Patients after solid organ transplantation (SOT) carry a substantially increased risk to develop malignant lymphomas. This is in part due to the immunosuppression required to maintain the function of the organ graft. Depending on the transplanted organ, up to 15% of pediatric transplant recipients acquire posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD), and eventually 20% of those succumb to the disease. Early diagnosis of PTLD is often hampered by the unspecific symptoms and the difficult differential diagnosis, which includes atypical infections as well as graft rejection. Treatment of PTLD is limited by the high vulnerability towards antineoplastic chemotherapy in transplanted children. However, new treatment strategies and especially the introduction of the monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody rituximab have dramatically improved outcomes of PTLD. This review discusses risk factors for the development of PTLD in children, summarizes current approaches to therapy, and gives an outlook on developing new treatment modalities like targeted therapy with virus-specific T cells. Finally, monitoring strategies are evaluated. PMID:24174972
The occurrence of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) in solid organ allograft recipients can be quite varied\\u000a in clinical presentation, histopathological characteristics and frequency. A variety of lymphomas can develop as a PTLD although\\u000a some types appear infrequently and remain poorly understood in this clinical setting. In this report, we describe two cases\\u000a of Burkitt’s lymphoma presenting as a PTLD following
Melissa A. Pasquale; Debbie Weppler; Jon Smith; Michael Icardi; Alexandra Amador; Monica Gonzalez; Tomoaki Kato; Andreas Tzakis; Phillip Ruiz
An unusual case of epistaxis resulting from post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder is described. A 30-year-old woman who had undergone renal transplantation 12 years previously presented with profuse, posterior, unilateral epistaxis. The initial findings, workup and treatment are presented. A post-nasal space (PNS) mass was detected and biopsy showed this to be an Epstein-Barr virus-positive polymorphous B-cell post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Computed tomography findings showed a polypoid lesion protruding from the sphenoethmoidal recess and filling the left PNS. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder is well known to involve tonsil tissue. Commonly, this is the first presentation of the disease in children. However, until now post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder has not been described in the PNS or nasal cavity presenting as epistaxis. We conclude that all transplant patients presenting with epistaxis should be followed up for an accurate examination of the PNS and nasal cavity after the acute episode. PMID:15638984
Clarke, Jonathan D; Stock, David; Singh, Vijay
We performed a multicenter, International analysis of solid organ transplant (SOT)-related primary central nervous system (PCNS) posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD). Among 84 PCNS PTLD patients, median time of SOT-to-PTLD was 54 months, 79% had kidney SOT, histology was monomorphic in 83% and tumor was EBV+ in 94%. Further, 33% had deep brain involvement, 10% had CSF involvement, while none had ocular disease. Immunosuppression was reduced in 93%; additional first-line therapy included high-dose methotrexate (48%), high-dose cytarabine (33%), brain radiation (24%) and/or rituximab (44%). The overall response rate was 60%, while treatment-related mortality was 13%. With 42-month median follow-up, three-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 32% and 43%, respectively. There was a trend on univariable analysis for improved PFS for patients who received rituximab and/or high-dose cytarabine. On multivariable Cox regression, poor performance status predicted inferior PFS (HR 2.61, 95% CI 1.32-5.17, p?=?0.006), while increased LDH portended inferior OS (HR 4.16, 95% CI 1.29-13.46, p?=?0.02). Moreover, lack of response to first-line therapy was the most dominant prognostic factor on multivariable analysis (HR 8.70, 95% CI 2.56-29.57, p?=?0.0005). Altogether, PCNS PTLD appears to represent a distinct clinicopathologic entity within the PTLD spectrum that is associated with renal SOT, occurs late, is monomorphic and retains EBV positivity. PMID:23551686
Evens, A M; Choquet, S; Kroll-Desrosiers, A R; Jagadeesh, D; Smith, S M; Morschhauser, F; Leblond, V; Roy, R; Barton, B; Gordon, L I; Gandhi, M K; Dierickx, D; Schiff, D; Habermann, T M; Trappe, R
We performed a multicenter, International analysis of solid organ transplant (SOT)-related primary central nervous system (PCNS) posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD). Among 84 PCNS PTLD patients, median time of SOT-to-PTLD was 54 months, 79% had kidney SOT, histology was monomorphic in 83% and tumor was EBV+ in 94%. Further, 33% had deep brain involvement, 10% had CSF involvement, while none had ocular disease. Immunosuppression was reduced in 93%; additional first-line therapy included high-dose methotrexate (48%), high-dose cytarabine (33%), brain radiation (24%) and/or rituximab (44%). The overall response rate was 60%, while treatment-related mortality was 13%. With 42-month median follow-up, three-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 32% and 43%, respectively. There was a trend on univariable analysis for improved PFS for patients who received rituximab and/or high-dose cytarabine. On multivariable Cox regression, poor performance status predicted inferior PFS (HR 2.61, 95% CI 1.32-5.17, p = 0.006), while increased LDH portended inferior OS (HR 4.16, 95% CI 1.29-13.46, p = 0.02). Moreover, lack of response to first-line therapy was the most dominant prognostic factor on multivariable analysis (HR 8.70, 95% CI 2.56-29.57, p = 0.0005). Altogether, PCNS PTLD appears to represent a distinct clinicopathologic entity within the PTLD spectrum that is associated with renal SOT, occurs late, is monomorphic and retains EBV positivity. PMID:23721553
Evens, A M; Choquet, S; Kroll-Desrosiers, A R; Jagadeesh, D; Smith, S M; Morschhauser, F; Leblond, V; Roy, R; Barton, B; Gordon, L I; Gandhi, M K; Dierickx, D; Schiff, D; Habermann, T M; Trappe, R
The occurrence of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) in solid organ allograft recipients can be quite varied in clinical presentation, histopathological characteristics and frequency. A variety of lymphomas can develop as a PTLD although some types appear infrequently and remain poorly understood in this clinical setting. In this report, we describe two cases of Burkitt s lymphoma presenting as a PTLD following liver transplantation. The recipients were 12 and 44 years of age and displayed gastrointestinal involvement by the tumors several years following transplant. The tumors displayed the typical histological features of Burkitt s lymphoma and were markedly positive for EBV. The tumors displayed similar immunophenotypic characteristics by flow cytometry and had rearrangements of the immunoglobulin J-H heavy chain. The tumors required aggressive chemotherapy and a cessation of immunosuppressive therapy. This report demonstrates that Burkitt s type lymphomas can develop in the posttransplant setting and that these tumors contain morphologic, cytofluorographic and molecular features identical to Burkitt s lymphomas that occur in non-transplant patients. Our experience is that these PTLD- Burkitt s lymphomas behave aggressively and require intensive chemotherapeutic intervention. PMID:12172573
Pasquale, Melissa A; Weppler, Debbie; Smith, Jon; Icardi, Michael; Amador, Alexandra; Gonzalez, Monica; Kato, Tomoaki; Tzakis, Andreas; Ruiz, Phillip
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) viremia (EV) in pediatric solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients is a significant risk factor for posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) but not all patients with EV develop PTLD. We identify predictive factors for PTLD in patients with EV. We conducted a retrospective chart review of all pediatric SOT recipients (0 to 21 y) at a single institution between 2001 and 2009. A total of 350 pediatric patients received a SOT and 90 (25.7%) developed EV. Of EV patients, 28 (31%) developed PTLD. The median age at transplant was 11.5 months in the PTLD group and 21.5 months in the EV-only group (P=0.003). Twenty-three (37%) EV-only patients had immunosuppression increased before EV, compared with 28 (100%) of PTLD patients (P<0.001). The median peak EBV level was 3212 EBV copies/10 lymphocytes for EV-only and 8392.5 EBV copies/10 lymphocytes for PTLD (P=0.005). All patients who developed PTLD had ?1 clinical symptoms. Younger age at transplant, increased immunosuppression before EV, higher peak EBV level, and presence of clinical symptoms have predictive value in the development of PTLD in SOT patients with EV. PMID:24878618
Weintraub, Lauren; Weiner, Chana; Miloh, Tamir; Tomaino, Juli; Joashi, Umesh; Benchimol, Corinne; Strauchen, James; Roth, Michael; Wistinghausen, Birte
Posttransplant malignancy is one of the most important complications of organ transplantation. Immunosuppressive drugs, viral infections such as human herpes virus 8 or Epstein-Barr virus, exposure to carcinogenic factors such as sun, and host factors can be etiologic factors in the development of malignant disease. In this paper we report 2 cases of late posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder with malign behavior. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24385813
Paydas, Saime; Paydas, Semra; Balal, Mustafa; Ac?kal?n, Arbil; Ergin, Melek; Gurkan, Emel; Baslam?sl?, Fikri
Posttransplant lymphoproliferative dis- ease (PTLD) is a frequent and severe Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated com- plication in transplantation recipients that is caused by iatrogenic suppression of T-cell function. The diagnostic value of weekly EBV DNA load monitoring was investigated in prospectively collected un- fractionated whole blood and serum samples of lung transplantation (LTx) re- cipients with and without PTLD. In PTLD
Servi J. C. Stevens; Erik A. M. Verschuuren; Inge Pronk; Wim van der Bij; Martin C. Harmsen; T. Hauw; Chris J. L. M. Meijer; Jaap M. Middeldorp
: Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality among solid-organ transplant patients, but approaches to diagnosis and management vary considerably. An international multidisciplinary panel evaluated current understanding of risk factors and classification systems and developed recommendations to aid in PTLD prevention. We considered evidence on PTLD risk factors including Epstein-Barr virus serostatus and immunosuppression and identified knowledge gaps for future research. Recommendations address prophylactic and preemptive strategies to minimize PTLD development, including modulation of immunosuppression and antiviral drug regimens. Finally, new classification criteria were outlined that may help facilitate standardized reporting and improve our understanding of PTLD. PMID:22992767
Glotz, Denis; Chapman, Jeremy R; Dharnidharka, Vikas R; Hanto, Douglas W; Castro, Maria C R; Hirsch, Hans H; Leblond, Véronique; Mehta, Aneesh K; Moulin, Bruno; Pagliuca, Antonio; Pascual, Julio; Rickinson, Alan B; Russo, Francesco P; Trappe, Ralf U; Webster, Angela C; Zuckermann, Andreas O; Gross, Thomas G
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are long-term complications of immunosuppression after solid organ/bone marrow transplantation. In most cases, PTLD arises as a result of primary or reactivated Epstein-Barr virus infection in a host with impaired cellular immunity. PTLD is most often seen in the gastrointestinal tract, although it has also been reported in other organ systems, including the central nervous system and, rarely, in the head and neck. It is characterized histologically by abnormal lymphoid cell proliferation. Although many forms of PTLD do not meet all of the histologic criteria of lymphoma, they often behave clinically in a malignant fashion if left untreated. We present 3 rare cases of PTLD manifesting in the oral cavity as mucosal masses after solid organ transplantation. There are only 8 published reports of PTLD in the literature presenting as oral lesions. The clinical, pathologic, and therapeutic spectra of PTLD are discussed. PMID:18442744
Ojha, Junu; Islam, Nadim; Cohen, Donald M; Marshal, David; Reavis, Michael R; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder is treated with rapid decrement of immunosuppressive therapy. This cannot be achieved with ease in patients on long-term glucocorticoid therapy, as chronically suppressed adrenal glands may not be capable of mounting adequate response to stress. A 52-year-old Caucasian male presented with fever, orthostatic hypotension, lymphadenopathy and hyponatraemia. Serum cortisol levels were within normal levels with a sub optimal response to stimulation by ACTH. Hyponatraemia and orthostasis responded poorly to fluid restriction, saline and salt repletion but corrected after increasing the steroid dose. The normal baseline cortisol levels represented a stimulated adrenal gland, however, the ACTH stimulation had inadequate response. This sub optimal stimulation and a good response to increased steroids suggest the presence of relative or occult adrenal insufficiency. Relative adrenal insufficiency must be considered in patients who have received prolonged glucocorticoid therapy and have symptoms such as hypotension and/or hyponatraemia. PMID:12865574
Cinclair, R D; Rice, J C; Agraharkar, M
The treatment of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) in EBV seronegative solid organ transplant recipients who acquire their EBV infection after engraftment poses a considerable challenge because of underlying immunosuppression that inhibits the virus-specific cytotoxic T cell (CTL) response in vivo. We have developed a protocol for activating autologous EBV-specific CTL lines from these patients and show their potential
Rajiv Khanna; Scott Bell; Martina Sherriti; Andrew Galbraith; Scott R. Burrows; Lee Rafter; Belinda Clarke; Richard Slaughter; Michael C. Falk; Jo Douglass; Trevor Williams; Suzanne L. Ellioti; Denis J. Moss
Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is an extremely rare condition that originates from dendritic cells. We report on the first case of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) of donor origin in a BPDC patient post-allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Flow cytometry study identified a cell population CD4+/CD56+/CD45RA+/CD123+/TCL1+ suggestive of BPDCN diagnosis, which was confirmed by a lymph node biopsy (cells positive for BCL11a, BDCA-2, CD2AP, CD123, TCL1 and S100). Cytogenetic analysis revealed a complex karyotype: (19 metaphase) 47,XX,t(1;6)(q21;q2?5),-13?+?2mar/47, XX, +21 /46,XX . The patient was started on acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) induction schedule, and subsequently an allogeneic HSCT was performed. On day +36 post-HSCT, bone marrow biopsy/aspirate showed complete morphological remission, and chimerism study showed 100% donor chimera. However, on day +37, the patient was found to have enlarged cervical and supraclavicular lymphoadenopathy, splenomegaly and raised lactic dehydrogenase. EBV-DNA copies in blood were elevated, consistent with a lytic cycle. A lymph node biopsy showed EBV encoded RNA and large atypical B cells (CD45dim-, CD4+/CD56+, monoclonal for k-chain, CD19+/CD20+/CD21+/CD22+/CD38+/CD43+/CD79?-/CD5-/CD10-), consistent with PTLD monomorphic type. Chimerism study showed that PTLD was of donor origin. This case together with the recent literature findings on BPDCN and PTLD are discussed. PMID:22915052
Piccin, Andrea; Morello, Enrico; Svaldi, Mirija; Haferlach, Torsten; Facchetti, Fabio; Negri, Giovanni; Vecchiato, Cinzia; Fisogni, Simona; Pusceddu, Irene; Cortelazzo, Sergio
Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are a potentially life-threatening complication of immunosuppression in transplant recipients. The majority of cases are Epstein-Barr virus-associated lesions of B cell origin. T cell PTLD is rare, particularly in pediatric patients. We present an unusual case of monomorphic T cell PTLD with features of angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma in an 8-year-old heart transplant patient, presenting with cranial nerve palsy. PMID:24157860
Kraus, Teresa S; Twist, Clare J; Tan, Brent T
Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are the second most frequent malignancies after solid organ transplantation and cover a wide spectrum ranging from polyclonal early lesions to monomorphic lymphoma. Available treatment modalities include immunosuppression reduction, immunotherapy with anti-B-cell monoclonal antibodies, chemotherapy, antiviral therapy, cytotoxic T-cell therapy as well as surgery and irradiation. Owing to the small number of cases and the heterogeneity of PTLD, current treatment strategies are mostly based on case reports and small, often retrospective studies. Moreover, many studies on the treatment of PTLD have involved a combination of different treatment options, complicating the evaluation of individual treatment components. However, there has been significant progress over the last few years. Three prospective phase II trials on the efficacy of rituximab monotherapy have shown significant complete remission rates without any relevant toxicity. A prospective, multicenter, international phase II trial evaluating sequential treatment with rituximab and CHOP-based chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) is ongoing and preliminary results have been promising. Cytotoxic T-cell therapy targeting Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected B cells has shown low toxicity and high efficacy in a phase II trial and will be a future therapeutic option at specialized centers. Here, we review the currently available data on the different treatment modalities with a focus on PTLD following solid organ transplantation in adult patients. PMID:23556105
Zimmermann, Heiner; Trappe, Ralf Ulrich
Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are the second most frequent malignancies after solid organ transplantation and cover a wide spectrum ranging from polyclonal early lesions to monomorphic lymphoma. Available treatment modalities include immunosuppression reduction, immunotherapy with anti-B-cell monoclonal antibodies, chemotherapy, antiviral therapy, cytotoxic T-cell therapy as well as surgery and irradiation. Owing to the small number of cases and the heterogeneity of PTLD, current treatment strategies are mostly based on case reports and small, often retrospective studies. Moreover, many studies on the treatment of PTLD have involved a combination of different treatment options, complicating the evaluation of individual treatment components. However, there has been significant progress over the last few years. Three prospective phase II trials on the efficacy of rituximab monotherapy have shown significant complete remission rates without any relevant toxicity. A prospective, multicenter, international phase II trial evaluating sequential treatment with rituximab and CHOP-based chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) is ongoing and preliminary results have been promising. Cytotoxic T-cell therapy targeting Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-infected B cells has shown low toxicity and high efficacy in a phase II trial and will be a future therapeutic option at specialized centers. Here, we review the currently available data on the different treatment modalities with a focus on PTLD following solid organ transplantation in adult patients. PMID:23556105
Previous studies of donor or recipient origin of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) following solid organ transplantation (SOT) have either been small or with selected patient groups. We studied tumor origin in a population-based cohort of 93 patients with PTLD following SOT. Tumor origin of PTLD tissue was analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization of the sex chromosomes in cases of sex mismatch between donor and recipient (n?=?41), or HLA genotyping in cases of identical sex but different HLA type (n?=?52). Tumor origin of PTLD could be determined in 67 of the 93 cases. All 67 PTLDs were of recipient origin. They were found in recipients of kidney (n?=?38), liver (n?=?12), heart (n?=?10) and lung (n?=?7). The most common recipient-derived lymphomas were monomorphic B-cell PTLDs (n?=?45), monomorphic T cell PTLDs (n?=?9), indolent lymphomas (n?=?6), and polymorphic PTLD (n?=?4). Half of the recipient-derived PTLDs were Epstein-Barr virus-positive. Twelve of the recipient-derived PTLDs were located in the grafts: in four cases exclusively and in eight cases in combination with disseminated disease outside the graft. Tumor origin was indeterminable in 26 cases, probably due to low DNA quality. We conclude that the vast majority of PTLDs after SOT was of recipient origin. PMID:25307322
Kinch, A; Cavelier, L; Bengtsson, M; Baecklund, E; Enblad, G; Backlin, C; Thunberg, U; Sundström, C; Pauksens, K
We present a 14-month-old female child who developed multiple erythematous nodules on her abdomen 5 months after liver and small bowel transplantation. Skin biopsy revealed a dense infiltrate of large cells in the dermal and subcutaneous layers with frequent mitotic figures. The cells were noted to have abundant cytoplasm, prominent nucleoli, and open chromatin. Immunohistochemical stains were positive for CD138, CD56, Ki67 (>90%), and lambda chain restriction. Rare mature B cells (CD20) and rare T cells (CD3) were noted. She was diagnosed with high-grade post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder most consistent with plasmablastic lymphoma. PMID:20199447
Hernandez, Claudia; Cetner, Aaron S; Wiley, Elizabeth L
We reported a rare case of intraocular post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) arising in a 3-year-old liver transplant recipient who had a prior history of systemic PTLD. The first PTLD entered remission after treatment with intravenous rituximab and withdrawal of immunosuppressants. One year after remission, she presented with granulomatous uveitis and iris nodules in the right eye. Iris biopsy confirmed recurrence of intraocular PTLD, which resolved completely after a second course of intravenous rituximab. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2015;62:169-172. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25174958
Iu, Lawrence P; Yeung, Jane C; Loong, Florence; Chiang, Alan K
Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) were diagnosed in 43 patients from the Pittsburgh-Denver series between June 1980 and March 1987. This constitutes a detection rate of 1.7%. Major categories of clinical presentation included a mononucleosislike syndrome, gastrointestinal/abdominal disease, and solid organ disease. The median time of onset in patients initially immunosuppressed with cyclosporine-A (CsA)-containing regimens was 4.4 months after transplant, regardless of tumor clonality. A strong association of PTLD with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was observed. A histologic spectrum of lesions from polymorphic to monomorphic was observed. Whereas polymorphic lesions could be either clonal or nonclonal, monomorphic lesions appeared to be clonal in composition. The presence of large atypical cells (atypical immunoblasts) or necrosis did not appreciably worsen the prognosis. Twelve patients had clonal, 13 had nonclonal, and five had both clonal and nonclonal tumors. Clonality was indeterminate in 13 cases. Most patients were treated with a regimen based on reduced immunosuppression and supportive surgery. Almost all nonclonal and about half of the clonal lesions respond to this conservative therapy, indicating that it is an appropriate first line of treatment. This behavior suggests that a spectrum of lesions ranging from infectious mononucleosis to malignant lymphoma constitutes the entity known as PTLD. Some monoclonal tumors can undergo regression, however, apparently in response to host immune control mechanisms. Because of its short latency and strong association with EBV, PTLD is an important model for the study of virus-associated tumor progression in humans. Images Figure 1 Figure 2A Figure 2B Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:2845789
Nalesnik, M. A.; Jaffe, R.; Starzl, T. E.; Demetris, A. J.; Porter, K.; Burnham, J. A.; Makowka, L.; Ho, M.; Locker, J.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive mucocutaneous ulcer (EBV MCU) is a B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder occurring in elderly or iatrogenic immunocompromised patients. It has not been reported in solid organ transplant recipients. We observed 7 patients with EBV MCU in a cohort of 70 transplant recipients with EBV posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). Transplants included: 5 renal, 1 heart, and 1 lung. Median patient age was 61; 5 were male. EBV MCU was observed in oral mucosa in 4 and gastrointestinal tract in 3. Duration of immunosuppressive therapy before EBV MCU was 0.6 to 13 years. Ulcers were undermined by inflammatory cells and polymorphic or monomorphic large cell lymphoproliferation. Reed-Sternberg-like cells were present in 5/7. Large B cells were CD20, CD30, and EBV-encoded RNA positive in all cases. Diagnosis in 3 recent patients was EBV MCU; 4 patients diagnosed before familiarity with EBV MCU were classified as monomorphic large cell (n=3) and polymorphic (n=1) PTLD. None of the patients had EBV DNA in their blood (<1000 copies/mL) at diagnosis or follow-up versus 35/44 transplant patients with systemic PTLD (P<0.001). All lesions resolved with reduced immunosuppression (7/7), change in immunosuppression (2/7), and rituximab (3/7). Five patients are living: 4 healthy, 1 awaiting second renal transplant. Two patients died 3 and 5 years after resolution of EBV MCU. No patient recurred with EBV MCU or other PTLDs. EBV MCU mimics more aggressive categories of PTLD but lacks EBV DNA in blood, which may be a useful distinguishing feature. Lesions are likely to resolve with conservative management. Awareness of EBV MCU in the posttransplant setting is necessary for appropriate diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25007145
Hart, Melissa; Thakral, Beenu; Yohe, Sophia; Balfour, Henry H; Singh, Charanjeet; Spears, Michael; McKenna, Robert W
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder is a lymphocyte proliferating disease, usually of B cell origin, and rarely of T cell. Involvement of liver itself in liver transplant recipients as the primary organ is not common. Herein we report our experience in two patients who primarily presented in the allografted liver, both of whom were promptly diagnosed after liver biopsy and treated successfully .Now after a few months; both of the patients are alive with normal liver function tests and negative imaging studies. PMID:23396650
Geramizadeh, Bita; Nikeghbalian, Sama; Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen; Bahador, Ali; Salahi, Heshmatollah; Malekhosseini, Seyedali
Following heart-lung transplantation two of 21 patients who survived more than 100 days developed post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease. Both presented with localised ulcerative bronchitis documented at flexible bronchoscopy four months after transplantation. Histological examination showed necrosis with acute inflammation and ulceration. Case 2 demonstrated lymphoproliferative disease from biopsies subsequently taken at rigid bronchoscopy. Case 1 later developed lung nodules and a monoclonal high grade B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was confirmed by an open lung biopsy. The bronchoscopic features described should alert clinicians to post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease as an underlying diagnosis and suggest that bronchus associated lymphoid tissue is the initial site for clonal proliferation in the disease. Images PMID:7701465
Egan, J. J.; Hasleton, P. S.; Yonan, N.; Rahman, A. N.; Deiraniya, A. K.; Carroll, K. B.; Woodcock, A. A.
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a major complication caused by immune-suppression after transplantation. Survival outcome is known to be poor and the characteristics are not fully understood because of its rare incidence. This single center retrospective study enrolled 41 adult PTLD patients after kidney-transplantation (KT, n = 28) and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT, n = 13) from 1992 to 2012. We compared the characteristics and estimated the survival outcomes according to several factors [age-adjusted-IPI (aaIPI), pathologic subtype, viral status, extranodal manifestation] and added some significant parameters to aaIPI scoring system. Post-HSCT-PTLD patients were younger and showed earlier onset, and viral status was more frequently identified. Ten-year OS of the entire group was 44% but the 10-year OS was not significantly different between post-KT-PTLD and post-HSCT-PTLD (39% vs. 56%, P = 0.860). The time onset of PTLD and viral statuses were not meaningful, however, aaIPI, age > 50, extranodal manifestation and monomorphic subtype were predictive for OS. We used those factors for PTLD-specific scoring which showed intermediate-risk (HR = 7.1, P = 0.019) and high-risk (HR = 16.5, P = 0.001) presented worse OS compared to low-risk subgroup. Although the treatment strategies were heterogenous, this study showed comprehensive PTLD data between KT versus HSCT, and our PTLD-specific scoring might be validated by another larger studies. PMID:24684689
Yoon, Jae-Ho; Lee, Seok; Kim, Hee-Je; Lee, Jong-Wook; Min, Woo-Sung; Chung, Byung Ha; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Yong-Soo; Kim, Ji-Il; Moon, In Sung; Oh, Eun Ji; Park, Gyeong-Sin; Cho, Seok-Goo
Although most posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are related to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, approximately 20% lack detectable EBV (EBV-). It is uncertain whether the latter cases are truly distinct from EBV+ PTLD or possibly relate to another infectious agent. This study used gene expression profiling to further investigate the relationship between EBV+ and EBV- monomorphic B-cell PTLD, and to search for clues to their pathogenesis. Affymetrix HU133A GeneChips were used to compare 4 EBV+ and 4 EBV- cases of monomorphic B-cell PTLD. Hierarchical clustering successfully distinguished the EBV+ and EBV- groups. Relative to EBV- PTLD, 54 transcripts were over-expressed in EBV+ PTLD. The transcripts identified included IRF7 (a known regulator of EBV LMP1 expression), EBI2 (EBV-induced gene 2), and 3 that are interferon induced (MX1, IFITM1, and IFITM3). In addition, the EBV+ group contained 232 transcripts decreased relative to the EBV- group, including changes concordant with those previously reported after EBV infection of cultured B-cell lines. In summary, in a small group of monomorphic B-cell PTLD, EBV+ cases demonstrated a subset of gene expression changes associated with EBV infection of B cells. By contrast, EBV- PTLD lacked viral-associated changes suggesting that they are biologically distinct. PMID:17721324
Craig, Fiona E; Johnson, Lawrence R; Harvey, Stephen A K; Nalesnik, Michael A; Luo, Jianhua H; Bhattacharya, Soumyaroop D; Swerdlow, Steven H
Post transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) represents a life threatening disorder occurring after transplantation, ranging from a polyclonal mononucleosis like illness to a monomorphic high grade neoplasm with cytologic and histopathologic evidence indicative of transformation to lymphoma. PTLD of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) subtype, isolated to the esophagus is a rare diagnosis. We describe the first case of an immunocompromised adult patient diagnosed with DLBCL-PTLD limited to his esophagus without an associated mass or locoregional lymphadenopathy on imaging since the institution of the revised Cheson criteria, which includes positron emission tomography-computed tomography as the standard staging modality. Even more unique to our case was the suggestion of underlying cytomegalovirus (CMV) gastritis leading to a hypothesis about a less well understood relationship between CMV and Epstein Barr virus (EBV). In the post transplant setting, immunocompromised state, or EBV positive state, upper gastrointestinal symptoms should prompt investigation with an upper endoscopy (EGD). Additionally, specific to our case, the fact that the patients’ presentation was suspicious for CMV gastritis raises the possibility that the CMV infection predated his PTLD increasing his risk of acquiring PTLD. This reemphasizes the importance and diagnostic utility of early screening with EGD in patients after transplantation. PMID:24363831
Haverkos, Brad M; Oza, Veeral M; Johnson, Andrea; Walker, Jon; Shana'ah, Arwa
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a well-recognized aggressive disease commonly associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Although rituximab (RTX) is incorporated into the first-line therapy for EBV-PTLD patients, the outcome of the clinically overt disease is still not optimal mainly due to the regrowth of tumor cells. The proliferation of CD20-/CD19+ tumor cells is increasingly reported in RTX-treated EBV-PTLD patients, whereas the emergence of CD20-/CD19- tumor cells is barely recognized. Here, we report a fatal case of an 18-year-old patient who developed EBV-PTLD after allogeneic HSCT for anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. On day 60 after HSCT, the patient developed abdominal pain, watery diarrhea, and low-grade fever. Colon biopsy revealed the proliferation of CD20+/CD19+/EBV-encoded RNA (EBER)+ tumor cells, and an increase of EBV DNA was detected in peripheral blood (PB). He was treated with RTX for EBV-PTLD and was cleared of EBV DNA in PB. However, he manifested high-grade fever, pancytopenia, and elevated soluble interleukin-2 receptor with a prominent hemophagocytosis in bone marrow aspirates and was treated with etoposide for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) complication. He then developed EBV DNA positivity in PB and finally died of Bacteroides fragilis sepsis subsequent to bloody stool and ileus on day 163. Autopsy revealed erosion and bleeding in the whole colon with the proliferation of CD20-/CD19-/EBER+ tumor cells. Immunohistochemical analysis uncovered the CD3-/CD56-/CD79a+/CD79b+ B-cell origin of tumor cells. This case clinically demonstrates the removal of both CD20 and CD19 antigens from EBER+ B cells in an RTX-treated EBV-PTLD patient with HLH complication. PMID:24169729
Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Nishimura, Noriyuki; Takeuchi, Mai; Ito, Tomoo; Yokozaki, Hiroshi; Hirase, Satoshi; Kubokawa, Ikuko; Mori, Takeshi; Yanai, Tomoko; Hayakawa, Akira; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Nishio, Hisahide; Matsuo, Masafumi; Imadome, Ken-Ichi; Iijima, Kazumoto
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) describes a spectrum of conditions with highest incidence in the first year post-solid organ transplant in pediatric patients. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement with PTLD carries high mortality risk with no consensus on optimal therapeutic regimen. We present the case of a 7-year old heart transplant patient diagnosed with widespread monomorphic, CD20+, Epstein-Barr virus-positive PTLD, including CNS involvement. In addition to immunosuppression reduction and rituximab, she was treated with multiagent systemic and intrathecal chemotherapy. She achieved a prompt and complete clinical and radiologic remission, which has been sustained for over 46 months since diagnosis. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2014;61:2107-2109. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25066638
Mahapatra, Sidharth; Chin, Clifford C; Iagaru, Andrei; Heerema-McKenney, Amy; Twist, Clare J
We present the case of a 17-year-old male kidney transplant recipient who presented initially with dermatologic symptoms and was found to have histologic changes in the skin that were consistent with mycosis fungoides. Shortly after this diagnosis was made, imaging studies demonstrated multifocal interstitial and airspace consolidation in both lungs. Physical examination revealed no lymphadenopathy or hepatosplenomegaly, but an open lung biopsy revealed an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-negative monomorphic T-cell posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) with a concomitant EBV-positive B-cell PTLD involving the same lesion of the lung. Polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated clonal T-cell receptor gene rearrangements in both the skin and the lung biopsies. Interestingly, 1 clone was shared between the skin and lung while a second clone was present only in the lung. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a PTLD presenting in the skin in which there was a subsequent discovery of composite, bilineal B- and T-cell PTLD of the lung. PMID:22214855
Mills, Kyle C; Sangüeza, Omar P; Beaty, Michael W; Raffeld, Mark; Pang, Changlee S
Purpose Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a molecule expressed on antigen-presenting cells that engages the PD-1 receptor on T cells and inhibits T-cell receptor signaling. The PD-1 axis can be exploited by tumor cells to dampen host anti-tumor immune responses and foster tumor cell survival. PD-1 blockade has shown promise in multiple malignancies but should be directed towards patients in whom it will be most effective. In recent studies, we found that the chromosome 9p24.1 amplification increased the gene dosage of PD-L1 and its induction by JAK2 in a subset of patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). However, cHLs with normal 9p24.1 copy numbers also expressed detectable PD-L1, prompting analyses of additional PD-L1 regulatory mechanisms. Experimental Design Herein, we utilized immunohistochemical, genomic and functional analyses to define alternative mechanisms of PD-L1 activation in cHL and additional EBV+ lymphoproliferative disorders. Results We identified an AP-1-responsive enhancer in the PD-L1 gene. In cHL Reed Sternberg cells, which exhibit constitutive AP-1 activation, the PD-L1 enhancer binds AP-1 components and increases PD-L1 promoter activity. In addition, we defined EBV infection as an alternative mechanism for PD-L1 induction in cHLs with diploid 9p24.1. PD-L1 was also expressed by EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines as a result of latent membrane protein 1-mediated, JAK/STAT-dependent promoter and AP-1-associated enhancer activity. In addition, over 70% of EBV+ post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders expressed detectable PD-L1. Conclusions AP-1 signaling and EBV infection represent alternative mechanisms of PD-L1 induction and extend the spectrum of tumors in which to consider PD-1 blockade. PMID:22271878
Green, Michael R.; Rodig, Scott; Juszczynski, Przemyslaw; Ouyang, Jing; Sinha, Papiya; O'Donnell, Evan; Neuberg, Donna; Shipp, Margaret A.
It is well established that Down’s syndrome exhibits a predisposition to development of leukemia, however, association between aplastic anemia and Down’s syndrome is exceptional. Herein, we describe a case of aplastic anemia occurring in Down’s syndrome following post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). A 27-year-old Japanese male with Down’s syndrome presented with a headache. Laboratory tests revealed severe pancytopenia, and bone marrow biopsy demonstrated hypocellular bone marrow with decrease of trilineage cells, which led to a diagnosis of aplastic anemia. One year after diagnosis, he was incidentally found to have an anterior mediastinal tumor, which was histopathologically diagnosed as seminoma. Subsequently, he received BMT from a female donor, and engraftment was observed. Three months after transplantation, he experienced cough and high fever. Biopsy specimen from the lung revealed diffuse proliferation of large-sized lymphoid cells expressing CD20 and EBER. These lymphoid cells had XY chromosomes. Thus, a diagnosis of EBV-associated PTLD was made. This is the seventh documented case of aplastic anemia occurring in Down’s syndrome. Association between aplastic anemia and Down’s syndrome has not been established, therefore, additional clinicopathological studies are needed. Moreover, this is the first case to undergo BMT for aplastic anemia in Down’s syndrome. Although engraftment was observed, he developed EBV-positive PTLD. The neoplastic cells of the present case were considered to be of recipient origin, although the majority of PTLD cases with BMT are of donor origin. PMID:24427369
Furuya, Aya; Ishida, Mitsuaki; Hodohara, Keiko; Yoshii, Miyuki; Okuno, Hiroko; Horinouchi, Akiko; Nakanishi, Ryota; Harada, Ayumi; Iwai, Muneo; Yoshida, Keiko; Kagotani, Akiko; Yoshida, Takashi; Okabe, Hidetoshi
Checking whether there is an increased risk of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder and other cancers with specific modern immunosuppression regimens in renal transplantation: Protocol for a network meta-analysis of randomized and observational studies
Background Patients undergoing renal transplant procedures require multi-agent immunosuppressive regimens both short term (induction phase) and long term (maintenance phase) to minimize the risk of organ rejection. There are several drug classes and agents for immunosuppression. Use of these agents may increase the risk of different harms including not only infections, but also malignancies including post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. There is a need to identify which regimens minimize the risk of such outcomes. The objective of this systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized and observational studies is to explore whether certain modern regimens of immunosuppression used to prevent organ rejection in renal transplant patients are associated with an increased risk of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder and other malignancies. Methods/design ‘Modern’ regimens were defined to be those evaluated in controlled studies beginning in 1990 or later. An electronic literature search of Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials has been designed by an experienced information specialist and peer reviewed by a second information specialist. Study selection and data collection will be performed by two reviewers. The outcomes of interest will include post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder and other incident forms of malignancy occurring in adult renal transplant patients. Network meta-analyses of data from randomized and observational studies will be performed where judged appropriate based on a review of the clinical and methodological features of included studies. A sequential approach to meta-analysis will be used to combine data from different designs. Discussion Our systematic review will include both single-agent and multi-agent modern pharmacotherapy regimens in patients undergoing renal transplantation. It will synthesize malignancy outcomes. Our work will also add to the development of methods for network meta-analysis across study designs to assess treatment safety. Trial registration PROSPERO Registration Number: CRD42013006951 PMID:24559430
Human herpesviruses can cause acute diseases such as chicken pox or mononucleosis, but also may reactivate during immunosuppression and result in severe or life-threatening illnesses such as shingles or lympho- proliferative disorders. We report the development and validation of a quantitative PCR method to measure viral burden for all eight human herpesviruses (HSV1, HSV2, VZV, EBV, CMV, HHV6, HHV7, and
Xin Bai; Gregory Hosler; Beverly Barton Rogers; D. Brian Dawson; Richard H. Scheuermann
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) plays an etiological role in various diseases. EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD) is usually observed in individuals with congenital or acquired immune deficiencies but was also recently reported in non-immunocompromised individuals. Two cases of immunocompetent patients with EBV-associated T-cell LPD of the small bowel and colon who were initially misdiagnosed as Crohn's disease (CD) are reported here. EBV-associated T-cell LPD with primary gastrointestinal tract involvement can manifest as multiple discrete ulcers of the small and/or large bowel that are similar to the lesions found in CD or intestinal tuberculosis. However, when patients have multiple intestinal ulcers that are not typical of CD or intestinal tuberculosis and the clinical course is unusual, clinicians should consider the possibility of EBV-associated LPD that involves the gastrointestinal tract because the treatment strategy and prognosis are completely different. PMID:23078910
Na, Hee Kyong; Ye, Byong Duk; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Jung, Kee Wook; Kim, Kyung Jo; Byeon, Jeong-Sik; Myung, Seung-Jae; Huh, Jooryung; Kim, Jin-Ho
This review summarizes the available evidence and outlines our approach to the prophylaxis and management of posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) in adult solid organ transplantation recipients. We attempt to reduce immunosuppression as tolerated in every patient with suspected PTLD in close cooperation with their transplantation physician. There is no evidence to guide the decision when to initiate further treatment; we usually wait no longer than 4 weeks and always initiate further therapy unless there is a complete or at least good partial remission. If clinical and histological findings indicate rapidly progressive disease, we initiate additional therapy significantly earlier. CD20-positive PTLD accounts for approximately 75% of PTLD cases. Outside of clinical trials, we currently regard sequential therapy with rituximab and CHOP (cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, vincristine, prednisone/prednisolone) chemotherapy as standard evidence-based treatment for CD20-positive PTLD unresponsive to immunosuppression. We also discuss our approach to the rare instance of adults with PTLD associated with primary EBV infection, localized (stage I) disease, rare PTLD subtypes, and refractory/relapsed disease based on the available retrospective data and our own experience. In addition to immunotherapy and chemotherapy, this includes local therapy approaches such as surgery and radiotherapy in stage I disease, plasmacytoma-like PTLD, and primary CNS PTLD. We also provide our view on the current indications for the use of allogeneic cytotoxic T cells, even though this treatment modality is so far unavailable in our clinical practice. PMID:24319169
Zimmermann, Heiner; Trappe, Ralf U
We report three patients who developed severe supraglottic airway obstruction due to Epstein-Barr virus lymphoproliferative\\u000a disease following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. In addition to enlarged pharyngeal lymphoid tissue seen in all three\\u000a patients, two had supraglottic airway narrowing and two developed pulmonary lymphoproliferative disease. They were treated\\u000a with unmanipulated T cells or EBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Life-threatening upper airway obstruction
Barry D. Fletcher; Helen E. Heslop; Sue C. Kaste; Sara Bodner
Prior studies describe an increased incidence of lymphoma in celiac disease. However, few studies differentiate among lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs). Our aim was to determine incidences of LPD subtypes in celiac disease patients, describe patterns of celiac disease presentation in patients who develop LPD, and compare survival in patients with various LPD subtypes. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adults with biopsy-proven celiac disease seen at a US referral center from 1981 to 2010, identified patients with comorbid LPD, and calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIR) for each LPD subtype. In our cohort of 1,285 patients with celiac disease, there were 40 patients with LPD [SIR = 6.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.62-8.64] including 33 with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL, SIR = 6.91, 95% CI = 4.26-8.28). The incidences of NHL subtypes including enteropathy-associated T-cell (EATL, n = 12), non-EATL T-cell (SIR = 22.43, 95% CI = 7.08-46.41), diffuse large B-cell (SIR = 5.37, 95% CI = 1.93-10.52), mantle cell (SIR = 32.21, 95% CI = 6.07-78.97), and marginal zone (SIR = 37.17, 11.73-76.89) lymphoma remained significantly elevated when only those diagnosed with celiac before LPD were considered (n = 24, NHL SIR = 4.47, 95% CI = 2.86-6.44). Patients who developed LPD were older at time of celiac disease diagnosis (57.9 ± 15.5 versus 42.5 ± 17.4 years, P < 0.0001) and more likely to present with diarrhea (60.0% versus 39.8% P = 0.016), abdominal pain (17.5% versus 5.5% P = 0.0046), and/or weight loss (12.5% versus 4.0%, P = 0.028). EATL patients had a shorter average survival than non-EATL NHL patients (3.2 versus 15.0 years, P = 0.016). The incidence of LPD is increased in celiac disease patients. Those diagnosed later in life who present with symptoms of malabsorption are more likely to be diagnosed with LPD. PMID:22641457
Leslie, Lori A; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Neugut, Alfred I; Gregory Mears, John; Bhagat, Govind; Green, Peter H R
??Three avian retroviruses can cause lymphoid tumors in galliforms, including avian leukosis virus, reticuloendotheliosis virus, and lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV). Historically, LPDV was considered a… (more)
Thomas, Jesse Michael
Gene rearrangement and monoclonality have been detected in normal cells and in lymphoproliferative disease by using the polymerase chain reaction and primers for the V and J regions of the lg heavy chain gene or T-cell receptor ychain gene. Using the lg primers monoclonality was detected in 20 of 20 normal B-lymphocyte clones and in 39 of 52 cases of
K. J. Trainor; M. J. Brisco; J. H. Wan; S. Neoh; S. Grist; A. A. Morley
Although up to 50% of patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) resume alcohol consumption after liver transplantation (LT), numerous studies indicate that long-term results are not compromised. This study focused on evaluating the impact of ALD on outcomes up to and beyond the fifth year after LT. Among the 432 primary LT recipients included in this study, 97 underwent transplantation for ALD. Alcohol relapse rate at 10 yr was 33.5%, with younger recipient age being the only independent predictor (p = 0.019). Survival of patients with ALD (77.0%) was similar to those without (79.0%) up to the fifth post-transplant year (p = 0.655) but worse during the five subsequent years among the five-yr survivors (70.6% vs. 92.9%; p = 0.002). ALD was an independent risk factor for poorer survival beyond the fifth post-transplant year (p = 0.049), but not earlier (p = 0.717). Conversely, alcohol relapse increased the risk of death only during the first five post-transplant years (p = 0.039). There were no significant differences regarding graft failure incidence between ALD and non-ALD recipients up to the fifth post-transplant year (7.3% vs. 11.6%; p = 0.255) and beyond (12.9% vs. 5.0%; p = 0.126). In conclusion, pre-transplant diagnosis of ALD yields negative effects on post-transplant outcomes beyond the fifth post-transplant year, not attributable to recidivism. PMID:25059535
Gr?t, Micha?; Lewandowski, Zbigniew; Gr?t, Karolina; Wronka, Karolina Maria; Krasnod?bski, Maciej; Barski, Krzysztof; Zborowska, Hanna; Patkowski, Waldemar; Zieniewicz, Krzysztof; Krawczyk, Marek
T/NK cell proliferative EBV associated disease is a rare one which is more common in eastern Asian countries. EBV is originally associated with B cells, and EBV associated T cell lymphoma is so rare. Hence we decided to describe a patient treated with misleading diagnoses such as TB and sarcoidosis for almost two years. The liver was biopsied after admission in this center, and gastric and colonic biopsy was also performed due to gastrointestinal bleeding. Diffuse infiltration of chronic inflammatory cells was seen, especially lymphocytes some of which were atypical. T lymphocyte markers were seen in these cells by immunohistochemical staining. Further studies demonstrated T lymphocytes associated with EBV to be positive which is very rare event. Although going under chemotherapy, there were no response and the patient died. PMID:24901859
Kheyri, Zahedin; Mojtahedzadeh, Aydin; Zamani, Farhad; Zaremehrjerdi, Ali; Babaheidarian, Pegah
Sixty-five patients with lymphoproliferative disease of the orbit were treated at the Joint Radiation Oncology Center of the University of Pittsburgh. An analysis of these patients was stratified by their initial tumor histopathology: benign lymphoid hyperplasia (BLH) in 28, malignant lymphoma (ML) in 20, and lymphoid infiltrate of indeterminate histology (IH) in 17. The median follow-up was 42 months. Radiation treatment was efficacious in all three groups of patients. The actuarial local recurrence-free survival rate is 84%. Treatment programs usually consisted of 20 to 30 Gy delivered in 10 to 15 fractions. ML patients had significantly lower overall and disease-specific survival rates than IH and BLH patient (p less than or equal to 0.02). BLH patients had a significantly lower local recurrence-free survival than patients with IH and BLH (p = 0.03). There was no significant difference between the three groups of patients with regard to the subsequent development of systemic lymphoma. There were no significant differences in local (16%) or systemic (36%) relapse between patients irradiated with less than 30 Gy or greater than or equal to 30 Gy. Cataracts were detected in 46% of the patients treated with anterior-posterior fields, but none were detected in those treated with other techniques. The results of this study emphasize the importance of long-term follow-up and careful treatment planning for patients with lymphoproliferative diseases of the orbit. PMID:1524043
Keleti, D; Flickinger, J C; Hobson, S R; Mittal, B B
Background:Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is an important source of morbidity and mortality in transplant recipients, with a reported incidence of 0.8% to 20%. Risk factors are thought to include immunosuppressive agents and viral infection. This study attempts to evaluate the impact of different immunosuppressive regimens, ganciclovir prophylaxis and other potential risk factors in the development of PTLD.
