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Sample records for posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease

  1. Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Hazem A. H.; Naresh, Kikkeri N.

    2012-01-01

    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) are a group of diseases that range from benign polyclonal to malignant monoclonal lymphoid proliferations. They arise secondary to treatment with immunosuppressive drugs given to prevent transplant rejection. Three main pathologic subsets/stages of evolution are recognised: early, polymorphic, and monomorphic lesions. The pathogenesis of PTLDs seems to be multifactorial. Among possible infective aetiologies, the role of EBV has been studied in depth, and the virus is thought to play a central role in driving the proliferation of EBV-infected B cells that leads to subsequent development of the lymphoproliferative disorder. It is apparent, however, that EBV is not solely responsible for the neoplastic state. Accumulated genetic alterations of oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes (deletions, mutations, rearrangements, and amplifications) and epigenetic changes (aberrant hypermethylation) that involve tumour suppressor genes are integral to the pathogenesis. Antigenic stimulation also plays an evident role in the pathogenesis of PTLDs. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs) that are critical to fight viral infections have been thought to play a pathogenetically relevant role in PTLDs. Furthermore, regulatory T cells (Treg cells), which are modulators of immune reactions once incited, seem to have an important role in PTLDs where antigenic stimulation is key for the pathogenesis. PMID:22570658

  2. T-cell therapy in the treatment of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease

    PubMed Central

    Bollard, Catherine M; Rooney, Cliona M; Heslop, Helen E

    2013-01-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative diseases (PTLD) associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection often develop after organ and haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. These lymphoproliferative diseases are tumours that usually express all latent EBV viral proteins, and are therefore amenable to T-cell-based immune therapies, such as donor lymphocyte infusions and the adoptive transfer of EBV-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs). In this Review, we describe current strategies of T-cell-based therapies to treat PTLD, and describe strategies that improve the feasibility of such treatment. PMID:22801669

  3. FDG-PET/CT in abdominal post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease.

    PubMed

    Metser, Ur; Lo, Glen

    2016-01-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality following both solid organ and haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PTLD has a broad range of manifestations with extranodal involvement more common in the abdomen than nodal involvement. Fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT (FDG-PET/CT) is sensitive and specific to detect PTLD and can upstage or detect occult PTLD compared with conventional CT imaging. As functional imaging, FDG-PET/CT also has a role in monitoring treatment response. In this pictorial essay, we will discuss the role of FDG-PET/CT in the diagnosis and staging of abdominal PTLD and describe the advantages of functional imaging in assessing response to therapy. PMID:26544161

  4. How Should We Treat Early Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disease After Heart Transplantation?

    PubMed

    Nitta, Daisuke; Kinugawa, Koichiro; Imamura, Teruhiko; Hatano, Masaru; Ono, Minoru; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Kurokawa, Mineo; Komuro, Issei

    2015-12-01

    Although post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is one of the major fatal complications encountered several years after heart transplant (HTx), little is known about early-PTLD emerging within the first year. We here describe the rare case of a 24-year-old female patient who suffered from early-PTLD (DLBCL: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma) associated with an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, that developed around the jejunum at 7 months after HTx. She suffered from acute abdominal peritonitis due to perforation of the jejunum soon after the first chemotherapy. She was treated successfully by emergent partial resection of the jejunum and colostomy after the discontinuation of everolimus (EVL) and successive low-dose chemotherapy under careful monitoring and adjustment of intravenous immunosuppressant including cyclosporine (CyA) and prednisolone to avoid a rejection reaction. Prophylactic strategies for early-PTLD in HTx recipients should be undertaken with caution. PMID:26549285

  5. Subacute immune response to primary EBV infection leading to post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease in a renal transplant patient.

    PubMed

    Leaver, S; Amlot, P; Thuraisingham, R; Norton, A; Aitken, C; Cavenagh, J D

    2004-10-01

    A 23-year-old man sero-negative for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) developed recurrent sore throats 3 and 6 months after a renal transplant from an EBV sero-positive donor. Tonsillar biopsy at 9 months post-transplant showed post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) caused by EBV. Following reduction of immunosuppressive treatment, he developed further signs and symptoms, and serological evidence of infectious mononucleosis followed by resolution of lymphadenopathy. This case emphasizes the difficulty in interpreting EBV serology in immunosuppressed patients and the importance of pre-transplant EBV serology. PMID:15485466

  6. Retinochoroidal toxoplasmosis in a patient with cerebral post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease of Hodgkin's type: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Ruchi; Thumann, Gabrielle; Souteyrand, George; Kuerten, David; Coupland, Sarah E

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a relatively rare complication in renal transplant patients and can pose diagnostic challenges, especially when it manifests as an ocular inflammation. Authors hereby report an unusual case of a 57-year-old male who developed retinochoroidal toxoplasmosis after 15years of renal transplant, the diagnoses of which were challenging as the patient was also a known case of cerebral post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) of Hodgkin's type, which misled the ophthalmologists towards a clinical diagnosis of ocular PTLD. Histopathology examination of the enucleated eye revealed numerous toxoplasmosis cysts within the retina and choroid. No ocular PTLD was observed. PMID:26239296

  7. Prevention of EBV lymphoma development by oncolytic myxoma virus in a murine xenograft model of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Manbok; Rahman, Masmudur M; Cogle, Christopher R; McFadden, Grant

    2015-07-10

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been associated with a variety of epithelial and hematologic malignancies, including B-, T- and NK cell-lymphomas, Hodgkin's disease (HD), post-transplant lymphoproliferative diseases (LPDs), nasopharyngeal and gastric carcinomas, smooth muscle tumors, and HIV-associated lymphomas. Currently, treatment options for EBV-associated malignancies are limited. We have previously shown that myxoma virus specifically targets various human solid tumors and leukemia cells in a variety of animal models, while sparing normal human or murine tissues. Since transplant recipients of bone marrow or solid organs often develop EBV-associated post-transplant LPDs and lymphoma, myxoma virus may be of utility to prevent EBV-associated malignancies in immunocompromised transplant patients where treatment options are frequently limited. In this report, we demonstrate the safety and efficacy of myxoma virus purging as a prophylactic strategy for preventing post-transplant EBV-transformed human lymphomas, using a highly immunosuppressed mouse xenotransplantation model. This provides support for developing myxoma virus as a potential oncolytic therapy for preventing EBV-associated LPDs following transplantation of bone marrow or solid organ allografts. PMID:25843801

  8. Umbilical cord blood transplantation in adults with advanced hodgkin's disease: high incidence of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease.

    PubMed

    Piñana, José Luis; Sanz, Jaime; Esquirol, Albert; Martino, Rodrigo; Picardi, Alessandra; Barba, Pere; Parody, Rocio; Gayoso, Jorge; Montesinos, Pau; Guidi, Stefano; Terol, Maria José; Moscardó, Federico; Solano, Carlos; Arcese, William; Sanz, Miguel A; Sierra, Jorge; Sanz, Guillermo

    2016-02-01

    We report the outcome of 30 consecutive patients with Hodgkin disease (HD) who underwent single-unit UCBT. Most (90%) patients had failed previous autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The conditioning regimens were based on combinations of thiotepa, busulfan, cyclophosphamide or fludarabine, and antithymocyte globulin. The cumulative incidence (CI) of myeloid engraftment was 90% [95% confidence interval (C.I.), 74-98%] with a median of 18 d (range, 10-48). CI of acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) grades II-IV was 30% (95% C.I., 17-44%), while the incidence of chronic GVHD was 42% (95% C.I., 23-77%). The non-relapse mortality (NRM) at 100 d and 4 yr was 30% (95% C.I., 13-46%) and 47% (95% C.I., 29-65%), respectively. EBV-related post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (EBV-PTLD) accounted for more than one-third of transplant-related death, with an estimate incidence of 26% (95% C.I., 9-44). The incidence of relapse at 4 yr was 25% (95% C.I., 9-42%). Four-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 28% and 30%, respectively. Despite a high NRM and an unexpected high incidence of EBV-PTLD, UCBT in heavily pretreated HD patients is an option for patients lacking a suitable adult donor, provided the disease is not in refractory relapse. PMID:25845981

  9. Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders in transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Timurağaoğlu, A; Uğur-Bilgin, A; Colak, D; Tuncer, M; Gölbaşi, I; Hazar, V; Kiliçarsłan, B; Undar, L; Demirbaş, A

    2006-03-01

    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a serious complication of organ transplantation, with a reported incidence between 0.8% and 32%. The incidence of PTLD mainly depends on the transplanted organ, the immunosuppressive drugs, the viral serology, and the age of the recipient. The aim of our study was to analyze our patients diagnosed with PTLD. Among 1040 transplantations, including 931 renal, 14 heart, 55 liver and 40 allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC), 8 patients (7 male, 1 female) were diagnosed with PTLD. Five patients had undergone renal, one cardiac, one liver, and one PBSC transplantations. Four patients were diagnosed within the first year of transplantation. Six patients presented with abdominal disease, one with convulsions, and one with peripheral lymph node involvement. According to the World Health Organization classification system, six patients were diagnosed as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, one patient Burkitt's lymphoma, and one polymorphic PTLD. At the time of diagnosis, 7 patients showed positive Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) Ig G and negative Ig M; one patient, positive EBV Ig M and negative CMV Ig G and M. EBV viral load was extremely high in the plasma of two patients by polymerase chain reaction. One of these patient's pathologic tissue revealed positive EBV DNA, which was not detected in six of the other eight patients. This patient was an 8-year-old boy diagnosed with Burkitt's lymphoma at 31 months after liver transplantation. Seven patients died of disease or complications of chemotherapy. Only one patient survived after the diagnosis of PTLD. In conclusion, even with treatment the mortality rate was high among our patients with PTLD. To decrease the incidence of PTLD and related mortality, risk factors must be evaluated in multicenter studies. PMID:16549195

  10. Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders following liver transplantation: Where are we now?

    PubMed Central

    Dierickx, Daan; Cardinaels, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Liver transplantation has emerged as a life-saving treatment for several patients with acute liver failure, end stage liver disease and primary hepatic malignancies. However, long term immunosuppressive therapy aiming to reduce the risk of transplant rejection increases the incidence of several complications including malignancies. This is illustrated by the observation of a high ratio between observed and expected cases of lymphoproliferative disorders following liver transplantation. Despite a huge heterogeneity in morphological appearance of these disorders ranging from reactive-like lesions to real lymphomas, they are collectively termed posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders. In this review we will provide an overview of this rare but challenging disorder as a complication of liver transplantation. PMID:26494960

  11. Primary central nervous system posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders.

    PubMed

    Castellano-Sanchez, Amilcar A; Li, Shiyong; Qian, Jiang; Lagoo, Anand; Weir, Edward; Brat, Daniel J

    2004-02-01

    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) represent a spectrum ranging from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven polyclonal lymphoid proliferations to EBV+ or EBV- malignant lymphomas. Central nervous system (CNS) PTLDs have not been characterized fully. We reviewed the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features of 12 primary CNS PTLDs to define them more precisely. Patients included 10 males and 2 females (median age, 43.4 years) who were recipients of kidney (n = 5), liver (n = 2), heart (n = 2), peripheral blood stem cells (n = 2), or bone marrow (n = 1). All received immunosuppressive therapy. CNS symptoms developed 3 to 131 months (mean, 31 months) after transplantation. By neuroimaging, most showed multiple (3 to 9) intra-axial, contrast-enhancing lesions. Histologic sections showed marked expansion of perivascular spaces by large, cytologically malignant lymphoid cells that were CD45+, CD20+, EBV+ and showed light chain restriction or immunoglobulin gene rearrangement. In distinction to PTLDs in other organ systems, CNS PTLDs were uniformly high-grade lymphomas that fulfilled the World Health Organization criteria for monomorphic PTLDs. Extremely short survival periods were noted for each CNS PTLD that followed peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Survival of others with CNS PTLD varied; some lived more than 2 years. PMID:14983939

  12. Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorders: Role of Viral Infection, Genetic Lesions and Antigen Stimulation in the Pathogenesis of the Disease

    PubMed Central

    Capello, Daniela; Gaidano, Gianluca

    2009-01-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are a life-threatening complication of solid organ transplantation or, more rarely, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The majority of PTLD is of B-cell origin and associated with EpsteinBarr virus (EBV) infection. PTLD generally display involvement of extranodal sites, aggressive histology and aggressive clinical behavior. The molecular pathogenesis of PTLD involves infection by oncogenic viruses, namely EBV, as well as genetic or epigenetic alterations of several cellular genes. At variance with lymphoma arising in immunocompetent hosts, whose genome is relatively stable, a fraction of PTLD are characterized by microsatellite instability as a consequence of defects in the DNA mismatch repair mechanism. Apart from microsatellite instability, molecular alterations of cellular genes recognized in PTLD include alterations of cMYC, BCL6, TP53, DNA hypermethylation, and aberrant somatic hypermutation of protooncogenes. The occurrence of IGV mutations in the overwhelming majority of PTLD documents that malignant transformation targets germinal centre (GC) B-cells and their descendants both in EBVpositive and EBVnegative cases. Analysis of phenotypic markers of B-cell histogenesis, namely BCL6, MUM1 and CD138, allows further distinction of PTLD histogenetic categories. PTLD expressing the BCL6+/MUM1+/-/CD138? profile reflect B-cells actively experiencing the GC reaction, and comprise diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) centroblastic and Burkitt lymphoma. PTLD expressing the BCL6?/MUM1+/CD138? phenotype putatively derive from B-cells that have concluded the GC reaction, and comprise the majority of polymorphic PTLD and a fraction of DLBCL immunoblastic. A third group of PTLD is reminiscent of post-GC and preterminally differentiated B-cells that show the BCL6?/MUM1+/CD138+ phenotype, and are morphologically represented by either polymorphic PTLD or DLBCL immunoblastic. PMID:21416004

  13. High-flux hemodialysis after administering high-dose methotrexate in a patient with posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease and impaired renal function.

    PubMed

    Reshetnik, Alexander; Scheurig-Muenkler, Christian; van der Giet, Markus; Tlle, Markus

    2015-11-01

    A young patient develops cerebral posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Despite concurrent significantly impaired transplant kidney function use of add-on high-flux hemodialysis for additional clearance made the administration of high-dose methotrexate feasible in this patient without occurence of acute chronic kidney failure and significant hematological toxicity. PMID:26576275

  14. Late Onset Epstein Barr Virus Seropositive Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder in Two Renal Transplant Receivers

    PubMed Central

    Payda?, Saime; Payda?, Semra; Balal, Mustafa; A?kal?n, Arbil; Ergin, Melek; Grkan, Emel; Ba?lam??l?, Fikri

    2013-01-01

    Posttransplant malignancy is one of the most important complications of organ transplantation. Immunosuppressive drugs, viral infections such as human herpes virus 8 or Epstein-Barr virus, exposure to carcinogenic factors such as sun, and host factors can be etiologic factors in the development of malignant disease. In this paper we report 2 cases of late posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder with malign behavior. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24385813

  15. Epstein-Barr virus load in whole blood is associated with immunosuppression, but not with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease in stable adult heart transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Doesch, Andreas O; Konstandin, Mathias; Celik, Sultan; Kristen, Arnt; Frankenstein, Lutz; Sack, Falk-Udo; Schnabel, Philipp; Schnitzler, Paul; Katus, Hugo A; Dengler, Thomas J

    2008-10-01

    Development of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is a serious complication following heart transplantation (HTX). This study investigates EBV DNA load in adult heart transplant recipients, its association with immunosuppression, and its potential as a marker for development of PTLD. EBV DNA load was measured prospectively by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 172 stable HTX patients. Sixty-seven patients (39.0% of total) had a positive EBV PCR at initial examination [median 4.9 (range 1.1-16.9) years post-HTX]. In follow-up testing of 67 positive patients 6 months later, 36 patients continued to have a positive EBV PCR. Overall incidence of EBV DNA was significantly associated with calcineurin inihibitors, azathioprine medication, and with the absence of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) treatment. In patients with positive EBV DNA levels at initial examination and negative levels at retesting, cyclosporine A levels were found to be significantly higher at initial examination (148.4 +/- 70.2 vs. 119.6 +/- 53.5 ng/ml, P < 0.05). Three patients (1.7%, 3/172) were diagnosed with PTLD during the course of the study (mean follow up 4.0 years). EBV DNA viral load determination does not appear to be useful for risk prediction or early diagnosis of PTLD in adults after HTX, but an association of EBV DNA load with qualitative and quantitative immunosuppression is demonstrated. PMID:18564989

  16. Isolated Upper Extremity Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Halula, Sarah E.; Leino, Daniel G.; Patel, Manish N.; Racadio, John M.; Lungren, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a well-described complication of solid organ and bone marrow transplants. The most common presentation is intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy or single or multiple intraparenchymal masses involving the liver, spleen, or kidneys. Here we describe the imaging and pathology findings of an unusual case of PTLD appearing as an intramuscular forearm lesion in a pediatric male. The manifestation of PTLD as an isolated upper extremity mass in a pediatric patient has to our knowledge not been described. PMID:26167324

  17. Folliculotropic Mycosis Fungoides as a Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder.

    PubMed

    Spence-Shishido, Allyson; Streicher, Jenna L; George, Roshan P; Parker, Sareeta R; Lawley, Leslie P

    2015-09-01

    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a known complication of solid organ transplantation. The majority are B cell in origin and related to Epstein-Barr virus infection. T-cell PTLD is much less common; most are Epstein-Barr virus negative and have a worse prognosis. Primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) as a presentation of PTLD is rare. CTCL has a less favorable prognosis in transplant patients compared with that in immune-competent patients. Herein, we report a case of a 13-year-old boy who developed folliculotropic mycosis fungoides, a rare subtype of CTCL, subsequent to renal transplantation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of this type of PTLD in a pediatric patient. PMID:26283779

  18. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders with naso- and oropharyngeal manifestation.

    PubMed

    Akbas, Ayla; Tiede, Christina; Lemound, Juliana; Maecker-Kolhoff, Britta; Kreipe, Hans; Hussein, Kais

    2015-11-01

    The nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal lymphatic tissues represent the anatomical site of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) entry. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are often associated with EBV, but little is known about the characteristics of nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal mass-forming PTLD. Retrospective evaluation of our own PTLD database (n=79) and the PubMed() database (n=61) has been performed. Sinonasal/oro-/nasopharyngeal lymphatic masses were early lesions (n=54/140, 38.5%), polymorphic PTLD (n=32/140, 23%), monomorphic B-PTLD (n=47/140, 33.5%) and T-PTLD (n=7/140, 5%). One-fourth of lesions manifested as masses in the Waldeyer's ring, and in two-thirds of cases, swelling of tonsils was related to manifestation of benign early lesions. Tonsil infiltration by polymorphic PTLD and monomorphic PTLD was present in one-third of cases. Extratonsillar masses were mainly monomorphic PTLD. Meta-analysis of our data in combination with previously published data revealed that lung transplantation and young patients are at a higher risk for earlier manifestation of monomorphic PTLD. Therapy is similar to PTLD therapy strategies, in general reduced immunosuppression and chemotherapy for polymorphic and monomorphic PTLD, and diagnostic and therapeutic surgical gross tumour resection of tonsillar/adenoid lesions. In summary, it is relevant for the clinical differential diagnosis that oro-/nasopharyngeal aggressive PTLD manifested in ~30% as tonsillar masses and >90% at extratonsillar sites. PMID:26147593

  19. Yttrium Y 90 Ibritumomab Tiuxetan and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-24

    Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  20. Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder presenting as multiple cystic lesions in a renal transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Moir, J A G; Simms, R J; Wood, K M; Talbot, D; Kanagasundaram, N S

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of a 67-year-old man who experienced allograft dysfunction following a renal transplantation from a donation after cardiac death. The postoperative course was initially complicated by episodes of E. coli urinary sepsis causing pyrexia and a raised creatinine level. Ultrasound scanning 5 weeks posttransplant revealed mild hydronephrosis with several parenchymal cystic areas measuring up to 2 cm with appearances suggestive of fungal balls. Aspirated fluid again grew Escherichia coli, and this was treated with the appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The patient continued to have episodes of culture-negative sepsis; therefore, a computed tomography scan was performed 6 months posttransplant, which revealed multiple lesions in the renal cortex as well as liver and spleen. Subsequent biopsy revealed an Epstein-Barr virus-driven lymphoproliferation consistent with a polymorphic posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). This rare case of PTLD presenting as multiple renal, hepatic and splenic lesions emphasizes the need for a high index of clinical suspicion for this condition. Abnormal para-renal allograft masses should be biopsied to allow swift and effective management of a disease that can disseminate and become significantly more challenging to manage. PMID:22244123

  1. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder following cytomegalovirus reactivation in a lung recipient.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, Akihiro; Omasa, Mitsugu; Kondo, Nobuyuki; Chen, Fengshi; Date, Hiroshi; Bando, Toru

    2010-05-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a life-threatening complication after lung transplantation, for which several risk factors including pretransplant seronegativity for Epstein-Barr virus are known. However, the impact of cytomegalovirus on PTLD remains to be determined. Here, we describe a case of Epstein-Barr virus-associated polymorphic PTLD that developed shortly after treatment for cytomegalovirus reactivation in a lung transplant recipient who was preoperatively seropositive for both cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus. PMID:20449718

  2. Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder presenting as a small bowel obstruction in a patient with pancreas transplantation alone

    PubMed Central

    Kruel, Cleber R.; Shiller, S. Michelle; Anthony, Tiffany L.; Goldstein, Robert M.; Kim, Peter T. W.; Levy, Marlon F.; McKenna, Gregory J.; Onaca, Nicholas; Testa, Giuliano; Klintmalm, Goran B.

    2014-01-01

    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a well-known complication associated with the transplant recipient. We chronicle a case of PTLD in a failed graft presenting as a small bowel obstruction in a pancreas-only transplant patient. While typical symptoms may be elusive in the complex immunosuppressed patient, graft pain along with persistent graft pancreatitis and a positive Epstein-Barr viremia should raise suspicion for an underlying PTLD. PMID:25484508

  3. Current preventive strategies and management of Epstein-Barr virus-related post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease in solid organ transplantation in Europe. Results of the ESGICH Questionnaire-based Cross-sectional Survey.

    PubMed

    San-Juan, R; Manuel, O; Hirsch, H H; Fernández-Ruiz, M; López-Medrano, F; Comoli, P; Caillard, S; Grossi, P; Aguado, J M

    2015-06-01

    There is limited clinical evidence on the utility of the monitoring of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNAemia in the pre-emptive management of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. We investigated current preventive measures against EBV-related PTLD through a web-based questionnaire sent to 669 SOT programmes in 35 European countries. This study was performed on behalf of the ESGICH study group from the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. A total of 71 SOT programmes from 15 European countries participated in the study. EBV serostatus of the recipient is routinely obtained in 69/71 centres (97%) and 64 (90%) have access to EBV DNAemia assays. EBV monitoring is routinely used in 85.9% of the programmes and 77.4% reported performing pre-emptive treatment for patients with significant EBV DNAemia levels. Pre-emptive treatment for EBV DNAemia included reduction of immunosuppression in 50.9%, switch to mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors in 30.9%, and use of rituximab in 14.5% of programmes. Imaging by whole-body 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is used in 60.9% of centres to rule out PTLD and complemented computer tomography is used in 50%. In 10.9% of centres, FDG-PET is included in the first-line diagnostic workup in patients with high-risk EBV DNAemia. Despite the lack of definitive evidence, EBV load measurements are frequently used in Europe to guide diagnostic workup and pre-emptive reduction of immunosuppression. We need prospective and controlled studies to define the impact of EBV monitoring in reducing the risk of PTLD in SOT recipients. PMID:25686696

  4. Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder in adult liver transplant recipients: a report of seventeen cases.

    PubMed

    Patel, Himisha; Vogl, Dan T; Aqui, Nicole; Shaked, Abraham; Olthoff, Kim; Markmann, James; Reddy, Rajender; Stadtmauer, Edward A; Schuster, Stephen; Tsai, Donald E

    2007-05-01

    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a major complication of liver transplantation, but previous descriptions have been limited to case reports and small case series. We report a retrospective analysis of 17 consecutive cases of PTLD associated with liver transplantation. The median age at PTLD diagnosis was 47 years (range 19 - 63) with a median time of 25 months from liver transplantation to PTLD diagnosis (range 3 - 75). PTLD location was frequently extranodal (71%) and involved the transplanted liver (41%). PTLD histology consisted of nine (53%) monomorphic and eight (47%) polymorphic disease. EBV was present by in situ hybridization in 11 (79%) of 14 cases evaluated. Initial therapy included reduction in immunosuppression (RI) alone in 13 (76%) of 17 patients, resulting in 6 (46%) complete responses (CR) and 7 (54%) progressive disease (PD). Monoclonal CD20 antibody (rituximab) and CHOP chemotherapy were used as initial therapy or as second line after RI failure. Currently, five patients (29%) are alive in CR. Although detection and treatment of PTLD in liver transplant recipients remains problematic and upfront mortality is still high, long-term survival is possible. Further studies are necessary to better define treatment strategies. PMID:17487731

  5. Treatment of Recurrent Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder with Autologous Blood Stem Cell Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Bharat; Rahal, Ahmad K.; Farhoud, Hussam; Moore, Dennis F.; Kallail, K. James

    2015-01-01

    Background. Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) occur after solid organ transplantation. Treatment guidelines include reduction in immunosuppression (RIS), radiation, rituximab, chemotherapy, and immunological agents. We present a rare case of recurrent diffuse large B-cell lymphoma presenting as a PTLD in a heart transplant patient treated with autologous blood stem cell transplant (ASCT) after failure of conventional therapy. Case Presentation. A 66-year-old male presented with a neck mass. He has a history of Hodgkin's disease status after staging laparotomy with splenectomy and heart transplantation due to dilated nonischemic cardiomyopathy 8 years prior to the development of PTLD. His examination was remarkable for right submandibular swelling. An excisional biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell NHL. Patient received RIS, rituximab, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy with a complete remission. His lymphoma relapsed and he subsequently was treated with RICE salvage chemotherapy and consolidative high-dose chemotherapy with BEAC regimen followed by ASCT resulting in a complete remission. Conclusion. Patients with PTLD present a difficult therapeutic challenge. In this case, the patient's prior history of Hodgkin's disease, splenectomy, and a heart transplant appear to be unique features, the significance of which is unclear. ASCT might be a promising therapy for patients with relapsed or refractory PTLD. PMID:26688773

  6. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder after kidney transplantation: time to adopt monitoring of Epstein-Barr virus?

    PubMed

    Biller, P; Michaux, L; Pauw, L De; Camboni, A; Mourad, M; Kanaan, N

    2015-06-01

    Although post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder is a classical complication encountered after kidney transplantation, its diagnosis can still be challenging and its outcome life-threatening. Most cases are related to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and occur mainly in the first year post-transplant, favoured by the seronegative EBV status of the recipient transplanted with a kidney from a seropositive donor, and strong immunosuppression. We report the case of a young kidney-pancreas transplant recipient who developed post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) early after transplantation, with a rapid fatal issue. We review the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and management of PTLD with a focus on prevention. PMID:25541210

  7. Outcomes of kidney retransplantation in recipients with prior post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder.

    PubMed

    Rouphael, Bassem; Lankireddy, Srilakshmi; Lazaryan, Aleksandr; Kukla, Aleksandra; Ibrahim, Hassan N; Matas, Arthur J; Issa, Naim

    2016-01-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is an uncommon but serious complication of solid organ transplantation. Reduction in immunosuppression is the mainstay of PTLD treatment, but it may precipitate graft loss. Retransplantation remains controversial, as immunosuppression resumption may trigger PTLD relapse. Herein, we describe the experience of eight patients who underwent kidney retransplantation after successful PTLD treatment. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) serology was not known before the first transplantation. PTLD was diagnosed 62.5months (range 5-323months) after transplantation and was confined to the renal allograft (n=1), lymph nodes (n=2), gastrointestinal tract (n=4), or central nervous system (n=1). Immunosuppression tapering (8/8), chemotherapy (6/8), oral cavity lymphoma excision (1/8), and allograft nephrectomy (1/8) led to hematological remission in all patients. Retransplantation was performed at a median of 55.5months (range 29-95months) after PTLD diagnosis. After a median follow-up of 62.5months (range 2-125months) allograft survival was 87.5% (seven functioning grafts, one failed graft from chronic rejection), with no recurrence of PTLD. In all, five patients remain alive; the other three died from causes other than PTLD. In conclusion, kidney retransplantation appears to be safe in patients with prior PTLD and without major risk of hematological recurrence provided that PTLD has remitted. PMID:26497471

  8. Monomorphic post-transplant T-lymphoproliferative disorder after autologous stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Takei, Toshifumi; Koya, Hiroko; Iriuchishima, Hirono; Hosiho, Takumi; Hirato, Junko; Kojima, Masaru; Handa, Hiroshi; Nojima, Yoshihisa; Murakami, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    We report a rare case of T cell type monomorphic post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) after autologous stem cell transplantation. A 53-year-old man with multiple myeloma received autologous stem cell transplantation and achieved a very good partial response. Nine months later, he developed a high fever and consciousness disturbance, and had multiple swollen lymph nodes and a high titer of Epstein-Barr (EB) virus DNA in his peripheral blood. Neither CT nor MRI of the brain revealed any abnormalities. Cerebrospinal fluid contained no malignant cells, but the EB virus DNA titer was high. Lymph node biopsy revealed T cell type monomorphic PTLD. Soon after high-dose treatment with methotrexate and cytosine arabinoside, the high fever and consciousness disturbance subsided, and the lymph node swelling and EB virus DNA disappeared. Given the efficacy of chemotherapy in this case, we concluded that the consciousness disturbance had been induced by central nervous system involvement of monomorphic PTLD. PMID:26861102

  9. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders: from epidemiology to pathogenesis-driven treatment.

    PubMed

    Petrara, Maria Raffaella; Giunco, Silvia; Serraino, Diego; Dolcetti, Riccardo; De Rossi, Anita

    2015-12-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) represent the most severe complication of both solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is the main driver of PTLD, particularly those occurring early after transplantation. EBV-driven malignancies are associated with selective expression of latent viral proteins, but uncontrolled lytic replication may favor early phases of cell transformation. Besides immunodepression, persistent immune activation and chronic inflammation play an important role in both virus reactivation and expansion of EBV-infected B cells. EBV-induced immortalization requires the expression of telomerase. TERT, the rate-limiting component of the telomerase complex, is central in the switch from the lytic to the latent viral program, and TERT inhibition induces the EBV lytic cycle and cell death. Immunotherapy and combination of EBV lytic cycle inducers with antiviral drugs are promising strategies to improve the treatment of PTLD patients. This review is aimed at providing an update on the intriguing association between EBV and PTLD, mainly focusing on cases arising after kidney and liver transplantation, which account for the vast majority of transplants. PMID:26279520

  10. Syk-induced phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase activation in Epstein-Barr virus posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder.

    PubMed

    Hatton, O; Lambert, S L; Phillips, L K; Vaysberg, M; Natkunam, Y; Esquivel, C O; Krams, S M; Martinez, O M

    2013-04-01

    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD)-associated Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)+ B cell lymphomas are serious complications of solid organ and bone marrow transplantation. The EBV protein LMP2a, a B cell receptor (BCR) mimic, provides survival signals to virally infected cells through Syk tyrosine kinase. Therefore, we explored whether Syk inhibition is a viable therapeutic strategy for EBV-associated PTLD. We have shown that R406, the active metabolite of the Syk inhibitor fostamatinib, induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest while decreasing downstream phosphatidylinositol-3'-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling in EBV+ B cell lymphoma PTLD lines in vitro. However, Syk inhibition did not inhibit or delay the in vivo growth of solid tumors established from EBV-infected B cell lines. Instead, we observed tumor growth in adjacent inguinal lymph nodes exclusively in fostamatinib-treated animals. In contrast, direct inhibition of PI3K/Akt significantly reduced tumor burden in a xenogeneic mouse model of PTLD without evidence of tumor growth in adjacent inguinal lymph nodes. Taken together, our data indicate that Syk activates PI3K/Akt signaling which is required for survival of EBV+ B cell lymphomas. PI3K/Akt signaling may be a promising therapeutic target for PTLD, and other EBV-associated malignancies. PMID:23398911

  11. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder appearing as mandibular gingival ulcers.

    PubMed

    Amorim Pellicioli, Ana Carolina; Luciano, Aline Alves; Rangel, Ana Lúcia Carrinho Ayroza; de Oliveira, Greison Rabelo; Santos Silva, Alan Roger; de Almeida, Oslei Paes; Vargas, Pablo Agustin

    2016-04-01

    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) comprise a spectrum of complications that affect immunocompromised patients following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or solid organ transplantation. Its incidence varies depending on the transplanted organ, occurring in approximately 2.3% of kidney transplantations. A 31-year-old woman was referred to the Dental Clinic of the State University of Western Paraná for evaluation of an oral lesion. Her medical history revealed a previous diagnosis of hypertension, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) seropositivity, and kidney transplantation 12 years prior. She was under standard immunosuppressive therapy. Intraoral examination identified a gingival necrotic lesion with extension to the posterior right lower alveolar bone. An incisional biopsy was performed. Histologic examination showed lymphocytic proliferation of cells with small and hyperchromatic nuclei, atypical mitosis, and cells with large and pale nuclei showing prominent nucleoli permeating connective tissue, muscle fibers, and adipocytes. Correlation of clinical, histologic, and immunohistochemical findings led to a diagnosis of polymorphic EBV-associated PTLD rich in B and T cells. PMID:26321430

  12. Effect of Irradiation on Incidence of Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder after Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Miniature Swine.

    PubMed

    Matar, Abraham J; Patil, Aarti R; Al-Musa, Ahmad; Hanekamp, Isabel; Sachs, David H; Huang, Christene A; Duran-Struuck, Raimon

    2015-10-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is a major complication of clinical organ and cell transplantation. Conditioning and immunosuppressive regimens that significantly impair T cell immunity, including depleting antibodies and calcineurin inhibitors, increase the risk of PTLD after transplantation. Swine PTLD has been shown to closely resemble human PTLD in morphology, histology, and viral-driven reactivation of B cells. Previously, we reported high incidences of PTLD after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in miniature swine recipients conditioned with thymic irradiation (TI) in addition to T cell depletion and cyclosporine A monotherapy after transplantation. Replacement of TI with 100 cGy of total body irradiation resulted in similar numbers of B cells early post-transplantation, greater numbers of T cells at day 0, and markedly decreased incidence of PTLD, suggesting that a threshold number of T cells may be necessary to prevent subsequent B cell proliferation and development of overt PTLD. Results from this large cohort of animals provide insight into the important effect of irradiation and T cell immunity on the incidence of PTLD after HCT and reinforce the pig model as a valuable tool for the study of PTLD and HCT. PMID:26210443

  13. X-Linked Lymphoproliferative Disease (XLP)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area X-Linked Lymphoproliferative Disease (XLP) Epstein-Barr virus (green dots) is shown inside B cells (blue circles) ...

  14. Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder presenting as a nonhealing extraction socket: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cole-Hawkins, Holly; Fyfe, Eithne; Price, Chris; Pring, Miranda

    2012-05-01

    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a well-recognized complication of long-term immunosuppression following hematopoietic or solid organ transplantation and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We present a unique case of PTLD that manifested with a nonhealing dental extraction socket 17 years after renal transplantation. We summarize the existing literature and present a review of an additional 25 cases. These highlight the variable clinical presentations of PTLD within the oral cavity and clear potential for delayed presentation at this anatomical subsite. PMID:22668635

  15. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound findings of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder in a transplanted kidney: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Lampe, Alyssa; Duddalwar, Vinay A; Djaladat, Hooman; Aron, Manju; Gulati, Mittul

    2015-01-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder occurs in approximately one percent of kidney transplant recipients. We evaluated a seventy-seven year-old man with a solid mass in his transplant kidney. On contrast enhanced ultrasound, the mass enhanced but remained persistently hypovascular throughout exam. The enhancement pattern of the mass differed from that typical of clear cell renal cell carcinoma, the main differential diagnosis. Final pathology after partial nephrectomy confirmed post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. This is the first report of contrast enhanced ultrasound findings in a renal mass diagnosed as post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Contrast enhanced ultrasound has a promising role in imaging of renal masses, particularly relevant in transplant patients due to the lack of nephrotoxicity. PMID:26629291

  16. Recursive partitioning analysis of prognostic factors in post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD): a 120 case single institution series.

    PubMed

    Montanari, Francesca; Radeski, Dejan; Seshan, Venkatraman; Alobeid, Bachir; Bhagat, Govind; O'Connor, Owen A

    2015-11-01

    The post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) comprise a heterogeneous group of lymphocytic and plasma cell proliferations occurring in recipients of tissue allografts in the setting of immunosuppression. We describe our experience of 120 patients with PTLD seen between 1990 and 2009, one of the largest series reported by a single institution. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders characteristics were analysed with regard to paediatric and adult patients, and with regard to the decade of diagnosis, 1990-1999 (pre-rituximab era) versus 2000-2009 (the rituximab era). We present a new prognostic score using the recursive partitioning model, consisting of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) score (0-1 vs. 2-4), age [paediatrics (<16years old), adults (16-60years old) and elderly (>60years old)] and CD20 status (positive vs negative); separating patients into 4 risk categories based on overall survival. Low-risk included paediatric patients with ECOG score of 0-1; intermediate-low-risk included adults aged 16-60years with an ECOG score of 0-1; intermediate-high-risk included elderly patients with an ECOG score 0-1 or paediatric patients and adults aged 16-60years with an ECOG score of 2-4 and CD20 positive; high-risk group included patients of any age with an ECOG score of 2-4 and CD20 negative, and elderly patients with an ECOG score of 2-4 with CD20-positive PTLD. PMID:26250758

  17. Primary CNS lymphoproliferative disease, mycophenolate and calcineurin inhibitor usage.

    PubMed

    Crane, Genevieve M; Powell, Helen; Kostadinov, Rumen; Rocafort, Patrick Tim; Rifkin, Dena E; Burger, Peter C; Ambinder, Richard F; Swinnen, Lode J; Borowitz, Michael J; Duffield, Amy S

    2015-10-20

    Immunosuppression for solid organ transplantation increases lymphoproliferative disease risk. While central nervous system (CNS) involvement is more rare, we noticed an increase in primary CNS (PCNS) disease. To investigate a potential association with the immunosuppressive regimen we identified all post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) cases diagnosed over a 28-year period at our institution (174 total, 29 PCNS) and all similar cases recorded in a United Network for Organ Sharing-Organ Procurement and Transplant Network (UNOS-OPTN) datafile. While no PCNS cases were diagnosed at our institution between 1986 and 1997, they comprised 37% of PTLD cases diagnosed from 2011-2014. PCNS disease was more often associated with renal vs. other organ transplant, Epstein-Barr virus, large B-cell morphology and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) as compared to PTLD that did not involve the CNS. Calcineurin inhibitors were protective against PCNS disease when given alone or in combination with MMF. A multivariate analysis of a larger UNOS-OPTN dataset confirmed these findings, where both MMF and lack of calcineurin inhibitor usage were independently associated with risk for development of PCNS PTLD. These findings have significant implications for the transplant community, particularly given the introduction of new regimens lacking calcineurin inhibitors. Further investigation into these associations is warranted. PMID:26460822

  18. Primary CNS lymphoproliferative disease, mycophenolate and calcineurin inhibitor usage

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Genevieve M.; Powell, Helen; Kostadinov, Rumen; Rocafort, Patrick Tim; Rifkin, Dena E.; Burger, Peter C.; Ambinder, Richard F.; Swinnen, Lode J.; Borowitz, Michael J.; Duffield, Amy S.

    2015-01-01

    Immunosuppression for solid organ transplantation increases lymphoproliferative disease risk. While central nervous system (CNS) involvement is more rare, we noticed an increase in primary CNS (PCNS) disease. To investigate a potential association with the immunosuppressive regimen we identified all post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) cases diagnosed over a 28-year period at our institution (174 total, 29 PCNS) and all similar cases recorded in a United Network for Organ Sharing-Organ Procurement and Transplant Network (UNOS-OPTN) data file. While no PCNS cases were diagnosed at our institution between 1986 and 1997, they comprised 37% of PTLD cases diagnosed from 2011–2014. PCNS disease was more often associated with renal vs. other organ transplant, Epstein-Barr virus, large B-cell morphology and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) as compared to PTLD that did not involve the CNS. Calcineurin inhibitors were protective against PCNS disease when given alone or in combination with MMF. A multivariate analysis of a larger UNOS-OPTN dataset confirmed these findings, where both MMF and lack of calcineurin inhibitor usage were independently associated with risk for development of PCNS PTLD. These findings have significant implications for the transplant community, particularly given the introduction of new regimens lacking calcineurin inhibitors. Further investigation into these associations is warranted. PMID:26460822

  19. Syk-Induced Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase Activation in Epstein-Barr Virus Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hatton, O.; Lambert, S. L.; Phillips, L. K.; Vaysberg, M.; Natkunam, Y.; Esquivel, C. O.; Krams, S. M.; Martinez, O. M.

    2012-01-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD)-associated Epstein Barr virus (EBV)+ B-cell lymphomas are serious complications of solid organ and bone marrow transplantation. The EBV protein LMP2a, a B-cell receptor (BCR) mimic, provides survival signals to virally-infected cells through Syk tyrosine kinase. Therefore, we explored whether Syk inhibition is a viable therapeutic strategy for EBV-associated PTLD. We have shown that R406, the active metabolite of the Syk inhibitor fostamatinib, induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest while decreasing downstream phosphatidylinositol-3′-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling in EBV+ B-cell lymphoma PTLD lines in vitro. However, Syk inhibition did not inhibit or delay the in vivo growth of solid tumors established from EBV-infected B-cell lines. Instead, we observed tumor growth in adjacent inguinal lymph nodes exclusively in fostamatinib-treated animals. In contrast, direct inhibition of PI3K/Akt significantly reduced tumor burden in a xenogeneic mouse model of PTLD without evidence of tumor growth in adjacent inguinal lymph nodes. Taken together, our data indicate that Syk activates PI3K/Akt signaling which is required for survival of EBV+ B-cell lymphomas. PI3K/Akt signaling may be a promising therapeutic target for PTLD, and other EBV-associated malignancies. PMID:23398911

  20. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders and Epstein-Barr virus DNAemia in a cohort of lung transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are serious complications in lung transplant recipients. No consensus on EBV DNAemia levels predictive of PTLD has been reached. In addition, in many instances EBV DNAemia is determined in patients with suggestive symptoms only. Methods The characteristics of five patients with PTLD as well as the prevalence of EBV DNAmia in a cohort of 137 consecutive patients receiving lung transplantation are described. Results Twenty-six out of 137 patients (18.9%) were excluded from the analysis because lost at follow-up or dead from PTLD-independent reasons within three months of transplantation. EBV DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was determined in 83/111 patients (74.8%) because of potential PTLD-related symptoms, while 28 patients (25.2%) showed no symptoms and were not examined. EBV DNAemia was positive in 53/83 patients (63.8%), and negative in 30/83 patients (36.2%). PTLD was diagnosed in five (4.5%) patients at a median time of 270 (range 120-870) days following transplantation. All five PTLD (three large B-cell lymphomas, one Hodgkin lymphoma and one possible pre-neoplastic lesion) were potentially associated with EBV infection. However, only 3/5 patients with PTLD had detectable EBV DNAemia: < 1,000 copies EBV DNA/1 × 105 PBMC in one patient and > 1,000 copies EBV DNA/1 × 105 PBMC in two patients. Conclusion A systematic multidisciplinary (clinical, radiologic, virologic and histologic) approach is mandatory for the diagnosis and management of PTLD in lung transplant recipients, while monitoring of symptomatic patients only may provide an incomplete or late picture of the clinical problem. In addition, staining for EBV antigens and quantification of EBV DNA in biopsy specimens should always be performed to understand the role of EBV infection in the pathogenesis of PTLD. PMID:21892950

  1. Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder of the Thorax: CT and FDG-PET Features in a Single Tertiary Referral Center

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ga Young; Kim, Mi Young; Huh, Joo Rryung; Jo, Kyung-Wook; Shim, Tae Sun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the chest computed tomography (CT) and F-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomographic (FDG-PET) findings of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) in the thorax. From November 2004 to February 2013, the cases of 12 adult patients (3 female and 9 male, age range 3468, and median age 46 years) with proven PTLD were retrospectively reviewed. The transplanted organs included the kidney (5/12), liver (4/12), heart (1/12), combined kidney and pancreas (1/12), and hematopoietic stem cell (1/12). We investigated the relationship of the EpsteinBarr virus (EBV) to the patients long-term follow-up, and evaluated the characteristics of the lesions on the chest CT and FDG-PET. The lesions were classified into 2 patterns: that of lymph node and lung involvement. The interval between the transplantation and the onset of PTLD was 2 to 128 months (median, 49). Positive EBV-encoded RNA in the pathologic specimens was found in 10 patients (83.3%). Eight patients were positive for EBV PCR in their blood, and 3 patients showed seroconversion without antiviral therapy. The responses to treatment were complete in 7 cases (58.3%), partial remission in 4 cases (33.3%), and undetermined in 1 case (8.3%). The more common chest CT patterns showed lymph node involvement (10/12) rather than lung involvement (3/12). The median maximum-standardized uptake value on the FDG-PET scans was 7.7 (range, 2.725.5). In patients with PTLD involving the thorax, lymphadenopathy was the more common manifestation on the chest CT rather than lung involvement. The lesions showed hypermetabolism on FDG-PET. PMID:26252295

  2. A Case Series of Primary Central Nervous System Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder: Imaging and Clinical Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Lake, Wendell; Chang, Julie E.; Kennedy, Tabassum; Morgan, Adam; Salamat, Shahriar; Ba?kaya, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Background Primary central nervous system post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PCNS-PTLD) is a rare complication following solid organ transplantation (SOT). With increasing rates of SOT, PCNS-PTLD incidence is increasing. Objective Describe the characteristics of PCNS-PTLD patients requiring neurosurgical intervention. Methods From 2000-2011 ten patients with prior SOT underwent biopsy for evaluation of brain lesions and were diagnosed with PCNS-PTLD. Data collected included imaging characteristics, pathology, treatments administered, and survival outcomes. Results All patients had kidney transplantation, and 3 had concurrent pancreas transplantation. Median age at diagnosis was 49 years, with a median of 4.5 years from SOT to diagnosis (range 1.8-11.4 years). Presenting symptoms most often included focal neurologic deficits (n=6), although several patients had non-specific symptoms of headache and altered mental status. Brain lesions were generally multiple (n=7), supratentorial (n=8), and lobar or periventricular in distribution with ring-enhancement. Diagnosis was established by stereotactic (n=4) and open surgical biopsy (n=6). Treatments most frequently administered included reduction of immunosuppression (n=10), dexamethasone (n=10), rituximab (n=8), high-dose methotrexate (n=3), and whole-brain radiotherapy (n=6). Six patients remain alive without PCNS-PTLD relapse, including 4 patients who have sustained remissions beyond 2 years from diagnosis of PCNS-PTLD. Of 4 observed deaths, 1 was related to progressive PCNS-PTLD. Conclusion PCNS-PTLD must be considered in the differential diagnosis of any patient with prior SOT presenting with an intracranial lesion. Histologic diagnosis with brain biopsy is imperative given the risk for opportunistic infections that may have similar imaging findings and presentation. Prognosis is variable, although long-term survival has been reported. PMID:23685504

  3. The radiological spectrum of pulmonary lymphoproliferative disease

    PubMed Central

    Hare, S S; Souza, C A; Bain, G; Seely, J M; Frcpc; Gomes, M M; Quigley, M

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) are characterised by abnormal proliferation of indigenous cell lines or infiltration of lung parenchyma by lymphoid cells. They encompass a wide spectrum of focal or diffuse abnormalities, which may be classified as reactive or neoplastic on the basis of cellular morphology and clonality. The spectrum of reactive disorders results primarily from antigenic stimulation of bronchial mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) and comprises three main entities: follicular bronchiolitis, lymphoid interstitial pneumonia and (more rarely) nodular lymphoid hyperplasia. Primary parenchymal neoplasms are most commonly extranodal marginal zone lymphomas of MALT origin (MALT lymphomas), followed by diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) and lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LYG). Secondary lymphomatous parenchymal neoplasms (both Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas) are far more prevalent than primary neoplasms. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related lymphoma (ARL) and post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) may also primarily affect the lung parenchyma. Modern advances in treatments for AIDS and transplant medicine are associated with an increase in the incidence of LPD and have heightened the need to understand the range of imaging appearance of these diseases. The multidetector CT (MDCT) findings of LPD are heterogeneous, thereby reflecting the wide spectrum of clinical manifestations of these entities. Understanding the spectrum of LPD and the various imaging manifestations is crucial because the radiologist is often the first one to suggest the diagnosis and has a pivotal role in differentiating these diseases. The current concepts of LPD are discussed together with a demonstration of the breadth of MDCT patterns within this disease spectrum. PMID:22745203

  4. The emergence of CD20-/CD19- tumor cells after rituximab therapy for Epstein-Barr virus-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder complicated with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Nishimura, Noriyuki; Takeuchi, Mai; Ito, Tomoo; Yokozaki, Hiroshi; Hirase, Satoshi; Kubokawa, Ikuko; Mori, Takeshi; Yanai, Tomoko; Hayakawa, Akira; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Nishio, Hisahide; Matsuo, Masafumi; Imadome, Ken-Ichi; Iijima, Kazumoto

    2014-12-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a well-recognized aggressive disease commonly associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Although rituximab (RTX) is incorporated into the first-line therapy for EBV-PTLD patients, the outcome of the clinically overt disease is still not optimal mainly due to the regrowth of tumor cells. The proliferation of CD20-/CD19+ tumor cells is increasingly reported in RTX-treated EBV-PTLD patients, whereas the emergence of CD20-/CD19- tumor cells is barely recognized. Here, we report a fatal case of an 18-year-old patient who developed EBV-PTLD after allogeneic HSCT for anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. On day 60 after HSCT, the patient developed abdominal pain, watery diarrhea, and low-grade fever. Colon biopsy revealed the proliferation of CD20+/CD19+/EBV-encoded RNA (EBER)+ tumor cells, and an increase of EBV DNA was detected in peripheral blood (PB). He was treated with RTX for EBV-PTLD and was cleared of EBV DNA in PB. However, he manifested high-grade fever, pancytopenia, and elevated soluble interleukin-2 receptor with a prominent hemophagocytosis in bone marrow aspirates and was treated with etoposide for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) complication. He then developed EBV DNA positivity in PB and finally died of Bacteroides fragilis sepsis subsequent to bloody stool and ileus on day 163. Autopsy revealed erosion and bleeding in the whole colon with the proliferation of CD20-/CD19-/EBER+ tumor cells. Immunohistochemical analysis uncovered the CD3-/CD56-/CD79a+/CD79b+ B-cell origin of tumor cells. This case clinically demonstrates the removal of both CD20 and CD19 antigens from EBER+ B cells in an RTX-treated EBV-PTLD patient with HLH complication. PMID:24169729

  5. Lymphoproliferative disease virus in wild turkeys in southeast United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, retroviral neoplasms reported in wild upland game birds in the United States of America have typically been associated with reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) infection. The information presented herein described the first reports of lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV) infection in ...

  6. Identification of lymphoproliferative disease virus in wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Viral-associated lymphoproliferative neoplasia in domestic poultry is caused by infection with a herpesvirus (Mareks disease virus) or three species of retroviruses [Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), Avian leukosis/sarcoma virus, lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV)]. Previously, retroviral n...

  7. Hepatitis C infection and lymphoproliferative disease: accidental comorbidities?

    PubMed

    Khoury, Tawfik; Chen, Shmuel; Adar, Tomer; Jacob, E Ollech; Mizrahi, Meir

    2014-11-21

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been associated with liver cancer and cirrhosis, autoimmune disorders such as thyroiditis and mixed cryoglobulinema, and alterations in immune function and chronic inflammation, both implicated in B cell lymphoproliferative diseases that may progress to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). HCV bound to B cell surface receptors can induce lymphoproliferation, leading to DNA mutations and/or lower antigen response thresholds. These findings and epidemiological reports suggest an association between HCV infection and NHL. We performed a systematic review of the literature to clarify this potential relationship. We searched the English-language literature utilizing Medline, Embase, Paper First, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, with search terms broadly defined to capture discussions of HCV and its relationship with NHL and/or lymphoproliferative diseases. References were screened to further identify relevant studies and literature in the basic sciences. A total of 62 reports discussing the relationship between HCV, NHL, and lymphoproliferative diseases were identified. Epidemiological studies suggest that at least a portion of NHL may be etiologically attributable to HCV, particularly in areas with high HCV prevalence. Studies that showed a lack of association between HCV infection and lymphoma may have been influenced by small sample size, short follow-up periods, and database limitations. The association appears strongest with the B-cell lymphomas relative to other lymphoproliferative diseases. Mechanisms by which chronic HCV infection promotes lymphoproliferative disease remains unclear. Lymphomagenesis is a multifactorial process involving genetic, environmental, and infectious factors. HCV most probably have a role in the lymphomagenesis but further study to clarify the association and underlying mechanisms is warranted. PMID:25473174

  8. Hepatitis C infection and lymphoproliferative disease: Accidental comorbidities?

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Tawfik; Chen, Shmuel; Adar, Tomer; Jacob, E Ollech; Mizrahi, Meir

    2014-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been associated with liver cancer and cirrhosis, autoimmune disorders such as thyroiditis and mixed cryoglobulinema, and alterations in immune function and chronic inflammation, both implicated in B cell lymphoproliferative diseases that may progress to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). HCV bound to B cell surface receptors can induce lymphoproliferation, leading to DNA mutations and/or lower antigen response thresholds. These findings and epidemiological reports suggest an association between HCV infection and NHL. We performed a systematic review of the literature to clarify this potential relationship. We searched the English-language literature utilizing Medline, Embase, Paper First, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, with search terms broadly defined to capture discussions of HCV and its relationship with NHL and/or lymphoproliferative diseases. References were screened to further identify relevant studies and literature in the basic sciences. A total of 62 reports discussing the relationship between HCV, NHL, and lymphoproliferative diseases were identified. Epidemiological studies suggest that at least a portion of NHL may be etiologically attributable to HCV, particularly in areas with high HCV prevalence. Studies that showed a lack of association between HCV infection and lymphoma may have been influenced by small sample size, short follow-up periods, and database limitations. The association appears strongest with the B-cell lymphomas relative to other lymphoproliferative diseases. Mechanisms by which chronic HCV infection promotes lymphoproliferative disease remains unclear. Lymphomagenesis is a multifactorial process involving genetic, environmental, and infectious factors. HCV most probably have a role in the lymphomagenesis but further study to clarify the association and underlying mechanisms is warranted. PMID:25473174

  9. A case of Epstein-Barr virus associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder with CNS involvement: pathological findings at both biopsy and autopsy.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Makiko; Kosugi, Isao; Terada, Tatsuhiro; Shirakawa, Kentarou; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Kono, Satoshi; Miyajima, Hiroaki

    2011-08-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) with CNS involvement is an uncommon and fatal side effect of immunosuppressants. A 55-year-old man presented with non-fluent aphasia, fever, neck stiffness and disturbance of consciousness. Twenty-one years previously, the patient had undergone kidney transplantation for chronic renal failure. Brain MRI revealed multiple lesions in the bilateral cerebrum, right cerebellum and medulla oblongata. The brain biopsy showed EBV-positive lymphocytes infiltrating into the subarachnoid and Virchow-Robins space. The diagnosis of PTLD was made and the patient received a reduction in immunosuppressants. However, the patient died of massive bleeding from a rectal ulcer 3 months after the onset. An autopsy conducted 1 month after the biopsy revealed a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma at the biopsy site and extracranial PTLD lesions. Moreover, a human cytomegalovirus infection involving the rectum, pancreas, trachea and bladder was confirmed. Comparisons with past cases clarified the characteristics of this case, in particular, the clinicopathological involvement of leptomeninges. In addition, there have so far been only a limited number of such reports demonstrating detailed pathological findings, including both biopsy and autopsy findings. We herein describe the relationship between clinical and pathological findings and demonstrate the way CNS PTLD lesion progresses. PMID:21134001

  10. Normalized Quantification by Real-Time PCR of Epstein-Barr Virus Load in Patients at Risk for Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jabs, Wolfram J.; Hennig, Holger; Kittel, Michael; Pethig, Klaus; Smets, Franoise; Bucsky, Peter; Kirchner, Holger; Wagner, Hans J.

    2001-01-01

    The load of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of transplant recipients represents a predictive parameter for posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD). The aim of our work was to develop a rapid and reliable PCR protocol for the quantification of cell-associated EBV DNA in transplant recipients. In contrast to previous studies, a protocol that facilitated quantification independent of photometric nucleic acid analysis was established. We took advantage of the real-time PCR technology which allows for single-tube coamplification of EBV and genomic C-reactive protein (CRP) DNA. EBV copy numbers were normalized by division by the amount of CRP DNA, with the quotient representing the actual amount of amplifiable genomic DNA per reaction. Coamplification of CRP DNA did not result in a diminished detection limit for EBV. By using the protocol without normalization, EBV copy numbers in 4 out of 10 PTLD patients were within the normal range determined with data for 114 transplant recipients that served as controls. After normalization, however, all of the PTLD patients had a higher viral load than the control population, indicating an increased sensitivity of the assay. Moreover, EBV copy numbers obtained for one patient by conventional quantification and suggestive of relapsing PTLD were within normal range after normalization. We conclude that normalization of PCR signals to coamplified genomic DNA allows a more accurate quantification of cell-bound EBV. PMID:11158107

  11. Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder (PTLD) Manifesting in the Oral Cavity of a 13-Year-Old Liver Transplant Recipient (LTx).

    PubMed

    Krasuska-S?awi?ska, Ewa; Minko-Chojnowska, Izabela; Paw?owska, Joanna; Dembowska-Bagi?ska, Bo?enna; Pronicki, Maciej; Olczak-Kowalczyk, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a potential complication of solid organ or bone marrow transplants. The main PTLD risk factors are: the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), transplant type, and use of immunosuppressants. It mainly consists of an uncontrolled growth of lymphocytes in transplant recipients under chronic immunosuppressive therapy. About 85% of PTLDs are EBV-containing B-cell proliferations; 14% are T-cell proliferations, of which only 40% contain EBV; and the remaining 1% is NK-cell or plasmocyte proliferations. PTLD may present various clinical manifestations, from non-specific mononucleosis-like syndrome to graft or other organ damage resulting from pathologic lymphocyte infiltration. PTLD may manifest in the oral cavity. CASE REPORT The objective of this study was to present the case of a 13-year-old female living-donor liver transplant recipient, resulting from biliary cirrhosis caused by congenital biliary atresia, with exophytic fibrous lesions on buccal mucosa and tongue. Exophytic and hyperplastic lesion of oral mucosa were removed and histopathological examination revealed polymorphic PTLD. The patient underwent 6 cycles of CHOP chemotherapy and all the oral lesions regressed completely. CONCLUSIONS All oral pathological lesions in organ transplant recipients need to be surgically removed and histopathologically examined because they present an increased risk of neoplastic transformations such as PTLD. PMID:26285106

  12. Outcome of treatment of Epstein-Barr virus-related post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder in hematopoietic stem cell recipients: a comprehensive review of reported cases.

    PubMed

    Styczynski, J; Einsele, H; Gil, L; Ljungman, P

    2009-10-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an important complication in high-risk allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Before the current methods of anti-EBV therapy were introduced, the mortality from PTLD after HSCT was >80%. With current approaches the mortality from EBV-PTLD can be significantly reduced. The published literature and meeting abstracts were reviewed to assess the impact of different management strategies against EBV-PTLD. This analysis of reported outcomes indicates that preemptive use of rituximab and EBV-cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) significantly reduced the risk of death due to EBV-PTLD in HSCT recipients with survival rates of 89.7% and 94.1%, respectively. Therapy of established PTLD also reduced the risk of fatal outcome. However, the overall success rates were lower than after preemptive therapy, reaching 63% and 88.2% of total EBV-DNA clearance with rituximab and CTL therapy, respectively. A reduction of immunosuppression and/or donor lymphocyte infusion might also reduce the risk of death due to EBV-PTLD. Although it is difficult to estimate these effects more precisely because of the frequent use of combination therapies, the responses to these modalities can be estimated to be 56.6% and 41.0%, respectively. Finally, chemotherapy seems not to contribute to improved survival of patients with PTLD after HSCT and antiviral agents are not active against PTLD. PMID:19558376

  13. [Acquired A hemophilia and lymphoproliferative diseases: A literature review].

    PubMed

    Le Cam-Duchez, V

    2015-12-01

    Acquired A haemophilia is a rare but severe autoimmune disease. It is caused by autoantibodies against the coagulation factor VIII. These autoantibodies could have different consequences: no effect, inhibition of factor VIII or factor VIII activity hydrolyzing. In about half of the cases, no cause is associated with the disorder [idiopathic acquired A haemophilia]. But in remaining 50% of the patients, some circumstances could be associated with acquired hemophilia: post-partum, autoimmune disorders, cancer and sometimes malignant blood disorders. The objective of this article was to review the literature about acquired A hemophilia associated with lymphoproliferative diseases. PMID:26481810

  14. Checking whether there is an increased risk of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder and other cancers with specific modern immunosuppression regimens in renal transplantation: Protocol for a network meta-analysis of randomized and observational studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients undergoing renal transplant procedures require multi-agent immunosuppressive regimens both short term (induction phase) and long term (maintenance phase) to minimize the risk of organ rejection. There are several drug classes and agents for immunosuppression. Use of these agents may increase the risk of different harms including not only infections, but also malignancies including post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. There is a need to identify which regimens minimize the risk of such outcomes. The objective of this systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized and observational studies is to explore whether certain modern regimens of immunosuppression used to prevent organ rejection in renal transplant patients are associated with an increased risk of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder and other malignancies. Methods/design Modern regimens were defined to be those evaluated in controlled studies beginning in 1990 or later. An electronic literature search of Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials has been designed by an experienced information specialist and peer reviewed by a second information specialist. Study selection and data collection will be performed by two reviewers. The outcomes of interest will include post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder and other incident forms of malignancy occurring in adult renal transplant patients. Network meta-analyses of data from randomized and observational studies will be performed where judged appropriate based on a review of the clinical and methodological features of included studies. A sequential approach to meta-analysis will be used to combine data from different designs. Discussion Our systematic review will include both single-agent and multi-agent modern pharmacotherapy regimens in patients undergoing renal transplantation. It will synthesize malignancy outcomes. Our work will also add to the development of methods for network meta-analysis across study designs to assess treatment safety. Trial registration PROSPERO Registration Number: CRD42013006951 PMID:24559430

  15. EBV Lymphoproliferative Disease after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Rouce, Rayne H; Louis, Chrystal U; Heslop, Helen E

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW EBV reactivation can cause significant morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (SCT). Delays in reconstitution of EBV-specific T lymphocyte activity can lead to life-threatening EBV lymphoproliferative disease (EBV-PTLD). This review highlights recent advances in the understanding of pathophysiology, risk factors, diagnosis, and management of EBV viremia and PTLD. RECENT FINDINGS During the past decade, early detection strategies, such as serial measurement of EBV-DNA load, have helped to identify high-risk patients and to diagnose early lymphoproliferation. The most significant advances have come in the form of innovative treatment options, including manipulation of the balance between outgrowing EBV-infected B cells and the EBV cytotoxic T lymphocyte (EBV-CTL) response, and targeting infected B cells with monoclonal antibodies, chemotherapy, unmanipulated donor lymphocytes, and donor or more recently third party EBV-CTLs. Defining criteria for preemptive therapy and remains a challenge. SUMMARY EBV reactivation is a significant complication after SCT. Continued improvements in risk-stratification and treatment options are required to improve the morbidity and mortality caused by EBV associated diseases. Current approaches use Rituximab to deplete B cells or adoptive transfer of EBV-CTL to reconstitute immunity. The availability of rapid EBV specific T cell products offers the possibility of improved outcomes. PMID:25159713

  16. Upper airway obstruction and pulmonary abnormalities due to lymphoproliferative disease following bone marrow transplantation in children.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, B D; Heslop, H E; Kaste, S C; Bodner, S

    1998-07-01

    We report three patients who developed severe supraglottic airway obstruction due to Epstein-Barr virus lymphoproliferative disease following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. In addition to enlarged pharyngeal lymphoid tissue seen in all three patients, two had supraglottic airway narrowing and two developed pulmonary lymphoproliferative disease. They were treated with unmanipulated T cells or EBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Life-threatening upper airway obstruction is a radiologically detectable complication of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in children. PMID:9662565

  17. Lymphoproliferative disease in mice infected with murine gammaherpesvirus 68.

    PubMed Central

    Sunil-Chandra, N. P.; Arno, J.; Fazakerley, J.; Nash, A. A.

