirus 8, a gamma-2 herpesvirus most closely related to chimpanzee rhadinovirus PanRHV1a [2-associated and post-transplant phenotypes [5]. KSHV is also implicated in lymphoproliferative diseases such as primary

  19. Genome-wide Copy Number Variation and Temporal Genes Expression Analysis in Marek's Disease-Resistant or -Susceptible Inbred Lines of Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Viruses that cause cancers are a great threat to human and animal health. Marek’s disease (MD) in chickens is a lymphoproliferative disease caused by Marek’s disease virus (MDV). The over-expression of Hodgkin’s disease antigen in MD makes it an ideal model to study the progression mechanism of Hodg...

  20. Primary and secondary cutaneous CD30(+) lymphoproliferative disorders: a report from the Dutch Cutaneous Lymphoma Group on the long-term follow-up data of 219 patients and guidelines for diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Bekkenk, M W; Geelen, F A; van Voorst Vader, P C; Heule, F; Geerts, M L; van Vloten, W A; Meijer, C J; Willemze, R

    2000-06-15

    To evaluate our diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines, clinical and long-term follow-up data of 219 patients with primary or secondary cutaneous CD30(+) lymphoproliferative disorders were evaluated. The study group included 118 patients with lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP; group 1), 79 patients with primary cutaneous CD30(+) large T-cell lymphoma (LTCL; group 2), 11 patients with CD30(+) LTCL and skin and regional lymph node involvement (group 3), and 11 patients with secondary cutaneous CD30(+) LTCL (group 4). Patients with LyP often did not receive any specific treatment, whereas most patients with primary cutaneous CD30(+) LTCL were treated with radiotherapy or excision. All patients with skin-limited disease from groups 1 and 2 who were treated with multiagent chemotherapy had 1 or more skin relapses. The calculated risk for systemic disease within 10 years of diagnosis was 4% for group 1, 16% for group 2, and 20% for group 3 (after initial therapy). Disease-related 5-year-survival rates were 100% (group 1), 96% (group 2), 91% (group 3), and 24% (group 4), respectively. The results confirm the favorable prognoses of these primary cutaneous CD30(+) lymphoproliferative disorders and underscore that LyP and primary cutaneous CD30(+) lymphomas are closely related conditions. They also indicate that CD30(+) LTCL on the skin and in 1 draining lymph node station has a good prognosis similar to that for primary cutaneous CD30(+) LTCL without concurrent lymph node involvement. Multiagent chemotherapy is only indicated for patients with full-blown or developing extracutaneous disease; it is never or rarely indicated for patients with skin-limited CD30(+) lymphomas. (Blood. 2000;95:3653-3661) PMID:10845893

  1. Screening for cardiovascular disease before kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Palepu, Sneha; Prasad, G V Ramesh

    2015-12-24

    Pre-kidney transplant cardiac screening has garnered particular attention from guideline committees as an approach to improving post-transplant success. Screening serves two major purposes: To more accurately inform transplant candidates of their risk for a cardiac event before and after the transplant, thereby informing decisions about proceeding with transplantation, and to guide pre-transplant management so that post-transplant success can be maximized. Transplant candidates on dialysis are more likely to be screened for coronary artery disease than those not being considered for transplantation. Thorough history and physical examination taking, resting electrocardiography and echocardiography, exercise stress testing, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, dobutamine stress echocardiography, cardiac computed tomography, cardiac biomarker measurement, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging all play contributory roles towards screening for cardiovascular disease before kidney transplantation. In this review, the importance of each of these screening procedures for both coronary artery disease and other forms of cardiac disease are discussed. PMID:26722655

  2. Screening for cardiovascular disease before kidney transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Palepu, Sneha; Prasad, G V Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Pre-kidney transplant cardiac screening has garnered particular attention from guideline committees as an approach to improving post-transplant success. Screening serves two major purposes: To more accurately inform transplant candidates of their risk for a cardiac event before and after the transplant, thereby informing decisions about proceeding with transplantation, and to guide pre-transplant management so that post-transplant success can be maximized. Transplant candidates on dialysis are more likely to be screened for coronary artery disease than those not being considered for transplantation. Thorough history and physical examination taking, resting electrocardiography and echocardiography, exercise stress testing, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, dobutamine stress echocardiography, cardiac computed tomography, cardiac biomarker measurement, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging all play contributory roles towards screening for cardiovascular disease before kidney transplantation. In this review, the importance of each of these screening procedures for both coronary artery disease and other forms of cardiac disease are discussed. PMID:26722655

  3. The genomes of Marek’s disease virus exist as quasispecies at defined intervals during serial passage-induced attenuation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of chickens caused by gallid herpesvirus type 2 (GaHV-2). The disease is controlled through mass vaccination with live-attenuated strains. Attenuation of oncogenic GaHV-2 involves the serial passage of a virulent field isolate in avian embryo fib...

  4. Characterizing the molecular basis of attenuation of Marek’s disease virus via in vitro serial passage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of chickens caused by the oncogenic Gallid herpesvirus 2, commonly known as Marek’s disease virus (MDV). MD vaccines, the primary control method, are often generated by repeated in vitro serial passage of this highly cell-associated virus to atte...

  5. Detection and differentiation of CVI988 (Rispens vaccine) from other serotype 1 Marek’s disease viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The serotype 1 Marek’s disease virus (MDV) is the causative agent for Marek’s disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease of chickens of great concern to the poultry industry. CVI988, an attenuated serotype 1 MDV, is currently the most efficacious commercially available vaccine for preventing MD. Ho...

  6. Positive correlation between replication rate and pathotype of Marek’s disease virus strains in maternal antibody negative chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a highly contagious lymphoproliferative disease of chickens associated with large economic losses worldwide. The etiological agent, Marek’s disease virus (MDV), can be divided into three pathotypes: virulent (v), very virulent (vv), and very virulent plus (vv+). While previou...

  7. Multispectral Imaging Approach to the Diagnosis of a CD20+ Cutaneous T-cell Lymphoproliferative Disorder: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Salva, Katrin A; Bennett, Daniel; Longley, Jack; Guitart, Joan; Wood, Gary S

    2015-10-01

    Expression of the pan B-cell marker CD20 by T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders is exceedingly rare. We present a 52-year-old man with a unilesional cutaneous CD20 T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder. Multispectral imaging analysis of CD3-CD20 double-stained lesional tissue sections allowed (1) the visualization of double-positive T lymphocytes in situ with sensitivity superior to that of conventional immunohistochemistry and (2) the quantitative assessment of marker coexpression. Here, 23% of CD3 signals in the patient's lesion were also CD20, whereas 38% of CD20 signals were also CD3. In contrast, both parameters were below 1% in the tonsil control. Overall, the percentage of double-positive cells in lesional skin was 35%, although only 0.4% of such cells were detected in the tonsil. This is the first demonstration of aberrant CD20 expression by skin-infiltrating T cells using multispectral imaging. PMID:26381030

  8. Targeting Notch1 and proteasome as an effective strategy to suppress T-cell lymphoproliferative neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    George, Suraj Konnath; Teng, Rong; You, Xuefen; Xu, Mengqi; Liu, Hong; Sun, Xiaoping; Amin, Hesham M.; Shi, Wenyu

    2015-01-01

    The T-cell lymphoproliferative neoplasms (T-LPN) are characterized by a poor clinical outcome. Current therapeutics are mostly non-selective and may induce harmful side effects. It has been reported that NOTCH1 activation mutations frequently associate T-LPN. Because anti-Notch1 based therapies such as ?-secretase inhibitors (GSI) are less efficient and induce considerable side effects, we hypothesized that combining low concentrations of GSI and the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (BTZ) may provide an effective and tolerable approach to treat T-LPN. Hence, we analyzed the in vitro and in vivo effects of GSI-I and BTZ, alone or in combination, against T-LPN. GSI-I and BTZ synergistically decreased cell viability, proliferation, and colony formation, and induced apoptosis in T-LPN cell lines. Furthermore, combining GSI-I and BTZ decreased the viability of primary T-LPN cells from patients. These effects were accompanied by deregulation of Notch1, AKT, ERK, JNK, p38 MAPK, and NF-?B survival pathways. Moreover, combination treatment inhibited T-LPN tumor growth in nude mice. In all experiments, combining low concentrations of GSI-I and BTZ was superior to using a single agent. Our data support that a synergistic antitumor activity exists between GSI-I and BTZ, and provide a rationale for successful utilization of dual Notch1 and proteasome inhibition to treat T-LPN. PMID:25879451

  9. Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders arising in solid organ transplant recipients are usually of recipient origin.

    PubMed Central

    Chadburn, A.; Suciu-Foca, N.; Cesarman, E.; Reed, E.; Michler, R. E.; Knowles, D. M.

    1995-01-01

    Recent clinical, pathological, and molecular studies have increased our understanding of posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PT-LPDs). Studies have shown that the majority of PT-LPDs arising in bone marrow transplant recipients are of donor origin; however, the source (host or donor) of the lymphoid cells that make up PT-LPDs arising in solid organ transplant recipients has not been systemically investigated. In this study, 18 PT-LPDs occurring in 16 organ transplant recipients (13 heart, 2 kidney, 1 lung), 9 donor tissues (for 10 recipients), and 14 uninvolved recipient tissues (from 12 patients) were examined employing restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis to determine their host or donor origin. The PstI-digested DNAs were analyzed by Southern blot hybridization using two highly informative polymorphic probes that map to chromosome 21 (CRI-PAT-pL427-4) and chromosome 7 (CRI-PAT-pS194). All solid organ PT-LPDs with corresponding uninvolved recipient DNA showed identical hybridization patterns; none of the PT-LPDs exhibited a hybridization pattern that matched donor DNA. These findings suggest that the vast majority of PT-LPDs arising in solid organ transplant recipients, in contrast to those arising in bone marrow transplant recipients, are of recipient origin. Images Figure 1 PMID:7495309

  10. Natural history of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome associated with FAS gene mutations

    PubMed Central

    Price, Susan; Shaw, Pamela A.; Seitz, Amy; Joshi, Gyan; Davis, Joie; Niemela, Julie E.; Perkins, Katie; Hornung, Ronald L.; Folio, Les; Rosenberg, Philip S.; Puck, Jennifer M.; Hsu, Amy P.; Lo, Bernice; Pittaluga, Stefania; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Fleisher, Thomas A.; Lenardo, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) presents in childhood with nonmalignant lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly associated with a characteristic expansion of mature CD4 and CD8 negative or double negative T-cell receptor ??+ T lymphocytes. Patients often present with chronic multilineage cytopenias due to autoimmune peripheral destruction and/or splenic sequestration of blood cells and have an increased risk of B-cell lymphoma. Deleterious heterozygous mutations in the FAS gene are the most common cause of this condition, which is termed ALPS-FAS. We report the natural history and pathophysiology of 150 ALPS-FAS patients and 63 healthy mutation-positive relatives evaluated in our institution over the last 2 decades. Our principal findings are that FAS mutations have a clinical penetrance of <60%, elevated serum vitamin B12 is a reliable and accurate biomarker of ALPS-FAS, and the major causes of morbidity and mortality in these patients are the overwhelming postsplenectomy sepsis and development of lymphoma. With longer follow-up, we observed a significantly greater relative risk of lymphoma than previously reported. Avoiding splenectomy while controlling hypersplenism by using corticosteroid-sparing treatments improves the outcome in ALPS-FAS patients. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00001350. PMID:24398331

  11. FAS Haploinsufficiency Caused by Extracellular Missense Mutations Underlying Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome.

    PubMed

    de Bielke, María Gabriela Simesen; Perez, Laura; Yancoski, Judith; Oliveira, João Bosco; Danielian, Silvia

    2015-11-01

    Mutations in the FAS gene are the most common cause of Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS), and the majority of them affect the intracellular domain of FAS protein, particularly the region termed death domain. However, approximately one third of these mutations affect the extracellular region of FAS and most are stop codons, with very few missense changes having been described to date. We previously described 7 patients with a FAS missense extracellular mutation, C107Y, two in homozygozity and 5 in heterozygosity. We investigated here the mechanistic effects of this mutation and observed that the homozygous patients did not show any FAS surface expression, while the heterozygous patients had diminished receptor expression. Aiming to understand why a missense mutation was abolishing receptor expression, we analyzed intracellular FAS protein trafficking using fluorescent fusion proteins of wild type FAS, two missense extracellular mutants (FAS-C107Y and FAS-C104Y) and one missense change localized in the intracellular region, FAS-D260E. The FAS-C107Y and FAS-C104Y mutants failed to reach the cell surface, being retained at the endoplasmic reticulum, unlike the WT or the FAS-D260E which were clearly expressed at the plasma membrane. These results support haploinsufficiency as the underlying mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of ALPS caused by extracellular FAS missense mutations. PMID:26563159

  12. Usefullness of IGH/TCR PCR studies in lymphoproliferative disorders with inconclusive clonality by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Ribera, Jordi; Zamora, Lurdes; Juncà, Jordi; Rodríguez, Inés; Marcé, Silvia; Cabezón, Marta; Millá, Fuensanta

    2013-07-25

    In up to 5-15% of studies of lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) flow cytometry (FCM) or immunomorphologic methods cannot discriminate malignant from reactive processes. The aim of this work was to determine the usefulness of PCR for solving these diagnostic uncertainties. We analyzed IGH and TCR? genes by PCR in 106 samples with inconclusive FCM results. A clonal result was registered in 36/106 studies, with a LPD being confirmed in 27 (75%) of these cases. Specifically, 9/9 IGH clonal and 16/25 TCR? clonal results were finally diagnosed with LPD. Additionally, 2 clonal TCR? samples with suspicion of undefined LPD were finally diagnosed with T LPD. Although polyclonal results were obtained in 47 of the cases studied (38 IGH and 9 TCR?), hematologic neoplasms were diagnosed in 4/38 IGH polyclonal and in 1/9 TCR? polyclonal studies. There were also 14 PCR polyclonal results (4 IGH, 10 TCR?), albeit non-conclusive. Of these, 2/4 were eventually diagnosed with B-cell lymphoma and 3/10 with T-cell LPD. In 8 IGH samples the results of PCR techniques were non-informative but in 3/8 cases a B lymphoma was finally confirmed. We concluded that PCR is a useful technique to identify LPD when FCM is inconclusive. A PCR clonal B result is indicative of malignancy but IGH polyclonal and non-conclusive results do not exclude lymphoid neoplasms. Interpretation of T-cell clonality should be based on all the available clinical and analytical data. © 2013 Clinical Cytometry Society. PMID:23894019

  13. Usefulness of IGH/TCR PCR studies in lymphoproliferative disorders with inconclusive clonality by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Ribera, Jordi; Zamora, Lurdes; Juncà, Jordi; Rodríguez, Inés; Marcé, Silvia; Cabezón, Marta; Millá, Fuensanta

    2014-01-01

    In up to 5-15% of studies of lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD), flow cytometry (FCM) or immunomorphologic methods cannot discriminate malignant from reactive processes. The aim of this work was to determine the usefulness of PCR for solving these diagnostic uncertainties. We analyzed IGH and TCR? genes by PCR in 106 samples with inconclusive FCM results. A clonal result was registered in 36/106 studies, with a LPD being confirmed in 27 (75%) of these cases. Specifically, 9/9 IGH clonal and 16/25 TCR? clonal results were finally diagnosed with LPD. Additionally, two clonal TCR? samples with suspicion of undefined LPD were finally diagnosed with T LPD. Although polyclonal results were obtained in 47 of the cases studied (38 IGH and nine TCR?), hematologic neoplasms were diagnosed in 4/38 IGH polyclonal and in 1/9 TCR? polyclonal studies. There were also 14 PCR polyclonal results (four IGH, 10 TCR?), albeit nonconclusive. Of these, 2/4 were eventually diagnosed with B-cell lymphoma and 3/10 with T-cell LPD. In eight IGH samples, the results of PCR techniques were noninformative but in 3/8 cases a B lymphoma was finally confirmed. We concluded that PCR is a useful technique to identify LPD when FCM is inconclusive. A PCR clonal B result is indicative of malignancy but IGH polyclonal and nonconclusive results do not exclude lymphoid neoplasms. Interpretation of T-cell clonality should be based on all the available clinical and analytical data. PMID:23943305

  14. Serum Uric Acid and Renal Transplantation Outcomes: At Least 3-Year Post-transplant Retrospective Multivariate Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kun; Gao, Baoshan; Wang, Yuantao; Wang, Gang; Wang, Weigang; Zhu, Yaxiang; Yao, Liyu; Gu, Yiming; Chen, Mo; Zhou, Honglan; Fu, Yaowen

    2015-01-01

    Since the association of serum uric acid and kidney transplant graft outcome remains disputable, we sought to evaluate the predictive value of uric acid level for graft survival/function and the factors could affect uric acid as time varies. A consecutive cohort of five hundred and seventy three recipients transplanted during January 2008 to December 2011 were recruited. Data and laboratory values of our interest were collected at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 36 months post-transplant for analysis. Cox proportional hazard model, and multiple regression equation were built to adjust for the possible confounding variables and meet our goals as appropriate. The current cohort study lasts for 41.86 ± 15.49 months. Uric acid level is proven to be negatively associated with eGFR at different time point after adjustment for age, body mass index and male gender (standardized ? ranges from -0.15 to -0.30 with all P<0.001).Males with low eGFR but high level of TG were on CSA, diuretics and RAS inhibitors and experienced at least one episode of acute rejection and diabetic issue were associated with a higher mean uric acid level. Hyperuricemia was significantly an independent predictor of pure graft failure (hazard ratio=4.01, 95% CI: 1.25-12.91, P=0.02) after adjustment. But it was no longer an independent risk factor for graft loss after adjustment. Interestingly, higher triglyceride level can make incidence of graft loss (hazard ratio=1.442, for each unit increase millimoles per liter 95% CI: 1.008-2.061, P=0.045) and death (hazard ratio=1.717, 95% CI: 1.105-2.665, P=0.016) more likely. The results of our study suggest that post-transplant elevated serum uric acid level is an independent predictor of long-term graft survival and graft function. Together with the high TG level impact on poor outcomes, further investigations for therapeutic effect are needed. PMID:26208103

  15. A comparative evaluation of the protective efficacy of rMd5-delta-Meq and CV1988/Rispens against a vv+ strain of Marek's disease virus infection in a series of recombinant congenic strains of white leghorn chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens caused by a highly infectious, oncogenic alpha-herpesvirus known as Marek’s disease virus (MDV). MD is presently controlled by vaccination. Current MD vaccines include attenuated serotype 1 strains (e.g. CVI988/Rispens), avir...

  16. Genetic Interactions Between TRPC6 and NPHS1 Variants Affect Posttransplant Risk of Recurrent Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Z J; Ng, K H; Liao, P; Zhang, Y; Ng, J L; Liu, I D; Tan, P H; Chong, S S C; Chan, Y H; Liu, J; Davila, S; Heng, C K; Jordan, S C; Soong, T W; Yap, H K

    2015-12-01

    Individuals with TRPC6 mutations have variable phenotypes, ranging from healthy carrier to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) leading to renal failure. Here, we describe a family where six members had a novel TRPC6 p.R68W (c.202C>T) mutation, two of whom had renal failure from FSGS, and one had proteinuria. One healthy carrier donated a kidney to her sister. Both donor and recipient had no proteinuria at 20 years posttransplant. Two synonymous NPHS1 polymorphisms, rs2285450 (c.294C>T) and rs437168 (c.2289C>T) segregated with renal failure in this family. These variants had higher allele frequencies in 97 unrelated patients with nephrotic syndrome or FSGS compared to 224 controls. Using patch-clamp experiments in HEK293 and podocytes, we showed that the p.R68W mutation increased TRPC6 current amplitudes, which may be explained by enhanced TRPC6 surface expression. Additionally, while wild-type nephrin suppressed TRPC6 currents, this ability was lost in the presence of NPHS1 c.294C>T polymorphism. When cells were transfected according to combined TRPC6 and NPHS1 genotypes in the family, those representing the donor had lower TRPC6 currents than cells representing the recipient, suggesting that interactions between TRPC6 and NPHS1 variants could possibly account for the variable penetrance of TRPC6 mutations and the absence of recurrence in the graft. PMID:26147534

  17. Inflammation-based scores do not predict post-transplant recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients within Milan criteria.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Ioanna; Tsochatzis, Emmanuel; Wijewantha, Hasitha; Rodríguez-Perálvarez, Manuel; De Luca, Laura; Manousou, Pinelopi; Fatourou, Evangelia; Pieri, Giulia; Papastergiou, Vassilios; Davies, Neil; Yu, Dominic; Luong, TuVinh; Dhillon, Amar Paul; Thorburn, Douglas; Patch, David; O'Beirne, James; Meyer, Tim; Burroughs, Andrew K

    2014-11-01

    Increased preoperative inflammation scores, such as neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and inflammation-based index (IBI) have been related to post-transplant HCC recurrence. We evaluated the association between inflammation-based scores (NLR, PLR, IBI) and post-LT HCC recurrence as well as tumor necrosis after transarterial embolization. 150 consecutive patients who underwent transplantation for HCC within the Milan criteria between 1996 and 2010 were included; data regarding inflammatory markers, patient and tumor characteristics were analyzed. NLR, PLR, and IBI were not significantly associated with post-LT HCC recurrence or worse overall survival. Increased NLR and PLR were associated with complete tumor necrosis in the subset of patients who received preoperative transarterial embolization (P < 0.05). Cox regression analysis revealed that absence of neoadjuvant transarterial therapy (OR = 4.33, 95% CI = 1.28-14.64; P = 0.02) and no fulfillment of the Milan criteria in the explanted liver (OR = 3.34, 95% CI = 1.08-10.35; P = 0.04) were independently associated with post-LT HCC recurrence inflammation-based scores did not predict HCC recurrence post-LT in our group of patients. NLR and PLR were associated with better response to TAE, as this was recorded histologically in the explanted liver. Histological fulfillment of the Milan criteria and absence of neoadjuvant transarterial treatment were significantly associated with post-LT HCC recurrence. PMID:25088400

  18. Posttransplant Metabolic Syndrome in the Withdrawal of Immunosuppression in Pediatric Liver Transplant Recipients (WISP-R) Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Perito, E. R.; Mohammad, S.; Rosenthal, P.; Alonso, E. M.; Ekong, U. D.; Lobritto, S. J.; Feng, S.

    2015-01-01

    Posttransplant metabolic syndrome (PTMS)—obesity, hypertension, elevated triglycerides, low HDL and glucose intolerance—is a major contributor to morbidity after adult liver transplant. This analysis of the Withdrawal of Immunosuppression in Pediatric Liver Transplant Recipients (WISP-R) pilot trial is the first prospective study of PTMS after pediatric liver transplant. Twenty children were enrolled in WISP-R, at median age 8.5 years (IQR 6.4–10.8), and weaned from calcineurin-inhibitor monotherapy. The 12 children who tolerated complete immunosuppression withdrawal were compared to matched historical controls. At baseline, 45% of WISP-R subjects and 58% of controls had at least one component of PTMS. Calcineurin-inhibitor withdrawal in the WISP-R subjects did not impact the prevalence of PTMS components compared to controls. At 5 years, despite weaning off of immunosuppression, 92% of the 12 tolerant WISP-R subjects had at least one PTMS component and 58% had at least two; 33% were overweight or obese, 50% had dyslipidemia, 33% glucose intolerance and 42% systolic hypertension. Overweight/obesity increased the risk of hypertension in all children. Compared to controls, WISP-R tolerant subjects had similar GFR at baseline but did have higher GFR at 2, 3 and 4 years. Further study of PTMS and immunosuppression withdrawal after pediatric liver transplant is warranted. PMID:25648649

  19. Detection of monoclonal T populations in patients with KIR-restricted chronic lymphoproliferative disorder of NK cells.

    PubMed

    Gattazzo, Cristina; Teramo, Antonella; Passeri, Francesca; De March, Elena; Carraro, Samuela; Trimarco, Valentina; Frezzato, Federica; Berno, Tamara; Barilà, Gregorio; Martini, Veronica; Piazza, Francesco; Trentin, Livio; Facco, Monica; Semenzato, Gianpietro; Zambello, Renato

    2014-12-01

    The etiology of chronic large granular lymphocyte proliferations is largely unknown. Although these disorders are characterized by the expansion of different cell types (T and natural killer) with specific genetic features and abnormalities, several lines of evidence suggest a common pathogenetic mechanism. According to this interpretation, we speculated that in patients with natural killer-type chronic lymphoproliferative disorder, together with natural killer cells, also T lymphocytes undergo a persistent antigenic pressure, possibly resulting in an ultimate clonal T-cell selection. To strengthen this hypothesis, we evaluated whether clonal T-cell populations were detectable in 48 patients with killer immunoglobulin-like receptor-restricted natural killer-type chronic lymphoproliferative disorder. At diagnosis, in half of the patients studied, we found a clearly defined clonal T-cell population, despite the fact that all cases presented with a well-characterized natural killer disorder. Follow-up analysis confirmed that the TCR gamma rearrangements were stable over the time period evaluated; furthermore, in 7 patients we demonstrated the appearance of a clonal T subset that progressively matures, leading to a switch between killer immunoglobulin-like receptor-restricted natural killer-type disorder to a monoclonal T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia. Our results support the hypothesis that a common mechanism is involved in the pathogenesis of these disorders. PMID:25193965

  20. Detection of monoclonal T populations in patients with KIR-restricted chronic lymphoproliferative disorder of NK cells

    PubMed Central

    Gattazzo, Cristina; Teramo, Antonella; Passeri, Francesca; De March, Elena; Carraro, Samuela; Trimarco, Valentina; Frezzato, Federica; Berno, Tamara; Barilà, Gregorio; Martini, Veronica; Piazza, Francesco; Trentin, Livio; Facco, Monica; Semenzato, Gianpietro; Zambello, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of chronic large granular lymphocyte proliferations is largely unknown. Although these disorders are characterized by the expansion of different cell types (T and natural killer) with specific genetic features and abnormalities, several lines of evidence suggest a common pathogenetic mechanism. According to this interpretation, we speculated that in patients with natural killer-type chronic lymphoproliferative disorder, together with natural killer cells, also T lymphocytes undergo a persistent antigenic pressure, possibly resulting in an ultimate clonal T-cell selection. To strengthen this hypothesis, we evaluated whether clonal T-cell populations were detectable in 48 patients with killer immunoglobulin-like receptor-restricted natural killer-type chronic lymphoproliferative disorder. At diagnosis, in half of the patients studied, we found a clearly defined clonal T-cell population, despite the fact that all cases presented with a well-characterized natural killer disorder. Follow-up analysis confirmed that the TCR gamma rearrangements were stable over the time period evaluated; furthermore, in 7 patients we demonstrated the appearance of a clonal T subset that progressively matures, leading to a switch between killer immunoglobulin-like receptor-restricted natural killer-type disorder to a monoclonal T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia. Our results support the hypothesis that a common mechanism is involved in the pathogenesis of these disorders. PMID:25193965

  1. The MYC/miR-17-92 axis in lymphoproliferative disorders: A common pathway with therapeutic potential

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Luis; Gattei, Valter

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of small non-coding single-stranded RNA molecules acting as master regulators of gene expression post transcriptionally by inhibiting the translation or inducing the degradation of target messenger RNAs (mRNAs). In particular, the miR-17-92 cluster is widely expressed in many different cell types and is essential for many developmental and pathogenic processes. As a strong oncogene, miR-17-92 can regulate multiple cellular processes that favor malignant transformation, promoting cell survival, rapid cell proliferation, and increased angiogenesis. The miR-17-92 cluster has been reported to be involved in hematopoietic malignancies including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Given the multiple and potent effects on cellular proliferation and apoptosis exerted by the miR-17-92 cluster, miRNAs belonging to the cluster surely represent attractive targets for cancer therapy also in the context of lymphoproliferative disorders. In the present review, we focus on the role of the miR-17-92 cluster in lymphoproliferative disorders, including diagnostic/prognostic implications, and on the potential applications of anti-miRNAs based therapies targeting miRNAs belonging to the cluster. PMID:26305986

  2. Insertion of reticuloendotheliosis virus long terminal repeat into the genome of CVI988 strain of Marek’s disease virus results in enhanced growth and protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of chicken caused by serotype 1 MD virus (MDV). Vaccination of commercial poultry has drastically reduced losses from MD and the poultry industry cannot be sustained without the use of vaccines. Retrovirus insertion into herpesviruses genome is a...

  3. Spontaneous remission of post-transplant recurrent focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Bassam; Mazloum, Houda; Askar, Munaf

    2011-11-01

    A 12-year-old girl with a history of steroid and cyclosporine (CsA) resistant nephrotic syndrome owing to focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) has progressed to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) for which she underwent hemodialysis for 18 months before she successfully received a fully matched kidney transplant from her sister at the age of nine years. The post transplantation (Tx) period was marked by an early and massive proteinuria indicating recurrent FSGS for which she received 12 sessions of plasmapheresis (PP); unfortunately, she did not appear to have any response to the PP therapy; thereafter, a conservative management comprising essentially enalapril and losartan has been initiated and was also not successful during the first four months, however, a very gradual response has been noticed to occur after five months of conservative therapy and ultimately, the patient attained complete remission after 21 months of treatment. Amazingly, 15 months after discontinuation of enalapril and losartan, she remained in a complete and sustained remission with a good renal allograft function. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case ever reported in the literature of a "spontaneous" remission of post transplant recurrent FSGS. PMID:22089787

  4. The urine microRNA profile may help monitor post-transplant renal graft function.

    PubMed

    Maluf, Daniel G; Dumur, Catherine I; Suh, Jihee L; Scian, Mariano J; King, Anne L; Cathro, Helen; Lee, Jae K; Gehrau, Ricardo C; Brayman, Kenneth L; Gallon, Lorenzo; Mas, Valeria R

    2014-02-01

    Noninvasive, cost-effective biomarkers that allow accurate monitoring of graft function are needed in kidney transplantation. Since microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as promising disease biomarkers, we sought to establish an miRNA signature in urinary cell pellets comparing kidney transplant patients diagnosed with chronic allograft dysfunction (CAD) with interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy and those recipients with normal graft function. Overall, we evaluated 191 samples from 125 deceased donor primary kidney transplant recipients in the discovery, initial validation, and the longitudinal validation studies for noninvasive monitoring of graft function. Of 1733 mature miRNAs studied using microarrays, 22 were found to be differentially expressed between groups. Ontology and pathway analyses showed inflammation as the principal biological function associated with these miRNAs. Twelve selected miRNAs were longitudinally evaluated in urine samples of an independent set of 66 patients, at two time points after kidney transplant. A subset of these miRNAs was found to be differentially expressed between groups early after kidney transplant before histological allograft injury was evident. Thus, a panel of urine miRNAs was identified as potential biomarkers for monitoring graft function and anticipating progression to CAD in kidney transplant patients. PMID:24025639

  5. Lymphoproliferative and gamma interferon responses to stress-regulated Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis recombinant proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Johne’s disease in ruminants is a chronic infection of the intestines caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Economic losses associated with Johne’s disease arise due to premature culling, reduced production of milk and wool and mortalities. The disease is characterised by a long inc...