Shao-Zhou Gao; Sandra V Chaparro; Mark Perlroth; Jose G Montoya; Joan L Miller; Sue DiMiceli; Trevor Hastie; Phillip E Oyer; John Schroeder
Establishment and operation of a Good Manufacturing Practice-compliant allogeneic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific cytotoxic cell bank for the treatment of EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several malignancies, including post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). Conventional treatments for PTLD are often successful, but risk organ rejection and cause significant side effects. EBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) generated in vitro from peripheral blood lymphocytes provide an alternative treatment modality with few side effects, but autologous CTLs are difficult to use in clinical practice. Here we report the establishment and operation of a bank of EBV-specific CTLs derived from 25 blood donors with human leucocyte antigen (HLA) types found at high frequency in European populations. Since licensure, there have been enquiries about 37 patients, who shared a median of three class I and two class II HLA types with these donors. Cells have been infused into ten patients with lymphoproliferative disease, eight of whom achieved complete remission. Neither patient with refractory disease was matched for HLA class II. Both cases of EBV-associated non-haematopoietic sarcoma receiving cells failed to achieve complete remission. Thirteen patients died before any cells could be issued, emphasizing that the bank should be contacted before patients become pre-terminal. Thus, this third party donor-derived EBV-specific CTL cell bank can supply most patients with appropriately matched cells and most recipients have good outcomes. PMID:25066775
Vickers, Mark A; Wilkie, Gwen M; Robinson, Nicolas; Rivera, Nadja; Haque, Tanzina; Crawford, Dorothy H; Barry, Jacqueline; Fraser, Neil; Turner, David M; Robertson, Victoria; Dyer, Phil; Flanagan, Peter; Newlands, Helen R; Campbell, John; Turner, Marc L
While the outcome for pediatric patients with lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) or lymphoid malignancies, such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), has improved dramatically, patients often suffer from therapeutic sequelae. Additionally, despite intensified treatment, the prognosis remains dismal for patients with refractory or relapsed disease. Thus, novel biologically targeted treatment approaches are needed. These targets can be identified by understanding how a loss of lymphocyte homeostasis can result in LPD or ALL. Herein, we review potential molecular and cellular therapeutic strategies that (i) target key signaling networks (e.g., PI3K/AKT/mTOR, JAK/STAT, Notch1, and SRC kinase family-containing pathways) which regulate lymphocyte growth, survival, and function; (ii) block the interaction of ALL cells with stromal cells or lymphoid growth factors secreted by the bone marrow microenvironment; or (iii) stimulate innate and adaptive immune responses. PMID:18716718
Seif, Alix E.; Reid, Gregor S. D.; Teachey, David T.; Grupp, Stephan A.
For investigation of the pathogenicity of lentivirus strains, which have distinctly different cytopathic phenotypes in synovial membrane cell culture, plaque-purified, lytic, and nonlytic ovine lentivirus (OvLV) isolates were inoculated intratracheally into two groups of neonatal lambs. Twelve lambs were inoculated with a lytic OvLV isolate and 3 lambs each with two nonlytic OvLV isolates. Five control lambs were inoculated with either virus-free medium or were left uninoculated. In 8 of 12 lambs inoculated with a lytic OvLV isolate mild to severe lesions of lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP) and pulmonary lymphoid hyperplasia developed, 6 of 12 lambs had lesions of pulmonary lymph node follicular hyperplasia, 3 of 9 female lambs had lesions of lymphoproliferative mastitis, 3 of 10 lambs had lesions of lymphocytic/plasmacytic synovitis, and 3 lambs had no lesions. In 3 of 6 lambs inoculated with nonlytic OvLV isolates only mild LIP lesions developed, without concurrent mammary gland or joint lesions. Bronchoalveolar lavage samples from OvLV-diseased lambs contained on average 1.5-fold more numbers of total leukocytes, and 4-fold more numbers of lymphocytes, compared with bronchoalveolar lavage samples of normal lambs. Monoclonal antibodies to ovine lymphocyte surface markers showed that the SBU-T8+ lymphocyte (CD 8 equivalent) was the predominant lymphocyte subset (mean of 65% of total lavaged lymphocytes) in bronchoalveolar lavage samples of 3 diseased lambs. Ovine lentivirus was reisolated from multiple tissues of both groups of OvLV-inoculated lambs, but the percentage of individual tissues infected was greater in lambs inoculated with the lytic viral isolate. Control lambs had no lesions and failed to produce OvLV-specific antibodies or yield OvLV from tissues. All OvLV-inoculated lambs produced either low or undetectable serum virus neutralizing antibodies. In contrast, lambs inoculated with either lytic or nonlytic OvLV produced precipitating antibodies to OvLV glycoprotein and group-specific protein. However, initial detection of precipitating antibodies to OvLV glycoprotein was earlier (mean, 5.8 weeks after inoculation) in OvLV-infected lambs in which severe lymphoproliferative disease developed and delayed (mean, 10.2 weeks after inoculation) in OvLV-infected lambs with mild or no lesions. Together, these results suggest that lentivirus isolates produced disease in a virus strain-dependent manner and suggest that humoral immune responses against OvLV failed to prevent lesion development in lentivirus-infected lambs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:3337213
Lairmore, M. D.; Poulson, J. M.; Adducci, T. A.; DeMartini, J. C.
Primary chronic cold agglutinin disease is a rare hemolytic disease mediated by monoclonal IGHV4-34-encoded cold agglutinins with a predominant specificity for the blood group antigen I. Bone marrow from 54 patients was studied to type the underlying lymphoproliferative disorder better. Bone marrow biopsies showed circumscribed intra-parenchymatous nodules with small monotonous monoclonal B cells in 40/54 patients (median infiltration: 10% of marrow cells) with a CD20+, IgMs+, IgDs+, CD27+, CD5?/+, CD11c?, CD23?, CD38? immunophenotype. Neither plasmacytoid cytological features nor expression of plasma cell differentiation-associated transcription factors MUM1, XBP1 and BLIMP1 were noted in these B cells. However, a limited number of mature monoclonal IgM+, IgD? plasma cells were present outside the lymphoid nodules and were diffusely scattered throughout the marrow. Of interest, the MYD88 L265P mutation, typical of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, was not detected (17/17 cases). Somatically mutated monoclonal IGHV4-34 gene rearrangement was demonstrated in eight patients with frozen samples (mean sequence homology 95.4%). However, mutations of BCL6 intron 1 were not demonstrated, except in one patient, suggesting that the lymphoma cells had not matured in the germinal center. In conclusion, cold agglutinin-associated lymphoproliferative disease displays homogeneous histological and immunophenotypic features. The absence of plasmacytoid cells, the presence of plasma cells predominantly outside the nodular lymphoid infiltrates, IGHV4-34 restriction and absence of MYD88 L265P mutation strongly suggest that cold agglutinin-associated lymphoproliferative disease is a distinct entity that is different from lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. PMID:24143001
Randen, Ulla; Tr?en, Gunhild; Tierens, Anne; Steen, Chloe; Warsame, Abdirashid; Beiske, Klaus; Tj?nnfjord, Geir E.; Berentsen, Sigbj?rn; Delabie, Jan
Primary chronic cold agglutinin disease is a rare hemolytic disease mediated by monoclonal IGHV4-34-encoded cold agglutinins with a predominant specificity for the blood group antigen I. Bone marrow from 54 patients was studied to type the underlying lymphoproliferative disorder better. Bone marrow biopsies showed circumscribed intra-parenchymatous nodules with small monotonous monoclonal B cells in 40/54 patients (median infiltration: 10% of marrow cells) with a CD20(+), IgMs(+), IgDs(+), CD27(+), CD5(-/+), CD11c(-), CD23(-), CD38(-) immunophenotype. Neither plasmacytoid cytological features nor expression of plasma cell differentiation-associated transcription factors MUM1, XBP1 and BLIMP1 were noted in these B cells. However, a limited number of mature monoclonal IgM(+), IgD(-) plasma cells were present outside the lymphoid nodules and were diffusely scattered throughout the marrow. Of interest, the MYD88 L265P mutation, typical of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, was not detected (17/17 cases). Somatically mutated monoclonal IGHV4-34 gene rearrangement was demonstrated in eight patients with frozen samples (mean sequence homology 95.4%). However, mutations of BCL6 intron 1 were not demonstrated, except in one patient, suggesting that the lymphoma cells had not matured in the germinal center. In conclusion, cold agglutinin-associated lymphoproliferative disease displays homogeneous histological and immunophenotypic features. The absence of plasmacytoid cells, the presence of plasma cells predominantly outside the nodular lymphoid infiltrates, IGHV4-34 restriction and absence of MYD88 L265P mutation strongly suggest that cold agglutinin-associated lymphoproliferative disease is a distinct entity that is different from lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. PMID:24143001
Randen, Ulla; Trøen, Gunhild; Tierens, Anne; Steen, Chloé; Warsame, Abdirashid; Beiske, Klaus; Tjønnfjord, Geir E; Berentsen, Sigbjørn; Delabie, Jan
SAP (signalling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein) is a T- and natural killer (NK)-cell-specific protein containing a single SH2 domain encoded by a gene that is defective or absent in patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP). The SH2 domain of SAP binds with high affinity to the cytoplasmic tail of the haematopoietic cell-surface glycoprotein SLAM and five related receptors. SAP
Michael J. Eck; Cox Terhorst; Pablo Engel
Gamma heavy-chain disease (gHCD) is defined as a lymphoplasmacytic neoplasm that produces an abnormally truncated immunoglobulin gamma heavy-chain protein that lacks associated light chains. There is scant information in the literature regarding the morphologic findings in this rare disorder, but cases have often been reported to resemble lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL). To clarify the spectrum of lymphoproliferative disorders that may be associated with gHCD, this study reports the clinical, morphologic, and phenotypic findings in 13 cases of gHCD involving lymph nodes (n=7), spleen (n=2), bone marrow (n=8), or other extranodal tissue biopsies (n=3). Clinically, patients showed a female predominance (85%) with frequent occurrence of autoimmune disease (69%). Histologically, 8 cases (61%) contained a morphologically similar neoplasm of small lymphocytes, plasmacytoid lymphocytes, and plasma cells that was difficult to classify with certainty, whereas the remaining 5 cases (39%) showed the typical features of one of several other well-defined entities in the 2008 WHO classification. This report demonstrates that gHCD is associated with a variety of underlying lymphoproliferative disorders but most often shows features that overlap with cases previously reported as "vaguely nodular, polymorphous" LPL. These findings also provide practical guidance for the routine evaluation of small B-cell neoplasms with plasmacytic differentiation that could represent a heavy-chain disease and give suggestions for an improved approach to the WHO classification of gHCD. PMID:22301495
Bieliauskas, Shannon; Tubbs, Raymond R; Bacon, Chris M; Eshoa, Camellia; Foucar, Kathryn; Gibson, Sarah E; Kroft, Steven H; Sohani, Aliyah R; Swerdlow, Steven H; Cook, James R
Gamma heavy-chain disease (gHCD) is defined as a lymphoplasmacytic neoplasm that produces an abnormally truncated immunoglobulin gamma heavy-chain protein that lacks associated light chains. There is scant information in the literature regarding the morphologic findings in this rare disorder, but cases have often been reported to resemble lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL). To clarify the spectrum of lymphoproliferative disorders that may be associated with gHCD, this study reports the clinical, morphologic, and phenotypic findings in 13 cases of gHCD involving lymph nodes (n = 7), spleen (n = 2), bone marrow (n = 8), or other extranodal tissue biopsies (n = 3). Clinically, patients showed a female predominance (85%) with frequent occurrence of autoimmune disease (69%). Histologically, 8 cases (61%) contained a morphologically similar neoplasm of small lymphocytes, plasmacytoid lymphocytes, and plasma cells that was difficult to classify with certainty, whereas the remaining 5 cases (39%) showed the typical features of one of several other well-defined entities in the 2008 WHO classification. This report demonstrates that gHCD is associated with a variety of underlying lymphoproliferative disorders but most often shows features that overlap with cases previously reported as “vaguely nodular, polymorphous” LPL. These findings also provide practical guidance for the routine evaluation of small B-cell neoplasms with plasmacytic differentiation that could represent a heavy-chain disease and give suggestions for an improved approach to the WHO classification of gHCD. PMID:22301495
Bieliauskas, Shannon; Tubbs, Raymond R.; Bacon, Chris M.; Eshoa, Camellia; Foucar, Kathryn; Gibson, Sarah E.; Kroft, Steven H.; Sohani, Aliyah R.; Swerdlow, Steven H.; Cook, James R.
Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) are a heterogeneous group of diseases that represent serious complications following immunosuppressive therapy for solid organ or hematopoietic-cell recipients. In contrast to B-cell PTLD, T-cell PTLD is less frequent and is not usually associated with Epstein Barr Virus infection. Moreover, to our knowledge, isolated T-cell PTLD involving the breast is extremely rare and this condition has never been reported previously in the literature. Herein, we report a rare case of isolated T-cell PTLD of the breast that occurred after a patient had been treated for allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation due to acute myeloblastic leukemia. PMID:24043963
Hwang, Ji-Young; Cha, Eun Suk; Lee, Jee Eun; Sung, Sun Hee
Background Natural killer cell-type lymphoproliferative disease of granular lymphocytes is a disorder characterized by chronic proliferation of CD3?CD16+ granular lymphocytes. By flow cytometry analysis, we previously demonstrated a dysregulation in killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) expression in natural killer cells from patients with this lymphoproliferative disease, the activating KIR receptors being mostly expressed. We also found that patients with natural killer cell-type lymphoproliferative disease of granular lymphocytes usually had KIR genotypes characterized by multiple activating KIR genes. Design and Methods We investigated the mRNA levels of the KIR3DL1 inhibitory and the related KIR3DS1 activating receptors in 15 patients with natural killer cell-type lymphoproliferative disease of granular lymphocytes and in ten controls. These genes are usually expressed when present in the genome of the Caucasian population. Results We demonstrated the complete lack of KIR3DL1 expression in most of the patients analyzed, with the receptor being expressed in 13% of patients compared to in 90% of controls (P<0.01). Interestingly, studies of the methylation patterns of KIR3DL1 promoter showed a significantly higher methylation status (0.76 ± 0.12 SD) in patients than in healthy subjects (0.49±0.10 SD, P<0.01). The levels of expression of DNA methyl transferases, which are the enzymes responsible for DNA methylation, did not differ between patients and controls. Conclusions In this study we showed, for the first time, a consistent down-regulation of the inhibitory KIR3DL1 signal due to marked methylation of its promoter, thus suggesting that together with the increased expression of activating receptors, the lack of the inhibitory signal could also play a role in the pathogenesis of natural killer cell-type lymphoproliferative disease of granular lymphocytes. PMID:20410181
Gattazzo, Cristina; Teramo, Antonella; Miorin, Marta; Scquizzato, Elisa; Cabrelle, Anna; Balsamo, Mirna; Agostini, Carlo; Vendrame, Elena; Facco, Monica; Albergoni, Maria Paola; Trentin, Livio; Vitale, Massimo; Semenzato, Gianpietro; Zambello, Renato
Although alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is regarded as a common indication for liver transplantation (LT), debatable issues exist on the requirement for preceding alcoholic abstinence, appropriate indication criteria, predictive factors for alcoholic recidivism, and outcomes following living-donor LT. In most institutions, an abstinence period of six months before LT has been adopted as a mandatory selection criterion. Data indicating that pre-transplant abstinence is an associated predictive factor for alcoholic recidivism supports the reasoning behind this. However, conclusive evidence about the benefit of adopting an abstinence period is yet to be established. On the other hand, a limited number of reports available on living-donor LT experiences for ALD patients suggest that organ donations from relatives have no suppressive effect on alcoholic recidivism. Prevention of alcoholic recidivism has proved to be the most important treatment after LT based on the resultant inferior long-term outcome of patients. Further evaluations are still needed to establish strategies before and after LT for ALD. PMID:25429319
Kawaguchi, Yoshikuni; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Akamatsu, Nobuhisa; Kaneko, Junichi; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Tamura, Sumihito; Aoki, Taku; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro
Cutaneous CD30(+) lymphoproliferative disease (CD30(+)LPD), characterized by the presence of CD30(+) anaplastic large T cells, comprises the second most common group of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). However, little is known about the pathobiology of the CD30(+) lymphoma cells, as well as the mechanisms of disease progression. Here we report that Special AT-rich region binding protein 1 (SATB1), a thymocyte specific chromatin organizer, is over-expressed in CD30(+) lymphoma cells in most CD30(+)LPDs, and its expression is upregulated during disease progression. Our findings show that SATB1 silencing in CD30(+)LPD cells leads to G1 cell cycle arrest mediated by p21 activation. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, luciferase assays, and mutational analysis, we demonstrate that SATB1 directly regulates the transcription of p21 in a p53-independent manner. Moreover, DNA demethylation on a specific CpG-rich region of the SATB1 promoter is associated with the upregulation of SATB1 during disease progression. These experiments define a novel SATB1-p21 pathway in malignant CD30(+) T lymphocytes, which provides novel molecular insights into the pathogenesis of CD30(+)LPDs and possibly leads to new therapies. PMID:24747435
Wang, Yang; Gu, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Gaolei; Wang, Lin; Wang, Tingting; Zhao, Yun; Zhang, Xiuyan; Zhou, Youwen; Kadin, Marshall; Tu, Ping
Lymphoproliferative disorders are heterogeneous malignancy characterized by the expansion of a lymphoid clone more or less differentiated. At the level of the oral cavity, the lymphoproliferative disorder can occur in various ways, most commonly as lymphoid lesions with extranodal externalization, but sometimes, oral lesions may represent a localization of a disease spread. With regard to the primary localizations of lymphoproliferative disorders, a careful examination of the head and neck, oral, and oropharyngeal area is necessary in order to identify suspicious lesions, and their early detection results in a better prognosis for the patient. Numerous complications have been described and frequently found at oral level, due to pathology or different therapeutic strategies. These complications require precise diagnosis and measures to oral health care. In all this, oral pathologists, as well as dental practitioners, have a central role in the treatment and long-term monitoring of these patients. PMID:20871659
Castellarin, P.; Pozzato, G.; Tirelli, G.; Di Lenarda, R.; Biasotto, M.
Notch signaling is essential for the development of T cell progenitors through the interaction of NOTCH1 receptor on their surface with the ligand, Delta-like 4 (DLL4), which is expressed by the thymic epithelial cells. Notch signaling is quickly shut down once the cells pass ?-selection, and CD4/CD8 double positive (DP) cells are unresponsive to Notch. Over the past two decades a number of papers reported that over-activation of Notch signaling causes T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), a cancer that prominently features circulating monoclonal CD4/CD8 double positive T cells in different mouse models. However, the possible outcomes of Notch over-activation at different stages of T cell development are unknown, and the fine timing of Notch signaling that results in T-ALL is poorly understood. Here we report, by using a murine model that ectopically expresses DLL4 on developing T cells, that the T-ALL onset is highly dependent on a sustained Notch activity throughout the DP stage, which induces additional mutations to further boost the signaling. In contrast, a shorter period of Notch activation that terminates at the DP stage causes a polyclonal, non-transmissible lymphoproliferative disorder that is also lethal. These observations resolved the discrepancy of previous papers on DLL4 driven hematological diseases in mice, and show the critical importance of the timing and duration of Notch activity. PMID:24386421
Latkowski, Jo-Ann; Henderson, Tanya; Schlessinger, Karni; Ding, Yi; Shen, Jie; Tadokoro, Carlos E.; Lafaille, Juan J.
Lymphoreticular neoplasms of the larynx are rare and comprise a heterogeneous group of tumors. A systematic survey of the literature and autoptic evaluation of the larynx in a relatively small number of patients with systemic lymphoreticular malignancies yielded the following findings: Primary tumors of the larynx must be clearly distinguished from laryngeal involvement by systemic or leukemic infiltrations. By far the most common primary hemopoietic tumors of the larynx are extramedullary plasmacytoma (about 90 cases published) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL; about 65 cases published). Primary Hodgkin's disease, granulocytic sarcoma and mast cell sarcoma are extremely rare at this site. Plasmacytoma and NHL both preferentially involve the supraglottis. The subglottis is infrequently affected. Laryngeal plasmacytoma and NHL usually present clinically as localized stage IE and IIE tumors that exhibit no significant tendency to recur or generalize. The therapy of choice is local irradiation while chemotherapy should be reserved for recurrent or progressive disease. Prognosis is favourable in most cases of primary laryngeal plasmacytoma and NHL. Secondary involvement of the larynx by systemic lesions or leukemic infiltrations is usually associated with a very poor prognosis. The prognosis of patients with laryngeal involvement in acute or chronic myeloid leukemia is always poor. Although the histopathological diagnoses given in many case reports are often difficult to compare because of differences in terminology, there seems to be a marked preponderance of B-cell tumors of high-grade malignancy (centroblastic or immunoblastic lymphoma in the Kiel classification of NHL) that probably represents lymphomas originating from mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7928429
Horny, H P
We have shown that a mixture of murine leukemia viruses (MuLV) causes the acute onset of lymphoproliferation and immunosuppression when injected into adult C57BL/6 mice. The ecotropic/MCF (mink cell focus- inducing) mixture of MuLV stimulates polyclonal B lymphocyte proliferation and differentiation to antibody-secreting cells. Serum Ig levels are elevated for all isotypes except IgA. The viral infection leads to a rapid decline in T lymphocyte responses to mitogens and alloantigens, as well as a decrease in helper cell activity. Specific antibody responses to both T-dependent and T-independent antigens are impaired, and the response of B lymphocytes to mitogens is abolished. The profound immunosuppression seems to be due to the MuLV-induced polyclonal activation of lymphocytes. No active suppression of normal lymphocyte responses by cells from virus-infected mice was observed. The disease induced by the LP-BM5 MuLV isolate thus seems a promising model for the study of lymphocyte activation and the mechanisms of retrovirus-induced immunosuppression. PMID:2984305
Recipients of a partially T-cell-depleted (TCD) allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) developing reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) with quantified viral DNA levels exceeding 1000 genome equivalents\\/milliliter (geq\\/mL) are at high risk for EBV-lymphoproliferative disease (EBV-LPD). We studied whether preemptive therapy with rituximab prevents EBV-LPD, LPD-mortality, and abrogates viral reactivation in high-risk patients. We monitored 49 recipients of a TCD allo-SCT
Joost W. J. van Esser; Hubert G. M. Niesters; Bronno van der Holt; Ellen Meijer; Albert D. M. E. Osterhaus; Jan Willem Gratama; Leo F. Verdonck; B. Löwenberg; Jan J. Cornelissen
A Case of Alport Syndrome with Posttransplant Antiglomerular Basement Membrane Disease despite Negative Antiglomerular Basement Membrane Antibodies by EIA Treated with Plasmapheresis and Intravenous Immunoglobulin
Posttransplant antiglomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease occurs in approximately 5% of Alport patients and usually ends in irreversible graft failure. Recent research has focused on characterizing the structure of the anti-GBM alloepitope. Here we present a case of a 22-year-old male with end-stage renal disease secondary to Alport syndrome, with a previously failed renal allograft, who received a second deceased-donor kidney transplant. Six days after transplantation, he developed acute kidney injury. The serum anti-GBM IgG was negative by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). On biopsy, he had crescentic glomerulonephritis with linear GBM fixation of IgG. With further analysis by western blotting, we were able to detect antibodies to an unidentified protein from the basement membrane. This patient was treated with plasmapheresis twice per week and monthly intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) for a total of five months. At the end of treatment, these unknown antibodies were no longer detected. His renal function improved, and he has not required dialysis. We conclude that anti-GBM disease in patients with Alport Syndrome may be caused by circulating antibodies to other components of the basement membrane that are undetectable by routine anti-GBM EIA and may respond to treatment with plasmapheresis and IVIG. PMID:24363950
Armstead, Sumiko I.; Hellmark, Thomas; Wieslander, Jorgen; Zhou, Xin J.; Rajora, Nilum
Incidence of phenotypic aberrations in a series of 467 patients with B chronic lymphoproliferative disorders: basis for the design of specific four-color stainings to be used for minimal residual disease investigation
Multiparameter immunophenotypic analysis of neoplastic cells has proven to be of great help for the investigation of minimal residual disease in acute leukemias; however, its utility has not been systematically explored in B cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate the incidence of phenotypic aberrations in a series of 467 consecutive leukemic B cell
ML Sánchez; J Almeida; B Vidriales; MC López-Berges; MA García-Marcos; MJ Moro; A Corrales; MJ Calmuntia; JF San Miguel; A Orfao
Cytotoxic chemotherapy successfully induces durable complete remission in 2 patients with mosquito allergy resulting from Epstein-Barr virus-associated T-/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative disease.
Recent findings indicate that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected T-/natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of mosquito allergy, and most patients with mosquito allergy die early in life if not properly treated. Over the last 7 years, we have been using combination chemotherapy and allogeneic stem cell transplantation for the treatment of EBV-associated T-/NK cell lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) in which chronic active EBV infection and mosquito allergy were included. As of this writing, we have successfully treated 2 patients with mosquito allergy with chemotherapy in which EBV-infected T-/NK cells were eradicated. The findings suggest the possible role of chemotherapy in the treatment of EBV-associated T-/NK cell LPD. PMID:16533748
Koyama, M; Takeshita, Y; Sakata, A; Sawada, A; Yasui, M; Okamura, T; Inoue, M; Kawa, K
Allogeneic marrow transplantation can cure sickle cell disease; however, HLA-matched donors are difficult to find, and the toxicities of myeloablative conditioning are prohibitive for most adults with this disease. We developed a nonmyeloablative bone marrow transplantation platform using related, including HLA-haploidentical, donors for patients with sickle cell disease. The regimen consisted of antithymocyte globulin, fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and total body irradiation, and graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis with posttransplantation high-dose cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate mofetil, and tacrolimus or sirolimus. After screening 19 patients, we transplanted 17, 14 from HLA-haploidentical and 3 from HLA-matched related donors. Eleven patients engrafted durably. With a median follow-up of 711 days (minimal follow up 224 days), 10 patients are asymptomatic, and 6 patients are off immunosupression. Only 1 patient developed skin-only acute graft-versus-host disease that resolved without any therapy; no mortality was seen. Nonmyeloablative conditioning with posttransplantation high-dose cyclophosphamide expands the donor pool, making marrow transplantation feasible for most patients with sickle cell disease, and is associated with a low risk of complications, even with haploidentical related donors. Graft failure, 43% in haploidentical pairs, remains a major obstacle but may be acceptable in a fraction of patients if the majority can be cured without serious toxicities. PMID:22955919
Fuchs, Ephraim J.; Luznik, Leo; Lanzkron, Sophie M.; Gamper, Christopher J.; Jones, Richard J.; Brodsky, Robert A.
Background Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells suppress T-cell function in vitro, a property that has underpinned their use in treating clinical steroid-refractory graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However the potential of mesenchymal stromal cells to resolve graft-versus-host disease is confounded by a paucity of pre-clinical data delineating their immunomodulatory effects in vivo. Design and Methods We examined the influence of timing and dose of donor-derived mesenchymal stromal cells on the kinetics of graft-versus-host disease in two murine models of graft-versus-host disease (major histocompatibility complex-mismatched: UBI-GFP/BL6 [H-2b]?BALB/c [H-2d] and the sibling transplant mimic, UBI-GFP/BL6 [H-2b]?BALB.B [H-2b]) using clinically relevant conditioning regimens. We also examined the effect of mesenchymal stromal cell infusion on bone marrow and spleen cellular composition and cytokine secretion in transplant recipients. Results Despite T-cell suppression in vitro, mesenchymal stromal cells delayed but did not prevent graft-versus-host disease in the major histocompatibility complex-mismatched model. In the sibling transplant model, however, 30% of mesenchymal stromal cell-treated mice did not develop graft-versus-host disease. The timing of administration and dose of the mesenchymal stromal cells influenced their effectiveness in attenuating graft-versus-host disease, such that a low dose of mesenchymal stromal cells administered early was more effective than a high dose of mesenchymal stromal cells given late. Compared to control-treated mice, mesenchymal stromal cell-treated mice had significant reductions in serum and splenic interferon-?, an important mediator of graft-versus-host disease. Conclusions Mesenchymal stromal cells appear to delay death from graft-versus-host disease by transiently altering the inflammatory milieu and reducing levels of interferon-?. Our data suggest that both the timing of infusion and the dose of mesenchymal stromal cells likely influence these cells’ effectiveness in attenuating graft-versus-host disease. PMID:20801899
Christensen, Melinda E.; Turner, Brie E.; Sinfield, Laura J.; Kollar, Katarina; Cullup, Hannah; Waterhouse, Nigel J.; Hart, Derek N.J.; Atkinson, Kerry; Rice, Alison M.
Epstein-Barr virus-induced lymphoproliferative disease (EBV-LPD) after transplantation remains a serious and life-threatening complication. Herein we showed that the aminobisphosphonate pamidronate-expanded human V?9V?2-T cells efficiently killed EBV-transformed autologous lymphoblastoid B cell lines (EBV-LCL) through ?/?-TCR and NKG2D receptor triggering and Fas and TRAIL engagement. By inoculation of EBV-LCL in Rag2(-/-)?c(-/-) mice and humanized mice, we established lethal EBV-LPD with characteristics close to those of the human disease. Adoptive transfer of pamidronate-expanded V?9V?2-T cells alone effectively prevented EBV-LPD in Rag2(-/-)?c(-/-) mice and induced EBV-LPD regression in EBV(+) tumor-bearing Rag2(-/-)?c(-/-) mice. Pamidronate treatment inhibited EBV-LPD development in humanized mice through selective activation and expansion of V?9V?2-T cells. This study provides proof-of-principle for a therapeutic approach using pamidronate to control EBV-LPD through V?9V?2-T cell targeting. PMID:25220446
Xiang, Zheng; Liu, Yinping; Zheng, Jian; Liu, Ming; Lv, Aizhen; Gao, Yulong; Hu, Huaidong; Lam, Kowk-Tai; Chan, Godfrey Chi-Fung; Yang, Yuanzhong; Chen, Honglin; Tsao, George Sai-Wah; Bonneville, Marc; Lau, Yu-Lung; Tu, Wenwei
Recipients of solid organ allografts are known to be at increased risk of developing Epstein-Barr virus-related posttransplant lymphoproliferative diseases. A 28-month-old boy who had received a heterotopic liver transplant presented with lymphadenopathy in the abdomen, multiple nodules in the liver, and bilateral renal infiltration 19 months after transplantation. He was diagnosed with a Burkitt-like lymphoma based on bone marrow examination and the finding that the blastic cells in bone marrow were EBER-1 positive. Cytogenetic analysis of the bone marrow cells showed an MLL-AF4 rearrangement. He was treated with a combined chemotherapy regimen. He has been in continuous complete remission for 15 months now. PMID:12972812
Corapçioglu, Funda; Olgun, Nur; Sarialioglu, Faik; Uysal, Kamer Mutafoglu; Oren, Hale; Sercan, Ogün
Lytically infected EBV-positive lymphoblastoid cells enhance the growth of early-passage, but not late-passage, EBV-immortalized lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) in SCID mice and have enhanced IL-6 secretion. Here, we have examined the importance of IL-6 for the growth of early-passage LCLs (EPL) in SCID mice, identified lytic EBV proteins that activate IL-6 production and compared viral and cellular differences between early versus late passage LCLs (LPL). IL-6 was required for efficient growth of EPL in SCID mice. The EBV immediate-early (IE) proteins, BRLF1 and BZLF1, each induced IL-6 secretion when transfected into 293 and BJAB cells. Interestingly, the combination of BZLF1 and the latent EBV protein, LMP-1, induced much more IL-6 expression in both 293 and BJAB cells than either protein alone. Both BZLF1 and BRLF1 also enhanced IL-10 production in 293 cells. In comparison to the EPL, LPL had much reduced expression of early lytic viral proteins and cellular IL-6. In contrast, expression of cellular IL-10 was similar in EPL versus LPL, while VEGF secretion was increased in late-passage LCLs. These results suggest that both BRLF1 and BZLF1 contribute to IL-6 secretion in lytically infected cells and that lytically infected cells may promote early lymphoproliferative disease in patients through enhanced IL-6 production. PMID:17520680
Jones, Richard J; Seaman, William T; Feng, Wen-Hei; Barlow, Elizabeth; Dickerson, Sarah; Delecluse, Henri-Jacque; Kenney, Shannon C
We review monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) as a precursor to chronic lymphocytic leukemia and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) as a precursor to plasma cell disorders. These conditions are present in the general population and increase with age. These precursors aggregate with lymphoproliferative malignancies in families suggesting shared inheritance. MBL and MGUS may share some of the same risk factors as their related malignancies but data are limited. While these conditions are characterized by enhanced risk for the associated malignancy, the majority of individuals with these conditions do not progress to malignancy. A key focus for current work is to identify markers that predict progression to malignancy. PMID:23549397
Goldin, Lynn R.; McMaster, Mary L.; Caporaso, Neil E.
X-linked lymphoproliferative disease type 1 (XLP1) is a rare immune deficiency caused by mutations in SH2D1A. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is often performed because of the morbidity and mortality associated with XLP1. There is limited experience using reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens for these patients. Here we report our 8-year single-center experience. Sixteen consecutive patients diagnosed with XLP1 underwent allogeneic HCT between 2006 and 2013 after a RIC regimen consisting of alemtuzumab, fludarabine, and melphalan. Patient phenotypes included hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) after Epstein-Barr virus (n = 5) or human herpesvirus 6 (n = 1), macrophage activation syndrome (n = 1), interstitial pneumonitis and encephalitis (n = 1), B cell lymphoma (n = 8), and hypogammaglobulinemia (n = 2). One patient was asymptomatic. Fourteen of 16 patients received 8/8 HLA-matched unrelated or related bone marrow grafts, whereas 2 patients received mismatched unrelated grafts. Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis consisted of methylprednisolone and cyclosporine in all but 1 patient, who additionally received methotrexate. All patients had hematopoietic recovery. There were no cases of hepatic veno-occlusive disease or pulmonary hemorrhage. One patient (6%) developed acute GVHD and later also developed chronic GVHD (6%). Five patients (31%) developed mixed chimerism. Only 1 patient with mixed chimerism (6%) experienced a decline of donor chimerism to less than 50% but returned to full donor chimerism after infusion of donor lymphocytes and a CD34(+) selected stem cell boost. Infectious complications were frequent, particularly viral reactivation. One-year survival estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis was 80%, with long-term survival estimated at 71%. Survival was similar for patients with or without a history of HLH (86% versus 75%, respectively, P = .70). There were no occurrences of lymphoma or HLH after HCT. RIC HCT with alemtuzumab, fludarabine, and melphalan is an effective treatment for patients with XLP1, offering good survival rates regardless of prior disease manifestations, including HLH. PMID:24923536
Marsh, Rebecca A; Bleesing, Jack J; Chandrakasan, Shanmuganathan; Jordan, Michael B; Davies, Stella M; Filipovich, Alexandra H
Lymphoreticular neoplasms of the larynx are rare and comprise a heterogeneous group of tumors. A systematic survey of the literature and autoptic evaluation of the larynx in a relatively small number of patients with systemic lymphoreticular malignancies yielded the following findings: Primary tumors of the larynx must be clearly distinguished from laryngeal involvement by systemic or leukemic infiltrations. By far the most common primary hemopoietic tumors of the larynx are extramedullary plasmacytoma (about 90 cases published) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL; about 65 cases published). Primary Hodgkin's disease, granulocytic sarcoma and mast cell sarcoma are extremely rare at this site. Plasmacytoma and NHL both preferentially involve the supraglottis. The subglottis is infrequently affected. Laryngeal plasmacytoma and NHL usually present clinically as localized stage IE and IIE tumors that exhibit no significant tendency to recur or generalize. The therapy of choice is local irradiation while chemotherapy should be reserved for recurrent or progressive disease. Prognosis is favorable in most cases of primary laryngeal plasmacytoma and NHL. Secondary involvement of the larynx by systemic lesions or leukemic infiltrations is usually associated with a very poor prognosis. The prognosis of patients with laryngeal involvement in acute or chronic myeloid leukemia is always poor. Although the histopathological diagnoses given in many case reports are often difficult to compare because of differences in terminology, there seems to be a marked preponderance of B-cell tumors of high-grade malignancy (centroblastic or immunoblastic lymphoma in the Kiel classification of NHL) that probably represents lymphomas originating from mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8071093
Horny, H P
Epstein-Barr virus-associated posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder after high-dose immunosuppressive therapy and autologous CD34-selected hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for severe autoimmune diseases.
High-dose immunosuppressive therapy followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is currently being evaluated for the control of severe autoimmune diseases. The addition of antithymocyte globulin (ATG) to high-dose chemoradiotherapy in the high-dose immunosuppressive therapy regimen and CD34 selection of the autologous graft may induce a higher degree of immunosuppression compared with conventional autologous HSCT for malignant diseases. Patients may be at higher risk of transplant-related complications secondary to the immunosuppressed state, including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), but this is an unusual complication after autologous HSCT. Fifty-six patients (median age, 42 years; range, 23-61 years) with either multiple sclerosis (n = 26) or systemic sclerosis (n = 30) have been treated. The median follow-up has been 24 months (range, 2-60 months). Two patients (multiple sclerosis, n = 1; systemic sclerosis, n = 1) had significant reactivations of herpesvirus infections early after HSCT and then developed aggressive EBV-PTLD and died on days +53 and +64. Multiorgan clonal B-cell infiltrates that were EBV positive by molecular studies or immunohistology were identified at both autopsies. Both patients had positive screening skin tests for equine ATG (Atgam) and had been converted to rabbit ATG (Thymoglobulin) from the first dose. Of the other 54 patients, 2 of whom had partial courses of rabbit ATG because of a reaction to the intravenous infusion of equine ATG, only 1 patient had a significant clinical reactivation of a herpesvirus infection (herpes simplex virus 2) early after HSCT, and none developed EBV-PTLD. The T-cell count in the peripheral blood on day 28 was 0/microL in all 4 patients who received rabbit ATG; this was significantly less than in patients who received equine ATG (median, 174/microL; P =.001; Mann-Whitney ranked sum test). Although the numbers are limited, the time course and similarity of the 2 cases of EBV-PTLD and the effect on day 28 T-cell counts support a relationship between the development of EBV-PTLD and the administration of rabbit ATG. The differences between equine and rabbit ATG are not yet clearly defined, and they should not be considered interchangeable in this regimen without further study. PMID:14506660
Nash, Richard A; Dansey, Roger; Storek, Jan; Georges, George E; Bowen, James D; Holmberg, Leona A; Kraft, George H; Mayes, Maureen D; McDonagh, Kevin T; Chen, Chien-Shing; Dipersio, John; Lemaistre, C Fred; Pavletic, Steven; Sullivan, Keith M; Sunderhaus, Julie; Furst, Daniel E; McSweeney, Peter A
to arginine 431 substitution. The histidine-encoding allele is also associated with Kawasaki disease, an 432 autoimmune disorder of unknown aetiology in which EBV may play a role[97, 98]. 433 HLA system and association with IM, MS, EBV antibodies, Hodgkin... , Protein kinase C delta 55 PRF1, Perforin 56 PRRC2A, Proline-rich coiled-coil 2A 57 4 PTLD, Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder 58 OR, Odds ratio 59 RAB27A, RAB27A-like 60 RAD54L, DNA repair and recombination protein RAD54-Like 61...
Houldcroft, Charlotte J.; Kellam, Paul
As survival rates for pediatric solid organ transplantation have continued to improve, researchers and healthcare providers have increasingly focused on understanding and enhancing the HRQOL and psychosocial functioning of their patients. This manuscript reviews the psychosocial functioning of pediatric transplant recipients during the "later years," defined as more than three yr post-transplant, and focuses on the day-to-day impact of living with a transplant after the immediate period of adjustment and early years after surgery. Key topics reviewed include HRQOL, cognitive functioning, impact on the family, regimen adherence, and transition of responsibility for self-management tasks. Overall, pediatric transplant recipients evidence impairment in HRQOL, neuropsychological outcomes, and family functioning as compared to non-transplant recipients. However, the degree of impairment is influenced by a variety of factors including, disease severity, age, solid organ type, and study methodologies. Studies are limited by small samples, cross-sectional design, and the lack of universal assessment battery to allow for comparisons across solid organ populations. Areas for future research are discussed. PMID:25220845
Fredericks, Emily M; Zelikovsky, Nataliya; Aujoulat, Isabelle; Hames, Anna; Wray, Jo
Comparison of two real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction strategies for minimal residual disease evaluation in lymphoproliferative disorders: correlation between immunoglobulin gene mutation load and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction performance.
We compared two strategies for minimal residual disease evaluation of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders characterized by a variable immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) genes mutation load. Twenty-five samples from chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (n?=?18) or mantle cell lymphoma (n?=?7) patients were analyzed. Based on IGH variable region genes, 22/25 samples carried > 2% mutations, 20/25?>?5%. In the IGH joining region genes, 23/25 samples carried > 2% mutations, 18/25?>?5%. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed on IGH genes using two strategies: method A utilizes two patient-specific primers, whereas method B employs one patient-specific and one germline primer, with different positions on the variable, diversity and joining regions. Twenty-three samples (92%) resulted evaluable using method A, only six (24%) by method B. Method B poor performance was specifically evident among mutated IGH variable/joining region cases, although no specific mutation load above, which the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction failed was found. The molecular strategies for minimal residual disease evaluation should be adapted to the B-cell receptor features of the disease investigated. PMID:24254547
Della Starza, Irene; Cavalli, Marzia; Del Giudice, Ilaria; Barbero, Daniela; Mantoan, Barbara; Genuardi, Elisa; Urbano, Marina; Mannu, Claudia; Gazzola, Anna; Ciabatti, Elena; Guarini, Anna; Foà, Robin; Galimberti, Sara; Piccaluga, Pierpaolo; Gaidano, Gianluca; Ladetto, Marco; Monitillo, Luigia
The X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome is triggered by Epstein-Barr virus infection and results in fatal mononucleosis, immunodeficiency, and lymphoproliferative disorders. This study shows that the mutation responsible for X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome is genetically linked to a restriction fragment length polymorphism detected with the DXS42 probe (from Xq24-q27). The most likely recombination frequency between the loci is 4%, and the associated logarithm of the odds is 5.26. Haplotype analysis using flanking restriction fragment length polymorphism markers indicates that the locus for X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome is distal to probe DXS42 but proximal to probe DXS99 (from Xq26-q27). It is now possible to predict which members of a family with X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome are carrier females and to diagnose the syndrome prenatally.
Skare, J.C.; Milunsky, A.; Byron, K.S.; Sullivan, J.L.
Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders is one of the most difficult areas in dermatopathology, and biopsies are often taken to rule out a cutaneous lymphoma in patients with “unclear” or “therapy?resistant” skin lesions. Histopathological features alone often enable a given case to be classified to a diagnostic group (eg, epidermotropic lymphomas), but seldom allow a definitive diagnosis to be made. Performing several biopsies from morphologically different lesions is suggested, especially in patients with suspicion of mycosis fungoides. Immunohistochemistry is often crucial for proper classification of the cases, but in some instances is not helpful (eg, early lesions of mycosis fungoides). Although molecular techniques provide new, powerful tools for diagnosing cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders, results of molecular methods should always be interpreted with the clinicopathological features, keeping in mind the possibility of false positivity and false negativity. In many cases, a definitive diagnosis can be made only on careful correlation of the clinical with the histopathological, immunophenotypical and molecular features. PMID:16873563
In long-term follow-up, 18-67% of pediatric liver transplant recipients are overweight or obese— with rates varying by age and pre-transplant weight status. Similar prevalence of post-transplant obesity is seen in adults. Adults also develop post-transplant metabolic syndrome, with consequent cardiovascular disease, at rates that exceed age and gender-matched populations. Post-transplant metabolic syndrome has never been studied in pediatric liver transplant recipients—a growing population as transplant outcomes continue to improve. This paper systematically reviews the literature on each component of metabolic syndrome—obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and glucose intolerance—in pediatric liver transplant recipients. Rates of obesity are similar to that of the general U.S. population of children. But hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes are more common than expected for age, gender, and obesity severity in transplant recipients. Immunosuppressive medications are major contributors. Limitations of prior studies—including heterogeneous methods of diagnosis, follow-up times, and immunosuppressive regimen—hinder the analysis of risk factors. Importantly, no studies report on graft or patient outcomes associated with metabolic syndrome components after pediatric liver transplant. However, if trends in children are similar to those seen in adults, these conditions may lead to significant long-term morbidity. Further research on the prevalence, causes, and consequences of post-transplant metabolic syndrome in pediatric liver transplant is needed and ultimately will help improve long-term outcomes. PMID:22641460
Perito, Emily Rothbaum; Lau, Audrey; Rhee, Sue; Roberts, John P.; Rosenthal, Philip
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome is a disorder due to a defect of lymphocyte apoptosis, whose clinical manifestations consist of hyperplasia of lymphoid tissues and autoimmune diseases. We report on a 26-month-old child who presented with frequent eruptions of weals and angioedema without any apparent triggering factor, who subsequently developed an erythematopapular rash with a histological pattern of a lymphoplasmacellular infiltrate. Familial
Luigi Auricchio; Laura Vitiello; Marsilio Adriani; Pasqualina Ferri; Annalisa Chiocchetti; Guido Pettinato; Luigi Racioppi; Luigi Maiuri; Umberto Dianzani; Claudio Pignata
Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) seem to be a relevant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic lymphoproliferative disorders. We studied retrospectively the epidemiology, clinical manifestations and outcome of invasive fungal infections in 42 patients with lymphoproliferative diseases, treated between January 2004 and February 2012 for probable or proven IFI. In our entire population (1355 patients) of chronic lymphoproliferative malignancies, the incidence of probable/proven IFI was 3% (molds 2.3%, yeasts 0.5%, mixed infections 0.2%). Eight patients developed a yeast infection documented by blood cultures in seven cases and by the microscopic observation of Candida spp. in the vitreum after vitrectomy in one case. Among molds we diagnosed three proven infections by histologic evidence of Aspergillus spp. (n = 2) and Mucor (n = 1) in the lung and 28 probable mycoses. Three mixed infections from both molds and yeasts were also observed. Twenty-two cases showed positivity of galactomannan antigen in the serum (n = 16), in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid (n = 4) or in both (n = 2). Cultures were positive in 11 cases. The overall rate of response to therapy was 64%. Fungal-attributable mortality rate was 17%, with a significant difference between molds and yeasts (16% vs. 25%, p = 0.03). At univariate analysis, the only risk factors related to mortality were severe and prolonged neutropenia (p = 0.003) and age (p = 0.03). Among molds, the rapid start of antifungals was probably partially responsible, together with new drugs, for the reduction of mortality, despite the severe immunosuppression of these patients. PMID:24138328
Nosari, Anna Maria; Pioltelli, Maria Luisa; Riva, Marta; Marbello, Laura; Nichelatti, Michele; Greco, Antonino; Molteni, Alfredo; Vismara, Eleonora; Gabutti, Cristina; Volonterio, Alberto; Lombardi, Pierluigi; Morra, Enrica
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare type of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), which predominantly occurs in HIV-infected individuals, and is pathogenetically linked with Kaposi sarcoma (KS)-associated herpes virus/human herpes virus-8 (KSHV/HHV-8) infection with or without evidence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) co-infection. Although uncommon, PELs have been reported in immunocompetent patients and recipients of solid organ allografts. Rare cases of KSHV(-) EBV(+) post-transplant effusion lymphomas resembling PEL have also been described, as have KSHV(-) EBV(-) effusion lymphomas, the latter including those arising in individuals with chronic liver disease. We report a unique KSHV(-) EBV(-) post-transplant effusion lymphoma associated with serum paraproteins, occurring in an HIV(-) individual, which had cytologic features and phenotype similar to PEL, and displayed a complex karyotype including isochromosome 12p and translocation t(8;22), resulting in rearrangement of c-MYC. PMID:19337983
Lambe, Jennifer S; Oble, Darryl A; Nandula, Subhadra V; Sevilla, Deborah W; Colovai, Adriana I; Mansukhani, Mahesh; Chari, Ajai; Murty, Vundavalli V; Alobeid, Bachir; Bhagat, Govind
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a rare inherited disorder of apoptosis, most commonly due to mutations in the FAS (TNFRSF6) gene. It presents with chronic lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and symptomatic multilineage cytopenias in an otherwise healthy child. Unfortunately, these clinical findings are also noted in other childhood lymphoproliferative conditions, such as leukemia, lymphoma, and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, which can confound the diagnosis. This report describes a 6-year-old girl with symptoms misdiagnosed as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and treated with chemotherapy before the recognition that her symptoms and laboratory values were consistent with a somatic FAS mutation leading to ALPS. This case should alert pediatricians to include ALPS in the differential diagnosis of a child with lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and cytopenias; obtain discriminating screening laboratory biomarkers, such as serum vitamin B-12 and ferritin levels; and, in the setting of a highly suspicious clinical scenario for ALPS, pursue testing for somatic FAS mutations when germ-line mutation testing is negative. PMID:24101757
Rudman Spergel, Amanda; Walkovich, Kelly; Price, Susan; Niemela, Julie E.; Wright, Dowain; Fleisher, Thomas A.
Background Although cardiovascular disease is thouht to be common in cirrhosis, there are no systematic investigations on the prevalence of electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities in these patients and data on the occurrence of post-transplant cardiac events in comparison with the general population are lacking. We aimed to study the prevalence and predictors of ECG abnormalities in patients with cirrhosis undergoing liver transplantation and to define the risk of cardiac events post-transplant compared to the general population. Methods Cirrhotic patients undergoing first-time liver transplantation between 1999–2007 were retrospectively enrolled. ECGs at pre-transplant evaluation were reviewed using the Minnesota classification and compared to healthy controls. Standardized incidence ratios for post-transplant cardiac events were calculated. Results 234 patients with cirrhosis were included, 186 with an available ECG (36% with alcoholic and 24% with viral cirrhosis; mean follow-up 4 years). Cirrhotics had a prolonged QTc interval, a Q wave, abnormal QRS axis deviation, ST segment depression and a pathologic T wave more frequently compared to controls (p?0.05 for all). Arterial hypertension, older age, cirrhosis severity and etiology were related to ECG abnormalities. Compared to the general Swedish population, patients were 14 times more likely to suffer a cardiac event post-transplant (p?0.001). A prolonged QTc interval and Q wave were related to post-transplant cardiac events (p?0.05 for all). Conclusions Pre-transplant ECG abnormalities are common in cirrhosis and are associated with cardiovascular risk factors and cirrhosis severity and etiology. Post-transplant cardiac events are more common than in the general population. PMID:24708568
Over the last several decades, the growth of lung transplantation has been hindered by a much higher demand for donor lungs than can be supplied, leading to considerable waiting time and mortality among patients waiting for transplant. This has led to the search for an alternative bridging strategy in patients with end-stage lung disease. The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as a bridge to lung transplantation as well as a rescue strategy post-transplant for primary graft dysfunction (PGD) has been studied previously, however due to initially poor outcomes, its use was not heavily instituted. In recent years, with significant improvement in technologies, several single and multi-center studies have shown promising outcomes related to the use of ECMO as a bridging strategy as well as a therapy for patients suffering from PGD post-transplant. These results have challenged our current notion on ECMO use and hence forced us to reexamine the utility, efficacy and safety of ECMO in conjunction with lung transplantation. Through this review, we will address the various aspects related to ECMO use as a bridge to lung transplantation as well as a rescue post-transplant in the treatment of PGD. We will emphasize newer technologies related to ECMO use, examine recent observational studies and randomized trials of ECMO use before and after lung transplantation, and reflect upon our own institutional experience with the use of ECMO in these difficult clinical situations. PMID:25132974
Gulack, Brian C.; Hirji, Sameer A.
Chronic kidney disease - mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) in kidney transplant recipients has a complex pathophysiology, which is a combination of carryover of mineral and bone disorder during the dialysis period and dynamic change in bone and mineral metabolism after transplantation. The most important thing is to know that this pathophysiology is a continuum from the early stage of CKD through the dialysis period to the post-transplant period. However, the current treatment approaches among Japanese nephrologists are based on three different categories : nephrologists elaborately treating predialysis patients against end-stage renal disease ; dialysis doctors aggressively coping with their patients' deadly complications ; and transplant doctors concentrating on post-transplant follow-ups for better graft survival. In this article, I would like to explain the pathophysiology of post-transplant CKD-MBD and then to introduce a new role -- that not only transplant doctors, but also dialysis doctors, should play a crucial role in CKD-MBD in the post-transplant period. PMID:25423932
Objective Current methods do not predict the acute renal allograft injury immediately after kidney transplantation. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of urinary calprotectin for predicting immediate posttransplant allograft injury. Methods In a multicenter, prospective-cohort study of 144 incipient renal transplant recipients, we postoperatively measured urinary calprotectin using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) after 4 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. Results We observed a significant inverse association of urinary calprotectin concentrations and eGFR 4 weeks after transplantation (Spearman r?=??0.33; P<0.001). Compared to the lowest quartile, patients in the highest quartile of urinary calprotectin had an increased risk for an eGFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 four weeks after transplantation (relative risk, 4.3; P<0.001; sensitivity, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.98; specificity, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.66). Higher urinary calprotectin concentrations predicted impaired kidney function 4 weeks after transplantation, as well as 6 months and 12 months after transplantation. When data were analyzed using the urinary calprotectin/creatinine-ratio similar results were obtained. Urinary calprotectin was superior to current use of absolute change of plasma creatinine to predict allograft function 12 months after transplantation. Urinary calprotectin predicted an increased risk both in transplants from living and deceased donors. Multivariate linear regression showed that higher urinary calprotectin concentrations and older donor age predicted lower eGFR four weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after transplantation. Conclusions Urinary calprotectin is an early, noninvasive predictor of immediate renal allograft injury after kidney transplantation. PMID:25402277
Bistrup, Claus; Marcussen, Niels; Pagonas, Nikolaos; Seibert, Felix S.; Arndt, Robert; Zidek, Walter; Westhoff, Timm H.
Familial aggregation of lymphoproliferative disorders from the Scandinavian family cancer database Print This Page Familial Aggregation of Lymphoproliferative Disorders from the Scandinavian Family Cancer Database Our Research
The impact of dialysis modality on posttransplant outcomes remains controversial. The authors have compared primary failure, delayed graft function (DGF), acute rejection episodes as well as patient and allograft survivals among patients undergoing renal transplantation between 2004 and 2009, according to the modality of hemodialysis (HD) versus peritoneal dialysis (PD). We studied 306 patients (268 HD and 38 PD) with
C. Freitas; M. Fructuoso; L. S. Martins; M. Almeida; S. Pedroso; L. Dias; A. C. Henriques; A. Cabrita
AIM: To hypothesize that the product of calculated Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score excluding exception points and donor age (D-MELD) risk capping ± Rule 14 could improve post liver transplant and overall survival after listing. METHODS: Probabilities derived from the United Network for Organ Sharing database between 2002 and 2004 were used to simulate potential outcomes for all patients listed for transplantation. The Markov simulation was then modified by screening matches using a 1200 or 1600 D-MELD risk cap ± allowing transplants for Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) ? 14 (Rule 14). The differential impact of the rule changes was assessed. RESULTS: The Markov simulation accurately reproduced overall and post transplant survival. A 1200 D-MELD risk cap improved post-transplant survival. Both the 1200 and 1600 risk caps improved overall survival for waitlisted patients. The addition of Rule 14 further improved post transplant and overall survival by redistribution of donor livers to recipients in higher MELD subgroups. The mechanism for improved overall and post-transplant survival after listing was due to shifting a larger percentage of transplants to the moderate MELD score subgroup (MELD 15-29) while also ensuring that high MELD recipients have livers of high quality to achieve excellent post transplant survival. CONCLUSION: A 1200 D-MELD risk cap + Rule 14 provided the greatest overall benefit primarily by focusing liver transplantation towards the moderate MELD recipient.
Halldorson, Jeffrey B; Jr, Robert L Carithers; Bhattacharya, Renuka; Bakthavatsalam, Ramasamy; Liou, Iris W; Dick, Andre A; Reyes, Jorge D; Perkins, James D
Experiments were performed to examine expression of proto-oncogenes and other related genes in ten cases of chronic T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. The helper vs. suppressor nature of the T-cells was determined using monoclonal antibodies. RNA was isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and/or lymph node sections and 5'-end labelled with ..gamma..-/sub 32/P-ATP. RNA preparations were hybridized under stringent conditions to an excess of nitrocellulose-bound specific cloned DNA; autoradiographs were analyzed by microdensitometry. Hybridizations of PHA-activated T-cells to various probes as well as hybridizations of RNA samples to parent plasmid were negative in all experiments. Results revealed increased expression of K-ras, B-lym, transferrin receptor, ..cap alpha..-tubulin and ..cap alpha..-interferon in 5/5 helper T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders, while 5/5 suppressor T-cell disorders demonstrated levels of hybridization to these clones no higher than background. However, studies of T-suppressor disorders demonstrated enhanced levels of ..beta..-interferon-specific RNA in 5/5 patients, an increase not apparent in T-helper chronic lymphoproliferative disorders. There was no correlation of this pattern of gene expression with the aggressive nature of the disease since T-cells from 2/5 suppressor disorders were actively proliferating.
Doerge, M.J.; Hooper, W.C.; Phyliky, R.L.; Witzig, T.E.; Banks, P.M.; Li, C.Y.; Woloschak, G.E.
Autoimmune Pancytopenia; Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS); Evans Syndrome; Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura; Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune; Autoimmune Neutropenia; Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic; Inflammatory Bowel Disease; Rheumatoid Arthritis
Background: Myeloproliferative neoplasms likely involve both myeloid and lymphoid lineages. Nevertheless, the coincidence of chronic myeloproliferative and lymphoproliferative diseases in the same patient is a rare phenomenon. Methods: We report a case of a patient having essential thrombocythemia (ET) and B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL). In this patient and in 2 relatives with lymphoproliferative disorders, we searched for JAK2V617F mutation in
Caterina Musolino; Alessandro Allegra; Giuseppa Penna; Raffaella Centorrino; Maria Cuzzola; Arianna D’Angelo; Pasquale Iacopino; Andrea Alonci
Availability of an HLA-identical sibling (MRD) or suitably matched unrelated donor (MUD) has historically been a limiting factor in the application of allogeneic hematopoietic transplantation. Although almost all patients have an HLA-haploidentical family donor, prior attempts at transplantation from such donors using T-cell replete grafts and conventional immunosuppression were associated with unacceptable rates of GVHD, and when stringent ex vivo T-cell depletion was used to control GVHD, rates of graft rejection and post-transplant infections were prohibitive. The recent approach to HLA-haploidentical donor transplantation developed in Baltimore that uses T-cell replete grafts and post-transplant CY (Haplo-post-HCT-CY) to control post-transplant allo-reactivity appears to have overcome many of the obstacles historically associated with haploidentical donor transplantation. In particular, TRM rates of <10% are usual and rapid reconstitution of immunity leads to a low rate of post-transplant infections and no post-tranplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD), consistent with the hypothesis that post-transplant CY selectively depletes proliferating alloreactive T cells responsible for GVHD and graft rejection while preserving resting memory T cells essential for post-transplant immunologic recovery. In parallel trials using similar non-myeloablative conditioning regimens, Haplo-post-HCT-CY produced similar overall survival to double umbilical cord blood transplantation(DUCBT) in adult patients (62% vs 54%), with low rates of TRM (7% vs 24%), severe acute GVHD (0% vs 21%) and chronic GVHD (13% vs 25%). Furthermore, recent non-randomized comparisons adjusted for risk factors show that Haplo-post-HCT-CY achieve at least equivalent outcomes to conventional MRD and MUD transplants. Although most experience has been obtained using BM, emerging data suggest that a G-CSF mobilized PBSC graft can also safely be used for Haplo-post-HCT-CY. Haplo-post-HCT-CY also avoids the graft acquisition costs of DUCBT and MUDs and the cost of cell selection associated with T-depleted grafts. Although randomized comparisons will be forthcoming, Haplo-post-HCT-CY can already be considered a valid standard-of-care in patients who lack conventional donors thus extending the availability of allogeneic transplants to almost all patients. This donor source may also challenge the routine preference for a MUD in patients lacking an MRD. PMID:24842530
Bashey, A; Solomon, S R
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) causes adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) in infected individuals after a long incubation period. To dissect the mechanisms of the development of the disease, we have previously established a rat model of ATL-like disease which allows examination of the growth and spread of HTLV-1 infected tumor cells, as well assessment of the effects of
TAKASHI OHASHI; SHINO HANABUCHI; HIROTOMO KATO; HIROMI TATENO; FUMIYO TAKEMURA; TOMONORI TSUKAHARA; YOSHIHIRO KOYA; ATSUHIKO HASEGAWA; TAKAO MASUDA; MARI KANNAGI
We previously reported that posttransplant alloantibody production in CD8-deficient hosts is IL-4(+) CD4(+) T cell-dependent and IgG1 isotype-dominant. The current studies investigated the hypothesis that IL-4-producing natural killer T cells (NKT cells) contribute to maximal alloantibody production. To investigate this, alloantibody levels were examined in CD8-deficient WT, CD1d KO and J?18 KO transplant recipients. We found that the magnitude of IgG1 alloantibody production was critically dependent on the presence of type I NKT cells, which are activated by day 1 posttransplant. Unexpectedly, type I NKT cell contribution to enhanced IgG1 alloantibody levels was interferon-?-dependent and IL-4-independent. Cognate interactions between type I NKT and B cells alone do not stimulate alloantibody production. Instead, NKT cells appear to enhance maturation of IL-4(+) CD4(+) T cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report to substantiate a critical role for type I NKT cells in enhancing in vivo antibody production in response to endogenous antigenic stimuli. PMID:25220596
Zimmerer, J M; Swamy, P; Sanghavi, P B; Wright, C L; Abdel-Rasoul, M; Elzein, S M; Brutkiewicz, R R; Bumgardner, G L
Induction of Adult T-Cell Leukemia-Like Lymphoproliferative Disease and Its Inhibition by Adoptive Immunotherapy in T-Cell-Deficient Nude Rats Inoculated with Syngeneic Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1-Immortalized Cells
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) has been shown to be the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), but the in vivo mechanism by which the virus causes the malignant transformation is largely unknown. In order to investigate the mechanisms of HTLV-1 leukemogenesis, we developed a rat model system in which ATL-like disease was reproducibly observed, following inoculation
TAKASHI OHASHI; SHINO HANABUCHI; HIROTOMO KATO; YOSHIHIRO KOYA; FUMIYO TAKEMURA; KATSUIKU HIROKAWA; TAKASHI YOSHIKI; YUETSU TANAKA; MASAHIRO FUJII; MARI KANNAGI
Fosinopril prevents hyperfiltration and decreases proteinuria in post-transplant hypertensives. Hypertension and renal mass reduction induce glomerular hypertension (GH), hyperfiltration (HF) and renal injury. GH may contribute to allograft loss in post-transplant hypertensive patients (PT × HT). HF and GH may be evaluated by renal response to acute protein intake (API). Since ACE inhibition may prevent GH, the effects of fosinopril
Tommaso Bochicchio; Guadalupe Sandoval; Oscar Ron; Héctor Pérez-Grovas; Javier Bordes; Jaime Herrera-Acosta
Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) has long been known to cause cancer in farm and laboratory animals. Ptaquiloside, a norsesquiterpene glycoside found in bracken, is considered its main carcinogenic toxin and is capable of inducing tumours in a variety of organ systems, but especially in the urinary bladder, depending on the animal species, the administration route employed and the duration of exposure. In the present study, 12 male CD-1 mice were intraperitoneally administered with 0.5 mg ptaquiloside weekly for 15 weeks, followed by 15 weeks without any treatment. Twelve animals used as controls were administered the vehicle solution (phosphate buffered saline). Two exposed animals died during the experimental work. On necropsy, blood and tissue samples (brain, eyes, thymus, heart, lungs, liver, digestive system, spleen, bladder, kidney, adrenal gland, urinary bladder, sexual accessory glands, testes, muscle, skin and femur) were collected for histological analysis. Leukograms were prepared from blood smears and total WBC counts obtained with a Neubauer chamber. Flow cytometry was used to assess blood T-(CD3(+)) and B-(CD19(+))-lymphocytes, medullary granulocytic (CD11b(+)/Ly-6G(-), CD11b(+)/Ly-6G(+)) and lymphocytic (CD19(+)/IgM(-), CD19+/IgM(+)) populations and thymic lymphoid (CD4(+), CD8(+), CD4(+)/CD8(+)) populations. Lymphoproliferative lesions were analysed immunohistochemically using antibodies against CD45R and CD3. All of the 10 surviving mice developed a lymphoproliferative malignancy. Lymphoproliferative disease was characterized by multifocal B-(CD45(+)/CD3(-))-lymphocytic renal (10/10 animals) and hepatic (2/10 animals) invasion, splenic white pulp hyperplasia (10/10) together with a significant increase in circulating B-(CD19(+))-lymphocytes and the appearance of circulating dysplastic lymphoid cells. Eight out of 10 ptaquiloside-exposed animals developed urothelial dysplasia (six low-grade dysplasia and two high-grade dysplasia). No lesions were detected in control mice. These results show that ptaquiloside is capable of inducing malignant transformation in mice and provide an in-depth characterisation of lymphoproliferative lesions. Furthermore, the urinary bladder is shown to be a target organ for this toxin in mice as well as in other animal species. PMID:21907228
Gil da Costa, Rui M; Oliveira, Paula A; Vilanova, Manuel; Bastos, Margarida M S M; Lopes, Célia C; Lopes, Carlos
Rituximab, an anti-CD20 agent, has been suggested as an effective strategy to deal with post transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD). In the current study, we aim to evaluate the efficacy of rituximab therapy in heart transplant population developing PTLD. A comprehensive search of the literature was performed to gather the available data on lymphoproliferative disorders occurring in heart transplant patients. Finally, data of 125 patients from 26 previously published studies were included into the study. Patients who underwent rituximab therapy had significantly worse tumoral histopathology features (P-value= 0.003). Survival analyses showed no significant difference regarding receiving rituximab therapy for heart recipients; however, when the analysis was repeated only including data of pediatric patients, significant beneficial effects for pediatric were found for rituximab therapy. In fact, no children undergoing rituximab therapy died during the follow up. In conclusion, this study showed that rituximab therapy in pediatric heart transplant recipients with PTLD represents surprisingly excellent results, making rituximab an indispensable agent in the management of the disease. To define feasibility of rituximab therapy in adult recipients of heart graft with PTLD, randomized controlled trials are needed. PMID:24575284
Karbasi-Afshar, R; Taheri, S
Epithelial cell injury, inflammation, progressive fibrosis, and airway obliteration are histological features of post-transplant obliterative bronchiolitis (OB). Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 is expressed in acute and chronic inflammatory responses. Our aim was to elucidate the possible role of COX-2 in post-transplant OB by using a heterotopic bronchial porcine model. Bronchial allografts from non-related donors were transplanted subcutaneously into 24 random-bred domestic pigs, each weighing about 20 kg. Groups studied had grafts, non-treated allografts, allografts given cyclosporine A (CsA), methylprednisolone (MP), and azathioprine (Aza), and allografts given CsA, MP, and everolimus. Grafts were serially harvested during a follow-up period of 21 days for histology (H&E) and immunohistochemistry. Immunostaining was performed with monoclonal IgG against human COX-2 peptide, and histological alterations and immunohistochemical positivity were graded on a scale from 0 to 5. Epithelial COX-2 index was calculated by multiplying the percentage of positive cells by grade of epithelial COX-2 intensity. Ischaemic epithelial loss, evident in all implants, recovered rapidly in autografts, and bronchi remained patent. Epithelial loss in non-treated allografts preceded fibroblast proliferation, resulting in total luminal obliteration. In CsA-, MP-, and Aza-treated allografts epithelial destruction and luminal obliteration were delayed, and these were prevented in CsA-, MP-, and everolimus-treated allografts. COX-2 expression due to operative ischaemia was evident in all implants on day 2. Thereafter, the epithelial COX-2 index preceded epithelial injury and obliteration. During the inflammatory response and fibroblast proliferation, COX-2 expression occurred in macrophages and fibroblasts. In conclusion, in the early stage of OB development, COX-2 induction occurred in airway epithelial cells prior to luminal obliteration. In addition, the observation that COX-2 expression in macrophages and fibroblasts paralleled the onset of inflammation and fibroblast proliferation indicates a role in OB development, but the causal relationships need further study. PMID:15476277
Päiväniemi, Outi E; Maasilta, Paula K; Alho, Hanni S; Wolff, C Henrik J; Salminen, Ulla-Stina
We retrospectively analyzed the p.V158F polymorphism of Fc?-receptor IIIA (FCGR3A, CD16) in patients with PTLD treated with rituximab monotherapy. Previous reports had indicated that the lower affinity F allele affects rituximab-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and is linked to inferior outcome of rituximab monotherapy in B cell malignancies. 25 patients with PTLD after solid organ transplantation were included in this analysis. They had received 4 weekly doses of rituximab as part of two clinical trials, which had a rituximab monotherapy induction regimen in common. 16/25 patients received further treatment with CHOP-21 after rituximab monotherapy (PTLD-1, NCT01458548). The FCGR3A status was correlated to the response after 4 cycles of rituximab monotherapy. Response to rituximab monotherapy was not affected by F carrier status. This is in contrast to previous findings in B cell malignancies where investigators found a predictive impact of FCGR3A status on outcome to rituximab monotherapy. One explanation for this finding could be that ADCC is impaired in transplant recipients receiving immunosuppression. These results suggest that carrying a FCRG3A F allele does not negatively affect rituximab therapy in immunosuppressed patients. PMID:24741582
Zimmermann, Heiner; Weiland, Theresa; Nourse, Jamie P; Gandhi, Maher K; Reinke, Petra; Neuhaus, Ruth; Karbasiyan, Mohsen; Gärtner, Barbara; Anagnostopoulos, Ioannis; Riess, Hanno; Trappe, Ralf U; Oertel, Stephan
This study aimed to describe kinetics of complete donor chimerism occurrence (cDC, >99·9% donor) after unrelated cord blood transplantation (UCBT), to identify its predictive factors and its impact on post-transplant outcome. Ninety-four children who received single UCBT after a myeloablative conditioning regimen had blood chimerism evaluation at predefined post-transplant dates, using a real-time polymerase chain reaction method with 0·1% sensitivity. Cumulative incidence of cDC at 1 year post-transplantation was 61·8%. Three predictive factors were identified in multivariate analysis: history of malignant disease (P = 0·03), older age (above 2·16 years, the first quartile of age, P = 0·0055) and higher level of cord/recipient human leucocyte antigen mismatch (4/6 vs. 5-6/6, P < 0·001) increased the probability of post-transplant cDC. Although graft cell dose had a strong impact on haematological recovery, it did not apparently influence cDC occurrence. Early cDC (i.e. more than 99·9% donor chimerism on days 15-30 post-transplant) appeared useful to predict engraftment (P = 0·003) as well as acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Severe acute or chronic GvHD never occurred in patients with DC ?99·9%, suggesting than even minimal residual host haematopoiesis is associated with a very low risk of GvHD after UCBT. PMID:24779895
Elkaim, Elodie; Picard, Christophe; Galambrun, Claire; Barlogis, Vincent; Loundou, Anderson; Curtillet, Catherine; Oudin, Claire; Thuret, Isabelle; Chambost, Hervé; Michel, Gérard
Abstract Background: The Donor Risk Index (DRI) is used to predict graft survival following liver transplantation, but has not been used to predict post-operative infections in graft recipients. We hypothesized that lower-quality grafts would result in more frequent infectious complications. Methods: Using a prospectively collected infection data set, we matched liver transplant recipients (and the respective allograft DRI scores) with their specific post-transplant infectious complications. All transplant recipients were organized by DRI score and divided into groups with low-DRI and high-DRI scores. Results: We identified 378 liver transplants, with 189 recipients each in the low-DRI and high-DRI groups. The mean DRI scores for the low- and high-DRI-score groups were 1.14±0.01 and 1.74±0.02, respectively (p<0.0001 for the difference). The mean Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores were 26.25±0.53 and 24.76±0.55, respectively (p=0.052), and the mean number of infectious complications per patient were 1.60±0.19 and 1.94±0.24, respectively (p=0.26). Logistic regression showed only length of hospital stay and a history of vascular disease as being associated independently with infection, with a trend toward significance for MELD score (p=0.13). Conclusion: We conclude that although DRI score predicts graft-liver survival, infectious complications depend more heavily on recipient factors. PMID:24283760
Gillen, Jacob R.; Hranjec, Tjasa; Stokes, Jayme B.; Brayman, Kenneth L.; Kumer, Sean C.; Schmitt, Timothy M.; Sawyer, Robert G.
Transplantation is often the only viable treatment for pediatric patients with end-stage liver disease. Making well-informed decisions on when to proceed with transplantation requires accurate predictors of transplant survival. The standard Cox proportional hazards (PH) model assumes that covariate effects are time-invariant on right-censored failure time; however, this assumption may not always hold. Gray's piecewise constant time-varying coefficients (PC-TVC) model offers greater flexibility to capture the temporal changes of covariate effects without losing the mathematical simplicity of Cox PH model. In the present work, we examined the Cox PH and Gray PC-TVC models on the posttransplant survival analysis of 288 pediatric liver transplant patients diagnosed with cancer. We obtained potential predictors through univariable (P < 0.15) and multivariable models with forward selection (P < 0.05) for the Cox PH and Gray PC-TVC models, which coincide. While the Cox PH model provided reasonable average results in estimating covariate effects on posttransplant survival, the Gray model using piecewise constant penalized splines showed more details of how those effects change over time. PMID:23762197
Chang, Chung-Chou H.; Tomko, Heather E.; Donnell, Drew Michael S.; Roberts, Mark S.; Bryce, Cindy L.
Transplantation is often the only viable treatment for pediatric patients with end-stage liver disease. Making well-informed decisions on when to proceed with transplantation requires accurate predictors of transplant survival. The standard Cox proportional hazards (PH) model assumes that covariate effects are time-invariant on right-censored failure time; however, this assumption may not always hold. Gray's piecewise constant time-varying coefficients (PC-TVC) model offers greater flexibility to capture the temporal changes of covariate effects without losing the mathematical simplicity of Cox PH model. In the present work, we examined the Cox PH and Gray PC-TVC models on the posttransplant survival analysis of 288 pediatric liver transplant patients diagnosed with cancer. We obtained potential predictors through univariable (P < 0.15) and multivariable models with forward selection (P < 0.05) for the Cox PH and Gray PC-TVC models, which coincide. While the Cox PH model provided reasonable average results in estimating covariate effects on posttransplant survival, the Gray model using piecewise constant penalized splines showed more details of how those effects change over time. PMID:23762197
Ren, Yi; Chang, Chung-Chou H; Zenarosa, Gabriel L; Tomko, Heather E; Donnell, Drew Michael S; Kang, Hyung-joo; Roberts, Mark S; Bryce, Cindy L
Summary Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a disorder of T cell dysregulation caused by defective Fas-mediated apoptosis. Patients with ALPS can develop a myriad of clinical manifestations including lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, autoimmunity and increased rates of malignancy. ALPS may be more common that originally thought, and testing for ALPS should be considered in patients with unexplained lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and/or autoimmunity. As the pathophysiology of ALPS is better characterized, a number of targeted therapies are in preclinical development and clinical trials with promising early results. This review describes the clinical and laboratory manifestations found in ALPS patients, as well as the molecular basis for the disease and new advances in treatment. PMID:19930184
Teachey, David T.; Seif, Alix E.; Grupp, Stephan A.
Primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in childhood, typically presents as an acute self-limiting illness. However, secondary ITP is often a chronic disorder due to an underlying disease. Combined cytopenias in childhood, that is, secondary ITP occurring with auto-immune hemolytic anemia and/or auto-immune neutropenia, are often associated with disorders characterized by immune dysregulation. Such disorders include systemic lupus erythematosus, auto-immune lymphoproliferative syndrome, and common variable immune deficiency. Evans syndrome describes the combination of ITP, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and/or autoimmune neutropenia. However, it is now clear that some patients with Evans syndrome have an underlying immunodeficiency. This report focuses on combined auto-immune cytopenias and highlights the challenges in their diagnosis and management. PMID:23109501
Alport post-transplant nephritis (APTN) is an aggressive form of anti-glomerular basement membrane disease that targets the allograft in transplanted patients with X-linked Alport syndrome. Alloantibodies develop against the NC1 domain of ?5(IV) collagen, which occurs in normal kidneys, including renal allografts, forming distinct ?345(IV) and ?1256(IV) networks. Here, we studied the roles of these networks as antigens inciting alloimmunity and as targets of nephritogenic alloantibodies in APTN. We found that patients with APTN, but not those without nephritis, produce two kinds of alloantibodies against allogeneic collagen IV. Some alloantibodies targeted alloepitopes within ?5NC1 monomers, shared by ?345NC1 and ?1256NC1 hexamers. Other alloantibodies specifically targeted alloepitopes that depended on the quaternary structure of ?345NC1 hexamers. In Col4a5-null mice, immunization with native forms of allogeneic collagen IV exclusively elicited antibodies to quaternary ?345NC1 alloepitopes, whereas alloimmunogens lacking native quaternary structure elicited antibodies to shared ?5NC1 alloepitopes. These results imply that quaternary epitopes within ?345NC1 hexamers may initiate alloimmune responses after transplant in X-linked Alport patients. Thus, ?345NC1 hexamers are the culprit alloantigen and primary target of all alloantibodies mediating APTN, whereas ?1256NC1 hexamers become secondary targets of anti-?5NC1 alloantibodies. Reliable detection of alloantibodies by immunoassays using ?345NC1 hexamers may improve outcomes by facilitating early, accurate diagnosis. PMID:23620401
Olaru, Florina; Luo, Wentian; Wang, Xu-Ping; Ge, Linna; Hertz, Jens Michael; Kashtan, Clifford E; Sado, Yoshikazu; Segal, Yoav; Hudson, Billy G; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan
Molecular surveillance of hematopoietic chimerism is an important part of the routine diagnostic program in patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Chimerism testing permits early prediction and documentation of successful engraftment and facilitates early risk assessment of impending graft rejection. In patients transplanted for treatment of malignant hematologic disorders, monitoring of chimerism can provide an early indication of incipient disease relapse. The investigation of chimerism has therefore become an indispensable tool for the management of patients during the post-transplant period. Increasing use of reduced-intensity conditioning, which is associated with prolonged duration of mixed hematopoietic chimerism, has further increased the clinical importance of chimerism analysis. At present, the most commonly used technical approach to the investigation of chimerism is microsatellite analysis by polymerase chain reaction. The investigation of chimerism within specific leukocyte subsets isolated from peripheral blood or bone marrow samples by flow sorting- or magnetic bead-based techniques provides more specific information on processes underlying the dynamics of donor/recipient chimerism. Moreover, cell subset-specific analysis permits the assessment of impending complications at a significantly higher sensitivity, thus providing a basis for earlier treatment decisions. PMID:24473788
Preuner, Sandra; Lion, Thomas
Leukemia, i.e., the neoplasia of one or more cell lines of the bone marrow, although less common than in other species, it is also reported in horses. Leukemia can be classified according to the affected cells (myeloproliferative or lymphoproliferative disorders), evolution of clinical signs (acute or chronic) and the presence or lack of abnormal cells in peripheral blood (leukemic, subleukemic and aleukemic leukemia). The main myeloproliferative disorders in horses are malignant histiocytosis and myeloid leukemia, the latter being classified as monocytic and myelomonocytic, granulocytic, primary erythrocytosis or polycythemia vera and megakaryocytic leukemia. The most common lymphoproliferative disorders in horses are lymphoid leukemia, plasma cell or multiple myeloma and lymphoma. Lymphoma is the most common hematopoietic neoplasia in horses and usually involves lymphoid organs, without leukemia, although bone marrow may be affected after metastasis. Lymphoma could be classified according to the organs involved and four main clinical categories have been established: generalized-multicentric, alimentary-gastrointestinal, mediastinal-thymic-thoracic and cutaneous. The clinical signs, hematological and clinical pathological findings, results of bone marrow aspirates, involvement of other organs, prognosis and treatment, if applicable, are presented for each type of neoplasia. This paper aims to provide a guide for equine practitioners when approaching to clinical cases with suspicion of hematopoietic neoplasia. PMID:24833969
MUÑOZ, Ana; RIBER, Cristina; TRIGO, Pablo; CASTEJÓN, Francisco
SAP is an adaptor mutated in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease. It plays a critical role in T helper 2 (TH2) cytokine production. This function was suggested to reflect the capacity of SAP to associate with SLAM family receptors and enable tyrosine phosphorylation signaling by these receptors through SAP-mediated recruitment of Src-related kinase FynT. Here, we addressed by genetic means the importance
Dominique Davidson; Xiaochu Shi; Shaohua Zhang; Hao Wang; Mona Nemer; Nobuyuki Ono; Shinji Ohno; Yusuke Yanagi; André Veillette
Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Graft Versus Host Disease; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms
FTY720-induced lymphocyte homing modulates post-transplant preservation\\/reperfusion injury.BackgroundA novel immunomodulator, FTY720, modulates lymphocyte migration to injured tissues via enhanced lymphocyte sequestration to secondary lymphoid organs. We tested whether or not single-dose FTY720 (0.5 mg\\/kg) pretreatment rescues renal grafts from post-transplant preservation\\/reperfusion injury.MethodsRat renal grafts were cold-preserved in University of Wisconsin (UW) solution for 4 hours and then transplanted into syngeneic or
DUSKA DRAGUN; TORSTEN BÖHLER; MELINA NIEMINEN-KELHÄ; JOHANNES WAISER; WOLFGANG SCHNEIDER; HERMANN HALLER; Friedrich C. Luft; KLEMENS BUDDE; HANS-HELLMUT NEUMAYER
Abstract Background. Hepatitis B and C viruses’ infections are often associated with hematological disorders in evolution, suggesting that these viruses have a tropism for peripheral blood and/or bone marrow cells. Aim. To analyze the hematological parameters and bone marrow findings in a group of patients diagnosed with chronic lymphoproliferative disorders (CLD) and hepatitis viruses B, C, D infections, which were included in the research grant (acronym LIMFO-VIR) between December 2007 and May 2010 in the Hematology Department of the Emergency University Hospital of Bucharest. Methods and results. Patients were diagnosed by using immunopathology according to the WHO criteria. The analyzed group included 42 patients (both sexes), with the mean age of 60,35 years. The most frequent hematologic disease was non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma 30/42 (71,42%), followed by chronic lymphocytic leukemia (16,66%) and Hodgkin’s lymphoma (7,14%). Hepatitis viruses were distributed: 17/42 (40,47%) patients with HBV, 22/42 (52,38%) with HCV and 3/42 (7,14%) had a double/triple association of viruses. Most of the patients had an indolent type of disease - 27/42 (64,28%), whereas 15/42 (35,71%) had an aggressive one, pattern found both in the HBV and HCV infected groups. An abnormal bone marrow result was revealed in 32/42 (76,19%) patients, 19 (59,37%) of them being HCV infected. Myelodysplasia was found in 6/42(14,28%) patients, the majority being HCV infected, all having an indolent form of CLD. The antiviral therapy did not influence the hematological parameters (no significant differences were found between the groups with/without an antiviral therapy). Discussions. Patients with hepatitis virus infections may associate neutropenia and thrombocytopenia; the mechanisms are thought to involve hypersplenism, autoimmune processes and antiviral therapy. We excluded the influence of chemotherapy, as the study was performed before the treatment. In our group, patients whether HBV or HCV infected, presented an isolated cytopenia. The abnormal bone marrow cellularity (increased or decreased) and dysplasia were found especially in the HCV group. There are studies showing no association between myelodysplasia and hepatitis viruses; others found a strong relation of these. One of the mechanisms of myelodysplasia could be a dysregulation of the immune system. Conclusions. Bone marrow/peripheral blood features correlate with the type of viral infection and HCV is more prone to develop additional hematological changes than HBV. The degree of bone marrow involvement by CLDs influences these features. We considered mandatory to perform a bone marrow analysis at the diagnosis of CLDs to stage and to establish if other bone marrow changes were present, a crucial aspect for therapy and outcome of the disease. The association between the hepatitis viruses – myelodysplasia- autoimmunity seems to have a role in the lymphoproliferative disorders etiology. Abbreviations: CLD – chronic lymphoproliferative disorders; NHL- non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, CLL- chronic lymphocytic leukemia, HL- Hodgkin’s lymphoma, MDS – myelodysplastic syndrome, AML – acute myeloid leukemia PMID:24868264
Ciufu, C; Arama, V; Bumbea, H; Dobrea, C; Ion, I; Vladareanu, AM
Alginate-polylysine (PLL) capsules are commonly applied for immunoisolation of living cells for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases. Large-scale application of the technique, however, is hampered by insufficient biocompatibility of the capsules with failure of the grafts as a consequence. Most studies addressing biocompatibility issues of alginate-PLL capsules have focused on the degree of overgrowth on the capsules after graft failure and not on the reaction against the capsules in the immediate posttransplant period. Therefore, capsules were implanted in the peritoneal cavity of rats and retrieved 1, 5, and 7 days later for histological examination and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis for evaluation of chemical changes at the capsule surface. After implantation, the nitrogen signal increased from 5% on day 0, to 8.6% on day 7, illustrating protein adsorption on the capsule's surface. This increase in protein content of the membrane was accompanied by an increase in the percentage of overgrown capsules from 0.5 +/- 0.3% on day 1 to 3.3 +/- 1.6% on day 7. The cellular overgrowth was composed of monocytes/macrophages, granulocytes, fibroblasts, erythrocytes, multinucleated giant cells, and basophils. This overgrowth was not statical as generally assumed but rather dynamic as illustrated by our observation that at day 1 after implantation we mainly found monocytes/macrophages and granulocytes that on later time points were substituted by fibroblasts. As the inflammatory reaction predictably interfere with survival of encapsulated cells, efforts should be made to suppress activities or recruitment of inflammatory cells. These efforts may be temporary rather than permanent because most inflammatory cells have disappeared after 2 weeks of implantation. PMID:12209929
de Vos, Paul; van Hoogmoed, Chris G; de Haan, Bart J; Busscher, Henk J
Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) still remains the main cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Moreover, patients who did not respond to first-line treatment with glucocorticosteroids have a very poor outcome. Some studies suggested that alemtuzumab (a humanized monoclonal antibody against the CD52 antigen) might be effective for treatment of refractory aGVHD. Here we report a single-center experience with alemtuzumab in refractory gastrointestinal aGVHD. From September 2009 to April 2012 at the Grenoble medical university center, 24 patients who had presented a refractory gastrointestinal aGVHD to corticosteroid, or after another immunosuppressive drug, were retrospectively analyzed. Most patients (n = 19) presented stage 4 gastrointestinal aGVHD. Response to treatment (either complete or partial) was observed in 15 patients (62.4%). The overall survival rate at 1 year for all patients was 33.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.9% to 51.9%) and for responders, 53.3% (95% CI, 26.3% to 74.4%). Two patients died from infection, 5 patients from recurrent GVHD, and 1 from an uncontrolled post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. PMID:24910381
Meunier, Mathieu; Bulabois, Claude Eric; Thiebaut-Bertrand, Anne; Itzykson, Raphaël; Carre, Martin; Carras, Sylvain; Garban, Fréderic; Cahn, Jean Yves
Next-generation sequencing techniques are powerful high-throughput methods that have enabled the comprehensive documentation of genetic lesions in numerous hematological malignancies. In recent times, the genomes of multiple different B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders including chronic lymphocytic leukemia, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, splenic marginal zone lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, hairy cell leukemia and Waldenström macroglobulinemia have been documented. Between them, these studies have reinforced and provided insight into the mechanisms for the dysregulation of known pathways (e.g. nuclear factor-?B [NF-?B]), uncovered the importance of new pathways for oncogenesis (e.g. mRNA processing), identified disease-defining mutations and provided meaningful new targets which are already being translated into therapeutic interventions. This review summarizes the molecular lesions that have been discovered in B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders thus far by studies utilizing high-throughput sequencing techniques and the aberrations in the numerous intracellular pathways that have been shown to be involved. PMID:23550993
Blombery, Piers A; Dickinson, Michael; Westerman, David A
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is an inherited disorder associated with defects in apoptosis, characterized by childhood onset of lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, hyperimmunoglobulinemia, and autoimmune disease. ALPS is most frequently associated with a mutation in the cell death receptor Fas (CD95). Very rarely a mutation in caspase 10 is present. An increase of CD4/CD8 double negative T cells in the peripheral blood and lymph nodes is a feature characteristic of ALPS. Additionally, histiocytic proliferations resembling sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman disease) were reported recently in patients with ALPS. In the rare cases with a caspase 10 mutation an accumulation of dendritic cells in lymphoid organs was noted. We describe a different, sarcoidosislike, histiocytic infiltration of lymph nodes that persisted for years in a girl, that was initially supposed to suffer from sarcoidosis, but was eventually diagnosed as ALPS, associated with a missense mutation in the intracellular death domain of Fas. This sarcoidosislike histologic picture extends the spectrum of histiocytic lymph node alterations observed in ALPS and alerts of a potential diagnostic pitfall. PMID:18223337
Müllauer, Leonhard; Emhofer, Josef; Wohlfart, Sabine; Pichlhöfer, Bettina; Stary, Susanne; Ebetsberger, Georg; Mannhalter, Christine; Chott, Andreas
Vasculitis is relatively uncommon in lymphoproliferative disease and may predate the diagnosis of lymphoproliferative disease. Many vasculitides have been associated with hairy cell leukemia (HCL), including polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) and leukocytoclastic vasculitis. We herein report a case whose initial presentation was like Behçet's disease (BD) (arthritis, oral and genital ulcerations, papulopustular skin lesions) in addition to pancytopenia, but turned out to have HCL. Because of the overlap between their symptoms, like oral ulcerations, skin lesions, arthritis and constitutional findings, HCL and BD may mimic each other. We should keep in mind other reasons for vasculitis such as lymphoproliferative disease, especially whose who have hematological abnormalities such as pancytopenia. PMID:24762098
Oksuz, Mustafa Ferhat; Coskun, Belkis Nihan; Tufan, Ayse Nur; Orucoglu, Nurdan; Dalkilic, Ediz; Oztürk Nazl?o?lu, Hülya; Pehlivan, Yavuz
The incidence of lymphoproliferative disorders (LD) is increasing in developed countries. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) exposed to thiopurines are at additional risk of three specific forms of LD: Epstein-Barr-Virus-related post-transplant like LD, hepato-splenic T-cell lymphoma and post-mononucleosis lymphoproliferation. The risk of the two latter forms of LD can be reduced when considering specific immunosuppressive strategies in young males. It is still unclear whether the risk of uterine cervix abnormalities is increased in IBD women, irrespective of the use of immunosuppressants. Given the excess risk demonstrated in various other contexts of immunosuppression, it is currently recommended that all women with IBD, particularly those receiving immunosuppressants, strictly adhere to a screening program of cervical surveillance and undergo vaccination against HPV, when appropriate. Patients with IBD receiving immunosuppressants are at increased risk of skin cancers. The risk of non-melanoma skin cancer is notably increased in patients receiving thiopurines. Recent data suggest that the risk of melanoma is mildly increased in patients exposed to anti-TNF therapy. All IBD patients should adhere to a program of sun protection and dermatological surveillance, whose details should take into account the other non-IBD-related risk factors. PMID:23721759
Magro, Fernando; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; Sokol, Harry; Aldeger, Xavier; Costa, Antonia; Higgins, Peter D; Joyce, Joel C; Katsanos, Konstantinos H; Lopez, Anthony; de Xaxars, Teresa Mas; Toader, Elena; Beaugerie, Laurent
Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (NLH) belongs to a very rare, mild, lymphoproliferative disease of unestablished aetiology historically included in the group of pseudolymphomas. Its existence was controversial for many years, until modern techniques of pathomorphological diagnosis approved it as a separate entity of lung disease. It manifests in the form of well limited nodules localized in the lungs, which are mostly identified accidentally. Clinical symptoms are rare and nonspecific; the disease usually occupies only one lung. Pathomorphological diagnosis requires immunohistochemical designation of expressions of numerous antigens in order to exclude malignant lymphoma of the lungs. Surgical resection is used in cases of larger nodules; the smaller ones require periodic observation, and the prognosis is good. The authors describe the case of 65-year-old woman with pulmonary nodules which were detected accidentally in the right lung. The patient was qualified for right-sided videothoracoscopy and removal of the lung nodule. In classic HE staining of the histological material, the presence of lymphoid infiltration of the lungs was revealed, which formed lymph follicles with reactive germinal centres. In order to differentiate from the malignant lymphatic expansion, immunohistochemical designations were made, which showed positive expression of CD20 antigen in the B cell zone, positive expression of the CD3 antigen in the T cells zone, positive expression of CD23 antigen in the lymph follicles, negative expression of bcl-2 in the lymph follicles, and positive expression of MIB-1 in the germinal centres of lymph follicles. Such a histopathological and immunohistochemical picture provided the basis for diagnosis of nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of the lung. PMID:23258474
Rogozi?ski, Pawe?; Bruli?ski, Krzysztof; Malinowski, Eugeniusz; Wandzel, Piotr; Kucharzewski, Marek
Although glucocorticoid therapy is considered to be the main pathogenic factor, a consistent body of evidence suggests that other immunosuppressants might also play an important role in the development of the post-transplant renal osteopathy (PRO) through their pleiotropic pharmacological effects. Glucocorticoids seem to induce osteoclasts' activity suppressing the osteoblasts while data regarding other immunosuppressive drugs are still controversial. Mycophenolate mofetil and azathioprine appear to be neutral regarding the bone metabolism. However, the study analyzing any independent effect of antimetabolites on bone turnover has not been conducted yet. Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) induce trabecular bone loss in rodent, with contradictory results in renal transplant recipients. Suppression of vitamin D receptor is probably the underlying mechanism of renal calcium wasting in renal transplant recipients receiving CNI. In spite of an increased 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D level, the kidney is not able to reserve calcium, suggesting a role of vitamin D resistance that may be related to bone loss. More efforts should be invested to determine the role of CNI in PRO. In particular, data regarding the role of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTORi), such as sirolimus and everolimus, in the PRO development are still controversial. Rapamycin markedly decreases bone longitudinal growth as well as callus formation in experimental models, but also lowers the rate of bone resorption markers and glomerular filtration in clinical studies. Everolimus potently inhibits primary mouse and human osteoclast activity as well as the osteoclast differentiation. It also prevents the ovariectomy-induced loss of cancellous bone by 60 %, an effect predominantly associated with a decreased osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, resulting in a partial preservation of the cancellous bone. At present, there is no clinical study analyzing the effect of everolimus on bone turnover in renal transplant recipients or comparing sirolimus versus everolimus impact on bone, so only general conclusions could be drawn. Hence, the use of mTORi might be useful in patients with PRO due to their possible potential to inhibit osteoclast activity which might lead to a decreased rate of bone resorption. In addition, it should be also emphasized that they might inhibit osteoblast activity which may lead to a decreased bone formation and adynamic bone disease. Further studies are urgently needed to solve these important clinical dilemmas. PMID:24217803
Blaslov, Kristina; Katalinic, Lea; Kes, Petar; Spasovski, Goce; Smalcelj, Ruzica; Basic-Jukic, Nikolina
Epstein Barr virus (EBV)-related hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (EBV-HLH) is a form of acquired, infection-related HLH which typically represents a fulminant presentation of an acute EBV infection of CD8+ T cells with 30-50% mortality rate. Systemic EBV-positive lymphoproliferative disease of childhood (SE-LPD) is a rare T cell lymphoproliferative disorder predominantly arising in the setting of acute EBV infection, often presenting with HLH. Since both entities have been associated with clonal T cell populations, the discrimination between these diseases is often ambiguous. We report a unique case of a 21 years old female who presented with clinical and laboratory findings of florid HLH in the setting of markedly elevated EBV titers (>1 million) and an aberrant T cell population shown to be clonal by flow cytometry, karyotype, and molecular studies. This case raises the differential of EBV-HLH versus SE-LPD. Review of the literature identified 74 cases of reported EBV-HLH and 21 cases of SE-LPD with associated HLH in 25 studies. Of those cases with available outcome data, 62 of 92 cases (67%) were fatal. Of 60 cases in which molecular clonality was demonstrated, 37 (62%) were fatal, while all 14 cases (100%) demonstrating karyotypic abnormalities were fatal. Given the karyotypic findings in this sentinel case, a diagnosis of SE-LPD was rendered. The overlapping clinical and pathologic findings suggest that EBV-HLH and SE-LPD are a biologic continuum, rather than discrete entities. The most clinically useful marker of mortality was an abnormal karyotype rather than other standards of clonality assessment. PMID:25337215
Smith, Megan C; Cohen, Daniel N; Greig, Bruce; Yenamandra, Ashwini; Vnencak-Jones, Cindy; Thompson, Mary Ann; Kim, Annette S
Three field studies were conducted to determine the selectivity on leeks (Allium porrum L.) of early post-transplant herbicides and their efficacy on weed populations and crop yields. Herbicide treatments were cinmethylin, metolachlor, oxyfluorfen, prodiamine, and pendimethalin. Both a non-treated and a weed-free control were added. The most common species were the broadleaved weeds Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk., Rorippa teres (Michx.)