    1994-01-01

    Murine gammaherpesvirus is a natural pathogen of wild rodents. In the laboratory it establishes an infection of epithelial cells and persists in B lymphocytes in a latent form. Inbred mice chronically infected with the virus develop a lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) similar to that seen in patients infected with Epstein-Barr virus. The frequency of LPD over a period of 3 years was 9% of all infected animals, with 50% of these displaying high grade lymphomas. The incidence of LPD was greatly increased when infected mice were treated with cyclosporin A. The majority of mice used in the experiments were BALB/c, although lymphomas were detected in mice on other genetic backgrounds, ie, CBA and B10Br. Lymphomas were associated with both lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues (liver, lung, and kidney). In all cases of lymphomas studied thus far, there was a mixed B cell (B220+ve) and T cell (CD3+ve) phenotype. The B cells were light chain restricted, indicative of a clonal origin. Variable numbers of virus genome-positive cells were detected by in situ hybridization in and around the lymphomas. In contrast, no lytic antigen-positive cells were detected, indicating that genome-positive cells were either latently infected or undergoing an abortive infection. These observations suggest that murine gammaherpesvirus-infected mice may be an important model to study the pathogenesis of LPD associated with other gammaherpesviruses, such as Epstein-Barr virus. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7943173

  18. X-Linked Lymphoproliferative Disease Presenting as Pancytopenia in a 10-Month-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Chadha, S. Nicole; Amrol, David

    2010-01-01

    X-linked lymphoproliferative disease, also known as Duncan's syndrome, is a rare genetic disorder that causes exaggerated immune responses to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and often leads to death. Patient presentation varies but can include signs and symptoms typical of EBV, pancytopenia, and fulminant hepatitis. PMID:20593037

  19. Deregulation of Fas ligand expression as a novel cause of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome-like disease.

    PubMed

    Nabhani, Schafiq; Ginzel, Sebastian; Miskin, Hagit; Revel-Vilk, Shoshana; Harlev, Dan; Fleckenstein, Bernhard; Hnscheid, Andrea; Oommen, Prasad T; Kuhlen, Michaela; Thiele, Ralf; Laws, Hans-Jrgen; Borkhardt, Arndt; Stepensky, Polina; Fischer, Ute

    2015-09-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome is frequently caused by mutations in genes involved in the Fas death receptor pathway, but for 20-30% of patients the genetic defect is unknown. We observed that treatment of healthy T cells with interleukin-12 induces upregulation of Fas ligand and Fas ligand-dependent apoptosis. Consistently, interleukin-12 could not induce apoptosis in Fas ligand-deficient T cells from patients with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome. We hypothesized that defects in the interleukin-12 signaling pathway may cause a similar phenotype as that caused by mutations of the Fas ligand gene. To test this, we analyzed 20 patients with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome of unknown cause by whole-exome sequencing. We identified a homozygous nonsense mutation (c.698G>A, p.R212*) in the interleukin-12/interleukin-23 receptor-component IL12RB1 in one of these patients. The mutation led to IL12RB1 protein truncation and loss of cell surface expression. Interleukin-12 and -23 signaling was completely abrogated as demonstrated by deficient STAT4 phosphorylation and interferon ? production. Interleukin-12-mediated expression of membrane-bound and soluble Fas ligand was lacking and basal expression was much lower than in healthy controls. The patient presented with the classical symptoms of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome: chronic non-malignant, non-infectious lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, elevated numbers of double-negative T cells, autoimmune cytopenias, and increased levels of vitamin B12 and interleukin-10. Sanger sequencing and whole-exome sequencing excluded the presence of germline or somatic mutations in genes known to be associated with the autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome. Our data suggest that deficient regulation of Fas ligand expression by regulators such as the interleukin-12 signaling pathway may be an alternative cause of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome-like disease. PMID:26113417

  20. Deregulation of Fas ligand expression as a novel cause of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome-like disease

    PubMed Central

    Nabhani, Schafiq; Ginzel, Sebastian; Miskin, Hagit; Revel-Vilk, Shoshana; Harlev, Dan; Fleckenstein, Bernhard; Hönscheid, Andrea; Oommen, Prasad T.; Kuhlen, Michaela; Thiele, Ralf; Laws, Hans-Jürgen; Borkhardt, Arndt; Stepensky, Polina; Fischer, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome is frequently caused by mutations in genes involved in the Fas death receptor pathway, but for 20–30% of patients the genetic defect is unknown. We observed that treatment of healthy T cells with interleukin-12 induces upregulation of Fas ligand and Fas ligand-dependent apoptosis. Consistently, interleukin-12 could not induce apoptosis in Fas ligand-deficient T cells from patients with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome. We hypothesized that defects in the interleukin-12 signaling pathway may cause a similar phenotype as that caused by mutations of the Fas ligand gene. To test this, we analyzed 20 patients with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome of unknown cause by whole-exome sequencing. We identified a homozygous nonsense mutation (c.698G>A, p.R212*) in the interleukin-12/interleukin-23 receptor-component IL12RB1 in one of these patients. The mutation led to IL12RB1 protein truncation and loss of cell surface expression. Interleukin-12 and -23 signaling was completely abrogated as demonstrated by deficient STAT4 phosphorylation and interferon γ production. Interleukin-12-mediated expression of membrane-bound and soluble Fas ligand was lacking and basal expression was much lower than in healthy controls. The patient presented with the classical symptoms of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome: chronic non-malignant, non-infectious lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, elevated numbers of double-negative T cells, autoimmune cytopenias, and increased levels of vitamin B12 and interleukin-10. Sanger sequencing and whole-exome sequencing excluded the presence of germline or somatic mutations in genes known to be associated with the autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome. Our data suggest that deficient regulation of Fas ligand expression by regulators such as the interleukin-12 signaling pathway may be an alternative cause of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome-like disease.

  1. A Novel and Likely Inherited Lymphoproliferative Disease in British Shorthair Kittens.

    PubMed

    Aberdein, D; Munday, J S; Fairley, R A; Vernau, W; Thompson, K G

    2015-11-01

    An unusual lymphoproliferative disease was identified in multiple closely related British Shorthair (BSH) kittens, suggesting an inherited predisposition to disease. Affected kittens typically developed rapidly progressive and marked generalized lymphadenopathy, moderate splenomegaly, and regenerative and likely hemolytic anemia from 6 weeks of age. Microscopic findings were suggestive of multicentric T-cell lymphoma, but additional testing revealed a polyclonal population of CD3+/CD4-/CD8- "double negative" T cells (DNT cells). This is a novel disease presentation with similarities to the human disorder autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), a rare inherited disease causing lymphoproliferation and variable manifestations of autoimmunity. The human disease is most commonly due to the presence of Fas gene mutations causing defective lymphocyte apoptosis, and further investigations of both the mode of inheritance and genetic basis for disease in affected cats are currently in progress. PMID:26041772

  2. Impairment of neutrophil chemotaxis by serum from patients with chronic lymphoproliferative disease.

    PubMed Central

    Jayaswal, U; Roper, S; Roath, S

    1983-01-01

    The sera of 74 individuals with chronic lymphoproliferative disease were screened for the presence of inhibitory activity against neutrophil chemotaxis. This was present in more than half the patients with IgA myeloma and Hodgkin's disease but was less common in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, lymphocytic lymphoma and non-IgA paraproteinaemia. Heating the sera prior to testing frequently enhanced inhibitory activity particularly in myeloma and lymphoma. PMID:6833512

  3. Epstein-Barr virus induced hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease.

    PubMed

    Sankararaman, Senthilkumar; Riel-Romero, Rosario Maria; Jeroudi, Majed; Gonzalez-Toledo, Eduardo

    2014-04-01

    X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is a rare, often fatal genetic disorder characterized by extreme vulnerability to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). EBV-induced hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a known presentation in XLP. In EBV-induced HLH in XLP, the brain imaging findings in the acute phase include a non specific pattern. In this report, we highlight the magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings in a child with EBV induced HLH in XLP. PMID:24966560

  4. Epstein-Barr virus induced hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease

    PubMed Central

    Sankararaman, Senthilkumar; Riel-Romero, Rosario Maria; Jeroudi, Majed; Gonzalez-Toledo, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is a rare, often fatal genetic disorder characterized by extreme vulnerability to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). EBV-induced hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a known presentation in XLP. In EBV-induced HLH in XLP, the brain imaging findings in the acute phase include a non specific pattern. In this report, we highlight the magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings in a child with EBV induced HLH in XLP. PMID:24966560

  5. Rituximab-induced Cytokine Storm in the Absence of Overt Lymphoproliferative Disease.

    PubMed

    Williams, Mark; Khalid, Tasneem; Hughes, Stephen; Bonney, Denise; Wynn, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Rituximab is a monoclonal antibody that first demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of lymphoma but has since seen a dramatic growth in its use for other conditions. Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) is a rare but potentially fatal complication of rituximab infusion that has been described in patients with bulky lymphoproliferative disease. Here we report a convincing case of CRS occurring in a patient with no demonstrable lymphoproliferation. This case has implications for our understanding of the pathogenesis of CRS, our attempts to define an at-risk population and the design of future monoclonal antibodies. PMID:26583621

  6. Severe Puumala virus infection in a patient with a lymphoproliferative disease treated with icatibant.

    PubMed

    Laine, Outi; Leppnen, Ilona; Koskela, Sirpa; Antonen, Jaakko; Mkel, Satu; Sinisalo, Marjatta; Vaheri, Antti; Mustonen, Jukka

    2015-02-01

    Early identification of patients at risk of a severe course of hantaviral disease and lack of effective medication represent a global challenge in the treatment of this emerging infection. We describe a 67-year-old female patient with a history of chronic lymphoproliferative disease involving the spleen and an extremely severe acute Puumala hantavirus infection. She was treated with the bradykinin receptor antagonist icatibant and recovered. She is the second patient with a spleen abnormality and severe Puumala infection treated with icatibant in our hospital. We suggest that patients with spleen abnormalities may be more susceptible to severe hantavirus disease. The activation of the kinin-kallikrein system and the formation of bradykinin in hantavirus-infected endothelial cells indicate that the role of bradykinin receptor antagonist icatibant in the treatment of hantavirus disease is worth studying. PMID:25496418

  7. A novel lymphoproliferative/autoimmune syndrome resembling murine lpr/gld disease.

    PubMed Central

    Sneller, M C; Straus, S E; Jaffe, E S; Jaffe, J S; Fleisher, T A; Stetler-Stevenson, M; Strober, W

    1992-01-01

    In mice, the two distinct autosomal recessive genes lpr and gld can induce a syndrome characterized by autoantibody formation and the progressive accumulation of an unusual CD4-CD8- T cell population in peripheral lymphoid tissue. This phenotype does not precisely mirror any human disease. In this report we describe two patients with a progressive lymphoproliferative disorder associated with autoimmunity. The peripheral blood and lymph nodes of these patients contained large numbers of an unusual CD4-CD8- T cell population. These CD4-CD8- T cells express surface markers characteristic of mature peripheral blood T cells (CD3, CD2, CD5), express the alpha/beta form of the T cell receptor, and do not express surface markers characteristic of immature thymocytes (CD1) or NK cells (CD16, CD56). Functionally, these cells exhibited deficient proliferation and lymphokine production upon stimulation with mitogenic antibodies to CD3 or CD2. Both proliferation and lymphokine production could be augmented by co-stimulation with an antibody directed at the CD28 determinant. The clinical and immunological features of this syndrome resemble the lymphoproliferative/autoimmune disease seen in lpr and gld mice. Images PMID:1386609

  8. Epstein Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative diseases: the virus as a therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Tse, Eric; Kwong, Yok-Lam

    2015-01-01

    Epstein Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoproliferative diseases (LPDs) express all EBV latent antigens (type III latency) in immunodeficient patients and limited antigens (type I and II latencies) in immunocompetent patients. Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is the prototype exhibiting type III EBV latency. Although EBV antigens are highly immunogenic, PTLD cell proliferation remains unchecked because of the underlying immunosuppression. The restoration of anti-EBV immunity by EBV-specific T cells of either autologous or allogeneic origin has been shown to be safe and effective in PTLDs. Cellular therapy can be improved by establishing a bank of human leukocyte antigen-characterized allogeneic EBV-specific T cells. In EBV+ LPDs exhibiting type I and II latencies, the use of EBV-specific T cells is more limited, although the safety and efficacy of this therapy have also been demonstrated. The therapeutic role of EBV-specific T cells in EBV+ LPDs needs to be critically reappraised with the advent of monoclonal antibodies and other targeted therapy. Another strategy involves the use of epigenetic approaches to induce EBV to undergo lytic proliferation when expression of the viral thymidine kinase renders host tumor cells susceptible to the cytotoxic effects of ganciclovir. Finally, the prophylactic use of antiviral drugs to prevent EBV reactivation may decrease the occurrence of EBV+ LPDs. PMID:25613733

  9. CD30-Positive T-Cell Lymphoproliferative Disease of the Oral Mucosa in Children: A Manifestation of Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated T-Lymphoproliferative Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Mineui; Ko, Young Hyeh

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic ulcer of the oral mucosa (EUOM) is a very rare, benign, self-limiting ulcerative lesion of the oral cavity of unknown pathogenesis, and belongs to the same spectrum of CD30+ T-cell lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) of the oral mucosa. The etiology and pathogenesis of the disease are unknown. We report two cases in children who were initially diagnosed with EUOM and CD30+ T-cell LPD, respectively. However, retrospective analysis revealed that a majority of infiltrated atypical T cells were positive for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The present cases suggest that the pathogenesis and etiology of EUOM or CD30+ T-cell LPD occurring in children are different from those in adults. EUOM or CD30+ T-cell LPD in children is a manifestation of EBV-positive T-cell LPD, and should therefore be distinguished from the disease in adults. PMID:26420252

  10. Lymphoproliferative disorders in inflammatory bowel disease patients on immunosuppression: Lessons from other inflammatory disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Grace Y; Halloran, Brendan P; Peters, Anthea C; Fedorak, Richard N

    2015-01-01

    Immunosuppressive agents, such as thiopurines, methotrexate, and biologics, have revolutionized the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, a number of case reports, case control studies and retrospective studies over the last decade have identified a concerning link between immunosuppression and lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs), the oncological phenomenon whereby lymphocytes divide uncontrollably. These LPDs have been associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in which the virus provides the impetus for malignant transformation while immunosuppression hampers the immune systems ability to detect and clear these malignant cells. As such, the use of immunosuppressive agents may come at the cost of increased risk of developing LPD. While little is known about the LPD risk in IBD, more is known about immunosuppression in the post-transplantation setting and the development of EBV associated post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD). In review of the PTLD literature, evidence is available to demonstrate that certain immune suppressants such as cyclosporine and T-lymphocyte modulators in particular are associated with an increased risk of PTLD development. As well, high doses of immunosuppressive agents and multiple immunosuppressive agent use are also linked to increased PTLD development. Here, we discuss these findings in context of IBD and what future studies can be taken to understand and reduce the risk of EBV-associated LPD development from immunosuppression use in IBD. PMID:26600976

  11. Avian oncogenesis induced by lymphoproliferative disease virus: a neglected or emerging retroviral pathogen?

    PubMed

    Allison, Andrew B; Kevin Keel, M; Philips, Jamie E; Cartoceti, Andrew N; Munk, Brandon A; Nemeth, Nicole M; Welsh, Trista I; Thomas, Jesse M; Crum, James M; Lichtenwalner, Anne B; Fadly, Aly M; Zavala, Guillermo; Holmes, Edward C; Brown, Justin D

    2014-02-01

    Lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV) is an exogenous oncogenic retrovirus that induces lymphoid tumors in some galliform species of birds. Historically, outbreaks of LPDV have been reported from Europe and Israel. Although the virus has previously never been detected in North America, herein we describe the widespread distribution, genetic diversity, pathogenesis, and evolution of LPDV in the United States. Characterization of the provirus genome of the index LPDV case from North America demonstrated an 88% nucleotide identity to the Israeli prototype strain. Although phylogenetic analysis indicated that the majority of viruses fell into a single North American lineage, a small subset of viruses from South Carolina were most closely related to the Israeli prototype. These results suggest that LPDV was transferred between continents to initiate outbreaks of disease. However, the direction (New World to Old World or vice versa), mechanism, and time frame of the transcontinental spread currently remain unknown. PMID:24503062

  12. Avian oncogenesis induced by lymphoproliferative disease virus: a neglected or emerging retroviral pathogen?

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Andrew B.; Keel, M. Kevin; Philips, Jamie E.; Cartoceti, Andrew N.; Munk, Brandon A.; Nemeth, Nicole M.; Welsh, Trista I.; Thomas, Jesse M.; Crum, James M.; Lichtenwalner, Anne B.; Fadly, Aly M.; Zavala, Guillermo; Holmes, Edward C.; Brown, Justin D.

    2014-01-01

    Lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV) is an exogenous oncogenic retrovirus that induces lymphoid tumors in some galliform species of birds. Historically, outbreaks of LPDV have been reported from Europe and Israel. Although the virus has previously never been detected in North America, herein we describe the widespread distribution, genetic diversity, pathogenesis, and evolution of LPDV in the United States. Characterization of the provirus genome of the index LPDV case from North America demonstrated an 88% nucleotide identity to the Israeli prototype strain. Although phylogenetic analysis indicated that the majority of viruses fell into a single North American lineage, a small subset of viruses from South Carolina were most closely related to the Israeli prototype. These results suggest that LPDV was transferred between continents to initiate outbreaks of disease. However, the direction (New World to Old World or vice versa), mechanism, and time frame of the transcontinental spread currently remain unknown. PMID:24503062

  13. Characterisation of lymphoproliferative disease virus of turkeys. Structural polypeptides of the C-type particles.

    PubMed

    Patel, J R; Shilleto, R W

    1987-01-01

    Lymphoproliferative disease virus of turkeys (LPDV), a C-type retrovirus, was shown to contain 3 major [32 kilodaltons (kd, p 32), 26 kd, 22/21 kd] and 2 minor (41 kd and 12 kd) polypeptides. Preliminary evidence suggests a glycoprotein of 76 kd (GP 76) and a major doublet polypeptide of 13.5/13 kd to be also of viral origin. Of these GP 76 was susceptible to bromelain action implying its surface location in the virion, while p 32, p 26 and p 13.5/13 were the main constituents of viral cores. p 13.5/13 bound an RNA probe, suggesting it to be the main constituent of viral ribonucleoprotein. p 22/21 was not cleaved by bromelain, and was absent in viral cores suggesting its intramembrane location between virion envelope and core. The polypeptide profile of LPDV is distinct from those of avian sarcoma-leukosis viruses and avian reticuloendotheliosis viruses. PMID:3038051

  14. Establishment and operation of a Good Manufacturing Practice-compliant allogeneic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific cytotoxic cell bank for the treatment of EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Mark A; Wilkie, Gwen M; Robinson, Nicolas; Rivera, Nadja; Haque, Tanzina; Crawford, Dorothy H; Barry, Jacqueline; Fraser, Neil; Turner, David M; Robertson, Victoria; Dyer, Phil; Flanagan, Peter; Newlands, Helen R; Campbell, John; Turner, Marc L

    2014-11-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several malignancies, including post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). Conventional treatments for PTLD are often successful, but risk organ rejection and cause significant side effects. EBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) generated in vitro from peripheral blood lymphocytes provide an alternative treatment modality with few side effects, but autologous CTLs are difficult to use in clinical practice. Here we report the establishment and operation of a bank of EBV-specific CTLs derived from 25 blood donors with human leucocyte antigen (HLA) types found at high frequency in European populations. Since licensure, there have been enquiries about 37 patients, who shared a median of three class I and two class II HLA types with these donors. Cells have been infused into ten patients with lymphoproliferative disease, eight of whom achieved complete remission. Neither patient with refractory disease was matched for HLA class II. Both cases of EBV-associated non-haematopoietic sarcoma receiving cells failed to achieve complete remission. Thirteen patients died before any cells could be issued, emphasizing that the bank should be contacted before patients become pre-terminal. Thus, this third party donor-derived EBV-specific CTL cell bank can supply most patients with appropriately matched cells and most recipients have good outcomes. PMID:25066775

  15. Staged Hand-Assisted Bilateral Native Nephrectomy for Management of Posttransplant Polyuria in an Adult with Dent's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Montero, Rosa M.; Olsburgh, Jonathon

    2015-01-01

    Polyuria after kidney transplantation causes graft dysfunction and increased thrombotic risk. We present a case of a polyuric adult with Dent's disease who underwent staged bilateral native nephrectomies, the first operation before transplant and the second four months after transplant. This led to improved allograft function maintained during four years of follow-up. The retroperitoneal laparoscopic approach was well tolerated and allowed continuation of peritoneal dialysis before transplantation. A staged approach helps regulate fluid balance perioperatively and may be tailored to individual need according to posttransplant urine output. This novel approach should be considered for polyuric patients with tubular dysfunction including Dent's disease. PMID:25649339

  16. Repeated detection of gas in the portal vein after liver transplantation: A sign of EBV-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferation?

    PubMed

    Wallot, Michael A; Klepper, Jrg; Clapuyt, Philippe; Dirsch, Olaf; Malag, Max; Reding, Raymond; Otte, Jean Bernard; Sokal, Etienne M

    2002-08-01

    A 1-yr-old child presented with intractable right sided pleural effusion and progressive clinical deterioration 3 weeks after liver transplantation for Alagille Syndrome. He had been treated successfully for severe acute rejection before. Ultrasound and Doppler mode studies repeatedly demonstrated air in the portal vein. Intra-abdominal and intra-thoracic lymphoproliferation was detected, and EBV virus load and serology were suggestive of primary EBV infection. Liver biopsy revealed blast-like infiltrates of B-cells, considered diagnostic for post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease. The disease resolved upon reduction of immunosuppression. We suggest that the detection of portal vein gas in pediatric liver transplant recipients beyond the early post-operative period may be a sign of intra-abdominal post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease. PMID:12234275

  17. Lentivirus-induced lymphoproliferative disease. Comparative pathogenicity of phenotypically distinct ovine lentivirus strains.

    PubMed Central

    Lairmore, M. D.; Poulson, J. M.; Adducci, T. A.; DeMartini, J. C.

    1988-01-01

    For investigation of the pathogenicity of lentivirus strains, which have distinctly different cytopathic phenotypes in synovial membrane cell culture, plaque-purified, lytic, and nonlytic ovine lentivirus (OvLV) isolates were inoculated intratracheally into two groups of neonatal lambs. Twelve lambs were inoculated with a lytic OvLV isolate and 3 lambs each with two nonlytic OvLV isolates. Five control lambs were inoculated with either virus-free medium or were left uninoculated. In 8 of 12 lambs inoculated with a lytic OvLV isolate mild to severe lesions of lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP) and pulmonary lymphoid hyperplasia developed, 6 of 12 lambs had lesions of pulmonary lymph node follicular hyperplasia, 3 of 9 female lambs had lesions of lymphoproliferative mastitis, 3 of 10 lambs had lesions of lymphocytic/plasmacytic synovitis, and 3 lambs had no lesions. In 3 of 6 lambs inoculated with nonlytic OvLV isolates only mild LIP lesions developed, without concurrent mammary gland or joint lesions. Bronchoalveolar lavage samples from OvLV-diseased lambs contained on average 1.5-fold more numbers of total leukocytes, and 4-fold more numbers of lymphocytes, compared with bronchoalveolar lavage samples of normal lambs. Monoclonal antibodies to ovine lymphocyte surface markers showed that the SBU-T8+ lymphocyte (CD 8 equivalent) was the predominant lymphocyte subset (mean of 65% of total lavaged lymphocytes) in bronchoalveolar lavage samples of 3 diseased lambs. Ovine lentivirus was reisolated from multiple tissues of both groups of OvLV-inoculated lambs, but the percentage of individual tissues infected was greater in lambs inoculated with the lytic viral isolate. Control lambs had no lesions and failed to produce OvLV-specific antibodies or yield OvLV from tissues. All OvLV-inoculated lambs produced either low or undetectable serum virus neutralizing antibodies. In contrast, lambs inoculated with either lytic or nonlytic OvLV produced precipitating antibodies to OvLV glycoprotein and group-specific protein. However, initial detection of precipitating antibodies to OvLV glycoprotein was earlier (mean, 5.8 weeks after inoculation) in OvLV-infected lambs in which severe lymphoproliferative disease developed and delayed (mean, 10.2 weeks after inoculation) in OvLV-infected lambs with mild or no lesions. Together, these results suggest that lentivirus isolates produced disease in a virus strain-dependent manner and suggest that humoral immune responses against OvLV failed to prevent lesion development in lentivirus-infected lambs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:3337213

  18. Molecular Surveillance for Lymphoproliferative Disease Virus in Wild Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) from the Eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jesse M; Allison, Andrew B; Holmes, Edward C; Phillips, Jamie E; Bunting, Elizabeth M; Yabsley, Michael J; Brown, Justin D

    2015-01-01

    Lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV) is a poorly understood, oncogenic avian retrovirus of domestic turkeys that has historically been restricted to Europe and Israel. However, a recent study reported LPDV in multiple wild turkey diagnostic cases from throughout the eastern United States of America (USA). To better understand the distribution of LPDV in the eastern USA, we surveyed 1,164 reportedly asymptomatic hunter-harvested wild turkeys from 17 states for the presence of LPDV proviral DNA by PCR. In total, 564/1,164 (47%) turkeys were positive for LPDV. Wild turkeys from each state had a relatively high prevalence of LPDV, although statewide prevalence varied from 26 to 83%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two major clades of LPDV in the USA, although one was at a low frequency suggesting restricted transmission, as well as significant clustering by state of isolation. To determine the best tissue to target for diagnostic purposes, liver, spleen, and bone marrow were tested from a subset of 15 hunter-harvested wild turkeys and 20 wild turkey diagnostic cases. Overall, bone marrow provided the highest level of detection for both hunter-harvested turkeys and diagnostic cases. The sensitivity of LPDV detection between tissues was not significantly different for diagnostic cases, but was for hunter-harvested birds. These results indicate that LPDV infection is common and widespread in wild turkey populations throughout the eastern USA, even without overt signs of disease. PMID:25897755

  19. Molecular Surveillance for Lymphoproliferative Disease Virus in Wild Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) from the Eastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jesse M.; Allison, Andrew B.; Holmes, Edward C.; Phillips, Jamie E.; Bunting, Elizabeth M.; Yabsley, Michael J.; Brown, Justin D.

    2015-01-01

    Lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV) is a poorly understood, oncogenic avian retrovirus of domestic turkeys that has historically been restricted to Europe and Israel. However, a recent study reported LPDV in multiple wild turkey diagnostic cases from throughout the eastern United States of America (USA). To better understand the distribution of LPDV in the eastern USA, we surveyed 1,164 reportedly asymptomatic hunter-harvested wild turkeys from 17 states for the presence of LPDV proviral DNA by PCR. In total, 564/1,164 (47%) turkeys were positive for LPDV. Wild turkeys from each state had a relatively high prevalence of LPDV, although statewide prevalence varied from 26 to 83%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two major clades of LPDV in the USA, although one was at a low frequency suggesting restricted transmission, as well as significant clustering by state of isolation. To determine the best tissue to target for diagnostic purposes, liver, spleen, and bone marrow were tested from a subset of 15 hunter-harvested wild turkeys and 20 wild turkey diagnostic cases. Overall, bone marrow provided the highest level of detection for both hunter-harvested turkeys and diagnostic cases. The sensitivity of LPDV detection between tissues was not significantly different for diagnostic cases, but was for hunter-harvested birds. These results indicate that LPDV infection is common and widespread in wild turkey populations throughout the eastern USA, even without overt signs of disease. PMID:25897755

  20. DIAGNOSING LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE DISEASE VIRUS IN LIVE WILD TURKEYS (MELEAGRIS GALLOPAVO) USING WHOLE BLOOD.

    PubMed

    Alger, Katrina; Bunting, Elizabeth; Schuler, Krysten; Jagne, Jarra; Whipps, Christopher M

    2015-12-01

    Lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV) is a retrovirus that infects wild and domestic turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo ). The first cases of LPDV in the United States were diagnosed in 2009, and subsequent surveillance has revealed the virus to be widespread in wild turkey populations throughout the eastern half of the country. More research is needed to determine whether LPDV is having a negative effect on turkey populations, but progress has been impeded by the lack of a simple method for diagnosing the virus in living birds. Infected animals may appear asymptomatic, and diagnostics currently rely on tissue or bone marrow, which can be difficult to obtain. This study investigated the reliability of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect LPDV in whole blood, compared with previous methods using buffy coat (concentrated white blood cells) and bone marrow. Paired samples of whole blood and buffy coat were collected from 137 live turkeys and paired samples of whole blood and bone marrow were collected from 32 turkeys postmortem. Compared with buffy coat, whole blood had 97% sensitivity and 100% specificity. When compared with bone marrow, whole blood had 100% sensitivity and 89% specificity. Both comparisons had a high degree of agreement using Cohen's kappa statistic. Based on these results, PCR of whole blood provides detection of LPDV in living birds that is on par with both buffy coat and bone marrow. PMID:26667537

  1. Expression of HSV-1 Receptors in EBV-Associated Lymphoproliferative Disease Determines Susceptibility to Oncolytic HSV

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pin-Yi; Currier, Mark A; Hansford, Loen; Kaplan, David; Chiocca, E. Antonio; Uchida, Hiroaki; Goins, William F.; Cohen, Justus B.; Glorioso, Joseph C.; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; Mo, Xiaokui; Cripe, Timothy P

    2012-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated B cell lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) after hematopoietic stem cell or solid organ transplantation remains a life-threatening complication. Expression of the virus-encoded gene product, EBER, has been shown to prevent apoptosis via blockade of PKR activation. Because PKR is a major cellular defense against Herpes simplex virus, and oncolytic HSV-1 (oHSV) mutants have shown promising anti-tumor efficacy in preclinical models, we sought to determine whether EBV-LPD cells are susceptible to infection by oHSVs. We tested three primary EBV-infected lymphocyte cell cultures from neuroblastoma (NB) patients as models of naturally acquired EBV-LPD. NB12 was most susceptible, NB122R was intermediate, and NB88R2 was essentially resistant. Despite EBER expression, PKR was activated by oHSV infection. Susceptibility to oHSV correlated with the expression of the HSV receptor, nectin-1. The resistance of NB88R2 was reversed by exogenous nectin-1 expression, whereas down-regulation of nectin-1 on NB12 decreased viral entry. Xenografts derived from the EBV-LPDs exhibited only mild (NB12) or no (NB88R2) response to oHSV injection, compared with a neuroblastoma cell line that showed a significant response. We conclude that EBV-LPDs are relatively resistant to oHSV virotherapy, in some cases due to low virus receptor expression but also due to intact anti-viral PKR signaling. PMID:23254370

  2. Impaired Ig class switch in mice deficient for the X-linked lymphoproliferative disease gene Sap.

    PubMed

    Al-Alem, Umaima; Li, Cuiling; Forey, Nathalie; Relouzat, Francis; Fondanche, Marie-Claude; Tavtigian, Sean V; Wang, Zhao-Qi; Latour, Sylvain; Yin, Luo

    2005-09-15

    X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is characterized by abnormal immune responses to Epstein-Barr virus attributed to inactivating mutations of the SAP gene. Previous studies showed immunoglobulin E (IgE) deficiency and low serum IgG levels in Sap-deficient mice before and after viral infections, which are associated with impaired CD4+ T-helper function. In the present work, we find that signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP) is expressed in B cells and this expression is down-regulated after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interleukin 4 (IL-4). We demonstrate that B cells from Sap-deficient mice exhibit reduced IgG and IgA production in vitro. This impairment correlates with decreased circular transcript levels of Ialpha, Igamma2a, Igamma2b, and Igamma3 after stimulation, which indicate a defective Ig switch recombination in Sap-deficient B cells. While XLP is believed to cause defects in T, natural killer T (NKT), and natural killer (NK) cells, our results indicate that B cells are also affected. PMID:15941917

  3. Follow-up of post-transplant minimal residual disease and chimerism in childhood lymphoblastic leukaemia: 90 d to react.

    PubMed

    Pochon, Ccile; Oger, Emmanuel; Michel, Grard; Dalle, Jean-Hugues; Salmon, Alexandra; Nelken, Brigitte; Bertrand, Yves; Cav, Hlne; Cayuela, Jean-Michel; Grardel, Nathalie; Macintyre, Elizabeth; Margueritte, Genevive; Mchinaud, Franoise; Rohrlich, Pierre; Paillard, Catherine; Demeocq, Franois; Schneider, Pascale; Plantaz, Dominique; Poire, Marilyne; Eliaou, Jean-Franois; Semana, Gilbert; Drunat, Sverine; Jonveaux, Philippe; Bordigoni, Pierre; Gandemer, Virginie

    2015-04-01

    Relapse after transplantation is a major cause of treatment failure in paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Here, we report the findings of a prospective national study designed to investigate the feasibility of immune intervention in children in first or subsequent remission following myeloablative conditioning. This study included 133 children who received a transplant for ALL between 2005 and 2008. Minimal Residual Disease (MRD) based on T cell receptor/immunoglobulin gene rearrangements was measured on days -30, 30, 90 and 150 post-transplantation. Ciclosporin treatment was rapidly discontinued and donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI) were programmed for patients with a pre- or post-transplant MRD status ?10(-3) . Only nine patients received DLI. Pre- and post-transplant MRD status, and the duration of ciclosporin were independently associated with 5-year overall survival (OS), which was 6207% for the whole cohort. OS was substantially higher in patients cleared of MRD than in those with persistent MRD (523% vs. 143%, respectively). Only pre-transplant MRD status (Hazard Ratio 257, P=004) and duration of ciclosporin treatment (P<0001) were independently associated with relapse. The kinetics of chimerism were not useful for predicting relapse, whereas MRD monitoring up to 90d post-transplantation was a valuable prognostic tool to guide therapeutic intervention. PMID:25522886

  4. Mutlifocal osseous posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder: case report.

    PubMed

    Lo, Ryan; Michalicek, Zachary; Lazarus, Martin

    2015-07-01

    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a known complication of organ transplantation, but musculoskeletal involvement of PTLD remains very rare. We present a case of recurrent PTLD of the bone in a heart transplant patient that was misdiagnosed as gout for several years. There are only a few cases of osseous PTLD in the literature, and we hope to better characterize its imaging findings on multiple imaging modalities. PMID:25680332

  5. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome-like disease in patients with LRBA mutation.

    PubMed

    Revel-Vilk, Shoshana; Fischer, Ute; Keller, Brbel; Nabhani, Schafiq; Gmez-Daz, Laura; Rensing-Ehl, Anne; Gombert, Michael; Hnscheid, Andrea; Saleh, Hani; Shaag, Avraham; Borkhardt, Arndt; Grimbacher, Bodo; Warnatz, Klaus; Elpeleg, Orly; Stepensky, Polina

    2015-07-01

    Mutations in LPS-responsive and beige-like anchor (LRBA) gene were recently described in patients with combined immunodeficiency, enteropathy and autoimmune cytopenia. Here, we extend the clinical and immunological phenotypic spectrum of LRBA associated disorders by reporting on three patients from two unrelated families who presented with splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy, cytopenia, elevated double negative T cells and raised serum Fas ligand levels resembling autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) and one asymptomatic patient. Homozygous loss of function mutations in LRBA were identified by whole exome analysis. Similar to ALPS patients, Fas mediated apoptosis was impaired in LRBA deficient patients, while apoptosis in response to stimuli of the intrinsic mitochondria mediated apoptotic pathway was even enhanced. This manuscript illustrates the phenotypic overlap of other primary immunodeficiencies with ALPS-like disorders and strongly underlines the necessity of genetic diagnosis in order to provide early correct diagnosis and subsequent care. PMID:25931386

  6. Effect of inhaled tacrolimus on cellular and humoral rejection to prevent posttransplant obliterative airway disease.

    PubMed

    Schrepfer, S; Deuse, T; Reichenspurner, H; Hoffmann, J; Haddad, M; Fink, J; Fischbein, M P; Robbins, R C; Pelletier, M P

    2007-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetics after tacrolimus aerosol inhalation and to assess its efficacy to suppress acute and chronic airway allograft rejection. Orthotopic tracheal transplantations were performed and tacrolimus (4 mg/kg) was administered orally (PO) or via aerosol (AER). Tracheal tissue level AUCs(0-12) were similar in both treatment groups, but blood AUCs(0-12) were approximately 5.5-fold lower with AER (p < 0.001). Interestingly, only PO animals showed elevated BUN, cholesterol and triglycerides on POD 60 (p < 0.05). Histology of grafts harvested after 6 and 60 days revealed that both treatment groups were similarly effective in suppressing graft mononuclear infiltration (p < 0.001). Cellular immune activation (assessed by IFN-gamma- and IL-4-ELISPOTS), however, was far more effectively suppressed by tacrolimus PO (p < 0.001). In both treatment groups, the vigorous alloreactive IgM-antibody surge was effectively inhibited (p < 0.001). Due to the insufficient systemic cellular immunosuppression, discontinuation of tacrolimus AER resulted in a far stronger (3.5-fold) graft infiltration on POD 8 compared to PO (p < 0.001). Tacrolimus aerosol reduces systemic side effects and effectively protects the airway graft from early cellular rejection and chronic obliterative airway disease. PMID:17532751

  7. Pre-transplant comorbidity burden and post-transplant chronic graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Jennifer E; Gooley, Ted; Maziarz, Richard T; Pulsipher, Michael A; Bhatia, Smita; Maloney, David G; Sandmaier, Brenda M; Flowers, Mary E; Storb, Rainer; Sorror, Mohamed L

    2015-11-01

    The Haematopoietic Cell Transplantation-Comorbidity Index (HCT-CI) was designed as a predictor of non-relapse mortality after HCT. Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) contributes to mortality after HCT. Here, we investigated whether the HCT-CI could predict development of chronic GVHD or post-chronic GVHD mortality. We retrospectively analysed data from 2909 patients treated with allogeneic HCT for malignant and non-malignant haematological conditions at four institutions. In Cox regression models adjusted for potential confounders, increasing HCT-CI was not statistically significantly associated with the development of chronic GVHD [hazard ratio (HR) = 102, P = 034]. Yet, the index was associated with an increased risk of non-relapse mortality (HR = 129, P < 00001) as well as overall mortality (HR = 125, P < 0001) following the development of chronic GVHD. The association between HCT-CI and post-chronic GVHD mortality was similar regardless of donor type or stem cell source. HCT-CI scores could be incorporated in the design of clinical trials for treatment of chronic GVHD. PMID:26194447

  8. Perceptions of post-transplant recidivism in liver transplantation for alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, Yoshikuni; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Akamatsu, Nobuhisa; Kaneko, Junichi; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Tamura, Sumihito; Aoki, Taku; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2014-01-01

    Although alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is regarded as a common indication for liver transplantation (LT), debatable issues exist on the requirement for preceding alcoholic abstinence, appropriate indication criteria, predictive factors for alcoholic recidivism, and outcomes following living-donor LT. In most institutions, an abstinence period of six months before LT has been adopted as a mandatory selection criterion. Data indicating that pre-transplant abstinence is an associated predictive factor for alcoholic recidivism supports the reasoning behind this. However, conclusive evidence about the benefit of adopting an abstinence period is yet to be established. On the other hand, a limited number of reports available on living-donor LT experiences for ALD patients suggest that organ donations from relatives have no suppressive effect on alcoholic recidivism. Prevention of alcoholic recidivism has proved to be the most important treatment after LT based on the resultant inferior long-term outcome of patients. Further evaluations are still needed to establish strategies before and after LT for ALD. PMID:25429319

  9. SATB1 overexpression promotes malignant T-cell proliferation in cutaneous CD30+ lymphoproliferative disease by repressing p21.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Gu, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Gaolei; Wang, Lin; Wang, Tingting; Zhao, Yun; Zhang, Xiuyan; Zhou, Youwen; Kadin, Marshall; Tu, Ping

    2014-05-29

    Cutaneous CD30(+) lymphoproliferative disease (CD30(+)LPD), characterized by the presence of CD30(+) anaplastic large T cells, comprises the second most common group of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). However, little is known about the pathobiology of the CD30(+) lymphoma cells, as well as the mechanisms of disease progression. Here we report that Special AT-rich region binding protein 1 (SATB1), a thymocyte specific chromatin organizer, is over-expressed in CD30(+) lymphoma cells in most CD30(+)LPDs, and its expression is upregulated during disease progression. Our findings show that SATB1 silencing in CD30(+)LPD cells leads to G1 cell cycle arrest mediated by p21 activation. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, luciferase assays, and mutational analysis, we demonstrate that SATB1 directly regulates the transcription of p21 in a p53-independent manner. Moreover, DNA demethylation on a specific CpG-rich region of the SATB1 promoter is associated with the upregulation of SATB1 during disease progression. These experiments define a novel SATB1-p21 pathway in malignant CD30(+) T lymphocytes, which provides novel molecular insights into the pathogenesis of CD30(+)LPDs and possibly leads to new therapies. PMID:24747435

  10. Epstein-Barr virus associated T-cell lymphoproliferative disease misdiagnosed as ulcerative colitis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiaodan; Xie, Jianlan; Zhou, Xiaoge

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated T-cell lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) is not uncommon in China, but gastrointestinal involvement is very rare. We report on an immunocompetent patient with EBV-associated T-cell LPD of the colon. The 26-year-old man was initially misdiagnosed with ulcerative colitis (UC). A colon biopsy revealed the presence of small to medium-sized lymphoid cells infiltrating the intestinal wall. The neoplastic cells expressed CD3, CD5, and granzyme B, not CD56. EBV-encoded small ribonucleic acid was detected in the tumor cells of the colon as well as the lymph node, and the T-cell receptor gene rearrangement result displayed ? gene monoclonal rearrangement. The patient died 2 moths after the diagnosis. The clinical course of EBV-associated T-cell LPD is aggressive and the prognosis is poor, the wrong diagnosis may delay treatment. Therefore, we should be very careful to prevent misdiagnosis. When patients have multiple intestinal ulcers that are not typical of UC and the clinical course is unusual, although morphology looks like inflammatory change, pathologist should consider the possibility of EBV-associated LPD. The treatment strategy and prognosis of these two diseases are different. PMID:26339440

  11. Systematic Epstein-Barr virus-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disease presenting as a persistent fever and cough: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Systemic Epstein-Barr virus-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative childhood disease is an extremely rare disorder and classically arises following primary acute or chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection. It is characterized by clonal proliferation of Epstein-Barr virus-infected T-cells with an activated cytotoxic phenotype. This disease has a rapid clinical course and is more frequent in Asia and South America, with relatively few cases being reported in Western countries. The clinical and pathological features of the disease overlap with other conditions including infectious mononucleosis, chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and natural killer cell malignancies. We describe the rare case of systemic Epstein-Barr virus-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative childhood disease in a 16-year-old Malay boy. Case presentation He presented with a six-month history of fever and cough, with pulmonary and mediastinal lymphadenopathy and severe pancytopenia. Medium- to large-sized, CD8+ and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA-positive atypical lymphoid cells were present in the bone marrow aspirate. He subsequently developed fatal virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome and died due to sepsis and multiorgan failure. Conclusions Although systemic Epstein-Barr virus-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative childhood disease is a disorder which is rarely encountered in clinical practice, our case report underlines the importance of a comprehensive diagnostic approach in the management of this disease. A high level of awareness of the disease throughout the diagnosis process for young patients who present with systemic illness and hemophagocytic syndrome may be of great help for the clinical diagnosis of this disease. PMID:25163591

  12. An essential role for ?-herpesvirus latency-associated nuclear antigen homolog in an acute lymphoproliferative disease of cattle.

    PubMed

    Palmeira, Leonor; Sorel, Ocane; Van Campe, Willem; Boudry, Christel; Roels, Stefan; Myster, Franoise; Reschner, Anca; Coulie, Pierre G; Kerkhofs, Pierre; Vanderplasschen, Alain; Dewals, Benjamin G

    2013-05-21

    Wildebeests carry asymptomatically alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1), a ?-herpesvirus inducing malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) to several ruminant species (including cattle). This acute and lethal lymphoproliferative disease occurs after a prolonged asymptomatic incubation period after transmission. Our recent findings with the rabbit model indicated that AlHV-1 infection is not productive during MCF. Here, we investigated whether latency establishment could explain this apparent absence of productive infection and sought to determine its role in MCF pathogenesis. First, whole-genome cellular and viral gene expression analyses were performed in lymph nodes of MCF-developing calves. Whereas a severe disruption in cellular genes was observed, only 10% of the entire AlHV-1 genome was expressed, contrasting with the 45% observed during productive infection in vitro. In vivo, the expressed viral genes included the latency-associated nuclear antigen homolog ORF73 but none of the regions known to be essential for productive infection. Next, genomic conformation analyses revealed that AlHV-1 was essentially episomal, further suggesting that MCF might be the consequence of a latent infection rather than abortive lytic infection. This hypothesis was further supported by the high frequencies of infected CD8(+) T cells during MCF using immunodetection of ORF73 protein and single-cell RT-PCR approaches. Finally, the role of latency-associated ORF73 was addressed. A lack of ORF73 did not impair initial virus replication in vivo, but it rendered AlHV-1 unable to induce MCF and persist in vivo and conferred protection against a lethal challenge with a WT virus. Together, these findings suggest that a latent infection is essential for MCF induction. PMID:23630278

  13. Disclosing the CXCR4 expression in lymphoproliferative diseases by targeted molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Wester, Hans Jrgen; Keller, Ulrich; Schottelius, Margret; Beer, Ambros; Philipp-Abbrederis, Kathrin; Hoffmann, Frauke; ime?ek, Jakub; Gerngross, Carlos; Lassmann, Michael; Herrmann, Ken; Pellegata, Natalia; Rudelius, Martina; Kessler, Horst; Schwaiger, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Chemokine ligand-receptor interactions play a pivotal role in cell attraction and cellular trafficking, both in normal tissue homeostasis and in disease. In cancer, chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) expression is an adverse prognostic factor. Early clinical studies suggest that targeting CXCR4 with suitable high-affinity antagonists might be a novel means for therapy. In addition to the preclinical evaluation of [(68)Ga]Pentixafor in mice bearing human lymphoma xenografts as an exemplary CXCR4-expressing tumor entity, we report on the first clinical applications of [(68)Ga]Pentixafor-Positron Emission Tomography as a powerful method for CXCR4 imaging in cancer patients. [(68)Ga]Pentixafor binds with high affinity and selectivity to human CXCR4 and exhibits a favorable dosimetry. [(68)Ga]Pentixafor-PET provides images with excellent specificity and contrast. This non-invasive imaging technology for quantitative assessment of CXCR4 expression allows to further elucidate the role of CXCR4/CXCL12 ligand interaction in the pathogenesis and treatment of cancer, cardiovascular diseases and autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. PMID:25825601

  14. Disclosing the CXCR4 Expression in Lymphoproliferative Diseases by Targeted Molecular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wester, Hans Jrgen; Keller, Ulrich; Schottelius, Margret; Beer, Ambros; Philipp-Abbrederis, Kathrin; Hoffmann, Frauke; ime?ek, Jakub; Gerngross, Carlos; Lassmann, Michael; Herrmann, Ken; Pellegata, Natalia; Rudelius, Martina; Kessler, Horst; Schwaiger, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Chemokine ligand-receptor interactions play a pivotal role in cell attraction and cellular trafficking, both in normal tissue homeostasis and in disease. In cancer, chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) expression is an adverse prognostic factor. Early clinical studies suggest that targeting CXCR4 with suitable high-affinity antagonists might be a novel means for therapy. In addition to the preclinical evaluation of [68Ga]Pentixafor in mice bearing human lymphoma xenografts as an exemplary CXCR4-expressing tumor entity, we report on the first clinical applications of [68Ga]Pentixafor-Positron Emission Tomography as a powerful method for CXCR4 imaging in cancer patients. [68Ga]Pentixafor binds with high affinity and selectivity to human CXCR4 and exhibits a favorable dosimetry. [68Ga]Pentixafor-PET provides images with excellent specificity and contrast. This non-invasive imaging technology for quantitative assessment of CXCR4 expression allows to further elucidate the role of CXCR4/CXCL12 ligand interaction in the pathogenesis and treatment of cancer, cardiovascular diseases and autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. PMID:25825601

  15. Lymphocytic Vasculitis Involving the Central Nervous System Occurs in Patients with X-linked Lymphoproliferative Disease in the Absence of Epstein-Barr Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Talaat, Kawsar R.; Rothman, Jennifer A.; Cohen, Jeffrey I.; Santi, Mariarita; Rorke-Adams, Lucy B.; Choi, John K.; Guzman, Miguel; Zimmerman, Robert; Nallasamy, Sudha; Brucker, Alexander; Quezado, Martha; Pittaluga, Stefania; Patronas, Nicholas J.; Klion, Amy D.; Nichols, Kim E.

    2009-01-01

    X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is an immunodeficiency caused by defects in the adaptor molecule SAP. The manifestations of XLP generally occur following Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and include fulminant mononucleosis, hypogammaglobulinemia and lymphoma. In this report, we describe two unrelated patients with fatal T cell-mediated central nervous system vasculitis for whom repeated serologic and molecular testing for EBV was negative. In both patients, clonal T cell populations were observed, but neither demonstrated evidence of lymphoma. Thus, loss of SAP function can lead to dysregulated immune responses characterized by the uncontrolled expansion and activation of T cells independent of EBV infection. PMID:19621458

  16. Antigen-specific lymphoproliferative responses to tetanus toxoid: a means for the evaluation of Marek's disease virus-induced immunosuppression in chickens.

    PubMed

    Reddy, S K; Suresh, M; Karaca, K; Sharma, J M; McMillen, J; Schwartz, R D

    1996-12-01

    Antigen-specific lymphoproliferative responses were examined in chickens following immunization with tetanus toxoid (Ttx). The immune competence of chickens was assessed by mitogen assay utilizing phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulation and Ttx-specific antigen proliferation assay (Ttx-APA). Immune spleen cells but not peripheral blood leucocytes demonstrated specific proliferation following stimulation in vitro in a Ttx-APA. In this study, we examined firstly the effects of Marek's disease (MD)-associated immunosuppression on specific immune responses. The humoral and cell-mediated immune responses were monitored by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Ttx-APA, respectively. Secondly, we examined if vaccination against MD using a conventional herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) vaccine and two recombinant HVT (rHVT) vaccines would affect the development of Ttx-specific immune responses. The rHVT vaccines used in this study included two constructs: one expressing both Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and MD virus (MDV) genes (HVT/NDV/MDV), and another expressing only MDV genes (HVT/MDV). The mitogenic responses of spleen cells of the vaccinated chickens were inconsistent allowing no definitive conclusions about vaccinal immunosuppression. The results of the Ttx-APA indicated that Ttx-specific lymphoproliferative responses provide a meaningful measure of immunosuppression. The MDV-induced immunosuppression resulted in the inhibition of Ttx-specific lymphoproliferation in vitro. Both HVT and rHVT vaccines were not immunosuppressive as indicated by the development of normal Ttx-specific lymphoproliferative responses in chickens. These results indicate that vaccination against MD results not only in the prevention of tumor formation but also protection from possible virus-induced immunosuppression. PMID:9032901

  17. Inherited CHST11/MIR3922 deletion is associated with a novel recessive syndrome presenting with skeletal malformation and malignant lymphoproliferative disease

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Sameer S; Leshchiner, Ignaty; Duzkale, Hatice; McLaughlin, Heather; Giovanni, Monica; Zhang, Chengsheng; Stitziel, Nathan; Fingeroth, Joyce; Joyce, Robin M; Lebo, Matthew; Rehm, Heidi; Vuzman, Dana; Maas, Richard; Sunyaev, Shamil R; Murray, Michael; Cassa, Christopher A

    2015-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) such as chondroitin are ubiquitous disaccharide carbohydrate chains that contribute to the formation and function of proteoglycans at the cell membrane and in the extracellular matrix. Although GAG-modifying enzymes are required for diverse cellular functions, the role of these proteins in human development and disease is less well understood. Here, we describe two sisters out of seven siblings affected by congenital limb malformation and malignant lymphoproliferative disease. Using Whole-Genome Sequencing (WGS), we identified in the proband deletion of a 55kb region within chromosome 12q23 that encompasses part of CHST11 (encoding chondroitin-4-sulfotransferase 1) and an embedded microRNA (MIR3922). The deletion was homozygous in the proband but not in each of three unaffected siblings. Genotyping data from the 1000 Genomes Project suggest that deletions inclusive of both CHST11 and MIR3922 are rare events. Given that CHST11 deficiency causes severe chondrodysplasia in mice that is similar to human limb malformation, these results underscore the importance of chondroitin modification in normal skeletal development. Our findings also potentially reveal an unexpected role for CHST11 and/or MIR3922 as tumor suppressors whose disruption may contribute to malignant lymphoproliferative disease. PMID:26436107

  18. Surveillance of Epstein-Barr virus loads in adult liver transplantation: associations with age, sex, posttransplant times, and transplant indications.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Kirsten; Hassan, Jaythoon; Staines, Anthony; Coughlan, Suzie; Holder, Paul; Tuite, Grinne; McCormick, Aiden P; Traynor, Oscar; Hall, William W; Connell, Jeff

    2011-12-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a life-threatening complication after adult orthotopic liver transplantation (AOLT). Besides EBV and immunosuppression, relatively little is known about the pretransplant clinical parameters associated with the risk of PTLD, and the benefit of using EBV surveillance to predict EBV-associated disease in AOLT patients is uncertain. The aims of this single-center study were to monitor EBV viral loads (VLs) in AOLT patients and to investigate any associations with age, sex, cytomegalovirus (CMV) serostatus, posttransplant times, and indications for transplantation. 1275 blood samples that were collected from 197 AOLT patients 1 day to more than 15 years after transplantation were investigated with quantitative polymerase chain reaction for EBV and CMV DNA. Seventy-two percent of the patients had EBV DNAemia less than 100 days after transplantation without clinical manifestations. No association was observed between the EBV copy numbers and the time since transplantation. EBV DNAemia was weakly associated with male sex but was not associated with age, CMV serostatus, or indications for AOLT. The highest EBV VL levels were observed in patients who presented with congenital liver diseases, whereas patients with viral hepatitis maintained high EBV VLs after transplantation. None of the patients developed PTLD during the study period; however, 3 patients presented with EBV-associated diseases. In conclusion, EBV DNAemia is common in AOLT patients, and routine EBV surveillance has limited value for predicting EBV-associated morbidity or mortality. PMID:21837744

  19. Post-transplant recurrent hepatitis B viral liver disease. Viral-burden, steatoviral, and fibroviral hepatitis B.

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, M. J.; Cameron, R.; Flowers, M. A.; Blendis, L. M.; Greig, P. D.; Wanless, I.; Sherman, M.; Superina, R.; Langer, B.; Levy, G. A.

    1992-01-01

    Recurrence of hepatitis is a well-documented complication of hepatitis B liver disease, post-transplantation. It is well established also that the earliest hepatocellular change is the appearance of hepatitis B viral (HBV) markers and that the disease is rapidly progressive. In this article on 17 liver transplants in 16 HBV positive patients with long-term follow-ups (100-1234 days), the distinctive pathologic features of this disease are emphasized: the extreme viral load, the steatosis, and/or fibrosis. An attempt to quantitate the magnitude of the viral burden was made and the result was a staggering figure. In one patient, an estimated 10(18) HBV core particles were present in the liver. One of two patterns of progression were noted. In four patients in addition to the massive nuclear hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) and cytoplasmic hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity, superimposed hepatitic changes led to diffuse hepatic fibrosis (fibroviral hepatitis B); and in another six patients, extraordinary hepatocellular viral marker positivity and steatosis were the hallmarks (steatoviral hepatitis B). Steatosis is not usually considered a feature of HBV liver pathology. These results suggest that more than one type of posttransfusion recurrent hepatitis B liver disease exists pathologically. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1376555

  20. Post-kidney transplant large bowel lymphoproliferative disorder.

    PubMed

    Singh, Neeraj; Samavedi, Singh; Rajab, Amer

    2014-05-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a serious complication of organ transplantation. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a common site involved, but non-specific signs and symptoms often delay the diagnosis. We report a case of EBV-associated GI-PTLD in a 68-year-old kidney transplant patient who received the kidney ten months earlier. He presented with chronic diarrhea and developed massive pneumo-peritoneum secondary to multiple colonic perforations. PMID:24821162

  1. Loss-of-function mutations within the IL-2 inducible kinase ITK in patients with EBV-associated lymphoproliferative diseases.

    PubMed

    Linka, R M; Risse, S L; Bienemann, K; Werner, M; Linka, Y; Krux, F; Synaeve, C; Deenen, R; Ginzel, S; Dvorsky, R; Gombert, M; Halenius, A; Hartig, R; Helminen, M; Fischer, A; Stepensky, P; Vettenranta, K; Khrer, K; Ahmadian, M R; Laws, H-J; Fleckenstein, B; Jumaa, H; Latour, S; Schraven, B; Borkhardt, A

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was the appraisal of the clinical and functional consequences of germline mutations within the gene for the IL-2 inducible T-cell kinase, ITK. Among patients with Epstein-Barr virus-driven lymphoproliferative disorders (EBV-LPD), negative for mutations in SH2D1A and XIAP (n=46), we identified two patients with R29H or D500T,F501L,M503X mutations, respectively. Human wild-type (wt) ITK, but none of the mutants, was able to rescue defective calcium flux in murine Itk(-/-) T cells. Pulse-chase experiments showed that ITK mutations lead to varying reductions of protein half-life from 25 to 69% as compared with wt ITK (107?min). The pleckstrin homology domain of wt ITK binds most prominently to phosphatidylinositol monophosphates (PI(3)P, PI(4)P, PI(5)P) and to lesser extend to its double or triple phosphorylated derivates (PIP2, PIP3), interactions which were dramatically reduced in the patient with the ITK(R29H) mutant. ITK mutations are distributed over the entire protein and include missense, nonsense and indel mutations, reminiscent of the situation in its sister kinase in B cells, Bruton's tyrosine kinase. PMID:22289921

  2. De novo post-transplant thrombotic microangiopathy localized only to the graft in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease with thrombophilia

    PubMed Central

    Rolla, Davide; Fontana, Iris; Ravetti, Jean Louis; Marsano, Luigina; Bellino, Diego; Panaro, Laura; Ansaldo, Francesca; Mathiasen, Lisa; Storace, Giulia; Trezzi, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a serious complication of renal transplantation and is mostly related to the prothrombotic effect of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs). A subset of TMA (29%-38%) is localized only to the graft. Case 1: A young woman suffering from autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) underwent kidney transplant. After 2 months, she showed slow renal deterioration (serum creatinine from 1.9 to 3.1 mg/dl), without hematological signs of hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS); only LDH enzyme transient increase was detected. Renal biopsy showed TMA: temporary withdraw of tacrolimus and plasmapheresis was performed. The renal function recovered (serum creatinine 1.9 mg/dl). From screening for thrombophilia, we found a mutation of the Leiden factor V gene. Case 2: A man affected by ADPKD underwent kidney transplantation, with delay graft function; first biopsy showed acute tubular necrosis, but a second biopsy revealed TMA, while no altered hematological parameters of HUS was detected. We observed only a slight increase of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. The tacrolimus was halved and plasmapheresis was performed: LDH levels normalized within 10 days and renal function improved (serum creatinine from 9 to 2.9 mg/dl). We found a mutation of the prothrombin gene. Only a renal biopsy clarifies the diagnosis of TMA, but it is necessary to pay attention to light increasing level of LDH. Conclusion: Prothrombotic effect of CNIs and mTOR inhibitor, mutation of genes encoding factor H or I, anticardiolipin antibodies, vascular rejection, cytomegalovirus infection are proposed to trigger TMA; we detected mutations of factor II and Leiden factor V, as facilitating conditions for TMA in patients affected by ADPKD. PMID:26693501

  3. A PLC-γ1-independent, RasGRP1-ERK dependent pathway drives lymphoproliferative disease in LAT-Y136F mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    Kortum, Robert L.; Rouquette-Jazdanian, Alexandre K.; Miyaji, Michihiko; Merrill, Robert K.; Markegard, Evan; Pinski, John M.; Wesselink, Amelia; Nath, Nandan N.; Alexander, Clayton P.; Li, Wenmei; Kedei, Noemi; Roose, Jeroen P.; Blumberg, Peter M.; Samelson, Lawrence E.; Sommers, Connie L.

    2012-01-01

    Mice expressing a germline mutation in the PLC-γ1 binding site of LAT (linker for activation of T cells) show progressive lymphoproliferation and ultimately die at 4–6 months of age. The hyper-activated T cells in these mice show defective TCR-induced calcium flux, but enhanced Ras/ERK activation that is critical for disease progression. Despite the loss of LAT-dependent PLC-γ1 binding and activation, genetic analysis revealed RasGRP1, and not Sos1 or Sos2, to be the major RasGEF responsible for ERK activation and the lymphoproliferative phenotype in these mice. Analysis of isolated CD4+ T cells from LAT-Y136F mice showed altered proximal TCR-dependent kinase signaling, which activated a Zap70- and LAT-independent pathway. Moreover, LAT-Y136F T cells showed ERK activation that was dependent on Lck and/or Fyn, PKCθ, and RasGRP1. These data demonstrate a novel route to Ras activation in vivo in a pathological setting. PMID:23209318

  4. Systemic Epstein-Barr virus-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disease of childhood: Report of a case with review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Yoshii, Miyuki; Ishida, Mitsuaki; Hodohara, Keiko; Okuno, Hiroko; Nakanishi, Ryota; Yoshida, Takashi; Okabe, Hidetoshi

    2012-09-01

    Systemic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) of childhood is an extremely rare and distinct clinicopathological entity. The majority of these cases occur with an apparent primary EBV infection. In this study, we describe a case of systemic EBV-positive T-cell LPD of childhood in a 23-year-old female with primary EBV infection, and review the clinicopathological features of this disease. A 23-year-old previously healthy female without an immunocompromized status presented with an acute onset of high fever. Laboratory examinations revealed a markedly elevated white blood cell count and liver and renal function. Peripheral blood smears identified a number of atypical lymphocytes with small azurophilic granules in the cytoplasm. Bone marrow aspiration revealed marked proliferation of small-sized lymphocytes with convoluted nuclei, which expressed EBER1, CD3, CD8 and cytotoxic granules. Monoclonal rearrangements of T-cell receptors were also detected. The patient underwent chemotherapy, but succumbed to multiorgan failure 20 weeks after administration. Upon review of 17 cases of this disease, including the one in the present study, we identified that the major clinicopathological features of systemic EBV-positive T-cell LPD of childhood are as follows: i) clonal systemic proliferation of EBV-infected T-cells that appear morphologically innocuous with an activated cytotoxic phenotype; ii) a high prevalence in the Asian population, commonly affecting children and young adults; iii) a predilection for males; iv) most commonly involved sites are the liver, spleen, lymph node and bone marrow, and the main clinical presentations are hepatosplenomegaly, fever and pancytopenia; v) almost all cases have an aggressive clinical course, which results in mortality. Cytological atypia of the neoplastic cells in this disease, as observed in the present case, is minimal. This study revealed that the cytomorphological features of atypical lymphocytes in the peripheral blood are indistinguishable from those of infectious mononucleosis. PMID:23741239

  5. Methotrexate-related lymphoproliferative disorder of the stomach in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis: a case of disease regression after methotrexate cessation.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Kazuki; Nakamura, Takefumi; Kinoshita, Takahiro; Fujiwara, Mikio; Uose, Suguru; Someda, Hitoshi; Miyoshi, Takashi; Io, Katsuhiro; Nagai, Ken-Ichi

    2016-02-01

    We report the case of a 78-year-old woman with methotrexate-related gastric lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD). The patient had a history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and had been treated with methotrexate (MTX). Endoscopic examination revealed round elevated lesions in the stomach, and a biopsy specimen showed atypical lymphoid cell proliferation. Immunohistological study found these atypical cells to be positive for L-26 but not for CD3 or EBER. Therefore, we made a diagnosis of MTX-related LPD showing features of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Combined positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) showed increased avidity in the stomach in addition to slightly increased FDG-avidity in the mediastinum and left chest wall. We decided not to start chemotherapy but to discontinue administration of MTX, with follow-up using endoscopy and PET-CT. The endoscopic examinations after cessation of MTX demonstrated gradual regression of the elevated lesions. PET-CT 6months after cessation showed no increased FDG avidity in the stomach. While disease regression was observed in the stomach, the other FDG-avid spots remained unchanged on PET-CT. Therefore, we performed chemotherapy as additional therapy. On PET-CT after chemotherapy, the FDG-avid spots remained unchanged for more than 1year, and we eventually concluded that they were RA-related inflammatory lesions. In patients with MTX-related LPD, cessation of MTX may be a therapeutic option, but careful follow-up and chemotherapy in accordance with the clinical course are essential. PMID:26733461

  6. Correction of disease related anaemia of B-chronic lymphoproliferative disorders by recombinant human erythropoietin: maintenance is necessary to sustain response.