  6. IDEC-C2B8 anti-CD20 (rituximab) immunotherapy in patients with low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and lymphoproliferative disorders: evaluation of response on 48 patients.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, D T; Amess, J A; Doughty, H; Hendry, L; Diamond, L W

    1999-02-01

    This study focused on the efficacy of IDEC-C2B8 (chimeric anti-CD20) immunotherapy relative to specific subtypes of low-grade lymphoproliferative disorders/non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (LPD/NHL). Forty-eight patients with resistant or relapsed disease completed the IDEC-C2B8 infusion schedule of 375 mg/m2/wk x 4 wk. The LPD/NHL subtypes included: (a) follicular centre cell lymphoma (FCC) in 22 patients; (b) mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) in 10; (c) 1 diffuse large cell lymphoma (DLCL); and (d) the category of small lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (SLL/CLL) and related disorders in 15 patients. No patient obtained a complete remission. Ten patients (21%) achieved partial remission: 6 FCC, 2 MCL, 1 DLCL and 1 patient from the SLL/CLL group. Twenty-eight patients had stable disease and 10 progressed during immunotherapy. In patients with CLL and MCL in leukaemic phase, there was no correlation between the marked decrease in circulating neoplastic cells following antibody infusions and amelioration of the tumour burden. The results suggest that the subtype of LPD/NHL and the intensity of CD20 on the tumour cells influence the effectiveness of IDEC-C2B8. The antibody was most efficacious against FCC lymphoma. The efficacy (at the dose schedule of 375 mg/m2/wk x 4) against MCL and SLL/CLL appeared to be limited, however. PMID:10052709

  7. Population pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic modelling of mycophenolic acid in paediatric renal transplant recipients in the early post-transplant period

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Min; Fukuda, Tsuyoshi; Cox, Shareen; de Vries, Marij T; Hooper, David K; Goebel, Jens; Vinks, Alexander A

    2014-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK?PD) model for mycophenolic acid (MPA) in paediatric renal transplant recipients in the early post-transplant period. Methods A total of 214 MPA plasma concentrations?time data points from 24 patients were available for PK model development. In 17 out of a total of 24 patients, inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) enzyme activity measurements (n?=?97) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were available for PK?PD modelling. The PK?PD model was developed using non-linear mixed effects modelling sequentially by 1) developing a population PK model and 2) incorporating IMPDH activity into a PK?PD model using post hoc?Bayesian PK parameter estimates. Covariate analysis included patient demographics, co-medication and clinical laboratory data. Non-parametric bootstrapping and prediction-corrected visual predictive checks were performed to evaluate the final models. Results A two compartment model with a transit compartment absorption best described MPA PK. A non-linear relationship between dose and MPA exposure was observed and was described by a power function in the model. The final population PK parameter estimates (and their 95% confidence intervals) were CL/F, 22 (14.8, 25.2) l?h?1 70?kg?1; Vc/F, 45.4 (29.6, 55.6) l; Vp/F, 411 (152.6, 1472.6)l; Q/F, 22.4 (16.0, 32.5) l?h?1; Ka, 2.5 (1.45, 4.93)?h?1. Covariate analysis in the PK study identified body weight to be significantly correlated with CL/F. A simplified inhibitory Emax model adequately described the relationship between MPA concentration and IMPDH activity. The final population PK?PD parameter estimates (and their 95% confidence intervals) were: E0, 3.45 (2.61, 4.56) nmol?h?1?mg?1 protein and EC50, 1.73 (1.16, 3.01) mg?l?1. Emax was fixed to 0. There were two African-American patients in our study cohorts and both had low IMPDH baseline activities (E0) compared with Caucasian patients (mean value 2.13?mg?l?1 vs. 3.86?mg?l?1). Conclusion An integrated population PK?PD model of MPA has been developed in paediatric renal transplant recipients. The current model provides information that will facilitate future studies and may be implemented in a Bayesian algorithm to allow a PK?PD guided therapeutic drug monitoring strategy. PMID:24837828

  8. CD3-CD4+ lymphoid variant of hypereosinophilic syndrome: nodal and extranodal histopathological and immunophenotypic features of a peripheral indolent clonal T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder.

    PubMed

    Lefèvre, Guillaume; Copin, Marie-Christine; Roumier, Christophe; Aubert, Hélène; Avenel-Audran, Martine; Grardel, Nathalie; Poulain, Stéphanie; Staumont-Sallé, Delphine; Seneschal, Julien; Salles, Gilles; Ghomari, Kamel; Terriou, Louis; Leclech, Christian; Morati-Hafsaoui, Chafika; Morschhauser, Franck; Lambotte, Olivier; Ackerman, Félix; Trauet, Jacques; Geffroy, Sandrine; Dumezy, Florent; Capron, Monique; Roche-Lestienne, Catherine; Taieb, Alain; Hatron, Pierre-Yves; Dubucquoi, Sylvain; Hachulla, Eric; Prin, Lionel; Labalette, Myriam; Launay, David; Preudhomme, Claude; Kahn, Jean-Emmanuel

    2015-08-01

    The CD3(-)CD4(+) lymphoid variant of hypereosinophilic syndrome is characterized by hypereosinophilia and clonal circulating CD3(-)CD4(+) T cells. Peripheral T-cell lymphoma has been described during this disease course, and we observed in our cohort of 23 patients 2 cases of angio-immunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. We focus here on histopathological (n=12 patients) and immunophenotypic (n=15) characteristics of CD3(-)CD4(+) lymphoid variant of hypereosinophilic syndrome. Atypical CD4(+) T cells lymphoid infiltrates were found in 10 of 12 CD3(-)CD4(+) L-HES patients, in lymph nodes (n=4 of 4 patients), in skin (n=9 of 9) and other extra-nodal tissues (gut, lacrymal gland, synovium). Lymph nodes displayed infiltrates limited to the interfollicular areas or even an effacement of nodal architecture, associated with proliferation of arborizing high endothelial venules and increased follicular dendritic cell meshwork. Analysis of 2 fresh skin samples confirmed the presence of CD3(-)CD4(+) T cells. Clonal T cells were detected in at least one tissue in 8 patients, including lymph nodes (n=4 of 4): the same clonal T cells were detected in blood and in at least one biopsy, with a maximum delay of 23 years between samples. In the majority of cases, circulating CD3(-)CD4(+) T cells were CD2(hi) (n=9 of 14), CD5(hi) (n=12 of 14), and CD7(-)(n=4 of 14) or CD7(low) (n=10 of 14). Angio-immunoblastic T-cell lymphoma can also present with CD3(-)CD4(+) T cells; despite other common histopathological and immunophenotypic features, CD10 expression and follicular helper T-cell markers were not detected in lymphoid variant of hypereosinophilic syndrome patients, except in both patients who developed angio-immunoblastic T-cell lymphoma, and only at T-cell lymphoma diagnosis. Taken together, persistence of tissular clonal T cells and histopathological features define CD3(-)CD4(+) lymphoid variant of hypereosinophilic syndrome as a peripheral indolent clonal T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder, which should not be confused with angio-immunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. PMID:25682606

  9. Primary mucosal CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders of the head and neck rarely involving epiglottis: clinicopathological, immunohistomchemical and genetic features of a case

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jun; Wang, Guannan; Zhang, Dandan; Yin, Yuhui; Pang, Xia; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Yanpin; Li, Wencai

    2015-01-01

    A case of primary mucosal CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder of the head and neck rarely involving epiglottis in a 59-year-old male was reported. Histologically, the ulcerative mucosa was affected by sheets of mixed inflammatory infiltration, with scattered large atypical lymphoid cells arranging in an individual or small clusters with focal epidermotropism. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were uniformly immunoreactive to antibodies against CD2, CD3, CD7, CD43, CD4, TIA-1, with a heterogeneous expression of CD30, but negative for CD20, CD79a, CD21, CD8, CD56, ALK, EMA, granzyme B. Epstein-Barr virus encoded RNA (EBER) were detected. Genetically, T-cell receptor (TCR) ? gene showed an oligoclonal rearrangement. This first case developing in epiglottis demonstrates mucosal CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders are characteristic of a broad clinicopathologic spectrum similar to the counterpart in the skin with a favorable prognosis. PMID:26617911

  10. Post-transplant T cell chimerism predicts graft versus host disease but not disease relapse in patients undergoing an alemtuzumab based reduced intensity conditioned allogeneic transplant.

    PubMed

    Nikolousis, E; Robinson, S; Nagra, S; Brookes, C; Kinsella, F; Tauro, S; Jeffries, S; Griffiths, M; Mahendra, P; Cook, M; Paneesha, S; Lovell, R; Kishore, B; Chaganti, S; Malladi, R; Raghavan, M; Moss, P; Milligan, D; Craddock, C

    2013-05-01

    In this multicentre retrospective study we have studied the impact of T cell chimerism on the outcome of 133 patients undergoing an alemtuzumab based reduced intensity conditioning allograft (RIC). The median age of the patients was 50 years (range 42-55 years). 77 patients were transplanted using an HLA identical sibling donor while 56 patients received a fully matched volunteer unrelated donor graft. 64 patients had a lymphoid malignancy and 69 were transplanted for a myeloid malignancy. 38 patients (29%) relapsed with no significant difference in risk of relapse between patients developing full donor and mixed donor chimerism in the T-cell compartment on D+90 and D+180 post transplant. Day 90 full donor T cell chimerism correlated with an increased incidence of acute GVHD according to NIH criteria (p=0.0004) and the subsequent development of chronic GVHD. Consistent with previous observations, our results confirmed a correlation between the establishment of T cell full donor chimerism and acute GVHD in T deplete RIC allografts. However our study failed to identify any correlation between T cell chimerism and relapse risk and challenge the use of pre-emptive donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI) in patients with mixed T cell chimerism transplanted using an alemtuzumab based RIC regimen. PMID:23395505

  11. Methotrexate-associated lymphoproliferative disorders: management by watchful waiting and observation of early lymphocyte recovery after methotrexate withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Inui, Yumiko; Matsuoka, Hiroshi; Yakushijin, Kimikazu; Okamura, Atsuo; Shimada, Takaki; Yano, Shingo; Takeuchi, Mai; Ito, Mitsuhiro; Murayama, Tohru; Yamamoto, Katsuya; Itoh, Tomoo; Aiba, Keisuke; Minami, Hironobu

    2015-11-01

    No optimum treatment of iatrogenic immunodeficiency-associated lymphoproliferative disorders due to methotrexate in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (MTX-LPD) has yet been established, although MTX withdrawal is known to have a substantial effect on tumor regression. Here, we retrospectively analyzed 20 cases of MTX-LPD. Tumor shrinkage occurred in 18 of 20 cases, but only following MTX withdrawal. This tumor regression ratio was considerably better than in previous reports, and appeared due to longer "watchful waiting." Lymphocyte recovery at 2 weeks after MTX withdrawal was significantly higher in cases with tumor regression in 1 month than in those without tumor regression (p = 0.001). Median time to maximal efficacy after MTX cessation in cases without chemotherapy was 12 weeks (range 2-76). In conclusion, watchful waiting for a longer period after MTX cessation with observation of early lymphocyte recovery and uninterrupted continuation of other anti-rheumatoid drugs may be an acceptable management plan for MTX-LPD. PMID:25721751

  12. The impact of telomere erosion on memory CD8+ T cells in patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome.

    PubMed

    Plunkett, Fiona J; Franzese, Ornella; Belaramani, Lavina L; Fletcher, Jean M; Gilmour, Kimberly C; Sharifi, Reza; Khan, Naeem; Hislop, Andrew D; Cara, Andrea; Salmon, Mike; Gaspar, H Bobby; Rustin, Malcom H A; Webster, David; Akbar, Arne N

    2005-08-01

    Patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP) experience excessive T cell proliferation after primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, due to mutations in the signalling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) associated protein (SAP) molecule. We examined the impact of dysfunctional proliferative control on the extent of CD8+ T cell differentiation in XLP patients who recovered from primary EBV infection. Although these young patients have normal numbers of lytic and latent EBV-epitope-specific CD8+ T cells, they were extremely differentiated as defined by loss of CCR7 and CD27, low telomerase activity and very short telomeres. This was not a direct effect arising from the loss of SAP, but was due to excessive T cell stimulation due to this defect. Thus, transduction of XLP CD8+ T cells with the catalytic component of telomerase (hTERT), but not SAP, prevented telomere loss and considerably extended proliferative lifespan in vitro. These results indicate that excessive proliferation in CD8+ T cells in XLP patients may lead to end-stage differentiation and loss of functional EBV-specific CD8+ T cells through replicative senescence. This may contribute to the defective immunity found in XLP patients who survive acute EBV infection who develop EBV-related B cell lymphomas before the fourth decade of life. PMID:15992610

  13. Aspiration cytology of an ectopic cervical thymoma misinterpreted as a lymphoproliferative lesion of the thyroid: A case report

    PubMed Central

    LEE, YI-YING; WANG, WEN-CHING; LI, CHIEN-FENG

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic cervical thymoma is a rare tumor that originates from ectopic thymic tissue trapped during the migration of the embryonic thymus. To the best of our knowledge, only 14 cases of ectopic cervical thymoma, which include descriptions of the cytological features based on fine-needle aspiration (FNA), have been reported thus far. The current study describes the case of a 52-year-old male presenting with an enlarging anterior neck mass that been apparent for a number of years and was now accompanied by shortness of breath. FNA cytology revealed large numbers of small lymphocytes admixed with rare groups of large, polygonal cells that were interpreted to be reactive lymphocytes or possible follicular dendritic cells. However, no definite follicular or Hürthle cells were identified. Therefore, the overall cytological features were misinterpreted as a lymphoproliferative lesion. However, subsequent histological analysis of the resected left total lobectomy specimen determined a diagnosis of thymoma, type B1. Thus, awareness of this entity combined with a careful search for thymic epithelial cells may aid in determining a correct diagnosis when FNA is performed for the evaluation of a neck mass.

  14. B7-H1 (PD-L1, CD274) suppresses host immunity in T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Ryan A.; Feldman, Andrew L.; Wada, David A.; Yang, Zhi-Zhang; Comfere, Nneka I.; Dong, Haidong; Kwon, Eugene D.; Novak, Anne J.; Markovic, Svetomir N.; Pittelkow, Mark R.; Witzig, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    Stromal elements present within the tumor microenvironment may suppress host immunity and promote the growth of malignant lymphocytes in B cell–derived non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). In contrast, little is known about the microenvironment's role in T cell–derived NHL. B7-H1 (PD-L1, CD274), a member of the B7 family of costimulatory/coinhibitory ligands expressed by both malignant cells and stromal cells within the tumor microenvironment, has emerged as an important immune modulator capable of suppressing host immunity. Therefore, B7-H1 expression and function were analyzed in cutaneous and peripheral T-cell NHL. B7-H1 was expressed by tumor cells, monocytes, and monocyte-derived cells within the tumor microenvironment in T-cell NHL and was found to inhibit T-cell proliferation and promote the induction of FoxP3+ regulatory T cells. Collectively, the data presented provide the first evidence implicating B7-H1 in the suppression of host immunity in T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders and suggest that the targeting of B7-H1 may represent a novel therapeutic approach. PMID:19597183

  15. Alpha tropomyosin as a self-antigen in patients with Behçet's disease

    PubMed Central

    Mahesh, S P; Li, Zhuqing; Buggage, R; Mor, F; Cohen, I R; Chew, E Y; Nussenblatt, R B

    2005-01-01

    We report for the first time a significant increased lymphoproliferative response to alpha tropomyosin as well as observing autoantibodies to tropomyosin observed in Behçet's disease (BD) patients with posterior uveitis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 18 BD patients with posterior uveitis, 18 patients with other forms of noninfectious uveitis, 9 patients with retinal damage due to photocoagulation as well as 18 healthy donors were evaluated for antigen-specific lymphoproliferative responses to alpha tropomyosin and its derivative peptides. The proliferative responses of PBMCs to these antigens were studied using 3H thymidine incorporation assay. Serum samples were also screened by ELISA for autoantibodies against tropomyosin. Six of the 18 (33%) BD patients with posterior uveitis showed increased proliferative response to alpha tropomyosin or its derivative peptides, while none of the healthy, disease controls were positive. The mean lymphoproliferative responses to tropomyosin were significantly higher (P < 0·02) in the BD patients compared to healthy or disease controls. Higher titres of anti-tropomyosin antibodies were also seen in four of the 18 BD patients but none in the healthy or disease control groups (P < 0·002). The occurrence of these abnormalities supports a possible role for alpha tropomyosin as a self-antigen in a subset of patients with Behçet's disease. PMID:15807864

  16. Liver Transplantation for Caroli Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zahmatkeshan, M.; Bahador, A.; Geramizade, B.; Emadmarvasti, V.; Malekhosseini, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Caroli disease is a rare congenital disorder characterized by multifocal, segmental dilatation of intrahepatic bile ducts. Patients with Caroli disease who have recurrent bouts of biliary infection, particularly those who also have complications related to portal hypertension may require liver transplantation. In liver transplant ward of Shiraz University of Medical Science we had 4 patients with Caroli disease who were transplanted. Herein, we describe the demographic characteristics and post-transplant course of the patients. These patients presented with liver failure, recurrent cholangitis and portal hypertension sequelae unresponsive to medical treatment. The mean age of patients was 24.5 (range: 18–36) years, the mean MELD score was 17.5 (range: 11–23), three patients were female; one was male. All of the patients had good post-transplantation course except for one patient who developed post-operative biliary stricture for whom biliary reconstruction was done. PMID:25013645

  17. [Transfer of skills: implementing post-transplant follow-up care status for transplant nurses: a report by the SFGM-TC].

    PubMed

    Cornillon, J; Peffault de Latour, R; Apaza, S; Bourg, M-A; Courbon, C; Evard, S; Guiraud, M; Le Bars, L; Petit, S; Magro, L; Schmitt, S; Tardieu, L; Samsonova, O; Tipton, R; Yakoub-Agha, I

    2014-08-01

    The number of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantations has globally taken off in the past decade. However, this increase in transplantation activity has put in the spotlight the need to create a special transplantation-skilled population of nurses. This type of specialisation allocated solely to this activity has not existed within the French nursing community until now. In the attempt to harmonize clinical practices between different French transplantation centers, the French Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cell Therapy (SFGM-TC) sets up its forth annual series of workshops which brought together practitioners from all member centers and took place in September 2013 in Lille. Here we report our results and recommendations regarding the implementation of a transplant nurse status for post-transplant follow-up care. PMID:24972456

  18. Lymphoproliferative and Gamma Interferon Responses to Stress-Regulated Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Recombinant Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Gurung, Ratna B.; Begg, Douglas J.; Purdie, Auriol C.; de Silva, Kumudika; Bannantine, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Johne's disease in ruminants is a chronic infection of the intestines caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. An important strategy to control disease is early detection, and a potentially efficient method for early detection is measurement of cell-mediated immune responses developed by the host in response to exposure or infection. One method is to measure lymphoproliferation and cytokine release from the host cells when exposed to the organism or parts of the organism. In this study, 10 recombinant M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis proteins known to be upregulated under in vitro stress conditions were evaluated by examining their ability to evoke memory as a result of exposure by vaccination or oral challenge with live Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Out of 10 proteins, MAP2698c was found to induce higher cell-mediated immune responses in vaccinated and challenged sheep in comparison to healthy controls. The findings suggest that not all stress-regulated proteins have the diagnostic potential to detect cell-mediated immune responses in ovine paratuberculosis. PMID:24695774

  19. Tumor Microenvironment and Immune Effects of Antineoplastic Therapy in Lymphoproliferative Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Álvaro, Tomás; de la Cruz-Merino, Luis; Henao-Carrasco, Fernando; Villar Rodríguez, José Luis; Vicente Baz, David; Codes Manuel de Villena, Manuel; Provencio, Mariano

    2010-01-01

    Lymphomas represent a wide group of heterogenic diseases with different biological and clinical behavior. The underlying microenvironment-specific composition seems to play an essential role in this scenario, harboring the ability to develop successful immune responses or, on the contrary, leading to immune evasion and even promotion of tumor growth. Depending on surrounding lymphoid infiltrates, lymphomas may have different prognosis. Moreover, recent evidences have emerged that confer a significant impact of main lymphoma's treatment over microenvironment, with clinical consequences. In this review, we summarize these concepts from a pathological and clinical perspective. Also, the state of the art of lymphoma's anti-idiotype vaccine development is revised, highlighting the situations where this strategy has proven to be successful and eventual clues to obtain better results in the future. PMID:20814546

  20. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive sporadic burkitt lymphoma: an age-related lymphoproliferative disorder?

    PubMed

    Satou, Akira; Asano, Naoko; Nakazawa, Atsuko; Osumi, Tomoo; Tsurusawa, Masahito; Ishiguro, Atsushi; Elsayed, Ahmed Ali; Nakamura, Naoya; Ohshima, Koichi; Kinoshita, Tomohiro; Nakamura, Shigeo

    2015-02-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is detected in 20% to 30% of sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (sBL). However, only a few studies of EBV-positive (EBV) sBL have been reported, and its characteristics still remain controversial. To highlight the features of EBV sBL, we compared the clinicopathologic characteristics of 33 cases of EBV and 117 cases of EBV-negative (EBV) sBL in Japan. EBV sBL showed significantly higher age distribution (median, 42 vs. 13 y; P<0.0001) and higher frequency of patients older than 50 years (48% vs. 16%, P<0.0001). We also revealed the difference of the involved sites. The EBV group showed significantly higher incidence of involvement of tonsil (P=0.027), adrenal gland (P=0.011), and cervical lymph node (P=0.040). In addition, the EBV group tended to have higher incidence of nodal involvement (P=0.078) and involvement of para-aorta lymph node (P=0.084) and heart (P=0.050). In contrast, the gastrointestinal tract was less frequently affected in EBV sBL (P=0.024). In addition, the less positivity for MUM1 (P=0.020) of EBV sBL was highlighted. These results indicate that biological behavior and pathogenesis of EBV sBL might be different from those of EBV sBL. Our results demonstrate that EBV sBL has an aspect of age-related disease and is a distinct clinicopathologic subtype, which should be distinguished from EBV sBL. PMID:25321330

  1. Anemia resolved by thoracoscopic resection of a mediastinal mass: a case report of unicentric Castleman's disease.

    PubMed

    Suh, Jong Hui; Hong, Sook Hee; Jeong, Seong Cheol; Park, Chan Beom; Choi, Kuk Bin; Shin, Ok Ran; Choi, Si Young

    2015-07-01

    Castleman's disease (CD) is an uncommon benign lymphoproliferative disorder that usually presents as a single or multiple mediastinal mass. In unicentric CD, constitutional symptoms are rare, but are curable with surgical resection. However, serious intraoperative bleeding often requires conversion to thoracotomy. We present a case of unicentric CD in a 25-year-old woman with anemia, who was successfully treated by thoracoscopic resection. We describe the clinical course from the initial presentation to diagnosis and surgical cure. PMID:26380750

  2. Blood disorders typically associated with renal transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu; Yu, Bo; Chen, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Renal transplantation has become one of the most common surgical procedures performed to replace a diseased kidney with a healthy kidney from a donor. It can help patients with kidney failure live decades longer. However, renal transplantation also faces a risk of developing various blood disorders. The blood disorders typically associated with renal transplantation can be divided into two main categories: (1) Common disorders including post-transplant anemia (PTA), post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), post-transplant erythrocytosis (PTE), and post-transplant cytopenias (PTC, leukopenia/neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and pancytopenia); and (2) Uncommon but serious disorders including hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS), thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), therapy-related myelodysplasia (t-MDS), and therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML). Although many etiological factors involve the development of post-transplant blood disorders, immunosuppressive agents, and viral infections could be the two major contributors to most blood disorders and cause hematological abnormalities and immunodeficiency by suppressing hematopoietic function of bone marrow. Hematological abnormalities and immunodeficiency will result in severe clinical outcomes in renal transplant recipients. Understanding how blood disorders develop will help cure these life-threatening complications. A potential therapeutic strategy against post-transplant blood disorders should focus on tapering immunosuppression or replacing myelotoxic immunosuppressive drugs with lower toxic alternatives, recognizing and treating promptly the etiological virus, bacteria, or protozoan, restoring both hematopoietic function of bone marrow and normal blood counts, and improving kidney graft survival. PMID:25853131

  3. Diffuse periairway thickening in patients with Mikulicz disease.

    PubMed

    Sakashita, Akihiro; Nishimura, Yoshihiro; Nogami, Munenobu; Kuramoto, Emi; Kono, Yuko; Yamamoto, Masatsugu; Tamao, Natsumi; Ohtera, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Kazuyuki; Funada, Yasuhiro; Nishiuma, Teruaki; Kotani, Yoshikazu; Ohno, Yoshiharu

    2008-08-01

    A 70-year-old woman presented with dry mouth, bilateral swelling of the eyelids, and abnormal taste and smell sensations that had persisted for 3 years. She was diagnosed with Mikulicz disease and presented with dyspnea on exertion afterwards. Chest computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed wall thickening of the trachea and bilateral bronchus. Transbronchial needle aspiration showed lymphoproliferative lesion in the tracheobronchus. The patient was treated with corticosteroid, which improved all of her clinical symptoms, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance findings. In this case, we presented a rare condition of coexistent Mikulicz disease with tracheobroncial wall thickening caused by lymphoproliferation without lesions in small airways or lung. PMID:18728553

  4. Monocytes promote tumor cell survival in T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders and are impaired in their ability to differentiate into mature dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Ryan A.; Wada, David A.; Ziesmer, Steven C.; Elsawa, Sherine F.; Comfere, Nneka I.; Dietz, Allan B.; Novak, Anne J.; Witzig, Thomas E.; Feldman, Andrew L.; Pittelkow, Mark R.

    2009-01-01

    A variety of nonmalignant cells present in the tumor microenvironment promotes tumorigenesis by stimulating tumor cell growth and metastasis or suppressing host immunity. The role of such stromal cells in T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders is incompletely understood. Monocyte-derived cells (MDCs), including professional antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells (DCs), play a central role in T-cell biology. Here, we provide evidence that monocytes promote the survival of malignant T cells and demonstrate that MDCs are abundant within the tumor microenvironment of T cell–derived lymphomas. Malignant T cells were observed to remain viable during in vitro culture with autologous monocytes, but cell death was significantly increased after monocyte depletion. Furthermore, monocytes prevent the induction of cell death in T-cell lymphoma lines in response to either serum starvation or doxorubicin, and promote the engraftment of these cells in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice. Monocytes are actively recruited to the tumor microenvironment by CCL5 (RANTES), where their differentiation into mature DCs is impaired by tumor-derived interleukin-10. Collectively, the data presented demonstrate a previously undescribed role for monocytes in T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:19671921

  5. Combined immunodeficiency with life-threatening EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorder in patients lacking functional CD27.

    PubMed

    Salzer, Elisabeth; Daschkey, Svenja; Choo, Sharon; Gombert, Michael; Santos-Valente, Elisangela; Ginzel, Sebastian; Schwendinger, Martina; Haas, Oskar A; Fritsch, Gerhard; Pickl, Winfried F; Förster-Waldl, Elisabeth; Borkhardt, Arndt; Boztug, Kaan; Bienemann, Kirsten; Seidel, Markus G

    2013-03-01

    CD27, a tumor necrosis factor receptor family member, interacts with CD70 and influences T-, B- and NK-cell functions. Disturbance of this axis impairs immunity and memory generation against viruses including Epstein Barr virus (EBV), influenza, and others. CD27 is commonly used as marker of memory B cells for the classification of B-cell deficiencies including common variable immune deficiency. Flow cytometric immunophenotyping including expression analysis of CD27 on lymphoid cells was followed by capillary sequencing of CD27 in index patients, their parents, and non-affected siblings. More comprehensive genetic analysis employed single nucleotide polymorphism-based homozygosity mapping and whole exome sequencing. Analysis of exome sequencing data was performed at two centers using slightly different data analysis pipelines, each based on the Genome Analysis ToolKit Best Practice version 3 recommendations. A comprehensive clinical characterization was correlated to genotype. We report the simultaneous confirmation of human CD27 deficiency in 3 independent families (8 patients) due to a homozygous mutation (p. Cys53Tyr) revealed by whole exome sequencing, leading to disruption of an evolutionarily conserved cystein knot motif of the transmembrane receptor. Phenotypes varied from asymptomatic memory B-cell deficiency (n=3) to EBV-associated hemophagocytosis and lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD; n=3) and malignant lymphoma (n=2; +1 after LPD). Following EBV infection, hypogammaglobulinemia developed in at least 3 of the affected individuals, while specific anti-viral and anti-polysaccharide antibodies and EBV-specific T-cell responses were detectable. In severely affected patients, numbers of iNKT cells and NK-cell function were reduced. Two of 8 patients died, 2 others underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation successfully, and one received anti-CD20 (rituximab) therapy repeatedly. Since homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing did not reveal additional modifying factors, our findings suggest that lack of functional CD27 predisposes towards a combined immunodeficiency associated with potentially fatal EBV-driven hemo-phagocytosis, lymphoproliferation, and lymphoma development. PMID:22801960

  6. Combined immunodeficiency with life-threatening EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorder in patients lacking functional CD27

    PubMed Central

    Salzer, Elisabeth; Daschkey, Svenja; Choo, Sharon; Gombert, Michael; Santos-Valente, Elisangela; Ginzel, Sebastian; Schwendinger, Martina; Haas, Oskar A.; Fritsch, Gerhard; Pickl, Winfried F.; Förster-Waldl, Elisabeth; Borkhardt, Arndt; Boztug, Kaan; Bienemann, Kirsten; Seidel, Markus G.

    2013-01-01

    CD27, a tumor necrosis factor receptor family member, interacts with CD70 and influences T-, B- and NK-cell functions. Disturbance of this axis impairs immunity and memory generation against viruses including Epstein Barr virus (EBV), influenza, and others. CD27 is commonly used as marker of memory B cells for the classification of B-cell deficiencies including common variable immune deficiency. Flow cytometric immunophenotyping including expression analysis of CD27 on lymphoid cells was followed by capillary sequencing of CD27 in index patients, their parents, and non-affected siblings. More comprehensive genetic analysis employed single nucleotide polymorphism-based homozygosity mapping and whole exome sequencing. Analysis of exome sequencing data was performed at two centers using slightly different data analysis pipelines, each based on the Genome Analysis ToolKit Best Practice version 3 recommendations. A comprehensive clinical characterization was correlated to genotype. We report the simultaneous confirmation of human CD27 deficiency in 3 independent families (8 patients) due to a homozygous mutation (p. Cys53Tyr) revealed by whole exome sequencing, leading to disruption of an evolutionarily conserved cystein knot motif of the transmembrane receptor. Phenotypes varied from asymptomatic memory B-cell deficiency (n=3) to EBV-associated hemophagocytosis and lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD; n=3) and malignant lymphoma (n=2; +1 after LPD). Following EBV infection, hypogammaglobulinemia developed in at least 3 of the affected individuals, while specific anti-viral and anti-polysaccharide antibodies and EBV-specific T-cell responses were detectable. In severely affected patients, numbers of iNKT cells and NK-cell function were reduced. Two of 8 patients died, 2 others underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation successfully, and one received anti-CD20 (rituximab) therapy repeatedly. Since homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing did not reveal additional modifying factors, our findings suggest that lack of functional CD27 predisposes towards a combined immunodeficiency associated with potentially fatal EBV-driven hemo-phagocytosis, lymphoproliferation, and lymphoma development. PMID:22801960

  7. Transferred WT1-reactive CD8+ T cells can mediate antileukemic activity and persist in post-transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Chapuis, Aude G; Ragnarsson, Gunnar B; Nguyen, Hieu N; Chaney, Colette N; Pufnock, Jeffrey S; Schmitt, Thomas M; Duerkopp, Natalie; Roberts, Ilana M; Pogosov, Galina L; Ho, William Y; Ochsenreither, Sebastian; Wölfl, Matthias; Bar, Merav; Radich, Jerald P; Yee, Cassian; Greenberg, Philip D

    2013-02-27

    Relapse remains a leading cause of death after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for patients with high-risk leukemias. The potentially beneficial donor T cell-mediated graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect is often mitigated by concurrent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Providing T cells that can selectively target Wilms tumor antigen 1 (WT1), a transcription factor overexpressed in leukemias that contributes to the malignant phenotype, represents an opportunity to promote antileukemic activity without inducing GVHD. HLA-A*0201-restricted WT1-specific donor-derived CD8 cytotoxic T cell (CTL) clones were administered after HCT to 11 relapsed or high-risk leukemia patients without evidence of on-target toxicity. The last four treated patients received CTL clones generated with exposure to interleukin-21 (IL-21) to prolong in vivo CTL survival, because IL-21 can limit terminal differentiation of antigen-specific T cells generated in vitro. Transferred cells exhibited direct evidence of antileukemic activity in two patients: a transient response in one patient with advanced progressive disease and the induction of a prolonged remission in a patient with minimal residual disease (MRD). Additionally, three treated patients at high risk for relapse after HCT survive without leukemia relapse, GVHD, or additional antileukemic treatment. CTLs generated in the presence of IL-21, which were transferred in these latter three patients and the patient with MRD, all remained detectable long-term and maintained or acquired in vivo phenotypic and functional characteristics associated with long-lived memory CD8 T cells. This study supports expanding efforts to immunologically target WT1 and provides insights into the requirements necessary to establish potent persistent T cell responses. PMID:23447018

  8. Transferred WT1-reactive CD8+ T cells can mediate antileukemic activity and persist in post-transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Chapuis, A.G.; Ragnarsson, G. B.; Nguyen, H. N.; Chaney, C. N.; Pufnock, J. S.; Schmitt, T. M.; Duerkopp, N.; Roberts, I. M.; Pogosov, G. L.; Ho, W. Y.; Ochsenreither, S.; Wölfl, M.; Bar, M.; Radich, J. P.; Yee, C; Greenberg, P. D.