James P. Gilreath; Bielinski M. Santos; Phyllis R. Gilreath; Donald N. Maynard
Three field studies were conducted to determine the selectivity on leeks (Allium porrum L.) of early post-transplant herbicides and their efficacy on weed populations and crop yields. Herbicide treatments were cinmethylin, metolachlor, oxyfluorfen, prodiamine, and pendimethalin. Both a non-treated and a weed-free control were added. The most common species were the broadleaved weeds Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk., Rorippa teres (Michx.)
James P. Gilreath; Bielinski M. Santos; Phyllis R. Gilreath; Donald N. Maynard
This article describes an eight-month pilot study in which 19 pediatric post-transplant patients at Children’s Hospital Boston, ages 11 to 15, used a computer-based psychosocial intervention developed on the Zora 3D multiuser environment. Zora provides tools to create an online virtual city and populate it with houses and personally-meaningful objects. Users can communicate with each other via real-time chat and
Marina U. Bers
Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are approved to treat anemia in patients with non-myeloid malignancies receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy. ESAs reduce transfusion rates, but some clinical studies suggest that ESAs may reduce survival or increase disease progression. This study-level meta-analysis examined the effects of darbepoetin alfa, epoetin alfa or epoetin beta on mortality, disease progression and transfusion incidence in patients with lymphoproliferative malignancies, using randomized, controlled trials of patients receiving chemotherapy and ESAs or standard of care. The odds ratio (OR) for mortality was 1.04 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81–1.34, random-effects model, 10 studies); the risk difference was ? 0.01 (95% CI, ? 0.03–0.02). The OR for disease progression was 1.02 (95% CI 0.81–1.30, random-effects model, five studies). A lower proportion of ESA-treated patients than controls received transfusions (seven studies). In this meta-analysis, ESAs reduced transfusions with no clear effect on mortality or disease progression in patients with lymphoproliferative malignancies receiving chemotherapy. PMID:22497574
We investigated for rearrangements of the immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy and light chain genes and of the T cell receptor? (TCRT?) andß (TCrß) genes 45 biopsy samples from a variety of lymphoproliferative disorders. They were diagnosed histopathologically and immunophenotypically as non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs) of the B cell type (19 cases), NHLs of the T cell type (3 cases), NHLs of “undetermined“
Antonino Carbone; Valli De Re; Annunziata Gloghini; Rachele Volpe; Manuela Tavian; Umberto Tirelli; Silvio Monfardini; Mauro Boiocchi
Castleman disease (CD) is a rare, benign, and usually systemic lymphoproliferative disorder. Unicentric Castleman disease of the pancreas is extremely rare, with only less than 10 cases described in the literature. We describe a case of an isolated peripancreatic localization of a plasma cell-type Castleman disease, its clinical presentation, the diagnostic evaluation, and the cure of disease by surgical excision. PMID:20079482
Charalabopoulos, Alexandre; Misiakos, Evangelos P; Foukas, Perikles; Tsapralis, Dimitrios; Charalampopoulos, Anestis; Liakakos, Theodore; Macheras, Anastasios
We report a case of posttransplant distal limb syndrome (PTDLS) representing a rare complication in kidney transplant recipients characterized by a pain syndrome of the distal extremities. A 68-year-old man with a history of kidney transplantation presented with symmetrical and incapacitating pain in the feet and knees and underwent whole-body Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) scintigraphy for further evaluation. Planar scintigraphy demonstrated marked tracer uptake in the distal femoral and tibial epiphyses, and magnetic resonance imaging showed corresponding osteoedema. Tc-MDP scintigraphy is a valuable tool for evaluation of the etiology of musculoskeletal pain and may demonstrate typical findings in case of PTDLS. PMID:24873782
Derlin, Thorsten; Busch, Jasmin D; Bannas, Peter
\\u000a Castleman’s disease (CD) is a rare, benign lymphoproliferative disorder of lymph nodes that was first described by Dr. Benjamin\\u000a Castleman in 1956. CD is also known as giant lymph node hyperplasia or angiofollicular hyperplasia.
Richard Flavin; Cara M. Martin; Orla Sheils; John James O’Leary
Screening of recipients and donors of cardiac allografts for infectious pathogens, and the use of appropriate immunization\\u000a and antimicrobial prophylaxis strategies, remain important for the control of infection following heart transplantation. However,\\u000a the risk of infectious complications in a particular patient must often be weighed against the risk of delaying or denying\\u000a allograft transplantation. In addition, the ongoing degree of
The splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) is a relatively rare chronic B lymphoproliferative disease, which primarily manifest increase of peripheral blood lymphocyte count and/or scale, and splenomegaly, while the peripheral superficial lymph nodes are often not swollen. Therefore, the splenectomy are usually needed to confirm the diagnosis, but the majority of patients could not accept such management, resulting in early difficult diagnosis. This study was purposed to explore the more prior way for diagnosis based flow cytometry (FCM). Six patients with suspected diagnosis of SMZL were used as research objects, 10 healthy bone marrow donors and 10 cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), 3 cases of hairy cell leukemia (HCL), 3 cases of lymphatic plasma cell lymphoma/Waldenströ's macroglobulinemia (LPL/WM) were selected as control. The immunophenotype of bone marrow cells were analyzed and compared by FCM using a panel of antibodies including CD45, CD5, CD10, CD19, CD20, CD22, CD23, CD25, CD103, CD11c, CD123, ?,?, Cyclin D1, and combined with bone marrow cell morphology. The results indicated that 6 cases of suspected SMZL showed a large increase of lymphocytes and splenomegaly. Because absence of peripheral lymphadenopathy, 6 patients did not suffer from lymph node biopsy, only 1 patient underwent diagnostic splenectomy. The immunophenotypes of bone marrow in patients and controls were analyzed by FCM, as a result, except for the healthy donors, varying degrees of abnormal mature B cell clones were found in bone marrow of all patients, and the further differentiation from other B-cell tumors was performed through CD5, CD10 expression and combination with other B-cell phenotype. All 6 cases of SMZL patients expressed CD19(+) and CD20(+), but CD10 expression was negative, 4 patients expressed CD5(-), 2 patients expressed CD5(+). The expressions of CD23, CD38, ZAP-70, CD11c, CD103, CD123, Cyclin D1 were negative. The morphological examination of bone marrow cells showed velutinous abnormal lymphocytes. Combined with clinical characteristics, 6 patients were diagnosed as SMZL, 1 patient suffered from splenectomy because of concurrent hypersplenism, and this postoperative pathologic examination confirmed the patient with SMZL. Ten cases of CLL mainly expressed CD5, CD23; 3 cases of HCL had more typical morphology of "hair like" in addition to CD11c, CD103 and CD123 positive; 3 cases of LPL/WM had significantly increased light chain restriction expression, IgM, plasmacytoid lymphocytes. It is concluded that the FCM immunophenotype analysis can be used as a powerful tools for clinical diagnosis of SMZL. PMID:24763004
Hu, Yang; Chen, Yan; Wang, Li-Hua; Chen, Xue; Fang, Fang; Liu, Shi-Qin; Wu, Xue-Qiang; Zhu, Ping
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a rare inherited disorder characterized by defective function of Fas, autoimmune manifestations that predominantly involve blood cells, polyclonal accumulation of lymphocytes in the spleen and lymph nodes with lymphoadenomegaly and\\/or splenomegaly, and expansion of TCR??+ CD4\\/CD8 double-negative (DN) T cells in the peripheral blood. Most frequently, it is due to Fas gene mutations, causing
Elisa Cerutti; Maria F Campagnoli; Massimo Ferretti; Emanuela Garelli; Nicoletta Crescenzio; Angelo Rosolen; Annalisa Chiocchetti; Michael J Lenardo; Ugo Ramenghi; Umberto Dianzani
Summary A newly described herpes virus, human herpes virus 6, (HHV-6), has been linked to exanthema subitum but beyond this its pathogenetic\\u000a impact remains to be determined. A large body of evidence links it to various lymphoproliferative disorders and this study\\u000a was conducted to identify forms of lymphoproliferation linked to HHV-6. We studied biopsy samples from 32 patients with disorders\\u000a of
Bettina Borisch; Klaus Ellinger; Frank Neipel; Bernhard Fleckenstein; Thomas Kirchner; Maria Michaela Ott; Hans Konrad Miiller-Hermelink
Lymphoproliferative response (LPR) was studied in 19 lambs orally infected (Group I) with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) with in vitro lymphocyte stimulation test using MTT dye reduction assay. The non-specific LPR against Con A and specific LPR against sonicated\\u000a antigen and johnin PPD (purified protein derivatives) were estimated on preinfection (0 day) and various days postinfection\\u000a period (15 to
N. P. Kurade; B. N. Tripathi
Class III beta-tubulin (TUBB3) expression in carcinoma is associated with resistance to tubulin-binding chemotherapeutic agents. Recently, follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) were reported to express TUBB3 under physiologic conditions. We investigated TUBB3 expression in a wide range of lymphoproliferative disorders using immunohistochemistry. Dual immunostaining for Bcl-6 and TUBB3 revealed that some germinal center B cells also express TUBB3 in addition to FDCs. In Hodgkin lymphomas (HLs), 47.1% (40/85) expressed TUBB3 in the tumor cells with an all-or-none pattern. TUBB3 expression in HL was more common in mixed cellularity type than nodular sclerosis type (P=0.032). Among non-HLs, 79.3% (23/29) of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), 8% (2/25) of extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, and 75% (21/28) of Burkitt lymphoma showed TUBB3 expression with an all-or-none pattern. Of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, 15.2% (32/210) expressed TUBB3 in a heterogeneous pattern. In ALCL, TUBB3 expression was more common in systemic ALCL than in primary cutaneous ALCL (P=0.046). Diffuse large B-cell lymphomas with a germinal center B-like subgroup exhibited TUBB3 expression more frequently than non-GCB-like subgroup (P=0.01). Otherwise, none of the 18 angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphomas; 18 peripheral T-cell lymphomas, not otherwise specified; 12 follicular lymphomas; 62 marginal zone lymphomas; 7 mantle cell lymphomas; 8 small lymphocytic lymphomas; or 2 FDC sarcomas expressed TUBB3. In angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma and Castleman disease, TUBB3 was positive in immunoblasts corresponding to Epstein-Barr virus-infected or Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus-infected cells. A variety of neoplastic and non-neoplastic lymphoproliferative disorders exhibited characteristic TUBB3 expression patterns; these results suggest potential for diagnostic utility, some insight into the pathobiology of TUBB3 expression, and potential therapeutic implications. PMID:20220512
Yoon, Sun Och; Kim, Wook Youn; Go, Heounjeong; Paik, Jin Ho; Kim, Ji Eun; Kim, Young A; Huh, Joo R; Jeon, Yoon Kyung; Kim, Chul-Woo
Malignancies that result in wheezing in infants are very uncommon. Given its rarity in children, the diagnosis is challenging, and in the absence of a high index of suspicion, delayed diagnosis is not uncommon. Here we report two male siblings of children who presented with recurrent wheezing and recurrent lung infections since infancy. Both children showed no laboratory evidence of immunodeficiency. Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia or hypersensitivity pneumonitis was histologically suspected in lung biopsy specimens from the older brother. He subsequently developed Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and died. Based on the family history, we screened mutations among PRF1, Munc13-4, STX11, SH2D1A, and XIAP genes for the younger brother, but did not identify any mutations. He also underwent lung biopsy, which showed interstitial infiltration of lymphoid cells. In situ hybridization for EBV-encoded RNA showed a positive nuclear signal in the lymphoid cells. The presence of clonal B-cell proliferations was detected by clonally rearranged immunoglobulin studies. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis grade 3 was finally diagnosed. The progression of disease was rapid, and the patient died, despite rituximab therapy. The similar clinical manifestations in two male siblings suggest the possibility that a previously undescribed genetic defect contributed to these familial lymphoproliferative malignancies. PMID:24934116
Chen, Shih-Hsiang; Hsia, Shao-Hsuan; Lin, Jainn-Jim; Wong, Kin-Sun; Wang, Chih-Wei; Shih, Lee-Yung; Lee, Wen-I
Concurrent manifestation of two chronic-stage myeloid and lymphoid/plasmacytoid neoplasms in one patient is rare and occurs in ?1% of patients. There has been no systematic analysis of which combinations are frequent/infrequent and whether two concurrent diseases in one patient are clonally related or represent independent diseases. We therefore characterised a series of cases from our own archive (n = 65) and collected a large number of previously reported cases of patients in whom myeloid and lymphoid/plasmacytoid neoplasms co-occurred (n = 185). The most frequent combination was Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasm with concurrent B cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, accounting for approximately 50% of double-disease patients. We compared the quantity of unsorted bone marrow cell-derived JAK2(V617F) and KIT(D816V) alleles with the quantity of the lymphoid/plasmacytoid compartment and analysed a subfraction of cases with fluorescence in situ hybridisation. Although a common aberrant progenitor has been reported in some cases in the literature, we found evidence of two independent chronic-stage myeloid and lymphoid/plasmacytoid neoplasms. PMID:23257916
Hauck, Gesa; Jonigk, Danny; Kreipe, Hans; Hussein, Kais
Methotrexate (MTX)-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (B-LPD) may first present in the skin, but their clinicopathologic features are still ill defined. Differentiation from primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma and primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg type (PCLBCL-LT) is important, as MTX-associated B-LPD may show spontaneous regression after withdrawal of MTX therapy. In the present study, the clinicopathologic and phenotypical features of 10 patients with MTX-associated B-LPD first presenting in the skin, including 5 EBV(+) and 5 EBV(-) cases, were investigated. Six patients had skin-limited disease. Clinically, abrogation of MTX therapy resulted in a complete response in 4 cases and a partial response in another 2. The 5-year disease-specific survival was 90%. MTX-associated B-LPD differed from primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma by the presence of ulcerating and/or generalized skin lesions, an infiltrate composed of centroblasts/immunoblasts rather than large centrocytes, reduced staining for CD79a, and expression of BCL2, IRF4, and FOXP1 in most cases. EBV(+) MTX-associated B-LPD differed from PCLBCL-LT by the presence ulcerative skin lesions, marked tumor cell polymorphism, reduced staining for CD79a, and expression of CD30 and EBV. EBV(-) cases showed morphologic and immunophenotypical similarities to PCLBCL-LT but differed by presentation with generalized skin lesions in 4 of 5 cases. The results of this study, showing a relatively good clinical outcome and spontaneous disease regression after only withdrawal of MTX in a considerable proportion of patients, underscores the importance of a careful wait-and-see policy before considering more aggressive therapies in patients with MTX-associated B-LPD of the skin. PMID:24805861
Koens, Lianne; Senff, Nancy J; Vermeer, Maarten H; Willemze, Rein; Jansen, Patty M
In-utero exposure to HIV-1 may affect the immune system of the developing child and may induce HIV-1-specific immune responses, even in the absence of HIV-1 infection. We evaluated lymphoproliferative capacity at birth among 40 HIV-1-uninfected infants born to HIV-1-infected mothers and 10 infants who had acquired HIV-1 in utero. Cord blood mononuclear cells were assayed using [(3) H]-thymidine incorporation for proliferation in response to HIV-1 p55-gag and the control stimuli phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), Staphylococcus enterotoxin B (SEB) and allogeneic cells. In response to HIV-1 p55-gag, eight (20%) HIV-1-exposed, uninfected (EU) infants had a stimulation index (SI) ??2 and three (30%) in-utero?HIV-1 infected infants had SI ?2. The frequency and magnitude of responses to HIV-1 p55-gag were low overall, and did not differ statistically between groups. However, proliferative responses to control stimuli were significantly higher in EU infants than in infants infected in utero, with a median SI in response to PHA of 123 [interquartile range (IQR) 77-231] versus 18 (IQR 4-86) between EU and infected infants, respectively (P?0·001). Among infected infants, gestational maturity was associated with the strength of HIV-1 p55-gag response (P?0·001); neither maternal nor infant HIV-1 viral load was associated. In summary, EU and HIV-1-infected infants mounted HIV-1-specific lymphoproliferative responses at similar rates (20-30%), and although global immune function was preserved among EU infants, neonatal immune responses were significantly compromised by HIV-1 infection. Such early lymphoproliferative compromise may, in part, explain rapid progression to AIDS and death among HIV-1-infected infants. PMID:24853045
Lohman-Payne, B; Sandifer, T; OhAinle, M; Crudder, C; Lynch, J; Omenda, M M; Maroa, J; Fowke, K; John-Stewart, G C; Farquhar, C
We describe a patient with acquired von Willebrand's disease and Waldenström's macroglobulinemia. He suffered from an acquired tendency to bleed. The laboratory findings were identical to those of congenital von Willebrand's disease. The acquired form of this bleeding disorder is seen in association with immunologically active B cell lymphomas, certain other malignant tumours, and autoimmune diseases. The incidence and prevalence are unknown, but this disorder is probably uncommon. We discuss possible pathogenetic mechanisms. Acquired von Willebrand's disease should be considered in patients with an acquired tendency to bleed, especially if the patient also has a lymphoproliferative, neoplastic, or autoimmune disease. PMID:8332973
Berentsen, S; Hammerstrøm, J
Vaccination with an inactivated, whole cell, Q fever vaccine (Q-vax) induces lasting antibody conversion and a positive delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin reaction in about 60% of recipients but a long-lasting positive lymphoproliferative or mitogenic response to C. burnetii antigens with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in 85-95% of subjects. Analysis of the lymphoproliferative response to C. burnetii antigens has now been made by fractionation-reconstitution experiments with PBMC from vaccines, from past infections, and from healthy controls. The major contributor to the response in immune subjects proved to be the T lymphocyte. T cells were stimulated by both the phase I and phase II antigens of two prototype strains of C. burnetii and responses were greatly amplified by addition of IL-2. Similar T lymphocyte stimulation profiles were obtained with the 'Priscilla' strain of C. burnetii which represents a different biotype of Coxiella isolated from Q fever endocarditis; Q-vax is therefore likely to protect against endocarditis strains. Fractionation-reconstitution experiments with T and B cells from vaccines and subjects infected in the past, using various antigenic or haptenic fractions from C. burnetii indicate that protein, non-lipopolysaccharide components of the organism are responsible for the mitogenic response of immune T cells. However, the role of the lipopolysaccharide in the protective immunogen has still to be defined. PMID:2070564
Izzo, A A; Marmion, B P; Hackstadt, T
... higher-than-average risk of developing lymphoma, or cancer of the lymph nodes. In the current study, the researchers found that this increased risk is even greater than they had reported originally in 2001. Ten of the 150 ALPS-FAS patients developed Hodgkin’s ...
Bleeding and thrombosis are important complications in patients with malignant lymphomas. They may be due to direct actions of the lymphoma, such as venous compression or bone marrow infiltration, but they may also be caused by paraneoplastic phenomena, which are immune-mediated in most of the cases. The most important paraneoplastic immune-mediated disorders in lymphomas causing bleeding are autoimmune thrombocytopenia, acquired hemophilia A and acquired von Willebrand syndrome. In addition, there are a variety of other less common immune-mediated bleeding conditions, such as acquired thrombasthenia, acquired factor X-, V-, XI-, XII-, or prothrombin deficiency. The presence of antiphospholipid antibodies is a rare condition predisposing to venous and arterial thrombosis and there are other very uncommon conditions, which predispose exclusively to arterial thrombosis such as hyperlipidemic xanthomatosis. Interestingly, there is hardly any correlation between the histological type and the aggressiveness of lymphoma and the type and prevalence of the immune-mediated conditions. Successful treatment of the underlying lymphoma is often associated with definite and sustained resolution of the immune-mediated disorder. PMID:24615692
Lechner, Klaus; Pabinger, Ingrid; Obermeier, Hanna Lena; Knoebl, Paul
A laboratory and clinical evaluation of 24 patients with hairy cell leukemia was carried out over a 23-month period. Most patients had splenomegaly without adenopathy or pancyotpenia. Nine of the patients had undergone splenectomy prior to referral; their median WBC count was 6600\\/mmÂ³. The median WBC count for the 14 patients who had no prior therapy was 3550\\/mmÂ³, and their
Harvey M. Golomb
Tissue sections of frozen biopsy specimens obtained from normal and hyperplastic human lymphoid tissues, 33 cases of non-Hodgkin lymphomas as well as various forms of immunoregulatory disorders (angioimmunoblastic and dermatopathic lymphadenopathy) were analysed in immunofluorescence tests (using red TRITC and green FITC double-labelling). A panel of antisera including well-characterized conventional reagents to immunoglobulin classes, T lymphoid and Ia-like antigens, and
G Janossy; J A Thomas; G Pizzolo; S M Granger; J McLaughlin; J A Habeshaw; A G Stansfeld; J Sloane
Tissue sections of frozen biopsy specimens obtained from normal and hyperplastic human lymphoid tissues, 33 cases of non-Hodgkin lymphomas as well as various forms of immunoregulatory disorders (angioimmunoblastic and dermatopathic lymphadenopathy) were analysed in immunofluorescence tests (using red TRITC and green FITC double-labelling). A panel of antisera including well-characterized conventional reagents to immunoglobulin classes, T lymphoid and Ia-like antigens, and monoclonal antibodies was used. In selected cases the results were compared with the observations of membrane-marker staining on viable cells in suspension. the findings show that the immunological methods can give a very accurate analysis of the normal and malignant lymphoid cells, and can provide complementary information to conventional histology. The investigator can choose the reagent combinations which give answers to various specific questions: e.g. antisera to light chains establish the monoclonality of lymphomas, whilst staining combinations for human T and Ia-like antigens are particularly useful in various immunoregulatory disorders. Monoclonal antibodies will be particularly useful in various immunoregulatory disorders. Monoclonal antibodies will be particularly useful reagents for analysing the tissue distribution of lymphoid subpopulations and ancillary cells in tissue biopsy specimens. PMID:6775656
Janossy, G; Thomas, J A; Pizzolo, G; Granger, S M; McLaughlin, J; Habeshaw, J A; Stansfeld, A G; Sloane, J
Castleman disease (CD) is an uncommon lymphoproliferative dis- order and is especially rare in the retroperitoneum or perirenal area. We report the case of a 42-year-old woman in whom we found on routine physical examination a mass localized in the right abdomen without clinically important constitutional symptoms for 30 days. Abdominal ultrasound, magnetic resonance images and computed tomography scans revealed
Peng Bo; Zheng Junhua; Gao Qiruo; Li Hong
The lymphoproliferative response and T lymphocyte subsets were evaluated at different stages of carcinogenesis in male Wistar rats sequentially initiated with N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN), N-butyl-N-4(hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN), N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), dihydroxy-di-N-propylnitrosamine (DHPN) and N,N?-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) (DMBDD initiation). One group was evaluated at the 4th week and other initiated group at the 30th week. Two initiated groups were also exposed through diet to 2-acetylaminofluorene
Ana Lúcia Tozzi Spinardi-Barbisan; Ramon Kaneno; Maria Aparecida Marchesan Rodrigues; Daisy Maria Fávero Salvadori; Eduardo Luiz Trindade Moreira; Lu??s Fernando Barbisan; João Lauro Viana de Camargo
Background: Studies have shown an association between electromagnetic fieldsandchildhoodleukaemia.Theaimofthisstudywastodeterminewhether there is an increased risk of lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) or myelopro- liferative disorders (MPD) associated with residence 300 m from high-voltage power lines. Methods: Case-control study of 854 patients diagnosed with LPD or MPD (including leukaemia, lymphoma and related conditions) aged 0-94 years comprising all cases diagnosed in Tasmania between 1972
R. M. Lowenthal; D. M. Tuck; I. C. Bray
Leukemic B-chronic lymphoproliferative disorders (B-CLPDs) are generally be- lieved to derive from a monoclonal B cell; biclonality has only occasionally been reported. In this study, we have explored the incidence of B-CLPD cases with 2 or more B-cell clones and established both the phenotypic differences between the coexisting clones and the clinicobiologic features of these patients. In total, 53 B-CLPD
Maria-Luz Sanchez; Julia Almeida; David Gonzalez; Marcos Gonzalez; Maria-Antonia Garcia-Marcos; Ana Balanzategui; Maria-Consuelo Lopez-Berges; Josep Nomdedeu; Teresa Vallespi; Marcos Barbon; Alejandro Martin; Pilar de la Fuente; Guillermo Martin-Nunez; Javier Fernandez-Calvo; Jesus-Maria Hernandez; Jesus F. San Miguel; Alberto Orfao
The sialic-acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin SIGLEC-G is a negative regulator of B-cell receptor-mediated calcium signaling. Its deficiency leads to reduced turnover and increased proliferation and survival of murine B-1a cells. Siglecg(-/-) mice show a premature expansion of polyclonal CD5(+) B cells in the spleen and the peritoneal cavity. Here we studied the fate of B lymphocytes in Siglecg(-/-) mice over time. We demonstrate that in aging animals SIGLEC-G deficiency promotes progressive accumulation of monoclonal B lymphocytes and increases the susceptibility to develop B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. Lymphoid tumors arising in aged Siglecg(-/-) mice are monoclonal and histologically heterogeneous as they include diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, and medium-to-large B-cell monomorphic lymphoma but surprisingly not chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The tumors express high levels of BCL-2 and are transplantable. In keeping with these findings we have also observed a remarkable down-regulation of the human ortholog SIGLEC10 in human B-cell lymphoma and leukemia cell lines. Taken together, these observations indicate that the down-regulation of negative B-cell receptor regulators such as SIGLEC-G/SIGLEC10 may represent another mechanism relevant to the pathogenesis of B-cell lymphomas. PMID:24859880
Simonetti, Giorgia; Bertilaccio, Maria Teresa Sabrina; Rodriguez, Tania Veliz; Apollonio, Benedetta; Dagklis, Antonis; Rocchi, Martina; Innocenzi, Anna; Casola, Stefano; Winkler, Thomas H; Nitschke, Lars; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Caligaris-Cappio, Federico; Ghia, Paolo
The purine analogs, fludarabine nucleoside (FdA), and cladribine (CdA) (1??M, 24 hours), significantly changed the levels of some surface antigens on the human B-cell lines MEC2 and Raji. Changes in the surface proteins were identified using a Cluster of Differentiation (CD) antibody microarray that captures live cells and confirmed by flow cytometry. For Raji cells, CdA up-regulated CD10, CD54, CD80, and CD86, with repression of CD22, while FdA up-regulated CD20, CD54, CD80, CD86 and CD95. For MEC2 cells, CdA up-regulated CD11a, CD20, CD43, CD45, CD52, CD54, CD62L, CD80, CD86, and CD95, but FdA had no effect. Up-regulation of particular CD antigens induced on a B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder by a purine analog could provide targets for therapeutic antibodies with synergistic cell killing. PMID:22084681
Cassano, Carlos; Mactier, Swetlana; Mulligan, Stephen P.; Belov, Larissa; Huang, Pauline; Christopherson, Richard I.
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is characterized by childhood onset of lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, autoimmune cytopenias, elevated numbers of double-negative T (DNT) cells, and increased risk of lymphoma. Most cases of ALPS are associated with germline mutations of the FAS gene (type Ia), whereas some cases have been noted to have a somatic mutation of FAS primarily in their DNT cells. We sought to determine the proportion of patients with somatic FAS mutations among a group of our ALPS patients with no detectable germline mutation and to further characterize them. We found more than one-third (12 of 31) of the patients tested had somatic FAS mutations, primarily involving the intracellular domain of FAS resulting in loss of normal FAS signaling. Similar to ALPS type Ia patients, the somatic ALPS patients had increased DNT cell numbers and elevated levels of serum vitamin B12, interleukin-10, and sFAS-L. These data support testing for somatic FAS mutations in DNT cells from ALPS patients with no detectable germline mutation and a similar clinical and laboratory phenotype to that of ALPS type Ia. These findings also highlight the potential role for somatic mutations in the pathogenesis of nonmalignant and/or autoimmune hematologic conditions in adults and children. PMID:20360470
Niemela, Julie E.; Price, Susan; Davis, Joie; Hornung, Ronald L.; Oliveira, Joao Bosco; Puck, Jennifer M.; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Pittaluga, Stefania; Cohen, Jeffrey I.; Fleisher, Thomas A.; Rao, V. Koneti
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is characterized by childhood onset of lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, autoimmune cytopenias, elevated numbers of double-negative T (DNT) cells, and increased risk of lymphoma. Most cases of ALPS are associated with germline mutations of the FAS gene (type Ia), whereas some cases have been noted to have a somatic mutation of FAS primarily in their DNT cells. We sought to determine the proportion of patients with somatic FAS mutations among a group of our ALPS patients with no detectable germline mutation and to further characterize them. We found more than one-third (12 of 31) of the patients tested had somatic FAS mutations, primarily involving the intracellular domain of FAS resulting in loss of normal FAS signaling. Similar to ALPS type Ia patients, the somatic ALPS patients had increased DNT cell numbers and elevated levels of serum vitamin B(12), interleukin-10, and sFAS-L. These data support testing for somatic FAS mutations in DNT cells from ALPS patients with no detectable germline mutation and a similar clinical and laboratory phenotype to that of ALPS type Ia. These findings also highlight the potential role for somatic mutations in the pathogenesis of nonmalignant and/or autoimmune hematologic conditions in adults and children. PMID:20360470
Dowdell, Kennichi C; Niemela, Julie E; Price, Susan; Davis, Joie; Hornung, Ronald L; Oliveira, João Bosco; Puck, Jennifer M; Jaffe, Elaine S; Pittaluga, Stefania; Cohen, Jeffrey I; Fleisher, Thomas A; Rao, V Koneti
The sialic-acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin SIGLEC-G is a negative regulator of B-cell receptor-mediated calcium signaling. Its deficiency leads to reduced turnover and increased proliferation and survival of murine B-1a cells. Siglecg?/? mice show a premature expansion of polyclonal CD5+ B cells in the spleen and the peritoneal cavity. Here we studied the fate of B lymphocytes in Siglecg?/? mice over time. We demonstrate that in aging animals SIGLEC-G deficiency promotes progressive accumulation of monoclonal B lymphocytes and increases the susceptibility to develop B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. Lymphoid tumors arising in aged Siglecg?/? mice are monoclonal and histologically heterogeneous as they include diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, and medium-to-large B-cell monomorphic lymphoma but surprisingly not chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The tumors express high levels of BCL-2 and are transplantable. In keeping with these findings we have also observed a remarkable down-regulation of the human ortholog SIGLEC10 in human B-cell lymphoma and leukemia cell lines. Taken together, these observations indicate that the down-regulation of negative B-cell receptor regulators such as SIGLEC-G/SIGLEC10 may represent another mechanism relevant to the pathogenesis of B-cell lymphomas. PMID:24859880
Simonetti, Giorgia; Bertilaccio, Maria Teresa Sabrina; Rodriguez, Tania Veliz; Apollonio, Benedetta; Dagklis, Antonis; Rocchi, Martina; Innocenzi, Anna; Casola, Stefano; Winkler, Thomas H.; Nitschke, Lars; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Caligaris-Cappio, Federico; Ghia, Paolo
Allogeneic haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation with reduced intensity conditioning for advanced stage Hodgkin's lymphoma in Sweden: high incidence of post transplant lymphoproliferative disorder.