    PubMed

    Siakantaris, M P; Angelopoulou, M K; Vassilakopoulos, T P; Dimopoulou, M N; Kontopidou, F N; Pangalis, G A

    2000-12-01

    Thirty three B-chronic lymphoproliferative disorder (B-CLD) patients [22 with B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL), 5 with small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) and 6 with lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL)] with anaemia (Ht <32%) of no other cause but their disease, received recombinant human erythropoietin (r-HuEPO). The treatment protocol provided r-HuEPO in a dose of 150 U/kg s.c. thrice weekly for 3 mo. After 1.5 mo of r-HuEPO administration, if response was not satisfactory, r-HuEPO dose escalation was utilised by giving incremental doses of 50 U/kg more than the previous dose up to a maximum dose of 300 U/kg tiw. After maximal response, half of the responding patients discontinued therapy, while the other half received maintenance therapy at a dose of 150 U/kg s.c./w. Oral iron was given throughout the study. Pretreatment EPO levels were determined in all patients. A complete response (CR) was defined when Ht was >38% and a partial response (PR) when there was an increase of the Ht >6% from the initial value was achieved. Sixteen of the 22 B-CLL patients had Rai stage III disease and 6 stage IV, with a median duration of anaemia 27 months (6-38); twelve of them were receiving chlorambucil while the rest were on no treatment. Of the SLL and LPL group, 4 patients had Ann Arbor stage III disease and 7 stage IV with a median duration of anaemia 24 months (5-36); 8 patients were on chlorambucil. Complete response was achieved in 50% of the B-CLL group and 54% of the SLL and LPL group, with an overall response rate of 77% and 81% respectively. All patients on maintenance therapy had a continuous response, while all patients, in whom rHuEPO was discontinued, relapsed. No correlation was found between patients: with low or high pretreatment serum EPO levels; those receiving concomitant therapy or not; those with B-symptoms or not; those with a non-diffuse or diffuse bone marrow infiltration pattern; and with splenomegaly or not. Life quality was significantly improved and no major side effects were encountered. We conclude from our study that r-HuEPO is very effective in correcting disease-related anaemia in B-CLD, resulting in down-staging of Rai stage III patients and that maintenance therapy is necessary. Whether the correction of anaemia improves patients' overall survival, still remains to be seen. PMID:11426615

  7. Vaccine strategies to treat lymphoproliferative disorders.

    PubMed

    Radford, Kristen J; Vari, Frank; Hart, Derek N J

    2005-12-01

    Lymphoproliferative disorders, including follicular lymphoma (FL), multiple myeloma (MM) and chronic lymphatic leukaemia (CLL), are slowly progressive malignancies which remain incurable despite advances in therapy. Harnessing the immune system to recognise and destroy tumours is a promising new approach to treating these diseases. Dendritic cells (DC) are unique antigen-presenting cells that play a central role in the initiation and direction of immune responses. DC loaded ex vivo with tumour-associated antigens and administered as a vaccine have already shown promise in early clinical trials for a number of lymphoproliferative disorders, but the need for improvement is widely agreed. Recent advances in the understanding of basic DC biology and lessons from early clinical trials have provided exciting new insights into the generation of anti-tumour immune responses and the design of vaccine strategies. In this review we provide an overview of our current understanding of DC biology and their function in patients with lymphoproliferative disorders. We discuss the current status of clinical trials and new approaches to exploit the antigen presenting capacity of DC to design vaccines of the future. PMID:16373232

  8. Outcome of Rapamycin Therapy for Post-Transplant-Lymphoproliferative Disorder after Kidney Transplantation: Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafi, Farzaneh; Shahidi, Shahrzad; Mortazavi, Mojgan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are a complication of chronic immunosuppressive therapy in solid organ transplantation with a high mortality rate. Alternative treatments such as rapamycin have been explored. Methods: A detailed retrospective analysis was performed according to data collected from 13 patients with PTLD. At the time of PTLD diagnosis, immunosuppressive therapy was decreased and rapamycin administered. Overall survival, disease-free survival of patients and graft survival were determined. Results: Among 590 kidney transplant recipients, 13 adult patients with PTLD were included in this study. The mean age of the patients was 42.15 (range: 25–58) years at the time of PTLD diagnosis, and 9 patients were male. Histology was distributed in 9 diffuse large B cell, 1 Malt lymphoma, 1 Burkitt lymphoma, 2 Hodgkin-like PTLD. The response rate to rapamycin alone was 30.8%. The mean overall survival period was 23.38 months and 11 patients are still alive. In total, 10 patients (76.9%) achieved a complete remission with functioning graft in 11 (84.6%) patients. Conclusion: Despite the retrospective focus and limited number of patients, this study provides promising results regarding the effectiveness of stopping calcineurin inhibitors and switching to rapamycin for patients with PTLD. PMID:25802698

  9. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Other Lymphoproliferative Disorders.

    PubMed

    Wall, Sarah; Woyach, Jennifer A

    2016-02-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia affects less than 1% of US adults but is the most common leukemia and primarily affects older patients. Non-Hodgkin lymphomas are the seventh most common cancers in the United States and also primarily affect older patients. In general, older patients should be treated differently than their younger, fitter counterparts. Fitness level and comorbidities should be taken into account when planning treatment. First-line treatment of most of these B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders consists of chemoimmunotherapy. In relapsed and refractory disease, there is a growing role for therapies targeting the B-cell receptor signaling pathway. PMID:26614867

  10. De novo cancers and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder in adult liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Aseni, Paolo; Vertemati, Maurizio; De Carlis, Luciano; Sansalone, Cosimo Vincenzo; Bonacina, Edgardo; Minola, Ernesto; Oreste, Pierluigi; Vizzotto, Laura; Rondinara, Gianfranco

    2006-11-01

    De novo cancer is one of the most serious complications after organ transplantation. Chronic immunosuppression, viral agents, pretransplant chronic alcohol-induced and other addictive behavior-induced injury are important conditions associated with the development of de novo cancers in solid organ transplants. The aim of the study was to evaluate types and clinical course of de novo cancers in adult liver transplant recipients. Data regarding 502 adult patients who underwent to 554 liver transplantations have been collected. Sex, age at transplantation, immunosuppressive regimen, time from transplantation to diagnosis of cancer, cancer type, surgical and non-surgical treatments and follow-up time have been analyzed as well as acute rejection episodes and viral status. Thirty patients developed 31 de novo cancers. The predominant tumors were carcinoma of the skin, lymphomas and Kaposi's sarcoma. Kaposi's sarcoma and lung cancer were associated with greater mortality. In lymphomas and Kaposi's sarcoma, a high rate of graft involvement was observed. In liver transplant recipients, de novo cancers demand strategies focusing on prophylactic and careful long-term screening protocols. Lymphomas and Kaposi's sarcoma should be ruled out in all patients with clinical manifestations of chronic biliary obstruction. PMID:17040297

  11. EpsteinBarr virus-positive T/NK-cell lymphoproliferative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Qingqing; Chen, Kailin; Young, Ken H

    2015-01-01

    EpsteinBarr virus, a ubiquitous human herpesvirus, can induce both lytic and latent infections that result in a variety of human diseases, including lymphoproliferative disorders. The oncogenic potential of EpsteinBarr virus is related to its ability to infect and transform B lymphocytes into continuously proliferating lymphoblastoid cells. However, EpsteinBarr virus has also been implicated in the development of T/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases. EpsteinBarr virus encodes a series of products that mimic several growth, transcription and anti-apoptotic factors, thus usurping control of pathways that regulate diverse homeostatic cellular functions and the microenvironment. However, the exact mechanism by which EpsteinBarr virus promotes oncogenesis and inflammatory lesion development remains unclear. EpsteinBarr virus-associated T/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases often have overlapping clinical symptoms as well as histologic and immunophenotypic features because both lymphoid cell types derive from a common precursor. Accurate classification of EpsteinBarr virus-associated T/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases is a prerequisite for appropriate clinical management. Currently, the treatment of most T/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases is less than satisfactory. Novel and targeted therapies are strongly required to satisfy clinical demands. This review describes our current knowledge of the genetics, oncogenesis, biology, diagnosis and treatment of EpsteinBarr virus-associated T/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases. PMID:25613730

  12. Transformation of hematopoietic cell lines to growth-factor independence and induction of a fatal myelo- and lymphoproliferative disease in mice by retrovirally transduced TEL/JAK2 fusion genes.

    PubMed Central

    Schwaller, J; Frantsve, J; Aster, J; Williams, I R; Tomasson, M H; Ross, T S; Peeters, P; Van Rompaey, L; Van Etten, R A; Ilaria, R; Marynen, P; Gilliland, D G

    1998-01-01

    Recent reports have demonstrated fusion of the TEL gene on 12p13 to the JAK2 gene on 9p24 in human leukemias. Three variants have been identified that fuse the TEL pointed (PNT) domain to (i) the JAK2 JH1-kinase domain, (ii) part of and (iii) all of the JH2 pseudokinase domain. We report that all of the human TEL/JAK2 variants, and a human/mouse chimeric hTEL/mJAK2(JH1) fusion gene, transform the interleukin-3 (IL-3)-dependent murine hematopoietic cell line Ba/F3 to IL-3-independent growth. Transformation requires both the TEL PNT domain and JAK2 kinase activity. Furthermore, all TEL/JAK2 variants strongly activated STAT 5 by phosphotyrosine Western blots and by electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA). Mice (n = 40) transplanted with bone marrow infected with the MSCV retrovirus containing either the hTEL/mJAK2(JH1) fusion or its human counterpart developed a fatal mixed myeloproliferative and T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder with a latency of 2-10 weeks. In contrast, mice transplanted with a TEL/JAK2 mutant lacking the TEL PNT domain (n = 10) or a kinase-inactive TEL/JAK2(JH1) mutant (n = 10) did not develop the disease. We conclude that all human TEL/JAK2 fusion variants are oncoproteins in vitro that strongly activate STAT 5, and cause lethal myelo- and lymphoproliferative syndromes in murine bone marrow transplant models of leukemia. PMID:9736611

  13. Viruses, Immunity and Unusual Lymphoproliferative Disorders of the Chest: Integrating Imaging With Pathogenesis and Clinical Presentations.

    PubMed

    Law, Amy; Shmukler, Anna; Burns, Judah; Haramati, Linda Broyde

    2016-01-01

    Unusual lymphoproliferative diseases result from the stimulation of intrathoracic lymphoid tissue by viruses and immune dysfunction, ranging from benign hyperplasia to malignant transformation. We review the clinical, radiological, and histopathological findings of unusual lymphoproliferative disorders, which have been linked to viruses or immune dysfunction, focusing on thoracic manifestations. Understanding these advances in science enhances the radiologist's skills in integrating the imaging findings to the clinical scenario to suggest the correct diagnosis. PMID:26484956

  14. Comparison of two real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction strategies for minimal residual disease evaluation in lymphoproliferative disorders: correlation between immunoglobulin gene mutation load and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction performance.

    PubMed

    Della Starza, Irene; Cavalli, Marzia; Del Giudice, Ilaria; Barbero, Daniela; Mantoan, Barbara; Genuardi, Elisa; Urbano, Marina; Mannu, Claudia; Gazzola, Anna; Ciabatti, Elena; Guarini, Anna; Foà, Robin; Galimberti, Sara; Piccaluga, Pierpaolo; Gaidano, Gianluca; Ladetto, Marco; Monitillo, Luigia

    2014-09-01

    We compared two strategies for minimal residual disease evaluation of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders characterized by a variable immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) genes mutation load. Twenty-five samples from chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (n = 18) or mantle cell lymphoma (n = 7) patients were analyzed. Based on IGH variable region genes, 22/25 samples carried > 2% mutations, 20/25 > 5%. In the IGH joining region genes, 23/25 samples carried > 2% mutations, 18/25 > 5%. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed on IGH genes using two strategies: method A utilizes two patient-specific primers, whereas method B employs one patient-specific and one germline primer, with different positions on the variable, diversity and joining regions. Twenty-three samples (92%) resulted evaluable using method A, only six (24%) by method B. Method B poor performance was specifically evident among mutated IGH variable/joining region cases, although no specific mutation load above, which the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction failed was found. The molecular strategies for minimal residual disease evaluation should be adapted to the B-cell receptor features of the disease investigated. PMID:24254547

  15. Mapping the x-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Skare, J.C.; Milunsky, A.; Byron, K.S.; Sullivan, J.L.

    1987-04-01

    The X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome is triggered by Epstein-Barr virus infection and results in fatal mononucleosis, immunodeficiency, and lymphoproliferative disorders. This study shows that the mutation responsible for X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome is genetically linked to a restriction fragment length polymorphism detected with the DXS42 probe (from Xq24-q27). The most likely recombination frequency between the loci is 4%, and the associated logarithm of the odds is 5.26. Haplotype analysis using flanking restriction fragment length polymorphism markers indicates that the locus for X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome is distal to probe DXS42 but proximal to probe DXS99 (from Xq26-q27). It is now possible to predict which members of a family with X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome are carrier females and to diagnose the syndrome prenatally.

  16. Successful treatment of immediate allogeneic myeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from a HLA-mismatched sibling donor for active systemic epsteinbarr virus-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disease of childhood following primary acute epsteinbarr virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Kakinoki, Yasutaka; Matsuoka, Satomi; Hashiguchi, Junichi; Chiba, Koji; Miyake, Takayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message A 22-year-old female was admitted for sustained high fever and diagnosed with systemic EpsteinBarr virus-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disease. As her clinical course was so aggressive, she immediately underwent allogeneic myeloablative bone marrow transplantation from an HLA-mismatched sibling donor on hospital day 46. The patient has remained in complete remission for 3years. PMID:25914814

  17. Autoimmune and Lymphoproliferative Complications of Common Variable Immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Maglione, Paul J

    2016-03-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is frequently complicated by the development of autoimmune and lymphoproliferative diseases. With widespread use of immunoglobulin replacement therapy, autoimmune and lymphoproliferative complications have replaced infection as the major cause of morbidity and mortality in CVID patients. Certain CVID complications, such as bronchiectasis, are likely to be the result of immunodeficiency and are associated with infection susceptibility. However, other complications may result from immune dysregulation rather than immunocompromise. CVID patients develop autoimmunity, lymphoproliferation, and granulomas in association with distinct immunological abnormalities. Mutations in transmembrane activator and CAML interactor, reduction of isotype-switched memory B cells, expansion of CD21 low B cells, heightened interferon signature expression, and retained B cell function are all associated with both autoimmunity and lymphoproliferation in CVID. Further research aimed to better understand that the pathological mechanisms of these shared forms of immune dysregulation may inspire therapies beneficial for multiple CVID complications. PMID:26857017

  18. Increased Risk of Post-Transplant Malignancy and Mortality in Transplant Tourists

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Mu-Chi; Wu, Ming-Ju; Chang, Chao-Hsiang; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Yu, Tung-Min; Ho, Hao-Chung; Shu, Kuo-Hsiung; Chung, Chi-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Information on post-transplant malignancy and mortality risk in kidney transplant tourists remains controversial and is an important concern. The present study aimed to evaluate the incidence of post-transplant malignancy and mortality risk between tourists and domestic transplant recipients using the claims data from Taiwan's universal health insurance. A retrospective study was performed on 2394 tourists and 1956 domestic recipients. Post-transplant malignancy and mortality were defined from the catastrophic illness patient registry by using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision. Cox proportional hazard regression and Kaplan–Meier curves were used for the analyses. The incidence for post-transplant de novo malignancy in the tourist group was 1.8-fold higher than that of the domestic group (21.8 vs 12.1 per 1000 person-years). The overall cancer recurrence rate was approximately 11%. The top 3 post-transplant malignancies, in decreasing order, were urinary tract, kidney, and liver cancers, regardless of the recipient type. Compared with domestic recipients, there was significant higher mortality risk in transplant tourists (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.0–1.5). In addition, those with either pre-transplant or post-transplant malignancies were associated with increased mortality risk. We suggest that a sufficient waiting period for patients with pre-transplant malignancies should be better emphasized to eliminate recurrence, and transplant tourists should be discouraged because of the possibility of higher post-transplant de novo malignancy occurrence and mortality. PMID:25546686

  19. ?-HHVs and HHV-8 in Lymphoproliferative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Quadrelli, C.; Barozzi, P.; Riva, G.; Vallerini, D.; Zanetti, E.; Potenza, L.; Forghieri, F.; Luppi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Similarly to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), the human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) is a ?-herpesvirus, recently recognized to be associated with the occurrence of rare B cell lymphomas and atypical lymphoproliferations, especially in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected subjects. Moreover, the human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6), a ?-herpesvirus, has been shown to be implicated in some non-malignant lymph node proliferations, such as the Rosai Dorfman disease, and in a proportion of Hodgkins lymphoma cases. HHV-6 has a wide cellular tropism and it might play a role in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of human diseases, but given its ubiquity, disease associations are difficult to prove and its role in hematological malignancies is still controversial. The involvement of another ?-herpesvirus, the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), has not yet been proven in human cancer, even though recent findings have suggested its potential role in the development of CD4+ large granular lymphocyte (LGL) lymphocytosis. Here, we review the current knowledge on the pathogenetic role of HHV-8 and human ?-herpesviruses in human lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:22110893

  20. Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis in individuals from sporadic (non-familial) chronic lymphocytic leukemia families persists over time, but does not progress to chronic B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Matos, Daniel Mazza; Furtado, Felipe Magalhes; Falco, Roberto Passetto

    2015-01-01

    Background Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis is classified as high-count or clinical monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis and low-count or population monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis. Previously, 167 first-degree relatives pertaining to sporadic (non-familial) chronic lymphocytic leukemia families were studied and the presence of seven monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis individuals was reported. Objective The aim of this report is to describe the outcomes of five of the original monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis individuals. Methods Flow cytometry analysis was performed on mononuclear cells previously isolated from peripheral blood samples. A strategy of sequential gating designed to identify the population of CD19+/CD5+ B-lymphocytes was used and, subsequently, the monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis cells were characterized by the CD20weak/CD79bweak/negative phenotype. Results The monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis clone showed consistent stability over time with little variations in size. After a median follow-up of 7.6 years, none of the five monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis individuals progressed to chronic lymphocytic leukemia or other B-cell lymphoproliferative disease. Conclusions The data of this study suggest that chronic lymphocytic leukemia-like monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis detected in the context of sporadic chronic lymphocytic leukemia families is not prone to clinical evolution and could be just a sign of immune senescence. PMID:26408361

  1. Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome with Red Cell Aplasia.

    PubMed

    Meena, K R; Bisht, Supriya; Tamaria, K C

    2015-12-01

    Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS) is a rare inherited disorder of abnormal lymphocyte apoptosis, leading to chronic lymphoproliferation. It presents as lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly and autoimmune phenomena. Pure red cell aplasia is characterized by normochromic normocytic anemia, reticulocytopenia, and absence of erythroblasts from a normal bone marrow. Only few lymphoproliferative disorders have been associated with erythroid aplasia. The authors are reporting a case of ALPS associated with red cell aplasia in a 7-y-old girl. PMID:25972287

  2. Hepatitis C virus-related lymphoproliferative disorders: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Zignego, Anna Linda; Giannini, Carlo; Ferri, Clodoveo

    2007-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global health problem affecting 3% of the world's population (about 180 million) and a cause of both hepatic and extrahepatic diseases. B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders, whose prototype is mixed cryoglobulinemia, represent the most closely related as well as the most investigated HCV-related extrahepatic disorder. The association between extrahepatic (lymphoma) as well as hepatic malignancies (hepatocellular carcinoma) has justified the inclusion of HCV among human cancer viruses. HCV-associated manifestations also include porphyria cutanea tarda, lichen planus, nephropathies, thyreopathies, sicca syndrome, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, diabetes, chronic polyarthritis, sexual dysfunctions, cardiopathy/atherosclerosis, and psychopathological disorders. A pathogenetic link between HCV virus and some lymphoproliferative disorders was confirmed by their responsiveness to antiviral therapy, which is now considered the first choice treatment. The aim of the present paper is to provide an overview of extrahepatic manifestations of HCV infection with particular attention to B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. Available pathogenetic hypotheses and suggestions about the most appropriate, currently available, therapeutic approaches will also be discussed. PMID:17552031

  3. Pretransplant echocardiographic parameters as markers of posttransplant outcomes in liver transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Bushyhead, Daniel; Kirkpatrick, James N; Goldberg, David

    2016-03-01

    Despite advances in liver transplantation and preoperative risk stratification, there remains significant posttransplant morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular and renal disease. There are limited and conflicting data on the role of pretransplant echocardiography to predict these outcomes. The purpose of our study was to determine if pretransplant echocardiographic parameters were associated with posttransplant survival and the development of incident cardiovascular events and chronic kidney disease (CKD). We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 397 adult liver transplant recipients at the University of Pennsylvania from January 1, 2005 to September 30, 2014. Patients with acute liver failure, those without a diagnosis of cirrhosis (eg, polycystic liver disease without portal hypertension), retransplants, and multiorgan transplants were excluded. In multivariable Cox regression models, tricuspid regurgitation graded greater than mild was associated with significantly increased posttransplant mortality (hazard ratio, 1.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-2.75; P = 0.04). In multivariable competing risk models, increasing pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) was associated with significantly increased risk of hospitalization for myocardial infarction or heart failure (subhazard ratio per 5 mm Hg increase in PASP, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.48-2.17; P < 0.001). In multivariable competing risk models, increased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was associated with a numerical but nonsignificant increased risk of stage 4 or 5 CKD (subhazard ratio, 1.11 per 5% increase in LVEF; 95% CI, 0.99-1.24; P = 0.07). In a post hoc analysis, LVEF ? 65% was the best cutoff for increased risk of CKD (subhazard ratio, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.06-2.89; P = 0.03). In conclusion, several pretransplant echocardiographic parameters were associated with posttransplant morbidity and mortality, suggesting that pretransplant echocardiography may be used as a tool to risk-stratify patients for posttransplant outcomes. Liver Transpl 22:316-323, 2016. 2015 AASLD. PMID:26609681

  4. Updated Understanding of Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS).

    PubMed

    Li, Pu; Huang, Ping; Yang, Ye; Hao, Mu; Peng, Hongwei; Li, Fei

    2016-02-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), a disorder characterized by immune dysregulation due to disrupted lymphocyte homeostasis, is mainly resulted from the mutations in FAS-mediated apoptotic pathway. In addition, other mutations of the genes such as Fas-ligand (FASLG), Caspase 10 (CASP10) and Caspase 8 (CASP8), NRAS and KRAS have also been observed in a small number of patients with ALPS or ALPS-related disorders. However, approximately 20-30% of patients with ALPS have unidentified defect. Its clinical manifestations observed in multiple family members include unexplained lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, autoimmune cytopenias such as thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, and anemia due to excessive production of antibodies by lymphocytes, elevated number of double-negative T (DNT) cells, and increased risk of lymphoma. As a very rare disease, ALPS was first characterized in the early 1990s. More than 300 families with hereditary ALPS have been reported till now; nearly 500 patients from these families have been studied and followed worldwide over the last 20years. ALPS has historically considered as a primary immune defect presenting in early childhood, however, recent studies have shown that it may be more common than previous thought because adult onset presentation is increasingly becoming recognized and more adult ALPS patients are diagnosed. The new genetic and biological insights have improved the understanding of ALPS and a number of targeted therapeutic strategies such as mycophenolate mofetil, sirolimus, and pentostatin have been successfully applied in ALPS patients with promising treatment efficacy. This article comprehensively reviews the clinical and laboratory manifestations, new research advances in the molecular pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatments of this disorder. PMID:25663566

  5. Image findings of monomorphic non-hogdkin lymphoproliferative disorder in a post renal transplant patient diagnosed with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Rajasekar, Thirugnanam; Shibu, Deepu; Radhakrishnan, Edathurthy Kalarikal; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan

    2014-07-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a heterogeneous group of lymphoid proliferations caused by immunosuppression after solid organ or bone marrow transplantation. PTLD is categorized by early lesion, polymorphic PTLD and monomorphic PTLD. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG-PET/CT) scans have clinical significance in the evaluation of PTLD following renal transplantation. We report imaging findings of a monomorphic non-Hodgkin lymphoma, post renal transplant seen on FDG PET/CT in a 32-year-old lactating woman. Whole body FDG- ET/CT demonstrated uptake in right external iliac and inguinal lymph nodes. PMID:25210292

  6. Image findings of monomorphic non-hogdkin lymphoproliferative disorder in a post renal transplant patient diagnosed with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Rajasekar, Thirugnanam; Shibu, Deepu; Radhakrishnan, Edathurthy Kalarikal; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan

    2014-01-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a heterogeneous group of lymphoid proliferations caused by immunosuppression after solid organ or bone marrow transplantation. PTLD is categorized by early lesion, polymorphic PTLD and monomorphic PTLD. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG-PET/CT) scans have clinical significance in the evaluation of PTLD following renal transplantation. We report imaging findings of a monomorphic non-Hodgkin lymphoma, post renal transplant seen on FDG PET/CT in a 32-year-old lactating woman. Whole body FDG- ET/CT demonstrated uptake in right external iliac and inguinal lymph nodes. PMID:25210292

  7. [Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome: a case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Sun, Jia-peng; Lu, Xin-tian; Zhao, Wei-hong; Hua, Ying

    2015-12-18

    We described 1 case of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), first diagnosed in our hospital, and reviewed the recent literature. The 11-month old male patient presented with a history of splenomegaly and hepatomegaly since 1 month after birth. He suffered recurrent infectious diseases including cytomegalovirus infection, parvovirus B19 infection and chronic diarrhea disease. Besides, his symptoms included hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. The laboratory abnormality indicated an expanded population of alpha/beta double-negative T cells (DNTs) (27.18% of lymphocytes, 35.16% of CD3+ T lymphocytes) in peripheral blood, and autoantibodies including antinuclear antibody, double-stranded DNA and rheumatic factor were positive. Hyper gamma globulinemia and positive direct Coombs tests were seen in the patient. His parents were both healthy and denied autoimmune diseases. We identified a heterozygous point mutation in exon 3 of the FAS gene carrying c.309 A>C, resulting in a single base pair substitution in exon 3 of FAS gene which changed the codon of Arg103 to Ser103. Unfortunately, we were unable to obtain the gene results of the child's parents. The patient was treated with glucocorticoids in our hospital and with mycophenolatemofetil in other hospital. And we were informed that his anemia condition relieved through the telephone follow-up, but he still suffered recurrent infections, hepatomegaly and splenomegaly still existed. As we all know ALPS is characterized by defective lymphocyte apoptosis, and thus cause lymphoproliferative disease and autoimmune disease, and increase the risk of lymphoma. It is more likely to be misdiagnosed as other diseases. ALPS should be suspected in the case of chronic lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly and autoimmune features. Flow cytometry approach is helpful for the diagnosis. Immunosuppressive drugs are the necessary treatment. PMID:26679669

  8. Risk of lymphoproliferative malignancy in celiac patients with a family history of lymphoproliferative malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Ludvigsson, Jonas F; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Rubio-Tapia, Alberto; Murray, Joseph A.; Green, Peter HR; Ekbom, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims Individuals with celiac disease (CD) are at increased risk of lymphoproliferative malignancy (LPM). We examined if a family history of LPM or any cancer influenced the risk of LPM in individuals with CD. Methods We identified 28,996 individuals with biopsy-verified CD (equal to villous atrophy, Marsh histopathology stage 3), of whom 616 had family history of LPM. Cox regression then estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for LPM in these 616 compared with two control groups. We also examined the risk of LPM in CD individuals with a family history of any cancer (n=8,439). Results During follow-up, 2/616 CD individuals with a family history of LPM, and 235/28,380 CD individuals without a family history of LPM developed LPM themselves. CD individuals with a family history of LPM were not at increased risk of LPM compared to general population controls (HR=1.18; 95%CI=0.27–5.10), or compared to CD individuals without a family history of LPM (adjusted HR=0.31; 95%CI=0.08–1.23). We found no increased risk of LPM in CD individuals with a family history of any cancer. Conclusion This study found no evidence that a family history of LPM or any cancer increases the risk of future LPM in individuals with CD. Despite the large number of study participants, this study is however limited by few positive events due to a low absolute risk of LPM even in individuals with CD. PMID:23440554

  9. Prevalence of pre-transplant electrocardiographic abnormalities and post-transplant cardiac events in patients with liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although cardiovascular disease is thouht to be common in cirrhosis, there are no systematic investigations on the prevalence of electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities in these patients and data on the occurrence of post-transplant cardiac events in comparison with the general population are lacking. We aimed to study the prevalence and predictors of ECG abnormalities in patients with cirrhosis undergoing liver transplantation and to define the risk of cardiac events post-transplant compared to the general population. Methods Cirrhotic patients undergoing first-time liver transplantation between 19992007 were retrospectively enrolled. ECGs at pre-transplant evaluation were reviewed using the Minnesota classification and compared to healthy controls. Standardized incidence ratios for post-transplant cardiac events were calculated. Results 234 patients with cirrhosis were included, 186 with an available ECG (36% with alcoholic and 24% with viral cirrhosis; mean follow-up 4years). Cirrhotics had a prolonged QTc interval, a Q wave, abnormal QRS axis deviation, ST segment depression and a pathologic T wave more frequently compared to controls (p?post-transplant (p?post-transplant cardiac events (p?Post-transplant cardiac events are more common than in the general population. PMID:24708568

  10. Practical Management of CD30? Lymphoproliferative Disorders.

    PubMed

    Hughey, Lauren C

    2015-10-01

    Primary cutaneous CD30? lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) account for approximately 25% of cutaneous lymphomas. Although these LPDs are clinically heterogeneous, they can be indistinguishable histologically. Lymphomatoid papulosis rarely requires systemic treatment; however, multifocal primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell cutaneous lymphoma and large cell transformation of mycosis fungoides are typically treated systemically. As CD30? LPDs are rare, there is little published evidence to support a specific treatment algorithm. Most studies are case reports, small case series, or retrospective reviews. This article discusses various treatment choices for each of the CD30? disorders and offers practical pearls to aid in choosing an appropriate regimen. PMID:26433852

  11. Post-transplant Adjustment – The Later Years

    PubMed Central

    Fredericks, Emily M.; Zelikovsky, Nataliya; Aujoulat, Isabelle; Hames, Anna; Wray, Jo

    2014-01-01

    As survival rates for pediatric solid organ transplantation have continued to improve, researchers and health care providers have increasingly focused on understanding and enhancing the health related quality of life (HRQOL) and psychosocial functioning of their patients. This manuscript reviews the psychosocial functioning of pediatric transplant recipients during the “later years”, defined as more than 3 years post-transplant, and focuses on the day-to-day impact of living with a transplant after the immediate period of adjustment and early years after surgery. Key topics reviewed include health-related quality of life, cognitive functioning, impact on the family, regimen adherence, and transition of responsibility for self-management tasks. Overall, pediatric transplant recipients evidence impairment in HRQOL, neuropsychological outcomes, and family functioning as compared to non-transplant recipients. However, the degree of impairment is influenced by a variety of factors including, disease severity, age, solid organ type, and study methodologies. Studies are limited by small samples, cross-sectional design, and the lack of universal assessment battery to allow for comparisons across solid organ populations. Areas for future research are discussed. PMID:25220845

  12. Predictive roles of intraoperative blood glucose for post-transplant outcomes in liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chul Soo

    2015-01-01

    Diabetogenic traits in patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT) are exacerbated intraoperatively by exogenous causes, such as surgical stress, steroids, blood transfusions, and catecholamines, which lead to intraoperative hyperglycemia. In contrast to the strict glucose control performed in the intensive care unit, no systematic protocol has been developed for glucose management during LT. Intraoperative blood glucose concentrations typically exceed 200 mg/dL in LT, and extreme hyperglycemia (> 300 mg/dL) is common during the neohepatic phase. Only a few retrospective studies have examined the relationship between intraoperative hyperglycemia and post-transplant complications, with reports of infectious complications or mortality. However, no prospective studies have been conducted regarding the influence of intraoperative hyperglycemia in LT on post-transplant outcome. In addition to absolute blood glucose values, the temporal patterns in blood glucose levels during LT may serve as prognostic features. Persistent neohepatic hyperglycemia (without a decline) throughout LT is a useful indicator of early graft dysfunction. Moreover, intraoperative variability in glucose levels may predict the need for reoperation for hemorrhage after LT. Thus, there is an urgent need for guidelines for glucose control in these patients, as well as prospective studies on the impact of glucose control on various post-transplant complications. This report highlights some of the recent studies related to perioperative blood glucose management focused on LT and liver disease. PMID:26078559

  13. Comparison of Non-myeloablative Conditioning Regimens for Lymphoproliferative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sanghee; Le-Rademacher, Jennifer; Artz, Andrew; McCarthy, Philip L.; Logan, Brent R.; Pasquini, Marcelo C.

    2014-01-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) with non-myeloablative conditioning (NMA) for lymphoproliferative diseases (LD) includes fludarabine with and without low-dose total body irradiation (TBI). Transplant outcomes were compared among patients ?40 years with LD who received a HCT with TBI (N=382) and no-TBI (N=515) NMA from 2001 to 2011. The groups were comparable except for donor, graft, prophylaxis for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), disease status and year of HCT. Cumulative incidences of grades IIIV GVHD at 100 days, were 29% and 20% (p=0.001), and chronic GVHD at 1 year were 54% and 44% (p=0.004) for TBI and no-TBI, respectively. Multivariate analysis of progression/relapse, treatment failure and mortality showed no outcome differences by conditioning. Full donor chimerism at day 100 was observed in 82% vs. 64% in the TBI and no-TBI groups, respectively (p=0.006). Subset of four most common conditioning/ GVHD prophylaxis combinations demonstrated higher rates of grades IIIV acute (p<0.001) and chronic GVHD (p<0.001) among recipients of TBI-mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) compared to other combinations. TBI-based NMA conditioning induces faster full donor chimerism but overall survival outcomes are comparable to no-TBI regimens. Combination of TBI and MMF are associated with higher rates of GVHD without impact on survival outcomes in patients with LD. PMID:25437248

  14. Posttransplant sarcopenia: an underrecognized early consequence of liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Dasarathy, Srinivasan

    2013-11-01

    Liver transplantation is believed to reverse the clinical and metabolic abnormalities of cirrhosis. Reduced skeletal muscle mass or sarcopenia contributes to increased mortality and adverse consequences of cirrhosis. Failure of reversal of sarcopenia of cirrhosis after liver transplantation is not well recognized. Six temporally, geographically, and methodologically distinct follow-up studies in 304 cirrhotics reported conflicting data on changes in indirect measures of skeletal muscle mass after transplantation. Distinct measures of body composition but not skeletal muscle mass were used and did not focus on the clinical consequences of sarcopenia after transplantation. A number of studies reported an initial rapid postoperative loss of lean mass followed by incomplete recovery with a maximum follow-up of 2 years. Posttransplant sarcopenia may be responsible for metabolic syndrome and impaired quality of life after liver transplantation. Potential reasons for failure to reverse sarcopenia after liver transplantation include use of immunosuppressive agents [mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and calcineurin inhibitors] that impair skeletal muscle growth and protein accretion. Repeated hospitalizations, posttransplant infections, and renal failure also contribute to posttransplant sarcopenia. Finally, recovery from muscle deconditioning is limited by lack of systematic nutritional and physical-activity-based interventions to improve muscle mass. Despite the compelling data on sarcopenia before liver transplantation, the impact of posttransplant sarcopenia on clinical outcomes is not known. There is a compelling need for studies to examine the mechanisms and consequences of sarcopenia post liver transplantation to permit development of therapies to prevent and reverse this disorder. PMID:23912247

  15. Comparison of non-myeloablative conditioning regimens for lymphoproliferative disorders.

    PubMed

    Hong, S; Le-Rademacher, J; Artz, A; McCarthy, P L; Logan, B R; Pasquini, M C

    2015-03-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) with non-myeloablative (NMA) conditioning for lymphoproliferative diseases (LD) includes fludarabine with and without low-dose TBI. Transplant outcomes were compared among patients aged ?40 years with LD who received a HCT with TBI (N=382) or no-TBI (N=515) NMA from 2001 to 2011. The groups were comparable except for donor, graft, prophylaxis for GVHD, disease status and year of HCT. Cumulative incidences of grades II-IV GVHD at 100 days were 29% and 20% (P=0.001) and of chronic GVHD at 1 year were 54% and 44% (P=0.004) for TBI and no-TBI, respectively. Multivariate analysis of progression/relapse, treatment failure and mortality showed no outcome differences by conditioning. Full donor chimerism at day 100 was observed in 82% vs 64% in the TBI and no-TBI groups, respectively (P=0.006). Subsets of the four most common conditioning/GVHD prophylaxis combinations demonstrated higher rates of grades II-IV acute (P<0.001) and chronic GVHD (P<0.001) among recipients of TBI-mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) compared with other combinations. TBI-based NMA conditioning induces faster full donor chimerism, but overall survival outcomes are comparable to no-TBI regimens. Combinations of TBI and MMF are associated with higher rates of GVHD without impact on survival outcomes in patients with LD. PMID:25437248

  16. DiGeorge syndrome who developed lymphoproliferative mediastinal mass

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyu Yeun; Hur, Ji Ae; Kim, Ki Hwan; Cha, Yoon Jin; Lee, Mi Jung

    2015-01-01

    DiGeorge syndrome is an immunodeficient disease associated with abnormal development of 3rd and 4th pharyngeal pouches. As a hemizygous deletion of chromosome 22q11.2 occurs, various clinical phenotypes are shown with a broad spectrum. Conotruncal cardiac anomalies, hypoplastic thymus, and hypocalcemia are the classic triad of DiGeorge syndrome. As this syndrome is characterized by hypoplastic or aplastic thymus, there are missing thymic shadow on their plain chest x-ray. Immunodeficient patients are traditionally known to be at an increased risk for malignancy, especially lymphoma. We experienced a 7-year-old DiGeorge syndrome patient with mediastinal mass shadow on her plain chest x-ray. She visited Severance Children's Hospital hospital with recurrent pneumonia, and throughout her repeated chest x-ray, there was a mass like shadow on anterior mediastinal area. We did full evaluation including chest computed tomography, chest ultrasonography, and chest magnetic resonance imaging. To rule out malignancy, video assisted thoracoscopic surgery was done. Final diagnosis of the mass which was thought to be malignancy, was lymphoproliferative lesion. PMID:25861334

  17. Incidence of post-transplant glomerulonephritis and its impact on graft outcome

    PubMed Central

    An, Jung Nam; Lee, Jung Pyo; Oh, Yun Jung; Oh, Yun Kyu; Ha, Jong-won; Chae, Dong-Wan; Kim, Yon Su; Lim, Chun Soo

    2012-01-01

    Background Herein, the significance of post-transplant glomerulonephritis (PTGN) has been revisited to investigate whether PTGN induces allograft failure. The aim of this study was to identify the incidence of PTGN and its association with allograft failure, as well as to analyze the risk factors for PTGN. Methods Among the 996 Korean patients who underwent kidney transplantation in a multicenter cohort from 1995 to 2010, 764 patients were enrolled in this study. Results The incidence rate of PTGN was 9.7% and 17.0% at 5 and 10 years of follow-up, respectively. PTGN was diagnosed in 17.8% of the recipients with results of biopsy tests or clinical diagnosis identifying glomerular diseases as the underlying cause, compared with 0.0%, 4.4%, 4.9%, 5.5%, and 5.7% of the recipients with renal vascular diseases, renal interstitial diseases/pyelonephritis/uropathy, diabetic renal disease, hereditary renal diseases, and diseases with unknown etiologies, respectively. Allograft survival was significantly decreased in patients with PTGN. PTGN was associated with a fourfold increase in graft failure with a hazard ratio of 7.11 for both acute rejection and PTGN. Results of the risk factor analysis for PTGN revealed that the underlying glomerular renal diseases and treatment methods using drugs such as tacrolimus and basiliximab significantly increased PTGN development, after adjusting for other risk factors. Conclusion We conclude that PTGN is strongly associated with poor kidney allograft survival. Therefore, optimal management of recurrent or de novo GN should be the critical focus of post-transplant care.

  18. Post-transplant dyslipidemia: Mechanisms, diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Arnav; Prasad, G V Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Post-transplant dyslipidemia is highly prevalent and presents unique management challenges to the clinician. The two major outcomes to consider with post-transplant therapies for dyslipidemia are preserving or improving allograft function, and reducing cardiovascular risk. Although there are other cardiovascular risk factors such as graft dysfunction, hypertension, and diabetes, attention to dyslipidemia is warranted because interventions for dyslipidemia have an impact on reducing cardiac events in clinical trials specific to the transplant population. Dyslipidemia is not synonymous with hyperlipidemia. Numerous mechanisms exist for the occurrence of post-transplant dyslipidemia, including those mediated by immunosuppressive drug therapy. Statin therapy has received the most attention in all solid organ transplant recipient populations, although the effect of proper dietary advice and adjuvant pharmacological and non-pharmacological agents should not be dismissed. At all stages of treatment appropriate monitoring strategies for side effects should be implemented so that the benefits from these therapies can be achieved. Clinicians have a choice when there is a conflict between various transplant society and lipid society guidelines for therapy and targets. PMID:27011910

  19. Post-transplant dyslipidemia: Mechanisms, diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Arnav; Prasad, G V Ramesh

    2016-03-24

    Post-transplant dyslipidemia is highly prevalent and presents unique management challenges to the clinician. The two major outcomes to consider with post-transplant therapies for dyslipidemia are preserving or improving allograft function, and reducing cardiovascular risk. Although there are other cardiovascular risk factors such as graft dysfunction, hypertension, and diabetes, attention to dyslipidemia is warranted because interventions for dyslipidemia have an impact on reducing cardiac events in clinical trials specific to the transplant population. Dyslipidemia is not synonymous with hyperlipidemia. Numerous mechanisms exist for the occurrence of post-transplant dyslipidemia, including those mediated by immunosuppressive drug therapy. Statin therapy has received the most attention in all solid organ transplant recipient populations, although the effect of proper dietary advice and adjuvant pharmacological and non-pharmacological agents should not be dismissed. At all stages of treatment appropriate monitoring strategies for side effects should be implemented so that the benefits from these therapies can be achieved. Clinicians have a choice when there is a conflict between various transplant society and lipid society guidelines for therapy and targets. PMID:27011910

  20. Post-transplant hepatic complications: Imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Drudi, F.M.; Pagliara, E.; Cantisani, V.; Arduini, F.; D'Ambrosio, U.; Alfano, G.

    2007-01-01

    Transplantation is considered definitive therapy for acute or chronic irreversible pathologies of the liver, and the increased survival rates are mainly due to improved immunosuppressive therapies and surgical techniques. However, early diagnosis of possible graft dysfunction is crucial to liver graft survival. Diagnostic imaging plays an important role in the evaluation of the liver before and after transplant and in the detection of complications such as vascular and biliary diseases, acute and chronic rejection and neoplastic recurrence. Integrated imaging using color-Doppler, CT, MRI and traditional x-ray reach a high level of sensitivity and specificity in the management of transplanted patients. PMID:23395917

  1. Management and prevention of post-transplant malignancies in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Stallone, Giovanni; Infante, Barbara; Grandaliano, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    The central issue in organ transplantation remains suppression of allograft rejection. Thus, the development of immunosuppressive drugs has been the key to successful allograft function. The increased immunosuppressive efficiency obtained in the last two decades in kidney transplantation dramatically reduced the incidence of acute rejection. However, the inevitable trade-off was an increased rate of post-transplant infections and malignancies. Since the incidence of cancer in immunosuppressed transplant recipients becomes greater over time, and the introduction of new immunosuppressive strategies are expected to extend significantly allograft survival, the problem might grow exponentially in the near future. Thus, cancer is becoming a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients otherwise successfully treated by organ transplantation. There are at least four distinct areas requiring consideration, which have a potentially serious impact on recipient outcome after transplantation: (i) the risk of transmitting a malignancy to the recipient within the donor organ; (ii) the problems of previously diagnosed and treated malignancy in the recipient; (iii) the prevention of de novo post-transplant malignant diseases and (iv) the management of these complex and often life-threatening clinical problems. In this scenario, the direct and indirect oncogenic potential of immunosuppressive therapy should be always carefully considered. PMID:26413294

  2. Management and prevention of post-transplant malignancies in kidney transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Stallone, Giovanni; Infante, Barbara; Grandaliano, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The central issue in organ transplantation remains suppression of allograft rejection. Thus, the development of immunosuppressive drugs has been the key to successful allograft function. The increased immunosuppressive efficiency obtained in the last two decades in kidney transplantation dramatically reduced the incidence of acute rejection. However, the inevitable trade-off was an increased rate of post-transplant infections and malignancies. Since the incidence of cancer in immunosuppressed transplant recipients becomes greater over time, and the introduction of new immunosuppressive strategies are expected to extend significantly allograft survival, the problem might grow exponentially in the near future. Thus, cancer is becoming a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients otherwise successfully treated by organ transplantation. There are at least four distinct areas requiring consideration, which have a potentially serious impact on recipient outcome after transplantation: (i) the risk of transmitting a malignancy to the recipient within the donor organ; (ii) the problems of previously diagnosed and treated malignancy in the recipient; (iii) the prevention of de novo post-transplant malignant diseases and (iv) the management of these complex and often life-threatening clinical problems. In this scenario, the direct and indirect oncogenic potential of immunosuppressive therapy should be always carefully considered. PMID:26413294

  3. Sirolimus for Autoimmune Disease of Blood Cells

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-20

    Autoimmune Pancytopenia; Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS); Evans Syndrome; Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura; Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune; Autoimmune Neutropenia; Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic; Inflammatory Bowel Disease; Rheumatoid Arthritis

  4. Role of IgG4 serology in identifying common orbital lymphoproliferative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Ma, Jian-Min; Ge, Xin

    2016-01-01

    AIM To explore the role of IgG4 serology in identifying common orbital lymphoproliferative disorders. METHODS Eighty-one patients with orbital lymphoproliferative diseases were treated in the Department of Ocular Oncology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University between September 2010 and December 2012. Serum IgG4 levels were measured in 46 cases of idiopathic orbital inflammatory pseudotumor (IOIP), 17 benign lymphoepithelial lesion (BLEL), 12 cases of orbital mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), and 6 cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBL) using immuno-scatter turbidmetry (ISTM). RESULTS The frequency of elevated IgG4 levels in patients with IOIP, BLEL, MALT, and DLBL was 30.43% (14/46), 76.47% (13/17), 8.33% (1/12), and 0.00 (0/6), respectively. Among the patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels, all IgG-IOIP patients were male, and 92.31% of the IgG4-BLEL patients were female (12/13). The mean serum IgG4 level of IgG4-IOIP patients was lower than that of individuals with IgG4-BLEL, but the variation in serum IgG4 levels was larger in IgG4-IOIP than IgG4-BLEL patients. Only one case of IgG4-MALT with elevated serum IgG4 levels had a medical history >10y, which was significantly longer than the MALT patients with normal serum IgG4 levels. There was no significant elevation of serum IgG4 levels in patients with DLBL. CONCLUSION Detecting serum IgG4 levels plays an important role in the differential diagnosis of orbital lymphoproliferative diseases. PMID:26949650

  5. Risk factors for lymphoproliferative disorders after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Ethel S.; Rizzo, J. Douglas; Soci, Grard; Banks, Peter M.; Sobocinski, Kathleen A.; Horowitz, Mary M.; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Kingma, Douglas W.; Travis, Lois B.; Flowers, Mary E.; Martin, Paul J.; Deeg, H. Joachim; Curtis, Rochelle E.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated 26?901 patients who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) at 271 centers worldwide to define patterns of posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs). PTLDs developed in 127 recipients, with 105 (83%) cases occurring within 1 year after transplantation. In multivariate analyses, we confirmed that PTLD risks were strongly associated (P < .001) with T-cell depletion of the donor marrow, antithymocyte globulin (ATG) use, and unrelated or HLA-mismatched grafts (URD/HLA mismatch). Significant associations were also confirmed for acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease. The increased risk associated with URD/HLA-mismatched donors (RR = 3.8) was limited to patients with T-cell depletion or ATG use (P = .004). New findings were elevated risks for age 50 years or older at transplantation (RR = 5.1; P < .001) and second transplantation (RR = 3.5; P < .001). Lower risks were found for T-cell depletion methods that remove both T and B cells (alemtuzumab and elutriation, RR = 3.1; P = .025) compared with other methods (RR = 9.4; P = .005 for difference). The cumulative incidence of PTLDs was low (0.2%) among 21?686 patients with no major risk factors, but increased to 1.1%, 3.6%, and 8.1% with 1, 2, and more than 3 major risk factors, respectively. Our findings identify subgroups of patients who underwent allogeneic HCT at elevated risk of PTLDs for whom prospective monitoring of Epstein-Barr virus activation and early treatment intervention may be particularly beneficial. PMID:19264919

  6. Critical role of NKT Cells in Posttransplant Alloantibody Production

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerer, J.M.; Swamy, P.; Sanghavi, P.B.; Wright, C.L.; Abdel-Rasoul, M.; Elzein, S.M.; Brutkiewicz, R.R.; Bumgardner, G.L.

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that posttransplant alloantibody production in CD8-deficient hosts is IL-4+CD4+ T cell-dependent and IgG1 isotype-dominant. The current studies investigated the hypothesis that IL-4-producing NKT cells contribute to maximal alloantibody production. To investigate this, alloantibody levels were examined in CD8-deficient wild-type, CD1d KO and J?18 KO transplant recipients. We found that the magnitude of IgG1 alloantibody production was critically dependent on the presence of type I NKT cells, which are activated by day 1 posttransplant. Unexpectedly, type I NKT cell contribution to enhanced IgG1 alloantibody levels was IFN-?-dependent and IL-4-independent. Cognate interactions between Type I NKT and B cells alone do not stimulate alloantibody production. Instead, NKT cells appear to enhance maturation of IL-4+CD4+ T cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report to substantiate a critical role for type I NKT cells in enhancing in vivo antibody production in response to endogenous antigenic stimuli. PMID:25220596

  7. Metabolic Serum Profiles for Patients Receiving Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation: The Pretransplant Profile Differs for Patients with and without Posttransplant Capillary Leak Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Reikvam, Håkon; Grønningsæter, Ida-Sofie; Ahmed, Aymen Bushra; Hatfield, Kimberley; Bruserud, Øystein

    2015-01-01

    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is commonly used in the treatment of younger patients with severe hematological diseases, and endothelial cells seem to be important for the development of several posttransplant complications. Capillary leak syndrome is a common early posttransplant complication where endothelial cell dysfunction probably contributes to the pathogenesis. In the present study we investigated whether the pretreatment serum metabolic profile reflects a risk of posttransplant capillary leak syndrome. We investigated the pretransplant serum levels of 766 metabolites for 80 consecutive allotransplant recipients. Patients with later capillary leak syndrome showed increased pretherapy levels of metabolites associated with endothelial dysfunction (homocitrulline, adenosine) altered renal regulation of fluid and/or electrolyte balance (betaine, methoxytyramine, and taurine) and altered vascular function (cytidine, adenosine, and methoxytyramine). Additional bioinformatical analyses showed that capillary leak syndrome was also associated with altered purine/pyrimidine metabolism (i.e., metabolites involved in vascular regulation and endothelial functions), aminoglycosylation (possibly important for endothelial cell functions), and eicosanoid metabolism (also involved in vascular regulation). Our observations are consistent with the hypothesis that the pretransplant metabolic status can be a marker for posttransplant abnormal fluid and/or electrolyte balance. PMID:26609191

  8. Chemoselection of Allogeneic HSC After Murine Neonatal Transplantation Without Myeloablation or Post-transplant Immunosuppression

    PubMed Central

    Falahati, Rustom; Zhang, Jianqing; Flebbe-Rehwaldt, Linda; Shi, Yimin; Gerson, Stanton L; Gaensler, Karin ML

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of allogeneic transplantation, without myeloablation or post-transplant immunosuppression, was tested using in vivo chemoselection of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) after transduction with a novel tricistronic lentiviral vector (MGMTP140K-2A-GFP-IRES-TK (MAGIT)). This vector contains P140K-O6-methylguanine-methyltransferase (MGMTP140K), HSV-thymidine kinase (TKHSV), and enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) enabling (i) in vivo chemoselection of HSC by conferring resistance to benzylguanine (BG), an inhibitor of endogenous MGMT, and to chloroethylating agents such as 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)nitrosourea (BCNU) and, (ii) depletion of proliferating cells such as malignant clones or transduced donor T cells mediating graft versus host disease (GVHD), by expression of the suicide gene TKHSV and Ganciclovir (GCV) administration. Non-myeloablative transplantation of transduced, syngeneic, lineage-depleted (Lin?) BM in neonates resulted in 0.67% GFP+ mononuclear cells in peripheral blood. BG/BCNU chemoselection, 4 and 8 weeks post-transplant, produced 50-fold donor cell enrichment. Transplantation and chemoselection of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched MAGIT-transduced Lin? BM also produced similar expansion for >40 weeks. The efficacy of this allotransplant approach was validated in Hbbth3 heterozygous mice by correction of ?-thalassemia intermedia, without toxicity or GVHD. Negative selection, by administration of GCV resulted in donor cell depletion without graft ablation, as re-expansion of donor cells was achieved with BG/BCNU treatment. These studies show promise for developing non-ablative allotransplant approaches using in vivo positive/negative selection. PMID:22871662

  9. Haploidentical transplant with posttransplant cyclophosphamide vs matched unrelated donor transplant for acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ciurea, Stefan O; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Bacigalupo, Andrea A; Bashey, Asad; Appelbaum, Frederick R; Aljitawi, Omar S; Armand, Philippe; Antin, Joseph H; Chen, Junfang; Devine, Steven M; Fowler, Daniel H; Luznik, Leo; Nakamura, Ryotaro; O'Donnell, Paul V; Perales, Miguel-Angel; Pingali, Sai Ravi; Porter, David L; Riches, Marcie R; Ringdn, Olle T H; Rocha, Vanderson; Vij, Ravi; Weisdorf, Daniel J; Champlin, Richard E; Horowitz, Mary M; Fuchs, Ephraim J; Eapen, Mary

    2015-08-20

    We studied adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after haploidentical (n = 192) and 8/8 HLA-matched unrelated donor (n = 1982) transplantation. Haploidentical recipients received calcineurin inhibitor (CNI), mycophenolate, and posttransplant cyclophosphamide for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis; 104 patients received myeloablative and 88 received reduced intensity conditioning regimens. Matched unrelated donor transplant recipients received CNI with mycophenolate or methotrexate for GVHD prophylaxis; 1245 patients received myeloablative and 737 received reduced intensity conditioning regimens. In the myeloablative setting, day 30 neutrophil recovery was lower after haploidentical compared with matched unrelated donor transplants (90% vs 97%, P = .02). Corresponding rates after reduced intensity conditioning transplants were 93% and 96% (P = .25). In the myeloablative setting, 3-month acute grade 2-4 (16% vs 33%, P < .0001) and 3-year chronic GVHD (30% vs 53%, P < .0001) were lower after haploidentical compared with matched unrelated donor transplants. Similar differences were observed after reduced intensity conditioning transplants, 19% vs 28% (P = .05) and 34% vs 52% (P = .002). Among patients receiving myeloablative regimens, 3-year probabilities of overall survival were 45% (95% CI, 36-54) and 50% (95% CI, 47-53) after haploidentical and matched unrelated donor transplants (P = .38). Corresponding rates after reduced intensity conditioning transplants were 46% (95% CI, 35-56) and 44% (95% CI, 0.40-47) (P = .71). Although statistical power is limited, these data suggests that survival for patients with AML after haploidentical transplantation with posttransplant cyclophosphamide is comparable with matched unrelated donor transplantation. PMID:26130705

  10. Chemoselection of allogeneic HSC after murine neonatal transplantation without myeloablation or post-transplant immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Falahati, Rustom; Zhang, Jianqing; Flebbe-Rehwaldt, Linda; Shi, Yimin; Gerson, Stanton L; Gaensler, Karin Ml

    2012-11-01

    The feasibility of allogeneic transplantation, without myeloablation or post-transplant immunosuppression, was tested using in vivo chemoselection of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) after transduction with a novel tricistronic lentiviral vector (MGMT(P140K)-2A-GFP-IRES-TK (MAGIT)). This vector contains P140K-O(6)-methylguanine-methyltransferase (MGMT(P140K)), HSV-thymidine kinase (TK(HSV)), and enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) enabling (i) in vivo chemoselection of HSC by conferring resistance to benzylguanine (BG), an inhibitor of endogenous MGMT, and to chloroethylating agents such as 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)nitrosourea (BCNU) and, (ii) depletion of proliferating cells such as malignant clones or transduced donor T cells mediating graft versus host disease (GVHD), by expression of the suicide gene TK(HSV) and Ganciclovir (GCV) administration. Non-myeloablative transplantation of transduced, syngeneic, lineage-depleted (Lin(-)) BM in neonates resulted in 0.67% GFP(+) mononuclear cells in peripheral blood. BG/BCNU chemoselection, 4 and 8 weeks post-transplant, produced 50-fold donor cell enrichment. Transplantation and chemoselection of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched MAGIT-transduced Lin(-) BM also produced similar expansion for >40 weeks. The efficacy of this allotransplant approach was validated in Hbb(th3) heterozygous mice by correction of ?-thalassemia intermedia, without toxicity or GVHD. Negative selection, by administration of GCV resulted in donor cell depletion without graft ablation, as re-expansion of donor cells was achieved with BG/BCNU treatment. These studies show promise for developing non-ablative allotransplant approaches using in vivo positive/negative selection. PMID:22871662

  11. HTLV Tax gene expression in patients with lymphoproliferative disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, E A; Miranda, N; Gameiro, P; Frade, M J; Figueiredo, M; Parreira, A

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To study the expression of the human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV) Tax gene in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. METHODS: Blood was collected from 72 patients with lymphoproliferative disorders. Serum from all patients was assayed for antibodies directed against HTLV-I structural proteins by ELISA and western blotting. RNA was purified from fresh blood cells and amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). After Southern blotting, the PCR products were hybridised with a 32P end-labelled probe specific for the Tax gene. RESULTS: All samples were seronegative. A specific band for the Tax gene was found in five samples. Each of the patients positive for Tax gene expression had a different type of lymphoproliferative disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Infection by HTLV-I cannot be assessed solely by immunological assays, particularly when only disrupted virions are used. Sensitive molecular biology assays are essential for detecting viral gene expression in fresh blood cells. Images PMID:8944616

  12. Single-Fraction Radiotherapy for CD30+ Lymphoproliferative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Michelle S.; Martinez-Escala, Maria Estela; Thomas, Tarita O.; Guitart, Joan; Rosen, Steven; Kuzel, Timothy; Mittal, Bharat B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorder is a rare variant of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Sustained complete response following first-line treatments is rare. This retrospective review evaluates the response of refractory or recurrent lesions to palliative radiation therapy. Methods. The records of 6 patients with 12 lesions, treated with radiation therapy, were reviewed. All patients received previous first-line treatments. Patients with clinical and pathological evidence of symptomatic CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorder, with no history of other cutaneous T-cell lymphoma variants, and with no prior radiation therapy to the index site were included. Results. The median age of patients was 50.5 years (range, 1583 years). Median size of the treated lesions was 2.5?cm (range, 27?cm). Four sites were treated with a single fraction of 750800?cGy (n = 3) and 8 sites were treated with 40004500?cGy in 200250?cGy fractions (n = 3). Radiation therapy was administered with electrons and bolus. Median follow-up was 113 months (range, 16147 months). For all sites, there was 100% complete response with acute grade 1-2 dermatitis. Conclusions. For recurrent and symptomatic radiation-nave CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorder lesions, palliative radiation therapy shows excellent response. A single fraction of 750800?cGy is as effective as a multifractionated course and more convenient. PMID:26504818

  13. Prompt diagnosis and management of Epstein-Barr virus-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder and hemophagocytosis: A dreaded complication in a post-liver transplant child.

    PubMed

    Jha, Bhawna; Mohan, Neelam; Gajendra, Smeeta; Sachdev, Ritesh; Goel, Shalini; Sahni, Tushar; Raina, Vimarsh; Soin, A

    2015-11-01

    EBV-associated PTLD is increasingly recognized as an important cause of morbidity and mortality in both solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Mortality rates due to PTLD and virus-induced HLH are reported to be quite high. We report a case of EBV-associated PTLD and HLH in a child after liver transplantation who was successfully managed due to timely intervention. This case highlights that measurement of EBV load by quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays is an important aid in the surveillance and diagnosis of PTLD and early detection of EBV-induced PTLD, and aggressive treatment with rituximab is a key to survival in patients who have undergone liver transplantation. PMID:26184957

  14. Alemtuzumab in T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders.

    PubMed

    Dearden, Claire E; Matutes, Estella

    2006-01-01

    The humanized monoclonal antibody alemtuzumab binds to the CD52 antigen, a glycoprotein which is widely expressed on normal and malignant B and T lymphocytes. Recently it has been demonstrated in a number of clinical trials that alemtuzumab has clinical activity in mature T-cell diseases such as T-prolymphocytic leukaemia and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, inducing responses in up to two thirds of heavily pre-treated relapsed/refractory patients. Response was associated with improved survival. The toxicity profile for the antibody is manageable. The major complications are infusional reactions associated with initial injections, and prolonged lymphopenia associated with reactivation of viruses. Future studies will be directed towards alternative (subcutaneous) routes and schedules of administration, use as first-line therapy, combination strategies, and role of alemtuzumab to purge minimal residual bone-marrow disease prior to stem-cell transplantation. PMID:16997184

  15. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked lymphoproliferative disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... without EBV infection, usually have an enlarged spleen (splenomegaly), and may also have inflammation of the large ... lymphoma ; molecule ; mutation ; proliferation ; protein ; recessive ; sex chromosomes ; splenomegaly ; susceptibility ; syndrome ; virus ; X-linked recessive You may ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked lymphoproliferative disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... called signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) associated protein (SAP). This protein is involved in the functioning of ... T cells called natural killer T cells. The SAP protein also helps control immune reactions by triggering ...

  17. Transplanted fingerprints: a preliminary case report 40 months posttransplant.

    PubMed

    Szajerka, T; Jurek, B; Jablecki, J

    2010-11-01

    For the past century, fingerprints have been considered permanent and specific for each individual. However, with the advances in transplantology, fingerprints have lost their permanence. Because no study has yet been described, we examined possible changes in the fingerprint pattern of a transplanted hand. In 2006, we performed a hand transplantation on a 32-year-old man. The donor was revealed to have had a criminal record; his fingerprints were stored in the Polish automated fingerprint identification system. A forensic technician fingerprinted the transplanted hand nine times between June 2006 and September 2009. The appearance of minutiae and white lines and the change in the distance between papillary ridges were assessed in the thumbprints of the transplanted hand. The appearance of white lines was only temporary; at no point did they impair fingerprint identification. No significant changes occurred in the distance between the friction ridges. The observed small differences were ascribed to the two techniques used to collect the prints (spoon vs rolling). The number of minutiae ranged from 1 to 3, reaching a maximum in the third posttransplant month. A 40-month observation showed no significant changes in the fingerprints of the transplanted hand. Nevertheless, a long-term study is needed because of the risk of chronic rejection. The noninvasiveness of dactylography argues for inspecting its application to diagnose acute rejection. Finally, lawmakers should be made aware of the personal-protection issues related to the growing number of hand-transplant recipients. PMID:21094851

  18. Myeloablative Conditioning with PBSC Grafts for T Cell-Replete Haploidentical Donor Transplantation Using Posttransplant Cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Scott R; Solh, Melhem; Morris, Lawrence E; Holland, H Kent; Bashey, Asad

    2016-01-01

    Relapse is the main cause of treatment failure after nonmyeloablative haploidentical transplant (haplo-HSCT). In an attempt to reduce relapse, we have developed a myeloablative (MA) haplo-HSCT approach utilizing posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PT/Cy) and peripheral blood stem cells as the stem cell source. We summarize the results of two consecutive clinical trials, using a busulfan-based (n = 20) and a TBI-based MA preparative regimen (n = 30), and analyze a larger cohort of 64 patients receiving MA haplo-HSCT. All patients have engrafted with full donor chimerism and no late graft failures. Grade III-IV acute GVHD and moderate-severe chronic GVHD occurred in 23% and 30%, respectively. One-year NRM was 10%. Predicted three-year overall survival, disease-free survival, and relapse were 53%, 53%, and 26%, respectively, in all patients and 79%, 74%, and 9%, respectively, in patients with a low/intermediate disease risk index (DRI). In multivariate analysis, DRI was the most significant predictor of survival and relapse. Use of TBI (versus busulfan) had no significant impact on survival but was associated with significantly less BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis. We contrast our results with other published reports of MA haplo-HSCT PT/Cy in the literature and attempt to define the comparative utility of MA haplo-HSCT to other methods of transplantation. PMID:26904123

  19. Myeloablative Conditioning with PBSC Grafts for T Cell-Replete Haploidentical Donor Transplantation Using Posttransplant Cyclophosphamide

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Scott R.; Solh, Melhem; Morris, Lawrence E.; Holland, H. Kent; Bashey, Asad

    2016-01-01

    Relapse is the main cause of treatment failure after nonmyeloablative haploidentical transplant (haplo-HSCT). In an attempt to reduce relapse, we have developed a myeloablative (MA) haplo-HSCT approach utilizing posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PT/Cy) and peripheral blood stem cells as the stem cell source. We summarize the results of two consecutive clinical trials, using a busulfan-based (n = 20) and a TBI-based MA preparative regimen (n = 30), and analyze a larger cohort of 64 patients receiving MA haplo-HSCT. All patients have engrafted with full donor chimerism and no late graft failures. Grade III-IV acute GVHD and moderate-severe chronic GVHD occurred in 23% and 30%, respectively. One-year NRM was 10%. Predicted three-year overall survival, disease-free survival, and relapse were 53%, 53%, and 26%, respectively, in all patients and 79%, 74%, and 9%, respectively, in patients with a low/intermediate disease risk index (DRI). In multivariate analysis, DRI was the most significant predictor of survival and relapse. Use of TBI (versus busulfan) had no significant impact on survival but was associated with significantly less BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis. We contrast our results with other published reports of MA haplo-HSCT PT/Cy in the literature and attempt to define the comparative utility of MA haplo-HSCT to other methods of transplantation. PMID:26904123

  20. Peripheral blood cells chimerism after unrelated cord blood transplantation in children: kinetics, predictive factors and impact on post-transplant outcome.