    2013-01-01

    Relapse remains a leading cause of death after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for patients with high-risk leukemias. The potentially beneficial donor T-cell-mediated graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect is often mitigated by concurrent graft versus host disease (GVHD). Providing T-cells that can selectively target Wilms’ Tumor Antigen 1 (WT1), a transcription factor over-expressed in leukemias that contributes to the malignant phenotype, represents a potential opportunity to promote anti-leukemic activity without inducing GVHD. HLA A*0201-restricted WT1-specific donor-derived CD8+ cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) clones were administered post-HCT to 11 relapsed or high-risk leukemia patients without any evidence of on-target toxicity. The last four treated patients received CTL clones generated with exposure to IL-21 as a means to prolong in vivo CTL survival, as IL-21 can limit terminal differentiation of antigen-specific T-cells generated in vitro. Transferred cells exhibited direct evidence of anti-leukemic activity in 2 patients: a transient response in one patient with advanced progressive disease and the induction of a prolonged remission in a patient with minimal residual disease (MRD). Additionally, three treated patients at high risk for relapse post-HCT survive without leukemia relapse, GVHD or additional anti-leukemic treatment. CTL generated in the presence of IL-21, which were transferred in these latter three patients and the patient with MRD, all remained detectable long-term and maintained/acquired in vivo phenotypic and functional characteristics associated with long-lived memory CD8+ T-cells. This study supports expanding efforts to immunologically target WT1, and provides insights into the requirements necessary to establish potent persistent T-cell responses in patients. PMID:23447018

  9. Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... trying to access this site from a secured browser on the server. Please enable scripts and reload ... National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus ??? Javascript Error Your browser JavaScript is turned off causing certain features of ...

  10. Report of six kidney disease-associated Castleman's disease cases.

    PubMed

    Sui, Yanxia; Zhao, Dongli

    2015-12-01

    Castleman's disease (CD) is an uncommon, benign, non-neoplastic, lymphoproliferative disease of uncertain etiology. Here, we report 6 cases of kidney disease-associated CD in China. All patients exhibited multicentric CD (MCD) with involvement of the mediastinum, neck, bilateral axillary, and bilateral inguinal regions. Clinical manifestations included fever, fatigue, edema, and swollen lymph nodes. Laboratory examinations of all 6 patients found proteinuria or renal insufficiency. Two of the patients were diagnosed with hyaline vascular type MCD, and 4 patients were diagnosed with plasma cell type CD. The case 1 and case 4 patients had mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis, case 3 had type I membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, case 2 and case 5 had interstitial nephritis, and case 6 had AA type amyloidosis nephropathy. Three patients were treated with prednisone plus cyclophosphamide, 1 patient received COP therapy (cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisone), and 2 patients received COP therapy supplemented by small doses of radiation therapy delivered to local lymph nodes. In all cases, the clinical manifestations of MCD, including fever, fatigue, edema, swollen lymph nodes, and proteinuria, were alleviated or abolished by treatment. One patient responded to treatment with complete MCD remission, and another 4 patients survived. However, 1 patient died due to renal failure. In conclusion, common diagnosis and treatment techniques are suitable for kidney disease-associated CD. However, treatment efficacy might be difficult to predict, and some cases may have poor prognosis with this treatment strategy. Therefore, additional studies investigating kidney disease-associated CD and treatment outcomes in larger patient populations are needed. PMID:26445003

  11. Risk factors for post-transplant diabetes mellitus in renal transplant: Role of genetic variability in the CYP450-mediated arachidonic acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gervasini, Guillermo; Luna, Enrique; García-Cerrada, Montserrat; García-Pino, Guadalupe; Cubero, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and 20-hidroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), which play an important role both in renal transplant and diabetes mellitus (DM). We searched for associations between polymorphisms in this metabolic pathway and the risk of post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) in kidney recipients. One-hundred-sixty-four patients were genotyped for common SNPs in this route, namely CYP2C8*3, CYP2C8*4, CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3, CYP2J2*7, CYP4A11 F434S and CYP4F2 V433M. Demographic and clinical parameters were retrospectively collected at four time-points in the first year after grafting. Thirty-four patients (20.73%) developed PTDM, which was more prevalent among older patients [OR for older age = 1.06 (1.03-1.10), p < 0.001] and in those with higher body mass index (BMI) [OR for higher average BMI in the first year = 1.13 (1.04-1.23); p < 0.01]. Creatinine clearance [OR = 0.97 (0.95-0.99); p < 0.01] and exposure to tacrolimus [OR = 3.25 (1.15-9.19); p < 0.05] were also relevant for PTDM risk. With regard to genetic variants, logistic regression analysis controlling for significant demographic and clinical variables showed that the V433M polymorphism in CYP4F2, responsible for 20-HETE synthesis, was an independent risk factor for PTDM [OR = 3.94 (1.08-14.33); p < 0.05]. We have shown that a genetic variant in the CYP4F2 gene, the main gene implicated in 20-HETE synthesis, is associated with the risk for PTDM. Our findings suggest that genes in the metabolic pathways of AA may become good candidates in genetic association studies for PTDM. PMID:26483195

  12. Deletion of receptor for advanced glycation end products exacerbates lymphoproliferative syndrome and lupus nephritis in B6-MRL Fas lpr/j mice.

    PubMed

    Goury, Antoine; Meghraoui-Kheddar, Aïda; Belmokhtar, Karim; Vuiblet, Vincent; Ortillon, Jeremy; Jaisson, Stéphane; Devy, Jerôme; Le Naour, Richard; Tabary, Thierry; Cohen, Jacques H M; Schmidt, Ann-Marie; Rieu, Philippe; Touré, Fatouma

    2015-04-15

    The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a pattern recognition receptor that interacts with advanced glycation end products, but also with C3a, CpG DNA oligonucleotides, and alarmin molecules such as HMGB1 to initiate a proinflammatory reaction. Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disorder associated with the accumulation of RAGE ligands. We generated mice invalidated for RAGE in the lupus-prone B6-MRL Fas lpr/j background to determine the role of RAGE in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus. We compared the phenotype of these mice with that of their wild-type and B6-MRL Fas lpr/j littermates. Lymphoproliferative syndrome, production of anti-dsDNA Abs, lupus nephritis, and accumulation of CD3(+)B220(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) autoreactive T cells (in the peripheral blood and the spleen) were significantly increased in B6-MRL Fas lpr/j RAGE(-/-) mice compared with B6-MRL Fas lpr/j mice (respectively p < 0.005, p < 0.05, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001). A large proportion of autoreactive T cells from B6-MRL Fas lpr/j mice expressed RAGE at their surface. Time course studies of annexin V expression revealed that autoreactive T cells in the spleen of B6-MRL Fas lpr/j-RAGE(-/-) mice exhibited a delay in apoptosis and expressed significantly less activated caspase 3 (39.5 ± 4.3%) than T cells in B6-MRL Fas lpr/j mice (65.5 ± 5.2%) or wild-type mice (75.3 ± 2.64%) (p = 0.02). We conclude that the deletion of RAGE in B6-MRL Fas lpr/j mice promotes the accumulation of autoreactive CD3(+)B220(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) T cells, therefore exacerbating lymphoproliferative syndrome, autoimmunity, and organ injury. This suggests that RAGE rescues the apoptosis of T lymphocytes when the death receptor Fas/CD95 is dysfunctional. PMID:25762779

  13. Radiolabeled Monoclonal Antibody With or Without Peripheral Stem Cell Transplantation in Treating Children With Recurrent or Refractory Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-16

    AIDS-related Peripheral/Systemic Lymphoma; AIDS-related Primary CNS Lymphoma; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma

  14. Immunohistologic cellular phenotypes of lymphoproliferative disorders. Comprehensive evaluation of 564 cases including 257 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas classified by the International Working Formulation.

    PubMed Central

    Tubbs, R. R.; Fishleder, A.; Weiss, R. A.; Savage, R. A.; Sebek, B. A.; Weick, J. K.

    1983-01-01

    The plethora of classifications for non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs) and controversy regarding the merits of the individual classification schemes has led to the articulation of an International Working Formulation for NHL classification by a working group sponsored by the National Cancer Institute. This classification is based on both architectural and cytologic features and has been shown to have clinical relevance, but it is not an immunologic approach. With the use of frozen sections and both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, a comprehensive immunohistologic study was made of 564 biopsy specimens 1) for determination of the utility of the principle of monoclonality in differentiating benign from malignant lymphoproliferative disorders, 2) for definition of the immunohistochemical phenotypes of histologically benign and malignant cellular proliferations, and 3) for evaluation of the immunologic phenotype of 257 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas classified by the International Working Formulation. Two hundred seven "reactive benign" lymphoproliferations demonstrated polyclonal immunostaining. Monoclonal kappa light chain immunostaining was demonstrated in 3 of 4 cases classified as atypical hyperplasia, two of which had coexistent NHL or subsequently developed overt NHL. Frozen tissue sections were found to be essential for demonstration of immunoglobulin and glycoprotein membrane antigens. The results of immunohistochemical studies were readily integrated with the International Formulation. Although diffuse mixed and small lymphocytic lymphomas were immunologically heterogeneous (both T- and B-cell), follicular lymphomas were invariably of B-cell type, and immunoblastic lymphomas originating from homogeneous T- and B-cell populations were identified. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:6605690

  15. Expression patterns of CD200 and CD148 in leukemic B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders and their potential value in differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lei; Miao, Yi; Wu, Yu-Jie; Wang, Yan; Guo, Rui; Wang, Li; Shen, An-Li; Chen, Yao-Yu; Xu, Wei; Li, Jian-Yong

    2015-12-01

    Different combinations of biomarkers analyzed by flow cytometry are critical for the accurate diagnosis of leukemic B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders (B-CLPDs). We investigated CD200 and CD148 expression patterns of blood or bone marrow from 374 cases of B-CLPD by multicolor flow cytometry. Our results showed that CD200 and CD148 expression patterns distinguished different types of B-CLPD. CD200 mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) or CD148 MFI had a high sensitivity and specificity to differentiate mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) from chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Furthermore, CD148 MFI/CD200 MFI ratio > 4.79 produced a specificity of 94.46% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 91.04-96.87%) and a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 88.78-100.0%) in establishing the diagnosis of MCL in differential diagnosis between MCL and CLL. We therefore conclude that the combination of CD200 and CD148 may have a potential differential diagnostic value in leukemic B-CLPDs, especially between CLL and MCL. PMID:25791119

  16. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome due to somatic FAS mutation (ALPS-sFAS) combined with a germline caspase-10 (CASP10) variation.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Feito, Ana; Melero, Josefa; Mora-Díaz, Sergio; Rodríguez-Vigil, Carmen; Elduayen, Ramón; González-Granado, Luis I; Pérez-Méndez, Dolores; Sánchez-Zapardiel, Elena; Ruiz-García, Raquel; Menchén, Miguela; Díaz-Madroñero, Josefa; Paz-Artal, Estela; Del Orbe-Barreto, Rafael; Riñón, Marta; Allende, Luis M

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by impaired Fas/FasL-mediated apoptosis of lymphocytes and is characterized by chronic nonmalignant or benign lymphoproliferation, autoimmune manifestations and expansion of double negative (DN) T-cells (TCR??+CD4-CD8-). Most cases of ALPS are associated with germline (ALPS-FAS) or somatic (ALPS-sFAS) heterozygous FAS mutations or a combination of both. Here we report three unrelated patients with ALPS-sFAS. Only one of them showed impaired Fas function in PHA-activated T-cells. In this patient, the genetic analysis of the caspase-10 gene (CASP10) identified a heterozygous germline change in exon 9 (c.1337A>G) causing Y446C substitution in the caspase-10 protein. In addition, this patient had a dysregulated T- and B-cell phenotype; circulating lymphocytes showed expansion of T effector memory CD45RA+ (TEMRA) CD4 T-cells, effector memory CD8 T-cells, CD21(low) B-cells and reduced memory switched B-cells. Additionally, this patient showed altered expression in T-cells of several molecules that change during differentiation from naïve to effector cells (CD27, CD95, CD57 and perforin). Molecular alterations in genes of the Fas pathway are necessary for the development of ALPS and this syndrome could be influenced by the concurrent effect of other mutations hitting different genes involved in Fas or related pathways. PMID:26323380

  17. The X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome gene product SH2D1A associates with p62dok (Dok1) and activates NF-?B

    PubMed Central

    Sylla, Bakary S.; Murphy, Kerry; Cahir-McFarland, Ellen; Lane, William S.; Mosialos, George; Kieff, Elliott

    2000-01-01

    The X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP) is a genetic disorder in which affected males have a morbid or fatal response to Epstein–Barr virus infection. The XLP deficiency has been mapped to a gene encoding a 128-residue protein, SH2D1A, which is comprised principally of a Src homology 2 (SH2) domain. We now report that SH2D1A associates with Dok1, a protein that interacts with Ras-GAP, Csk, and Nck. An SH2D1A SH2 domain mutant that has been identified in XLP does not associate with Dok1, in accord with the hypothesis that this interaction is linked to XLP. The association of SH2D1A with Dok1 also depends on phosphorylation of Dok1 Y449 in the sequence ALYSQVQK. Further, overexpression of SH2D1A is found to activate NF-?B in 293T cells. NF-?B activation by SH2D1A does not depend on the wild-type SH2 domain and is inhibited by a dominant-negative I?B kinase ?. Thus, SH2D1A can affect multiple intracellular signaling pathways that are potentially important in the normal effective host response to Epstein–Barr virus infection. PMID:10852966

  18. Mucosal CD30-Positive T-Cell Lymphoproliferative Disorder Arising in the Oral Cavity Following Dental Implants: Report of the First Case.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hye-Jung; Choe, Ji-Young; Jeon, Yoon Kyung

    2015-12-01

    Mucosal CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (CD30+ T-cell LPD) is a novel entity with unique clinicopathological features and an indolent behavior. Here we report the first case of mucosal CD30+ T-cell LPD arising in the oral cavity following dental implant. A 70-year-old woman presented with swelling and redness of the oral mucosa of right maxilla and left mandible surrounding dental implants that had been placed 8 years previously. Radiological examination revealed enhancing oral lesions and multiple cervical lymph nodes. Microscopic examination showed diffuse infiltration of large anaplastic cells with characteristic morphology of hallmark cells described in anaplastic large cell lymphoma. These cells were diffusely positive for CD30, CD3, CD4, CD2, CD5, CD7, TIA-1, and TCR?F1, but negative for CD20, CD8, CD45, EMA, ALK, and Epstein-Barr virus. T-cell monoclonality was detected in a TCR? gene rearrangement study. This a unique case of mucosal CD30+ T-cell LPD with unusual presentation following dental implant. PMID:26261101

  19. Epstein-Barr Virus-Related Post-Transplantation Lymphoproliferative Disorder after Unmanipulated Human Leukocyte Antigen Haploidentical Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Incidence, Risk Factors, Treatment, and Clinical Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lan-Ping; Zhang, Chun-Li; Mo, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Chen, Huan; Han, Wei; Chen, Yu-Hong; Wang, Yu; Yan, Chen-Hua; Wang, Jing-Zhi; Wang, Feng-Rong; Zhao, Ting; Liu, Yan-Rong; Liu, Kai-Yan; Huang, Xiao-Jun

    2015-12-01

    We examined the incidence, risk factors, treatments, and clinical outcomes of post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) after unmanipulated haploidentical (haplo) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in 1184 patients between 2006 and 2012. Age-, transplantation time-, and transplantation duration-matched controls were randomly selected from the same cohort. Forty-five patients experienced PTLD. The median time from HSCT to PTLD occurrence was 61 (range, 33 to 360) days and the 1-year cumulative incidence of total PTLD after haplo-HSCT was 3.0%. In multivariate analysis, a lower absolute count of CD8(+) T lymphocytes at day 30, a lower absolute count of immunoglobulin M at day 30, and cytomegalovirus DNAemia after HSCT were significantly associated with higher risk of PTLD. The 2-year probability of overall survival (OS) after HSCT was 42.8%, which was comparable between the probable PTLD and the proven PTLD patients. Patients who received rituximab-based therapy had significantly better 2-year OS (48.2% versus 13.2%, P = .02). Thus, we were able to identify individuals at a high risk of developing PTLD after unmanipulated haplo-HSCT. Rituximab-based therapy can help to improve the outcomes of PTLD patients. PMID:26253005

  20. Clinical and In Vitro Studies on Impact of High-Dose Etoposide Pharmacokinetics Prior Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia on the Risk of Post-Transplant Leukemia Relapse.

    PubMed

    Sobiak, Joanna; Kazimierczak, Urszula; Kowalczyk, Dariusz W; Chrzanowska, Maria; Styczy?ski, Jan; Wysocki, Mariusz; Szpecht, Dawid; Wachowiak, Jacek

    2015-10-01

    The impact of etoposide (VP-16) plasma concentrations on the day of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) on leukemia-free survival in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was studied. In addition, the in vitro effects of VP-16 on the lymphocytes proliferation, cytotoxic activity and on Th1/Th2 cytokine responses were assessed. In 31 children undergoing allo-HSCT, VP-16 plasma concentrations were determined up to 120 h after the infusion using the HPLC-UV method. For mentioned in vitro studies, VP-16 plasma concentrations observed on allo-HSCT day were used. In 84 % of children, VP-16 plasma concentrations (0.1-1.5 ?g/mL) were quantifiable 72 h after the end of the drug infusion, i.e. when allo-HSCT should be performed. In 20 (65 %) children allo-HSCT was performed 4 days after the end of the drug infusion, and VP-16 was still detectable (0.1-0.9 ?g/mL) in plasma of 12 (39 %) of them. Post-transplant ALL relapse occurred in four children, in all of them VP-16 was detectable in plasma (0.1-0.8 ?g/mL) on allo-HSCT day, while there was no relapse in children with undetectable VP-16. In in vitro studies, VP-16 demonstrated impact on the proliferation activity of stimulated lymphocytes depending on its concentration and exposition time. The presence of VP-16 in plasma on allo-HSCT day may demonstrate an adverse effect on graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) reaction and increase the risk of post-transplant ALL relapse. Therefore, if 72 h after VP-16 administration its plasma concentration is still above 0.1 ?g/mL then the postponement of transplantation for next 24 h should be considered to protect GvL effector cells from transplant material. PMID:26040247

  1. Candidates for liver transplantation with alcoholic liver disease: Psychosocial aspects.

    PubMed

    Telles-Correia, Diogo; Mega, Inês

    2015-10-21

    In Europe, 30% to 50% of liver transplantations are currently due to alcoholic liver disease (ALD). In the United States, this percentage is 17.2%. Post-transplant survival and other predictors of clinical course do not differ significantly from those in other types of transplanted patients, as long as there is no relapse of drinking. However, 20%-25% of these patients lapse or relapse to heavy drinking post-operatively, which has been associated with an increased risk of liver damage and mortality. It is therefore crucial to design specific selection and follow-up strategies aimed at this particular type of patient. Several good and poor prognosis factors that could help to predict a relapse have been suggested, among them the duration of abstinence, social support, a family history of alcoholism, abuse diagnosis versus alcohol dependence, non-acceptance of diagnosis related to alcohol use, presence of severe mental illness, non-adherence in a broad sense, number of years of alcoholism, and daily quantity of alcohol consumption. In this article, we discuss these and other, more controversial factors in selecting ALD patients for liver transplantation. Abstinence should be the main goal after transplantation in an ALD patient. In this article, we review the several definitions of post-transplant relapse, its monitoring and the psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatment. PMID:26494959

  2. Candidates for liver transplantation with alcoholic liver disease: Psychosocial aspects

    PubMed Central

    Telles-Correia, Diogo; Mega, Inês

    2015-01-01

    In Europe, 30% to 50% of liver transplantations are currently due to alcoholic liver disease (ALD). In the United States, this percentage is 17.2%. Post-transplant survival and other predictors of clinical course do not differ significantly from those in other types of transplanted patients, as long as there is no relapse of drinking. However, 20%-25% of these patients lapse or relapse to heavy drinking post-operatively, which has been associated with an increased risk of liver damage and mortality. It is therefore crucial to design specific selection and follow-up strategies aimed at this particular type of patient. Several good and poor prognosis factors that could help to predict a relapse have been suggested, among them the duration of abstinence, social support, a family history of alcoholism, abuse diagnosis versus alcohol dependence, non-acceptance of diagnosis related to alcohol use, presence of severe mental illness, non-adherence in a broad sense, number of years of alcoholism, and daily quantity of alcohol consumption. In this article, we discuss these and other, more controversial factors in selecting ALD patients for liver transplantation. Abstinence should be the main goal after transplantation in an ALD patient. In this article, we review the several definitions of post-transplant relapse, its monitoring and the psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatment. PMID:26494959

  3. Subclinical pulmonary function defects following autologous and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: relationship to total body irradiation and graft-versus-host disease

    SciTech Connect

    Tait, R.C.; Burnett, A.K.; Robertson, A.G.; McNee, S.; Riyami, B.M.; Carter, R.; Stevenson, R.D. )

    1991-06-01

    Pulmonary function results pre- and post-transplant, to a maximum of 4 years, were analyzed in 98 patients with haematological disorders undergoing allogeneic (N = 53) or autologous bone marrow transplantation (N = 45) between 1982 and 1988. All received similar total body irradiation based regimens ranging from 9.5 Gy as a single fraction to 14.4 Gy fractionated. FEV1/FVC as a measure of airway obstruction showed little deterioration except in patients experiencing graft-versus-host disease in whom statistically significant obstructive ventilatory defects were evident by 6 months post-transplant (p less than 0.01). These defects appeared to be permanent. Restrictive ventilatory defects, as measured by reduction in TLC, and defects in diffusing capacity (DLCO and KCO) were also maximal at 6 months post-transplant (p less than 0.01). Both were related, at least in part, to the presence of GVHD (p less than 0.01) or use of single fraction TBI with absorbed lung dose of 8.0 Gy (p less than 0.05). Fractionated TBI resulted in less marked restricted ventilation and impaired gas exchange, which reverted to normal by 2 years, even when the lung dose was increased from 11.0 Gy to between 12.0 and 13.5 Gy. After exclusion of patients with GVHD (30% allografts) there was no significant difference in pulmonary function abnormalities between autograft and allograft recipients.

  4. Unicentric Castleman’s Disease of Abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Dharita; Darji, Parth; Lodha, Sambhav; Bolla, Soujanya

    2013-01-01

    Castleman’s disease (CD) is a rare lymphoproliferative disease of uncertain etiology that affects lymph nodes. CD can be classified as a) unicentric vs. multicentric, based on clinical and radiological findings, b) hyaline vascular (80–90%) vs. plasmacytic (10–20%) vs. mixed cellularity variety based on histopathology. Unicentric disease is more common in the 3rd and 4th decade, whereas the multicentric form is more common in the 5th and 6th decade with no sex predilection. HIV seropositive individuals appear to be at an increased risk for multicentric castleman's disease (MCD) at a younger age due to the increased incidence of HHV- 8 infection. Diagnosis is usually based on histopathology features as imaging features show considerable overlap, thus posing diagnostic difficulties. Overall prognosis is good, particularly in the unicentric variety of disease. We have presented a case of the unicentric CD in a 40 year old male patient having abdominal pain and hematuria as chief complaints. PMID:23705043

  5. Relapse risk in patients with malignant diseases given allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation after nonmyeloablative conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Kahl, Christoph; Storer, Barry E.; Sandmaier, Brenda M.; Mielcarek, Marco; Maris, Michael B.; Blume, Karl G.; Niederwieser, Dietger; Chauncey, Thomas R.; Forman, Stephen J.; Agura, Edward; Leis, Jose F.; Bruno, Benedetto; Langston, Amelia; Pulsipher, Michael A.; McSweeney, Peter A.; Wade, James C.; Epner, Elliot; Bo Petersen, Finn; Bethge, Wolfgang A.; Maloney, David G.

    2007-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) after nonmyeloablative conditioning for hematologic malignancies depends on graft-versus-tumor effects for eradication of cancer. Here, we estimated relapse risks according to disease characteristics. Between 1997 and 2006, 834 consecutive patients (median age, 55 years; range, 5-74 years) received related (n = 498) or unrelated (n = 336) HCT after 2 Gy total body irradiation alone (n = 171) or combined with fludarabine (90 mg/m2; n = 663). Relapse rates per patient year (PY) at risk, corrected for follow-up and competing nonrelapse mortality, were calculated for 29 different diseases and stages. The overall relapse rate per PY was 0.36. Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and multiple myeloma (MM) in remission (CR), low-grade or mantle cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (CR + partial remission [PR]), and high-grade NHL-CR had the lowest rates (0.00-0.24; low risk). In contrast, patients with advanced myeloid and lymphoid malignancies had rates of more than 0.52 (high risk). Patients with lymphoproliferative diseases not in CR (except Hodgkin lymphoma and high-grade NHL) and myeloid malignancies in CR had rates of 0.26-0.37 (standard risk). In conclusion, patients with low-grade lymphoproliferative disorders experienced the lowest relapse rates, whereas patients with advanced myeloid and lymphoid malignancies had high relapse rates after nonmyeloablative HCT. The latter might benefit from cytoreductive treatment before HCT. PMID:17595333

  6. Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipients: Factors Determining Progression to Lower Respiratory Tract Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yae-Jean; Guthrie, Katherine A.; Waghmare, Alpana; Walsh, Edward E.; Falsey, Ann R.; Kuypers, Jane; Cent, Anne; Englund, Janet A.; Boeckh, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background.?Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease (LRD) is a life-threatening complication in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. Lymphopenia has been associated with an increased risk of progression from upper respiratory tract infection (URI) to LRD. Methods.?This study retrospectively analyzed the significance of lymphocyte engraftment dynamics, lung function, smoking history, corticosteroids, antiviral treatment, viral subtypes, and RSV-specific neutralizing antibodies for the progression to LRD in 181 HCT recipients with RSV URI. Results.?In multivariable models, smoking history, conditioning with high-dose total body irradiation, and an absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) ?100/mm3 at the time of URI onset were significantly associated with disease progression. No progression occurred in patients with ALCs of >1000/mm3 at URI onset. Lymphocyte engraftment dynamics were similar in progressors and nonprogressors. Pre- and posttransplant donor and posttransplant recipient RSV subtype-specific neutralizing antibody levels, RSV viral subtypes, and corticosteroids also were not significantly associated with LRD progression. Conclusions.?Host and transplant related factors appear to determine the risk of progression to LRD more than viral factors. Dysfunctional cell-mediated immunity appears to be important in the pathogenesis of progressive RSV disease after HCT. A characterization of RSV-specific T-cell immunity is warranted. PMID:24368837

  7. Castleman’s disease of the spleen

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hee-Jeong; Jeon, Ho-Jong; Park, Sang-Gon; Park, Chi-Young

    2015-01-01

    Castleman’s disease (CD) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder of unknown etiology. Clinically, it occurs as a localized (unicentric) disease or as a systemic (multicentric) disease. Unicentric Castleman’s disease (UCD) presents as a solitary mass and primarily affects the mediastinal, retroperitoneal, and cervical lymph nodes. In contrast to multicentric CD, which involves peripheral lymphadenopathy and numerous systemic symptoms, UCD is not typically associated with generalized symptoms. Three main distinct histologic variants are recognized: hyaline-vascular type, plasma cell type, and mixed type. Extranodal CD is rare. Specifically, UCD exclusively in the spleen is extremely rare, with only 2 cases described in the literature to date. Here, we describe an asymptomatic 75-year-old man with a 5.7 cm × 4.5 cm sized heterogenous enhanced mass located in the spleen. He underwent surgical resection for diagnosis and treatment. A pathologic examination indicated the hyaline-vascular type of CD. In this patient, the preoperative diagnosis was difficult to determine, and therefore, invasive procedures were required. PMID:25663790

  8. Incidence, Risk Factors and Outcomes of Delayed-Onset Cytomegalovirus Disease in a Large Retrospective Cohort of Heart Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Carlos A. Q.; Brennan, Daniel C.; Fraser, Victoria J.; Olsen, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Delayed-onset cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease can occur among heart transplant recipients after stopping anti-CMV prophylaxis. We evaluated a large retrospective cohort of heart transplant recipients in the United States using billing data from 3 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) State Inpatient Databases (SID) to determine the epidemiology of delayed-onset CMV disease coded during hospital readmission. Methods We identified 2,280 adult heart transplant recipients from 2004 to 2010 using the California, Florida and New York SID. Demographics, comorbidities, heart failure etiology, CMV disease and inpatient death were identified. CMV disease was classified as early-onset (? 100 days) or delayed-onset (> 100 days post-transplant). Possible tissue-invasion by CMV was determined using codes for CMV pneumonitis, hepatitis and gastrointestinal endoscopy. Multivariate analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazards models. Results Delayed-onset CMV disease occurred in 7.5% (170/2,280) and early-onset CMV disease occurred in 2.0% (45/2,280) of heart transplant recipients. Risk factors for delayed-onset CMV disease included residence in a non-metropolitan locale (aHR 1.8, 95% CI 1.0–3.3) and ischemic cardiomyopathy as heart failure etiology (aHR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3–2.5). Inpatient death > 100 days post-transplant was associated with delayed-onset CMV disease with possible tissue-invasion (aHR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1–3.8), transplant failure or rejection (aHR 4.0, 95% CI 2.7–5.8) and renal failure (aHR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1–2.0). Conclusions Delayed-onset CMV disease is more common than early-onset CMV disease among heart transplant recipients. These results suggest that delayed-onset tissue-invasive CMV disease may be associated with an increased risk of death. PMID:25498094

  9. Clonal rearrangement for immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor genes in systemic Castleman's disease. Association with Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, C. A.; Frizzera, G.; Patton, D. F.; Peterson, B. A.; McClain, K. L.; Gajl-Peczalska, K. J.; Kersey, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    Castleman's disease is a morphologically and clinically heterogeneous lymphoproliferative disorder. Both a localized benign variant and an aggressive form with systemic manifestations have been described. To investigate the differences between these variants of Castleman's disease, the authors analyzed lymph node DNA from 4 patients with the localized type and 4 with the systemic type of Castleman's disease for immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor gene rearrangements. The role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) was also studied by viral genomic DNA probes. They detected clonal rearrangements in 3 of the 4 patients with the systemic variant of Castleman's; no patients with localized disease had rearrangements. Copies of EBV genome were also detected in 2 of the 3 patients with clonal rearrangements. These results suggest that systemic Castleman's disease is a disorder distinct from the classical localized variant in that it may evolve into a clonal lymphoproliferation. Images Figure 1 PMID:2833104

  10. General anesthesia in a patient with multicentric Castleman's disease: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Huh, In Young; Lee, Sang Hyun; Kim, An Suk; Park, Se Hun; Kim, Dae-Young

    2015-01-01

    Castleman's disease (CD) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder of undetermined etiology. Unicentric Castleman's disease is confined to a single lymph node; it is usually asymptomatic though sometimes has local manifestations related to mass effects. In contrast, multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD) typically presents with lymphoid hyperplasia at multiple sites; it is associated with systemic symptoms and abnormal laboratory findings, with a less favorable prognosis. In case of anesthesia in CD, an exhaustive preanesthetic evaluation is essential to identify associated clinical manifestations which may influence the management of the anesthesia. Perioperative careful monitoring and proper anesthetic management are both important. We report a case of general anesthesia with anesthetic management in a patient with MCD that has not been documented in the literature. PMID:26045937

  11. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: what 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography can do in the management of these patients? Suggestions from a case report.

    PubMed

    Cistaro, A; Pazè, F; Durando, S; Cogoni, M; Faletti, R; Vesco, S; Vallero, S; Quartuccio, N; Treglia, G; Ramenghi, U

    2014-01-01

    A young patient with undefined autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS-U) and low back pain underwent a CT and MRI study that showed enhancing vertebral lesions, some pulmonary nodules and diffuse latero-cervical lymphadenopathy. A (18)F-FDG-PET/CT scan showed many areas of intense (18)F-FDG uptake in multiple vertebrae, in some ribs, in the sacrum, in the liver, in both lungs, in multiple lymph nodes spread in the cervical, thoracic and abdominal chains. A bone marrow biopsy showed a "lymphomatoid granulomatosis", a rare variant of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). After the treatment, the (18)F-FDG-PET/CT scan showed a complete metabolic response. PMID:23845452

  12. Comparison of Three Distinct Prophylactic Agents Against Invasive Fungal Infections in Patients Undergoing Haplo-identical Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation and Post-transplant Cyclophosphamide

    PubMed Central

    El-Cheikh, Jean; Crocchiolo, Roberto; Vai, Andrea; Furst, Sabine; Bramanti, Stefania; Sarina, Barbara; Granata, Angela; Faucher, Catherine; Mohty, Bilal; Harbi, Samia; Bouabdallah, Reda; Vey, Norbert; Santoro, Armando; Chabannon, Christian; Castagna, Luca; Blaise, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, invasive fungal infections (IFIs) have remained an important problem in patients undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (Allo-HSCT). The optimal approach for prophylactic antifungal therapy has yet to bedetermined. We conducted a retrospective analysis, comparing the safety and efficacy of micafungin 50mg/day vs. fluconazole 400mg/day vs. itraconazole 200mg/day as prophylaxis for adult patients with various haematological diseases receiving haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) followed by high-dose cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy). Overall, 99 patients were identified: 30 patients received micafungin, 50 and 19 patients received itraconazole and fluconazole, respectively. After a median follow-up of 12 months (range: 1–51), proven or probable IFIs were reported in 3 patients (10%) in the micafungin, 5 patients in the itraconazole (10%) and 2 patients (11%) in the fluconazole group (p=0.998). Fewer patients in the micafungin group had invasive aspergillosis (1 [3%] vs. 3 [6%] in the itraconazole vs. 2 [11%] in the fluconazole group, p=0.589). Four patients (13%) in the micafungin group vs 13 (26%) patients in the itraconazole group and 10 (53%) patients in the fluconazole received empirical antifungal therapy (P = 0.19). No serious adverse events related to treatment were reported by patients, and there was no treatment discontinuation because of drug-related adverse events in both groups. The present analysis shows that micafungin did better than fluconazole in preventing invasive aspergillosis after transplant in these high-risk hematological diseases, as expected. In addition, micafungin was more effective than itraconazole in preventing all IFI episodes when also considering possible fungal infections. Future prospective studies would shed light on this issue, concerning this increasingly used transplant platform. PMID:26401237

  13. Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 Antibody in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipients: Factors Influencing Post-Transplant Antibody Titers and Associated Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Sachiko; Xie, Hu; Karron, Ruth A.; Thumar, Bhagvanji; Englund, Janet A.; Leisenring, Wendy M.; Stevens-Ayers, Terry; Boeckh, Michael; Campbell, Angela P.