Allogeneic transplantation after reduced intensity conditioning (allo-RIC) is a treatment option for patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) relapsing after autologous transplantation. In all, 23 adult patients with HL underwent allo-RIC in Sweden between 2000 and 2007. The median number of previous treatment lines was five and 20 patients (87%) were previously autografted. TRM at 100 days and at 1 year was 13 and 22% respectively. Acute GVHD grades II-IV developed in 7 out of 23 patients (30%) and chronic GVHD in 10 out of 20 patients at risk (50%). The OS and EFS at three years was 59 and 27%, respectively. Four patients (17%) developed post transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) after a median time of 55 days (range 38-95); two of these patients later died. The study confirmed that allo-RIC is feasible, but associated with a substantial relapse rate: only 20% of the patients were still alive 7 years after the transplant. A finding of high incidence of PTLD needs to be confirmed in a larger trial that includes patients with non-HL and CLL. PMID:20956959
Johansson, J E; Remberger, M; Lazarevic, V Lj; Hallböök, H; Wahlin, A; Kimby, E; Juliusson, G; Omar, H; Hägglund, H
A considerable proportion of cases of myeloproliferative and lymphoproliferative disorders exhibit renal involvement. However, it is unclear whether the cytologic features, immunophenotype or grade of malignancy of the cells infiltrating the kidney differ from those of the primary tumor. This study was performed on 120 autopsy cases with the following diagnoses: acute myelogenous leukemia (AML, n = 22; subtypes M1 + M2, n = 12, subtype M4, n = 10), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML, n = 7), agnogenic myeloid metaplasia/myelofibrosis (AMM/MF, n = 6), acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL, n = 6), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, n = 9), other low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (low-grade NHL, n = 24), high-grade NHL (n = 21) and multiple myeloma (MM, n = 25). Renal involvement was investigated by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. It was found in 34% of the cases, and was most common in ALL (83%) and low-grade NHL (50%) and least common in high-grade NHL (10%) and MM (12%). Dense infiltration of almost the entire kidney was most commonly seen in AML, low-grade NHL and ALL. Infiltration was bilateral and involved both the cortex and medulla in the majority of cases. When involvement of other organs was compared with that of the kidney, the lung was found to be involved in approximately the same number of cases, but liver involvement was more common and heart involvement less common. Reactive lymphocytic infiltration of the kidney was found in 18 of the 120 cases (15%), and was distinguished from scanty tumorous infiltration by immunohistochemical staining. No major phenotypical differences were found between the tumor cells infiltrating the kidney and those of the primary tumors in the bone marrow or lymph nodes. However, in one case of CML, the cells infiltrating the kidney were negative for KP1 and chloroacetate esterase, but could be identified by reactivity for CD34. The grade of malignancy in NHL was similar in both the nodal and renal manifestations. PMID:9065578
Xiao, J C; Walz-Mattmüller, R; Ruck, P; Horny, H P; Kaiserling, E
In up to 5-15% of studies of lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD), flow cytometry (FCM) or immunomorphologic methods cannot discriminate malignant from reactive processes. The aim of this work was to determine the usefulness of PCR for solving these diagnostic uncertainties. We analyzed IGH and TCR? genes by PCR in 106 samples with inconclusive FCM results. A clonal result was registered in 36/106 studies, with a LPD being confirmed in 27 (75%) of these cases. Specifically, 9/9 IGH clonal and 16/25 TCR? clonal results were finally diagnosed with LPD. Additionally, two clonal TCR? samples with suspicion of undefined LPD were finally diagnosed with T LPD. Although polyclonal results were obtained in 47 of the cases studied (38 IGH and nine TCR?), hematologic neoplasms were diagnosed in 4/38 IGH polyclonal and in 1/9 TCR? polyclonal studies. There were also 14 PCR polyclonal results (four IGH, 10 TCR?), albeit nonconclusive. Of these, 2/4 were eventually diagnosed with B-cell lymphoma and 3/10 with T-cell LPD. In eight IGH samples, the results of PCR techniques were noninformative but in 3/8 cases a B lymphoma was finally confirmed. We concluded that PCR is a useful technique to identify LPD when FCM is inconclusive. A PCR clonal B result is indicative of malignancy but IGH polyclonal and nonconclusive results do not exclude lymphoid neoplasms. Interpretation of T-cell clonality should be based on all the available clinical and analytical data. PMID:23943305
Ribera, Jordi; Zamora, Lurdes; Juncà, Jordi; Rodríguez, Inés; Marcé, Silvia; Cabezón, Marta; Millá, Fuensanta
Most humans with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) carry heterozygous dominant mutations in one allele of the gene encoding Fas/APO-1/CD95. ALPS patients, like Fas-deficient MRL lpr/lpr mice, have lymphoproliferation, autoimmunity, increased CD4(-)/CD8(-) T lymphocytes, and apoptosis defects. Consistent with the phenotypic variability of lpr/lpr mice of different background strains, human genetic studies indicate that a Fas mutation is insufficient to induce ALPS in all mutation carriers. To investigate the dominant function of human Fas mutations and the additional genetic factor(s) involved in the development of ALPS, we generated transgenic mice expressing, in addition to endogenous Fas, mouse Fas molecules bearing mutations in the intracellular death domain corresponding to mutations identified in ALPS patients. Transgenic mice developed mild features of ALPS, including hepatosplenomegaly, elevated proportions of lymphocytes in spleen and lymph nodes, apoptotic defects, and hepatic lymphocytic infiltrates. Therefore defective murine Fas proteins act in a dominant manner to impair apoptosis of activated lymphocytes and disrupt lymphocyte homeostasis. The influence of genetic background on phenotype was studied by comparing transgenic mice on FVB/N and (FVB/N x MRL) backgrounds with syngenetic control mice and with MRL and MRL lpr/lpr mice. While expression of transgenic mutant Fas contributed mainly to hepatosplenomegaly and accumulation of lymphocytes, MRL background genes played a major role in the production of autoantibodies and elevated serum immunoglobulin levels. Moreover, compared to FVB/N (+/+) mice, a substantial Fas-specific apoptotic defect was found in MRL (+/+) mice, suggesting a mechanism for the known tendency of this strain to develop autoimmunity. PMID:10497009
Choi, Y; Ramnath, V R; Eaton, A S; Chen, A; Simon-Stoos, K L; Kleiner, D E; Erikson, J; Puck, J M
It was recently demonstrated that classification of posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PT-LPDs) into morphological and molecular categories is clinically relevant. It was also reported that PT-LPD not associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) had a more aggressive course than most lesions associated with EBV. Because the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16/INK4a has been reported to be frequently inactivated in high-grade lymphomas, we evaluated 17 PT-LPD to determine whether p16/INK4a expression could be correlated to morphology, EBV detection, and a Ki-67 labeling index. We demonstrated that tumors with no p16/INK4a expression (n = 8) had a predominantly monomorphic appearance, and most were EBV negative (respectively, 7/8 and 5/8), whereas lesions with p16/INK4a expression (n = 9) were mostly polymorphic PT-LPD (6/9) (P = 0.049) and associated with EBV (9/9) (P = 0.015). In particular, strong p16/INK4a expression was observed in atypical immunoblasts and Reed-Sternberg-like cells. Furthermore, the proliferation index was significantly higher in tumors lacking p16/INK4a expression than in other lesions (P = 0.0008). In conclusion, down-regulation of p16/INK4a was mostly observed in PT-LPD lesions known to follow more aggressive courses: monomorphic tumors and EBV-negative PT-neoplasms. Conversely, overexpression of p16/INK4a was associated with EBV-positive PT-LPD. While p16/INK4a might play a role in the proliferative rate of LP-LPD, further investigations are needed to assess the clinical relevance of p16/INK4a expression in predicting the evolution of tumors and to explain how EBV could favor p16/INK4a protein accumulation in lesions. PMID:10793069
Martin, Antoine; Baran-Marzak, Fanny; El Mansouri, Said; Legendre, Christophe; Leblond, Veronique; Charlotte, Frederic; Davi, Frederic; Canioni, Danielle; Raphael, Martine
Thrombocytopenia is a frequent complication following HSCT in pediatric patients. Romiplostim is a TPO receptor agonist that has been utilized successfully in the treatment of pediatric patients with immune thrombocytopenia. We describe a three-yr-old male with X-linked CGD treated with an unrelated donor bone marrow transplant. His course was complicated by the development of symptomatic thrombocytopenia. He was started on romiplostim with prompt improvement in his thrombocytopenia. We found the use of romiplostim to be an effective and safe alternative to the potential complications as well as morbidity and mortality associated with the use of immunosuppressive agents such as corticosteroids. PMID:25118016
Buchbinder, David; Hsieh, Loan; Krance, Robert; Nugent, Diane J
Undetectable hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA [RNA(?)] before liver transplantation (OLT) has been shown to decrease the rates of disease recurrence. We sought to determine whether RNA(?) subjects differ in post-OLT recurrence (virological\\/VR, histological\\/HR), graft failure (GF), or patient survival from RNA(+) patients using a retrospective review. From 1995 to 2004, a total of 49 patients were RNA(?) at OLT
C. G. Nudo; R. A. Cortes; D. Weppler; E. R. Schiff; A. G. Tzakis; A. Regev
Marek's disease virus (MDV) causes an acute lymphoproliferative disease in chickens, resulting in T cell lymphomas in visceral organs and peripheral nerves. Earlier studies have determined that the repeat regions of oncogenic serotype 1 MDV encode a basic leucine zipper protein, Meq, which structurally resembles the Jun\\/Fos family of transcriptional activators. Meq is consistently expressed in MDV-induced tumor cells and
Blanca Lupiani; Lucy F. Lee; Xiaoping Cui; Isabel Gimeno; Amy Anderson; Robin W. Morgan; Robert F. Silva; Richard L. Witter; Hsing-Jien Kung; Sanjay M. Reddy
Kidneys recovered from donation after cardiac death (DCD) are increasingly used to enlarge the deceased donor pool. Such renal grafts, especially those derived from uncontrolled DCD, have inevitably sustained profound warm ischemic injury, which compromises post-transplant function. Normothermic recirculation (NR) of the deceased donor's body before organ cooling could be an interesting approach to mitigate the detrimental effect of warm ischemia. To date, however, there is no evidence coming from preclinical studies to support the principle of NR in kidney transplantation. In this study, we subjected 48 Lewis rat kidneys to 15 or 30?min of warm ischemia, and subsequently 0, 1, or 2?h of NR. After 24?h cold storage, kidneys were transplanted into a recipient animal and 24?h later we measured the percentage of cortical necrosis, and determined gene expression of heme oxigenase-1, heat shock protein-70, transforming growth factor-?, kidney injury molecule-1, interleukin-6, hypoxia inducible factor-1?, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and ?-smooth muscle actin in kidney tissue. We found that NR had no significant influence on any of these markers. Therefore, we conclude that this animal study by no means supports the presumed beneficial effect of NR on kidneys that have been severely damaged by warm ischemia. PMID:22077364
Moers, Cyril; van Rijt, Geert; Ploeg, Rutger J; Leuvenink, Henri G D
We report six cases of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) in middle-aged and elderly patients exhibiting atypical clinical findings. The patients, two males and four females, ranged in age from 52 to 74 years, with a median age of 64 years. Clinically, they were characterized by tonsillar tumor, cervical lymphadenopathy, and absence of atypical lymphocytosis of the peripheral blood. "B"symptoms were recorded in only two cases. Pancytopenia was recorded in one case during the disease course. The clinical course was self-limited. Histologically, all lesions were characterized by effacement of the follicles and expansion of the interfollicular area with proliferation of small vessels, indicating atypical lymphoid proliferation. In the interfollicular area, there was a mixed infiltrate, including small-to-medium-sized lymphocytes, plasma cells, and T-and B-immunoblasts. Immunoblasts resembling Reed-Sternberg cells were observed in four lesions. Three lesions contained numerous mature plasma cells, plasmacytoid cells, and immature plasma cells in some areas. In situ hybridization demonstrated a varying number of EBV-infected lymphocytes in the interfollicular area. The overall histomorphologic findings of the present six cases were similar to those of infectious mononucleosis (IM) in younger patients. However, the clinical findings were quite different from those of IM in the younger age population. To avoid overdiagnosis and overtreatment, we emphasize the need to be aware of the atypical clinical presentation of EBV-related LPDs in middle-aged or elderly patients, and to turn careful attention to these clinical and laboratory findings as well as to the morphologic features. PMID:17662540
Kojima, Masaru; Kashimura, Makoto; Itoh, Hideaki; Noro, Akihiro; Akikusa, Bunshiro; Iijima, Misa; Shimizu, Kazuhiko; Masawa, Nobuhide; Nakamura, Shigeo
X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is characterized by a marked vulnerability in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Infection of XLP patients with EBV invariably results in fatal mononucleosis, agammaglobulinemia or B-cell lymphoma. The XLP gene lies within a 10 cM region in Xq25 between DXS42 and DXS10. Initial chromosome studies revealed an interstitial, cytogenetically visible deletion in Xq25 in one XLP family (43-004). We estimated the size of the Xq25 deletion by dual laser flow karyotyping to involve 2% of the X chromosome, or approximately 3 Mbp of DNA sequences. To further delineate the deletion we performed a series of pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analyses which showed that DXS6 and DXS100, two Xq25-specific markers, are missing from 45-004 DNA. Five yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) from a chromosome X specific YAC library containing sequences deleted in patient`s 43-004 DNA were isolated. These five YACs did not overlap, and their end fragments were used to screen the CEPH MegaYAC library. Seven YACs were isolated from the CEPH MegaYAC library. They could be arranged into a contig which spans between DXS6 and DXS100. The contig contains a minimum of 2.5 Mbp of human DNA. A total of 12 YAC end clone, lambda subclones and STS probes have been used to order clones within the contig. These reagents were also used in Southern blot and patients showed interstitial deletions in Xq25. The size of these deletions range between 0.5 and 2.5 Mbp. The shortest deletion probably represents the critical region for the XLP gene.
Lanyi, A.; Li, B.F.; Li, S. [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States)] [and others
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the second commonest indication for liver transplantation after viral hepatitis in the United States and Europe. Controversies surround the indications and allocation of scarce and expensive resource for this so called self inflicted disease. Controversies stem from the apprehension that alcoholic recipients are likely to relapse and cause damage to the graft. There is a need to select those candidates with lower risk for relapse with the available predictive factors and scores. Substance abuse specialist and psychiatrists are mandatory in the pre-transplant evaluation and in the post-transplant follow-up. There is conflicting evidence to support a fixed period of pretransplant abstinence, although most units do follow this. Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) continues to be a contraindication for transplantation, however there is a need for further research in this field as a subset of patients with AH who do not respond to medical treatment, have high early mortality and could benefit from transplantation. One year, 3-year, and 5-year survival post-transplant is similar for both ALD and non-ALD recipients. The incidence of post-transplant rejection and retransplantation is also similar to other recipients. ALD with viral hepatitis especially hepatitis C virus leads to a more aggressive liver disease with early presentation for transplantation. ALD patients are more prone to develop de-novo malignancy; this is attributed to the long term effect of alcohol, tobacco combined with immunosuppression. Post-transplant surveillance is important to detect early relapse to alcoholism, presence of de-novo malignancy and treat the same adequately. PMID:20845504
Varma, Vibha; Webb, Kerry; Mirza, Darius F
Castleman and Towne described a disease presenting as a mediastinal mass resembling thymoma. It is also known as "giant lymph node hyperplasia", "lymph node hamartoma", "angiofollicular mediastinal lymph node hyperplasia", and "angiomatous lymphoid hyperplasia". The pathogenesis is unknown, but the bulk of evidence points toward faulty immune regulation, resulting in excessive B-lymphocyte and plasma-cell proliferation in lymphatic tissue. In addition to the mediastinal presentation, extrathoracic involvement in the neck, axilla, mesentery, pelvis, pancreas, adrenal gland, and retroperitoneum also have been described. There are 2 major pathologic variations of Castleman disease: (1) hyaline-vascular variant, the most frequent, characterized by small hyaline-vascular follicles and capillary proliferation; and (2) the plasma-cell variant, in which large lymphoid follicles are separated by sheets of plasma cells. The hyaline-vascular cases usually are largely asymptomatic, whereas the less common plasma-cell variant may present with fever, anemia, weight loss, and night sweats, along with polyclonal hypergamma-globulinemia. Castleman disease is a rare lymphoproliferative disorders. Few cases have been described world widely. In this article we reviewed the classification, pathogenesis, pathology, radiological features and up to date treatment with special emphasis on the role of viral stimulation, recent therapeutic modalities and the HIV-associated disease. PMID:23071471
Saeed-Abdul-Rahman, Ibrahiem; Al-Amri, Ali M
This study aimed to investigate the predictive power of anti-HLA antibodies, sCD30 levels and IgA-anti-Fab autoantibody before and early after transplantation in relation to long-term kidney allograft survival. Pre- and post-transplant sera samples of 59 living-unrelated donor kidney recipients were tested for above risk factors by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. 15 out of 59 cases experienced rejection episodes (failure group). Pre- and post-transplant high sCD30 levels were significantly associated with graft failure (P=0.02 and P=0.004) and decreased 4 year graft survival (P = 0.009 and P = 0.001). Higher frequency of post-transplant HLA class-II antibody in the absence of class-I antibody was observed in failure group (P=0.007). Patients with post-transplant HLA class-I and class-II antibodies either alone or in combination showed significant lower 4 year graft survival. Recipients with high sCD30 levels in the presence of HLA class-I or class-II antibodies within 2 weeks post-transplant had poor graft survival (P = 0.004 and P = 0.002, respectively). High levels of post-transplant IgA-anti-Fab antibody was more frequent in functioning-graft patients (P = 0.00001), correlated with decreased serum creatinine levels (P = 0.01) and associated with improved graft survival (P = 0.008). Our findings indicate the deleterious effect of early post-transplant HLA antibodies and increased sCD30 levels dependently and protective effect of IgA-anti-Fab antibodies on long-term renal graft outcomes. PMID:24055694
Amirzargar, Mohammad Ali; Amirzargar, Aliakbar; Basiri, Abbas; Hajilooi, Mehrdad; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah; Rajabi, Gholamreza; Mohammadiazar, Sina; Solgi, Ghasem
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated posttransplant lymphoma (PTLD) is a major cause of morbidity/mortality after hematopoietic stem cell (SCT) or solid organ (SOT) transplant. Adoptive immunotherapy with EBV-specific cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTLs), although effective in SCT, is less successful after SOT where lifelong immunosuppression therapy is necessary. We have genetically engineered EBV-CTLs to render them resistant to calcineurin (CN) inhibitor FK506 through retroviral transfer of a calcineurin A mutant (CNA12). Here we examined whether or not FK506-resistant EBV-CTLs control EBV-driven tumor progression in the presence of immunosuppression in a xenogeneic mouse model. NOD/SCID/IL2r?null mice bearing human B-cell lymphoma were injected with autologous CTLs transduced with either CNA12 or eGFP in the presence/absence of FK506. Adoptive transfer of autologous CNA12-CTLs induced dramatic lymphoma regression despite the presence of FK506, whereas eGFP-CTLs did not. CNA12-CTLs persisted longer, homed to the tumor, and expanded more than eGFP-CTLs in mice treated with FK506. Mice receiving CNA12-CTLs and treated with FK506 survived significantly longer than control-treated animals. Our results demonstrate that CNA12-CTL induce regression of EBV-associated tumors in vivo despite ongoing immunosuppression. Clinical application of this novel approach may enhance the efficacy of adoptive transfer of EBV-CTL in SOT patients developing PTLD without the need for reduction in immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:25185261
Ricciardelli, Ida; Blundell, Michael Patrick; Brewin, Jennifer; Thrasher, Adrian; Pule, Martin
Increased preoperative inflammation scores, such as neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and inflammation-based index (IBI) have been related to post-transplant HCC recurrence. We evaluated the association between inflammation-based scores (NLR, PLR, IBI) and post-LT HCC recurrence as well as tumor necrosis after transarterial embolization. 150 consecutive patients who underwent transplantation for HCC within the Milan criteria between 1996 and 2010 were included; data regarding inflammatory markers, patient and tumor characteristics were analyzed. NLR, PLR, and IBI were not significantly associated with post-LT HCC recurrence or worse overall survival. Increased NLR and PLR were associated with complete tumor necrosis in the subset of patients who received preoperative transarterial embolization (P?0.05). Cox regression analysis revealed that absence of neoadjuvant transarterial therapy (OR?=?4.33, 95% CI?=?1.28-14.64; P?=?0.02) and no fulfillment of the Milan criteria in the explanted liver (OR?=?3.34, 95% CI?=?1.08-10.35; P?=?0.04) were independently associated with post-LT HCC recurrence inflammation-based scores did not predict HCC recurrence post-LT in our group of patients. NLR and PLR were associated with better response to TAE, as this was recorded histologically in the explanted liver. Histological fulfillment of the Milan criteria and absence of neoadjuvant transarterial treatment were significantly associated with post-LT HCC recurrence. Liver Transpl 20:1327-1335, 2014. © 2014 AASLD. PMID:25088400
Parisi, Ioanna; Tsochatzis, Emmanuel; Wijewantha, Hasitha; Rodríguez-Perálvarez, Manuel; De Luca, Laura; Manousou, Pinelopi; Fatourou, Evangelia; Pieri, Giulia; Papastergiou, Vassilios; Davies, Neil; Yu, Dominic; Luong, TuVinh; Dhillon, Amar Paul; Thorburn, Douglas; Patch, David; O'Beirne, James; Meyer, Tim; Burroughs, Andrew K
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated posttransplant lymphoma (PTLD) is a major cause of morbidity/mortality after hematopoietic stem cell (SCT) or solid organ (SOT) transplant. Adoptive immunotherapy with EBV-specific cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTLs), although effective in SCT, is less successful after SOT where lifelong immunosuppression therapy is necessary. We have genetically engineered EBV-CTLs to render them resistant to calcineurin (CN) inhibitor FK506 through retroviral transfer of a calcineurin A mutant (CNA12). Here we examined whether or not FK506-resistant EBV-CTLs control EBV-driven tumor progression in the presence of immunosuppression in a xenogeneic mouse model. NOD/SCID/IL2r?(null) mice bearing human B-cell lymphoma were injected with autologous CTLs transduced with either CNA12 or eGFP in the presence/absence of FK506. Adoptive transfer of autologous CNA12-CTLs induced dramatic lymphoma regression despite the presence of FK506, whereas eGFP-CTLs did not. CNA12-CTLs persisted longer, homed to the tumor, and expanded more than eGFP-CTLs in mice treated with FK506. Mice receiving CNA12-CTLs and treated with FK506 survived significantly longer than control-treated animals. Our results demonstrate that CNA12-CTL induce regression of EBV-associated tumors in vivo despite ongoing immunosuppression. Clinical application of this novel approach may enhance the efficacy of adoptive transfer of EBV-CTL in SOT patients developing PTLD without the need for reduction in immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:25185261
Ricciardelli, Ida; Blundell, Michael Patrick; Brewin, Jennifer; Thrasher, Adrian; Pule, Martin; Amrolia, Persis J
Undetectable hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA [RNA(-)] before liver transplantation (OLT) has been shown to decrease the rates of disease recurrence. We sought to determine whether RNA(-) subjects differ in post-OLT recurrence (virological/VR, histological/HR), graft failure (GF), or patient survival from RNA(+) patients using a retrospective review. From 1995 to 2004, a total of 49 patients were RNA(-) at OLT as a result of interferon-based therapy: 22 SVR and 27 with end-of-treatment response (ETR) transplanted when RNA(-) within 6 months of ET. Forty-eight RNA(+) patients were analyzed as controls. Virological recurrence (VR) was seen in 55% of RNA(-) subjects with no difference in HR between RNA(-) vs (+) groups, namely 36.7% versus 56.3% (P = .068), respectively. The RNA(+) subjects showed a lower time to HR (5.6 vs 11 months; P = .027). The SVR subjects displayed lower VR (36.4%) and histological recurrence (HR) (13.6%) compared to ETR (VR 70.4%, P = .023; HR 55.6%, P = .003) or RNA(+) (HR 56%, P = .0008). The SVR subjects, who were identified with a sensitive assay (SVR(S), lower limit <600 IU/mL) showed no VR, HR, or GF. The 1- and 5-year survivals were 87.8%/75.6% and 89.6%/77.8% for RNA(-) and (+) groups, respectively (P = .77). In conclusion, RNA(-)-transplanted patients displayed lower VR and longer time to HR. The SVR patients showed lower VR and HR compared to ETR and RNA(+) patients. PMID:18589127
Nudo, C G; Cortes, R A; Weppler, D; Schiff, E R; Tzakis, A G; Regev, A
We report an extremely rare case of massive methotrexate-associated lymphoproliferative disorder (MTX-LPD) arising in the retromolar triangle and lung of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. The patient was a 75-year-old woman who was referred to our department because of severe pain associated with a unilateral ulcer on the left retromolar triangle. The tumor had an extranodal location in the retromolar triangle and in the right lung. A clinicopathologic examination found a lymphocytic infiltrate with increasingly atypical histopathologic features. Atypical large cells were strongly positive in Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA in situ hybridization and in staining with CD20 antibodies. MTX-LPD was diagnosed based on the medical history and histopathologic results. The lesion responded well to withdrawal of MTX followed by R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) chemotherapy. There have been no signs of recurrence for 4 years since withdrawal of MTX. PMID:24811204
Kudoh, Masanori; Harada, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Koshi; Sato, Yuriko; Omura, Ken; Ishii, Yoshimasa
Marek's disease (MD) is a highly contagious lymphoproliferative disease of chickens caused by a herpesvirus, while reticuloendotheliosis (REV) virus is an avian C?type retrpvirus that causes bursal and nonbursal lymphomas which often closely resemble MDV lymphomas. To provide a rapid and sensitive means of diagnosing and differentiating between these two neoplastic conditions, we have applied the PCR. The primers chosen
Irit Davidson; Anya Borovskaya; S. Perl; M. Malkinson
Castleman's disease or angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder. Complete surgical resection was recommended in unicentric Castleman's disease. Radiotherapy was considered alternative therapeutic option. However, there have been consistent favorable responses to radiotherapy. We also experienced two cases of uncentric Castleman's disease salvaged successfully with radiotherapy. This paper described these cases and reviewed the literature about Castleman's disease treated with radiotherapy. Reviewed cases showed that radiotherapy is a successful treatment option in unicentric Castleman's disease. Furthermore, our report confirms the radiotherapy role in uncentric Castleman's disease. PMID:23620869
Noh, O Kyu; Lee, Jae Whan; Kim, Sang Yoon; Kim, Chung Soo; Choi, Eun Kyung; Kim, Jong Hoon; Ahn, Seung Do
Background Post-transplant anemia (PTA) has long been a less-recognized complication in kidney transplant recipients, and its prevalence also tends to be underestimated. This study sought to evaluate the prevalence, management, and risk factors of PTA from a group of long-term follow-up Chinese kidney transplant recipients. Methods One hundred and fifty-four adult kidney transplant recipients were followed up at Fuzhou General Hospital, China, and retrospectively studied. Results PTA prevalence at transplant and at 5-yearly time points after transplantation were 45.5%, 10.7%, 9.6%, 14.8%, 13.5%, and 19.6%, respectively. Overall, 38.3% of patients had been anemic at least once during the follow-up period, and 42% of these patients had recurrent anemia. Correlation analysis indicated that hemoglobin levels were associated with graft function. No correlations between anemia and age, gender, immunosuppressive regimens, or antihypertensive agents were observed. Binary logistic regression analysis suggested that serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were associated with the diagnosis of anemia at 1 year post-transplant. At 5 years post-transplant, only serum creatinine concentrations correlated with anemia. Although iron drugs are frequently used, erythropoietin was rarely administered in those anemic patients suffering poor graft function that necessitated such therapies. Conclusions The prevalence of PTA is noticeably high, and impaired kidney graft function seemed to be the major risk factor for anemia. There is an urgent need to improve current PTA management and to establish modified guidelines for this common complication in kidney transplant recipients. PMID:24237955
Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) remains a serious event. We report a case of occurrence of TMA in the immediate postoperative period after a living-related renal transplantation. A distinguished feature of the case was major, early involvement of the retina with marked by decreased visual acuity along with thrombocytopenia and renal functional impairment. The syndrome was reversible with plasma exchange and conversion from tacrolimus to sirolimus. The patient's renal function is excellent at 11 months after transplantation. Decreased visual acuity and cotton wool exudates may be the first manifestation of posttransplant TMA. PMID:17524951
Mohsin, N; Nooyi, C; Jha, A; Budruddin, M; Kamble, P; Khalil, M; Pakkyarra, A; Mohammed, E; Ahmed, H; Daar, A
Thymus-derived glucocorticoids antagonize T cell receptor (TCR)–induced thymocyte apoptosis, allowing the survival (positive selection) of cells bearing TCRs that recognize self antigens with low-to-moderate avidity. Here we demonstrate that expression of an antisense glucocorticoid receptor transgene in thymocytes of spontaneously autoimmune MRL-lpr\\/lpr mice causes the loss of specific TCR V?-bearing T cells that are normally positively selected in this strain.
Eva Tolosa; Leslie B King; Jonathan D Ashwell
The present review focuses on the mouse as an experimental immunopathologic model for human non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and related leukemias. Immunomorphologic evidence is presented that clearly demonstrates that B- and T-cell subtypes of mouse (murine) lymphoma/leukemia closely resemble and are analogous to B- and T-cell subtypes of human lymphoma/leukemia as defined by recently proposed immunomorphologic classifications. Further evidence is presented that favors the hypothesis that certain types of murine and human B-cell lymphoma develop out of prodromal, prelymphomatous states, which exhibit antecedent morphologic and immunologic abnormalities. The many experimental advantages of the murine systems are stressed, as well as the concept that the presently defined immunomorphologic approach should be effectively combined with molecular and cytogenetic parameters. Images Table 6 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 Table 9 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:6605691
Pattengale, P. K.; Taylor, C. R.
In addition to triggering the activation of B- or T-cell antigen receptors, the binding of a ligand to its receptor at the cell surface can sometimes determine the physiological outcome of interactions between antigen-presenting cells, T and B lymphocytes. The protein SLAM (also known as CDw150), which is present on the surface of B and T cells, forms such a
J. Sayos; C. Wu; M. Morra; N. Wang; X. Zhang; D. Allen; S. van Schaik; L. Notarangelo; R. Geha; M. G. Roncarolo; H. Oettgen; J. E. de Vries; G. Aversa; C. Terhorst
Despite significant advances in stem cell manipulation and post-transplant immunosuppression, chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) remains a cause of major long-term morbidity in survivors of allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) is a novel therapeutic intervention which has demonstrated efficacy in patients with refractory acute and chronic GVHD. Clinical responses have been reported in skin and visceral GVHD. While the
FM Foss; G Gorgun; KB Miller
Aberrations of the long arm of chromosome 11 are among the most common chromosome abnormalities in lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD). Translocations involving BCL1 at 11q13 are strongly associated with mantle cell lymphoma. Other nonrandom aberrations, especially deletions and, less frequently, translocations, involving bands 11q21-923 have been identified by chromosome banding analysis. To date, the critical genomic segment and candidate genes involved
Stephan Stilgenbauer; Peter Liebisch; Michael R. James; Martin Schroder; Brigitte Schlegelberger; Konstanze Fischer; Martin Bentz; Peter Lichter; Hartmut Dohner
Here, the influence of T vs T and B cell depletion on the incidence of EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorder (EBV-LPD) after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from a matched unrelated donor (MUD) is analyzed. From 1982 to 1997 the soy bean agglutinin\\/sheep red blood cell (SBA\\/SRBC) method was used for T cell depletion. This technique is well established, but the use of
E Meijer; ICM Slaper-Cortenbach; SFT Thijsen; AW Dekker; LF Verdonck
BACKGROUND:: Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a disorder of lymphocyte homeostasis and immunological tolerance due primarily to genetic defects in Fas (CD95\\/APO-1; TNFRSF6), a cell surface receptor that regulates apoptosis and its signaling apparatus. METHODS:: Fas ligand gene mutations from ALPS patients were identified through cDNA and genomic DNA sequencing. Molecular and biochemical assessment of these mutant Fas ligand proteins
Lilia L Bi; George Pan; T Prescott Atkinson; Lixin Zheng; Janet K Dale; Christopher Makris; Vishnu Reddy; Jay M McDonald; Richard M Siegel; Jennifer M Puck; Michael J Lenardo; Stephen E Straus
Rationale: Bilateral lung transplantation (BLT) improves survival compared with single lung transplantation (SLT) for some individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, it is unclear which strategy optimally uses this scarce societal resource. Objectives: To compare the effect of SLT versus BLT strategies for COPD on waitlist outcomes among the broader population of patients listed for lung transplantation. Methods: We developed a Markov model to simulate the transplant waitlist using transplant registry data to define waitlist size, donor frequency, the risk of death awaiting transplant, and disease- and procedure-specific post-transplant survival. We then applied this model to 1,000 simulated patients and compared the number of patients under each strategy who received a transplant, the number who died before transplantation, and total post-transplant survival. Measurements and Main Results: Under baseline assumptions, the SLT strategy resulted in more patients transplanted (809 vs. 758) and fewer waitlist deaths (157 vs. 199). The strategies produced similar total post-transplant survival (SLT = 4,586 yr vs. BLT = 4,577 yr). In sensitivity analyses, SLT always maximized the number of patients transplanted. The strategy that maximized post-transplant survival depended on the relative survival benefit of BLT versus SLT among patients with COPD, donor interval, and waitlist size. Conclusions: In most circumstances, a policy of SLT for COPD improves access to organs for other potential recipients without significant reductions in total post-transplant survival. However, there may be substantial geographic variations in the effect of such a policy on the balance between these outcomes. PMID:21868502
Christie, Jason D.; Halpern, Scott D.
Adoptive T-cell therapy has definite clinical benefit in relapsed leukaemia after allogeneic transplant and in Epstein–Barr virus-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease. However, the majority of tumour targets are weakly immunogenic self-antigens and success has been limited in part by inadequate persistence and expansion of transferred T cells and by tumour-evasion strategies. Adoptive immunotherapy presents the opportunity to activate, expand and genetically
Siok-Keen Tey; Catherine M Bollard; Helen E Heslop
We report the case of a 25-year-old lung and liver transplant recipient who developed respiratory failure. High levels of\\u000a Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome copies were detectable in respiratory tract specimens, while the search for various other\\u000a viral, bacterial or fungal pathogens remained empty. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease was excluded. Due to the\\u000a rapid progression of respiratory insufficiency, a re-transplantation of the
Andi Krumbholz; Tim Sandhaus; Angela Göhlert; Albert Heim; Roland Zell; Renate Egerer; Martin Breuer; Eberhard Straube; Peter Wutzler; Andreas Sauerbrei
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is classically characterized by t(11;14) leading to cyclin D1 overexpression. Recently the transcription factor SOX11 has been discovered to be expressed in most MCL, including cyclin D1-negative cases. In this study we assess the performance of 2 commercially available monoclonal antibodies, Atlas Antibodies (Stockholm, Sweden) clone CLO142 and Cell Marque (Rocklin, CA) clone MRQ-58, for SOX11 immunohistochemistry in MCL, both cyclin D1 positive and cyclin D1 negative, as well as in cases of other small B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders, diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs), Burkitt lymphomas, and lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphomas. We also performed Western blots to further characterize the antibody specificity. Both antibodies show reliable, clear nuclear staining in MCL with variable specificity. However, the MRQ-58 antibody was more specific for MCL than CLO142, which showed considerably more nonspecific staining, especially in DLBCLs (59% positive vs. 4% positive with MRQ-58). In addition we reconfirmed the utility of SOX11 IHC for identifying cases of cyclin D1-negative blastoid MCL. However, we also identified cases of SOX11-positive DLBCL and splenic marginal zone lymphoma. Although SOX11 IHC is a powerful, and relatively accessible, tool to identify MCLs with variant immunophenotypes and/or morphology, these latter 2 cases highlight the need for strict criteria for interpreting SOX11 staining. PMID:25229384
Nakashima, Megan O; Durkin, Lisa; Bodo, Juraj; Lin, Jeffrey; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Fu, Kai; Hsi, Eric D
The diagnosis and classification of the cutaneous B-cell lymphomas can be quite a challenge, with a definitive diagnosis sometimes being elusive, even when an extensive workup has been performed. Distinction of benign from neoplastic disorders can be difficult, with some hyperplasias mimicking lymphomas and vice versa. There are only a limited number of skin-specific B-cell lymphomas, including primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma and primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg type. Cutaneous marginal zone lymphomas have distinctive features but are classified with the other mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas. It is important, however, to also remember that many other B-cell lymphomas/ plasma cell neoplasms can primarily, or more often secondarily, involve the skin. Some may mimic one of the skin-specific lymphomas but have very different clinical implications. Iatrogenic and senescent immunodeficiency-associated lymphoproliferative disorders that are often Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positive can also primarily involve the skin, including cases also known as EBV-positive mucocutaneous ulcer. PMID:23525619
Swerdlow, Steven H; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Willemze, Rein; Kinney, Marsha C
Castleman`s Disease (CD) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder and a mesenteric location is unusual. The unicentric variety is more difficult to diagnose clinically and it requires a histopathological confirmation. The excision biopsy itself will help both in the diagnosis and in planning the treatment. Here, we are presenting a case of unicentric mesenteric Castleman`s disease which we suspected to be lymphoma. PMID:23634428
K V, Rajeshwara; D'Souza, Clement R S; Saldanha, Elroy; Dantis, Klien; Rai, Preethi
Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), which can recur after renal transplantation, is associated with poor graft outcomes. The underlying genetic defect, namely, mutations in genes coding for the complement factor H, I (CFI), or membrane cofactor protein, greatly impacts the risk of aHUS recurrence. We report here the case of a patient with chronic renal failure due to aHUS in which screening for complement mutations, performed before wait-listing for kidney transplantation, showed a never described previously heterozygous mutation in the exon II of the CFI gene. Specifically, this mutation leads to a substitution of cytosine for guanosine at nucleotide 148, resulting in the change at amino acid 50 from arginine to proline. Subsequently, he received a renal allograft from deceased donor. Good graft function was established immediately, without clinical features of aHUS. Due to a lack of data on this mutation, we avoided prophylactic treatment for aHUS but closely monitored biochemical markers of aHUS to treat a possible recurrence. Immunosuppressive treatment was based on basiliximab, tacrolimus, steroids, and mycophenolic acid. At the time of discharge the serum creatinine was 1.4 mg/dL. Ten months after transplantation the patient is doing well without evidence of aHUS. Our case suggested that a heterozygous mutation in exon II of the CFI gene was not associated with a risk of early post-transplant aHUs recurrence adding new knowledge on complement mutations implicated in aHUS post-transplant recurrences. PMID:24034049
Ranghino, A; Tognarelli, G; Basso, E; Messina, M; Manzione, A M; Daidola, G; Segoloni, G P
Intravascular large B-cell lymphomas and EBV NK/T-cell lymphomas commonly follow an aggressive clinical course. We recently reported an entirely intravascular anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) in the skin with a surprisingly indolent clinical course; interestingly, this lymphoma involved the lymphatic rather than the blood vasculature. We hypothesized that intravascular skin-limited ALCL is distinct from aggressive systemic intravascular lymphomas in its intralymphatic localization and clinical course. We now describe 18 cases of cutaneous intravascular large cell lymphoproliferations from 4 institutions. All 12 intravascular large T-cell lesions were intralymphatic; the majority (9) were CD30 T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (TLPDs), 5 further classified as intravascular ALK ALCL. One ALK ALCL and 2 benign microscopic intravascular T-cell proliferations were also intralymphatic. A single case of otherwise typical cutaneous follicle center lymphoma contained intralymphatic centroblasts. The clinical and pathologic characteristics of the CD30 TLPDs were similar to those of their extravascular counterparts, including extralymphatic dermal involvement in a subset, DUSP22-IRF4 translocations in half of tested ALK ALCLs, and associated mycosis fungoides in 1; most were skin-limited at baseline and remained so at relapse. All 5 cases of intravascular large B-cell lymphoma involved the blood vasculature and behaved in a clinically aggressive manner; the ALK ALCL, although intralymphatic, was systemic and clinically aggressive. We propose that cutaneous ALK ALCL and related CD30 ALK TLPDs involving the lymphatics are part of an expanding spectrum of CD30 TLPDs. The identification of intralymphatic as distinct from blood vascular localization may provide critical prognostic and therapeutic information. PMID:24805854
Samols, Mark A; Su, Albert; Ra, Seong; Cappel, Mark A; Louissant, Abner; Knudson, Ryan A; Ketterling, Rhett P; Said, Jonathan; Binder, Scott; Harris, Nancy Lee; Feldman, Andrew L; Kim, Jinah; Kim, Youn H; Gratzinger, Dita
CD27, a tumor necrosis factor receptor family member, interacts with CD70 and influences T-, B- and NK-cell functions. Disturbance of this axis impairs immunity and memory generation against viruses including Epstein Barr virus (EBV), influenza, and others. CD27 is commonly used as marker of memory B cells for the classification of B-cell deficiencies including common variable immune deficiency. Flow cytometric immunophenotyping including expression analysis of CD27 on lymphoid cells was followed by capillary sequencing of CD27 in index patients, their parents, and non-affected siblings. More comprehensive genetic analysis employed single nucleotide polymorphism-based homozygosity mapping and whole exome sequencing. Analysis of exome sequencing data was performed at two centers using slightly different data analysis pipelines, each based on the Genome Analysis ToolKit Best Practice version 3 recommendations. A comprehensive clinical characterization was correlated to genotype. We report the simultaneous confirmation of human CD27 deficiency in 3 independent families (8 patients) due to a homozygous mutation (p. Cys53Tyr) revealed by whole exome sequencing, leading to disruption of an evolutionarily conserved cystein knot motif of the transmembrane receptor. Phenotypes varied from asymptomatic memory B-cell deficiency (n=3) to EBV-associated hemophagocytosis and lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD; n=3) and malignant lymphoma (n=2; +1 after LPD). Following EBV infection, hypogammaglobulinemia developed in at least 3 of the affected individuals, while specific anti-viral and anti-polysaccharide antibodies and EBV-specific T-cell responses were detectable. In severely affected patients, numbers of iNKT cells and NK-cell function were reduced. Two of 8 patients died, 2 others underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation successfully, and one received anti-CD20 (rituximab) therapy repeatedly. Since homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing did not reveal additional modifying factors, our findings suggest that lack of functional CD27 predisposes towards a combined immunodeficiency associated with potentially fatal EBV-driven hemo-phagocytosis, lymphoproliferation, and lymphoma development. PMID:22801960
Salzer, Elisabeth; Daschkey, Svenja; Choo, Sharon; Gombert, Michael; Santos-Valente, Elisangela; Ginzel, Sebastian; Schwendinger, Martina; Haas, Oskar A; Fritsch, Gerhard; Pickl, Winfried F; Förster-Waldl, Elisabeth; Borkhardt, Arndt; Boztug, Kaan; Bienemann, Kirsten; Seidel, Markus G
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is potentially curative for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Impact of lymphocyte recovery on post-transplant outcomes has been suggested but reports are conflicting. We evaluated the impact of lymphocyte recovery at 28 d post-HCT in 191 AML patients using peripheral blood stem cells as graft. Patients were divided into those with absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) ?0.5 × 10(9) /L (n = 111, 58%; high ALC group) and those with ALC <0.5 × 10(9) /L (n = 80, 42%; low ALC group), at day 28 post-transplant. With a median follow-up of 49 months, overall survival (OS) was significantly improved in the high ALC group (59% at 3 yr) vs. patients with low ALC (40% at 3 yr, P = 0.03). Cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) was significantly lower in the high ALC group (16% at 3 yr) vs. low ALC group (36% at 3 yr, P = 0.001). Multivariable analysis for CIR demonstrated high ALC group as an independent factor decreasing relapse risk (P = 0.03, HR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.26-0.92). Multivariable analysis for OS and non-relapse mortality did not demonstrate ALC ?0.5 × 10(9) /L at 28 d post-transplant to be predictive. We conclude that lymphocyte recovery with ALC ?0.5 × 10(9) /L at day 28 post-transplant is associated with less relapse in AML patients undergoing allogeneic peripheral blood HCT, but without survival benefit. PMID:24725056
Michelis, Fotios V; Messner, Hans A; Loach, David; Uhm, Jieun; Gupta, Vikas; Lipton, Jeffrey H; Seftel, Matthew D; Kuruvilla, John; Kim, Dennis D
Layered adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) sheet transplantation is attracting attention as a new stem cell therapeutic strategy for damaged hearts. To prolong the function of tissue-engineered constructs after transplantation, a rapid and sufficient vascularization of engrafted tissue is essential. The in vitro formation of network structures derived from endothelial cells (ECs) in grafts before transplantation contributes to the induction of functional anastomosis in vivo. This study compared the angiogenic potential of ADSC sheets containing dissociated ECs (non-prevascular cell-sheets) and networked ECs (prevascular cell-sheets) after transplantation. For preparing the two different types of ECs-containing layered cell-sheets, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were sandwiched between two human ADSC sheets. Non-prevascular cell-sheets were obtained immediately after sandwiching without further cultivation. Prevascular cell-sheets were harvested form temperature-responsive culture dishes following re-cultivation for allowing them to form an EC network structure. In transplant experiments in the subcutaneous tissues of immune-deficient rat for 4 days, prevascular cell-sheets were observed to promote neovascularization with HUVEC-lined microvessels. In contrast, neovessels were hardly observed in non-prevascular cell-sheets. These results suggested that prefabricated EC network in layered cell-sheet was effective for making a rapid connection to the host vasculature in the early post-transplanted period. PMID:23533096
Sasagawa, Tadashi; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Sekiya, Sachiko; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo
Castleman's disease is a benign lymphoproliferative condition with three distinct histological subtypes. Clinically it presents in either a unicentric or multicentric manner and can affect various anatomic regions, the mediastinum being the most frequent location. We herein present a rare case of unifocal retroperitoneal mass proved to be hyaline vascular Castleman's disease. We perform a review of the current literature pertaining to such lesions, focusing on the management of the various clinical and histological variants of the disease. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for unifocal Castleman's disease.
Spartalis, Eleftherios; Charalampoudis, Petros; Kandilis, Apostolos; Athanasiou, Antonios; Tsaparas, Petros; Voutsarakis, Athanasios; Kostakis, Ioannis D.; Dimitroulis, Dimitrios; Svolou, Evanthia; Korkolopoulou, Penelope; Nikiteas, Nikolaos; Kouraklis, Gregory
Interleukin-21 (IL-21) is a cytokine whose actions are closely related to B cell differentiation into plasma cells as well as to CD8+ cytolytic T cell effector and memory generation, influencing the T lymphocyte response to different viruses. X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome type 1 (XLP-1) is a primary immunodeficiency syndrome that is characterized by a high susceptibility to Epstein-Barr virus. We observed in a pediatric patient with XLP-1 that IL-21 was expressed in nearly all peripheral blood CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. However, IL-21 could not be found in the lymph nodes, suggesting massive mobilization of activated cells toward the infection's target organs, where IL-21-producing cells were detected, resulting in large areas of tissue damage. PMID:23467775
Ortega, Consuelo; Estevez, Orlando A.; Fernandez, Silvia; Aguado, Rocio; Rumbao, Jose M.; Gonzalez, Teresa; Perez-Navero, Juan L.
Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on skin biopsies from patients suffering from graft versus host disease (GVHD) following bone marrow transplantation for aplastic anaemia and leukaemia. Lymphoid cells infiltrating the skin were exclusively T cells with the OKT8+ phenotype and these are probably cytotoxic T cells. Langerhans cells were reduced in number in all specimens and a variable number of HLA-DR positive macrophages were seen in the dermis. In several cases HLA-DR antigens were expressed on keratinocytes. These results show consistent features which may help discriminate rashes in the skin in the post-transplant period. Images Fig. 1 PMID:6756725
Lampert, I A; Janossy, G; Suitters, A J; Bofill, M; Palmer, S; Gordon-Smith, E; Prentice, H G; Thomas, J A
The vascular endothelium regulates blood flow in response to physiological needs. Endothelial dysfunction is closely related to atherosclerosis and its risk factors, and it constitutes an intermediate step on the progression to adverse events throughout the natural history of coronary artery disease (CAD), often affecting clinical outcomes. Understanding the relation of endothelial function with CAD provides an important pathophysiological insight, which can be useful both in clinical and research management. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on endothelial dysfunction and its prognostic influence throughout the natural history of CAD, from early atherosclerosis to post-transplant management. PMID:24014385
Gutierrez, Enrique; Flammer, Andreas J.; Lerman, Lilach O.; Elizaga, Jaime; Lerman, Amir; Fernandez-Aviles, Francisco
A 55-year-old white man was diagnosed in 1975 with Hodgkin's disease stage IIA, mixed cellularity. He was treated with 4,500 rads to an inverted-Y field followed by six cycles of MOPP and remained in complete remission. In 1983 a right axillary lymph node biopsy showed recurrent Hodgkin's disease, mixed cellularity. While receiving his initial chemotherapy he developed persistent epigastric distress. Endoscopic gastric biopsy demonstrated a diffuse large-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Surface marker studies confirmed the separate identity of these two malignant lymphoproliferative processes. This represents the first reported simultaneous occurrence of relapsing Hodgkin's disease with treatment-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Perri, R.T.; Allen, J.I.; Oken, M.M.; Limas, C.; Kay, N.E.