    PubMed

    Elkaim, Elodie; Picard, Christophe; Galambrun, Claire; Barlogis, Vincent; Loundou, Anderson; Curtillet, Catherine; Oudin, Claire; Thuret, Isabelle; Chambost, Herv; Michel, Grard

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to describe kinetics of complete donor chimerism occurrence (cDC, >999% donor) after unrelated cord blood transplantation (UCBT), to identify its predictive factors and its impact on post-transplant outcome. Ninety-four children who received single UCBT after a myeloablative conditioning regimen had blood chimerism evaluation at predefined post-transplant dates, using a real-time polymerase chain reaction method with 01% sensitivity. Cumulative incidence of cDC at 1year post-transplantation was 618%. Three predictive factors were identified in multivariate analysis: history of malignant disease (P=003), older age (above 216years, the first quartile of age, P=00055) and higher level of cord/recipient human leucocyte antigen mismatch (4/6 vs. 5-6/6, P<0001) increased the probability of post-transplant cDC. Although graft cell dose had a strong impact on haematological recovery, it did not apparently influence cDC occurrence. Early cDC (i.e. more than 999% donor chimerism on days 15-30 post-transplant) appeared useful to predict engraftment (P=0003) as well as acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Severe acute or chronic GvHD never occurred in patients with DC ?999%, suggesting than even minimal residual host haematopoiesis is associated with a very low risk of GvHD after UCBT. PMID:24779895

  1. Hematopoietic Neoplasias in Horses: Myeloproliferative and Lymphoproliferative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    MUOZ, Ana; RIBER, Cristina; TRIGO, Pablo; CASTEJN, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Leukemia, i.e., the neoplasia of one or more cell lines of the bone marrow, although less common than in other species, it is also reported in horses. Leukemia can be classified according to the affected cells (myeloproliferative or lymphoproliferative disorders), evolution of clinical signs (acute or chronic) and the presence or lack of abnormal cells in peripheral blood (leukemic, subleukemic and aleukemic leukemia). The main myeloproliferative disorders in horses are malignant histiocytosis and myeloid leukemia, the latter being classified as monocytic and myelomonocytic, granulocytic, primary erythrocytosis or polycythemia vera and megakaryocytic leukemia. The most common lymphoproliferative disorders in horses are lymphoid leukemia, plasma cell or multiple myeloma and lymphoma. Lymphoma is the most common hematopoietic neoplasia in horses and usually involves lymphoid organs, without leukemia, although bone marrow may be affected after metastasis. Lymphoma could be classified according to the organs involved and four main clinical categories have been established: generalized-multicentric, alimentary-gastrointestinal, mediastinal-thymic-thoracic and cutaneous. The clinical signs, hematological and clinical pathological findings, results of bone marrow aspirates, involvement of other organs, prognosis and treatment, if applicable, are presented for each type of neoplasia. This paper aims to provide a guide for equine practitioners when approaching to clinical cases with suspicion of hematopoietic neoplasia. PMID:24833969

  2. Hemophagocytic syndrome following haploidentical peripheral blood stem cell transplantation with post-transplant cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Sarita Rani; Chakrabarti, Aditi; Chatterjee, Sumita; Bhargava, Sneh; Ray, Kunal; Chakrabarti, Suparno

    2016-02-01

    Hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is a rare but serious complication after allogeneic transplantation which has been reported to be particularly high after unrelated cord blood transplantation. We report on the incidence, risk factors and outcome of HPS in 51 patients (age 2-64 years) after haploidentical peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCY). The incidence of HPS was 12.2 %, occurring at a median of 18 days. The non-relapse mortality in patients with HPS was 83.3 % compared to 11.6 % in patients without HPS. Complete donor chimerism was documented in all patients with HPS. Definite infective etiology was identified in two patients only. The others were refractory to multiple lines of treatment and 3 patients underwent a second transplant. Even though the symptoms and biochemical markers of HPS showed prompt response in 2/3 patients undergoing a second allograft, they succumbed to infections before haematological recovery. The others succumbed to multi-organ failure or infections. Age < 10 years, transplantation for non-malignant disease and high CD34 content of the graft were identified as risk factors for HPS. Considering the fact that post-transplant HPS is usually a refractory and fatal condition, we discuss further attempts at deciphering the pathogenesis, developing modalities to prevent this complication and improve the outcome. PMID:26619832

  3. Antibody levels and in vitro lymphoproliferative responses to Streptococcus pyogenes erythrogenic toxin A and mitogen of patients with rheumatic fever.

    PubMed Central

    Bahr, G M; Yousof, A M; Behbehani, K; Majeed, H A; Sakkalah, S; Souan, K; Jarrad, I; Geoffroy, C; Alouf, J E

    1991-01-01

    We investigated the in vitro lymphoproliferative responses to a streptococcal mitogen and erythrogenic toxin A of children with acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and patients with chronic rheumatic heart disease (CRHD). Antibody levels to the streptococcal products were also analyzed in the sera of those with ARF or chronic rheumatic heart disease as well as in the sera of children with streptococcal pharyngitis or poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. Our results demonstrated that the individuals had depressed lymphoproliferative responses during the active stage of rheumatic fever. The depressed responses were not found either to be induced by time-sensitive mitogen-specific suppressor cells or to be related to a dose-response phenomenon. On the other hand, antibody levels to the extracellular mitogens were significantly elevated in the sera of children with ARF compared with the levels in the rest of the groups. The hyperresponsiveness noted among children with ARF was found to be at a quantitative level and was not due to recognition of more epitopes, as determined by Western blotting (immunoblotting). The profile of immune responsiveness in children with ARF to the streptococcal extracellular mitogens is discussed in relation to the pathogenesis of disease. Images PMID:1774298

  4. X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein deficiency: more than an X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Claire; Latour, Sylvain

    2015-05-01

    X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) deficiency (also known as X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome type 2, XLP-2) is a rare primary immunodeficiency. Since the disease was first described in 2006, more than 70 patients suffering from XIAP-deficiency have been reported, thus extending the clinical presentations of the disease. The main clinical features of XLP-2 are (i) elevated susceptibility to hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH, frequently in response to infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)), (ii) recurrent splenomegaly and (iii) inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with the characteristics of Crohn's disease. XIAP deficiency is now considered to be one of the genetic causes of IBD in infancy. Although XIAP is an anti-apoptotic molecule, it is also involved in many other pathways, including the regulation of innate immunity and inflammation. XIAP is required for signaling through the Nod-like receptors NOD1 and 2, which are intracellular sensors of bacterial infection. XIAP-deficient T cells (including innate natural killer T cells and mucosal-associated invariant T cells) are overly sensitive to apoptosis. NOD2 function is impaired in XIAP-deficient monocytes. However, the physiopathological mechanisms underlying the clinical phenotypes in XIAP deficiency, notably the HLH and the EBV susceptibility, are not well understood. Here, we review the clinical aspects, molecular etiology and physiopathology of XIAP deficiency. PMID:25737324

  5. Familial Lymphoproliferative Malignancies and Tandem Duplication of NF1 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Gustavo; Souto, Mirela; Costa, Frederico; Oliveira, Edite; Garicochea, Bernardo

    2014-01-01

    Background. Neurofibromatosis type 1 is a genetic disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in a tumor suppressor gene (NF1) which codifies the protein neurofibromin. The frequent genetic alterations that modify neurofibromin function are deletions and insertions. Duplications are rare and phenotype in patients bearing duplication of NF1 gene is thought to be restricted to developmental abnormalities, with no reference to cancer susceptibility in these patients. We evaluated a patient who presented with few clinical signs of neurofibromatosis type 1 and a conspicuous personal and familiar history of different types of cancer, especially lymphoproliferative malignancies. The coding region of the NF-1 gene was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification was performed to detect the number of mutant copies. The NF1 gene analysis showed the following alterations: mosaic duplication of NF1, TRAF4, and MYO1D. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using probes (RP5-1002G3 and RP5-92689) flanking NF1 gene in 17q11.2 and CEP17 for 17q11.11.1 was performed. There were three signals (RP5-1002G3conRP5-92689) in the interphases analyzed and two signals (RP5-1002G3conRP5-92689) in 93% of cells. These findings show a tandem duplication of 17q11.2. Conclusion. The case suggests the possibility that NF1 gene duplication may be associated with a phenotype characterized by lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:25580325

  6. Sirolimus, Tacrolimus, Thymoglobulin and Rituximab as Graft-versus-Host-Disease Prophylaxis in Patients Undergoing Haploidentical and HLA Partially Matched Donor Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-09

    Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Graft Versus Host Disease; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

  7. Related Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) for Genetic Diseases of Blood Cells

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-29

    Stem Cell Transplantation; Bone Marrow Transplantation; Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Allogeneic Transplantation,; Genetic Diseases; Thalassemia; Pediatrics; Diamond-Blackfan Anemia; Combined Immune Deficiency; Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; X-linked Lymphoproliferative Disease; Metabolic Diseases

  8. [EBV-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder of the elderly successfully treated with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation and locoregional radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Sugino, Noriko; Nakamura, Chishiho; Fujii, Sumie; Matsui, Yusuke; Kaneko, Hitomi; Watanabe, Mitsumasa; Miura, Yasuo; Wakasa, Tomoko; Tsudo, Mitsuru

    2011-03-01

    Age-related EBV-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder is a highly aggressive lymphoma, and a standard therapy for this disease has not yet been established. A 58-year-old male was admitted to our hospital because of fever and lymphadenopathy across the whole body. Neck lymph node biopsy showed hemorrhagic and geographic necrosis with Hodgkin-like large cells against a background of small lymphocytes. The large cells were positive for CD30 and EBER. The patient was diagnosed as having age-related EBV-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder. Although there was no response to CHOP therapy, he obtained partial response after 3 courses of DeVIC therapy. Because his lymphoma was highly aggressive and chemotherapy-resistant, he underwent autologous stem cell transplantation with a conditioning regimen including ranimustine, etoposide, cytarabine, and melphalan. After stem cell transplantation and subsequent radiotherapy to the residual lesion, the patient achieved complete remission. This is the first report of successful autologous stem cell transplantation for a patient with age-related EBV-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder. PMID:21471700

  9. Approaches to Managing Autoimmune Cytopenias in Novel Immunological Disorders with Genetic Underpinnings Like Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rao, V. Koneti

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a rare disorder of apoptosis. It is frequently caused by mutations in FAS (TNFRSF6) gene. Unlike most of the self-limiting autoimmune cytopenias sporadically seen in childhood, multi lineage cytopenias due to ALPS are often refractory, as their inherited genetic defect is not going to go away. Historically, more ALPS patients have died due to overwhelming sepsis following splenectomy to manage their chronic cytopenias than due to any other cause, including malignancies. Hence, current recommendations underscore the importance of avoiding splenectomy in ALPS, by long-term use of corticosteroid-sparing immunosuppressive agents like mycophenolate mofetil and sirolimus. Paradigms learnt from managing ALPS patients in recent years is highlighted here and can be extrapolated to manage refractory cytopenias in patients with as yet undetermined genetic bases for their ailments. It is also desirable to develop international registries for children with rare and complex immune problems associated with chronic multilineage cytopenias in order to elucidate their natural history and long-term comorbidities due to the disease and its treatments. PMID:26258116

  10. Epstein-Barr Virus-associated lymphoproliferative disorders: experimental and clinical developments

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Lingyun; Wang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), the first human virus related to oncogenesis, was initially identified in a Burkitt lymphoma cell line in 1964. EBV infects over 90% of the world’s population. Most infected people maintain an asymptomatic but persistent EBV infection lifelong. However, in some individuals, EBV infection has been involved in the development of cancer and autoimmune disease. Nowadays, oncogenic potential of EBV has been intensively studied in a wide range of human neoplasms, including Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL), non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL), nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), gastric carcinoma (GC), etc. EBV encodes a series of viral protein and miRNAs, promoting its persistent infection and the transformation of EBV-infected cells. Although the exact role of EBV in the oncogenesis remains to be clarified, novel diagnostic and targeted therapeutic approaches are encouraging for the management of EBV-related malignancies. This review mainly focuses on the experimental and clinical advances of EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:26628948

  11. The ambiguous boundary between EBV-related hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and systemic EBV-driven T cell lymphoproliferative disorder

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Megan C; Cohen, Daniel N; Greig, Bruce; Yenamandra, Ashwini; Vnencak-Jones, Cindy; Thompson, Mary Ann; Kim, Annette S

    2014-01-01

    Epstein Barr virus (EBV)-related hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (EBV-HLH) is a form of acquired, infection-related HLH which typically represents a fulminant presentation of an acute EBV infection of CD8+ T cells with 30-50% mortality rate. Systemic EBV-positive lymphoproliferative disease of childhood (SE-LPD) is a rare T cell lymphoproliferative disorder predominantly arising in the setting of acute EBV infection, often presenting with HLH. Since both entities have been associated with clonal T cell populations, the discrimination between these diseases is often ambiguous. We report a unique case of a 21 years old female who presented with clinical and laboratory findings of florid HLH in the setting of markedly elevated EBV titers (>1 million) and an aberrant T cell population shown to be clonal by flow cytometry, karyotype, and molecular studies. This case raises the differential of EBV-HLH versus SE-LPD. Review of the literature identified 74 cases of reported EBV-HLH and 21 cases of SE-LPD with associated HLH in 25 studies. Of those cases with available outcome data, 62 of 92 cases (67%) were fatal. Of 60 cases in which molecular clonality was demonstrated, 37 (62%) were fatal, while all 14 cases (100%) demonstrating karyotypic abnormalities were fatal. Given the karyotypic findings in this sentinel case, a diagnosis of SE-LPD was rendered. The overlapping clinical and pathologic findings suggest that EBV-HLH and SE-LPD are a biologic continuum, rather than discrete entities. The most clinically useful marker of mortality was an abnormal karyotype rather than other standards of clonality assessment. PMID:25337215

  12. What is the impact of immunosuppressive treatment on the post-transplant renal osteopathy?

    PubMed

    Blaslov, Kristina; Katalinic, Lea; Kes, Petar; Spasovski, Goce; Smalcelj, Ruzica; Basic-Jukic, Nikolina

    2014-05-01

    Although glucocorticoid therapy is considered to be the main pathogenic factor, a consistent body of evidence suggests that other immunosuppressants might also play an important role in the development of the post-transplant renal osteopathy (PRO) through their pleiotropic pharmacological effects. Glucocorticoids seem to induce osteoclasts' activity suppressing the osteoblasts while data regarding other immunosuppressive drugs are still controversial. Mycophenolate mofetil and azathioprine appear to be neutral regarding the bone metabolism. However, the study analyzing any independent effect of antimetabolites on bone turnover has not been conducted yet. Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) induce trabecular bone loss in rodent, with contradictory results in renal transplant recipients. Suppression of vitamin D receptor is probably the underlying mechanism of renal calcium wasting in renal transplant recipients receiving CNI. In spite of an increased 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D level, the kidney is not able to reserve calcium, suggesting a role of vitamin D resistance that may be related to bone loss. More efforts should be invested to determine the role of CNI in PRO. In particular, data regarding the role of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTORi), such as sirolimus and everolimus, in the PRO development are still controversial. Rapamycin markedly decreases bone longitudinal growth as well as callus formation in experimental models, but also lowers the rate of bone resorption markers and glomerular filtration in clinical studies. Everolimus potently inhibits primary mouse and human osteoclast activity as well as the osteoclast differentiation. It also prevents the ovariectomy-induced loss of cancellous bone by 60 %, an effect predominantly associated with a decreased osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, resulting in a partial preservation of the cancellous bone. At present, there is no clinical study analyzing the effect of everolimus on bone turnover in renal transplant recipients or comparing sirolimus versus everolimus impact on bone, so only general conclusions could be drawn. Hence, the use of mTORi might be useful in patients with PRO due to their possible potential to inhibit osteoclast activity which might lead to a decreased rate of bone resorption. In addition, it should be also emphasized that they might inhibit osteoblast activity which may lead to a decreased bone formation and adynamic bone disease. Further studies are urgently needed to solve these important clinical dilemmas. PMID:24217803

  13. Late post-transplant erythrocytosis in a hepatitis C-positive allograft recipient on sirolimus

    PubMed Central

    Ali, A. A. M.; Khanna, P.; Mehrotra, A.; Abraham, G.

    2011-01-01

    Hematological complications in renal transplant recipients include anemia, leukopenia, and post-transplant erythrocytosis (PTE). There are numerous causes for these which include immunosuppressive drugs, viral infections, etc. We report here a hepatitis C (HCV)-positive case who developed PTE while receiving rapamycin. As both HCV infection and rapamycin through different mechanisms can produce anemia, this case report highlights the rarity of erythrocytosis. PMID:21769178

  14. Changing Kidney Allograft Histology Early Posttransplant: Prognostic Implications of 1-Year Protocol Biopsies.

    PubMed

    Cosio, F G; El Ters, M; Cornell, L D; Schinstock, C A; Stegall, M D

    2016-01-01

    Allograft histology 1 year posttransplant is an independent correlate to long-term death-censored graft survival. We assessed prognostic implications of changes in histology first 2 years posttransplant in 938 first kidney recipients, transplanted 1999-2010, followed for 93.4??37.7 months. Compared to implantation biopsies, histology changed posttransplant showing at 1 year that 72.6% of grafts had minor abnormalities (favorable histology), 20.2% unfavorable histology, and 7.2% glomerulonephritis. Compared to favorable, graft survival was reduced in recipients with unfavorable histology (hazards ratio [HR]?=?4.79 [3.27-7.00], p?posttransplant relate to long-term survival. Avoiding risk factors associated with unfavorable histology relates to improved histology and graft survival. PMID:26274817

  15. CCL2 gene polymorphism is associated with post-transplant diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Dabrowska-Zamojcin, Ewa; Romanowski, Maciej; Dziedziejko, Violetta; Maciejewska-Karlowska, Agnieszka; Sawczuk, Marek; Safranow, Krzysztof; Domanski, Leszek; Pawlik, Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is a common complication after solid organ transplantation, especially in recipients treated with calcineurin inhibitors. Previous studies suggest that chronic inflammation and chemokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can increase or decrease transcriptional activity and can change the production of chemokines. The aim of this study was to examine the association between CCL2 and CCL5 gene polymorphisms and the development of post-transplant diabetes mellitus. The study included 315 patients who received kidney transplants and were treated with calcineurin inhibitors. Patients were divided into two subgroups: with PTDM (n=43) and without PTDM (n=272). An additive model of univariate Cox regression analysis showed that the hazard of PTDM development was significantly positively associated with the number of CCL2 rs1024611 G alleles (HR 1.65; 95%CI 1.08-2.53; p=0.021). Multivariate Cox regression analysis, taking into the account the recipient's sex, age and BMI, as well as the number of G alleles of the CCL2 rs1024611 polymorphism, revealed that this polymorphism is an independent risk factor for post-transplant diabetes. The results of our study suggest an association between the CCL2 gene rs1024611 G allele and PTDM in patients treated with tacrolimus or cyclosporine. PMID:26802601

  16. Ibrutinib: another weapon in our arsenal against lympho-proliferative disorders.

    PubMed

    Cabras, Maria Giuseppina; Angelucci, Emanuele

    2015-12-01

    In Volume 16, issue 12 of Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, an important article on the new drug ibrutinib was published. This new drug promises to further improve outcome in the treatment of several lympho-proliferative disorders. In this editorial, the most important findings of the article looking particularly to the integration of ibrutinib in current clinical practice will be summarized. Finally this editorial will focus on the next challenges for scientists and physicians in the treatment of lympho-proliferative disorders. PMID:26549294

  17. Posttransplant Complex Inferior Venacava Balloon Dilatation After Hepatic Vein Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Kohli, Vikas; Wadhawan, Manav; Gupta, Subhash; Roy, Vipul

    2010-02-15

    Orthotopic and living related liver transplantation is an established mode of treatment of end-stage liver disease. One of the major causes of postoperative complications is vascular anastomotic stenosis. One such set of such complications relates to hepatic vein, inferior vena cava (IVC), or portal vein stenosis, with a reported incidence of 1-3%. The incidence of vascular complications is reported to be higher in living donor versus cadaveric liver transplants. We encountered a patient with hepatic venous outflow tract obstruction, where the hepatic vein had been previously stented, but the patient continued to have symptoms due to additional IVC obstruction. The patient required double-balloon dilatation of the IVC simultaneously from the internal jugular vein and IVC.

  18. EBV-driven B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders: from biology, classification and differential diagnosis to clinical management

    PubMed Central

    Ok, Chi Young; Li, Ling; Young, Ken H

    2015-01-01

    EpsteinBarr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous herpesvirus, affecting >90% of the adult population. EBV targets B-lymphocytes and achieves latent infection in a circular episomal form. Different latency patterns are recognized based on latent gene expression pattern. Latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1) mimics CD40 and, when self-aggregated, provides a proliferation signal via activating the nuclear factor-kappa B, Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription, phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways to promote cellular proliferation. LMP-1 also induces BCL-2 to escape from apoptosis and gives a signal for cell cycle progression by enhancing cyclin-dependent kinase 2 and phosphorylation of retinoblastoma (Rb) protein and by inhibiting p16 and p27. LMP-2A blocks the surface immunoglobulin-mediated lytic cycle reactivation. It also activates the Ras/PI3K/Akt pathway and induces Bcl-xL expression to promote B-cell survival. Recent studies have shown that ebv-microRNAs can provide extra signals for cellular proliferation, cell cycle progression and anti-apoptosis. EBV is well known for association with various types of B-lymphocyte, T-lymphocyte, epithelial cell and mesenchymal cell neoplasms. B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders encompass a broad spectrum of diseases, from benign to malignant. Here we review our current understanding of EBV-induced lymphomagenesis and focus on biology, diagnosis and management of EBV-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:25613729

  19. Molecular and cytogenetic characterization of expanded B-cell clones from multiclonal versus monoclonal B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Henriques, Ana; Rodrguez-Caballero, Arancha; Criado, Ignacio; Langerak, Anton W.; Nieto, Wendy G.; Lcrevisse, Quentin; Gonzlez, Marcos; Corteso, Emlia; Paiva, Artur; Almeida, Julia; Orfao, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Chronic antigen-stimulation has been recurrently involved in the earlier stages of monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders. The expansion of two or more B-cell clones has frequently been reported in individuals with these conditions; potentially, such coexisting clones have a greater probability of interaction with common immunological determinants. Here, we analyzed the B-cell receptor repertoire and molecular profile, as well as the phenotypic, cytogenetic and hematologic features, of 228 chronic lymphocytic leukemia-like and non-chronic lymphocytic leukemia-like clones comparing multiclonal (n=85 clones from 41 cases) versus monoclonal (n=143 clones) monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders. The B-cell receptor of B-cell clones from multiclonal cases showed a slightly higher degree of HCDR3 homology than B-cell clones from mono clonal cases, in association with unique hematologic (e.g. lower B-lymphocyte counts) and cytogenetic (e.g. lower frequency of cytogenetically altered clones) features usually related to earlier stages of the disease. Moreover, a subgroup of coexisting B-cell clones from individual multiclonal cases which were found to be phylogenetically related showed unique molecular and cytogenetic features: they more frequently shared IGHV3 gene usage, shorter HCDR3 sequences with a greater proportion of IGHV mutations and del(13q14.3), than other unrelated B-cell clones. These results would support the antigen-driven nature of such multiclonal B-cell expansions, with potential involvement of multiple antigens/epitopes. PMID:24488564

  20. Idiopathic Pneumonia Syndrome and Thrombotic Microangiopathy Following Nonmyeloablative Haploidentical Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation and Posttransplant Cyclophosphamide

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei-Hsin; Chen, Wei-Ting; Fang, Li-Hua; Chen, Rong-Long

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Posttransplant high-dose cyclophosphamide (pT-HDCy) following T-cell-replete haploidentical bone marrow (BM) transplantation has been successfully utilized to control alloreactivity, mainly in ameliorating graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and graft rejection. Recently, peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) have also been suggested to be a feasible and effective graft alternative to BM in the same setting. We report a case with refractory Hodgkin lymphoma treated with haploidentical PBSC transplantation with nonmyeloablative conditioning and pT-HDCy. Although engraftment with complete donor chimerism was achieved without classical GVHD, the patient suffered from idiopathic pneumonia syndrome followed by thrombotic microangiopathy. Although idiopathic pneumonia syndrome and thrombotic microangiopathy improved after treatment, the patient's lymphoma rapidly progressed nonetheless. This outcome may suggest that the alloreactivity against the classical GVHD targets is successfully eradicated by pT-HDCy, but alloreactivity against the lungs and endothelial cells is differentially preserved when utilizing granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized PBSCs as the graft source. The graft-versus-Hodgkin lymphoma effect was not observed in our patient. PMID:26200635

  1. STAT3 mutations unify the pathogenesis of chronic lymphoproliferative disorders of NK cells and T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Jerez, Andres; Clemente, Michael J.; Makishima, Hideki; Koskela, Hanna; LeBlanc, Francis; Peng Ng, Kwok; Olson, Thomas; Przychodzen, Bartlomiej; Afable, Manuel; Gomez-Segui, Ines; Guinta, Kathryn; Durkin, Lisa; Hsi, Eric D.; McGraw, Kathy; Zhang, Dan; Wlodarski, Marcin W.; Porkka, Kimmo; Sekeres, Mikkael A.; List, Alan; Mustjoki, Satu; Loughran, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic lymphoproliferative disorders of natural killer cells (CLPD-NKs) and T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemias (T-LGLs) are clonal lymphoproliferations arising from either natural killer cells or cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). We have investigated for distribution and functional significance of mutations in 50 CLPD-NKs and 120 T-LGL patients by direct sequencing, allele-specific PCR, and microarray analysis. STAT3 gene mutations are present in both T and NK diseases: approximately one-third of patients with each type of disorder convey these mutations. Mutations were found in exons 21 and 20, encoding the Src homology 2 domain. Patients with mutations are characterized by symptomatic disease (75%), history of multiple treatments, and a specific pattern of STAT3 activation and gene deregulation, including increased expression of genes activated by STAT3. Many of these features are also found in patients with wild-type STAT3, indicating that other mechanisms of STAT3 activation can be operative in these chronic lymphoproliferative disorders. Treatment with STAT3 inhibitors, both in wild-type and mutant cases, resulted in accelerated apoptosis. STAT3 mutations are frequent in large granular lymphocytes suggesting a similar molecular dysregulation in malignant chronic expansions of NK and CTL origin. STAT3 mutations may distinguish truly malignant lymphoproliferations involving T and NK cells from reactive expansions. PMID:22859607

  2. Chronic Disease and Childhood Development: Kidney Disease and Transplantation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Susan D.; Simmons, Roberta G.

    As part of a larger study of transplantation and chronic disease and the family, 124 children (10-18 years old) who were chronically ill with kidney disease (n=72) or were a year or more post-transplant (n=52) were included in a study focusing on the effects of chronic kidney disease and transplantation on children's psychosocial development. Ss…

  3. Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein-1 oncogene deletion in post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Scheinfeld, A. G.; Nador, R. G.; Cesarman, E.; Chadburn, A.; Knowles, D. M.

    1997-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is a multifunctional oncoprotein. A 30-bp deletion of the 3' end of the LMP1 gene (del-LMP1) has been identified in some EBV isolates. This deleted LMP1 gene encodes a protein, altered on the carboxy terminus, which is thought to have greater oncogenic potential than the wild type. Recently, it was suggested that del-LMP1 plays a role in the development of malignant lymphomas occurring in immunocompromised patients. To further elucidate the role of del-LMP1 in post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PT-LPDs) we analyzed 58 PT-LPD lesions from 36 heart and kidney organ transplant recipients. Overall, del-LMP1 was detected in 44% of the cases. Four plasmacytic hyperplasias (36%), eight polymorphic B-cell hyperplasias/polymorphic B-cell lymphomas (38%), and five malignant lymphomas/multiple myelomas (71%) exhibited del-LMP1. Two of the three patients displaying disease progression showed wild-type LMP1 gene (w-LMP1) and one showed del-LMP1. LMP1 status remained the same in all three patients during disease progression. In patients undergoing biopsy of multiple separate PT-LPD lesions representing different clonal lymphoid proliferations, LMP1 status was the same in all of the lesions in each patient. Furthermore, although the polyclonal lesions harbor multiple EBV infectious events, they either showed w- or del-LMP1 but not both. Analysis of the tissues without an apparent PT-LPD (peripheral blood, bone marrow, or colon) revealed EBV and LMP1 type identical to that found in the lesions. In conclusion, the presence or absence of del-LMP1 in PT-LPDs does not correlate with the histopathological category or the malignant nature of the lymphoid proliferation. LMP1 status does not change during disease progression and is the same within multiple lesions occurring in the same patient regardless of their clonal relationship. These findings suggest that 1) EBV infection in patients with PT-LPDs occurs with a w- or del-LMP1-type EBV isolate and does not change once a patient acquires the virus and 2) the infection is an early event in the development of PT-LPDs and transformation is induced regardless of the type of LMP1. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9284829

  4. Unmanipulated haploidentical bone marrow transplantation and post-transplant cyclophosphamide for hematologic malignanices following a myeloablative conditioning: an update.

    PubMed

    Bacigalupo, A; Dominietto, A; Ghiso, A; Di Grazia, C; Lamparelli, T; Gualandi, F; Bregante, S; Van Lint, M T; Geroldi, S; Luchetti, S; Grasso, R; Pozzi, S; Colombo, N; Tedone, E; Varaldo, R; Raiola, A M

    2015-06-01

    This is a report of 148 patients with hematologic malignancies who received an unmanipulated haploidentical bone marrow transplant (BMT), followed by post-transplant high-dose cyclophosphamide (PT-CY). All patients received a myeloablative conditioning consisting of thiotepa, busulfan, fludarabine (n=92) or TBI, fludarabine (n=56). The median age was 47 years (17-74); 47 patients were in first remission (CR1), 37 in second remission (CR2) and 64 had an active disease; all patients were first grafts. The diagnosis was acute leukemia (n=75), myelodisplastic syndrome (n=24), myelofibrosis (n=16), high-grade lymphoma (n=15) and others (n=18). GVHD prophylaxis consisted in PT-CY on days +3 and +5, cyclosporine (from day 0), and mycophenolate (from day +1). The median day for neutrophil engraftment was day +18 (13-32). The cumulative incidence of grades II-IV acute GVHD was 24%, and of grades III-IV GVHD 10%. The incidence of moderate-severe chronic GVHD was 12%. With a median follow-up for the surviving patients of 313 days (100-1162), the cumulative incidence of transplant-related mortality (TRM) is 13%, and the relapse-related death is 23%. The actuarial 22 months overall survival is 77% for CR1 patients, 49% for CR2 patients and 38% for patients grafted in relapse (P<0.001). Major causes of death were relapse (22%), GVHD (2%) and infections (6%). We confirm our initial results, suggesting that a myeloablative conditioning regimen followed by unmanipulated haploidentical BMT with PT-CY, results in a low risk of acute and chronic GVHD and encouraging rates of TRM and overall survival, also for patients with active disease at the time of transplant. PMID:26039205

  5. AB95. Epidemiology of post-transplant malignancy in Chinese renal transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian; Ma, Linlin; Xie, Zelin; Guo, Yuwen; Sun, Wen; Zhang, Lei; Lin, Jun; Xiao, Jing; Zhu, Yichen; Tian, Ye

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence and types of post-transplant malignancy in Chinese renal transplant recipients. Methods We searched the CNKI and the Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform using the keywords renal transplantation and malignancy in Chinese. Data from 3,462 patients who underwent renal transplantation at Beijing Friendship Hospital were combined with data from 26 previous reports describing malignancy rates in 27,170 Chinese renal transplant recipients. Results The combined total of 30,632 patients underwent renal transplantation between 1974 and 2014, and 671 (2.19%) of these patients developed post-transplant malignancy. The most common sites of malignancy were the urinary system and digestive system. The ten most common malignancies were urothelial transitional cell carcinoma (n=283), hepatocellular carcinoma (n=68), gastrointestinal cancer (n=63), renal cell carcinoma (n=42), lymphoma (n=42), lung cancer (n=28), breast cancer (n=19), skin cancer (n=18), Kaposis sarcoma (n=12), and cervical cancer (n=10). Urinary system malignancy occurred in 252 patients in northern China and 87 patients in southern China. Digestive system malignancy occurred in 85 patients in southern China and 58 patients in northern China.

  6. Loss-of-function of the protein kinase C δ (PKCδ) causes a B-cell lymphoproliferative syndrome in humans

    PubMed Central

    Kuehn, Hye Sun; Niemela, Julie E.; Rangel-Santos, Andreia; Zhang, Mingchang; Pittaluga, Stefania; Stoddard, Jennifer L.; Hussey, Ashleigh A.; Evbuomwan, Moses O.; Priel, Debra A. Long; Kuhns, Douglas B.; Park, C. Lucy; Fleisher, Thomas A.; Uzel, Gulbu

    2013-01-01

    Defective lymphocyte apoptosis results in chronic lymphadenopathy and/or splenomegaly associated with autoimmune phenomena. The prototype for human apoptosis disorders is the autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), which is caused by mutations in the FAS apoptotic pathway. Recently, patients with an ALPS-like disease called RAS-associated autoimmune leukoproliferative disorder, in which somatic mutations in NRAS or KRAS are found, also were described. Despite this progress, many patients with ALPS-like disease remain undefined genetically. We identified a homozygous, loss-of-function mutation in PRKCD (PKCδ) in a patient who presented with chronic lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, autoantibodies, elevated immunoglobulins and natural killer dysfunction associated with chronic, low-grade Epstein-Barr virus infection. This mutation markedly decreased protein expression and resulted in ex vivo B-cell hyperproliferation, a phenotype similar to that of the PKCδ knockout mouse. Lymph nodes showed intense follicular hyperplasia, also mirroring the mouse model. Immunophenotyping of circulating lymphocytes demonstrated expansion of CD5+CD20+ B cells. Knockdown of PKCδ in normal mononuclear cells recapitulated the B-cell hyperproliferative phenotype in vitro. Reconstitution of PKCδ in patient-derived EBV-transformed B-cell lines partially restored phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate–induced cell death. In summary, homozygous PRKCD mutation results in B-cell hyperproliferation and defective apoptosis with consequent lymphocyte accumulation and autoantibody production in humans, and disrupts natural killer cell function. PMID:23430113

  7. Spontaneous Post-Transplant Disorders in NOD.Cg- Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Sug/JicTac (NOG) Mice Engrafted with Patient-Derived Metastatic Melanomas

    PubMed Central

    Omodho, Lorna; Francis, Annick; Vander Borght, Sara; Marine, Jean-Christophe; van den Oord, Joost; Amant, Frdric

    2015-01-01

    Patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDTX) approach is nowadays considered a reliable preclinical model to study in vivo cancer biology and therapeutic response. NOD scid and Il2rg-deficient mice represent the gold standard host for the generation of PDTXs. Compared to other immunocompromised murine lines, these mice offers several advantages including higher engraftment rate, longer lifespan and improved morphological and molecular preservation of patient-derived neoplasms. Here we describe a spectrum of previously uncharacterized post-transplant disorders affecting 14/116 (12%) NOD.Cg- Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Sug/JicTac (NOG) mice subcutaneously engrafted with patient-derived metastatic melanomas. Affected mice exhibited extensive scaling/crusting dermatitis (13/14) associated with emaciation (13/14) and poor/unsuccessful tumor engraftment (14/14). In this context, the following pathological conditions have been recognized and characterized in details: (i) immunoinflammatory disorders with features of graft versus host disease (14/14); (ii) reactive lymphoid infiltrates effacing xenografted tumors (8/14); (iii) post-transplant B cell lymphomas associated with Epstein-Barr virus reactivation (2/14). We demonstrate that all these entities are driven by co-transplanted human immune cells populating patient-derived tumor samples. Since the exploding interest in the utilization of NOD scid and Il2rg-deficient mice for the establishment of PDTX platforms, it is of uppermost importance to raise the awareness of the limitations associated with this model. The disorders here described adversely impact tumor engraftment rate and animal lifespan, potentially representing a major confounding factor in the context of efficacy and personalized therapy studies. The occurrence of these conditions in the NOG model reflects the ability of this mouse line to promote efficient engraftment of human immune cells. Co-transplanted human lymphoid cells have indeed the potential to colonize the recipient mouse initiating the post-transplant conditions here reported. On the other hand, the evidence of an immune response of human origin against the xenotransplanted melanoma opens intriguing perspectives for the establishment of suitable preclinical models of anti-melanoma immunotherapy. PMID:25996609

  8. Research update: Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory avian tumor viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomics and Immunogenetics Use of genomics to identify QTL, genes, and proteins associated with resistance to Mareks disease. Mareks disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease caused by the highly oncogenic herpesvirus Marek's disease virus (MDV), continues to be a major disease concern to the p...

  9. A role for everolimus in post-transplant encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis: first case report.

    PubMed

    Sud, Rahul; Garry, Lorraine; Spicer, Stephen Timothy; Allen, Richard D M; Eris, Josette M; Wyburn, Kate; Verran, Deborah; Cooper, Caroline Louise; Chadban, Steve

    2014-04-01

    Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a rare complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) that carries a high morbidity and mortality. The 'two hit theory' suggests that long term deterioration of the peritoneum combined with intraperitoneal inflammation is needed in the pathogenesis of EPS. For unclear reasons, post transplantation EPS is being increasingly reported in patients previously on PD. To date, there is no proven effective therapy with an absence of randomised controlled trials. Individual case reports and small case series have reported on the use of tamoxifen and corticosteroids for medical management of EPS. The use of everolimus has been reported in a single case, and never in the setting of renal transplantation. Here, we present the first case of post-transplant encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis treated successfully with a combination of everolimus, tamoxifen, low dose corticosteroid and surgery. PMID:24460661

  10. Post-Transplant Diabetes Mellitus: Causes, Treatment, and Impact on Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Shivaswamy, Vijay; Boerner, Brian; Larsen, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    Post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is a frequent consequence of solid organ transplantation. PTDM has been associated with greater mortality and increased infections in different transplant groups using different diagnostic criteria. An international consensus panel recommended a consistent set of guidelines in 2003 based on American Diabetes Association glucose criteria but did not exclude the immediate post-transplant hospitalization when many patients receive large doses of corticosteroids. Greater glucose monitoring during all hospitalizations has revealed significant glucose intolerance in the majority of recipients immediately after transplant. As a result, the international consensus panel reviewed its earlier guidelines and recommended delaying screening and diagnosis of PTDM until the recipient is on stable doses of immunosuppression after discharge from initial transplant hospitalization. The group cautioned that whereas hemoglobin A1C has been adopted as a diagnostic criterion by many, it is not reliable as the sole diabetes screening method during the first year after transplant. Risk factors for PTDM include many of the immunosuppressant medications themselves as well as those for type 2 diabetes. The provider managing diabetes and associated dyslipidemia and hypertension after transplant must be careful of the greater risk for drug-drug interactions and infections with immunosuppressant medications. Treatment goals and therapies must consider the greater risk for fluctuating and reduced kidney function, which can cause hypoglycemia. Research is actively focused on strategies to prevent PTDM, but until strategies are found, it is imperative that immunosuppression regimens are chosen based on their evidence to prolong graft survival, not to avoid PTDM. PMID:26650437

  11. Subclinical Rejection Phenotypes at 1 Year Post-Transplant and Outcome of Kidney Allografts.

    PubMed

    Loupy, Alexandre; Vernerey, Dewi; Tinel, Claire; Aubert, Olivier; Duong van Huyen, Jean-Paul; Rabant, Marion; Verine, Jrme; Nochy, Dominique; Empana, Jean-Philippe; Martinez, Frank; Glotz, Denis; Jouven, Xavier; Legendre, Christophe; Lefaucheur, Carmen

    2015-07-01

    Kidney allograft rejection can occur in clinically stable patients, but long-term significance is unknown. We determined whether early recognition of subclinical rejection has long-term consequences for kidney allograft survival in an observational prospective cohort study of 1307 consecutive nonselected patients who underwent ABO-compatible, complement-dependent cytotoxicity-negative crossmatch kidney transplantation in Paris (2000-2010). Participants underwent prospective screening biopsies at 1 year post-transplant, with concurrent evaluations of graft complement deposition and circulating anti-HLA antibodies. The main analysis included 1001 patients. Three distinct groups of patients were identified at the 1-year screening: 727 (73%) patients without rejection, 132 (13%) patients with subclinical T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR), and 142 (14%) patients with subclinical antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR). Patients with subclinical ABMR had the poorest graft survival at 8 years post-transplant (56%) compared with subclinical TCMR (88%) and nonrejection (90%) groups (P<0.001). In a multivariate Cox model, subclinical ABMR at 1 year was independently associated with a 3.5-fold increase in graft loss (95% confidence interval, 2.1 to 5.7) along with eGFR and proteinuria (P<0.001). Subclinical ABMR was associated with more rapid progression to transplant glomerulopathy. Of patients with subclinical TCMR at 1 year, only those who further developed de novo donor-specific antibodies and transplant glomerulopathy showed higher risk of graft loss compared with patients without rejection. Our findings suggest that subclinical TCMR and subclinical ABMR have distinct effects on long-term graft loss. Subclinical ABMR detected at the 1-year screening biopsy carries a prognostic value independent of initial donor-specific antibody status, previous immunologic events, current eGFR, and proteinuria. PMID:25556173

  12. Cryopreserved amniotic membrane as transplant allograft: viability and post-transplant outcome.

    PubMed

    Perepelkin, Natasha M J; Hayward, Kirsten; Mokoena, Tumelo; Bentley, Michael J; Ross-Rodriguez, Lisa U; Marquez-Curtis, Leah; McGann, Locksley E; Holovati, Jelena L; Elliott, Janet A W

    2016-03-01

    Amniotic membrane (AM) transplantation is increasingly used in ophthalmological and dermatological surgeries to promote re-epithelialization and wound healing. Biologically active cells in the epithelial and stromal layers deliver growth factors and cytokines with anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-immunogenic and anti-fibrotic properties. In this work, confocal microscopy was used to show that our cryopreservation protocol for AM yielded viable cells in both the stromal and epithelial layers with favorable post-transplant outcome. AM was obtained from Caesarean-section placenta, processed into allograft pieces of different sizes (3 cm × 3 cm, 5 cm × 5 cm, and 10 cm × 10 cm) and cryopreserved in 10 % dimethyl sulfoxide using non-linear controlled rate freezing. Post-thaw cell viability in the entire piece of AM and in the stromal and epithelial cell layers was assessed using a dual fluorescent nuclear dye and compared to hypothermically stored AM, while surveys from surgical end-users provided information on post-transplant patient outcomes. There was no significant statistical difference in the cell viability in the entire piece, epithelial and stromal layers regardless of the size of allograft piece (p = 0.092, 0.188 and 0.581, respectively), and in the entire piece and stromal layer of hypothermically stored versus cryopreserved AM (p = 0.054 and 0.646, respectively). Surgical end-user feedback (n = 49) indicated that 16.3 % of AM allografts were excellent and 61.2 % were satisfactory. These results support the expanded clinical use of different sizes of cryopreserved AM allografts and address the issue of orientation of the AM during transplant for the treatment of dermatological defects and ocular surface disorders. PMID:26361949

  13. Spectrum of Epstein-Barr virus-associated T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder in adolescents and young adults in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ren-Ching; Chang, Sheng-Tsung; Hsieh, Yen-Chuan; Huang, Wan-Ting; Hsu, Jeng-Dong; Tseng, Chih-En; Wang, Ming-Chung; Hwang, Wei-Shou; Wang, John; Chuang, Shih-Sung

    2014-01-01

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is a herpesvirus usually infecting B-cells but may occasionally infect T- or natural killer (NK)-cells. EBV-associated T- or NK-cell lymphoproliferations represent a continuous spectrum of diseases ranging from asymptomatic infection, infectious mononucleosis (IM), to clonal and malignant lymphoproliferations including systemic EBV-positive T/NK-cell lymphoproliferative disease (EBV-T/NK-LPD) of childhood and hydroa-vacciniforme-like lymphoma of the skin. The clonal diseases are more prevalent in East Asia and exhibit overlapping clinical and pathological features with chronic active EBV infection. Here we report our experience on 10 cases of EBV-associated T-cell lymphoproliferation from Taiwan including five males and five females with a median age of 18 years old (range, 15-28). The most common clinical symptoms were fever, neck mass and hepatosplenomegaly. Eight of these patients showed elevated lactate dehydrogenase level and half of the patients had cytopenia. All patients had either elevated EBV antibody titers or increased serum EBV DNA levels. Five cases were clinically IM-like with polyclonal (3 cases) or clonal (2 cases) T-cell lymphoproliferation. Two patients each had chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). One patient had both CAEBV and HLH. One of the HLH patients with marrow infiltration by intra-sinusoidal large atypical lymphocytes experienced a fulminant course. In a median follow-up time of 21.5 months, seven patients were free of disease, one was alive with disease, and two died of disease in 31 and 3 months, respectively, despite chemotherapy. We confirmed a wide clinicopathological range of EVB-associated T-cell lymphoproliferation in Taiwan. Furthermore, monomorphic LPD and the single case with fulminant course as defined by Ohshima et al (Pathol Int 2018) as categories A3 and B, respectively, died of disease despite chemotherapy. Our report, the largest series in the recent decade from Taiwan, adds to the understanding of these rare diseases with variable clinical and histopathological presentations. PMID:24966953

  14. Marek's disease virus induced transient paralysis--a closer look

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s Disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens caused by a highly cell-associated alpha herpesvirus, Marek’s disease virus (MDV). Clinical signs of MD include depression, crippling, weight loss, and transient paralysis (TP). TP is a disease of the central nervous system...

  15. Research update: Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory avian tumor viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomics and Immunogenetics Marek’s disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease caused by the highly oncogenic herpesvirus Marek's disease virus (MDV), continues to be a major disease concern to the poultry industry. The fear of MD is further enhanced by unpredictable vaccine breaks that result in ...

  16. Genetic bases for Marek's disease resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek's disease (MD) is a highly contagious lymphoproliferative disease of chickens caused by MD virus (MDV). Therefore, the control of MD is of particular concern to the poultry industry. The poultry industry has been heavily relying on biosecurity and vaccination to control the spread and occurren...

  17. 'A post-transplant person': Narratives of heart or lung transplantation and intensive care unit delirium.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Katy; Daiches, Anna; Malpus, Zoey; Yonan, Nizar; Sanchez, Melissa

    2014-07-01

    Exploring patients' narratives can lead to new understandings about perceived illness states. Intensive Care Unit delirium is when people experience transitory hallucinations, delusions or paranoia in the Intensive Care Unit and little is known about how this experience affects individuals who have had a heart or lung transplant. A total of 11 participants were recruited from two heart and lung transplant services and were invited to tell their story of transplant and Intensive Care Unit delirium. A narrative analysis was conducted and the findings were presented as a shared story. This shared story begins with death becoming prominent before the transplant: 'you live all the time with Mr Death on your shoulder'. Following the operation, death permeates all aspects of dream worlds, as dreams in intensive care 'tunes into the subconscious of your fears'. The next part of the shared story offers hope of restitution; however, this does not last as reality creeps in: 'I thought it was going to be like a miracle cure'. Finally, the restitution narrative is found to be insufficient and individuals differ in the extent to which they can achieve resolution. The societal discourse of a transplant being a 'gift', which gives life, leads to internalised responsibility for the 'success' or 'failure' of the transplant. Participants describe how their experiences impact their sense of self: 'a post-transplant person'. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24026357

  18. Role of color Doppler sonography in post-transplant surveillance of vascular complications involving pancreatic allografts?

    PubMed Central

    Morelli, L.; Di Candio, G.; Campatelli, A.; Vistoli, F.; Del Chiaro, M.; Balzano, E.; Croce, C.; Moretto, C.; Signori, S.; Boggi, U.; Mosca, F.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the role of color Doppler ultrasonography in the postoperative surveillance of the vascular complications involving pancreas allografts. Methods A retrospective analysis of a consecutive series of 223 pancreas transplantations was performed. All recipients received antithrombotic prophylaxis, which was tailored to the individual's estimated risk of thrombosis. All patients were monitored with daily color Doppler ultrasonography during the first post-transplant week and thereafter whenever clinically indicated. Vascular complications were defined as all thrombotic events requiring: increased anticoagulant therapy, angiography with fibrinolytic therapy, or repeat surgery. Results The overall patient survival rates at one, three, and five years after transplantation were 94.7%, 93.3%, and 91%, respectively. The overall graft survival rates at the same time points were 87.4%, 79.6%, and 75.6%, respectively. In 28 of the 223 cases (12.5%) graft thromboses were diagnosed with Doppler ultrasound within the first 10 days after transplantation. In 3 cases, graft pancreatectomies were performed because of a complete loss of blood flow in the parenchyma. An attempt to rescue the graft was made in 18 patients. Fourteen of these grafts were saved and are still functioning (77.7%); and 4 rescue attempts failed and the grafts were subsequently explanted (32.3%). Conclusion Color Doppler ultrasound is a suitable tool for postoperative surveillance of pancreas transplant recipients. Its use can lead to early diagnosis and timely treatment of vascular complications. PMID:23396980

  19. Clinical Application of Variation in Replication Kinetics During Episodes of Post-transplant Cytomegalovirus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Lodding, I.P.; Sengelv, H.; da Cunha-Bang, C.; Iversen, M.; Rasmussen, A.; Gustafsson, F.; Downing, J.G.; Grarup, J.; Kirkby, N.; Frederiksen, C.M.; Mocroft, A.; Srensen, S.S.; Lundgren, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in transplant recipients is reported to replicate with a doubling time of 1.22days, and weekly screening is recommended for early diagnosis. We re-evaluated these features in our cohort of transplant recipients. Methods The CMV doubling time of the first CMV infection in the first year post-transplant could be calculated for 193 recipients of haematopoietic stem cell or solid organ transplantation. Factors determining the proportion of recipients with a high diagnostic CMV viral load (?18,200IU/mL) were explored using mathematical simulation. Findings The overall median doubling time was 4.3days (IQR 2.57.8) and was not influenced by prior CMV immunity, or type of transplantation (p>0.4). Assuming a fixed doubling time of 1.3days and screening intervals of 7 or 10days, 11.1% and 33.3% were projected to have a high CMV viral load at diagnosis, compared to 1.4% and 4.3% if the doubling time varies as observed in our cohort. Consistently, 1.9% of recipients screened weekly had a high diagnostic virus load. Interpretation Screening intervals can be extended to 10days in cohorts with comparable CMV doubling time, whereas shorter than 7days is required in cohorts with shorter doubling times to maintain pre-emptive screening quality. PMID:26288842

  20. Clinical relevance of post-transplant pharmacodynamic analysis of cyclosporine in renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kurata, Yoko; Kuzuya, Takafumi; Miwa, Yuko; Iwasaki, Kenta; Haneda, Masataka; Amioka, Katsuo; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Watarai, Yoshihiko; Katayama, Akio; Uchida, Kazuharu; Kobayashi, Takaaki

    2014-10-01

    Although therapeutic drug monitoring based on blood concentration has been widely implemented in transplant recipients treated with immunosuppressive agents, clinical adverse events such as rejection, infection or drug-induced toxicity caused by inappropriate dosage cannot be completely controlled. Development of an effective assay for optimized immunosuppression would be desirable, which can potentially lead to personalized medicine in renal transplantation. Cyclosporine (CSA) pharmacodynamic analysis using carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE)-based T cell proliferation assay was examined in 66 kidney transplant recipients before and after transplantation. Two parameters, the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) and the percentage of T-cell proliferation values at the lower plateau (bottom), were compared with clinical events. A significant relation in CSA pharmacodynamic parameters was observed between pre- and post-transplantation. Analysis of the association between clinical outcomes and pharmacodynamic parameters in post-transplant samples demonstrated the following findings: (i) cytomegalovirus (CMV)/varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation and CSA-induced nephrotoxicity were significantly associated with high sensitivity to CSA (low bottom or low IC50), (ii) acute T cell-mediated rejection (ATMR) was significantly related to low sensitivity to CSA (high bottom), and (iii) de novo human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibody production was associated with lower bottom and IC50 values, although the elucidation of those mechanisms is still in progress. It was suggested that CSA pharmacodynamics applied at post-transplantation would be useful for optimizing immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:25073119

  1. Chicks and SNPs--an entree into identifying genes conferring disease resistance in chicken

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With high-density chicken rearing, control of infectious diseases are critical for economic viability and maintaining public confidence in poultry products. Among poultry diseases, Mareks disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease caused by the highly oncogenic herpesvirus Marek's disease virus (M...

  2. Marek's disease virus induces Th-2 activity during cytolytic infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mareks disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of chickens that is caused by a highly cell-associated oncogenic alpha-herpesvirus, Mareks disease virus (MDV). The role of cytokines and other related proteins in MD pathogenesis and immunity is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to...

  3. Correlation between Mareks disease virus pathotype and replication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mareks disease virus (MDV) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes Mareks disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease in chickens. Pathotyping has become an increasingly important assay for monitoring shifts in virulence of field strains, however, it is time-consuming and expensive and alternatives are...

  4. Immunological Basis for Resistance and Susceptibility to Marek's Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mareks disease (MD) is a contagious lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens caused by a highly cell-associated alpha-herpesvirus, Mareks disease virus (MDV). MDV replicates in chicken lymphocytes and establishes a latent infection within CD4+ T cells. Mechanisms of viral pathogenesis, r...

  5. Crystal-storing histiocytosis involving the kidney in a low-grade B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Sanjeev; Cuiffo, Barry P; Pinkus, Geraldine S; Rennke, Helmut G

    2002-01-01

    Intracellular crystal formation in histiocytes in multiple myeloma and other lymphoproliferative disorders is an uncommon presentation. In all cases, crystal formation is associated with accumulation of histiocytes containing light chain or immunoglobulin inclusions, and the disorder has been termed crystal-storing histiocytosis. We report a case of crystal-storing histiocytosis affecting the kidney with prominent infiltration of the mesangium by large mononuclear and multinuclear cells that contained eosinophilic crystalline material in the setting of a low-grade B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder. The interstitium did not contain similar crystal-containing histiocytes. On electron microscopy, the mononuclear and multinuclear cells in the mesangium were filled with rhomboid and needle-shaped crystals. Immunofluorescence studies showed the material to be positive for lambda light chains but negative for kappa light chains. To our knowledge, this is the first report of crystal-storing histiocytosis involving the kidney in a low-grade B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder with an immunophenotype of a marginal zone lymphoma and of exclusive expansion of the mesangium by infiltrating histiocytes containing needle-shaped and rhomboid crystals that were positive for lambda light chains. We report this case to illustrate an unusual finding of mesangial infiltration by crystal-storing histiocytes, and we review the literature of renal involvement by crystal-storing histiocytosis and crystal deposition in lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:11774118

  6. Posttransplant prophylactic intravenous immunoglobulin in kidney transplant patients at high immunological risk: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Anglicheau, D; Loupy, A; Suberbielle, C; Zuber, J; Patey, N; Nol, L-H; Cavalcanti, R; Le Quintrec, M; Audat, F; Mjean, A; Martinez, F; Mamzer-Bruneel, M-F; Thervet, E; Legendre, C

    2007-05-01

    The effects of posttransplant prophylactic intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) were investigated in renal transplant recipients at high immunological risk. Thirty-eight deceased-donor kidney transplant recipients with previous positive complement-dependent cytotoxicity crossmatch (n=30), and/or donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (n=14) were recruited. IVIg (2 g/kg) was administrated on days 0, 21, 42 and 63 with quadruple immunosuppression. Biopsy-proven acute cellular and humoral rejection rates at month 12 were 18% and 10%, respectively. Glomerulitis was observed in 31% and 60% of patients at months 3 and 12, respectively, while allograft glomerulopathy rose from 3% at month 3 to 28% at 12 months. Interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy increased from 18% at day 0 to 51% and 72% at months 3 and 12 (p<0.0001). GFR was 50 +/- 17 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and 48 +/- 17 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at 3 and 12 months. PRA decreased significantly after IVIg (class I: from 18 +/- 27% to 5 +/- 12%, p<0.01; class II: from 25 +/- 30% to 7 +/- 16%, p<0.001). Patient and graft survival were 97% and 95%, respectively and no graft was lost due to rejection (mean follow-up 25 months). In conclusion, prophylactic IVIg in high-immunological risk patients is associated with good one-year outcomes, with adequate GFR and a profound decrease in PRA level, but a significant increase in allograft nephropathy. PMID:17359509

  7. Association of Extrarenal Adverse Effects of Posttransplant Immunosuppression With Sex and ABCB1 Haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Venuto, Rocco C; Meaney, Calvin J; Chang, Shirley; Leca, Nicolae; Consiglio, Joseph D; Wilding, Gregory E; Brazeau, Daniel; Gundroo, Aijaz; Nainani, Neha; Morse, Sarah E; Cooper, Louise M; Tornatore, Kathleen M

    2015-09-01

    Extrarenal adverse effects (AEs) associated with calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) and mycophenolic acid (MPA) occur frequently but are unpredictable posttransplant complications. AEs may result from intracellular CNI accumulation and low activity of P-glycoprotein, encoded by the ABCB1 gene. Since ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and sex influence P-glycoprotein, we investigated haplotypes and extrarenal AEs. A prospective, cross-sectional study evaluated 149 patients receiving tacrolimus and enteric coated mycophenolate sodium or cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil. Immunosuppressive AE assessment determined individual and composite gastrointestinal, neurologic, aesthetic, and cumulative AEs. Lipids were quantitated after 12-hour fast. ABCB1 SNPs: c.1236C>T (rs1128503), c.2677G>T/A (rs2032582), and c.3435C>T (rs1045642) were determined with haplotype associations computed using the THESIAS program, and evaluated by immunosuppression, sex and race using multivariate general linear models. Tacrolimus patients exhibited more frequent and higher gastrointestinal AE scores compared with cyclosporine with association to CTT (P?=?0.018) and sex (P?=?0.01). Aesthetic AE score was 3 times greater for cyclosporine with TTC haplotype (P?=?0.005). Females had higher gastrointestinal (P?=?0.022), aesthetic (P?

  8. Association of Extrarenal Adverse Effects of Posttransplant Immunosuppression With Sex and ABCB1 Haplotypes

    PubMed Central

    Venuto, Rocco C.; Meaney, Calvin J.; Chang, Shirley; Leca, Nicolae; Consiglio, Joseph D.; Wilding, Gregory E.; Brazeau, Daniel; Gundroo, Aijaz; Nainani, Neha; Morse, Sarah E.; Cooper, Louise M.; Tornatore, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Extrarenal adverse effects (AEs) associated with calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) and mycophenolic acid (MPA) occur frequently but are unpredictable posttransplant complications. AEs may result from intracellular CNI accumulation and low activity of P-glycoprotein, encoded by the ABCB1 gene. Since ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and sex influence P-glycoprotein, we investigated haplotypes and extrarenal AEs. A prospective, cross-sectional study evaluated 149 patients receiving tacrolimus and enteric coated mycophenolate sodium or cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil. Immunosuppressive AE assessment determined individual and composite gastrointestinal, neurologic, aesthetic, and cumulative AEs. Lipids were quantitated after 12-hour fast. ABCB1 SNPs: c.1236C>T (rs1128503), c.2677G>T/A (rs2032582), and c.3435C>T (rs1045642) were determined with haplotype associations computed using the THESIAS program, and evaluated by immunosuppression, sex and race using multivariate general linear models. Tacrolimus patients exhibited more frequent and higher gastrointestinal AE scores compared with cyclosporine with association to CTT (P = 0.018) and sex (P = 0.01). Aesthetic AE score was 3 times greater for cyclosporine with TTC haplotype (P = 0.005). Females had higher gastrointestinal (P = 0.022), aesthetic (P < 0.001), neurologic (P = 0.022), and cumulative AE ratios (P < 0.001). Total cholesterol (TCHOL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and triglycerides were higher with cyclosporine. The TTC haplotype had higher TCHOL (P < 0.001) and LDL (P = 0.005). Higher triglyceride (P = 0.034) and lower high-density lipoproteins (P = 0.057) were associated with TTT with sex-adjusted analysis. ABCB1 haplotypes and sex were associated with extrarenal AEs. Using haplotypes, certain female patients manifested more AEs regardless of CNI. Haplotype testing may identify patients with greater susceptibility to AEs and facilitate CNI individualization. PMID:26376376

  9. Lymphoproliferative Disease and Hepatitis B Reactivation: Challenges in the Era of Rapidly Evolving Targeted Therapy.

    PubMed

    Phipps, Colin; Chen, Yunxin; Tan, Daryl

    2016-01-01

    Reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a known complication that occurs in patients receiving chemotherapy especially for malignant lymphoma. The increased risk in lymphoma patients parallels the potency of the immunosuppressive treatment regimens that are provided. B-cell-depleting therapy such as anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies, especially when combined with conventional chemotherapy, significantly increases the risk of HBV reactivation, even in patients with resolved HBV infection. The first reports of HBV reactivation with anti-CD20 therapy emerged only 4 years after its US Food and Drug Administration approval. Today, these drugs carry alert warnings on the risk of hepatic dysfunction and reactivation of HBV infection. Many other new/novel agents active against lymphoma have emerged since then, targeting the different pathways involved in lymphoma pathogenesis, including histone deacetylase inhibitors, antibody-drug conjugates, and proteasome inhibitors. These various drugs have differing depths and mechanisms of immunosuppression, necessitating due diligence when administrating these compounds to prevent infective complications such as HBV reactivation, which can lead to liver failure and death. This review focuses on HBV reactivation with non-Hodgkin lymphoma treatment, in particular with the various approved novel agents. We also discuss the current recommendations for screening non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients for HBV and the role of prophylactic antiviral therapy during and after immunosuppressive treatment. PMID:26705677

  10. Study Provides Insights into Diagnosis, Treatment of Rare Immune Disease: Autoimmmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome ...

    MedlinePLUS

    ... anemia and reduce the number of pathogen-fighting neutrophils and clot-forming platelets in the blood, which ... spleens removed to help manage anemia and low neutrophil and platelet levels, collectively known as cytopenias. Of ...

  11. Temporal transcriptome changes induced by MDV in Marek's disease-resistant and -susceptible inbred chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mareks disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease in chickens caused by Marek's disease virus (MDV) and characterized by T cell lymphoma and infiltration of lymphoid cells into various organs such as liver, spleen, peripheral nerves and muscle. Resistance to MD and disease risk have long been tho...

  12. Lipoprotein metabolism differs between Marek's disease susceptible and resistant chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mareks disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of chickens caused by MD virus and has an important impact on the poultry industry worldwide.There have been reports showing different physiological characteristics between MD susceptible and resistant chickens. However, little is known about whe...

  13. Plasmodium falciparum schizont sonic extracts suppress lymphoproliferative responses to mitogens and antigens in malaria-immune adults.