    2015-01-01

    Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV-3) can cause severe respiratory illness among hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients. Factors associated with PIV-3–specific antibody level, and the association between PIV-3 antibody levels and clinical outcomes in HCT recipients who acquire PIV-3 infection, are unknown. We evaluated PIV-3-specific hemagglutination inhibition antibody levels and clinical outcomes among 172 patients with PIV-3 infection following HCT. In a multivariable linear regression model, high post-transplantation antibody levels were independently associated with higher pre-transplantation recipient titer (mean difference 0.38 [95% CI, 0.26, 0.50], p<0.001). Significant associations between pre-HCT antibody titers in both patients and donors and occurrence of lower respiratory tract disease (LRD) after HCT were not observed. In conclusion, low pre-transplantation titers are associated with low antibody levels after HCT. The relationship between PIV-3 antibody levels and outcomes remain uncertain. Further study is needed to prospectively evaluate the dynamics of PIV-3–specific antibody responses and the relative contribution of PIV-3–specific antibody to protection from infection acquisition and progression to LRD. PMID:24978141

  14. The management of perioperative nutrition in patients with end stage liver disease undergoing liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qi-Kun

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is found in almost 100% of patients with end stage liver disease (ESLD) awaiting transplantation and malnutrition before transplantation leads to higher rates of post-transplant complications and worse graft survival outcomes. Reasons for protein energy malnutrition include several metabolic alterations such as inadequate intake, malabsorption, and overloaded expenditure. And also, stress from surgery, gastrointestinal reperfusion injury, immunosuppressive therapy and corticosteriods use lead to delayed bowl function recovery and disorder of nutrients absorption. In the pretransplant phase, nutritional goals include optimization of nutritional status and treatment of nutrition-related symptoms induced by hepatic decompensation. During the acute post-transplant phase, adequate nutrition is required to help support metabolic demands, replenish lost stores, prevent infection, arrive at a new immunologic balance, and promote overall recovery. In a word, it is extremely important to identify and correct nutritional deficiencies in this population and provide an adequate nutritional support during all phases of liver transplantation (LT). This study review focuses on prevalence, nutrition support, evaluation, and management of perioperative nutrition disorder in patients with ESLD undergoing LT. PMID:26605281

  15. The management of perioperative nutrition in patients with end stage liver disease undergoing liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi-Kun; Wang, Meng-Long

    2015-10-01

    Malnutrition is found in almost 100% of patients with end stage liver disease (ESLD) awaiting transplantation and malnutrition before transplantation leads to higher rates of post-transplant complications and worse graft survival outcomes. Reasons for protein energy malnutrition include several metabolic alterations such as inadequate intake, malabsorption, and overloaded expenditure. And also, stress from surgery, gastrointestinal reperfusion injury, immunosuppressive therapy and corticosteriods use lead to delayed bowl function recovery and disorder of nutrients absorption. In the pretransplant phase, nutritional goals include optimization of nutritional status and treatment of nutrition-related symptoms induced by hepatic decompensation. During the acute post-transplant phase, adequate nutrition is required to help support metabolic demands, replenish lost stores, prevent infection, arrive at a new immunologic balance, and promote overall recovery. In a word, it is extremely important to identify and correct nutritional deficiencies in this population and provide an adequate nutritional support during all phases of liver transplantation (LT). This study review focuses on prevalence, nutrition support, evaluation, and management of perioperative nutrition disorder in patients with ESLD undergoing LT. PMID:26605281

  16. Renal Function and Transplantation in Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Parajuli, Sandesh; Foley, David; Djamali, Arjang; Mandelbrot, Didier

    2015-09-01

    Kidney injury is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in liver transplant recipients. Since the introduction of the model for end-stage liver disease for the allocation of organs for liver transplantation in 2002, the heavy weighting of serum creatinine in the model for end-stage liver disease score has significantly increased the incidence of renal dysfunction seen among patients undergoing liver transplantation. As a result, the frequency of simultaneous liver-kidney (SLK) transplantation compared to liver transplantation alone (LTA) has also increased. The decision to perform SLK rather than LTA is an important one because the benefits to the liver transplant recipient receiving a kidney transplant must be balanced with the benefits of using that organ for a patient with end-stage renal disease. However, predicting whether or not a patient with liver failure has reversible kidney disease, and therefore does not also need a kidney transplant, is difficult. The severity and duration of pretransplant renal dysfunction, hepatitis c, diabetes, and other risk factors for kidney disease are associated with an increased risk of posttransplant end-stage renal disease. However, there are currently no clinical findings that accurately predict renal recovery post liver transplant. As a result, the rate of SLK versus LTA differs significantly between transplant centers. To increase consistency across centers, multiple guidelines have been proposed to guide the decision between SLK and LTA, but their poor predictive value has limited their uniform adoption. Nevertheless, adoption of uniform rules for the allocation of kidneys would reduce the variability between centers in rates of SLK transplant. PMID:26308413

  17. [Cervical Castleman disease in childhood: a report of two cases and a review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Leboulanger, N; Coulomb L'hermine, A; Teissier, N; Rouillon, I; Zribi, S; Roger, G; Garabedian, E N

    2010-08-01

    Castleman disease (CD) is a benign lymphoproliferative disorder, rare in children. Head and neck localizations are found only in 14 % of the cases. Two forms have been described: a hyaline vascular type and a plasma cell type. It can also be monocentric or multicentric. Both young patients were affected with an isolated neck localization of Castleman disease. Preoperative diagnosis can be difficult with a thymoma or a lymphoma. CT and MRI can help in the diagnosis, which is confirmed by histopathological assessment. The pathological features and the therapeutic management of CD are discussed. While surgery is the treatment for localized lesions, steroids and chemotherapy are indicated in the multicentric type. Because of the risk of relapse and malignant transformation, long-term follow-up is mandatory. PMID:20627489

  18. Subacute radiation dermatitis: a histologic imitator of acute cutaneous graft-versus-host disease

    SciTech Connect

    LeBoit, P.E.

    1989-02-01

    The histopathologic changes of radiation dermatitis have been classified either as early effects (necrotic keratinocytes, fibrin thrombi, and hemorrhage) or as late effects (vacuolar changes at the dermal-epidermal junction, atypical radiation fibroblasts, and fibrosis). Two patients, one exposed to radiation therapeutically and one accidentally, are described. Skin biopsy specimens showed an interface dermatitis characterized by numerous dyskeratotic epidermal cells with lymphocytes in close apposition (satellite cell necrosis); that is, the epidermal changes were similar to those in acute graft-versus-host disease. Because recipients of bone marrow transplants frequently receive total body irradiation as part of their preparatory regimen, the ability of radiation to cause persistent epidermal changes similar to those in acute graft-versus-host disease could complicate the interpretation of posttransplant skin biopsy specimens.

  19. Asymptomatic Isolated Retroperitoneal Castleman's Disease: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Rajabiani, Afsaneh; Abdollahi, Alireza; Farahani, Zahra

    2015-09-01

    Castleman's disease, giant lymph node hyperplasia, is a kind of benign lymphoproliferative disease with gentle behavior. Its etiology and prevalence are unclear. This rare disease is usually found in mediastinal area asymptomatically and incidentally. It is also rare to see this tumor in the retroperitoneum. In this study, we have introduced a 34-year-old woman who referred just with occasional abdominal pain caused by compressive symptoms. Laboratory findings only reported microcytic anemia (MCH: 18.5, MCV: 63, Hemoglobin 10.2 g/dl). Chest and abdominal X-ray imaging showed no remarkable point. In abdominal ultrasonography, a solid and firm tumor with 12.2×5.3×6.6 cm was reported in patient's retroperitoneum. Patient's surgery was done and the tumor (covered by a fibrous thick capsule, with no bizarre appearance and bleeding) was completely removed. Pathologic examination indicated a Castleman's tumor, type of unicentric and hyaline-vascular. This item had been one of the rare reported items of Castleman's disease in the retroperitoneal space. PMID:26379356

  20. Post-transplant urological and vascular complications.

    PubMed

    Safa, Javid; Nezami, Nariman; Tarzamni, Mohammd K; Zarforooshan, Shahriyar; Rahimi-Ardabili, Babak; Bohlouli, Abolfazl

    2009-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of urological and vascular complications in renal trans-plant recipients (RTx) at Tabriz Renal Transplant Center, we studied 55 recipients of renal allo-grafts (25 male and 29 female patients with a mean age of 38.3 +/- 13.4 years) from October 2005 to November 2006. The surgical complications in our study included hematomas: 20.4%, renal artery stenosis: 20.4%, calculi: 7.4%, hydronephrosis or ureteral stricture: 5.6%, urinary leakage: 5.6%, lymphoceles: 1.9%, and renal vein thrombosis: 1.9%. We conclude that the most common urologic complications in our center were ureteric strictures and urine leaks, and the most common vascular complication was renal artery stenosis. PMID:19736494

  1. Behcet's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    You are here: Home / Types of Vasculitis / Behcet’s Disease Behcet’s Disease First Description Who gets Behcet’s Disease (the “typical” patients)? Classic symptoms of Behcet’s Disease What causes Behcet’s Disease? ...

  2. Lyme Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Lyme Disease Lyme disease, or borreliosis, is caused by ... designed to increase our understanding of this disease. Lyme Disease A History of Lyme Disease, Symptoms, Diagnosis, ...

  3. Castleman disease variant of POEMS syndrome complicated with multiple cerebral infarction: a rare case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hang; Yao, Fang; Li, Yue; Li, Jian; Cui, Quan-Cai

    2015-01-01

    POEMS syndrome is a rare hematological disorder associated with plasma cell dyscrasia characterized by polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy and skin changes. Castleman disease is a lymphoproliferative disorder that can be present in POEMS patients, which can be defined as Castleman disease variant of POEMS syndrome. Herein, we described a 24-year-old male patient diagnosed with this syndrome and also suffered from multiple cerebral infarctions. This patient showed no evidence of monoclonal gammopathy and failed to have electromyography examined. The final diagnosis was established with the help of the axillary lymph node biopsy. As a rare case of POEMS syndrome without evidence fulfilling the major mandatory diagnostic criteria and with cerebrovascular involvement, its characteristics was discussed with a brief literature review in order to facilitate further understanding of the POEMS syndrome. PMID:26722578

  4. Castleman disease variant of POEMS syndrome complicated with multiple cerebral infarction: a rare case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hang; Yao, Fang; Li, Yue; Li, Jian; Cui, Quan-Cai

    2015-01-01

    POEMS syndrome is a rare hematological disorder associated with plasma cell dyscrasia characterized by polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy and skin changes. Castleman disease is a lymphoproliferative disorder that can be present in POEMS patients, which can be defined as Castleman disease variant of POEMS syndrome. Herein, we described a 24-year-old male patient diagnosed with this syndrome and also suffered from multiple cerebral infarctions. This patient showed no evidence of monoclonal gammopathy and failed to have electromyography examined. The final diagnosis was established with the help of the axillary lymph node biopsy. As a rare case of POEMS syndrome without evidence fulfilling the major mandatory diagnostic criteria and with cerebrovascular involvement, its characteristics was discussed with a brief literature review in order to facilitate further understanding of the POEMS syndrome. PMID:26722578

  5. Discovery of Innovative Therapies for Rare Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases via Off-Label Prescription of Biologics: The Case of IL-6 Receptor Blockade in Castleman's Disease.

    PubMed

    Musters, Anne; Assaf, Amira; Gerlag, Danielle M; Tak, Paul P; Tas, Sander W

    2015-01-01

    Biologics have revolutionized the field of clinical immunology and proven to be both effective and safe in common immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, and various hematological disorders. However, in patients with rare, severe IMIDs failing on standard therapies, it is virtually impossible to conduct randomized controlled trials. Therefore, biologics are usually prescribed off-label in these often severely ill patients. Unfortunately, off-label prescription is sometimes hampered in these diseases due to a lack of reimbursement that is often based on a presumed lack of evidence for effectiveness. In the present article, we will discuss that off-label prescription of biologics can be a good way to discover new treatments for rare diseases. This will be illustrated using a case of multicentric Castleman's disease, an immune-mediated lymphoproliferative disorder, in which off-label tocilizumab (humanized anti-IL-6 receptor blocking antibody) treatment resulted in remarkable clinical improvement. Furthermore, we will give recommendations for monitoring efficacy and safety of biologic treatment in rare IMIDs, including the use of registries. In conclusion, we put forward that innovative treatments for rare IMIDs can be discovered via off-label prescription of biologicals, provided that this is based on rational arguments including knowledge of the pathophysiology of the disease. PMID:26697019

  6. Use of Alefacept for Preconditioning in Multiply Transfused Pediatric Patients with Nonmalignant Diseases.

    PubMed

    Stenger, Elizabeth O; Chiang, Kuang-Yueh; Haight, Ann; Qayed, Muna; Kean, Leslie; Horan, John

    2015-10-01

    Transfusion-related alloimmunization is a potent barrier to the engraftment of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells in patients with nonmalignant diseases (NMDs). Memory T cells, which drive alloimmunization, are relatively resistant to commonly used conditioning agents. Alefacept, a recombinant leukocyte function antigen-3/IgG1 fusion protein, targets CD2 and selectively depletes memory versus naive T cells. Three multiply transfused pediatric patients with NMD received a short course of high-dose i.v. alefacept (.25 mg/kg/dose on days -40 and -9 and .5 mg/kg/dose on days -33, -26, -19, and -12) before undergoing unrelated allogeneic transplant in the setting of reduced-intensity pretransplant conditioning and calcineurin inhibitor-based post-transplant graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. Alefacept infusions were well tolerated in all patients. Peripheral blood flow cytometry was performed at baseline and during and after alefacept treatment. As expected, after the 5 weekly alefacept doses, each patient demonstrated selective loss of CD2(hi)/CCR7(-)/CD45RA(-) effector memory (Tem) and CD2(hi)/CCR7(+)/CD45RA(-) central memory (Tcm) CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells with relative preservation of the CD2(lo) Tem and Tcm subpopulations. In addition, depletion of CD2(+) natural killer (NK) cells also occurred. Neutrophil recovery was rapid, and all 3 patients had 100% sorted (CD3/CD33) peripheral blood donor chimerism by day +100. Immune reconstitution (by absolute neutrophil, monocyte, and lymphocyte counts) was comparable with a cohort of historical control patients. All 3 patients developed GVHD but are all now off immune suppression and >2 years post-transplant with stable full-donor engraftment. These results suggest that alefacept at higher dosing can deplete both memory T cells and NK cells and that incorporating CD2-targeted depletion into a reduced-intensity transplant regimen is feasible and safe in heavily transfused patients. PMID:26095669

  7. Japanese variant of multicentric castleman's disease associated with serositis and thrombocytopenia--a report of two cases: is TAFRO syndrome (Castleman- Kojima disease) a distinct clinicopathological entity?

    PubMed

    Masaki, Yasufumi; Nakajima, Akio; Iwao, Haruka; Kurose, Nozomu; Sato, Tomomi; Nakamura, Takuji; Miki, Miyuki; Sakai, Tomoyuki; Kawanami, Takafumi; Sawaki, Toshioki; Fujita, Yoshimasa; Tanaka, Masao; Fukushima, Toshihiro; Okazaki, Toshiro; Umehara, Hisanori

    2013-01-01

    Multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD) is a polyclonal lymphoproliferative disorder that manifests as marked hyper-?-globulinemia, severe inflammation, anemia, and thrombocytosis. Recently, Takai et al. reported a new disease concept, TAFRO syndrome, named from thrombocytopenia, anasarca, fever, reticulin fibrosis, and organomegaly. Furthermore, Kojima et al. reported Japanese MCD cases with effusion and thrombocytopenia (Castleman-Kojima disease). Here, we report two cases of MCD associated with marked pleural effusion, ascites, and thrombocytopenia, and discuss the independence of the TAFRO syndrome (Castleman-Kojima disease). Case 1: A 57-year-old woman had fever, anemia, anasarca, and some small cervical lymphadenopathy. Although she had been administered steroid therapy, and full-coverage antibiotics, her general condition, including fever, systemic inflammation, and anasarca, deteriorated steadily. We administered chemotherapy [CHOEP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, etoposide, and prednisolone) regimen], but despite a transient improvement, she died due to septic shock. Case 2: A 73-year-old man with a history of aplastic anemia and remission presented with fever, severe inflammation, and anasarca. Prednisolone was administered (15 mg daily), and his hyperinflammation once improved. Nevertheless, his general condition, including pleural effusion and ascites, worsened, and C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels showed marked increases. The patient died due to multiorgan failure. Cases of TAFRO syndrome (Castleman-Kojima disease) are still rare. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct multicenter clinical surveys including similar cases, such as ours, to reach a consensus regarding diagnostic criteria, therapeutic strategy, and pathophysiological etiology for this syndrome. PMID:23801138

  8. Behcet's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    NINDS Behcet's Disease Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Behcet's Disease? Is there ... Trials Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Behcet's Disease? Behcet's disease is a rare, chronic inflammatory ...

  9. Parkinson's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NINDS NINDS Parkinson's Disease Information Page Clinical Trials Biomarkers of Risk of Parkinson Disease This study determines if people with biomarkers for Parkinson’s disease actually develop the disease during ...

  10. Lentil Diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Major lentil diseases around the world have been described and reviewed. The major diseases include Ascochyta blight, Fusarium wilt, Botrytis Gray Mold, Lentil rust, Stemphylium blight, Anthracnose, and virus diseases. The management practices for these diseases are also presented....

  11. Meningococcal Disease

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    ... gets meningococcal disease? Meningococcal disease most often causes meningitis and blood infections. It may start like a ... Science: Putting a Face on Meningococcal Disease National Meningitis Association Facts about Meningococcal Disease for Adults adultvaccination. ...

  12. The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKDEPI) equation best characterizes kidney function in patients being considered for lung transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Osho, Asishana A.; Castleberry, Anthony W.; Snyder, Laurie D.; Palmer, Scott M.; Stafford-Smith, Mark; Lin, Shu S.; Davis, R. Duane; Hartwig, Matthew G.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Methods for direct measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are expensive and inconsistently applied across transplant centers. The Modified Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation is commonly used for GFR estimation, but is inaccurate for GFRs > 60 ml/min per 1.73 m2. The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKDEPI) and Wright equations have shown improved predictive capabilities in some patient populations. We compared these equations to determine which one correlates best with direct GFR measurement in lung transplant candidates. METHODS We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of 274 lung transplant recipients. Pre-operative GFR was measured directly using a radionuclide GFR assay. Results from the MDRD, CKDEPI, Wright, and Cockroft–Gault equations were compared with direct measurement. Findings were validated using logistic regression models and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses in looking at GFR as a predictor of mortality and renal function outcomes post-transplant. RESULTS Assessed against the radionuclide GFR measurement, CKDEPI provided the most consistent results, with low values for bias (0.78), relative standard error (0.03) and mean absolute percentage error (15.02). Greater deviation from radionuclide GFR was observed for all other equations. Pearson’s correlation between radionuclide and calculated GFR was significant for all equations. Regression and ROC analyses revealed equivalent utility of the radionuclide assay and GFR equations for predicting post-transplant acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS In patients being evaluated for lung transplantation, CKDEPI correlates closely with direct radionuclide GFR measurement and equivalently predicts post-operative renal outcomes. Transplant centers could consider replacing or supplementing direct GFR measurement with less expensive, more convenient estimation by using the CKDEPI equation. PMID:25107351

  13. Memory B-cell reconstitution following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is an EBV-associated transformation event.

    PubMed

    Burns, David M; Tierney, Rose; Shannon-Lowe, Claire; Croudace, Jo; Inman, Charlotte; Abbotts, Ben; Nagra, Sandeep; Fox, Christopher P; Chaganti, Sridhar; Craddock, Charles F; Moss, Paul; Rickinson, Alan B; Rowe, Martin; Bell, Andrew I

    2015-12-17

    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) provides a unique opportunity to track Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in the context of the reconstituting B-cell system. Although many allo-HSCT recipients maintain low or undetectable levels of EBV DNA posttransplant, a significant proportion exhibit elevated and rapidly increasing EBV loads which, if left untreated, may lead to potentially fatal EBV-associated posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease. Intriguingly, this high-level EBV reactivation typically arises in the first 3 months posttransplant, at a time when the peripheral blood contains low numbers of CD27(+) memory cells which are the site of EBV persistence in healthy immunocompetent donors. To investigate this apparent paradox, we prospectively monitored EBV levels and B-cell reconstitution in a cohort of allo-HSCT patients for up to 12 months posttransplant. In patients with low or undetectable levels of EBV, the circulating B-cell pool consisted predominantly of transitional and naive cells, with a marked deficiency of CD27(+) memory cells which lasted >12 months. However, among patients with high EBV loads, there was a significant increase in both the proportion and number of CD27(+) memory B cells. Analysis of sorted CD27(+) memory B cells from these patients revealed that this population was preferentially infected with EBV, expressed EBV latent transcripts associated with B-cell growth transformation, had a plasmablastic phenotype, and frequently expressed the proliferation marker Ki-67. These findings suggest that high-level EBV reactivation following allo-HSCT may drive the expansion of latently infected CD27(+) B lymphoblasts in the peripheral blood. PMID:26450987

  14. Human Herpes Virus-8-Associated Multicentric Castleman's Disease in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Patient with a Previous History of Kaposi's Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guan; Low, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    Human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8)–associated Castleman's disease (CD) is a rare non-cancerous B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients. We report a case of HHV-8–associated CD in an HIV-positive patient with a previous history of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). The patient presented with progressive splenomegaly and diffuse lymphadenopathy, which can be seen in multicentric CD, KS, and HIV-associated lymphoma. There are no reliable clinical or imaging features to differentiate these diseases. Lymph node biopsy confirmed HHV-8–associated CD and excluded KS and lymphoma. Due to differences in treatment options and prognosis between the three etiologies, it is important for radiologists to include HHV-8–associated CD in the differential diagnosis when encountering HIV-positive patients that present with diffuse lymphadenopathy. PMID:26664776

  15. Generalized autoimmune disease in interleukin-2-deficient mice is triggered by an uncontrolled activation and proliferation of CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Sadlack, B; Löhler, J; Schorle, H; Klebb, G; Haber, H; Sickel, E; Noelle, R J; Horak, I

    1995-11-01

    Interleukin-2-deficient mice (IL-2-/-) crossed to a BALB/c genetic background develop a lymphoproliferative syndrome with severe hemolytic anemia and die within 5 weeks of age. The presence of autoantibodies of various specificities and inflammatory lesions in several organs are indicative of a generalized auto-immune disease. No alterations of the immune system were observed in 6-day-old animals, but 10-day-old mice already showed an increased proliferation and polyclonal activation of lymphocytes. The treatment of IL-2-/- mice with anti-gp39(CD40L) antibody prevented the disease and indicated that the appearance of activated CD4- T cells (CD44high, CD69-) represents the first alteration of the immune system in IL-2-/- mice. Collectively, our results suggest that an essential role of IL-2 in vivo, which is not compensated by other cytokines, is the maintenance of self tolerance. PMID:7489743

  16. Epstein-Barr virus and human diseases: recent advances in diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Okano, M; Thiele, G M; Davis, J R; Grierson, H L; Purtilo, D T

    1988-01-01

    Since the discovery of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) from a cultured Burkitt's lymphoma cell line in 1964, the virus has been associated with Burkitt's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and infectious mononucleosis. During the recent decade, EBV has been etiologically implicated in a broad spectrum of human diseases. The precise role of this virus in these diseases is not well understood, but clearly, defective immunosurveillance against the virus may permit an uncontrolled proliferation of EBV-infected cells. As a result, a growing number of cases of EBV-associated B-cell proliferative diseases or lymphoma have been noted in patients with primary and acquired immunodeficiencies. These lymphoproliferative diseases and others, such as chronic mononucleosis syndrome, are leading to new areas of investigation which are providing information regarding the pathogenetic mechanisms of EBV-induced diseases. The early accurate diagnosis of EBV infection can be achieved by performing EBV-specific serology, detecting for EBV-determined nuclear antigen in tissues, establishing spontaneous lymphoid cell lines, and using molecular hybridization techniques for demonstrating the presence of viral genome in affected lesions. Images PMID:2848624

  17. Castleman's Disease Presenting as a Parotid Mass in the Pediatric Population: A Report of 2 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, Sean W.; Zhou, Shengmei; Maceri, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia (Castleman's disease) is a nonmalignant lymphoproliferative disorder that generally involves the lymph nodes of young adults, most commonly in the mediastinum. Rarely, Castleman's disease may present in the parotid gland. The disease can be further classified into unicentric or multicentric forms, with considerable differences in presentation, treatment, and prognosis. Case(s). We present cases of two pediatric patients, aged 7 and 11, who both presented with a slow-growing, painless parotid mass. In each case, the mass was excised via a superficial parotidectomy and the diagnosis made postoperatively upon further pathologic examination. At 6 months of follow-up, both had fully intact facial nerve function and no evidence of recurrence. Discussion. Castleman's disease presents a diagnostic challenge in the head and neck region, as radiographic characteristics and fine needle aspiration results are often inconclusive. Definitive diagnosis requires surgical excision for pathologic examination. The unicentric form generally presents as a painless mass and can be successfully treated with complete excision. The multicentric form is associated with constitutional symptoms and its treatment remains controversial. Conclusion. Although rare, clinicians should be aware of both forms of Castleman's disease when creating a differential diagnosis for parotid masses. PMID:26509092

  18. The Epstein-Barr Virus Lytic Protein BZLF1 as a Candidate Target Antigen for Vaccine Development.

    PubMed

    Hartlage, Alex S; Liu, Tom; Patton, John T; Garman, Sabrina L; Zhang, Xiaoli; Kurt, Habibe; Lozanski, Gerard; Lustberg, Mark E; Caligiuri, Michael A; Baiocchi, Robert A

    2015-07-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncogenic, ?-herpesvirus associated with a broad spectrum of disease. Although most immune-competent individuals can effectivley develop efficient adaptive immune responses to EBV, immunocompromised individuals are at serious risk for developing life-threatening diseases, such as Hodgkin lymphoma and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). Given the significant morbidity associated with EBV infection in high-risk populations, there is a need to develop vaccine strategies that restore or enhance EBV-specific immune responses. Here, we identify the EBV immediate-early protein BZLF1 as a potential target antigen for vaccine development. Primary tumors from patients with PTLD and a chimeric human-murine model of EBV-driven lymphoproliferative disorder (EBV-LPD) express BZLF1 protein. Pulsing human dendritic cells (DC) with recombinant BZLF1 followed by incubation with autologous mononuclear cells led to expansion of BZLF1-specific CD8(+) T cells in vitro and primed BZLF1-specific T-cell responses in vivo. In addition, vaccination of hu-PBL-SCID mice with BZLF1-transduced DCs induced specific cellular immunity and significantly prolonged survival from fatal EBV-LPD. These findings identify BZLF1 as a candidate target protein in the immunosurveillance of EBV and provide a rationale for considering BZLF1 in vaccine strategies to enhance primary and recall immune responses and potentially prevent EBV-associated diseases. PMID:25735952

  19. Kawasaki Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... treatment helps reduce the risk of Kawasaki disease affecting the coronary arteries and causing serious problems. Outlook Kawasaki disease can't be prevented. However, most children who have the disease usually recover within weeks ...

  20. Huntington's Disease

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    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited disease that causes certain nerve cells in the brain to waste away. ... express emotions. If one of your parents has Huntington's disease, you have a 50 percent chance of getting ...

  1. Alzheimer's Disease

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    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia among older people. Dementia is a brain disorder that ... higher if a family member has had the disease. No treatment can stop the disease. However, some ...

  2. Infectious Diseases

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    Infectious diseases kill more people worldwide than any other single cause. Infectious diseases are caused by germs. Germs are tiny living ... live NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  3. Bone Diseases

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    ... break Osteogenesis imperfecta makes your bones brittle Paget's disease of bone makes them weak Bone disease can make bones easy to break Bones can also develop cancer and infections Other bone diseases are caused by poor nutrition, genetic factors or ...

  4. Wilson Disease

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    ... Share External Link Disclaimer Digestive Diseases Wilson Disease Alternate Versions Wilson Disease (444 KB) You can also ... things psychosis—when a person loses contact with reality Other Signs and Symptoms Other signs and symptoms ...

  5. Binswanger's Disease

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    ... Binswanger's Disease? Binswanger's disease (BD), also called subcortical vascular dementia , is a type of dementia caused by widespread, ... Hope Through Research Information booklet about Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, and other types of dementia compiled by the ...

  6. Parkinson's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Digestive System How the Body Works Main Page Parkinson's Disease KidsHealth > Kids > Health Problems of Grown-Ups > ... symptoms of something called Parkinson's disease. What Is Parkinson's Disease? You may have seen the actor Michael ...

  7. Lyme Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Your Best Self Smart Snacking Losing Weight Safely Lyme Disease KidsHealth > Teens > Infections > Skin Infections & Rashes > Lyme ... Northwest, and the northern midwestern states. What Is Lyme Disease? People get Lyme disease through tick bites. ...

  8. Lyme Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    newsletter | contact Share | Lyme Disease Information for adults A A A Lyme disease frequently presents as a red or pink circle that is ... rash is noticed by the person affected. Overview Lyme disease is the result of infection with the ...

  9. Menkes Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... link in the menu on the left. Common Names Kinky hair disease Menkes disease Menkes syndrome Steely hair disease Medical or Scientific Names Congenital hypocupremia (pronounced kuhn-JEN-i-tl hahy- ...

  10. Bladder Diseases

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    ... frequent, urgent urination Bladder cancer Doctors diagnose bladder diseases using different tests. These include urine tests, x- ... National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  11. Discovery of Innovative Therapies for Rare Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases via Off-Label Prescription of Biologics: The Case of IL-6 Receptor Blockade in Castleman’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Musters, Anne; Assaf, Amira; Gerlag, Danielle M.; Tak, Paul P.; Tas, Sander W.