Antibodies Elicited by Naked DNA Vaccination against the Complementary determining Region 3 Hypervariable Region of Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Idiotypic Determinants of B-lymphoproliferative Disorders Specifically React with Patients' Tumor Cells 1
Several reports have suggested that the mechanism of protection in- duced by antiidiotypic vaccination against low-grade lymphoproliferative disorders is likely to be antibody mediated. Here we test the hypothesis that DNA vaccination with the short peptide encompassing the comple- mentary-determining region 3 hypervariable region of immunoglobulin heavy chain (VH-CDR3) may elicit a specific antibody immune response able to recognize the
Monica Rinaldi; Francesco Ria; Paola Parrella; Emanuela Signori; Anna Serra; Silvia A. Ciafre; Isabella Vespignani; Marzia Lazzari; Maria Giulia Farace; Giuseppe Saglio; Vito M. Fazio
Background: The Src homology 2 (SH2) domains of cytoplasmic signaling proteins generally bind phosphotyrosine (pTyr) sites in the context of carboxy-terminal residues. SAP (also known as SH2D1A or DSHP), the product of the gene that is mutated in human X-linked lymphoproliferative (XLP) disease, comprises almost exclusively a single SH2 domain, which may modulate T-cell signaling by engaging T-cell co-activators such
Shun-Cheng Li; Gerald Gish; Daiwen Yang; Alison J. Coffey; Julie D. Forman-Kay; Ingemar Ernberg; Lewis E. Kay; Tony Pawson
ABSTRACT MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play regulatory roles in diverse processes in both eukaryotic hosts and their viruses, yet fundamental questions remain about which viruses code for miRNAs and the functions that they serve. Simian foamy viruses (SFVs) of Old World monkeys and apes can zoonotically infect humans and, by ill-defined mechanisms, take up lifelong infections in their hosts. Here, we report that SFVs encode multiple miRNAs via a noncanonical mode of biogenesis. The primary SFV miRNA transcripts (pri-miRNAs) are transcribed by RNA polymerase III (RNAP III) and take multiple forms, including some that are cleaved by Drosha. However, these miRNAs are generated in a context-dependent fashion, as longer RNAP II transcripts spanning this region are resistant to Drosha cleavage. This suggests that the virus may avoid any fitness penalty that could be associated with viral genome/transcript cleavage. Two SFV miRNAs share sequence similarity and functionality with notable host miRNAs, the lymphoproliferative miRNA miR-155 and the innate immunity suppressor miR-132. These results have important implications regarding foamy virus biology, viral miRNAs, and the development of retroviral-based vectors. PMID:24713319
Kincaid, Rodney P.; Chen, Yating; Cox, Jennifer E.; Rethwilm, Axel; Sullivan, Christopher S.
It is well established that patients with immunosuppression have a higher risk of development of lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with development of LPDs. Aplastic anemia (AA) is an immune-mediated hematological disorder, and immunosuppression therapy (IST), such as antithymocyte globulin (ATG), is widely used for treatment of AA. However, occurrence of LPD without bone marrow transplantation has been extremely rarely documented in patients with IST for AA. Herein, we report the 6th documented case of EBV-associated LPD after IST for AA and review the clinicopathological features of this extremely rare complication. A 46-year-old Japanese female was admitted for evaluation of progressive pancytopenia. Bone marrow biopsy revealed fatty marrow with marked decrease of trilineage cells, and bone marrow aspiration demonstrated no dysplastic changes. IST with rabbit ATG was administered, after which, she developed high fever. Bone marrow aspiration showed increase of atypical plasma cells with mildly enlarged nuclei and irregular nuclear contour. These atypical plasma cells were EBER-positive. Accordingly, a diagnosis of EBV-positive plasmacytic LPD was made. Most cases of LPDs are B-cell origin, and plasmacytic LPD is a rare subtype. The current report is the second case of plasmacytic LPD in patients with IST for AA. Therefore, detailed histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses are needed for correct diagnosis and treatment, and additional studies are needed to clarify the clinicopathological features of EBV-LPD after IST for AA. PMID:24817974
Nakanishi, Ryota; Ishida, Mitsuaki; Hodohara, Keiko; Okuno, Hiroko; Yoshii, Miyuki; Horinouchi, Akiko; Shirakawa, Ayaka; Harada, Ayumi; Iwai, Muneo; Yoshida, Keiko; Kagotani, Akiko; Yoshida, Takashi; Okabe, Hidetoshi
EORTC, ISCL, and USCLC consensus recommendations for the treatment of primary cutaneous CD30-positive lymphoproliferative disorders: lymphomatoid papulosis and primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma*
Primary cutaneous CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorders (CD30+ LPDs) are the second most common form of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas and include lymphomatoid papulosis and primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. Despite the anaplastic cytomorphology of tumor cells that suggest an aggressive course, CD30+ LPDs are characterized by an excellent prognosis. Although a broad spectrum of therapeutic strategies has been reported, these have been limited mostly to small retrospective cohort series or case reports, and only very few prospective controlled or multicenter studies have been performed, which results in a low level of evidence for most therapies. The response rates to treatment, recurrence rates, and outcome have not been analyzed in a systematic review. Moreover, international guidelines for staging and treatment of CD30+ LPDs have not yet been presented. Based on a literature analysis and discussions, recommendations were elaborated by a multidisciplinary expert panel of the Cutaneous Lymphoma Task Force of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, the International Society for Cutaneous Lymphomas, and the United States Cutaneous Lymphoma Consortium. The recommendations represent the state-of-the-art management of CD30+ LPDs and include definitions for clinical endpoints as well as response criteria for future clinical trials in CD30+ LPDs. PMID:21841159
Pfaltz, Katrin; Vermeer, Maarten H.; Cozzio, Antonio; Ortiz-Romero, Pablo L.; Bagot, Martine; Olsen, Elise; Kim, Youn H.; Dummer, Reinhard; Pimpinelli, Nicola; Whittaker, Sean; Hodak, Emmilia; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Berti, Emilio; Horwitz, Steve; Prince, H. Miles; Guitart, Joan; Estrach, Teresa; Sanches, Jose A.; Duvic, Madeleine; Ranki, Annamari; Dreno, Brigitte; Ostheeren-Michaelis, Sonja; Knobler, Robert; Wood, Gary; Willemze, Rein
AIDS-related Peripheral/Systemic Lymphoma; AIDS-related Primary CNS Lymphoma; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma
Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder is a serious complication following solid organ as well as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation due to prolonged immunosuppressive therapy. Plasmablastic lymphoma, although classically associated with HIV infection, has since been described in transplant patients as a variant of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder with varying clinical presentations. Here we add two additional cases to the literature: one following lung transplantation and one following pancreatic transplantation. In addition, the demographic, therapeutic, and immunophenotypic characteristics from prior reported cases are summarized. PMID:23543973
Van Vrancken, Michael J; Keglovits, Latoya; Krause, John
Plasmacytomas expressing immunoglobulin A are rare and not well characterized. In this study, nine cases of IgA-positive plasmacytomas presenting in lymph node and three in extranodal sites were analyzed by morphology, immunohistochemistry, and PCR examination of immunoglobulin heavy and kappa light chain genes. Laboratory features were correlated with clinical findings. There were seven males and five females; age range was 10 to 66 years (median, 32 years). Six of the patients were younger than 30-years-old, five of whom had nodal disease. 67% (6/9) of the patients with nodal disease had evidence of immune system dysfunction, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, T-cell deficiency, autoantibodies, arthritis, Sjögren’s syndrome, and decreased B-cells. An IgA M-spike was detected in 6/11 cases, and the M-protein was nearly always less than 30 g/L. All patients had an indolent clinical course without progression to plasma cell myeloma. Histologically, IgA plasmacytomas showed an interfollicular or diffuse pattern of plasma cell infiltration. The plasma cells were generally of mature Marschalko type with little or mild pleomorphism and exclusive expression of monotypic IgA. There was an equal expression of kappa and lambda light chains (ratio 6:6). Clonality was demonstrated in 9 of 12 cases: by PCR in 7 cases, by cytogenetic analysis in 1 case, and by immunofixation in 1 case. Clonality did not correlate with pattern of lymph node infiltration. Our results suggest that IgA plasmacytomas may represent a distinct form of extramedullary plasmacytoma characterized by younger age at presentation, frequent lymph node involvement and low risk of progression to plasma cell myeloma. PMID:20871216
Shao, Haipeng; Xi, Liqiang; Raffeld, Mark; Pittaluga, Stefania; Dunleavy, Kieron; Wilson, Wyndham; Spector, Nelson; Milito, Cristiane; Morais, Jose Carlos; Jaffe, Elaine S.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous herpesvirus infecting more than 90% of the adult population of the world. EBV is associated with a variety of diseases including infectious mononucleosis, lymphoproliferative diseases, malignancies such as Burkitt lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). EBV in nature infects only humans, but in an experimental setting, a limited species of new-world monkeys can be infected with the virus. Small animal models, suitable for evaluation of novel therapeutics and vaccines, have not been available. Humanized mice, defined here as mice harboring functioning human immune system components, are easily infected with EBV that targets cells of the hematoimmune system. Furthermore, humanized mice can mount both cellular and humoral immune responses to EBV. Thus, many aspects of human EBV infection, including associated diseases (e.g., lymphoproliferative disease, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and erosive arthritis resembling RA), latent infection, and T-cell-mediated and humoral immune responses have been successfully reproduced in humanized mice. Here we summarize recent achievements in the field of humanized mouse models of EBV infection and show how they have been utilized to analyze EBV pathogenesis and normal and aberrant human immune responses to the virus.
Fujiwara, Shigeyoshi; Matsuda, Go; Imadome, Ken-Ichi
AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) and ARC (AIDS-related complex) are associated with a spectrum of lymphoproliferative disorders ranging from lymphadenopathy syndrome (LAS), an apparently benign polyclonal lymphoid hyperplasia, to B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL), i.e., malignant, presumably monoclonal B cell proliferations. To gain insight into the process of lymphomagenesis in AIDS and to investigate a possible pathogenetic relationship between LAS and NHL, we investigated the clonality of the B or T lymphoid populations by Ig or T beta gene rearrangement analysis, the presence of rearrangements involving the c-myc oncogene locus, and the presence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) sequences in both LAS and B-NHL biopsies. Our data indicate that multiple clonal B cell expansions are present in a significant percentage of LAS (approximately 20%) and B- NHL (60%) biopsies. c-myc rearrangements/translocations are detectable in 9 of our 10 NHLs, but not in any of the LAS cases. However, only one of the B cell clones, identified by Ig gene rearrangements carries a c- myc gene rearrangement, suggesting that only one clone carries the genetic abnormality associated with malignant B cell lymphoma. Furthermore, the frequency of detection of c-myc rearrangements in AIDS- associated NHLs of both Burkitt and non-Burkitt type suggest that the biological alterations present in AIDS favor the development of lymphomas carrying activated c-myc oncogenes. Finally, our data show that HIV DNA sequences are not detectable in LAS nor in NHL B cell clones, suggesting that HIV does not play a direct role in NHL development. Taken together, these observations suggest a model of multistep lymphomagenesis in AIDS in which LAS would represent a predisposing condition to NHL. Immunosuppression and EBV infection present in LAS can favor the expansion of B cell clones, which in turn may increase the probability of occurrence of c-myc rearrangements leading to malignant transformation. PMID:3491176
We evaluated the anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) immune responses of HIV patients after long-term successful HAART, presenting >500 TCD4+ cells\\/?l, undetectable viral load, and past history of tuberculosis infection (HIV+PPD+, n=14) or disease (HIV+CTB, n=17). Their lymphoproliferative and IFN-? responses were compared with those from HIV-uninfected controls either PPD+ (HIV?PPD+, n=17) or with past history of pulmonary tuberculosis (n=15). Most HIV-infected
Marcelo Mendonça; Maury M. Tanji; Léia C. R. Silva; Guilherme G. Silveira; Sérgio C. Oliveira; Alberto J. S. Duarte; Gil Benard
Allogeneic blood and marrow transplantation (alloBMT) remains the only curative treatment for patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), but its application has been limited by the older age range of patients with this disease. T cell depletion decreases transplant-related toxicity related to graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), but does not improve overall survival because of increased risk for relapse and graft failure. Myeloid
Erica D. Warlick; Paul V. O’Donnell; Michael Borowitz; Nichon Grupka; Lauren Decloe; Elizabeth Garrett-Mayer; Ivan Borrello; Robert Brodsky; Ephraim Fuchs; Carol Ann Huff; Leo Luznik; William Matsui; Richard Ambinder; Richard J. Jones; B. Douglas Smith
Heart transplantation started in Japan in 1999. Since then, 50 transplants have been performed at our center. We performed histopathological analyses of the 50 explanted hearts and the post-transplant biopsy specimens. The median age of recipients was 39 years. The primary diseases before transplant were idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy in 33 patients (66%), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in seven (14%), restrictive cardiomyopathy in one, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy in one, and secondary cardiomyopathy in eight (16%). Before transplantation, 47 patients (94%) had left ventricular assist devices. No severe cardiovascular failure due to allograft rejection occurred. The post-transplant survival rate was 97.6% at 1 year and 93.1% at 10 years. One recipient was lost to sepsis from myelodysplastic syndrome in the fourth year, one died of multiple organ failure and peritonitis 8 months after transplant. Another patient died of recurrent post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD). Mild cardiac dysfunction occurred in seven recipients in the early postoperative period. Moderate acute cellular rejection occurred in six patients (12%), and antibody-mediated rejection occurred in three (6%). The number of heart transplants performed in Japan is very small. However, the outstanding 10-year survival rate is due to donor evaluation and post-transplant care resulting in low grade rejection. Pathological evaluation has also greatly contributed to the results. PMID:25146228
Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Ikeda, Yoshihiko; Matsuyama, Taka-Aki; Ohta-Ogo, Keiko; Sato, Takuma; Seguchi, Osamu; Yanase, Masanobu; Fujita, Tomoyuki; Kobayashi, Junjiro; Nakatani, Takeshi
Castleman disease, also called angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia, is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by enlarged hyperplastic lymph nodes. Affected patients usually present with mediastinal lymphadenopathy; sometimes other groups of lymph nodes are involved, with or without associated systemic manifestations. We report a case of Castleman disease involving the intraparotid lymph node in a 15-year-old boy who presented with a 3-month history of a painless swelling of the right parotid gland. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of the mass revealed only reactive hyperplasia. The diagnosis of Castleman disease was established on histopathologic examination of the resected mass. We discuss the clinical course, histopathologic features, radiologic characteristics, and management of Castleman disease of the parotid gland in a pediatric patient. PMID:25397384
Kumar, Sudesh; Al Abri, Rashid; Kadir, Nasreen Abdul; Lokuhetty, Dilani
The growing population of adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) present a distinct set of challenges in the evaluation, listing, and safe performance of heart transplantation. We review existing literature to (1) describe the complex anatomic and physiologic features that characterize this group of patients, (2) discuss factors contributing to high waiting list times and waiting list morbidity and mortality experienced by this population, and finally, (3) identify risk factors for the elevated post-transplant morbidity and mortality reported in ACHD patients. We conclude with a discussion of critical areas in need of further investigation as well as ways to amend the current listing criteria to better accommodate ACHD patients in need of heart transplantation. PMID:25110322
Goldberg, Sara W; Fisher, Stacy A; Wehman, Brody; Mehra, Mandeep R
Castleman's disease is a morphologically and clinically heterogeneous lymphoproliferative disorder. Both a localized benign variant and an aggressive form with systemic manifestations have been described. To investigate the differences between these variants of Castleman's disease, the authors analyzed lymph node DNA from 4 patients with the localized type and 4 with the systemic type of Castleman's disease for immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor gene rearrangements. The role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) was also studied by viral genomic DNA probes. They detected clonal rearrangements in 3 of the 4 patients with the systemic variant of Castleman's; no patients with localized disease had rearrangements. Copies of EBV genome were also detected in 2 of the 3 patients with clonal rearrangements. These results suggest that systemic Castleman's disease is a disorder distinct from the classical localized variant in that it may evolve into a clonal lymphoproliferation. Images Figure 1 PMID:2833104
Hanson, C. A.; Frizzera, G.; Patton, D. F.; Peterson, B. A.; McClain, K. L.; Gajl-Peczalska, K. J.; Kersey, J. H.
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: what 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography can do in the management of these patients? Suggestions from a case report.
A young patient with undefined autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS-U) and low back pain underwent a CT and MRI study that showed enhancing vertebral lesions, some pulmonary nodules and diffuse latero-cervical lymphadenopathy. A (18)F-FDG-PET/CT scan showed many areas of intense (18)F-FDG uptake in multiple vertebrae, in some ribs, in the sacrum, in the liver, in both lungs, in multiple lymph nodes spread in the cervical, thoracic and abdominal chains. A bone marrow biopsy showed a "lymphomatoid granulomatosis", a rare variant of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). After the treatment, the (18)F-FDG-PET/CT scan showed a complete metabolic response. PMID:23845452
Cistaro, A; Pazè, F; Durando, S; Cogoni, M; Faletti, R; Vesco, S; Vallero, S; Quartuccio, N; Treglia, G; Ramenghi, U
Castleman disease (CD) is an uncommon benign lymphoproliferative disorder, which usually presents as solitary or multiple masses in the mediastinum. Peripancreatic CD was rarely reported. Herein, we report two cases of unicentric peripancreatic CD from our center. A 43-year-old man and a 58-year-old woman were detected to have a pancreatic mass in the routine medical examinations. Both of them were asymptomatic. The computed tomography and ultrasonographic examination revealed a mild enhancing solitary mass at the pancreatic head/neck. No definite preoperative diagnosis was established and Whipple operations were originally planned. The intraoperative frozen section diagnosis of both patients revealed lymphoproliferation. Then the local excisions of mass were performed. Histological examination revealed features of CD of hyaline-vascular type. No recurrence was found during the follow-up period. CD should be included in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic tumors. Local excision is a suitable surgical choice. PMID:22824621
Guo, Hua; Shen, Yan; Wang, Wei-Lin; Zhang, Min; Li, Hong; Wu, Ying-Sheng; Yan, Sheng; Xu, Xiao; Wu, Jian; Zheng, Shu-Sen
Peripheral neurolymphomatosis is a rare manifestation of advanced lymphoproliferative disorders. It is often associated with B cell lymphomas and rarely with cutaneous T cell lymphomas, such as mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome. In this case report, we present a 78-year-old male with a long-standing history of mycosis fungoides. The patient initially presented with chronic peripheral neuropathy in an ulnar nerve distribution. After an unsuccessful ulnar nerve transposition, the ulnar nerve was re-explored and a mass consistent with diffuse lymphomatous infiltration was diagnosed. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the left brachial plexus and later of the sacral plexus demonstrated diffuse thickening and peripheral nodularity in keeping with neurolymphomatosis. The patient's clinical course rapidly deteriorated thereafter and the patient succumbed to his disease. Although uncommon, neurolymphomatosis may be considered in patients with chronic peripheral neuropathy and an underlying history of a lymphoproliferative disorder. US and MR may serve as helpful non-invasive adjuncts in making the diagnosis and identifying sites for biopsy. PMID:23532558
Hanna, Ramez; Di Primio, Gina A; Schweitzer, Mark; Torres, Carlos; Sheikh, Adnan; Chakraborty, Santanu
Peripheral T-cell and NK-cell lymphomas and their mimics; taking a step forward - report on the lymphoma workshop of the XVIth meeting of the European Association for Haematopathology and the Society for Hematopathology.
Mature T-cell and T/NK-cell neoplasms are both uncommon and heterogeneous, among the broad category of non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Owing to the lack of specific genetic alterations in the vast majority, most currently defined entities show overlapping morphological and immunophenotypic features, and therefore pose a challenge to the diagnostic pathologist. In the light of recent immunophenotypic, cytogenetic and molecular genetics advances in the field of T-cell and T/NK-cell lymphomas, the focus of the lymphoma workshop of the European Association for Haematopathology/Society for Hematopathology meeting in Lisbon, Portugal, in October 2012 was to refine existing diagnostic criteria and clarify the borders between overlapping entities. The panel reviewed over 200 submitted cases, which were grouped into five categories: (i) angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma and T-follicular-helper-cell-associated lymphomas; (ii) CD30-positive T-cell lymphomas/lymphoproliferative diseases; (iii) extranodal T-cell and NK-cell neoplasms; (iv) EBV-associated T-cell/NK-cell lymphomas/lymphoproliferative diseases; and (v) peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders, and mimics. This report summarizes the discussions and conclusions of the workshop, which question current diagnostic criteria and provide recommendations for refining existing classifications. PMID:24128129
Attygalle, Ayoma D; Cabeçadas, José; Gaulard, Philippe; Jaffe, Elaine S; de Jong, Daphne; Ko, Young Hyeh; Said, Jonathan; Klapper, Wolfram
Castleman disease (CD) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder of unknown etiology with different clinical manifestations. A previous healthy 50 year-old man was hospitalized for right upper quadrant (RUQ) abdominal pain. He had jaundice and a 1 cm-sized lymph node in the right supraclavicular area. Pancreas and biliary computed tomography (CT) showed masses at the right renal hilum and peripancreatic areas. Positron emission tomography (PET) showed widespread systemic lymphadenopathy. Excisional biopsy of the right supraclavicular node revealed a hyaline vascular variant of CD. Corticosteroid therapy was started and the extent of disease decreased. We here report a case of multicentric CD, the hyaline vascular variant, presenting with jaundice, diagnosed by excisional biopsy and successfully treated with corticosteroids. PMID:17616028
Park, Jun Bean; Hwang, Jin Hyeok; Kim, Haeryoung; Choe, Hyung Sim; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Hong Bin; Bang, Soo-Mee
Heart transplantation is now an accepted method for treatment of heart disease in children, but transplantation in pediatric recipients continues to present unique challenges. The differences in indications and the complexity of surgery for congenital heart disease are only two of those challenges. A successful means of mechanical support is not available, which puts children at special risk of dying while waiting for transplantation. In addition, physiologic differences produce issues about management after transplantation, including use of immunosuppressive agents, control of infection, identification of transplant coronary artery disease, and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease. Because of the longer life expectancy desired from pediatric transplantation, measurement of quality of life must be more comprehensive. This broad range of special demands means that although the state of pediatric heart transplantation is positive, there are areas for continued improvement. PMID:10578708
Suddaby, E C
A 50-year-old male patient demonstrated an existing left proptosis for several weeks. The patient was suffering from physical exhaustion and had lost considerable weight. Furthermore, we observed greatly enlarged parotid and submandibular glands on both sides. MRI of the neck showed multiple, sharply circumscribed lesions in the major salivary glands and both lacrimal glands as well as in the orbit. Initially we suspected Heerfordt's syndrome, a manifestation of sarcoidosis, but laboratory diagnosis could not reveal a pathological erythrocyte sedimentation rate or an increased ACE titer. After exploratory excision from the right submandibular gland, histological examination revealed Castleman's disease. Therefore, we initiated an immunomodulatory therapy with interleukin-6 receptor antagonists.Castleman's disease is one of the very rare, benign, lymphoproliferative processes that have a tendency to turn malignant. Isolated findings of Castleman's disease should be completely resected. There are no clear treatment strategies for multiple localizations of Castleman's disease. The approaches range from systemic glucocorticoid therapy with chemotherapy to immunomodulatory treatment. In contrast to isolated findings, the prognosis for multicentric occurrence is unfavorable. PMID:22534680
Hirt, R; Krause, U; Knipping, S
... new category of diseases that are different from autoimmune diseases. However, autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases share common characteristics ... mistake and signals the body to destroy them. Autoimmune disease. A disease that results when the immune system ...
Two adults were seen with cirrhosis caused by different lipid storage diseases. A 42-yr-old woman with Niemann-Pick disease type B had marked hepatomegaly, ascites and recent variceal bleeding. Her evaluation showed chronic bilateral pulmonary infiltrates, multiple stigmata of chronic liver disease including the recent cessation of menses, diuretic-resistant sterile ascites, hepatic encephalopathy and variceal bleeding. Five percent of normal sphingomyelinase activity was measured in peripheral leukocytes. A 42-yr-old man with Gaucher's disease and a history of bilateral hip replacements presented with hepatomegaly, jaundice, refractory ascites and renal insufficiency. His evaluation showed 20% to 23% of normal glucocerebrosidase activity in peripheral leukocytes. Both patients underwent orthotopic liver transplantation with resolution of all aspects of decompensated liver function. Assessment of the underlying metabolic defect before and 6 to 14 mo after transplantation showed that after transplantation the patient with Niemann-Pick disease had above normal hepatic sphingomyelinase activity, a less-marked increase in peripheral leukocyte enzyme activity and lower than normal hepatic sphingomyelin and cholesterol content. In contrast, the patient with Gaucher's disease had only a 61% increase in hepatic glucocerebrosidase activity but had an elevated hepatic glucocerebroside content that was only 15% of the pretransplant level and decreased peripheral leukocyte enzyme levels. These findings suggest that variable relationships may exist between posttransplant hepatic and peripheral leukocyte enzyme activities in the different lipidoses, which may have implications for recurrence of glycolipid-induced liver damage. PMID:8423040
Smanik, E J; Tavill, A S; Jacobs, G H; Schafer, I A; Farquhar, L; Weber, F L; Mayes, J T; Schulak, J A; Petrelli, M; Zirzow, G C
Castleman disease (CD) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder of uncertain origin. Anemia is commonly reported and is related to an inflammatory mechanism. Occasionally an autoimmune hemolytic anemia appears as the leading clinical feature. Three histological types have been differentiated, a hyaline-vascular type (HV), a plasma cell type (PC), and a mixed type. Clinically CD is separated into unicentric (localized) or multicentric (generalized) forms. The former is most frequently of HV type (80-90%), affecting a single lymph node. The PC type is encountered in 10-20% of the unicentric CD and in almost all of the multicentric cases. Numerous systemic manifestations have been described usually associated with PC type. An isolated and markedly microcytic anemia revealing a unicentric CD has never been reported in English literature. Recent data concerning iron metabolism, interleukin-6 and hepcidin provide interesting clues to understand the particular microcytic anemia of CD. PMID:18549942
Vinzio, Stéphane; Ciarloni, Laetitia; Schlienger, Jean-Louis; Rohr, Serge; Méchine, Agnès; Goichot, Bernard
Minimal residual disease (MRD) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) for Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is predictive of relapse. Imatinib administration subsequent to SCT may prevent relapse, but the role of scheduling and its impact on outcome are not known. In a prospective, randomized multicenter trial, we compared the tolerability and efficacy of post-transplant imatinib administered either prophylactically (arm A; n=26) or following detection of MRD (arm B; n=29). Prophylactic imatinib significantly reduced the incidence of molecular recurrence after SCT compared with MRD-triggered imatinib (40% vs 69%; P=0.046). Median duration of PCR negativity was 26.5 and 6.8 months, respectively (P=0.065). Five-year survival in both interventional groups was high (80 and 74.5%), despite premature discontinuation of imatinib in the majority of patients because of poor tolerability. Relapse probability was significantly higher in patients who became MRD positive (P=0.017). In conclusion, post-transplant imatinib results in a low relapse rate, durable remissions and excellent long-term outcome in patients with BCR-ABL1-positive ALL irrespective of whether it is given prophylactically or MRD-triggered. Reappearance of BCR-ABL1 transcripts early after SCT or at higher levels identifies a small subset of patients who do not benefit sufficiently from imatinib, and in whom alternative approaches should be explored. PMID:23212150
Pfeifer, H; Wassmann, B; Bethge, W; Dengler, J; Bornhäuser, M; Stadler, M; Beelen, D; Vucinic, V; Burmeister, T; Stelljes, M; Faul, C; Dreger, P; Kiani, A; Schäfer-Eckart, K; Schwerdtfeger, R; Lange, E; Kubuschok, B; Horst, H A; Gramatzki, M; Brück, P; Serve, H; Hoelzer, D; Gökbuget, N; Ottmann, O G
Ribbing disease is a rare sclerosing dysplasia that involves long tubular bones, especially the tibia and femur. It occurs after puberty and is reported to be more common in women. In this article we describe how Ribbing disease can be differentiated from diseases like Engelmann-Camurati disease, van Buchem disease, Erdheim-Chester disease, osteoid osteoma, chronic osteomyelitis, stress fracture, etc. PMID:20351994
Mukkada, Philson J; Franklin, Teenu; Rajeswaran, Rangasami; Joseph, Santhosh
Ribbing disease is a rare sclerosing dysplasia that involves long tubular bones, especially the tibia and femur. It occurs after puberty and is reported to be more common in women. In this article we describe how Ribbing disease can be differentiated from diseases like Engelmann-Camurati disease, van Buchem disease, Erdheim-Chester disease, osteoid osteoma, chronic osteomyelitis, stress fracture, etc. PMID:20351994
Mukkada, Philson J; Franklin, Teenu; Rajeswaran, Rangasami; Joseph, Santhosh
Human polyomaviruses (HPyVs) are a growing challenge in immunocompromised patients in view of the increasing number of now 12 HPyV species and their diverse disease potential. Currently, histological evidence of disease is available for BKPyV causing nephropathy and haemorrhagic cystitis, JCPyV causing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and occasionally nephropathy, MCPyV causing Merkel cell carcinoma and TSPyV causing trichodysplasia spinulosa, the last two being proliferative skin diseases. Here, the current role of HPyV in solid organ transplantation (SOT) was reviewed and recommendations regarding screening, monitoring and intervention were made. Pre-transplant screening of SOT donor or recipient for serostatus or active replication is currently not recommended for any HPyV. Post-transplant, however, regular clinical search for skin lesions, including those associated with MCPyV or TSPyV, is recommended in all SOT recipients. Also, regular screening for BKPyV replication (e.g. by plasma viral load) is recommended in kidney transplant recipients. For SOT patients with probable or proven HPyV disease, reducing immunosuppression should be considered to permit regaining of immune control. Antivirals would be desirable for treating proven HPyV disease, but are solely considered as adjunct local treatment of trichodysplasia spinulosa, whereas surgical resection and chemotherapy are key in Merkel cell carcinoma. Overall, the quality of the clinical evidence and the strength of most recommendations are presently limited, but are expected to improve in the coming years. PMID:24476010
Hirsch, H H; Babel, N; Comoli, P; Friman, V; Ginevri, F; Jardine, A; Lautenschlager, I; Legendre, C; Midtvedt, K; Muñoz, P; Randhawa, P; Rinaldo, C H; Wieszek, A
Central bronchi and pulmonary arteries are surrounded and enveloped by a strong connective-tissue sheath termed the peribronchovascular interstitium, extending from the level of the pulmonary hila into the peripheral lung. Thickening of the peribronchovascular interstitium can be seen in a wide variety of diseases. The CT appearance can be smooth, nodular, or irregular depending on the underlying cause. Many of the diseases affecting the peribronchovascular interstitium are entities that show a predilection for lymphatic routes, such as sarcoidosis, pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis, silicosis, and lymphoproliferative disorders. There are other entities that mainly affect the peribronchovascular interstitium without a predominant perilymphatic distribution, such as hydrostatic pulmonary edema, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, Kaposi's sarcoma, interstitial pulmonary emphysema, and interstitial hemorrhage. Although there is an overlap in radiologic features, some CT findings are useful in differentiating among these entities. When CT shows mainly peribronchovascular abnormality, the differential diagnosis is considerably reduced, and it is generally possible to reach the correct diagnosis by considering the clinical context. We illustrate the CT findings and pathologic correlation for a number of different disorders that mainly affect the peribronchovascular interstitium. PMID:15753880
Castañer, Eva; Gallardo, Xavier; Pallardó, Yolanda; Branera, Jordi; Cabezuelo, María Angeles; Mata, Josep María
Primary immunodeficiencies represent a heterogeneous group of disorders of the immune system, predisposing to various types of infections. Among them, common variable immunodeficiency is the most common symptomatic antibody deficiency. It includes several different forms characterized by defects in the terminal stage of B lymphocyte differentiation, leading to markedly reduced immunoglobulin serum levels and increased susceptibility to bacterial infections. The clinical phenotype is complex, including autoimmunity, granulomatous inflammation, lymphoproliferative disorders and malignancies. Rare autosomal recessive mutations in a number of single genes have recently been reported. However, the underlying genetic defects remain unknown in the majority of cases. In order to seek new genes responsible for the disease, we studied a consanguineous Italian family through exome sequencing combined with homozygosity mapping. Six missense homozygous variants passed our filtering selection and at least two of them were associated with some aspects of the pathological phenotype. Our data remark the complexity of immune system disorders and emphasize the difficulty to understand the significance of genetic results and their correlation with the disease phenotype. PMID:25060277
Di Pierro, Valentina; Zuntini, Roberta; Cancrini, Caterina; Finocchi, Andrea; Angelino, Giulia; Rossi, Paolo; Ferrari, Simona
Nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC) are the most common malignant tumors following solid organ transplantation. Risk factors for NMSC mainly include immunosuppression, age, sun exposure and patient phototype. Recent findings have suggested that autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) may increase the risk of developing NMSC. We performed a monocenter retrospective study including all kidney recipients between 1985 and 2006 (n = 1019). We studied the incidence of NMSC, solid cancers and post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD), and analyzed the following parameters: age, gender, phototype, time on dialysis, graft rank, immunosuppressive regimen, history of cancer and kidney disease (ADPKD versus others). Median follow-up was 5.5 years (range: 0.02-20.6; 79 838 patient-years). The cumulated incidence of NMSC 10 years after transplantation was 12.7% (9.3% for solid cancers and 3.5% for PTLD). Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and age were risk factors for NMSC (HR 2.63; P < 0.0001 and HR 2.21; P < 0.001, respectively) using univariate analysis. The association between ADPKD and NMSC remained significant after adjustments for age, gender and phototype using multivariate analysis (HR 1.71; P = 0.0145) and for immunosuppressive regimens (P < 0.0001). Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease was not a risk factor for the occurrence of solid cancers after transplantation (HR 0.96; P = 0.89). Our findings suggest that ADPKD is an independent risk factor for developing NMSC after kidney transplantation. PMID:20230542
Bretagnol, Anne; Halimi, Jean Michel; Roland, Mélanie; Barbet, Christelle; Machet, Laurent; Al Najjar, Azmi; Marlière, Jean Frédéric; Badin, Julie; Nivet, Hubert; Lebranchu, Yvon; Büchler, Matthias
We describe an 11-year-old girl with thalassemia major who underwent a second hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from a matched related donor and who subsequently developed posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder complicated by severe ascending paralysis resembling Guillian-Barré syndrome. Six months later she developed a massive pericardial effusion. She received a multimodal treatment for these complications and currently, 18 months after transplantation, she is in a good clinical condition, is transfusion independent, with no evidence of graft-versus-host disease and off all treatment. This case highlights the dilemma surrounding second hematopoietic stem cell transplantations in hemoglobinopathies and the need for a careful, well informed, and collaborative decision-making process by patients, families, and medical professionals. PMID:22395220
Yanir, Asaf; Yatsiv, Ido; Braun, Jacques; Zilkha, Amir; Brooks, Rebecca; Bouhanna, Dalia; Weintraub, Michael; Stepensky, Polina
... is characterized by the production of an abnormally large number of lymphocytes (lymphoproliferation). Accumulation of excess lymphocytes results ... is turned on (activated) to fight an infection, large numbers of lymphocytes are produced. Normally, these lymphocytes undergo ...
In patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) evaluated for kidney transplantation, issues related to native nephrectomy, cystic liver involvement, screening for intracranial aneurysms and living-related kidney donation deserve special consideration. Prophylactic native nephrectomy is restricted to patients with a history of cyst infection or recurrent haemorrhage or to those in whom space must be made to implant the graft. Patients with liver involvement require pretransplant imaging. Selection of patients for pretransplant screening of intracranial aneurysms should follow the general recommendations for patients with ADPKD. In living related-donor candidates aged <30 years and at-risk of ADPKD, molecular genetic testing should be carried out when ultrasonography and MRI findings are normal or equivocal. After kidney transplantation, patient and graft survival rates are excellent and the volume of native kidneys decreases. However, liver cysts continue to grow and treatment with a somatostatin analogue should be considered in patients with massive cyst involvement. Cerebrovascular events have a marginal effect on post-transplant morbidity and mortality. An increased risk of new-onset diabetes mellitus and nonmelanoma skin cancers has been reported, but several studies have challenged these findings. Finally, no data currently support the preferential use of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors as immunosuppressive agents in transplant recipients with ADPKD. PMID:24935705
Kanaan, Nada; Devuyst, Olivier; Pirson, Yves
B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma
Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia
We present a case of a 19-year-old man with a 6-year history of Crohn's disease (CD), previously treated with 6-mercaptopurine, who was admitted to our department for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and subsequently developed a hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). HLH is a rare disease which causes phagocytosis of all bone marrow derived cells. It can be a primary form as a autosomic recessive disease, or a secondary form associated with a variety of infections; EBV is the most common, the one with poorer prognosis. The incidence of lymphoproliferative disorders was increased in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) treated with thiopurines. Specific EBV-related clinical and virological management should be considered when treating a patient with IBD with immunosuppressive therapy. Moreover EBV infection in immunosuppressed patient can occur with more aggressive forms such as encephalitis and diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Our case confirms what is described in the literature; patients with IBD, particularly patients with CD receiving thiopurine therapy, who present 5 d of fever and cervical lymphadenopathy or previous evidence of lymphopenia should be screened for HLH. PMID:24520429
Virdis, Francesco; Tacci, Sara; Messina, Federico; Varcada, Massimo
Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Philadelphia Chromosome Negative Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Multiple Myeloma; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia
Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2872096831190851. Castleman disease (CD), described as a heterogeneous lymphoproliferative disorder, can be divided into different subtypes according to clinical appearance (unicentric and multicentric form) and histopathological features (hyaline vascular, plasma cell, mixed type, human herpesvirus 8–associated and multicentric not otherwise specified). Unicentric CD is known to be usually of the hyaline vascular variant, plasma cell and mixed type of this form are quite uncommon. Malignancies are mainly associated with the multicentric form. We report a rare case of unicentric mixed variant CD evolving into intrabronchial, extramedullary plasmacytoma. Intrabronchial mass with consequential obstruction of the left main bronchus, left lung atelectasis and mediastinal lymphadenomegaly was detected by chest CT in our patient suffering from cough and hemoptysis. Pulmonectomy was performed, histopathological and immunhistochemical analysis of lymph nodes revealed mixed type of CD with interfollicular monotypic plasma cell proliferation. The intrabronchial mass consisted of monotypic plasma cells confirming plasmacytoma. Systemic involvement was not confirmed by further tests. Although malignancies more often present in multicentric CD that usually belongs to the plasma cell subtype, this case confirms the neoplastic potential of the rarest, unicentric mixed variant of CD. PMID:24649966
Autoimmune diseases may reveal or occur during the course of a neoplasia or its treatment. Autoimmune cytopenia, especially haemolytic anaemia, is common in lymphoproliferative disorders such as chronic lymphoid leukemia. The link between cancer and myositis is well established. Dermatomyositis is associated with an increased relative risk of cancer of 3.4 to 4.4. A combination of detection of antibodies against p155 and TEP-computed tomography may be the best approach to ascertain the presence of occult malignancy in patients with dermatomyositis. A cutaneous or a systemic vascularitis may reveal a cancer, most often a haematological malignancy such as hairy cell leukemia. Paraneoplastic polyarthritis have been described in particular with adenocardinoma of the lungs. Underlying neoplasia should be considered in male smokers patients with new onset polyarthritis and poor health status. The prevalence of autoimmune conditions in myelodysplastic syndromes is 10 to 30%. Vasculitis and relapsing polychondritis are the most commonly reported manifestations. Immune manifestations can also be related to treatment. The most common treatment complications are autoimmune haemolytic anaemia with fludarabine and thyroiditis related to interferon and cervical radiotherapy. PMID:25106665
Pasquet, F; Pavic, M; Ninet, J; Hot, A
Mucolipidosis type II (MLII), or I-cell disease, is a rare but severe disorder affecting localization of enzymes to the lysosome, generally resulting in death before the 10th birthday. Although hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been used to successfully treat some lysosomal storage diseases, only 2 cases have been reported on the use of HSCT to treat MLII. For the first time, we describe the combined international experience in the use of HSCT for MLII in 22 patients. Although 95% of the patients engrafted, overall survival was low, with only 6 patients (27%) alive at last follow-up. The most common cause of death post-transplant was cardiovascular complications, most likely due to disease progression. Survivors were globally delayed in development and often required complex medical support, such as gastrostomy tubes for nutrition and tracheostomy with mechanical ventilation. Although HSCT has demonstrated efficacy in treating some lysosomal storage disorders, the neurologic outcome and survival for patents with MLII were poor. Therefore, new medical and cellular therapies should be sought for these patients. PMID:25016194
Lund, Troy C; Cathey, Sara S; Miller, Weston P; Eapen, Mary; Andreansky, Martin; Dvorak, Christopher C; Davis, Jeffrey H; Dalal, Jignesh D; Devine, Steven M; Eames, Gretchen M; Ferguson, William S; Giller, Roger H; He, Wensheng; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Krance, Robert; Katsanis, Emmanuel; Lewis, Victor A; Sahdev, Indira; Orchard, Paul J
How will developments in genetic knowledge affect the classification of disease? Leaders in genetics have suggested that knowledge of the role of genes in dis- ease can determine nosology. Diseases might be defined by genotype, thus avoiding the limitations of more empirical approaches to categorization. Other commentators cau- tion against disease definitions that are detached from the look and feel
Fiona Alice Miller; Megan E. Begbie; Mita Giacomini; Catherine Ahern; Erin A. Harvey
Aging & Health A to Z Prostate Diseases Basic Facts & Information What are Prostate Diseases? The prostate—one of the components of a man's sex organs—is a ... out anything serious. The Most Common Types of Prostate Diseases Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) Prostatitis Prostate cancer ...
The Silkie is a typical Chinese breed of chicken. In 2012, batches of Silkies were found to have diffuse tumor-like nodules on their skin after feather removal, when they were slaughtered at about 60 days old. Gross examination showed no visible neoplastic lesions on the visceral organs and peripheral nerves, except slight splenomegaly in individual chickens. The disease was prevalent, with high condemnation rates for skin lesions, which caused great economic losses to the company. Tissues, including skin, visceral organs, and peripheral nerves, were collected for histologic examination. Heparinized blood samples were collected for virus isolation and identification. Marek's disease virus (MDV), Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), and Avian leukosis virus (ALV) were analyzed, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. Histologic examination showed that all of the tumor-like nodules on the skin were lymphomas. Lymphoproliferative lesions occurred mostly on the skin and only a few on the viscera, including the liver and proventriculus. Infected chick embryo fibroblasts showed clear cytopathic effects; indirect fluorescent antibody test for envelope glycoprotein B was positive. In addition, PCR indicated the presence of MDV serotype 1 infection without REV and ALV. A phylogenetic tree of the Meq gene showed that the isolate (SD121201) and Chinese reference strains, which are very virulent MDVs, are in the same clade. It was concluded that the Silkies tested were infected with MDV serotype 1. The Marek's disease epidemic has been controlled using CVI988/Rispens vaccines. PMID:24583947
Liu, Litao; Qu, Yajin; Wang, Tongtong; Wang, Guangwen; Wang, Fangkun; Liu, Sidang
Schindler disease and Kanzaki disease are caused by a deficient lysosomal enzyme, alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (E.C.126.96.36.199). Two German children were first reported in 1987 and other two Dutch children were recently reported in 1993. These children were very similar clinically and characterized by maked neuroaxonal dystrophy of an infantile onset. This disease (type 1) was named Schindler disease. On the other hand, an adult patient with profuse angiokeratoma corporis diffusum but minimum involvement in nervous system was reported in 1987 from Japan. This disease (type 2) was named Kanzaki disease (Mckusick catalog No. 104170). Molecular analyses of these diseases revealed one each point mutation in the encoding gene. Clinical, ultrastructural and molecular studies of these disease were described. PMID:8577046
The study analyzed outcomes of a consecutive case series of 37 patients with peripheral T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, from related and unrelated donors, using allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT), between the years 2000 and 2007. All patients were pretreated; the majority had either relapsed or progressive disease (n=25, 68%), 13 had cutaneous histologies (CTCL), and all were ineligible for autologous transplant. Fully ablative conditioning regimens were used in 13 patients while 24 patients underwent reduced intensity conditioning (RIC). At five years the overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) probabilities were 52.2% and 46.5%, respectively. At the time of analysis, 9 (24.3%) patients had either relapsed (n=6) or progressed (n=3) post allo-HCT. The cumulative incidences of relapse/progression and non-relapse mortality at 5 years were 24.3% and 28.9%. No statistically significant variables for survival or relapse were discovered by univariate Cox-regression analysis of disease and patient characteristics; differences between CTCL and other histologies were not significant. The median follow-up of 64.0 months (range: 16.4–100.4) indicates a mature data-set with probable cure in the survivors. The relapse/progression curves reached and maintained plateaus after 1 year post-transplant, demonstrating that long-term disease control is possible after allo-HCT in PTCL patients with advanced disease. PMID:21699453
Zain, Jasmine; Palmer, Joycelynne M.; Delioukina, Maria; Thomas, Sandra; Tsai, Ni-Chun; Nademanee, Auayporn; Popplewell, Leslie; Gaal, Karl; Senitzer, David; Kogut, Neil; O'Donnell, Margaret; Forman, Stephen J.