    PubMed Central

    Riley, E M; Jobe, O; Blackman, M; Whittle, H C; Greenwood, B M

    1989-01-01

    Cellular immune responses to malaria antigens are suppressed during acute Plasmodium falciparum infection, and evidence from both murine and human studies suggests that parasite-derived factors may be directly immunosuppressive. In this study we have shown that P. falciparum schizont sonic extract will suppress in vitro lymphoproliferative responses to purified malaria antigens and other soluble antigens. The degree of suppression appears to correlate with the level of the lymphoproliferative response to the schizont preparation and is correspondingly more marked in malaria-immune donors than in nonimmune individuals. The effect can be transferred with primed mononuclear cells and is partially abrogated by removal of CD8+ lymphocytes. The suppressive component of the schizont preparation is nondialyzable and partially heat labile and comigrates with hemoglobin-derived proteins in the molecular mass range 10 to 20 kilodaltons. PMID:2528508

  14. Multispectral Imaging Approach to the Diagnosis of a CD20+ Cutaneous T-cell Lymphoproliferative Disorder: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Salva, Katrin A; Bennett, Daniel; Longley, Jack; Guitart, Joan; Wood, Gary S

    2015-10-01

    Expression of the pan B-cell marker CD20 by T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders is exceedingly rare. We present a 52-year-old man with a unilesional cutaneous CD20 T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder. Multispectral imaging analysis of CD3-CD20 double-stained lesional tissue sections allowed (1) the visualization of double-positive T lymphocytes in situ with sensitivity superior to that of conventional immunohistochemistry and (2) the quantitative assessment of marker coexpression. Here, 23% of CD3 signals in the patient's lesion were also CD20, whereas 38% of CD20 signals were also CD3. In contrast, both parameters were below 1% in the tonsil control. Overall, the percentage of double-positive cells in lesional skin was 35%, although only 0.4% of such cells were detected in the tonsil. This is the first demonstration of aberrant CD20 expression by skin-infiltrating T cells using multispectral imaging. PMID:26381030

  15. Influence of Mareks disease virus on the core-gut microbiome of chickens resistant or susceptible to Mareks disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mareks disease virus (MDV) is an a-herpesvirus and the causative agent for the lymphoproliferative disease of chickens known as Mareks disease (MD). Worldwide poultry industry losses due to MD amount to $1-2 billion per year. Presently, there is limited knowledge on the potential influence of MDV ...

  16. Urgent Heart Retransplant in an Adult Patient With Anthracycline-Induced Cardiomyopathy After Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma - Case Report.

    PubMed

    Samardzic, Jure; Skoric, Bosko; Cikes, Maja; Ljubas-Macek, Jana; Baricevic, Zeljko; Milicic, Davor

    2015-12-01

    Heart retransplant is a treatment option for some patients with graft failure. With heart donor short-age, it is important to assess candidates carefully for cardiac retransplant. An adult patient had a successful urgent heart retransplant due to severe toxic cardiomyopathy (anthracycline-induced) after posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease that was a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. PMID:25654316

  17. Genome-wide identification of host genes directly regulated by Marek’s disease virus (MDV) oncoprotein Meq

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek's disease (MD) is a contagious lymphoproliferative and neurotropic disease of poultry caused by Marek's disease virus (MDV), an oncogenic alphaherpesvirus. Despite the use of vaccines, the field strains of MDV continue to evolve, resulting in unpredictable disease outbreaks. Therefore, underst...

  18. Primary and secondary cutaneous CD30(+) lymphoproliferative disorders: a report from the Dutch Cutaneous Lymphoma Group on the long-term follow-up data of 219 patients and guidelines for diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Bekkenk, M W; Geelen, F A; van Voorst Vader, P C; Heule, F; Geerts, M L; van Vloten, W A; Meijer, C J; Willemze, R

    2000-06-15

    To evaluate our diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines, clinical and long-term follow-up data of 219 patients with primary or secondary cutaneous CD30(+) lymphoproliferative disorders were evaluated. The study group included 118 patients with lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP; group 1), 79 patients with primary cutaneous CD30(+) large T-cell lymphoma (LTCL; group 2), 11 patients with CD30(+) LTCL and skin and regional lymph node involvement (group 3), and 11 patients with secondary cutaneous CD30(+) LTCL (group 4). Patients with LyP often did not receive any specific treatment, whereas most patients with primary cutaneous CD30(+) LTCL were treated with radiotherapy or excision. All patients with skin-limited disease from groups 1 and 2 who were treated with multiagent chemotherapy had 1 or more skin relapses. The calculated risk for systemic disease within 10 years of diagnosis was 4% for group 1, 16% for group 2, and 20% for group 3 (after initial therapy). Disease-related 5-year-survival rates were 100% (group 1), 96% (group 2), 91% (group 3), and 24% (group 4), respectively. The results confirm the favorable prognoses of these primary cutaneous CD30(+) lymphoproliferative disorders and underscore that LyP and primary cutaneous CD30(+) lymphomas are closely related conditions. They also indicate that CD30(+) LTCL on the skin and in 1 draining lymph node station has a good prognosis similar to that for primary cutaneous CD30(+) LTCL without concurrent lymph node involvement. Multiagent chemotherapy is only indicated for patients with full-blown or developing extracutaneous disease; it is never or rarely indicated for patients with skin-limited CD30(+) lymphomas. (Blood. 2000;95:3653-3661) PMID:10845893

  19. Mareks disease virus induces transient atrophy of cecal tonsils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mareks disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens caused by an immunosupperessive alpha herpesvirus, Mareks disease virus (MDV). Clinical signs of MD include bursal/thymic atrophy and neurological disorders. The cecal tonsils (CT) are the largest lymphoid aggregates of avia...

  20. Global gene expression profiling of Marek's disease virus during cytolytic and latency infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mareks disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens, is caused by an avian alpha-herpesvirus, Mareks disease virus (MDV). MDV causes an early cytolytic infection in B cells followed by a latency infection in CD4+ T cells. The transcriptional analysis of a limited number of MD...

  1. Transcriptional profiling of chicken gene expression during cytolytic infection of Marek's disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mareks disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease of chicken is caused by a highly cell-associated alpha-herpesvirus, Mareks disease virus (MDV). MDV replicates in chicken lymphocytes and establishes a latent infection within CD4+ T cells. The expression analysis of limited viral and host transc...

  2. Mortality of one-week-old chickens during naturally occurring Marek's disease virus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mareks disease (MD) is a serious economic disease of chickens which occurs worldwide. MD can present as one of several forms, with the most commonly occurring forms being the lymphoproliferative diseases. Under experimental conditions, an early mortality syndrome has been recognized following infec...

  3. Marek's Disease Virus-Induced Immunosuppression: Array Analysis of Chicken Immune Response Gene Expression Profiling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mareks disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of chickens induced by a highly cell-associated oncogenic alpha-herpesvirus, Mareks disease virus (MDV). MDV replicates in chicken lymphocytes and establishes a latency infection within CD4+ T cells. Host-virus interaction, immune responses to...

  4. Transcriptional profiling of Marek's disease virus genes during cytolytic and latent infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mareks disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease of chicken is caused by a highly cell-associated alpha-herpesvirus, Mareks disease virus (MDV). MDV replicates in chicken lymphocytes and establishes a latent infection within CD4+ T cells. The expression analysis of limited viral transcripts ha...

  5. Dynamic equilibrium of Marek’s disease genomes during in vitro serial passage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of chickens caused by gallid herpesvirus type 2 (GaHV-2). The disease is controlled through mass vaccination with live-attenuated strains. Attenuation of oncogenic GaHV-2 involves the serial passage of a virulent field isolate in avian embryo fib...

  6. Non-MHC genomic variation affecting Marek’s disease resistance and vaccine protective efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of the domestic chicken caused by a highly infectious, oncogenic herpesvirus commonly referred to as Marek’s disease virus (MDV). MD has been controlled by vaccination with non-oncogenic turkey herpesvirus (HVT), non-oncogenic chicken herpesvirus...

  7. FAS Haploinsufficiency Caused by Extracellular Missense Mutations Underlying Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome.

    PubMed

    de Bielke, Mara Gabriela Simesen; Perez, Laura; Yancoski, Judith; Oliveira, Joo Bosco; Danielian, Silvia

    2015-11-01

    Mutations in the FAS gene are the most common cause of Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS), and the majority of them affect the intracellular domain of FAS protein, particularly the region termed death domain. However, approximately one third of these mutations affect the extracellular region of FAS and most are stop codons, with very few missense changes having been described to date. We previously described 7 patients with a FAS missense extracellular mutation, C107Y, two in homozygozity and 5 in heterozygosity. We investigated here the mechanistic effects of this mutation and observed that the homozygous patients did not show any FAS surface expression, while the heterozygous patients had diminished receptor expression. Aiming to understand why a missense mutation was abolishing receptor expression, we analyzed intracellular FAS protein trafficking using fluorescent fusion proteins of wild type FAS, two missense extracellular mutants (FAS-C107Y and FAS-C104Y) and one missense change localized in the intracellular region, FAS-D260E. The FAS-C107Y and FAS-C104Y mutants failed to reach the cell surface, being retained at the endoplasmic reticulum, unlike the WT or the FAS-D260E which were clearly expressed at the plasma membrane. These results support haploinsufficiency as the underlying mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of ALPS caused by extracellular FAS missense mutations. PMID:26563159

  8. SIGLEC-G deficiency increases susceptibility to develop B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Simonetti, Giorgia; Bertilaccio, Maria Teresa Sabrina; Rodriguez, Tania Veliz; Apollonio, Benedetta; Dagklis, Antonis; Rocchi, Martina; Innocenzi, Anna; Casola, Stefano; Winkler, Thomas H.; Nitschke, Lars; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Caligaris-Cappio, Federico; Ghia, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The sialic-acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin SIGLEC-G is a negative regulator of B-cell receptor-mediated calcium signaling. Its deficiency leads to reduced turnover and increased proliferation and survival of murine B-1a cells. Siglecg?/? mice show a premature expansion of polyclonal CD5+ B cells in the spleen and the peritoneal cavity. Here we studied the fate of B lymphocytes in Siglecg?/? mice over time. We demonstrate that in aging animals SIGLEC-G deficiency promotes progressive accumulation of monoclonal B lymphocytes and increases the susceptibility to develop B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. Lymphoid tumors arising in aged Siglecg?/? mice are monoclonal and histologically heterogeneous as they include diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, and medium-to-large B-cell monomorphic lymphoma but surprisingly not chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The tumors express high levels of BCL-2 and are transplantable. In keeping with these findings we have also observed a remarkable down-regulation of the human ortholog SIGLEC10 in human B-cell lymphoma and leukemia cell lines. Taken together, these observations indicate that the down-regulation of negative B-cell receptor regulators such as SIGLEC-G/SIGLEC10 may represent another mechanism relevant to the pathogenesis of B-cell lymphomas. PMID:24859880

  9. Peripheral T-cell and NK cell lymphoproliferative disorders: cell of origin, clinical and pathological implications.

    PubMed

    Inghirami, Giorgio; Chan, Wing C; Pileri, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with distinct clinical-biological properties. The normal cellular counterpart of these processes has been postulated based on functional and immunophenotypic analyses. However, T lymphocytes have been proven to be remarkably capable of modulating their properties, adapting their function in relationship with multiple stimuli and to the microenvironment. This impressive plasticity is determined by the equilibrium among a pool of transcription factors and by DNA chromatin regulators. It is now proven that the acquisition of specific genomic defects leads to the enforcement/activation of distinct pathways, which ultimately alter the preferential activation of defined regulators, forcing the neoplastic cells to acquire features and phenotypes distant from their original fate. Thus, dissecting the landscape of the genetic defects and their functional consequences in T-cell neoplasms is critical not only to pinpoint the origin of these tumors but also to define innovative mechanisms to re-adjust an unbalanced state to which the tumor cells have become addicted and make them vulnerable to therapies and targetable by the immune system. In our review, we briefly describe the pathological and clinical aspects of the T-cell lymphoma subtypes as well as NK-cell lymphomas and then focus on the current understanding of their pathogenesis and the implications on diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25510275

  10. Aggressive EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorder: a prodrome to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma?

    PubMed

    Batra, Rashmi; Medeiros, Bruno C; Zehnder, James L; Warnke, Roger A; Natkunam, Yasodha

    2012-05-01

    A 19-year-old male patient presented with intermittent high fever and left cervical lymphadenopathy. The lymph node biopsy findings were interpreted as "Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoproliferative disorder consistent with infectious mononucleosis." No molecular studies were performed at that time. The patient was followed without treatment. Five months later, the patient again presented with fever, lymphadenopathy, and splenomegaly. The lymph node biopsy showed features of a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Molecular studies on this lymph node biopsy showed a clonal EBV population, although polymerase chain reaction studies failed to reveal a clonal B-cell or T-cell population. A concurrent bone marrow biopsy showed features consistent with hemophagocytic syndrome. He had elevated ferritin, soluble interleukin-2 receptors and persistent EBV viremia. The patient responded to Rituxan for a short period with undetectable EBV levels. Subsequent right cervical lymph node, liver, and jejunal biopsies showed involvement by diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and the patient expired soon thereafter. PMID:22505014

  11. Differences in the lymphoproliferative pattern to Leishmania mexicana antigens recognized by immunized and infected mice.

    PubMed

    Correnti, M; Ortega, G

    1994-12-01

    Immunity to leishmanial infection depends primarily on the activities initiated by T lymphocytes which have been sensitized to a diverse pool of parasitic antigens. In this study, the pattern of the lymphoproliferative responses of lymph node and spleen cells isolated from BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice previously infected with Leishmania mexicana was heterogeneous. However, we observed more pronounced responses to antigen fractions with molecular masses of 63 and 10-15 kDa, based on T cell immunoblotting. Responses were stronger and more persistent in the intermediate resistant C57BL/6 strain, as compared to the more evanescent response in the highly susceptible BALB/c mice. Similar responses in terms of immunodominant fractions were also consistently seen in total and T lymphocytes isolated from BALB/c mice which had been immunized with a soluble extract of Leishmania mexicana. These results are discussed in terms of general requirements for an effective vaccine against human leishmaniasis. PMID:7709863

  12. Anemia treatment of lymphoproliferative malignancies with erypoiesis: an overview of state of the art.

    PubMed

    Cacic, Daniel Limi; Hervig, Tor; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2013-04-01

    Anemia is a common comorbidity of lymphoproliferative malignancies, especially in multiple myeloma. Blood transfusions and ESAs (erythropoiesis stimulating agents) are both possible treatment options, but the latter is often preferred because of the potential risks of unwanted side effects related to blood transfusions. Evidence is accumulating that the use of ESAs in above clinical conditions is safe and effective and not associated with an increase in mortality or serious adverse events. 69.1% of patients achieved a hemoglobin response defined as an increase in hemoglobin of>2g/dl while receiving ESAs and concomitant chemotherapy. If supplemented with iron the hemoglobin response rate can be increased and hence the total dosage and financial cost reduced. A hemoglobin response is often accompanied by an increase in quality of life. HYPO% (hypochromic erythrocytes<5%) is believed to be both a significant positive predictor for the Hb response and also an indicator for iron supplementation if?5%. Conventional biochemical markers like serum ferritin concentration and transferrin saturation are not reliable for this use. The effect of EPO stimulating agents as the predictor of the Hb response, quality of life, mortality and the potential adverse events are discussed. PMID:23465378

  13. Valproic Acid (VPA), a Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Inhibitor, Diminishes Lymphoproliferation in the Fas Deficient MRL/lpr?/? Murine Model of Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS)

    PubMed Central

    Dowdell, Kennichi C; Pesnicak, Lesley; Hoffmann, Victoria; Steadman, Kenneth; Remaley, Alan T.; Cohen, Jeffrey I.; Straus, Stephen E; Rao, V. Koneti

    2009-01-01

    Objective Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a disorder of apoptosis, often presenting in childhood. Similarly, MRL/lpr?/? mice homozygous for Fas mutations develop an ALPS-like disease with autoimmunity, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and expansion of double negative T (DNT) cells. Currently, there are no proven therapies with adequate safety margins for sustained abolition of the lymphoproliferation associated with ALPS. We sought to test the ability of valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, to induce apoptosis and inhibit lymphoproliferation. Methods Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with ALPS and normal controls were tested in vitro to determine the efficacy of VPA at inducing cell death. VPA was used in vivo to control lymphoproliferation in MRL/lpr?/? mice, a model for ALPS. Results VPA induced cell death in vitro, and was partially inhibited by the pan caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK. MRL/lpr?/? mice treated with VPA for 8 weeks showed significant reductions in spleen and lymph node weights and cellularity compared to controls. A concomitant decrease in DNT cells was observed in the spleen, lymph nodes, and peripheral blood. Serum levels of VPA peaked 1 hour after injection, and a 2.5 fold increase in histone acetylation was observed in the spleen at 4 hours after injection. Conclusion Based on our data, VPA is effective at reducing lymphoproliferation in mice, and is currently being studied in a clinical trial as a lympholytic agent in patients with ALPS. PMID:19217201

  14. Castleman's Disease Presenting as Localized Abdominal Mass and Paraneoplastic Pemphigus

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Santosh; Bishnoi, Kshitij; Murugavaithianathan, Pragatheeswarane; Panwar, Vikas Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Castleman's disease is a rare, benign lymphoproliferative disorder of unknown origin. Paraneoplastic pemphigus is a common association which presents as oral mucosal ulcerations. Abdominal and retroperitoneal Castleman's disease present either as a localized disease or as a systemic disease. We hereby present a 15-year-old male patient with oral mucosal lesions with localized vague right lower abdominal mass who was diagnosed to have Castleman's disease with paraneoplastic pemphigus which was surgically excised. PMID:27014502

  15. High Serum Level of β2-Microglobulin in Late Posttransplant Period Predicts Subsequent Decline in Kidney Allograft Function: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Trailin, Andriy V.; Pleten, Marina V.; Ostapenko, Tatiana I.; Iefimenko, Nadiia F.; Nikonenko, Olexander S.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Identification of patients at risk for kidney allograft (KAG) failure beyond the first posttransplant year is an unmet need. We aimed to determine whether serum beta-2-microglobulin (β2MG) in the late posttransplant period could predict a decline in KAG function. Methods. We assessed a value of single measurement of serum β2MG at one to seventeen years after transplantation in predicting the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and the decline in eGFR over a period of two years in 79 recipients of KAG. Results. At baseline serum β2MG concentration was higher (P = 0.011) in patients with allograft dysfunction: 8.67 ± 2.48 µg/mL versus those with satisfactory graft function: 6.67 ± 2.13 µg/mL. Higher β2MG independently predicted the lower eGFR, the drop in eGFR by ≥25% after one and two years, and the value of negative eGFR slope. When combined with proteinuria and acute rejection, serum β2MG had excellent power in predicting certain drop in eGFR after one year (AUC = 0.910). In conjunction with posttransplant time serum β2MG had good accuracy in predicting certain eGFR drop after two years (AUC = 0.821). Conclusions. Elevated serum β2MG in the late posttransplant period is useful in identifying patients at risk for rapid loss of graft function. PMID:26633915

  16. Epstein-Barr Virus-Positive T/NK-Cell Lymphoproliferative Disorders Manifested as Gastrointestinal Perforations and Skin Lesions: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hai-Juan; Li, Ji; Song, Hong-Mei; Li, Zheng-Hong; Dong, Mei; Zhou, Xiao-Ge

    2016-02-01

    Systemic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) of childhood is a highly aggressive EBV-positive T/natural killer (NK)-cell LPD, which emerges in the background of chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) or shortly after primary acute EBV infection. The clinical presentations of CAEBV are varied; patients with atypical manifestations are easily misdiagnosed. We described a 14-year-old boy suffering from digestive disorders and intermittent fever for 1 year and 9 months, whose conditions worsened and skin lesions occurred 2 months before hospitalization. He was diagnosed as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and treated accordingly. His other clinical features, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, and elevated inflammatory marks, were found in hospitalization. The boy suffered from repeatedly spontaneous intestinal perforations shortly after hospitalization and died of intestinal hemorrhea. The pathological results of intestine and skin both showed EBV-positive T/NK-cell LPD (lymphoma stage).There are rare studies reporting gastrointestinal perforations in EBV-positive T/NK-cell LPD, let alone repeatedly spontaneous perforations. Based on the clinical features and pathological results of this patient, the disease progressed from CAEBV (T-cell type) to systemic EBV-positive T-cell LPD of childhood (lymphoma). Not all the patients with CAEBV could have unusual patterns of anti-EBV antibodies. However, the presence of high EBV loads (EBV-encoded early small ribonucleic acid (RNA) (EBER) in affected tissues and/or EBV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in peripheral blood) is essential for diagnosing CAEBV. Maybe because of his less common clinical features for CAEBV and negative anti-EBV antibodies, the boy was not diagnosed correctly. We should have emphasized the test for EBER or EBV-DNA. Meanwhile, for the IBD patients whose manifestations were not typical, and whose conditions were not improved by suitable therapies against IBD, infectious and malignant diseases should be considered. PMID:26844502

  17. Cell sizing in chronic lymphoproliferative disorders: an aid to differential diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, H D; Markey, G M; Nolan, R L; Morris, T C

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To determine if leucocyte volume distribution analysis (LVDA), obtained using a Coulter Counter Model S Plus IV, can be used to aid differentiation of chronic lymphoproliferative disorder (CLPD) subtypes. METHODS: Mean lymphocyte volume and lymphocyte distribution width were measured on each patient (n = 90) using a hard copy of an amplified LVDA histogram. The mean lymphocyte volume was taken as the mean of the values on either side of the peak at half maximum height. The lymphocyte distribution width was taken as the range of cell values between the two values used to calibrate the mean lymphocyte volume. A template showing typical histograms from commonly occurring CLPD was also produced on an acetate sheet. This was used to examine the histogram from each new patient to evaluate its usefulness as an alternative to the calculation of mean lymphocyte volume and lymphocyte distribution width. RESULTS: Mean lymphocyte volume and lymphocyte distribution width were significantly higher in B cell lymphocytic leukaemia of mixed cell type (B CLL/PL), B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with peripheral blood spill, hairy cell leukaemia and T cell prolymphocytic leukaemia than in B cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B CLL). The mean lymphocyte volume, but not the lymphocyte distribution width, was also significantly higher in T cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia than in B CLL. The template gave an immediate preliminary indication of possible subtype(s) of disorder and could be used as an alternative to measurement of mean lymphocyte volume and lymphocyte distribution width. CONCLUSIONS: Electronic haematology analysers producing an LVDA provide a useful, cost effective cell sizing analysis which can aid the differentiation of subtypes of CLPD. Images PMID:1430257

  18. Usefullness of IGH/TCR PCR studies in lymphoproliferative disorders with inconclusive clonality by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Ribera, Jordi; Zamora, Lurdes; Junc, Jordi; Rodrguez, Ins; Marc, Silvia; Cabezn, Marta; Mill, Fuensanta

    2013-07-25

    In up to 5-15% of studies of lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) flow cytometry (FCM) or immunomorphologic methods cannot discriminate malignant from reactive processes. The aim of this work was to determine the usefulness of PCR for solving these diagnostic uncertainties. We analyzed IGH and TCR? genes by PCR in 106 samples with inconclusive FCM results. A clonal result was registered in 36/106 studies, with a LPD being confirmed in 27 (75%) of these cases. Specifically, 9/9 IGH clonal and 16/25 TCR? clonal results were finally diagnosed with LPD. Additionally, 2 clonal TCR? samples with suspicion of undefined LPD were finally diagnosed with T LPD. Although polyclonal results were obtained in 47 of the cases studied (38 IGH and 9 TCR?), hematologic neoplasms were diagnosed in 4/38 IGH polyclonal and in 1/9 TCR? polyclonal studies. There were also 14 PCR polyclonal results (4 IGH, 10 TCR?), albeit non-conclusive. Of these, 2/4 were eventually diagnosed with B-cell lymphoma and 3/10 with T-cell LPD. In 8 IGH samples the results of PCR techniques were non-informative but in 3/8 cases a B lymphoma was finally confirmed. We concluded that PCR is a useful technique to identify LPD when FCM is inconclusive. A PCR clonal B result is indicative of malignancy but IGH polyclonal and non-conclusive results do not exclude lymphoid neoplasms. Interpretation of T-cell clonality should be based on all the available clinical and analytical data. 2013 Clinical Cytometry Society. PMID:23894019

  19. Usefulness of IGH/TCR PCR studies in lymphoproliferative disorders with inconclusive clonality by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Ribera, Jordi; Zamora, Lurdes; Junc, Jordi; Rodrguez, Ins; Marc, Silvia; Cabezn, Marta; Mill, Fuensanta

    2014-01-01

    In up to 5-15% of studies of lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD), flow cytometry (FCM) or immunomorphologic methods cannot discriminate malignant from reactive processes. The aim of this work was to determine the usefulness of PCR for solving these diagnostic uncertainties. We analyzed IGH and TCR? genes by PCR in 106 samples with inconclusive FCM results. A clonal result was registered in 36/106 studies, with a LPD being confirmed in 27 (75%) of these cases. Specifically, 9/9 IGH clonal and 16/25 TCR? clonal results were finally diagnosed with LPD. Additionally, two clonal TCR? samples with suspicion of undefined LPD were finally diagnosed with T LPD. Although polyclonal results were obtained in 47 of the cases studied (38 IGH and nine TCR?), hematologic neoplasms were diagnosed in 4/38 IGH polyclonal and in 1/9 TCR? polyclonal studies. There were also 14 PCR polyclonal results (four IGH, 10 TCR?), albeit nonconclusive. Of these, 2/4 were eventually diagnosed with B-cell lymphoma and 3/10 with T-cell LPD. In eight IGH samples, the results of PCR techniques were noninformative but in 3/8 cases a B lymphoma was finally confirmed. We concluded that PCR is a useful technique to identify LPD when FCM is inconclusive. A PCR clonal B result is indicative of malignancy but IGH polyclonal and nonconclusive results do not exclude lymphoid neoplasms. Interpretation of T-cell clonality should be based on all the available clinical and analytical data. PMID:23943305

  20. Genome-wide Copy Number Variation and Temporal Genes Expression Analysis in Marek's Disease-Resistant or -Susceptible Inbred Lines of Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Viruses that cause cancers are a great threat to human and animal health. Marek’s disease (MD) in chickens is a lymphoproliferative disease caused by Marek’s disease virus (MDV). The over-expression of Hodgkin’s disease antigen in MD makes it an ideal model to study the progression mechanism of Hodg...

  1. The genomes of Marek’s disease virus exist as quasispecies at defined intervals during serial passage-induced attenuation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of chickens caused by gallid herpesvirus type 2 (GaHV-2). The disease is controlled through mass vaccination with live-attenuated strains. Attenuation of oncogenic GaHV-2 involves the serial passage of a virulent field isolate in avian embryo fib...

  2. Characterizing the molecular basis of attenuation of Marek’s disease virus via in vitro serial passage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of chickens caused by the oncogenic Gallid herpesvirus 2, commonly known as Marek’s disease virus (MDV). MD vaccines, the primary control method, are often generated by repeated in vitro serial passage of this highly cell-associated virus to atte...

  3. PCR Analysis of IgH and TCR-? Gene Rearrangements as a Confirmatory Diagnostic Tool for Lymphoproliferative Disorders.

    PubMed

    Poopak, Behzad; Valeshabad, Ali Kord; Elahi, Fazel; Rezvani, Hamid; Khosravipour, Gelareh; Jahangirpour, Mohammad Ali; Bolouri, Shirin; Golkar, Tolou; Salari, Fatemeh; Shahjahani, Mohammad; Saki, Najmaldin

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates PCR analysis of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) and T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements on paraffin-embedded tissue sections and bone marrow aspirates of patients suspected to have lymphoproliferative disorders but with inconclusive diagnosis in histopathological examination. 130 samples of patients with inconclusive immunohistochemistry results were evaluated for clonal rearrangement of IgH and TCR genes. Based on histopathology examination, the patients were divided into three groups: the first group without any definite diagnosis of lymphoproliferative disorders (60 cases, 46.2%), the second group suspected to have a lymphoproliferative disorder but in favor of benign disorders (19 cases, 14.6%) and the third group suspect to lymphoproliferative disorders but relatively in favor of malignant disorders (51 cases, 39.2%). After DNA extraction and quality control, semi-nested PCR was performed using consensus primers for amplification of TCR-? and CDR-3 regions of IgH genes. PCR products were analyzed after heteroduplex analysis using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and were subject to silver staining. Totally, in over half of the cases (55.4%), a monoclonal pattern was found in IgH or TCR-? genes rearrangements. Monoclonal IgH gene rearrangement was detected in 48.1% of patients, whereas monoclonal TCR-? gene rearrangement was found in 33.6% of them, which was not statistically significant (P=0.008). Only in 32 patients (24.6%) were the results of TCR-? and IgH gene rearrangements consistent with respect to the presence (2.3%) or absence (22.3%) of monoclonality. Finally, PCR analysis of TCR-? and IgH gene rearrangements led to definite diagnosis in 105 patients (80.8%), and only 25 cases (19.2%) remained inconclusive. Our results emphasize the usefulness of gene rearrangement study in cases without a definite diagnosis in immunohistochemistry studies. Multiple PCR analysis results when combined with patient's clinical course and immunohistochemistry can lead to early diagnosis and subsequent therapy. PMID:25548443

  4. Screening for cardiovascular disease before kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Palepu, Sneha; Prasad, G V Ramesh

    2015-12-24

    Pre-kidney transplant cardiac screening has garnered particular attention from guideline committees as an approach to improving post-transplant success. Screening serves two major purposes: To more accurately inform transplant candidates of their risk for a cardiac event before and after the transplant, thereby informing decisions about proceeding with transplantation, and to guide pre-transplant management so that post-transplant success can be maximized. Transplant candidates on dialysis are more likely to be screened for coronary artery disease than those not being considered for transplantation. Thorough history and physical examination taking, resting electrocardiography and echocardiography, exercise stress testing, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, dobutamine stress echocardiography, cardiac computed tomography, cardiac biomarker measurement, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging all play contributory roles towards screening for cardiovascular disease before kidney transplantation. In this review, the importance of each of these screening procedures for both coronary artery disease and other forms of cardiac disease are discussed. PMID:26722655

  5. Screening for cardiovascular disease before kidney transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Palepu, Sneha; Prasad, G V Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Pre-kidney transplant cardiac screening has garnered particular attention from guideline committees as an approach to improving post-transplant success. Screening serves two major purposes: To more accurately inform transplant candidates of their risk for a cardiac event before and after the transplant, thereby informing decisions about proceeding with transplantation, and to guide pre-transplant management so that post-transplant success can be maximized. Transplant candidates on dialysis are more likely to be screened for coronary artery disease than those not being considered for transplantation. Thorough history and physical examination taking, resting electrocardiography and echocardiography, exercise stress testing, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, dobutamine stress echocardiography, cardiac computed tomography, cardiac biomarker measurement, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging all play contributory roles towards screening for cardiovascular disease before kidney transplantation. In this review, the importance of each of these screening procedures for both coronary artery disease and other forms of cardiac disease are discussed. PMID:26722655

  6. Long-term use of amiodarone before heart transplantation significantly reduces early post-transplant atrial fibrillation and is not associated with increased mortality after heart transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Rivinius, Rasmus; Helmschrott, Matthias; Ruhparwar, Arjang; Schmack, Bastian; Erbel, Christian; Gleissner, Christian A; Akhavanpoor, Mohammadreza; Frankenstein, Lutz; Darche, Fabrice F; Schweizer, Patrick A; Thomas, Dierk; Ehlermann, Philipp; Bruckner, Tom; Katus, Hugo A; Doesch, Andreas O

    2016-01-01

    Background Amiodarone is a frequently used antiarrhythmic drug in patients with end-stage heart failure. Given its long half-life, pre-transplant use of amiodarone has been controversially discussed, with divergent results regarding morbidity and mortality after heart transplantation (HTX). Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term use of amiodarone before HTX on early post-transplant atrial fibrillation (AF) and mortality after HTX. Methods Five hundred and thirty patients (age ≥18 years) receiving HTX between June 1989 and December 2012 were included in this retrospective single-center study. Patients with long-term use of amiodarone before HTX (≥1 year) were compared to those without long-term use (none or <1 year of amiodarone). Primary outcomes were early post-transplant AF and mortality after HTX. The Kaplan–Meier estimator using log-rank tests was applied for freedom from early post-transplant AF and survival. Results Of the 530 patients, 74 (14.0%) received long-term amiodarone therapy, with a mean duration of 32.3±26.3 months. Mean daily dose was 223.0±75.0 mg. Indications included AF, Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome, ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation. Patients with long-term use of amiodarone before HTX had significantly lower rates of early post-transplant AF (P=0.0105). Further, Kaplan–Meier analysis of freedom from early post-transplant AF showed significantly lower rates of AF in this group (P=0.0123). There was no statistically significant difference between patients with and without long-term use of amiodarone prior to HTX in 1-year (P=0.8596), 2-year (P=0.8620), 5-year (P=0.2737), or overall follow-up mortality after HTX (P=0.1049). Moreover, Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed no statistically significant difference in overall survival (P=0.1786). Conclusion Long-term use of amiodarone in patients before HTX significantly reduces early post-transplant AF and is not associated with increased mortality after HTX. PMID:26937171

  7. Serum Uric Acid and Renal Transplantation Outcomes: At Least 3-Year Post-transplant Retrospective Multivariate Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kun; Gao, Baoshan; Wang, Yuantao; Wang, Gang; Wang, Weigang; Zhu, Yaxiang; Yao, Liyu; Gu, Yiming; Chen, Mo; Zhou, Honglan; Fu, Yaowen

    2015-01-01

    Since the association of serum uric acid and kidney transplant graft outcome remains disputable, we sought to evaluate the predictive value of uric acid level for graft survival/function and the factors could affect uric acid as time varies. A consecutive cohort of five hundred and seventy three recipients transplanted during January 2008 to December 2011 were recruited. Data and laboratory values of our interest were collected at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 36 months post-transplant for analysis. Cox proportional hazard model, and multiple regression equation were built to adjust for the possible confounding variables and meet our goals as appropriate. The current cohort study lasts for 41.86 15.49 months. Uric acid level is proven to be negatively associated with eGFR at different time point after adjustment for age, body mass index and male gender (standardized ? ranges from -0.15 to -0.30 with all P<0.001).Males with low eGFR but high level of TG were on CSA, diuretics and RAS inhibitors and experienced at least one episode of acute rejection and diabetic issue were associated with a higher mean uric acid level. Hyperuricemia was significantly an independent predictor of pure graft failure (hazard ratio=4.01, 95% CI: 1.25-12.91, P=0.02) after adjustment. But it was no longer an independent risk factor for graft loss after adjustment. Interestingly, higher triglyceride level can make incidence of graft loss (hazard ratio=1.442, for each unit increase millimoles per liter 95% CI: 1.008-2.061, P=0.045) and death (hazard ratio=1.717, 95% CI: 1.105-2.665, P=0.016) more likely. The results of our study suggest that post-transplant elevated serum uric acid level is an independent predictor of long-term graft survival and graft function. Together with the high TG level impact on poor outcomes, further investigations for therapeutic effect are needed. PMID:26208103

  8. The MYC/miR-17-92 axis in lymphoproliferative disorders: A common pathway with therapeutic potential

    PubMed Central

    Hernndez, Luis; Gattei, Valter

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of small non-coding single-stranded RNA molecules acting as master regulators of gene expression post transcriptionally by inhibiting the translation or inducing the degradation of target messenger RNAs (mRNAs). In particular, the miR-17-92 cluster is widely expressed in many different cell types and is essential for many developmental and pathogenic processes. As a strong oncogene, miR-17-92 can regulate multiple cellular processes that favor malignant transformation, promoting cell survival, rapid cell proliferation, and increased angiogenesis. The miR-17-92 cluster has been reported to be involved in hematopoietic malignancies including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Given the multiple and potent effects on cellular proliferation and apoptosis exerted by the miR-17-92 cluster, miRNAs belonging to the cluster surely represent attractive targets for cancer therapy also in the context of lymphoproliferative disorders. In the present review, we focus on the role of the miR-17-92 cluster in lymphoproliferative disorders, including diagnostic/prognostic implications, and on the potential applications of anti-miRNAs based therapies targeting miRNAs belonging to the cluster. PMID:26305986

  9. Detection of monoclonal T populations in patients with KIR-restricted chronic lymphoproliferative disorder of NK cells

    PubMed Central

    Gattazzo, Cristina; Teramo, Antonella; Passeri, Francesca; De March, Elena; Carraro, Samuela; Trimarco, Valentina; Frezzato, Federica; Berno, Tamara; Baril, Gregorio; Martini, Veronica; Piazza, Francesco; Trentin, Livio; Facco, Monica; Semenzato, Gianpietro; Zambello, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of chronic large granular lymphocyte proliferations is largely unknown. Although these disorders are characterized by the expansion of different cell types (T and natural killer) with specific genetic features and abnormalities, several lines of evidence suggest a common pathogenetic mechanism. According to this interpretation, we speculated that in patients with natural killer-type chronic lymphoproliferative disorder, together with natural killer cells, also T lymphocytes undergo a persistent antigenic pressure, possibly resulting in an ultimate clonal T-cell selection. To strengthen this hypothesis, we evaluated whether clonal T-cell populations were detectable in 48 patients with killer immunoglobulin-like receptor-restricted natural killer-type chronic lymphoproliferative disorder. At diagnosis, in half of the patients studied, we found a clearly defined clonal T-cell population, despite the fact that all cases presented with a well-characterized natural killer disorder. Follow-up analysis confirmed that the TCR gamma rearrangements were stable over the time period evaluated; furthermore, in 7 patients we demonstrated the appearance of a clonal T subset that progressively matures, leading to a switch between killer immunoglobulin-like receptor-restricted natural killer-type disorder to a monoclonal T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia. Our results support the hypothesis that a common mechanism is involved in the pathogenesis of these disorders. PMID:25193965

  10. Benefits of PEGylation in the early post-transplant period of intraportal islet transplantation as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging of labeled islets

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Sang-Man; Oh, Seung-Hoon; Oh, Bae Jun; Suh, Sunghwan; Bae, Ji Cheol; Lee, Jung Hee; Lee, Myung-Shik; Lee, Moon-Kyu; Kim, Kwang-Won; Kim, Jae Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    While a few studies have demonstrated the benefit of PEGylation in islet transplantation, most have employed renal subcapsular models and none have performed direct comparisons of islet mass in intraportal islet transplantation using islet magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, our aim was to demonstrate the benefit of PEGylation in the early post-transplant period of intraportal islet transplantation with a novel algorithm for islet MRI. Islets were PEGylated after ferucarbotran labeling in a rat syngeneic intraportal islet transplantation model followed by comparisons of post-transplant glycemic levels in recipient rats infused with PEGylated (n = 12) and non-PEGylated (n = 13) islets. The total area of hypointense spots and the number of hypointense spots larger than 1.758 mm2 of PEGylated and non-PEGylated islets were quantitatively compared. The total area of hypointense spots (P < 0.05) and the number of hypointense spots larger than 1.758 mm2 (P < 0.05) were higher in the PEGylated islet group 7 and 14 days post translation (DPT). These results translated into better post-transplant outcomes in the PEGylated islet group 28 DPT. In validation experiments, MRI parameters obtained 1, 7, and 14 DPT predicted normoglycemia 4 wk post-transplantation. We directly demonstrated the benefit of islet PEGylation in protection against nonspecific islet destruction in the early post-transplant period of intraportal islet transplantation using a novel algorithm for islet MRI. This novel algorithm could serve as a useful tool to demonstrate such benefit in future clinical trials of islet transplantation using PEGylated islets. PMID:25483878

  11. Quantitation of Mareks disease virus in vaccinated population of resistant and susceptible chicken samples using real-time PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mareks disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of chicken caused by cell-associated alpha-herpesvirus, known as Mareks disease virus (MDV). MD virus load in challenged chickens has been well studied, but the difference between the virus load in vaccinated MD resistant and susceptible chicken...

  12. Vaccine by chicken line interaction alters the protective efficacy against challenge with a very virulent plus strain of Marek's disease virus in white leghorn chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens caused by Marek’s disease virus (MDV), an oncogenic and highly contagious a-herpesvirus. MD has been controlled by vaccination but sporadic outbreaks of MD still occur in some parts of the world. Efforts to improve vaccine ef...

  13. Construction of a YAC contig and STS map spanning 2.5 Mbp in Xq25, the critical region for the X-linked lymphoproliferative (XLP) gene

    SciTech Connect

    Lanyi, A.; Li, B.F.; Li, S.

    1994-09-01

    X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is characterized by a marked vulnerability in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Infection of XLP patients with EBV invariably results in fatal mononucleosis, agammaglobulinemia or B-cell lymphoma. The XLP gene lies within a 10 cM region in Xq25 between DXS42 and DXS10. Initial chromosome studies revealed an interstitial, cytogenetically visible deletion in Xq25 in one XLP family (43-004). We estimated the size of the Xq25 deletion by dual laser flow karyotyping to involve 2% of the X chromosome, or approximately 3 Mbp of DNA sequences. To further delineate the deletion we performed a series of pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analyses which showed that DXS6 and DXS100, two Xq25-specific markers, are missing from 45-004 DNA. Five yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) from a chromosome X specific YAC library containing sequences deleted in patient`s 43-004 DNA were isolated. These five YACs did not overlap, and their end fragments were used to screen the CEPH MegaYAC library. Seven YACs were isolated from the CEPH MegaYAC library. They could be arranged into a contig which spans between DXS6 and DXS100. The contig contains a minimum of 2.5 Mbp of human DNA. A total of 12 YAC end clone, lambda subclones and STS probes have been used to order clones within the contig. These reagents were also used in Southern blot and patients showed interstitial deletions in Xq25. The size of these deletions range between 0.5 and 2.5 Mbp. The shortest deletion probably represents the critical region for the XLP gene.

  14. Genetic Interactions Between TRPC6 and NPHS1 Variants Affect Posttransplant Risk of Recurrent Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Z J; Ng, K H; Liao, P; Zhang, Y; Ng, J L; Liu, I D; Tan, P H; Chong, S S C; Chan, Y H; Liu, J; Davila, S; Heng, C K; Jordan, S C; Soong, T W; Yap, H K

    2015-12-01

    Individuals with TRPC6 mutations have variable phenotypes, ranging from healthy carrier to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) leading to renal failure. Here, we describe a family where six members had a novel TRPC6 p.R68W (c.202C>T) mutation, two of whom had renal failure from FSGS, and one had proteinuria. One healthy carrier donated a kidney to her sister. Both donor and recipient had no proteinuria at 20 years posttransplant. Two synonymous NPHS1 polymorphisms, rs2285450 (c.294C>T) and rs437168 (c.2289C>T) segregated with renal failure in this family. These variants had higher allele frequencies in 97 unrelated patients with nephrotic syndrome or FSGS compared to 224 controls. Using patch-clamp experiments in HEK293 and podocytes, we showed that the p.R68W mutation increased TRPC6 current amplitudes, which may be explained by enhanced TRPC6 surface expression. Additionally, while wild-type nephrin suppressed TRPC6 currents, this ability was lost in the presence of NPHS1 c.294C>T polymorphism. When cells were transfected according to combined TRPC6 and NPHS1 genotypes in the family, those representing the donor had lower TRPC6 currents than cells representing the recipient, suggesting that interactions between TRPC6 and NPHS1 variants could possibly account for the variable penetrance of TRPC6 mutations and the absence of recurrence in the graft. PMID:26147534

  15. The influence of mTOR inhibitors on immunity and the relationship to post-transplant malignancy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The known role of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in the immune response has been rapidly evolving, from what was once thought to be a simple immunosuppressive antiproliferative effect on T cells to a very complex central role that serves to integrate multiple signals given to T cells, B cells and antigen-presenting cells. The complexity of this topic is demonstrated by recent data suggesting that mTOR inhibition can either inhibit or promote certain aspects of immune responses, depending on the nature of the antigenic stimulus, and the environmental conditions cueing the cellular immunological players. There is even evidence that, under mTOR inhibition, an immune response to one foreign entity (for example, an organ transplant) may be simultaneously completely different to that of another (for example, tumour or microorganism). To understand how this might be possible, it is necessary to investigate the central role that mTOR seems to have in shaping the immune response. This review is aimed at examining how mTOR controls the development and function of key immune cells, and puts this information primarily in the context of organ transplant rejection and post-transplant malignancy. PMID:24565200

  16. Toxoplasmosis in a post-transplant bronchoalveolar lavage: a case report.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Sara E; Monaghan, Sara A; Stamm, Jason A; Khalbuss, Walid E; Nichols, Larry; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2012-07-01

    Toxoplasma gondii usually causes an asymptomatic and then latent infection in human adults; however, a potentially fatal disseminated form can occur in immunocompromised patients. Given that the diagnosis of acute Toxoplasma infection, as opposed to latent disease, relies on finding direct evidence of T. gondii infection in tissue, pathologic examination is critical. There have only been a few reports describing the cytomorphology of Toxoplasma in exfoliative cytology, and no reports of the findings in Thin Prep. In this report, we describe a fatal case of toxoplasmosis in a cardiac transplant patient that was diagnosed by respiratory cytopathology. Although the extracellular organisms were well visualized on the Wright-Giemsa stained cytospin, they were only faintly seen on the Pap-stained cytospin trapped within mucin and were not easily appreciated on the ThinPrep slides nor the H&E stained cell block sections. An immunohistochemical stain for Toxoplasma performed on the cell block was strongly positive, and an autopsy performed on the patient confirmed disseminated infection. Our case illustrates that the diagnosis of Toxoplasma in exfoliative cytology specimens can be challenging since organisms are not well visualized on ThinPrep or Pap-stained material; therefore, Wright-Giemsa stained material can be particularly helpful. PMID:21591274

  17. Spontaneous remission of post-transplant recurrent focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Bassam; Mazloum, Houda; Askar, Munaf

    2011-11-01

    A 12-year-old girl with a history of steroid and cyclosporine (CsA) resistant nephrotic syndrome owing to focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) has progressed to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) for which she underwent hemodialysis for 18 months before she successfully received a fully matched kidney transplant from her sister at the age of nine years. The post transplantation (Tx) period was marked by an early and massive proteinuria indicating recurrent FSGS for which she received 12 sessions of plasmapheresis (PP); unfortunately, she did not appear to have any response to the PP therapy; thereafter, a conservative management comprising essentially enalapril and losartan has been initiated and was also not successful during the first four months, however, a very gradual response has been noticed to occur after five months of conservative therapy and ultimately, the patient attained complete remission after 21 months of treatment. Amazingly, 15 months after discontinuation of enalapril and losartan, she remained in a complete and sustained remission with a good renal allograft function. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case ever reported in the literature of a "spontaneous" remission of post transplant recurrent FSGS. PMID:22089787

  18. Composite Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated B-Cell Lymphoproliferative Disorder and Tubular Adenoma in a Rectal Polyp.

    PubMed

    Lo, Amy A; Gao, Juehua; Rao, M Sambasivia; Yang, Guang-Yu

    2016-02-01

    Composite tumors are formed when there is intermingling between two components of separate tumors seen histologically. Cases demonstrating composite tubular adenoma with other types of tumors in the colon are rare. Composite tubular adenomas with nonlymphoid tumors including carcinoids, microcarcinoids, and small cell undifferentiated carcinoma have been reported in the literature. The occurrence of composite lymphoma and tubular adenoma within the colorectal tract is extremely rare. Only three cases have been reported and include one case of mantle cell lymphoma and two cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma arising in composite tubular adenomas. We present the first case of composite Epstein-Barr virus-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder and tubular adenoma in a rectal polyp with a benign endoscopic appearance. PMID:26353852

  19. Lymphoproliferative and gamma interferon responses to stress-regulated Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis recombinant proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Johne’s disease in ruminants is a chronic infection of the intestines caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Economic losses associated with Johne’s disease arise due to premature culling, reduced production of milk and wool and mortalities. The disease is characterised by a long inc...

  20. EBV-Positive and EBV-Negative Posttransplant Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphomas Have Distinct Genomic and Transcriptomic Features.

    PubMed

    Finalet Ferreiro, J; Morscio, J; Dierickx, D; Vandenberghe, P; Gheysens, O; Verhoef, G; Zamani, M; Tousseyn, T; Wlodarska, I

    2016-02-01

    The molecular pathogenesis of posttransplant diffuse large B cell lymphoma (PT-DLBCL) is largely unknown. We have recently shown that Epstein-Barr virus-positive (EBV(+) ) and -negative (EBV(-) ) PT-DLBCL have distinct gene expression profiles, and the transcriptomic profile of EBV(-) PT-DLBCL is similar to that of DLBCL in immunocompetent individuals (IC-DLBCL). To validate these observations at the genomic level, we performed array-comparative genome hybridization (aCGH) analysis of 21 EBV(+) PT-DLBCL, 6 EBV(-) PT-DLBCL, and 11 control IC-DLBCL, and subsequently combined genomic and transcriptomic data. The analysis showed that EBV(+) and EBV(-) PT-DLBCL have distinct aCGH profiles and shared only one recurrent imbalance. EBV(-) PT-DLBCL, however, displayed at least 10 aberrations recurrent in IC-DLBCL, among which characteristic gain of 3/3q and 18q, and loss of 6q23/TNFAIP3 as well as 9p21/CDKN2A. The most prevalent aberration in EBV(+) PT-DLBCL was gain/amplification of 9p24.1 targeting PDCD1LG2/PDL2. Our data indicate that the FOXP1 oncogene and the tumor suppressor CDKNA2 implicated in EBV(-) DLBCL, do not play a critical role in the pathogenesis of EBV(+) PT-DLBCL. Altogether, genomic profiling of PT-/IC-DLBCL confirms that EBV(-) and EBV(+) PT-DLBCL are distinct entities, while EBV(-) PT-DLBCL has features in common with IC-DLBCL. These findings support the hypothesis that EBV(-) PT-DLBCL are de novo lymphomas in transplant recipients. PMID:26780579

  1. A Case of Multicentric Castleman's Disease Presenting with Follicular Bronchiolitis

    PubMed Central

    Hwangbo, Yup; Lee, Yong Hoon; Lee, So Yeon; Seo, Hyewon; Oh, Serim; Kim, Minjung; Choi, Sun Ha; Park, Tae In; Shin, Kyung-Min

    2013-01-01

    Multicentric Castleman's disease (CD) is a rare atypical lymphoproliferative disorder, which is characterized by various systemic manifestations. Some patients with multicentric CD may have concomitant lung parenchymal lesions, for which lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP) is known to be the most common pathologic finding. Follicular bronchiolitis and LIP are considered to be on the same spectrum of the disease. We describe a case of multicentric CD with pulmonary involvement, which was pathologically proven as follicular bronchiolitis. PMID:23390449

  2. Insertion of reticuloendotheliosis virus long terminal repeat into the genome of CVI988 strain of Mareks disease virus results in enhanced growth and protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mareks disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of chicken caused by serotype 1 MD virus (MDV). Vaccination of commercial poultry has drastically reduced losses from MD and the poultry industry cannot be sustained without the use of vaccines. Retrovirus insertion into herpesviruses genome is a...

  3. Deconvoluting Post-Transplant Immunity: Cell Subset-Specific Mapping Reveals Pathways for Activation and Expansion of Memory T, Monocytes and B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Grigoryev, Yevgeniy A.; Kurian, Sunil M.; Avnur, Zafi; Borie, Dominic; Deng, Jun; Campbell, Daniel; Sung, Joanna; Nikolcheva, Tania; Quinn, Anthony; Schulman, Howard; Peng, Stanford L.; Schaffer, Randolph; Fisher, Jonathan; Mondala, Tony; Head, Steven; Flechner, Stuart M.; Kantor, Aaron B.; Marsh, Christopher; Salomon, Daniel R.

    2010-01-01

    A major challenge for the field of transplantation is the lack of understanding of genomic and molecular drivers of early post-transplant immunity. The early immune response creates a complex milieu that determines the course of ensuing immune events and the ultimate outcome of the transplant. The objective of the current study was to mechanistically deconvolute the early immune response by purifying and profiling the constituent cell subsets of the peripheral blood. We employed genome-wide profiling of whole blood and purified CD4, CD8, B cells and monocytes in tandem with high-throughput laser-scanning cytometry in 10 kidney transplants sampled serially pre-transplant, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Cytometry confirmed early cell subset depletion by antibody induction and immunosuppression. Multiple markers revealed the activation and proliferative expansion of CD45RO+CD62L? effector memory CD4/CD8 T cells as well as progressive activation of monocytes and B cells. Next, we mechanistically deconvoluted early post-transplant immunity by serial monitoring of whole blood using DNA microarrays. Parallel analysis of cell subset-specific gene expression revealed a unique spectrum of time-dependent changes and functional pathways. Gene expression profiling results were validated with 157 different probesets matching all 65 antigens detected by cytometry. Thus, serial blood cell monitoring reflects the profound changes in blood cell composition and immune activation early post-transplant. Each cell subset reveals distinct pathways and functional programs. These changes illuminate a complex, early phase of immunity and inflammation that includes activation and proliferative expansion of the memory effector and regulatory cells that may determine the phenotype and outcome of the kidney transplant. PMID:20976225

  4. Population pharmacokineticpharmacodynamic modelling of mycophenolic acid in paediatric renal transplant recipients in the early post-transplant period

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Min; Fukuda, Tsuyoshi; Cox, Shareen; de Vries, Marij T; Hooper, David K; Goebel, Jens; Vinks, Alexander A

    2014-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK?PD) model for mycophenolic acid (MPA) in paediatric renal transplant recipients in the early post-transplant period. Methods A total of 214 MPA plasma concentrations?time data points from 24 patients were available for PK model development. In 17 out of a total of 24 patients, inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) enzyme activity measurements (n?=?97) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were available for PK?PD modelling. The PK?PD model was developed using non-linear mixed effects modelling sequentially by 1) developing a population PK model and 2) incorporating IMPDH activity into a PK?PD model using post hoc?Bayesian PK parameter estimates. Covariate analysis included patient demographics, co-medication and clinical laboratory data. Non-parametric bootstrapping and prediction-corrected visual predictive checks were performed to evaluate the final models. Results A two compartment model with a transit compartment absorption best described MPA PK. A non-linear relationship between dose and MPA exposure was observed and was described by a power function in the model. The final population PK parameter estimates (and their 95% confidence intervals) were CL/F, 22 (14.8, 25.2) l?h?1 70?kg?1; Vc/F, 45.4 (29.6, 55.6) l; Vp/F, 411 (152.6, 1472.6)l; Q/F, 22.4 (16.0, 32.5) l?h?1; Ka, 2.5 (1.45, 4.93)?h?1. Covariate analysis in the PK study identified body weight to be significantly correlated with CL/F. A simplified inhibitory Emax model adequately described the relationship between MPA concentration and IMPDH activity. The final population PK?PD parameter estimates (and their 95% confidence intervals) were: E0, 3.45 (2.61, 4.56) nmol?h?1?mg?1 protein and EC50, 1.73 (1.16, 3.01) mg?l?1. Emax was fixed to 0. There were two African-American patients in our study cohorts and both had low IMPDH baseline activities (E0) compared with Caucasian patients (mean value 2.13?mg?l?1 vs. 3.86?mg?l?1). Conclusion An integrated population PK?PD model of MPA has been developed in paediatric renal transplant recipients. The current model provides information that will facilitate future studies and may be implemented in a Bayesian algorithm to allow a PK?PD guided therapeutic drug monitoring strategy. PMID:24837828

  5. The Epstein-Barr virus and its association with human cancers.

    PubMed Central

    Baumforth, K R; Young, L S; Flavell, K J; Constandinou, C; Murray, P G

    1999-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been linked to the development of a variety of human malignancies, including Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, some T cell lymphomas, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease, and more recently, certain cancers of the stomach and smooth muscle. This review summarizes these associations and in particular the role of the viral latent genes in the transformation process. PMID:10748864

  6. Primary mucosal CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders of the head and neck rarely involving epiglottis: clinicopathological, immunohistomchemical and genetic features of a case

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jun; Wang, Guannan; Zhang, Dandan; Yin, Yuhui; Pang, Xia; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Yanpin; Li, Wencai

    2015-01-01

    A case of primary mucosal CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder of the head and neck rarely involving epiglottis in a 59-year-old male was reported. Histologically, the ulcerative mucosa was affected by sheets of mixed inflammatory infiltration, with scattered large atypical lymphoid cells arranging in an individual or small clusters with focal epidermotropism. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were uniformly immunoreactive to antibodies against CD2, CD3, CD7, CD43, CD4, TIA-1, with a heterogeneous expression of CD30, but negative for CD20, CD79a, CD21, CD8, CD56, ALK, EMA, granzyme B. Epstein-Barr virus encoded RNA (EBER) were detected. Genetically, T-cell receptor (TCR) ? gene showed an oligoclonal rearrangement. This first case developing in epiglottis demonstrates mucosal CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders are characteristic of a broad clinicopathologic spectrum similar to the counterpart in the skin with a favorable prognosis. PMID:26617911

  7. CD3-CD4+ lymphoid variant of hypereosinophilic syndrome: nodal and extranodal histopathological and immunophenotypic features of a peripheral indolent clonal T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder.

    PubMed

    Lefèvre, Guillaume; Copin, Marie-Christine; Roumier, Christophe; Aubert, Hélène; Avenel-Audran, Martine; Grardel, Nathalie; Poulain, Stéphanie; Staumont-Sallé, Delphine; Seneschal, Julien; Salles, Gilles; Ghomari, Kamel; Terriou, Louis; Leclech, Christian; Morati-Hafsaoui, Chafika; Morschhauser, Franck; Lambotte, Olivier; Ackerman, Félix; Trauet, Jacques; Geffroy, Sandrine; Dumezy, Florent; Capron, Monique; Roche-Lestienne, Catherine; Taieb, Alain; Hatron, Pierre-Yves; Dubucquoi, Sylvain; Hachulla, Eric; Prin, Lionel; Labalette, Myriam; Launay, David; Preudhomme, Claude; Kahn, Jean-Emmanuel

    2015-08-01

    The CD3(-)CD4(+) lymphoid variant of hypereosinophilic syndrome is characterized by hypereosinophilia and clonal circulating CD3(-)CD4(+) T cells. Peripheral T-cell lymphoma has been described during this disease course, and we observed in our cohort of 23 patients 2 cases of angio-immunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. We focus here on histopathological (n=12 patients) and immunophenotypic (n=15) characteristics of CD3(-)CD4(+) lymphoid variant of hypereosinophilic syndrome. Atypical CD4(+) T cells lymphoid infiltrates were found in 10 of 12 CD3(-)CD4(+) L-HES patients, in lymph nodes (n=4 of 4 patients), in skin (n=9 of 9) and other extra-nodal tissues (gut, lacrymal gland, synovium). Lymph nodes displayed infiltrates limited to the interfollicular areas or even an effacement of nodal architecture, associated with proliferation of arborizing high endothelial venules and increased follicular dendritic cell meshwork. Analysis of 2 fresh skin samples confirmed the presence of CD3(-)CD4(+) T cells. Clonal T cells were detected in at least one tissue in 8 patients, including lymph nodes (n=4 of 4): the same clonal T cells were detected in blood and in at least one biopsy, with a maximum delay of 23 years between samples. In the majority of cases, circulating CD3(-)CD4(+) T cells were CD2(hi) (n=9 of 14), CD5(hi) (n=12 of 14), and CD7(-)(n=4 of 14) or CD7(low) (n=10 of 14). Angio-immunoblastic T-cell lymphoma can also present with CD3(-)CD4(+) T cells; despite other common histopathological and immunophenotypic features, CD10 expression and follicular helper T-cell markers were not detected in lymphoid variant of hypereosinophilic syndrome patients, except in both patients who developed angio-immunoblastic T-cell lymphoma, and only at T-cell lymphoma diagnosis. Taken together, persistence of tissular clonal T cells and histopathological features define CD3(-)CD4(+) lymphoid variant of hypereosinophilic syndrome as a peripheral indolent clonal T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder, which should not be confused with angio-immunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. PMID:25682606

  8. Post-transplant outcomes of induction therapy for myeloma: thalidomide and dexamethasone versus doxorubicin, vincristine, and dexamethasone prior to high-dose melphalan with autologous stem cell support.

    PubMed

    Vogl, Dan T; Liu, Stephen V; Chong, Elise A; Luger, Selina M; Porter, David L; Schuster, Stephen J; Tsai, Donald E; Perl, Alexander; Loren, Alison W; Goldstein, Steven C; Nasta, Sunita D; Andreadis, Charalambos; Mangan, Patricia A; Hummel, Kimberly; Siegel, Don L; Glatstein, Eli; Stadtmauer, Edward A

    2007-12-01

    High-dose melphalan with autologous stem cell support improves survival as part of initial therapy for myeloma. Previous studies of pre-transplant induction regimens have compared paraprotein response rates but not long-term outcomes after transplant. We reviewed the records of all patients with multiple myeloma who received an autologous stem cell transplant at the University of Pennsylvania Medical Center. We compared outcomes for 69 patients who received high-dose melphalan conditioning after January 1, 2003 as part of initial therapy for myeloma, including 41 patients who received anthracycline-based induction (VAD or DVD) and 28 patients who received thalidomide and dexamethasone induction. Baseline characteristics in these two groups were not different, though potentially clinically important differences were apparent in assignment to post-transplant consolidation and maintenance therapy. Despite similar response rates during induction therapy, thalidomide and dexamethasone induction was associated with better progression-free survival (hazard ratio 0.18, P = 0.011) after transplant. This effect persisted in multivariable regression models including baseline characteristics and post-transplant treatment. Overall survival was not different between the two groups. These results suggest that the use of thalidomide during induction therapy may lead to improved long-term outcomes after transplant. Future trials comparing induction therapies should examine progression-free and overall survival after transplant to confirm this benefit. PMID:17696204

  9. Post-transplant donor-specific antibody production and graft outcome in kidney transplantation: results of sixteen-year monitoring by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Antonina; Poggi, Elvira; Ozzella, Giuseppina; Borrelli, Laura; Scornajenghi, Alessandra; Iaria, Giuseppe; Tisone, Giuseppe; Adorno, Domenico

    2006-01-01

    Our data show that monitoring by sensitive flow cytometric techniques of the de novo production of anti-HLA antibodies in patients receiving kidney transplantation is a useful and noninvasive tool to identify the onset of an immune response towards the graft before any clinical manifestation of antibody-mediated graft injury. Consequently prospective posttransplant monitoring of anti-HLA donor-directed antibodies may offer the chance to realize an effective clinical intervention in order to prevent graft dysfunction and to prolong graft survival. The long follow-up period of the study allowed us to demonstrate a very low graft survival rate in patients who developed donor-specific HLA antibodies in comparison with patients who did not have antibodies, thus confirming the "humoral theory of transplantation". The posttransplant production of anti-HLA antibodies can predict not only graft failure but also chronic dysfunction of the graft. Moreover, our findings suggest that graft survival is influenced by the epitope- and locus-specificity of anti-HLA donor-directed antibodies. The interval between antibody appearance and loss of graft function was short in some patients but reached several years in others. Moreover, some patients showed consistent production of antibodies for many years and an uneventful clinical status. These findings suggest a mechanism of graft "accommodation" or the production of "harmless" antibodies. Immunosuppressive drug combinations able to inhibit T and B cell activation are useful tools to prevent the humoral immune response against graft and consequently to prolong graft survival. PMID:18365387

  10. Methotrexate-associated lymphoproliferative disorders: management by watchful waiting and observation of early lymphocyte recovery after methotrexate withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Inui, Yumiko; Matsuoka, Hiroshi; Yakushijin, Kimikazu; Okamura, Atsuo; Shimada, Takaki; Yano, Shingo; Takeuchi, Mai; Ito, Mitsuhiro; Murayama, Tohru; Yamamoto, Katsuya; Itoh, Tomoo; Aiba, Keisuke; Minami, Hironobu

    2015-11-01

    No optimum treatment of iatrogenic immunodeficiency-associated lymphoproliferative disorders due to methotrexate in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (MTX-LPD) has yet been established, although MTX withdrawal is known to have a substantial effect on tumor regression. Here, we retrospectively analyzed 20 cases of MTX-LPD. Tumor shrinkage occurred in 18 of 20 cases, but only following MTX withdrawal. This tumor regression ratio was considerably better than in previous reports, and appeared due to longer "watchful waiting." Lymphocyte recovery at 2 weeks after MTX withdrawal was significantly higher in cases with tumor regression in 1 month than in those without tumor regression (p = 0.001). Median time to maximal efficacy after MTX cessation in cases without chemotherapy was 12 weeks (range 2-76). In conclusion, watchful waiting for a longer period after MTX cessation with observation of early lymphocyte recovery and uninterrupted continuation of other anti-rheumatoid drugs may be an acceptable management plan for MTX-LPD. PMID:25721751

  11. Aspiration cytology of an ectopic cervical thymoma misinterpreted as a lymphoproliferative lesion of the thyroid: A case report

    PubMed Central

    LEE, YI-YING; WANG, WEN-CHING; LI, CHIEN-FENG

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic cervical thymoma is a rare tumor that originates from ectopic thymic tissue trapped during the migration of the embryonic thymus. To the best of our knowledge, only 14 cases of ectopic cervical thymoma, which include descriptions of the cytological features based on fine-needle aspiration (FNA), have been reported thus far. The current study describes the case of a 52-year-old male presenting with an enlarging anterior neck mass that been apparent for a number of years and was now accompanied by shortness of breath. FNA cytology revealed large numbers of small lymphocytes admixed with rare groups of large, polygonal cells that were interpreted to be reactive lymphocytes or possible follicular dendritic cells. However, no definite follicular or Hrthle cells were identified. Therefore, the overall cytological features were misinterpreted as a lymphoproliferative lesion. However, subsequent histological analysis of the resected left total lobectomy specimen determined a diagnosis of thymoma, type B1. Thus, awareness of this entity combined with a careful search for thymic epithelial cells may aid in determining a correct diagnosis when FNA is performed for the evaluation of a neck mass. PMID:26622659

  12. Croup as Unusual Presentation of Post-transplantation Lymphoproliferative Disorder after Liver Transplantation in an 18-month-old Child

    PubMed Central

    Keshtkari, A.; Dehghani, S. M.; Haghighat, M.; Imanieh, M. H.; Nasimfard, A.; Yousefi, G.; Javaherizadeh, H.