    2015-01-01

    Biologics have revolutionized the field of clinical immunology and proven to be both effective and safe in common immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, and various hematological disorders. However, in patients with rare, severe IMIDs failing on standard therapies, it is virtually impossible to conduct randomized controlled trials. Therefore, biologics are usually prescribed off-label in these often severely ill patients. Unfortunately, off-label prescription is sometimes hampered in these diseases due to a lack of reimbursement that is often based on a presumed lack of evidence for effectiveness. In the present article, we will discuss that off-label prescription of biologics can be a good way to discover new treatments for rare diseases. This will be illustrated using a case of multicentric Castleman’s disease, an immune-mediated lymphoproliferative disorder, in which off-label tocilizumab (humanized anti-IL-6 receptor blocking antibody) treatment resulted in remarkable clinical improvement. Furthermore, we will give recommendations for monitoring efficacy and safety of biologic treatment in rare IMIDs, including the use of registries. In conclusion, we put forward that innovative treatments for rare IMIDs can be discovered via off-label prescription of biologicals, provided that this is based on rational arguments including knowledge of the pathophysiology of the disease. PMID:26697019

  12. Basiliximab treatment for autoimmune bowel disease in a pediatric heart transplant patient.

    PubMed

    Puri, K; Kocoshis, S; Risma, K; Perez, L; Hart, C; Chin, C; Ryan, T D; Jefferies, J L; Schumacher, K R; Castleberry, C

    2015-11-01

    Autoimmune-mediated bowel disease has been reported after pediatric heart transplantation. Recognition and treatment of these patients has been difficult. We describe a patient who responded to steroids and basiliximab therapy after an inflammatory process secondary to abnormal T-cell activation. Our patient is a 28-month-old female who received a heart transplant at five wk of age. At 24 months post-transplant, she developed fever and bloody stools. Initial investigations were significant for an elevated ESR (>120) and CRP (15.2). Symptoms persisted despite bowel rest and mycophenolate discontinuation. Endoscopic evaluation revealed discontinuous ulcerative disease involving esophagus, terminal ileum, right and left colon, necessitating extensive bowel resection. She had additional airway inflammation leading to a TEF at the site of esophageal ulceration, requiring tracheostomy. Immune evaluation revealed autoimmune dysregulation that responded to parenteral methylprednisolone. Chronic basiliximab therapy allowed for successful weaning of steroids with sustained remission. She has been transitioned to sirolimus and tacrolimus maintenance immunosuppression with plans to discontinue basiliximab once off steroids. In conclusion, bowel disease in the setting of pediatric heart transplantation can be severe and refractory to traditional treatment methods. Tailoring immune therapy to activated T cells can result in remission. Basiliximab therapy was used in our patient to maintain steroid-induced remission, but long-term complications of this disease process are unknown. PMID:26374667

  13. Fatal Outcome of Multiple Clinical Presentations of Human Herpesvirus 8-related Disease After Solid Organ Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Vijgen, Sandrine; Wyss, Caroline; Meylan, Pascal; Bisig, Bettina; Letovanec, Igor; Manuel, Oriol; Pascual, Manuel; de Leval, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma is the most common human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8)-related disease described after solid organ transplantation. Multicentric Castleman disease and hemophagocytic syndrome are other potential HHV-8-induced entities but are less frequently reported. We describe the case of a liver transplant recipient who presented with an acute febrile illness 1 year after transplantation with a rapidly fatal outcome. Autopsy revealed 3 distinct HHV-8-related entities: Kaposi sarcoma, HHV-8-associated multicentric Castleman disease with microlymphomas and a severe hemophagocytic syndrome. Retrospective serologic tests suggested that HHV-8 was likely transmitted by the seropositive donor at the time of transplantation. To our knowledge, this is the first case of copresentation of 3 clinical presentations of HHV-8-mediated human disease in the post-transplant setting. Considering the absence of systematic screening of organ donors/recipients for HHV-8 infection, HHV-8-related illness should be suspected in transplant recipients who present with acute febrile illness, systemic symptoms, lymphadenopathies, and/or multiorgan failure to rapidly document the diagnosis and provide timely an adequate treatment. PMID:26120765

  14. Heart Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you're like most people, you think that heart disease is a problem for others. But heart disease is the number one killer in the ... of disability. There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease ...

  15. Newcastle disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newcastle disease (ND), referred to as Exotic Newcastle disease (END) in the U. S., is an acute viral disease of domestic poultry and many other bird species and a recognized worldwide problem. Occurrence of END is due to an infection with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and is a ...

  16. Cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    2015-10-21

    Essential facts Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an umbrella term for all diseases of the heart and blood vessels. It includes coronary heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, stroke and transient ischaemic attack. CVD is the leading cause of death in England and Wales, accounting for almost one third of all deaths. PMID:26488967

  17. Epstein-Barr virus-negative, CD5-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma developing after treatment with oral tacrolimus for mixed connective tissue disease : a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Yasunobu; Shimada, Asami; Imai, Hidenori; Wakabayashi, Mutsumi; Sugimoto, Keiji; Nakamura, Noriko; Sawada, Tomonori; Komatsu, Norio; Noguchi, Masaaki

    2012-01-01

    A 69-year-old woman, who had been diagnosed as having Sjögren's syndrome at 37 years old and mixed connective tissue disease at 42 years old, was under treatment with oral prednisolone. In 2009, she was diagnosed as having active systemic lupus erythematosus, and started on treatment with tacrolimus at 3 mg/day. In 2010, para-aortic lymphadenopathy and superficial multiple lymphadenopathy were detected. Tacrolimus was discontinued. Axillary lymph node biopsy revealed Epstein-Barr (EB) virus-negative CD5-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The patient was classified into clinical stage IIIA and as being at high risk according to the international prognostic index. After the discontinuation of tacrolimus, the lymph nodes reduced temporarily in size. In January 2011, the lymphadenopathy increased again, and the patient received a total of 8 courses of therapy with rituximab, pirarubicin, vincristine, cyclophosphamide and prednisolone, followed by intrathecal injection to prevent central nervous system infiltration, which was followed by complete remission. In February 2012, fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed relapse in multiple lymph nodes and central nervous system infiltration. The patient was considered to have iatrogenic lymphoproliferative disorder classified as "other iatrogenic immunodeficiency-associated lymphoproliferative disorders" by the WHO, and this is the first reported case of CD5-positive DLBCL and central nervous system infiltration following administration of the drug. The patient was considered to have a poor prognosis as EB virus was negative, discontinuation of tacrolimus was ineffective and there was evidence of central nervous system infiltration. PMID:23269082

  18. High-Dose Y-90-Ibritumomab Tiuxetan Added to Reduced-Intensity Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant Regimen for Relapsed or Refractory Aggressive B-Cell Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-12

    Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Burkitt Lymphoma; Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

  19. Cyclophosphamide for Prevention of Graft-Versus-Host Disease After Allogeneic Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients With Hematological Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-04

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Philadelphia Chromosome Negative Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Multiple Myeloma; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  20. Genetics Home Reference: Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is ALPS? ALPS is a rare disorder; its prevalence is unknown. More than 200 affected individuals have ... lymphoma ; mutation ; neurological ; neutropenia ; ovarian ; panniculitis ; platelets ; population ; prevalence ; protein ; recessive ; somatic mutation ; splenomegaly ; syndrome ; thrombocytopenia ; uveitis ; ...

  1. Outcomes after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant for Children with I-Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Troy C.; Cathey, Sara S.; Miller, Weston P.; Eapen, Mary; Andreansky, Martin; Dvorak, Christopher C.; Davis, Jeffrey H.; Dalal, Jignesh D.; Devine, Steven M.; Eames, Gretchen M.; Ferguson, William S.; Giller, Roger H.; He, Wensheng; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Krance, Robert; Katsanis, Emmanuel; Lewis, Victor A.; Sahdev, Indira; Orchard, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Mucolipidosis type II (MLII), or I-Cell Disease, is a rare, but severe disorder affecting localization of enzymes to the lysosome, generally resulting in death before the 10th birthday. Although hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) has been used to successfully treat some lysosomal storage diseases, there have been only two case reports in the use of HSCT to treat MLII. For the first time, we describe the combined international experience in the use of HSCT for MLII in 22 patients. Although 95% of the patients engrafted, the overall survival was low with only 6 patients (27%) alive at last follow-up. The most common cause of death post-transplant was cardiovascular complications, most likely due to disease progression. Survivors were globally delayed in development, and often required complex medical support such as gastrostomy tubes for nutrition, and tracheostomy with mechanical ventilation. Although HSCT has demonstrated efficacy in treating some lysosomal storage disorders, the neurologic outcome and survival for patents with MLII were poor. Therefore new medical and cellular therapies should be sought for these patients. PMID:25016194

  2. Zoonotic Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Publications Presentations and Podcasts Training Related Links Related Links One Health Office One Health Office Mission Zoonotic ... discussions about zoonotic diseases and One Health. Related Links Gastrointestinal (Enteric) Diseases from Animals Related Links One ...

  3. Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ...

  4. Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Your Best Self Smart Snacking Losing Weight Safely Kidney Disease KidsHealth > Teens > Diseases & Conditions > Kidneys & Urinary System > ... Syndrome Coping With Kidney Conditions What Do the Kidneys Do? You might never think much about some ...

  5. Colonic Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... where your body makes and stores stool. Many disorders affect the colon's ability to work properly. Some ... abdominal cramping and other symptoms Treatment for colonic diseases varies greatly depending on the disease and its ...

  6. Huntington's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is Huntington's Disease? Huntington's disease (HD) results from genetically programmed degeneration of brain cells, called neurons, in ... the NINDS or the NIH is appreciated. Last Modified April 19, 2015 National Institute of Neurological Disorders ...

  7. Wilson Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Share External Link Disclaimer Digestive Diseases Wilson Disease Alternate Versions PDF Version? (444 KB) You can also ... things psychosis—when a person loses contact with reality Other Signs and Symptoms Other signs and symptoms ...

  8. Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Digestive System How the Body Works Main Page Heart Disease KidsHealth > Kids > Health Problems of Grown-Ups > ... chest pain, heart attacks, and strokes . What Is Heart Disease? The heart is the center of the ...

  9. Mycobacterial Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NIAID clinical studies on ClinicalTrials.gov . ? Related Links Tuberculosis Leprosy (Hansen's Disease) National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus ... coats that can be found throughout the world. Tuberculosis and leprosy (Hansen’s disease) are the best known ...

  10. Chagas disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Chagas disease is an illness spread by insects. It is common in South and Central America. ... Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. It is spread by the bite of reduviid bugs ...

  11. Hashimoto's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... print versions from our online catalog. ? Additional Links Hypothyroidism Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease Thyroid Tests Find a ... disease often leads to reduced thyroid function, or hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism is a disorder that occurs when the ...

  12. Huntington disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Huntington disease is a disorder in which nerve cells in certain parts of the brain waste away, or ... Huntington disease is caused by a genetic defect on chromosome 4. The defect causes a part of DNA, ...

  13. Lyme Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Lyme disease is a bacterial infection you get from the bite of an infected tick. The first symptom ... Muscle and joint aches A stiff neck Fatigue Lyme disease can be hard to diagnose because you may ...

  14. Tickborne Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on a blade of grass. Credit: CDC. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, a bacterial disease transmitted by the ... Ehrlichiosis and Anaplasmosis Lyme Disease Relapsing Fever Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Tularemia back to top ???? Last Updated ...

  15. Graves' Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... our online catalog. ? Additional Links Hashimoto's Disease Hyperthyroidism Hypothyroidism Pregnancy & Thyroid Disease Thyroid Tests Find a Specialist ... everyone who receives radioactive iodine treatment eventually develops hypothyroidism, which occurs when the thyroid does not make ...

  16. Hashimoto's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... disease often leads to reduced thyroid function, or hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism is a disorder that occurs when the thyroid ... Hashimoto’s disease is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in the United States. 1 Read more in ...

  17. Parkinson's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a type of movement disorder. It happens when nerve cells in the brain don't ... coordination As symptoms get worse, people with the disease may have trouble walking, talking, or doing simple ...

  18. Raynaud's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Raynaud's disease is a rare disorder of the blood vessels, usually in the fingers and toes. It causes the ... secondary Raynaud's, which is caused by injuries, other diseases, or certain medicines. People in colder climates are ...

  19. Meniere's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Meniere's disease is a disorder of the inner ear. It can cause severe dizziness, a roaring sound in your ... together over several days. Some people with Meniere's disease have "drop attacks" during which the dizziness is ...

  20. Fifth Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Fifth disease is a viral infection caused by parvovirus B19. The virus only infects humans; it's not the same parvovirus that dogs and cats can get. Fifth disease mostly affects children. Symptoms can include a low ...

  1. Legionnaires' Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Legionnaires' disease is a type of pneumonia caused by bacteria. You usually get it by breathing in mist from ... spread from person to person. Symptoms of Legionnaires' disease include high fever, chills, a cough, and sometimes ...

  2. Chagas Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Chagas disease is caused by a parasite. It is common in Latin America but not in the United States. ... nose, the bite wound or a cut. The disease can also spread through contaminated food, a blood ...

  3. Addison Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... blood pressure and water and salt balance. Addison disease happens if the adrenal glands don't make ... problem with your immune system usually causes Addison disease. The immune system mistakenly attacks your own tissues, ...

  4. Eye Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the back of the eye Macular degeneration - a disease that destroys sharp, central vision Diabetic eye problems ... defense is to have regular checkups, because eye diseases do not always have symptoms. Early detection and ...

  5. Endocrine Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... low, you may have a hormone disorder. Hormone diseases also occur if your body does not respond ... In the United States, the most common endocrine disease is diabetes. There are many others. They are ...

  6. Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a bug bite, or sexual contact. Some parasitic diseases are easily treated and some are not. Parasites ... be seen with the naked eye. Some parasitic diseases occur in the United States. Contaminated water supplies ...

  7. Gaucher Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Gaucher disease is a rare, inherited disorder in which you do not have enough of an enzyme called glucocerebrosidase. ... It usually starts in childhood or adolescence. Gaucher disease has no cure. Treatment options for types 1 ...

  8. Liver Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... remove poisons. There are many kinds of liver diseases. Viruses cause some of them, like hepatitis A, ... the skin, can be one sign of liver disease. Cancer can affect the liver. You could also ...

  9. Wilson Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Wilson disease is a rare inherited disorder that prevents your body from getting rid of extra copper. You need ... copper into bile, a digestive fluid. With Wilson disease, the copper builds up in your liver, and ...

  10. Leigh's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Leigh's disease can be caused by mutations in mitochondrial DNA or by deficiencies of an enzyme called pyruvate ... kidney function. In Leigh’s disease, genetic mutations in mitochondrial DNA interfere with the energy sources that run cells ...

  11. Fifth Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Parvovirus B19 and Fifth Disease Note: Javascript is disabled ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parvovirus Home About Parvovirus B19 Fifth Disease Pregnancy and ...

  12. Fifth disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Parvovirus B19; Erythema infectiosum; Slapped cheek rash ... Fifth disease is caused by human parvovirus B19. It often affects preschoolers or school-age children during the spring. The disease spreads through the fluids in the nose and ...

  13. Celiac Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... problems in your small intestine when you eat gluten, a protein found in wheat, rye, and barley. Gluten is poison to people who have celiac disease. What does gluten do to people who have celiac disease? In ...

  14. Celiac Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the disease over time. Long-term complications include malnutrition liver diseases intestinal cancer lymphoma [ Top ] What other ... care provider usually examines the patient's body for malnutrition or a rash uses a stethoscope to listen ...

  15. Hirschsprung Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Digestive System Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Inflammatory Bowel Disease X-Ray Exam: Upper Gastrointestinal Tract (Upper GI) Irritable Bowel Syndrome Inflammatory Bowel Disease Your Digestive System Constipation ...

  16. Wildlife Diseases 

    E-print Network

    Texas Wildlife Services

    2007-03-13

    Some wildlife diseases can be transmitted to humans. This leaflet explains the causes and symptoms of rabies, giardiasis, bubonic plague, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, tularemia, leptospirosis and histoplasmosis....

  17. Fungal Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... flu or tuberculosis. Some fungal diseases like fungal meningitis and bloodstream infections are less common than skin and lung infections but can be deadly. Types of fungal diseases Read about different types of ...

  18. Gaucher Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... common of the inherited metabolic disorder known as lipid storage diseases. Lipids are fatty materials that include oils, fatty acids, ... research to find ways to treat and prevent lipid storage disorders such as Gaucher disease. For example, ...

  19. Sandhoff Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sandhoff Disease? Sandhoff disease is a rare, inherited lipid storage disorder that progressively destroys nerve cells in ... results in the harmful accumulation of certain fats (lipids) in the brain and other organs of the ...

  20. Meniere's Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schessel, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Meniere's disease is characterized by unpredictable spells of severe vertigo and fluctuations in hearing and tinnitus. This article discusses the incidence of Meniere's disease, the present status of our understanding of this disease, controversies in its diagnosis, and the multiple therapeutic modalities recruited in its treatment. (Contains…

  1. Canavan Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... prognosis? What research is being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Canavan Disease? Canavan disease is a gene-linked neurological disorder in which the brain degenerates into spongy tissue riddled with microscopic fluid-filled spaces. Canavan disease has been classified as one of ...

  2. Prostate Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    Aging & Health A to Z Prostate Diseases Basic Facts & Information What are Prostate Diseases? The prostate—one of the components of a man's sex organs—is a ... out anything serious. The Most Common Types of Prostate Diseases Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) Prostatitis Prostate cancer ...

  3. Meniere's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Overview What is Meniere's disease? Meniere's (say: "men-ears") disease is a problem with your inner ear. No ... a build up of fluid in the inner ear. Although it can be troublesome, Meniere's disease is not contagious, and it isn't fatal. ...

  4. Lyme Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    newsletter | contact Share | Lyme Disease A parent's guide to condition and treatment information A A A Lyme disease may simply be displayed as a subtle ... rather than the classic bull's-eye rash. Overview Lyme disease is the result of infection with the ...

  5. Lyme Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, George C.

    1991-01-01

    This overview of the public health significance of Lyme disease includes the microbiological specifics of the infectious spirochete, the entomology and ecology of the ticks which are the primary disease carrier, the clinical aspects and treatment stages, the known epidemiological patterns, and strategies for disease control and for expanded public…

  6. Celiac Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... symptoms in children. Some people have no symptoms. Celiac disease is genetic. Blood tests can help your doctor diagnose the disease. Your doctor may also need to examine a small piece of tissue from your small ... National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  7. Addison's disease.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Soumya Brata; Sarkar, Subrata; Ghosh, Supratim; Bandyopadhyay, Subhankar

    2012-10-01

    Addison's disease is a rare endocrinal disorder, with several oral and systemic manifestations. A variety of pathological processes may cause Addison's disease. Classically, hyperpigmentation is associated with the disease, and intraoral pigmentation is perceived as the initial sign and develops earlier than the dermatological pigmentation. The symptoms of the disease usually progress slowly and an event of illness or accident can make the condition worse and may lead to a life-threatening crisis. In this case, several oral as well as systemic manifestation of the Addison's disease was encountered. PMID:23633816

  8. Use of EQUORAL in de novo renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Zadrazil, Josef; Jabry, Sadek Al; Bachleda, Petr; Gibejová, Agáta

    2004-12-01

    This paper presents our experience to date with using a cyclosporine formulation Equoral (IVAX Pharmaceuticals) together with mycophenolate mofetil plus a steroid immunosuppressive regimen in the treatment of de novo renal transplant recipients. Ten cadaveric donor renal transplant recipients of mean age 51.6 years (range 37-66) were followed up over 6 months for the development of rejection attacks and side effects. All patients received prednisolone, mycophenolate mofetil (1 g/day during the first 5 days posttransplant and then 20 mg/kg/day) plus cyclosporine (3 mg/kg/day). Biopsy proven acute rejection episodes were observed in 2 out of 10 patients (20%). Six months patient as well as renal graft survival rate was 100%. The development of graft function was immediate after transplantation. The mean serum creatinine levels were gradually decreased. Over the 6-month posttransplant period, the function of the graft was satisfactory and stable. The majority of observed adverse events were those commonly reported with the use of cyclosporine and they resolved with a reduction in cyclosporine dose. Equoral treatment demonstrated an acceptable safety profile with maintenance of adequate renal function without incidence of malignancy/lymphoproliferative disease or serious infections. In conclusion, Equoral plus mycophenolate mofetil immunosuppression seems effective and safe on terms acute rejection rates, patient and renal graft survival rates and side profiles. PMID:15744368

  9. DiseasesWorld DiseasesWorld

    E-print Network

    MacDonald, Andrew

    : Mosquito bite. Around half of the world's population are at risk of malaria (3.3 billion people). #12World DiseasesWorld DiseasesWorld World World Diseases Diseases Diseases Diseases Diseases DiseasesWorld Diseases #12;Prevalence (people) 8.6million Deathsperyear 1.3million Geographicaldistribution worldwide

  10. [Social diseases, civilization diseases or lifestyle diseases?].

    PubMed

    Betlejewski, Stans?aw

    2007-01-01

    In general, the development of civilization is viewed as a positive step for the well-being of the human species, leading to an increased duration and quality of life. The accelerated progress of civilization (mainly industrialization, urbanization and nutrition) has lead to new possibilities for adverse effects on human health. In former high civilization--like old Egypt, Greece, Roman, Chinese, Indian, Maya civilizations--the "modem civilization diseases" were unknown. Modem science through improved sanitation, vaccination and antibiotics as well as improved social and economical conditions, has eliminated the threat of death from most infectious diseases. In the years after World War II the social, economic and health conditions changed. Most deaths have resulted from heart disease, stroke, cancer and other diseases as a result of an inappropriate relationship of people with their environment and changed lifestyle. Lifestyle diseases are different from other diseases because they are potentially preventable and can be lowered with changes in diet, lifestyle and environment. PMID:18350729

  11. Lyme Disease

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Thomas S.; Shapiro, Eugene D.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis Lyme disease, caused by spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States. The clinical presentation varies depending on the stage of the illness: early disease includes erthyma migrans, early disseminated disease includes multiple erythema migrans, meningitis, cranial nerve palsies and carditis; late disease is primarily arthritis. The symptoms and signs of infection resolve in the vast majority of patients after appropriate treatment with antimicrobials for from 2-4 weeks. Serologic testing should be used judiciously as it often results in misdiagnosis when performed on blood from patients with a low prior probability of disease and those with non-specific symptoms such as fatigue or arthralgia without signs of infection. PMID:20513553

  12. Gaucher Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nagral, Aabha

    2014-01-01

    Gaucher disease is the commonest lysosomal storage disease seen in India and worldwide. It should be considered in any child or adult with an unexplained splenohepatomegaly and cytopenia which are seen in the three types of Gaucher disease. Type 1 is the non-neuronopathic form and type 2 and 3 are the neuronopathic forms. Type 2 is a more severe neuronopathic form leading to mortality by 2 years of age. Definitive diagnosis is made by a blood test–the glucocerebrosidase assay. There is no role for histological examination of the bone marrow, liver or spleen for diagnosis of the disease. Molecular studies for mutations are useful for confirming diagnosis, screening family members and prognosticating the disease. A splenectomy should not be performed except for palliation or when there is no response to enzyme replacement treatment or no possibility of getting any definitive treatment. Splenectomy may worsen skeletal and lung manifestations in Gaucher disease. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has completely revolutionized the prognosis and is now the standard of care for patients with this disease. Best results are seen in type 1 disease with good resolution of splenohepatomegaly, cytopenia and bone symptoms. Neurological symptoms in type 3 disease need supportive care. ERT is of no benefit in type 2 disease. Monitoring of patients on ERT involves evaluation of growth, blood counts, liver and spleen size and biomarkers such as chitotriosidase which reflect the disease burden. Therapy with ERT is very expensive and though patients in India have so far got the drug through a charitable access programme, there is a need for the government to facilitate access to treatment for this potentially curable disease. Bone marrow transplantation is an inferior option but may be considered when access to expensive ERT is not possible. PMID:25755533

  13. Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Truth National Awareness Campaign for Women about Heart Disease National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) National Cholesterol Education Program National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) ...

  14. Siltuximab: A Review in Idiopathic (Human Herpesvirus-8-Negative) Multicentric Castleman Disease.

    PubMed

    Lyseng-Williamson, Katherine A

    2015-12-01

    Siltuximab (Sylvant™), an interleukin (IL)-6 chimeric immunoglobulin G? monoclonal antibody, is a currently the only agent approved to treat human idiopathic (herpesvirus-8 negative) multicentric Castleman disease (iMCD), which is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder. iMCD is caused by dysregulated production of IL-6 in the lymph nodes, and is associated with high morbidity, and potentially fatal consequences. Siltuximab binds to human IL-6 with high affinity and specificity, thereby preventing it from binding to IL-6 receptors, and neutralizing IL-6 bioactivity. In clinical trials in patients with iMCD, siltuximab reduced levels of C-reactive protein (a biomarker for IL-6), and provided clinical responses. Relative to placebo, the addition of siltuximab to best supportive care improved tumor- and symptom-related outcomes, with patients also reporting improvements in MCD symptoms, functional status, and well-being. Siltuximab has an acceptable tolerability profile, with the majority of treatment-emergent adverse events being manageable and/or of mild severity. In the absence of a cure, siltuximab represents a significant achievement in the management of this difficult-to-treat orphan disease. PMID:26394632

  15. Liver transplantation for alcoholic liver disease: Lessons learned and unresolved issues.

    PubMed

    Ursic-Bedoya, José; Faure, Stéphanie; Donnadieu-Rigole, Hélène; Pageaux, Georges-Philippe

    2015-10-21

    The use of liver transplantation (LT) as a treatment for alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has been highly controversial since the beginning. The ever increasing shortage of organs has accentuated the low priority given to patients suffering from ALD, which is considered a "self-inflicted" condition. However, by improving the long-term survival rates, making them similar to those from other indications, and recognizing that alcoholism is a primary disease, ALD has become one of the most common indications for LT in Europe and North America, a situation thought unfathomable thirty years ago. Unfortunately, there are still many issues with the use of this procedure for ALD. There are significant relapse rates, and the consequences of excessive drinking after LT range from asymptomatic biochemical and histological abnormalities to graft failure and death. A minimum three-month period of sobriety is required for an improvement in liver function, thus making LT unnecessary, and to demonstrate the patient's commitment to the project, even though a longer abstinence period does not guarantee lower relapse rates after LT. Recent data have shown that LT is also effective for severe alcoholic hepatitis when the patient is unresponsive to corticosteroids therapy, with low relapse rates in highly selected patients, although these results must be confirmed before LT becomes a standard procedure in this setting. Finally, LT for ALD is accompanied by an increased risk of de novo solid organ cancer, skin cancer, and lymphoproliferative disorders, which has a large impact on the survival rates. PMID:26494956

  16. Liver transplantation for alcoholic liver disease: Lessons learned and unresolved issues

    PubMed Central

    Ursic-Bedoya, José; Faure, Stéphanie; Donnadieu-Rigole, Hélène; Pageaux, Georges-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The use of liver transplantation (LT) as a treatment for alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has been highly controversial since the beginning. The ever increasing shortage of organs has accentuated the low priority given to patients suffering from ALD, which is considered a “self-inflicted” condition. However, by improving the long-term survival rates, making them similar to those from other indications, and recognizing that alcoholism is a primary disease, ALD has become one of the most common indications for LT in Europe and North America, a situation thought unfathomable thirty years ago. Unfortunately, there are still many issues with the use of this procedure for ALD. There are significant relapse rates, and the consequences of excessive drinking after LT range from asymptomatic biochemical and histological abnormalities to graft failure and death. A minimum three-month period of sobriety is required for an improvement in liver function, thus making LT unnecessary, and to demonstrate the patient’s commitment to the project, even though a longer abstinence period does not guarantee lower relapse rates after LT. Recent data have shown that LT is also effective for severe alcoholic hepatitis when the patient is unresponsive to corticosteroids therapy, with low relapse rates in highly selected patients, although these results must be confirmed before LT becomes a standard procedure in this setting. Finally, LT for ALD is accompanied by an increased risk of de novo solid organ cancer, skin cancer, and lymphoproliferative disorders, which has a large impact on the survival rates. PMID:26494956

  17. Esophageal Dysmotility, Gastro-esophageal Reflux Disease, and Lung Transplantation: What Is the Evidence?

    PubMed

    Wood, Richard K

    2015-12-01

    Lung transplantation is an effective and life-prolonging therapy for patients with advanced lung disease (ALD). However, long-term patient survival following lung transplantation is primarily limited by development of an inflammatory and fibrotic process involving the lung allograft known as bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). Although the precise cause of BOS remains uncertain and is likely multifactorial, chronic aspiration of gastro-duodenal contents is one possible contributing factor. Multiple small, cross-sectional studies performed over the past two decades have reported a high prevalence of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) and esophageal dysmotility in the ALD population and several investigations suggest the prevalence may increase following lung transplantation. More recent studies evaluating the direct effect of gastro-duodenal contents on airways have demonstrated a possible biologic link between GERD and BOS. Despite the recent advances in our understanding of BOS, further investigations are needed to establish GERD as a causative factor in its development. This review will discuss the existing literature that has identified an association of GERD with ALD and post-transplant populations, with a focus on recent advances in the field. PMID:26454656

  18. Effects of Mixed Chimerism and Immune Modulation on GVHD, Disease Recurrence and Survival after HLA-identical Marrow Transplantation for Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo-Jeong; Min, Woo-Sung; Yang, Il-Ho; Kim, Hee-Je; Min, Chang-Ki; Eom, Hyeon-Seok; Kim, Dong-Wook; Han, Chi-Wha; Lee, Jong-Wook; Kim, Chun-Choo

    2000-01-01

    Background The success of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT) is affected by underlying disease relapse. Although mixed chimerism (MC) is not necessarily a poor prognostic factor, several groups have suggested that MC is associated with an increased risk of disease relapse. There is evidence that patients with MC benefit from additional immunotherapy if the treatment is started in minimal residual disease status (mixed chimerism status), not in frank hematological relapse. The purposes of this study are to evaluate 1) the risk for relapse or graft rejection in correlation to persistent MC status after allo-BMT, and 2) the possibility of preventing relapse by immune modulation treatments (withdrawal or rapid taper-off of post-transplant immuno-suppression, additional interferon treatment, or the administration of donor lymphocytes) in hematologic malignancies. Patients and Methods Of 337 allogeneic donor-recipient pairs between March 1996 and August 1998, 12 patients who showed persistent or progressive MC and who received immune modulation treatments were evaluated. Twelve patients, median age 31 years (range 9 to 39 years), received an allo-BMT for: acute myelogenous leukemia (AML, n = 5), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML, n = 4), acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL, n = 3). Serial polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of YNZ 22-, 33.6-minisatellites or Y chromosome-specific PCR analysis at short term intervals (pre-and post-transplant 1, 3, 6, 9, … months) was performed. Once MC was detected, immune modulation treatments on the basis of increasing MC in an early phase of recurrence of underlying disease were started. Results Nine of 12 patients converted to complete chimerism (CC) (AML 5/5, CML 3/4, ALL 1/3). Four of 9 CC patients developed graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) grade ?2 during immune modulation. All were treated successfully with steroids. Three patients who were not converted to CC showed relapse of underlying diseases or graft failure. Conclusion The results demonstrate that, in patients with hematologic malignancies after allo-BMT, persistent MC is associated with relapse of underlying diseases or graft failure. Furthermore, when patients receive early immune modulation treatment, MC can be changed to complete donor pattern chimerism and ultimately prevent relapse. PMID:11242811

  19. Alpers' Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... by mutation in the gene for the mitochondrial DNA polymerase POLG. The disease occurs in about one in 100,000 persons. Most individuals with Alpers' disease do not show ... the mitochondrial DNA depletion, so that these depletion studies cannot be ...

  20. Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Kidney Disease What is Kidney Disease? What the Kidneys Do Click for more information You have two ... damaged, wastes can build up in the body. Kidney Function and Aging Kidney function may be reduced ...

  1. Kawasaki Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to keep your child home from school or day care until he or she feels strong enough to return. Symptoms What are the symptoms of Kawasaki disease? Children who have Kawasaki disease have a fever (sometimes as high as 104°F) for 5 days or longer. Usually, they also have at least ...

  2. Newcastle disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The focus of this chapter, are viruses of avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 (APMV-1). All isolates of APMV-1 are of one serotype and are referred to as Newcastle disease viruses (NDV). Newcastle disease (ND) is caused only by infections with virulent isolates of APMV-1 (virulent NDV or vNDV). Virulent ...

  3. Cardiovascular Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), particularly CHD (coronary heart disease) and stroke, remain the leading causes of death of women in America and most developed countries. In recent years the rate of CVD has declined in men but not in women. This is contributed to by an under-recognition of women’s C...

  4. Liver disease.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    Essential facts Liver disease is the fifth biggest killer in the UK and, according to the British Liver Trust, the only major cause of death still increasing year on year. NHS Choices says there are more than 100 different types of liver disease affecting at least two million people in the UK at any one time. PMID:26530565

  5. Beryllium disease.

    PubMed Central

    Jones Williams, W.