Background Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a group of lymphoproliferative disorders that includes mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sezary syndrome (SS). T-Plastin (PLS3) is an actin-bundling protein that has been found to be highly expressed in Sezary cells but not in normal PBMCs. Here, we describe the value of using PLS3 as a sensitive molecular marker for differentiating stages of MF from SS, and for monitoring development of SS from MF. Objectives To determine the relationship between PLS3 expression level and SS, and disease progression and response to treatment in patients with MF/SS. Methods Total RNA from PBMCs from normal volunteers, MF/SS, and psoriasis patients were measured by quantitative PCR for PLS3 gene expression. Results In PBMCs from MF/SS and psoriasis patients, PLS3 expression was increased markedly in SS (greater than 400-fold) compared to that seen in early and late stage MF patients without SS cells or in patients with psoriasis. In a patient whose disease progressed to SS from MF, the PLS3 level in PBMCs showed an increased with disease progression. With treatment, the level of PLS3 decreased with chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation. Conclusions PLS3 expression is a valuable and sensitive molecular biomarker to differentiate MF from SS. The measure of this gene may have value in conjunction with gene rearrangement studies to monitor disease severity or progression from MF to SS. Furthermore, PLS3 is not expressed in other inflammatory skin diseases, and may be valuable to distinguish SS from other cutaneous diseases associated with generalized erythroderma. PMID:19995369
Tang, Nikki; Gibson, Heather; Germeroth, Thomas; Porcu, Pierluigi; Lim, Henry W.; Wong, Henry K.
1 Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Â· Coronary heart disease Â· Cerebrovascular disease Â· Peripheral arterial disease Â· Rheuma7c heart disease Â· Congenital heart disease Â· Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism Atherosclerosis CVD is caused by damage caused
Dever, Jennifer A.
Synopsis Lyme disease, caused by spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States. The clinical presentation varies depending on the stage of the illness: early disease includes erthyma migrans, early disseminated disease includes multiple erythema migrans, meningitis, cranial nerve palsies and carditis; late disease is primarily arthritis. The symptoms and signs of infection resolve in the vast majority of patients after appropriate treatment with antimicrobials for from 2-4 weeks. Serologic testing should be used judiciously as it often results in misdiagnosis when performed on blood from patients with a low prior probability of disease and those with non-specific symptoms such as fatigue or arthralgia without signs of infection. PMID:20513553
Murray, Thomas S.; Shapiro, Eugene D.
Successful infant heart transplantation has now been performed for over 25 years. Assessment of long term outcomes is now possible. We report clinical outcomes for322 patients who received their heart transplant during infancy. Actuarial graft survival for newborn recipients is 59% at 25 years. Survival has improved in the most recent era. Cardiac allograft vasculopathy is the most important late cause of death with an actuarial incidence at 25 years of 35%. Post-transplant lymphoma is estimated to occur in 20% of infant recipients by25 years. Chronic kidney disease grade 3 or worse is present in 31% of survivors. The epidemiology of infant heart transplantation has changed through the years as the results for staged repair improved and donor resources remained stagnant. Most centers now employ staged repair for hypoplastic left heart syndrome and similar extreme forms of congenital heart disease. Techniques for staged repair, including the hybrid procedure, are described. The lack of donors is described with particular note regarding decreased donors due to newer programs for appropriate infant sleep positioning and infant car seats. ABO incompatible donors are a newer resource for maximizing donor resources, as is donation after circulatory determination of death and techniques to properly utilize more donors by expanding the criteria for what is an acceptable donor. An immunological advantage for the youngest recipients has long been postulated, and evaluation of this phenomenon may provide clues to the development of accommodation and/or tolerance. PMID:22548030
Chinnock, Richard E; Bailey, Leonard L
Borna disease virus, a newly classified nonsegmented negative-strand RNA virus with international distribution, infects a broad range of warm-blooded animals from birds to primates. Infection causes movement and behavioral disturbances reminiscent of some neuropsychiatric syndromes. The virus has not been clearly linked to any human disease; however, an association between infection with the virus and selected neuropsychiatric disorders has been suggested. We reviewed recent advances in Borna disease virus research, focusing on evidence of infection in humans. PMID:9204293
Hatalski, C. G.; Lewis, A. J.; Lipkin, W. I.
Opinion statement Kawasaki disease is an acute vasculitis of childhood, complicated by coronary artery aneurysms in up to 25% of affected children.\\u000a High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) administered in the acute phase of Kawasaki disease leads to a fivefold reduction\\u000a in the prevalence of coronary aneurysms. When fever persists, a second IVIG infusion should be administered. Rescue therapies\\u000a for IVIG-resistant Kawasaki disease
Jane W. Newburger; David R. Fulton
Background Castleman’s disease is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder. It typically presents as mediastinal masses and causes a wide range of clinical symptoms. Histologically, Castleman’s disease is classified as either a hyalinic vascular or plasma cell variant. The prognosis mainly depends on the histological type and broadly varies. We herein report our sonographic findings in a patient with Castleman’s disease, including gray-scale ultrasonography, color Doppler ultrasonography, and sonoelastography ultrasonography, which have not been previously reported in the literature. These findings allowed for a preoperative diagnosis and avoidance of overly aggressive therapy. Case presentation A 28-year-old European female patient with unicentric Castleman’s disease of hyalinic vascular type (HV) restricted to the axilla was referred to us because of a 4-month history of a painless, solitary mass located in the left axilla. The patient’s medical history was unremarkable. Conclusion Castleman’s disease is a pathologic entity of unknown etiology and pathogenesis. In this case report of unicentric HV-type CD, we demonstrate that typical sonographic findings can lead to a preoperative diagnosis of Castleman’s disease. Core needle biopsy usually allows for a final diagnosis and helps to avoid unnecessary operations and overtreatment. PMID:23497665
Marek's disease (MD) virus (MDV) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes MD, a lymphoproliferative disease in chickens. Pathotyping has become an increasingly important assay for monitoring shifts in virulence of field strains; however, it is time-consuming and expensive, and alternatives are needed to provide fast answers in the face of current outbreaks. The purpose of this study was to determine whether differences in virus replication between pathotypes that have been reported using a small number of virulent (v) and very virulent plus (vv+) MDV strains could be confirmed with a large collection of MD viruses. Based on pilot study data, bursa, brain, and lung samples were collected at 9 and 11 days postinoculation (dpi) from birds challenged with 1 of 15 MDV strains. The correlation between virus replication and virulence was confirmed between vMDV strains and higher virulent strains, but in most cases, there was no significant difference between very virulent (vv) and vv+MDV groups. At both 9 and 11 dpi, chickens infected with vv and vv+MDV had significantly lower body weights and relative thymus and bursa weights compared with chickens challenged with vMDV. However, similar to virus quantity, there was no significant difference between weights in birds challenged with vv or vv+MDV. The significant differences observed in maternal antibody negative (ab-) chickens were not significant in maternal antibody positive (ab+) chickens, demonstrating the requirement of ab- birds for this type of comparison. These data do not support the use of virus replication or organ weights as an alternative to pathotyping for discrimination between all three virulent MDV pathotypes but may be useful for determining a virus replication threshold to choose which field strains meet a minimum virulence to be pathotyped by traditional methods. PMID:25055634
Dunn, John R; Auten, Kiva; Heidari, Mohammad; Buscaglia, Celina
... Publications Menkes Disease: Overview Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Menkes disease is a genetic disorder that affects how copper moves through the body. It is characterized by sparse, kinky hair; failure to gain weight and grow at the expected rate; and deterioration ...
A recent study has used whole-exome sequencing, an ‘extreme trait’ design and imaging genetics to identify coding variants associated with hippocampal volume loss in Alzheimer disease. The research highlights the utility of next-generation sequencing and association studies involving quantitative traits for discovery of disease-related variants in neurodegeneration. PMID:23857046
Apostolova, Liana G.
The sequencing of the human genome and that of numerous pathogens has opened the door for proteomics by providing a sequence-based framework for mining proteomes. As a result, there is intense interest in applying proteomics to foster a better understanding of disease processes, develop new biomarkers for diagnosis and early detection of disease, and accelerate drug development. This interest creates
... system. Fabry disease is one of several lipid storage disorders and the only X-linked lipid storage disease. Since the gene that is altered is ... eye manifestations, especially cloudiness of the cornea. Lipid storage may lead to impaired arterial circulation and increased ...
Mycosis fungoides was first described in 1806 by the French physician Jean Louis Alibert in a patient whose skin lesions developed into mushroom-like tumors. Though it is not an infectious disease, it was termed mycosis fungoides (MF) due to its fungating appearance. In 1870, Bazin further described MF, proposing the three classical stages of the cutaneous disease: patch, plaque, and tumor. The term cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) was first utilized in 1975 by Lutzner et al to describe a group of malignant infiltrative disorders of the skin including MF and Sézary syndrome. CTCLs comprise a spectrum of extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphomas that are characterized by primary cutaneous involvement of a dominant clonal T-cell. As molecular biology and immunohistochemistry techniques have become more developed, CTCL has become understood to be a heterogeneous assembly of disorders that vary with regards to clinical course, histopathology, therapeutic considerations, and prognosis. MF, a low-grade lymphoproliferative disorder, is the most common type of CTCL, comprising 54% of CTCLs. It is a rare, extranodal, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and is an epidermotropic neoplasm composed of CD4+ (helper) lymphocytes Sézary syndrome is a related leukemic subtype of CTCL that presents with diffuse skin involvement as well as circulating tumor cells in the peripheral blood. PMID:23884501
Makdisi, Joy; Friedman, Adam
Opinion statement \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a Individuals with celiac disease present with a wide array of symptoms and signs. Celiac disease can result in substantial\\u000a injury to the small intestine, deleterious effects on other organ systems, and an overall doubling of mortality. The role\\u000a of the gastroenterologist is primarily to make the diagnosis and then to ensure that patients with celiac disease receive
Ahmad S. Abdulkarim; Joseph A. Murray
Gaucher's disease (GD) is the most common amongst the various disorders classified under the lysosomal storage disorders. GD is a model for applications of molecular medicine to clinical delineation, diagnosis, and treatment. The multiorgan and varied presentation of the disease makes it a challenge to diagnose GD early. The advent of enzyme replacement therapy in the early 1990s changed the management, and survival, of patients with GD. In addition to this, development of substrate reduction, pharmacological chaperone, and gene therapies has broadened the horizon for this rare disease. However, in resource-poor countries like ours, optimal management is still a distant dream. PMID:21897894
Bohra, Vijay; Nair, Velu
The authors report clinical features and therapeutic response of 24 outpatients with acute Chagas' disease, and 3 in the initial chronic phase, referred to the Clinic for Infectious and Parasitic Diseases of the FMUSP "Clínicas" Hospital between 1974 and 1987. The following transmission routes were involved: triatominae in 7 cases, blood transfusion in 9, kidney transplantation and/or blood transfusion in 4, accidental in 1, oral route in 3, probably breast feeding in 1, congenital or breast feeding in 1, and congenital or blood transfusion in 1. Six patients infected by triatominac acquired the disease between 1974 and 1980 and one in 1987. The blood transfusion infected patients acquired the disease in Greater São Paulo, seven of whom after 1983. The acute phase Chagas' disease was oligosymptomatic in 4 patients: three of such patients being immunocompromised by drugs or other diseases. Another two adult immunocompromised patients developed myocarditis and congestive heart failure. Clinical features were severe in 5 from 6 children under two years, irrespective of the transmission route. Evaluation of the acute phase patients treated with benznidazol (4-10 mg/kg/day) showed: therapeutic failure in 4/16 (25.0%); possible cure in 9/16 (53.2%) and inconclusive results in 3/16 (18.8%). The antibody and complement-mediated lysis reaction was in keeping with the xenodiagnosis in 18/22 cases, having shown negative results after treatment earlier than classical serological reactions. One aplastic anaemia patient receiving corticosteroid presented lymphoproliferative disease 6 years after being treated with benznidazol for acute Chagas' disease. PMID:2124370
Shikanai-Yasuda, M A; Lopes, M H; Tolezano, J E; Umezawa, E; Amato Neto, V; Barreto, A C; Higaki, Y; Moreira, A A; Funayama, G; Barone, A A
Crohn disease (CD) is a chronic and debilitating inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract.1 Prevalence in western populations is 100–150/100,000 and somewhat higher in Ashkenazi Jews. Peak incidence is in early adult life, although any age can be affected and a majority of affected individuals progress to relapsing and chronic disease. Medical treatments rely significantly on empirical corticosteroid therapy and immunosuppression, and intestinal resectional surgery is frequently required. Thus, 80% of patients with CD come to surgery for refractory disease or complications. It is hoped that an improved understanding of pathogenic mechanisms, for example by studying the genetic basis of CD and other forms of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), will lead to improved therapies and possibly preventative strategies in individuals identified as being at risk. PMID:20729636
Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.; Rioux, John D.; Mizoguchi, Atsushi; Saitoh, Tatsuya; Huett, Alan; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette; Wileman, Tom; Mizushima, Noboru; Carding, Simon; Akira, Shizuo; Parkes, Miles; Xavier, Ramnik J.
Celiac disease is induced by the ingestion of gluten, which is derived from wheat, barley, and rye. The gluten protein is enriched in glutamine and proline and is poor- ly digested in the human upper gastrointestinal tract. The term \\
Peter H. R. Green; Christophe Cellier
... Graves' disease can cause the following symptoms: Nervousness Insomnia Emotional swings Sweating Hand tremor Palpitations Unexplained weight ... medication such as propanolol (Inderal). For anxiety and insomnia, your doctor may prescribe diazepam (Valium), lorazepam (Ativan) ...
Although diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and human immunodeficiency virus infection are three separate entities,\\u000a each has causal and non-causal risk factors that are common in the stage 5 chronic kidney disease population. The medical\\u000a nutrition therapies are similar, which emphasize adequate protein and energy intakes, fluid control, and possibly carbohydrate\\u000a and fat modifications. Each patient requires an individualized evaluation, taking
Sharon R. Schatz
Lyme borreliosis is an infectious disease caused by the tick-transmitted spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. To date, the only known endemic focus of Lyme disease in Canada is Long Point, Ont. A national case definition for surveillance purposes, consensus statement regarding laboratory diagnosis, and treatment guidelines have recently been developed in an attempt to standardize the approach to surveillance, diagnosis, and management of Lyme borreliosis in Canada. PMID:21221399
Burdge, David R.; O'Hanlon, David
Fungal diseases of lentils are the most important biological constraint to productivity. Ascochyta lentis (ascochyta blight) and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lentis (fusarium wilt) are the major fungal pathogens that can cause severe losses in most lentil growing regions of the world.\\u000a Fungal diseases such as botrytis grey mould (Botrytis fabae and B. cinerea), rust (Uromyces viciae-fabae), stemphylium blight (Stemphylium
Paul Taylor; Kurt Lindbeck; Weidong Chen; Rebecca Ford
Coeliac disease (c.d.) is an inflammatory disorder of the small intestine that affects > 0.5% of Western, Middle Eastern and North African populations. Disease manifestations range from asymptomatic to severe malabsorption, autoimmune disorders and (intestinal) lymphoma. A strict gluten-free diet is usually curative, but elderly patients can develop refractory c.d. or intestinal T cell lymphoma. c.d. shares immunological features with
Detlef Schuppan; Yvonne Junkler
Celiac disease, also known as celiac sprue or gluten-sensitive enteropathy, is a chronic disorder that is readily recognized\\u000a when it presents in its classical form with diarrhea, bloating, flatulence, weight loss and evidence of malabsorption. However,\\u000a non-gastrointestinal GI and non-specific GI manifestations are currently the more common presentations of this disease. Withdrawal\\u000a of gluten from the diet results in a
Sheila E. Crowe
A computerized PubMed search of MEDLINE 1966-May 2005 was performed. The terms “Meniere disease” and “gentamicin” were exploded,\\u000a and the resulting articles were combined. The terms “intratympanic” and “transtympanic” were entered as text words as the\\u000a search term “intratympanic OR transtympanic,” and the results were combined with the Ménière disease\\/gentamicin articles.\\u000a The resulting 136 articles were limited to the English
Iee-Ching Wu Anderson; John P. Carey; Walter Kutz; William H. Slattery
Marek's disease virus (MDV), which causes a lymphoproliferative disease in chickens, is known to induce host responses leading to protection against disease in a manner dependent on genetic background of chickens and virulence of the virus. In the present study, changes in the spleen proteome at 7, 14 and 21 days post-infection in response to MDV infection were studied using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Differentially expressed proteins were identified using one-dimensional liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (1D LC ESI MS/MS). Comparative analysis of multiple gels revealed that the majority of changes had occurred at early stages of the disease. In total, 61 protein spots representing 48 host proteins were detected as either quantitatively (false discovery rate (FDR) <= 0.05 and fold change >= 2) or qualitatively differentially expressed at least once during different sampling points. Overall, the proteins identified in the present study are involved in a variety of cellular processes such as the antigen processing and presentation, ubiquitin-proteasome protein degradation (UPP), formation of the cytoskeleton, cellular metabolism, signal transduction and regulation of translation. Notably, early stages of the disease were characterized by changes in the UPP, and antigen presentation. Furthermore, changes indicative of active cell proliferation as well as apoptosis together with significant changes in cytoskeletal components that were observed throughout the experimental period suggested the complexity of the pathogenesis. The present findings provide a basis for further studies aimed at elucidation of the role of these proteins in MDV interactions with its host.
Thanthrige-Don, Niroshan; Abdul-Careem, Mohamed F. [Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Shack, L. Allen; Burgess, Shane C. [Department of Basic Sciences, Mississippi State University (United States); Sharif, Shayan, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)
Ninety-three patients with malignant disease underwent orthotopic liver transplantation between May 1968 and April 1987 in the Cambridge/King's College Hospital program. Of 50 patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (19 with cirrhosis, 31 without cirrhosis, including 7 with fibrolamellar variant), 37 (74%) survived for more than 3 months, and in this group evidence of tumor recurrence was obtained in 24 (64.9%), the longest survivor being 11.8 years post-transplant, and three survived for more than 5 years. Although there is no correlation between the frequency of tumor recurrence and underlying cirrhosis, or histologic type (except fibrolamellar variant), it was observed earlier in those with moderate/poorly differentiated tumors and also when prednisolone and azathioprine was used for immunosuppression. Tumor recurred in all but two of those with peripheral or central cholangiocarcinoma (one alive at 6.1 years) with median survival times of 34 weeks and 56 weeks for the central and peripheral types, respectively. Among the unusual primary tumors, one with epithelioid haemangioendothelioma developed tumor recurrence at 2 years, one of two patients with apudoma is tumor-free at 2.2 years, and the one patient with bile-duct papillary cystadenocarcinoma is alive at 1.7 years. For the secondary hepatic malignancy group, survival times were shorter with little palliation except for two patients with carcinoid syndrome who were free of associated symptoms at 6 and 10 months. Despite the overall high frequency of tumor recurrence in most categories of hepatic malignancy, liver transplantation gave worthwhile survival with a number of patients cured and in the others considerable palliation of symptoms. PMID:2451484
O'Grady, J G; Polson, R J; Rolles, K; Calne, R Y; Williams, R
Whipple's disease is a systemic bacterial infection and the common though not invariable manifestations are diarrhoea, weight loss, abdominal pain, and arthralgia. Arthritis or arthralgia may be the only presenting symptom, predating other manifestations by years. Virtually all organs in the body may be affected, with protean clinical manifestations. Various immunological abnormalities, some of which may be epiphenomena, are described. The causative organism is Tropheryma whippelii.?The disease is uncommon though lethal if not treated. Recent data suggest the disease occurs in an older age group than previously described. The characteristic histopathological features are found most often in the small intestine. These are variable villous atrophy and distension of the normal villous architecture by an infiltrate of foamy macrophages with a coarsely granular cytoplasm, which stain a brilliant magenta colour with PAS. These pathognomonic PAS positive macrophages may also be present in the peripheral and mesenteric lymph nodes and various other organs. The histological differential diagnoses include histoplasmosis and Mycobacterium avium-intercellulare complex.?The clinical diagnosis of Whipple's disease may be elusive, especially if gastrointestinal symptoms are not present. A unique sign of CNS involvement, if present, is oculofacial-skeletal myorhythmia or oculomasticatory myorhythmia, both diagnostic of Whipple's disease. A small bowel biopsy is often diagnostic, though in about 30% of patients no abnormality is present. In patients with only CNS involvement, a stereotactic brain biopsy can be done under local anaesthetic. A recent important diagnostic test is polymerase chain reaction of the 16S ribosomal RNA of Tropheryma whippelii.?Whipple's disease is potentially fatal but responds dramatically to antibiotic treatment. In this review the current recommended treatments are presented. The response to treatment should be monitored closely, as relapses are common. CNS involvement requires more vigorous treatment because there is a high rate of recurrence after apparently successful treatment.???Keywords: Whipple's disease; Tropheryma whippelii PMID:11085766
Respiratory allergic diseases belong to atopic diseases. Their prevalence has steadily increased over the past decades. Recently, a plateau effect seems to occur. This increased prevalence should be related to environmental changes. However, "classical" aerocontaminants, such as aero-allergens and air pollutants cannot account for such a drastic increase in prevalence. Change in diet can account for biological changes but the relation to allergic diseases seems questionable. Use of contraceptive pills and caesarean section had been put forward as hypotheses but their implication seems unlikely. Among the classical risk factors, 2 only should remain in the primary prevention of atopic diseases, namely, prolonged breast feeding and avoiding passive smoking. The major input of epidemiological research over the past decades lies in the "hygienic hypothesis" and the protective effect of early exposure to farm animals and raw cow milk. Progress to come in this field should lie in a better knowledge of in utero exposure on the foetal immune system. PMID:17717941
Fabry's disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by abnormalities in the GLA gene, which leads to a deficiency in ?-galactosidase A. The abnormal accumulation of glycosphingolipids, primarily globotriaosylceramide, manifests as serious and progressive impairment of renal and cardiac functions. In addition, patients experience pain, gastrointestinal disturbance, transient ischemic attacks and strokes. Disease presentation in female heterozygotes may be as severe as in males although women may also remain asymptomatic. This review covers all basic aspects of the disease such as epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation by systems, diagnosis, management, prevention, and repercussions on quality of life. With the development of enzyme replacement therapy in the past few years, early initiation of treatment was found to be key for reduction of disease burden in major affected organs with improvement in neuropathic pain, decreased cardiac mass and stabilization of renal function, gastrointestinal symptoms, and hearing. This review aims to raise the awareness of the signs and symptoms of Fabry's disease as well as to provide guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25106696
El-Abassi, Rima; Singhal, Divya; England, John D
While immunosuppressive regimens improve the overall survival of renal transplant recipients, they also contribute to the long-term complications of post-transplant malignancies. Chronic immune suppression in renal transplant recipients (RTR) increases the risk of viral-associated cancers. In male RTR, human papillomavirus (HPV) is implicated in the development of penile, anal, oropharyngeal, and non-melanoma skin carcinomas. Despite the significance of this virus in RTR, there is an overall deficiency in the understanding of the natural history of HPV infection in male RTR. In the next 20?years, it is believed that cancers will be the leading cause of death in kidney transplant recipients. HPV-associated carcinomas are of particular interest since they are sexually transmitted and in theory may be preventable diseases. This commentary highlights some of the progress made in understanding how HPV is transmitted amongst couples in the general population. It also summarizes the current knowledge of HPV infection in male RTR and describes the deficiencies in published medical literature. PMID:23369244
Genzer, Oksana; El-Sayegh, Suzanne E; Kleiner, Morton J; Castellanos, Mario R
On the basis of strong evidence, gastrointestinal symptoms and failure to thrive are classic presentations of celiac disease, but atypical, nongastrointestinal symptoms are also extremely common, particularly in the older child and adolescent. (3)(4)(8). On the basis of some research evidence and consensus, guidelines recommend celiac testing in symptomatic children with typical and atypical symptoms and consideration of testing in those with associated conditions and first-degree relatives of those with celiac disease. (3)(9). On the basis of strong research evidence, measurement of tTG IgA and total serum IgA level has been reported to be the most cost-effective and accurate means of serologic testing for celiac disease and is the test of choice unless the child is younger than 2 years or IgA deficient. (9). On the basis of strong research evidence, children with elevated titers of celiac antibodies or strong clinical suspicion for celiac disease should be referred to a gastroenterologist for upper endoscopy and biopsy. Until this procedure is performed, the child should continue on a diet with ingestion of gluten. (3)(9). On the basis of strong research evidence, all those with a confirmed diagnosis of celiac disease should follow a strict gluten-free diet for life, with avoidance of all foods that contain wheat, barley, and rye ingredients. (3)(4). Referral to a health care professional with specialized knowledge of celiac disease and the gluten-free diet is critical because of the numerous ways, often hidden, in which gluten may be present in the diet and environment. PMID:25274968
Ediger, Tracy R; Hill, Ivor D
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after solid organ transplantation is rare and usually fatal. We present, to our knowledge, the second successfully treated case in a simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplant recipient. A 29-year-old female with end-stage renal disease from type 1 diabetes mellitus received an SPK transplant from a male donor, with rabbit-antithymocyte globulin induction. Twelve days posttransplant, she was readmitted with abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. She developed leukopenia, abnormal liver enzymes, fever and a skin rash. Skin biopsy showed interface dermatitis consistent with allergic reaction versus GVHD. Fluorescence in situ hybridization of the skin biopsy showed 28% of cells had a Y chromosome confirming GVHD. Short tandem repeats (STR) enriched for CD3+ cells from peripheral blood showed a mixed chimerism. She was successfully treated with a single plasmapheresis to remove antithymocyte globulin, high-dose steroids, photopheresis and high tacrolimus levels (12-15?ng/mL). Five months after transplantation, she has normal renal function and white blood cell count, normal hemoglobin A1C and no evidence of peripheral blood donor chimerism. In conclusion, early diagnosis of GVHD after SPK transplantation may allow successful treatment. STR enriched for CD3+ may be useful to evaluate the response to therapy. PMID:25219902
Rossi, A P; Bone, B A; Edwards, A R; Parker, M K; Delos Santos, R B; Hagopian, J; Lockwood, C; Musiek, A; Klein, C L; Brennan, D C
We compared urinary levels of cytokines in patients with and without albuminuria, proteinuria, and kidney disease (GFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m2) after hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT). Plasma and urine were collected at baseline and weekly through day-100 and monthly through year-1, for measurement of IL-6, gp130, sIL6r, IL10, IL15, MCP1 and urine albumin to creatinine ratios (ACR). Cox-proportional hazards modeling examined associations between urinary cytokine levels and development of these renal endpoints. The association of ACR with the hazard of overall mortality was assessed using Cox regression. Increasing urinary IL-6 and IL-15 were associated with an increased risk of developing proteinuria. Urinary MCP-1 during the first 100 days post-HCT was associated with kidney disease at 1 year. The degree of albuminuria at any time point in the first 100 days post-transplant was related to the subsequent risk of death (for ACR 30-299, HR=1.91; 95%CI:1.27-2.87; for ACR >300, HR=2.82; 95%CI:1.60-4.98). After HCT, elevated urinary levels of proinflammatory cytokines are associated with development of albuminuria and proteinuria, suggesting early intrarenal inflammation as an important pathogenetic mechanism. Albuminuria and proteinuria within the first 100 days post-HCT are associated with decreased overall survival. PMID:24317123
The introduction, implementation, successes and failures of multidrug therapy (MDT) in all Hansen's disease endemic countries are discussed in this paper. The high efficacy of leprosy treatment with MDT and the global reduction of prevalence led the World Health Organization, in 1991, to establish the goal of elimination of Hansen's disease (less than 1 patient per 10,000 inhabitants) to be accomplished by the year 2000. Brazil, Nepal and East Timor are among the few countries that didn't reach the elimination goal by the year 2000 or even 2005. The implications of these aspects are highlighted in this paper. Current data from endemic and previously endemic countries that carry a regular leprosy control programme show that the important fall in prevalence was not followed by the reduction of the incidence. This means that transmission of Mycobacterium leprae is still an issue. It is reasonable to conclude that we are still far from the most important goal of Hansen's disease control: the interruption of transmission and reduction of incidence. It is necessary to emphasize to health managers the need of keeping Hansen's disease control activities to better develop control programmes in the future. The recent international proposal to interrupt the transmission of leprosy by the year 2020 seems to unrealistic and it is discussed in this paper. The possibility of epidemiological impact related to the human immunodeficiency virus/Hansen's disease coinfection is also considered. PMID:23283447
Talhari, Sinésio; Grossi, Maria Aparecida de Faria; Oliveira, Maria Leide W D R de; Gontijo, Bernardo; Talhari, Carolina; Penna, Gerson Oliveira
Menetrier's disease is a rare acquired disorder of the fundus and body of the stomach (ie, oxyntic mucosa) characterized by giant hyperplastic folds, protein-losing gastropathy, hypoalbuminemia, increased mucus secretion, and hypochlorhydria. Recent research implicates overproduction of transforming growth factor-alpha with increased signaling of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in the pathogenesis. Activation of the EGFR, a transmembrane receptor with tyrosine kinase activity, triggers a cascade of downstream, intracellular signaling pathways that leads to expansion of the proliferative compartment within the isthmus of the oxyntic gland. The diagnosis of Menetrier's disease is based upon characteristic histologic changes, including foveolar hyperplasia, cystic dilation of pits, and reduced numbers of parietal and chief cells. The best treatment for Menetrier's disease is not clear. It seems reasonable to test and treat for cytomegalovirus and Helicobacter pylori, as 1) in children, evidence exists that the disease may be due to cytomegalovirus infection in up to one third of patients; and 2) in adults, there are anecdotal reports of resolution upon H. pylori eradication. More recently, therapies targeting increased signaling of the EGFR have shown promise, including somatostatin analogues and monoclonal antibodies (eg, cetuximab) directed against the EGFR. In refractory cases, gastrectomy is curative. PMID:18321437
Toubia, Nagib; Schubert, Mitchell L
Dent's disease is a renal tubular disorder characterized by manifestations of proximal tubule dysfunction, including low-molecular-weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria, nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis, and progressive renal failure. These features are generally found in males only, and may be present in early childhood, whereas female carriers may show a milder phenotype. Prevalence is unknown; the disorder has been reported in around 250 families to
Olivier Devuyst; Rajesh V. Thakker
... the arms, legs and trunk Slowness of movement Poor balance and coordination As symptoms get worse, people with the disease may have trouble walking, talking, or doing simple tasks. They may also have problems such as depression, sleep problems, or trouble chewing, swallowing, or speaking. There ...
Celiac disease, with a prevalence around 1% of the general population, is the most common genetically-induced food intolerance in the world. Triggered by the ingestion of gluten in genetically predisposed individuals, this enteropathy may appear at any age, and is characterized by a wide variety of clinical signs and symptoms. Among them, gastrointestinal presentations include chronic diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss or failure to thrive in children; but extra-intestinal manifestations are also common, and actually appear to be on the rise. They include a large variety of ailments, such as dermatitis Herpetiformis, anemia, short stature, osteoporosis, arthritis, neurologic problems, unexplained elevation of transaminases, and even female infertility. For the clinician interested in oral diseases, celiac disease can lead to delayed tooth eruption, dental enamel hypoplasia, recurrent oral aphthae. Diagnosing celiac disease requires therefore a high degree of suspicion followed by a very sensitive screening test: serum levels of the autoantibody anti-tissue transglutaminase. A positive subject will then be confirmed by an intestinal biopsy, and will then be put on a strict gluten-free diet, that in most cases will bring a marked improvement of symptoms. Newer forms of treatment which in the future will probably be available to the non-responsive patients are currently being actively pursued. PMID:23496382
Rivera, E; Assiri, A; Guandalini, S
We all use our noses to make quick judgments from time to time -- whether it's checking to see if the milk's still good, or if a shirt needs to go in the wash. Now, doctors are developing a kind of sniff test to screen for diseases. Find out more in this Science Update.
The importance of accurate pathological diagnosis is emphasised in the case of a newborn infant who presented with alopecia, a generalised erythrodermatous skin eruption, and hepatosplenomegaly. She subsequently developed generalised lymphadenopathy and recurrent septicaemia and died aged 2 months. The histological findings of widespread lymphocytic, histiocytic, and eosinophilic tissue infiltration, associated with thymic hypoplasia, were consistent with autosomal recessive Omenn's disease. PMID:1835343
Dyke, M P; Marlow, N; Berry, P J
Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are commonly characterized by an increased susceptibility to specific infections and, in certain instances, a higher than usual incidence of malignancies. Although improved diagnosis and early treatment of PIDs have reduced early morbidity and mortality from infection, the development of cancer remains a significant cause of premature death. The emergence of cancer in patients with PIDs often results from impairments in the immune response that lead to weakened surveillance against oncogenic viruses, premalignant or malignant cells, or both. Here we review the clinical and biologic features of several PIDs associated with enhanced susceptibility to viral infections and cancer, including X-linked lymphoproliferative disease; IL-2-inducible T-cell kinase deficiency; epidermodysplasia verruciformis; warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, and myelokathexis syndrome; autosomal recessive hyper-IgE syndrome; X-linked agammaglobulinemia; and common variable immunodeficiency. It is of importance that we gain in-depth insights into the fundamental molecular nature of these unique PIDs to better understand the pathogenesis of virus-associated malignancies and to develop innovative therapeutic strategies. PMID:21514636
Rezaei, Nima; Hedayat, Mona; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Nichols, Kim E
Fabry disease (FD) is a progressive, X-linked inherited disorder of glycosphingolipid metabolism due to deficient or absent lysosomal ?-galactosidase A activity. FD is pan-ethnic and the reported annual incidence of 1 in 100,000 may underestimate the true prevalence of the disease. Classically affected hemizygous males, with no residual ?-galactosidase A activity may display all the characteristic neurological (pain), cutaneous (angiokeratoma), renal (proteinuria, kidney failure), cardiovascular (cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia), cochleo-vestibular and cerebrovascular (transient ischemic attacks, strokes) signs of the disease while heterozygous females have symptoms ranging from very mild to severe. Deficient activity of lysosomal ?-galactosidase A results in progressive accumulation of globotriaosylceramide within lysosomes, believed to trigger a cascade of cellular events. Demonstration of marked ?-galactosidase A deficiency is the definitive method for the diagnosis of hemizygous males. Enzyme analysis may occasionnally help to detect heterozygotes but is often inconclusive due to random X-chromosomal inactivation so that molecular testing (genotyping) of females is mandatory. In childhood, other possible causes of pain such as rheumatoid arthritis and 'growing pains' must be ruled out. In adulthood, multiple sclerosis is sometimes considered. Prenatal diagnosis, available by determination of enzyme activity or DNA testing in chorionic villi or cultured amniotic cells is, for ethical reasons, only considered in male fetuses. Pre-implantation diagnosis is possible. The existence of atypical variants and the availability of a specific therapy singularly complicate genetic counseling. A disease-specific therapeutic option - enzyme replacement therapy using recombinant human ?-galactosidase A - has been recently introduced and its long term outcome is currently still being investigated. Conventional management consists of pain relief with analgesic drugs, nephroprotection (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptors blockers) and antiarrhythmic agents, whereas dialysis or renal transplantation are available for patients experiencing end-stage renal failure. With age, progressive damage to vital organ systems develops and at some point, organs may start to fail in functioning. End-stage renal disease and life-threatening cardiovascular or cerebrovascular complications limit life-expectancy of untreated males and females with reductions of 20 and 10 years, respectively, as compared to the general population. While there is increasing evidence that long-term enzyme therapy can halt disease progression, the importance of adjunctive therapies should be emphasized and the possibility of developing an oral therapy drives research forward into active site specific chaperones. PMID:21092187
Modern treatment protocols lead to complete remission (CR) in a considerable proportion of patients with lymphoproliferative disorders. However, many of these patients ultimately relapse, implying that achievement of a clinical CR is compatible with significant amounts of residual malignant cells. Cytogenetic, molecular and immunological techniques that are more sensitive than morphology are increasingly used to assess and quantify minimal residual
Monika Brüggemann; Christiane Pott; Matthias Ritgen; Michael Kneba
... the intestine (gut). It involves a reaction to gluten found in food. Patients may suffer abdominal pain ... system (called lymphoproliferative malignancy or lymphoma). Eliminating all gluten from food is essential in patients with CD. ...
Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms; Pain; Precancerous Condition; Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment
Marek's disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease caused by the MD virus (MDV), which costs the poultry industry nearly $1 billion annually. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting MD susceptibility, the inbred lines 6(3) (MD resistant) and 7(2) (MD susceptible) were mated to create more than 300 F2 chickens. The F2 chickens were challenged with MDV JM strain, moderately virulent) at 1 wk of age and assessed for MD susceptibility. The QTL analysis was divided into three stages. In stage 1, 65 DNA markers selected from the chicken genetic maps were typed on the 40 most MD-susceptible and the 40 most MD-resistant F2 chickens, and 21 markers residing near suggestive QTL were revealed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). In stage 2, the suggestive markers plus available flanking markers were typed on 272 F2 chickens, and three suggestive QTL were identified by ANOVA. In stage 3, using the interval mapping program Map Manager and permutation tests, two significant and two suggestive MD QTL were identified on four chromosomal subregions. Three to five loci collected explained between 11 and 23% of the phenotypic MD variation, or 32-68% of the genetic variance. This study constitutes the first report in the domestic chicken on the mapping of non-major histocompatibility complex QTL affecting MD susceptibility. PMID:9475745
Vallejo, R L; Bacon, L D; Liu, H C; Witter, R L; Groenen, M A; Hillel, J; Cheng, H H
Hypertension develops soon after organ transplantation using cyclosporine- or FK506-based immunosuppression. Sustained rises in blood pressure require intervention to reduce the risk of intracranial bleeding and other cardiovascular complications. Antihypertensive treatment is complicated by reduced renal function and potential interference with absorption and/or metabolism of cyclosporine or FK506. To manage early and long-term hypertension related to immunosuppression with cyclosporine or FK506 and prednisone following orthotopic liver transplantation, a comprehensive nurse-managed hypertension clinic was developed. Blood pressure, heart rate, and antihypertensive and immunosuppressive regimens were evaluated according to a standard protocol at 1, 4, 12, 24, and 36 months after orthotopic liver transplantation. Data indicate that posttransplantation hypertension develops within the first months after orthotopic liver transplantation and persists indefinitely. If comprehensively managed by the hypertension nurse-clinician, the percentage of controlled hypertension patients can increase over time. PMID:9188372
Schwartz, L; Augustine, J; Raymer, J; Canzanello, V; Taler, S; Textor, S
Pure red cell aplasia is a rare complication of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) treatment, which physicians should consider once the more frequent causes of hyporegenerative anemia have been excluded. To our knowledge, no pediatric cases have been described. In our patient, cyclosporin A treatment enabled a reduction in the number of transfusions and the risk of hyperimmunization. After transplantation, our
Angel Alonso Melgar; Marta Melgosa Hijosa; Rafael Pardo de la Vega; Carmen García Meseguer; Mercedes Navarro Torres
In this trial, patients age 70 or younger with multiple myeloma will be randomly assigned to treatment with one of three regimens after receiving high-dose melphalan chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation.
... Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) - CDC Fact Sheet Untreated sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) can cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), a ... plain language for individuals with general questions about sexually transmitted diseases. What is PID? Pelvic inflammatory disease is an ...
Current evidence on the pathogenesis of Hirschprung's disease, then, favours the 'abnormal microenvironment' hypothesis wherein the developing and migrating normal neural crest cells confront a segmentally abnormal and hostile microenvironment in the colon. This hypothesis would account both for the congenital absence of ganglion cells in the wall of colon and also for the range of enteric neuronal abnormalities encountered including neuronal dysplasia, hypoganglionosis, and zonal aganglionosis. The abnormal constitution of the mesenchymal and basement membrane extracellular matrix in the affected segment of colon is presumably genetically determined and further understanding of the pathogenesis of this disorder will emerge as molecular geneticists characterise the specific genes and gene products associated with Hirschprung's disease. Advances in this field should permit gene probes to be developed to facilitate prenatal and postnatal diagnosis. PMID:8660047
Sullivan, P B
Morgellons disease, a pattern of dermatologic symptoms very similar, if not identical, to those of delusions of parasitosis, was first described many centuries ago, but has recently been given much attention on the internet and in the mass media. The present authors present a history of Morgellons disease, in addition to which they discuss the potential benefit of using this diagnostic term as a means of building trust and rapport with patients to maximize treatment benefit. The present authors also suggest "meeting the patient halfway" and creating a therapeutic alliance when providing dermatologic treatment by taking their cutaneous symptoms seriously enough to provide both topical ointments as well as antipsychotic medications, which can be therapeutic in these patients. PMID:18318880
Accordino, Robert E; Engler, Danielle; Ginsburg, Iona H; Koo, John
A 14 months old boy of consanguineous parent presented with hepatosplenomegaly with delayed mile stones of development. He is till unable to walk. He was moderately anemic. Moderately wasted and stunted. Neurological examination was normal except subnormal intelligence. This subnormal intelligence and delayed milestone possibly may be due to secondary effect of growth retardation. Musculo-skeletal system examination revealed no abnormality. Diagnosis was supported by typical bone involvement in X-ray film (Thin cortex in Limb bone) and Gaucher cell in the splenic aspiration. There are three sub-types Type I: Non neuropathic form. Type II: Acute neuropathic form. Type III: Chronic neuropathic form. However, some cases do not fit precisely into one of these categories. All forms of Gaucher disease are autosomal recessively inherited. So, this patient more or less correlates with Gaucher disease type I. Treatment option for type I and III include medicine and enzyme replacement therapy, which is usually very effective. PMID:21804517
Ali, M A; Saleh, F M; Das, K; Latif, T
Presenting a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disease, this volume provides a comprehensive picture of current thyroid medicine and surgery. The book integrates the perspectives of the many disciplines that deal with the clinical manifestations of thyroid disorders. Adding to the clinical usefulness of the book is the state-of-the-art coverage of many recent developments in thyroidology, including the use of highly sensitive two-site TSH immunoradionetric measurements to diagnose thyroid activity; thyroglobulin assays in thyroid cancer and other diseases; new diagnostic applications of MRI and CT; treatment with radionuclides and chemotherapy; new developments in thyroid immunology, pathology, and management of hyperthyroidism; suppressive treatment with thyroid hormone; and management of Graves' ophthalmopathy. The book also covers all aspects of thyroid surgery, including surgical treatment of hyperthyroidism; papillary, follicular, and other carcinomas; thyroidectomy; and prevention and management of complications.
\\u000a Kawasaki disease (KD) is more common in Japanese population and those of Japanese descent. Incidence is higher in males than\\u000a females. Etiology of KD continues to be unclear, there is evidence supporting both genetic and environmental factors. Diagnosis\\u000a of KD is made when there is fever of at least 5 days duration, plus bilateral, nonpurulent conjunctivitis, polymorphous skin\\u000a rash, mucous
Rami Kharouf; Daniel E. Felten
Plantar fibromatosis, or Ledderhose disease, is a rare hyperproliferative disorder of the plantar aponeurosis. It may occur at any age with the greatest prevalence at middle age and beyond. This disorder is more common in men than woman and it is sometimes associated with other forms of fibromatosis. A 28-year-old Brazilian woman with a six-year history of painless bilateral plantar nodules is described in this article. PMID:20877526
Fausto de Souza, Dominique; Micaelo, Lilian; Cuzzi, Tullia
When the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene, ABCA4 (originally named ABCR), was cloned and characterized in 1997 as the causal gene for autosomal recessive Stargardt disease (arSTGD or STGD1) (1) it seemed as if just another missing link was added to the extensive table of genetic determinants of rare monogenic retinal\\u000a dystrophies. Now, 9 yr later, the ABCA4
Huntington’s disease (HD) is a familial and rare inherited neurological disorder with a prevalence of 5–8 cases per 100,000\\u000a worldwide. This makes HD the most common inherited neurodegenerative disorder (Fahn, 2005). HD is passed from parent to child\\u000a in autosomal dominant fashion. Each child of an HD parent has a 50% chance of inheriting HD. Both sexes are affected equally.