    2016-01-01

    Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a serious complication of solid organ transplantation that occurs due to immunosuppression and other risk factors. PTLD may present with involvement of other organs and with unusual presentation. The presentation is often extranodal (e.g., in the gastrointestinal tract, lung, or the central nervous system). Herein, we report on a 1.5-year-old girl who underwent liver transplantation almost 5 months prior to admission. She was on medications such as tacrolimus and prednisolone. Her presentation was started with symptoms of the upper respiratory infection followed by croupy cough and respiratory distress with no response to usual treatments. She had respiratory arrest during broncoscopy. Therefore, emergency tracheostomy was done. Biopsy from the paratracheal mass revealed large B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (PTLD, monomorphic and high grade). This case presentation shows that persistent upper airway symptoms, particularly stridor and croupy cough, in children who underwent liver transplant should be further evaluated; the physician needs to have a high degree of clinical suspicion for the diagnosis of PTLD in this situation. PMID:26889375

  13. Phenotypic profile of expanded NK cells in chronic lymphoproliferative disorders: a surrogate marker for NK-cell clonality

    PubMed Central

    Bárcena, Paloma; Jara-Acevedo, María; Tabernero, María Dolores; López, Antonio; Sánchez, María Luz; García-Montero, Andrés C.; Muñoz-García, Noemí; Vidriales, María Belén; Paiva, Artur; Lecrevisse, Quentin; Lima, Margarida; Langerak, Anton W.; Böttcher, Sebastian; van Dongen, Jacques J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the lack of a universal and specific marker of clonality hampers the diagnosis and classification of chronic expansions of natural killer (NK) cells. Here we investigated the utility of flow cytometric detection of aberrant/altered NK-cell phenotypes as a surrogate marker for clonality, in the diagnostic work-up of chronic lymphoproliferative disorders of NK cells (CLPD-NK). For this purpose, a large panel of markers was evaluated by multiparametric flow cytometry on peripheral blood (PB) CD56low NK cells from 60 patients, including 23 subjects with predefined clonal (n = 9) and polyclonal (n = 14) CD56low NK-cell expansions, and 37 with CLPD-NK of undetermined clonality; also, PB samples from 10 healthy adults were included. Clonality was established using the human androgen receptor (HUMARA) assay. Clonal NK cells were found to show decreased expression of CD7, CD11b and CD38, and higher CD2, CD94 and HLADR levels vs. normal NK cells, together with a restricted repertoire of expression of the CD158a, CD158b and CD161 killer-associated receptors. In turn, NK cells from both clonal and polyclonal CLPD-NK showed similar/overlapping phenotypic profiles, except for high and more homogeneous expression of CD94 and HLADR, which was restricted to clonal CLPD-NK. We conclude that the CD94hi/HLADR+ phenotypic profile proved to be a useful surrogate marker for NK-cell clonality. PMID:26556869

  14. Croup as Unusual Presentation of Post-transplantation Lymphoproliferative Disorder after Liver Transplantation in an 18-month-old Child.

    PubMed

    Keshtkari, A; Dehghani, S M; Haghighat, M; Imanieh, M H; Nasimfard, A; Yousefi, G; Javaherizadeh, H

    2016-01-01

    Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a serious complication of solid organ transplantation that occurs due to immunosuppression and other risk factors. PTLD may present with involvement of other organs and with unusual presentation. The presentation is often extranodal (e.g., in the gastrointestinal tract, lung, or the central nervous system). Herein, we report on a 1.5-year-old girl who underwent liver transplantation almost 5 months prior to admission. She was on medications such as tacrolimus and prednisolone. Her presentation was started with symptoms of the upper respiratory infection followed by croupy cough and respiratory distress with no response to usual treatments. She had respiratory arrest during broncoscopy. Therefore, emergency tracheostomy was done. Biopsy from the paratracheal mass revealed large B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (PTLD, monomorphic and high grade). This case presentation shows that persistent upper airway symptoms, particularly stridor and croupy cough, in children who underwent liver transplant should be further evaluated; the physician needs to have a high degree of clinical suspicion for the diagnosis of PTLD in this situation. PMID:26889375

  15. Characterization of EBV-related Lymphoproliferative Lesions Arising in Donor Lymphocytes of Transplanted Human Tumor Tissues in the NOG Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Etsuko; Kato, Atsuhiko; Chen, Yu Jau; Matsubara, Koichi; Ohnishi, Yasuyuki; Suzuki, Masami

    2014-01-01

    Human tumor tissue line models established in the severely immunodeficient NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Sug/Jic (NOD/Shi-scid, IL-2R?null or NOG) mouse are important tools for oncology research. During the establishment process, a lymphoproliferative lesion (LPL) that replaces the original tumor cells in the site of transplantation occurs. In the present study, we studied the impact of the LPL on the establishment process and the characteristics of the lesion, investigated the systemic distribution of the lesion in the mouse, and evaluated the potential of a simple identification method. The incidence of the lesion varied among tumor types, and the lesion was found to be the leading cause of unsuccessful establishment with gastric and colorectal cancer. The lesion consisted of a varying population of proliferating lymphoid cells that expressed CD20. The cells were positive for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related antigens, and EBV DNA was detected. There was systemic distribution of the lesion within the NOG mouse, and the most consistent gross finding was splenomegaly. Additionally, identification of LPL-affected cases was possible by detecting splenomegaly in the 1st and 2nd generation mice at necropsy. From our findings the lesion was judged to arise from EBV-infected B cells originating from the donor, and monitoring splenomegaly at necropsy was thought effective as a simple method for identifying the lesion at an early stage of the establishment process. PMID:25077758

  16. Deficiency of Rap1-binding protein RAPL causes lymphoproliferative disorders through mislocalization of p27kip1.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Koko; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Tomiyama, Takashi; Yasuda, Kaneki; Toda, Yoshinobu; Ikehara, Susumu; Nakayama, Keiichi I; Kinashi, Tatsuo

    2011-01-28

    RAPL (an alternative spliced form of Rassf5) is a critical Ras-related protein1 (Rap1) effector that regulates lymphocyte adhesion. Here, we have shown that in addition to this previously described function, RAPL also negatively controls lymphocyte proliferation and prevents autoimmunity and lymphoma. RAPL-deficient mice experienced age-related lupus-like glomerulonephritis and developed B cell lymphomas. RAPL-deficient lymphocytes showed hyperproliferation by enhanced S phase entry after antigen receptor ligation. Compared to wild-type cells, RAPL-deficient naive lymphocytes had a 2- to 3-fold increase in Cdk2 kinase activity with a cytoplasmic mislocalization of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(kip1). RAPL was found to suppress the phosphorylation of p27(kip1) on serine 10 (S10) and promoted p27(kip1) nuclear translocation. An S10A mutation in p27(kip1) corrected its cytoplasmic accumulation, reduced hyperproliferation in RAPL-deficient lymphocytes, and suppressed glomerulonephritis and development of B cell lymphoma. Thus, RAPL serves as a checkpoint for S phase entry to prevent lymphoproliferative disorders through the spatial regulation of p27(kip1). PMID:21194982

  17. A 47-year-old stem cell transplant recipient with fever, cough and chest pain

    PubMed Central

    Salh, Omar S; Nadhem, Omar N; Thakore, Sanket R; Halloush, Ruba A; Khasawneh, Faisal A

    2015-01-01

    Infections and malignancies are among the most serious complications that follow organ or stem cell transplantation. They may have a mild course, and nonspecific and overlapping manifestations. The present article describes a case of symptomatic nodular pulmonary disease that complicated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. It was diagnosed to be post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder, a potential sequela of immunosuppression and a very difficult entity to treat in profoundly immunosuppressed patients. PMID:26057372

  18. Lymphoproliferative and Gamma Interferon Responses to Stress-Regulated Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Recombinant Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Gurung, Ratna B.; Begg, Douglas J.; Purdie, Auriol C.; de Silva, Kumudika; Bannantine, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Johne's disease in ruminants is a chronic infection of the intestines caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. An important strategy to control disease is early detection, and a potentially efficient method for early detection is measurement of cell-mediated immune responses developed by the host in response to exposure or infection. One method is to measure lymphoproliferation and cytokine release from the host cells when exposed to the organism or parts of the organism. In this study, 10 recombinant M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis proteins known to be upregulated under in vitro stress conditions were evaluated by examining their ability to evoke memory as a result of exposure by vaccination or oral challenge with live Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Out of 10 proteins, MAP2698c was found to induce higher cell-mediated immune responses in vaccinated and challenged sheep in comparison to healthy controls. The findings suggest that not all stress-regulated proteins have the diagnostic potential to detect cell-mediated immune responses in ovine paratuberculosis. PMID:24695774

  19. Tumor Microenvironment and Immune Effects of Antineoplastic Therapy in Lymphoproliferative Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    lvaro, Toms; de la Cruz-Merino, Luis; Henao-Carrasco, Fernando; Villar Rodrguez, Jos Luis; Vicente Baz, David; Codes Manuel de Villena, Manuel; Provencio, Mariano

    2010-01-01

    Lymphomas represent a wide group of heterogenic diseases with different biological and clinical behavior. The underlying microenvironment-specific composition seems to play an essential role in this scenario, harboring the ability to develop successful immune responses or, on the contrary, leading to immune evasion and even promotion of tumor growth. Depending on surrounding lymphoid infiltrates, lymphomas may have different prognosis. Moreover, recent evidences have emerged that confer a significant impact of main lymphoma's treatment over microenvironment, with clinical consequences. In this review, we summarize these concepts from a pathological and clinical perspective. Also, the state of the art of lymphoma's anti-idiotype vaccine development is revised, highlighting the situations where this strategy has proven to be successful and eventual clues to obtain better results in the future. PMID:20814546

  20. Castleman's Disease: An Interesting Cause of Hematuria

    PubMed Central

    Tolofari, Sotonye Karl; Chow, Wai-Man; Hussain, Basharat

    2015-01-01

    Castleman's disease is a rare benign lymphoproliferative disorder, characterized by benign growths of the lymph node tissue. It is associated with a number of malignancies, including Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's and Hodgkins lymphoma, and POEMS syndrome. This report describes the case of a 38year old gentleman, presenting with painless hematuria. Initial investigations, including flexible cystoscopy were unremarkable. However, subsequent imaging including CT Urogram and MR pelvis revealed multiple prevesical lesions. Histology obtained from excision biopsy revealed histological features consistent with Castleman's disease. In this report we discuss the nature, presentation and treatment modalities of this rare condition.

  1. [Transfer of skills: implementing post-transplant follow-up care status for transplant nurses: a report by the SFGM-TC].

    PubMed

    Cornillon, J; Peffault de Latour, R; Apaza, S; Bourg, M-A; Courbon, C; Evard, S; Guiraud, M; Le Bars, L; Petit, S; Magro, L; Schmitt, S; Tardieu, L; Samsonova, O; Tipton, R; Yakoub-Agha, I

    2014-08-01

    The number of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantations has globally taken off in the past decade. However, this increase in transplantation activity has put in the spotlight the need to create a special transplantation-skilled population of nurses. This type of specialisation allocated solely to this activity has not existed within the French nursing community until now. In the attempt to harmonize clinical practices between different French transplantation centers, the French Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cell Therapy (SFGM-TC) sets up its forth annual series of workshops which brought together practitioners from all member centers and took place in September 2013 in Lille. Here we report our results and recommendations regarding the implementation of a transplant nurse status for post-transplant follow-up care. PMID:24972456

  2. Castleman Disease of the Parotid Gland: A Report of a Case

    PubMed Central

    Abo-Alhassan, Fawaz; Faras, Fatemah; Bastaki, Jassem; Al-Sihan, Mutlaq K.

    2015-01-01

    Castleman disease is an extremely rare benign lymphoproliferative disorder of unknown etiology. It affects the lymphatic chain in anybody region, although the commonest site is the mediastinum. The head and neck region is the second most common site; however, the salivary glands are rarely affected. We report a case of a 29-year-old Asian lady who presented with a 2-year history of an enlarging left parotid mass. Histopathology of the excisional biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of Castleman disease. PMID:26858850

  3. Systemic Epstein-Barr virus-positive T/natural killer-cell lymphoproliferative disorder: a case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xia; Liu, Xianling; Hu, Chunhong; Liu, Fuyou; Wu, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Systemic Epstein-Barr virus-positive T/natural killer-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (EBV + LPD) has predominantly been observed among pediatric patients as a life-threatening condition. The present study presents a rare case of EBV + LPD in an adult with good outcome. This patient’s history is more than 2 years and her condition was stable. She received 6 cycles of chemotherapy cyclophosphamide/doxorubicin/vincristine/prednisolone (CHOP). The evaluation was complete remission. The low levels of EBV-DNA in the peripheral blood may have potential benefit factor for the sensitivity to the chemotherapy and good outcome. PMID:25400787

  4. FDG PET/CT Findings of the Recurrent Posttransplantation Lymphoproliferative Disorder in a Pediatric Liver Transplant Recipient With Right Leg Pain as the Only Complaint.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xia; Yang, Hua; Zhuang, Hongming

    2015-10-01

    The most commonly observed symptoms of posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) after a liver transplantation were diarrhea and fever. Although PTLD can involve bones, bone pain is a rare manifestation of PTLD, much less to say a sole presentation. We report a case of a pediatric patient with recurrent PTLD after liver transplantation, whose only complaint was right tibial pain. FDG PET/CT revealed not only hypermetabolic activity in the right proximal tibia but also in many other parts of the body. Recurrent PTLD was confirmed after bone biopsy. PMID:26098286

  5. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive sporadic burkitt lymphoma: an age-related lymphoproliferative disorder?

    PubMed

    Satou, Akira; Asano, Naoko; Nakazawa, Atsuko; Osumi, Tomoo; Tsurusawa, Masahito; Ishiguro, Atsushi; Elsayed, Ahmed Ali; Nakamura, Naoya; Ohshima, Koichi; Kinoshita, Tomohiro; Nakamura, Shigeo

    2015-02-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is detected in 20% to 30% of sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (sBL). However, only a few studies of EBV-positive (EBV) sBL have been reported, and its characteristics still remain controversial. To highlight the features of EBV sBL, we compared the clinicopathologic characteristics of 33 cases of EBV and 117 cases of EBV-negative (EBV) sBL in Japan. EBV sBL showed significantly higher age distribution (median, 42 vs. 13 y; P<0.0001) and higher frequency of patients older than 50 years (48% vs. 16%, P<0.0001). We also revealed the difference of the involved sites. The EBV group showed significantly higher incidence of involvement of tonsil (P=0.027), adrenal gland (P=0.011), and cervical lymph node (P=0.040). In addition, the EBV group tended to have higher incidence of nodal involvement (P=0.078) and involvement of para-aorta lymph node (P=0.084) and heart (P=0.050). In contrast, the gastrointestinal tract was less frequently affected in EBV sBL (P=0.024). In addition, the less positivity for MUM1 (P=0.020) of EBV sBL was highlighted. These results indicate that biological behavior and pathogenesis of EBV sBL might be different from those of EBV sBL. Our results demonstrate that EBV sBL has an aspect of age-related disease and is a distinct clinicopathologic subtype, which should be distinguished from EBV sBL. PMID:25321330

  6. Combined immunodeficiency with life-threatening EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorder in patients lacking functional CD27.

    PubMed

    Salzer, Elisabeth; Daschkey, Svenja; Choo, Sharon; Gombert, Michael; Santos-Valente, Elisangela; Ginzel, Sebastian; Schwendinger, Martina; Haas, Oskar A; Fritsch, Gerhard; Pickl, Winfried F; Frster-Waldl, Elisabeth; Borkhardt, Arndt; Boztug, Kaan; Bienemann, Kirsten; Seidel, Markus G

    2013-03-01

    CD27, a tumor necrosis factor receptor family member, interacts with CD70 and influences T-, B- and NK-cell functions. Disturbance of this axis impairs immunity and memory generation against viruses including Epstein Barr virus (EBV), influenza, and others. CD27 is commonly used as marker of memory B cells for the classification of B-cell deficiencies including common variable immune deficiency. Flow cytometric immunophenotyping including expression analysis of CD27 on lymphoid cells was followed by capillary sequencing of CD27 in index patients, their parents, and non-affected siblings. More comprehensive genetic analysis employed single nucleotide polymorphism-based homozygosity mapping and whole exome sequencing. Analysis of exome sequencing data was performed at two centers using slightly different data analysis pipelines, each based on the Genome Analysis ToolKit Best Practice version 3 recommendations. A comprehensive clinical characterization was correlated to genotype. We report the simultaneous confirmation of human CD27 deficiency in 3 independent families (8 patients) due to a homozygous mutation (p. Cys53Tyr) revealed by whole exome sequencing, leading to disruption of an evolutionarily conserved cystein knot motif of the transmembrane receptor. Phenotypes varied from asymptomatic memory B-cell deficiency (n=3) to EBV-associated hemophagocytosis and lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD; n=3) and malignant lymphoma (n=2; +1 after LPD). Following EBV infection, hypogammaglobulinemia developed in at least 3 of the affected individuals, while specific anti-viral and anti-polysaccharide antibodies and EBV-specific T-cell responses were detectable. In severely affected patients, numbers of iNKT cells and NK-cell function were reduced. Two of 8 patients died, 2 others underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation successfully, and one received anti-CD20 (rituximab) therapy repeatedly. Since homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing did not reveal additional modifying factors, our findings suggest that lack of functional CD27 predisposes towards a combined immunodeficiency associated with potentially fatal EBV-driven hemo-phagocytosis, lymphoproliferation, and lymphoma development. PMID:22801960

  7. Combined immunodeficiency with life-threatening EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorder in patients lacking functional CD27

    PubMed Central

    Salzer, Elisabeth; Daschkey, Svenja; Choo, Sharon; Gombert, Michael; Santos-Valente, Elisangela; Ginzel, Sebastian; Schwendinger, Martina; Haas, Oskar A.; Fritsch, Gerhard; Pickl, Winfried F.; Frster-Waldl, Elisabeth; Borkhardt, Arndt; Boztug, Kaan; Bienemann, Kirsten; Seidel, Markus G.

    2013-01-01

    CD27, a tumor necrosis factor receptor family member, interacts with CD70 and influences T-, B- and NK-cell functions. Disturbance of this axis impairs immunity and memory generation against viruses including Epstein Barr virus (EBV), influenza, and others. CD27 is commonly used as marker of memory B cells for the classification of B-cell deficiencies including common variable immune deficiency. Flow cytometric immunophenotyping including expression analysis of CD27 on lymphoid cells was followed by capillary sequencing of CD27 in index patients, their parents, and non-affected siblings. More comprehensive genetic analysis employed single nucleotide polymorphism-based homozygosity mapping and whole exome sequencing. Analysis of exome sequencing data was performed at two centers using slightly different data analysis pipelines, each based on the Genome Analysis ToolKit Best Practice version 3 recommendations. A comprehensive clinical characterization was correlated to genotype. We report the simultaneous confirmation of human CD27 deficiency in 3 independent families (8 patients) due to a homozygous mutation (p. Cys53Tyr) revealed by whole exome sequencing, leading to disruption of an evolutionarily conserved cystein knot motif of the transmembrane receptor. Phenotypes varied from asymptomatic memory B-cell deficiency (n=3) to EBV-associated hemophagocytosis and lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD; n=3) and malignant lymphoma (n=2; +1 after LPD). Following EBV infection, hypogammaglobulinemia developed in at least 3 of the affected individuals, while specific anti-viral and anti-polysaccharide antibodies and EBV-specific T-cell responses were detectable. In severely affected patients, numbers of iNKT cells and NK-cell function were reduced. Two of 8 patients died, 2 others underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation successfully, and one received anti-CD20 (rituximab) therapy repeatedly. Since homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing did not reveal additional modifying factors, our findings suggest that lack of functional CD27 predisposes towards a combined immunodeficiency associated with potentially fatal EBV-driven hemo-phagocytosis, lymphoproliferation, and lymphoma development. PMID:22801960

  8. PTEN and PI-3 kinase inhibitors control LPS signaling and the lymphoproliferative response in the CD19+ B cell compartment

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Alok R.; Peirce, Susan K.; Joshi, Shweta; Durden, Donald L.

    2014-09-10

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), e.g. toll receptors (TLRs) that bind ligands within the microbiome have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer. LPS is a ligand for two TLR family members, TLR4 and RP105 which mediate LPS signaling in B cell proliferation and migration. Although LPS/TLR/RP105 signaling is well-studied; our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms controlling these PRR signaling pathways remains incomplete. Previous studies have demonstrated a role for PTEN/PI-3K signaling in B cell selection and survival, however a role for PTEN/PI-3K in TLR4/RP105/LPS signaling in the B cell compartment has not been reported. Herein, we crossed a CD19cre and PTEN{sup fl/fl} mouse to generate a conditional PTEN knockout mouse in the CD19+ B cell compartment. These mice were further crossed with an IL-14α transgenic mouse to study the combined effect of PTEN deletion, PI-3K inhibition and expression of IL-14α (a cytokine originally identified as a B cell growth factor) in CD19+ B cell lymphoproliferation and response to LPS stimulation. Targeted deletion of PTEN and directed expression of IL-14α in the CD19+ B cell compartment (IL-14+PTEN-/-) lead to marked splenomegaly and altered spleen morphology at baseline due to expansion of marginal zone B cells, a phenotype that was exaggerated by treatment with the B cell mitogen and TLR4/RP105 ligand, LPS. Moreover, LPS stimulation of CD19+ cells isolated from these mice display increased proliferation, augmented AKT and NFκB activation as well as increased expression of c-myc and cyclinD1. Interestingly, treatment of LPS treated IL-14+PTEN-/- mice with a pan PI-3K inhibitor, SF1126, reduced splenomegaly, cell proliferation, c-myc and cyclin D1 expression in the CD19+ B cell compartment and normalized the splenic histopathologic architecture. These findings provide the direct evidence that PTEN and PI-3K inhibitors control TLR4/RP105/LPS signaling in the CD19+ B cell compartment and that pan PI-3 kinase inhibitors reverse the lymphoproliferative phenotype in vivo. - Highlights: • First genetic evidence that PTEN controls LPS/TLR4 signaling in B lymphocytes. • Evidence that PTEN regulates LPS induced lymphoproliferation in vivo. • PI-3 kinase inhibitors block LPS induced lymphoproliferation in vivo.

  9. In vitro lymphoproliferative assays with HgCl2 cannot identify patients with systemic symptoms attributed to dental amalgam.

    PubMed

    Cederbrant, K; Gunnarsson, L G; Hultman, P; Norda, R; Tibbling-Grahn, L

    1999-08-01

    Dental amalgam is suspected, by some exposed individuals, to cause various systemic psychological, sensory, and neurological symptoms. Since not all amalgam-bearers experience such reactions, an individual characteristic--for example, a susceptible immune system--might explain these conditions. In vitro lymphocyte proliferation is a valuable tool in the diagnosis of allergy. With HgCl2 as the antigen, however, the test is hampered, because Hg2+ can cause unspecific lymphocyte proliferation, optimal at 1.4 to 9.5 micrograms HgCl2/mL. Recently, the use of suboptimal HgCl2 concentrations (< or = 0.5 microgram/mL) has been suggested to circumvent these problems. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether patients with systemic symptoms alleged to result from the presence of dental amalgam differ from healthy controls, with reference to in vitro lymphoproliferative responses to HgCl2 < or = 0.5 microgram/mL. Three different test protocols--lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) in micro- and macro-cultures, and the memory lymphocyte immunostimulation assay (MELISA)--were used. Other immune parameters--such as a standard patch test for dental materials, the number of T- and B-lymphocytes, monocytes, granulocytes, and NK cells in peripheral blood, allergic symptoms, and predisposition--were also investigated. Twenty-three amalgam patients, 30 healthy blood donors with amalgam, ten healthy subjects without amalgam, and nine patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) adjacent to dental amalgam and a positive patch test to Hg0 were tested. None of the investigated immune parameters revealed any significant differences between amalgam patients and controls. The sensitivity of in vitro lymphocyte proliferation ranged from 33 to 67%, with the OLP patients as a positive control group, and the specificity from 0 to 70% for healthy controls with a negative patch test to Hg0. Thus, despite the use of HgCl2 < or = 0.5 microgram/mL, a high frequency of positive results was obtained among healthy subjects with or without dental amalgam. Consequently, in vitro lymphocyte proliferation with HgCl2 cannot be used as an objective marker for mercury allergy in dental amalgam-bearers. PMID:10439033

  10. Liver transplantation for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: New challenges and new opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Shaker, Mina; Tabbaa, Adam; Albeldawi, Mazen; Alkhouri, Naim

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming rapidly one of the most common indications for orthotopic liver transplantation in the world. Development of graft steatosis is a significant problem during the post-transplant course, which may happen as a recurrence of pre-existing disease or de novo NAFLD. There are different risk factors that might play a role in development of graft steatosis including post-transplant metabolic syndrome, immune-suppressive medications, genetics and others. There are few studies that assessed the effects of NAFLD on graft and patient survival; most of them were limited by the duration of follow up or by the number of patients. With this review article we will try to shed light on post-liver transplantation NAFLD, significance of the disease, how it develops, risk factors, clinical course and treatment options. PMID:24833862

  11. Marek's disease and new approaches to its control.

    PubMed

    Zelnk, V

    1995-02-01

    Marek's disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disorder induced by a herpesvirus. Several factors, including those virus-encoded and host-dependent, affect the course of the disease. Existing vaccination program is based on the use of attenuated strains of MD virus (MDV) serotype 1 and on strains of non-oncogenic serotype 2 (MDV2) and serotype 3 (herpesvirus of turkey-HVT) viruses. Failures resulting in disease progress have been reported and indicate need for production of new, more effective vaccines. It is likely that future development of MD vaccines will rely on recombinant molecules technology. PMID:7572471

  12. Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... trying to access this site from a secured browser on the server. Please enable scripts and reload ... National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus ​​​ Javascript Error Your browser JavaScript is turned off causing certain features of ...

  13. Autoimmune-Like Hepatitis: A "Hepatitic" Manifestation of Chronic Graft Versus Host Disease in Post-Stem Cell Transplant.

    PubMed

    Baniak, Nick M; Kanthan, Rani

    2016-04-01

    A 59-year-old female received a matched related donor stem cell transplant for chronic myelogenous leukemia. After being successfully treated with prednisone for chronic graft versus host disease that initially started 50 days posttransplant, she developed hepatic dysfunction during the steroid taper on day 531, as evidenced by jaundice, elevated liver enzymes, and increased bilirubin. Liver biopsy showed histology suggestive of autoimmune-like hepatitis, which is a rare manifestation of chronic "hepatitic" graft versus host disease. PMID:26464160

  14. Blood disorders typically associated with renal transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu; Yu, Bo; Chen, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Renal transplantation has become one of the most common surgical procedures performed to replace a diseased kidney with a healthy kidney from a donor. It can help patients with kidney failure live decades longer. However, renal transplantation also faces a risk of developing various blood disorders. The blood disorders typically associated with renal transplantation can be divided into two main categories: (1) Common disorders including post-transplant anemia (PTA), post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), post-transplant erythrocytosis (PTE), and post-transplant cytopenias (PTC, leukopenia/neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and pancytopenia); and (2) Uncommon but serious disorders including hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS), thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), therapy-related myelodysplasia (t-MDS), and therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML). Although many etiological factors involve the development of post-transplant blood disorders, immunosuppressive agents, and viral infections could be the two major contributors to most blood disorders and cause hematological abnormalities and immunodeficiency by suppressing hematopoietic function of bone marrow. Hematological abnormalities and immunodeficiency will result in severe clinical outcomes in renal transplant recipients. Understanding how blood disorders develop will help cure these life-threatening complications. A potential therapeutic strategy against post-transplant blood disorders should focus on tapering immunosuppression or replacing myelotoxic immunosuppressive drugs with lower toxic alternatives, recognizing and treating promptly the etiological virus, bacteria, or protozoan, restoring both hematopoietic function of bone marrow and normal blood counts, and improving kidney graft survival. PMID:25853131

  15. Blood disorders typically associated with renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Yu, Bo; Chen, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Renal transplantation has become one of the most common surgical procedures performed to replace a diseased kidney with a healthy kidney from a donor. It can help patients with kidney failure live decades longer. However, renal transplantation also faces a risk of developing various blood disorders. The blood disorders typically associated with renal transplantation can be divided into two main categories: (1) Common disorders including post-transplant anemia (PTA), post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), post-transplant erythrocytosis (PTE), and post-transplant cytopenias (PTC, leukopenia/neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and pancytopenia); and (2) Uncommon but serious disorders including hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS), thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), therapy-related myelodysplasia (t-MDS), and therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML). Although many etiological factors involve the development of post-transplant blood disorders, immunosuppressive agents, and viral infections could be the two major contributors to most blood disorders and cause hematological abnormalities and immunodeficiency by suppressing hematopoietic function of bone marrow. Hematological abnormalities and immunodeficiency will result in severe clinical outcomes in renal transplant recipients. Understanding how blood disorders develop will help cure these life-threatening complications. A potential therapeutic strategy against post-transplant blood disorders should focus on tapering immunosuppression or replacing myelotoxic immunosuppressive drugs with lower toxic alternatives, recognizing and treating promptly the etiological virus, bacteria, or protozoan, restoring both hematopoietic function of bone marrow and normal blood counts, and improving kidney graft survival. PMID:25853131

  16. Importance of glucokinase −258G/A polymorphism in Asian Indians with post-transplant and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Imran Ali; Vattam, Kiran Kumar; Jahan, Parveen; Hasan, Qurratulain; Rao, Pragna

    2016-01-01

    Summary Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) are non-synonymous forms of diabetes. Glucokinase (GCK) plays a key role in glucose metabolism. The relationship between the GCK promoter and specific types of diabetes, such as PTDM and T2DM, in the Asian Indian population is unknown. We examined the occurrence of a specific GCK promoter variant (−258G/A) in patients with T2DM and PTDM. The case-control study enrolled 640 Asian Indian subjects, including controls (n = 250) and T2DM (n = 250), PTDM (n = 42), and non-post-transplant diabetes mellitus (non-PTDM) (n = 98) patients. Purified Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was genotyped with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. The digested PCR products were analyzed on 12% polyacrylamide gels. The anthropometric, biochemical, and clinical details of each group were documented. GCK −258G/A alleles and genotypes were not associated with T2DM. However, among PTDM subjects, we detected a higher frequency of heterozygotes (52.4%) and a positive association with alleles/genotypes. The results suggest that the promoter region (−258G/A) of GCK plays an important role in PTDM in Asian Indians. PMID:26989645

  17. Validation of the association of TCF7L2 and SLC30A8 gene polymorphisms with post-transplant diabetes mellitus in Asian Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Khan, IImran Ali; Jahan, Parveen; Hasan, Qurratulain; Rao, Pragna

    2015-01-01

    Summary The rs7903146 and rs13266634 polymorphisms in the TCF7L2 and SLC30A8 genes, respectively, have been reported to be associated with type 2 diabetes. However, little is known about the association of these polymorphisms with post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM). To study this linkage, we determined a distribution of allele and genotype frequencies in Asian Indians. 42 PTDM and 98 non-PTDM subjects were recruited. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis was performed to detect for rs7903146 and rs13266634 polymorphisms. The clinical details and statistical analysis for PTDM and non-PTDM subjects were recorded. Our results observed higher frequencies of the minor alleles in rs7903146 and rs13266634 polymorphisms in the PTDM group compared to the non-PTDM subjects. The allele frequencies also found to be significantly associated with PTDM (rs7903146: T vs C: OR-2.6; (95%CI: 1.25.6); p = 0.01; rs13266634: T vs C: OR-2.0; (95%CI: 1.13.4); p = 0.01). These findings suggest that rs7903146 and rs13266634 polymorphisms are associated with PTDM in the Asian Indian population despite a relatively small study group. PMID:25984427

  18. Anemia resolved by thoracoscopic resection of a mediastinal mass: a case report of unicentric Castleman's disease.

    PubMed

    Suh, Jong Hui; Hong, Sook Hee; Jeong, Seong Cheol; Park, Chan Beom; Choi, Kuk Bin; Shin, Ok Ran; Choi, Si Young

    2015-07-01

    Castleman's disease (CD) is an uncommon benign lymphoproliferative disorder that usually presents as a single or multiple mediastinal mass. In unicentric CD, constitutional symptoms are rare, but are curable with surgical resection. However, serious intraoperative bleeding often requires conversion to thoracotomy. We present a case of unicentric CD in a 25-year-old woman with anemia, who was successfully treated by thoracoscopic resection. We describe the clinical course from the initial presentation to diagnosis and surgical cure. PMID:26380750

  19. Diffuse Cystic Lung Disease. Part I.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nishant; Vassallo, Robert; Wikenheiser-Brokamp, Kathryn A; McCormack, Francis X

    2015-06-15

    The diffuse cystic lung diseases (DCLDs) are a group of pathophysiologically heterogenous processes that are characterized by the presence of multiple spherical or irregularly shaped, thin-walled, air-filled spaces within the pulmonary parenchyma. Although the mechanisms of cyst formation remain incompletely defined for all DCLDs, in most cases lung remodeling associated with inflammatory or infiltrative processes results in displacement, destruction, or replacement of alveolar septa, distal airways, and small vessels within the secondary lobules of the lung. The DCLDs can be broadly classified according to underlying etiology as those caused by low-grade or high-grade metastasizing neoplasms, polyclonal or monoclonal lymphoproliferative disorders, infections, interstitial lung diseases, smoking, and congenital or developmental defects. In the first of a two-part series, we present an overview of the cystic lung diseases caused by neoplasms, infections, smoking-related diseases, and interstitial lung diseases, with a focus on lymphangioleiomyomatosis and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis. PMID:25906089

  20. CD8-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder associated with Epstein-Barr virus-infected B-cells in a rheumatoid arthritis patient under methotrexate treatment.

    PubMed

    Koji, Hitoshi; Yazawa, Takuya; Nakabayashi, Kimimasa; Fujioka, Yasunori; Kamma, Hiroshi; Yamada, Akira

    2016-03-01

    We report a 48-year-old female who developed lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD) during treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with methotrexate (MTX). She presented with multiple tumors in the cervical lymph nodes (LNs), multiple lung shadows and round shadows in both kidneys with pancytopenia and a high CRP level. The LN showed CD8-positive T-cell LPD associated with Epstein-Barr (EB) virus-infected B-cells. Clonality assays for immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain and T-cell receptor gamma (TCRγ) were negative. The cessation of MTX without chemotherapy resulted in the complete disappearance of the tumors and abnormal clinical features. We compared this case with previously published ones and discuss the pathological findings, presuming that the proliferation of CD8 T-cells was a reactive manifestation to reactivated EB virus-infected B-cells. PMID:24386983

  1. Methotrexate-associated lymphoproliferative disorders of the tongue developing in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a report of 2 cases and a review.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Kengo; Nagao, Toru; Saito, Terumi; Kinoshita, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Incidences of lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) in patients with compromised immune systems associated with immunosuppressants such as methotrexate (MTX) administered for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are reportedly increasing. Although extranodal lesions develop in half of the patients with MTX-associated LPDs, only a few studies have reported on intraoral lesions. We evaluated 2 elderly women with MTX-associated LPDs who had received MTX for the treatment of RA and presented with atypical ulceration of the tongue. Biopsy specimens demonstrated polymorphous B-cell LPD, probably associated with MTX. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was identified by immunohistochemistry for latent membrane protein 1 and by EBV-encoded RNA in situ hybridization. After MTX withdrawal, in both cases, ulcers showed complete regression at 8 weeks, and no subsequent treatment was required. Close monitoring of LPDs is mandatory, because recurrence within 10 months has been reported in half of the patients in whom LPDs had initially regressed. PMID:24927637

  2. Long-term graft outcomes and patient survival are lower posttransplant in patients with a primary renal diagnosis of glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Pruthi, Rishi; McClure, Mark; Casula, Anna; Roderick, Paul J; Fogarty, Damian; Harber, Mark; Ravanan, Rommel

    2016-04-01

    Glomerulonephritis (GN) is the primary diagnosis in 20% to 40% of patients receiving a renal transplant. Here we studied patient survival and graft outcomes in patients with GN transplanted in the UK. UK Renal Registry data were used to analyze patient survival and graft failure in incident transplant patients between 1997 to 2009 who had a diagnosis of primary GN, in comparison to patients transplanted with adult polycystic kidney disease (APKD) or diabetes. Multivariable regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, donor type, ethnicity, donor age, time on dialysis, human leukocyte antigen mismatch, cold ischemic time, and graft failure (for patient survival). Patients were followed up through December 2012. Of 4750 patients analyzed, 2975 had GN and 1775 APKD. Graft failure was significantly higher in membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) type II (hazard ratio: 3.5, confidence interval: 1.9-6.6), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (2.4, 1.8-3.2), MPGN type I (2.3, 1.6-3.3), membranous nephropathy (2.0, 1.4-2.9), and IgA nephropathy (1.6, 1.3-2.0) compared to APKD. Survival was significantly reduced in patients with MPGN type II (4.7, 2.0-10.8), and those with lupus nephritis (1.8, 1.1-2.9). Overall graft failure for patients with GN was similar to those with diabetes. Thus, in comparison to outcomes in APKD, graft survival is significantly lower in most GNs, with variation in outcomes between different GNs. This information should assist in pretransplant counseling of patients. Further study is required to understand the reduced survival seen in lupus nephritis and MPGN type II, and to improve overall graft outcomes. PMID:26924061

  3. Salvia Hispanica Seed in Reducing Risk of Disease Recurrence in Patients With Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-28

    Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-Cell Lymphoma; Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-Cell Lymphoma; B Lymphoblastic Leukemia/Lymphoma; Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm; Burkitt Leukemia; Central Nervous System Lymphoma; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Enteropathy-Associated T-Cell Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue; Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Hepatosplenic T-Cell Lymphoma; Hodgkin Lymphoma; Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma; Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Mediastinal (Thymic) Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Mycosis Fungoides; Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-Cell Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Primary Cutaneous Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Primary Effusion Lymphoma; Sezary Syndrome; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Subcutaneous Panniculitis-Like T-Cell Lymphoma; Systemic Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; T Lymphoblastic Leukemia/Lymphoma; Transformed Recurrent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

  4. Woringer-Kolopp disease mimicking foot dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yongxue; Mark, Lawrence A

    2012-12-01

    Woringer-Kolopp disease, also known as localized pagetoid reticulosis, is a rare cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorder classified as a solitary variant of mycosis fungoides (MF). Despite the indolent and benign nature of the disease, misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment may result in years of debilitating symptoms and even loss of function. We present the case of a patient with long-standing Woringer-Kolopp disease that mimicked foot dermatitis. Histopathologic examination demonstrated epidermotropic infiltration of atypical lymphocytes that were CD3+ CD4- CD8-. The patient was successfully treated with topical keratolytics and bexarotene gel 1% with minimal residual lesions after 8 years of follow-up. We discuss the characteristics of this rare disease in contrast with localized MF as well as more aggressive forms of epidermotropic T-cell lymphoma. PMID:23409481

  5. The Kidney in Pediatric Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Matloff, Robyn Greenfield; Arnon, Ronen

    2015-09-01

    There is an intricate relationship between the liver and the kidney, with renal physiology and function intimately involved in many primary disorders of pediatric liver disease. The hemodynamic changes of progressive cirrhosis affect and are directly affected by changes in renal blood flow and renal handling of sodium and free water excretion. Resulting complications of worsening ascites, hyponatremia, and acute kidney injury frequently complicate the care of children with advanced liver disease and contribute significant morbidity and mortality. While liver transplantation may restore hemodynamic stability, nearly 40% of pediatric liver transplant recipients develop chronic kidney disease post-transplant and approximately 25% are left with clinical hypertension. This review seeks to provide a basic understanding of this relationship to enable the provision of optimal care to children with liver disease. PMID:26289614

  6. Monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance with light-chain deposition disease diagnosed postrenal transplant: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.

    PubMed

    Nambirajan, Aruna; Bhowmik, Dipankar; Singh, Geetika; Agarwal, Sanjay Kumar; Dinda, Amit Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Patients with light-chain deposition disease (LCDD) frequently do not meet criteria for myeloma. In such cases, despite low tumor burden, the circulating monoclonal immunoglobulins cause renal damage, are responsible for post-transplant recurrence, and are rightly categorized as monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance (MGRS) requiring chemotherapy. A 65-year male with uncharacterized nodular glomerulopathy presented with proteinuria 3years postrenal transplant. His allograft biopsies were diagnostic of light-chain deposition disease (likely recurrent), and in the absence of myeloma, he was labeled as MGRS. Based on the limited literature available, he was treated with bortezomib which resulted in normalization of serum-free light-chain ratios and resolution of proteinuria. He, however, later succumbed to complications of chemotherapy. This case highlights the diagnostic difficulties in LCDD, the importance of an accurate pretransplant diagnosis, and treatment of the malignant clone, in the absence of which post-transplant management of recurrence is challenging with poor outcomes. PMID:25441103

  7. 18F-FDG PET/CT in multicentric Castleman disease: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiexin; Yang, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Castleman disease (CD) is a chronic lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by unexplained enlarged lymph nodes. According to lymph nodes distribution it contains two types of single-centric and multicentric (more than one site) disease. Multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) is rare, and shows unspecific manifestation with high misdiagnosis rate. Here we reported a case of MCD in a 43-year-old male. 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging demonstrated higher FDG uptake in multiple lymph nodes and slightly FDG uptake in spleen and bone marrow. Right inguinal Lymph node biopsy was taken and the results confirmed CD. PMID:26904580

  8. Simultaneous presentation of relapsing Hodgkin's disease and treatment-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Perri, R.T.; Allen, J.I.; Oken, M.M.; Limas, C.; Kay, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    A 55-year-old white man was diagnosed in 1975 with Hodgkin's disease stage IIA, mixed cellularity. He was treated with 4,500 rads to an inverted-Y field followed by six cycles of MOPP and remained in complete remission. In 1983 a right axillary lymph node biopsy showed recurrent Hodgkin's disease, mixed cellularity. While receiving his initial chemotherapy he developed persistent epigastric distress. Endoscopic gastric biopsy demonstrated a diffuse large-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Surface marker studies confirmed the separate identity of these two malignant lymphoproliferative processes. This represents the first reported simultaneous occurrence of relapsing Hodgkin's disease with treatment-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  9. Deletion of receptor for advanced glycation end products exacerbates lymphoproliferative syndrome and lupus nephritis in B6-MRL Fas lpr/j mice.

    PubMed

    Goury, Antoine; Meghraoui-Kheddar, Aïda; Belmokhtar, Karim; Vuiblet, Vincent; Ortillon, Jeremy; Jaisson, Stéphane; Devy, Jerôme; Le Naour, Richard; Tabary, Thierry; Cohen, Jacques H M; Schmidt, Ann-Marie; Rieu, Philippe; Touré, Fatouma

    2015-04-15

    The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a pattern recognition receptor that interacts with advanced glycation end products, but also with C3a, CpG DNA oligonucleotides, and alarmin molecules such as HMGB1 to initiate a proinflammatory reaction. Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disorder associated with the accumulation of RAGE ligands. We generated mice invalidated for RAGE in the lupus-prone B6-MRL Fas lpr/j background to determine the role of RAGE in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus. We compared the phenotype of these mice with that of their wild-type and B6-MRL Fas lpr/j littermates. Lymphoproliferative syndrome, production of anti-dsDNA Abs, lupus nephritis, and accumulation of CD3(+)B220(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) autoreactive T cells (in the peripheral blood and the spleen) were significantly increased in B6-MRL Fas lpr/j RAGE(-/-) mice compared with B6-MRL Fas lpr/j mice (respectively p < 0.005, p < 0.05, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001). A large proportion of autoreactive T cells from B6-MRL Fas lpr/j mice expressed RAGE at their surface. Time course studies of annexin V expression revealed that autoreactive T cells in the spleen of B6-MRL Fas lpr/j-RAGE(-/-) mice exhibited a delay in apoptosis and expressed significantly less activated caspase 3 (39.5 ± 4.3%) than T cells in B6-MRL Fas lpr/j mice (65.5 ± 5.2%) or wild-type mice (75.3 ± 2.64%) (p = 0.02). We conclude that the deletion of RAGE in B6-MRL Fas lpr/j mice promotes the accumulation of autoreactive CD3(+)B220(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) T cells, therefore exacerbating lymphoproliferative syndrome, autoimmunity, and organ injury. This suggests that RAGE rescues the apoptosis of T lymphocytes when the death receptor Fas/CD95 is dysfunctional. PMID:25762779

  10. Risk factors for post-transplant diabetes mellitus in renal transplant: Role of genetic variability in the CYP450-mediated arachidonic acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gervasini, Guillermo; Luna, Enrique; Garca-Cerrada, Montserrat; Garca-Pino, Guadalupe; Cubero, Juan Jos

    2016-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and 20-hidroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), which play an important role both in renal transplant and diabetes mellitus (DM). We searched for associations between polymorphisms in this metabolic pathway and the risk of post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) in kidney recipients. One-hundred-sixty-four patients were genotyped for common SNPs in this route, namely CYP2C8*3, CYP2C8*4, CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3, CYP2J2*7, CYP4A11 F434S and CYP4F2 V433M. Demographic and clinical parameters were retrospectively collected at four time-points in the first year after grafting. Thirty-four patients (20.73%) developed PTDM, which was more prevalent among older patients [OR for older age=1.06 (1.03-1.10), p<0.001] and in those with higher body mass index (BMI) [OR for higher average BMI in the first year=1.13 (1.04-1.23); p<0.01]. Creatinine clearance [OR=0.97 (0.95-0.99); p<0.01] and exposure to tacrolimus [OR=3.25 (1.15-9.19); p<0.05] were also relevant for PTDM risk. With regard to genetic variants, logistic regression analysis controlling for significant demographic and clinical variables showed that the V433M polymorphism in CYP4F2, responsible for 20-HETE synthesis, was an independent risk factor for PTDM [OR=3.94 (1.08-14.33); p<0.05]. We have shown that a genetic variant in the CYP4F2 gene, the main gene implicated in 20-HETE synthesis, is associated with the risk for PTDM. Our findings suggest that genes in the metabolic pathways of AA may become good candidates in genetic association studies for PTDM. PMID:26483195

  11. Adult Xanthogranuloma, Reticulohistiocytosis, and Rosai-Dorfman Disease.

    PubMed

    Chisolm, Sarah S; Schulman, Joshua M; Fox, Lindy P

    2015-07-01

    Adult xanthogranuloma presents most commonly as an orange-tan firm solitary nodule with no systemic manifestations. Recently, some cases have been reported in conjunction with lymphoproliferative disorders. Adult reticulohistiocytosis classically presents as red to yellow-red dermal nodules. In the multicentric form, lesions have a predilection for hands and elbows, with a classic coral bead periungual presentation, and are often associated with symmetric erosive arthritis, particularly of the hands and wrists. The presentation and course of Rosai-Dorfman disease, or sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy, can vary. The classic presentation is extensive, painless bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy, but some cases have been entirely extranodal. PMID:26143426

  12. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis associated with azathioprine therapy in Crohn disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LYG) is a rare Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disorder. It most often occurs in patients with immunodeficiency and the clinical course ranges from indolent behavior to that of an aggressive malignancy. Pulmonary, central nervous system and dermatological manifestations are most common. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of LYG related to azathioprine therapy in Crohn disease. Case presentation A twenty-six year old Caucasian woman with colonic Crohn disease on maintenance azathioprine therapy presented with right upper quadrant pain and fever. Diagnostic imaging revealed extensive liver, pulmonary and cerebral lesions. A diagnosis of LYG was made based on the pattern of organ involvement and the immunohistochemical features on liver and lung biopsy. Conclusions Thiopurine therapy for inflammatory bowel disease is associated with an increased incidence of lymphoproliferative disorders. This report highlights the diagnostic challenges associated with LYG. As long-term thiopurine therapy remains central to the management of inflammatory bowel diseases it is essential that both patients and clinicians are aware of this potential adverse outcome. PMID:25022612

  13. Castleman's disease of a submandibular mass diagnosed on Fine Needle Cytology: Report of a case with histopathological, immunocytochemical and imaging correlations

    PubMed Central

    Malzone, Maria Gabriella; Campanile, Anna Cipolletta; Sanna, Veronica; Ionna, Franco; Longo, Francesco; De Chiara, Annarosaria; Setola, Sergio Venanzio; Botti, Gerardo; Fulciniti, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Summary Castleman's disease (CD) is an unusual inflammatory lymphoproliferative disorder of uncertain aetiology, mainly involving lymphatic tissue in the mediastinum, but also occurring in the neck, lung, abdomen, pelvis, skeletal muscle and retroperitoneum. Fine Needle Cytology (FNC) is a quick, cost-effective and safe diagnostic modality to investigate on organs involved by CD, also providing a guide to treatment and management of patients with lymphoadenopathy. We report a case of a 44-year-old man who underwent FNC of a submandibular mass with subsequent surgical excision. Cytology revealed an atypical lymphoproliferative process, which arose the suspicion of CD. Histopathological study of the excised masses combined with immunhistochemistry and imaging of the submandibular and neck areas, confirmed the suspicion. A final diagnosis of Unicentric Castleman's disease, hyaline-vascular type, was made. PMID:26989647

  14. Noncanonical MicroRNA (miRNA) Biogenesis Gives Rise to Retroviral Mimics of Lymphoproliferative and Immunosuppressive Host miRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Kincaid, Rodney P.; Chen, Yating; Cox, Jennifer E.; Rethwilm, Axel; Sullivan, Christopher S.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play regulatory roles in diverse processes in both eukaryotic hosts and their viruses, yet fundamental questions remain about which viruses code for miRNAs and the functions that they serve. Simian foamy viruses (SFVs) of Old World monkeys and apes can zoonotically infect humans and, by ill-defined mechanisms, take up lifelong infections in their hosts. Here, we report that SFVs encode multiple miRNAs via a noncanonical mode of biogenesis. The primary SFV miRNA transcripts (pri-miRNAs) are transcribed by RNA polymerase III (RNAP III) and take multiple forms, including some that are cleaved by Drosha. However, these miRNAs are generated in a context-dependent fashion, as longer RNAP II transcripts spanning this region are resistant to Drosha cleavage. This suggests that the virus may avoid any fitness penalty that could be associated with viral genome/transcript cleavage. Two SFV miRNAs share sequence similarity and functionality with notable host miRNAs, the lymphoproliferative miRNA miR-155 and the innate immunity suppressor miR-132. These results have important implications regarding foamy virus biology, viral miRNAs, and the development of retroviral-based vectors. PMID:24713319

  15. EORTC, ISCL, and USCLC consensus recommendations for the treatment of primary cutaneous CD30-positive lymphoproliferative disorders: lymphomatoid papulosis and primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma*

    PubMed Central

    Pfaltz, Katrin; Vermeer, Maarten H.; Cozzio, Antonio; Ortiz-Romero, Pablo L.; Bagot, Martine; Olsen, Elise; Kim, Youn H.; Dummer, Reinhard; Pimpinelli, Nicola; Whittaker, Sean; Hodak, Emmilia; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Berti, Emilio; Horwitz, Steve; Prince, H. Miles; Guitart, Joan; Estrach, Teresa; Sanches, Jos A.; Duvic, Madeleine; Ranki, Annamari; Dreno, Brigitte; Ostheeren-Michaelis, Sonja; Knobler, Robert; Wood, Gary; Willemze, Rein

    2011-01-01

    Primary cutaneous CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorders (CD30+ LPDs) are the second most common form of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas and include lymphomatoid papulosis and primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. Despite the anaplastic cytomorphology of tumor cells that suggest an aggressive course, CD30+ LPDs are characterized by an excellent prognosis. Although a broad spectrum of therapeutic strategies has been reported, these have been limited mostly to small retrospective cohort series or case reports, and only very few prospective controlled or multicenter studies have been performed, which results in a low level of evidence for most therapies. The response rates to treatment, recurrence rates, and outcome have not been analyzed in a systematic review. Moreover, international guidelines for staging and treatment of CD30+ LPDs have not yet been presented. Based on a literature analysis and discussions, recommendations were elaborated by a multidisciplinary expert panel of the Cutaneous Lymphoma Task Force of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, the International Society for Cutaneous Lymphomas, and the United States Cutaneous Lymphoma Consortium. The recommendations represent the state-of-the-art management of CD30+ LPDs and include definitions for clinical endpoints as well as response criteria for future clinical trials in CD30+ LPDs. PMID:21841159

  16. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome due to somatic FAS mutation (ALPS-sFAS) combined with a germline caspase-10 (CASP10) variation.

    PubMed

    Martnez-Feito, Ana; Melero, Josefa; Mora-Daz, Sergio; Rodrguez-Vigil, Carmen; Elduayen, Ramn; Gonzlez-Granado, Luis I; Prez-Mndez, Dolores; Snchez-Zapardiel, Elena; Ruiz-Garca, Raquel; Menchn, Miguela; Daz-Madroero, Josefa; Paz-Artal, Estela; Del Orbe-Barreto, Rafael; Rin, Marta; Allende, Luis M

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by impaired Fas/FasL-mediated apoptosis of lymphocytes and is characterized by chronic nonmalignant or benign lymphoproliferation, autoimmune manifestations and expansion of double negative (DN) T-cells (TCR??+CD4-CD8-). Most cases of ALPS are associated with germline (ALPS-FAS) or somatic (ALPS-sFAS) heterozygous FAS mutations or a combination of both. Here we report three unrelated patients with ALPS-sFAS. Only one of them showed impaired Fas function in PHA-activated T-cells. In this patient, the genetic analysis of the caspase-10 gene (CASP10) identified a heterozygous germline change in exon 9 (c.1337A>G) causing Y446C substitution in the caspase-10 protein. In addition, this patient had a dysregulated T- and B-cell phenotype; circulating lymphocytes showed expansion of T effector memory CD45RA+ (TEMRA) CD4 T-cells, effector memory CD8 T-cells, CD21(low) B-cells and reduced memory switched B-cells. Additionally, this patient showed altered expression in T-cells of several molecules that change during differentiation from nave to effector cells (CD27, CD95, CD57 and perforin). Molecular alterations in genes of the Fas pathway are necessary for the development of ALPS and this syndrome could be influenced by the concurrent effect of other mutations hitting different genes involved in Fas or related pathways. PMID:26323380

  17. Epstein-Barr Virus-Related Post-Transplantation Lymphoproliferative Disorder after Unmanipulated Human Leukocyte Antigen Haploidentical Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Incidence, Risk Factors, Treatment, and Clinical Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lan-Ping; Zhang, Chun-Li; Mo, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Chen, Huan; Han, Wei; Chen, Yu-Hong; Wang, Yu; Yan, Chen-Hua; Wang, Jing-Zhi; Wang, Feng-Rong; Zhao, Ting; Liu, Yan-Rong; Liu, Kai-Yan; Huang, Xiao-Jun

    2015-12-01

    We examined the incidence, risk factors, treatments, and clinical outcomes of post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) after unmanipulated haploidentical (haplo) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in 1184 patients between 2006 and 2012. Age-, transplantation time-, and transplantation duration-matched controls were randomly selected from the same cohort. Forty-five patients experienced PTLD. The median time from HSCT to PTLD occurrence was 61 (range, 33 to 360) days and the 1-year cumulative incidence of total PTLD after haplo-HSCT was 3.0%. In multivariate analysis, a lower absolute count of CD8(+) T lymphocytes at day 30, a lower absolute count of immunoglobulin M at day 30, and cytomegalovirus DNAemia after HSCT were significantly associated with higher risk of PTLD. The 2-year probability of overall survival (OS) after HSCT was 42.8%, which was comparable between the probable PTLD and the proven PTLD patients. Patients who received rituximab-based therapy had significantly better 2-year OS (48.2% versus 13.2%, P= .02). Thus, we were able to identify individuals at a high risk of developing PTLD after unmanipulated haplo-HSCT. Rituximab-based therapy can help to improve the outcomes of PTLD patients. PMID:26253005

  18. Mucosal CD30-Positive T-Cell Lymphoproliferative Disorder Arising in the Oral Cavity Following Dental Implants: Report of the First Case.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hye-Jung; Choe, Ji-Young; Jeon, Yoon Kyung

    2015-12-01

    Mucosal CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (CD30+ T-cell LPD) is a novel entity with unique clinicopathological features and an indolent behavior. Here we report the first case of mucosal CD30+ T-cell LPD arising in the oral cavity following dental implant. A 70-year-old woman presented with swelling and redness of the oral mucosa of right maxilla and left mandible surrounding dental implants that had been placed 8 years previously. Radiological examination revealed enhancing oral lesions and multiple cervical lymph nodes. Microscopic examination showed diffuse infiltration of large anaplastic cells with characteristic morphology of hallmark cells described in anaplastic large cell lymphoma. These cells were diffusely positive for CD30, CD3, CD4, CD2, CD5, CD7, TIA-1, and TCR?F1, but negative for CD20, CD8, CD45, EMA, ALK, and Epstein-Barr virus. T-cell monoclonality was detected in a TCR? gene rearrangement study. This a unique case of mucosal CD30+ T-cell LPD with unusual presentation following dental implant. PMID:26261101

  19. Acute Kidney Disease After Liver and Heart Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Ana P; Vella, John P

    2016-03-01

    After transplantation of nonrenal solid organs, an acute decline in kidney function develops in the majority of patients. In addition, a significant number of nonrenal solid organ transplant recipients develop chronic kidney disease, and some develop end-stage renal disease, requiring renal replacement therapy. The incidence varies depending on the transplanted organ. Acute kidney injury after nonrenal solid organ transplantation is associated with prolonged length of stay, cost, increased risk of death, de novo chronic kidney disease, and end-stage renal disease. This overview focuses on the risk factors for posttransplant acute kidney injury after liver and heart transplantation, integrating discussion of proteinuria and chronic kidney disease with emphasis on pathogenesis, histopathology, and management including the use of mechanistic target of rapamycin inhibition and costimulatory blockade. PMID:26502368

  20. Radiolabeled Monoclonal Antibody With or Without Peripheral Stem Cell Transplantation in Treating Children With Recurrent or Refractory Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-16

    AIDS-related Peripheral/Systemic Lymphoma; AIDS-related Primary CNS Lymphoma; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma

  1. Nodal and extranodal plasmacytomas expressing immunoglobulin a: an indolent lymphoproliferative disorder with a low risk of clinical progression.

    PubMed

    Shao, Haipeng; Xi, Liqiang; Raffeld, Mark; Pittaluga, Stefania; Dunleavy, Kieron; Wilson, Wyndham H; Spector, Nelson; Milito, Cristiane; Morais, Jose Carlos; Jaffe, Elaine S

    2010-10-01

    Plasmacytomas expressing immunoglobulin A are rare and not well characterized. In this study, 9 cases of IgA-positive plasmacytoma presenting in lymph node and 3 in extranodal sites were analyzed by morphology, immunohistochemistry, and polymerase chain reaction examination of immunoglobulin heavy and ? light chain genes. Laboratory features were correlated with clinical findings. There were 7 males and 5 females; age range was 10 to 66 years (median, 32?y). Six of the patients were younger than 30 years of age, 5 of whom had nodal disease. About 67% (6 of 9) of the patients with nodal disease had evidence of immune system dysfunction, including human immunodeficiency virus infection, T-cell deficiency, autoantibodies, arthritis, Sjgren syndrome, and decreased B cells. An IgA M-spike was detected in 6 of 11 cases, and the M-protein was nearly always less than 30?g/L. All patients had an indolent clinical course without progression to plasma cell myeloma. Histologically, nodal IgA plasmacytomas showed an interfollicular or diffuse pattern of plasma cell infiltration. The plasma cells were generally of mature Marschalko type with little or mild pleomorphism and exclusive expression of monotypic IgA. There was an equal expression of ? and ? light chains (ratio 6:6). Clonality was showed in 9 of 12 cases: by polymerase chain reaction in 7 cases, by cytogenetic analysis in 1 case, and by immunofixation in 1 case. Clonality did not correlate with pattern of lymph node infiltration. Our results suggest that IgA plasmacytomas may represent a distinct form of extramedullary plasmacytoma characterized by younger age at presentation, frequent lymph node involvement, and low risk of progression to plasma cell myeloma. PMID:20871216

  2. Unusual case of cerebral aspergillosis with clinical and imaging findings mimicking lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Sidani, C; Freiser, M E; Saigal, G; Sklar, E

    2013-06-01

    A 14-year-old female post-transplant patient with a history of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease/lymphoma presented with fever and lethargy. Computed tomography of the brain demonstrated a hypodense lesion with surrounding edema in the right periventricular region not seen on a routine study performed two weeks earlier. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) this lesion was mainly iso-intense to gray matter on T2-weighted (T2W) images and demonstrated peripheral contrast enhancement. Diffusion restriction was seen within most of the lesion including, but not limited to, its periphery. Lesion location and MRI characteristics, particularly on T2W and diffusion sequences, were suggestive of lymphoma. The patient's history of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder also supported this diagnosis. However, in view of the patient's immunocompromised state, rapid onset of symptoms, and recent normal CT scan of the brain, infection was also entertained. Biopsy revealed short branching hyphae consistent with aspergillosis. This case is interesting as the MRI restriction pattern and the patient's history were more suggestive of lymphoma, but in reality the lesion represented an evolving aspergillosis abscess. Biopsy was necessary to further proceed with appropriate medical management, which is significantly different for the two entities. PMID:23859284

  3. Posttransplantation bone disease.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, John

    2005-03-27

    Transplanted patients experience rapid loss of bone, high fracture rates, and increases in morbidity and mortality as a consequence of a posttransplant scenario that is highly deleterious to the skeleton. Immune suppressive drugs, especially glucocorticoids, are toxic to bone, often acting on a background of preexisting osteodystrophy resulting from long-standing renal, hepatic, cardiac, or pulmonary disease. Cyclosporin and tacrolimus lead to a severe osteopenic state in rats, but the skeletal toxicity of the calcineurin inhibitors in the clinical environment is less clear. Nor is it clear whether cyclosporin and tacrolimus differ in their skeletal actions. Mycophenolate mofetil and sirolimus do not appear to have important skeletal toxicity. Preventative strategies include minimizing glucocorticoid exposure and implementing therapies to counter the increase in bone resorption and decrease in bone formation that follows transplantation. Antiresorptive agents, especially bisphosphonates, appear capable of retarding or halting the early bone loss and possibly reduce fracture rates also. Vitamin D and calcium are ineffective, but calcitriol has utility in some reports. Bone anabolic agents, such as synthetic parathyroid hormone and growth hormone, have potential, but data are lacking. PMID:15785362

  4. Malignancies After Heart Transplant.

    PubMed

    Lateef, Noman; Abdul Basit, Kalid; Abbasi, Nadeem; Kazmi, Syed Murtaza Hasan; Ansari, Abdul Basit; Shah, Mudassir

    2016-02-01

    Along with graft vasculopathy, malignancies comprise a major complication after heart transplant, with a rate of occurrence of 39.1% in 10 years. Skin cancers and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder are more common in adults, whereas lymphoma is more often shown in children. A major cause of malignancies after heart transplant is the use of increased doses of prophylactics needed during immunosuppressive therapy. Data, however, are scarce regarding the association between a particular immunosuppressive drug and a posttransplant malignancy. Compared with the general population, recipients have a higher incidence of malignancies after heart transplant, with an early onset and more aggressive disease. Solid tumors known to occur in heart transplant recipients include lung cancer, bladder and prostate carcinoma, adenocarcinoma of the oral cavity, stomach cancer, and bowel cancer, although the incidence is rare. The risk factors for development of a malignancy after heart transplant are the same as for the nontransplant population. PMID:26643469

  5. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease following liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Satapathy, Sanjaya Kumar; Nair, Satheesh; Vanatta, Jason M

    2013-06-01

    Post-transplant, nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis are increasingly recognized as a complication of liver transplantation, and the progression of the latter through fibrosis to cirrhosis has been clearly shown. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is independently associated with an increased risk of death from cardiovascular and liver diseases. While optimal therapy is not yet available in the post-liver transplant setting, knowledge gained in the therapy of NASH in the non-transplant setting can be used to design therapeutic interventions. In addition, early recognition with protocol liver biopsies and an effective preventive strategy by modifying known risk factors implicated in the recurrence of NASH would be the most effective way to curtail the progression of NASH before an effective treatment can be found. Additional rigorous research aimed at elucidating the pathogenesis, natural history, and selection of immunosuppressants for NASH is clearly warranted. PMID:26201774

  6. Castleman's Disease with Cutaneous Involvement Manifestating as Multiple Violaceous Plaques on Entire Body

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyeon-Young; Lee, Je-Jung; Lee, Jee-Bum; Kim, Seong-Jin; Lee, Seung-Chul; Won, Young Ho

    2011-01-01

    Castleman's disease (CD) is an uncommon B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by lymph node hyperplasia with vascular proliferation. Cutaneous involvement in CD is rare. A 65-year-old man presented with a 7-year history of gradually developing multiple reddish to violaceous indurated plaques on the scalp, trunk, and legs. On physical examination, there were palpable enlarged cervical, axillary, and inguinal lymph nodes. Laboratory examination revealed anemia, thrombocytosis, hyperproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, and polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia. An inguinal lymph node biopsy and a skin biopsy were performed and the patient was diagnosed with the plasma cell type of CD. Chemotherapy was started and the lesions have responded to treatment. PMID:22148042

  7. Candidates for liver transplantation with alcoholic liver disease: Psychosocial aspects.

    PubMed

    Telles-Correia, Diogo; Mega, Ins

    2015-10-21

    In Europe, 30% to 50% of liver transplantations are currently due to alcoholic liver disease (ALD). In the United States, this percentage is 17.2%. Post-transplant survival and other predictors of clinical course do not differ significantly from those in other types of transplanted patients, as long as there is no relapse of drinking. However, 20%-25% of these patients lapse or relapse to heavy drinking post-operatively, which has been associated with an increased risk of liver damage and mortality. It is therefore crucial to design specific selection and follow-up strategies aimed at this particular type of patient. Several good and poor prognosis factors that could help to predict a relapse have been suggested, among them the duration of abstinence, social support, a family history of alcoholism, abuse diagnosis versus alcohol dependence, non-acceptance of diagnosis related to alcohol use, presence of severe mental illness, non-adherence in a broad sense, number of years of alcoholism, and daily quantity of alcohol consumption. In this article, we discuss these and other, more controversial factors in selecting ALD patients for liver transplantation. Abstinence should be the main goal after transplantation in an ALD patient. In this article, we review the several definitions of post-transplant relapse, its monitoring and the psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatment. PMID:26494959

  8. Candidates for liver transplantation with alcoholic liver disease: Psychosocial aspects

    PubMed Central

    Telles-Correia, Diogo; Mega, Ins

    2015-01-01

    In Europe, 30% to 50% of liver transplantations are currently due to alcoholic liver disease (ALD). In the United States, this percentage is 17.2%. Post-transplant survival and other predictors of clinical course do not differ significantly from those in other types of transplanted patients, as long as there is no relapse of drinking. However, 20%-25% of these patients lapse or relapse to heavy drinking post-operatively, which has been associated with an increased risk of liver damage and mortality. It is therefore crucial to design specific selection and follow-up strategies aimed at this particular type of patient. Several good and poor prognosis factors that could help to predict a relapse have been suggested, among them the duration of abstinence, social support, a family history of alcoholism, abuse diagnosis versus alcohol dependence, non-acceptance of diagnosis related to alcohol use, presence of severe mental illness, non-adherence in a broad sense, number of years of alcoholism, and daily quantity of alcohol consumption. In this article, we discuss these and other, more controversial factors in selecting ALD patients for liver transplantation. Abstinence should be the main goal after transplantation in an ALD patient. In this article, we review the several definitions of post-transplant relapse, its monitoring and the psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatment. PMID:26494959

  9. Subclinical pulmonary function defects following autologous and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: relationship to total body irradiation and graft-versus-host disease

    SciTech Connect

    Tait, R.C.; Burnett, A.K.; Robertson, A.G.; McNee, S.; Riyami, B.M.; Carter, R.; Stevenson, R.D. )

    1991-06-01

    Pulmonary function results pre- and post-transplant, to a maximum of 4 years, were analyzed in 98 patients with haematological disorders undergoing allogeneic (N = 53) or autologous bone marrow transplantation (N = 45) between 1982 and 1988. All received similar total body irradiation based regimens ranging from 9.5 Gy as a single fraction to 14.4 Gy fractionated. FEV1/FVC as a measure of airway obstruction showed little deterioration except in patients experiencing graft-versus-host disease in whom statistically significant obstructive ventilatory defects were evident by 6 months post-transplant (p less than 0.01). These defects appeared to be permanent. Restrictive ventilatory defects, as measured by reduction in TLC, and defects in diffusing capacity (DLCO and KCO) were also maximal at 6 months post-transplant (p less than 0.01). Both were related, at least in part, to the presence of GVHD (p less than 0.01) or use of single fraction TBI with absorbed lung dose of 8.0 Gy (p less than 0.05). Fractionated TBI resulted in less marked restricted ventilation and impaired gas exchange, which reverted to normal by 2 years, even when the lung dose was increased from 11.0 Gy to between 12.0 and 13.5 Gy. After exclusion of patients with GVHD (30% allografts) there was no significant difference in pulmonary function abnormalities between autograft and allograft recipients.