    1988-01-01

    The increasing use of beryllium in a variety of industries continues to be a hazard. New cases are still being reported to the UK Beryllium Case Registry, now numbering 60 in the period 1945-1988. The majority of cases follow inhalation which results in acute beryllium disease (chemical pneumonitis) or more commonly chronic beryllium disease--a granulomatous pneumonitis. Granulomatous skin nodules also occur following local implantation. The clinical and radiological features are briefly described with the emphasis on pathology and immunology. Laser microprobe mass spectrometry analysis of tissue sections is a major advance in diagnosis. Detection of beryllium distinguishes the granulomas of chronic beryllium disease from other diseases, in particular sarcoidosis. The role of beryllium lymphocyte transformation tests is discussed. Chronic beryllium disease is steroid dependent and local excision of skin lesions appears to be curative. There is no evidence that beryllium is carcinogenic. Images Figure 1 PMID:3074283

  6. Prolonged sirolimus administration after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation is associated with decreased risk for moderate-severe chronic graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Pidala, Joseph; Kim, Jongphil; Alsina, Melissa; Ayala, Ernesto; Betts, Brian C; Fernandez, Hugo F; Field, Teresa; Jim, Heather; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamed A; Locke, Frederick L; Mishra, Asmita; Nishihori, Taiga; Ochoa-Bayona, Leonel; Perez, Lia; Riches, Marcie; Anasetti, Claudio

    2015-07-01

    Effective pharmacological strategies employed in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation should prevent serious chronic graft-versus-host disease and facilitate donor-recipient immune tolerance. Based on demonstrated pro-tolerogenic activity, sirolimus (rapamycin) is an agent with promise to achieve these goals. In a long-term follow-up analysis of a randomized phase II trial comparing sirolimus/tacrolimus versus methotrexate/tacrolimus for graft-versus-host disease prevention in matched sibling or unrelated donor transplant, we examined the impact of prolonged sirolimus administration (? 1 year post-transplant). Median follow-up time for surviving patients at time of this analysis was 41 months (range 27-60) for sirolimus/tacrolimus and 49 months (range 29-63) for methotrexate/tacrolimus. Sirolimus/tacrolimus patients had significantly lower National Institutes of Health Consensus moderate-severe chronic graft-versus-host disease (34% vs. 65%; P=0.004) and late acute graft-versus-host disease (20% vs. 43%; P=0.04). While sirolimus/tacrolimus patients had lower prednisone exposure and earlier discontinuation of tacrolimus (median time to tacrolimus discontinuation 368 days vs. 821 days; P=0.002), there was no significant difference in complete immune suppression discontinuation (60-month estimate: 43% vs. 31%; P=0.78). Prolonged sirolimus administration represents a viable approach to mitigate risk for moderate-severe chronic and late acute graft-versus-host disease. Further study of determinants of successful immune suppression discontinuation is needed. PMID:25840599

  7. Prolonged sirolimus administration after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation is associated with decreased risk for moderate-severe chronic graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Pidala, Joseph; Kim, Jongphil; Alsina, Melissa; Ayala, Ernesto; Betts, Brian C.; Fernandez, Hugo F.; Field, Teresa; Jim, Heather; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamed A.; Locke, Frederick L.; Mishra, Asmita; Nishihori, Taiga; Ochoa-Bayona, Leonel; Perez, Lia; Riches, Marcie; Anasetti, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Effective pharmacological strategies employed in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation should prevent serious chronic graft-versus-host disease and facilitate donor-recipient immune tolerance. Based on demonstrated pro-tolerogenic activity, sirolimus (rapamycin) is an agent with promise to achieve these goals. In a long-term follow-up analysis of a randomized phase II trial comparing sirolimus/tacrolimus versus methotrexate/tacrolimus for graft-versus-host disease prevention in matched sibling or unrelated donor transplant, we examined the impact of prolonged sirolimus administration (? 1 year post-transplant). Median follow-up time for surviving patients at time of this analysis was 41 months (range 27–60) for sirolimus/tacrolimus and 49 months (range 29–63) for methotrexate/tacrolimus. Sirolimus/tacrolimus patients had significantly lower National Institutes of Health Consensus moderate-severe chronic graft-versus-host disease (34% vs. 65%; P=0.004) and late acute graft-versus-host disease (20% vs. 43%; P=0.04). While sirolimus/tacrolimus patients had lower prednisone exposure and earlier discontinuation of tacrolimus (median time to tacrolimus discontinuation 368 days vs. 821 days; P=0.002), there was no significant difference in complete immune suppression discontinuation (60-month estimate: 43% vs. 31%; P=0.78). Prolonged sirolimus administration represents a viable approach to mitigate risk for moderate-severe chronic and late acute graft-versus-host disease. Further study of determinants of successful immune suppression discontinuation is needed. PMID:25840599

  8. Analyses of the spleen proteome of chickens infected with Marek's disease virus

    SciTech Connect

    Thanthrige-Don, Niroshan; Abdul-Careem, Mohamed F.; Shack, L. Allen; Burgess, Shane C.; Sharif, Shayan

    2009-08-01

    Marek's disease virus (MDV), which causes a lymphoproliferative disease in chickens, is known to induce host responses leading to protection against disease in a manner dependent on genetic background of chickens and virulence of the virus. In the present study, changes in the spleen proteome at 7, 14 and 21 days post-infection in response to MDV infection were studied using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Differentially expressed proteins were identified using one-dimensional liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (1D LC ESI MS/MS). Comparative analysis of multiple gels revealed that the majority of changes had occurred at early stages of the disease. In total, 61 protein spots representing 48 host proteins were detected as either quantitatively (false discovery rate (FDR) <= 0.05 and fold change >= 2) or qualitatively differentially expressed at least once during different sampling points. Overall, the proteins identified in the present study are involved in a variety of cellular processes such as the antigen processing and presentation, ubiquitin-proteasome protein degradation (UPP), formation of the cytoskeleton, cellular metabolism, signal transduction and regulation of translation. Notably, early stages of the disease were characterized by changes in the UPP, and antigen presentation. Furthermore, changes indicative of active cell proliferation as well as apoptosis together with significant changes in cytoskeletal components that were observed throughout the experimental period suggested the complexity of the pathogenesis. The present findings provide a basis for further studies aimed at elucidation of the role of these proteins in MDV interactions with its host.

  9. Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Nat, Laura Bogdana; Simiti, Adriana Liana; Poanta, Laura Irina

    2014-01-01

    Lyme disease (Borreliosis), also called the "disease of 1000 faces", is produced by a bacterium called Borrelia burgdorferi, transmitted by the Ixodes tick. The clinical picture is non-specific and polymorph, with multisystemic involvement. Diagnosis is most often one of exclusion, and certain diagnosis is based on the presence of Borellia antibodies. The treatment is done differently depending on the stage of the disease and the severity of injuries, being used antibiotics like Doxycycline, Amoxicillin, Erythromycin or Penicillin. Under treatment the disease quickly heals without sequel, in the early stages, but advanced stages are usually resistant to treatment and chronic injuries can occur. Symptoms get worse without treatment and become chronic. We present the case of a woman of 66-year-old with a complex history of disease, which began one year prior to admission, through multiple and nonspecific symptoms; she presented herself in numerous medical services (gastroenterology, rheumatology--where an immunosuppressive treatment was initiated, hematology) without determining a final diagnosis. She was admitted in our service with altered general state and worsening symptoms, predominantly fever, muscle pain, joint pain, the patient being immobilized in bed. After multiple investigations and the problem of differential diagnosis with multiple pathologies, we finally established the diagnosis of Lyme disease. The peculiarities of the case are represented by the severity of the clinical manifestations and fulminant disease evolution under the unjustified administration of immunosuppressive treatment, and atypical joint involvement regarding localization and evolution that raised the issue of differential diagnosis with osteosarcoma or bone tuberculosis. PMID:25726630

  10. Phase II Study Evaluating Busulfan and Fludarabine as Preparative Therapy in Adults With Hematopoietic Disorders Undergoing MUD SCT

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2009-01-22

    Chronic Myeloid Leukemia; Acute Myelogenous Leukemia; Myelodysplasia; Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia; Severe Aplastic Anemia; Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Lymphoproliferative Disease; Multiple Myeloma; Advanced Myeloproliferative Disease

  11. Whipworm Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ClinicalTrials.gov . Related Links Parasitic Roundworm Diseases National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus ?? Skip Content Marketing Share this: JavaScript is disabled in your browser. To view this content, please ...

  12. Graves' Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... uses iodine to make thyroid hormone. Radioactive iodine uptake test. This test measures the amount of iodine ... collects from the bloodstream. High levels of iodine uptake can indicate Graves’ disease. Thyroid scan. This scan ...

  13. Autoimmune Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of CAM are herbal products, chiropractic , acupuncture , and hypnosis . If you have an autoimmune disease, you might ... help you to feel your best. Meditation, self-hypnosis, and guided imagery, are simple relaxation techniques that ...

  14. Alexander Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... leukodystrophies). One clinical study is underway to identify biomarkers of disease severity or progression in samples of blood or cerebrospinal fluid. Such biomarkers, if found, would be a major advantage for ...

  15. Meniere's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... vertigo (attacks of a spinning sensation), hearing loss, tinnitus (a roaring, buzzing, or ringing sound in the ... of the disease, hearing loss often becomes permanent. Tinnitus and fullness of the ear may come and ...

  16. Vascular Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... network of blood vessels. It includes the arteries, veins and capillaries that carry blood to and from ... the body. You are more likely to have vascular disease as you get older. Other factors that make ...

  17. Hirschsprung's disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Muscle contractions in the gut help digested foods and liquids move through the intestine. This is called peristalsis. Nerves between the muscle layers trigger the contractions. In Hirschsprung's disease, the nerves are missing from ...

  18. Pilonidal Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... if indicated to do so. DISCLAIMER The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons is dedicated to ensuring high-quality patient care by advancing the science, prevention, and management of disorders and diseases of ...

  19. Graves' Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... women, untreated disease can threaten the mother and unborn baby's health. Return to top Does pregnancy affect the ... These changes do not affect the pregnancy or unborn baby. Yet, untreated thyroid problems can threaten pregnancy and ...

  20. Rh Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Fighting premature birth About us Annual report Our work Community impact Global programs Research Need help? Local ... at risk of Rh disease. How does RhIg work? It is not known exactly how RhIg works. ...

  1. Parkinson disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Nerve cells use a brain chemical called dopamine to help control muscle movement. With Parkinson disease, the brain cells that make dopamine slowly die. Without dopamine, the cells that control movement ...

  2. Lyme Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ticks can spread the disease to animals and humans through tick bites. These ticks are typically about ... in mood Changes in sleep habits Loss of memory Muscle weakness Causes & Risk Factors Who gets Lyme ...

  3. Parkinson's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... picture of how individual cells and complex neural circuits interact. The ultimate goal is to enhance understanding ... Parkinson’s disease (December 2014) Australian researcher outlines an integrated approach for studying Parkinson’s (December 2014) Research on ...

  4. Graves disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is called hyperthyroidism. (An underactive thyroid leads to hypothyroidism .) Graves disease is the most common cause of ... radioactive iodine usually will cause an underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism). Without getting the correct dosage of thyroid hormone ...

  5. Cushing disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... system . Cushing disease is a form of Cushing syndrome . ... McGee S. Cushing syndrome. In: Evidence-Based Physical Diagnosis. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Saunders. 2012:chap 13. Molitch M. Anterior ...

  6. Autoinflammatory Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ages can develop it. The exact cause of Behçet’s disease is unknown. Most symptoms of the disorder are caused by inflammation of the blood vessels. Doctors think that an autoinflammatory reaction may cause ...

  7. Blount Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... returning to all their normal activities, even competitive sports. One lesson many people take away from dealing with Blount disease is the importance of keeping weight in a healthy range. Staying ...

  8. Alzheimer Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Puberty Video: Am I Normal? (Girls and Puberty) Movie: Digestive System How the Body Works Main Page ... picture of the brain. They can study these images and look for signs of Alzheimer disease. Once ...

  9. Alzheimer's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... risk of urinary tract and other serious infections. Malnutrition or dehydration: People who have Alzheimer’s disease may ... swallow. It’s important to watch for signs of malnutrition. If you think that a loved one might ...

  10. Crohn's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and may include medicines, nutrition supplements, and/or surgery. Some people have long periods of remission, when they are free of symptoms. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  11. Prion Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... trying to access this site from a secured browser on the server. Please enable scripts and reload ... the human prion disease CJD ?? Javascript Error Your browser JavaScript is turned off causing certain features of ...

  12. Leishmaniasis Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Leishmaniasis Parasites Home Share Compartir Disease Ulcerative skin lesion, with ... with some of the species (types) of the parasite that cause cutaneous leishmaniasis in parts of Latin ...

  13. Lung disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the lungs to take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide. People with this type of lung disorder often ... the lungs to take up oxygen and release carbon dioxide. These diseases may also affect heart function. An ...

  14. Menkes Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... The neurology of STPAT copper transporter disease: emerging concepts and future trends. Nature Reviews Neurology , 2001:7: ... Fax: 203-798-2291 Prepared by: Office of Communications and Public Liaison National Institute of Neurological Disorders ...

  15. Krabbe Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NINDS Krabbe Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Globoid Cell Leukodystrophy Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) ... of a group of genetic disorders called the leukodystrophies . These disorders impair the growth or development of ...

  16. Crohn disease

    PubMed Central

    Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.; Rioux, John D.; Mizoguchi, Atsushi; Saitoh, Tatsuya; Huett, Alan; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette; Wileman, Tom; Mizushima, Noboru; Carding, Simon; Akira, Shizuo; Parkes, Miles; Xavier, Ramnik J.

    2011-01-01

    Crohn disease (CD) is a chronic and debilitating inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract.1 Prevalence in western populations is 100–150/100,000 and somewhat higher in Ashkenazi Jews. Peak incidence is in early adult life, although any age can be affected and a majority of affected individuals progress to relapsing and chronic disease. Medical treatments rely significantly on empirical corticosteroid therapy and immunosuppression, and intestinal resectional surgery is frequently required. Thus, 80% of patients with CD come to surgery for refractory disease or complications. It is hoped that an improved understanding of pathogenic mechanisms, for example by studying the genetic basis of CD and other forms of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), will lead to improved therapies and possibly preventative strategies in individuals identified as being at risk. PMID:20729636

  17. Pneumococcal Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from relatively mild ear infections to fatal pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis. Serious pneumococcal infections can occur throughout ... deaths occur in the world’s poorest countries. Pneumococcal meningitis is the most severe form of pneumococcal disease ...

  18. Gum Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... disease. It ranges from simple gum inflammation, called gingivitis, to serious damage to the tissue and bone ... the worst cases, you can lose teeth. In gingivitis, the gums become red and swollen. They can ...

  19. Information Regarding MENINGOCOCCAL DISEASE

    E-print Network

    Information Regarding MENINGOCOCCAL DISEASE Student Name. Meningococcal disease is a serious disease, caused by bacteria. Meningococcal disease is a contagious. Meningococcal disease can also cause blood infections. About 2,600 people get meningococcal disease each year

  20. xCT, not just an amino-acid transporter: a multi-functional regulator of microbial infection and associated diseases

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Lu; Noverr, Mairi C.; Parsons, Chris; Kaleeba, Johnan A. R.; Qin, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Expression of xCT, a component of the xc– amino-acid transporter, is essential for the uptake of cystine required for intracellular glutathione (GSH) synthesis and maintenance of the intracellular redox balance. Therefore, xCT plays an important role not only in the survival of somatic and immune cells, but also in other aspects of tumorigenesis, including the growth and malignant progression of cancer cells, resistance to anticancer drugs, and protection of normal cells against oxidative damage induced by carcinogens. xCT also functions as a factor required for infection by Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), the causative agent of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) and other lymphoproliferative diseases associated with HIV/AIDS. In spite of these advances, our understanding of the role of xCT in the pathogenesis of infectious diseases is still limited. Therefore, this review will summarize recent findings about the functions of xCT in diseases associated with microbial (bacterial or viral) infections, in particular KSHV-associated malignancies. We will also discuss the remaining questions, future directions, as well as evidence that supports the potential benefits of exploring system xc– as a target for prevention and clinical management of microbial diseases and cancer. PMID:25745420

  1. KSHV-associated multicentric Castleman disease: A tangle of different entities requiring multitarget treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Antonino; De Paoli, Paolo; Gloghini, Annunziata; Vaccher, Emanuela

    2015-07-15

    Multicentric Castleman Disease (MCD) is a lymphoproliferative disorder presenting with heterogeneous pathological and clinical features. It comprises disease entities with a complex aetiology and overlapping pathogenesis. MCD can be found in association with HIV infection, plasma-cell dyscrasias, Kaposi sarcoma (KS), B-cell lymphomas including primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and its solid variant, and Hodgkin lymphoma. In KSHV-associated MCD cases, a common association is KS and a specific variant of lymphoma referred to as "plasmablastic lymphoma," also called "large B-cell lymphoma arising in KSHV-associated MCD" lacking EBV infection. MCD is often referred to as human interleukin-6 (hIL-6) syndrome, since an overproduction of IL-6 occurs in MCD-associated diseases as well as in MCD itself. hIL-6 and a viral IL-6 (vIL-6) homolog encoded by KSHV can independently or together lead to flares of KSHV-associated MCD. Recently, a new clinical entity was proposed to describe a severe systemic infection/reactivation of KSHV: KSHV inflammatory syndrome (KICS). KICS may contribute in inducing the inflammatory symptoms seen in some patients with severe KS or PEL. The precise relationship of KICS to KSHV-associated MCD is unclear and it is possible that KICS may be prodromal symptoms to frank KSHV-associated MCD. Options for treatment of KSHV-associated MCD and related diseases include monoclonal antibodies, chemotherapy, immune modulators, virus-activated cytotoxic therapy and antiviral therapies. A comprehensive understanding of the intricacies of the HIV-KSHV coinfection will probably lead to additional advances in therapy and managements for these disorders. PMID:24771491

  2. [Menière's Disease].

    PubMed

    Plontke, S K; Gürkov, R

    2015-08-01

    Menière`s disease is one of the most common inner ear and vestibular disorders. It is defined as the idiopathic syndrome of endolymphatic hydrops (ELH). Despite the development of several different animal models of ELH, its etiology and pathogenesis is still unresolved. In humans, endolymphatic hydrops may occur spontaneously or as a consequence of specific disorders with distinct inner ear pathologies, e.?g., infectious labyrinthitis, noise induced hearing loss or vestibular schwannoma. Recent imaging studies using MRI have shown that hydropic ear disease is associated not only with the full triad of vertigo, hearing, loss and tinnitus/aural pressure, but also with inner ear symptoms that do not fulfill the clinical criteria of definite Menière's disease as set forth by the AAO-HNS. Therefore, terms like "atypical" or "cochlear"/"vestibular" Menière's disease or "forme fruste" should be avoided and the term "Menière's disease" should universally be applied according only to these guidelines. Besides that, the recent possibility of visualizing endolymphatic hydrops on MRI and thereby ascertaining the diagnosis in difficult cases and new audiovestibular function tests for the indirect detection of endolymphatic hydrops show promising results. Evidenced based reviews of currently available therapeutic options still reveal many uncertainties with regard to efficacy, with the exception of the ablative therapies, e.?g., intratympanic gentamicin application. PMID:26243634

  3. Behçet's disease

    PubMed Central

    Kontogiannis, V; Powell, R

    2000-01-01

    Behçet's disease is a systemic vasculitis of unknown aetiology characteristically affecting venules. Onset is typically in young adults with recurrent oral and genital ulceration, uveitis, skin manifestations, arthritis, neurological involvement, and a tendency to thrombosis. It has a worldwide distribution but is prevalent in Japan, the Middle East, and some Mediterranean countries. International diagnostic criteria have been proposed, however diagnosis can be problematical, particularly if the typical ulcers are not obvious at presentation. Treatment is challenging, must be tailored to the pattern of organ involvement for each patient and often requires combination therapies.???Keywords: Behçet's disease; oral ulcers; uveitis; immunosuppressants PMID:11009577

  4. Dysregulated interleukin 6 expression produces a syndrome resembling Castleman's disease in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, S J; Bodine, D M; Dunbar, C E; Nienhuis, A W

    1990-01-01

    Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is an important regulator of the acute phase response, T cell function, and terminal B cell differentiation. Excessive or inappropriate production of this cytokine may be involved in a variety of autoimmune and neoplastic disorders. To investigate the consequences of dysregulated synthesis of IL-6 in vivo, a high-titer recombinant retroviral vector produced in psi-2 packaging cells was used to introduce the coding sequences of murine IL-6 into mouse hematopoietic cells. Congenitally anemic W/Wv mice reconstituted with bone marrow cells transduced with the retroviral vector developed a syndrome characterized by anemia, transient granulocytosis, hypoalbuminemia, and polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia, with marked splenomegaly and peripheral lymphadenopathy. Extensive plasma cell infiltration of lymph nodes, spleen, liver, and lung was noted. The similarity of these findings to those of multicentric Castleman's disease, taken together with the observation that lymph nodes from these patients elaborate large amounts of this cytokine, suggest that the inappropriate synthesis of IL-6 has a primary role in the pathogenesis of this systemic lymphoproliferative disorder. Images PMID:2384605

  5. Identification of T-Cell Epitopes in Nonstructural Proteins of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Esther; Garcia-Briones, Mercedes; Sanz-Parra, Arantza; Gomes, Paula; De Oliveira, Eliandre; Valero, Mari Luz; Andreu, David; Ley, Victoria; Sobrino, Francisco

    2001-01-01

    Porcine T-cell recognition of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) nonstructural proteins (NSP) was tested using in vitro lymphoproliferative responses. Lymphocytes were obtained from outbred pigs experimentally infected with FMDV. Of the different NSP, polypeptides 3A, 3B, and 3C gave the highest stimulations in the in vitro assays. The use of overlapping synthetic peptides allowed the identification of amino acid regions within these proteins that were efficiently recognized by the lymphocytes. The sequences of some of these antigenic peptides were highly conserved among different FMDV serotypes. They elicited major histocompatibility complex-restricted responses with lymphocytes from pigs infected with either a type C virus or reinfected with a heterologous FMDV. A tandem peptide containing the T-cell peptide 3A[21–35] and the B-cell antigenic site VP1[137–156] also efficiently stimulated lymphocytes from infected animals in vitro. Furthermore, this tandem peptide elicited significant levels of serotype-specific antiviral activity, a result consistent with the induction of anti-FMDV antibodies. Thus, inclusion in the peptide formulation of a T-cell epitope derived from the NSP 3A possessing the capacity to induce T helper activity can allow cooperative induction of anti-FMDV antibodies by B cells. PMID:11238843

  6. Low-turnover bone disease in hypercalcemic hyperparathyroidism after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Borchhardt, K; Sulzbacher, I; Benesch, T; Födinger, M; Sunder-Plassmann, G; Haas, M

    2007-11-01

    Hypercalcemia in persistent secondary hyperparathyroidism after kidney transplantation is considered to result from increased bone resorption. Bone biopsies' studies, however, have never been performed in these patients. Bone biopsies after double tetracycline labeling were obtained from 17 patients with hypercalcemic hyperparathyroidism and an estimated glomerular filtration rate > 30 mL/min/1.73 m2. Serologic bone markers, calcitriol, intact fibroblast growth factor-23 (iFGF-23), and serum and 24h urine concentration of calcium and phosphate were measured in all patients. Tubular maximum for phosphate corrected for GFR (TmP/GFR), and the fractional excretion of calcium (FeCa) were calculated. High-turnover renal osteodystrophy (ROD) was present in nine and low-turnover ROD in eight patients. The bone formation rate was significantly associated with bone alkaline phosphatase, c-telopeptide and osteocalcin. In patients with high turnover ROD, osteocalcin was also significantly higher than in patients with decreased bone formation. The FeCa was normal or below normal in 14/17 patients. TmP/GFR was below normal in all patients. Neither intact PTH nor iFGF-23 was associated with TmP/GFR, FeCa or any histomorphometric bone parameter. We conclude that hypercalcemia of posttransplant hyperparathyroidism can be associated with high or low turnover bone disease. Decreased calcium excretion suggests an additive tubular effect on hypercalcemia. PMID:17725680

  7. Contribution of chemotherapy mobilization to disease control in multiple myeloma treated with autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Uy, G L; Costa, L J; Hari, P N; Zhang, M-J; Huang, J-X; Anderson, K C; Bredeson, C N; Callander, N S; Cornell, R F; Perez, M A D; Dispenzieri, A; Freytes, C O; Gale, R P; Garfall, A; Gertz, M A; Gibson, J; Hamadani, M; Lazarus, H M; Kalaycio, M E; Kamble, R T; Kharfan-Dabaja, M A; Krishnan, A Y; Kumar, S K; Kyle, R A; Landau, H J; Lee, C H; Maiolino, A; Marks, D I; Mark, T M; Munker, R; Nishihori, T; Olsson, R F; Ramanathan, M; Rodriguez, T E; Saad, A A; Savani, B N; Schiller, G J; Schouten, H C; Schriber, J R; Scott, E; Seo, S; Sharma, M; Ganguly, S; Stadtmauer, E A; Tay, J; To, L B; Vesole, D H; Vogl, D T; Wagner, J L; Wirk, B; Wood, W A; D'Souza, A

    2015-12-01

    In patients with multiple myeloma (MM) undergoing autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (auto-HCT), peripheral blood progenitor cells may be collected following mobilization with growth factor alone (GF) or cytotoxic chemotherapy plus GF (CC+GF). It is uncertain whether the method of mobilization affects post-transplant outcomes. We compared these mobilization strategies in a retrospective analysis of 968 patients with MM from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research database who received an auto-HCT in the US and Canada between 2007 and 2012. The kinetics of neutrophil engraftment (?0.5 × 10(9)/L) was similar between groups (13 vs 13 days, P=0.69) while platelet engraftment (?20 × 10(9)/L) was slightly faster with CC+GF (19 vs 18 days, P=0.006). Adjusted 3-year PFS was 43% (95% confidence interval (CI) 38-48) in GF and 40% (95% CI 35-45) in CC+GF, P=0.33. Adjusted 3-year OS was 82% (95% CI 78-86) vs 80% (95% CI 75-84), P=0.43 and adjusted 5-year OS was 62% (95% CI 54-68) vs 60% (95% CI 52-67), P=0.76, for GF and CC+GF, respectively. We conclude that MM patients undergoing auto-HCT have similar outcomes irrespective of the method of mobilization and found no evidence that the addition of chemotherapy to mobilization contributes to disease control. PMID:26301967

  8. Ostrich diseases.

    PubMed

    Verwoerd, D J

    2000-08-01

    Scientific knowledge of ostrich diseases is incomplete and very fragmented, with specific details on technical aspects of diagnostic and/or screening tests completely absent in most cases. Salmonella Typhimurium is common in multispecies collections and causes mortality in chicks younger than three months on commercial farms, but is rarely found in chicks older than six months, or slaughter birds of twelve to fourteen months in southern Africa. Campylobacter jejuni and Chlamydia psittaci are occasionally reported, mainly in young ostriches, but both remain a diagnostic challenge. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever is transmitted to domestic animals including ostriches, principally by ticks of the genus Hyalomma. In the ostrich, the disease causes no clinical symptoms during a viraemia of approximately four days. Spongiform encephalopathy has not been reliably reported in ostriches, while anthrax has occurred rarely in modern times but was reportedly an important cause of death approximately 100 years ago in South Africa. Salmonella Gallinarum and S. Pullorum are unknown in ostriches. Pasteurella multocida occurs but is easily contained with antibiotics. Mycoplasma spp. are regularly found in an upper respiratory disease syndrome complicated by opportunistic bacterial pathogens. Ostriches of all ages are susceptible to challenge by velogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV), but standard inactivated La Sota poultry vaccines can stimulate protective immunity lasting over six months. The viraemic period in vaccinated slaughter ostriches is between nine and eleven days and there are no indications of a carrier state or presence of the virus in the meat or any other tissues after this period, with peak immunoglobulin G response reached on day fourteen post infection. Haemagglutination inhibition tests are significantly less sensitive and less specific than enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Cloacal and choanal swabs used for direct virological screening in clinically affected cases (field and experimental) could not detect NDV. All avian influenza isolates reported from ostriches have been non-pathogenic to poultry, even the H5 and H7 subtypes. Some of the latter have been associated with mortality of ostrich chicks in localised outbreaks during periods of inclement weather and with significant wild bird (waterfowl) contact. Borna disease causes a nervous syndrome in ostrich chicks, but to date, has only been reported in Israel. Eastern and Western equine encephalomyelitides cause fatal disease in ostriches and other ratites, with mortality ranging from less than 20% to over 80% in affected flocks. These diseases are present in North, Central and South America where the associated ornithophilic mosquito vectors occur. Equine and human vaccines are apparently safe and efficacious in ratites. Wesselsbron disease, infectious bursal disease (type 2), adenovirus and coronavirus infections have been reported from ostriches but the significance of these diseases is unclear. Due to the paucity of data regarding ostrich diseases and the unvalidated state of most poultry tests in this unique group of birds, strict observation of a pre-slaughter quarantine of thirty days is strongly advised, whilst live exports and fertile eggs should be screened through the additional use of sentinel chickens and/or young ostriches. PMID:10935285

  9. Impact of Minimal Residual Disease, Detected by Flow Cytometry, on Outcome of Myeloablative Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Bar, Merav; Wood, Brent L.; Radich, Jerald P.; Doney, Kristine C.; Woolfrey, Ann E.; Appelbaum, Frederick R.; Gooley, Ted A.

    2014-01-01

    In this retrospective study, we evaluated the impact of pre- and posttransplant minimal residual disease (MRD) detected by multiparametric flow cytometry (MFC) on outcome in 160 patients with ALL who underwent myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). MRD was defined as detection of abnormal B or T cells by MFC with no evidence of leukemia by morphology (<5% blasts in marrow) and no evidence of extramedullary disease. Among 153 patients who had pre-HCT flow data within 50 days before transplant, MRD pre-HCT increased the risk of relapse (hazard ratio (HR) = 3.64; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.87–7.09; P = .0001) and mortality (HR = 2.39; 95% CI, 1.46–3.90, P = .0005). Three-year estimates of relapse were 17% and 38% and estimated 3-year OS was 68% and 40% for patients without and with MRD pre-HCT, respectively. 144 patients had at least one flow value post-HCT, and the risk of relapse among those with MRD was higher than that among those without MRD (HR = 7.47; 95% CI, 3.30–16.92, P < .0001). The risk of mortality was also increased (HR = 3.00; 95% CI, 1.44–6.28, P = .004). These data suggest that pre- or post-HCT MRD, as detected by MFC, is associated with an increased risk of relapse and death after myeloablative HCT for ALL. PMID:24778882

  10. Lung Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    When you breathe, your lungs take in oxygen from the air and deliver it to the bloodstream. The cells in your body need oxygen to ... you breathe nearly 25,000 times. People with lung disease have difficulty breathing. Millions of people in ...

  11. Alzheimer disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... It tends to get worse quickly. Early onset disease can run in families. Several genes have been identified. Late onset AD: This is the most common type. It occurs in people age 60 and older. It may run in some families, but the role of genes is less clear.

  12. SMUT DISEASES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW OF MOST ASPECTS OF COMMON BUNT AND DWARF BUNT DISEASES OF WHEAT IS PRESENTED. INCLUDED ARE SECTIONS ON HISTORY, DISTRIBUTION AND ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE, TAXONOMY, MORPHOLOGY, SPORE GERMINATION, CULTURE, AND PHYSIOLOGY. EXTENSIVE SECTIONS DEAL WITH RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND DISEA...

  13. Sever's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... after activity. If the child has a pronated foot, a flat or high arch, or another condition that increases the risk of Sever's disease, the doctor might recommend special shoe inserts, called ... goes away on its own when foot growth is complete and the growth plate has ...

  14. Music in Reducing Anxiety and Pain in Adult Patients Undergoing Bone Marrow Biopsy for Hematologic Cancers or Other Diseases

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-07-12

    Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms; Pain; Precancerous Condition; Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment

  15. Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Chomel, B

    2015-08-01

    Lyme disease is among the most frequently diagnosed zoonotic tick-borne diseases worldwide. The number of human cases has been on the increase since the first recognition of its aetiological agent. Lyme disease is caused by spirochete bacteria belonging to the genus Borrelia, with B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) found in the Americas, and B. afzelii and B. garinii, in addition to B. burgdorferi s.s., in Europe and Asia. Environmental factors, such as human encroachment onto habitats favourable to ticks and their hosts, reduced deforestation, increased human outdoor activities, and climatic factors favouring a wider distribution of tick vectors, have enhanced the impact of the disease on both humans and animals. Clinical manifestations in humans include, in the early phases, erythema migrans, followed several weeks later by neuro-borreliosis (meningo-radiculitis, meningitis or meningo-encephalitis), Lyme arthritis and/or Borrelia lymphocytoma. In dogs, acute signs include fever, general malaise, lameness, lymph node enlargement and polyarthritis, as well as neuro-borreliosis in the chronic form. Diagnosis is mainly serological in both humans and animals, based on either a two-tier approach (an immunoenzymatic test followed by a Western blot confirmatory test) in humans or C(6) peptide, only in dogs. Early treatment with antibiotics, such as doxycycline or amoxicillin, for three weeks usually reduces the risk of chronic disease. Tick control, including the use of tick repellents for both humans and animals, particularly dogs, is highly reliable in preventing transmission. Vaccines are not available to prevent human infection, whereas several vaccines are available to reduce transmission and the clinical manifestations of infection in dogs. PMID:26601457

  16. Coronary heart disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Heart disease, Coronary heart disease, Coronary artery disease; Arteriosclerotic heart disease; CHD; CAD ... Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in the United States for men and women. Coronary ...

  17. Diabetic Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Diabetic Heart Disease? The term "diabetic heart disease" (DHD) refers ... Kidney Diseases' Introduction to Diabetes Web page. What Heart Diseases Are Involved in Diabetic Heart Disease? DHD ...

  18. Peripheral Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) Peripheral artery disease (PAD) refers to ... is peripheral artery disease treated? What is peripheral artery disease (PAD)? Peripheral artery disease, or PAD, refers ...