Seymour Gendelman; Howard E. Gendelman; Tsuneya Ikezu
Syngeneic transplantation in aplastic anemia: pre-transplant conditioning and peripheral blood are associated with improved engraftment: an observational study on behalf of the Severe Aplastic Anemia and Pediatric Diseases Working Parties of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Aplastic anemia is usually treated with immunosuppression or allogeneic transplant, depending on patient and disease characteristics. Syngeneic transplant offers a rare treatment opportunity with minimal transplant-related mortality, and offers an insight into disease mechanisms. We present here a retrospective analysis of all syngeneic transplants for aplastic anemia reported to the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Between 1976 and 2009, 88 patients received 113 transplants. Most transplants (n=85) were preceded by a conditioning regimen, 22 of these including anti-thymocyte globulin. About half of transplants with data available (39 of 86) were followed by posttransplant immunosuppression. Graft source was bone marrow in the majority of cases (n=77). Transplant practice changed over time with more transplants with conditioning and anti-thymocyte globulin as well as peripheral blood stem cells performed in later years. Ten year overall survival was 93% with 5 transplant-related deaths. Graft failure occurred in 32% of transplants. Risk of graft failure was significantly increased in transplants without conditioning, and with bone marrow as graft source. Lack of posttransplant immunosuppression also showed a trend towards increased risk of graft failure, while anti-thymocyte globulin did not have an influence. In summary, syngeneic transplant is associated with a significant risk of graft failure when no conditioning is given, but has an excellent long-term outcome. Furthermore, our comparatively large series enables us to recommend the use of pre-transplant conditioning rather than not and possibly to prefer peripheral blood as a stem cell source. PMID:23894010
Gerull, Sabine; Stern, Martin; Apperley, Jane; Beelen, Dietrich; Brinch, Lorentz; Bunjes, Donald; Butler, Andrew; Ganser, Arnold; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir; Koh, Mickey B; Komarnicki, Mieczyslaw; Kroger, Nicolaus; Maertens, Johan; Maschan, Alexei; Peters, Christina; Rovira, Montserrat; Sengel?v, Henrik; Socie, Gerard; Tischer, Johanna; Oneto, Rosi; Passweg, Jakob; Marsh, Judith
This plant disease lesson on Lesion nematode disease (caused by Pratylenchus) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.
Eric L. Davis (North Carolina State University;); An E. MacGuidwin (University of Wisconsin;)
This plant disease lesson on Soybean cyst nematode disease (caused by Heterodera glycines) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.
Eric L. Davis (North Carolina State University;); Gregory L. Tylka (Iowa State University;)
This plant disease lesson on Dutch elm disease (caused by the fungus Ophiostoma ulmi) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.
Cleora J. D'Arcy (University of Illinois;)
This plant disease lesson on Rhizoctonia diseases of turfgrass (caused by the fungi Rhizoctonia species) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.
Lane P. Tredway (University of Georgia, Athens;); Lee L. Burpee (University of Georgia, Griffin;)
Vaccination is an effective strategy to reduce the loss of chickens in the poultry industry caused by Marek's Disease (MD), an avian lymphoproliferative disease. The vaccines currently used are from attenuated serotype 1 Marek's disease virus (MDV) or naturally nononcogenic MDV strains. To prepare for future immunity breaks, functional genomic and proteomic studies have been used to better understand the underlying mechanisms of MDV pathogenicity and the effects induced by the vaccine viruses. In this study, a combined approach of quantitative GeLC-MSE and qualitative ERLIC/IMAC/LC-MS/MS analysis were used to identify abundance changes of proteins and the variations of phosphorylation status resulting from the perturbations due to infection with an attenuated oncogenic virus strain (Md11/75C) and several nononcogenic virus strains (CVI988, FC126 and 301B) in vitro. Using this combined approach, several signal transduction pathways mapped by the identified proteins were found to be altered at both the level of protein abundance and phosphorylation. On the basis of this study, a kinase-dependent pathway to regulate phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 to modulate assembly of the protein translation initiation complex was revealed. The differences of 4E-BP1 phosphorylation patterns as well as the measured abundance changes among several other proteins that regulate host transcriptional and translational activities across the virus strains used in this study provide new insight for future functional and biochemical characterization of specific proteins involved in MDV pathogenesis. PMID:23106611
Chien, Ko-yi; Blackburn, Kevin; Liu, Hsiao-Ching; Goshe, Michael B
for different disease-causing organisms. Sclerotia of Rhizoctonia solani (the fungus that causes sheath blight) survive an average of 12 to 18 months in the soil. Kernel smut fungus spores (Neouossia horrida) can remain alive more than 10 years. As a result... chart (table 1) for specific recommendations. SOUTHERN BLIGHT (fungus - Sclerotium ro lIs ii) Southern blight can attack rice in the one- to three leaf stage and may kill large numbers of plants when weather is warm and moist. A white cottony mold...
Jones, Roger K.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-related, progressive, multisystem neurodegenerative disorder resulting in significant morbidity and mortality, as well as a growing social and financial burden in an aging population. The hallmark of PD is loss of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta, leading to bradykinesia, rigidity and tremor. Current pharmacological treatment is therefore centred upon dopamine replacement to alleviate symptoms. However, two major problems complicate this approach: (i) motor symptoms continue to progress, requiring increasing doses of medication, which result in both short-term adverse effects and intermediate- to long-term motor complications; (ii) dopamine replacement does little to treat non-dopaminergic motor and non-motor symptoms, which are an important source of morbidity, including dementia, sleep disturbances, depression, orthostatic hypotension, and postural instability leading to falls. It is critical, therefore, to develop a broader and more fundamental therapeutic approach to PD, and major research efforts have focused upon developing neuroprotective interventions. Despite many encouraging preclinical data suggesting the possibility of addressing the underlying pathophysiology by slowing cell loss, efforts to translate this into the clinical realm have largely proved disappointing in the past. Barriers to finding neuroprotective or disease-modifying drugs in PD include a lack of validated biomarkers of progression, which hampers clinical trial design and interpretation; difficulties separating symptomatic and neuroprotective effects of candidate neuroprotective therapies; and possibly fundamental flaws in some of the basic preclinical models and testing. However, three recent clinical trials have used a novel delayed-start design in an attempt to overcome some of these roadblocks. While not examining markers of cell loss and function, which would determine neuroprotective effects, this trial design pragmatically tests whether earlier versus later intervention is beneficial. If positive (i.e. if an earlier intervention proves more effective), this demonstrates disease modification, which could result from neuroprotection or from other mechanisms. This strategy therefore provides a first step towards supporting neuroprotection in PD. Of the three delayed-start design clinical trials, two have investigated early versus later start of rasagiline, a specific irreversible monoamine oxidase B inhibitor. Each trial has supported, although not proven, disease-modifying effects. A third delayed-start-design clinical trial examining potential disease-modifying effects of pramipexole has unfortunately reportedly been negative according to preliminary presentations. The suggestion that rasagiline is disease modifying is made all the more compelling by in vitro and PD animal-model studies in which rasagiline was shown to have neuroprotective effects. In this review, we examine efforts to demonstrate neuroprotection in PD to date, describe ongoing neuroprotection trials, and critically discuss the results of the most recent delayed-start clinical trials that test possible disease-modifying activities of rasagiline and pramipexole in PD. PMID:21812497
Henchcliffe, Claire; Severt, W Lawrence
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease with well-defined pathophysiological mechanisms, mostly affecting medial temporal lobe and associative neocortical structures. Neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles represent the pathological hallmarks of AD, and are respectively related to the accumulation of the amyloid-beta peptide (A?) in brain tissues, and to cytoskeletal changes that arise from the hyperphosphorylation of microtubule-associated Tau protein in neurons. According to the amyloid hypothesis of AD, the overproduction of A? is a consequence of the disruption of homeostatic processes that regulate the proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Genetic, age-related and environmental factors contribute to a metabolic shift favoring the amyloidogenic processing of APP in detriment of the physiological, secretory pathway. A? peptides are generated by the successive cleavage of APP by beta-secretase (BACE-1) and gamma-secretase, which has been recently characterized as part of the presenilin complex. Among several beta-amyloid isoforms that bear subtle differences depending on the number of C-terminal amino acids, A? (1-42) plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of AD. The neurotoxic potential of the A? peptide results from its biochemical properties that favor aggregation into insoluble oligomers and protofibrils. These further originate fibrillary A? species that accumulate into senile and neuritic plaques. These processes, along with a reduction of A? clearance from the brain, leads to the extracellular accumulation of A?, and the subsequent activation of neurotoxic cascades that ultimately lead to cytoskeletal changes, neuronal dysfunction and cellular death. Intracerebral amyloidosis develops in AD patients in an age-dependent manner, but recent evidence indicate that it may be observed in some subjects as early as in the third or fourth decades of life, with increasing magnitude in late middle age, and highest estimates in old age. According to recent propositions, three clinical phases of Alzheimer's disease may be defined: (i) pre-symptomatic (or pre-clinical) AD, which may last for several years or decades until the overproduction and accumulation of A? in the brain reaches a critical level that triggers the amyloid cascade; (ii) pre-dementia phase of AD (compatible with the definition of progressive, amnestic mild cognitive impairment), in which early-stage pathology is present, ranging from mild neuronal dystrophy to early-stage Braak pathology, and may last for several years according to individual resilience and brain reserve; (iii) clinically defined dementia phase of AD, in which cognitive and functional impairment is severe enough to surmount the dementia threshold; at this stage there is significant accumulation of neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in affected brain areas, bearing relationship with the magnitude of global impairment. New technologies based on structural and functional neuroimaging, and on the biochemical analysis of cerebrospinal fluid may depict correlates of intracerebral amyloidosis in individuals with mild, pre-dementia symptoms. These methods are commonly referred to as AD-related biomarkers, and the combination of clinical and biological information yields good diagnostic accuracy to identify individuals at high risk of AD. In other words, the characterization of pathogenic A? by means of biochemical analysis of biological fluids or by molecular neuroimaging are presented as diagnostic tools to help identify AD cases at the earliest stages of the disease process. The relevance of this early diagnosis of AD relies on the hypothesis that pharmacological interventions with disease-modifying compounds are more likely to produce clinically relevant benefits if started early enough in the continuum towards dementia. Therapies targeting the modification of amyloid-related cascades may be viewed as promising strategies to attenuate or even to prevent dementia. Therefore, the cumulative knowledge on the pathogenesis of
De-Paula, Vanessa J; Radanovic, Marcia; Diniz, Breno S; Forlenza, Orestes V
Vascular procedures involving anastomoses in the mouse are generally thought to be difficult and highly dependent on the skill of the individual surgeon. This is largely true, but there are a number of important principles that can reduce the difficulty of these procedures and enhance reproducibility. Orthotopic aortic transplantation is an excellent procedure in which to learn these principles because it involves only two end-to-end anastomoses, but requires good suturing technique and handling of the vessels for consistent success. This procedure begins with the procurement of a length of abdominal aorta from a donor animal, followed by division of the native aorta in the recipient. The procured aorta is then placed between the divided ends of the recipient aorta and sutured into place using end-to-end anastomoses. To accomplish this objective successfully requires a high degree of concentration, good tools, a steady hand, and an appreciation of how easily the vasculature of a mouse can be damaged, resulting in thrombosis. Learning these important principles is what occupies most of the beginner's time when learning microsurgery in small rodents. Throughout this protocol, we refer to these important points. This model can be used to study vascular disease in a variety of different experimental systems(1-8). In the context shown here, it is most often used for the study of post-transplant vascular disease, a common long-term complication of solid organ transplantation in which intimal hyperplasia occurs within the allograft. The primary advantage of the model is that it facilitates quantitative morphometric analyses and the transplanted vessel lies contiguous to the endogenous vessel, which can serve as an additional control(9). The technique shown here is most often used for mice weighing 18-25 grams. We have accumulated most of our experience using the C57BL/6J, BALB/cJ, and C3H/HeJ strains. PMID:23222533
Guo, Lingling; Agarwal, Anupam; George, James F
Vascular procedures involving anastomoses in the mouse are generally thought to be difficult and highly dependent on the skill of the individual surgeon. This is largely true, but there are a number of important principles that can reduce the difficulty of these procedures and enhance reproducibility. Orthotopic aortic transplantation is an excellent procedure in which to learn these principles because it involves only two end-to-end anastomoses, but requires good suturing technique and handling of the vessels for consistent success. This procedure begins with the procurement of a length of abdominal aorta from a donor animal, followed by division of the native aorta in the recipient. The procured aorta is then placed between the divided ends of the recipient aorta and sutured into place using end-to-end anastomoses. To accomplish this objective successfully requires a high degree of concentration, good tools, a steady hand, and an appreciation of how easily the vasculature of a mouse can be damaged, resulting in thrombosis. Learning these important principles is what occupies most of the beginner's time when learning microsurgery in small rodents. Throughout this protocol, we refer to these important points. This model can be used to study vascular disease in a variety of different experimental systems1-8. In the context shown here, it is most often used for the study of post-transplant vascular disease, a common long-term complication of solid organ transplantation in which intimal hyperplasia occurs within the allograft. The primary advantage of the model is that it facilitates quantitative morphometric analyses and the transplanted vessel lies contiguous to the endogenous vessel, which can serve as an additional control9. The technique shown here is most often used for mice weighing 18-25 grams. We have accumulated most of our experience using the C57BL/6J, BALB/cJ, and C3H/HeJ strains. PMID:23222533
Guo, Lingling; Agarwal, Anupam; George, James F.
Opinion statement \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a •Mitochondrial diseases are disorders of energy metabolism that include defects of pyruvate metabolism, Krebs cycle, respiratory\\u000a chain (RC), and fatty acid oxidation (FAO).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a •Treatment of pyruvate metabolism, Krebs cycle, and RC disorders is, in general, disappointing. Therapeutic approaches consist\\u000a of electron acceptors, enzyme activators, vitamins, coenzymes, free-radical scavengers, dietary measures, and supportive therapy.\\u000a These treatment assumptions
Roser Pons; Darryl C. De Vivo
Autoinflammatory diseases (AIDs) are illnesses caused by primary dysfunction of the innate immune system. Proteins that are mutated in AIDs mediate the regulation of NFkappaB activation, cell apoptosis, and IL-1beta secretion through cross-regulated and sometimes common signaling pathways. AIDs include a broad number of monogenic [e.g., familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS), mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS)] and multifactorial (e.g., Behçet's syndrome) disorders. These conditions are characterized by recurrent attacks of fever, abdominal pain, arthritis, and cutaneous signs; these symptoms sometimes overlap, obscuring diagnosis. Distinguishing signs and the use of specific functional tests where available (e.g., in MKD) are helpful. However, some patients remain hard to manage despite the advent of new genetic tests and/or due to lack of effective treatment. PMID:19028365
Touitou, Isabelle; Koné-Paut, Isabelle
... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease? Childhood interstitial (in-ter-STISH-al) lung disease, or ... doctors better understand these diseases. Rate This Content: Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease Clinical Trials Clinical trials are ...
Keywords Alzheimer's Disease Antimicrobial Peptides Proteomics Posttranslational Modifications collaborations. Current international collaborations focus on Alzheimer's disease (Tau and A), molecular mechanisms of cell aging (glycation, oxidation) and related diseases (diabetes, Alzheimer's disease) as well
Parkinson's Disease Dementia Tweet Parkinson's disease dementia is an impairment in thinking and reasoning that eventually affects ... disease. About Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Parkinson's disease dementia The brain changes caused by Parkinson's ...
... every 500 pregnancies. 1 Graves’ disease is an autoimmune disorder. Normally, the immune system protects people from infection ... gland. Like Graves’ disease, Hashimoto’s disease is an autoimmune disorder. In Hashimoto’s disease, the immune system attacks the ...
NINDS Lipid Storage Diseases Information Page Condensed from Lipid Storage Diseases Fact Sheet Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) ... Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What are Lipid Storage Diseases? Lipid storage diseases are a group of ...
... Dietary Treatment of Crohn's Disease Immune Regulation in Ulcerative Colitis or Crohn's Disease Current NHGRI Clinical Studies Search ... to finding the cure for Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis: A Parent's Guide [ ...
... Sources of Gluten . Microscopic Colitis, Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis People with celiac disease have an increased incidence ... colitis and inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis). Microscopic colitis is an inflammation of the colon, ...
MYD88 L265P in Waldenstr?m macroglobulinemia, immunoglobulin M monoclonal gammopathy, and other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders using conventional and quantitative allele-specific polymerase chain reaction
By whole-genome and/or Sanger sequencing, we recently identified a somatic mutation (MYD88 L265P) that stimulates nuclear factor ?B activity and is present in >90% of Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) patients. MYD88 L265P was absent in 90% of immunoglobulin M (IgM) monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) patients. We therefore developed conventional and real-time allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR) assays for more sensitive detection and quantification of MYD88 L265P. Using either assay, MYD88 L265P was detected in 97 of 104 (93%) WM and 13 of 24 (54%) IgM MGUS patients and was either absent or rarely expressed in samples from splenic marginal zone lymphoma (2/20; 10%), CLL (1/26; 4%), multiple myeloma (including IgM cases, 0/14), and immunoglobulin G MGUS (0/9) patients as well as healthy donors (0/40; P < 1.5 × 10?5 for WM vs other cohorts). Real-time AS-PCR identified IgM MGUS patients progressing to WM and showed a high rate of concordance between MYD88 L265P ?CT and BM disease involvement (r = 0.89, P = .008) in WM patients undergoing treatment. These studies identify MYD88 L265P as a widely present mutation in WM and IgM MGUS patients using highly sensitive and specific AS-PCR assays with potential use in diagnostic discrimination and/or response assessment. The finding of this mutation in many IgM MGUS patients suggests that MYD88 L265P may be an early oncogenic event in WM pathogenesis. PMID:23321251
Xu, Lian; Hunter, Zachary R.; Yang, Guang; Zhou, Yangsheng; Cao, Yang; Liu, Xia; Morra, Enrica; Trojani, Alessandra; Greco, Antonino; Arcaini, Luca; Varettoni, Maria; Brown, Jennifer R.; Tai, Yu-Tzu; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Munshi, Nikhil C.; Patterson, Christopher J.; Manning, Robert J.; Tripsas, Christina K.; Lindeman, Neal I.
We evaluated high-dose acyclovir and pre-emptive ganciclovir to prevent cytomegalovirus disease in myeloablative and non-myeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplantation. One hundred and seventy-four consecutive patients who were at risk for CMV infection (either recipient or donor seropositive) and received either intensive chemoradiotherapy and a T cell-depleted stem cell transplant followed by delayed add-back of donor T cells (TCDT: n = 98), or a non-myeloablative preparative regimen followed by an unmanipulated peripheral blood stem cell transplant (NMT: n = 76) from an HLA-identical sibling donor were studied. All received high-dose acyclovir (HDACV) from day - 7 for 3 months post-transplant in conjunction with weekly CMV pp65 antigenemia monitoring and pre-emptive treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (not CMV-specific) and ganciclovir. The actuarial probabilities of developing pp65 antigenemia were 83 +/- 4% after TCDT and 41 +/- 6% after NMT (P < 0.00001) with reactivation occurring earlier in the TCDT group (the median 36 days vs 55 days). We observed no reactivation of CMV in seronegative recipients with a seropositive donor (n = 23). A total of 11 patients (5 in TCDT, 6 in NMT) developed CMV disease within 400 days after transplantation, and one death was clearly attributable to CMV interstitial pneumonitis (IP). This strategy was associated with effective control of CMV antigenemia in the majority of patients and near-complete eradication of fatal CMV IP. PMID:12203140
Nakamura, R; Cortez, K; Solomon, S; Battiwalla, M; Gill, V J; Hensel, N; Childs, R; Barrett, A J
Alzheimer's disease is the largest unmet medical need in neurology. Current drugs improve symptoms, but do not have profound disease-modifying effects. However, in recent years, several approaches aimed at inhibiting disease progression have advanced to clinical trials. Among these, strategies targeting the production and clearance of the amyloid-? peptide — a cardinal feature of Alzheimer's disease that is thought to
Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Small Intestine Lymphoma; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia
Castleman's disease is a group of rare lymphoproliferative disorders. The plasmablastic multicentric Castleman's disease is frequently discovered in HIV-infected individuals in association with Kaposi sarcoma (HHV-8). Thirty-five year old male presented to our care with the main compliant of severe back pain for one week. His past medical problems include acquired immune deficiency syndrome diagnosed 12 years prior and Kaposi sarcoma, currently on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Radiographic imaging revealed hepatomegaly and diffuse lymphadenopathy. The HIV viral load was <20 polymerase chain reaction copies/mL, absolute CD4 count was 453 cells/mcL (490-1740 cells/mcL) and CD8 count was 4142 cells/mcL (180-1170 cells/ mcL). Excisional biopsy of the left supraclavicular lymph node was performed with pathological findings of HHV8+ Kaposi sarcoma in the background of multicentric Castleman's disease (plasmacytic variant). No evidence of transformation into large B-cell or plasmablastic lymphoma was noted. He was discharged on HAART and follow up to receive chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine plus prednisone was started and rituximab plus prophylaxis for pneumocystis carinii. Multicentric Castleman's disease has become more relevant in recent years due to its association with HIV and HHV-8 (Kaposi sarcoma) and its potential to progress into plasmablastic B-cell lymphoma. The progression of MCD to B-cell lymphoma is a concern, especially in patients with HIV infection because it precludes the worst outcome and a high mortality, despite treatment. The most intriguing part of this case is that MCD occurred in a HIV-positive on HAART. This case signals a warning that a high suspicion for MCD can be justified even in those HIV-positive patients on HAART because the possibly of progression to plasmablastic B-cell lymphoma. PMID:25276327
Ortega, Lauro; Cooper, Chad J; Otoukesh, Salman; Mojtahedzadeh, Mona; Didia, Claudia S; Torabi, Alireza; Nahleh, Zeina
Castleman’s disease is a group of rare lymphoproliferative disorders. The plasmablastic multicentric Castleman’s disease is frequently discovered in HIV-infected individuals in association with Kaposi sarcoma (HHV-8). Thirty-five year old male presented to our care with the main compliant of severe back pain for one week. His past medical problems include acquired immune deficiency syndrome diagnosed 12 years prior and Kaposi sarcoma, currently on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Radiographic imaging revealed hepatomegaly and diffuse lymphadenopathy. The HIV viral load was <20 polymerase chain reaction copies/mL, absolute CD4 count was 453 cells/mcL (490-1740 cells/mcL) and CD8 count was 4142 cells/mcL (180-1170 cells/ mcL). Excisional biopsy of the left supraclavicular lymph node was performed with pathological findings of HHV8+ Kaposi sarcoma in the background of multicentric Castleman’s disease (plasmacytic variant). No evidence of transformation into large B-cell or plasmablastic lymphoma was noted. He was discharged on HAART and follow up to receive chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine plus prednisone was started and rituximab plus prophylaxis for pneumocystis carinii. Multicentric Castleman’s disease has become more relevant in recent years due to its association with HIV and HHV-8 (Kaposi sarcoma) and its potential to progress into plasmablastic B-cell lymphoma. The progression of MCD to B-cell lymphoma is a concern, especially in patients with HIV infection because it precludes the worst outcome and a high mortality, despite treatment. The most intriguing part of this case is that MCD occurred in a HIV-positive on HAART. This case signals a warning that a high suspicion for MCD can be justified even in those HIV-positive patients on HAART because the possibly of progression to plasmablastic B-cell lymphoma.
Ortega, Lauro; Cooper, Chad J.; Otoukesh, Salman; Mojtahedzadeh, Mona; Didia, Claudia S.; Torabi, Alireza; Nahleh, Zeina
Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Childhood Renal Cell Carcinoma; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Renal Cell Cancer; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Anemia; Refractory Anemia With Ringed Sideroblasts; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Refractory Multiple Myeloma; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage I Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Stage I Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Childhood Large Cell Lymp
Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia Following Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Acute Myeloid Leukemia/Transient Myeloproliferative Disorder; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; B-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Contiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurre
Chediak-Higashi Syndrome; Graft Versus Host Disease; X-Linked Lymphoproliferative Syndrome; Familial Erythrophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis; Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis; Virus-Associated Hemophagocytic Syndrome
Myelodysplastic and Myeloproliferative Disorders; Acute Myelogenous Leukemia; Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Multiple Myeloma; Plasma Cell Dyscrasia; Lymphoproliferative Disorders; Hematologic Diseases
A 66 years female, who was since last year under astenia, arthralgias, pimply lesions in spread plates and tests showing eritrosedimentation over 100 mm, anemi, leucocitosis with neutrofilia, policlonal hypergammaglobulinemia, slight proteinuria and IgE on 900. This patient was sporadically treated with corticoids. When made the medical consult had lost 34lb., was under anorexy, as well as dyspepsia. Hemoglobyn 6.9 gr/dl, leucocytes 20000/mm3, neutrofils at 90%, proteinogram the same as former, with hypoalbuminemia. She was taking prednisona, 16 mg/day. When examined showed depress of conscience, astenia, and dermic lesions already quoted. 4 cm nonpainful right axillary adenopaty adhered to deep planes. Medulogram with increased iron, hyperegenerative. Ganglionar biopsia: linfoid hyperplasic process linked to inmune response. Toracoabdominal tomography with adenomegalia in torax and retroperitoneo. Skin biopsia: neutrofilic vasculitis. The patient suspends the 16 mg of prednisona and fever as well as generalized adenopatias come up. After laying aside other ethiologies, and understanding as Castleman Multicentric disease, it is started to supply prednisona 1 mg/kg of weight with a clinical and biochemical fast and outstanding response. After 7 months it was progressively suspended the esteroids and 60 days later, the process fall back; for that, corticoids are restarted, with a good evolution. The illness of Castleman although it is not very frequent, it should be considered as differential diagnosis in those clinical cases that are accompanied with important general commitment, linphadenopaties and respons to steroid therapy. PMID:16211996
Belletti, Gerardo A; Savio, Verónica; Minoldo, Daniel; Caminos, Susana; Yorio, Marcelo A
Osler's disease, also known as hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) and Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome, is an autosomal dominant disorder leading to abnormal blood vessel formation in the skin, mucous membranes and often in organs, such as the lungs, liver and brain (arteriovenous malformations AVM). Various types are known. Patients may present with epistaxis. Teleangiectasia can be identified by visual inspection during physical examination of the skin or oral cavity or by endoscopy. Diagnosis is made after clinical examination and genetic testing based on the Curacao criteria. Modern imaging modalities, such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have become more important as they can depict the AVMs. Pulmonary AVMs can be depicted in CT imaging even without the use of a contrast agent while other locations including the central nervous system (CNS) usually require administration of contrast agents. Knowledge of possible clinical manifestations in various organs, possible complications and typical radiological presentation is mandatory to enable adequate therapy of these patients. Interventional procedures are becoming increasingly more important in the treatment of HHT patients. PMID:24276214
Ahlhelm, F; Lieb, J; Schneider, G; Müller, U; Ulmer, S
Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy, a novel heart syndrome with peculiar variant of left ventricular dysfunction, characterized by preferential apical dyskinesis and basal hyper contractility has been described on numerous occasions especially in persons without obstructive coronary artery disease. It is considered of reversible etiology and seems to have increased predisposition in elderly, stress-ridden females. Although Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy was described initially in patients of Japanese origin, its existence in white populations in both Europe and the US have recently been documented. Simultaneous multivessel coronary spasm of the epicardial coronary microvessels is believed to be a major contributor. However, this pathophysiologic basis for this phenomenon has not been validated universally throughout literature. Another potential mechanism of events that seems to be responsible for this phenomenon is the transient myocardial stunning associated with hypersensitivity to catecholamine. The clinical presentation usually simulates that of an acute ST- elevated myocardial infarction but the coronary angiography by definition shows no critical lesions. Patients surviving acute episode usually recover fully in few weeks. Acute onset of cardiogenic shock in a person without coronary risk factors should raise the possibility of this rare type of entity but should not withhold the acute treatment. Prognosis generally varies and has largely been good. Takotsubo though largely benign may be fatal sometimes. PMID:17721563
Multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder. Although MCD pathogenesis is unclear, studies have suggested that human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) may be associated with the disorder. Recent reports have identified MCD cases without viral infection. A 43-year-old woman presented to our hospital for fever and myalgia of 6 months' duration. The complete blood count revealed an elevated leukocyte count (15.1×103/µL) and a decreased hemoglobin level of 10.0 g/dL. The C-reactive protein level was elevated at 276.5 mg/L. Thoracic computed tomography (CT) scans revealed bilateral axillary lymphadenopathy. There was no evidence of HHV-8, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), or Mycobacterium infection. Histologic evaluation of a lymph node biopsy from the left axilla yielded a diagnosis of MCD. Cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) were administered for a total of 4 cycles. The patient's fever and lymphadenopathy resolved after the course of chemotherapy. She has been in complete remission for 24 months at this writing. As previously reported, this case report suggests that MCD can develop without viral infection. CHOP chemotherapy may be an effective treatment option for newly diagnosed MCD patients. PMID:19707509
Seo, Hee Yeon; Kim, Eui Bae; Kim, Jee Won; Shin, Bong Kyoung; Kim, Byung Soo
Proliferation of pluripotent, bone marrow stem cells, which develop to lymphoid and myeloid progenitors, is negatively regulated by estrogen. Although in estrogen deficiency and in estrogen receptor knockout mice there is significant alteration in bone marrow hematopoiesis, the effects of aging on estrogen receptor deficiencies in mice have not been investigated yet. In this study we show that by 1.5 years of age, estrogen receptor ? knockout (ER?–/–) mice develop pronounced splenomegaly that is much more severe in females than in males. Further characterization of these mice revealed myelogenous hyperplasia in bone marrow, an increase in the number of granulocytes and B lymphocytes in blood, lymphadenopathy, and infiltration of leukocytes in the liver and lung. Analysis by flow cytometry of the bone marrow cells revealed that the percentage and total number of Gr-1hi/Mac-1hi-positive granulocytes were increased by 15–30% and 100%, respectively. The numbers of B cells in the bone marrow and spleen were significantly higher in ER?–/– mice than in WT littermates. Some of the ER?–/– mice also had a severe lymphoproliferative phenotype. Thus the absence of ER? results in a myeloproliferative disease resembling human chronic myeloid leukemia with lymphoid blast crisis. Our results indicate a previously unknown role for ER? in regulating the differentiation of pluripotent hematopoietic progenitor cells and suggest that the ER?–/– mouse is a potential model for myeloid and lymphoid leukemia. Furthermore, we suggest that ER? agonists might have clinical value in the treatment of leukemia. PMID:12740446
Shim, Gil-Jin; Wang, Ling; Andersson, Sandra; Nagy, Noemi; Kis, Lorand Levente; Zhang, Qinghong; Makela, Sari; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake
Alzheimer Disease (AD) is an outcome as well as source of many diseases. Alzheimer is linked with many other diseases like Diabetes type 2, cholesterolemia, hypertension and many more. But how each of these diseases affecting other is still unknown to scientific community. Signaling Pathways of one disease is interlinked with other disease. But to what extent healthy brain is affected when any signaling in human body is disturbed is the question that matters. There is a need of Pathway analysis, Protein-Protein interaction (PPI) and the conserved interactome study in AD and linked diseases. It will be helpful in finding the potent drug or vaccine target in conscious manner. In the present research the Protein-Protein interaction of all the proteins involved in Alzheimer Disease is analyzed using ViSANT and osprey tools and pathway analysis further reveals the significant genes/proteins linking AD with other diseases. PMID:24753659
Rao, Balaji S.; Gupta, Krishna Kant; Karanam, Pujitha; Peruri, Anusha
As systemic immunological disorders, internal diseases in gastroenterology, rheumatology and infectiology can, in addition to the bowels, potentially involve the musculo-skeletal system, the immunological system and heart structures. All structures and functions of the heart can be affected. Pericarditis in lupus erythematosus and chronic inflammatory bowel disease, myocarditis in HIV infection and lyme disease are examples of cardiac manifestations of internal diseases. The pathogenetic causes can be manifold, such as direct cytotoxic effects in HIV or Borrelia burgdorferi infections, induced vasculitis and local activation of coagulation factors as in lupus erythematosus or chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Improved treatment options have led to more long-lasting courses of internal diseases, such as in infectious diseases, lupus erythematosus and chronic inflammatory bowel disease, thus cardiovascular complications such as pericarditis and myocarditis gain increasing importance as a consequence of chronic disease and therapy-related damage. PMID:17992497
Brehm, M; Rellecke, P; Strauer, B E
Marek's disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of chickens caused by serotype 1 MD virus (MDV). Vaccination of commercial poultry has drastically reduced losses from MD, and the poultry industry cannot be sustained without the use of vaccines. Retrovirus insertion into herpesvirus genomes is an efficient process that alters the biological properties of herpesviruses. RM1, a virus derived from the virulent JM strain of MDV, by insertion of the reticuloendotheliosis (REV) long terminal repeat (LTR), was attenuated for oncogenicity but retains properties of the parental virus, such as lymphoid organ atrophy. Here we show that insertion of the REV LTR into the genome of vaccine strain CVI988 resulted in a virus (CVRM) that replicated to higher levels than parental CVI988 in cell culture and that remained apathogenic for chickens. In addition, CVRM showed protection indices similar or superior to those afforded by CVI988 virus in laboratory and field protection trials, indicating that it could be developed as a safe and efficacious vaccine to protect against very virulent plus MDV. PMID:23901756
Lupiani, Blanca; Lee, Lucy F; Kreager, K S; Witter, Richard L; Reddy, Sanjay M
X-linked lymphoproliferative (XLP) syndrome is an extremely rare inherited immunodeficiency disease characterized by severe immune dysregulation caused by mutations in signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) associated protein (SAP) gene. The XLP syndrome was manifested due to dysfunction of SAP as a result of amino acid substitution. Hence, to understand the molecular aspects of the XLP syndrome, we structurally characterized two observed mutations, R32Q and T53I on SAP through the systematic molecular dynamics (MD) approach. Our MD analysis showed that mutant structures elucidated an atomic level variation influenced by mutations that substantially altered the residual flexibility and more importantly the hot spot residues as well in unbound and bound systems. In addition, change in residual flexibility of mutant structures showed an unusual conformational behavior associated with their molecular recognition function compared to the wild-type SAP in both systems. Besides, both mutant structures established different secondary structural profiles during the course of the simulation period in both systems. Moreover, the docking analysis revealed that mutant R32Q and T53I structures displayed remarkably reduced levels of binding affinity to the unphosphorylated SLAM peptide with respect to their docking scores. Collectively, our findings provide knowledge to understand the structural and functional relationship of disease-causing mutations, R32Q and T53I on SAP as well as gain further insights into the molecular pathogenesis of the XLP syndrome. PMID:24770789
Chandrasekaran, P; Rajasekaran, R
The rare disease list includes rare diseases and conditions for which information requests have been made to the Office of Rare Diseases. A rare disease is defined as a disease or condition for which there are fewer than 200,000 affected persons alive in the United States. The Of...
Alzheimer's disease, a form of dementia in middle-age and older adults is becoming more evident because of growing numbers of older people and better diagnosis and detection methods. Describes the behavioral and physical symptoms of the disease as well as specific suggestions for care of patients with Alzheimer's disease, including dealing with…
McBroom, Lynn W.
... Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) - CDC Fact Sheet Untreated sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) can cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), a serious ... It is a complication often caused by some STDs, like chlamydia and gonorrhea. Other infections that are ...
COPD; Chronic obstructive airways disease; Chronic obstructive lung disease; Chronic bronchitis; Emphysema; Bronchitis - chronic ... Systems Improvement. Diagnosis and Management of Chronic ... Disease (COPD). Updated March 2013. Available at: https://www. ...
... individuals with autoimmune diseases are women. In an autoimmune disorder, the cells of the immune system produce antibodies ... damage. This is not a complete listing of autoimmune diseases associated with celiac disease. Anyone who has unexplained, ...
... A. Jacobs, M.D., Emeritus Professor, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of California - San Francisco [ Video ] Lyme Disease ... on line Find a Local Physician Knowledgeable About Infectious Diseases The best private organization-based site that can ...
... the booklet in this Web page . Plasmapheresis and Autoimmune Disease Many diseases, including myasthenia gravis, Lambert-Eaton syndrome, ... tissues has been the most common approach to autoimmune disease for more than 30 years. Many new immunosuppressants ...
... is not treated promptly. What causes PID? Two sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) — gonorrhea and chlamydia —are the main cause ... A manual examination of a woman’s reproductive organs. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs): Diseases that are spread by sexual contact. ...
Potential causes of abnormal liver function tests include viral hepatitis, alcohol intake, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, autoimmune liver diseases, hereditary diseases, hepatobiliary malignancies or infection, gallstones and drug-induced liver injury. Moreover, the liver may be involved in systemic diseases that mainly affect other organs. Therefore, in patients without etiology of liver injury by screening serology and diagnostic imaging, but who have systemic diseases, the abnormal liver function test results might be caused by the systemic disease. In most of these patients, the systemic disease should be treated primarily. However, some patients with systemic disease and severe liver injury or fulminant hepatic failure require intensive treatments of the liver. PMID:18636653
There are several different diseases in gastroenterology with an important role of immunological mechanisms in their pathogenesis. We know autoimmune diseases with immunological reactions against liver or pancreatic tissue. In addition there are diseases like chronic inflammatory bowel diseases representing inappropriate immunological reactions followed by inflammation and tissue destruction. The research of the last decade has contributed significantly to the understanding of the pathogenesis of diseases based on immunological mechanisms and consequently to the development of novel therapeutic strategies targeting molecules. Chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, autoimmune hepatitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, autoimmune pancreatitis, and celiac disease are the most important diseases with immunological pathogenesis in Gastroenterology. Especially in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease with immunosuppressive drugs and monoclonal antibodies new preparations are used in therapy. Autoimmune pancreatitis was characterized as an own entity in the last years. Therefore, this review will focus on these diseases. PMID:22612745
Emmrich, Joerg; Jaster, Robert
Organ transplantation is an increasingly used medical procedure for treating otherwise fatal end stage organ diseases with 107,000 transplants performed worldwide in 2010. Newly developed anti-rejection drugs greatly helped to prolong long-term survival of both the individual and the transplanted organ, and they facilitate the diffusion of organ transplantation. Presently, 5-year patient survival rates are around 90% after kidney transplant and 70% after liver transplant. However, the prolonged chronic use of immunosuppressive drugs is well known to increase the risks of opportunistic diseases, particularly infections and virus-related malignancies. Although transplant recipients experience a nearly 2-fold elevated risk for all types of de-novo cancers, persistent infections with oncogenic viruses - such as Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus, high-risk human papillomaviruses, and Epstein-Barr virus - are associated with up to 100-fold increased cancer risks. This review, focusing on kidney and liver transplants, highlights updated evidences linking iatrogenic immunosuppression, persistent infections with oncogenic viruses and cancer risk. The implicit capacity of oncogenic viruses to immortalise infected cells by disrupting the cell-cycle control can lead, in a setting of induced lowered immune surveillance, to tumorigenesis and this ability is thought to closely correlate with cumulative exposure to immunosuppressive drugs. Mechanisms underlying the relationship between viral infections, immunosuppressive drugs and the risk of skin cancers, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders, Kaposi sarcoma, cervical and other ano-genital cancers are reviewed in details. PMID:23278452
Piselli, P; Busnach, G; Fratino, L; Citterio, F; Ettorre, G M; De Paoli, P; Serraino, D
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a curative treatment option for hematological disorders. Cyclosporine (CsA) is one of the major immunosuppressive agents for the prophylaxis against graft versus host disease (GvHD). In this retrospective study, we evaluated the effects of CsA serum levels on the incidence of acute GvHD and transplant outcomes. Retrospective study in 103 adult patients received Hematopoitic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) in the Hematology-Oncology, Bone Marrow Transplantation center at Shariati Hospital in Tehran, Iran. All participants received prophylactic regimen of cyclosporine plus methotrexate. CsA dose titration was done according to patients? serum levels and drug toxicity. Serum levels tested on the twice weekly basis in first 4 weeks after transplantation. Acute GvHD (grades II-IV) developed in 44 patients (43%, 95%CI: 33%-52%). The median time to ANC and PLT recovery was 13 days (range: 9-31 days) and 16 days (range: 0-38 days), respectively. Univariate analysis of risk factors related to aGvHD (grade II-IV) development showed a higher risk of incidence of aGvHD (grades II-IV) for patients having the lowest blood CSA concentration (<200 ng/mL) in the third weeks after transplantation (36% vs. 12%, P = 0.035). The only risk factors related to incidence of aGvHD grades III-IV was also blood CsA concentration at 3rd week post-transplant (15% vs. 3%, P = 0.047). The CsA concentration at 3rd week was not related to disease free survival and overall survival (P = 0.913 vs. P = 0.81) respectively. Higher CsA serum levels in the third week post HSCT significantly decreased incidence of acute GvHD. PMID:24734085
Zeighami, Sara; Hadjibabaie, Molouk; Ashouri, Asieh; Sarayani, Amir; Khoee, Seyed Hamid; Mousavi, Sarah; Radfar, Mania; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir
Gastrointestinal lymphomas can be difficult to diagnose, particularly in small samples, when early in development, or when of unusual types. In this review, we describe lymphoid proliferations in the gastrointestinal tract in a location-based manner, including, mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large bowel. For the purpose of differential diagnosis, benign mimics of lymphoma are also described. Lymphoma types that are specifically addressed include plasmablastic, extranodal natural killer/T-cell-nasal type, extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (eg, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma), diffuse large B cell, primary follicular of small intestine, enteropathy-associated T cell, and Burkitt and mantle cell. Immunohistochemical markers useful in the diagnostic approach are elaborated in detail. PMID:24613566
O'Malley, Dennis P; Goldstein, Neal S; Banks, Peter M
Pityriasis lichenoides (PL) is a papulosquamous disorder often considered a form of reactive dermatosis and classified with small plaque parapsoriasis (digitate dermatosis). However, some patients with PL have developed large plaque parapsoriasis (LPP) and mycosis fungoides (MF), and lymphoid atypia and T-cell clonality have been reported in lesions of PL. We set out to explore the possibility that PL is
Cynthia Magro; A Neil Crowson; Al Kovatich; Frank Burns
... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Carotid Artery Disease? Carotid (ka-ROT-id) artery disease is a disease in which a waxy substance ... the United States. Other conditions, such as certain heart problems and ... or treat carotid artery disease and may reduce the risk of stroke. If ...
This plant disease lesson on Blackleg (caused by Leptosphaeria maculans (teleomorph) Phoma lingam (anamorph).) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.
Gavin Ash (Charles Sturt University;)
The autoimmune thyroid diseases, Graves' disease and autoimmune hypothyroidism, represent the two ends of a disease spectrum where an immune response is directed against the thyroid gland. In Graves' disease, antibodies directed against the thyrotropin receptor (TSH-R) lead to the development of glandular overactivity, while in autoimmune hypothyroidism, cell-mediated and humoral thyroid injury leads to destruction of thyroid tissue and
Joanne Collins; Stephen Gough
... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Heart Disease? Research suggests that coronary heart disease (CHD) begins with damage to the lining and ... causing coronary microvascular disease (MVD). Coronary MVD is heart disease that affects the heart's tiny arteries. The cause ...
Neglected tropical diseases include a variety of infectious diseases. This review shortly describes the most common diseases. Those infected usually live at a low socioeconomic status and rarely have access to satisfactory health care. The neglected diseases are common and have a high burden of disease. In comparison to HIV, malaria and tuberculosis this group of diseases is in fact neglected. Certain diseases within the group are more neglected than others. Investment for research does not appear to be decided in proportion to burden of disease. Much can be gained by extermination of these diseases. The solution is to integrate improvement of living standards and battling diseases. Iceland has a role to play. PMID:22133523
Kristjansson, Julius; Gudmundsson, Sigurdur
This Review focuses on the emergence of mycobacterial disease in patients undergoing treatment for rheumatic disease with four new drug classes—tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors, human interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonists, anti-CD20 antibodies and CD4+ T-cell costimulation modulators—collectiv