  10. Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia and Hodgkin's Disease: An Unusual Pediatric Association

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Maria Miguel; Oliva, Tereza; Pinto, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a recognized complication of lymphoproliferative disorders. AIHA associated with Hodgkin's disease (HD) is uncommon especially in the pediatric population. The diagnosis of AIHA is usually associated with HD at the time of initial presentation or during the course of disease, but it could precede it by years to months. In adults the association of AIHA and HD is more frequent in advanced stages and in the nodular sclerosis and mixed cellularity type HD. Warm immune hemolytic anemia is mainly controlled with steroids and chemotherapy. We report a case of a pediatric patient with direct antiglobulin positive test at the diagnosis of a late relapse of stage III B mixed cellularity type HD. PMID:26904342

  11. Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia and Hodgkin's Disease: An Unusual Pediatric Association.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Maria Miguel; Oliva, Tereza; Pinto, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a recognized complication of lymphoproliferative disorders. AIHA associated with Hodgkin's disease (HD) is uncommon especially in the pediatric population. The diagnosis of AIHA is usually associated with HD at the time of initial presentation or during the course of disease, but it could precede it by years to months. In adults the association of AIHA and HD is more frequent in advanced stages and in the nodular sclerosis and mixed cellularity type HD. Warm immune hemolytic anemia is mainly controlled with steroids and chemotherapy. We report a case of a pediatric patient with direct antiglobulin positive test at the diagnosis of a late relapse of stage III B mixed cellularity type HD. PMID:26904342

  12. Relapse risk in patients with malignant diseases given allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation after nonmyeloablative conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Kahl, Christoph; Storer, Barry E.; Sandmaier, Brenda M.; Mielcarek, Marco; Maris, Michael B.; Blume, Karl G.; Niederwieser, Dietger; Chauncey, Thomas R.; Forman, Stephen J.; Agura, Edward; Leis, Jose F.; Bruno, Benedetto; Langston, Amelia; Pulsipher, Michael A.; McSweeney, Peter A.; Wade, James C.; Epner, Elliot; Bo Petersen, Finn; Bethge, Wolfgang A.; Maloney, David G.

    2007-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) after nonmyeloablative conditioning for hematologic malignancies depends on graft-versus-tumor effects for eradication of cancer. Here, we estimated relapse risks according to disease characteristics. Between 1997 and 2006, 834 consecutive patients (median age, 55 years; range, 5-74 years) received related (n = 498) or unrelated (n = 336) HCT after 2 Gy total body irradiation alone (n = 171) or combined with fludarabine (90 mg/m2; n = 663). Relapse rates per patient year (PY) at risk, corrected for follow-up and competing nonrelapse mortality, were calculated for 29 different diseases and stages. The overall relapse rate per PY was 0.36. Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and multiple myeloma (MM) in remission (CR), low-grade or mantle cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (CR + partial remission [PR]), and high-grade NHL-CR had the lowest rates (0.00-0.24; low risk). In contrast, patients with advanced myeloid and lymphoid malignancies had rates of more than 0.52 (high risk). Patients with lymphoproliferative diseases not in CR (except Hodgkin lymphoma and high-grade NHL) and myeloid malignancies in CR had rates of 0.26-0.37 (standard risk). In conclusion, patients with low-grade lymphoproliferative disorders experienced the lowest relapse rates, whereas patients with advanced myeloid and lymphoid malignancies had high relapse rates after nonmyeloablative HCT. The latter might benefit from cytoreductive treatment before HCT. PMID:17595333

  13. Unicentric Castlemans Disease of Abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Dharita; Darji, Parth; Lodha, Sambhav; Bolla, Soujanya

    2013-01-01

    Castlemans disease (CD) is a rare lymphoproliferative disease of uncertain etiology that affects lymph nodes. CD can be classified as a) unicentric vs. multicentric, based on clinical and radiological findings, b) hyaline vascular (8090%) vs. plasmacytic (1020%) vs. mixed cellularity variety based on histopathology. Unicentric disease is more common in the 3rd and 4th decade, whereas the multicentric form is more common in the 5th and 6th decade with no sex predilection. HIV seropositive individuals appear to be at an increased risk for multicentric castleman's disease (MCD) at a younger age due to the increased incidence of HHV- 8 infection. Diagnosis is usually based on histopathology features as imaging features show considerable overlap, thus posing diagnostic difficulties. Overall prognosis is good, particularly in the unicentric variety of disease. We have presented a case of the unicentric CD in a 40 year old male patient having abdominal pain and hematuria as chief complaints. PMID:23705043

  14. Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipients: Factors Determining Progression to Lower Respiratory Tract Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yae-Jean; Guthrie, Katherine A.; Waghmare, Alpana; Walsh, Edward E.; Falsey, Ann R.; Kuypers, Jane; Cent, Anne; Englund, Janet A.; Boeckh, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease (LRD) is a life-threatening complication in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. Lymphopenia has been associated with an increased risk of progression from upper respiratory tract infection (URI) to LRD. Methods. This study retrospectively analyzed the significance of lymphocyte engraftment dynamics, lung function, smoking history, corticosteroids, antiviral treatment, viral subtypes, and RSV-specific neutralizing antibodies for the progression to LRD in 181 HCT recipients with RSV URI. Results. In multivariable models, smoking history, conditioning with high-dose total body irradiation, and an absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) ≤100/mm3 at the time of URI onset were significantly associated with disease progression. No progression occurred in patients with ALCs of >1000/mm3 at URI onset. Lymphocyte engraftment dynamics were similar in progressors and nonprogressors. Pre- and posttransplant donor and posttransplant recipient RSV subtype-specific neutralizing antibody levels, RSV viral subtypes, and corticosteroids also were not significantly associated with LRD progression. Conclusions. Host and transplant related factors appear to determine the risk of progression to LRD more than viral factors. Dysfunctional cell-mediated immunity appears to be important in the pathogenesis of progressive RSV disease after HCT. A characterization of RSV-specific T-cell immunity is warranted. PMID:24368837

  15. A multigene array for measurable residual disease detection in AML patients undergoing SCT

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, M; McGowan, K S; Lu, K; Jain, N; Candia, J; Hensel, N F; Tang, J; Calvo, K R; Battiwalla, M; Barrett, A J; Hourigan, C S

    2015-01-01

    AML is a diagnosis encompassing a diverse group of myeloid malignancies. Heterogeneous genetic etiology, together with the potential for oligoclonality within the individual patient, have made the identification of a single high-sensitivity marker of disease burden challenging. We developed a multiple gene measurable residual disease (MG-MRD) RQPCR array for the high-sensitivity detection of AML, retrospectively tested on 74 patients who underwent allo-SCT at the NHLBI in the period 19942012. MG-MRD testing on peripheral blood samples prior to transplantation demonstrated excellent concordance with traditional BM-based evaluation and improved risk stratification for post-transplant relapse and OS outcomes. Pre-SCT assessment by MG-MRD predicted all clinical relapses occurring in the first 100 days after allo-SCT compared with 57% sensitivity using WT1 RQPCR alone. Nine patients who were negative for WT1 prior to transplantation were correctly reclassified into a high-risk MG-MRD-positive group, associated with 100% post-transplant mortality. This study provides proof of principle that a multiple gene approach may be superior to the use of WT1 expression alone for AML residual disease detection. PMID:25665046

  16. Pathophysiologic and treatment strategies for cardiovascular disease in end-stage renal disease and kidney transplantations.

    PubMed

    Ghanta, Mythili; Kozicky, Mark; Jim, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    The inextricable link between the heart and the kidneys predestines that significant cardiovascular disease ensues in the face of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). As a point of fact, the leading cause of mortality of patients on dialysis is still from cardiovascular etiologies, albeit differing in particular types of disease from the general population. For example, sudden cardiac death outnumbers coronary artery disease in patients with ESRD, which is the reverse for the general population. In this review, we will focus on the pathophysiology and treatment options of important traditional and nontraditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease in ESRD patients such as hypertension, anemia, vascular calcification, hyperparathyroidism, uremia, and oxidative stress. The evidence of erythropoietin-stimulating agents, phosphate binders, calcimimetics, and dialysis modalities will be presented. We will then discuss how these risk factors may be changed and perhaps exacerbated after renal transplantation. This is largely due to the immunosuppressive agents that are both crucial yet potentially detrimental in the posttransplant state. Calcineurin inhibitors, corticosteroids, and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, the mainstay of transplant immunosuppression, are all known to increase the risks of developing new onset diabetes as well as the metabolic syndrome. Thus, we need to carefully negotiate between patients' cardiovascular profile and their risks of rejection. Finally, we end by considering strategies by which we may minimize cardiovascular disease in the transplant population, as this modality still confers the highest chance of survival in patients with ESRD. PMID:25420053

  17. Liver transplantation in the Nordic countries An intention to treat and post-transplant analysis from The Nordic Liver Transplant Registry 19822013

    PubMed Central

    Fosby, Bjarte; Melum, Espen; Bjro, Kristian; Bennet, William; Rasmussen, Allan; Andersen, Ina Marie; Castedal, Maria; Olausson, Michael; Wibeck, Christina; Gotlieb, Mette; Gjertsen, Henrik; Toivonen, Leena; Foss, Stein; Makisalo, Heikki; Nordin, Arno; Sanengen, Truls; Bergquist, Annika; Larsson, Marie E.; Soderdahl, Gunnar; Nowak, Greg; Boberg, Kirsten Muri; Isoniemi, Helena; Keiding, Susanne; Foss, Aksel; Line, Pl-Dag; Friman, Styrbjrn; Schrumpf, Erik; Ericzon, Bo-Gran; Hckerstedt, Krister; Karlsen, Tom H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aim and background. The Nordic Liver Transplant Registry (NLTR) accounts for all liver transplants performed in the Nordic countries since the start of the transplant program in 1982. Due to short waiting times, donor liver allocation has been made without considerations of the model of end-stage liver disease (MELD) score. We aimed to summarize key outcome measures and developments for the activity up to December 2013. Materials and methods. The registry is integrated with the operational waiting-list and liver allocation system of Scandiatransplant (www.scandiatransplant.org) and accounted at the end of 2013 for 6019 patients out of whom 5198 were transplanted. Data for recipient and donor characteristics and relevant end-points retransplantation and death are manually curated on an annual basis to allow for statistical analysis and the annual report. Results. Primary sclerosing cholangitis, acute hepatic failure, alcoholic liver disease, primary biliary cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma are the five most frequent diagnoses (accounting for 15.3%, 10.8%, 10.6%, 9.3% and 9.0% of all transplants, respectively). Median waiting time for non-urgent liver transplantation during the last 10-year period was 39 days. Outcome has improved over time, and for patients transplanted during 20042013, overall one-, five- and 10-year survival rates were 91%, 80% and 71%, respectively. In an intention-to-treat analysis, corresponding numbers during the same time period were 87%, 75% and 66%, respectively. Conclusion. The liver transplant program in the Nordic countries provides comparable outcomes to programs with a MELD-based donor liver allocation system. Unique features comprise the diagnostic spectrum, waiting times and the availability of an integrated waiting list and transplant registry (NLTR). PMID:25959101

  18. Comparison of Three Distinct Prophylactic Agents Against Invasive Fungal Infections in Patients Undergoing Haplo-identical Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation and Post-transplant Cyclophosphamide

    PubMed Central

    El-Cheikh, Jean; Crocchiolo, Roberto; Vai, Andrea; Furst, Sabine; Bramanti, Stefania; Sarina, Barbara; Granata, Angela; Faucher, Catherine; Mohty, Bilal; Harbi, Samia; Bouabdallah, Reda; Vey, Norbert; Santoro, Armando; Chabannon, Christian; Castagna, Luca; Blaise, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, invasive fungal infections (IFIs) have remained an important problem in patients undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (Allo-HSCT). The optimal approach for prophylactic antifungal therapy has yet to bedetermined. We conducted a retrospective analysis, comparing the safety and efficacy of micafungin 50mg/day vs. fluconazole 400mg/day vs. itraconazole 200mg/day as prophylaxis for adult patients with various haematological diseases receiving haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) followed by high-dose cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy). Overall, 99 patients were identified: 30 patients received micafungin, 50 and 19 patients received itraconazole and fluconazole, respectively. After a median follow-up of 12 months (range: 151), proven or probable IFIs were reported in 3 patients (10%) in the micafungin, 5 patients in the itraconazole (10%) and 2 patients (11%) in the fluconazole group (p=0.998). Fewer patients in the micafungin group had invasive aspergillosis (1 [3%] vs. 3 [6%] in the itraconazole vs. 2 [11%] in the fluconazole group, p=0.589). Four patients (13%) in the micafungin group vs 13 (26%) patients in the itraconazole group and 10 (53%) patients in the fluconazole received empirical antifungal therapy (P = 0.19). No serious adverse events related to treatment were reported by patients, and there was no treatment discontinuation because of drug-related adverse events in both groups. The present analysis shows that micafungin did better than fluconazole in preventing invasive aspergillosis after transplant in these high-risk hematological diseases, as expected. In addition, micafungin was more effective than itraconazole in preventing all IFI episodes when also considering possible fungal infections. Future prospective studies would shed light on this issue, concerning this increasingly used transplant platform. PMID:26401237

  19. Diagnosis and treatment of viral diseases in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Viral infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic stem cell hematopoietic transplantation (allo-HSCT). Although most viral infections present with asymptomatic or subclinical manifestations, viruses may result in fatal complications in severe immunocompromised recipients. Reactivation of latent viruses, such as herpesviruses, is frequent during the immunosuppression that occurs with allo-HSCT. Viruses acquired from community, such as the respiratory and gastrointestinal viruses, are also important pathogens of post-transplant viral diseases. Currently, molecular diagnostic methods have replaced or supplemented traditional methods, such as viral culture and antigen detection, in diagnosis of viral infections. The utilization of polymerase chain reaction facilitates the early diagnosis. In view of lacking efficacious agents for treatment of viral diseases, prevention of viral infections is extremely valuable. Application of prophylactic strategies including preemptive therapy reduces viral infections and diseases. Adoptive cellular therapy for restoring virus-specific immunity is a promising method in the treatment of viral diseases. PMID:24341630

  20. Clonal rearrangement for immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor genes in systemic Castleman's disease. Association with Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, C. A.; Frizzera, G.; Patton, D. F.; Peterson, B. A.; McClain, K. L.; Gajl-Peczalska, K. J.; Kersey, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    Castleman's disease is a morphologically and clinically heterogeneous lymphoproliferative disorder. Both a localized benign variant and an aggressive form with systemic manifestations have been described. To investigate the differences between these variants of Castleman's disease, the authors analyzed lymph node DNA from 4 patients with the localized type and 4 with the systemic type of Castleman's disease for immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor gene rearrangements. The role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) was also studied by viral genomic DNA probes. They detected clonal rearrangements in 3 of the 4 patients with the systemic variant of Castleman's; no patients with localized disease had rearrangements. Copies of EBV genome were also detected in 2 of the 3 patients with clonal rearrangements. These results suggest that systemic Castleman's disease is a disorder distinct from the classical localized variant in that it may evolve into a clonal lymphoproliferation. Images Figure 1 PMID:2833104

  1. Rosai-Dorfman Disease of the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval-Sus, Jose D.; Sandoval-Leon, Ana C.; Chapman, Jennifer R.; Velazquez-Vega, Jose; Borja, Maria J.; Rosenberg, Shai; Lossos, Alexander; Lossos, Izidore S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD), also known as sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (SHML), is an uncommon benign idiopathic lymphoproliferative disorder. The histologic hallmark of RDD is the finding of emperipolesis displayed by lesional histiocytes. While RDD most commonly affects lymph nodes, extranodal involvement of multiple organs has been reported, including the central nervous system (CNS). However, CNS involvement in RDD is rare and is not well characterized. As a result, therapeutic approaches to CNS involvement in RDD are not well established. Herein we report 6 cases of RDD with isolated CNS involvement and review the literature on RDD with CNS involvement. One of the presented cases exhibited intramedullary involvement of the spinal cord—a very rare form of RDD with CNS involvement. PMID:24797172

  2. Emerging treatments in Castleman disease – a critical appraisal of siltuximab

    PubMed Central

    Koff, Jean L; Lonial, Sagar

    2016-01-01

    Castleman disease (CD) is a rare, heterogeneous lymphoproliferative disorder for which no standard of care currently exists. Evidence that the pathophysiology of CD is fueled by excessive interleukin-6 (IL-6) has led to considerable interest in therapeutic targeting of this cytokine. Siltuximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody to IL-6, has thus emerged as a promising treatment option in a disease lacking efficacious therapy. Here, we review the findings of recent studies evaluating single-agent siltuximab treatment in CD, including the first-ever randomized clinical trial in this disease. Although much more work is needed to establish a standardized treatment approach, siltuximab appears to be a safe and effective treatment for patients with newly diagnosed and previously treated CD. PMID:26869762

  3. General anesthesia in a patient with multicentric Castleman's disease: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Huh, In Young; Lee, Sang Hyun; Kim, An Suk; Park, Se Hun; Kim, Dae-Young

    2015-01-01

    Castleman's disease (CD) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder of undetermined etiology. Unicentric Castleman's disease is confined to a single lymph node; it is usually asymptomatic though sometimes has local manifestations related to mass effects. In contrast, multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD) typically presents with lymphoid hyperplasia at multiple sites; it is associated with systemic symptoms and abnormal laboratory findings, with a less favorable prognosis. In case of anesthesia in CD, an exhaustive preanesthetic evaluation is essential to identify associated clinical manifestations which may influence the management of the anesthesia. Perioperative careful monitoring and proper anesthetic management are both important. We report a case of general anesthesia with anesthetic management in a patient with MCD that has not been documented in the literature. PMID:26045937

  4. Gene therapy for childhood immunological diseases.

    PubMed

    Kohn, D B

    2008-01-01

    Gene therapy using autologous hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) that are corrected with the normal gene may have a beneficial effect on blood cell production or function, without the immunologic complications of allogeneic HSC transplantation. Childhood immunological diseases are highly favorable candidates for responses to gene therapy using HSC. Hemoglobinopathies, lysosomal and metabolic disorders and defects of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells should also be ameliorated by gene therapy using autologous HSC. At present, gene therapy has been beneficial for patients with XSCID, ADA-deficient SCID and chronic granulomatous disease. The principle that partial marrow conditioning increases engraftment of gene-corrected HSC has been demonstrated. Clinical trials are being developed in Europe and the United States to treat several other genetic blood cell disorders. This progress is tempered by the serious complication observed in XSCID patients developing T lymphoproliferative disease. New methods for gene transfer (lentiviral and foamy viral vectors, semi-viral systems and gene correction) may retain or further increase the efficacy and decrease the risks from gene therapy using HSC. Ultimately, the relative benefits and risks of autologous gene therapy will be weighed against other available options (for example, allogeneic HSCT) to determine the treatment of choice. PMID:17994122

  5. Predictive value of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome stage 0p in chronic graft-versus-host disease of the lung.

    PubMed

    Abedin, Sameem; Yanik, Gregory A; Braun, Thomas; Pawarode, Attaphol; Magenau, John; Goldstein, Steven C; Levine, John E; Kitko, Carrie L; Couriel, Daniel R

    2015-06-01

    Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is a significant post-transplant complication with low survival. BOS stage 0p (BOS 0p) is a parameter detected on pulmonary function tests (PFTs) after lung transplantation to identify patients at risk to develop BOS. We performed a retrospective study on 442 patients who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplant from 2007 to 2011 to evaluate whether development of BOS 0p is a risk factor in this population for BOS. Patients who met criteria for BOS 0p were significantly more likely to develop BOS (hazard ratio [HR], 3.22; P < .001). BOS 0p was significantly associated with a history of lung disease pretransplant (HR, 2.48; P = .001) and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) outside the lung post-transplant (HR, 23; P < .001). Finally, BOS 0p criteria were adequately sensitive in predicting BOS (85%), with a high negative predictive value (98%). Our findings suggest a routine PFT screening strategy with the intent of detecting BOS 0p, especially among patients with prior lung disease and who developed chronic GVHD, could suitably identify an at-risk population for the development of BOS. PMID:25687798

  6. Left ventricular function, tricuspid incompetence, and incidence of coronary artery disease late after orthotopic heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, G; Simon, R; Haverich, A; Cremer, J; Dammenhayn, L; Schfers, H J; Wahlers, T; Borst, H G

    1989-01-01

    Functional results and data concerning the incidence and severity of graft atherosclerosis (GASC) and tricuspid incompetence (TI) in the intermediate term after orthotopic heart transplantation (HTX) are still striking. We examined 92 patients 1, 2, and 3 years after HTX by right and left heart catheterization in order to evaluate pump function, the status of the coronary arteries and the extend of TI, using a double indicator thermodilation technique. Mean left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction were normal 1 and 2 years post-transplant. The incidence of GASC was 8/87 (9.2%) at 1, and 11/92 (12%) at 2 years. It was more frequent (16%) in patients with preexisting coronary artery disease (IHD) than in patients with underlying dilative cardiomyopathy (DCM) (11%). At the end of the 1st postoperative year, 62% of patients were free of TI, whereas only 38% had normal valve function 2 years posttransplant. In 9/14 (64%) of patients, consecutively assessed at 1 and 2 years, TI had increased between both investigations. Preoperative haemodynamics, the number of endomyocardial biopsies and rejection episodes as well as preoperative cardiac size did not correlate with TI. Left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction are normal in the intermediate term after HTX. The incidence of GASC was less than 10% at 1 year and did not significantly increase thereafter. TI is a frequent and yet unexplained finding after HTX showing a considerable tendency to increase with time, but with little or not haemodynamic consequence. PMID:2627460

  7. The management of perioperative nutrition in patients with end stage liver disease undergoing liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi-Kun; Wang, Meng-Long

    2015-10-01

    Malnutrition is found in almost 100% of patients with end stage liver disease (ESLD) awaiting transplantation and malnutrition before transplantation leads to higher rates of post-transplant complications and worse graft survival outcomes. Reasons for protein energy malnutrition include several metabolic alterations such as inadequate intake, malabsorption, and overloaded expenditure. And also, stress from surgery, gastrointestinal reperfusion injury, immunosuppressive therapy and corticosteriods use lead to delayed bowl function recovery and disorder of nutrients absorption. In the pretransplant phase, nutritional goals include optimization of nutritional status and treatment of nutrition-related symptoms induced by hepatic decompensation. During the acute post-transplant phase, adequate nutrition is required to help support metabolic demands, replenish lost stores, prevent infection, arrive at a new immunologic balance, and promote overall recovery. In a word, it is extremely important to identify and correct nutritional deficiencies in this population and provide an adequate nutritional support during all phases of liver transplantation (LT). This study review focuses on prevalence, nutrition support, evaluation, and management of perioperative nutrition disorder in patients with ESLD undergoing LT. PMID:26605281

  8. The management of perioperative nutrition in patients with end stage liver disease undergoing liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qi-Kun

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is found in almost 100% of patients with end stage liver disease (ESLD) awaiting transplantation and malnutrition before transplantation leads to higher rates of post-transplant complications and worse graft survival outcomes. Reasons for protein energy malnutrition include several metabolic alterations such as inadequate intake, malabsorption, and overloaded expenditure. And also, stress from surgery, gastrointestinal reperfusion injury, immunosuppressive therapy and corticosteriods use lead to delayed bowl function recovery and disorder of nutrients absorption. In the pretransplant phase, nutritional goals include optimization of nutritional status and treatment of nutrition-related symptoms induced by hepatic decompensation. During the acute post-transplant phase, adequate nutrition is required to help support metabolic demands, replenish lost stores, prevent infection, arrive at a new immunologic balance, and promote overall recovery. In a word, it is extremely important to identify and correct nutritional deficiencies in this population and provide an adequate nutritional support during all phases of liver transplantation (LT). This study review focuses on prevalence, nutrition support, evaluation, and management of perioperative nutrition disorder in patients with ESLD undergoing LT. PMID:26605281

  9. Overexpression of Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase in MTX- and Age-Related Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated B-Cell Lymphoproliferative Disorders of the Head and Neck

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Kentaro; Ishige, Toshiyuki; Ide, Fumio; Ito, Yumi; Saito, Ichiro; Hoshino, Miyako; Inoue, Harumi; Miyazaki, Yuji; Nozaki, Tadashige; Kojima, Masaru; Kusama, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has shown that activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) triggers somatic hypermutation and recombination, in turn contributing to lymphomagenesis. Such aberrant AID expression is seen in B-cell leukemia/lymphomas, including Burkitt lymphoma which is associated with c-myc translocation. Moreover, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1) increases genomic instability through early growth transcription response-1 (Egr-1) mediated upregulation of AID in B-cell lymphoma. However, few clinicopathological studies have focused on AID expression in lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs). Therefore, we conducted an immunohistochemical study to investigate the relationship between AID and LMP-1 expression in LPDs (MTX-/Age-related EBV-associated), including diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs). More intense AID expression was detected in LPDs (89.5%) than in DLBCLs (20.0%), and the expression of LMP-1 and EBER was more intense in LPDs (68.4% and 94.7%) than in DLBCLs (10.0% and 20.0%). Furthermore, stronger Egr-1 expression was found in MTX/Age-EBV-LPDs (83.3%) than in DLBCLs (30.0%). AID expression was significantly constitutively overexpressed in LPDs as compared with DLBCLs. These results suggest that increased AID expression in LPDs may be one of the processes involved in lymphomagenesis, thereby further increasing the survival of genetically destabilized B-cells. AID expression may be a useful indicator for differentiation between LPDs and DLBCLs. PMID:25834572

  10. Regulatory T-Cells in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    DArena, Giovanni; Rossi, Giovanni; Vannata, Barbara; Deaglio, Silvia; Mansueto, Giovanna; DAuria, Fiorella; Statuto, Teodora; Simeon, Vittorio; De Martino, Laura; Marandino, Aurelio; Del Poeta8, Giovanni; De Feo, Vincenzo; Musto, Pellegrino

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory T-cells (Tregs) constitute a small subset of cells that are actively involved in maintaining self-tolerance, in immune homeostasis and in antitumor immunity. They are thought to play a significant role in the progression of cancer and are generally increased in patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Their number correlates with more aggressive disease status and is predictive of the time to treatment, as well. Moreover, it is now clear that dysregulation in Tregs cell frequency and/or function may result in a plethora of autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes mellitus, myasthenia gravis, systemic lupus erythematosus, autoimmune lymphoproliferative disorders, rheumatoid arthritis, and psoriasis. Efforts are made aiming to develop approaches to deplete Tregs or inhibit their function in cancer and autoimmune disorders, as well. PMID:22973497

  11. Cholestasis and end-stage liver disease.

    PubMed

    Protheroe, S M; Kelly, D A

    1998-12-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition is an inevitable consequence of chronic liver disease, particularly in the developing infant. Severe malnutrition with loss of fat stores and muscle wasting affects between 60% and 80% of infants with liver disease (Beath, 1993a; Holt et al, 1997). Reduced energy intake secondary to anorexia, vomiting and fat malabsorption, in association with a disordered metabolism of carbohydrate and protein, increased energy requirements and vitamin and mineral deficiencies, contributes towards growth failure. Reversal of malnutrition is one of the key aims of liver transplantation and is achieved in the majority of long-term survivors. The aetiology of persistent growth failure post-transplantation is multifactorial and is related to pre-operative malnutrition, glucocorticoid administration, feeding problems and post-operative complications. Strategies to prevent pre- and post-transplant growth failure include early referral for liver transplantation and a multidisciplinary approach to nutritional support, which may increase survival and improve the quality of life and outcome of liver transplantation. PMID:10079909

  12. Surgical management of isolated retroperitoneal Castleman's disease: A case report

    PubMed Central

    XU, JUN; ZHOU, BO; CAO, HUA-LI; WANG, BO; YAN, SHENG; ZHENG, SHU-SEN

    2016-01-01

    Castleman's disease (CD) is an uncommon, poorly understood lymphoproliferative disease. Retroperitoneal forms may present as either a unicentric or multicentric disease. The present study reports the case of a 36-year-old man who was referred to the First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University (Hangzhou, China), for a detailed examination of an abdominal mass. The abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography scans revealed a solid mass localized in the region between segment 1 of the liver and the pancreas. An endosonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy revealed chronic inflammation and lymphadenosis. The present study reports a rare case, in which the patient was treated with an exploratory laparotomy and resection. The retroperitoneal mass was pathologically diagnosed as CD of the hyaline vascular type. The patient was closely followed-up for 11 months and is presently free of disease. In conclusion, the possibility of unicentric CD should be considered when facing a solid hypervascular retroperitoneal mass. A complete surgical resection may successfully treat the disease without an unnecessarily extensive resection for the unicentric type.

  13. Castleman disease of the mesentery as the great mimic: Incidental finding of one case and the literature review.

    PubMed

    Lv, Ang; Hao, Chunyi; Qian, Honggang; Leng, Jiahua; Liu, Wendy

    2015-06-01

    Castleman disease is an uncommon benign lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by hyperplasia of lymphoid follicles. More commonly described in the mediastinum, its occurrence in the mesentery is exceedingly rare, which is easily to be ignored in differential diagnosis when an abdominal mass is found. We report the case of an asymptomatic 71-year-old woman with a homogenous and hypervascular mass at the inner side of duodenojejunal junction. Based on the clinical suspicion of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor, a surgical resection was performed. Final diagnosis of the mass was hyaline vascular variant of Castleman disease. Here, we summarize the clinicopathological and radiological features of this disease by literature review, which may be helpful to bring awareness of this entity and improve the clinical decision making when similar scenarios are encountered. PMID:26166374

  14. Subacute radiation dermatitis: a histologic imitator of acute cutaneous graft-versus-host disease

    SciTech Connect

    LeBoit, P.E.

    1989-02-01

    The histopathologic changes of radiation dermatitis have been classified either as early effects (necrotic keratinocytes, fibrin thrombi, and hemorrhage) or as late effects (vacuolar changes at the dermal-epidermal junction, atypical radiation fibroblasts, and fibrosis). Two patients, one exposed to radiation therapeutically and one accidentally, are described. Skin biopsy specimens showed an interface dermatitis characterized by numerous dyskeratotic epidermal cells with lymphocytes in close apposition (satellite cell necrosis); that is, the epidermal changes were similar to those in acute graft-versus-host disease. Because recipients of bone marrow transplants frequently receive total body irradiation as part of their preparatory regimen, the ability of radiation to cause persistent epidermal changes similar to those in acute graft-versus-host disease could complicate the interpretation of posttransplant skin biopsy specimens.

  15. Multicentric Castleman Disease With Tubulointerstitial Nephritis Mimicking IgG4-related Disease: Two Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Zoshima, Takeshi; Yamada, Kazunori; Hara, Satoshi; Mizushima, Ichiro; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Harada, Kenichi; Sato, Yasuharu; Kawano, Mitsuhiro

    2016-04-01

    Multicentric Castleman disease is a benign lymphoproliferative disorder with heterogenous clinical symptoms and involves systemic organs in addition to lymph nodes. Elevated serum IgG4 levels and IgG4-positive plasma cell (IgG4+PC) infiltrates have been reported in lymph nodes, lung and skin in some multicentric Castleman disease cases, resembling IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) histologically. However, no report has been available regarding IgG4+PC infiltration in the kidneys of multicentric Castleman disease. Here, we report 2 cases of multicentric Castleman disease complicated by IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) histologically. However, there has been no report published on PC-rich tubulointerstitial nephritis, lymphadenopathy, with numerous IgG4+PC infiltration, and elevated serum IgG4 levels, mimicking IgG4-RD. The blood examinations revealed systemic inflammation and elevated C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels. Corticosteroid therapy was partially effective in both cases, and combination therapy of corticosteroid and tocilizumab was needed in both cases. Moreover, after triple therapy with corticosteroid, rituximab and cyclophosphamide were used in 1 case to tame the severe inflammation. The present cases suggest that if continuously elevated serum C-reactive protein levels and partial corticosteroid responsiveness are encountered, multicentric Castleman disease should be considered rather than IgG4-RD as a differential diagnosis even if serum IgG4 is elevated and IgG4+PCs infiltrate systemic organs. PMID:26598921

  16. Late-onset graft-versus-host disease after pediatric living-related liver transplantation for Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Yuksekkaya, Hasan Ali; Arikan, Cigdem; Tumgor, Gokhan; Aksoylar, Serap; Kilic, Murat; Aydogdu, Sema

    2011-09-01

    GVHD is the most common and well-known cause of morbidity and mortality following allogeneic BM transplantation. The GVHD following OLT is an uncommon complication but has a high mortality and poses a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We herein discussed a 12-month-old girl with multi-system LCH, who developed end-stage liver disease despite intensive chemotherapy. She underwent ABO-compatible liver transplantation at 28 months while in remission from LCH. The donor was her 26-yr-old father. Post-operative course was uneventful. The GVHD manifested with skin rash and BM suppression on post-transplant day 94 and confirmed by both microchimerism and skin biopsy. Prednisolone, basiliximab, and ATG were administered immediately but the bone marrow suppression was not improved and the patient died because of Candida sepsis at six-month post-transplant. GVHD after OLT should be keep in mind in patients with rash and BM suppression after liver transplantation. In LDLT, a patient who carries risk factors should investigated for optimal HLA matching. PMID:21884342

  17. Gene mutations and alternate RNA splicing result in truncated Ig L chains in human gamma H chain disease.

    PubMed

    Cogn, M; Bakhshi, A; Korsmeyer, S J; Guglielmi, P

    1988-09-01

    The lack of covalently associated L chains features H chain disease proteins produced in some human B cell lymphoproliferative disorders. We cloned and characterized the single rearranged kappa L chain gene from the leukemic lymphocytes of a patient (RIV) affected with gamma 1 H chain disease, to determine the molecular basis for absent L chain. This kappa allele had undergone an effective V-J rearrangement. Extensive somatic mutation focused about the V-J region created a sequence that was only 75% homologous to its germ-line counterpart. Altered acceptor (V kappa) and donor (J kappa) splice sites resulted in an aberrant splice between the leader and C kappa exons and a truncated 850-bp kappa mRNA. RIV leukemic cells as well as myeloma cells transfected with the RIV kappa gene synthesized a truncated protein. Simultaneous defects in H and L chains genes may reflect a hypermutational mechanism for Ig genes in B cells. PMID:3137264

  18. Castleman disease variant of POEMS syndrome complicated with multiple cerebral infarction: a rare case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hang; Yao, Fang; Li, Yue; Li, Jian; Cui, Quan-Cai

    2015-01-01

    POEMS syndrome is a rare hematological disorder associated with plasma cell dyscrasia characterized by polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy and skin changes. Castleman disease is a lymphoproliferative disorder that can be present in POEMS patients, which can be defined as Castleman disease variant of POEMS syndrome. Herein, we described a 24-year-old male patient diagnosed with this syndrome and also suffered from multiple cerebral infarctions. This patient showed no evidence of monoclonal gammopathy and failed to have electromyography examined. The final diagnosis was established with the help of the axillary lymph node biopsy. As a rare case of POEMS syndrome without evidence fulfilling the major mandatory diagnostic criteria and with cerebrovascular involvement, its characteristics was discussed with a brief literature review in order to facilitate further understanding of the POEMS syndrome. PMID:26722578

  19. Castleman disease variant of POEMS syndrome complicated with multiple cerebral infarction: a rare case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hang; Yao, Fang; Li, Yue; Li, Jian; Cui, Quan-Cai

    2015-01-01

    POEMS syndrome is a rare hematological disorder associated with plasma cell dyscrasia characterized by polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy and skin changes. Castleman disease is a lymphoproliferative disorder that can be present in POEMS patients, which can be defined as Castleman disease variant of POEMS syndrome. Herein, we described a 24-year-old male patient diagnosed with this syndrome and also suffered from multiple cerebral infarctions. This patient showed no evidence of monoclonal gammopathy and failed to have electromyography examined. The final diagnosis was established with the help of the axillary lymph node biopsy. As a rare case of POEMS syndrome without evidence fulfilling the major mandatory diagnostic criteria and with cerebrovascular involvement, its characteristics was discussed with a brief literature review in order to facilitate further understanding of the POEMS syndrome. PMID:26722578

  20. Clinical implications and prognostic role of minimal residual disease detection in follicular lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Lobetti-Bodoni, Chiara; Mantoan, Barbara; Monitillo, Luigia; Genuardi, Elisa; Drandi, Daniela; Barbero, Daniela; Bernocco, Elisa; Boccadoro, Mario

    2013-01-01

    The identification of patients at high risk of relapse is a critical goal of modern translational research in oncohematology. Minimal residual disease (MRD) detection by polymerase chain reaction-based methods is routinely employed in the management of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Current knowledge indicates that it is also a useful prognostic tool in several mature lymphoproliferative disorders and particularly in follicular lymphoma (FL). Based on this evidence clinical trials employing MRD-based risk stratification are currently ongoing in FL. In this review the ‘state of the art’ of MRD evaluation in FL is discussed. A short description of technical issues and recent methodological advances is provided. Then, the bulk of the review focuses on critical take-home messages for clinicians working in the field. Finally, we discuss future perspectives of MRD detection and more generally outcome prediction in FL. PMID:23730496

  1. Clinical implications and prognostic role of minimal residual disease detection in follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Lobetti-Bodoni, Chiara; Mantoan, Barbara; Monitillo, Luigia; Genuardi, Elisa; Drandi, Daniela; Barbero, Daniela; Bernocco, Elisa; Boccadoro, Mario; Ladetto, Marco

    2013-06-01

    The identification of patients at high risk of relapse is a critical goal of modern translational research in oncohematology. Minimal residual disease (MRD) detection by polymerase chain reaction-based methods is routinely employed in the management of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Current knowledge indicates that it is also a useful prognostic tool in several mature lymphoproliferative disorders and particularly in follicular lymphoma (FL). Based on this evidence clinical trials employing MRD-based risk stratification are currently ongoing in FL. In this review the 'state of the art' of MRD evaluation in FL is discussed. A short description of technical issues and recent methodological advances is provided. Then, the bulk of the review focuses on critical take-home messages for clinicians working in the field. Finally, we discuss future perspectives of MRD detection and more generally outcome prediction in FL. PMID:23730496

  2. Efficacy of rituximab in an aggressive form of multicentric Castleman disease associated with immune phenomena.

    PubMed

    Ocio, Enrique M; Sanchez-Guijo, Fermin M; Diez-Campelo, Maria; Castilla, Cristina; Blanco, Oscar J; Caballero, Dolores; San Miguel, Jesus F

    2005-04-01

    Multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) is an uncommon lymphoproliferative disorder for which the best therapeutic option is not yet well established. Immune-related disorders are rare complications of MCD. We report on an MCD case in a 23-year-old patient with extensive abdominal involvement and associated immune hemolytic anemia and Raynaud phenomenon. He was negative for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8). After 8 courses of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (rituximab), the patient achieved complete remission. Interestingly, Raynaud phenomenon disappeared under treatment and no new hemolytic events occurred. Anti-CD20 antibody treatment could be an attractive therapeutic approach for MCD, mainly when immune-related disorders are associated. PMID:15795923

  3. XMEN DISEASE: A COMBINED IMMUNE DEFICIENCY WITH MAGNESIUM DEFECT

    PubMed Central

    Ravell, Juan; Chaigne-Delalande, Benjamin; Lenardo, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To describe the role of the magnesium transporter 1 (MAGT1) in the pathogenesis of X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, and neoplasia (XMEN) disease and its clinical implications. Recent findings The magnesium transporter protein MAGT1 participates in intracellular Mg2+ homeostasis and facilitates a transient Mg2+ influx induced by activation of the T cell receptor (TCR). Loss-of-function mutations in MAGT1 cause an immunodeficiency named XMEN syndrome characterized by CD4 lymphopenia, chronic EBV infection, and EBV-related lymphoproliferative disorders. Patients with XMEN disease have impaired T cell activation and decreased cytolytic function of natural killer (NK) and CD8+ T cells due to decreased expression of the natural killer stimulatory receptor natural-killer group 2, member D (NKG2D). Patients may have defective specific antibody responses secondary to T cell dysfunction, but B cells have not been shown to be directly affected by mutations in MAGT1. Summary XMEN disease has revealed a novel role for free intracellular magnesium in the immune system. Further understanding of the MAGT1 signaling pathway may lead to new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. PMID:25313976

  4. Small Bowel and Liver/Small Bowel Transplantation in Children

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Jorge; Tzakis, Andreas G.; Todo, Satoru; Nour, Bakr; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    A clinical trial of intestinal transplantation was initiated at the University of Pittsburgh in May 1990. Eleven children received either a combined liver/small bowel graft (n = 8) or an isolated small bowel graft (n = 3). Induction as well as maintenance immunosuppression was with FK-506 and steroids. Four patients were male, and seven were female; the age range was 6 months to 10.2 years. There were 3 deaths (all in recipients of the combined liver/small bowel graft), which were attributed to graft-versus-host disease (n = 1), posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (n = 1), and biliary leak (n = 1). Transplantation of the intestine has evolved into a feasible operation, with an overall patient and graft survival rate of 73%. These survivors are free of total parenteral nutrition, and the majority are home. These encouraging results justify further clinical trials. PMID:8062049

  5. Discovery of Innovative Therapies for Rare Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases via Off-Label Prescription of Biologics: The Case of IL-6 Receptor Blockade in Castleman's Disease.

    PubMed

    Musters, Anne; Assaf, Amira; Gerlag, Danielle M; Tak, Paul P; Tas, Sander W

    2015-01-01

    Biologics have revolutionized the field of clinical immunology and proven to be both effective and safe in common immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, and various hematological disorders. However, in patients with rare, severe IMIDs failing on standard therapies, it is virtually impossible to conduct randomized controlled trials. Therefore, biologics are usually prescribed off-label in these often severely ill patients. Unfortunately, off-label prescription is sometimes hampered in these diseases due to a lack of reimbursement that is often based on a presumed lack of evidence for effectiveness. In the present article, we will discuss that off-label prescription of biologics can be a good way to discover new treatments for rare diseases. This will be illustrated using a case of multicentric Castleman's disease, an immune-mediated lymphoproliferative disorder, in which off-label tocilizumab (humanized anti-IL-6 receptor blocking antibody) treatment resulted in remarkable clinical improvement. Furthermore, we will give recommendations for monitoring efficacy and safety of biologic treatment in rare IMIDs, including the use of registries. In conclusion, we put forward that innovative treatments for rare IMIDs can be discovered via off-label prescription of biologicals, provided that this is based on rational arguments including knowledge of the pathophysiology of the disease. PMID:26697019

  6. Two consecutive partial liver transplants in a patient with Classic Maple Syrup Urine Disease???

    PubMed Central

    Chin, H.L.; Aw, M.M.; Quak, S.H.; Huang, J.; Hart, C.E.; Prabhakaran, K.; Goh, D.L.

    2015-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease is caused by a deficiency in the branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKAD) complex. This results in the accumulation of branched chain amino acids (BCAA) and branched chain ketoacids in the body. Even when aggressively treated with dietary restriction of BCAA, patients experience long term cognitive, neurological and psychosocial problems. Liver transplantation from deceased donors has been shown to be an effective modality in introducing adequate BCKAD activity, attaining a metabolic cure for patients. Here, we report the clinical course of the first known patient with classic MSUD who received two consecutive partial liver grafts from two different living non-carrier donors and his five year outcome posttransplant. We also show that despite the failure of the first liver graft, and initial acute cellular rejection of the second liver graft in our patient, his metabolic control remained good without metabolic decompensation. PMID:26937410

  7. Two consecutive partial liver transplants in a patient with Classic Maple Syrup Urine Disease.

    PubMed

    Chin, H L; Aw, M M; Quak, S H; Huang, J; Hart, C E; Prabhakaran, K; Goh, D L

    2015-09-01

    Maple syrup urine disease is caused by a deficiency in the branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKAD) complex. This results in the accumulation of branched chain amino acids (BCAA) and branched chain ketoacids in the body. Even when aggressively treated with dietary restriction of BCAA, patients experience long term cognitive, neurological and psychosocial problems. Liver transplantation from deceased donors has been shown to be an effective modality in introducing adequate BCKAD activity, attaining a metabolic cure for patients. Here, we report the clinical course of the first known patient with classic MSUD who received two consecutive partial liver grafts from two different living non-carrier donors and his five year outcome posttransplant. We also show that despite the failure of the first liver graft, and initial acute cellular rejection of the second liver graft in our patient, his metabolic control remained good without metabolic decompensation. PMID:26937410

  8. Risk factors for lung diseases after renal transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Pencheva, Ventsislava P.; Petrova, Daniela S.; Genov, Diyan K.; Georgiev, Ognian B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lung diseases are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality after renal transplantation. The aim of the study is to define the risk factors for infectious and noninfectious pulmonary complications in kidney transplant patients. Materials and Methods: We prospectively studied 267 patients after renal transplantation. The kidney recipients were followed-up for the development of pulmonary complications for a period of 7 years. Different noninvasive and invasive diagnostic tests were used in cases suspected of lung disease. Results: The risk factors associated with the development of pulmonary complications were diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR] = 4.60; P = 0.001), arterial hypertension (OR = 1.95; P = 0.015), living related donor (OR = 2.69; P = 0.004), therapy for acute graft rejection (OR = 2.06; P = 0.038), immunosuppressive regimens that includes mycophenolate (OR = 2.40; P = 0.011), azathioprine (OR = 2.25; P = 0.023), and tacrolimus (OR = 1.83; P = 0.041). The only factor associated with the lower risk of complications was a positive serology test for Cytomegalovirus of the recipient before transplantation (OR = 0.1412; P = 0.001). Conclusion: The risk factors can be used to identify patients at increased risk for posttransplant lung diseases. Monitoring of higher-risk patients allow timely diagnosis and early adequate treatment and can reduce the morbidity and mortality after renal transplantation. PMID:26958045

  9. Use of Alefacept for Preconditioning in Multiply Transfused Pediatric Patients with Nonmalignant Diseases.

    PubMed

    Stenger, Elizabeth O; Chiang, Kuang-Yueh; Haight, Ann; Qayed, Muna; Kean, Leslie; Horan, John

    2015-10-01

    Transfusion-related alloimmunization is a potent barrier to the engraftment of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells in patients with nonmalignant diseases (NMDs). Memory T cells, which drive alloimmunization, are relatively resistant to commonly used conditioning agents. Alefacept, a recombinant leukocyte function antigen-3/IgG1 fusion protein, targets CD2 and selectively depletes memory versus naive T cells. Three multiply transfused pediatric patients with NMD received a short course of high-dose i.v. alefacept (.25 mg/kg/dose on days -40 and -9 and .5 mg/kg/dose on days -33, -26, -19, and -12) before undergoing unrelated allogeneic transplant in the setting of reduced-intensity pretransplant conditioning and calcineurin inhibitor-based post-transplant graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. Alefacept infusions were well tolerated in all patients. Peripheral blood flow cytometry was performed at baseline and during and after alefacept treatment. As expected, after the 5 weekly alefacept doses, each patient demonstrated selective loss of CD2(hi)/CCR7(-)/CD45RA(-) effector memory (Tem) and CD2(hi)/CCR7(+)/CD45RA(-) central memory (Tcm) CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells with relative preservation of the CD2(lo) Tem and Tcm subpopulations. In addition, depletion of CD2(+) natural killer (NK) cells also occurred. Neutrophil recovery was rapid, and all 3 patients had 100% sorted (CD3/CD33) peripheral blood donor chimerism by day +100. Immune reconstitution (by absolute neutrophil, monocyte, and lymphocyte counts) was comparable with a cohort of historical control patients. All 3 patients developed GVHD but are all now off immune suppression and >2 years post-transplant with stable full-donor engraftment. These results suggest that alefacept at higher dosing can deplete both memory T cells and NK cells and that incorporating CD2-targeted depletion into a reduced-intensity transplant regimen is feasible and safe in heavily transfused patients. PMID:26095669

  10. Memory B-cell reconstitution following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is an EBV-associated transformation event

    PubMed Central

    Burns, David M.; Tierney, Rose; Shannon-Lowe, Claire; Croudace, Jo; Inman, Charlotte; Abbotts, Ben; Nagra, Sandeep; Fox, Christopher P.; Chaganti, Sridhar; Craddock, Charles F.; Moss, Paul; Rickinson, Alan B.; Rowe, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) provides a unique opportunity to track Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in the context of the reconstituting B-cell system. Although many allo-HSCT recipients maintain low or undetectable levels of EBV DNA posttransplant, a significant proportion exhibit elevated and rapidly increasing EBV loads which, if left untreated, may lead to potentially fatal EBV-associated posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease. Intriguingly, this high-level EBV reactivation typically arises in the first 3 months posttransplant, at a time when the peripheral blood contains low numbers of CD27+ memory cells which are the site of EBV persistence in healthy immunocompetent donors. To investigate this apparent paradox, we prospectively monitored EBV levels and B-cell reconstitution in a cohort of allo-HSCT patients for up to 12 months posttransplant. In patients with low or undetectable levels of EBV, the circulating B-cell pool consisted predominantly of transitional and naive cells, with a marked deficiency of CD27+ memory cells which lasted >12 months. However, among patients with high EBV loads, there was a significant increase in both the proportion and number of CD27+ memory B cells. Analysis of sorted CD27+ memory B cells from these patients revealed that this population was preferentially infected with EBV, expressed EBV latent transcripts associated with B-cell growth transformation, had a plasmablastic phenotype, and frequently expressed the proliferation marker Ki-67. These findings suggest that high-level EBV reactivation following allo-HSCT may drive the expansion of latently infected CD27+ B lymphoblasts in the peripheral blood. PMID:26450987

  11. Recent trends in diagnosis and control of Marek's disease (MD) in poultry.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shambhu Dayal; Barathidasan, Rajamani; Kumar, Asok; Deb, Rajib; Verma, Amit Kumar; Dhama, Kuldeep

    2012-10-15

    Marek's Disease (MD), caused by Marek's Disease Virus (MDV) is a highly contagious oncogenic and neuropathic disease of chickens responsible for great economic losses to the poultry industry all around the world and characterized by development of CD4+T cell lymphomas as well as infiltration of nerves and visceral organs by lymphocytes. MD is one of the most common lymphoproliferative diseases of chickens which cause mononuclear cell infiltration in one or more of the following tissues: peripheral nerves, gonads, lymphoid organs, iris, muscle, skin and other visceral organs resulting into development of tumours in visceral organs, paralysis of legs, wings and neck, grey eye (iris) or irregular pupil, vision impairment, blindness, skin lesions and immunosuppression, all of which can be accompanied by non-specific signs such as anorexia, weight loss and poor performance. Today there are evolving highly pathogenic isolates of MDV around the world capable of overwhelming the protection from currently employed vaccines. Thus MD poses a big challenge to the welfare and wellbeing of the poultry with increased condemnation of carcass, loss of productivity and quality products, leading to huge economic losses. It is also an immunosuppressive disease and causes increased susceptibility to other infections. The present review discusses in brief about the Marek's disease, its etiology, conventional and advance tools and techniques being used for its diagnosis, prevention and control strategies in poultry. PMID:24199474

  12. Atypical Cutaneous Manifestations in Adult Onset Still's Disease.

    PubMed

    Nataraja, Champa; Griffiths, Hedley

    2016-01-01

    Adult Onset Still's Disease (AOSD), an adult variant of systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis, is a rare systemic inflammatory disorder of unknown aetiology. The rarity of this disease is associated with low index of suspicion and delayed diagnosis in patients suffering from it and in the presence of atypical features the diagnosis can be further challenging. This is a case report on a 24-year-old woman, who was a diagnostic dilemma for 2 years due to the nonspecific symptoms of recurrent fever, generalized maculopapular persistent pruritic and tender rash, and polyarthralgia. She was initially diagnosed as leukocytoclastic vasculitis on a skin biopsy and was managed by a dermatologist with various medications including NSAIDs, hydroxychloroquine, dapsone, colchicine, cyclosporine, and high doses of oral steroids with minimal response. Subsequently, she has had multiple admissions with similar symptoms with raised inflammatory markers and negative septic workup. On one occasion, her iron study revealed hyperferritinaemia which led to the suspicion of AOSD. Once the rheumatic fever and infectious, malignant, autoimmune, and lymphoproliferative disorders were excluded, she was diagnosed as probable AOSD and managed successfully with IL-1 (interleukin-1) receptor antagonist, Anakinra, with remarkable and lasting response both clinically and biochemically. PMID:26981304

  13. [Hypocomplementemic tubulointerstitial nephritis in IgG4-related disease].

    PubMed

    Rolla, Davide; Bellino, Diego; Pistoni, Giada; Peloso, Gian Carlo; Rastaldi, Maria Pia; Simonini, Paola; Ravetti, Jean Louis; Cannella, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    A novel lymphoproliferative disorder producing plasma cell expansion in the affected organ with fibrotic or sclerosing changes, known as ''IgG4-related disease'', was defined in Japan by Umehara's group in 2010. We present the first case reported in Italy. In 2007, a 63-year-old man presented with epigastric pain and elevated serum lipase levels. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed a Kuttner's tumor of the pancreas. The patient underwent a biliary-enteric anastomosis, and biopsy of the pancreas revealed massive infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cells. The patient was diagnosed with chronic sclerosing pancreatitis. After one year, he began to show signs of sicca syndrome and at the same time developed progressive renal failure. Immunological tests revealed hypocomplementemia, and the renal biopsy specimen showed diffuse interstitial inflammation. The infiltrate was composed of lymphocytes, while infiltrating plasma cells showed immunoreactivity to IgG-4. Sialography using a radioisotope revealed severe involvement of the salivary glands, and Schirmer's test gave a positive result. This led us to diagnose hypocomplementemic tubulointerstitial nephritis in IgG4-related disease. Corticosteroid treatment resulted in rapid improvement including disappearance of the sicca syndrome and progressive amelioration of renal function. After six months, we discontinued steroid administration and started mycophenolate mofetil to maintain a low degree of immunosuppression. Follow-up after two years showed that this therapy continued to be quite effective in our patient. PMID:22718459

  14. A Multidisciplinary Approach to Castleman Disease of the Neck.

    PubMed

    Shams, Alexandra A; Ahmed, Mostafa M; Scalzitti, Nicholas J; Howell, Della L; Hall, Jordan M; Ritter, John L; Maturo, Stephen C

    2016-02-01

    Castleman disease (CD) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder that occurs in adults and rarely in the pediatric population. The disease is characterized by slowly enlarging masses that can form anywhere within the lymphatic system. It is an uncommon cause of a neck mass in both children and adults that presents insidiously and nonspecifically. A 21-year-old woman was referred to the otolaryngology service because of an asymptomatic neck mass found incidentally on computed tomographic imaging 15 months earlier. On repeat imaging, the lesion was characterized as a homogenously enhancing soft tissue mass and appeared stable in size compared with previous studies. Given the nondiagnostic radiologic features, tissue sampling was pursued, first using fine-needle aspiration and ultimately excisional biopsy. The excision revealed histopathology consistent with unicentric, hyaline-vascular CD. Excision is the gold standard for treatment of this variant of CD. The patient was referred to the hematology/oncology service but was subsequently lost to follow-up. This case illustrates a rare cause of a neck mass in a young adult and exemplifies the extremely broad differential in this setting. In addition, it highlights the importance of a systematic and thorough approach to diagnosing neck masses in children and adults. PMID:26840960

  15. Atypical Cutaneous Manifestations in Adult Onset Still's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nataraja, Champa; Griffiths, Hedley

    2016-01-01

    Adult Onset Still's Disease (AOSD), an adult variant of systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis, is a rare systemic inflammatory disorder of unknown aetiology. The rarity of this disease is associated with low index of suspicion and delayed diagnosis in patients suffering from it and in the presence of atypical features the diagnosis can be further challenging. This is a case report on a 24-year-old woman, who was a diagnostic dilemma for 2 years due to the nonspecific symptoms of recurrent fever, generalized maculopapular persistent pruritic and tender rash, and polyarthralgia. She was initially diagnosed as leukocytoclastic vasculitis on a skin biopsy and was managed by a dermatologist with various medications including NSAIDs, hydroxychloroquine, dapsone, colchicine, cyclosporine, and high doses of oral steroids with minimal response. Subsequently, she has had multiple admissions with similar symptoms with raised inflammatory markers and negative septic workup. On one occasion, her iron study revealed hyperferritinaemia which led to the suspicion of AOSD. Once the rheumatic fever and infectious, malignant, autoimmune, and lymphoproliferative disorders were excluded, she was diagnosed as probable AOSD and managed successfully with IL-1 (interleukin-1) receptor antagonist, Anakinra, with remarkable and lasting response both clinically and biochemically. PMID:26981304

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... other names do people use for ALPS? Canale-Smith syndrome For more information about naming genetic conditions, ... a page outside Genetics Home Reference. Links to web sites outside the Federal Government do not constitute ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nerves (Guillain-Barre syndrome), or the connective tissues (systemic lupus erythematosus) that provide strength and flexibility to structures throughout the body. Skin problems, usually rashes or hives (urticaria), can occur in ...