  19. Digestive Diseases Materials

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NIDDK INFORMATION CLEARINGHOUSES Diabetes Digestive Diseases Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases Hematologic Diseases Kidney and Urologic Diseases Weight-control Information Network EDUCATION PROGRAMS National Diabetes Education Program National Kidney Disease ...

  20. Fabry disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Fabry disease (FD) is a progressive, X-linked inherited disorder of glycosphingolipid metabolism due to deficient or absent lysosomal ?-galactosidase A activity. FD is pan-ethnic and the reported annual incidence of 1 in 100,000 may underestimate the true prevalence of the disease. Classically affected hemizygous males, with no residual ?-galactosidase A activity may display all the characteristic neurological (pain), cutaneous (angiokeratoma), renal (proteinuria, kidney failure), cardiovascular (cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia), cochleo-vestibular and cerebrovascular (transient ischemic attacks, strokes) signs of the disease while heterozygous females have symptoms ranging from very mild to severe. Deficient activity of lysosomal ?-galactosidase A results in progressive accumulation of globotriaosylceramide within lysosomes, believed to trigger a cascade of cellular events. Demonstration of marked ?-galactosidase A deficiency is the definitive method for the diagnosis of hemizygous males. Enzyme analysis may occasionnally help to detect heterozygotes but is often inconclusive due to random X-chromosomal inactivation so that molecular testing (genotyping) of females is mandatory. In childhood, other possible causes of pain such as rheumatoid arthritis and 'growing pains' must be ruled out. In adulthood, multiple sclerosis is sometimes considered. Prenatal diagnosis, available by determination of enzyme activity or DNA testing in chorionic villi or cultured amniotic cells is, for ethical reasons, only considered in male fetuses. Pre-implantation diagnosis is possible. The existence of atypical variants and the availability of a specific therapy singularly complicate genetic counseling. A disease-specific therapeutic option - enzyme replacement therapy using recombinant human ?-galactosidase A - has been recently introduced and its long term outcome is currently still being investigated. Conventional management consists of pain relief with analgesic drugs, nephroprotection (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptors blockers) and antiarrhythmic agents, whereas dialysis or renal transplantation are available for patients experiencing end-stage renal failure. With age, progressive damage to vital organ systems develops and at some point, organs may start to fail in functioning. End-stage renal disease and life-threatening cardiovascular or cerebrovascular complications limit life-expectancy of untreated males and females with reductions of 20 and 10 years, respectively, as compared to the general population. While there is increasing evidence that long-term enzyme therapy can halt disease progression, the importance of adjunctive therapies should be emphasized and the possibility of developing an oral therapy drives research forward into active site specific chaperones. PMID:21092187

  1. Morgellons disease?

    PubMed

    Accordino, Robert E; Engler, Danielle; Ginsburg, Iona H; Koo, John

    2008-01-01

    Morgellons disease, a pattern of dermatologic symptoms very similar, if not identical, to those of delusions of parasitosis, was first described many centuries ago, but has recently been given much attention on the internet and in the mass media. The present authors present a history of Morgellons disease, in addition to which they discuss the potential benefit of using this diagnostic term as a means of building trust and rapport with patients to maximize treatment benefit. The present authors also suggest "meeting the patient halfway" and creating a therapeutic alliance when providing dermatologic treatment by taking their cutaneous symptoms seriously enough to provide both topical ointments as well as antipsychotic medications, which can be therapeutic in these patients. PMID:18318880

  2. Metagenomic analysis of the stool microbiome in patients receiving allogeneic stem cell transplantation: loss of diversity is associated with use of systemic antibiotics and more pronounced in gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Holler, Ernst; Butzhammer, Peter; Schmid, Karin; Hundsrucker, Christian; Koestler, Josef; Peter, Katrin; Zhu, Wentao; Sporrer, Daniela; Hehlgans, Thomas; Kreutz, Marina; Holler, Barbara; Wolff, Daniel; Edinger, Matthias; Andreesen, Reinhard; Levine, John E; Ferrara, James L; Gessner, Andre; Spang, Rainer; Oefner, Peter J

    2014-05-01

    Next-generation sequencing of the hypervariable V3 region of the 16s rRNA gene isolated from serial stool specimens collected from 31 patients receiving allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) was performed to elucidate variations in the composition of the intestinal microbiome in the course of allogeneic SCT. Metagenomic analysis was complemented by strain-specific enterococcal PCR and indirect assessment of bacterial load by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry of urinary indoxyl sulfate. At the time of admission, patients showed a predominance of commensal bacteria. After transplantation, a relative shift toward enterococci was observed, which was more pronounced under antibiotic prophylaxis and treatment of neutropenic infections. The shift was particularly prominent in patients that developed subsequently or suffered from active gastrointestinal (GI) graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The mean proportion of enterococci in post-transplant stool specimens was 21% in patients who did not develop GI GVHD as compared with 46% in those that subsequently developed GI GVHD and 74% at the time of active GVHD. Enterococcal PCR confirmed predominance of Enterococcus faecium or both E. faecium and Enterococcus faecalis in these specimens. As a consequence of the loss of bacterial diversity, mean urinary indoxyl sulfate levels dropped from 42.5 ± 11 ?mol/L to 11.8 ± 2.8 ?mol/L in all post-transplant samples and to 3.5 ± 3 ?mol/L in samples from patients with active GVHD. Our study reveals major microbiome shifts in the course of allogeneic SCT that occur in the period of antibiotic treatment but are more prominent in association with GI GVHD. Our data indicate early microbiome shifts and a loss of diversity of the intestinal microbiome that may affect intestinal inflammation in the setting of allogeneic SCT. PMID:24492144

  3. Beryllium disease

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-20

    After two workers at the nuclear weapons plant at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee were diagnosed earlier this year with chronic beryllium disease (CBD), a rare and sometimes fatal scarring of the lungs, the Department of Energy ordered up a 4-year probe. Now, part of that probe has begun - tests conducted by the Oak Ridge Associated Universities' Center for Epidemiological Research measuring beryllium sensitivity in 3,000 people who've been exposed to the metal's dust since Manhattan Project managers opened the Y-12 plant at Oak Ridge in 1943. Currently, 119 Y-12 employees process beryllium, which has a number of industrial uses, including rocket heat shields and nuclear weapon and electrical components. The disease often takes 20 to 25 years to develop, and the stricken employees haven't worked with beryllium for years. There is no cure for CBD, estimated to strike 2% of people exposed to the metal. Anti-inflammatory steroids alleviate such symptoms as a dry cough, weight loss, and fatigue. Like other lung-fibrosis diseases that are linked to lung cancer, some people suspect CBD might cause some lung cancer. While difficult to diagnose, about 900 cases of CBD have been reported since a Beryllium Case Registry was established in 1952. The Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that about 10,000 DOE employees and 800,000 people in private industry have worked with beryllium.

  4. Doug Brutlag 2015 Diseases and Disease Databases

    E-print Network

    Brutlag, Doug

    © Doug Brutlag 2015 Diseases and Disease Databases http://biochem158.stanford.edu/ Doug Brutlag Huntington Disease · Autosomal Dominant ­ On the tip of the short arm of chromosome 4 ­ One bad gene causes disease (dominant) ­ Brain degeneration over 10-15 years until death · Neurodegenerative disease ­ Loss

  5. Doug Brutlag 2015 Diseases and Disease Databases

    E-print Network

    Brutlag, Doug

    © Doug Brutlag 2015 Diseases and Disease Databases Doug Brutlag, Professor Emeritus Biochemistry an inherited disease · And we know the function of that gene · Then we can understand the cause of the disease and other interventions to cure the disease. #12;© Doug Brutlag 2015 Stanford at The Tech: Understanding

  6. Vestibular disease: diseases causing vestibular signs.

    PubMed

    Lowrie, Mark

    2012-07-01

    Having determined whether a patient has central or peripheral vestibular disease, clinicians must then determine what diseases are likely to result in such a presentation. This article describes the more common diseases causing vestibular disease in dogs and cats. Having formulated a list of potential causes of vestibular disease, clinicians should proceed through a systematic investigation to diagnose the underlying condition. A companion article describes the anatomy, physiology, and clinical signs associated with vestibular disease. PMID:22847321

  7. Protein aggregates in Huntington's disease

    E-print Network

    Arrasate, M; Finkbeiner, S; Finkbeiner, S

    2011-01-01

    Huntington's disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Huntington's disease? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .D.M. , 1999. Huntington's disease intranuclear inclusions

  8. Chagas' disease.

    PubMed Central

    Tanowitz, H B; Kirchhoff, L V; Simon, D; Morris, S A; Weiss, L M; Wittner, M

    1992-01-01

    Chagas' disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is an important cause of morbidity in many countries in Latin America. The important modes of transmission are by the bite of the reduviid bug and blood transfusion. The organism exists in three morphological forms: trypomastigotes, amastigotes, and epimastigotes. The mechanism of transformation and differentiation is currently being explored, and signal transduction pathways of the parasites may be involved in this process. Parasite adherence to and invasion of host cells is a complex process involving complement, phospholipase, penetrin, neuraminidase, and hemolysin. Two clinical forms of the disease are recognized, acute and chronic. During the acute stage pathological damage is related to the presence of the parasite, whereas in the chronic stage few parasites are found. In recent years the roles of tumor necrosis factor, gamma interferon, and the interleukins in the pathogenesis of this infection have been reported. The common manifestations of chronic cardiomyopathy are arrhythmias and thromboembolic events. Autoimmune, neurogenic, and microvascular factors may be important in the pathogenesis of the cardiomyopathy. The gastrointestinal tract is another important target, and "mega syndromes" are common manifestations. The diagnosis and treatment of this infection are active areas of investigation. New serological and molecular biological techniques have improved the diagnosis of chronic infection. Exacerbations of T. cruzi infection have been reported for patients receiving immuno-suppressive therapy and for those with AIDS. Images PMID:1423218

  9. Reduced Intensity Preparative Regimen Followed by Stem Cell Transplant (FAB)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-07-03

    Myelodysplastic and Myeloproliferative Disorders; Acute Myelogenous Leukemia; Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Multiple Myeloma; Plasma Cell Dyscrasia; Lymphoproliferative Disorders; Hematologic Diseases

  10. Pilot Study of Unrelated Donor Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients With Life Threatening Hemophagocytic Disorders

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2005-06-23

    Chediak-Higashi Syndrome; Graft Versus Host Disease; X-Linked Lymphoproliferative Syndrome; Familial Erythrophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis; Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis; Virus-Associated Hemophagocytic Syndrome

  11. About Alzheimer's Disease: Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... National Alzheimer's Project Act (NAPA) About ADEAR About Alzheimer's Disease: Treatment How is Alzheimer's disease treated? What ... being researched? What are clinical trials? How is Alzheimer's disease treated? Alzheimer's disease is complex, and it ...

  12. Interstitial Lung Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    Interstitial lung disease is the name for a large group of diseases that inflame or scar the lungs. The inflammation and ... is responsible for some types of interstitial lung diseases. Specific types include Black lung disease among coal ...

  13. Depression and Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Information on Heart Disease Citations Reprints Depression and Heart Disease Order a free hardcopy En Español Introduction ... see the NIMH booklet on Depression . What is heart disease? Heart disease refers to a number of ...

  14. HIV and Cardiovascular Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 652 HIV and Cardiovascular Disease HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE WHY SHOULD PEOPLE WITH HIV CARE ABOUT CVD? ... OF CVD? WHAT ABOUT CHANGING MEDICATIONS? HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE Cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes a group of problems ...

  15. Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD)

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Polycystic Kidney Disease Overview What is polycystic kidney disease? Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is an inherited disease that affects the kidneys. Sacs of fluid (called ...

  16. Vanishing White Matter Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vanishing White Matter Disease What is Vanishing White Matter Disease? Vanishing White Matter Disease (VWM) is inherited ... about this). Other Clinical Names for Vanishing White Matter Disease Other clinical names of Vanishing White Matter ...

  17. [Prurigo diseases].

    PubMed

    Hundeiker, M

    1987-08-15

    The term "prurigo" is universally used in dermatology. But, up to now, no definition of this term has been generally accepted. The "classic" description of the "urticarial papules" as the primary skin eruptions of prurigo is not correct, for these papules do not show any momentary edema but a persistent cellular infiltration. In the past, some authors already pointed out that the histologic structure of such papules looks very much like that of the characteristic papulovesicles in eczema--especially those in atopic dermatitis. The various forms of the prurigo nodes secondarily develop in case of the coincidence of three main factors: (1) the particular cutaneous response to repeated irritation (especially in autosomally dominant ichthyosis simplex), (2) reduced threshold for or constitutional disposition to pruritus (especially in atopy), and (3) internal (e.g. intestinal disorders) or external (e.g. insect bites) triggers. Probably none of the prurigo diseases represents a nosologic entity. PMID:3673156

  18. Vibroacoustic disease.

    PubMed

    Branco, N A A Castelo; Alves-Pereira, M

    2004-01-01

    Vibroacoustic disease (VAD) is a whole-body, systemic pathology, characterized by the abnormal proliferation of extra-cellular matrices, and caused by excessive exposure to low frequency noise (LFN). VAD has been observed in LFN-exposed professionals, such as, aircraft technicians, commercial and military pilots and cabin crewmembers, ship machinists, restaurant workers, and disk-jockeys. VAD has also been observed in several populations exposed to environmental LFN. This report summarizes what is known to date on VAD, LFN-induced pathology, and related issues. In 1987, the first autopsy of a deceased VAD patient was performed. The extent of LFN induced damage was overwhelming, and the information obtained is, still today, guiding many of the associated and ongoing research projects. In 1992, LFN-exposed animal models began to be studied in order to gain a deeper knowledge of how tissues respond to this acoustic stressor. In both human and animal models, LFN exposure causes thickening of cardiovascular structures. Indeed, pericardial thickening with no inflammatory process, and in the absence of diastolic dysfunction, is the hallmark of VAD. Depressions, increased irritability and aggressiveness, a tendency for isolation, and decreased cognitive skills are all part of the clinical picture of VAD. LFN is a demonstrated genotoxic agent, inducing an increased frequency of sister chromatid exchanges in both human and animal models. The occurrence of malignancies among LFN-exposed humans, and of metaplastic and displastic appearances in LFN-exposed animals, clearly corroborates the mutagenic outcome of LFN exposure. The inadequacy of currently established legislation regarding noise assessments is a powerful hindrance to scientific advancement. VAD can never be fully recognized as an occupational and environmental pathology unless the agent of disease--LFN--is acknowledged and properly evaluated. The worldwide suffering of LFN-exposed individuals is staggering and it is unethical to maintain this status quo. PMID:15273020

  19. Transplantation of polarized type 2 donor T cells reduces mortality caused by experimental graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Krenger, W; Cooke, K R; Crawford, J M; Sonis, S T; Simmons, R; Pan, L; Delmonte, J; Karandikar, M; Ferrara, J L

    1996-11-15

    Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is thought to be initiated by alloreactive type 1 T cells that secrete gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma). IFN-gamma induces the production of inflammatory cytokines, e.g., tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin (IL)-1, which are the distal mediators of GVHD. We demonstrate that the transplantation of polarized type 2 murine T cells (i.e., cells secreting IL-4 but not IFN-gamma) together with T-cell-depleted bone marrow results in a significant increase in survival (P<0.001) after bone marrow transplantation across minor histocompatibility barriers (B10.BR-->CBA/J). Further analysis demonstrated that increased survival in recipients of polarized type 2 T cells correlated with diminished production of both IFN-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha but with increases in IL-4 2 weeks after transplantation. Despite improved survival, histologic changes of GVHD were evident in oral mucosal and hepatic tissues at 7 weeks after bone marrow transplantation. These data provide further evidence that inflammatory cytokines in the immediate posttransplant period are pivotal to the development of mortality but that they do not correlate with individual target organ damage. PMID:8932272

  20. Sirolimus-based graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis promotes the in vivo expansion of regulatory T cells and permits peripheral blood stem cell transplantation from haploidentical donors.

    PubMed

    Peccatori, J; Forcina, A; Clerici, D; Crocchiolo, R; Vago, L; Stanghellini, M T L; Noviello, M; Messina, C; Crotta, A; Assanelli, A; Marktel, S; Olek, S; Mastaglio, S; Giglio, F; Crucitti, L; Lorusso, A; Guggiari, E; Lunghi, F; Carrabba, M; Tassara, M; Battaglia, M; Ferraro, A; Carbone, M R; Oliveira, G; Roncarolo, M G; Rossini, S; Bernardi, M; Corti, C; Marcatti, M; Patriarca, F; Zecca, M; Locatelli, F; Bordignon, C; Fleischhauer, K; Bondanza, A; Bonini, C; Ciceri, F

    2015-02-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haploidentical family donors is a promising therapeutic option for high-risk hematologic malignancies. Here we explored in 121 patients, mostly with advanced stage diseases, a sirolimus-based, calcineurin-inhibitor-free prophylaxis of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) to allow the infusion of unmanipulated peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) grafts from partially HLA-matched family donors (TrRaMM study, Eudract 2007-5477-54). Conditioning regimen was based on treosulfan and fludarabine, and GvHD prophylaxis on antithymocyte globulin Fresenius (ATG-F), rituximab and oral administration of sirolimus and mycophenolate. Neutrophil and platelet engraftment occurred in median at 17 and 19 days after HSCT, respectively, and full donor chimerism was documented in patients' bone marrow since the first post-transplant evaluation. T-cell immune reconstitution was rapid, and high frequencies of circulating functional T-regulatory cells (Treg) were documented during sirolimus prophylaxis. Incidence of acute GvHD grade II-IV was 35%, and occurrence and severity correlated negatively with Treg frequency. Chronic GvHD incidence was 47%. At 3 years after HSCT, transpant-related mortality was 31%, relapse incidence 48% and overall survival 25%. In conclusion, GvHD prophylaxis with sirolimus-mycophenolate-ATG-F-rituximab promotes a rapid immune reconstitution skewed toward Tregs, allowing the infusion of unmanipulated haploidentical PBSC grafts. PMID:24897508

  1. `Silk Route Disease' (Behçet's Disease)

    PubMed Central

    James, D. Geraint

    1988-01-01

    Behçet's disease is a multisystem disorder in which orogenital ulceration is associated with troublesome generalized uveitis, erythema nodosum, pyoderma, dermatographism, seronegative arthritis, and neurologic and cardiovascular symptoms. There is no diagnostic laboratory test; the diagnosis is based on the disorder's multisystem clinical features. A points scoring system is helpful in distinguishing it from other multisystem disorders that mimic it. It occurs most frequently in an area coinciding with the old Silk Route, between latitudes 30° and 45° north, in Asian and Eurasian populations, and it has an HLA-B51 affinity. The cause remains unknown, but a postulated trigger factor is a herpesvirus with cofactors that include ethnic group, human leukocyte antigen affinities, T-cell and autonomic imbalance, circulating immune complexes, autoimmunity, blood viscosity, decreased fibrinolysis, and zinc deficiency. Treatment includes administering corticosteroids, azathioprine, chlorambucil, cyclosporine, and colchicine, and fibrinolytic therapy. PMID:3291395

  2. Mycophenolate Mofetil and Cyclosporine in Reducing Graft-Versus-Host Disease in Patients With Hematologic Malignancies or Metastatic Kidney Cancer Undergoing Donor Stem Cell Transplant

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-04

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Childhood Renal Cell Carcinoma; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Renal Cell Cancer; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Anemia; Refractory Anemia With Ringed Sideroblasts; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Refractory Multiple Myeloma; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage I Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Stage I Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Childhood Large Cell Lymp

  3. New onset diabetes after kidney transplantation in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Chen, Sixiu; Yang, Guang; Mei, Changlin; Ong, Albert; Mao, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common inherited kidney disorder with numerous cysts developing in bilateral kidneys. Meanwhile, ADPKD can also be regarded as a systemic disease because the cystic and non-cystic abnormalities could be identified in multiple organs in patients with ADPKD. Several lines of evidence suggest the risk of post-transplant diabetes mellitus or new-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) is higher in patients with ADPKD compared with non-ADPKD renal recipients, but the available results are conflicting. We describe the protocol of a systematic review and meta-analysis for investigating the risk of NODAT in patients with ADPKD. Methods and analysis PubMed, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library will be searched. Cohort studies irrespective of language and publication status, comparing the incidence of NODAT in renal recipients with ADPKD and other kidney disease will be eligible. We will assess heterogeneity among studies. Along with 95% CIs, dichotomous data will be summarised as risk ratios; numbers needed to treat/harm and continuous data will be given as standard mean differences. Excluding outliers and testing small sample size studies if our results are robust, sensitivity analysis will be carried out. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval is not required because this study includes no confidential personal data or patient interventions. The review findings will be helpful in designing and implementing future studies and will be of interest to a wide range of readers, including healthcare professionals, researchers, health service managers and policymakers. The systematic review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and disseminated electronically and in print. Trial registration number The study protocol has been registered in PROSPERO (http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/) under registration number CRD42014009677. PMID:26546139

  4. The inhibitory effects of gga-miR-199-3p, gga-miR-140-3p, and gga-miR-221-5p in Marek's disease tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Lian, Ling; Zhang, Daixi; Wang, Qiong; Yang, Ning; Qu, Lujiang

    2015-09-01

    Marek's disease (MD) is lymphoproliferative neoplastic disease in chickens, which is caused by Marek's disease virus (MDV). Our previous study profiled microRNA (miRNA) transcriptome in MD lymphoma, and found that gga-miR-199-3p, gga-miR-140-3p, and gga-miR-221-5p were down-regulated in MD lymphoma. In this study, we further investigated their differential expression between MDV-infected spleens and noninfected spleens at 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 d postinfection (dpi) to elucidate whether deregulation of them was specific to late tumor transformation phase or not. The results showed that gga-miR-199-3p was down-regulated at 14 and 28 dpi, and the expression of gga-miR-140-3p was decreased at 14 dpi, which indicated that deregulation of these miRNAs appeared since early stage of MD tumor transformation. Additionally, the inhibitory effects of gga-miR-199-3p, gga-miR-140-3p, and gga-miR-221-5p on MDV-transformed lymphoid cell line (MSB1) cells proliferation were observed, which suggested that these miRNAs acted as MD tumor suppressors. Their aberrant expression at early tumor transformation phase and suppressive role in cell proliferation indicated that they were involved in MD lymphoma transformation, and might play crucial roles in MD tumorigenesis. PMID:26112035

  5. Coronary Artery Disease - Coronary Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Coronary Artery Disease - Coronary Heart Disease Updated:Aug 7,2015 ... for the buildup of plaque in the heart’s arteries that could lead to heart attack. But what ...

  6. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Overview What is pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)? Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection of the female reproductive organs (the uterus, ...

  7. Anemia of chronic disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... There are many types of anemia. Anemia of chronic disease is anemia that is found in people with ... blood. Some conditions can lead to anemia of chronic disease include: Autoimmune disorders , such as Crohn disease , systemic ...

  8. Acid Lipase Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Cholesterol Ester Storage ... Trials Related NINDS Publications and Information What is Acid Lipase Disease ? Acid lipase disease or deficiency occurs ...

  9. Kidney Disease (Nephropathy)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Kidneys are remarkable organs. Inside them ... resulting in kidney disease. How Does Diabetes Cause Kidney Disease? When our bodies digest the protein we ...

  10. Amyloidosis and Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Foundation Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... PDF, 345 KB)????? Alternate Language URL Amyloidosis and Kidney Disease Page Content On this page: What is ...

  11. Tay-Sachs disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Tay-Sachs disease is a life-threatening disease of the nervous system passed down through families. ... Tay-Sachs disease occurs when the body lacks hexosaminidase A. This is a protein that helps break down ...

  12. Lyme disease blood test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to the bacterium that causes Lyme disease . The test is used to help diagnose Lyme disease. ... Western blot test can confirm the diagnosis of Lyme disease. For many people, the ELISA test remains positive, even after they have been treated ...

  13. Hypothyroidism and Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Heart Disease Share: Fact Sheet Hypothyroidism and Heart Disease January 2014 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors ... hormone. Why does hypothyroidism increase your risk for heart disease? Both thyroid hormones (T4 and T3) are ...

  14. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Carotid Artery Disease? Carotid artery disease is a disease in ... blood to your face, scalp, and neck. Carotid Arteries Figure A shows the location of the right ...

  15. Travelers' Health: Meningococcal Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... July 10, 2015 Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases ( ... General USA.gov Contact CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA ...

  16. Sickle Cell Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Sickle Cell Disease? Español The term sickle cell disease (SCD) ... common forms of SCD. Some Forms of Sickle Cell Disease Hemoglobin SS Hemoglobin SC Hemoglobin S? 0 thalassemia ...

  17. Autoimmune liver disease panel

    MedlinePLUS

    Liver disease test panel - autoimmune ... Autoimmune disorders are a possible cause of liver disease. The most common of these diseases are autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis. This group of tests helps your health care provider ...

  18. Understanding Autoimmune Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... This is called an autoimmune disease. (“Autoimmune” means immunity against the self.) The Immune System Autoimmune Diseases ... disease. Unfortunately, because these drugs also suppress normal immunity, they leave the body at risk for infection. ...

  19. Learning about Parkinson's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... affect many things about us: our height, eye color, why we respond to some medications better than ... diseases including Parkinson's disease. Top of page What determines who gets Parkinson's disease? In most cases inheriting ...

  20. Understanding Alzheimer's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Referral Center Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center Home About Alzheimer’s ... National Alzheimer's Project Act (NAPA) About ADEAR Understanding Alzheimer's Disease: What You Need to Know Introduction Many ...

  1. Peripheral Vascular Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Arterial blockage including peripheral artery disease or PAD Aortic aneurysms Buerger's Disease Raynaud's Phenomenon Disease of the veins ... blood to flow around, or "bypass," the blockage. Aortic Aneurysms An aneurysm is a balloon-like bulge in ...

  2. Heart disease - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - heart disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on heart disease: American Heart Association -- www.heart.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/

  3. Kidney disease - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - kidney disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on kidney disease: National Kidney Disease Education Program - www.nkdep.nih.gov National Kidney Foundation - www.kidney.org National ...

  4. Fibrocystic breast disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Fibrocystic breast disease; Mammary dysplasia; Diffuse cystic mastopathy; Benign breast disease; Glandular breast changes ... Ferri FF, Fort GG, et al, eds. Fibrocystic breast disease. In: Ferri FF, ed. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2015 . ...

  5. Interstitial Lung Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... MD Dept. of Medicine View full profile Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD): Overview Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is ... they may make informed decisions Learn more. Interstitial Lung Disease Program As a center specializing in the ...

  6. Von Willebrand Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... get the proper diagnosis and treatment. What Is von Willebrand Disease? When people have von Willebrand disease ( ... guys can have vWD. Continue The Types of von Willebrand Disease There are different kinds of vWD: ...

  7. Parkinson disease - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    Your doctor has told you that you have Parkinson disease . This disease affects the brain and leads ... have you take different medicines to treat your Parkinson disease and many of the problems that may ...

  8. Thyroid Disease Definitions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Eating Well While Eating Out Melanoma Thyroid Disease Definitions KidsHealth > Teens > Diseases & Conditions > Growth, Hormones & Diabetes > Thyroid Disease Definitions Print A A A Text Size amino acids: ...

  9. Sleep and Chronic Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... control in persons with Type 2 diabetes. 1 Cardiovascular Disease Persons with sleep apnea have been found to be at increased risk for a number of cardiovascular diseases. Notably, hypertension, stroke, coronary heart disease and irregular ...

  10. Lyme Disease (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... A With Robert Irvine Pregnant? What to Expect Lyme Disease KidsHealth > Parents > Infections > Bacterial & Viral Infections > Lyme ... Pacific Northwest, and the northern Midwest states. About Lyme Disease Lyme disease is caused by the bacterium ...

  11. Lyme disease (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Lyme disease is an acute inflammatory disease characterized by skin changes, joint inflammation and symptoms similar to ... that is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi . Lyme disease is transmitted by the bite of a ...

  12. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cerebrovascular disease, stroke, transient ischemic attacks (TIA) Carotid artery disease is a form of disease that affects ... to the brain by the 2 large carotid arteries in the front of your neck and by ...

  13. Lipid Storage Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Lipid Storage Diseases Information Page Condensed from Lipid Storage ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What are Lipid Storage Diseases? Lipid storage diseases are a group ...

  14. Parkinson's Disease Dementia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... An Interactive Tour Risk Factors Diagnosis Treatments Myths Clinical ... Parkinson's disease dementia is an impairment in thinking and reasoning that eventually affects many people with Parkinson's disease. ...

  15. Atheroembolic renal disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Renal disease - atheroembolic; Cholesterol embolization syndrome; Atheroemboli - renal; Atherosclerotic disease - renal ... disorder of the arteries. It occurs when fat, cholesterol, and other substances build up in the walls ...

  16. Skewed T cell receptor repertoire of V?1+ ?? T lymphocytes after human allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and the potential role for Epstein–Barr virus-infected B cells in clonal restriction

    PubMed Central

    Fujishima, N; Hirokawa, M; Fujishima, M; Yamashita, J; Saitoh, H; Ichikawa, Y; Horiuchi, T; Kawabata, Y; Sawada, K-I

    2007-01-01

    The proliferation of V?1+ ?? T lymphocytes has been described in various infections including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and malaria. However, the antigen specificity and functions of the human V?1+ T cells remain obscure. We sought to explore the biological role for this T cell subset by investigating the reconstitution of T cell receptor (TCR) repertoires of V?1+ ?? T lymphocytes after human allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We observed skewed TCR repertoires of the V?1+ T cells in 27 of 44 post-transplant patients. Only one patient developed EBV-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder in the present patient cohort. The -WGI- amino acid motif was observed in CDR3 of clonally expanded V?1+ T cells in half the patients. A skew was also detected in certain healthy donors, and the V?1+ T cell clone derived from the donor mature T cell pool persisted in the recipient's blood even 10 years after transplant. This T cell clone expanded in vitro against stimulation with autologous EBV–lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL), and the V?1+ T cell line expanded in vitro from the same patient showed cytotoxicity against autologous EBV–LCL. EBV-infected cells could also induce in vitro oligoclonal expansions of autologous V?1+ T cells from healthy EBV-seropositive individuals. These results suggest that human V?1+ T cells have a TCR repertoire against EBV-infected B cells and may play a role in protecting recipients of allogeneic HSCT from EBV-associated disease. PMID:17425654

  17. Biomarker for Glycogen Storage Diseases

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-12

    Fructose Metabolism, Inborn Errors; Glycogen Storage Disease; Glycogen Storage Disease Type I; Glycogen Storage Disease Type II; Glycogen Storage Disease Type III; Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV; Glycogen Storage Disease Type V; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VI; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VII; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VIII

  18. Intestinal and multivisceral transplantation.

    PubMed

    Meira Filho, Sérgio Paiva; Guardia, Bianca Della; Evangelista, Andréia Silva; Matielo, Celso Eduardo Lourenço; Neves, Douglas Bastos; Pandullo, Fernando Luis; Felga, Guilherme Eduardo Gonçalves; Alves, Jefferson André da Silva; Curvelo, Lilian Amorim; Diaz, Luiz Gustavo Guedes; Rusi, Marcela Balbo; Viveiros, Marcelo de Melo; Almeida, Marcio Dias de; Epstein, Marina Gabrielle; Pedroso, Pamella Tung; Salvalaggio, Paolo; Meirelles Júnior, Roberto Ferreira; Rocco, Rodrigo Andrey; Almeida, Samira Scalso de; Rezende, Marcelo Bruno de

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal transplantation has shown exceptional growth over the past 10 years. At the end of the 1990's, intestinal transplantation moved out of the experimental realm to become a routine practice in treating patients with severe complications related to total parenteral nutrition and intestinal failure. In the last years, several centers reported an increasing improvement in survival outcomes (about 80%), during the first 12 months after surgery, but long-term survival is still a challenge. Several advances led to clinical application of transplants. Immunosuppression involved in intestinal and multivisceral transplantation was the biggest gain for this procedure in the past decade due to tacrolimus, and new inducing drugs, mono- and polyclonal anti-lymphocyte antibodies. Despite the advancement of rigid immunosuppression protocols, rejection is still very frequent in the first 12 months, and can result in long-term graft loss. The future of intestinal transplantation and multivisceral transplantation appears promising. The major challenge is early recognition of acute rejection in order to prevent graft loss, opportunistic infections associated to complications, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease and graft versus host disease; and consequently, improve results in the long run. PMID:25993080

  19. Chicken gga-miR-181a targets MYBL1 and shows an inhibitory effect on proliferation of Marek's disease virus-transformed lymphoid cell line.