  18. Comparison of Subcutaneous versus Intravenous Alemtuzumab for Graft-versus-Host Disease Prophylaxis with Fludarabine/Melphalan-Based Conditioning in Matched Unrelated Donor Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Patel, Khilna; Parmar, Sapna; Shah, Shreya; Shore, Tsiporah; Gergis, Usama; Mayer, Sebastian; van Besien, Koen

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare infusion-related reactions and outcomes of using subcutaneous (subQ) alemtuzumab versus intravenous (i.v.) alemtuzumab as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis for matched unrelated donor stem cell transplantations. Outcomes include incidence of cytomegalovirus (CMV)/Epstein-Barr (EBV) viremia, development of CMV disease or post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder, fatal infections, acute and chronic GVHD, time to engraftment, relapse rate, and survival. We conducted a retrospective study of all adult matched unrelated donor stem cell transplantations patients who received fludarabine/melphalan with subQ or i.v. alemtuzumab in combination with tacrolimus as part of their conditioning for unrelated donor transplantation at New York-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medical Center from January 1, 2012 to March 21, 2014. Alemtuzumab was administered at a total cumulative dose of 100 mg (divided over days -7 to -3). Forty-six patients received an unrelated donor stem cell transplantation with fludarabine/melphalan and either subQ (n = 26) or i.v. (n = 20) alemtuzumab in combination with tacrolimus. Within the evaluable population, 130 subQ and 100 i.v. alemtuzumab doses were administered. For the primary outcome, ≥grade 2 infusion-related reactions occurred in 11 (8%) versus 25 (25%) infusions in the subQ and i.v. cohorts, respectively (P = .001). Overall, 12 injections (9%) in the subQ arm versus 26 infusions (26%) in the i.v. arm experienced an infusion-related reaction of any grade (P = .001). There were no significant differences between the subQ and i.v. arms in rates of reactivation of CMV/EBV, development of CMV disease or post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder, fatal infections, acute and chronic GVHD, relapse, or survival. Subcutaneous administration of alemtuzumab for GVHD prophylaxis was associated with fewer infusion-related reactions compared with i.v. administration in the SCT setting. Incidences of acute and chronic GVHD were similar between both arms. There was also no difference in reactivation of CMV/EBV viremia, development of CMV disease or post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder, fatal infections, relapse, or survival. PMID:26524732

  19. Human Herpes Virus-8-Associated Multicentric Castleman's Disease in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Patient with a Previous History of Kaposi's Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guan; Low, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    Human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8)associated Castleman's disease (CD) is a rare non-cancerous B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients. We report a case of HHV-8associated CD in an HIV-positive patient with a previous history of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). The patient presented with progressive splenomegaly and diffuse lymphadenopathy, which can be seen in multicentric CD, KS, and HIV-associated lymphoma. There are no reliable clinical or imaging features to differentiate these diseases. Lymph node biopsy confirmed HHV-8associated CD and excluded KS and lymphoma. Due to differences in treatment options and prognosis between the three etiologies, it is important for radiologists to include HHV-8associated CD in the differential diagnosis when encountering HIV-positive patients that present with diffuse lymphadenopathy. PMID:26664776

  20. Disease-causing mutations in the XIAP BIR2 domain impair NOD2-dependent immune signalling

    PubMed Central

    Damgaard, Rune Busk; Fiil, Berthe Katrine; Speckmann, Carsten; Yabal, Monica; zur Stadt, Udo; Bekker-Jensen, Simon; Jost, Philipp J; Ehl, Stephan; Mailand, Niels; Gyrd-Hansen, Mads

    2013-01-01

    X-linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis (XIAP) is an essential ubiquitin ligase for pro-inflammatory signalling downstream of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing (NOD)-1 and -2 pattern recognition receptors. Mutations in XIAP cause X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome type-2 (XLP2), an immunodeficiency associated with a potentially fatal deregulation of the immune system, whose aetiology is not well understood. Here, we identify the XIAP baculovirus IAP repeat (BIR)2 domain as a hotspot for missense mutations in XLP2. We demonstrate that XLP2-BIR2 mutations severely impair NOD1/2-dependent immune signalling in primary cells from XLP2 patients and in reconstituted XIAP-deficient cell lines. XLP2-BIR2 mutations abolish the XIAP-RIPK2 interaction resulting in impaired ubiquitylation of RIPK2 and recruitment of linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) to the NOD2-complex. We show that the RIPK2 binding site in XIAP overlaps with the BIR2 IBM-binding pocket and find that a bivalent Smac mimetic compound (SMC) potently antagonises XIAP function downstream of NOD2 to limit signalling. These findings suggest that impaired immune signalling in response to NOD1/2 stimulation is a general defect in XLP2 and demonstrate that the XIAP BIR2-RIPK2 interaction may be targeted pharmacologically to modulate inflammatory signalling. The X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome type-2 is an immunodeficiency disease caused by mutations in the XIAP gene. BIR2 domain mutations in patients impair RIPK2 binding and NOD2-dependent innate immune signaling, explaining some of the pathology. PMID:23818254

  1. Gamma Heavy Chain Disease with T-cell Large Granular Lymphocytic Leukemia: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Masahide; Sekiguchi, Naohiro; Nagata, Akihisa; Wagatsuma, Miyuki; Midorikawa, Kiyoe; Kurimoto, Miwa; Noto, Satoshi; Yamada, Kazuaki; Takezako, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Gamma heavy chain disease (gHCD) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by the production of a truncated immunoglobulin heavy chain. Although some cases of gHCD are concurrent with other lymphoid neoplasms, few have been reported. We herein present the case of a 73-year-old woman with gHCD and T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia. A multiparameter flow cytometry analysis revealed neoplastic cells that were positive for CD28, a marker of T-cell activation, the anti-apoptotic antigen of neoplastic plasma cells, CD38 and CD45. The results of this multiparameter flow cytometry analysis may contribute to furthering the understanding of the clinicopathological features of gHCD. PMID:26875967

  2. Epstein-Barr virus and human diseases: recent advances in diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Okano, M; Thiele, G M; Davis, J R; Grierson, H L; Purtilo, D T

    1988-01-01

    Since the discovery of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) from a cultured Burkitt's lymphoma cell line in 1964, the virus has been associated with Burkitt's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and infectious mononucleosis. During the recent decade, EBV has been etiologically implicated in a broad spectrum of human diseases. The precise role of this virus in these diseases is not well understood, but clearly, defective immunosurveillance against the virus may permit an uncontrolled proliferation of EBV-infected cells. As a result, a growing number of cases of EBV-associated B-cell proliferative diseases or lymphoma have been noted in patients with primary and acquired immunodeficiencies. These lymphoproliferative diseases and others, such as chronic mononucleosis syndrome, are leading to new areas of investigation which are providing information regarding the pathogenetic mechanisms of EBV-induced diseases. The early accurate diagnosis of EBV infection can be achieved by performing EBV-specific serology, detecting for EBV-determined nuclear antigen in tissues, establishing spontaneous lymphoid cell lines, and using molecular hybridization techniques for demonstrating the presence of viral genome in affected lesions. Images PMID:2848624

  3. Castleman's Disease Presenting as a Parotid Mass in the Pediatric Population: A Report of 2 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, Sean W.; Zhou, Shengmei; Maceri, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia (Castleman's disease) is a nonmalignant lymphoproliferative disorder that generally involves the lymph nodes of young adults, most commonly in the mediastinum. Rarely, Castleman's disease may present in the parotid gland. The disease can be further classified into unicentric or multicentric forms, with considerable differences in presentation, treatment, and prognosis. Case(s). We present cases of two pediatric patients, aged 7 and 11, who both presented with a slow-growing, painless parotid mass. In each case, the mass was excised via a superficial parotidectomy and the diagnosis made postoperatively upon further pathologic examination. At 6 months of follow-up, both had fully intact facial nerve function and no evidence of recurrence. Discussion. Castleman's disease presents a diagnostic challenge in the head and neck region, as radiographic characteristics and fine needle aspiration results are often inconclusive. Definitive diagnosis requires surgical excision for pathologic examination. The unicentric form generally presents as a painless mass and can be successfully treated with complete excision. The multicentric form is associated with constitutional symptoms and its treatment remains controversial. Conclusion. Although rare, clinicians should be aware of both forms of Castleman's disease when creating a differential diagnosis for parotid masses. PMID:26509092

  4. Gum Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Your Best Self Smart Snacking Losing Weight Safely Gum Disease KidsHealth > Teens > Diseases & Conditions > Mouth & Teeth > Gum ... which is both embarrassing and serious!). What Is Gum Disease? Gum disease is also known as periodontal ( ...

  5. Lentil Diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Major lentil diseases around the world have been described and reviewed. The major diseases include Ascochyta blight, Fusarium wilt, Botrytis Gray Mold, Lentil rust, Stemphylium blight, Anthracnose, and virus diseases. The management practices for these diseases are also presented....

  6. Hirschsprung Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to Expect Hirschsprung Disease KidsHealth > Parents > Diseases & Conditions > Digestive System > Hirschsprung Disease Print A A A Text Size ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Digestive System Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Inflammatory Bowel Disease X- ...

  7. High-Dose Y-90-Ibritumomab Tiuxetan Added to Reduced-Intensity Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant Regimen for Relapsed or Refractory Aggressive B-Cell Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-12

    Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Burkitt Lymphoma; Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

  8. Cyclophosphamide for Prevention of Graft-Versus-Host Disease After Allogeneic Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients With Hematological Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-04

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Philadelphia Chromosome Negative Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Multiple Myeloma; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  9. Discovery of Innovative Therapies for Rare Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases via Off-Label Prescription of Biologics: The Case of IL-6 Receptor Blockade in Castlemans Disease

    PubMed Central

    Musters, Anne; Assaf, Amira; Gerlag, Danielle M.; Tak, Paul P.; Tas, Sander W.

    2015-01-01

    Biologics have revolutionized the field of clinical immunology and proven to be both effective and safe in common immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, and various hematological disorders. However, in patients with rare, severe IMIDs failing on standard therapies, it is virtually impossible to conduct randomized controlled trials. Therefore, biologics are usually prescribed off-label in these often severely ill patients. Unfortunately, off-label prescription is sometimes hampered in these diseases due to a lack of reimbursement that is often based on a presumed lack of evidence for effectiveness. In the present article, we will discuss that off-label prescription of biologics can be a good way to discover new treatments for rare diseases. This will be illustrated using a case of multicentric Castlemans disease, an immune-mediated lymphoproliferative disorder, in which off-label tocilizumab (humanized anti-IL-6 receptor blocking antibody) treatment resulted in remarkable clinical improvement. Furthermore, we will give recommendations for monitoring efficacy and safety of biologic treatment in rare IMIDs, including the use of registries. In conclusion, we put forward that innovative treatments for rare IMIDs can be discovered via off-label prescription of biologicals, provided that this is based on rational arguments including knowledge of the pathophysiology of the disease. PMID:26697019

  10. Marek's disease vaccines: a solution for today but a worry for tomorrow?

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Isabel M

    2008-07-18

    Marek's disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of chickens that, in the absence of control measures, is capable of causing devastating losses in commercial poultry flocks. MD has been successfully controlled by vaccination since 1968. However, vaccine efficacy has decreased concomitantly with the increase in virulence of Marek's disease virus (MDV). The constant evolution of MDV has forced the development of new vaccines or vaccine strategies that control the more virulent emergent strains. However, this race between the introduction of new vaccines and the evolution of MDV represents a major threat for the poultry industry. In addition to vaccination, other factors might have contributed to the evolution of MDV (intensive methods of chicken production, early exposure of the chickens to MDV and administration of vaccines at very low doses). From all the possible factors influencing MDV evolution, the effect of vaccination has received the greatest attention. MD vaccines protect with great efficacy against the development of the disease but they do not prevent infection or transmission. Sterilizing immunity could be a solution to stop the evolution of the virus but it has been proven to be extremely difficult, if at all possible, to obtain with MDV or with other herpesviruses. Other solutions to improve vaccine-induced protection are discussed in this paper. PMID:18773529

  11. Unicentric mixed variant Castleman disease associated with intrabronchial plasmacytoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2872096831190851. Castleman disease (CD), described as a heterogeneous lymphoproliferative disorder, can be divided into different subtypes according to clinical appearance (unicentric and multicentric form) and histopathological features (hyaline vascular, plasma cell, mixed type, human herpesvirus 8associated and multicentric not otherwise specified). Unicentric CD is known to be usually of the hyaline vascular variant, plasma cell and mixed type of this form are quite uncommon. Malignancies are mainly associated with the multicentric form. We report a rare case of unicentric mixed variant CD evolving into intrabronchial, extramedullary plasmacytoma. Intrabronchial mass with consequential obstruction of the left main bronchus, left lung atelectasis and mediastinal lymphadenomegaly was detected by chest CT in our patient suffering from cough and hemoptysis. Pulmonectomy was performed, histopathological and immunhistochemical analysis of lymph nodes revealed mixed type of CD with interfollicular monotypic plasma cell proliferation. The intrabronchial mass consisted of monotypic plasma cells confirming plasmacytoma. Systemic involvement was not confirmed by further tests. Although malignancies more often present in multicentric CD that usually belongs to the plasma cell subtype, this case confirms the neoplastic potential of the rarest, unicentric mixed variant of CD. PMID:24649966

  12. Kawasaki disease

    SciTech Connect

    Shulman, S.T. )

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Genetic analysis of Kawasaki disease; Late onset valvular dysfunction in Kawasaki disease; ischemic heart disease in Kawasaki disease; Evaluation of evidence related to streptococci in the etiology of Kawasaki disease; and Immune complexes and cytotoxicity.

  13. Basiliximab treatment for autoimmune bowel disease in a pediatric heart transplant patient.

    PubMed

    Puri, K; Kocoshis, S; Risma, K; Perez, L; Hart, C; Chin, C; Ryan, T D; Jefferies, J L; Schumacher, K R; Castleberry, C

    2015-11-01

    Autoimmune-mediated bowel disease has been reported after pediatric heart transplantation. Recognition and treatment of these patients has been difficult. We describe a patient who responded to steroids and basiliximab therapy after an inflammatory process secondary to abnormal T-cell activation. Our patient is a 28-month-old female who received a heart transplant at five wk of age. At 24 months post-transplant, she developed fever and bloody stools. Initial investigations were significant for an elevated ESR (>120) and CRP (15.2). Symptoms persisted despite bowel rest and mycophenolate discontinuation. Endoscopic evaluation revealed discontinuous ulcerative disease involving esophagus, terminal ileum, right and left colon, necessitating extensive bowel resection. She had additional airway inflammation leading to a TEF at the site of esophageal ulceration, requiring tracheostomy. Immune evaluation revealed autoimmune dysregulation that responded to parenteral methylprednisolone. Chronic basiliximab therapy allowed for successful weaning of steroids with sustained remission. She has been transitioned to sirolimus and tacrolimus maintenance immunosuppression with plans to discontinue basiliximab once off steroids. In conclusion, bowel disease in the setting of pediatric heart transplantation can be severe and refractory to traditional treatment methods. Tailoring immune therapy to activated T cells can result in remission. Basiliximab therapy was used in our patient to maintain steroid-induced remission, but long-term complications of this disease process are unknown. PMID:26374667

  14. Fatal Outcome of Multiple Clinical Presentations of Human Herpesvirus 8-related Disease After Solid Organ Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Vijgen, Sandrine; Wyss, Caroline; Meylan, Pascal; Bisig, Bettina; Letovanec, Igor; Manuel, Oriol; Pascual, Manuel; de Leval, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma is the most common human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8)-related disease described after solid organ transplantation. Multicentric Castleman disease and hemophagocytic syndrome are other potential HHV-8-induced entities but are less frequently reported. We describe the case of a liver transplant recipient who presented with an acute febrile illness 1 year after transplantation with a rapidly fatal outcome. Autopsy revealed 3 distinct HHV-8-related entities: Kaposi sarcoma, HHV-8-associated multicentric Castleman disease with microlymphomas and a severe hemophagocytic syndrome. Retrospective serologic tests suggested that HHV-8 was likely transmitted by the seropositive donor at the time of transplantation. To our knowledge, this is the first case of copresentation of 3 clinical presentations of HHV-8-mediated human disease in the post-transplant setting. Considering the absence of systematic screening of organ donors/recipients for HHV-8 infection, HHV-8-related illness should be suspected in transplant recipients who present with acute febrile illness, systemic symptoms, lymphadenopathies, and/or multiorgan failure to rapidly document the diagnosis and provide timely an adequate treatment. PMID:26120765

  15. Small bowel transplantation complicated by cytomegalovirus tissue invasive disease without viremia.

    PubMed

    Avsar, Yesim; Cicinnati, Vito R; Kabar, Iyad; Wolters, Heiner; Anthoni, Christoph; Schmidt, Hartmut H J; Beckebaum, Susanne

    2014-06-01

    We report on a small bowel transplant patient, donor/recipient seropositive (D+/R+) for cytomegalovirus (CMV), with a clinical course complicated by CMV disease. Anti-CMV prophylaxis was given for 100 days. Immunosuppression consisted of alemtuzumab, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone. Five months posttransplant, CMV tissue invasive disease of the upper gastrointestinal tract was evident without the presence of viremia, tested by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Complete viral load suppression was achieved with intravenous ganciclovir, followed by valganciclovir for secondary prophylaxis. Mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone were discontinued. Shortly thereafter the patient presented with recurrent CMV and candida esophagitis. While on ganciclovir and caspofungin, the patient developed CMV tissue invasive disease of the ileal graft, with persistent absence of viremia. Foscarnet and CMV immunoglobulin were added. Viral load declined to undetectable levels; however, clinical improvement did not occur due to occurrence of graft rejection. Despite infliximab and high dose prednisolone, graft rejection was progressive, requiring surgical explantation of the graft. This case highlights the importance of additional diagnostic tools such as endoscopy including PCR analysis of tissue samples. Extension of primary antiviral prophylaxis interval up to 6 months and prolonged retreatment for recurrent CMV disease may be useful to avoid severe CMV-related complications. PMID:24703746

  16. Wilson Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Wilson Disease Information Page Table of Contents (click to ... Trials Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Wilson Disease? Wilson disease (WD) is a rare inherited ...

  17. Alzheimer Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Alzheimer Disease KidsHealth > For Kids > Alzheimer Disease Print A ... slow it down. When Someone You Love Has Alzheimer Disease You might feel sad or angry or ...

  18. Lyme Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Is Lyme Disease? People get Lyme disease through tick bites. The disease is caused by a bacterium ... these infections do you worry about most? Ixodes ticks (also called black-legged or deer ticks) are ...

  19. Menkes Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... link in the menu on the left. Common Names Kinky hair disease Menkes disease Menkes syndrome Steely hair disease Medical or Scientific Names Congenital hypocupremia (pronounced kuhn-JEN-i-tl hahy- ...

  20. Legionnaires' Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PDF. Home | Disease Recognition | Potential Disease Sources | Investigation Protocol | Outbreak Response eTools Home : Legionnaires' Disease Safety and Health Topic Page | Scope | FAQ | PDF | Credits Freedom of Information Act | Privacy & Security Statement | Disclaimers | Important Web Site Notices | International | Contact ...

  1. Alzheimer's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia among older people. Dementia is a brain disorder that ... higher if a family member has had the disease. No treatment can stop the disease. However, some ...

  2. Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    Infectious diseases kill more people worldwide than any other single cause. Infectious diseases are caused by germs. Germs are tiny living ... live NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  3. Huntington's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited disease that causes certain nerve cells in the brain to waste away. ... express emotions. If one of your parents has Huntington's disease, you have a 50 percent chance of getting ...

  4. Alpers' Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Disease? Alpers' disease is a progressive, neurodevelopmental, mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome characterized by three co-occurring clinical ... by mutation in the gene for the mitochondrial DNA polymerase POLG. The disease occurs in about one ...

  5. Crohn's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... disease are very similar to those of ulcerative colitis , except that Crohn’s disease can happen anywhere along ... from the mouth to the anus , while ulcerative colitis is restricted to the colon . Crohn’s disease may ...

  6. Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Heart Disease KidsHealth > For Kids > Heart Disease Print A ... chest pain, heart attacks, and strokes . What Is Heart Disease? The heart is the center of the ...

  7. Alzheimer Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Alzheimer Disease KidsHealth > For Kids > Alzheimer Disease Print A A ... slow it down. When Someone You Love Has Alzheimer Disease You might feel sad or angry — or both — ...

  8. Celiac Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... who have celiac disease? In people who have celiac disease, gluten causes the immune system to attack the small ... on the small intestine that gluten causes in celiac disease. Symptoms of gluten sensitivity are generally milder than those seen in ...

  9. Wilson Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Share External Link Disclaimer Digestive Diseases Wilson Disease Alternate Versions Wilson Disease (444 KB) You can also ... things psychosis—when a person loses contact with reality Other Signs and Symptoms Other signs and symptoms ...

  10. Hirschsprung Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Digestive System X-Ray Exam: Upper ... Bowel Disease Inflammatory Bowel Disease Your Digestive System Irritable Bowel Syndrome Upper GI (Video) Inflammatory Bowel Disease Digestive ...

  11. Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2004, nearly 60 percent more women died of cardiovascular disease (both heart disease and stroke) than from all ... Program Director Heart Failure & Arrhythmias Branch Division of Cardiovascular Diseases National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Content last ...

  12. Kawasaki Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... him/her feel better? Should I tell my child’s school/daycare provider that he/she has Kawasaki disease? Could I get Kawasaki disease from my child? Source Kawasaki Disease by KA Taubert, ST Shulman ( ...

  13. Fabry's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Fabry Disease Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump ... is being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Fabry Disease? Fabry disease is caused by the lack of ...

  14. Bladder Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... frequent, urgent urination Bladder cancer Doctors diagnose bladder diseases using different tests. These include urine tests, x- ... National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  15. Meningococcal Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... A Hepatitis B HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Influenza (Flu) Measles Meningococcal Disease Mumps Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Pneumococcal Disease Rubella (German Measles) Shingles (Herpes Zoster) Tetanus (Lockjaw) Professional Resources Adult ...

  16. Marek's disease: a model for protection against herpesvirus-induced tumours.

    PubMed

    Schat, K A

    1987-01-01

    Marek's disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of chickens caused by a herpesvirus (MDV). Several effective vaccines have been developed and MD is therefore often considered as a model for studying antitumour vaccines. Key factors for the understanding of vaccine-induced immunity are discussed. Three serotypes have been characterized: serotype 1 or oncogenic MDV, serotype 2 or non-oncogenic MDV and serotype 3 or herpesvirus of turkeys. The three serotypes have clearly different genomes and proteins. The pathogenesis of infection with serotype 1 MDV can be divided into an early cytolytic phase, a latent phase and a second cytolytic infection combined with the development of tumours and permanent immunosuppression. The activation of T cells during the early cytolytic phase is important for establishing infection in the target cells for latency and transformation. Immune responses by B cells, and especially by T cells, are directed against viral infection. Evidence is presented that Marek's disease tumour-associated surface antigen is not involved in the antitumour responses. Moreover, the importance of antitumour immune responses in MD is questioned. Vaccinal immunity is dependent more on T cells than B cells and is directed against virus antigens. It is proposed that the evidence claimed for an antitumour response induced by vaccination actually relates to an antiviral response. The relevance of new, highly oncogenic strains causing MD in vaccinated chickens is discussed. PMID:2825984

  17. Heart Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you're like most people, you think that heart disease is a problem for others. But heart disease is the number one killer in the ... of disability. There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease ...

  18. Huntington's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Huntington's Disease Information Page Condensed from Huntington's Disease: Hope Through ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Huntington's Disease? Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited disorder that ...

  19. [Prion diseases].

    PubMed

    Stoĭda, N I; Zavalishin, I A

    2012-01-01

    Prion diseases are a family of progressive neurodegenerative disorders caused by prions. There are four human prion diseases: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome, fatal insomnia and Kuru. They can arise in three different ways: acquired, familial or sporadic. We review clinical presentations, pathophysiology, morphological picture, diagnostic procedures and available treatment options of prion diseases. PMID:23235426

  20. Newcastle disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newcastle disease (ND), referred to as Exotic Newcastle disease (END) in the U. S., is an acute viral disease of domestic poultry and many other bird species and a recognized worldwide problem. Occurrence of END is due to an infection with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and is a ...

  1. Successful management of EBV-PTLD in allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipient by virological-immunological monitoring of EBV infection, prompt diagnosis and early treatment.

    PubMed

    Chiereghin, Angela; Bertuzzi, Clara; Piccirilli, Giulia; Gabrielli, Liliana; Squarzoni, Diego; Turello, Gabriele; Ferioli, Martina; Sessa, Mariarosaria; Bonifazi, Francesca; Zanoni, Lucia; Sabattini, Elena; Lazzarotto, Tiziana

    2016-02-01

    Epstein-Barr virus-related post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (EBV-PTLD) is an uncommon, but frequently fatal, complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Prospective post-transplant virological and immunological monitoring allowed to successfully manage a patient who developed both polymorphic and monomorphic, "diffuse large B-cell lymphoma like", as an EBV-PTLD, 65days after allogeneic bone marrow transplant. Early detection of significant increase in EBV DNA level in patient's peripheral blood (peak of viral load equal to 119,039copies/mL whole blood, +56day after transplant) led to administration of pre-emptive anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (rituximab) and close clinical monitoring. After one week, physical exam revealed laterocervical adenopathy. Histopathologic features, immunohistochemical characterization and in situ hybridization study allowed to establish a diagnosis of EBV-related PTLD. Immunological monitoring showed no EBV-specific T-cell responses during EBV replication, thus potentially explaining the occurrence of high EBV load with subsequent PTLD development. A total of four doses of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody were administered and at the end of the treatment, EBV infection was cleared and imaging technique showed complete disease remission. In conclusion, the early use of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody proved to be a safe and effective treatment strategy for EBV-PTLD. Moreover, combined virological-immunological monitoring of EBV infection may more accurately assess patients at higher risk for EBV-PTLD. PMID:26687013

  2. Outcomes after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant for Children with I-Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Troy C.; Cathey, Sara S.; Miller, Weston P.; Eapen, Mary; Andreansky, Martin; Dvorak, Christopher C.; Davis, Jeffrey H.; Dalal, Jignesh D.; Devine, Steven M.; Eames, Gretchen M.; Ferguson, William S.; Giller, Roger H.; He, Wensheng; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Krance, Robert; Katsanis, Emmanuel; Lewis, Victor A.; Sahdev, Indira; Orchard, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Mucolipidosis type II (MLII), or I-Cell Disease, is a rare, but severe disorder affecting localization of enzymes to the lysosome, generally resulting in death before the 10th birthday. Although hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) has been used to successfully treat some lysosomal storage diseases, there have been only two case reports in the use of HSCT to treat MLII. For the first time, we describe the combined international experience in the use of HSCT for MLII in 22 patients. Although 95% of the patients engrafted, the overall survival was low with only 6 patients (27%) alive at last follow-up. The most common cause of death post-transplant was cardiovascular complications, most likely due to disease progression. Survivors were globally delayed in development, and often required complex medical support such as gastrostomy tubes for nutrition, and tracheostomy with mechanical ventilation. Although HSCT has demonstrated efficacy in treating some lysosomal storage disorders, the neurologic outcome and survival for patents with MLII were poor. Therefore new medical and cellular therapies should be sought for these patients. PMID:25016194

  3. Epstein Barr virus-positive mucocutaneous ulcer of the colon associated Hodgkin lymphoma in Crohns disease

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Neil R; Webster, Bradley; Lee, Kenneth M; Trotman, Judith; Kwan, Yiu-Lam; Napoli, John; Leong, Rupert W

    2015-01-01

    Epstein Barr virus (EBV) positive mucocutaneous ulcers (EBVMCU) form part of a spectrum of EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease. They have been reported in the setting of immunosenescence and iatrogenic immunosuppression, affecting the oropharyngeal mucosa, skin and gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Case reports and series to date suggest a benign natural history responding to conservative management, particularly in the GIT. We report an unusual case of EBVMCU in the colon, arising in the setting of immunosuppression in the treatment of Crohns disease, with progression to Hodgkin lymphoma 18 mo after cessation of infliximab. The patient presented with multiple areas of segmental colonic ulceration, histologically showing a polymorphous infiltrate with EBV positive Reed-Sternberg-like cells. A diagnosis of EBVMCU was made. The ulcers failed to regress upon cessation of infliximab and methotrexate for 18 mo. Following commencement of prednisolone for her Crohns disease, the patient developed widespread Hodgkin lymphoma which ultimately presented as a life-threatening lower GIT bleed requiring emergency colectomy. This is the first report of progression of EBVMCU to Hodgkin lymphoma, in the setting of ongoing iatrogenic immunosuppression and inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:26019475

  4. Wilson Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Wilson disease is a rare inherited disorder that prevents your body from getting rid of extra copper. ... extra copper into bile, a digestive fluid. With Wilson disease, the copper builds up in your liver, ...

  5. Alexander Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be other genetic or perhaps even non-genetic causes of Alexander disease. Current research is aimed at understanding the mechanisms by which the mutations cause disease, developing better animal models for the disorder, ...

  6. Crohn's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or prescribing new medications. [ Top ] Crohn's Disease and Colon Cancer People with Crohn's disease in the large intestine may be more likely to develop colon cancer. People who receive ongoing treatment and remain in ...

  7. Raynaud's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Raynaud's disease is a rare disorder of the blood vessels, usually in the fingers and toes. It causes the ... secondary Raynaud's, which is caused by injuries, other diseases, or certain medicines. People in colder climates are ...

  8. Endocrine Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... low, you may have a hormone disorder. Hormone diseases also occur if your body does not respond ... In the United States, the most common endocrine disease is diabetes. There are many others. They are ...

  9. Liver Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... remove poisons. There are many kinds of liver diseases. Viruses cause some of them, like hepatitis A, ... the skin, can be one sign of liver disease. Cancer can affect the liver. You could also ...

  10. Addison Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... blood pressure and water and salt balance. Addison disease happens if the adrenal glands don't make ... problem with your immune system usually causes Addison disease. The immune system mistakenly attacks your own tissues, ...

  11. Legionnaires' Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Legionnaires' disease is a type of pneumonia caused by bacteria. You usually get it by breathing in mist from ... spread from person to person. Symptoms of Legionnaires' disease include high fever, chills, a cough, and sometimes ...

  12. Fifth Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Fifth disease is a viral infection caused by parvovirus B19. The virus only infects humans; it's not the same parvovirus that dogs and cats can get. Fifth disease mostly affects children. Symptoms can include a low ...

  13. Gaucher Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Gaucher disease is a rare, inherited disorder in which you do not have enough of an enzyme called glucocerebrosidase. ... It usually starts in childhood or adolescence. Gaucher disease has no cure. Treatment options for types 1 ...

  14. Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a bug bite, or sexual contact. Some parasitic diseases are easily treated and some are not. Parasites ... be seen with the naked eye. Some parasitic diseases occur in the United States. Contaminated water supplies ...

  15. Chagas Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Chagas disease is caused by a parasite. It is common in Latin America but not in the United States. ... nose, the bite wound or a cut. The disease can also spread through contaminated food, a blood ...

  16. Eye Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the back of the eye Macular degeneration - a disease that destroys sharp, central vision Diabetic eye problems ... defense is to have regular checkups, because eye diseases do not always have symptoms. Early detection and ...

  17. Parkinson's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a type of movement disorder. It happens when nerve cells in the brain don't ... coordination As symptoms get worse, people with the disease may have trouble walking, talking, or doing simple ...

  18. Meniere's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Meniere's disease is a disorder of the inner ear. It can cause severe dizziness, a roaring sound in your ... together over several days. Some people with Meniere's disease have "drop attacks" during which the dizziness is ...

  19. Fungal Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the flu or tuberculosis. Some fungal diseases like fungal meningitis and bloodstream infections are less common than skin ... System Outbreaks Rhizopus Investigation CDC at Work Global fungal diseases Cryptococcal meningitis Histoplasmosis Antifungal Resistance Resources File Formats Help: How ...

  20. Huntington disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Huntington disease is a disorder in which nerve cells in certain parts of the brain waste away, or ... Huntington disease is caused by a genetic defect on chromosome 4. The defect causes a part of DNA ...

  1. Celiac Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... immune disease in which people can't eat gluten because it will damage their small intestine. If you have celiac disease and eat foods with gluten, your immune system responds by damaging the small ...

  2. Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Digestive System How the Body Works Main Page Heart Disease KidsHealth > Kids > Health Problems of Grown-Ups > ... chest pain, heart attacks, and strokes . What Is Heart Disease? The heart is the center of the ...

  3. Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ...

  4. Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Kidney Disease KidsHealth > For Teens > Kidney Disease Print A ... Syndrome Coping With Kidney Conditions What Do the Kidneys Do? You might never think much about some ...

  5. Hashimoto's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... print versions from our online catalog. ? Additional Links Hypothyroidism Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease Thyroid Tests Find a ... disease often leads to reduced thyroid function, or hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism is a disorder that occurs when the ...

  6. Parkinson disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Parkinson disease causes certain brain cells to die. These are the cells that help control movement and ... called dopamine to help control muscle movement. With Parkinson disease, the brain cells that make dopamine slowly ...

  7. Lyme Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Lyme disease is a bacterial infection you get from the bite of an infected tick. The first symptom ... Muscle and joint aches A stiff neck Fatigue Lyme disease can be hard to diagnose because you may ...

  8. Chagas disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Kirchhoff LV. Chagas' disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 355. Kirchhoff LV. Trypanosoma species (American trypanosomiasis, Chagas' disease): Biology ...

  9. Colonic Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... where your body makes and stores stool. Many disorders affect the colon's ability to work properly. Some ... abdominal cramping and other symptoms Treatment for colonic diseases varies greatly depending on the disease and its ...

  10. Grover's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Rights Job Postings Sections of the JAOCD JAOCD Archive Published Members Online Dermatology Journals Edit This Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Grover's Disease Share | Grover's disease (transient acantholytic dermatosis) ...

  11. Krabbe Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NINDS Krabbe Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Globoid Cell Leukodystrophy Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) ... cells. Krabbe disease, also known as globoid cell leukodystrophy, is characterized by the presence of globoid cells ( ...

  12. Parkinson's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... You may have seen the actor Michael J. Fox on TV talking about Parkinson's disease. He has ... and help find a cure. Mostly adults (like Fox and boxer Muhammad Ali) get Parkinson's disease. It's ...

  13. Fifth Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Rash Parvovirus B19 and Other Illnesses References Fifth Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this Page Signs & Symptoms Transmission Transmission Diagnosis Prevention & Treatment Fifth disease is a mild rash illness caused by parvovirus ...

  14. Kyrle's disease

    PubMed Central

    Ataseven, Arzu; Ozturk, Perihan; Kucukosmanoglu, Iknur; Kurtipek, Gulcan Saylam

    2014-01-01

    Kyrle's disease (KD) is a dermatosis which was first described by Kyrle as hyperkeratosis follicularis et parafollicularis in cutem penetrans in 1916. Perforating dermatoses are a heterogeneous disorder group characterised by transepithelial elimination. KD has been seen in association with multiple disorders, including diabetes mellitus, renal and liver diseases, congestive heart failure, hyperlipidaemia, infective diseases and abnormal metabolism of vitamin A. This case report presents two patients with KD with associated systemic disease. PMID:24429045

  15. Lyme Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, George C.

    1991-01-01

    This overview of the public health significance of Lyme disease includes the microbiological specifics of the infectious spirochete, the entomology and ecology of the ticks which are the primary disease carrier, the clinical aspects and treatment stages, the known epidemiological patterns, and strategies for disease control and for expanded public…

  16. Crinkle Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crinkle disease of hop was first described in Europe in 1930, and subsequent reports of the disease appear in literature published in the 1960s and 1970s. The disease appears to be of little importance in most regions of hop production. A fastidious rickettsia-like organism (RLO) is thought to cau...

  17. Prostate Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Prostate Diseases Basic Facts & Information What are Prostate Diseases? The prostateone of the components of ... out anything serious. The Most Common Types of Prostate Diseases Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) Prostatitis Prostate cancer ...

  18. Alzheimer's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Alzheimer's Disease Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Alzheimer's Disease? Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related, non- ...

  19. Alzheimer disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of brain function that occurs with certain diseases. Alzheimer disease (AD) is one form of dementia. It affects ... The exact cause of Alzheimer disease (AD) is not known. Research shows that certain changes in the brain lead to AD. You are more likely to ...

  20. Lyme Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, George C.

    1991-01-01

    This overview of the public health significance of Lyme disease includes the microbiological specifics of the infectious spirochete, the entomology and ecology of the ticks which are the primary disease carrier, the clinical aspects and treatment stages, the known epidemiological patterns, and strategies for disease control and for expanded public

  1. Meniere's Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schessel, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Meniere's disease is characterized by unpredictable spells of severe vertigo and fluctuations in hearing and tinnitus. This article discusses the incidence of Meniere's disease, the present status of our understanding of this disease, controversies in its diagnosis, and the multiple therapeutic modalities recruited in its treatment. (Contains

  2. NEWCASTLE DISEASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concise information about Newcastle disease (ND) is provided for a book that serves as a quick reference guide to the infectious, parasitic, metabolic, nutritional, and toxic diseases of domesticated animals and birds as well some exotic species that a veterinarian might encounter. Newcastle disease...

  3. Sandhoff Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... body. Sandhoff disease is a severe form of Tay-Sachs disease, the incidence of which had been particularly high ... gene therapy seen in an animal model of Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff diseases for use in humans. NIH Patient Recruitment for ...

  4. Current treatment of hepatitis C-associated rheumatic diseases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is both hepatotropic and lymphotropic, responsible for a great number of hepatic and extrahepatic immune-system disorders that comprise the so-called HCV syndrome. HCV-associated rheumatic diseases are characterized by frequent clinico-serological overlap; therefore, correct classification of individual patients is necessary before therapeutic decisions are made. This is particularly difficult to do, however, because of the coexistence of viral infection and complex autoimmune alterations. In this context, mixed cryoglobulinemia syndrome (MCs) represents the prototype of virus-related autoimmune-lymphoproliferative diseases. MCs can be treated at different levels by means of etiological treatment with antivirals (peg-interferon-alpha plus ribavirin) aimed at HCV eradication and/or pathogenetic/symptomatic treatments directed to both immune-system alterations and the vasculitic process (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, steroids, plasmapheresis, and so on). In clinical practice, the therapeutic strategy should be modulated according to severity/activity of the MCs and possibly tailored to each individual patient's conditions. Cryoglobulinemic skin ulcers may represent a therapeutic challenge, which should be managed by means of both local and systemic treatments. HCV-associated arthritis should be differentiated from the simple comorbidity of HCV infection and classical rheumatoid arthritis. It may be treated with low doses of steroids and/or hydroxychloroquine; the use of biologics (rituximab) may be considered in more severe cases. Primary Sjögren's syndrome is rarely associated with HCV infection, while sicca syndrome and myalgia are frequently detectable in hepatitis C patients, with or without cryoglobulinemic vasculitis. Other autoimmune rheumatic disorders (poly/dermatomyositis, polyarteritis nodosa, osteosclerosis, fibromyalgia, and so on) have been reported as potentially associated with HCV infection in patient populations from different countries, suggesting the role of genetic and/or environmental co-factors. The therapeutic approach to these disorders should be decided according to each individual patient's evaluation, including hepatic, virological, and immunological findings. PMID:22731694

  5. Siltuximab: A Review in Idiopathic (Human Herpesvirus-8-Negative) Multicentric Castleman Disease.

    PubMed

    Lyseng-Williamson, Katherine A

    2015-12-01

    Siltuximab (Sylvant), an interleukin (IL)-6 chimeric immunoglobulin G? monoclonal antibody, is a currently the only agent approved to treat human idiopathic (herpesvirus-8 negative) multicentric Castleman disease (iMCD), which is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder. iMCD is caused by dysregulated production of IL-6 in the lymph nodes, and is associated with high morbidity, and potentially fatal consequences. Siltuximab binds to human IL-6 with high affinity and specificity, thereby preventing it from binding to IL-6 receptors, and neutralizing IL-6 bioactivity. In clinical trials in patients with iMCD, siltuximab reduced levels of C-reactive protein (a biomarker for IL-6), and provided clinical responses. Relative to placebo, the addition of siltuximab to best supportive care improved tumor- and symptom-related outcomes, with patients also reporting improvements in MCD symptoms, functional status, and well-being. Siltuximab has an acceptable tolerability profile, with the majority of treatment-emergent adverse events being manageable and/or of mild severity. In the absence of a cure, siltuximab represents a significant achievement in the management of this difficult-to-treat orphan disease. PMID:26394632

  6. Liver transplantation for alcoholic liver disease: Lessons learned and unresolved issues

    PubMed Central

    Ursic-Bedoya, José; Faure, Stéphanie; Donnadieu-Rigole, Hélène; Pageaux, Georges-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The use of liver transplantation (LT) as a treatment for alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has been highly controversial since the beginning. The ever increasing shortage of organs has accentuated the low priority given to patients suffering from ALD, which is considered a “self-inflicted” condition. However, by improving the long-term survival rates, making them similar to those from other indications, and recognizing that alcoholism is a primary disease, ALD has become one of the most common indications for LT in Europe and North America, a situation thought unfathomable thirty years ago. Unfortunately, there are still many issues with the use of this procedure for ALD. There are significant relapse rates, and the consequences of excessive drinking after LT range from asymptomatic biochemical and histological abnormalities to graft failure and death. A minimum three-month period of sobriety is required for an improvement in liver function, thus making LT unnecessary, and to demonstrate the patient’s commitment to the project, even though a longer abstinence period does not guarantee lower relapse rates after LT. Recent data have shown that LT is also effective for severe alcoholic hepatitis when the patient is unresponsive to corticosteroids therapy, with low relapse rates in highly selected patients, although these results must be confirmed before LT becomes a standard procedure in this setting. Finally, LT for ALD is accompanied by an increased risk of de novo solid organ cancer, skin cancer, and lymphoproliferative disorders, which has a large impact on the survival rates. PMID:26494956

  7. Liver transplantation for alcoholic liver disease: Lessons learned and unresolved issues.

    PubMed

    Ursic-Bedoya, Jos; Faure, Stphanie; Donnadieu-Rigole, Hlne; Pageaux, Georges-Philippe

    2015-10-21

    The use of liver transplantation (LT) as a treatment for alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has been highly controversial since the beginning. The ever increasing shortage of organs has accentuated the low priority given to patients suffering from ALD, which is considered a "self-inflicted" condition. However, by improving the long-term survival rates, making them similar to those from other indications, and recognizing that alcoholism is a primary disease, ALD has become one of the most common indications for LT in Europe and North America, a situation thought unfathomable thirty years ago. Unfortunately, there are still many issues with the use of this procedure for ALD. There are significant relapse rates, and the consequences of excessive drinking after LT range from asymptomatic biochemical and histological abnormalities to graft failure and death. A minimum three-month period of sobriety is required for an improvement in liver function, thus making LT unnecessary, and to demonstrate the patient's commitment to the project, even though a longer abstinence period does not guarantee lower relapse rates after LT. Recent data have shown that LT is also effective for severe alcoholic hepatitis when the patient is unresponsive to corticosteroids therapy, with low relapse rates in highly selected patients, although these results must be confirmed before LT becomes a standard procedure in this setting. Finally, LT for ALD is accompanied by an increased risk of de novo solid organ cancer, skin cancer, and lymphoproliferative disorders, which has a large impact on the survival rates. PMID:26494956

  8. Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Sundel, Robert P

    2015-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is the archetypal pediatric vasculitis, exemplifying the unique aspects and challenges of vascular inflammation in children. The condition is almost unheard of in adults, is closely associated with infections, and is self-limited, with fever resolving after an average of 12 days even without treatment. Yet KD is also a potentially fatal disease and the most common cause of acquired heart disease in the developed world. Unraveling of the developmental, immunologic, and genetic secrets of Kawasaki disease promises to improve our understanding of vasculitis in particular, and perhaps also to provide a window on the fundamental mysteries of inflammatory diseases in general. PMID:25399940

  9. Addison's disease.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Soumya Brata; Sarkar, Subrata; Ghosh, Supratim; Bandyopadhyay, Subhankar

    2012-10-01

    Addison's disease is a rare endocrinal disorder, with several oral and systemic manifestations. A variety of pathological processes may cause Addison's disease. Classically, hyperpigmentation is associated with the disease, and intraoral pigmentation is perceived as the initial sign and develops earlier than the dermatological pigmentation. The symptoms of the disease usually progress slowly and an event of illness or accident can make the condition worse and may lead to a life-threatening crisis. In this case, several oral as well as systemic manifestation of the Addison's disease was encountered. PMID:23633816

  10. Prion diseases.

    PubMed

    Takada, Leonel T; Geschwind, Michael D

    2013-09-01

    Prion diseases are a group of diseases caused by abnormally conformed infectious proteins, called prions. They can be sporadic (Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease [JCD]), genetic (genetic JCD, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker, and familial fatal insomnia), or acquired (kuru, variant JCD, and iatrogenic JCD). The clinical features associated with each form of prion disease, the neuroimaging findings, cerebrospinal fluid markers, and neuropathological findings are reviewed. Sporadic JCD is the most common form of human prion disease, and will be discussed in detail. Genetic prion diseases are caused by mutations in the prion-related protein gene (PRNP), and they are classified based on the mutation, clinical phenotype, and neuropathological features. Acquired prion diseases fortunately are becoming rarer, as awareness of transmission risk has led to implementation of measures to prevent such occurrences, but continued surveillance is necessary to prevent future cases. Treatment and management issues are also discussed. PMID:24234356

  11. MELDEQ : An alternative Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Marvin, Michael R; Ferguson, Nicole; Cannon, Robert M; Jones, Christopher M; Brock, Guy N

    2015-05-01

    Multiple studies have demonstrated an advantage for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients under the current liver allocation system, such that the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) recently voted in support of a proposal to delay granting Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) exception points to all HCC patients for 6 months, independently of a candidate's native MELD score or alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level. We obtained UNOS data on adult patients who were added to the wait list between January 22, 2005 and September 30, 2009, and we explored the relationship between HCC, MELD, AFP, and other factors that contribute to not only dropout on the wait list but posttransplant survival as well. The aim was to establish an equivalent Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELDEQ ) score for HCC patients that would reduce the disparity in access to transplantation between HCC and non-HCC patients. We determined risk groups for HCC patients with dropout hazards equivalent to those of non-HCC patients, and we evaluated projections for HCC wait-list dropout/transplantation probabilities on the basis of the MELDEQ prioritization scheme. Projections indicate that lower risk HCC patients (MELDEQ ???18) would have dropout probabilities similar to those of non-HCC patients in the same MELD score range, whereas dropout probabilities for higher risk HCC patients would actually be improved. The posttransplant survival of all HCC risk groups is lower than that of their non-HCC counterparts, with 1-year survival of 0.77 (95% CI, 0.70-0.85) for MELDEQ scores???31. These results suggest that HCC patients with a combination of a low biochemical MELD score and a low AFP level (MELDEQ ???15) would receive a marked advantage in comparison with patients with chemical MELD scores in a similar range and that a delay of 6 months for listing may be appropriate. In contrast, patients with MELDEQ scores?>?15 would likely be adversely affected by a universal 6-month delay in listing. PMID:25694099

  12. The biology of graft-versus-host disease: experimental systems instructing clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Markey, Kate A.; MacDonald, Kelli P. A.

    2014-01-01

    The last 6 decades have seen major advances in the understanding of immunologic diseases, driven by preclinical animal models. Indeed, bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has its genesis in rodent models dating back to the 1950s. Allogeneic BMT and its major complication, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), represent a paradigm for the translation of preclinical concepts into clinical practice. The appreciation that GVHD can be thought of as a stepwise escalation in immune activation characterized by eventual massive target tissue apoptosis has allowed the design of rational approaches to better manage patients. Here, we describe the pathophysiology of GVHD as defined in preclinical models, focusing on the successes and failures of this research to instruct and translate clinical practice. We also provide a commentary on the limitations of these models so that they may be better appreciated and addressed in future studies. Notable preclinical successes include the definition of modern immune suppression, reductions in conditioning intensity, posttransplant cyclophosphamide, and the promotion of regulatory T-cell reconstitution. New strategies including nave T-cell depletion, focused cytokine and chemokine inhibition, and the blockade of costimulation now also appear highly promising and very likely to translate into patients in the near future. PMID:24914137

  13. Esophageal Dysmotility, Gastro-esophageal Reflux Disease, and Lung Transplantation: What Is the Evidence?

    PubMed

    Wood, Richard K

    2015-12-01

    Lung transplantation is an effective and life-prolonging therapy for patients with advanced lung disease (ALD). However, long-term patient survival following lung transplantation is primarily limited by development of an inflammatory and fibrotic process involving the lung allograft known as bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). Although the precise cause of BOS remains uncertain and is likely multifactorial, chronic aspiration of gastro-duodenal contents is one possible contributing factor. Multiple small, cross-sectional studies performed over the past two decades have reported a high prevalence of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) and esophageal dysmotility in the ALD population and several investigations suggest the prevalence may increase following lung transplantation. More recent studies evaluating the direct effect of gastro-duodenal contents on airways have demonstrated a possible biologic link between GERD and BOS. Despite the recent advances in our understanding of BOS, further investigations are needed to establish GERD as a causative factor in its development. This review will discuss the existing literature that has identified an association of GERD with ALD and post-transplant populations, with a focus on recent advances in the field. PMID:26454656

  14. [Social diseases, civilization diseases or lifestyle diseases?].

    PubMed

    Betlejewski, Stans?aw

    2007-01-01

    In general, the development of civilization is viewed as a positive step for the well-being of the human species, leading to an increased duration and quality of life. The accelerated progress of civilization (mainly industrialization, urbanization and nutrition) has lead to new possibilities for adverse effects on human health. In former high civilization--like old Egypt, Greece, Roman, Chinese, Indian, Maya civilizations--the "modem civilization diseases" were unknown. Modem science through improved sanitation, vaccination and antibiotics as well as improved social and economical conditions, has eliminated the threat of death from most infectious diseases. In the years after World War II the social, economic and health conditions changed. Most deaths have resulted from heart disease, stroke, cancer and other diseases as a result of an inappropriate relationship of people with their environment and changed lifestyle. Lifestyle diseases are different from other diseases because they are potentially preventable and can be lowered with changes in diet, lifestyle and environment. PMID:18350729

  15. Effects of Mixed Chimerism and Immune Modulation on GVHD, Disease Recurrence and Survival after HLA-identical Marrow Transplantation for Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo-Jeong; Min, Woo-Sung; Yang, Il-Ho; Kim, Hee-Je; Min, Chang-Ki; Eom, Hyeon-Seok; Kim, Dong-Wook; Han, Chi-Wha; Lee, Jong-Wook; Kim, Chun-Choo

    2000-01-01

    Background The success of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT) is affected by underlying disease relapse. Although mixed chimerism (MC) is not necessarily a poor prognostic factor, several groups have suggested that MC is associated with an increased risk of disease relapse. There is evidence that patients with MC benefit from additional immunotherapy if the treatment is started in minimal residual disease status (mixed chimerism status), not in frank hematological relapse. The purposes of this study are to evaluate 1) the risk for relapse or graft rejection in correlation to persistent MC status after allo-BMT, and 2) the possibility of preventing relapse by immune modulation treatments (withdrawal or rapid taper-off of post-transplant immuno-suppression, additional interferon treatment, or the administration of donor lymphocytes) in hematologic malignancies. Patients and Methods Of 337 allogeneic donor-recipient pairs between March 1996 and August 1998, 12 patients who showed persistent or progressive MC and who received immune modulation treatments were evaluated. Twelve patients, median age 31 years (range 9 to 39 years), received an allo-BMT for: acute myelogenous leukemia (AML, n = 5), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML, n = 4), acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL, n = 3). Serial polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of YNZ 22-, 33.6-minisatellites or Y chromosome-specific PCR analysis at short term intervals (pre-and post-transplant 1, 3, 6, 9, months) was performed. Once MC was detected, immune modulation treatments on the basis of increasing MC in an early phase of recurrence of underlying disease were started. Results Nine of 12 patients converted to complete chimerism (CC) (AML 5/5, CML 3/4, ALL 1/3). Four of 9 CC patients developed graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) grade ?2 during immune modulation. All were treated successfully with steroids. Three patients who were not converted to CC showed relapse of underlying diseases or graft failure. Conclusion The results demonstrate that, in patients with hematologic malignancies after allo-BMT, persistent MC is associated with relapse of underlying diseases or graft failure. Furthermore, when patients receive early immune modulation treatment, MC can be changed to complete donor pattern chimerism and ultimately prevent relapse. PMID:11242811

  16. Phase II Study Evaluating Busulfan and Fludarabine as Preparative Therapy in Adults With Hematopoietic Disorders Undergoing MUD SCT

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2009-01-22

    Chronic Myeloid Leukemia; Acute Myelogenous Leukemia; Myelodysplasia; Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia; Severe Aplastic Anemia; Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Lymphoproliferative Disease; Multiple Myeloma; Advanced Myeloproliferative Disease

  17. Ovine lentivirus expression and disease. Virus replication, but not entry, is restricted to macrophages of specific tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Brodie, S. J.; Pearson, L. D.; Zink, M. C.; Bickle, H. M.; Anderson, B. C.; Marcom, K. A.; DeMartini, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    To better define the relationship between lentivirus infection and lymphoproliferative or inflammatory disease, we studied postmortem specimens of 38 sheep naturally infected with ovine lentivirus (OvLV) and with different clinical manifestations of OvLV-associated disease. Immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and virus isolation were used to localize viral protein, viral RNA, and infectious virus to specific cells and tissues. Viral protein or infectious virus was found in cells morphologically and histochemically compatible with macrophages (M phi s), but only in lung, bone marrow, mammary gland, lymph node, spleen, synovium, brain, and spinal cord, frequently in association with lymphocyte infiltrates. In contrast, viral RNA was found in a variety of cell types, including epithelium, M phi s, and M phi-like cells, and in a wider range of tissues, with or without OvLV-associated lesions. In summary, these findings suggest that in vivo: 1), OvLV can enter a variety of cell types, 2), productive infection is restricted to cells of M phi lineage, and 3), cells expressing viral proteins are limited to specific tissues, those associated with OvLV-induced diseases. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7531949

  18. Infectious disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.

    1990-01-01

    This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on infectious disease. It addresses their major concern over outbreaks of infectious disease that could jeopardize the health, safety and/or performance of crew members engaged in long duration space missions. The Antarctic environment is seen as an analogous location on Earth and a good place to carry out such infectious disease studies and methods for proposed studies as suggested.

  19. [Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, U

    2015-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with characteristic neuropathological changes. It is the most common form of dementia. As a definitive diagnosis requires a neuropathological examination, clinical criteria have been established for the diagnostics of a probable Alzheimer's disease. In addition to the articles in this issue that focus on the imaging of dementia, this article provides a brief overview of clinically relevant aspects of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25957008

  20. Borna disease.

    PubMed Central

    Hatalski, C. G.; Lewis, A. J.; Lipkin, W. I.

    1997-01-01

    Borna disease virus, a newly classified nonsegmented negative-strand RNA virus with international distribution, infects a broad range of warm-blooded animals from birds to primates. Infection causes movement and behavioral disturbances reminiscent of some neuropsychiatric syndromes. The virus has not been clearly linked to any human disease; however, an association between infection with the virus and selected neuropsychiatric disorders has been suggested. We reviewed recent advances in Borna disease virus research, focusing on evidence of infection in humans. PMID:9204293

  1. Gaucher Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nagral, Aabha

    2014-01-01

    Gaucher disease is the commonest lysosomal storage disease seen in India and worldwide. It should be considered in any child or adult with an unexplained splenohepatomegaly and cytopenia which are seen in the three types of Gaucher disease. Type 1 is the non-neuronopathic form and type 2 and 3 are the neuronopathic forms. Type 2 is a more severe neuronopathic form leading to mortality by 2 years of age. Definitive diagnosis is made by a blood test–the glucocerebrosidase assay. There is no role for histological examination of the bone marrow, liver or spleen for diagnosis of the disease. Molecular studies for mutations are useful for confirming diagnosis, screening family members and prognosticating the disease. A splenectomy should not be performed except for palliation or when there is no response to enzyme replacement treatment or no possibility of getting any definitive treatment. Splenectomy may worsen skeletal and lung manifestations in Gaucher disease. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has completely revolutionized the prognosis and is now the standard of care for patients with this disease. Best results are seen in type 1 disease with good resolution of splenohepatomegaly, cytopenia and bone symptoms. Neurological symptoms in type 3 disease need supportive care. ERT is of no benefit in type 2 disease. Monitoring of patients on ERT involves evaluation of growth, blood counts, liver and spleen size and biomarkers such as chitotriosidase which reflect the disease burden. Therapy with ERT is very expensive and though patients in India have so far got the drug through a charitable access programme, there is a need for the government to facilitate access to treatment for this potentially curable disease. Bone marrow transplantation is an inferior option but may be considered when access to expensive ERT is not possible. PMID:25755533

  2. Hodgkin's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Portlock, C.S.

    1984-05-01

    The outlook for patients with Hodgkin's disease has improved dramatically over the past 20 years. The question is no longer whether cure is possible, but rather, how can cure be best achieved. With better understanding of the biology of Hodgkin's disease and with continued evolution of treatment approaches, the goal of curing all patients with Hodgkin's disease is clearly within reach. This article provides a summary of current concepts in the biology and management of Hodgkin's disease. Staging, treatment options, and complications of therapy are discussed.

  3. Analyses of the spleen proteome of chickens infected with Marek's disease virus

    SciTech Connect

    Thanthrige-Don, Niroshan; Abdul-Careem, Mohamed F.; Shack, L. Allen; Burgess, Shane C.; Sharif, Shayan

    2009-08-01

    Marek's disease virus (MDV), which causes a lymphoproliferative disease in chickens, is known to induce host responses leading to protection against disease in a manner dependent on genetic background of chickens and virulence of the virus. In the present study, changes in the spleen proteome at 7, 14 and 21 days post-infection in response to MDV infection were studied using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Differentially expressed proteins were identified using one-dimensional liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (1D LC ESI MS/MS). Comparative analysis of multiple gels revealed that the majority of changes had occurred at early stages of the disease. In total, 61 protein spots representing 48 host proteins were detected as either quantitatively (false discovery rate (FDR) <= 0.05 and fold change >= 2) or qualitatively differentially expressed at least once during different sampling points. Overall, the proteins identified in the present study are involved in a variety of cellular processes such as the antigen processing and presentation, ubiquitin-proteasome protein degradation (UPP), formation of the cytoskeleton, cellular metabolism, signal transduction and regulation of translation. Notably, early stages of the disease were characterized by changes in the UPP, and antigen presentation. Furthermore, changes indicative of active cell proliferation as well as apoptosis together with significant changes in cytoskeletal components that were observed throughout the experimental period suggested the complexity of the pathogenesis. The present findings provide a basis for further studies aimed at elucidation of the role of these proteins in MDV interactions with its host.

  4. Prolonged sirolimus administration after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation is associated with decreased risk for moderate-severe chronic graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Pidala, Joseph; Kim, Jongphil; Alsina, Melissa; Ayala, Ernesto; Betts, Brian C.; Fernandez, Hugo F.; Field, Teresa; Jim, Heather; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamed A.; Locke, Frederick L.; Mishra, Asmita; Nishihori, Taiga; Ochoa-Bayona, Leonel; Perez, Lia; Riches, Marcie; Anasetti, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Effective pharmacological strategies employed in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation should prevent serious chronic graft-versus-host disease and facilitate donor-recipient immune tolerance. Based on demonstrated pro-tolerogenic activity, sirolimus (rapamycin) is an agent with promise to achieve these goals. In a long-term follow-up analysis of a randomized phase II trial comparing sirolimus/tacrolimus versus methotrexate/tacrolimus for graft-versus-host disease prevention in matched sibling or unrelated donor transplant, we examined the impact of prolonged sirolimus administration (? 1 year post-transplant). Median follow-up time for surviving patients at time of this analysis was 41 months (range 2760) for sirolimus/tacrolimus and 49 months (range 2963) for methotrexate/tacrolimus. Sirolimus/tacrolimus patients had significantly lower National Institutes of Health Consensus moderate-severe chronic graft-versus-host disease (34% vs. 65%; P=0.004) and late acute graft-versus-host disease (20% vs. 43%; P=0.04). While sirolimus/tacrolimus patients had lower prednisone exposure and earlier discontinuation of tacrolimus (median time to tacrolimus discontinuation 368 days vs. 821 days; P=0.002), there was no significant difference in complete immune suppression discontinuation (60-month estimate: 43% vs. 31%; P=0.78). Prolonged sirolimus administration represents a viable approach to mitigate risk for moderate-severe chronic and late acute graft-versus-host disease. Further study of determinants of successful immune suppression discontinuation is needed. PMID:25840599

  5. Prolonged sirolimus administration after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation is associated with decreased risk for moderate-severe chronic graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Pidala, Joseph; Kim, Jongphil; Alsina, Melissa; Ayala, Ernesto; Betts, Brian C; Fernandez, Hugo F; Field, Teresa; Jim, Heather; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamed A; Locke, Frederick L; Mishra, Asmita; Nishihori, Taiga; Ochoa-Bayona, Leonel; Perez, Lia; Riches, Marcie; Anasetti, Claudio

    2015-07-01

    Effective pharmacological strategies employed in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation should prevent serious chronic graft-versus-host disease and facilitate donor-recipient immune tolerance. Based on demonstrated pro-tolerogenic activity, sirolimus (rapamycin) is an agent with promise to achieve these goals. In a long-term follow-up analysis of a randomized phase II trial comparing sirolimus/tacrolimus versus methotrexate/tacrolimus for graft-versus-host disease prevention in matched sibling or unrelated donor transplant, we examined the impact of prolonged sirolimus administration (≥ 1 year post-transplant). Median follow-up time for surviving patients at time of this analysis was 41 months (range 27-60) for sirolimus/tacrolimus and 49 months (range 29-63) for methotrexate/tacrolimus. Sirolimus/tacrolimus patients had significantly lower National Institutes of Health Consensus moderate-severe chronic graft-versus-host disease (34% vs. 65%; P=0.004) and late acute graft-versus-host disease (20% vs. 43%; P=0.04). While sirolimus/tacrolimus patients had lower prednisone exposure and earlier discontinuation of tacrolimus (median time to tacrolimus discontinuation 368 days vs. 821 days; P=0.002), there was no significant difference in complete immune suppression discontinuation (60-month estimate: 43% vs. 31%; P=0.78). Prolonged sirolimus administration represents a viable approach to mitigate risk for moderate-severe chronic and late acute graft-versus-host disease. Further study of determinants of successful immune suppression discontinuation is needed. PMID:25840599

  6. Impact of Everolimus and Low-Dose Cyclosporin on Cytomegalovirus Replication and Disease in Pediatric Renal Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Höcker, B; Zencke, S; Pape, L; Krupka, K; Köster, L; Fichtner, A; Dello Strologo, L; Guzzo, I; Topaloglu, R; Kranz, B; König, J; Bald, M; Webb, N J A; Noyan, A; Dursun, H; Marks, S; Ozcakar, Z B; Thiel, F; Billing, H; Pohl, M; Fehrenbach, H; Schnitzler, P; Bruckner, T; Ahlenstiel-Grunow, T; Tönshoff, B

    2016-03-01

    In order to investigate the hypothesis that the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus (EVR) shows anticytomegalovirus (CMV) activity in pediatric patients, we analyzed the impact of EVR-based immunosuppressive therapy on CMV replication and disease in a large cohort (n = 301) of pediatric kidney allograft recipients. The EVR cohort (n = 59), who also received low-dose cyclosporin, was compared with a control cohort (n = 242), who was administered standard-dose cyclosporin or tacrolimus and an antimetabolite, mostly mycophenolate mofetil (91.7%). Multivariate analysis revealed an 83% lower risk of CMV replication in the EVR cohort than in the control cohort (p = 0.005). In CMV high-risk (donor+/recipient-) patients (n = 88), the EVR-based regimen was associated with a significantly lower rate of CMV disease (0% vs. 14.3%, p = 0.046) than the standard regimen. In patients who had received chemoprophylaxis with (val-)ganciclovir (n = 63), the CMV-free survival rates at 1 year and 3 years posttransplant (100%) were significantly (p = 0.015) higher in the EVR cohort (n = 15) than in the control cohort (n = 48; 1 year, 75.0%; 3 years, 63.3%). Our data suggest that in pediatric patients at high risk of CMV, an EVR-based immunosuppressive regimen is associated with a lower risk of CMV disease than a standard-dose calcineurin inhibitor-based regimen. PMID:26613840

  7. Hashimoto's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Dry, thinning hair Heavy menstrual flow or irregular periods Depression A slowed heart rate Problems getting pregnant Return to top Who gets Hashimoto's disease? Hashimoto's disease is about 7 times more common in women than in men. It can occur in teens ...

  8. Hodgkin Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or bone marrow. The exact cause is unknown. Hodgkin disease is rare. Symptoms include Painless swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck, armpits, or groin Fever and chills Night sweats Weight loss Loss of appetite Itchy skin To diagnose Hodgkin disease, doctors use a physical exam and history, ...

  9. Cardiovascular Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), particularly CHD (coronary heart disease) and stroke, remain the leading causes of death of women in America and most developed countries. In recent years the rate of CVD has declined in men but not in women. This is contributed to by an under-recognition of women’s C...

  10. Prion Diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prion diseases comprise a set of rare fatal neurological diseases found in humans and other mammals. A prion is a protein capable of converting a normal cellular protein (PrPC) into a prion and thereby propagating an infection. A prion and PrPC differ solely in their conformation. There are differen...

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    MedlinePLUS

    ... NIAID clinical studies on ClinicalTrials.gov . ​ Related Links Tuberculosis Leprosy (Hansen's Disease) National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus ... coats that can be found throughout the world. Tuberculosis and leprosy (Hansen’s disease) are the best known ...

  12. Blount Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... need to have surgery. Many different types of surgeries can correct Blount disease some involve cutting the tibia, realigning it, and ... complete recovery. The Outlook Most teens who have surgery to correct Blount disease soon find themselves returning to all their normal ...

  13. Disease management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soilborne pathogens that cause root diseases spend most of their life cycle in or on the soil. Soil management decisions will influence the survival, growth of these pathogens and severity of disease. Many of the cultural methods that growers have relied on in the past to reduce the impact of the...

  14. Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Kidney Disease What is Kidney Disease? What the Kidneys Do Click for more information You have two ... damaged, wastes can build up in the body. Kidney Function and Aging Kidney function may be reduced ...

  15. Buerger's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... smoker. More recently, however, a higher percentage of women and people over the age of 50 have been recognized to have this disease. Buergers disease is most common in the Orient, Southeast Asia, India and the Middle East, but appears to be ...

  16. Celiac Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can start eating gluten again. For someone with celiac disease, gluten will always irritate the intestines and, if this ... problems will return. If you're diagnosed with celiac disease, it can be a challenge to learn which foods contain gluten. You may not be able to remember them ...

  17. Peyronie's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Behcet’s syndrome––inflammation of the blood vessels Family History of Peyronie’s Disease Medical experts believe that Peyronie’s disease ... radiation and recorded on film or on a computer. The amount of radiation used is small. The ...

  18. Liver disease.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    Essential facts Liver disease is the fifth biggest killer in the UK and, according to the British Liver Trust, the only major cause of death still increasing year on year. NHS Choices says there are more than 100 different types of liver disease affecting at least two million people in the UK at any one time. PMID:26530565

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    MedlinePLUS

    ... causing the swelling, tenderness, and pain of Sever's disease. Such stress commonly results from physical activities and sports that ... and Joints Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions Osgood-Schlatter Disease Problems With Legs and ... Injuries Contact Us Print Resources Send to a ...

  20. Newcastle disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The focus of this chapter, are viruses of avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 (APMV-1). All isolates of APMV-1 are of one serotype and are referred to as Newcastle disease viruses (NDV). Newcastle disease (ND) is caused only by infections with virulent isolates of APMV-1 (virulent NDV or vNDV). Virulent ...