    PubMed

    Lian, Ling; Li, Xin; Zhao, Chunfang; Han, Bo; Qu, Lujiang; Song, Jiuzhou; Liu, Changjun; Yang, Ning

    2015-11-01

    Marek's disease (MD), caused by Marek's disease virus (MDV), is a lymphoproliferative neoplastic disease of chickens and is characterized by MD lymphoma in multiple visceral organs of chicken. It causes great damage to poultry health. Recently, miRNA has been reported to be involved in Marek's disease lymphomagenesis. Our previous study showed that gga-miR-181a was downregulated in MDV-induced lymphoma, and its target gene, v-myb myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog-like 1 (MYBL1), was predicted. In this study, the interaction between gga-miR-181a and MYBL1 was further verified by detecting protein expression levels of MYBL1 after transfecting miR-181a mimic into MD lymphoma cell line, MSB1. The result showed that protein level of MYBL1 was lower in gga-miR-181a mimic transfecting group than that in the negative control group at 96 h post transfection, which indicated that MYBL1 was a target gene of gga-miR-181a. Additionally, we found that the expression of MYBL1 was higher in MDV-infected samples than that in non-infected controls, which agreed with the proposition that miRNA showed a negatively correlated expression pattern with its target gene. We observed the inhibitory effect of gga-miR-181a on MSB1 cell proliferation. Collectively, the aberrant expression of gga-miR-181a and MYBL1 in MD lymphoma suggested that they might be involved in MD tumor transformation and played important roles. PMID:26500265

  20. Diseases of Dairy Animals: Infectious Diseases: Johne's Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Johne's disease is a chronic, debilitating intestinal disorder in cattle, sheep and wild ruminants, characterized by diarrhea, weight loss and death. Animals usually become infected when they are young by ingesting feces or milk containing the causative bacteria. However, clinical signs of disease...

  1. Understanding Heart Disease

    E-print Network

    Shen, Jun

    1 Understanding Heart Disease Vietnamese Aspire For Healthy Hearts What Is Heart Disease? Heart disease is the leading cause of death for Vietnamese. It develops over many years. It happens when arteries. When arteries become clogged, it increases the risk of developing heart disease. When the heart

  2. Treatment of invasive cytomegalovirus disease in solid organ transplant patients with ganciclovir.

    PubMed

    Dunn, D L; Mayoral, J L; Gillingham, K J; Loeffler, C M; Brayman, K L; Kramer, M A; Erice, A; Balfour, H H; Fletcher, C V; Bolman, R M

    1991-01-01

    The occurrence of cytomegalovirus infection after solid organ transplantation has been correlated with decrease patient and allograft survival. The disease has not been conquered for two majors reasons: the length of time to establish the diagnosis of CMV has been excessive, and suitable, nontoxic antiviral agents have not been available for use. The purpose of this study was to examine the current incidence and impact of tissue-invasive cytomegalovirus (TI-CMV) disease that developed in 93 patients who underwent solid organ transplantation at University of Minnesota Hospitals (3/1/87 and 6/30/89) and who were treated with antiviral agent ganciclovir ( [9-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-2-propoxymethyl)-guanine [DHPG]). During this same period of time 323 patients received kidney transplants and 71 received kidney-pancreas transplants. Three patient groups were defined: (1) no CMV; (2) CMV infection (cultural or serologic evidence of noninvasive CMV infection); and (3) evidence of TI-CMV disease based upon initial complaints of fever, malaise, dyspnea, or abdominal pain, leukopenia (WBC less than 3000/ml), and evidence of a positive CMV rapid antigen test, CMV culture, or the presence of characteristic CMV inclusion bodies upon examination of material obtained by means of bronchoscopy, upper-gastrointestinal endoscopy, colonoscopy, or liver or renal biopsy. Patients with solely fever, leukopenia, but without a rising CMV serum titer, or positive CMV urine or blood cultures were excluded from the study. A multivariate analysis revealed that rejection therapy, age greater than 50 years, and receiving an organ from a seropositive donor were all significant variables that predisposed to TI-CMV. Analysis of patient and kidney allograft survival indicated that asymptomatic CMV infection had little current impact upon patient or allograft survival, while patients who developed TI-CMV exhibited higher rates of allograft loss and mortality, despite DHPG therapy. Comparison with historical group of patients indicated that TI-CMV DHPG-treated patients exhibited a trend toward improved allograft survival that may be relevant because the historical group of patients included patients with mild CMV infection. DHPG therapy was well tolerated and produced minimal toxicity, and excellent 30-day cure rates (89.2%), although 21.2% of patients required retreatment subsequently. We are currently conducting a trial to compare the ability of DHPG administered plus an anti-CMV immune globulin preparation with acyclovir to prevent posttransplant TI-CMV disease. PMID:1846255

  3. High-dose zidovudine plus valganciclovir for Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus-associated multicentric Castleman disease: a pilot study of virus-activated cytotoxic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Uldrick, Thomas S.; Polizzotto, Mark N.; Aleman, Karen; O'Mahony, Deirdre; Wyvill, Kathleen M.; Wang, Victoria; Marshall, Vickie; Pittaluga, Stefania; Steinberg, Seth M.; Tosato, Giovanna; Whitby, Denise; Little, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV)–associated multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) is a lymphoproliferative disorder most commonly observed in HIV-infected patients. It is characterized by KSHV-infected plasmablasts that frequently express lytic genes. Patients manifest inflammatory symptoms attributed to overproduction of KSHV viral IL-6, human IL-6, and human IL-6. There is no standard therapy and no established response criteria. We investigated an approach targeting 2 KSHV lytic genes, ORF36 and ORF21, the protein of which, respectively, phosphorylate ganciclovir and zidovudine to toxic moieties. In a pilot study, 14 HIV-infected patients with symptomatic KSHV-MCD received high-dose zidovudine (600 mg orally every 6 hours) and the oral prodrug, valganciclovir (900 mg orally every 12 hours). Responses were evaluated using new response criteria. A total of 86% of patients attained major clinical responses and 50% attained major biochemical responses. Median progression-free survival was 6 months. With 43 months of median follow-up, overall survival was 86% at 12 months and beyond. At the time of best response, the patients showed significant improvements in C-reactive protein, albumin, platelets, human IL-6, IL-10, and KSHV viral load. The most common toxicities were hematologic. These observations provide evidence that therapy designed to target cells with lytic KSHV replication has activity in KSHV-MCD. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00099073. PMID:21487108

  4. Virotherapy Using Myxoma Virus Prevents Lethal Graft-versus-Host Disease following Xeno-Transplantation with Primary Human Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bartee, Eric; Meacham, Amy; Wise, Elizabeth; Cogle, Christopher R.; McFadden, Grant

    2012-01-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a potentially lethal clinical complication arising from the transfer of alloreactive T lymphocytes into immunocompromised recipients. Despite conventional methods of T cell depletion, GVHD remains a major challenge in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant. Here, we demonstrate a novel method of preventing GVHD by ex vivo treatment of primary human hematopoietic cell sources with myxoma virus, a rabbit specific poxvirus currently under development for oncolytic virotherapy. This pretreatment dramatically increases post-transplant survival of immunocompromised mice injected with primary human bone marrow or peripheral blood cells and prevents the expansion of human CD3+ lymphocytes in major recipient organs. Similar viral treatment also prevents human-human mixed alloreactive T lymphocyte reactions in vitro. Our data suggest that ex vivo virotherapy with myxoma virus can be a simple and effective method for preventing GVHD following infusion of hematopoietic products containing alloreactive T lymphocytes such as: allogeneic hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, donor leukocyte infusions and blood transfusions. PMID:22905251

  5. Virotherapy using myxoma virus prevents lethal graft-versus-host disease following xeno-transplantation with primary human hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bartee, Eric; Meacham, Amy; Wise, Elizabeth; Cogle, Christopher R; McFadden, Grant

    2012-01-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a potentially lethal clinical complication arising from the transfer of alloreactive T lymphocytes into immunocompromised recipients. Despite conventional methods of T cell depletion, GVHD remains a major challenge in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant. Here, we demonstrate a novel method of preventing GVHD by ex vivo treatment of primary human hematopoietic cell sources with myxoma virus, a rabbit specific poxvirus currently under development for oncolytic virotherapy. This pretreatment dramatically increases post-transplant survival of immunocompromised mice injected with primary human bone marrow or peripheral blood cells and prevents the expansion of human CD3(+) lymphocytes in major recipient organs. Similar viral treatment also prevents human-human mixed alloreactive T lymphocyte reactions in vitro. Our data suggest that ex vivo virotherapy with myxoma virus can be a simple and effective method for preventing GVHD following infusion of hematopoietic products containing alloreactive T lymphocytes such as: allogeneic hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, donor leukocyte infusions and blood transfusions. PMID:22905251

  6. Eculizumab Treatment in a Patient with Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation-Associated Thrombotic Microangiopathy and Steroid-Refractory Acute Graft Versus Host Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Cristina; Lario, Ana; Cabrera, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    A 30-year-old man with acquired aplastic anemia underwent an HLA-identical bone marrow transplant. He developed a grade III acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) refractory to various lines of treatment. On post-transplant day 196, he was diagnosed with stem cell transplantation-associated thrombotic micro-angiopathy (HSCT-TMA) and he received treatment with eculizumab 900 mg iv weekly for 4 doses followed by a single dose of 1200 mg 2 weeks later. After the first dose of eculizumab, the patient ceased to require transfusions and a progressive improvement in analytical parameters for microangiopathy was observed until their complete normalization. Coinciding with the improved of HSCT-TMA, the patient presented a clear response to his acute GVHD with disappearance of the diarrhea and bilirubin normalization. He was discharged eight weeks after the start of treatment. Unfortunately, one month later, the patient was readmitted for a GVHD relapse and he died two weeks later by an acute respiratory distress syndrome. In our case, the rapid clinical and analytical response to early treatment with eculizumab supports the implication of the complement in HSCT-TMA and suggests that the drug has a beneficial effect when used as coadjuvant therapy in acute GVHD.

  7. Renal cystic disease

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    The book begins with an overview of renal cystic disease and a presentation of simple renal cysts. Subsequent chapters cover cystic disease in association with renal neoplasms and medullary sponge kidney. The chapters addressing autosomal-dominant and autosomal-recessive polycystic kidney disease discuss and differentiate the infantile and adult forms of the disease. There are also separate discussions of medullary cystic disease, multicystic dysplastic kidney, and cysts of the renarenal sinus.

  8. Optimal time-points for minimal residual disease monitoring change on the basis of the method used in patients with acute myeloid leukemia who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation: a comparison between multiparameter flow cytometry and Wilms' tumor 1 expression.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Giovanni; Carella, Angelo Michele; Minervini, Maria Marta; di Nardo, Francesco; Waure, Chiara de; Greco, Michele Mario; Merla, Emanuela; Cillis, Giovanni Pio de; Di Renzo, Nicola; Melpignano, Angela; Capalbo, Silvana; Palumbo, Gaetano; Pisapia, Giovanni; Cascavilla, Nicola

    2015-02-01

    Minimal residual disease (MRD) of 30 adult AML patients was monitored by multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) and WT1 expression before and after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). Diagnostic performance of pre-transplant MRD measured by MFC was higher than that obtained by WT1 expression. Comparable results were displayed at day +30 post-transplant, while better values by WT1 compared to MFC were found at day +90. Positive MRD by MFC predicted a shorter disease free survival (DFS) before and 1 month after transplant (p=0.006 and p=0.005), while only high WT1 levels at 1 month from the transplant significantly impacted on DFS (p=0.010). Our results support the idea that MRD monitoring by MFC should be suggested before and 30 days after the transplant, while WT1 expression should be preferred after this procedure. The assessment of MRD at day +30 from allo-SCT is recommended as post transplant check-point for the predictive role displayed, independently of the method used. PMID:25498507

  9. Tacrolimus and Mycophenolate Mofetil in Preventing Graft-Versus-Host Disease in Patients Who Have Undergone Total-Body Irradiation With or Without Fludarabine Phosphate Followed by Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant for Hematologic Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-02-04

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Contiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Essential Thrombocythemia; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Polycythemia Vera; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Primary Myelofibrosis; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Refractory Multiple Myeloma; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Small Intestine Lym

  10. Kidney Disease: A Silent Problem

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kidney Disease: A Silent Problem Heath and Aging Kidney Disease: A Silent Problem Kidney Disease Who Is ... hormones that your body needs to stay healthy. Kidney Disease Kidney disease can sometimes develop very quickly, ...

  11. [Undifferentiated connective tissue disease].

    PubMed

    Bodolay, Edit; Szegedi, Gyula

    2009-05-10

    Evolution of immunopathological diseases is usually slow and progressive. Non-differentiated collagen disease (NDC) or the term "undifferentiated connective tissue disease" (UCTD) represents a stage of disease where clinical symptoms and serological abnormalities suggest autoimmune disease, but they are not sufficient to fulfill the diagnostic criteria of any well-established connective tissue disease (CTD) such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjögren's syndrome, mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD), systemic sclerosis (SSc), polymyositis/ dermatomyositis (PM/DM) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA). 30-40 percent of patients presenting undifferentiated profile develops and reaches the stage of a well defined systemic autoimmune disease during five years follow up, while 60 percent remains in an undifferentiated stage.In the stage of NDC, immunoregulatory abnormalities and endothelial dysfunction are present. In conclusion, NDC represents a dynamic state, and it is important to recognize the possibility of a progression to a definite systemic autoimmune disease. PMID:19403430

  12. Obesity and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Jokinen, E

    2015-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of mortality in rich countries and today it has the same meaning for health care as the epidemics of past centuries had for medicine in earlier times: 50% of the population in these countries die of cardiovascular disease. The amount of cardiovascular disease is also increasing in the developing countries together with economic growth. By 2015 one in three deaths will globally be due to cardiovascular diseases. Coronary heart disease is a chronic disease that starts in childhood, even if the symptoms first occur in the middle age. The risks for coronary heart disease are well-known: lipid disorders, especially high serum LDL-cholesterol concentration, high blood pressure, tobacco smoking, obesity, diabetes, male gender and physical inactivity. Obesity is both an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease but is also closely connected with several other risk factors. This review focuses on the connection between overweight or obesity and cardiovascular disease. PMID:25387321

  13. Prion diseases as transmissible zoonotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeongmin; Kim, Su Yeon; Hwang, Kyu Jam; Ju, Young Ran; Woo, Hee-Jong

    2013-02-01

    Prion diseases, also called transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), lead to neurological dysfunction in animals and are fatal. Infectious prion proteins are causative agents of many mammalian TSEs, including scrapie (in sheep), chronic wasting disease (in deer and elk), bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE; in cattle), and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD; in humans). BSE, better known as mad cow disease, is among the many recently discovered zoonotic diseases. BSE cases were first reported in the United Kingdom in 1986. Variant CJD (vCJD) is a disease that was first detected in 1996, which affects humans and is linked to the BSE epidemic in cattle. vCJD is presumed to be caused by consumption of contaminated meat and other food products derived from affected cattle. The BSE epidemic peaked in 1992 and decreased thereafter; this decline is continuing sharply owing to intensive surveillance and screening programs in the Western world. However, there are still new outbreaks and/or progression of prion diseases, including atypical BSE, and iatrogenic CJD and vCJD via organ transplantation and blood transfusion. This paper summarizes studies on prions, particularly on prion molecular mechanisms, BSE, vCJD, and diagnostic procedures. Risk perception and communication policies of the European Union for the prevention of prion diseases are also addressed to provide recommendations for appropriate government policies in Korea. PMID:24159531

  14. TPCP: Rhizina Root Disease RHIZINA ROOT DISEASE

    E-print Network

    TPCP: Rhizina Root Disease RHIZINA ROOT DISEASE INTRODUCTION Rhizina root rot was first recorded roots of the previous tree stand. When roots of newly planted seedlings come into contact with infested roots, they become infected and the seedlings dies. Where larger trees are subjected to burning

  15. Lung Disease and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Imaizumi, Yuki; Eguchi, Kazuo; Kario, Kazuomi

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients are at a high risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Airflow limitation is a predictor of future risks of hypertension and cardiovascular events. COPD is now understood as a systemic inflammatory disease, with the focus on inflammation of the lungs. An association between inflammation and sympathetic overactivity has also been reported. In this article, we review the association between chronic lung disease and the risks of hypertension, cardiovascular morbidity, the underlying mechanisms, and the therapeutic approach to hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in patients with lung diseases.

  16. Working Memory in Mild Alzheimer's Disease and Early Parkinson's Disease

    E-print Network

    Corkin, Suzanne

    Working Memory in Mild Alzheimer's Disease and Early Parkinson's Disease Elizabeth A. Kensinger of Technology Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) impair working memory (WM). It is unclear an expanding interest in how neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD

  17. Overexpression of Membrane-bound Fas Ligand (CD95L) Exacerbates Autoimmune Disease and Renal Pathology in Pristane-induced Lupus

    PubMed Central

    Bossaller, Lukas; Rathinam, Vijay A.K.; Bonegio, Ramon; Chiang, Ping-I; Busto, Patricia; Wespiser, Adam R.; Caffrey, Daniel R.; Li, Quan-Zhen; Mohan, Chandra; Fitzgerald, Katherine A.; Latz, Eicke; Marshak-Rothstein, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Loss of function mutations in the Fas death receptor or its ligand result in a lymphoproliferative syndrome and exacerbate clinical disease in most lupus-prone strains of mice. One exception is mice injected with 2,6,10,14-Tetramethylpentadecane (TMPD), a hydrocarbon oil commonly known as pristane, which induces SLE-like disease. While Fas/FasL interactions have been strongly implicated in the activation induced cell death of both lymphocytes and other antigen presenting cells, FasL can also trigger the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. FasL is a transmembrane protein with a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) cleavage site in the ectodomain. MMP cleavage inactivates membrane-bound FasL (mFasL) and releases a soluble form, sFasL, reported to have both antagonist and agonist activity. To better understand the impact of FasL cleavage on both the pro-apoptotic and proinflammatory activity of FasL, its cleavage site was deleted through targeted mutation, to produce the ?CS mouse line. ?CS mice express higher levels of mFasL than WT mice and fail to release sFasL. To determine to what extent FasL promotes inflammation in lupus mice, TMPD-injected FasL-deficient and ?CS BALB/c mice were compared to control TMPD-injected BALB/c mice. We found that FasL-deficiency significantly reduced the early inflammatory exudate induced by TMPD injection. By contrast, ?CS mice developed a markedly exacerbated disease profile associated with a higher frequency of splenic neutrophils and macrophages, a profound change in ANA specificity, and markedly increased proteinuria and kidney pathology, compared to controls. These results demonstrate that FasL promotes inflammation in TMPD-induced autoimmunity, and its cleavage limits FasL pro-inflammatory activity. PMID:23918976

  18. Impact of loss of NF-?B1, NF-?B2 or c-REL on SLE-like autoimmune disease and lymphadenopathy in Fas(lpr/lpr) mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Low, J T; Hughes, P; Lin, A; Siebenlist, U; Jain, R; Yaprianto, K; Gray, D H D; Gerondakis, S; Strasser, A; O'Reilly, L A

    2016-01-01

    Defects in apoptosis can cause autoimmune disease. Loss-of-function mutations in the 'death receptor' FAS impair the deletion of autoreactive lymphocytes in the periphery, leading to progressive lymphadenopathy and systemic lupus erythematosus-like autoimmune disease in mice (Fas(lpr/lpr) (mice homozygous for the lymphoproliferation inducing spontaneous mutation)) and humans. The REL/nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) transcription factors regulate a broad range of immune effector functions and are also implicated in various autoimmune diseases. We generated compound mutant mice to investigate the individual functions of the NF-?B family members NF-?B1, NF-?B2 and c-REL in the various autoimmune pathologies of Fas(lpr/lpr) mutant mice. We show that loss of each of these transcription factors resulted in amelioration of many classical features of autoimmune disease, including hypergammaglobulinaemia, anti-nuclear autoantibodies and autoantibodies against tissue-specific antigens. Remarkably, only c-REL deficiency substantially reduced immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis and extended the lifespan of Fas(lpr/lpr) mice. Interestingly, compared with the Fas(lpr/lpr) animals, Fas(lpr/lpr)nfkb2(-/-) mice presented with a dramatic acceleration and augmentation of lymphadenopathy that was accompanied by severe lung pathology due to extensive lymphocytic infiltration. The Fas(lpr/lpr)nfkb1(-/-) mice exhibited the combined pathologies caused by defects in FAS-mediated apoptosis and premature ageing due to loss of NF-?B1. These findings demonstrate that different NF-?B family members exert distinct roles in the development of the diverse autoimmune and lymphoproliferative pathologies that arise in Fas(lpr/lpr) mice, and suggest that pharmacological targeting of c-REL should be considered as a strategy for therapeutic intervention in autoimmune diseases. PMID:26084385

  19. Men and Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ...

  20. Heart Disease Risk Factors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ...

  1. Women and Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ...

  2. Polycystic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and requires immediate medical attention. [ Top ] How do health care providers diagnose autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease? Health ... when test results are available. [ Top ] How do health care providers treat autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease? Although ...

  3. Polycystic kidney disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Cysts - kidneys; Kidney - polycystic; Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease; ADPKD ... Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is passed down through families (inherited), usually as an autosomal dominant trait. If one parent ...

  4. Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kidney Patients Life Options National Kidney Foundation MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... PDF, 345 KB)????? Alternate Language URL Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease Page Content On this page: What is ...

  5. Rheumatoid lung disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Lung disease - rheumatoid arthritis; Rheumatoid nodules ... Lung problems are common in rheumatoid arthritis. They often cause no symptoms. The causes of lung disease associated with rheumatoid arthritis are unknown. Sometimes the medicines used to ...

  6. About Alzheimer's Disease: Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... area of diagnostic research is the analysis of biomarkers—biological signs of disease found in brain images, ... medical practice. Watch a video about Alzheimer’s disease biomarkers: Learn more For information on new changes to ...

  7. Mad Cow Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is an incurable, fatal brain disease that affects cattle. Different versions of the disease can affect certain ... These prohibit the use of any high-risk cattle materials in the feed of any animal. In ...

  8. Coronary Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Coronary Heart Disease? Español Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a ... the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Celebrating American Heart Month: NIH Advancing Heart Research 02/07/2014 ...

  9. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) STDs & Infertility STDs & Pregnancy Syphilis Trichomoniasis Other STDs See Also Pregnancy Reproductive Health ... Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) STDs & Infertility STDs & Pregnancy Syphilis Trichomoniasis Other STDs See Also Pregnancy Reproductive Health ...

  10. Coronary Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. It is the leading cause of death ... both men and women. CAD happens when the arteries that supply blood to heart muscle become hardened ...

  11. Progression of Liver Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Handouts Education Resources Support Services Helpful Links For Liver Health Information Call 1-800-GO-LIVER (1- ... The Progression of Liver Disease The Progression of Liver Disease There are many different types of liver ...

  12. Alcoholic liver disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. The heavy drinking could be every day, or just a ...

  13. Head Lice: Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  14. Childhood Contagious Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... many childhood diseases, once contracted, result in lifelong immunity in the infected child. However, this is not always the case. Vaccinations also provide immunity to some of the below diseases. Chickenpox, for ...

  15. von Willebrand Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Willebrand Disease? Von Willebrand disease (VWD) is a bleeding disorder. It affects your blood's ability to clot. If ... work well in people who have hemophilia , another bleeding disorder. VWD is more common and usually milder than ...

  16. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    MedlinePLUS

    COPD; Chronic obstructive airways disease; Chronic obstructive lung disease; Chronic bronchitis; Emphysema; Bronchitis - chronic ... Smoking is the main cause of COPD. The more a person smokes, the ... develop COPD. But some people smoke for years and never get ...

  17. Lipid Storage Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Considerable progress has been made with regard to gene therapies in animal models of MLD. Wolman’s disease , also ... researchers developed a mouse model of Fabry disease. Gene therapy in this model appears to be especially encouraging. ...

  18. PI3 Kinase Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diseases (PIDDs) Immune System National Library of Medicine, Genetics Home Reference ?? Javascript Error Your browser JavaScript is turned off causing certain features of the NIAID Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases web site to work incorrectly. ...

  19. Sickle Cell Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Form Controls NCBDDD Cancel Submit Search The CDC Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of inherited red blood ...

  20. Depression and Parkinson's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... For More Information on Parkinson's Disease Citations Reprints Depression and Parkinson's Disease Order a free hardcopy En ... difficult, so proper treatment is important. What is depression? Major depressive disorder, or depression, is a serious ...

  1. Parkinson disease - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - Parkinson disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on Parkinson disease : The Michael J. Fox Foundation -- www.michaeljfox.org National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke -- www. ...

  2. Liver disease - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - liver disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on liver disease : American Liver Foundation - www.liverfoundation.org Children's Liver Association for Support Services - www.classkids.org Hepatitis ...

  3. Lung disease - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - lung disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on lung disease : American Lung Association -- www.lung.org National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- www.nhlbi.nih.gov ...

  4. Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Disease Organizations (PDF, 269 KB). Alternate Language URL Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease Page Content On this page: ... responds by decreasing TSH production. [ Top ] How does pregnancy normally affect thyroid function? Two pregnancy-related hormones— ...

  5. Collagen vascular disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... developed these disorders were previously said to have "connective tissue" or "collagen vascular" disease. We now have names ... be used. These include as undifferentiated systemic rheumatic (connective tissue) diseases or overlap syndromes.

  6. About Kennedy's Disease: Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What is Kennedy's Disease Symptoms Common Misdiagnosis Treatments DNA Testing and Labs Genetic Counseling and Inheritance Issues Doctors ... Counter Frequently Used Links What is Kennedy's Disease DNA Testing for KD Frequently Asked Questions Doctors familiar with ...

  7. Bone Marrow Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... blood clotting. If you have a bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem cells or ... marrow doesn't make red blood cells. Other diseases, such as lymphoma, can spread into the bone ...

  8. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection and inflammation of the uterus, ovaries, and other female reproductive organs. It causes scarring ... United States. Gonorrhea and chlamydia, two sexually transmitted diseases, are the most common causes of PID. Other ...

  9. Tay-Sachs Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Tay-Sachs disease is a rare, inherited disorder. It causes too much of a fatty substance to build up in the ... mental and physical problems. Infants with Tay-Sachs disease appear to develop normally for the first few ...

  10. Cat Scratch Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry the infection ... symptoms of CSD, call your doctor. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  11. Bile Duct Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... carry the bile to your small intestine. Different diseases can block the bile ducts and cause a ... liver failure. A rare form of bile duct disease called biliary atresia occurs in infants. It is ...

  12. Lewy Body Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Lewy body disease is one of the most common causes of dementia in the elderly. Dementia is the loss of mental ... to affect normal activities and relationships. Lewy body disease happens when abnormal structures, called Lewy bodies, build ...

  13. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare, degenerative brain disorder. Symptoms usually start around age 60. Memory problems, behavior changes, vision ... during a medical procedure Cattle can get a disease related to CJD called bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) ...

  14. Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) happens when there is a narrowing of the blood vessels outside of your heart. The cause of ... smoking. Other risk factors include older age and diseases like diabetes, high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, ...

  15. Degenerative Nerve Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    Degenerative nerve diseases affect many of your body's activities, such as balance, movement, talking, breathing, and heart function. Many of these diseases are genetic. Sometimes the cause is a medical ...

  16. Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections that you can get from having sex with someone who has the infection. The causes ... is no cure. Sometimes medicines can keep the disease under control. Correct usage of latex condoms greatly ...

  17. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... brain with blood. If you have carotid artery disease, the arteries become narrow, usually because of atherosclerosis. ... one of the causes of stroke. Carotid artery disease often does not cause symptoms, but there are ...

  18. Modeling Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Linked to Dengue Epidemics Now Trending: Mining Historical Data on Infectious Diseases Computing Diseases from Computing Life Forecasting Flu Solving the Sleeping Sickness 'Mystery' Social Studies: Profile of Stephen Eubank Related Links Up to top ...

  19. Minimal change disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... microscope. It can only be seen under an electron microscope. Minimal change disease is the most common ... biopsy and examination of the tissue with an electron microscope can show signs of minimal change disease. ...

  20. Cat scratch disease (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Cat scratch disease is an infectious illness associated with cat scratches, bites, or exposure to cat saliva, causing chronic swelling of the lymph nodes. Cat scratch disease is possibly the most common cause of ...

  1. About Alzheimer's Disease: Causes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a role in the development and course of Alzheimer’s disease. There is a great deal of interest, for example, in the relationship between cognitive decline and vascular conditions such as heart disease, stroke, and high ...

  2. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

    MedlinePLUS

    Pelvic inflammatory disease is an infection of a woman's womb (uterus), ovaries, or fallopian tubes. ... Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection caused by bacteria. When bacteria from the vagina or cervix travel to your ...

  3. Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes Updated:Nov 10,2015 The following statistics speak ... disease. This content was last reviewed August 2015. Diabetes • Home • About Diabetes • Why Diabetes Matters Introduction Cardiovascular ...

  4. Kidney Disease and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Kidney Disease & Diabetes Updated:Nov 10,2015 One of the more ... disease. This content was last reviewed August 2015. Diabetes • Home • About Diabetes • Why Diabetes Matters Introduction Cardiovascular ...

  5. Liver Disease and IBD

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 34% of Crohn’s patients with disease of the terminal ileum (the last segment of the small intestine). ... increased risk for developing gallstones because the diseased terminal ileum cannot absorb bile salts, which are necessary ...

  6. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be the same one that causes vCJD in humans. Varient CJD causes less than 1% of all ... Scrapie (found in sheep) Other very rare inherited human diseases, such as Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease and ...

  7. Pediatric Celiac Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Z Celiac Disease Symptoms & Diagnosis Treatment & Management Coping Gluten Free Diet Guide Eosinophilic Esophagitis Inflammatory Bowel Disease ... serious condition caused by a permanent intolerance for gluten--a protein found in wheat, rye, and barley. ...

  8. What Is Parkinson's Disease?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... National HelpLine Educational Publications Online Seminars Parkinson's News Parkinson's HelpLine Learn More Educational Materials Do you want ... resources & more. Order Free Materials Today What is Parkinson’s Disease? Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic and ...

  9. Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease Patient Health Information ... with a hearing loss. How Does the Healthy Ear Work? The ear has three main parts: the ...

  10. Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lead to disease outbreaks in a local area, country, or across the world. Did you know ? The largest waterborne disease outbreak in United States history happened in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 1993. Over 400, ...

  11. Gaucher Disease Inherited disorder

    E-print Network

    Brutlag, Doug

    does not appear to be sustained ¡ Genetic counseling § Targeted Mutation Analysis Used to detect/> ¡ "Gaucher Disease." Genetics Home Reference ­ Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions. US National Disease." Gene Review. Web 2 Oct. 2012. Genetics

  12. Genetics of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ridge, Perry G.; Ebbert, Mark T. W.; Kauwe, John S. K.

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia and is the only top 10 cause of death in the United States that lacks disease-altering treatments. It is a complex disorder with environmental and genetic components. There are two major types of Alzheimer's disease, early onset and the more common late onset. The genetics of early-onset Alzheimer's disease are largely understood with variants in three different genes leading to disease. In contrast, while several common alleles associated with late-onset Alzheimer's disease, including APOE, have been identified using association studies, the genetics of late-onset Alzheimer's disease are not fully understood. Here we review the known genetics of early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease. PMID:23984328

  13. Chagas Disease (American trypanosomiasis)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... vector is a triatomine bug that carries the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi which causes the disease. Chagas disease ... potentially life-threatening illness caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) . It is found mainly ...

  14. Von Gierke disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... may be signs of: Delayed puberty Enlarged liver Gout Inflammatory bowel disease Liver tumors Severe low blood ... blood uric acid and decrease the risk for gout. Other medications may include those for kidney disease, ...

  15. Neuromuscular Disease Descriptions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... disease. Muscular dystrophies (involving the structure of the muscle cells) Becker (BMD) • Age of onset: 2 to ... or heart problems. Peripheral motor neuron diseases (involving muscle-controlling nerve cells of the arms, legs, neck, ...

  16. Blood and Lymph Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Medicine, National Institutes of Health. National Center for Biotechnology Information (US). Genes and Disease [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Center for Biotechnology Information (US); 1998-. Genes and Disease [Internet]. Show ...

  17. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... link in the menu on the left. Common Names Sexually transmitted diseases STDs Sexually transmitted infections STIs Medical or Scientific Names Sexually transmitted diseases Sexually transmitted infections Last Reviewed: ...

  18. Medullary cystic kidney disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... kidney disease between ages 30 and 50. Lifelong treatment may control the symptoms of chronic kidney disease. The cysts that occur with MCKD may be very small, but large numbers of them can lead to kidney problems.

  19. Diabetes and kidney disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Kidney disease or kidney damage that occurs in people with diabetes is called diabetic nephropathy. This condition is ... who have more severe and long-term (chronic) kidney disease may have symptoms such as: Fatigue most of ...

  20. Gum Disease in Children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Find a Periodontist Gum Disease In Children Chronic gingivitis. aggressive periodontitis and generalized aggressive periodontitis are types ... children. Types of periodontal diseases in children Chronic gingivitis is common in children. It usually causes gum ...